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Title: New Englands Prospect - A true, lively, and experimentall description of that part - of America, commonly called New England: discovering the - state of that Countrie, both as it stands to our new-come - English Planters; and to the old Native Inhabitants
Author: Wood, William Charles Henry
Language: English
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                   A true, lively, and experimentall
                 description of that part of _America_,
                      commonly called NEW ENGLAND:
                discovering the state of that Countrie,
                   both as it stands to our new-come
                   _English_ Planters; and to the old
                          Native Inhabitants.

              Laying downe that which may both enrich the
                knowledge of the mind-travelling Reader,

                            By WILLIAM WOOD.


   Printed at _London_ by _Tho. Cotes_, for _Iohn Bellamie_, and are
   to be sold at his shop, at the three Golden Lyons in _Corne-hill_,
                   neere the _Royall Exchange_. 1634.



                       To the Right Worshipfull,
                        my much honored Friend,
                          Sir WILLIAM ARMYNE,
                          Knight and Baronet.

          Noble Sir.

The good assurance of your native worth, and thrice generous
disposition, as also the continuall manifestation of your bounteous
favour, and love towards my selfe in particular, hath so bound my
thankfull acknowledgement, that I count it the least part of my service
to present the first fruites of my farre-fetcht experience, to the
kinde acceptance of your charitable hands: well knowing that though
this my worke, owne not worth enough to deserve your patronage, yet
such is your benigne humanity, that I am confident you will daigne it
your protection, under which it willingly shrowdes it selfe. And as it
is reported of that man whose name was _Alexander_, being a cowardly
milke-sop by nature, yet hearing of the valiant courage of that
magnificent _Hero_, _Alexander_ the Great, whose name hee bore, he
thenceforth became stout and valorous; and as he was animated by having
the very name of puissant _Alexander_; so shall these my weake and
feble labours, receive life and courage by the patronage of your much
esteemed selfe; whereby they shall bee able to out-face the keenest
fanges of a blacke mouth'd _Momus_. For from hence the world may
conclude, that either there was some worth in the booke, that caused so
wise a person to looke upon it, and to vouchsafe to owne it, or else if
they suppose that in charity he fosterd it, as being a poore helpelesse
brat, they may thence learne to do so likewise. If here I should take
upon me the usuall straine of a soothing Epistolizer, I should (though
upon better grounds than many) sound forth a full mouth'd encomiasticke
of your incomparable worth: but though your deserts may justly
challenge it, yet I know your vertuous modesty would not thanke me for
it; and indeed your owne actions are the best _Heralds_ of your owne
praise, which in spite of envy it selfe must speake you Wise, and truly
Noble: and I for my part, if I may but present any thing, which either
for its profit or delight may obtaine your favourable approbation, I
have already reaped the harvest of my expectation; onely I must desire
you to pardon my bold presumption, as thus to make your well deserving
name, the frontispeece to so rude and ill deserving frame. Thus wishing
a confluence of all blessings both of the throne, and foot-stoole, to
be multiplied upon your selfe, and your vertuous Consort, my very good
Lady, together with all the Stemmes of your Noble family, I take my
leave and rest,

                                                 _Your Worships to serve
                                                 and be commanded_,
                                                                   W. W.



                             To the Reader.

          Courteous Reader,

_Though I will promise thee no such voluminous discourse, as many have
made upon a scanter subject, (though they have travailed no further
than the smoake of their owne native chimnies) yet dare I presume to
present thee with the true, and faithfull relation of some few yeares
travels and experience, wherein I would be loath to broach any thing
which may puzzle thy beleefe, and so justly draw upon my selfe, that
unjust aspersion commonly laid on travailers; of whom many say, They
may lye by authority, because none can controule them; which Proverbe
had surely his originall from the sleepy beleefe of many a home-bred
Dormouse, who comprehends not either the raritie or possibility of
those things he sees not, to whom the most classicke relations seeme
riddles, and paradoxes: of whom it may be said as once of _Diogenes_,
that because he circled himselfe in the circumference of a tubbe, he
therefore contemned the Port and Pallace of _Alexander_, which he knew
not. So there is many a tub-brain'd Cynicke, who because any thing
stranger than ordinary, is too large for the straite hoopes of his
apprehension, he peremptorily concludes it is a lye: But I decline this
sort of thicke-witted readers, and dedicate the mite of my endeavours
to my more credulous, ingenious, and lesse censorious Country-men, for
whose sake I undertooke this worke; and I did it the rather, because
there hath some relations heretofore past the Presse, which have beene
very imperfect; as also because there hath beene many scandalous and
false reports past upon the Country, even from the sulphurious breath
of every base ballad-monger: wherefore to perfect the one, and take off
the other, I have laid downe the nature of the Country, without any
partiall respect unto it, as being my dwelling place where I have lived
these foure yeares, and intend God willing to returne shortly againe;
but my conscience is to me a thousand witnesses, that what I speake is
the very truth, and this will informe thee almost as fully concerning
it, as if thou wentest over to see it. Now whereas I have written the
latter part of this relation concerning the _Indians_, in a more light
and facetious stile, than the former; because their carriage and
behaviour hath afforded more matter of mirth, and laughter, than
gravity and wisedome; and therefore I have inserted many passages of
mirth concerning them, to spice the rest of my more serious discourse,
and to make it more pleasant. Thus thou mayest in two or three houres
travaile over a few leaves, see and know that, which cost him that writ
it, yeares and travaile, over Sea and Land before he knew it; and
therefore I hope thou wilt accept it; which shall be my full reward, as
it was my whole ambition, and so I rest,_

                                              Thine bound in what I may,
                                                                 _W. W._



                    To the Author, his singular good
                     Friend, M^r. _William Wood_.

         _Thanks to thy travell, and thy selfe, who hast
         Much knowledge in so small roome, comptly plac't,
         And thine experience thus a Mount do'st make,
         From whence we may _New Englands Prospect_ take,
         Though many thousands distant: wherefore thou
         Thy selfe shalt sit upon mount _Praise_ her brow.
         For if the man that shall the short cut find
         Vnto the _Indies_, shall for that be shrin'd;
         Sure thou deservest then no small prayse, who,
         So short cut to _New England_ here dost show;
         And if then this small thankes, thou getst no more,
         Of thankes I then will say the world's growne poore._

                                                                   S. W.

                               The Table.

            Part. 1.                                 _Page._

            _Chap._ 1. Of the Situation, Bayes,            1
            Havens, and Inlets.

            _Chap._ 2. Of the seasons of the yeare,        3
            Winter and Summer, together with the
            heat, cold, snow, raine, and the effects
            of it.

            _Chap._ 3. Of the Climate, length, and         8
            shortnesse of day and night, with the
            suiteablenesse of it to English bodies
            for health and sicknesse.

            _Chap._ 4. Of the nature of the Soyle.        10

            _Chap._ 5. Of the Hearbs, Fruits, Woods,      13
            Waters, and Minerals.

            _Chap._ 6. Of the Beasts that live on         18
            the land.

            _Chap._ 7. Beasts living in the water.        24

            _Chap._ 8. Of the Birds and Fowles both       26
            of land and water.

            _Chap._ 9. Of Fish.                           32

            _Chap._ 10. Of the severall plantations       36
            in particular.

            _Chap._ 11. Of the evils, and such            44
            things as are hurtful in the plantation.

            _Chap._ 12. What provision is to be made      49
            for a Iourney at Sea, and what to carry
            with us for our use at Land.

            Part. 2.                                 _Page._

            _Chap._ 1. Of the Connectacuts,               56
            Mowhacks, or such Indians as are West-

            _Chap._ 2. Of the Tarrenteenes or the         60
            Indians inhabiting East-ward.

            _Chap._ 3. Of the Pequants and                61
            Narragansets, inhabiting South-ward.

            _Chap._ 4. Of the Aberginians or Indians      62

            _Chap._ 5. Of their Apparell, Ornaments,      64
            Paintings, &c.

            _Chap._ 6. Of their diet, cookery, &c.        65

            _Chap._ 7. Of their dispositions and          69
            good qualifications, as friendship, &c.

            _Chap._ 8. Of their hardinesse.               75

            _Chap._ 9. Of their wondring at the           77
            first view of any strange invention.

            _Chap._ 10. Of their Kings governement,       79
            and Subiects obedience.

            _Chap._ 11. Of their Mariages, &c.            81

            _Chap._ 12. Of their worship, &c.             82

            _Chap._ 13. Of their Warres.                  84

            _Chap._ 14. Their games, sports, &c.          85

            _Chap._ 15. Of their huntings.                88

            _Chap._ 16. Of their Fishings.                89

            _Chap._ 17. Of their Arts, &c.                90

            _Chap._ 18. Of their Language.                91

            _Chap._ 19. Of their deaths, &c.              92

            _Chap._ 20. Of their women, &c.               94



  _Page. 13. line 25._ _for_ Squonterquashes _reade_ Isquoutersquashes.

  _p. 15. l. 10._ hee, they.
    _l. 11._ his, their.
    _l. 28._ spoyling, spoile.

  _p. 16. l. 10._ mast, masts.

  _p. 17. l. 37._ boates, bolles.

  _p. 23. l. 12._ us, up.

  _p. 24. l. 4._ an, a.

  _p. 27. l. 21._ Humiliteers, Humilitees.
    _l. 22._ million, millions.

  _p. 29. l. 7._ tide, tides.

  _p. 31. l. 26._ those, their.

  _p. 32. l. 26._ Hage, Haicke.

  _p. 37. l. 33._ Clarly, Charles.

  _p. 41. l. 10._ land, Inland.

  _p. 42. l. 8._ stone, stop.
    _l. 16._ lands, ponds.
    _l. 36._ brech, Beach.

  _p. 45. l. 29._ house, horse.

  _p. 46. l. 9._ lyd, lie.
    _l. 18._ by, her.
    _l. 24._ a (left out.)
    _l. 30._ musketor, musketoe.

  _p. 47. l. 2._ Fen (left out.)

  _p. 50. l. 3._ it (left out.)

  _p. 53. l. 20._ handsome, handie.
    _l. 36._ Centrie, Gentrie.

  _p. 54. l. 6._ many, If any.
    _l. 8._ he, they.

  _p. 57. l. 14._ here, there.

  _p. 60. l. 1._ placed, placing.
    _l. 33._ hath (too much.)

  _p. 70. l. 24._ Warme, worme.

  _p. 82. l. 8._ obiect, subiect.

  _p. 83. l. 38._ English ans, English mans.

[Illustration: The South part of New-England, as it is
Planted this yeare, 1634.]




                                CHAP. I.

             _Of the Situation, Bayes, Havens, and Inlets._

For as much as the Kings most excellent Majesty hath beene graciously
pleasd by the grant of his Letters Patents, at first to give life to
the plantations of _New England_, and hath dayly likewise by his
Favours and Royall protection cherished their growing hopes; whereby
many of his Majesties faithfull Subjects haue beene imboldned to
venture persons, states, and indeavours, to the inlargement of his
Dominions in that Westerne Continent: Wherefore I thought fit (for the
further encouragement of those that hereafter, either by Purse, or
Person shall helpe forward the Plantation,) to set forth these few
observations out of my personall and experimentall knowledge.

The place whereon the _English_ have built their Colonies, is judged by
those who have best skill in discovery, either to be an Iland,
surrounded on the North side with the spacious River _Cannada_, and on
the South with _Hudsons_ River, or else a _Peninsula_, these two Rivers
overlapping one another, having their rise from the great Lakes which
are not farre off one another, as the _Indians_ doe certainely informe
us. But it is not my intent to wander far from our Patent; wherefore I
referre you to the thrice memorable discoverer of those parts, Captaine
_Smith_, who hath likewise fully described the Southerne and North-east
part of _New England_, with the noted head-lands, Capes, Harbours,
Rivers, Ponds, and Lakes, with the nature of the Soyle, and commodities
both by Sea and Land, &c. within the degrees of fourty one and fourty

The Bay of _Massachusets_ lyeth under the degree of fourty two and
fourty three, bearing South-west from the Lands end of _England_: at
the bottome whereof are situated most of the _English_ plantations:
This Bay is both safe, spacious, and deepe, free from such cockling
Seas as runne upon the Coast of _Ireland_, and in the Channels of
_England_: there be no stiffe running Currents, or Rockes, Shelves,
Barres, Quicksands. The Mariners having sayled two or three Leagues
towards the bottome, may behold the two Capes embracing their welcome
Ships in their Armes, which thrust themselves out into the Sea in forme
of a halfe-moone, the surrounding shore being high, and shewing many
white Cliffes in a most pleasant prospect with divers places of low
land, out of which divers Riuers vent themselves into the Ocean, with
many openings, where is good Harbouring for Ships of any burthen; so
that if an unexpected storme or crosse winde should barre the Marriner
from recovering his desired Port, he may reach other Harbours, as
_Plimmouth_, _Cape Ann_, _Salem_, _Marvill Head_; all which afford good
ground for Anchorage, being likewise land-lockt from Winde and Seas.
The chiefe and usuall Harbour, is the still Bay of _Massachusets_,
which is close aboard the plantations, in which most of our ships come
to anchor, being the nearest their mart, and usuall place of landing of
Passengers; it is a safe and pleasant Harbour within, having but one
common and safe entrance, and that not very broad, there scarce being
roome for 3. Ships to come in board and board at a time, but being once
within, there is roome for the Anchorage of 500. Ships.

This Harbour is made by a great company of Ilands, whose high Cliffes
shoulder out the boistrous Seas, yet may easily deceiue any unskilfull
Pilote; presenting many faire openings and broad sounds, which afford
too shallow waters for any Ships, though navigable for Boates and small
pinnaces. The entrance into the great Haven is called _Nantascot_;
which is two Leagues from _Boston_; this place of it selfe is a very
good Haven, where Ships commonly cast Anchor, untill Winde and Tyde
serve them for other places; from hence they may sayle to the River of
_Wessaguscus_, _Naponset_, _Charles_ River, and _Misticke_ River, on
which Rivers bee seated many Townes. In any of these fore-named
harbours, the Sea-men having spent their old store of Wood and Water,
may haue fresh supplies from the adjacent Ilands, with good timber to
repaire their weather-beaten Ships: Here likewise may be had Masts or
Yards, being store of such Trees as are usefull for the same purpose.

                               CHAP. II.

       _Of the Seasons of the yeare, Winter and Summer, together
               with the Heate, Cold, Snow, Raine, and the
                            effects of it._

For that part of the Countrey wherein most of the _English_ have their
habitations: it is for certaine the best ground and sweetest Climate in
all those parts, bearing the name of _New England_, agreeing well with
the temper of our _English_ bodies, being high land, and sharpe Ayre,
and though most of our _English_ Townes border upon the Sea-coast, yet
are they not often troubled with Mists, or unwholesome fogges, or cold
weather from the Sea, which lies East and South from the Land. And
whereas in _England_ most of the cold windes and weathers come from the
Sea, and those situations are counted most unwholesome, that are neare
the Sea-coast, in that Countrey it is not so, but otherwise; for in the
extremity of Winter, the North-east and South winde comming from the
Sea, produceth warme weather, and bringing in the warme-working waters
of the Sea, loosneth the frozen Bayes, carrying away their Ice with
their Tides, melting the Snow, and thawing the ground; onely the
North-west winde comming over the Land, is the cause of extreame cold
weather, being alwaies accompanied with deepe Snowes and bitter Frost,
so that in two or three dayes the Rivers are passable for horse and
man. But as it is an Axiome in Nature, _Nullum violentum est
perpetuum_, No extreames last long, so this cold winde blowes seldome
above three dayes together, after which the weather is more tollerable,
the Aire being nothing so sharpe, but peradventure in foure or five
dayes after this cold messenger will blow a fresh, commanding every man
to his house, forbidding any to out-face him without prejudice to their
noses; but it may be objected that it is too cold a Countrey for our
_English_ men, who have beene accustomed to a warmer Climate, to which
it may be answered, (_Igne levatur hyems_) there is Wood good store,
and better cheape to build warme houses, and make good fires, which
makes the Winter lesse tedious: and moreover, the extremity of this
cold weather lasteth but for two Moneths or ten weekes, beginning in
_December_, and breaking up the tenth day of _February_; which hath
beene a passage very remarkeable, that for ten or a dozen yeares the
weather hath held himselfe to his day, unlocking his ycie Bayes and
Rivers, which are never frozen againe the same yeare, except there be
some small frost untill the middle of _March_. It is observed by the
_Indians_ that every tenth yeare there is little or no Winter, which
hath beene twice observed of the _English_; the yeare of new _Plimouth_
mens arrivall was no Winter in comparison; and in the tenth yeare after
likewise when the great company settled themselves in _Massachusets
Bay_, was a very milde season, little Frost, and lesse Snow, but cleare
serene weather, few North-west windes, which was a great mercy to the
_English_ comming over so rawly and uncomfortably provided, wanting all
utensils and provisions which belonged to the well being of Planters:
and whereas many died at the beginning of the plantations, it was not
because the Country was unhealthfull, but because their bodies were
corrupted with sea-diet, which was naught, their Beefe and Porke being
tainted, their Butter and Cheese corrupted, their Fish rotten, & voyage
long, by reason of crosse Windes, so that winter approaching before
they could get warme houses, and the searching sharpnes of that purer
Climate, creeping in at the crannies of their crazed bodies, caused
death and sicknesse; but their harmes having taught future voyagers
more wisedome, in shipping good provision for Sea, and finding warme
houses at landing, finde health in both. It hath bin observed, that of
five or sixe hundred passengers in one yeare, not above three have died
at Sea, having their health likewise at Land. But to returne to the
matter in hand, dayly observations makes it apparant, that the peircing
cold of that Country produceth not so many noysome effects, as the raw
winters of _England_. In publike assemblies it is strange to heare a
man sneeze or cough as ordinarily they doe in old _England_; yet not to
smother any thing, lest you judge me too partiall in reciting good of
the Countrey, and not bad; true it is, that some venturing too nakedly
in extreamity of cold, being more foole hardy than wise, have for a
time lost the use of their feete, others the use of their fingers; but
time and Surgery afterwards recovered them: Some haue had their
over-growne beards so frozen together, that they could not get their
strong water-bottells into their mouthes; I never heard of any that
utterly perished at land with cold, saving one _English_ man and an
_Indian_, who going together a Fowling, the morning being faire at
their setting out, afterward a terrible storme arising, they intended
to returne home; but the storme being in their faces, and they not able
to with-stand it, were frozen to death, the _Indian_ having gained
three flight-shot more of his journey homeward, was found reared up
against a tree with his _Aqua-vitæ_ bottle at his head. A second
passage (concerning which many thinke hardly of the Country in regard
of his cold) was the miscarriage of a boate at sea; certaine men having
intended a voyage to new _Plimouth_, setting sayle towards night, they
wanted time to fetch it, being constrained to put into another harbour,
where being negligent of the well mooring of their Boate, a strong
winde comming from the shore in the night, loosned their killocke, and
drove them to Sea, without sight of land, before they had awaked out of
sleepe; but seeing the eminent danger, such as were not benummed with
cold, shipt out their Oares, shaping their course for _Cape Cod_, where
the _Indians_ met them, who buried the dead, and carryed the Boate with
the living to _Plimouth_, where some of them died, and some recovered.
These things may fright some, but being that there hath beene many
passages of the like nature in our _English_ Climate, it cannot
dishearten such as seriously consider it, seeing likewise that their
owne ruines sprung from their owne negligence.

The Countrey is not so extreamely cold, unlesse it be when the
North-west winde is high, at other times it is ordinary for Fishermen
to goe to Sea in _Ianuary_ and _February_, in which time they get more
Fish, and better than in Summer, onely observing to reach some good
Harbours before night, where by good fires they sleepe as well and
quietly, (having their mayne sayle tented at their backes, to shelter
them from the winde) as if they were at home. To relate how some
_English_ bodies have borne out cold, will (it may be) startle beliefe
of some, it being so strange, yet not so strange as true. A certaine
man being something distracted, broke away from his Keeper, and running
into the Wood, could not bee found with much seeking after; but foure
dayes being expired, he returned, to appearance as well in body, as at
his egresse, and in minde much better: for a mad man to hit home
through the unbeaten Woods, was strange, but to liue without meate or
drinke in the deepe of Winter, stranger, and yet returne home bettered,
was most strange: but if truth may gaine beleefe, you may behold a more
superlative strangenesse. A certaine Maide in the extreamity of cold
weather, (as it fell out) tooke an uncertaine journey, in her intent
short, not above foure miles, yet long in event; for losing her way,
she wandred sixe or seaven dayes in most bitter weather, not having one
bit of bread to strengthen her, sometimes a fresh Spring quenched her
thirst, which was all the refreshment she had; the Snow being upon the
ground at first, shee might have trackt her owne foot-steps backe
againe, but wanting that understanding, shee wandred, till God by his
speciall providence brought her to the place shee went from, where she
lives to this day.

The hard Winters are commonly the fore-runners of pleasant
Spring-times, and fertile Summers, being iudged likewise to make much
for the health of our _English_ bodies: It is found to be more
healthfull for such as shall adventure thither, to come towards Winter,
than the hot Summer; the Climate in Winter is commonly cold and dry,
the Snow lies long, which is thought to be no small nourishing to the
ground. For the _Indians_ burning it to suppresse the under-wood, which
else would grow all over the Countrey, the Snow falling not long after,
keepes the ground warme, and with his melting conveighs the ashes into
the pores of the earth, which doth fatten it. It hath beene observed,
that _English_ Wheate and Rye proves better, which is Winter sowne, and
is kept warme by the Snow, than that which is sowne in the Spring. The
Summers be hotter than in _England_; because of their more Southerne
latitude, yet are they tollerable; being often cooled with fresh
blowing windes, it seldome being so hot as men are driven from their
labours, especially such whose imployments are within doores, or under
the coole shade: servants have hitherto beene priviledged to rest from
their labours in extreame hot weather, from ten of the clocke till two,
which they regaine by their early rising in the morning, and double
diligence in coole weather. The Summers are commonly hot and dry, there
being seldome any raines; I have knowne it sixe or seaven weekes,
before one shower hath moystened the Plowmans labour, yet the Harvest
hath beene very good, the _Indian_ Corne requiring more heate than wet;
for the _English_ Corne, it is refresht with the nightly dewes, till it
grow vp to shade his roots with his owne substance from the parching
Sunne. In former times the Raine came seldome, but very violently,
continuing his drops, (which were great and many) sometimes foure and
twenty houres together; sometimes eight and fourty, which watered the
ground for a long time after; but of late the Seasons be much altered,
the raine comming oftner, but more moderately, with lesse thunder and
lightnings, and suddaine gusts of winde. I dare be bold to affirme it,
that I saw not so much raine, raw colds, and misty fogges in foure
yeares in those parts, as was in _England_ in the space of foure
Moneths the last Winter; yet no man at the yeares end, complained of
too much drought, or too little raine. The times of most Raine, are in
the beginning of _Aprill_, and at _Michaelmas_. The early Springs and
long Summers make but short Autumnes and Winters. In the Spring when
the Grasse beginnes to put forth, it growes apace, so that where it was
all blacke by reason of Winters burnings, in a fortnight there will be
Grasse a foote high.

                               CHAP. III.

       _Of the Climate, length, and shortnesse of day and night,
          with the suiteablenesse of it to English bodies for
                         health and sicknesse._

The Countrey being nearer the Equinoctiall than _England_, the dayes
and nights be more equally divided. In Summer the dayes be two houres
shorter, and likewise in Winter two houres longer than in _England_. In
a word, both Summer and Winter is more commended of the _English_
there, than the Summer Winters, and Winter Summers of _England_; and
who is there that could not wish, that _Englands_ Climate were as it
hath beene in quondam times, colder in Winter, and hotter in Summer? or
who will condemne that which is as _England_ hath beene? _Virginia_
having no Winter to speake of, but extreame hot Summers, hath dried up
much _English_ blood, and by pestiferous diseases swept away many lusty
bodies, changing their complexion not into swarthinesse, but into
Palenesse; so that when as they come for trading into our parts, wee
can know many of them by their faces. This alteration certainely comes
not from any want of victuals or necessary foode, for their soyle is
very fertile and pleasant, yeelding both Corne and Cattle plenty, but
rather from the Climate, which indeede is found to be hotter than is
suiteable to an ordinary _English_ constitution.

In _New England_ both men and women keepe their naturall complexions,
in so much as Sea men wonder when they arrive in those parts, to see
their Countrey-men so fresh and ruddy: If the Sunne doth tanne any, yet
the Winters cold restores them to their former complexion; and as it is
for the outward complexion, so it is for the inward constitution; not
very many being troubled with inflammations, or such diseases as are
encreased by too much heate: and whereas I say, not very many, yet dare
I not exclude any; for death being certaine to all, in all Nations
there must be something tending to death of like certainty. The
soundest bodies are mortall and subject to change, therefore fall into
diseases, and from diseases to death. Now the two chiefe messengers of
mortality, be _Feavers_ and _Callentures_; but they be easily helpt, if
taken in time, and as easily prevented of any that will not prove a
meere foole to his body. For the common diseases of _England_, they be
strangers to the _English_ now in that strange Land. To my knowledge I
never knew any that had the Poxe, Measels, Greene-sicknesse,
Head-aches, Stone, or Consumptions, &c. Many that have come infirme out
of _England_, retaine their old grievances still, and some that were
long troubled with lingering diseases, as Coughs of the lungs,
Consumptions, &c. have beene restored by that medicineable Climate to
their former strength and health. God hath beene pleased so to blesse
men in the health of their bodies, that I dare confidently say it, out
of that Towne from whence I came, in three yeares and a halfe, there
dyed but three, one of which was crazed before he came into the Land;
the other were two Children borne at one birth before their time, the
Mother being accidentally hurt. To make good which losses, I have seene
foure Children Baptized at a time, which wipes away that common
aspersion, that women have no Children, being a meere falsity, there
being as sweete lusty Children as in any other Nation, and reckoning so
many for so many, more double births than in _England_; the women
likewise having a more speedy recovery, and gathering of strength after
their delivery than in _England_.

