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Title: The American Jew as Patriot, Soldier and Citizen
Author: Wolf, Simon
Language: English
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[Illustration: STATUE OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY, Fairmount Park,






  "And Ye shall know the Truth and the Truth shall make you
  free."--John, viii, 32.

  To All
  Who Love and Seek the Truth
  This Work is Dedicated
  The Author.


It were an error to suppose that prejudice is always the offspring of
ignorance, inasmuch as the reverse is very frequently true. Not seldom
is ignorance the result of prejudice, through a willful refusal to
recognize such facts as run counter to the latter. A more accurate
simile would, therefore, be the likening of prejudice and ignorance to
twins, of whom either may be the precursor of the other, and either
one the stronger of the two. The prejudices which follow ordinary
ignorance give way readily before increasing knowledge of the truth,
but where prejudice is the elder of the twin vices, it is usually the
most obstinate as well. "None so blind as those who will not see" is an
old aphorism whose truth is universally recognized. This obstinate kind
of prejudice is usually but a form of self-conceit, as the latter, in
turn, is but another form of ignorance.

To combat one of the most obstinate of all obstinate prejudices, and
to promote enlightenment on a subject whereof ignorance has become
unpardonable, has been undertaken by Hon. Simon Wolf in the work before
us. His impelling motive has been to enforce a recognition of the
Jewish people as a militant factor in the upbuilding of the State, and
of Judaism as a primal force in the furtherance of civilization, and he
has chosen as his weapons the simple truth of history and the testimony
of leaders among men.

A notable French writer remarks that "La vérité historique devrait
être non moins sacrée que la religion."[1] His words are just; the
truth of history should, indeed, be no less sacred than that of
religion. If this is true, and few or none will be found to dispute the
proposition, then the records of historic truth may be regarded as part
of the gospel of humanity. Such they are, in fact; as the truths of
history become disentangled from the maze of sophistry and falsehood in
which the passions and follies of mankind envelop them, they teach us
first of all the lesson of charity and good-will to men.

The light of historic truth has been concentrated by Mr. Wolf on the
part taken by his co-religionists in the development of our great
republic. He shows us that the Jewish people of the New World, like
their ancestors and brethren of the Old, have been unfailing in their
devotion to their country's cause; that they have performed an ample
part in the conquest of our liberties and have fully shared in the
struggles for the preservation of our institutions. He proves beyond
cavil that from an early stage of our history down to the present day,
men of the Hebrew race and faith have been counted in the van of the
country's progress and in the forefront of its defense, and having
proved this fact by historic records and a demonstration of the truth,
his task is done.

That this task was self-imposed but adds to the debt which the American
Jewish community owes to Mr. Wolf for its accomplishment. It was
undertaken in the spirit which has animated him throughout a long
career of public usefulness, a spirit of loyalty to the faith that is
in him, to his fellow-Israelites and to the land of his adoption. It
has been done with all the thoroughness that an earnest purpose could
impart to it, with a comprehensiveness in keeping with that purpose,
and withal, in a spirit free from any shadow of sordidness or motive of
self-interest. Mr. Wolf seeks no pecuniary profit from the unstinted
labors he has given to this cause, not even the return of the sums
expended by him in the tedious and often costly collection of his data.
Whatever of monetary reward may inure to his work has been dedicated by
him to the orphaned wards of the B'nai B'rith, whose asylum in Atlanta
he helped to found, and of which he has long been the directing spirit
and official head.

The work of gathering the material for this book having been
accomplished by Mr. Wolf, the less onerous task of editing and
collating it has been entrusted by him to the present writer. In the
execution of the work thus outlined for me I have been guided by the
spirit with which the author had imbued it, and in my introductory
references to the successive subjects of the volume, I have sought
to briefly elucidate the author's theme. In common with him, I have
to express my regret that the army lists compiled herein remain
incomplete notwithstanding his unsparing efforts to perfect them. On
the other hand, the more general subject, the place of the Jewish
people in the history of mankind, their influence on the current
of affairs, their attitude before the world and towards it, are
demonstrated by a consensus of many-voiced opinion, gathered from
unquestionable sources, in such abundance and of such extent that only
its necessary curtailment afforded difficulty. This varied material has
been subjected to a careful reconsideration, and in eliminating some
portions and including others, I have sought to render the whole in
harmony with the key-note which Mr. Wolf had sounded.

  _Philadelphia, October, 1895._


[1] Histoire de Jules César, par Napoleon III, Préface.



  DEDICATION                                                v
  EDITOR'S PREFACE                                        vii
  INTRODUCTION                                           1-11
    (INTRODUCTORY)                                      12-13
  A SKETCH OF HAYM SALOMON                              14-26
    AND HEBREW CITIZENS, ETC.                           53-61
  "EXEGI MONUMENTUM AERE PERENNIUS"                     62-66
    MEXICAN WAR                                         67-75
  UNITED STATES REGULAR ARMY                            76-80
  UNITED STATES NAVY                                    81-86
    WAR (INTRODUCTORY)                                  87-90
  A REMARKABLE EPISODE                                  91-97
  MEDALS OF HONOR                                     106-108
  FAMILIES OF "BROTHERS-IN-ARMS"                      109-111
    ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED                           117-409
    TO COMMANDS                                       410-422
  ADDENDA TO LISTS OF SOLDIERS                            423
  STATISTICAL DATA                                        424
  JEWISH PATRIOTISM IN CIVIL LIFE                     425-441
    AND THE WEST INDIES                               443-484
  JEWS IN THE ARMIES OF EUROPE                        485-487
  THE JEWISH PEOPLE BEFORE THE WORLD                  488-522
    (INTRODUCTORY)                                    523-527
    OF STATE GRESHAM, WITH NOTES                      527-543
    AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS                              544-564
  CONCLUSION                                          565-566
  INDEX                                               567-576
  ERRATA                                                   xv


  [_Of the various errors inevitably incident to a work of this
  character, the following are noted as especially requiring

Page 4, line 20, instead of "Charles RAUM," read "Charles BAUM."

Page 26, line 14 from bottom of page, instead of "Isaac MORRIS," read,
"Isaac MOSES."

Page 200, line 2, instead of "WASHINGTON," read "BALTIMORE."

Page 424, under "STATISTICAL," "Other Soldiers (indicated in Addenda),"
should be "13" instead of "12," making the total "8258," instead of

Page 428, line 25, instead of "1872" read "1870."



The Orphan Home of the Order of B'nai B'rith at Atlanta, Ga., for the
benefit of which Mr. Wolf has devoted the net income of the present
publication was instituted in 1876, under the auspices of District
Grand Lodge No. 5, comprising the States of Maryland, Virginia, North
and South Carolina and Georgia, and the District of Columbia. The
present building was dedicated in 1889. Its benefits are not restricted
to the membership of the Order which maintains it, children of all Jews
residing within the territory named being admitted to its shelter.
There are now sixty children cared for in the institution, and a large
number are waiting to be admitted when the new wing now in course
of erection is completed. This addition is calculated to cost some
$25,000, and when finished will enable this Home to adequately meet the
existing requirements and bring it to a foremost rank with institutions
of this character. It is managed by a Board of Control consisting of
thirteen members, of which Mr. Wolf, to whose efforts the existence of
the Home is primarily due, has been chairman since its foundation. The
administration of the Home is supervised by a local Board of Managers,
of which Hon. Joseph Hirsch is Chairman.


In December, 1891, there was printed in the _North American Review_ a
letter in reply to certain statements of a contributor to a previous
number of the same magazine regarding the services of American Jewish
citizens as soldiers in the Civil War. Under the caption "Jewish
Soldiers in the Union Army," the writer, after denying the statement
that Generals Rosecrans and Lyon were of Jewish birth, proceeds as
follows: --

    "I had served in the field about eighteen months before being
    permanently disabled in action, and was quite familiar with several
    regiments; was then transferred to two different recruiting
    stations, but I cannot remember meeting one Jew in uniform, or
    hearing of any Jewish soldier. After the war, for twenty-five
    years, I was constantly engaged in traveling, always among old
    soldiers, but never found any who remembered serving with Jews. I
    learned of no place, where they stood, shoulder to shoulder, except
    in General Sherman's department, and he promptly ordered them out
    of it for speculating in cotton and carrying information to the
    Confederates. If so many Jews fought so bravely for their adopted
    country, surely their champion ought to be able to give the names
    of the regiments they condescended to accept service in," etc., etc.

A statement of this nature, logically inconclusive and practically
absurd as it is, might well, under ordinary conditions have been left
unnoticed. Under ordinary conditions a reply of any kind to such a
tissue of misstatements, would but have dignified it beyond reason,
and but helped, perhaps, to save it and its author from oblivion. But
the conditions were not ordinary, but most unfortunately, otherwise.
It was at a time when the public mind throughout the civilized world
was wrought to a high pitch of excitement by the flaunting villainy
of the Russian government in the outrageous persecution of its Jewish
subjects, when the wave of anti-Semitism was at floodtide in Germany,
and was flowing high in France, and when bigots like Stoecker, fools
like Ahlwardt, and knaves like Drumont, were finding imitators on
both sides of the Atlantic. Here in our country, public attention was
being centered on the Jewish refugees from Russia, and the Jewish
people throughout the land were massing their strength to cope with
the problems which Muscovite tyranny had set before them. In the midst
of this agitation, the magazine article referred to, slurring the
Jewish people as it did, attracted unusual attention, and being widely
quoted and commented on by the newspaper press, it attained a degree of
publicity out of all proportion to its merits or its authorship.

Under these circumstances I felt myself impelled to reply to the writer
in the _North American Review_, and at once sent to that magazine a
letter embodying a statement of a few indisputable facts bearing on
the subject. This statement the publishers of the magazine declined
to print on the ground that they had received so many articles on the
subject that they could not undertake to discriminate in favor of any
one of them, and that they would therefore publish none. My cursorily
compiled citations were, however, published at the time in the
Washington _Post_, and as germane to my present subject I reprint them
in the main, as follows:--

    "Has this much-traveled and keen observer, Mr. Rogers, ever heard
    of General Edward S. Salomon, who enlisted as Lieutenant-Colonel of
    the 82d Illinois? He became Colonel of the regiment after Colonel
    Frederick Hecker's retirement, was made Brigadier-General, was
    subsequently appointed by General Grant governor of Washington
    Territory, and, at present residing in San Francisco, has been
    Department Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic, and is
    recognized as one of the bravest and most gallant officers that
    ever sat in saddle. This encomium I have from the lips of General
    Grant himself, and it will be cheerfully endorsed by General O.
    O. Howard, or by any of the officers yet living who served with
    him. In the same regiment, as I have learned from General Salomon,
    were more than one hundred private soldiers and subalterns of
    Jewish faith. General L. C. Newman, of the city of New York, who
    was fatally wounded in the first battle of the Rebellion, died in
    the city of Washington, while President Lincoln, who had brought
    Newman's commission as Brevet Brigadier-General, was with him
    at his bedside. General Leopold Blumenberg, of Baltimore, who,
    as Major of his regiment, was severely wounded at the battle of
    Antietam, and crippled for life and who was subsequently brevetted
    for his meritorious services, was one of the most loyal and brave
    of officers. Colonel M. M. Spiegel, of the 120th Ohio, who was
    severely wounded before Vicksburg, was entreated to retire from the
    army, but continued in the service and was killed in the campaign
    of General Banks, in Louisiana. Lieutenant Sachs, of the 32d
    Indiana, in command of a company of his regiment at Green River,
    in 1862, stood single-handed and alone against a company of Texas
    Rangers, and after killing and wounding eight of his assailants,
    fell riddled to death. His heroism and bravery had meanwhile given
    the command time to rally, and they thereupon dispersed the enemy.
    Captain A. Hart, of the 73d Pennsylvania, now of this city, who was
    Adjutant of his regiment, was severely wounded in the early part of
    the war, and is now a pensioner of the United States. Lieutenant
    Henry Franc, of the Kansas Volunteers, living in this city to-day,
    did splendid service. Judge. P. J. Joachimson, Lieutenant-Colonel
    of the 59th New York; Isidore Pinkson, Henry Pinkson and Moses
    Landauer, of the 110th New York; Captain Lyon and Lieutenant
    Ababot, of the 5th New York Cavalry; Theodore Wise, of the same
    regiment; Herman White, and A. T. Gross, of the 2d Maryland, and
    I. Feldstein, now a member of Koltes Post, New York, acquitted
    themselves with ample credit in their respective spheres. The 11th
    New York was more than half composed of men of Jewish faith. In the
    2d Pennsylvania Artillery, serving under Captain R. M. Goundy, who
    lives in this city, there were three Jewish soldiers; Lieutenant
    Liebschutz, who served throughout the war and was promoted for
    gallantry on the field, now living in this city to-day; Leo
    Karpeles, who is now a clerk in the Post Office Department, to whom
    a special medal was awarded by Congress for bravery and for the
    capture with his own hands of rebel flags on the field of battle,
    and Simon Stern, who died lately in this city and whose widow
    has been granted a pension. George Stern, who died from disease
    contracted in the service, also left a widow, now pensioned. Dr. A.
    Behrend, of this city, who served in our army with great ability,
    not only as a hospital steward, but as an officer in the field,
    tells me that in 1863 a general order was issued permitting Jews to
    be furloughed over their Holy Days, and that at Fairfax Seminary
    he furloughed eleven on that occasion. Dr. Herman Bendall, of
    Albany, a prominent citizen of that city, was promoted to the grade
    of Lieutenant-Colonel in recognition of his meritorious services
    and was subsequently appointed by General Grant superintendent of
    Indian affairs of Arizona. Jacob Hirsch, of this city, died from
    disease contracted in the service and his orphan children are now
    receiving a pension for their father's sacrifice; Captain Cohn, of
    New York City, now connected with the Baron de Hirsch Trust Fund,
    was as brave an officer as ever did duty. M. L. Peixotto, of the
    103 Ohio (a brother of the well-known Benjamin F. Peixotto), died
    last year in consequence of wounds received and disease contracted
    in the service. Mr. Bruckheimer, now a practicing physician in
    this city, Charles Raum, one of our leading merchants, Mr. Hoffa,
    Sol Livingston, M. Erdman, M. Augenstein, and S. Goodman, all of
    this city, Edward S. Woog, a clerk in the Interior Department;
    Morris Cohen, clerk in the War Department; Henry Blondheim, of
    Alexandria, Va., were soldiers in the late war. Captain Morris
    Lewis, of the 18th New York Cavalry, now living in this city,
    served on General Kearney's staff; he receives a special pension,
    having been shot through the body and paralyzed in his lower limbs.
    August Bruckner was killed at the second battle of Bull Run.
    Colonel M. Einstein and Colonel M. Friedman, both of Philadelphia,
    commanded regiments; Uriah P. Levy was Commodore of the United
    States Navy. Jacob Hayes, of the city of New York, Mr. Phillips,
    son of the sexton of the Portuguese congregation of that city, E.
    J. Russell, of the 19th Indiana, a resident of this city, and so
    severely wounded as to render him almost incapable of work; L.
    Myers, of the same regiment, and Julius Steinmeyer, of the 7th
    United States Infantry "stood shoulder to shoulder" at the front.
    General William Meyer, editor of several New York papers, served
    with credit and distinction during the draft riots in the city
    of New York, and has in his possession an autograph letter from
    President Lincoln thanking him for his eminent services during
    those hours of darkness. William Durst, of Philadelphia, is one of
    the few survivors of the memorable fight between the Monitor and
    the Merrimac; when volunteers were called for he went to his duty
    with death staring him in the face, and Admiral Worden himself told
    me some months ago that Durst was a man of distinguished bravery,
    whose services should be specially recognized by Congress. Major
    Joseph G. Rosengarten, of Philadelphia, is a soldier of national
    reputation and an author of ability, whose brother Adolph G.
    Rosengarten was killed at Stone River while acting as staff
    officer. Quartermaster Rosenfield, of the 13th Kansas, not only
    discharged the duties of that office with ability, but served also
    in the ranks. Lieutenant Rosenberg, of this city, is now dead, and
    his widow is pensioned. Colonel H. A. Seligson, who died some two
    months ago, led a Vermont regiment during the war, and achieved a
    high reputation as a soldier. Captain Frederick Leavy, of the 1st
    New York Infantry; Captain Max Conheim, of New York, and now of San
    Francisco, and Major H. Koenigsberger, of Cincinnati, were officers
    of distinction, and so, too, were David Ezekiel and Lieutenant
    Louis Blumenthal, of New Hampshire. Sergeant Elias Leon Hyneman,
    of the 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry, was one of the heroes of the war,
    in which he served from the beginning. In June, 1864, during a
    cavalry sortie about Petersburg, while his command was retreating
    before the main body of the enemy, he hurried to the relief of a
    dismounted and wounded comrade. He lifted him into his own saddle
    and enabled him to escape, and started to make his own way on foot.
    On his way he met another comrade, barefooted and bleeding; he took
    off his own boots and gave them to the sufferer. But he himself was
    captured, and after months of agony in Andersonville, he died.

    Frederick Kneffler, a resident of Indianapolis, attained the
    rank of Major General; he commanded the 79th Indiana, and was
    conspicuous for bravery at the battle of Chickamauga. As a further
    list of officers and privates in the various commands, I may
    yet add the names of Lieutenant Suldman, 44th New York; Captain
    Gremitz, 62d Pennsylvania; Corporal Gisner, 142d Pennsylvania;
    Lieutenant Evan Davis, 115th Pennsylvania; Sergeant Myers, 62d
    Pennsylvania; Captain A. Goldman, 17th Maine; Lieutenant A. A.
    Rinehard, 148th Pennsylvania; Lieutenant Nieman, 103d New York;
    M. S. Asher, 103d New York; Lieutenant George Perdinger, 39th New
    York; Lieutenant Philip Truffinger, 57th New York; Lieutenant
    Herman Musschel, 68th New York; Lieutenant Herman Krauth, 103d
    New York; Lieutenant Julius Frank, 103d New York; Captain H. P.
    Schwerin, 119th New York; Julius Niebergall, Levi Kuehne and Henry
    Luterman, all of the New York 3d Artillery, and Lehman Israels,
    Lieutenant in the 58th New York.