The last Argument to confirme the healthfulnesse of the Countrey, shall
be from mine owne experience, who although in _England_ I was brought
up tenderly under the carefull hatching of my dearest friends, yet
scarce could I be acquainted with health, having beene let blood sixe
times for the _Pleurisie_ before I went; likewise being assailed with
other weakning diseases; but being planted in that new Soyle and
healthfull Ayre, which was more correspondent to my nature, (I speake
it with praise to the mercifull God) though my occasions have beene to
passe thorow heate and cold, wet, and dry, by Sea and Land, in Winter
and Summer, day by day, for foure yeares together, yet scarse did I
know what belonged to a dayes sicknesse.

                              CHAP. IIII.

                     _Of the nature of the Soyle._

The Soyle is for the generall a warme kinde of earth, there being
little cold-spewing land, no Morish Fennes, no Quagmires, the lowest
grounds be the Marshes, over which every full and change the Sea
flowes: these Marshes be rich ground, and bring plenty of Hay, of which
the Cattle feed and like, as if they were fed with the best up-land Hay
in _New England_; of which likewise there is great store which growes
commonly betweene the Marshes and the Woods. This Medow ground lies
higher than the Marshes, whereby it is freed from the over-flowing of
the Seas; and besides this, in many places where the Trees grow thinne,
there is good fodder to be got amongst the Woods. There be likewise in
divers places neare the plantations great broad Medowes wherein grow
neither shrub nor Tree, lying low, in which Plaines growes as much
grasse, as may be throwne out with a Sithe, thicke and long, as high as
a mans middle; some as high as the shoulders, so that a good mower may
cut three loads in a day. But many object, this is but a course fodder:
True it is, that it is not so fine to the eye as _English_ grasse, but
it is not sowre, though it grow thus ranke; but being made into Hay,
the Cattle eate it as well as it were Lea-hay and like as well with it;
I doe not thinke _England_ can shew fairer Cattle either in Winter, or
Summer, than is in those parts both Winter and Summer; being generally
larger and better of milch, and bring forth young as ordinarily as
Cattle doe in _England_, and have hitherto beene free from many
diseases that are incident to Cattle in _England_.

To returne to the Subject in hand, there is so much hay-ground in the
Countrey, as the richest voyagers that shall venture thither, neede not
feare want of fodder, though his Heard increase into thousands, there
being thousands of Acres that yet was never medled with. And whereas it
hath beene reported, that some hath mowne a day for halfe of a loade of
Hay: I doe not say, but it may be true, a man may doe as much, and get
as little in _England_, on _Salisbury_ Plaine, or in other places where
Grasse cannot be expected: So Hay-ground is not in all places in _New
England_: Wherefore it shall behoue every man according to his calling,
and estate, to looke for a fit situation at the first, and if hee be
one that intends to live on his stocke, to choose the grassie Vallies
before the woody Mountaines. Furthermore, whereas it hath beene
generally reported in many places of _England_, that the Grasse growes
not in those places where it was cut the fore-going yeares, it is a
meere falshood; for it growes as well the ensuing Spring as it did
before, and is more spiery and thicke, like our _English_ Grasse: and
in such places where the Cattle use to graze, the ground is much
improved in the Woods, growing more grassie, and lesse weedy. The worst
that can be sayd against the meddow grounds, is because there is little
edish, or after-pasture, which may proceede from the late mowing, more
than from any thing else; but though the edish be not worth much, yet
is there such plenty of other Grasse and seeding, that there is no want
of Winter-fodder till _December_, at which time men beginne to house
their milch-cattle and Calves: Some, notwithstanding the cold of the
Winter, have their Young Cattle without doores, giving them meate at
morning and evening. For the more upland grounds, there be different
kinds, in some places clay, some gravell, some a red sand; all which
are covered with a black mould, in some places above a foote deepe, in
other places not so deepe. There be very few that have the experience
of the ground, that can condemne it of barrennesse; although many deeme
it barren, because the _English_ use to manure their land with fish,
which they doe not because the land could not bring corne without it,
but because it brings more with it; the land likewise being kept in
hart the longer: besides, the plenty of fish which they have for little
or nothing, is better so used, than cast away; but to argue the
goodnesse of the ground, the _Indians_ who are too lazie to catch fish,
plant corne eight or ten yeares in one place without it, having very
good crops. Such is the rankenesse of the ground that it must bee sowne
the first yeare with _Indian_ Corne, which is a soaking graine, before
it will be fit for to receive _English_ seede. In a word, as there is
no ground so purely good, as the long forced and improoved grounds of
_England_, so is there none so extreamely bad as in many places of
_England_, that as yet have not beene manured and improved; the woods
of _New England_ being accounted better ground than the Forrests of
_England_ or woodland ground, or heathy plaines.

For the naturall soyle, I preferre it before the countrey of Surry, or
Middlesex, which if they were not inriched with continuall manurings,
would be lesse fertile than the meanest ground in _New England_;
wherefore it is neyther impossible, nor much improbable, that upon
improvements the soile may be as good in time as _England_. And whereas
some gather the ground to be naught, and soone out of hart, because
_Plimouth_ men remove from their old habitations, I answer, they do no
more remove from their habitation, than the Citizen which hath one
house in the Citty & another in the Countrey, for his pleasure, health,
& profit. For although they have taken new plots of ground, and built
houses upon them, yet doe they retaine their old houses still, and
repaire to them, every Sabbath day; neyther doe they esteeme their old
lots worse than when they first tooke them: what if they doe not plant
on them every yeare? I hope it is no ill husbandry to rest the land,
nor is alwayes that the worst that lies sometimes fallow. If any man
doubt of the goodnesse of the ground, let him comfort himselfe with the
cheapenesse of it; such bad land in _England_ I am sure wil bring in
store of good monie. This ground is in some places of a soft mould, and
easie to plow; in other places so tough and hard, that I have seene ten
Oxen toyled, their Iron chaines broken, and their Shares and Coulters
much strained: but after the first breaking up it is so easie, that two
Oxen and a Horse may plow it; there hath as good _English_ Corne growne
there, as could be desired; especially Rie and Oates, and Barly: there
hath beene no great tryall as yet of Wheate, and Beanes; onely thus
much I affirme, that these two graines grow well in Gardens, therefore
it is not improbable, but when they can gather seede of that which is
sowne in the countrey, it may grow as well as any other Graine: but
commonly the seede that commeth out of _England_ is heated at Sea, and
therefore cannot thrive at land.

                                CHAP. V.

        _Of the Hearbes, Fruites, Woods, Waters and Mineralls._

The ground affoards very good kitchin Gardens, for Turneps, Parsnips,
Carrots, Radishes, and Pumpions, Muskmillions, Isquoutersquashes,
Coucumbers, Onyons, and whatsoever growes well in _England_, growes as
well there, many things being better and larger: there is likewise
growing all manner of Hearbes for meate, and medicine, and that not
onely in planted Gardens, but in the Woods, without eyther the art or
the helpe of man, as sweet Marjoram, Purselane, Sorrell, Peneriall,
Yarrow, Mirtle, Saxifarilla, Bayes, &c. There is likewise Strawberries
in abundance, very large ones, some being two inches about; one may
gather halfe a bushell in a forenoone: In other seasons there bee
Gooseberries, Bilberies, Resberies, Treackleberies, Hurtleberries,
Currants; which being dryed in the Sunne are little inferiour to those
that our Grocers sell in _England_: This land likewise affoards Hempe
and Flax, some naturally, and some planted by the _English_, with Rapes
if they bee well managed. For such commodities as lie underground, I
cannot out of mine owne experience or knowledge say much, having taken
no great notice of such things; but it is certainely reported that
there is Iron stone; and the _Indians_ informe us that they can leade
us to the mountaines of blacke Lead, and have showne us lead ore, if
our small judgement in such things doe not deceive us: and though no
body dare confidently conclude, yet dare they not utterly deny, but
that the _Spaniards_ blisse may lye hid in the barren Mountaines; such
as have coasted the countrey affirme that they know where to fetch
Seacole if wood were scant; there is plenty of stone both rough and
smooth, usefull for many things, with quarries of Slate, out of which
they get covering for houses, with good clay, whereof they make Tiles
and Brickes, and pavements for their necessary uses.

For the Countrey it is as well watered as any land under the Sunne,
every family, or every two families having a spring of sweet waters
betwixt them, which is farre different from the waters of _England_,
being not so sharpe, but of a fatter substance, and of a more jetty
colour; it is thought there can be no better water in the world, yet
dare I not preferre it before good Beere, as some have done, but any
man will choose it before bad Beere, Wheay, or Buttermilke. Those that
drinke it be as healthfull, fresh, and lustie, as they that drinke
beere; These springs be not onely within land, but likewise bordering
upon the Sea coasts, so that some times the tides overflow some of
them, which is accounted rare in the most parts of _England_. No man
hitherto hath beene constrained to digge deepe for his water, or to
fetch it farre, or to fetch of severall waters for severall uses; one
kind of water serving for washing, and brewing and other things. Now
besides these springs, there be divers spacious ponds in many places of
the Countrey, out of which runne many sweet streames, which are
constant in their course both winter and summer, whereat the Cattle
quench their thirst, and upon which may be built water mills, as the
plantation encreases.

The next commoditie the land affords, is good store of Woods, & that
not onely such as may be needfull for fewell, but likewise for the
building of Ships, and houses, & Mils, and all manner of water-worke
about which Wood is needefull. The Timber of the Countrey growes
straight, and tall, some trees being twenty, some thirty foot high,
before they spread forth their branches; generally the Trees be not
very thicke, though there be many that will serve for Mill posts, some
beeing three foote and a halfe o're. And whereas it is generally
conceived, that the woods grow so thicke, that there is no more cleare
ground than is hewed out by labour of man; it is nothing so; in many
places, divers Acres being cleare, so that one may ride a hunting in
most places of the land, if he will venture himselfe for being lost:
there is no underwood saving in swamps, and low grounds that are wet,
in which the _English_ get Osiers, and Hasles, and such small wood as
is for their use. Of these swamps, some be ten, some twenty, some
thirty miles long, being preserved by the wetnesse of the soile wherein
they grow; for it being the custome of the _Indians_ to burne the wood
in _November_, when the grasse is withered, and leaves dryed, it
consumes all the underwood, and rubbish, which otherwise would over
grow the Country, making it unpassable, and spoile their much affected
hunting: so that by this meanes in those places where the _Indians_
inhabit, there is scarce a bush or bramble, or any combersome underwood
to bee seene in the more champion ground. Small wood growing in these
places where the fire could not come, is preserved. In some places
where the _Indians_ dyed of the Plague some foureteene yeares agoe, is
much underwood, as in the mid way betwixt _Wessaguscus_ and _Plimouth_,
because it hath not beene burned; certaine Rivers stopping the fire
from comming to cleare that place of the countrey, hath made it
unusefull and troublesome to travell thorow, in so much that it is
called ragged plaine, because it teares and rents the cloathes of them
that passe. Now because it may be necessary for mechanicall artificers
to know what Timber, and wood of use is in the Countrey, I will recite
the most usefull as followeth.

  _Trees both in hills and plaines, in plenty be,
  The long liv'd Oake, and mournfull Cypris tree,
  Skie towring pines, and Chesnuts coated rough,
  The lasting Cedar, with the Walnut tough:
  The rozin dropping Firre for masts in use,
  The boatmen seeke for Oares light, neate growne sprewse,
  The brittle Ash, the ever trembling Aspes,
  The broad-spread Elme, whose concave harbours waspes,
  The water spungie Alder good for nought,
  Small Elderne by th' _Indian_ Fletchers sought,
  The knottie Maple, pallid Birtch, Hawthornes,
  The Horne bound tree that to be cloven scornes;
  Which from the tender Vine oft takes his spouse,
  Who twinds imbracing armes about his boughes.
  Within this _Indian_ Orchard fruites be some,
  The ruddie Cherrie, and the jettie Plumbe,
  Snake murthering Hazell, with sweet Saxaphrage,
  Whose spurnes in beere allayes hot fevers rage.
  The Diars Shumach, with more trees there be,
  That are both good to use, and rare to see._

Though many of these trees may seeme to have epithites contrary to the
nature of them as they grow in _England_, yet are they agreeable with
the Trees of that Countrie. The chiefe and common Timber for ordinary
use is Oake, and Walnut: Of Oakes there be three kindes, the red Oake,
white, and blacke; as these are different in kinde, so are they chosen
for such uses as they are most fit for, one kind being more fit for
clappboard, others for sawne board, some fitter for shipping, others
for houses. These Trees affoard much Mast for Hogges, especially every
third yeare, bearing a bigger Acorne than our _English_ Oake. The
Wallnut tree is something different from the _English_ Wallnut, being a
great deale more tough, and more serviceable, and altogether as heavie:
and whereas our Gunnes that are stocked with _English_ Wallnut, are
soone broaken and cracked in frost, beeing a brittle Wood; we are
driven to stocke them new with the Country Wallnut, which will indure
all blowes, and weather; lasting time out of minde. These trees beare a
very good Nut, something smaller, but nothing inferiour in sweetnesse
and goodnesse to the _English_ Nut, having no bitter pill. There is
likewise a tree in some part of the Countrey, that beares a Nut as
bigge as a small peare. The Cedar tree is a tree of no great growth,
not bearing above a foot and a halfe square at the most, neither is it
very high. I suppose they be much inferiour to the Cedars of _Lebanon_
so much commended in holy writ. This wood is more desired for ornament
than substance, being of colour red and white like Eugh, smelling as
sweete as Iuniper; it is commonly used for seeling of houses, and
making of Chests, Boxes, and staves. The Firre and Pine bee trees that
grow in many places, shooting up exceeding high, especially the Pine:
they doe afford good masts, good board, Rozin and Turpentine. Out of
these Pines is gotten the candlewood that is so much spoken of, which
may serve for a shift amongst poore folkes; but I cannot commend it for
singular good, because it is something sluttish, dropping a pitchie
kinde of substance where it stands. Here no doubt might be good done
with saw mils; for I have seene of these stately highgrowne trees, ten
miles together close by the River side, from whence by shipping they
might be conveyed to any desired Port. Likewise it is not improbable
that Pitch and Tarre may be forced from these trees, which beare no
other kinde of fruite. For that countrey Ash, it is much different from
the Ash of _England_, being brittle and good for little, so that
Wallnut is used for it. The Horne-bound tree is a tough kind of Wood,
that requires so much paines in riving as is almost incredible, being
the best for to make bolles and dishes, not being subject to cracke or
leake. This tree growing with broad spread Armes, the vines winde their
curling branches about them; which vines affoard great store of grapes,
which are very big both for the grape and Cluster, sweet and good:
These be of two sorts, red and white, there is likewise a smaller kind
of grape, which groweth in the Islands which is sooner ripe and more
delectable; so that there is no knowne reason why as good wine may not
be made in those parts, as well as in _Burdeuax_ in _France_; being
under the same degree. It is great pittie no man sets upon such a
venture, whereby he might in small time inrich himselfe, and benefit
the Countrie; I know nothing which doth hinder but want of skilfull men
to manage such an imployment: For the countrey is hot enough, the
ground good enough, and many convenient hills which lye toward the
south Sunne, as if they were there placed for the purpose. The Cherrie
trees yeeld great store of Cherries, which grow on clusters like
grapes; they be much smaller than our _English_ Cherrie, nothing neare
so good if they be not very ripe: they so furre the mouth that the
tongue will cleave to the roofe, and the throate wax horse with
swallowing those red Bullies (as I may call them,) being little better
in taste. _English_ ordering may bring them to be an _English_ Cherrie,
but yet they are as wilde as the _Indians_. The Plummes of the Countrey
be better for Plummes than the Cherries be for Cherries, they be blacke
and yellow about the bignesse of a Damson, of a reasonable good taste.
The white thorne affords hawes as bigge as an _English_ Cherrie, which
is esteemed above a Cherrie for his goodnesse and pleasantnesse to the

                               CHAP. VI.

                 _Of the Beasts that live on the land._

Having related unto you the pleasant situation of the Countrey, the
healthfulnesse of the climate, the nature of the soile, with his
vegetatives, and other commodities; it will not be amisse to informe
you of such irrationall creatures as are daily bred and continually
nourished in this countrey, which doe much conduce to the well being of
the Inhabitants, affording not onely meate for the belly, but cloathing
for the backe. The beasts be as followeth.

  _The kingly Lyon, and the strong arm'd Beare
  The large lim'd Mooses, with the tripping Deare,
  Quill darting Porcupines, and Rackcoones bee,
  Castelld in the hollow of an aged tree;
  The skipping Squerrell, Rabbet, purblinde Hare,
  Immured in the selfesame Castle are,
  Least red-eyd Ferrets, wily Foxes should
  Them undermine, if rampird but with mould.
  The grim fac't Ounce, and ravenous howling Woolfe,
  Whose meagre paunch suckes like a swallowing gulfe.
  Blacke glistering Otters, and rich coated Bever,
  The Civet sented Musquash smelling ever._

Concerning Lyons, I will not say that I ever saw any my selfe, but some
affirme that they have seene a Lyon at _Cape Anne_ which is not above
six leagues from _Boston_: some likewise being lost in woods, have
heard such terrible roarings, as have made them much agast; which must
eyther be Devills or Lyons; there being no other creatures which use to
roare saving Beares, which have not such a terrible kind of roaring:
besides, _Plimouth_ men have traded for Lyons skinnes in former times.
But sure it is that there be Lyons on that Continent, for the
_Virginians_ saw an old Lyon in their plantations, who having lost his
Iackall, which was wont to hunt his prey, was brought so poore that he
could goe no further. For Beares they be common, being a great blacke
kind of Beare, which be most feirce in Strawberry time, at which time
they have young ones; at this time likewise they will goe upright like
a man, and clime trees, and swimme to the Islands; which if the
_Indians_ see, there will be more sportfull Beare bayting than Paris
Garden can affoard. For seeing the Beares take water, an _Indian_ will
leape after him, where they goe to water cuffes for bloody noses, and
scratched sides; in the end the man gets the victory, riding the Beare
over the watery plaine till he can beare him no longer. In the winter
they take themselves to the clifts of rockes, and thicke swamps, to
shelter them from the cold; and foode being scant in those cold and
hard times, they live onely by sleeping and sucking their pawes, which
keepeth them as fat as they are in Summer; there would be more of them
if it were not for the Woolves, which devoure them; a kennell of those
ravening runnagadoes, setting on a poore single Beare, will teare him
as a Dogge will teare a Kid: it would be a good change if the countrey
had for every Woolfe a Beare, upon the condition all the woolves were
banished; so should the inhabitants be not onely rid of their greatest
annoyance, but furnished with more store of provisions, Beares being
accounted very good meate, esteemed of all men above Venison: againe
they never prey upon the _English_ cattle, or offer to assault the
person of any man, unlesse being vexed with a shot, and a man run upon
them before they be dead, in which case they will stand in their owne
defence, as may appeare by this instance. Two men going a fowling,
appointed at evening to meete at a certaine pond side, to share
equally, and to returne home; one of these Gunners having killed a
Seale or Sea calfe, brought it to the side of the pond where hee was to
meete his comrade, afterwards returning to the Sea side for more gaine;
and having loaded himselfe with more Geese and Duckes, he repaired to
the pond, where hee saw a great Beare feeding on his Seale, which
caused him to throw downe his loade, and give the Beare a salute; which
though it was but with Goose shot, yet tumbled him over and over,
whereupon the man supposing him to be in a manner dead, ran and beate
him with the hand of his Gunne; The Beare perceiving him to be such a
coward to strike him when he was down, scrambled up, standing at
defiance with him, scratching his legges, tearing his cloathes and
face, who stood it out till his six foot Gunne was broken in the
middle, then being deprived of his weapon, he ran up to the shoulders
into the pond, where hee remained till the Beare was gone, and his mate
come in, who accompanied him home.

The beast called a Moose, is not much unlike red Deare, this beast is
as bigge as an Oxe; slow of foote, headed like a Bucke, with a broade
beame, some being two yards wide in the head, their flesh is as good as
Beefe, their hides good for cloathing; The _English_ have some thoughts
of keeping them tame, and to accustome them to the yoake, which will be
a great commoditie: First because they are so fruitfull, bringing forth
three at a time, being likewise very uberous. Secondly, because they
will live in winter without any fodder. There be not many of these in
the _Massachusets bay_, but forty miles to the Northeast there be great
store of them; These pore beasts likewise are much devoured by the
Woolves: The ordinary Deare be much bigger than the Deare of _England_,
of a brighter colour, more inclining to red, with spotted bellies; the
most store of these be in winter, when the more Northerne parts of the
countrey bee cold for them; they desire to be neare the Sea, so that
they may swimme to the Islands when they are chased by the Woolves: It
is not to be thought into what great multitudes they would encrease,
were it not for the common devourer the Woolfe; They have generally
three at a time, which they hide a mile one from another, giving them
sucke by turnes; thus they doe, that if the Woolfe should finde one, he
might misse of the other. These Deare be fat in the deepe of winter; In
Summer it is hard catching of them with the best Greyhounds that may be
procured, because they bee swift of foote. Some credible persons have
affirmed, that they have seene a Deare leape three score feet at little
or no forcement; besides, there be so many old trees, rotten stumps,
and _Indian_ barnes, that a dog cannot well run without being
shoulder-shot: yet would I not disswade any from carrying good dogges;
for in the winter time they be very usefull; for when the snow is hard
frozen, the Deare being heavie, sinkes into the snow, the doggs being
light runne upon the top and overtake them, and pull them downe: some
by this meanes have gotten twenty Buckes and Does in a winter, the
hornes of these Deare grow in such a straight manner, (overhanging
their heads) that they cannot feede upon such things as grow low, till
they have cast their old hornes: of these Deare there be a great many,
and more in the _Massachusets bay_, than in any other place, which is a
great helpe and refreshment to these planters. The Porcupine is a small
thing not much unlike a Hedgehog; something bigger, who stands upon his
guard and proclaimes a _Noli me tangere_, to man and beast, that shall
approach too neare him, darting his quills into their legges, and
hides. The Rackoone is a deepe furred beast, not much unlike a Badger,
having a tayle like a Fox, as good meate as a Lambe; there is one of
them in the Tower. These beasts in the day time sleepe in hollow trees,
in the moone shine night they goe to feede on clammes at a low tide, by
the Sea side, where the _English_ hunt them with their dogges. The
Squerrells be of three sorts, first the great gray Squerrell, which is
almost as bigge as an _English_ Rabbet; of these there be the greatest
plenty, one may kill a dozen of them in an afternoone, about three of
the clocke they begin to walke. The second is a small Squerrell, not
unlike the _English_ Squerrell, which doth much trouble the planters of
Corne, so that they are constrained to set divers Trappes, and to carry
their Cats into the Corne fields, till their corne be three weekes old.
The third kind is a flying Squerrell, which is not very bigge, slender
of body, with a great deale of loose skinne which shee spreads square
when shee flyes, which the winde gets, and so wafts her Batlike body
from place to place; it is a creature more for sight and wonderment,
than eyther pleasure or profit. The Rabbets be much like ours in
_England_. The Hares be some of them white, and a yard long; these two
harmelesse creatures are glad to shelter themselves from the harmefull
Foxes, in hollow trees, having a hole at the entrance no bigger than
they can creepe in at: if they should make them holes in the ground, as
our _English_ Rabbets doe, the undermining Renoilds would rob them of
their lives, and extirpate their generation. The beasts of offence be
Squunckes, Ferrets, Foxes, whose impudence sometimes drives them to the
good wives Hen roost, to fill their Paunch: some of these be blacke;
their furre is of much esteeme.

The Ounce or the wilde Cat, is as big as a mungrell dog, this creature
is by nature feirce, and more dangerous to bee met withall than any
other creature, not fearing eyther dogge or man; he useth to kill
Deare, which hee thus effecteth: Knowing the Deares tracts, hee will
lye lurking in long weedes, the Deare passing by he suddenly leapes
upon his backe, from thence gets to his necke, and scratcheth out his
throate; he hath likewise a devise to get Geese, for being much of the
colour of a Goose he will place himselfe close by the water, holding up
his bob taile, which is like a Goose necke; the Geese seeing this
counterfet Goose, approach nigh to visit him, who with a suddaine jerke
apprehends his mistrustlesse prey. The _English_ kill many of these,
accounting them very good meat. Their skinnes be a very deepe kind of
Furre, spotted white and black on the belly. The Woolves bee in some
respect different from them of other countries; it was never knowne yet
that a Woolfe ever set upon a man or woman. Neyther do they trouble
horses or cowes; but swine, goates and red calves which they take for
Deare, be often destroyed by them, so that a red calfe is cheaper than
a blacke one in that regard; in Autumne and the beginning of the
Spring, these ravenous rangers doe most frequent our _English_
habitations, following the Deare which come downe at that time to those
parts. They be made much like a Mungrell, being big boned, lanke
paunched, deepe breasted, having a thicke necke, and head, pricke
eares, and long snoute, with dangerous teeth, long flaring haire, and a
great bush taile; it is thought of many, that our _English_ Mastiffes
might be too hard for them; but it is no such matter, for they care no
more for an ordinary Mastiffe, than an ordinary Mastiffe cares for a
Curre; many good Dogges have beene spoyled with them. Once a faire
Grayhound hearing them at their howlings run out to chide them, who was
torne in peeces before he could be rescued. One of them makes no more
bones to runne away with a Pigge, than a Dogge to runne away with a
Marrow bone. It is observed that they have no joynts from the head to
the tayle, which prevents them from leaping, or suddaine turning, as
may appeare by what I shall shew you. A certaine man having shot a
Woolfe, as he was feeding upon a Swine, breaking his legge onely, hee
knew not how to devise his death, on a suddaine, the Woolfe being a
blacke one, he was loath to spoyle his furre with a second shot, his
skinne being worth five or sixe pound Sterling; wherefore hee resolved
to get him by the tayle, and thrust him into a River that was hard by;
which effected, the Woolfe being not able to turne his joyntlesse body
to bite him, was taken. That they cannot leape, may appeare by this
Woolfe, whose mouth watering at a few poore impaled Kiddes, would
needes leape over a five-foote pale to be at them; but his foote
slipping in the rise, he fell a little short of his desire, and being
hung in the Carpenters stockes, howled so loud, that he frighted away
the Kids, and called the _English_, who killed him. These be killed
dayly in some place or other, either by the _English_, or _Indian_; who
have a certaine rate for every head: Yet is there little hope of their
utter destruction, the Countrey being so spacious, and they so
numerous, travelling in the Swamps by Kennels: sometimes ten or twelve
are of a company. Late at night, and early in the morning, they set up
their howlings, and call their companies together at night to hunt, at
morning to sleepe; in a word they be the greatest inconveniency the
Countrey hath, both for matter of dammage to private men in particular,
and the whole Countrey in generall.

                               CHAP. VII.

                     _Beasts living in the water._

For all creatures that liv'd both by Land and Water, they be first
Otters, which be most of them blacke, whose furre is much used for
Muffes, and are held almost as deare as Beaver. The flesh of them is
none of the best meate, but their Oyle is of rare use for many things.
Secondly, Martins, a good furre for their bignesse: Thirdly,
Musquashes, which be much like a Beaver for shape, but nothing neare so
bigge; the Male hath two stones which smell as sweete as Muske, and
being killed in Winter, never lose their sweete smell: These skinnes
are no bigger than a Coney-skinne, yet are sold for five shillings a
peece, being sent for Tokens into _England_. One good skinne will
perfume a whole house-full of cloathes, if it be right and good.
Fourthly, the Beaver, concerning whom if I should at large discourse,
according to knowledge or information, I might make a Volumne. The
wisedome and understanding of this Beast, will almost conclude him a
reasonable creature: His shape is thicke and short, having likewise
short legs, feete like a Mole before, and behinde like a Goose, a broad
tayle in forme like a shooe-soale, very tough and strong; his head is
something like an Otters head, saving that his teeth before, be placed
like the teeth of a Rabbet, two above, and two beneath; sharpe and
broad, with which he cuts downe Trees as thicke as a mans thigh,
afterwards diuiding them into lengths, according to the use they are
appointed for. If one Bever be too weake to carry the logge, then
another helpes him; if they two be too weake, then _Multorum manibus
grande levatur onus_; foure more adding their helpe, being placed three
to three, which set their teeth in one anothers tough tayles, and
laying the loade on the two hindermost, they draw the logge to the
desired place. That this may not seeme altogether incredible, remember
that the like almost may be seene in our Ants, which will joyne
sometimes seaven or eight together in the carrying of a burthen. These
Creatures build themselves houses of wood and clay, close by the Ponds
sides, and knowing the Seasons, build them answerable houses, having
them three stories high, so that as land-floods are raised by great
Raines, as the waters arise, they mount higher in their houses; as they
asswage, they descend lower againe. These houses are so strong, that no
creature saving an industrious man with his penetrating tooles can
prejudice them, their ingresse and egresse being Vnder water. These
make likewise very good Ponds, knowing whence a streame runnes from
betweene two rising Hils, they will there pitch downe piles of Wood,
placing smaller rubbish before it with clay and sods, not leaving, till
by their Art and Industry they have made a firme and curious
damme-head, which may draw admiration from wise understanding men.
These creatures keepe themselves to their owne families, never parting
so long as they are able to keepe house together: And it is commonly
sayd, if any Beaver accidentally light into a strange place, he is made
a drudge so long as he lives there, to carry at the greater end of the
logge, unlesse he creepe away by stealth. Their wisedome secures them
from the _English_, who seldome or neuer kills any of them, being not
patient to lay a long siege, or to be so often deceived by their
cunning evasions, so that all the Beaver which the _English_ have,
comes first from the _Indians_, whose time and experience fits them for
that imployment.

                              CHAP. VIII.

           _Of the Birds and Fowles both of Land and Water._

Having shewed you the most desireable, usefull, and beneficiall
creatures, with the most offensive carrions that belong to our
Wildernesse, it remaines in the next place, to shew you such kinds of
Fowle as the Countrey affords: They are many, and we have much variety
both at Sea and on Land; and such as yeeld us much profit, and honest
pleasure, and are these that follow; as

  _The Princely Eagle, and the soaring Hawke,
  Whom in their unknowne wayes there's none can chawke:
  The Humberd for some Queenes rich Cage more fit,
  Than in the vacant Wildernesse to sit.
  The swift wing'd Swallow sweeping to and fro,
  As swift as arrow from _Tartarian_ Bow.
  When as _Aurora's_ infant day new springs,
  There th' morning mounting Larke her sweete layes sings.
  The harmonious Thrush, swift Pigeon, Turtle-dove,
  Who to her mate doth ever constant prove:
  The _Turky_-Phesant, Heathcocke, Partridge rare,
  The carrion-tearing Crow, and hurtfull Stare,
  The long liv'd Raven, th' ominous Screech-Owle,
  Who tells as old wives say, disasters foule.
  The drowsie Madge that leaves her day-lov'd nest,
  And loves to roave when day-birds be at rest:
  Th' Eele-murthering Hearne, and greedy Cormorant,
  That neare the Creekes in morish Marshes haunt.
  The bellowing Bitterne, with the long-leg'd Crane,
  Presaging Winters hard, and dearth of graine.
  The Silver Swan that tunes her mournefull breath,
  To sing the dirge of her approaching death.
  The tatling Oldwines, and the cackling Geese,
  The fearefull Gull that shunnes the murthering Peece.
  The strong wing'd Mallard, with the nimble Teale,
  And ill-shape't Loone who his harsh notes doth squeale.
  There Widgins, Sheldrackes and Humilitees,
  Snites, Doppers, Sea-Larkes, in whole millions flees._

The Eagles of the Countrey be of two sorts, one like the Eagles that be
in _England_, the other is something bigger with a great white head,
and white tayle: these bee commonly called Gripes; these prey upon
Duckes and Geese, and such Fish as are cast upon the Sea-shore. And
although an Eagle be counted King of that feathered regiment, yet is
there a certaine blacke Hawke that beates him; so that hee is
constrayned to soare so high, till heate expell his adversary. This
Hawke is much prized of the _Indians_, being accounted a Sagamores

To speake much of Hawkes, were to trespasse upon my owne judgement, and
bring upon my selfe a deserved censure, for abusing the Faulconers
termes: But by relation from those that have more insight into them
than my selfe: There be divers kinds of Hawkes: their Aieries are easie
to come by, being in the holes of Rockes, neare the shore, so that any
who are addicted to that sport, if he will be but at the charge of
finding Poultry for them, may have his desires. We could wish them well
mew'd in _England_; for they make hauocke of Hens, Partridges,
Heathcockes, and Duckes; often hindering the Fowler of his long look't
for shoote. The Humbird is one of the wonders of the Countrey, being no
bigger than a Hornet, yet hath all the demensions of a Bird, as bill,
and wings, with quills, spider-like legges, small clawes: For colour,
she is as glorious as the Raine-bow; as she flies, she makes a little
humming noise like a Humble-bee: wherefore shee is called the Humbird.
The Pigeon of that Countrey, is something different from our Dove-house
Pigeons in _England_, being more like Turtles, of the same colour; but
they haue long tayles like a Magpie: And they seeme not so bigge,
because they carry not so many feathers on their backes as our
_English_ Doves, yet are they as bigge in body. These Birds come into
the Countrey, to goe to the North parts in the beginning of our Spring,
at which time (if I may be counted worthy, to be beleeved in a thing
that is not so strange as true) I have seene them fly as if the Ayerie
regiment had beene Pigeons; seeing neyther beginning nor ending,
length, or breadth of these Millions of Millions. The shouting of
people, the ratling of Gunnes, and pelting of small shotte could not
drive them out of their course, but so they continued for foure or five
houres together: yet it must not be concluded, that it is thus often;
for it is but at the beginning of the Spring, and at _Michaelmas_, when
they returne backe to the Southward; yet are there some all the yeare
long, which are easily attayned by such as looke after them. Many of
them build amongst the Pine-trees, thirty miles to the North-east of
our plantations; joyning nest to nest, and tree to tree by their nests,
so that the Sunne never sees the ground in that place, from whence the
_Indians_ fetch whole loades of them.

The Turky is a very large Bird, of a blacke colour, yet white in flesh;
much bigger than our _English_ Turky. He hath the use of his long legs
so ready, that he can runne as fast as a Dogge, and flye as well as a
Goose: of these sometimes there will be forty, threescore, and a
hundred of a flocke, sometimes more and sometimes lesse; their feeding
is Acornes, Hawes, and Berries, some of them get a haunt to frequent
our _English_ corne: In winter when the Snow covers the ground, they
resort to the Sea shore to look for Shrimps, & such smal Fishes at low
tides. Such as love Turkie hunting, must follow it in winter after a
new falne Snow, when hee may follow them by their tracts; some have
killed ten or a dozen in halfe a day; if they can be found towards an
evening and watched where they peirch, if one come about ten or eleaven
of the clocke he may shoote as often as he will, they will sit, unlesse
they be slenderly wounded. These Turkies remaine all the yeare long,
the price of a good Turkie cocke is foure shillings; and he is well
worth it, for he may be in weight forty pound; a Hen two shillings.
Pheasons bee very rare, but Heathcockes, and Partridges be common; he
that is a husband, and will be stirring betime, may kill halfe a dozen
in a morning.

The Partridges be bigger than they be in _England_, the flesh of the
Heathcockes is red, and the flesh of a Partridge white, their price is
foure pence a peece. The Ravens, and the Crowes be much like them of
other countries. There are no Magpies, Iackedawes, Coockooes, Iayes,
Sparrows, &c. The Stares be bigger than those in _England_, as blacke
as Crowes, being the most troublesome, and injurious bird of all
others, pulling up the cornes by the roots, when it is young, so that
those who plant by reedy and sedgy places, where they frequent, are
much annoyed with them, they being so audacious that they feare not
Guns, or their fellowes hung upon poles; but the Corne having a weeke
or nine dayes growth is past their spoyling. The Owles be of two sorts;
the one being small speckled, like a Partridge, with eares, the other
being a great Owle, almost as big as an Eagle, his body beeing as good
meate as a Partridge. Cormorants bee as common as other fowles, which
destroy abundance of small fish, these are not worth the shooting
because they are the worst of fowles for meate, tasting ranke, and
fishy: againe, one may shoot twenty times and misse, for seeing the
fire in the panne, they dive under the water before the shot comes to
the place where they were; they use to roost upon the tops of trees,
and rockes, being a very heavy drowsie creature, so that the _Indians_
will goe in their Cannowes in the night, and take them from the Rockes,
as easily as women take a Hen from roost; No ducking ponds can affoard
more delight than a lame Cormorant, and two or three lusty Dogges. The
Crane although hee bee almost as tall as a man by reason of his long
legges, and necke; yet is his body rounder than other fowles, not much
unlike the body of a Turkie. I have seene many of these fowles, yet did
I never see one that was fat, I suppose it is contrary to their nature
to grow fat; Of these there be many in Summer, but none in winter,
their price is two shilling. There be likewise many Swannes which
frequent the fresh ponds and rivers, seldome consorting themselves with
Duckes and Geese; these bee very good meate, the price of one is six
shillings. The Geese of the countrey be of three sorts, first a brant
Goose, which is a Goose almost like the wilde Goose in _England_, the
price of one of these is six pence. The second kind is a white Goose,
almost as big as an _English_ tame Goose, these come in great flockes
about Michelmasse, sometimes there will be two or three thousand in a
flocke, these continue six weekes, and so flye to the southward,
returning in March, and staying six weekes more, returning againe to
the Northward; the price of one of these is eight pence. The third kind
of Geese, is a great gray Goose, with a blacke necke, and a blacke and
white head, strong of flight; these bee a great deale bigger than the
ordinary Geese of _England_, some very fat, and in the Spring so full
of Feathers, that the shot can scarce peirce them; most of these Geese
remaine with us from Michelmas to Aprill; they feede on the Sea of
Fish, and in the woods of Acornes, having as other Foule have, their
passe and repasse to the Northward and Southward: the accurate marksmen
kill of these both flying and sitting; the price of a good gray Goose
is eighteene pence. The Duckes of the countrey be very large ones and
in great abundance, so is there of Teale likewise; the price of a Ducke
is six pence, of a Teale three pence. If I should tell you how some
have killed a hundred Geese in a weeke, 50. Duckes at a shot, 40.
Teales at another, it may be counted impossible, though nothing more
certaine. The Oldwives, be a foule that never leave tatling day or
night, something bigger than a Ducke. The Loone is an ill shap'd thing
like a Cormorant; but that he can neyther goe nor flye; he maketh a
noise sometimes like a Sowgelders horne. The Humilities or Simplicities
(as I may rather call them) bee of two sorts, the biggest being as big
as a greene Plover, the other as big as birds we call knots in
_England_. Such is the simplicity of the smaller sorts of these birds,
that one may drive them on a heape like so many sheepe, and seeing a
fit time shoot them; the living seeing the dead, settle themselves on
the same place againe, amongst which the Fowler discharges againe. I my
selfe have killed twelve score at two shootes: these bird are to be had
upon sandy brakes at the latter end of Summer before the Geese come in.
Thus much have I shewed you as I know to bee true concerning the Fowle
of the countrey. But me thinkes I heare some say that this is very good
if it could be caught, or likely to continue, and that much shooting
will fright away the fowles. True it is, that every ones imployment wil
not permit him to fowle: what then? yet their imployments furnish them
with silver Guns with which they may have it more easie. For the
frighting of the fowle, true it is that many goe blurting away their
pouder and shot, that have no more skill to kill, or winne a Goose,
than many in _England_ that have rustie Muskets in their houses, knowes
what belongs to a Souldier, yet are they not much affrighted. I have
seene more living and dead the last yeare than I have done in former

                               CHAP. IX.

                               _Of Fish._

Having done with these, let me leade you from the land to the Sea, to
view what commodities may come from thence; there is no countrey
knowne, that yeelds more variety of fish winter and summer: and that
not onely for the present spending and sustentation of the plantations,
but likewise for trade into other countries, so that those which have
had stages & make fishing voyages into those parts, have gained (it is
thought) more than the new found land Iobbers. Codfish in these seas
are larger than in new found land, six or seaven making a quintall,
whereas there they have fifteene to the same weight; and though this
they seeme a base and more contemptible commoditie in the judgement of
more neate adventurers, yet it hath bin the enrichment of other
nations, and is likely to prove no small commoditie to the planters,
and likewise to _England_ if it were thorowly undertaken. Salt may be
had from the salt Islands, and as is supposed may be made in the
countrey. The chiefe fish for trade is Cod, but for the use of the
countrey, there is all manner of fish as followeth.

  _The king of waters, the Sea shouldering Whale,
  The snuffing Grampus, with the oyly Seale,
  The storme præsaging Porpus, Herring-Hogge,
  Line shearing Sharke, the Catfish, and Sea Dogge,
  The Scale-fenc'd Sturgeon, wry mouthd Hollibut,
  The flounsing Sammon, Codfish, Greedigut:
  Cole, Haddocke, Haicke, the Thornebacke, and the Scate,
  Whose slimie outside makes him selde in date,
  The stately Basse old Neptunes fleeting post,
  That tides it out and in from Sea to Coast.
  Consorting Herrings, and the bony Shad,
  Big bellied Alewives, Machrills richly clad
  With Rainebow colours, th' Frostfish and the Smelt,
  As good as ever lady Gustus felt.
  The spotted Lamprons, Eeles, the Lamperies,
  That seeke fresh water brookes with Argus eyes:
  These waterie villagers with thousands more,
  Doe passe and repasse neare the verdant shore._

                        Kinds of all Shel-fish.

  _The luscious Lobster, with the Crabfish raw,
  The Brinish Oister, Muscle, Periwigge,
  And Tortoise sought for by the Indian Squaw,
  Which to the flats daunce many a winters Iigge,
  To dive for Cocles, and to digge for Clamms,
  Whereby her lazie husbands guts shee cramms._

To omit such of these as are not usefull, therefore not to be spoken
of, and onely to certifie you of such as be usefull. First the Seale
which is that which is called the Sea Calfe, his skinne is good for
divers uses, his body being betweene fish and flesh, it is not very
delectable to the pallate, or congruent with the stomack; his Oyle is
very good to burne in Lampes, of which he affoards a great deale. The
Sharke is a kinde of fish as bigge as a man, some as bigge as a horse,
with three rowes of teeth within his mouth, with which he snaps asunder
the fishermans lines, if he be not very circumspect: This fish will
leape at a mans hand if it be over board, and with his teeth snap off a
mans legge or hand if he be a swimming; These are often taken, being
good for nothing but to put on the ground for manuring of land. The
Sturgions be all over the countrey, but the best catching of them be
upon the shoales of _Cape Codde_, and in the River of _Mirrimacke_,
where much is taken, pickled and brought for _England_, some of these
be 12.14.18. foote long: I set not downe the price of fish there,
because it is so cheape, so that one may have as much for two pence, as
would give him an angell in _England_. The Sammon is as good as it is
in _England_ and in great plenty. The Hollibut is not much unlike a
pleace or Turbut, some being two yards long, and one wide, and a foot
thicke; the plenty of better fish makes these of little esteeme, except
the head and finnes, which stewed or baked is very good: these
Hollibuts be little set by while Basse is in season. Thornebacke and
Scates is given to the dogges, being not counted worth the dressing in
many places. The Basse is one of the best fishes in the countrey, and
though men are soone wearied with other fish, yet are they never with
Basse; it is a delicate, fine, fat, fast fish, having a bone in his
head, which containes a sawcerfull of marrow sweet and good, pleasant
to the pallat, and wholsome to the stomack. When there be great store
of them, we onely eate the heads, and salt up the bodies for winter,
which exceedes Ling or Haberdine. Of these fishes some be three and
some foure foot long, some bigger, some lesser: at some tides a man may
catch a dozen or twenty of these in three houres, the way to catch them
is with hooke and line: The Fisherman taking a great Cod-line, to which
he fastneth a peece of Lobster, and throwes it into the Sea, the fish
biting at it he pulls her to him, and knockes her on the head with a
sticke. These are at one time (when Alewives passe up the Rivers) to be
catched in Rivers, in Lobster time at the Rockes, in Macrill time in
the Bayes, at Michelmas in the Seas. When they use to tide it in and
out to the Rivers and Creekes, the _English_ at the top of an high
water do crosse the Creekes with long seanes or Basse Netts, which stop
in the fish; and the water ebbing from them they are left on the dry
ground, sometimes two or three thousand at a set, which are salted up
against winter, or distributed to such as have present occasion either
to spend them in their houses, or use them for their ground. The
Herrings be much like them that be caught on the _English_ coasts.
Alewives be a kind of fish which is much like a Herring, which in the
latter end of Aprill come up to the fresh Rivers to spawne, in such
multitudes as is allmost incredible, pressing up in such shallow waters
as will scarce permit them to swimme, having likewise such longing
desire after the fresh water ponds, that no beatings with poles, or
forcive agitations by other devices, will cause them to returne to the
sea, till they have cast their Spawne. The Shaddes be bigger than the
_English_ Shaddes and fatter. The Macrells be of two sorts, in the
beginning of the yeare are great ones, which be upon the coast; some
are 18. inches long. In Summer as in May, Iune, Iuly, and August, come
in a smaller kind of them: These Macrills are taken with drailes which
is a long small line, with a lead and hooke at the end of it, being
baited with a peece of red cloath: this kind of fish is counted a leane
fish in _England_, but there it is so fat, that it can scarce be saved
against winter without reisting. There be a great store of Salt water
Eeles, especially in such places where grasse growes: for to take these
there be certaine Eele pots made of Osyers, which must be baited with a
peece of Lobster, into which the Eeles entring cannot returne backe
againe: some take a bushell in a night in this manner, eating as many
as they have neede of for the present, and salt up the rest against
winter. These Eeles be not of so luscious a tast as they be in
_England_, neyther are they so aguish, but are both wholesome for the
body, and delightfull for the taste: Lamprons and Lampreyes be not much
set by; Lobsters be in plenty in most places, very large ones, some
being 20. pound in weight; these are taken at a low water amongst the
rockes, they are very good fish, the small ones being the best, their
plenty makes them little esteemed and seldome eaten. The _Indians_ get
many of them every day for to baite their hookes withall, and to eate
when they can get no Basse: The Oisters be great ones in forme of a
shoo horne, some be a foote long, these breede on certaine bankes that
are bare every spring tide. This fish without the shell is so big that
it must admit of a devision before you can well get it into your mouth.
The Perewig is a kind of fish that lyeth in the oaze like a head of
haire, which being touched conveyes it selfe leaving nothing to bee
seene but a small round hole. Muscles be in great plenty, left onely
for the Hogges, which if they were in _England_ would be more esteemed
of the poorer sort. Clamms or Clamps is a shel-fish not much unlike a
cockle, it lyeth under the sand, every six or seaven of them having a
round hole to take ayre and receive water at. When the tide ebs and
flowes, a man running over these Clamm bankes will presently be made
all wet, by their spouting of water out of those small holes: These
fishes be in great plenty in most places of the countrey, which is a
great commoditie for the feeding of Swine, both in winter, and Summer;
for being once used to those places, they will repaire to them as duely
every ebbe, as if they were driven to them by keepers: In some places
of the countrey there bee Clamms as bigge as a pennie white loafe,
which are great dainties amongst the natives, and would bee in good
esteeme amongst the _English_, were it not for better fish.

                                CHAP. X.

              _Of the severall plantations in particular._

[Sidenote: _Wessaguscus._]

[Sidenote: _Dorchester._]

[Sidenote: _Roxberry._]

Having described the situation of the countrey in generall, with all
his commodities arising from land and Sea, it may adde to your content
and satisfaction to be informed of the situation of every severall
plantation, with his conveniences, commodities, and discommodities, &c.
where first I will begin with the outmost plantation in the patent to
the South ward, which is called _Wessaguscus_ an _Indian_ name: this as
yet is but a small Village, yet it is very pleasant, and healthfull,
very good ground, and is well timbred, and hath good store of Hey
ground; it hath a very spacious harbour for shipping before the towne;
the salt water being navigable for Boates & Pinnaces two leagues. Here
the inhabitants have good store of fish of all sorts, and Swine, having
Acornes and Clamms at the time of yeare; here is likewise an Alewife
river. Three miles to the North of this is mount _Walleston_, a very
fertile soyle, and a place very convenient for Farmers houses, there
being great store of plaine ground, without trees. This place is called
_Massachusets fields_ where the greatest _Sagamore_ in the countrey
lived, before the Plague, who caused it to be cleared for himselfe. The
greatest inconvenience is, that there is not very many Springs, as in
other places of the countrey, yet water may bee had for digging: A
second inconvenience is, that Boates cannot come in at a low water, nor
ships ride neare the shore. Sixe miles further to the North, lieth
_Dorchester_; which is the greatest Towne in _New England_; well
woodded and watered; very good arable grounds, and Hay-ground, faire
Corne-fields, and pleasant Gardens, with Kitchin-gardens. In this
plantation is a great many Cattle, as Kine, Goats, and Swine. This
plantation hath a reasonable Harbour for ships: Here is no
Alewife-river, which is a great inconvenience. The inhabitants of this
towne, were the first that set upon the trade of fishing in the Bay,
who received so much fruite of their labours, that they encouraged
others to the same undertakings. A mile from this Towne lieth
_Roxberry_, which is a faire and handsome Countrey-towne; the
inhabitants of it being all very rich. This Towne lieth upon the Maine,
so that it is well woodded and watered; having a cleare and fresh
Brooke running through the Towne: Vp which although there come no
Alewives, yet there is great store of Smelts, and therefore it is
called Smelt-brooke.

A quarter of a mile to the North-side of the Towne, is another River
called _Stony-river_; upon which is built a water-milne. Here is good
ground for Corne, and Medow for Cattle: Vp westward from the Towne it
is something rocky, whence it hath the name of _Roxberry_; the
inhabitants have faire houses, store of Cattle, impaled Corne-fields,
and fruitfull Gardens. Here is no Harbour for ships, because the Towne
is seated in the bottome of a shallow Bay, which is made by the necke
of land on which _Boston_ is built; so that they can transport all
their goods from the Ships in Boats from _Boston_, which is the nearest

[Sidenote: _Boston._]

_Boston_ is two miles North-east from _Roxberry_: His situation is very
pleasant, being a _Peninsula_, hem'd in on the South-side with the Bay
of _Roxberry_, on the North-side with _Charles-river_, the Marshes on
the backe-side, being not halfe a quarter of a mile over; so that a
little fencing will secure their Cattle from the Woolues. Their
greatest wants be Wood, and Medow-ground, which never were in that
place; being constrayned to fetch their building-timber, and fire-wood
from the Ilands in Boates, and their Hay in Loyters: It being a necke
and bare of wood: they are not troubled with three great annoyances, of
Woolves, Rattle-snakes, and Musketoes. These that live here upon their
Cattle, must be constrayned to take Farmes in the Countrey, or else
they cannot subsist; the place being too small to containe many, and
fittest for such as can Trade into _England_, for such commodities as
the Countrey wants, being the chiefe place for shipping and Merchandize.

This _Necke of land_ is not above foure miles in compasse, in forme
almost square, having on the South-side at one corner, a great broad
hill, whereon is planted a Fort, which can command any ship as shee
sayles into any Harbour within the still Bay. On the North-side is
another Hill, equall in bignesse, whereon stands a Winde-mill. To the
North-west is a high Mountaine with three little rising Hils on the top
of it, wherefore it is called the _Tramount_. From the top of this
Mountaine a man may over-looke all the Ilands which lie before the Bay,
and discry such ships as are upon the Sea-coast. This Towne although it
be neither the greatest, nor the richest, yet it is the most noted and
frequented, being the Center of the Plantations where the monthly
Courts are kept. Here likewise dwells the Governour: This place hath
very good land, affording rich Corne-fields, and fruitefull Gardens;
having likewise sweete and pleasant Springs. The inhabitants of this
place for their enlargement, have taken to themselves Farme-houses, in
a place called _Muddy-river_, two miles from their Towne; where is good
ground, large timber, and store of Marsh-land, and Medow. In this place
they keepe their Swine and other Cattle in the Summer, whilst the Corne
is on the ground at _Boston_, and bring them to the Towne in Winter.