    It must be taken into account that when the War of the Rebellion
    broke out the number of Jews in the United States was quite
    limited; according to the census taken in 1876 by Mr. William B.
    Hackenburg, of Philadelphia, and myself, in behalf of the Union
    of American Hebrew Congregations, there were then in the United
    States, fifteen years after the war commenced, only 250,000 Jews.
    It is altogether doubtful whether there were more than 150,000, if
    that many, when hostilities commenced. The proportion of Jewish
    soldiers is, therefore, only large, but is perhaps larger than that
    of any other faith in the United States. I have been told by one of
    the Jewish soldiers in this city, one who bears the scars of the
    war, that there were at least, as far as he could judge--and he had
    experience during the whole conflict--from 6,000 to 8,000 soldiers
    of the Jewish faith in the Union Army alone. I am not prepared to
    assert this number, but would not be surprised if it were found to
    be correct.

    The animus of the writer in the _North American Review_ is
    indicated by the words, "_Except in General Sherman's Department,
    and he promptly ordered them out of it for speculating in cotton
    and conveying information to the Confederates_." This statement
    is made with the same disregard of facts as are others in the
    article referred to, for while a few Jews may have violated the
    laws of war by running the blockade or furnishing information to
    the enemy, it was no more than others of other races and religious
    faiths did under like circumstances, even to a larger degree: and
    why the Jews as a class should be held up to the contempt and
    scorn of the world in consequence of the want of patriotism of a
    few of their number, is to me a profound mystery, and can only be
    explained upon the theory that inculcated prejudice is stronger
    than the desire for fair play or the regard for justice. No one for
    a moment would charge a particular class of Christians with want of
    honesty because one or more of their number had violated law. The
    War Department records and the Treasury files will furnish ample
    evidence of the fact that many of the sins that were committed
    by others were heaped upon the shoulders of the Jews. It has
    always been an easy thing to strike at the minority and from time
    immemorial the prejudice against the Jew has been made a convenient
    vehicle for furthering malignant purposes and selfish ends.

    Having enjoyed the friendship of President Grant and of General
    Sherman (I was for eight years officially connected with the
    former, and for a time on intimate social terms with the latter),
    I can state that I had repeated conversations with them regarding
    "Order No. 11," which was issued over the signature of General
    Grant, but of which he, at the time, had absolutely no knowledge.
    This fact I proved conclusively during the presidential campaign
    of 1888, when political capital was being made against General
    Grant among the Jews. By both generals I was assured that there
    had been a great deal of misinformation on the subject, and, that
    if they could permit themselves to speak of the facts as they were
    known to them it would not be the Jews who would be shown to have
    been derelict but a large number of Christians, many of whom had
    come highly recommended. It was the latter who were abusing the
    privilege accorded to them by the authorities at Washington and who
    had given both generals a great amount of trouble and annoyance.

    I admit that it is unfortunate that the writer of the earlier
    article in the _North American Review_, whose statements otherwise
    deserve the fullest consideration, should have been led into so
    glaring an error as to name Generals Lyon and Rosecrans as Jewish
    soldiers. While we would have no objection to classing them among
    our American citizens of Jewish faith, we can substantiate our case
    very well without doing so, as the cursory list which I have cited
    will abundantly show. But while admitting the error of the earlier
    writer I cannot allow the statement of the latter one, with its
    implication that there was no one of Jewish faith who battled for
    the Union, to go unchallenged. The Jewish cemeteries of this city,
    and of every other large city in the land, contain the remains of
    brave men of Jewish birth who are not forgotten on Decoration Day
    by their surviving comrades of Christian faith; and what these men
    recognize the American people will not ignore.

    The armies of every country afford ample proof of Jewish patriotism
    and valor. Even in benighted and tyrannical Russia, where, to a
    large extent they are soldiers by compulsion--50,000 or 60,000
    of them--their officers have uniformly admitted that in battle
    there were no braver men than the Jews. The late Franco-German war
    afforded instances of distinguished heroism on the part of Jewish
    officers and soldiers in both armies. The Italian army and the
    French army to-day contain a large contingent of Jewish officers
    and privates who are not only respected, but honored by their
    compatriots. In the Turkish army some of the leading officers are
    of Jewish faith. Patriotism, however, is not confined to the field
    of battle; in private life, from time immemorial, acts have been
    performed of greater service, possibly, than any in the field,
    showing greater powers of endurance and evincing higher virtues
    than were ever recorded in the annals of war. During our late
    conflict many who remained at home made sacrifices of the most
    heroic character, and did their duty cheerfully and with alacrity,
    and I know of none who did their part more fully than the citizens
    of the United States of Jewish faith. In fact, the history of
    the Jewish people is one long tragedy of personal sacrifice and
    heroism. But as I wish to trespass no longer on the columns
    of your valuable paper, I beg leave to close with this simple
    statement; that it seems to me high time for Americans of all
    faiths to frown down all attempts that have for their object the
    lowering and humiliation of any class of our citizens."


Finding that my letter had been copied extensively, not only by the
Jewish press, but by leading newspapers in the country, and favorably
commented on generally, I determined to give to the world, as complete
as I might find possible, a list of American citizens of Jewish faith
who had "stood shoulder to shoulder" on the field of battle, and to add
thereto the record of some typical instances of exceptional energy and
public spirit in the civil walks of life.

What I had anticipated and supposed would be an easy task, requiring
probably no more than six months at the utmost, has taken more than
four years of continuous work, notwithstanding the assistance I
received from many quarters, and I am even now compelled to give this
work to the public in an inadequate form, with the feeling that it is
incomplete and that much more should have been made of it.

The difficulties in the way of completing fully and accurately such
a compilation as I have here attempted will scarcely be realized by
those who have not undertaken a similar task. The work was begun
nearly thirty years after the close of the war, when many of those
whose names were to be gathered were dead, and many others dispersed
throughout our vast domain and beyond our borders. In response to three
successive calls made through the leading newspapers of the country, I
received, indeed, a large number of replies, but after all, the great
majority even of the survivors failed to respond, and of the data that
reached me much could not be classified. Nearly a thousand names are
accordingly placed in the unclassified list.

By far the majority of the names herein included were furnished by
the soldiers themselves or their relatives, but a large number of
them were sent to me by army comrades of the men referred to. Some
of these may be incorrectly quoted both as to their names and the
commands with which they were connected, but these errors may scarcely
be considered as affecting the general result, so far at least as
numbers are concerned. It was naturally impossible to verify all the
notices sent to me, and this compilation must therefore, in the very
nature of the case, be more or less imperfect and incomplete, but I
may say without hesitation that the work is free from all errors which
could be eliminated through a patient and cautious scrutiny. Several
hundred names of soldiers from Indiana alone were finally excluded from
my present lists, notwithstanding their pronounced Jewish character,
such as Marks, Abrahams, Isaacs and others of a similar strain, whose
owners were ascertained by my correspondents to be non-Jews, while on
the other hand many soldiers bearing names of decidedly non-Jewish
derivation were authenticated as Jews. If many whose names should be
included fail to see them on this "roll of honor" the fault is at all
events not mine, and the earnest effort which I have given to this
work, wholly a "labor of love" on my part, leaves me free from the
necessity of offering apology for whatever errors of omission or of
commission may remain in it. The public records could not be utilized,
because our army lists, unlike those of foreign powers, make no
registry of the religious faith of the enrolled soldiers. I should, in
this connection, urge upon my readers to aid me with such corrections
of these army lists as they may be able to furnish, with the view to
the record being perfected as far as may be, in a future edition of
this book.

Unsatisfactory and at times discouraging as has been my task and
its outcome, I have yet had at times the pleasure of obtaining and
recording data of a most gratifying character. One of the most pleasing
results of my labors is the fact that I am able to present a list of
fourteen Jewish families that contributed to the Union and Confederate
armies no less than fifty-one soldiers. Three, four, five brothers; a
father and three sons, a father and four sons, volunteers in a deadly
strife, leaving their homes and kindred, breaking their family ties to
face privation, disease, wounds and death, sacrificing all to fight
with their compatriots for the cause which they deemed right.

My primary purpose has been to show that the Jewish people throughout
the land not only took a share in the struggle which has ended so
beneficently as to have brought prosperity to both antagonists and
dispelled the cause of discord, but that they took their full share,
and it is now conclusively shown that the enlistment of Jewish
soldiers, north and south, reached proportions considerably in excess
of their ratio to the general population. This fact had become apparent
before my present work had been systematically begun, as I indicated
in my letter to the Washington _Post_, quoted above, but the lists
obtained by me, incomplete as they must inevitably be, make up a number
that leaves no reasonable doubt on this subject. This fact, in view
of statements minimizing the numbers of Jewish soldiers of the late
war, or denying the existence of any at all, cannot be too strongly
emphasized. To complete, however, my ultimate purpose of presenting
a consideration of the Jew as citizen and philanthropist as well as
patriot and soldier, I have herein collated a symposium of expressions
on this comprehensive subject from sources at once authoritative and
unbiased. I have included in this collection of views and reviews,
the carefully considered statements of many of the foremost men of
modern times, statesmen and soldiers, philosophers, divines, writers
and other leaders of public opinion, as widely divergent in locality
as they are unanimous in sentiment. Among these I have included only
such as are entirely non-Jewish in their origin, men whose thoughts are
the expressions of well-disciplined minds, and whose opinions are the
deliverances of an impartial judgment.

I gladly record my obligations to the Grand Army of the Republic for
the aid afforded me in obtaining information through the machinery
of its organization, and to General J. B. Gordon, of the Confederate
Memorial Association, for a like co-operation. To the Union of American
Hebrew Congregations, to the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, and
to the Jewish Publication Society of America, I am indebted for
contributions to the cost of publication and for other aid in the
prosecution of my work.

I owe my thanks to Captain Eugene H. Levy, Mr. George Alexander Kohut
and Mr. Max J. Kohler, of New York, to Messrs. Lewis Abraham and L.
Lichtenstein, of Washington, for their assistance, and especially
to Colonel F. C. Ainsworth, of the War Department, for the loan of
Records. To Mr. Henry S. Morais' recent historical work on "The
Jews of Philadelphia," I am much indebted for valuable data, and
other important materials have been gleaned from Mr. Isaac Markens'
compendious work on "The Hebrews in America." To the Jewish press I owe
acknowledgement for many welcome items of information and for repeated
expressions of encouragement.

Finally, among my obligations to numerous correspondents in different
parts of the country are those which I owe to many soldiers of
Christian faith, some of them officers of distinguished rank, who
afforded me much valuable information and who added, in almost every
case, some warm expression of their sympathy and good-will.

  [Illustration: Signature of Simon Wolf]
  _Washington, D. C., June, 1895._


The keen and responsive sense of duty with which, through Torah and
Talmud, the Jewish character is so deeply imbued, has never failed to
become manifest when occasion has called it forth. Jews have never
been wanting in patriotism and though a peace-loving people, (the
very mission of Israel being peace, and good-will towards neighbors a
cardinal teaching of Judaism) they have always espoused, eagerly and
earnestly, the cause of their countrymen. The heroism and self-devotion
which marks the course of Jewish history from the earliest Biblical
records, emblazoning the era of the Maccabees, signalizing the Roman
period and illuminating the Dark Ages, has found many a worthy example
in these modern days. We have here to deal with the records of but
one country, yet these records are replete with instances of bravery
and undaunted courage, of earnest devotion and of faithful service
performed by men of Israel in behalf of this land of their adoption.
These records begin at a time before the Revolutionary epoch, when the
Jewish settlers in America were very few indeed. At the date of the
first census, in 1790, just after the close of the Revolution, when the
total population of the country was figured at almost 4,000,000, the
number of Jewish inhabitants could scarcely be estimated at 3,000, or
only one to 1,330 of the population.[2]

The dearth of accessible records of a detailed character rendered it
practically impossible to present more than a very imperfect list
of the Jewish participants in the Revolutionary struggle. However,
sufficient data are at hand to prove conclusively that the Jewish
colonists of that period, comparatively recent settlers and few in
number as they were, furnished, as usual in all struggles for liberty
and freedom, more than their proportion of supporters to the colonial
cause. They not only risked their lives in the war for independence,
but aided materially with their money to equip and maintain the armies
of the Revolution. That they took their part in the earliest stages of
resistance to the encroachments of the mother country is proved by the
signatures to the Non-Importation Resolutions of 1765. Nine Jews were
among the signers of these resolutions, the adoption of which was the
first organized movement in the agitation which eventually led to the
independence of the colonies. The original document is still preserved
in Carpenter's Hall, in Philadelphia, and following are the names of
the Jews on that early roll of patriots:

Benjamin Levy, Samson Levy, Joseph Jacobs, Hyman Levy, Jr., David
Franks, Mathias Bush, Michael Gratz, Barnard Gratz, Moses Mordecai.

With these as worthy precursors of the Jewish patriots of the
Revolution we may proceed to note the list of Jews whose names have
come to us from the Revolutionary period, through various published
sources, as men of special distinction among their fellows. One of the
most notable of these was Haym Salomon, a man who, while not the only
Jewish patriot that lavished his ample fortune in behalf of liberty
and independence, yet stands out as so unique a figure in the history
of the American Revolution that the record of his part in the making
of that history may well take precedence. Fragmentary presentations
of this subject have been made in public documents and in historic
essays at various times since the submission by Salomon himself of his
memorial to the Continental Congress in August, 1778.[3] However, as
embracing a succinct statement and detailed review of the whole matter
to the present time, the following paper from the "Publications of the
American Jewish Historical Society" (No. 2, 1894) may be quoted in


[2] According to a careful estimate by Mr. Isaac Harby, in 1826, there
were then, nearly forty years after the Revolution, not over 6,000 Jews
in the United States.

[3] See Markens, "The Hebrews in America" (New York, 1888), and Morais,
"Jews of Philadelphia" (Philadelphia, 1894).



[Contributed by HERBERT B. ADAMS, PH. D., Professor in the Johns
Hopkins University. With Notes by J. H. HOLLANDER.]

In the fall of 1841, Jared Sparks, while professor of history in
Harvard College, was delivering a course of lyceum lectures in New
York City upon the American Revolution. His remarks upon the services
of certain public men of the period excited deep interest in the mind
of a Jewish hearer, Mr. Haym M. Salomon, who wrote to and afterwards
called upon Mr. Sparks in reference to the patriotic activity of Haym
Salomon, a contemporary and associate of Robert Morris, James Madison,
Edmund Randolph and other distinguished publicists of the Revolutionary
period. At the request of Mr. Sparks, Mr. Salomon prepared certain
memoranda of the eminent services of his father, Haym Salomon, and this
manuscript passed into the possession of Mr. Sparks.

The interview and the information thus obtained seem to have made a
profound impression upon Mr. Sparks. He mentioned something of the
above matter to Mr. Joshua I. Cohen, of Baltimore, and almost a quarter
of a century after the original interview, under date of October 29,
1865, Mr. Cohen wrote to Mr. Sparks as follows:

"You may probably recollect a conversation I had with you many years
ago during a visit to Cambridge, in which I mentioned that Judge Noah,
of New York, was then engaged in gathering together the facts and
memorials of the part which our people, the Israelites, took in our
Revolutionary struggle, and you kindly offered to him through me the
use of your biographical series for any memoirs he might prepare on
the subject. The death of Judge Noah, not long after, put an end to
the project. I mentioned to you a military company that was formed
in Charleston, S. C., composed almost exclusively of Israelites, of
which my uncle was a member, and which behaved well during the war.
Major Frank, one of Arnold's aids, was spoken of, and also Haym Salomon
and others. In connection with Mr. Salomon you expressed yourself
very fully, and, in substance (if I recollect correctly), that his
association with Robert Morris was very close and intimate, and that
a great part of the success that Mr. Morris attained in his financial
schemes was due to the skill and ability of Haym Salomon. I do not
pretend to quote your language, but only the idea. The matter was
brought up to my mind recently by the marriage of a great-grandson
of Mr. Salomon to a niece of mine, one of the young ladies of our

The original sketch of Haym Salomon thus prepared by his son was found
in a somewhat mutilated condition by Professor Herbert B. Adams, of
the Johns Hopkins University, among the Sparks Papers, which had been
entrusted to his care during the preparation of "The Life and Writings
of Jared Sparks," published in 1893 by Houghton, Mifflin & Co. The
manuscript was stitched to other papers and had been apparently cut
down somewhat in order to make it more uniform in size with the smaller
sheets. This fact will explain certain tantalizing, but apparently
brief omissions in the text. The appended copy of the manuscript is
furnished by Professor Adams with the full consent of the Sparks family.

       *       *       *       *       *

Haym Salomon, who died in Philadelphia, then the metropolis of the
United States, January, 1785, was the fellow-countryman and intimate
associate of the Polish Generals Pulaski and Kosciuszko, and was first
publicly known in 1778, when he was taken by the British General Sir
H. Clinton in New York on charges that he had received orders from
General Washington to burn their fleets and destroy their store-houses,
which he had attempted to execute to their great injury and damage. He
was accordingly imprisoned, treated inhumanly, and ordered to suffer
military death. From the sacrifice of his life, with which he was
threatened in consequence of the sentence, he escaped by means of a
considerable bribe in gold. This is corroborated from his letter to
his brother-in-law, Major Franks, dated soon after in Philadelphia, in
which his intimacy is stated with the brave General McDougall, who then
commanded the American army in the neighborhood of New York, and with
whom it appears he must have been in co-operation in order to drive ...
away from the comfortable quarters, which the maritime and military
positions of that city so happily promised them after its abandonment
by the friends of the Revolution.[5]

A few days after his escape from the merciless enemy he safely arrived
in Philadelphia, where he was welcomed and esteemed as one devoted to
the principle ... [_MS. cut off._]

We then find him meriting the well-placed confidence and affection of
the patriots who had been distinguished in the Revolutionary Congress
of 1776; also the great men who were famous in those succeeding
sessions, 1780, '81, '82, '83 and '84, as furnished us by such
circumstantial testimony as yet remains of that immortal body of
devoted patriots.