[Sidenote: _Charles-Towne._]

[Sidenote: _Medford._]

[Sidenote: _New-towne._]

On the North side of _Charles River_ is _Charles Towne_, which is
another necke of Land, on whose North-side runs _Misticke-river_. This
Towne for all things, may be well paralel'd with her neighbour
_Boston_, being in the same fashion with her bare necke, and
constrained to borrow conveniences from the Maine, and to provide for
themselves Farmes in the Countrey for their better subsistance. At this
Towne there is kept a Ferry-boate, to conveigh passengers over _Charles
River_, which betweene the two Townes is a quarter of a mile over,
being a very deepe Channell. Here may ride forty ships at a time. Vp
higher it is a broad Bay, being above two miles betweene the shores,
into which runnes _Stony-river_, and _Muddy-river_. Towards the
South-west in the middle of this Bay, is a great Oyster-banke: Towards
the North-west of this Bay is a great Creeke, upon whose shore is
situated the Village of _Medford_, a very fertile and pleasant place,
and fit for more inhabitants than are yet in it. This Towne is a mile
and a halfe from _Charles Towne_, and at the bottome of this Bay the
River beginnes to be narrower, being but halfe a quarter of a mile
broad. By the side of this River is built _New-towne_, which is three
miles by land from _Charles Towne_, and a league and a halfe by water.
This place was first intended for a City, but upon more serious
considerations it was not thought so fit, being too farre from the Sea;
being the greatest inconvenience it hath. This is one of the neatest
and best compacted Townes in _New England_, having many faire
structures, with many handsome contrived streets. The inhabitants most
of them are very rich, and well stored with Cattell of all sorts;
having many hundred Acres of ground paled in with one generall fence,
which is about a mile and a halfe long, which secures all their weaker
Cattle from the wilde beasts. On the other side of the River lieth all
their Medow and Marsh-ground for Hay.

[Sidenote: _Water-towne._]

Halfe a mile Westward of this plantation, is _Water-towne_; a place
nothing inferiour for land, wood, medow, and water to _New-towne_.
Within halfe a mile of this Towne is a great Pond, which is divided
betweene those two Townes, which divides their bounds Northward. A mile
and a halfe from this Towne, is a fall of fresh waters, which conveigh
themselves into the Ocean through _Charles River_. A little below this
fall of waters, the inhabitants of _Water-towne_ have built a Wayre to
catch Fish, wherein they take great store of _Shads_ and _Alewives_. In
two Tydes they have gotten one hundred thousand of those Fishes: This
is no small benefit to the plantation: Ships of small burden may come
up to these two Townes, but the Oyster-bankes doe barre out the bigger

[Sidenote: _Misticke._]

The next Towne is _Misticke_, which is three miles from _Charles Towne_
by land, and a league and a halfe by water: It is seated by the waters
side very pleasantly; there be not many houses as yet. At the head of
this River are great and spacious Ponds, whither the _Alewives_ preasse
to spawne. This being a noted place for that kinde of Fish, the
_English_ resort thither to take them. On the West side of this River
the Governour hath a Farme, where he keepes most of his Cattle. On the
East side is Maister _Craddockes_ plantation, where he hath impaled a
Parke, where he keepes his Cattle till he can store it with Deere: Here
likewise he is at charges of building ships. The last yeare one was
upon the Stockes of a hundred Tunne, that being finished, they are to
build one twice her burden. Ships without either Ballast or loading,
may floate downe this River; otherwise the Oyster-banke would hinder
them which crosseth the Channell.

[Sidenote: _Winnisimet._]

[Sidenote: _Ilands there_]

The last Towne in the still Bay, is _Winnisimet_; a very sweet place
for situation, and stands very commodiously, being fit to entertaine
more planters than are yet seated: it is within a mile of _Charles
Towne_, the River onely parting them. The chiefe Ilands which keepe out
the Winde and the Sea from disturbing the Harbours, are first _Deare
Iland_, which lies within a flight-shot of _Pullin-point_. This Iland
is so called, because of the Deare which often swimme thither from the
Maine, when they are chased by the Woolves: Some have killed sixteene
Deere in a day upon this Iland. The opposite shore is called
_Pullin-point_, because that is the usuall Channel. Boats use to passe
thorow into the Bay; and the Tyde being very strong, they are
constrayned to goe ashore, and hale their Boats by the seasing, or
roades, whereupon it was called _Pullin-point_.

The next Iland of note is _Long Iland_, so called from his longitude.
Divers other Ilands be within these: _viz._ _Nodles Ile_, _Round Ile_,
the Governours Garden, where is planted an Orchard and a Vine-yard,
with many other conveniences; and _Slate-Iland_, _Glasse-Iland_,
_Bird-Iland_, _&c._ These Iles abound with Woods, and Water, and
Medow-ground; and whatsoever the spacious fertile Maine affords. The
inhabitants use to put their Cattle in these for safety, _viz._ their
Rammes, Goates, and Swine, when their Corne is on the ground. Those
Townes that lie without the Bay, are a great deale nearer the Maine,
and reape a greater benefit from the Sea, in regard of the plenty both
of Fish and Fowle, which they receive from thence: so that they liue
more comfortably, and at lesse charges, than those that are more remote
from the Sea in the Inland-plantations.

[Sidenote: _Saugus._]

[Sidenote: _Nahant._]

The next plantation is _Saugus_, sixe miles North-east from
_Winnesimet_: This Towne is pleasant for situation, seated at the
bottome of a Bay, which is made on the one side with the surrounding
shore, and on the other side with a long sandy Beach. This sandy Beach
is two miles long at the end, whereon is a necke of land called
_Nahant_: It is sixe miles in circumference; well woodded with Oakes,
Pines, and Cedars: It is beside well watered, having beside the fresh
Springs, a great Pond in the middle; before which is a spacious Marsh.
In this necke is store of good ground, fit for the Plow; but for the
present it is onely used for to put young Cattle in, and
weather-goates, and Swine, to secure them from the Woolues: a few posts
and rayles from the low water-markes to the shore, keepes out the
Woolves, and keepes in the Cattle. One _Blacke William_, an _Indian_
Duke, out of his generosity gave this place in generall to this
plantation of _Saugus_, so that no other can appropriate it to himselfe.

Vpon the South-side of the sandy Beach the Sea beateth, which is a true
prognostication, to presage stormes and foule weather, and the breaking
up of the Frost: For when a storme hath beene, or is likely to be, it
will roare like Thunder, being heard sixe miles; and after stormes
casts up great store of great Clammes, which the _Indians_ taking out
of their shels, carry home in baskets. On the North-side of this Bay is
two great Marshes, which are made two by a pleasant River which runnes
betweene them. Northward up this River, goes great store of Alewives,
of which they make good Red Herrings; in so much that they have beene
at charges to make a wayre, and a Herringhouse, to dry these Herrings
in; the last yeare were dryed some 4 or 5 Last for an experiment, which
proved very good; this is like to prove a great inrichment to the land,
(being a staple commoditie in other Countries) for there be such
innumerable companies in every river, that I have seene ten thousand
taken in two houres by two men, without any wayre at all, saving a few
stones to stop their passage up the river. There likewise come store of
Basse, which the _Indians_ and _English_ catch with hooke and line,
some fifty or threescore at a tide. At the mouth of this river runnes
up a great creeke into that great Marsh, which is called _Rumny_ Marsh,
which is 4 miles long and 2 miles broad; halfe of it being Marsh ground
and halfe upland grasse, without tree or bush: this Marsh is crossed
with divers creekes, wherein lye great store of Geese, and Duckes.
There be convenient ponds for the planting of Duckcoyes. Here is
likewise belonging to this place divers fresh meddowes, which afford
good grasse and foure spacious ponds like little lakes, wherein is
store of fresh fish: within a mile of the towne, out of which runnes a
curious fresh brooke that is seldome frozen by reason of the warmenesse
of the water; upon this streame is built a water Milne, and up this
river comes Smelts and frost fish much bigger than a Gudgion. For wood
there is no want, there being store of good Oakes, Wallnut, Cædar,
Aspe, Elme; The ground is very good, in many places without trees, fit
for the plough. In this plantation is more _English_ tillage, than in
all new _England_, and _Virginia_ besides; which proved as well as
could bee expected, the corne being very good especially the Barly,
Rye, and Oates.

[Sidenote: _Salem._]

[Sidenote: _Agowam._]

[Sidenote: _Merrimack river._]

The land affordeth the inhabitants as many rarities as any place else,
and the sea more: the Basse continuing from the middle of Aprill to
_Michaelmas_, which stayes not above half that time in the Bay: besides
here is a great deale of Rock-cod and Macrill, insomuch that shoales of
Basse have driven up shoales of Macrill from one end of the sandie
beach to the other, which the inhabitants have gathered up in
wheel-barrowes. The Bay that lyeth before the Towne at a low spring
tyde, will be all flatts for two miles together, upon which is great
store of Musclebanckes, and Clam bancks, and Lobsters amongst the
rockes and grassie holes. These flatts make it unnavigable for shippes,
yet at high water great Boates, Loiters, and Pinnaces of 20, and 30
tun, may saile up to the plantation, but they neede have a skilfull
Pilote, because of many dangerous rockes and foaming breakers, that lye
at the mouth of that Bay. The very aspect of the place is fortification
enough to keepe off an unknowne enemie, yet may it be fortified at a
little charge, being but few landing places there about, and those
obscure. Foure miles Northeast from _Saugus_ lyeth _Salem_, which
stands on the middle of a necke of land very pleasantly, having a South
river on the one side, and a North river on the other side: upon this
necke where the most of the houses stand is very bad and sandie ground,
yet for seaven yeares together it hath brought forth exceeding good
corne, by being fished but every third yeare; in some places is very
good ground, and very good timber, and divers springs hard by the sea
side. Here likewise is store of fish, as Basses, Eeles, Lobsters,
Clammes, &c. Although their land be none of the best, yet beyond those
rivers is a very good soyle, where they have taken farmes, and get
their Hay, and plant their corne; there they crosse these rivers with
small Cannowes, which are made of whole pine trees, being about two
foot & a half over, and 20. foote long: in these likewise they goe a
fowling, sometimes two leagues to sea; there be more Cannowes in this
towne than in all the whole Patent; every houshould having a
water-house or two. This Towne wants an Alewife river, which is a great
inconvenience; it hath two good harbours, the one being called Winter,
and the other Summer harbour, which lyeth within _Derbies_ Fort, which
place if it were well fortified, might keepe shippes from landing of
forces in any of those two places. _Marvill Head_ is a place which
lyeth 4 miles full South from _Salem_, and is a very convenient place
for a plantation, especially for such as will set upon the trade of
fishing. There was made here a ships loading of fish the last yeare,
where still stands the stages, and drying scaffolds; here be good
harbour for boates, and safe riding for shippes. _Agowamme_ is nine
miles to the North from _Salem_, which is one of the most spatious
places for a plantation, being neare the sea, it aboundeth with fish,
and flesh of fowles and beasts, great Meads and Marshes and plaine
plowing grounds, many good rivers and harbours and no rattle snakes. In
a word, it is the best place but one, which is _Merrimacke_, lying 8
miles beyond it, where is a river 20 leagues navigable, all along the
river side is fresh Marshes, in somes places 3 miles broad. In this
river is Sturgeon, Sammon, and Basse, and divers other kinds of fish.
To conclude, the Countrie hath not that which this place cannot yeeld.
So that these two places may containe twice as many people as are yet
in new _England_: there being as yet scarce any inhabitants in these
two spacious places. Three miles beyond the river of _Merrimacke_ is
the outside of our Patent for the _Massachusetts_ Bay. These be all the
Townes that were begun, when I came for _England_, which was the 15 of
August 1633.

                               CHAP. XI.

           _Of the evills, and such things as are hurtfull in
                            the Plantation._

I have informed you of the Country in generall and of every plantation
in particular, with their commodities and wherein one excelleth
another. Now that I may be every way faithfull to my reader in this
worke, I will as fully and truely relate to you what is evill, and of
most annoyance to the inhabitants. First: those which bring most
prejudice to their estates are the ravenous Woolves, which destroy the
weaker Cattell, but of these you have heard before: that which is most
injurious to the person and life of man is a rattle snake which is
generally a yard and a halfe long, as thicke in the middle as the small
of a mans legge, she hath a yellow belly, her backe being spotted with
blacke, russet, yellow, and greene colours, placed like scales; at her
taile is a rattle, with which she makes a noyse when she is molested,
or when she seeth any approach neere her, her necke seemes to be no
thicker than a mans thumbe yet can she swallow a Squerill, having a
great wide mouth, with teeth as sharpe as needles, wherewith she biteth
such as tread upon her: her poyson lyeth in her teeth, for she hath no
sting. When any man is bitten by any of these creatures, the poyson
spreads so suddenly through the veines & so runs to the heart, that in
one houre it causeth death, unlesse he hath the Antidote to expell the
poyson, which is a root called snakeweed, which must be champed, the
spittle swallowed, and the root applyed to the sore; this is present
cure against that which would be present death without it: this weede
is ranck poyson, if it be taken by any man that is not bitten:
whosoever is bitten by these snakes his flesh becomes as spotted as a
Leaper until hee be perfectly cured. It is reported that if the party
live that is bitten, the snake will dye, and if the partie die, the
snake will live. This is a most poysonous and dangerous creature, yet
nothing so bad as the report goes of him in _England_. For whereas he
is sayd to kill a man with his breath, and that he can flye, there is
no such matter, for he is naturally the most sleepie and unnimble
creature that lives, never offering to leape or bite any man, if he be
not troden on first, and it is their desire in hot weather to lye in
pathes, where the sunne may shine on them, where they will sleepe so
soundly that I have knowne foure men stride over one of them, and never
awake her; 5 or 6 men have beene bitten by them, which by using of
snake weede were all cured, never any yet losing his life by them.
Cowes have beene bitten, but being cut in divers places, and this weede
thrust into their flesh were cured. I never heard of any beast that was
yet lost by any of them, saving one Mare. A small switch will easily
kill one of these snakes. In many places of the Countrie there bee none
of them, as at _Plimouth_, _Newtowne_, _Igowamme_, _Nahant_, _&c._ In
some places they will live on one side of the river, and swimming but
over the water, as soone as they be come into the woods, they turne up
their yellow bellies and dye. Vp into the Countrey westward from the
plantations is a high hill, which is called rattlesnake hill, where
there is great store of these poysonous creatures. There be divers
other kinde of snakes, one whereof is a great long blacke snake, two
yards in length which will glide through the woods very swiftly; these
never doe any hurt, neither doth any other kinde of snakes molest
either man or beast. These creatures in the winter time creepe into
clifts of rockes and into holes under ground, where they lie close till
May or Iune. Here likewise bee great store of frogs, which in the
Spring doe chirpe and whistle like a bird, and at the latter end of
summer croake like our English frogges. Heere be also toades which will
climbe the topes of high trees where they will sit croaking, to the
wonderment of such as are not acquainted with them. I never saw any
Wormes or Moles, but pismires and spiders be there. There are likewise
troublesome flies. First there is a wilde Bee or Waspe, which commonly
guards the grape, building her cobweb habitation amongst the leaves:
secondly a great greene flye, not much unlike our horse flyes in
_England_; they will nippe so sore that they wil fetch blood either of
man or beast, and be most troublesome where most Cattle be, which
brings them from out of the woods to the houses; this flye continues
but for the Moneth of Iune. The third is a Gurnipper which is a small
blacke fly no bigger than a flea; her biting causeth an itching upon
the hands or face, which provoketh scratching which is troublesome to
some; this fly is busie but in close mornings or evenings, and
continues not above three weekes, the least winde or heate expells
them. The fourth is a Musketoe which is not unlike to our gnats in
_England_; In places where there is no thicke woods or Swampes, there
is none or very few. In new Plantations they be troublesome for the
first yeare, but the wood decaying they vanish: these Flies cannot
endure winde, heate or cold, so that these are onely troublesome in
close thicke weather, and against raine many that be bitten will fall a
scratching, whereupon their faces and hands swell. Others are never
troubled with them at all: those likewise that swell with their biting
the first yeare, never swell the second: for my owne part I have bin
troubled as much with them or some like them, in the Fen country of
_England_ as ever I was there: Here be the flies that are called
Chantharides, so much esteemed of Chirurgions, with divers kinds of
Butterflies. Thus have you heard of the worst of the countrey: but some
peradventure may say no, and reply that they have heard that the people
have beene often driven to great wants and extremities; To which I
answer, it is true that some have lived for a certaine time with a
little bread, other without any, yet all this argues nothing against
the countrey in it selfe, but condemnes the folly and improvidence of
such as would venture into so rude and unmanaged a countrey, without so
much provisions as should have comfortably maintained them in health
and strength till by their labours they had brought the land to yeeld
his fruite. I have my selfe heard some say that they heard it was a
rich land, a brave country, but when they came there they could see
nothing but a few Canvis Boothes & old houses, supposing at the first
to have found walled townes, fortifications and corne fields, as if
townes could have built themselves, or corne fields have growne of
themselves, without the husbandrie of man. These men missing of their
expectations, returned home and railed against the Country. Others may
object that of late time there hath beene great want; I denie it not,
but looke to the originall, and tell me from whence it came. The roote
of their want sprung up in _England_, for many hundreds hearing of the
plenty of the Country, were so much their owne foes and Countries
hindrance, as to come without provision; which made things both deare
and scant: wherefore let none blame the Country so much as condemne the
indiscreetnesse of such as will needs runne themselves upon hardship.
And I dare further assure any that will carrie provision enough for a
yeare and a halfe, shall not neede to feare want, if he either be
industrious himselfe, or have industrious agents to mannage his estate
and affaires. And whereas many doe disparrage the land saying a man
cannot live without labour, in that they more disparage and discredit
themselves, in giving the world occasion to take notice of their
droanish disposition, that would live of the sweate of another mans
browes: surely they were much deceived, or else ill informed, that
ventured thither in hope to live in plenty and idlenesse, both at a
time: and it is as much pitty as he that can worke and will not, should
eate, as it is pitty that he that would worke and cannot, should fast.
I condemne not such therefore as are now there, and are not able to
worke; but I advise for the future those men that are of weake
constitutions to keepe at home, if their estates cannot maintaine
servants. For all new _England_ must be workers in some kinde: and
whereas it hath beene formerly reported that boyes of tenne or a twelve
yeares of age might doe much more than get their living, that cannot
be, for he must have more than a boyes head, and no lesse than a mans
strength, that intends to live comfortably; and hee that hath
understanding and Industrie, with a stocke of an hundered pound, shall
live better there, than he shall doe here of twenty pound _per annum_.
But many I know will say if it be thus, how comes it to passe then that
they are so poore? To which I answere, that they are poore but in
comparison, compare them with the rich Merchants or great landed men in
_England_, and then I know they will seeme poore. There is no
probability they should be exceeding rich, because none of such great
estate went over yet; besides, a man of estate must first scatter
before he gather, he must lay out monies for transporting of servants,
and cattle and goods, for houses and fences and gardens, &c. This may
make his purse seeme light, and to the eye of others seeme a leaking in
his estate, whereas these disbursments are for his future enrichments:
for he being once well seated and quietly setled, his increase comes in
double; and howsoever they are accounted poore, they are well
contented, and looke not so much at abundance, as a competencie; so
little is the poverty of the Country, that I am perswaded if many in
_England_ which are constrained to begge their bread were there, they
would live better than many doe here, that have money to buy it.
Furthermore when corne is scarse, yet may they have either fish or
flesh for their labour: and surely that place is not miserably poore to
them that are there, where foure Egges may be had for a Penny, and a
quart of new Milke at the same rate: Where Butter is sixe-pence a
pound, and Cheshire-Cheese at five pence; sure _Middlesex_ affords
_London_ no better penny-worths. What though there be no such plenty,
as to cry these things in the streetes? yet every day affords these
penny-worths to those that neede them in most places. I dare not say in
all: Can they be very poore, where for foure thousand soules, there are
fifteene hundred head of Cattle, besides foure thousand Goates, and
Swine innumerable? In an ill sheepe-yeare I have knowne Mutton as deere
in _Old-England_, and deerer than Goates-flesh is in _New-England_,
which is altogether as good if fancy be set aside.

                               CHAP. XII.

        _What provision is to be made for a Iourney at Sea, and
              what to carry with us for our use at Land._

Many peradventure at the looking over of these relations, may have
inclinations or resolution for the Voyage, to whom I wish all
prosperity in their undertakings; although I will use no forcive
arguments to perswade any, but leave them to the relation; yet by way
of advice, I would commend to them a few lines from the Pen of
experience. And because the way to _New England_ is over Sea, it will
not be amisse to give you directions, what is most necessary to bee
carried. Many I suppose, know as well, or better than my selfe; yet all
doe not, to those my directions tend; although every man have
ship-provisions allowed him for his five pound a man, which is salt
Beefe, Porke, salt Fish, Butter, Cheese, Pease, Pottage, Water-grewell,
and such kinde of Victuals, with good Biskets, and sixe-shilling Beere:
yet will it be necessary, to carry some comfortable refreshing of fresh
victuall. As first, for such as have ability, some Conserves, and good
Clarret Wine to burne at Sea: Or you may have it by some of your
Vintners or Wine-Coopers burned here, & put up into vessels, which will
keepe much better than other burnt Wine, it is a very comfortable thing
for the stomacke; or such as are Sea-sicke: Sallet-oyle likewise.
Prunes are good to be stewed; Sugar for many things: White Biskets, and
Egs, and Bacon, Rice, Poultry, and some weather-sheepe to kill aboard
the ship; and fine flowre-baked meates, will keepe about a weeke or
nine dayes at Sea. Iuyce of Lemons well put up, is good either to
prevent or cure the Scurvy. Here it must not be forgotten to carry
small Skillets, or Pipkins, and small frying-panns, to dresse their
victuals in at Sea. For bedding, so it be easie, and cleanely, and
warme, it is no matter how old or coarse it be for the use of the Sea;
and so likewise for Apparrell, the oldest cloathes be the fittest, with
a long coarse coate, to keepe better things from the pitched ropes and
plankes. Whosoever shall put to Sea in a stoute and well-conditioned
ship, having an honest Master, and loving Sea-men, shall not neede to
feare, but he shall finde as good content at Sea, as at Land.

It is too common with many to feare the Sea more than they neede, and
all such as put to Sea, confesse it to be lesse tedious than they
either feared or expected. A ship at Sea may well be compared to a
Cradle, rocked by a carefull Mothers hand, which though it be moved up
and downe, yet is it not in danger of falling: So a ship may often be
rocked too and againe upon the troublesome Sea, yet seldome doth it
sinke or over-turne, because it is kept by that carefull hand of
Providence by which it is rocked. It was never knowne yet, that any
ship in that voyage was cast away, or that ever fell into the Enemies

For the health of Passengers it hath beene observed, that of sixe
hundred soules, not above three or foure haue dyed at Sea: It is
probable in such a company, more might have dyed either by sicknesse or
casualities, if they had stayed at home. For Women, I see not but that
they doe as well as men, and young Children as well as either; having
their healths as well at Sea as at Land: Many likewise which have come
with such foule bodies to Sea, as did make their dayes uncomfortable at
Land, have beene so purged and clarified at Sea, that they have beene
more healthfull for after-times; their weake appetites being turned to
good stomackes, not onely desiring, but likewise disgesting such
victuals as the Sea affords. Secondly, for directions for the Countrey,
it is not to be feared, but that men of good estates may doe well
there; alwayes provided, that they goe well accommodated with servants.
In which I would not wish them to take over-many: tenne or twelve lusty
servants being able to mannage an estate of two or three thousand
pound. It is not the multiplicity of many bad servants, (which
presently eates a man out of house and harbour, as lamentable
experience hath made manifest) but the industry of the faithfull and
diligent labourer, that enricheth the carefull Master; so that he that
hath many dronish servants, shall soone be poore; and he that hath an
industrious family, shall as soone be rich.

Now for the incouragement of his men, he must not doe as many have
done, (more through ignorance than desire) carry many mouthes, and no
meate; but rather much meate for a few mouthes. Want of due maintenance
produceth nothing but a grumbling spirit with a sluggish idlenesse,
when as those servants which be well provided for, goe thorough their
imployments with speede and cheerefulnesse. For meale, it will be
requisite to carry a Hogshead and a halfe, for every one that is a
labourer, to keepe him till hee may receive the fruite of his owne
labours, which will be a yeare and a halfe after his arrivall, if hee
land in _May_ or _Iune_. He must likewise carry Malt, Beefe, Butter,
Cheese, some Pease, good Wines, Vinegar, Strong-waters, &c. Whosoever
transports more of these than he himselfe useth, his over-plus being
sold, will yeeld as much profit as any other staple commodity. Euery
man likewise must carry over good store of Apparrell; for if he come to
buy it there, he shall finde it dearer than in _England_. Woollen-cloth
is a very good comodity, and Linnen better; as Holland, Lockram,
flaxen, Hempen, Callico stuffes, Linsey-woolsies, and blew Callicoe,
greene Sayes for Housewives aprons, Hats, Bootes, Shooes, good _Irish_
stockings, which if they be good, are much more serviceable than
knit-ones. All kind of grocery wares, as Sugar, Prunes, Raisons,
Currants, Honey, Nutmegs, Cloves, &c. Sope, Candles, and Lamps, &c. All
manner of household-stuffe is very good Trade there, as Pewter and
Brasse, but great Iron-pots be preferred before Brasse, for the use of
that Country. Warming-pannes and Stewing-pannes bee of necessary use,
and good Trafficke there. All manner of Iron-wares, as all manner of
nailes for houses, and all manner of Spikes for building of Boates,
Ships, and fishing stages: all manner of tooles for Workemen, Hoes for
planters, broad and narrow for setting and weeding; with Axes both
broad and pitching-axes. All manner of Augers, piercing bits,
Whip-saws, Two-handed saws, Froes, both for the riving of Pailes and
Laths, rings for Beetles heads, and Iron-wedges; though all these be
made in the Countrey: (there being divers Blacke-smiths) yet being a
heavy commodity, and taking but a little stoage, it is cheaper to carry
such commodities out of _England_. Glasse ought not to be forgotten of
any that desire to benefit themselves, or the Countrey: if it be well
leaded, and carefully pack't up, I know no commodity better for portage
or sayle. Here likewise must not be forgotten all Vtensils for the Sea,
as Barbels, splitting-knives, Leads, and Cod-hookes, and Lines,
Machrill-hooks and lines, Sharke-hookes, Seanes, or Basse nets, large
and strong, Herring-nets, &c. Such as would eate Fowle, must not forget
their sixe-foote Gunnes, their good Powder and shot, of all sorts; a
great round shot called _Bastable_-shot, is the best; being made of a
blacker Lead than ordinary shot: Furthermore, good Pooldavies to make
sayles for Boates, Roads, and Anchors for Boates and Pinnaces, be good;
Sea-coale, Iron, Lead, and Mil-stones, Flints, Ordonances, and
whatsoever a man can conceive is good for the Countrey, that will lie
as Ballast, he cannot be a loser by it. And lest I should forget a
thing of so great importance, no man must neglect to provide for
himselfe, or those belonging to him, his munition for the defence of
himselfe and the Countrey. For there is no man there that beares a
head, but that beares military Armes: even Boyes of fourteene yeares of
age, are practised with men in militarie discipline, every three weeks.
Whosoever shall carrie over Drummes and _English_ Colours, Pattesons,
Halberds, Pickes, Muskets, Bandelerous, with Swords, shall not neede to
feare good gaine for them, such things being wanting in the country:
Likewise whatsoever shall be needefull for fortifications of holds and
Castles, whereby the common enemy may be kept out in future times, is
much desired. They as yet have had no great cause to feare; but because
securitie hath beene the overthrow of many a new plantation, it is
their care according to their abilities, to secure themselves by
fortifications, as well as they can: Thus having shewed what
commodities are most usefull, it will not be amisse to shew you what
men be most fit for these plantations.

First, men of good working, and contriving heads, a well experienced
common wealths man for the good of the body politicke in matters of
advice and counsell, a well skilled and industrious husbandman, for
tillage and improvements of grounds; an ingenious Carpenter, a cunning
Ioyner, a handie Cooper, such a one as can make strong ware for the use
of the countrie, and a good Brickmaker, a Tyler and a Smith, a Leather
dresser, a Gardner, and a Taylour: one that hath good skill in the
trade of fishing, is of speciall use, and so is a good Fowler, if there
be any that hath skill in any of these trades, if he can transport
himselfe, he needs not feare but he may improve his time and endeavours
to his owne benefit, and comfort; if any cannot transport himselfe, he
may provide himselfe of an honest master, and so may doe as well. There
is as much freedome and liberty for servants as in _England_ and more
too; a wronged servant shall have right _volens nolens_ from his
injurious master, and a wronged master shall have right of his
injurious servant, as well as here: Wherefore let no servant be
discouraged from the voyage, that intends it. And now whereas it is
generally reported, that servants and poore men grow rich, and the
masters and Gentrie grow poore; I must needs confesse that the diligent
hand makes rich, and that labouring men having good store of
employments, and as good pay, live well, and contentedly; but I cannot
perceive that those that set them aworke are any way impoverished by
them; peradventure they have lesse monie by reason of them, but never
the lesse riches; a mans worke well done being more beneficiall than
his monie, or other dead commodities, which otherwise would lye by him
to no purpose. If any men be so improvident as to set men about
building of Castles in the Aire, or other unnecessary employments, they
may grow poore; but such as employ labourers about planting of Corne,
building of houses, fenceing in of ground, fishing, and divers other
necessary occasions, shall receive as much or more by poore mens
labours, than those that live in _England_ doe from the industrie of
such as they hire: Wherefore I doe suppose this to be but the
surmisings of some that are ignorant of the state of the countrey, or
else misinformed by some ill willers to the plantations. Many
objections I know are daily invented, to hinder the proceedings of
these new plantations, which may dampe the unsetled spirits of such as
are not greatly affected with those undertakings; Some say the
_Spaniard_ layes claime to the whole country, being the first
discoverer hereof, and that he may make invasion upon those parts as
well as he hath done upon S. _Christophers_, and S. _Martins_, and
those places: but it doth not follow that because he tooke such places
as lay just in his way to the _West Indies_, that he should come
thousands of miles with a great Navie to plantations, as yet not worth
the pillage: and when the plantations are growne noted in the eyes of
the common foes for wealth, it is hoped that when the Bees have Honie
in their Hives, they will have stings in their tailes. Hath not
_Virginia_ beene planted many yeares which is foure hundred miles
nearer the _Spaniards_ course, and yet never met with any affrontments;
so that this scruple smells of feare and pusill-animitie. To wipe away
all groundlesse calumniations, and to answer to every too curious
objections, and frivolous question (some so simple as not ashamed to
aske whether the Sunne shines there or no) were to run in infinitum;
but I hope that the severall manuscripts and letters, and informations
by word of mouth from such of our honest countrimen which daily have
recourse unto us, have given full satisfaction to such as are well
willers to the plantations: and for such as are estranged to it in
affection, if every word that hath beene eyther writ or spoken were a
forcive argument, yet would it be too little to steddie their beleefe
in any one particular concerning the country. Some are nimble eared to
heare faults, and so ready tongued to publish them, yea often times
with strained constructions; a false asseveration usually winneth more
beleefe than two verifying negatives can resettle: Some there are who
count with _Claudian_ that it is an incomparable happinesse to have
their birth, life & burying in the same place: these are never likely
to remove further than the shell of their owne countrie. But because
there are some noble spirits that devote their states, and their
persons, to the common good of their king and country, I have therefore
for their direction and delight made this relation: For as the end of
my travell was observation, so I desire the end of my observation may
tend to the information of others: As I have observed what I have
seene, and written what I have observed, so doe I desire to publish
what I have written, desiring it may be beneficiall to posteritie; and
if any man desire to fill himselfe at that fountaine, from whence this
tasting cup was taken, his owne experience shall tell him as much as I
have here related, and thus I passe from the country as it stands to
the _English_, and come to discourse how it stands to the old Natives,
and they to it, as followeth.




              Of the _Indians_, their persons, cloathings,
                    diet, natures, customes, lawes,
                   mariages, worships, conjurations,
                   warres, games, huntings, fishings,
                      sports, language, death, and

                                CHAP. I.

          _Of the _Connectacuts_, _Mowhacks_, or such _Indians
                          _as are West-ward._

The country as it is in relation to the _Indians_, is divided as it
were into Shires, every severall division being swayde by a severall
king. The _Indians_ to the East and North east, bearing the name of
_Churchers_, and _Tarrenteenes_. These in the Southerne parts be called
_Pequants_, and _Narragansets_; those who are seated West-ward be
called, _Connectacuts_, and _Mowhacks_: Our _Indians_ that live to the
North-ward of them be called _Aberginians_, who before the sweeping
Plague, were an Inhabitant not fearing, but rather scorning the
confrontments of such as now count them but the scumme of the country,
and would soone roote them out of their native possessions were it not
for the _English_.

These are a cruell bloody people, which were wont to come downe upon
their poore neighbours with more than bruitish savagenesse, spoyling of
their Corne, burning their houses, slaying men, ravishing women, yea
very Caniballs they were, sometimes eating on a man one part after
another before his face, and while yet living; in so much that the very
name of a _Mowhack_ would strike the heart of a poore _Abergenian_
dead, were there not hopes at hand of releefe from _English_ to succour
them: For these inhumane homicides confesse that they dare not meddle
with a white faced man, accompanyed with his hot mouth'd weapon. These
_Indians_ be a people of a tall stature, of long grimme visages,
slender wasted, and exceeding great armes and thighes, wherein they say
their strength lyeth; and this I rather beleeve because an honest
gentleman told me, upon his knowledge, that he saw one of them with a
fillippe with his finger kill a dogge, who afterward flead him and sod
him, and eate him to his dinner. They are so hardie that they can eate
such things as would make other _Indians_ sicke to looke upon, being
destitute of fish and flesh, they suffice hunger and maintaine nature
with the use of vegetatives; but that which they most hunt after, is
the flesh of man; their custome is if they get a stranger neere their
habitations, not to butcher him immediately, but keeping him in as good
plight as they can, feeding him with the best victualls they have. As a
neere neighbouring _Indian_ assured me, who found what he had spoke
true by a lamentable experience, still wearing the cognizance of their
cruelty on his naked arme, who being taken by them eate of their foode,
lodged in their beds, nay he was brought forth every day, to be new
painted, piped unto, and hem'd in with a ring of bare skinned morris
dancers, who presented their antiques before him: In a word, when they
had sported enough about this walking Maypole, a rough hewne satyre
cutteth a gobbit of flesh from his brawnie arme, eating it in his view,
searing it with a firebrand, least the blood should be wasted before
the morning, at the dawning wherof they told him they would make an end
as they had begun; hee answered that he cared as little for their
threats as they did for his life, not fearing death; whereupon they led
him bound into a _Wigwam_, where he sate as a condemned Prisoner,
grating his teeth for anguish being for the present so hampered, and
the next day to be entombed in so many living sepulchers; he extends
his strength to the utmost, breaketh the bands from his hands, and
loosing the cords from his feete, thought at once to be revenged for
the flesh of his arme, and finding a hatchet, layes one with an arme of
revenge to the unliving of ten men at first onset, afterward taking the
opportunitie of the dead of night, fled through the woods and came to
his native home, where he still lives to rehearse his happie escapall;
of the rest of their inhumane cruelties let the _Dutchmen_, (who live
among them) testifie, as likewise the cruell manner of leading their
prisoners captive, whom they doe not onely pinnion with sharpe thongs,
but likewise bore holes through their hamstrings, through which they
thread a cord coupling ten or a dozen men together.

These _Indians_ be more desperate in warres than the other _Indians_;
which proceeds not onely from the fiercenesse of their natures, but
also in that they know themselves to be better armed and weaponed; all
of them wearing sea horse skinnes and barkes of trees, made by their
Art as impenitrable it is thought as steele, wearing head peeces of the
same, under which they march securely and undantedly, running, and
fiercely crying out, _Hadree Hadree succomee succomee_ we come we come
to sucke your blood, not fearing the feathered shafts of the
strong-armed bow-men, but like unruly headstrong stallions beate them
downe with their right hand Tamahaukes, and left hand Iavelins, being
all the weapons which they use, counting bowes a cowardly fight.
_Tamahaukes_ be staves of two foote and a halfe long, and a knob at one
end as round and bigge as a footeball: a Iavelin is a short speare,
headed with sharpe sea-horse teeth; one blow or thrust with these
strange weapons, will not neede a second to hasten death, from a
_Mowhackes_ arme. I will conclude this discourse concerning the
_Mowhackes_, in a tragicall rehearsall of one of their combates. A
_Sagamore_ inhabiting neere these Canniballs, was so dayly annoyed with
their injurious inhumanitie, that he must either become a tributarie
subject to their tyrannie, or release himselfe from thraldome by the
stroke of warre, which he was unable to wage of himselfe: wherefore
with faire entreaties, plausible perswasions, forcive arguments, and
rich presents he sent to other _Sagamores_, he procured so many
souldiers as summed with his owne, made his forces sixe thousand
strong; with the which he resolutely marched towards his enemies,
intending either to win the horse or loose the saddle. His enemies
having heard of his designes, plotted how to confront him in his
enterprize, and overthrow him by trecherie; which they thus attempted;
knowing their enemies were to swimme over a muddie river, they divided
their bands lying in ambush on both sides the river, waiting his
approach, who suspected no danger looking for nothing but victory; but
immediately they were invyroned with their unexpected foes, in their
greatest disadvantage: for being in the water, shoote they could not,
for swimming was their action; and when they came to the side, they
could not runne away, for their feete stucke fast in the mudde, and
their adversaries impaled them about, clubbing and darting all that
attained the shore; so that all were killed and captived, saving three
who swimming further under the waters (like the Ducke that escapeth the
Spannell by diving) untill they were out of sight of their blood
thirstie foes, recovered the shoare creeping into the thickets, from
whence after a little breathing and resting of their weary limbes, they
marched through the woods and arrived at their owne homes, relating to
their inquisitive survivers the sadde event of their warre, who a long
time after deplored the death of their friends, still placing the
remembrance of that day in the Callender of their mishappes.

                               CHAP. II.

           _Of the _Tarrenteenes_ or the _Indians_ inhabiting

The _Tarrenteenes_ saving that they eate not mans flesh, are little
lesse salvage, and cruell than these Canniballs: our _Indians_ doe
feare them as their deadly enemies; for so many of them as they meete
they kill. About 2 yeares agoe, our _Indians_ being busie about their
accustomed huntings, not suspecting them so neere their owne liberties,
were on the suddaine surprized by them; some being slaine, the rest
escaping to their _English Asylum_, whither they durst not pursue them;
their _Sagamore_ was wounded by an arrow, but presently cured by
_English_ Chirurgery. These _Indians_ are the more insolent, by reason
they have guns which they dayly trade for with the _French_, (who will
sell his eyes as they say, for beaver:) but these doe them more credit
than service; for having guns they want powder, or if they have that,
they want shot, something or other being alwayes wanting; so that they
use them for little, but to salute coasting boates that come to trade,
who no sooner can anchor in any harbour; but they present them with a
vollie of shot, asking for sacke and strong liquors, which they so much
love since the _English_ used to trade it with them, that they will
scarse trade for any thing else, lashing out into excessive abuse,
first taught by the example of some of our _English_ who to uncloathe
them of their beaver coates, clad them with the infection of swearing
and drinking, which was never in fashion with them before, it being
contrary to their nature to guzell downe strong drinke, or use so much
as to sippe of strong-waters, vntill our bestiall example and dishonest
incitation brought them to it; from which I am sure hath sprung many
evill consequents, as disorder, quarrels, wrongs, unconscionable and
forcive wresting of Beaver and Wampompeage: and from over-flowing Cups
there hath beene a proceeding to revenge, murther and over-flowing of
blood. As witnesse Maister _Wayes_ Boate, which they sunke with stones
after they had killed his son, with three more: buzzing the _English_
in the eares, that they see it bulged against the rockes, and the men
drowned in the beating surges: but afterwards being betrayed, as many
as were caught, were hanged. Another who was situated on _Richmonds_
Iland, living as he list amongst them, making his couetous corrupt will
his law; after many abuses, was with his family one evening
treacherously murthered, under a faire pretence of trade; so that these
that lived beside the Law of God, and their King, and the light of
Nature, dyed by their hands that car'd neither for God, King, nor
Nature. Take these _Indians_ in their own trimme and naturall
disposition, and they be reported to be wise, lofty-spirited, constant
in friendship to one another; true in their promise, and more
industrious than many others.

                               CHAP. III.

      _Of the _Pequants_ and _Narragansets_, _Indians_ inhabiting

The _Pequants_ be a stately warlike people, of whom I never heard any
misdemeanour; but that they were iust and equall in their dealings; not
treacherous either to their Country-men, or _English_: Requiters of
courtesies, affable towards the _English_. Their next neighbours the
_Narragansets_, be at this present the most numerous people in those
parts, the most rich also, and the most industrious; being the
store-house of all such kind of wild Merchandize as is amongst them.
These men are the most curious minters of their _Wampompeage_ and
_Mowhakes_, which they forme out of the inmost wreaths of
Periwinkle-shels. The Northerne, Easterne, and Westerne _Indians_ fetch
all their Coyne from these Southerne Mint-masters. From hence they have
most of their curious Pendants & Bracelets; from hence they have their
great stone-pipes, which wil hold a quarter of an ounce of Tobacco,
which they make with steele-drils and other instruments; such is their
ingenuity & dexterity, that they can imitate the _English_ mold so
accurately, that were it not for matter and colour it were hard to
distinguish them; they make them of greene, & sometimes of blacke
stone; they be much desired of our _English_ Tobaconists, for their
rarity, strength, handsomnesse, and coolnesse. Hence likewise our
_Indians_ had their pots wherein they used to seeth their victuals
before they knew the use of Brasse. Since the _English_ came, they have
employed most of their time in catching of Beavers, Otters, and
Musquashes, which they bring downe into the Bay, returning backe loaded
with _English_ commodities, of which they make a double profit, by
selling them to more remote _Indians_, who are ignorant at what cheape
rates they obtaine them, in comparison of what they make them pay, so
making their neighbours ignorance their enrichment. Although these be
populous, yet I never heard they were desirous to take in hand any
martiall enterprize, or expose themselves to the uncertaine events of
warre: wherefore the _Pequants_ call them Women-like men; but being
uncapable of a jeare, they rest secure under the conceit of their
popularitie, and seeke rather to grow rich by industrie, than famous by
deeds of Chevalry. But to leave strangers, and come to declare what is
experimentally knowne of the _Indians_, amongst whom we live: of whom
in the next Chapter.

                               CHAP. IV.

             _Of the _Aberginians_ or _Indians_ Northward._

First of their Stature, most of them being betweene five or six foote
high, straight bodied, strongly composed, smooth skinned, merry
countenanced, of complexion something more swarthy than _Spaniards_,
black hair'd, high foreheaded, blacke ey'd, out-nosed, broad shouldred,
brawny arm'd, long and slender handed, out brested, small wasted, lanke
bellied, well thighed, flat kneed, handsome growne leggs, and small
feete: In a word, take them when the blood briskes in their veines,
when the flesh is on their backs, and marrow in their bones, when they
frolick in their antique deportments and _Indian_ postures; and they
are more amiable to behold (though onely in _Adams_ livery) than many a
compounded phantasticke in the newest fashion. It may puzzle beliefe,
to conceive how such lustie bodies should have their rise and daily
supportment from so slender a fostering; their houses being meane,
their lodging as homely, commons scant, their drinke water, and Nature
their best cloathing; in them the old proverbe may well be verified:
(_Natura paucis contenta_) for though this be their daily portion, they
still are healthfull and lusty. I have beene in many places, yet did I
never see one that was borne either in redundance or defect a monster,
or any that sickneffe had deformed, or casualitie made decrepit, saving
one that had a bleared eye, and an other that had a wenne on his
cheeke. The reason is rendred why they grow so proportionable, and
continue so long in their vigour (most of them being 50 before a
wrinkled brow or gray haire betray their age) is because they are not
brought downe with suppressing labour, vexed with annoying cares, or
drowned in the excessive abuse of overflowing plenty, which oftentimes
kils them more than want, as may appeare in them. For when they change
their bare _Indian_ commons for the plenty of _Englands_ fuller diet,
it is so contrary to their stomacks, that death or a desperate
sicknesse immediately accrews, which makes so few of them desirous to
see _England_. Their swarthinesse is the Sun's livery, for they are
borne faire. Their smooth skins proceede from the often anoynting of
their bodies with the oyle of fishes, and the fat of Eagles, with the
grease of Rackoones, which they hold in summer, the best antidote to
keepe their skinne from blistering with the scorching Sunne; and it is
their best armour against the Musketoes, the surest expeller of the
hairy excrement, and stops the pores of their bodies against the
nipping winters cold. Their black haire is naturall, yet it is brought
to a more jetty colour by oyling, dying, and daily dressing. Sometimes
they weare it very long, hanging down in a loose dishevel'd womanish
manner; otherwhile tied up hard and short like a horse taile, bound
close with a fillet, which they say makes it grow the faster: they are
not a little phantasticall or custom-sick in this particular; their
boyes being not permitted to weare their haire long till sixteene
yeares of age, and then they must come to it by degrees; some being cut
with a long foretop, a long locke on the crowne, one of each side of
his head, the rest of his haire being cut even with the scalpe: the
young men and souldiers weare their haire long on the one side, the
other side being cut short like a screw; other cuts they have as their
fancie befooles them, which would torture the wits of a curious Barber
to imitate. But though they be thus wedded to the haire of their head,
you cannot wooe them to weare it on their chinnes, where it no sooner
growes, but it is stubbed up by the rootes, for they count it as an
unuseful, cumbersome, and opprobrious excrement, insomuch as they call
him an _English_ mans bastard that hath but the appearance of a beard,
which some have growing in a staring fashion, like the beard of a cat,
which makes them the more out of love with them, choosing rather to
have no beards than such as should make them ridiculous.

                                CHAP. V.

    _Of their Apparell, Ornaments, Paintings, and other artificiall

Now these naked bodies may seeme too weake to with-stand the assaulting
heat of their parching Summers, and the piercing cold of the icie
Winters, or it may be surmised that these earthly fabricks should be
wasted to nothing by the tempestuous dashings of wind-driven raines,
having neither that which may warme within, or shelter without; yet
these things they looke not after, saving a paire of _Indian_ Breeches
to cover that which modesty commands to be hid, which is but a peece of
cloth a yard and a halfe long, put betweene their groinings, tied with
a snakes skinne about their middles, one end hanging downe with a flap
before, the other like a taile behinde. In the Winter time the more
aged of them weare leather drawers, in forme like _Irish_ trouses,
fastned under their girdle with buttons; they weare shooes likewise of
their owne making cut out of a Mooses hide, many of them weare skinnes
about them, in forme of an _Irish_ mantle, and of these some be Beares
skinnes, Mooses skinnes, and Beaver skinnes sewed together, Otter
skinnes, and Rackoone skinnes; most of them in the Winter having his
deepe furr'd Cat skinne, like a long large muffe, which hee shifts to
that arme which lieth most exposed to the winde; thus clad, hee busles
better through a world of cold in a frost-paved wildernesse, than the
furred Citizen in his warmer Stoave. If their fancie drive them to
trade, they choose rather a good course blanket, thorough which they
cannot see, interposing it betweene the sunne and them; or a piece of
broade cloth, which they use for a double end, making it a coate by
day, and a covering by night; they love not to be imprisoned in our
_English_ fashion: they love their owne dogge fashion better (of
shaking their eares, and being ready in a moment) than to spend time in
dressing them, though they may as well spare it as any men I know,
having little else to doe. But the chiefe reasons they render why they
will not conforme to our _English_ apparell, are, because their women
cannot wash them when they bee soyled, and their meanes will not reach
to buy new when they have done with their old; and they confidently
beleeve, the _English_ will not be so liberall as to furnish them upon
gifture: therefore they had rather goe naked than be lousie, and bring
their bodies out of their old tune, making them more tender by a new
acquired habit, which poverty would constraine them to leave: although
they be thus poore, yet is there in them the sparkes of naturall pride,
which appeares in their longing desire after many kinde of ornaments,
wearing pendants in their eares, as formes of birds, beasts, and
fishes, carved out of bone, shels, and stone, with long bracelets of
their curious wrought wampompeage and mowhackees, which they put about
their necks and loynes; these they count a rare kinde of decking; many
of the better sort bearing upon their cheekes certaine pourtraitures of
beasts, as Beares, Deares, Mooses, Wolves, &c. some of fowls, as of
Eagles, Hawkes, &c. which be not a superficiall painting, but a
certaine incision, or else a raising of their skin by a small sharpe
instrument, under which they conveigh a certain kind of black
unchangeable inke, which makes the desired forme apparent and
permanent. Others have certaine round Impressions downe the outside of
their armes and brests, in forme of mullets or spur-rowels, which they
imprint by searing irons: whether these be foiles to illustrate their
unparalleld beauty (as they deeme it) or Armes to blazon their antique
Gentilitie, I cannot easily determine: but a Sagamore with a Humberd in
his eare for a pendant, a black hawke on his _occiput_ for his plume,
Mowhackees for his gold chaine, good store of Wampompeage begirting his
loynes, his bow in his hand, his quiver at his back with six naked
_Indian_ spatterlashes at his heeles for his guard, thinkes himselfe
little inferiour to the great _Cham_; hee will not stick to say, hee is
all one with King _Charles_. He thinkes hee can blow downe Castles with
his breath, and conquer kingdomes with his conceit. This _Pompey_ can
endure no equall, till one dayes adverse lotterie at their game (called
_Puimme_) metamorphize him into a _Codrus_, robbing him of his
conceited wealth, leaving him in minde and riches equall with his naked
attendants, till a new taxation furnish him with a fresh supplie.

                               CHAP. VI.