It is seen as soon as the generous monarch of France agreed to furnish
the expiring government of that day with means to reanimate their
exertions in the glorious cause. It was he who was charged with
the negotiation of the entire amount of those munificent grants of
pecuniary supplies from the government of France and Holland.[6]

In 1783-4, after the satisfactory close of these truly confidential
services, he is found to have made considerable advances, moneys,
loans, &c., to Robert Morris, of the Congress of the Declaration of
'76. To General Miflin, to General St. Clair, to General Steuben, to
Colonel Shee, to Colonel Morgan, Major McPherson, Major Franks, and
many other officers such sums as they required. And as it regarded the
deputies to the Continental Congress, [_to_] the amiable Judge Wilson
(another member of the session of '76) considerable loans.[7]

To the immortal delegation from Virginia, namely, Arthur Lee, Theodore
Bland, Joseph Jones, John F. Mercer and Edmund Randolph, liberal
supplies of timely and pecuniary aid, and we find it declared by one
of the most accomplished, most learned and patriotic members of the
succeeding sessions of the Revolutionary legislature, James Madison,
that when by the ... [_MS. cut off_] pecuniary resources of the members
of Congress, both public and private, were cut off, recourse was had
to Mr. Salomon for means to answer their current expenses, and he was
always found extending his friendly hand.[8]

The exalted and surviving delegate of the Revolutionary Congress above
alluded to, who has since that period been promoted for two successive
terms to the chief magistracy of these States, in his letter on the
subject of the character of Mr. Haym Salomon, testifies fully as to
the unquestionable uprightness of his transactions, as well as the
disinterestedness of his "friendship," and also his "intelligence,"
and which no doubt from his confidential intercourse with the foreign
ambassadors made his communications serviceable to the public
safety.[9] That conferences were sought with him by the great men of
the time is proved from the existence of a note in the handwriting
of another member of the Congress of Declaration, the incorruptible
President Reed.

His services to the cause of his country were not confined to
aiding the native agents of our own government, but he was the most
confidential friend and timely adviser to the agents, consuls, and
ambassadors representing the interests of the kings of those countries
then in our alliance, as it appears from the amount of specie granted
for the service of the army and hospital of Rochambaud, and large sums
appear to have been received from him by Chevalier De La Luzerne,
Marbois, consul-general, De La Forest, John ... [_MS, cut off_],
recollected by the elders of the nation as the active agents of the
good French king.[10]

As to the minister of the King of Spain, then the richest of the
European monarchs. The amount granted him was expressly to relieve the
wants, conveniences and necessities of this ambassador, whose king
was then countenancing the Revolution in this country, but with whose
European dominions all intercourse was stopped, and in regard to the
monies so furnished, whether Mr. S. was ever repaid by Spain is a
matter of as much uncertainty as that regarding the considerable sums
advanced to other Revolutionary agents.[11]

It appears that the death of Mr. S. after a short and severe illness
was quite as unexpected as calamitous to his family, leaving no will
nor relatives in this country competent to take charge of his estate,
at this difficult period of the unsettled state of the jurisprudence
of the country, being four years prior to the formation of the
Constitution of the United States.

A letter from him yet exists, dated in New York a few days previous
to his return and death, directed to the agent of his house in
Philadelphia, in which he speaks of the full competency of his fortune
and his intention of retiring from business. An additional inducement
no doubt was owing to the impaired state of his health from the great
exertions he had made to promote the views of the Revolution, and
which letter further declares that he had many claims uncollected
due him,[12] and spoke of the quantities of public securities and
government papers which ... [_MS. cut off_]. Of this latter, on
examination of a list deposited in the Probate Office, it appears
there was upwards of $300,000, more than $160,000 of which were of
certificates of the Loan Office of the Treasury and the army.[13]

At his decease the management of his estate passed into the hands of
strangers, all of whom not very long after became either bankrupts or
died, as well as Mr. Macrea,[14] his chief clerk, who had committed
suicide about the same period. Consequently the books and papers have
nearly been all lost, and the obscurity into which these matters are
thrown is increased in consequence of the destruction by the British of
many of the public archives of that period, during the invasion of the
city of Washington by their army during the last war.[15] And such were
the effects of those unfortunate circumstances to the heirs that when
the youngest son became of age nothing was obtained from the personal
estate of this munificent and patriotic individual in Philadelphia.
And no other inheritance now survives to the offspring except the
expectation of the grateful remembrance of a just and generous republic.

It ought not to be forgotten, that although he endorsed a great portion
of those bills of exchange for the amount of the loans and subsidies
our government obtained in Europe, of which he negotiated the entire
sums, and the execution of which duty occupied a great portion of his
valuable time from '81 to '83, still there was only charged scarcely
a fractional percentage to the United States, although individuals
were willing to pay him ... [_MS. cut off_] for his other negotiations
and guarantee. And it is known that he never caused the loss to the
government of one cent of those many millions of his negotiations,
either by his own mismanagement or from the credit he gave to others on
the sales he made of those immense sums of foreign drafts on account of
the United States.[16]

We find that immediately after the peace of '83, when foreign commerce
could securely float again on the ocean, that he resumed his business
as a merchant for the few remaining months of his life, trading to
foreign countries, which may be collected from the few original letters
(that are preserved) bearing date [_of_] London, Holland and Spain, and
from the return of the large ship Sally from Spain to his consignment
a few weeks succeeding his death, on which cargo and hull he was
interested in the sum of 40,000 florins; his estate on the expedition
sustained almost total loss, owing to the failures and disasters among
merchants of those days, to whom the property had been consigned and by
whose advice it had been undertaken.

He was most friendly in aiding those other commercial citizens and
merchants who recommenced trading after the war had closed. One
remarkable instance [_that_] may be noted among others was the case
of Mr. Willing's house, the head of which was the president of the
National Bank, and whose active partner was the Superintendent of
Finance. The firm traded under the name of Willing, Morris & Swanick.
To them he made a loan of his name to obtain 40,000 dollars in specie
in one amount from the bank. A second loan of his name in addition
of 24,000 specie dollars also, a few months preceding his death, for
both of which considerable accommodations of credit at this eventful
period of our commercial history he never changed them one cent of

[Copy of an authentic certificate from the Register's Office in
Philadelphia shewing the amount of public securities[18] and
Revolutionary papers left by the deceased Haym Salomon at his death and
from which personal estate mentioned in said certificate not a cent was
ever received by any of his heirs.]

  "58 Loan Office Certificates    $110,233.65.
   19 Treasury         "            18,259.50.
    2 Virginia State   "             8,166.48.
   70 Commissioners    "            17,870.37.
      Continental Liquidated       199,214.45.


"I certify that the above writing is a true extract from the original
inventory and appraisement of the personal estate of Haym Salomon
deceased filed in the register's office Philadelphia on the 15th
February, 1785.

    JOHN GEYER, _Register_.

Given under my hand and seal of office this 28th May, A. D. 1828."


The father of Mr. Haym M. Salomon was the deceased Haym Salomon,
Esq., who died in Philadelphia, January 6, 1785, and who is found to
have exhibited the most ardent personal devotion to the cause of the

On investigating such of the memoranda and papers regarding his civil
services in that era of our history which have accidentally been
preserved and now submitted, I find the following facts.

By an affidavit made in New York, January, 1778, before Alderman
Matthews, certified on its back by William Claygen, military secretary
to Major-General Horatio Gates, dated at the encampment White Plains,
August 15, 1778, it appears that so early as the year 1775, Mr. S. was
in controversy with the enemies of the projected Revolution.

New York, May 9, 1828.

    WM. H. BELL.

The affidavit further states that it had been alleged against him
in New York that he was charged by General Washington to execute an
enterprise as hazardous to the safety of his person and life as it was
most important to the interests of the Revolutionary army. Supposed to
be the enterprise for which he was condemned to death by the British
General Clinton, as mentioned in the first part of this memorandum.

The two infant sons which Mr. Salomon (at the age of 45) left at his
death were Ezekiel and Haym. Ezekiel was he (the eldest) who in 1807,
in charge of a large amount of American property, was (with many other
American citizens whose cargoes as well as his own was sequestered
at Leghorn by the French) placed in much perplexity, but through
the spirited remonstrance which he made to the Tuscan and French
Governments, succeeded in procuring its release. He subsequently was
charged with the government of the U. S. Branch Bank at New Orleans,
and while in the successful application of the duties of his office
died in 1821.

Haym M., the youngest son and sole survivor of the male part of the
family, has been engaged in commercial pursuits for many years past,
for particulars of which see letter from Hon. Johnson, Esq., who for
eight years was the representative in Congress from New York, the
Empire City of the United States, and now[19] one of the chief officers
in the Custom House of that city.[20]


Little of the mass of original material at one time in existence
relative to the life and activity of Haym Salomon can now be located.
Mr. William Salomon, of New York, a great-grandson of Haym Salomon,
writes in response to a recent inquiry as follows: "I am under the
impression that all the papers bearing on the services of Haym Salomon
in the cause of the Revolution which were not lost when he died
intestate (and a few months before Haym M. Salomon was born) came
into Haym M. Salomon's possession, but unfortunately his descendants
have been deprived of that valued inheritance by reason of their
disappearance while in the custody of the Government. All I ever
discovered among my father's papers was a letter from either President
Tyler or Polk (I cannot remember positively which, and the letter is
not now within easy reach) stating that papers my grandfather, Haym M.
Salomon, desired to have returned could not be found in the Department
where they had been placed."

Some further details of the strange negligence to which this
unfortunate loss is due may be found in the Senate Committee Report to
the 31st Congress on the claim of H. M. Salomon. The timely services
rendered by Haym Salomon to James Madison during the sessions of the
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia are specifically indicated in
the published letters of Madison; see Gilpin, Madison Papers, Vol. I.,
pp. 163, 178-9. Mr. Herbert Friedenwald, of Philadelphia, has recently
found among the records of the Continental Congress an interesting
Memorial of Haym Salomon, submitted to the Congress in August, 1778;
see Publications of American Jewish Historical Society, I., 87. The
main sources of information relative to the life of Haym Salomon are
thus the secondary Congressional Committee Reports upon the claims
of his descendants for indemnity for money advanced to the United
States Government during the Revolution. These, in the order of their
presentation, are as follows:[21]

1. Report on Claim of Haym M. Salomon. Rep. F. A. Tallmadge. April 26,
1848. 3 pp. House Reports, No. 504, 30th Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. III.

2. Report on Claim of H. M. Salomon. Senator J. D. Bright. July 28,
1848. 3 pp. Senate Reports, No. 219, 30th Cong., 1st Sess.

3. Report on Claim of H. M. Salomon. Senator I. P. Walker. August 9,
1850. 7 pp. Senate Reports, No. 177, 31st Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. I.

4. Report on Claim of Haym M. Salomon. Senator Charles Durkee. March 9,
1860. 10 pp. Senate Reports, No. 127, 36th Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. I.

5. Report on Claim of Haym M. Salomon. Senator M. S. Wilkinson. July 2,
1862. 5 pp. Senate Reports, No. 65, 37th Cong., 2d Sess.

6. Report on Petition of Haym M. Salomon. June 24, 1864. 4 pp. Senate
Reports, No. 93, 30th Cong., 1st Sess.

The second, third, fifth and sixth of the above reports have been
reprinted in pamphlet form, presumably for private circulation. During
the first session of the 29th Congress, the Senate Committee of Claims
unanimously agreed upon a report similar to that adopted by the
House Committee of the 30th Congress, but too late for presentation.
Another report was drawn up during the second session of the same
Congress, placed on file, but never adopted. It was largely embodied
in the Senate Report to the 31st Congress; see Senate Report to the
31st Congress. The last sentence of the Report to the 38th Congress:
"except the report of this committee made at the last session," and
several paragraphs inserted in the Report to the 37th Congress as
statements of "the committee of the last Congress," indicate the
presentation of additional reports. No positive evidence of their
existence has, however, been found. At the second session of the 52d
Congress (February 24, 1893), a bill was presented to the House,
ordering that a gold medal be struck off in recognition of services
rendered by Haym Salomon during the Revolutionary War, in consideration
of which the Salomon heirs waived their claims upon the United States
for indemnity. The measure was reported favorably by the House
Committee on the Library, but too late for consideration. The Report
(No. 2556; to accompany H. R. 7896) summarizes the efforts made in
previous Congresses, and reprints in full the Senate Report to the 37th


The monetary contribution by Haym Salomon to the successful issue
of the Revolutionary struggle was doubtless the largest made by any
individual, but while it is the most signal instance of its kind, it
does not stand alone. Haym Salomon was not the only Jew who showed his
earnestness in behalf of freedom by a jeopardy or sacrifice of fortune.
Among the signers of the Bills of Credit for the Continental Congress
in 1776 were Benjamin Levy, of Philadelphia and Benjamin Jacobs, of
New York; and Samuel Lyon, of the same city, was among the signers of
similar bills in 1779. Isaac Morris, also of Philadelphia, and who,
after the Revolutionary War, was one of the incorporators of the Bank
of New York, contributed three thousand pounds sterling (£3000) to
the colonial treasury, and still another Philadelphian, Hyman Levy,
repeatedly advanced considerable sums for the support of the army in
the field. A yet more notable instance of patriotic devotion was that
of Manuel Mordecai Noah, of South Carolina, who not only served in
the army as officer on Washington's staff, and likewise with General
Marion, but gave of his fortune twenty thousand pounds (£20,000) to
further the cause in which he was enlisted. Many minor cases of a
similar order could be cited, but only the more important instances,
such as are of public record, have here been adduced.


[4] See Adams, Life and Writings of Jared Sparks, Vol. II., p. 564.
From the general tenor of the letter, it seems probable that Mr.
Sparks, during his extensive researches into the historical records,
public and private, of the United States, had encountered other
evidence of the services of Haym Salomon. This inference is partially
corroborated by a passage in a letter written by Mr. Sparks from
Cambridge on May 7, 1845, to Mr. Haym M. Salomon, apparently in
connection with the first memorial to Congress: "Among the numerous
papers that have passed under my eye I have seen evidences of his
[_Haym Salomon's_] transactions, which convince me that he rendered
important services to the United States in their pecuniary affairs."
See Report on Claim of H. M. Salomon; Senate Reports, No. 177, 31st
Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. I. It is not, however, impossible that only the
present manuscript may be here referred to.

[5] It is probable that Haym Salomon's first encounter with the British
Government took place several years before 1778. The Senate Report to
the 31st Congress (_supra_) states that: "As early as 1775 he became
obnoxious to the British Government, and was imprisoned in New York,
sharing the privations and horrors of the sufferers confined in a
loathsome prison called the Provost." Essentially the same fact is
repeated in later Reports, and is specifically presented in certified
form in a later part of the present paper.

The Memorial of Haym Salomon to the Continental Congress (see
Bibliographical Note, _infra_) is of such immediate interest in
connection with the circumstances of his escape from New York as to
permit partial citation. It sets forth: "That your Memorialist was
some time before the Entry of the British Troops at the said City of
New York and soon after taken up as a Spy and by General Robertson
committed to the Provost. That by the Interposition of Lieut-General
Heister (who wanted him on account of his knowledge in the French,
Polish, Russian, Italian &c. Languages) he was given over to the
Hessian Commander who appointed him in the Commissary Way as purveyor
chiefly for the Officers. That being at New York he has been of great
Service to the French and American prisoners and has assisted them with
Money and helped them off to make their Escape. That this and his close
connexions with such of the Hessian Officers as were inclined to resign
and with Monsieur Samuel Demezes has rendered him at last so obnoxious
to the British Head Quarters that he was already pursued by the Guards
and on Tuesday the 11th inst. he made his happy Escape from thence."
The Memorial bears date of August 25, 1778, thus indicating the precise
time of Salomon's departure from New York as August 11, 1778.

[6] For details see Report to 31st Congress. The exact location of this
and other Congressional Reports is given in the Bibliographical Note
appended to the paper.

[7] This is corroborated by a letter from the eminent jurist, Henry
Wheaton, to Haym M. Salomon. Among "the patriots of the Revolution who
were compelled to sacrifice their private pursuits to the public,"
Mr. Wheaton mentions Judge Wilson, "who must have retired from public
service if he had not been sustained by the timely aid of your father,
administered with equal generosity and delicacy." See Report to 31st

[8] Under date of August 27, 1782, Mr. Madison wrote from Philadelphia
to Edmund Randolph: "I cannot in any way make you more sensible of
the importance of your kind attention to pecuniary remittances for me
than by informing you that I have for some time been a pensioner on
the favor of Haym Salomon, a Jew Broker." See Gilpin, Madison Papers,
I., 163. During the following month Mr. Madison's position seems to
have grown more aggravated, for, on September 24, he declared: "I
am relapsing fast into distress. The case of my brethren is equally
alarming." _Ibid_, p. 176. Assistance in sufficient amount was still
not forthcoming, and a week later, September 30, 1782, he acknowledged
to Mr. Randolph the local source of his benefactions as follows: "I
am almost ashamed to acknowledge my wants so incessantly to you, but
they begin to be so urgent that it is impossible to suppress them. The
kindness of our little friend in Front street, near the coffee-house,
is a fund that will preserve me from extremities, but I never resort
to it without great mortification, as he obstinately rejects all
recompense. The price of money is so usurious that he thinks it ought
to be extorted from none but those who aim at profitable speculations.
To a necessitous delegate, he gratuitously spares a supply out of his
private stock." _Ibid_, pp. 178-179.

There seems little doubt but that the "little friend in Front
street" is meant to indicate Haym Salomon. This view is taken by the
Congressional committees and by Madison's biographer; see Gay, Life
of James Madison, p. 25. The fact that the first Philadelphia City
Directory was issued in 1785, and that Haym Salomon died on January 6
of that year (_vide infra_), renders direct verification impracticable.
Search among the Philadelphia newspapers of the period would probably
determine the point once for all.

[9] The writer of the MS. is probably quoting from memory from a letter
written by Mr. Madison from Montpelier, on February 6, 1830, to Mr.
Haym M. Salomon, in connection with claims upon Congress for indemnity.
The Senate Report to the 31st Congress preserves the following
paragraph of this letter: "The transactions shown by the papers you
enclosed were the means of effectuating remittances for the support of
the delegates [_to Congress_], and the agency of your father therein
was solicited, on account of the respectability and confidence he
enjoyed among those best acquainted with him."

The Report to the 37th Congress mentions among the various letters
received by Haym M. Salomon relative to the justice of his claim, one
from James Madison, in 1827, who, among other things, stated: "The
transactions shown by the papers you enclose were for the support of
the delegates to Congress, and the agency of your father therein was
solicited on account of the respect and confidence he enjoyed among
those best acquainted with him,' etc., and concludes with the wish that
the memorialist might be properly indemnified."

The resemblance between the two paragraphs is so striking as to make it
probable, despite the discrepancy in dates, that the same communication
is referred to.

[10] The Report to the 31st Congress states: "On the accession of the
Count de la Luzerne to the embassy from France, Mr. Salomon was made
the banker of that government.... He was also appointed by Monsieur
Roquebrune, treasurer of the forces of France in America, to the office
of their paymaster-general, which he executed free of charge."

[11] Details of the assistance so rendered are given in the Report
to the 31st Congress. Mr. Salomon, it is said, "maintained from his
own private purse Don Francesco Rendon, the secret ambassador of that
monarch for nearly two years, or up to the death of Mr. S., during
which Rendon's supplies were cut off." A striking passage is quoted
in the same Report from a letter said to have been written in 1783 by
Rendon to the Governor-General of Cuba, Don José Marie de Navarra: "Mr.
Salomon has advanced the money for the service of his most Catholic
Majesty and I am indebted to his friendship in this particular, for the
support of my character as his most Catholic Majesty's agent here, with
any degree of credit and reputation; and without it, I would not have
been able to render that protection and assistance to his Majesty's
subjects which his Majesty enjoins and my duty requires." The statement
is also made that: "Moneys thus advanced to the amount of about 10,000
Spanish dollars remained unpaid, when Mr. Salomon died shortly after."

[12] Mr. Henry S. Morais, in his history of "The Jews of Philadelphia,"
notes as follows: (p. 24.) "The amount has been variously given at as
much as $600,000 and more. Hon. Simon Wolf, of Washington, D. C., in
February, 1892, presented a complete and elaborate statement of this
question, based upon official documents, in an article (entitled, "Are
Republics Ungrateful?") published in the _Reform Advocate_, of Chicago."

In another note on the same subject Mr. Morais states: "Mr. Salomon's
loan and its accruing interest would now (1893) amount to over
$3,000,000." Haym M. Salomon, a son of the philanthropist, and who
kept a store on Front street, vainly endeavored to obtain payment of
his just claim, notwithstanding that it was favorably reported to the
U. S. Senate in 1850. In this report it was said: "Haym Salomon gave
great assistance to the government by loans of money and advancing
liberally of his means to sustain the men engaged in the struggle
for independence at a time when the sinews of war were essential to

[13] For a summary of the account see the certificate appended,
_infra_. Some few further details of the inventory are given in the
Committee Report to the 30th Congress.

[14] "Mr. McCrea," in the Report to the 31st Congress.

[15] Mr. Joseph Nourse, Register of the Treasury of the United States
from 1777 to 1828, wrote from Washington in 1827, to Mr. H. M. Salomon:
"I have cast back to those periods when your honored father was agent
to Office of Finance; but the inroads of the British army in 1814
deprived us of every record in relation to the vouchers of the period
to which I refer." See for details, Report to 31st Congress; also
Bibliographical Note.

[16] For details, see Report to 31st Congress.

[17] Hon. Simon Wolf, of Washington, D. C., in an article in _The
Reform Advocate_ of Chicago (see Bibliographical Note), calls attention
to the fact that Professor Sumner--the most recent biographer of
Robert Morris--in his "The Financier and the Finances of the American
Revolution," makes no mention of the services of Haym Salomon. Mr. Wolf
adds: "When I called Mr. Sumner's attention to it he answered in a
letter which I received to-day, that, he had supposed that Mr. Salomon
had been paid long since, and was surprised at the statement which I

[18] Not a penny of the large sums represented by these securities
has ever been repaid to the heirs of the philanthropist and patriot
who so generously aided the Revolutionary cause, and the fact is but
another instance of the ingratitude of republics. The remissness of the
people's representatives in the adjustment of private claims has been
but too often flagrantly demonstrated, but there is not to be found on
the public records a more signal case of public injustice. When to pay
a debt is everybody's business, then it is apparently forever nobody's
business to do so, and thus it happens that popular governments fail
utterly in cases of this nature, where a monarchy would hasten to do

[19] _Circa 1842._

[20] A third child of Haym Salomon was a daughter, Sallie Salomon, who
married Joseph Andrews. Their son, Joseph I. Andrews, married Miriam
Nones, of New York, a daughter of Major Benjamin Nones of Revolutionary
fame. The daughter of this union, Louisa Andrews, is now Mrs. E. L.
Goldbaum, of Memphis, Tenn. Mr. Goldbaum kindly writes me: "We have in
our possession life-size oil paintings of Joseph Andrews, son-in-law of
Haym Salomon, and of his wife Sallie Andrews, _née_ Sallie Salomon."

[21] Poore, Descriptive Catalogue of the Government Publications of the
United States (Washington, 1885), pp. 558, 565, 593, 762, 807, 828.


[A paper written for the American Jewish Historical Society by MAX J.

In the present article, the writer proposes to set forth several
incidents in our history not otherwise connected with each other than
the above title indicates, but all tending to show that the Jew has
ever been ready to battle for the cause of his adopted country, be his
domicile where it may. Our subjects herein had differing views as to
what patriotism demanded. We shall speak of French Jews battling for
France, of English Jewish Colonists championing England's cause, and
of American Jews fighting for American liberty and glory, yet all were
equally patriots. In selecting the incidents to be set forth herein the
writer has confined himself exclusively to matters which he believes
are either wholly unknown to the Jewish historian or only partially or
imperfectly known; no treatment of the main subject, other than these
incidents may furnish, will be attempted.



Members have no doubt still fresh in mind the interesting items
relating to Col. Franks, set forth by Dr. Herbert Friedenwald and Prof.
M. Jastrow in No. 1 of our "Proceedings." Since then other data have
been collected and published in regard to the Franks family, to which I
will merely refer; (see the very interesting article on the History of
the Jews of Montreal, prepared for the Montreal _Daily Star_, December
30, 1893, and repeated in the _American Israelite_ in January, 1894,
which has been attributed to Rev. Dr. Meldola de Sola; and also an
article on Rebecca Franks by the present writer, which appeared in the
_American Hebrew_, November 9, 14, 21, and also in pamphlet reprint).
In the present paper, Colonel Franks' early career in Canada will
be chiefly dealt with, the documents herein cited demonstrating the
correctness of Dr. Friedenwald's theory (p. 76) that Franks was drawn
into the Revolutionary contest through pure patriotism and interest in
the struggle which was being carried on south of his earlier domicile.
A contemporary periodical furnishes the data I refer to; it is
entitled: "The Remembrancer or Impartial Repository of Public Events."
Part I, for 1776, London, 1776, pp. 100-6. (The narrative is somewhat
condensed herein, but the documents are set forth in their entirety.)

    "On May 2, 1775, the bust of the king at Montreal was found daubed
    over and indecently ornamented, the words, "This is the pope of
    Canada and the fool of England," being written upon it in French.
    A reward of 100 guineas was offered for the discovery of the
    perpetrator, and much indignation was expressed among the French
    inhabitants, eager to manifest their loyalty to England, one
    French gentleman even expressing his opinion that the act ought
    to be punished by hanging. Upon hearing this severe opinion, a
    young English merchant of the name of Franks, who had settled at
    Montreal and who at that time happened to be near the speaker,
    replied to him in these words: 'In England men are not hanged for
    such small offenses,' which he repeated twice or three times. This
    provoked M. de B----(the former speaker) to such a degree, that,
    after giving the young man much opprobrious language, he at last
    proceeded to blows, and struck him in the face and pulled him by
    the nose; upon which the other gave him a blow that knocked him
    down. The next day, May the 3d, upon a complaint of M. de B---- to
    three officers of justice of a new order, called the Conservators
    of the Peace for the District of Montreal, not of the blow he had
    received from Franks (for to this he was conscious he had given
    occasion by striking him first) but of the words pronounced by the
    latter, 'that in England people were not hanged for such small
    offenses,' the Conservators issued the warrant hereunder following
    for committing young Franks to prison. He was accordingly carried
    thither by a party of soldiers with bayonets fixed, and £10,000
    bail, that was offered to procure his liberty, and be security for
    his appearance to take his trial for the offence, was refused. And
    there he continued for a week, at the end of which time, the same
    Conservators of the Peace (by the direction, as it is supposed, of
    Governor Carleton) ordered him to be discharged without any bail at

The following are the official documents, in translation:

  "_District of Montreal._

    "By John Fraser, John Marteilhe and Réné Ovide Hertel de Rouville,
    Esquires, Judges and Conservators of the Peace in the District of

    "WHEREAS, Francis Mary Picote de Bellestre, Esquire, has made oath
    on the holy gospels that on Tuesday the second day of this present
    month of May, as he was standing still in the street to hear a
    proclamation published, concerning those wretches who had insulted
    his Majesty's bust, he had openly declared that he thought they
    deserved to be hanged: and that thereupon one Salisbury Franks had
    answered with surprise, 'that it was not usual to hang people for
    such small offences and that it was not worth while to do so,' and
    that he had repeated those words several times, and with a loud

    "We, having regard to the said complaint, and considering that
    every good subject ought to look upon the said insult to his
    Majesty's bust as an act of the most atrocious nature, and
    deserving of the utmost abhorrence, and that therefore all
    declarations made in conversation that tend to affirm it to be
    a small offence, ought to be esteemed criminal: Do, for these
    reasons, authorize and command you to convey the said Salisbury
    Franks to the prison of the town to be there detained, till he
    shall be thence discharged according to law. And for so doing, this
    warrant shall be your justification.

    "Given at Montreal, under our hands and seals, on the third day of
    May, 1775.

              John Fraser,
    (Signed)  John Marteilhe,
              Hertel de Rouville."

The warrant to the jailor we omit, but the warrant for his discharge

    "_To the keeper of the jail in Montreal._

    "Whereas David Salisbury Franks is now in your custody, in virtue
    of our warrant duly sealed and signed; these are now to command
    you to forbear detaining any longer the said David Salisbury
    Franks, but to suffer him to go at large wherever he pleases and
    that without fees. And for so doing, this will be your sufficient

    "Given under our hands and seals at Montreal, on the 9th day of
    May, 1775."

    (Signed as above).

It will be noticed that the warrant of release gives the full name of
Franks and leaves it clear that he was the future American patriot. It
should also be noticed that he is described as an Englishman, pointing
to that country as the common home of the various members of the family
of that name in America. (Compare Life of Peter Van Schaack, p. 143,
and Kamble Papers, for references to Franks' family home, a mansion
near London). Also that the amount of bail offered for young Franks,
£10,000, was extraordinarily large for those days.

It is not proposed herein to repeat the interesting incident in the
career of Arnold's aide-de-camp which others have set forth so well.
Their accounts may, however, be supplemented by the following. It
seems that Franks gave testimony to Mrs. Arnold's innocence of all
complicity in her husband's treason. This fact is cited in a note in
the present writer's sketch of Rebecca Franks (p. 12), but the original
authority, the preface to the privately printed Shipper papers, he
has thus far been unable to consult. After the inquiry into Franks'
conduct,--occasioned by the suspicions aroused against him on account
of Arnold's treason--had been held in accordance with his demand,
Franks appears to have been sent to Europe with important dispatches to
Jay and Franklin, with instructions to await their orders. In a letter
from Robert Morris to Franklin, dated Philadelphia, July 13, 1781, we
read: "The bearer of the letter, Major Franks, formerly an aide-de-camp
to General Arnold, and honorably acquitted of all connection with
him after a full and impartial inquiry, will be able to give you our
public news more particularly than I could relate them." (_Diplomatic
Correspondence_, edited by Sparks, Vol. XI, p. 382). His conduct in
France and Spain appears to have been very creditable; Jay speaks very
highly about his discretion and tact and he seems to have won the
particular regard of the Count of Florida Blanca, the Spanish Minister,
with whom Jay was negotiating. (See "Diplomatic Correspondence of the
U. S.," edited by F. Wharton, Vol. IV, 752-754, 756-757, 764-784, V,
121. Thompson Papers (N. Y. Hist. Soc. Collections, 1878), p. 183.
Accounts of the U. S. during the Administration of the Superintendent
of France, 1781-1784). As noted by Dr. Friedenwald, Franks was sent by
Congress to Europe again in 1784, this time to deliver a triplicate
of the definitive treaty of peace to our ministers plenipotentiary.
Further details about this trip are alluded to in "Military Journal of
Major E. Denny" (Pa. Hist. Society, Pub. 1860) p. 415, where letters
from Frank's associate, Col. Harman, are quoted, and in a letter
written by Harman to a Philadelphia merchant, Jonathan Williams, in
1790, wherein he sends his regards to Franks, and alludes to the "gay
moments we passed together in France, particularly the civilities
received from you at St. Germain, where I dined with you in company
with Mr. Barclay and Col. Franks" (p. 461). Not less interesting
is the narrative of an encounter with Major Franks in 1787, by Dr.
Cutler, on a trip to Philadelphia: "July 12th. Made our next stay at
Bristol. Dined in company with the passengers in the stage, among
whom were General Armstrong and Col. Franks. General Armstrong is a
member of Congress with whom I had a small acquaintance at New York;
Franks was an aide of General Arnold at the time of his desertion to
the British. Both of them high bucks, and affected, as I conceived, to
hold the New England states in contempt. They had repeatedly touched
my Yankee blood, in their conversation at the table; but I was much on
the reserve until, after we had dined, some severe reflections on the
conduct of Rhode Island, and the Insurgency in Massachusetts--placing
the two States in the same point of light--induced me to observe that
'I had no doubt but that the conduct of Rhode Island would prove of
infinite service to the Union; that the insurgency in Massachusetts
would eventually lead to invigorate and establish our government; and
that I considered the State of Pennsylvania--divided and distracted as
she was then in her Councils, the large County of Luzerne on the eve of
an insurrection--to be in as hazardous a situation as any one on the

"This instantly brought on a warm fracas indeed. The cudgels were taken
up on both sides: the contest as fierce as if the fate of empires
depended on the decision. At length victory declared in our favor.
Armstrong began to make concessions. Franks, with more reluctance, at
length gave up the ground. Both acknowledged the New England States
were entitled to an equal share of merit with any in the Union, and
declared they had no intention to reflect. We had the satisfaction
to quit the field with an air of triumph, which my little companion
enjoyed with a high relish; nor could he forget it, all the way to
Philadelphia. But we parted with our antagonists on terms of perfect
good humor and complaisance. My companion frequently afterwards
mentioned the pleasure it gave him to see Armstrong and Franks, "so
completely taken down," as he expressed it, which led me to conclude
he was of the party opposed to them in the political quarrels of
Philadelphia." (Historical magazine, Third Series, Vol. II, pp. 84-85).

But let us pass from Franks to another Canadian.



The student of Canadian history is very familiar with the name of
Levis, which bids fair to be perpetuated in several geographical
names in that country. The name was borne by Henri de Levis, Duke of
Vontadour, Viceroy of Canada for some time after 1626, but was rendered
more famous through the brilliant career of his relative, the Chevalier
de Levis, Montcalm's able lieutenant, subsequently his successor as
commander of the French forces in Canada, and still later Marshal of
France. Numerous striking illustrations of his gallantry and chivalry
are extant, and it is suggestive that Montcalm should have spoken some
of his last words, in praise of "his gallant Chevalier de Levis," for
whose talents and fitness for command he expressed high esteem. The
writer hereof does not claim that either of these two de Levis' were
Jews, but he does believe that they were of Jewish descent, less on
account of their family name than on account of the following curious
explanation of it: "A family that considered itself to be the oldest
in Christendom. Their chateau contained, it was said, two pictures:
one of the Deluge in which Noah is represented going into the Ark,
carrying under his arm a trunk on which was written: 'Papiers de la
maison de Levis.' The other was a portrait of the founder of the house,
bowing reverently to the Virgin, who is made to say: 'Couvrez-vous, mon
cousin.' 'It is for my own pleasure, my cousin,' replied the descendent
of Levi."

(Compare Horace Walpole's Letters, Kingsford's History of Canada, Vol.
I, p. 77, Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 150, 360, 363, 378-379, 455,
478, 466; II. 308, 312, 354).



In the last volume of our "Proceedings" and also in Judge Daly's
work, numerous references are to be found to the interesting career
of Aaron Lopez, of Newport, whom the present writer has described as
probably the richest and most successful Jewish man of affairs who
lived in this country before the Revolution. It may be remembered that
Lopez was one of a number of Jewish residents of Newport who found it
necessary to flee from that city at the beginning of the war, when the
British forces moved against the city. Lopez withdrew to Leicester,
Massachusetts, with his family, and remained there until May, 1782.
(Daly's Jews in North America, p. 86). Short as was his stay there,
however, he left a noble memorial of his sojourn behind him, as appears
from the following extract from the Diary of a journey from Plymouth to
Connecticut by Samuel Davis in 1789. (Mass. Hist. Society Proceedings,
1869-1870, p. 11). "Leicester is situate on very high ground. The
Meeting house is a decent edifice, very illy painted. Near it is the
Academy, founded by the late Mr. Lopez, a worthy merchant of the Jewish
tribe. It is a long building of two stories, with a cupola and bell,
and two entrances, fronted by porticos; appears to be decaying. Mr.
James observed at Worcester, that he supposed the preceptor and pupils
would be removed to a handsome new school house in that town."

But Newport contained many Tories as well as Patriots, many of whom
must to-day be regarded as no less patriotic than those whom we
designate by that term. It is, therefore, not surprising to find
Jewish Tories there, and one of the number appears to have been a
martyr to his views, as the following item shows: "Mr. Isaac Hart, of
Newport R. I., formerly an eminent merchant and ever a loyal subject,
was inhumanly fired upon and bayoneted, wounded in fifteen parts of
his body, and beat with their muskets, in the most shocking manner
in the very act of imploring quarter, and died of his wounds a few
hours after, universally regretted by every true lover of his King
and country." (Account of the attack on Fort St. George, Rivington's
Gazette, December 2, 1780).

To leave no doubt as to his faith, the following item, (from Du
Simmitiaire, MSS., 1769) accompanies the preceding one in the Magazine
of American History (Vol. III, p. 452): "At Mr. Isaac Hart's, a Jew,
living at the Point, in Newport, R. I., there is a portrait of the late
Czar, Peter I, done, I believe, by Sir Godfrey Kneller."



The number of New York Jews who served their country by risking life
or fortune in its behalf is well-nigh legion. Hundreds upon hundreds
of instances have been set forth from time to time, covering a time
from the early colonial period, as appears particularly from another
paper by the present writer, through the Revolutionary struggle down to
our own day. But little cause can be assigned for distinguishing a few
from the many in the present article unless it be the probability that
the instances to be referred to herein are but little known. It should
be of interest to notice, for instance, that the decision reached in
1770 to make more stringent the Non-Importation Agreement, which the
colonists adopted to bring England to terms on the taxation question,
had among its signers Samuel Judah, Hayman Levy, Jacob Moses, Jacob
Myers, Jonas Phillips, and Isaac Seixas (_New York Gazette_ and _Weekly
Post Boy_, July 23, 1770).