        _Of their dyet, cookery, meale-times, and hospitality at
                            their Kettles._

Having done with their most needfull cloathings and ornamentall
deckings; may it please you to feast your eyes with their
belly-timbers, which I suppose would be but _stibium_ to weake stomacks
as they cooke it, though never so good of it selfe. In Winter-time they
have all manner of fowles of the water and of the land, & beasts of the
land and water, pond-fish, with Catharres and other rootes, _Indian_
beanes and Clamms. In the Summer they have all manner of Sea-fish, with
all sorts of Berries. For the ordering of their victuals, they boile or
roast them, having large Kettles which they traded for with the
_French_ long since, and doe still buy of the _English_ as their neede
requires, before they had substantiall earthen pots of their owne
making. Their spits are no other than cloven sticks sharped at one end
to thrust into the ground; into these cloven sticks they thrust the
flesh or fish they would have rosted, behemming a round fire with a
dozen of spits at a time, turning them as they see occasion. Some of
their scullerie having dressed these homely cates, presents it to his
guests, dishing it up in a rude manner, placing it on the verdent
carpet of the earth which Nature spreads them, without either
trenchers, napkins, or knives, upon which their hunger-sawced stomacks
impatient of delayes, fals aboard without scrupling at unwashed hands,
without bread, salt, or beere: lolling on the Turkish fashion, not
ceasing till their full bellies leave nothing but emptie platters: they
seldome or never make bread of their _Indian_ corne, but seeth it whole
like beanes, eating three or foure cornes with a mouthfull of fish or
flesh, sometimes eating meate first, and cornes after, filling chinkes
with their broth. In Summer, when their corne is spent,
Isquoutersquashes is their best bread, a fruite like a young Pumpion.
To say, and to speake paradoxically, they be great eaters, and yet
little meate-men; when they visit our _English_, being invited to eate,
they are very moderate, whether it be to shew their manners, or for
shamefastnesse, I know not; but at home they will eate till their
bellies stand south, ready to split with fulnesse; it being their
fashion to eate all at some times, and sometimes nothing at all in two
or three dayes, wise Providence being a stranger to their wilder wayes:
they be right Infidels, neither caring for the morrow, or providing for
their owne families; but as all are fellowes at foot-ball, so they all
meete friends at the kettle, saving their Wives, that dance a
Spaniell-like attendance at their backes for their bony fragments. If
their imperious occasions cause them to travell, the best of their
victuals for their journey is _Nocake_, (as they call it) which is
nothing but _Indian_ Corne parched in the hot ashes; the ashes being
sifted from it, it is afterward beaten to powder, and put into a long
leatherne bag, trussed at their backe like a knapsacke; out of which
they take thrice three spoonefulls a day, dividing it into three
meales. If it be in Winter, and Snow be on the ground, they can eate
when they please, stopping Snow after their dusty victuals, which
otherwise would feed them little better than a Tiburne halter. In
Summer they must stay till they meete with a Spring or Brooke, where
they may have water to prevent the imminent danger of choaking. With
this strange _viaticum_ they will travell foure or five daies together,
with loads fitter for Elephants than men. But though they can fare so
hardly abroad, at home their chaps must walke night and day as long as
they have it. They keepe no set meales, their store being spent, they
champe on the bit, till they meete with fresh supplies, either from
their owne endeavours, or their wives industry, who trudge to the
_Clam-bankes_ when all other meanes faile. Though they be sometimes
scanted, yet are they as free as Emperours, both to their Country-men
and _English_, be he stranger, or neare acquaintance; counting it a
great discourtesie, not to eate of their high-conceited delicates, and
sup of their un-oat-meal'd broth, made thicke with Fishes, Fowles, and
Beasts boyled all together; some remaining raw, the rest converted by
over-much seething to a loathed mash, not halfe so good as _Irish

                               CHAP. VII.

     _Of their dispositions and good qualifications, as friendship,
                   constancy, truth, and affability._

To enter into a serious discourse concerning the naturall conditions of
these _Indians_, might procure admiration from the people of any
civilized Nations, in regard of their civility and good natures. If a
Tree may be judged by his fruite, and dispositions calculated by
exteriour actions; then may it be concluded, that these _Indians_ are
of affable, courteous, and well disposed natures, ready to communicate
the best of their wealth to the mutuall good of one another; and the
lesse abundance they have, to manifest their entire friendship; so much
the more perspicuous is their love, in that they are as willing to part
with their Mite in poverty, as treasure in plenty. As he that kills a
Deere, sends for his friends, and eates it merrily: So he that receives
but a piece of bread from an _English_ hand, parts it equally betweene
himselfe and his comerades, and eates it lovingly. In a word, a friend
can command his friend, his house, and whatsoever is his, (saving his
Wife) and have it freely: And as they are love-linked thus in common
courtesie, so are they no way sooner dis-joynted than by ingratitude;
accounting an ungratefull person a double robber of a man, not onely of
his courtesie, but of his thankes which he might receive of another for
the same proffered, or received kindnesse. Such is their love to one
another, that they cannot endure to see their Countrey-men wronged, but
will stand stiffely in their defence: plead strongly in their behalfe,
and justifie one anothers integrities in any warrantable action. If it
were possible to recount the courtesies they have shewed the _English_,
since their first arrivall in those parts, it would not onely steddy
beleefe, that they are a loving people, but also winne the love of
those that never saw them, and wipe off that needelesse feare that is
too deepely rooted in the conceits of many, who thinke them envious,
and of such rankerous and inhumane dispositions, that they will one day
make an end of their _English_ inmates. The worst indeede may be
surmised, but the _English_ hitherto have had little cause to suspect
them, but rather to be convinced of their trustinesse, seeing they have
as yet beene the disclosers of all such treacheries as have bin
practised by other _Indians_. And whereas once there was a proffer of
an universall League amongst all the _Indians_ in those parts, to the
intent that they might all joyne in one united force, to extirpate the
_English_, our _Indians_ refused the motion, replying, they had rather
be servants to the _English_, of whom they were confident to receive no
harme, and from whom they had received so many favours, and assured
good testimonies of their love, than equals with them, who would cut
their throates upon the least offence, and make them the shambles of
their cruelty. Furthermore, if any roaving ships be upon the coasts,
and chance to harbour either East-ward, North-ward, or South-ward in
any unusuall Port, they will giue us certaine intelligence of her
burthen and forces, describing their men either by language or
features; which is a great priviledge and no small advantage. Many
wayes hath their advice and endeavour beene advantagious unto us; they
being our first instructers for the planting of their _Indian_ Corne,
by teaching us to cull out the finest seede, to observe the fittest
season, to keepe distance for holes, and fit measure for hills, to
worme it, and weede it; to prune it, and dresse it as occasion shall

These _Indians_ be very hospitable, insomuch that when the _English_
have trauelled forty, fifty, or threescore miles into the Countrey,
they have entertained them into their houses, quartered them by
themselves in the best roomes, providing the best victuals they could,
expressing their welcome in as good termes as could be expected from
their slender breeding; shewing more love than complement, not
grumbling for a fortnights or three weekes tarrying; but rather caring
to provide accommodation correspondent to their _English_ custome. The
doubtfull traveller hath oftentimes beene much beholding to them for
their guidance thorow the unbeaten Wildernesse: my selfe in this
particular can doe no lesse in the due acknowledgment of their love,
than speake their commendations, who with two more of my associates
bending our course to new _Plimouth_, lost our way, being deluded by a
misleading path which we still followed, being as we thought too broad
for an _Indian_ path (which seldome is broader than a Cart's rutte) but
that the dayly concourse of _Indians_ from the _Narragansets_ who
traded for shooes, wearing them homewards had made this _Indian_ tract
like an _English_ walke, and had rear'd up great stickes against the
trees, and marked the rest with their hatchets in the _English_
fashion, which begat in us a security of our wrong way to be right,
when indeed there was nothing lesse: The day being gloomy and our
compasses at home, we travelled hard till night to lesse purpose than
if we had sat still, not gaining an inch of our journey for a dayes
travell: but happily wee arrived at an _Indian Wigwamme_, where we were
informed of our misprision, and invited to a homely lodging, feasted
with the haunch of a fat Deere, and the ensuing morning the son of my
naked hoast, for a peece of Tobacco, and a foure penny whittle, tooke
the clew of his traveling experience, conducting us through the strange
labyrinth of unbeaten bushy wayes in the woody wildernesse twentie
miles to our desired harbour.

A second demonstration of their love in this kind may appeare in a
passage of the same nature. An unexperienced wood man ranging in the
woods for Deere, traveled so farre beyond his knowledge, till he could
not tell how to get out of the wood for trees, but the more he sought
to direct himselfe out, the more he ranne himselfe in, from the home he
most desired; the night came upon him preventing his walking, and the
extremitie of cold seasing upon his right foote for want of warming
motion, deprived him of the use thereof, so that he could not remoove
farther than his snowie bed, but had there ended his dayes, had not
sixe commiserating _Indians_, who heard of his wandering, found him out
by diligent search, being almost dead with despaire and cold: but after
they had conquered his despaire with the assurance of his safe
conduction to his habitation, and expelled the cold by the infusion of
strong waters which they brought for the same purpose; they framed a
thing like a hand barrow and carryed this selfe-helpelesse person on
their bare-shoulders twelve miles to his residence: many other wandring
benighted coasters have beene kindly entertained into their
habitations, where they have rested and reposed themselves more
securely than if they had beene in some blind obscure old _Englands_
Inne, being the next day directed in their right way: many lazie boyes
that have runne away from their masters, have beene brought home by
these ranging foresters, who are as well acquainted with the craggy
mountaines, and the pleasant vales, the stately woods, and swampie
groves, the spacious ponds, and swift running rivers, and can
distinguish them by their names as perfectly, and finde them as
presently, as the experienced Citizen knows how to finde out
Cheape-side crosse, or _London_ stone. Such is the wisedome and
pollicie of these poore men, that they will be sure to keepe
correspondence with our _English_ Magistrates, expressing their love in
the execution of any service they command them, so far as lyes in their
power, as may appeare in this one particular. A certaine man having
layd himselfe open to the Kings lawes, fearing attachment, conviction,
and consequently execution: sequestred himselfe from the honest
societie of his neighbours, betaking himselfe unto the obscure thickets
of the wildernesse, where hee lived for a time undiscovered, till the
_Indians_ who leave no place unsearched for Deere, found out his haunt,
and having taken notice by diverse discourses concerning him, how that
it was the governers desire to know where he was; they thought it a
part of their service to certifie him where he kept his rendevouze, who
thereupon desired if they could to direct men to him for his
attachment, but he had shifted his dwelling, and could not be found for
the present, yet he was after seene by other _Indians_, but being
double pistold, and well sworded, they feared to approach so neere him
as to grapple with him: wherefore they let him alone till his owne
necessary businesse cast him upon them; for having occasion to crosse a
river, he came to the side thereof, where was an _Indian Cannow_, in
which the _Indians_ were to crosse the river themselves, hee vauntingly
commanded wastage; which they willingly graunted, but withall plotting
how they might take him prisoner, which they thus effected; having
placed him in the midship of their ticklish wherrie, they lanched forth
into the deepe, causing the capering _Cannow_ to cast out her
combersome ballast into the liquid water; which swomme like a stone,
and now the water having dank't his pistoles, and lost his _Spanish_
progge in the bottome, the _Indians_ swomme him out by the chinne to
the shore, where having dropt himselfe a little dry, he began to
bluster out a storme of rebellious resistance, till they becalmed his
pelting chafe with their pelting of pibles at him, afterward leading
him as they list to the governour. These people be of a kinde and
affable disposition, yet are they very warie with whom they strike
hands in friendshippe: nothing is more hatefull to them than a churlish
disposition, so likewise is dissimulation: he that speakes seldome, and
opportunely, being as good as his word, is the onely man they love. The
_Spaniard_ they say is all one _Aramouse_ (_viz._ all one as a dog) the
_Frenchman_ hath a good tongue, but a false heart: The _English_ man
all one speake, all one heart; wherefore they more approve of them than
of any Nation: garrulitie is much condemned of them, for they utter not
many words, speake seldome, and then with such gravitie as is pleasing
to the eare: such as understand them not, desire yet to heare their
emphaticall expressions, and lively action; such is the milde temper of
their spirits that they cannot endure objurgations, or scoldings. An
_Indian Sagamore_ once hearing an _English_ woman scold with her
husband, her quicke utterance exceeding his apprehension, her active
lungs thundering in his eares, expelled him the house; from whence he
went to the next neighbour, where he related the unseemelinesse of her
behaviour; her language being strange to him, hee expressed it as
strangely, telling them how she cryed Nannana Nannana Nannana Nan,
saying he was a great foole to give her the audience, and no correction
for usurping his charter, and abusing him by her tongue. I have beene
amongst diverse of them, yet did I never see any falling out amongst
them, not so much as crosse words, or reviling speeches, which might
provoke to blowes. And whereas it is the custome of many people in
their games, if they see the dice runne crosse or their cards not
answere their expectations: what cursing and swearing, what
imprecations, and raylings, fightings and stabbings oftentimes proceede
from their testy spleene. How doe their blustering passions, make the
place troublesome to themselves and others? But I have knowne when
foure of these milder spirits have sit downe staking their treasures,
where they have plaied foure and twentie houres, neither eating
drinking or sleeping in the Interim; nay which is most to be wondered
at, not quarreling, but as they came thither in peace so they depart in
peace: when he that had lost all his _wampompeage_, his house, his
kettle, his beaver, his hatchet, his knife, yea all his little all,
having nothing left but his naked selfe, was as merry as they that won
it: so in sports of activitie at footeball though they play never so
fiercely to outward appearance, yet anger-boyling blood never streames
in their cooler veines, if any man be throwne he laughes out his foyle,
there is no seeking of revenge, no quarreling, no bloody noses,
scratched faces, blacke eyes, broken shinnes, no brused members, or
crushed ribs, the lamentable effects of rage; but the goale being
wonne, the goods on the one side lost; friends they were at the
footeball, and friends they must meete at the kettle. I never heard yet
of that _Indian_ that was his neighbours homicide or vexation by his
malepart, saucy, or uncivill tongue: laughter in them is not common,
seldome exceeding a smile, never breaking out into such a lowd
laughter, as doe many of our _English_. Of all things they love not to
be laught at upon any occasion; if a man be in trade with them and the
bargaine be almost strucke, if they perceive you laugh, they will
scarce proceed, supposing you laugh because you have cheated them: the
_Crocodiles_ teares may sooner deceive them, than the _Hienas_ smiles:
although they be not much addicted to laughter, yet are they not of a
dumpish sad nature, but rather naturally chearefull: As I never saw a
gigling _Democrite_, so I never saw a teare dropping _Heraclite_; no
disaster being so prevalent as to open the flood-gate of their eyes,
saving the death of friends, for whom they lament most exceedingly.

                              CHAP. VIII.

                         _Of their hardinesse._

For their hardinesse it may procure admiration, no ordinary paines
making them so much as alter their countenance; beate them, whip them,
pinch them, punch them, if they resolve not to whinch for it, they will
not; whether it be their benummed insensiblenesse of smart, or their
hardie resolutions, I cannot tell; It might be, a _Perillus_ his Bull,
or the disjoynting racke might force a roare from them, but a Turkish
drubbing would not much molest them, and although they be naturally
much affraid of death, yet the unexpected approach of a mortall wound
by a Bullet, Arrow, or Sword, strikes no more terrour, causes no more
exclamation, no more complaint, or whinching, than if it had beene a
shot into the body of a tree: such wounds as would be suddaine death to
an _English_ man, would be nothing to them. Some of them having beene
shot in at the mouth, and out under the eare, some shot in the breast,
some runne thorough the flankes with Darts, and other many desperate
wounds which eyther by their rare skill in the use of vegitatives, or
diabolicall charmes they cure in short time. Although their hardinesse
beare them out in such things wherein they are sure death will not
ensue, yet can it not expell the feare of death, the very name and
thoughts of it is so hideous to them, or any thing that presents it, or
threatens it, so terrible; insomuch that a hundred of them will runne
from two or three Guns, though they know they can but dispatch two or
three at a discharge, yet every man fearing it may be his lot to meete
with his last, will not come neare that in good earnest, which he dare
play withall in jest. To make this good by a passage of Experience.
Three men having occasion of trade amongst the Westerne _Indians_, went
up with some such commodities as they thought most fit for trade; to
secure their person they tooke a Carbine, two Pistoles and a sword,
which in outward shew was not great resistance to a hundred well
skilled bow men: The _Indians_ hearing their gunnes making a thundring
noyse, desired to finger one of them, & see it discharged into a tree,
wondring much at the percussion of the bullet; but they abiding two or
three dayes, the gunnes were forgotten, and they began to looke at the
oddes being a hundred to three, whereupon they were animated to worke
treason against the lives of these men, and to take away their goods
from them by force; but one of the _English_ understanding their
language, smelt out their treachery, and being more fully informed of
their intent by the _Indian_ women, who had more pitty, hee steps to
their King, and hailing him by the long haire from the rest of his
councell, commanded him either to goe before him and guide him home, or
else he would there kill him. The Sagamore seeing him so rough, had not
the courage to resist him, but went with him two miles; but being
exasperated by his men who followed him along, to resist, and goe no
further; in the end hee would not, neither for faire promises nor
fierce threatnings, so that they were constrained there to kill him,
which struck such an amazement and daunting into the rest of that naked
crew, with the sight of the guns, that though they might easily have
killed them, yet had they not the power to shoot an arrow, but followed
them, yelling and howling for the death of their King forty miles; his
goods being left among them, he sent word by other _Indians_, that
unlesse they sent him his goods againe, which hee there left, hee would
serve them as hee served their King, whereupon they returned him his
commodities, with intreaty of peace, and promises of fairer trade if he
came again. If these heartlesse _Indians_ were so cowed with so slender
an onset on their owne dunghill, when there were scarce six families of
ours in the Countrie, what need wee now feare them being growne into
thousands, and having knowledge of martiall discipline? In the night
they neede not to be feared, for they will not budge from their owne
dwellings for feare of their _Abamacho_ (the Devill) whom they much
feare, specially in evill enterprizes, they will rather lye by an
_English_ fire than goe a quarter of a mile in the darke to their owne
dwellings: but they are well freed from this scarecrow since the
comming of the _English_, and lesse care for his delusions; and whereas
it hath beene reported, that there are such horrible apparitions,
fearefull roarings, thundering and lightning raised by the Devill, to
discourage the _English_ in their settling, I for mine owne part never
saw or heard of any of these things in the Countrie: nor have I heard
of any _Indians_ that have lately beene put in feare, saving two or
three, and they worse scar'd than hurt, who seeing a Black-more in the
top of a tree, looking out for his way which he had lost, surmised he
was _Abamacho_ or the Devill, deeming all Devils that are blacker than
themselves; and being neare to the plantation, they posted to the
_English_, intreated their aide to conjure this Devill to his owne
place, who finding him to be a poore wandring Black-more, conducted him
to his Master.

                               CHAP. IX.

          _Of their wondering at the first view of any strange

These _Indians_ being strangers to Arts and Sciences, and being
unacquainted with the inventions that are common to a civilized people,
are ravisht with admiration at the first view of any such sight: They
tooke the first Ship they saw for a walking Iland, the Mast to be a
Tree, the Saile white Clouds, and the discharging of Ordinance for
Lightning and Thunder, which did much trouble them, but this thunder
being over, and this moving Iland stedied with an Anchor, they manned
out their cannowes to goe and picke strawberries there, but being
saluted by the way with a broad side, they cried out, what much
hoggery, so bigge walke, and so bigge speake, and by and by kill; which
caused them to turne back, not daring to approach till they were sent
for. They doe much extoll and wonder at the _English_ for their strange
Inventions, especially for a Wind-mill, which in their esteeme was
little lesse than the worlds wonder, for the strangenesse of his
whisking motion, and the sharpe teeth biting the corne (as they terme
it) into such small peeces; they were loath at the first to come neere
to his long armes, or to abide in so tottering a tabernacle, though now
they dare goe any where so farre as they have an _English_ guide. The
first plow-man was counted little better than a luggler: the _Indians_
seeing the plow teare up more ground in a day, than their Clamme shels
could scrape up in a month, desired to see the workemanship of it, and
viewing well the coulter and share, perceiving it to be iron, told the
plow-man, hee was almost _Abamocho_, almost as cunning as the Devill;
but the fresh supplies of new and strange objects hath lessen'd their
admiration, and quickned their inventions, and desire of practising
such things as they see, wherein they expresse no small ingenuitie, and
dexterity of wit, being neither furthered by art, or long experience.
It is thought they would soon learne any mechanicall trades, having
quicke wits, understanding apprehensions, strong memories, with nimble
inventions, and a quicke hand in using of the Axe or Hatchet, or such
like tooles: much good might they receive from the _English_, and much
might they benefit themselves, if they were not strongly fettered in
the chaines of idlenesse; so as that they had rather starve than worke,
following no employments, saving such as are sweetned with more
pleasures and profit than paines or care, and this is indeede one of
the greatest accusations that can be laid against them, which lies but
upon the men, (the women being very industrious) but it may be hoped
that good example, and good instructions may bring them to a more
industrious and provident course of life. For already, as they have
learned much subtiltie & cunning by bargaining with the _English_, so
have they a little degenerated from some of their lazie customes, and
shew themselves more industrious. In a word, to set them out in their
best colours, they be wise in their carriage, subtle in their dealings,
true in their promise, honest in defraying of their debts, though
poverty constraine them to be something long before; some having died
in the _English_ debt, have left Beaver by order of Will for their
satisfaction: They be constant in friendship, merrily conceited in
discourse, not luxuriously abounding in youth, nor dotingly froward in
old age, many of them being much civilized since the _English_ Colonies
were planted, though but little edified in Religion: They frequent
often the _English_ Churches, where they will sit soberly, though they
understand not such hidden mysteries. They doe easily beleeve some of
the History of the Bible, as the creation of the World, the making of
man, with his fall: but come to tell them of a Saviour, with all the
passages of the Gospell, and it exceeds so farre their _Indian_
beleefe, that they will cry out (_Pocatnie_) _id est_, is it possible?
yet such is their conviction of the right way, that when some _English_
have come to their houses, victuals being offered them, forgetting to
crave Gods blessing upon the creatures received, they have beene
reproved by these, which formerly never knew what calling upon God
meant: thus farre for their naturall disposition and qualities.

                                CHAP. X.

          _Of their Kings government, and Subjects obedience._

Now for the matter of government amongst them: It is the custome for
their Kings to inherite, the sonne always taking the Kingdome after his
fathers death. If there be no sonne, then the Queene rules; if no
Queene, the next to the blood-royall; who comes in otherwise, is but
counted an usurping intruder, and if his faire carriage beare him not
out the better, they will soone unscepter him.

The Kings have no Lawes to command by, nor have they any annuall
revenewes; yet commonly are they so either feared or beloved, that
halfe their Subjects estate is at their Service, and their persons at
his command; by which command he is better knowne than by any thing
else. For though hee hath no Kingly Robes, to make him glorious in the
view of his Subjects, nor dayly Guardes to secure his person, or
Court-like attendance, nor sumptuous Pallaces; yet doe they yeeld all
submissive subjection to him, accounting him their Soveraigne; going at
his command, and comming at his becke, not so much as expostulating the
cause, though it be in matters thwarting their wills; he being
accounted a disloyall subject that will not effect what his Prince
commands. Whosoever is knowne to plot Treason, or to lay violent hands
on his lawfull King, is presently executed. Once a yeare he takes his
progresse, accompanied with a dozen of his best Subjects to view his
Countrey, to recreate himselfe, and establish good order. When he
enters into any of their houses, without any more complement, he is
desired to sit downe on the ground; (for they use neither stooles nor
cushions) and after a little respite, all that be present, come in, and
sit downe by him, one of his Seniors pronouncing an Oration gratulatory
to his Majesty for his love; and the many good things they enjoy under
his peacefull government. A King of large Dominions hath his Viceroyes,
or inferiour Kings under him, to agitate his State-affaires, and keepe
his Subjects in good decorum. Other Officers there be, but how to
distinguish them by name is some-thing difficult: For their Lawes, as
their evill courses come short of many other Nations, so they have not
so many Lawes, though they be not without some, which they inflict upon
notorious malefactors, as Traytors to their Prince, inhumane
murtherers, and some say for adultery; but I cannot warrant it for a
truth. For theft, as they have nothing to steale worth the life of a
man, therefore they have no law to execute for trivialls; a Subject
being precious in the eye of his Prince, where men are so scarce. A
malefactor having deserved death, being apprehended, is brought before
the King, and some other of the wisest men where they enquire out the
originall of a thing; after proceeding by aggravation of circumstances,
he is found guilty, and being cast by the Iury of their strict
inquisition, he is condemned, and executed on this manner: The
Executioner comes in, who blind-folds the party, sets him in the
publike view, and braines him with a _Tamahauke_ or Club; which done,
his friends bury him. Other meanes to restraine abuses they have none,
saving admonition or reproofe; no whippings, no Prisons, Stockes,
Bilbowes, or the like.

                               CHAP. XI.

                         _Of their Marriages._

Now to speake something of their Marriages, the Kings or great
_Powwowes_, _alias_ Conjurers, may have two or three Wives, but seldome
use it. Men of ordinary Ranke, having but one; which disproves the
report, that they had eight or tenne Wives apeece. When a man hath a
desire to Marry, he first gets the good-will of the Maide or Widdow,
after, the consent of her friends for her part; and for himselfe, if he
be at his owne disposing, if the King will, the match is made, her
Dowry of _Wampompeage_ payd, the King joynes their hands with their
hearts, never to part till death, unlesse Shee prove a Whore; for which
they may, and some have put away their Wives, as may appeare by a
story. There was one _Abamoch_ married a Wife, whom a long time he
intirely loved above her deservings, for that shee often in his absence
entertained strangers, of which hee was oftentimes informed by his
neighbours, but hee harbouring no sparke of jealousie, beleeved not
their false informations (as he deemed them) being in a manner angry
they should slander his Wife, of whose constancy hee was so strongly
conceited: A long time did her whorish gloazing and Syren-like tongue,
with her subtle carriage, establish her in her Husbands favour, till
fresh complaints caused him to cast about, how to finde out the truth,
and to prove his friends lyars, and his Wife honest, or her a Whore,
and his friends true: whereupon hee pretended a long journey to visite
his friends, providing all accoutraments for a fortnights journey;
telling his Wife it would be so long before she could expect his
returne, who outwardly sorrowed for his departure, but inwardly
rejoyced, that she should enjoy the society of her old _Lemman_; whom
she sent for with expedition, not suspecting her Husbands plot, who lay
not many miles off in the Woods; who after their dishonest revelings,
when they were in their midnight sleepe, approaches the Wiggwamme,
enters the doore, which was neither barred nor lockt; makes a light to
discover what hee little suspected; but finding his friends words to
bee true, hee takes a good bastinado in his hand brought for the same
purpose, dragging him by the haire from his usurped bed, so lamentably
beating him, that his battered bones and bruised flesh made him a
fitter subject for some skilfull Surgeon, than the lovely obiect of a
lustfull strumpet; which done, hee put away his wife, exposing her to
the curtesie of strangers for her maintenance, that so curtesan-like
had entertained a stranger into her bosome.