The victory won by the Jewish Patriots over the loyalists in the
New York Jewish Congregation at the outbreak of the Revolution,
which induced the majority to determine to disband the congregation
for country's sake, has been well described in a former article in
our Society's periodicals and the names of the patriots who, in
consequence, fled to Philadelphia on the approach of the British to New
York are known. In another paper, the writer hereof enumerates some
of the less known but possibly equally patriotic Jewish Loyalists,
who remained in the city. It appears, however, that even the Jewish
cemetery was to witness the strife and struggles of war, for we read
that a battery to overlook the East River and prevent British ships
from entering into it "is planned in some forwardness at the foot of
the Jews' Burying Ground," in March, 1776. (N. Y. Hist. Soc. Collection
Pub. Fund Series, Vol. III, pp. 354, 355).

During the war of 1812, the New York Jews appear to have again
manifested their love of country, and one of their number, Col. Nathan
Myers, was even in command of a brigade stationed near the City of New
York in the beginning of the war. (Guernsey; "New York City during
the War of 1812," pp. 86, 436-7). Others manifested their patriotism
by bringing pecuniary sacrifices, as did Herman Hendricks in 1813. In
February of that year, Congress passed an act authorizing a loan of
$16,000,000, but less than $4,000,000 were subscribed. It was then that
New York merchants came to the rescue by subscribing for the bonds, in
spite of the sacrifices that were made in view of the fact that the
government could not obtain money except at a discount of 15 per cent.
Hendricks subscribed for $40,000 of the bonds, being one of the largest
individual subscribers. (Scoville: The Old Merchant of New York City.
First Series, pp. 329-333.)

Among those who served under Col. Myers in this War, was probably
Samuel Noah, a cousin of Mordecai M. Noah, who led a most eventful
life, which has been chronicled in a very interesting way by Gen.
George W. Cullom in his "Biographical Sketches of Deceased Graduates of
the United States Military Academy." We quote the account in full:


"Class of 1807.
"Died March 10, 1871, at Mount Pulaski, Ill., aged 92.

"Samuel Noah, who was born July 19, 1779, in the City of London, died
March 10, 1871, at Mount Pulaski, Logan county, Illinois, at the
advanced age of nearly 92, he having been for several years the senior
surviving graduate of the United States Military Academy. He was of
Jewish descent, and was a cousin of Mordecai M. Noah, formerly consul
to Tunis, and for many years the editor of various New York journals.

"When twenty years old he emigrated to this country, and after a
residence of several years in New York City, solicited a midshipman's
appointment, but not succeeding, accepted, May 5, 1805, that of a
cadet in the First Regiment of Artillery. Being intelligent and a good
penman, he was often selected as amanuensis to the Superintendent
of the Military Academy, and frequently acted as Judge Advocate or
Recorder of Courts at West Point. Upon graduation, Dec. 9, 1807,
preferring the Infantry arm, he was promoted an ensign in the Second
Regiment, which, after a tedious journey, he joined at Cantonment,
Columbia Springs, in the rear of Fort Adams, Miss. Here he devoted
his leisure hours to the study of the early campaigns of Napoleon,
who was then the military prodigy of the world; but this fascinating
occupation was soon interrupted by his having to watch smugglers on the
Florida frontier and march from one unhealthy camp to another in the
Gulf States. During these migrations he met Captain Winfield Scott just
after his duel near Natchez with Dr. Upshur (brother of the Secretary
of State blown up on board the Princeton), Lieutenant James Gibson,
subsequently killed at the sortie from Fort Erie, Gen. James Wilkinson,
Captain Edmond P. Gaines, Gen. Wade Hampton, and other since famous
officers of whom he had many anecdotes to relate. Wearied finally with
slow promotion, and disgusted that ignorant civilians were appointed
to rank him, he resigned March 13, 1811, his commission of First
Lieutenant in the Army.

"Soon after this period a Mexican deputation from the Junta of
Coahuila, Gen. Bernado Guiteras and Captain Manscac arrived at
Natchitoches, where Lieutenant Magee, a graduate of 1809, was
stationed, and offered him the command with the rank of Colonel of the
combined forces there assembled of Mexicans and Anglo-Americans. After
Magee assumed the command, Noah, allured by visions of a golden future,
joined, as First Lieutenant, this little undisciplined Falstaffian
regiment on the Brazos river, while on its march to Fort Bahia, which
it entered Nov. 14, 1812; but no sooner was the fort in possession of
the Patriot Army than the Spanish royalists besieged it with a force
of five times the strength of the garrison. In this struggle poor
Col. Magee sickened and died, and was buried with the honors of war
during the enemy's cannonade, a six-pounder ball lodging close to the
grave. After the siege was raised, March 28, 1813, and the patriots
reinforced, this little army, with Noah in command of its rear guard,
pursued and routed the Royalists, April 4, 1813, in a sharp combat
near San Antonio, and three days later entered the capital of Texas,
Salcido, the governor, surrendering at discretion with his entire force.

"Informed soon after of the declaration of war by the United States
against Great Britain, Noah, true to the flag of his adopted country,
left Texas, and, escaping through many perils by flood and field,
reached the city of Washington, where he was most sadly disappointed
in not being re-commissioned by President Madison in the United
States Army. Nothing daunted, however, he proceeded to New York, and
volunteered his services as a private soldier with Captain Benjamin
Dunning's company for the defence of Brooklyn, then being fortified by
Gen. Joseph G. Swift, to repel an anticipated descent of the British on
Long Island at Sag Harbor. His services here and at Harlem Heights, to
the close of the war, in aid of the militia force, were most zealous
and untiring, his military education, practical knowledge and quick
intelligence proving powerful auxiliaries to his patriotic devotion to
duty. After the termination of Noah's military career, he taught school
near Goshen, New York, till 1820; then for two years was in England,
being present at the trial of Queen Caroline and the Coronation of
George the Fourth; resumed school teaching and was employed in various
academies in Virginia until May 24, 1848; and subsequently resided
with a faithful friend at Mount Pulaski, Logan county, Ill., where he
died. The romantic record of Samuel Noah's early life is full of wild
adventure and thrilling incidents; his after history was a curious
medley, almost the very counterpart of the vicissitudes to which Gil
Blas was exposed; and his declining years were an old age of poverty,
with little relief even from sources upon which he confidently counted
to ease his weary journey to the grave."

In this connection reference would also seem to be in order to
some New York Jews who served in the Mexican War, one of them with
particular distinction and honor. This list includes Sergeant Jacob
David, Sergeant Samuel Henry, and Private Abraham Adler (killed);
Corporal Jacob Hirshhorn and Private Otto Neubauer, Phillip Myers,
and Jacob Lema, Mark Kahn, Alexander Simm, John Myers, James Hart
and William Hart, ---- Myers, Marx M. Hart, Henry Phillips, Joseph
Henriques, and Jacob C. Somers. (See article by the present writer in
_American Hebrew_, February 9, 1894.)



Turning next to Baltimore, two interesting incidents are in point. The
one carries us back to Revolutionary times, and is to be connected
with the name of Jacob Hart, one of a number of patriotic merchants of
Baltimore; whether he was the only Jew in the group is unknown. The
incident is briefly referred to as follows, in a letter written by
Lafayette to Washington, April 18, 1781. (Memoirs, Correspondence and
Manuscripts of General Lafayette, Vol. I, page 403.) "To these measures
for punishing deserters, I have added one which my feelings for the
sufferings of the soldiers and peculiarity of their circumstances
have prompted me to adopt. The merchants of Baltimore lent me a sum
of about £2000 which will procure some shirts, linen, overalls, shoes
and a few hats; the ladies will make up the shirts, and the overalls
will be made by the detachment, so that our soldiers have a chance of
being a little more comfortable. The money is lent upon my credit, and
I become security for the payment of it in two years' time, when, by
the French laws, I may better dispose of my estate. But before that
time, I shall use my influence with the French court, in order to have
this sum of money added to any loan Congress may have been able to
obtain from them." The following entry "Accounts of the United States
with the Superintendent of Finance" (Robert Morris) serves to identify
the merchants: "May 27, (1782) Jacob Hart and others for the Repayment
of Money Loaned the Marquis de Lafayette at Baltimore--7256 dollars."
Further details appear from the following passages in the Journals of
Congress, Vol. VII p. 86: "Thursday, May 24, 1781. On the report of the
committee to whom was referred a letter of April 22 from Maj. Gen. the
Marquis de la Fayette:

    _Resolved_, That Congress entertains a just sense of the patriotic
    and timely exertions of the merchants of Baltimore who so
    generously supplied the Marquis de la Fayette with about 2000
    guineas, to enable him to forward the detachment under his command;
    That the Marquis de la Fayette be assured that Congress will take
    proper measures to discharge the engagement he has entered into
    with the merchants."

Compare with this an article on "Old Maryland Homes and Ways," by John
W. Palmer, in the _Century_, December 1894, p. 258. Markens in his
"Hebrews in America" (p. 93) briefly refers to the incident, describing
Hart as a Hebrew of German birth, who came to this country in 1775;
he was the father-in-law of Haym M. Salomon, son of the patriot, Haym
Salomon. Certainly not less interesting, though less well known, is
the following incident in the Mexican War, which is translated from
the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums," Vol. X p. 508, August 24,
1846: "The _New York Herald_ of July 15, (1846) contains the following
item, in reference to the call for 50,000 volunteers to join the army
against Mexico: Baltimore July 3. Among the companies which have been
formed here, a volunteer corps of Jews attracts particular attention.
Although composed for the most part of immigrants, they have given, by
the raising of this company, to fight with the native militia on behalf
of our institutions, a splendid instance of their love and devotion
for these and for their new fatherland. Yes, their love for the fame
and independence of our country has been displayed all the more
pointedly as they have organized their company by selecting one not of
their faith as their chief officer, namely, Captain Carroll, who was
paymaster of the Fifth regiment, but willingly resigned his position to
accept the command of this patriotic company of volunteers. Its other
officers are: Mr. Levi Benjamin, first lieutenant; Joseph Simpson,
second lieutenant; Samuel G. Goldsmith, third lieutenant; S. Eytinge,
first sergeant; Dr. J. Horwitz, surgeon." An examination of the copy of
the _Herald_ thus referred to, fails to show the English original of
the above item; either the date or the name of the paper is incorrectly
cited, though the facts are no doubt correctly given.



The following item from an article by Rev. Isaac Leeser, in _The
Occident_, Vol. XVI, p. 142 (1858) gives in some little detail a story
since then oft repeated; the primary authorities for the incident are
still unknown to the writer thereof: "A company of soldiers who did
good service in the defence of Charleston Harbor were nearly all,
if not all Jews. The names of Daniel W. Cardozo, Jacob I. Cohen,
Sr., and Isaiah Isaacs, we think, must have been on the roll of that
company. Relations or descendants of all of these are still to be
found among our most respectable families. Sheftall Sheftall, Isaac
N. Cardozo, a brother of David, and Colonel Bush, occur to us just
now as brave soldiers in the Revolution, and no doubt many others are
known to other persons." Compare with this the following passage from
a speech of Col. J. W. D. Worthington on the Jew Bill, Maryland, 1824
(Speeches on the Jew Bill, etc., by H. N. Brackenridge, Phila. 1829,
p. 115): "Here is another paper which contains the names of a corps of
volunteer infantry, in Charleston, South Carolina, in February, 1779.
It was composed chiefly of Israelites, residing in King's Street and
was commanded by Captain Lushington, and afterward fought under Gen.
Moultrie at the Battle of Beaufort." Also Westcott's "Persons Who Took
the Oath of Allegiance to Pennsylvania." "Abraham Seixas, formerly an
officer in the Militia of Charleston, South Carolina, lately arrived in
this city, Philadelphia; Merchant, May 31, 1782."



We may fittingly close this paper with an account of a Jewish patriot
of the Revolution who held important and responsible positions under
both Congressional and Georgia State control, and who had occasion
to find that the Sovereign will often decline to pay even the most
bona fide debts, where powerful influence to force bills for their
payment through Congress is wanting. One of the witnesses in the Court
Martial Proceedings, of Major General Howe, in 1780, (N. Y. Hist.
Soc. Collections, 1879, pp. 260-263, 301) was Mordecai Sheftall, who
was Deputy Commissary General of Issues to the Continental troops in
Georgia during the period of the British invasion of that State, and
also Commissary General of Purchase and Issues to the Militia. He
testified to various measures he had recommended for removing supplies
from positions of danger, to prevent their falling into the hands of
the British, and it is very suggestive that these provisions should
be referred to in the Index, under the heading: "Jewish Thrift,"
(Collections, 1880, p. 461). In his defence, General Howe referred to
him as follows: "Mr. Sheftall, the Deputy Commissary General of Issues,
has been brought by the prosecutors to prove upon me, as I suppose, a
neglect of the public stores. I have ever had a favorable opinion of
Mr. Sheftall, as an honest man, and from the testimony of such, I know
I have nothing to fear; his evidence, therefore, is in my favor. Many
measures, however, were pursued that Mr. Sheftall might have had no
knowledge of." Mr. Sheftall's was one of the earliest Jewish families
in Georgia, and various items in regard to his character and standing
are collated in Judge Daly's work (p. 70, et seq.), where his name
is, erroneously, it seems, spelt Sheftail. On page 72 reference is
made to Cushman Polack, who was also a witness in the Howe trial, (pp.
264-5) he having been a private in the militia in Georgia at the same
time; his name is there spelt "Coshman Pollock". Markens also adds,
on what authority I am unable to state, (p. 49) that when the British
took possession of Savannah, December 29, 1778, Mordecai Sheftall,
with his son Sheftall Sheftall, endeavored to make his escape, but was
compelled to surrender by a body of Highlanders. He was taken to the
guard-house, where the officer in charge was instructed to guard him
well, as he was "a great rebel." There he was confined with a number of
soldiers and negroes without a morsel to eat until a Hessian officer
named Zeltman, finding he could speak his language, removed him to his
quarters and permitted him to communicate with his wife and son. In an
interesting narrative, published many years ago, Mr. Sheftall states
that he was treated with abuse by Captain Strarhope of the "Raven"
sloop of war, and he and his son were ordered on board the prison ship.
His name, with the inscription, "Chairman Rebel Provisional Committee,"
is enrolled on the list of those who were selected as coming under
the Disqualifying Act of July, 1780, and thus rendered "incapable of
holding or exercising any office of trust, honor or profit in the
Province of Georgia."

The writer hereof believes that, until now, no particulars have been
known to the Jewish historian in regard to a claim urged by Sheftall,
and afterwards his widow, before Congress. It appears that he presented
a petition to the House of Representatives on March 29, 1792, asking
for a settlement of his accounts as Deputy Commissary General of Issues
for the Southern Department during the Revolutionary War with Great
Britain. The claim was referred to the Secretary of the Treasury, who
reported it to the next Congress, though the nature of his report
is not known to the writer. In the fourth Congress the petition was
referred to the Committee on Claims, which reported it back to the
House, February 11, 1797. In the House List of Private Claims (Vol.
III, p. 305-6), this report is marked "adverse." No authority seems to
exist for this statement. In fact, another claim reported at the same
time was rejected at once, but the Sheftall claim was referred to the
Committee of the Whole on the following Wednesday, but on that day
it does not appear to have been considered. In the Seventh Congress,
Frances, widow of Mordecai Sheftall, renewed her husband's petition
and it was again referred to a committee. This committee's report
was read and considered on April 3, 1802, but further Consideration
was postponed till the 4th Monday of November following, which was
practically equivalent to killing the measure, as Congress never meets
in ordinary session in November. (Journals of Congress, House, Second,
1st Session, p. 554; Third, 1st Session, pp. 77-8; Fourth, 1st Session,
p. 451; Fourth, 2d Session, p. 691; Seventh, 1st Session, 136, 177,
Carpenter; American Senator, III, 449-50). No further information as
to the claim is at hand. From the persistence in pressing it, it must
be concluded that some substantial sum was involved. It may be that it
was rejected because the United States declined to assume liability
for the acts of the State of Georgia, there having been a series of
controversies between the State and General Government as to the
liability of the latter for military services and expenditures incurred
in behalf of the former. At any rate, the claim does not appear to have
been paid, and like the Haym Salomon claim, is another illustration
of our country's ingratitude to those who made sacrifices for it of
worldly goods and life and limb in its hours of need.


Scant and unsatisfactory as are the army records of the Revolutionary
period, enough of an authentic character has been preserved to fully
sustain the statement of Solomon Etting, who, writing in Baltimore
in 1824, notes that among the soldiers of the Revolution "were many
Hebrews who were always at their post and always foremost in all
hazardous enterprises." This almost contemporary notice emanates from a
Jew whose father had served in the Continental army from the beginning
of the Revolution to the capture of Charleston, and who, through the
prominence of his family had been brought in contact with many of the
distinguished participants in the momentous struggle.

The active co-operation of Jewish citizens in the non-importation
movement of 1763 has already been adverted to, but even before that
time we find references to prominent Jewish participants in the public
defense. In 1754, during the French and Indian War, Isaac Myers, a
Jewish citizen of New York, called a town meeting at the "Rising Sun"
Inn and organized a company of bateau men of which he became captain.
Two other Jews are named as taking part in the same war, both of whom
served in the expedition across the Allegheny mountains in the year
above noted. It is altogether probable that these three were not the
only Jewish soldiers of that early war, but only these have left traces
of their presence. In the following year, 1755, when the colonies were
agitated by the disastrous ending of the Braddock campaign and the
incipient movement toward federation, we find a Jew, Benjamin Cohen, a
member of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania and Attorney-General
of the colony.

The chronicles of the Revolutionary War afford a considerable and in
many respects an interesting list of Jewish names. A few of the more
prominent of these have already been mentioned under preceding heads,
and others cited on the records are here added in alphabetical order:


    was called out with the battalion of Cumberland County Militia, of
    Pennsylvania, "by an order from Council, July 28, 1777."


    Ensign of 8th Connecticut Regiment, January 1, 1777; Second
    Lieutenant, February 14, 1778; First Lieutenant, May 7, 1778;
    Regimental Adjutant, April 1, 1780, to January, 1783; transferred
    to 5th Connecticut Regiment January 1, 1781; transferred to
    3d Connecticut Regiment January 1, 1783; retained in Swift's
    Connecticut Regiment June, 1783, and served to November 3, 1783;
    Lieutenant-Colonel of 37th United States Infantry March 11, 1813;
    honorably discharged June 15, 1815; died January 11, 1829.