                               CHAP. XII.

           _Of their worship, invocations, and conjurations._

Now of their worships: As it is naturall to all mortals to worship
something, so doe these people, but exactly to describe to whom their
worship is chiefly bent, is very difficult; they acknowledge especially
two, _Ketan_ who is their good God, to whom they sacrifice (as the
ancient Heathen did to _Ceres_) after their garners bee full with a
good croppe: upon this God likewise they invocate for faire weather,
for raine in time of drought, and for the recovery of their sick; but
if they doe not heare them, then they verifie the old verse, _Flectere
si nequeo Superos, Acharonta movebo_, their Pow-wows betaking
themselves to their exorcismes and necromanticke charmes, by which they
bring to passe strange things, if wee may beleeve the _Indians_, who
report of one _Pissacannawa_, that hee can make the water burne, the
rocks move, the trees dance, metamorphize himselfe into a flaming man.
But it may be objected, this is but _deceptio visus_. Hee will
therefore doe more, for in Winter, when there is no greene leaves to be
got, he will burne an old one to ashes, and putting those into the
water, produce a new greene leafe, which you shall not onely see, but
substantially handle and carrie away; and make of a dead snakes skinne
a living snake, both to be seene, felt, and heard; this I write but
upon the report of the _Indians_, who confidently affirme stranger
things. But to make manifest, that by Gods permission, thorough the
Devils helpe, their charmes are of force to produce effects of
wonderment; An honest Gentle-man related a storie to mee, being an
eye-witness of the same: A Pow-wow having a patient with the stumpe of
some small tree runne thorough his foote, being past the cure of his
ordinary Surgery, betooke himselfe to his charmes, and being willing to
shew his miracle before the _English_ stranger, hee wrapt a piece of
cloth about the foote of the lame man; upon that wrapping a Beaver
skinne, through which hee laying his mouth to the Beaver skinne, by his
sucking charmes he brought out the stumpe, which he spat into a tray of
water, returning the foote as whole as its fellow in a short time. The
manner of their action in their conjuration is thus: The parties that
are sick or lame being brought before them, the Pow-wow sitting downe,
the rest of the _Indians_ giving attentive audience to his imprecations
and invocations, and after the violent expression of many a hideous
bellowing and groaning, he makes a stop, and then all the auditors with
one voice utter a short _Canto_; which done, the Pow-wow still proceeds
in his invocations, sometimes roaring like a Beare, other times
groaning like a dying horse, foaming at the mouth like a chased bore,
smiting on his naked brest and thighs with such violence, as if he were
madde. Thus will hee continue sometimes halfe a day, spending his
lungs, sweating out his fat, and tormenting his body in this
diabolicall worship; sometimes the Devill for requitall of their
worship, recovers the partie, to nuzzle them up in their divellish
Religion. In former time hee was wont to carrie away their wives and
children, because hee would drive them to these Martens, to fetch them
again to confirme their beliefe of this his much desired authoritie
over them: but since the _English_ frequented those parts, they daily
fall from his colours, relinquishing their former fopperies, and
acknowledge our God to be supreame. They acknowledge the power of the
_English_-mans God, as they call, him, because they could never yet
have power by their conjurations to damnifie the _English_ either in
body or goods; and besides, they say hee is a good God that sends them
so many good things, so much good corne, so many cattell, temperate
raines, faire seasons, which they likewise are the better for since the
arrivall of the _English_; the times and seasons being much altered in
seaven or eight yeares, freer from lightning and thunder, long
droughts, suddaine and tempestuous dashes of raine, and lamentable cold

                              CHAP. XIII.

                           _Of their Warres._

Of their Warres: Their old souldiers being swept away by the Plague,
which was very rife amongst them about 14 yeares agoe, and resting
themselves secure under the _English_ protection, they doe not now
practice any thing in martiall feates worth observation, saving that
they make themselves Forts to flie into, if the enemies should
unexpectedly assaile them. These Forts some be fortie or fiftie foote
square, erected of young timber trees, ten or twelve foote high, rammed
into the ground, with undermining within, the earth being cast up for
their shelter against the dischargements of their enemies, having
loope-holes to send out their winged messingers, which often deliver
their sharpe and bloody embassies in the tawnie sides of their naked
assailants, who wanting butting Rammes and battering Ordinances to
command at distance, lose their lives by their too neare approachments.
These use no other weapons in warre than bowes and arrowes, saving that
their Captaines have long speares, on which if they returne conquerours
they carrie the heads of their chiefe enemies that they slay in the
wars: it being the custome to cut off their heads, hands, and feete, to
beare home to their wives and children, as true tokens of their
renowned victorie. When they goe to their warres, it is their custome
to paint their faces with diversitie of colours, some being all black
as jet, some red, some halfe red and halfe blacke, some blacke and
white, others spotted with divers kinds of colours, being all disguised
to their enemies, to make them more terrible to their foes, putting on
likewise their rich Iewels, pendents and Wampompeage, to put them in
minde they fight not onely for their Children, Wives, and lives, but
likewise for their goods, lands and liberties; Being thus armed with
this warlike paint, the antique warriers make towards their enemies in
a disordered manner, without any souldier like marching or warlike
postures, being deafe to any word of command, ignorant of falling off,
or falling on, of doubling rankes or files, but let fly their winged
shaftments without eyther feare or wit; their Artillery being spent, he
that hath no armes to fight, findes legges to run away.

                              CHAP. XIIII.

                 _Their games and sports of activitie._

Bvt to leave their warres, and to speake of their games in which they
are more delighted and better experienced, spending halfe their dayes
in gaming and lazing. They have two sorts of games, one called _Puim_,
the other _Hubbub_, not much unlike Cards and Dice, being no other than
Lotterie. _Puim_ is 50. or 60. small Bents of a foote long which they
divide to the number of their gamesters, shuffling them first betweene
the palmes of their hands; he that hath more than his fellow is so much
the forwarder in his game: many other strange whimseyes be in this
game; which would be too long to commit to paper; hee that is a noted
gamster, hath a great hole in his eare wherein hee carries his _Puims_
in defiance of his antagonists. _Hubbub_ is five small Bones in a small
smooth Tray, the bones bee like a Die, but something flatter, blacke on
the one side and white on the other, which they place on the ground,
against which violently thumping the platter, the bones mount changing
colours with the windy whisking of their hands too and fro; which
action in that sport they much use, smiting themselves on the breast,
and thighs, crying out, _Hub, Hub, Hub_; they may be heard play at this
game a quarter of a mile off. The bones being all blacke or white, make
a double game; if three be of a colour and two of another, then they
affoard but a single game; foure of a colour and one differing is
nothing; so long as a man winns, he keepes the Tray: but if he loose,
the next man takes it. They are so bewitched with these two games, that
they will loose sometimes all they have, Beaver, Moose-skinnes,
Kettles, Wampompeage, Mowhackies, Hatchets, Knives, all is confiscate
by these two games. For their sports of activitie they have commonly
but three or foure; as footeball, shooting, running and swimming: when
they play country against country, there are rich Goales, all behung
with Wampompeage, Mowhackies, Beaver skins, and blacke Otter skinnes.
It would exceede the beleefe of many to relate the worth of one Goale,
wherefore it shall be namelesse. Their Goales be a mile long placed on
the sands, which are as even as a board; their ball is no bigger than a
hand-ball, which sometimes they mount in the Aire with their naked
feete, sometimes it is swayed by the multitude; sometimes also it is
two dayes before they get a Goale, then they marke the ground they
winne, and beginne there the next day. Before they come to this sport,
they paint themselves, even as when they goe to warre, in pollicie to
prevent future mischiefe, because no man should know him that moved his
patience or accidentally hurt his person, taking away the occasion of
studying revenge. Before they begin their armes be disordered, and hung
upon some neighbouring tree, after which they make a long scrowle on
the sand, over which they shake loving hands, and with laughing hearts
scuffle for victorie. While the men play the boyes pipe, and the women
dance and sing trophies of their husbands conquests; all being done a
feast summons their departure. It is most delight to see them play, in
smaller companies, when men may view their swift footemanship, their
curious tossings of their Ball, their flouncing into the water, their
lubberlike wrestling, having no cunning at all in that kind, one
_English_ being able to beate ten _Indians_ at footeball. For their
shooting they be most desperate marksmen for a point blancke object,
and if it may bee possible _Cornicum oculos configere_ they will doe
it: such is their celerity and dexterity in Artillerie, that they can
smite the swift running Hinde and nimble winged Pigeon without a
standing pause or left eyed blinking; they draw their Arrowes between
the fore fingers and the thumbe; their bowes be quicke, but not very
strong, not killing above six or seaven score. These men shoot at one
another, but with swift conveighance shunne the Arrow; this they doe to
make them expert against time of warre. It hath beene often admired how
they can finde their Arrowes, be the weedes as high as themselves, yet
they take such perfect notice of the flight and fall that they seldome
loose any. They are trained up to their bowes even from their
childhood; little boyes with Bowes made of little stickes and Arrowes
of great bents, will smite downe a peece of Tobacco pipe every shoot a
good way off: as these _Indians_ be good marksmen, so are they well
experienced where the very life of every creature lyeth, and know where
to smite him to make him dye presently. For their swimming it is almost
naturall, but much perfected by continuall practise; their swimming is
not after our _English_ fashion of spread armes and legges which they
hold too tiresome, but like dogges their armes before them cutting
through the liquids with their right shoulder; in this manner they
swimme very swift and farre, either in rough or smooth waters,
sometimes for their ease lying as still as a log; sometimes they will
play the dive-doppers, and come up in unexpected places. Their children
likewise be taught to swimme when they are very young. For their
running it is with much celeritie and continuance, yet I suppose there
be many _English_ men who being as lightly clad as they are, would
outrun them for a spurt, though not able to continue it for a day or
dayes, being they be very strong winded and rightly clad for a race.

                               CHAP. XV.

                          _Of their huntings._

For their hunting, it is to be noted that they have no swift foote
Grayhounds, to let slippe at the sight of the Deere, no deepe mouthed
hounds, or senting beagles, to finde out their desired prey; themselves
are all this, who in that time of the yeare, when the Deere comes
downe, having certaine hunting houses, in such places where they know
the Deere usually doth frequent, in which they keep their randevowes,
their snares and all their accoutraments for that imployment: when they
get sight of a Deere, Moose or Beare, they studie how to get the wind
of him, and approaching within shot, stab their marke quite through, if
the bones hinder not. The chiefe thing they hunt after is Deere,
Mooses, and Beares, it greeves them more to see an _English_ man take
one Deere, than a thousand Acres of land: they hunt likewise after
Wolves, and wild Catts, Rackoones, Otters, Beavers, Musquashes, trading
both their skinnes and flesh to the _English_. Besides their artillery,
they have other devices to kill their game, as sometimes hedges a mile
or two miles long, being a mile wide at one end, and made narrower and
narrower by degrees, leaving onely a gap of sixe foote long, over
against which, in the day time they lye lurking to shoot the Deere
which come through that narrow gut; so many as come within the
circumference of that hedge, seldome returne backe to leape over,
unlesse they be forced by the chasing of some ravenous Wolfe, or sight
of some accidentall passinger; in the night at the gut of this hedge,
they set Deere traps, which are springes made of young trees, and
smooth wrought coards; so strong as it will tosse a horse if hee be
caught in it. An _English_ Mare being strayed from her owner, and
growne wild by her long sojourning in the Woods ranging up and downe
with the wilde crew, stumbled into one of these traps which stopt her
speed, hanging her like _Mahomets_ tombe, betwixt earth, and heaven;
the morning being come, the _Indians_ went to looke what good successe
their Venison trappes brought them, but seeing such a long scutted
Deere, praunce in their Merritotter, they bade her good morrow, crying
out, what cheere what cheere _Englishmans squaw_ horse; having no
better epithite than to call her a woman horse, but being loath to kill
her, and as fearefull to approach neere the friscadoes of her Iron
heeles, they posted to the _English_ to tell them how the case stood or
hung with their _squaw_ horse, who unhorsed their Mare, and brought her
to her former tamenesse, which since hath brought many a good foale,
and performed much good service. In these traps Deeres, Mooses, Beares,
Wolves, Catts, and Foxes, are often caught. For their Beavers and
Otters, they have other kinde of trappes, so ponderous as is
unsupportable for such creatures, the massie burthen whereof either
takes them prisoners, or expells their breath from their squised
bodyes. These kinde of creatures would gnaw the other kind of trappes
asunder, with their sharpe teeth: these beasts are too cunning for the
_English_, who seldome or never catch any of them, therefore we leave
them to those skilfull hunters whose time is not so precious, whose
experience bought-skill hath made them practicall and usefull in that

                               CHAP. XVI.

                          _Of their Fishings._

Of their fishing, in this trade they be very expert, being experienced
in the knowledge of all baites, fitting sundry baites for severall
fishes, and diverse seasons; being not ignorant likewise of the
removall of fishes, knowing when to fish in rivers, and when at rockes,
when in Baies, and when at Seas: since the _English_ came they be
furnished with _English_ hookes and lines, before they made them of
their owne hempe more curiously wrought, of stronger materials than
ours, hooked with bone hookes: but lazinesse drives them to buy more
than profit or commendations winnes them to make of their owne; they
make likewise very strong Sturgeon nets with which they catch Sturgeons
of 12. 14. and 16. some 18. foote long in the day time, in the night
time they betake them to their Burtchen _Cannows_, in which they carry
a forty fathome line, with a sharpe bearded dart, fastned at the end
thereof; then lightning a blazing torch made of Burtchen rindes, they
weave it too and againe by their _Cannow_ side, which the Sturgeon much
delighted with, comes to them tumbling and playing, turning up his
white belly, into which they thrust their launce, his backe being
impenetrable; which done they haile to the shore their strugling prize.
They have often recourse unto the rockes whereupon the sea beates, in
warme weather to looke out for sleepie Seales, whose oyle they much
esteeme, using it for divers things. In summer they seldome fish any
where but in salt, in winter in the fresh water and ponds; in frostie
weather they cut round holes in the yce, about which they wil sit like
so many apes, on their naked breeches upon the congealed yce, catching
of Pikes, Pearches, Breames, and other sorts of fresh water fish.

                              CHAP. XVII.

                   _Of their Arts and Manufactures._

Of their severall Arts and imployments, as first in dressing of all
manner of skinnes, which they doe by scraping and rubbing, afterwards
painting them with antique embroyderings in unchangeable colours,
sometimes they take off the haire, especially if it bee not killed in
season. Their bowes they make of a handsome shape, strung commonly with
the sinnewes of Mooses; their arrowes are made of young Elderne,
feathered with feathers of Eagles wings and tailes, headed with brasse
in shape of a heart or triangle, fastned in a slender peece of wood
sixe or 8 inches long, which is framed to put loose in the pithie
Elderne, that is bound fast for riving: their arrowes be made in this
manner because the arrow might shake from his head and be left behind
for their finding, and the pile onely remaine to gaule the wounded
beast. Their cordage is so even, soft, and smooth, that it lookes more
like silke than hempe; their Sturgeon netts be not deepe, nor above 30.
or 40. foote long, which in ebbing low waters they stake fast to the
ground, where they are sure the Sturgeon will come, never looking more
at it, till the next low water. Their _Cannows_ be made either of
Pine-trees, which before they were acquainted with _English_ tooles,
they burned hollow, scraping them smooth with Clam-shels and
Oyster-shels, cutting their out-sides with stone-hatchets: These Boates
be not above a foot and a halfe, or two feete wide, and twenty foote
long. Their other _Cannows_ be made of thinne Birch-rines, close-ribbed
on the in-side with broad thinne hoopes, like the hoopes of a Tub;
these are made very light, a man may carry one of them a mile, being
made purposely to carry from River to River, and Bay to Bay, to shorten
Land-passages. In these cockling fly-boates, wherein an _English_ man
can scarce sit without a fearefull tottering, they will venture to Sea,
when an _English_ Shallope dare not beare a knot of sayle; scudding
over the overgrowne waves as fast as a winde-driven Ship, being driven
by their padles; being much like battle doores; if a crosse wave (as is
seldome) turne her keele up-side downe, they by swimming free her, and
scramble into her againe.

                              CHAP. XVIII.

                          _Of their Language._

Of their Language which is onely peculiar to themselves, not inclining
to any of the refined tongues. Some have thought they might be of the
dispersed _Iewes_, because some of their words be neare unto the
_Hebrew_; but by the same rule they may conclude them to be some of the
gleanings of all Nations, because they have words which sound after the
_Greeke_, _Latine_, _French_, and other tongues: Their Language is hard
to learne; few of the _English_ being able to speake any of it, or
capable of the right pronunciation, which is the chiefe grace of their
tongue. They pronounce much after the Diphthongs, excluding _L_ and
_R_, which in our _English_ Tongue they pronounce with as much
difficulty, as most of the _Dutch_ doe _T_ and _H_, calling a Lobster a
_Nobstann_. Every Countrey doth something differ in their Speech, even
as our Northerne people doe from the Southerne, and Westerne from them;
especially the _Tarrenteens_, whose Tongues runne so much upon _R_,
that they wharle much in pronunciation. When any ships come neare the
shore, they demand whether they be King _Charles_ his _Torries_, with
such a rumbling sound, as if one were beating an unbrac't Drumme. In
serious discourse our Southerne _Indians_ use seldome any short
_Colloquiums_, but speake their minds at large, without any interjected
interruptions from any: The rest giving diligent audience to his
utterance; which done, some or other returnes him as long an answere,
they love not to speake _multa sed multum_, seldome are their words,
and their deeds strangers. According to the matter in discourse, so are
their acting gestures in their expressions. One of the _English_
Preachers in a speciall good intent of doing good to their soules, hath
spent much time in attaining to their Language, wherein he is so good a
proficient, that he can speake to their understanding, and they to his;
much loving and respecting him for his love and counsell. It is hoped
that he may be an instrument of good amongst them. They love any man
that can utter his minde in their words, yet are they not a little
proud that they can speake the _English_ tongue, using it as much as
their owne, when they meete with such as can understand it, puzling
stranger _Indians_, which sometimes visite them from more remote
places, with an unheard language.

                               CHAP. XIX.

               _Of their deaths, burials, and mourning._

Although the _Indians_ be of lusty and healthfull bodies, not
experimentally knowing the Catalogue of those health-wasting diseases
which are incident to other Countries, as Feavers, Pleurisies,
Callentures, Agues, Obstructions, Consumptions, Subfumigations,
Convulsions, Apoplexies, Dropsies, Gouts, Stones, Tooth-aches, Pox,
Measels, or the like; but spinne out the thread of their dayes to a
faire length, numbering three-score, foure-score, some a hundred
yeares, before the worlds universall summoner cite them to the craving
Grave: But the date of their life expired, and Deaths arestment seazing
upon them, all hope of recovery being past, then to behold and heare
their throbbing sobs and deepe-fetcht sighes, their griefe-wrung hands,
and teare-bedewed cheekes, their dolefull cries, would draw teares from
Adamantine eyes, that be but spectators of their mournefull Obsequies.
The glut of their griefe being past, they commit the corpes of their
diceased friends to the ground, over whose grave is for a long time
spent many a briny teare, deepe groane, and _Irish_-like howlings,
continuing annuall mournings with a blacke stiffe paint on their faces:
These are the Mourners without hope, yet doe they hold the immortality
of the never-dying soule, that it shall passe to the South-west
_Elysium_, concerning which their _Indian_ faith jumps much with the
_Turkish Alchoran_, holding it to be a kinde of Paradise, wherein they
shall everlastingly abide, solacing themselves in odoriferous Gardens,
fruitfull Corne-fields, greene Medows, bathing their tawny hides in the
coole streames of pleasant Rivers, and shelter themselves from heate
and cold in the sumptuous Pallaces framed by the skill of Natures
curious contrivement; concluding that neither care nor paine shall
molest them, but that Natures bounty will administer all things with a
voluntary contribution from the overflowing store-house of their
_Elyzian_ Hospitall, at the portall whereof they say, lies a great
Dogge, whose churlish snarlings deny a _Pax intrantibus_, to unworthy
intruders: Wherefore it is their custome, to bury with them their Bows
and Arrows, and good store of their _Wampompeage_ and _Mowhackies_; the
one to affright that affronting _Cerberus_, the other to purchase more
immense prerogatiues in their Paradise. For their enemies and loose
livers, whom they account unworthy of this imaginary happines, they
say, that they passe to the infernall dwellings of _Abamocho_, to be
tortured according to the fictions of the ancient Heathen.

                               CHAP. XIX.

       _Of their women, their dispositions, employments, usage by
             their husbands, their apparell, and modesty._

To satisfie the curious eye of women-readers, who otherwise might
thinke their sex forgotten, or not worthy a record, let them peruse
these few lines, wherein they may see their owne happinesse, if weighed
in the womans ballance of these ruder _Indians_, who scorne the
tuterings of their wives, or to admit them as their equals, though
their qualities and industrious deservings may justly claime the
preheminence, and command better usage and more conjugall esteeme,
their persons and features being every way correspondent, their
qualifications more excellent, being more loving, pittifull, and
modest, milde, provident, and laborious than their lazie husbands.
Their employments be many: First their building of houses, whose frames
are formed like our garden-arbours, something more round, very strong
and handsome, covered with close-wrought mats of their owne weaving,
which deny entrance to any drop of raine, though it come both fierce
and long, neither can the piercing North winde finde a crannie, through
which he can conveigh his cooling breath, they be warmer than our
_English_ houses; at the top is a square hole for the smoakes
evacuation, which in rainy weather is covered with a pluver; these bee
such smoakie dwellings, that when there is good fires, they are not
able to stand upright, but lie all along under the smoake, never using
any stooles or chaires, it being as rare to see an _Indian_ sit on a
stoole at home, as it is strange to see an _English_ man sit on his
heeles abroad. Their houses are smaller in the Summer, when their
families be dispersed, by reason of heate and occasions. In Winter they
make some fiftie or threescore foote long, fortie or fiftie men being
inmates under one roofe; and as is their husbands occasion these poore
tectonists are often troubled like snailes, to carrie their houses on
their backs sometime to fishing-places, other times to hunting-places,
after that to a planting place, where it abides the longest: an other
work is their planting of corne, wherein they exceede our _English_
husband-men, keeping it so cleare with their Clamme shell-hooes, as if
it were a garden rather than a corne-field, not suffering a choaking
weede to advance his audacious head above their infant corne, or an
undermining worme to spoile his spurnes. Their corne being ripe, they
gather it, and drying it hard in the Sunne, conveigh it to their
barnes, which be great holes digged in the ground in forme of a brasse
pot, seeled with rinds of trees, wherein they put their corne, covering
it from the inquisitive search of their gurmandizing husbands, who
would eate up both their allowed portion, and reserved feede, if they
knew where to finde it. But our hogges having found a way to unhindge
their barne doores, and robbe their garners, they are glad to implore
their husbands helpe to roule the bodies of trees over their holes, to
prevent those pioners, whose theeverie they as much hate as their
flesh. An other of their employments is their Summer processions to get
Lobsters for their husbands, wherewith they baite their hookes when
they goe a fishing for Basse or Codfish. This is an every dayes walke,
be the weather cold or hot, the waters rough or calme, they must dive
sometimes over head and eares for a Lobster, which often shakes them by
their hands with a churlish nippe, and bids them adiew. The tide being
spent, they trudge home two or three miles, with a hundred weight of
Lobsters at their backs, and if none, a hundred scoules meete them at
home, and a hungry belly for two dayes after. Their husbands having
caught any fish, they bring it in their boates as farre as they can by
water, and there leave it; as it was their care to catch it, so it must
be their wives paines to fetch it home, or fast: which done, they must
dresse it and cooke it, dish it, and present it, see it eaten over
their shoulders; and their loggerships having filled their paunches,
their sweete lullabies scramble for their scrappes. In the Summer these
_Indian_ women when Lobsters be in their plenty and prime, they drie
them to keepe for Winter, erecting scaffolds in the hot sun-shine,
making fires likewise underneath them, by whose smoake the flies are
expelled, till the substance remain hard and drie. In this manner they
drie Basse and other fishes without salt, cutting them very thinne to
dry suddainely, before the flies spoile them, or the raine moist them,
having a speciall care to hang them in their smoakie houses, in the
night and dankish weather.