    Ensign of 8th Massachusetts Regiment January 1, 1777; Second
    Lieutenant October 3, 1777; First Lieutenant March 28, 1779, served
    to June, 1783.


    Captain of 3d New Jersey Regiment February 9, 1776; Deputy
    Judge Advocate-General November 17, 1776, to October 29, 1778;
    Brigadier-General United States Army March 27, 1812; honorably
    discharged June 15, 1815; died October 3, 1823.


    (New Jersey) Hospital Surgeon May 14, 1777; Hospital Physician and
    Surgeon October 6, 1780; resigned December 13, 1780; died August
    14, 1791.


    is recorded as a soldier in the "Associators and Flying Camp,"


    was an officer in the Pennsylvania Militia (1777-1778), whose
    record is highly creditable and whose services won for him a
    well-deserved promotion. He was appointed Deputy Adjutant General
    of the Militia of the State on July 5, 1777. As to his subsequent
    career in the army, no stronger testimony could be desired than
    that set forth in the resolution adopted by the Supreme Executive
    Council of Pennsylvania, at its session on Wednesday, October 20,
    1779. It reads thus:

    "The petition of Major Solomon Bush, in the militia of this State,
    being read, and due inquiry having been made into the circumstances
    of his case, it appears that Major Bush has, on many occasions,
    distinguished himself in the public service, especially in the
    winter of 1776, when the service was critical and hazardous.

    "That he entered again into the said service in the summer of 1777,
    when General Sir William Howe invaded the State and the militia
    were called out pursuant to the resolutions of Congress and the
    requisition of His Excellency, General Washington; and in the
    month of September, 1777, acting as Deputy Adjutant General, he
    was dangerously wounded in a skirmish between the militia and the
    advance of the British Army, his thigh being broken and he brought
    off with great difficulty; that being carried to his father's
    house, on Chestnut Hill, and incapable of being moved, he fell into
    the hands of the British Army, when it moved up to Whitemarsh, in
    December, 1777, who took his parole; That he has ever since been
    confined with his wound, and incapable of performing any military
    duty, or acquiring a livelihood, but on the other hand, his
    situation attended with much difficulty and expense.

    "All which circumstances being considered, and that the said Major
    Bush being at the time of receiving his wounds in Continental
    Service and now a prisoner of war.

    "Resolved, That he be recommended to the especial notice of the
    Honourable Board of War, in order to obtain pay and rations equal
    to his rank; and that this Board in consideration of the services
    and sufferings of Major Bush, will permit him to draw from the
    State store, from time to time, such articles as may be necessary
    for his comfortable Subsistence and Support."

    That Major Bush had already been promoted to the rank of
    Lieutenant-Colonel, is evidenced by another resolution,
    complimentary to him, adopted by the same Council seven days
    later, when he was "recommended to the Honourable the Board of
    War, for pay and rations accordingly." Again on November 5, 1785,
    the Council, over which Benjamin Franklin then presided, passed an
    order for the payment of a pension due to Lieutenant-Colonel Bush.


    became First Lieutenant of the 6th Pennsylvania Battalion on
    January 9, 1776 and Captain the following June. He was transferred
    to Colonel Thomas Hartley's Additional Continental Regiment January
    13, 1773 and was commissioned Major, March 12, 1777. That he proved
    a brave soldier, his efficient service in a number of battles
    affords ample evidence. At the battle of Brandywine, September 11,
    1777, he was fatally wounded, and four days later he died.


    was in the roll of revolutionary soldiers, but there is no
    information given as to his rank or date of enlistment.


    in 1783 went to Charleston, S. C., and during the campaign which
    followed, took part as a volunteer soldier in the Continental army,
    serving under Moultrie and Lincoln. Frequent references to Mr.
    Cohen are found in the Madison papers, and his valuable services
    are repeatedly adverted to.


    became so distinguished for the services he rendered to the
    Colonies that he was singled out by the British authorities through
    a special order depriving him of the right of holding or exercising
    any office of trust, honor or profit in the Province of Georgia.


    Ensign of 2nd Pennsylvania Battery January 5, 1776; died on August
    12, 1776.


    was a clerk in Baltimore at the time of the battle at Lexington.
    Although only 19 years of age, he enlisted in a Maryland company,
    which hastened north to join the forces of Congress. He served
    in various battles and was taken prisoner by the British at the
    surrender of Charleston. When released from imprisonment by
    exchange he was broken in health from ill treatment in prison and
    exposure on the field. He was a captain of the Independent Blues in
    1798, and Marshal of Maryland, appointed by President Jefferson.


    a native of York, Pennsylvania, appears as one of the committee of
    citizens appointed to forward resolutions to Washington expressive
    of disapprobation of a proposed treaty with Great Britain.
    Subsequently settled in Baltimore and became President of the
    Municipal Council.


    who then lived in Philadelphia, entered the army shortly after the
    battle of Lexington. He became aide-de-camp to General Washington,
    holding the rank of colonel, and serving throughout the war. After
    the Revolution Colonel Franks became the incumbent of various
    civil offices, among them Prothonotary of the Supreme Court of
    Pennsylvania, being appointed to that position on February 18,
    1819. His residence in Germantown was for some time occupied by
    President Washington.

Colonel DAVID S. FRANKS, Aide-de-camp. See sketch on p. 27.


    of Philadelphia, aided the Colonists in the Revolutionary war. He
    was one of the signers of the Non-Importation Resolutions (October
    20, 1765), after the passage of the Stamp Act, and was among the
    most active, patriotic and respected Israelites of Philadelphia,
    being a conspicuous character in public affairs.


    was Quartermaster of a brigade of State troops during the


    a public spirited and leading citizen of Easton, Pa., of whom it is

    "Let it be remembered that Michael Hart was a Jew, practically
    pious, a Jew reverencing and strictly observant of the Sabbath and
    Festivals; dietary laws were also adhered to. * * * Mark well that
    he, Washington, the then honored as 'first in peace, first in war,
    and first in the hearts of his countrymen,' even during a short
    sojourn, became for the hour the guest of the worthy Jew."


    enlisted as a private in the 1st Pennsylvania Battalion November
    15, 1775.


    was an active participant in the struggle for independence and
    served with the Colonial Army on Long Island. In retaliation for
    his patriotic services the Tories burned his house and store. Prior
    to the Revolution he was one of the Commissioners appointed by the
    British authorities to lay out public lands. All of his family
    sided with the Colonists during the War of Independence.


    father and son, fought in various of the battles for independence.

Colonel ISAACS,

    of North Carolina Militia; wounded and taken prisoner at Camden
    August 16, 1780; exchanged July, 1781.


    one of the early settlers of Newport, R. I., was an active
    supporter of the Army of the Revolution. He had the honor of
    receiving General Washington as a guest at his house.


    enlisted as a private in the 6th Pennsylvania Battalion, company of
    Capt. Robert Adams, February 6, 1776.


    2nd Lieutenant of 8th Virginia Regiment, February 9, 1776; 1st
    Lieutenant, January, 1777; Captain, November 23, 1777; transferred
    to 4th Virginia Regiment, September 14, 1778.


    volunteered as a soldier during the Revolution.


    was an officer on the staff of General Pulaski.


    of Charleston, S. C., was a distinguished officer of the War of the
    Revolution. He served as captain on the staff of General de Kalb,
    and when the latter was mortally wounded at the battle of Camden,
    S. C., de Leon in company with Major Benjamin Nones and Captain
    Jacob de la Motta, of the staff, carried de Kalb from the field.


    Ensign of 1st New Jersey Regiment, September 12, 1778; resigned
    June 4, 1779.


    of Baltimore, served under Lafayette during the Revolutionary War.


    was a soldier of the Revolutionary War, who rose from the ranks to
    military positions of honor and trust.


    Captain of 6th Pennsylvania Regiment, February 15, 1777; retired,
    July 1, 1778.


    served on the staff of General Pulaski.


    of Philadelphia, advanced three thousand pounds when Robert Morris
    undertook to raise money to prosecute the War of Independence; he
    was active in the Jewish communities of New York and Philadelphia.


    served in the Revolution and in the War of 1812. In recognition of
    his valor as displayed in battle he was promoted from the ranks to
    a military position of honor.


    was a captain on the staff of General Pulaski.


    of South Carolina, (1747-1825) patriot and soldier; heretofore
    referred to as having contributed twenty thousand pounds to the
    support of the American army; served with General Marion, also on
    the staff of General Washington.


    a native of Bordeaux, France, came to Philadelphia in 1777. He
    served at various times on the staff of General Lafayette and
    on that of General Washington. He had previously been a private
    under General Pulaski, and had, as he writes, "fought in almost
    every action which took place in Carolina, and in the disastrous
    affair of Savannah, shared the hardships of that sanguinary day."
    He became major of a Legion of four hundred men attached to Baron
    De Kalb's command and composed in part of Hebrews. At the battle
    of Camden, S. C., on August 16, 1780, when the brave De Kalb fell
    mortally wounded, Major Nones, Capt. Jacob De la Motta and Capt.
    Jacob de Leon bore their chief from the battlefield.

    Major Nones rendered many conspicuous services, civil and military,
    to his adopted country.


    was a member of the artillery corps of Newport, R. I., in 1790.


    was born 1745, and resided in Germantown, Pa. When the war broke
    out in the Spring of 1775 he enlisted as surgeon's mate under the
    command of General Lee, serving about ten months. After the British
    occupation of Philadelphia, in September, 1777, he became surgeon's
    mate to Surgeon Norman, of the Second Virginia Regiment.

    Russell went into winter quarters with the army at Valley Forge,
    1777-1778. An attack of sickness, which impaired both his sight and
    hearing, forced him to resign in August, 1780. He received a letter
    of commendation from General Washington, "for his assiduous and
    faithful attentions to the sick and wounded."


    Lieutenant of Baldwin's Artillery, Artificer Regiment, May to
    December, 1775.


    2nd Lieutenant of Cotton's Massachusetts Regiment, May to December,

ABRAHAM SEIXES, was a lieutenant in the Georgia Brigade of the
Continental Army.

MORDECAI SHEFTALL. See biographical sketch, p. 40.


    [Papers collated by LEWIS ABRAHAM, Esq., and presented at the
    meeting of the American Jewish Historical Society, at Washington,
    December 27th, 1894.]

When Washington had concluded his labors in the field of war and had
attained deserved civic honors, and when laurels were showered upon
him from all quarters the Hebrews joined their fellow-citizens in
felicitating the hero and statesman.

The following correspondence is collated from _The United States
Gazette_, of 1790; a partial file of this paper can be found in the
Congressional Library. It is strange that the letters are not all to be
found in books in which the Washington correspondence are compiled.

The original letter addressed to the "Beth Elohim" congregation of
Charleston, S. C., was carefully preserved among the many other
valuable records of that city, but was destroyed by the great fire of
1838. The Mayor of Charleston endeavored to obtain a copy from the
general government, but after a thorough examination of the records,
no such document could be found. After a prolonged search, however,
the present writer was enabled to discover the missing document, and
was well rewarded with the thanks of the authorities of Charleston.
(Year-Book of the City of Charleston for 1884, page 280.)

The "_Address from the Hebrew Congregation of the City of Savannah,
Ga., to George Washington, the First President of the United States_,"
presented by Mr. Jackson, one of the representatives from Georgia.

    SIR: We have long been anxious of congratulating you on your
    appointment, by unanimous approbation, to the Presidential dignity
    of this country and of testifying our unbounded confidence in your
    integrity and unblemished virtue. Yet however exalted the station
    you now fill, it is still not equal to the merit of your heroic
    services through an arduous and dangerous conflict which has
    embosomed you in the hearts of her citizens.

    Our eccentric situation, added to a diffidence founded on the
    most profound respect, has thus long prevented our address, yet
    the delay has realized anticipation, given us an opportunity of
    presenting our grateful acknowledgements for the benediction of
    Heaven through the magnanimity of federal influence and the equity
    of your administration.

    Your unexampled liberality and extensive philanthropy have
    dispelled that cloud of bigotry and superstition which has
    long, as a vail, shaded religion--unrivetted the fetters of
    enthusiasm--enfranchised us with all the privileges and immunities
    of free citizens, and initiated us into the grand mass of
    legislative mechanism. By example you have taught us to endure the
    ravages of war with manly fortitude, and to enjoy the blessings of
    peace with reverence to the Deity and with benignity and love to
    our fellow-creatures.

    May the Great Author of the world grant you all happiness--an
    uninterrupted series of health--addition of years to the number of
    your days, and a continuance of guardianship to that freedom which
    under auspices of Heaven your magnanimity and wisdom have given
    these States.

    LEVI SHEFTALL, _President_.
    In behalf of the Hebrew Congregations.

       *       *       *       *       *

To which the President was pleased to return the following reply:
(Printed in Jared Sparks collection, Vol. XII, p. 185).

    _To the Hebrew Congregations of the City of Savannah, Georgia_:

    GENTLEMEN: I thank you with great sincerity for your
    congratulations on my appointment to the office which I have the
    honor to hold by the unanimous choice of my fellow-citizens, and
    especially the expressions you are pleased to use in testifying the
    confidence that is reposed in me by your congregations.

    As the delay which has naturally intervened between my election
    and your address has afforded me an opportunity for appreciating
    the merits of the Federal Government and for communicating your
    sentiments of its administration, I have rather to express
    my satisfaction rather than regret at a circumstance which
    demonstrates (upon experiment) your attachment to the former as
    well as approbation of the latter.

    I rejoice that a spirit of liberality and philanthropy is much more
    prevalent than it formerly was among the enlightened nations of the
    earth, and that your brethren will benefit thereby in proportion
    as it shall become still more extensive; happily the people of the
    United States have, in many instances exhibited examples worthy of
    imitation, the salutary influence of which will doubtless extend
    much farther if gratefully enjoying those blessings of peace which
    (under the favor of heaven) have been attained by fortitude in
    war, they shall conduct themselves with reverence to the Deity and
    charity toward their fellow-creatures.

    May the same wonder-working Deity, who long since delivered the
    Hebrews from their Egyptian oppressors, planted them in a promised
    land, _whose providential agency has lately been conspicuous
    in establishing these United States as an independent nation_,
    still continue to water them with the dews of heaven and make the
    inhabitants of every denomination participate in the temporal and
    spiritual blessings of that people whose God is Jehovah.


       *       *       *       *       *

_Address of the Newport Congregation to the President of the United
States of America_:

    SIR: Permit the children of the stock of Abraham to approach you
    with the most cordial affection and esteem for your person and
    merit, and to join with our fellow-citizens in welcoming you to

    With pleasure we reflect on those days of difficulty and danger
    when the God of Israel, who delivered David from the peril of the
    sword, shielded your head in the day of battle; and we rejoice to
    think that the same spirit which rested in the bosom of the greatly
    beloved Daniel, enabling him to preside over the province of the
    Babylonian Empire, rests and ever will rest upon you, enabling you
    to discharge the arduous duties of the Chief Magistrate of these

    Deprived as we hitherto have been of the invaluable rights of free
    citizens, we now--with a deep sense of gratitude to the Almighty
    Disposer of all events--behold a government erected by the majesty
    of the people, a government which to bigotry gives no sanction, to
    persecution no assistance, but generously affording to all liberty
    of conscience and immunities of citizenship, deeming every one of
    whatever nation, tongue, and language equal parts of the great
    governmental machine.

    This so ample and extensive Federal Union, whose base is
    philanthropy, mutual confidence and public virtue, we cannot but
    acknowledge to be the work of the Great God who rules in the armies
    of the heavens and among the inhabitants of the earth, doing
    whatever seemeth to Him good.

    For all the blessings of civil and religious liberty which we
    enjoy under an equal benign administration, we desire to send
    up our thanks to the Ancient days, the great Preserver of men,
    beseeching Him that the angel who conducted our forefathers through
    the wilderness into the promised land may graciously conduct
    you through all the difficulties and dangers of this mortal
    life; and when, like Joshua, full of days and full of honors,
    you are gathered to your fathers, may you be admitted into the
    heavenly paradise to partake of the water of life and the tree of

    Done and signed by order of the Hebrew Congregation in Newport,
    Rhode Island.

    MOSES SEIXES, _Warden_.
    Newport, August 17, 1790.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Washington's reply to the Hebrew Congregation in Newport, R. I._:

    GENTLEMEN: While I receive with much satisfaction your address
    replete with expressions of esteem, I rejoice in the opportunity
    of assuring you that I shall always retain grateful remembrance of
    the cordial welcome I experienced on my visit to Newport, from all
    classes of citizens.

    The reflection on the days of difficulty and danger, which are
    past, is rendered the more sweet from a consciousness that they are
    succeeded by days of uncommon prosperity and security.

    If we have wisdom to make the best use of the advantages with which
    we are now favored, we cannot fail, under the just administration
    of a good government, to become a great and happy people.

    The citizens of the United States of America have a right to
    applaud themselves for having given to mankind examples of an
    enlarged and liberal policy, a policy worthy of imitation. All
    possess alike liberty of conscience and immunities of citizenship.

    It is now no more that toleration is spoken of as if it were by the
    indulgence of one class of people that another enjoyed the exercise
    of their inherent natural rights, for, happily, the Government
    of the United States, which gives to bigotry no sanction, to
    persecution no assistance, requires only that they who live under
    its protection should demean themselves as good citizens in giving
    it on all occasions their effectual support.

    It would be inconsistent with the frankness of my character not
    to avow that I am pleased with your favorable opinion of my
    administration, and fervent wishes for my felicity.

    May the children of the stock of Abraham who dwell in this land
    continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other inhabitants,
    while every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and fig
    tree, and there shall be none to make him afraid.

    May the Father of all mercies scatter light, and not darkness, upon
    our paths and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and
    in his own due time and way everlastingly happy.


       *       *       *       *       *

_The address of the Hebrew Congregations in the cities of Philadelphia,
New York, Richmond, and Charleston, to the President of the United

    SIR: It is reserved for you to unite in affection for your
    character and person every political and religious denomination of
    men, and in this will the Hebrew congregations aforesaid yield to
    no class of their fellow-citizens.

    We have hitherto been prevented by various circumstances peculiar
    to our situation from adding our congratulations to those which the
    rest of America have offered on your elevation to the chair of the
    Federal Government. Deign, then, illustrious sir, to accept this
    our homage.

    The wonders which the Lord of Hosts hath worked in the days of
    our forefathers have taught us to observe the greatness of His
    wisdom and His might throughout the events of the late glorious
    Revolution; and, while we humble ourselves at His footstool in
    thanksgiving and praise for the blessing of His deliverance, we
    acknowledge you, the leader of American armies, as His chosen and
    beloved servant. But not to your sword alone is present happiness
    to be ascribed; that, indeed, opened the way to the reign of
    freedom, but never was it perfectly secure until your hand gave
    birth to the Federal Constitution and you renounced the joys of
    retirement to seal by your administration in peace what you had
    achieved in war.

    To The Eternal God, who is thy refuge, we commit in our prayers the
    care of thy precious life; and when, full of years, thou shalt be
    gathered unto thy people, 'thy righteousness shall go before thee,'
    and we shall remember, amidst our regret, "that the Lord hath set
    apart the godly for Himself," whilst thy name and thy virtues will
    remain an indelible memorial on our minds.


    For and in behalf and under the authority of the several
    congregations aforesaid.

    Philadelphia, December 13, 1790.

       *       *       *       *       *

The President was pleased to reply to the foregoing as follows:

    _Answer--To the Hebrew Congregations in the cities of Philadelphia,
    New York, Charleston, and Richmond_:

    GENTLEMEN: The liberality of sentiment toward each other, which
    marks every political and religious denomination of men in this
    country, stands unparalleled in the history of nations.

    The affection of such a people is a treasure beyond the reach of
    calculation, and the repeated proofs which my fellow-citizens have
    given of their attachment to me and approbation of my doings,
    form the purest source of my temporal felicity. The affectionate
    expressions of your address again excite my gratitude and receive
    my warmest acknowledgement.

    The power and goodness of The Almighty, so strongly manifested
    in the events of our late glorious revolution, and His kind
    interposition in our behalf, have been no less visible in the
    establishment of our present equal government. In war He directed
    the sword, and in peace He has ruled in our councils. My agency in
    both has been guided by the best intentions and a sense of duty I
    owe to my country.

    And as my exertions have hitherto been amply rewarded by the
    approbation of my fellow-citizens, I shall endeavor to deserve a
    continuance of it by my future conduct.

    May the same temporal and eternal blessings which you implore for
    me, rest upon your congregations.


       *       *       *       *       *

The foregoing expressions of the father of his country to his Hebrew
fellow-citizens may be appropriately supplemented by the following
correspondence of patriots of the early days of the United States.

In 1818 the Mill Street Synagogue was consecrated. Mordecai M. Noah
delivered an eloquent address on the occasion, and sent copies thereof
to distinguished statesmen. Among the replies received were the
following, which are worthy of preservation:


    MONTICELLO, May 28, 1818.

    _Sir_:--I thank you for the discourse on the consecration of the
    Synagogue in your city, with which you have been pleased to favor
    me. I have read it with pleasure and instruction, having learnt
    from it some valuable facts in Jewish history which I did not know
    before. Your sect by sufferings has furnished a remarkable proof
    of the universal spirit of religious intolerance inherent in every
    sect, disclaimed by all while feeble, and practiced by all when
    in power. Our laws have applied the only antidote to this vice,
    protecting our religious, as they do our civil rights, by putting
    all on an equal footing. But more remains to be done, for although
    we are free by the law, we are not so in practice; public opinion
    erects itself into an Inquisition, and exercises its office with as
    much fanaticism as fans the flames of an _Auto-de-fe_. #/

    The prejudice still scowling on your section of our religion,
    although the elder one, cannot be unfelt by yourselves; it is to be
    hoped that individual dispositions will at length mould themselves
    to the model of the law, and consider the moral basis, on which
    all our religions rest, as the rallying point which unites them
    in a common interest; while the peculiar dogmas branching from it
    are the exclusive concern of the respective sects embracing them,
    and no rightful subject of notice to any other; public opinion
    needs reformation on that point, which would have the further happy
    effect of doing away the hypocritical maxim of "_intus et lubet,
    foris ut moris_." Nothing, I think, would be so likely to effect
    this, as to your sect particularly, as the more careful attention
    to education, which you recommend, and which, placing its members
    on the equal and commanding benches of science, will exhibit them
    as equal objects of respect and favor. I salute you with great
    respect and esteem.


    M. M. NOAH, Esq.

       *       *       *       *       *


    MONTPELIER, May, 15, 1818.

    _Sir_:--I have received your letter of the 6th, with the eloquent
    discourse delivered at the consecration of the Synagogue. Having
    ever regarded the freedom of religious opinions and worship as
    equally belonging to every sect, and the secure enjoyment of it as
    the best human provision for bringing all, either into the same way
    of thinking, or into that mutual charity which is the only proper
    substitute, I observe with pleasure the view you give of the spirit
    in which your sect partake of the common blessings afforded by our
    Government and laws.

    As your foreign mission took place whilst I was in the
    administration, it cannot but be agreeable to me to learn that your
    accounts have been closed in a manner so favorable to you.


       *       *       *       *       *


    QUINCY, July 31, 1818.

    _Sir_:--Accept my best thanks for your polite and obliging favor
    of the 24th, and especially for the discourse inclosed. I know not
    when I have read a more liberal or more elegant composition.

    You have not extended your ideas of the right of private judgment
    and the liberty of conscience, both in religion and philosophy,
    farther than I do. Mine are limited only by morals and propriety.

    I have had occasion to be acquainted with several gentlemen of your
    nation, and to transact business with some of them, whom I found
    to be men of as liberal minds, as much honor, probity, generosity
    and good breeding, as any I have known in any sect of religion or

    I wish your nation may be admitted to all privileges of citizens in
    every country of the world. This country has done much. I wish it
    may do more, and annul every narrow idea in religion, government,
    and commerce. Let the wits joke; the philosopher sneer! What then?
    It has pleased the Provident of the 'first cause,' the universal
    cause, that Abraham should give religion, not only to Hebrews,
    but to Christians and Mahometans, the greatest part of the modern
    civilized world.

    (Signed)      JOHN ADAMS.


[22] _Travels in England, France, Spain and the Barbary States in the
years 1813-14 and 15._ By Mordecai M. Noah; New York and London, 1819.
Appendix, pp. xxv and xxvi.



[A paper read before the Jewish Historical Society, December 27, 1894,

In accordance with a resolution offered by Senator Justin S. Morrill,
of Vermont, while he was a member of the House of Representatives, in
1864, "that each State should be permitted to send the effigies of
two of her chosen sons, in marble or bronze, to be placed permanently
here," the old Hall of Representatives is fast becoming an American
memorial chamber.

Several statues, purchased by the United States, have been deposited
there, and many of the States have taken advantage of the privilege and
have honored their distinguished dead in the manner suggested by the
resolution of Congress.

There is, however, one splendid work of art in the corridor that has a
peculiar history. It was a gift to the Government. All the others have
been paid for by Congress or the several State Legislatures. The bronze
statue of Thomas Jefferson, by David d'Angers, a French sculptor, was
presented to Congress by an Israelite, Lieutenant (afterward Commodore)
Uriah Phillips Levy, of the United States Navy, in 1833, but was not
formally accepted until forty years thereafter.

Originally it stood in the rotunda, but was removed from there and
for many years remained in the grounds in front of the Presidential
Mansion. After its acceptance in 1874, upon motion of Senator Sumner,
it was finally located in its present position. It represents the
author of the Declaration of Independence as just having signed that
instrument of American Liberty. The pedestal is a superb piece of work,
executed by Struthers, of Philadelphia, in four varieties of marble.
It was the first piece of statuary ever owned by the Government, and
is dedicated by the donor to his fellow citizens. Upon the scroll
which Jefferson holds in his hand is engraved a verbatim copy of the
Declaration of Independence, with fac-simile signatures of John Hancock
and Thomas Jefferson.

The Levy family were intimate personal friends of the great framer of
our _Magna Charta_ and second President, and after his death became
the owners of his old family seat, Monticello. There is a special
significance in the gift and in the sentiment it conveys, and the
co-religionists of Levy remember with pardonable pride that this piece
of statuary, symbolizing the grand declaration of human equality and
honoring one of the greatest of the men who erected the fabric of
American Liberty, was the free-will offering of one of their people.


The commemoration of the first battle field of the Revolutionary War by
a monument was made possible through a liberal contribution by Judah
Touro. The proceedings of the Committee charged with the erection on
Bunker Hill of a memorial to the patriots and heroes who laid the
foundation of the Union, include a grateful acknowledgment of Touro's

The history of the monument, published by George Washington Warren,
contains the following statement (page 283): "It was confidentially
communicated to the Directors by Mr. William Appleton that whenever
the Association, in addition to a like offer of Mr. Lawrence, should
have money enough within ten thousand dollars ($10,000) to finish their
work, Judah Touro would give that sum. It was a noble offer, and coming
from a resident of a distant State, curiosity was excited."

Then follows a biographical sketch of this eminent citizen, concluding
as follows: "He was one of that smallest of all classes into which
mankind can be divided--of men who accumulate wealth without even doing
a wrong, taking an advantage, or making an enemy; who become rich
without being avaricious: who deny themselves the comforts of life,
that they may acquire the means of promoting the comfort and elevating
the condition of their fellowmen."

To complete the monument a fair (at which delegates from all the States
attended) was held in Boston by ladies in aid of the building fund.
The delegation from Louisiana, in their capacity as representatives of
that State, purchased the fine model of the monument which adorned
the Charleston table and they caused it to be transported to New
Orleans and to be placed, in honor of Judah Touro, in one of the public
buildings where it remained until it was destroyed with the building by

In the abstract of donations (page 311) received from private sources,
the gross sum is stated as $55,153.27, of which Judah Touro donated

At a meeting of the Board of Directors the following resolutions were
unanimously adopted:

"RESOLVED, That the Directors receive the contribution of Mr. Touro
with sentiments of deep and grateful respect, considering it as a
testimonial of his regard for the principles and the contest for which,
and its successful issue, the monument is intended to commemorate, and
his affectionate recollection of the friends of his youth and the place
of his early residence.

"RESOLVED, That John Quincy Adams, Daniel Webster, Joseph Story,
Edward Everett and Franklin Dexter be appointed a committee to prepare
an inscription for a tablet to be placed in the monument stating the
object for which it is erected and recording the liberality of Judah
Touro and Amos Lawrence, and the successful exertions of the daughters
of those patriots whose memory we would perpetuate--donations and labor
which have placed in the possession of the Directors a fund sufficient
to complete this memorial of one of the most important events in the
history of our country." (Page 312.)

On June 17, 1843, a banquet was held in Fanueil Hall, to celebrate the
completion of the monument. Governor Marcus Morton, who was suffering
from indisposition, was unable to attend, but sent a letter which was
read. The two great benefactors of the Association were remembered by
the following: (Page 330.)

  "Amos and Judah, venerated names,
  Patriarch and Prophet press their equal claims,
  Like generous coursers running 'neck and neck,'
  Each aids the work by giving it a _check_.
  Christian and Jew, they carry out one plan,
  For though of different faiths each is in heart a MAN."


One hundred years elapse, with their cares and joys, jeopardy and
success, and America celebrates the centennial year of its existence
by a grand exhibition in the city where is deposited the liberty bell
that proclaimed "liberty throughout the land unto all the inhabitants
thereof." The massive engine that moves obedient machinery sings a pæan
to the Republic!

The nimble shuttle and the agile loom weave chaplets and trophies!
Lightning-flashes leap from fathomless seas and speak with living fire
congratulations of emperors, kings, and potentates! Human handicrafts,
from Occident to Orient, delve and build, and fuse and shape tributes
of felicitation to the glory and honor of praise, aye, even worship, of
the land of Washington!

Fairmount Park blazes with the light of human advancement in science
and art, literature, education and religion; and, with humility be
it stated, no portion of God's footstool is more to be credited with
aiding and nurturing the progress of the century than the land of
Washington and Jefferson and Franklin.

There, on the Centennial grounds, the Israelites of the United States,
through one of their organizations, "the Sons of the Covenant," placed
their homage. It is in the shape of a group of statuary in Carrara
marble styled


It was executed in Rome, by one of their own people, Moses Ezekiel,
a native of Richmond, Virginia. Upon the pedestal is an inscription,
neither narrow in scope nor sectarian in spirit. The promoters of this
tribute felt the eloquence of the Bill of Human Rights they desired to
typify, and simply transcribed the clause of the Constitution which


An eminent and thoughtful foreigner, a statesman of world-wide fame,
passing through Fairmount Park, earnestly gazed at the marble group,
and exclaimed: "If the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 resulted in
this work of art and did nothing else, the American people should be
satisfied. I, the subject of a monarch, salute the Nation that makes
this creation possible."[23]


[23] The statue of Religious Liberty was erected by the Independent
Order of B'nai B'rith, pursuant to the resolution to that effect,
adopted by the General Convention of the Order at Chicago in 1874. Of
that Convention Hon. Simon Wolf was President, and the adoption of
the measure by the Convention, as well as the eventual success of the
undertaking through the active support of the various lodges, were due
mainly to Mr. Wolf's indefatigable efforts.--_Ed._


It is questionable whether the Jewish population of the American Union
kept pace with the general increase during the time from the close
of the Revolutionary struggle to the middle of the present century.
Certain it is that at a comparatively developed period, in 1824,
Solomon Etting estimated the Jewish population of Maryland as "at least
150," and that of the United States as "at least 6000,"[24] while
another experienced publicist, Isaac Harby, estimates it, as we have
seen, (note, page 12), at "not over 6000" in 1826. Up to the close
of the Eighteenth Century the Jewish immigrants to this side of the
Atlantic were derived almost entirely from the Sephardic stock, mainly
indeed from England and Holland and their colonial dependencies, and
these, from the comparative paucity of numbers at their source, could
not, in the very nature of things, have been very numerous. Of the
Jewish colonists of the time of the Revolution, some, who had remained
loyal to the mother country, went back to England or to the West Indies
after the war was over, and the number of these, though quite limited,
was but little overbalanced by the new arrivals. The emigration of the
German Jews remained altogether sporadic throughout the period of the
Napoleonic wars, because of the almost insuperable obstacles which
hindered their departure, and for a time thereafter they were content
to remain at home in view of the great political concessions which they
had gained from the German rulers in return for their valor and heroic
sacrifices in defense of the fatherland. The increase of the Jewish
population in this country was thus limited mainly to the surplus of
births over deaths until some time after the close of the War of 1812.
In the course of the reaction against the innovations of liberalism
which ensued after 1820, the hardly-gained political rights of the
German Jews were gradually curtailed or entirely withdrawn, and at this
time the Jews of the German maritime cities began to emigrate to the
United States in increasing numbers. It was not, however, until after
the revolution of 1848 and the beginning of steam navigation on the
Atlantic, that any considerable exodus took place. At the time of the
Mexican War, in 1846, the Jewish population of the United States was
probably not greater in proportion than that estimated for the period
of the Revolutionary War. In point of fact, at the time of the second
war with Great Britain, and likewise also at the date of the Mexican
War, the Jewish element composed as yet only a minute fraction of the
general population, and no very considerable number of Jewish names
are to be looked for in the army lists of those two wars. At the same
time it remains to be added that the lists here given for both the
wars referred to are not at all complete, comprising for the most part
only the names of such individuals as left notable evidence of their
presence in the ranks.

       *       *       *       *       *

WAR OF 1812.


    served in Captain Samuel Borden's Company, 4th Detachment,


    served in Captain Peter Nungesser's Company, 2nd Regiment,
    Volunteer Light Infantry, Pennsylvania.

Brigadier-General JOSEPH BLOOMFIELD,

    in command of Military District No. 4, embracing Pennsylvania,
    Delaware and Western New Jersey.

    [_His military record is included in the list of Jewish soldiers in
    the American Revolutionary War_].


    was a member of Captain Nicholson's Company of Maryland Fencibles,
    and served in the defense of Fort McHenry.


    brother of the above, volunteered for the defense of Baltimore and
    also served at Fort McHenry during the memorable bombardment.


    served in Captain George Zieber's Company, 1st Regiment, 2nd
    Brigade, Pennsylvania, under Lieutenant-Colonel Jeremiah Shappel.

Second Lieutenant BENJAMIN GRATZ

    served in company of Pennsylvania Volunteers commanded by Captain
    John Swift, 1813.


    served in Captain Jacob Wentz's Company--3d Company, 52d Regiment,


    served in Captain George Dinckey's Company, 18th Section of
    Riflemen from Pennsylvania.

JACOB HAYS,    } father and son served in N. Y. commands.


    served in Captain Florence Cotter's Company, 1st Detachment, 1st
    Brigade, Pennsylvania.


    served in Captain Jacob Ashey's Company, 1st Regiment of

First Lieutenant ISAAC MERTZ

    served in Captain Middleswarth's Company, Battalion of Riflemen
    from Pennsylvania.



    served in Captain Nicholas Beckwith's (Fifth Battalion) Company
    from Pennsylvania.


    served in Captain Adam Diller's Company, 2nd Brigade, Pennsylvania.


    served in Captain George Hess's Company of Riflemen from
    Northampton County, Pennsylvania.


    served in Captain Nickolaus Derr's Company, 101st Regiment, from


    served in Captain John Christian's Company, 2nd Regiment from


    served in the Pennsylvania line.


    served among Pennsylvania Volunteers.


    served in Captain John Christian's Company, 2nd Regiment from


    served in Captain J. Bakeoven's Company, 2nd Brigade, from


    was commissioned from South Carolina.


    13th Pennsylvania Infantry; wounded at Chrysler's Field.


    was in command of a brigade stationed near the City of New York.


    served in 1st Regiment of Pennsylvania.


    served in Captain John Linton's Company in the Battalion of
    Philadelphia Militia, under Colonel William Bradford, Pennsylvania.


    served in the Pennsylvania line.


    served in Captain Florence Cotter's Company, 1st Detachment of 1st
    Brigade, Pennsylvania.


    served in Captain John Williamson's Company, 2nd Brigade,
    Pennsylvania Militia, under Brigadier-General Richard Crooks.


    served from Pennsylvania. He was instrumental in founding the
    Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, and won esteem by
    his philanthropy. [_A sketch of his career is published elsewhere
    in this work._]


    served in Captain George Zieber's Company, 1st Regiment, 2nd
    Brigade, Pennsylvania, under Lieutenant-Colonel Jeremiah Shappel.


    served in Captain George Dinckey's Company, 18th Section of
    Riflemen, from Pennsylvania.


    enlisted as a volunteer in the American Army, under General Andrew
    Jackson; was severely wounded in the battle of New Orleans, January
    1, 1815; rendered many services as patriot and philanthropist, as
    detailed elsewhere in this work.


    served in Captain George Zieber's Company, 1st Regiment, 2nd
    Brigade, Pennsylvania, under Lieutenant-Colonel Jeremiah Shappel.


    served in Captain John M. Buckius's Company, 2nd Brigade,


    served in Captain Samuel Wilson's Company of Militia, from Buck's
    County, Pennsylvania.


    served in Captain John Christian's Company, 2nd Regiment, from


    Company A, 3d New Jersey Artillery, enlisted when only a boy;
    wounded in the groin at Lundy's Lane in a bayonet charge.


    served in Captain Nickolaus Derr's Company, 101st Regiment, from

       *       *       *       *       *



    New York Volunteers; killed in action.