In Summer they gather flagges, of which they make Matts for houses, and
Hempe and Rushes, with dying stuffe of which they make curious baskets
with intermixed colours and portractures of antique Imagerie: these
baskets be of all sizes from a quart to a quarter, in which they carry
their luggage. In winter time they are their husbands Caterers,
trudging to the Clamm bankes for their belly timber, and their Porters
to lugge home their Venison which their lazinesse exposes to the
Woolves till they impose it upon their wives shoulders. They likewise
sew their husbands shooes, and weave coates of Turkie feathers, besides
all their ordinary household drudgerie which daily lies upon them, so
that a bigge bellie hinders no businesse, nor a childebirth takes much
time, but the young Infant being greased and sooted, wrapt in a Beaver
skin, bound to his good behaviour with his feete up to his bumme, upon
a board two foote long and one foot broade, his face exposed to all
nipping weather; this little _Pappouse_ travells about with his bare
footed mother to paddle in the Icie Clammbankes after three or foure
dayes of age have sealed his passeboard and his mothers recoverie. For
their carriage it is very civill, smiles being the greatest grace of
their mirth; their musick is lullabies to quiet their children, who
generally are as quiet as if they had neither spleene or lungs. To
heare one of these _Indians_ unseene, a good eare might easily mistake
their untaught voyce for the warbling of a well tuned instrument. Such
command have they of their voices. These womens modesty drives them to
weare more cloathes than their men, having alwayes a coate of cloath or
skinnes wrapt like a blanket about their loynes, reaching downe to
their hammes which they never put off in company. If a husband have a
minde to sell his wives Beaver petticote, as sometimes he doth, shee
will not put it off untill shee have another to put on: commendable is
their milde carriage and obedience to their husbands, notwithstanding
all this their customarie churlishnesse and savage inhumanitie, not
seeming to delight in frownes or offering to word it with their lords,
not presuming to proclaime their female superiority to the usurping of
the least title of their husbands charter, but rest themselves content
under their helplesse condition, counting it the womans portion: since
the _English_ arrivall comparison hath made them miserable, for seeing
the kind usage of the _English_ to their wives, they doe as much
condemne their husbands for unkindnesse, and commend the _English_ for
their love. As their husbands commending themselves for their wit in
keeping their wives industrious, doe condemne the _English_ for their
folly in spoyling good working creatures. These women resort often to
the _English_ houses, where _pares cum paribus congregatæ_, in Sex I
meane, they do somewhat ease their miserie by complaining and seldome
part without a releefe: If her husband come to seeke for his _Squaw_
and beginne to bluster, the _English_ woman betakes her to her armes
which are the warlike Ladle, and the scalding liquors, threatning
blistering to the naked runnaway, who is soone expelled by such liquid
comminations. In a word to conclude this womans historie, their love to
the _English_ hath deserved no small esteeme, ever presenting them some
thing that is either rare or desired, as Strawberries, Hurtleberries,
Rasberries, Gooseberries, Cherries, Plummes, Fish, and other such gifts
as their poore treasury yeelds them. But now it may be, that this
relation of the churlish and inhumane behaviour of these ruder
_Indians_ towards their patient wives, may confirme some in the beliefe
of an aspersion, which I have often heard men cast upon the _English_
there, as if they should learne of the _Indians_ to use their wives in
the like manner, and to bring them to the same subjection, as to sit on
the lower hand, and to carrie water, and the like drudgerie: but if my
owne experience may out-ballance an ill-grounded scandalous rumour, I
doe assure you, upon my credit and reputation, that there is no such
matter, but the women finde there as much love, respect, and ease, as
here in old _England_. I will not deny, but that some poore people may
carrie their owne water, and doe not the poorer sort in _England_ doe
the same, witnesse your _London_ Tankerd-bearers, and your
countrie-cottagers? But this may well be knowne to be nothing, but the
rancorous venome of some that beare no good will to the plantation. For
what neede they carrie water, seeing every one hath a Spring at his
doore, or the Sea by his house? Thus much for the satisfaction of
women, touching this entrenchment upon their prerogative, as also
concerning the relation of these _Indian_ Squawes.

       Because many have desired to heare some of the Natives
       Language, I have here inserted a small _Nomenclator_,
       _with the Names of their chiefe Kings, Rivers, Moneths,
       and dayes, whereby such as have in-sight into the
       Tongues_, may know to what Language it is most inclining;
       and such as desire it as an unknowne Language onely, may
       reape _delight, if they can get no profit_.


   _Aberginian_                an Indian
   _Abbamocho_                 the divell
   _Aunum_                     a dogge
   _Ausupp_                    a Rackoone
   _Au so hau nauc hoc_        Lobstar
   _Assawog_                   will you play
   _A saw upp_                 to morrow
   _Ascoscoi_                  greene
   _Ausomma petuc quanocke_    give me some bread
   _Appepes naw aug_           when I see it I will tell you my minde
   _Anno ke nugge_             a sieve
   _An nu ocke_                a bed
   _Autchu wompocke_           to day
   _Appause_                   the morne
   _Ascom quom pauputchim_     thankes be given to God.


   _Boquoquo_                  the head
   _Bisquant_                  the shoulderbones


   _Chesco kean_               you lye
   _Commouton kean_            you steale
   _Cram_                      to kill
   _Chicka chava_              osculari podicem
   _Cowimms_                   sleepes
   _Cocam_                     the navell
   _Cos_                       the nailes
   _Conomma_                   a spoone
   _Cossaquot_                 bow and arrowes
   _Cone_                      the Sunne
   _Cotattup_                  I drinke to you
   _Coetop_                    will you smoake Tobaco
   _Connucke semmona_          It is almost night
   _Connu_                     good night to you
   _Cowompaum sin_             God morrow
   _Coepot_                    ice


   _Dottaguck_                 the backe bone
   _Docke taugh he necke_      what is your name


   _Et chossucke_              a knife
   _Eat chumnis_               Indian corne
   _Eans causuacke_            4 fathomes
   _Easu tommoc quocke_        halfe a skin of Beaver
   _Epimetsis_                 much good may your meate doe you

       F is not used.


   _Gettoquasit_               the great toe
   _Genehuncke_                the fore finger
   _Gettoquacke_               the knees
   _Gettoquun_                 the knuckles
   _Gettoquan_                 the thumb
   _Gegnewaw og_               let me see


   _Haha_                      yes
   _Hoc_                       the body
   _Hamucke_                   almost
   _Hub hub hub_               come come come
   _Haddo quo dunna moquonash_ where did you buy that
   _Haddogoe weage_            who lives here


   _Isattonaneise_             the bread
   _Icattop_                   faint with hunger
   _Icattoquam_                very sleepie


   _Kean_                      I
   _Keisseanchacke_            backe of the hand
   _Ksitta_                    It hurts me
   _Kawkenog wampompeage_      let me see money
   _Kagmatcheu_                will you eate meate
   _Ketottug_                  a whetstone
   _Kenie_                     very sharpe
   _Kettotanese_               lend me monie
   _Kekechoi_                  much paine

       L is not used.


   _Matchet_                   It is naught
   _Mattamoi_                  to die
   _Mitchin_                   meat
   _Misquantum_                very angrie
   _Mauncheake_                be gonne
   _Matta_                     no
   _Meseig_                    haire
   _Mamanock_                  the eye brows
   _Matchanne_                 the nose
   _Mattone_                   the lippes
   _Mepeiteis_                 the teeth
   _Mattickeis_                the shoulders
   _Mettosowset_               the little toe
   _Metosaunige_               the little finger
   _Misquish_                  the veines
   _Mohoc_                     the wast
   _Menisowhock_               the genitals
   _Mocossa_                   the black of the naile
   _Matchanni_                 very sicke
   _Monacus_                   bowes and arrowes
   _Manehops_                  sit downe
   _Monakinne_                 a coate
   _Mawcus sinnus_             a paire of shooes
   _Matchemauquot_             it stinketh
   _Muskana_                   a bone
   _Menota_                    a basket
   _Meatchis_                  be merrie
   _Mawpaw_                    it snowes
   _Mawnaucoi_                 very strong
   _Mutchecu_                  a very poore man
   _Monosketenog_              whats this
   _Mouskett_                  the breech
   _Matchet wequon_            very blunt
   _Matta ka tau caushana_     will you not trade
   _Mowhacheis_                Indian gold


   _Nuncompees_                a boy
   _Nicke squaw_               a maide
   _Nean_                      you
   _Nippe_                     water
   _Nasamp_                    pottadge
   _Nota_                      sixe
   _Nisquan_                   the elbow
   _Noenaset_                  the third toe
   _Nahenan_                   a Turkie
   _Niccone_                   a blacke bird
   _Naw naunidge_              the middle finger
   _Napet_                     the arme
   _Nitchicke_                 the hand
   _Nottoquap_                 the skinne
   _Nogcus_                    the heart
   _Nobpaw nocke_              the breast bone
   _Nequaw_                    the thighes
   _Netop_                     a friend
   _Nenmia_                    give me
   _Noeicantop_                how doe you
   _Nawhaw nissis_             farewell
   _Noei pauketan_             by and by kill
   _Nenetah ha_                Ile fight with you
   _Noei comquocke_            a codfish
   _Nepaupe_                   stand by
   _No ottut_                  a great journie
   _Necautauh han_             no such matter
   _Noewamma_                  he laugheth
   _Noeshow_                   a father
   _Nitka_                     a mother
   _Netchaw_                   a brother
   _Notonquous_                a kinseman
   _Nenomous_                  a kinswoman
   _Nau mau nais_              my sonne
   _Naunais_                   my daughter
   _No einshom_                give me corne
   _Nemnis_                    take it
   _Nenimma nequitta ta auchu_ give me a span of any thing.
   _Nees nis ca su acke_       2 fathome
   _Notchumoi_                 a little strong
   _Negacawgh hi_              lend me
   _Nebuks quam_               adiew
   _Noe winyah_                come in
   _Naut seam_                 much wearie
   _Noe wammaw ause_           I love you
   _Net noe whaw missu_        a man of a middle stature


   _Ottucke_                   a Deere
   _Occone_                    a Deere skinne
   _Oqnan_                     the heele
   _Ottump_                    a bow
   _Ottommaocke_               Tobacco
   _Ottannapeake_              the chinne
   _Occotucke_                 the throate
   _Occasu_                    halfe a quarter
   _Onquagh saw au_            you are cunning
   _Ontoquos_                  a Wolfe


   _Pow-wow_                   a conjurer or wizard
   _Petta sinna_               give me a pipe of Tobaco
   _Pooke_                     Colts-foote
   _Pappouse_                  a child
   _Petucquanocke_             bread
   _Picke_                     a pipe
   _Ponesanto_                 make a fire
   _Papowne_                   winter
   _Pequas_                    a Foxe
   _Pausochu_                  a little journie
   _Peamissin_                 a little
   _Peacumshis_                worke hard
   _Pokitta_                   smoake
   _Petogge_                   a bagge
   _Paucasu_                   a quarter
   _Pausawniscosu_             halfe a fathome
   _Peunctaumocke_             much pray
   _Pesissu_                   a little man
   _Pauseptssoi_               the sunne is rising
   _Pouckshaa_                 it is broken
   _Poebugketaas_              you burne
   _Poussu_                    a big bellied woman


   _Quequas nummos_            what cheare
   _Quequas nim_               it is almost day
   _Quog quosh_                make haste
   _Quenobpuuncke_             a stoole
   _Quenops_                   be quiet

       R is never used.


   _Sagamore_                  a king
   _Sachem_                    idem
   _Sannup_                    a man
   _Squaw_                     a woman
   _Squitta_                   a fire sparke
   _Suggig_                    a Basse
   _Seasicke_                  a rattle snake
   _Shannucke_                 a Squerill
   _Skesicos_                  the eyes
   _Sickeubecke_               the necke
   _Supskinge_                 the wrist bones
   _Socottocanus_              the breast bone
   _Squehincke_                blood
   _Siccaw quant_              the hammes
   _Sis sau causke_            the shinnes
   _Suppiske_                  ancle bones
   _Seat_                      the foote
   _Seaseap_                   a ducke
   _Suckis suacke_             a Clam
   _Sequan_                    the summer
   _Soekepup_                  he will bite
   _Sis_                       come out
   _Squi_                      red
   _Swanscaw suacko_           3 fathomes
   _Sawawampeage_              very weake
   _Succomme_                  I will eate you
   _Sasketupe_                 a great man


   _Taubut nean hee_           Thankes heartily
   _Tantacum_                  beate him
   _Tap in_                    goe in
   _Titta_                     I cannot tell
   _Tahanyah_                  what newes
   _Tonagus_                   the eares
   _Tannicke_                  a cranie
   _Thaw_                      the calfe of the leg
   _Tahaseat_                  the sole of the foote
   _Tasseche quonunck_         the insteppe
   _Tonokete naum_             whither goe you
   _Tannissin may_             which is the way
   _Tunketappin_               where live you
   _Tonocco wam_               where have you bin
   _Tasis_                     a paire of stockings
   _Tockucke_                  a hatchet
   _Towwow_                    a sister
   _Tom maushew_               a husband
   _Tookesin_                  enough sleepe
   _Titto kean Icatoquam_      doe you nod and sleepe
   _Tau kequam_                very heavie
   _Taub coi_                  it is very cold


   _Vkepemanous_               the breast bone
   _Vnkesheto_                 will you trucke


   _Wampompeage_               Indian money
   _Winuet_                    very good
   _Web_                       a wife
   _Wigwam_                    a house
   _Wawmott_                   enough
   _Whenan_                    the tongue
   _Whauksis_                  a Foxe
   _Wawpatucke_                a Goose
   _Wawpiske_                  the bellie
   _Whoe nuncke_               a ditch
   _Wappinne_                  the wind
   _Wawtom_                    understand you
   _Wompey_                    white
   _Wa aoy_                    the sunne is downe
   _Waacoh_                    the day breakes
   _Wekemawquot_               it smells sweete
   _Weneikinne_                it is very handsome
   _Whissu hochuck_            the kettle boyleth
   _Waawnew_                   you have lost your way
   _Woenaunta_                 it is a warme summer
   _Wompoca_                   to morrow
   _Wawmauseu_                 an honest man
   _Weneicu_                   a rich man
   _Weitagcone_                a cleere day
   _Wawnauco_                  yesterday

       X never used


   _Yeips_                     sit downe
   _Yaus_                      the sides
   _Yaugh_                     there
   _Yough yough_               now
   _Yoakes_                    lice

                           The number of 20.

                          _A quit_          1
                          _Nees_            2
                          _Nis_             3
                          _Yoaw_            4
                          _Abbona_          5
                          _Ocqinta_         6
                          _Enotta_          7
                          _Sonaske_         8
                          _Assaquoquin_     9
                          _Piocke_         10
                          _Apponna qiut_   11
                          _Apponees_       12
                          _Apponis_        13
                          _Appoyoaw_       14
                          _Apponabonna_    15
                          _Apponaquinta_   16
                          _Apponenotta_    17
                          _Apponsonaske_   18
                          _Apponasquoquin_ 19
                          _Neenisschicke_  20

          The _Indians_ count their time by nights, and not by
                          dayes, as followeth.

           _Sawup_                                 1 sleepes
           _Isoqunnocquock_                        2 sleepes
           _Sucqunnocquocke_                       3 sleepes
           _Yoawqunnocquock_                       4 sleepes
           _Abonetta ta sucquanocquock_            5 sleepes
           _Nequitta ta sucqunnocquock_            6 sleepes
           _Enotta ta sucqunnocquock_              7 sleepes
           _Soesicta sucqunnocquock_               8 sleepes
           _Pausaquoquin sucqunnocquock_           9 sleepes
           _Pawquo qunnocquock_                   10 sleepes

                      How they call their Moneths.

       _A quit-appause_                                 1 moneths
       _Nees-appause_                                   2 moneths
       _Nis-appause_                                    3 moneths
       _Yoaw appause_                                   4 moneths
       _Abonna appause_                                 5 moneths
       _Nequit appause_                                 6 moneths
       _Enotta appause_                                 7 moneths
       _Sonaske appause_                                8 moneths
       _Assaquoquin appause_                            9 moneths
       _Piocke appause_                                10 moneths
       _Appona quit appause_                           11 moneths
       _Appon nees appause_                            12 moneths
       _Appon nis appause_                             13 moneths
       _Appon yoaw appause_                            14 moneths
       _Nap nappona appause_                           15 moneths
       _Nap napocquint appause_                        16 moneths
       _Nap nap enotta appause_                        17 moneths
       _Napsoe sicke appause_                          18 moneths
       _Nappawsoquoquin appause_                       19 moneths
       _Neesnischicke appause_                         20 moneths
       _Neesnischicke appon a quit appause_            21 moneths
       _Neesnischicke apponees appause_                22 moneths
       _Neesnischick apponis appause_                  23 moneths
       _Neesnischick appo yoaw appause_                24 moneths

           The names of the _Indians_ as they be divided into
                          severall Countries.


                       The Names of _Sagamores_.

           _Woenohaquahham_      _Anglice_ King _Iohn_
           _Montowompate_        _Anglice_ King _Iames_
           _Mausquonomend_       _Igowam_ Sagamore
           _Chickkcatawbut_      _Naponset_ Sagamore
           _Canonicus_           _Narraganset_ Sagamore
           _Osomeagen_           _Sagamore_ of the _Pequants_
           _Kekut_               _Petchutacut_ Sagamore

           _Nassawwhonan_   }    Two Sagamores of _Nipust_.
           _Woesemagen_     }

           _Pissacannua_         A Sagamore and most noted

           _Nepawhamis_     }    Sagamores to the
           _Asteco_         }    East and North-east,
           _Assotomowite_   }    bearing rule amongst
           _Nannopounacund_ }    the _Churchers_
           _Nattonanite_    }    and _Tarrenteens_.
           _Noenotchuock_   }

                  The names of the noted Habitations.

                _Nahumkeake_          Salem
                _Mishaumut_           Charles towne
                _Massachusets_        Boston
                _Pigsgusset_          Water towne
                _Matampan_            Dorchester
                _Pawtuxet_            Plymouth

                   At what places be Rivers of note.

                          _Cannibec_ River
                          _Merrimacke_ River
                          _Tchobocco_ River
                          _Saugus_ River
                          _Mistick_ River
                          _Mishaum_ River
                          _Naponset_ River
                          _Wessaguscus_ River
                          _Luddams_ Foard
                          _Narragansets_ River
                          _Musketoquid_ River
                          _Hunniborne_ River
                          _Connectacut_ River



                          Transcriber's note:

    Variable capitalisations and hyphenations in the original have been

    Unusual and multiple spellings in the original have been retained.

    The format of chapter headings has been regularised.

    All corrections noted in the Errata, excepting one, have been

    Errata exception: 'p. 45. l. 29. house, horse.' Page 45 contains
    neither 'house' nor 'horse.'

    Table of Contents, ',' changed to '.,' "Part. 1. Chap. 1."

    Table of Contents, 'North-wards' changed to 'North-ward,' "or
    Indians North-ward."

    Table of Contents, '&c.' added, "Of their Mariages, &c."

    Errata, all references normalised to the form "p. nn. l. nn."

    Errata, all corrections terminated with a full stop.

    Errata, 'Squnotersquashes' changed to 'Squonterquashes,' "for
    Squonterquashes reade Isquoutersquashes."

    Errata, 'he' changed to 'hee,' "p. 15. l. 10. hee, they."

    Errata, 'spoiling' changed to 'spoyling,' "l. 28. spoyling, spoile."

    Errata, 'humiliters' changed to 'Humiliteers,' "p. 27. l. 21.
    Humiliteers, Humilitees."

    Errata, 'breach' changed to 'brech,' "l. 36. brech, Beach."

    Errata, '20' changed to '24,' "p. 70. l. 24. Warme, worme."

    Page 2, comma following 'Cape' struck, "Plimmouth, Cape Ann, Salem,"

    Page 3, 'trance' changed to 'entrance,' "entrance, and that not
    very broad,"

    Page 4, 'bittter' changed to 'bitter,' "with deepe Snowes and
    bitter Frost,"

    Page 4, 'winds' changed to 'windes,' "few North-west windes,"

    Page 5, 'secōd' changed to 'second,' "A second passage,"

    Page 6, 'Cod' italicised, "shaping their course for _Cape Cod_,"

    Page 6, 'beleife' changed to 'beliefe,' "startle beliefe of some,"

    Page 10, 'Tres' changed to 'Trees,' "where the Trees grow thinne,"

    Page 12, 'w^{ch}' changed to 'which,' "which hath one house in"

    Page 13, 'Marjoran' changed to 'Marjoram,' "as sweet Marjoram,"

    Page 14, comma struck after 'Iron,' "reported that there is Iron

    Page 24, 'it' capitalised to 'It,' "It is observed that they have"

    Page 25, 'peice' changed to 'peece,' "five shillings a peece,"

    Page 25, 'vnder' changed to 'Vnder,' "egresse being Vnder water"

    Page 26, 'affoords' changed to 'affords,' "as the Countrey affords:"

    Page 29, 'seggy' changed to 'sedgy,' "by reedy and sedgy places,"

    Page 32, 'Hhving' changed to 'Having,' "Having done with these,"

    Page 32, second 'and' struck, "and is likely to prove"

    Page 33, colon changed to comma, "and one wide, and a foot thicke;"

    Page 36, sidenote 'Wessagustus' changed to 'Wessaguscus.'

    Page 36, 'Wessagutus' changed to 'Wessaguscus,' "which is called
    Wessaguscus an Indian"

    Page 36, 'aud' changed to 'and,' "having Acornes and Clamms"

    Page 37, 'Alewiues' changed to 'Alewives,' "although there come no

    Page 41, 'bound' changed to 'abound,' "abound with Woods, and

    Page 42, 'weire' changed to 'wayre,' "without any wayre at all,"

    Page 43, 'Sangus' changed to 'Saugus,' "Northeast from Saugus lyeth

    Page 44, 'ravenons' changed to 'ravenous,' "are the ravenous

    Page 45, 'weed' changed to 'weede,' "this weede is ranck poyson,"

    Page 45, 'bittē' changed to 'bitten,' "whosoever is bitten by"

    Page 45, 'soundy' changed to 'soundly,' "will sleepe so soundly
    that I"

    Page 47, 'yere' changed to 'yeare,' "first yeare, never swell the

    Page 49, 'fish' added, "fish or flesh for their labour"

    Page 49, 'affoords' changed to 'affords,' "sure Middlesex affords
    London no better"

    Page 49, second 'and' struck, "and what to carry"

    Page 51, 'wel' changed to 'well,' "well accommodated with servants."

    Page 51, 'iudustrious' changed to 'industrious,' "hath an
    industrious family,"

    Page 52, 'hous-hold-stuffe' changed to 'household-stuffe,' "All
    manner of household-stuffe"

    Page 52, 'ann' changed to 'and,' "both broad and pitching-axes."

    Page 52, 'vtensils' changed to 'Vtensils,' "all Vtensils for the

    Page 53, second 'is' struck, "There is as much freedome"

    Page 54, second 'too' struck, "too curious objections,"

    Page 55, 'two' changed to 'too,' "would it be too little"

    Page 55, 'likly' changed to 'likely,' "never likely to remove"

    Page 56, 'Narraganssts' changed to 'Narragansets,' "called
    Pequants, and Narragansets;"

    Page 58, 'wherupon' changed to 'whereupon,' "whereupon they led him

    Page 58, 'thy' changed to 'they,' "under which they march"

    Page 59, 'inhabibiting' changed to 'inhabiting,' "A Sagamore
    inhabiting neere"

    Page 59, semi-colon changed to full stop, "or loose the saddle. His"

    Page 62, 'thē' changed to 'them,' "they make them of greene,"

    Page 63, 'bewray' changed to 'betray,' "or gray haire betray their

    Page 67, comma inserted after 'trenchers,' "without either
    trenchers, napkins, or knives,"

    Page 67, 'Squoutersquashes' changed to 'Isquoutersquashes,'
    "Isquoutersquashes is their best bread,"

    Page 68, 'thē' changed to 'them,' "feed them little better"

    Page 68, 'Sūmer' changed to 'Summer,' "In Summer they must"

    Page 68, 'with' changed to 'With,' "With this strange viaticum"

    Page 71, 'Naragansets' changed to 'Narragansets,' "from the
    Narragansets who traded"

    Page 71, 'Beere' changed to 'Deere,' "haunch of a fat Deere,"

    Page 72, 'wel' changed to 'well,' "who are as well acquainted with"

    Page 72, 'atachment' changed to 'attachment,' "fearing attachment,

    Page 73, 'Sagomore' changed to 'Sagamore,' "An Indian Sagamore once"

    Page 74, 'angrer' changed to 'anger,' "yet anger-boyling blood"

    Page 74, 'lamentables' changed to 'lamentable,' "the lamentable
    effects of rage;"

    Page 76, 'enformed' changed to 'informed,' "fully informed of their

    Page 77, 'Black-moore' changed to 'Black-more,' "poore wandring

    Page 83, 'somtimes' changed to 'sometimes,' "sometimes roaring like
    a Beare,"

    Page 84, 'seven' changed to 'seaven,' "altered in seaven or eight

    Page 87, 'winked' changed to 'winged,' "and nimble winged Pigeon"

    Page 87, 'markemen' changed to 'marksmen,' "as these Indians be
    good marksmen,"

    Page 87, 'yong' changed to 'young,' "when they are very young."

    Page 88, 'yeere' changed to 'yeare,' "in that time of the yeare,"

    Page 88, 'Musquashies' changed to 'Musquashes,' "Otters, Beavers,

    Page 88, 'accidentatall' changed to 'accidentall,' "of some
    accidentall passinger;"

    Page 89, comma following '14' changed to full stop, "12. 14. and
    16. some 18. foote long"

    Page 90, 'Burcthen' changed to 'Burtchen,' "made of Burtchen

    Page 90, 'weater' changed to 'weather,' "in frostie weather"

    Page 91, 'exclnding' changed to 'excluding,' "excluding L and R,"

    Page 92, 'doe' changed to 'doth,' "doth something differ in their"

    Page 92, 'threed' changed to 'thread,' "the thread of their dayes"

    Page 93, 'whō' changed to 'whom,' "whom they account unworthy"

    Page 96, 'hubands' changed to 'husbands,' "they are their husbands

    Page 96, comma struck after 'Beaver,' "his wives Beaver petticote,"

    Page 97, 'salvage' changed to 'savage,' "and savage inhumanitie,"

    Nomenclator C, 'drinke' changed to 'smoake,' "Coetop      will you
    smoake Tobaco"

    Nomenclator M, 'brees' changed to 'brows,' "Mamanock      the eye

    Nomenclator N, 'Taunais' changed to 'Naunais,' "Naunais      my

    Nomenclator O, 'Vnquagh' changed to 'Onquagh,' "Onquagh saw
    au      you are cunning"

    Nomenclator Q, full stop struck after 'Quenops,' "Quenops      be

    Nomenclator S, 'snmmer' changed to 'summer,' "Sequan      the

    Nomenclator Y, all entries regularised to begin with a capital

    Nomenclator Moneths, '16' changed to '19,' "Nappawsoquoquin
    appause      19 moneths"

    Nomenclator Moneths, 'Neefnishicke' changed to 'Neesnischicke,'
    "Neesnischicke appon a quit appause      21 moneths"

    Nomenclator Sagamores, 'Sagamoes' changed to 'Sagamores,' "Two
    Sagamores of Nipust."

    Nomenclator Sagamores, full stop struck after 'Nattonanite.'

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "New Englands Prospect - A true, lively, and experimentall description of that part - of America, commonly called New England: discovering the - state of that Countrie, both as it stands to our new-come - English Planters; and to the old Native Inhabitants" ***

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