First Lieutenant LEVI BENJAMIN, Maryland Militia, 1846.


    served with Sam Houston, in the Texan War.

Sergeant JACOB DAVID, New York Volunteers.

JOSEPH DAVIS, Co. D, 12th Regiment.


    was born in South Carolina in 1822. In the Mexican War he twice
    took the places of commanding officers who had been killed or
    disabled by wounds. He acted with such gallantry and ability as
    to twice receive the thanks of the United States Congress. In
    February, 1861, he resigned his rank as Surgeon and Major in the
    United States Army and was appointed first Surgeon General of the
    Armies of the Confederacy.

Colonel LEON DYER,

    Quartermaster-General of the State of Louisiana; subsequently held
    the same rank under General Winfield Scott.

GABRIEL DROPSIE, Co. E, 1st Pennsylvania Regiment.


    fought under Fannin at Goliad.


    in Captain Kimball's Company, 2d Regiment of Texas Volunteer

S. EYTINGE, Maryland Militia, 1846.


    wounded in action.


Third Lieutenant ---- GOLDSMITH, Maryland Militia, 1846.

JAMES HART, New York Volunteers.

WILLIAM HART, New York Volunteers;

    lost a leg at Cherubusco.

Sergeant MARX M. HART, New York Volunteers.

Sergeant JOSEPH HENRIQUES, New York Volunteers.

Sergeant SAMUEL HENRY, New York Volunteers.

Corporal JACOB HIRSCHHORN, 1st New York Volunteers.

Surgeon J. HORWITZ, Maryland Militia, 1846.


Colonel S. M. HYAMS.

SAMUEL ISAACS, Texas Army, 1836-1837 (Co. D, 10th Infantry.)


    volunteered in Captain King's Company during Texas revolution;
    killed at Goliad, March 27, 1836.

MARK KAHN, New York Volunteers.


    aide to General Douglas, wounded at the battle of Neches; was
    Speaker of the Texas Assembly and advocated its annexation; was
    member of Congress from Texas from date of annexation (1846) to his
    death in 1851.


---- KOHN, Texas Spy Company (at San Jacinto).


    fought at Anahuac; also at the Grass battles, 1835, and in Texan
    War, 1836.

JACOB LEVA, New York Volunteers.


Surgeon-General MOSES ALBERT LEVY,

    in Sam Houston's Army, in service throughout the Texas-Mexican War.
    Colonel Johnson's report of the capture of San Antonio, December
    15, 1835, stated: "Doctors Levy and Pollard deserve my warmest
    praise for their unremitted attention and assiduity."


    of Charleston, served as Surgeon-General under General Tom Green,
    in the Texan War of 1836.


    served under General Fannin.

Lieutenant-Colonel ISRAEL MOSES,

    promoted from Assistant Surgeon; served also in Civil War.


    served under General Fannin.

JOHN MYERS, New York Volunteers.

PHILIP MYERS, New York Volunteers.

SOPPHE MYERS, New York Volunteers.

OTTO NEUBAUER, New York Volunteers.

HENRY PHILLIPS, New York Volunteers.

GEORGE RIELL, New York Volunteers.



    Galveston Cadets, was appointed First Lieutenant of that Company
    when the Mexican invasion of Galveston was threatened. In the
    Mexican War of 1846 he enlisted in Captain McLean's Company,
    and subsequently volunteered in Captain Bell's Regiment, which
    was ordered to join the command of General Taylor, en route for
    Monterey. He bore so conspicuous a part in the battle at that point
    that he was sent for by General Taylor and highly complimented;
    being offered a Lieutenancy in the 2d Dragoons. At the outbreak
    of the Civil War, he enlisted in the Confederate Army, joining a
    Cavalry Company commanded by Captain Woodward.


ALEXANDER SIMM, New York Volunteers.

Second Lieutenant JOSEPH SIMPSON, Maryland Militia, 1846.

JACOB C. SOMERS, New York Volunteers.

Assistant Surgeon HENRY H. STEINER,

    with rank of Captain.


    joined the American settlers in their early struggles against the
    Mexicans; took part in the Fredonian War; he was captured by the
    Mexicans and sentenced to be shot, but was subsequently released.
    He served in both lower and upper Houses of the Texas Legislature,
    previous to annexation.



    served on the staff of General Zachary Taylor.

J. VALENTINE, Palmetto Regiment, South Carolina.

Sergeant ALEXANDER B. WEINBERG, New Jersey Battalion.


    fought in the battle of Buena Vista.


    killed at the storming of the Alamo, in the Texan War, December,


[24] Replies to inquiries of Colonel W. G. Worthington, quoted by the
latter in his advocacy of the enfranchisement of the Jews of Maryland.
("_Speeches on the Jew Bill in the House of Delegates of Maryland," by
H. M. Brackenridge, Philadelphia, 1829_).


The following list comprises names of Jewish soldiers on the rolls of
the standing army of the United States, from the earliest period of
the Republic to our present time. It is more or less incomplete, as
only those have been included whose identity has been sufficiently

The roster includes the names of men in every branch of the service,
many with a distinguished and all of them with honorable records.

E. ABRAHAM, Co. H, 16th Regiment.


    brevetted Captain and Major for meritorious services; served in all
    from August 5, 1861 to March 31, 1873.

Post Surgeon DANIEL M. APPEL,

    with rank of Captain; entered army in 1876, and now in service.

Assistant Surgeon AARON H. APPEL,

    with rank of Captain; entered army in 1887.

J. BERGMAN, Co. B, 1st Dragoons.

DAVID BEHRENBERG, 18th Infantry;

    served five years.

Assistant Surgeon M. BLOCK, 14th Infantry.

W. BLONDHEIM, Co. B, 14th Infantry.

WILLIAM HARRIS BOAS, Co. I, 3d Infantry.

ALEXANDER BORG, 2d Infantry.

ISAAC H. BRANDON, 12th Infantry.

I. M. BRANDON, 12th Infantry.

---- CHAPPELL, Co. C, 10th Infantry.

A. E. COHEN, Co. G, 17th Infantry.

GEORGE COHEN, 7th Infantry.

HERMAN COHEN, 13th Infantry.

Lieutenant HYMAN COHEN.

JOSEPH COHEN, Co. F, 1st Artillery.

LEOPOLD COHEN, general service.

MORRIS COHEN, War Department.

Sergeant MORRIS COHEN, 3d Dragoons,

    enlisted as Private.

R. P. COHEN, 5th Infantry.

BENJAMIN DAVID, Co. I, 2nd Artillery.

HENRY M. DAVIS, 2nd Battalion, 18th Infantry.


SIMON H. DE YOUNG, 4th Infantry.

Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel FRANX MARK ETTING,

    served from 1861 to 1868. Chief Paymaster of the Army from 1864 to

Brevet Captain D. I. EZEKIEL, 4th Infantry,

    Promoted from private on account of bravery displayed in battle;
    was seriously wounded.

MAX FELDMAN, 2nd Artillery.

JACOB GABRIEL, 5th Artillery,

    killed at Cedar Mountain.


    served five years.

N. GLEISER, Co. G, 10th Infantry.



    1st Artillery. Served five years; mustered out as Corporal; the
    recipient of a medal from the Chamber of Commerce, New York City.

Lieutenant HARRY J. HIRSCH,

    entered army in 1891; now in service.

THEODORE JOSEPH, Co. H, 10th Infantry.

C. G. JACOBS, 13th Infantry.



OSCAR JACOBY, 2nd Artillery.


MAX LEPPOWITZ, Co. B, 14th Artillery.

BENJAMIN LEVI, Co. B, 14th Artillery.


HENRY J. LEVY, Hospital Steward.

JOHN LEVY, 19th Infantry.

ALBERT LIEBER, 10th Infantry.


A. MANTNER, 4th Artillery.


    served in General Custer's Cavalry Division.


    1st Lieutenant of Riflemen, 1808; Captain, 1809, afterwards Major;
    promoted Paymaster in United States Army in 1820.

H. MENDEL, Co. A, 4th Cavalry.


    served thirty years in the United States Army, retiring as
    Quartermaster Sergeant.

HEINRICH MEERHOLZ, Co. D, 10th Infantry.

Captain OTTO E. MICHAELES, Ordnance Department.

C. MILTENBERGER, Co. B, 9th Infantry.



    a recognized authority in the military world in the field of
    scientific research, and in the practical application of mechanical
    science to the art of war; he served in the Mexican War, and was
    sent by our Government, together with General George B. McClellan,
    and Major Richard Delafield, to witness and report upon the
    operations in the Crimea. Major Mordecai was the author of "Reports
    of Experiments on Gunpowder," an "Ordnance Manual," and other works.


    entered the army as Lieutenant in 1861; served in Civil War in
    various capacities; has been an instructor at the Military Academy,
    West Point; promoted for meritorious and faithful services; is now
    in command of National Armory, at Springfield, Massachusetts.

J. F. MOSES, Battery A, 4th U. S. Artillery.

A. S. NELSON, Co. G, 15th Infantry.

1st Lieutenant GEORGE J. NEWGARDEN, M. D., now in service.

MICHAEL NEWMAN, 5th Cavalry.

MOSES NEWMAN, 13th Infantry.

Cadet SAMUEL NOAH, 1st Artillery.



    entered army in 1883; has been in command of various forts and now
    in service.

Sergeant OSCAR POLLACK, 2nd Cavalry,

    served nine years; enlisted as private; wounded; killed in the
    fight with the Sioux at Wounded Knee.

Sergeant ---- POLLOCK, 7th Cavalry.

    Killed at Wounded Knee.

GEORGE POPPERS, 3d Infantry.

MAX REECE, Co. B, 4th Artillery.

    A note attached to his discharge reads: "A sober, faithful,
    intelligent, brave and excellent soldier."

1st Sergeant SAMUEL REIS, Company C, U. S. Cavalry.

    Served ten years. Discharged for disability to serve any longer.

ADOLPH RESSIE, Co. K, 10th Infantry.

ISAAC RICE, 10th Infantry.


E. ROSE, 10th Infantry.

---- ROSENFELD, Co. C, 10th Infantry.

DAVID ROSENHEIM, 1st Infantry.

JOHN ROSENTHAL, Ordnance Corps.

NATHAN SCHOENFARBER, Co. G, 14th Infantry.

ELIAS SCHUMACHER, Co. C, 2nd Infantry.

ISAAC SMITH, Co. H, 11th Infantry.

J. SOMMER, Co. E, 4th Infantry.

Major and Paymaster JUSTUS STEINBERGER.

    [See _Record in Civil War List_.]


JOSEPH STURMER, Co. G, 10th Infantry.

Surgeon G. WAAGE.


    in Civil War; transferred from ranks of 40th Regiment of
    Pennsylvania Volunteers November 9, 1862.

MEYER WEILER, Co. A, 13th Infantry.

MARCUS WEILER, Co. F, 13th Infantry,

    wounded at Vicksburg.

JOSEPH WENK, ---- Cavalry.

WILEM WEST, Fort Lyon, Colorado.

    discharged for disability incurred in service--(1882-1884).

EMANUEL WODICK, Co. K, 10th Infantry.

ADAM WOLF, 2nd Infantry.



    Chief Telegraph Operator, Military Department.


The spirit of devotion to this country and its interests always
manifested by its Jewish inhabitants has not failed to leave its
impress on the rolls of the United States Navy. From the time of the
organization of that branch of the national defense many Jews have
been present in the service. That they did their full duty the records
indisputably show, and from the man before the mast to flag officer,
from stoker to chief engineer, sons of Israel have given their efforts
in behalf of the American cause. At the time of our Civil War their
ranks were especially reinforced, and at the present day a considerable
number of Jews are at posts of duty on the vessels of our navy.

Instances of personal distinction on the part of these defenders are
numerous, but specific reference need here be made only to the great
advance accomplished by Uriah Phillips Levy in behalf at once of the
Navy and of humanity at large, by the abolition through his influence
of the degrading practice of corporal punishment in the navy of the
United States. He had long opposed the brutal system of flogging,
and when promoted to the position of Flag Officer--the highest rank
registered before the Civil War--he used his authority to promote the
self-respect and well being of the sailors of his fleet. The records of
others besides Commodore Levy are creditable in a high degree, and all
comprised in the list are examples of men who devote to the cause in
which they are enlisted "their lives, their fortunes and their sacred

S. AMERICAN, U. S. Gunboat Seneca.

BENJAMIN ABRAHAMS, Acting Assistant Paymaster.


SOLOMON ASHER, U. S. Gunboat Wissahickon,

    promoted to Acting Assistant Yeoman (1862-1863).

Paymaster JONAS BARNETT, U. S. Steamer Essex,

    lost his life by falling from the rigging of his vessel while at



    fourteen years an officer of the U. S. Marine Corps; appointed
    Lieutenant, 1855, subsequently appointed Major and placed on
    retired list on account of physical disability.


    Acting Assistant Surgeon under Rear-Admiral S. F. Du Pont

Midshipman JOSEPH COHEN (1826).

GUSTAVE DUVAL, U. S. Steamer Pawnee.


    one of the few survivors of the memorable fight between the Monitor
    and the Merrimac. Admiral Worden expressed himself that Durst was
    not only a brave, fearless and patriotic man, but eminently worthy
    to be recognized by some action on the part of Congress (1862-1864).

CHARLES EDELMAN, U. S. Steamer Ohio.


    Past Assistant Engineer, served under Commodore Mead. Twice
    shipwrecked (1862-1891).



    entered as Midshipman, promoted to Purser, Navy Paymaster and
    retired with the rank of Captain--1818-1861.


    was appointed Acting Midshipman when a little over sixteen years
    old, promoted Midshipman, Ensign, Navy Paymaster, Lieutenant


    Mate, Acting Ensign (1863-1865).




Lieutenant E. C. HAMBURGER;

    promoted step by step, finally commissioned Lieutenant.

Captain LEVI MYERS HARBY (1793-1870).

    At the age of fourteen he was Midshipman in the U. S. Navy. During
    the War of 1812-1814, he was captured by the British and confined
    for eighteen months in "Dartmoor Prison," from which he finally
    escaped by swimming. In December, 1823, he served as sailing-master
    on the U. S. Vessel Beagle. He served for fifty-two years under the
    U. S. flag and rose to the rank of Captain. He participated in the
    Texan War of Independence and in the Mexican War. He also served
    in the Seminole War of Florida, and had command of a vessel in the
    expedition against the pirates of Algiers and Tripoli. On leave of
    absence he also fought in the Bolivian War of Independence. In 1861
    he resigned his commission and entered the Confederate service with
    the rank of Commodore, distinguishing himself as Commander of the
    Neptune, capturing the Harriet Lane at Galveston, Texas. He was
    subsequently in command of a fleet of Confederate gunboats on the
    Sabine River.


    died in the service.

J. HARRISON, U. S. Steamer North Carolina.

SAMUEL HERFORD, U. S. Steamers Richmond and Wyoming.


    Acting Second Assistant Engineer (1864-1865).


    midshipman (1813-1818).


    distinguished himself, died in the service (1801-1804).

JACOB JACOBS, U. S. Steamer Portsmouth,

    was on board the Ida when she was blown up by a torpedo.


    transferred from Twenty-seventh Pennsylvania Regiment.

Midshipman and Master HENRY M. JACOBY, Shenandoah, Wachusett,
Worcester, Yantic, Lackawanna (1866-1883).


    promoted from Surgeon's Mate to Surgeon (1800-1808).

Mate SAMUEL JESSURUN (1863-1864).

S. S. KRAUSS, U. S. Steamer Raritan,

    served four years.


DAVID J. KING, U. S. Steamer Wissahickon.



ALEXANDER A. LAZARUS, U. S. Steamer Horace Beals, also Rhode Island.

HENRY LEVI, U. S. Steamer Princeton,

    transferred to New Ironsides, Vandalia, etc. (1862-1865).

Master MEARS LEVY (1812-1813).

Second Assistant Engineer CHARLES H. LEVY (1857-1861).

Mate CHARLES LEVIN (1870-1874),

    died during his service.

M. LINDHEIM, Pocahontas.



    one of the best known American naval officers of former days. At
    the time of his death, 1862, he was the highest ranking officer
    in the U. S. Navy. He served in the War of 1812, being the master
    of the brig of war Argus, which ran the blockade to France with
    Mr. Crawford, the American Minister to that country, on board. The
    Argus destroyed twenty-one British merchantmen. In recognition of
    his valuable services to the nation the Common Council of New York
    City honored him with "the freedom of the city." Commodore Levy
    vigorously opposed the application of the lash to seamen. Upon his
    tombstone at Cypress Hill is recorded the fact that "he was the
    father of the law for the abolition of the barbarous practice of
    corporal punishment in the U. S. Navy."

Captain JONAS P. LEVY,

    commanded the U. S. Steamer America during the Mexican War and was
    active in the transportation of U. S. troops to Vera Cruz. At the
    surrender of that port he was appointed its captain by General
    Winfield Scott.

MARX MAAS, U. S. Gunboat No. 29.

JACOB MAAS, Gunboat.



    served in the U. S. fleet during the Mexican War and was Secretary
    to Captain (afterwards Admiral) S. P. Lee.


    on Commodore S. F. Du Pont's blockading squadron Vermont and
    Massachusetts (1862-1865).

Midshipman PHILIP MOSES.


    Mate and Acting Ensign, (1861-1863).

Acting Master EDWARD MOSES,

    (1862-1864); died while in service.


LOUIS NEWBERGER, U. S. Gunboat Pawpaw.

JOSEPH B. NONES, Guerriere.

    In 1814, when seventeen years of age, he accompanied Henry Clay,
    Gallatin and John Quincy Adams on the Frigate John Adams to Europe
    on the Ghent Mission; severely wounded and obliged to resign from
    the service (1812-1822).

Master NEWMAN MORRIS (1801-1803).

Captain HENRY BENJAMIN NONES, Revenue Marine,

    promoted from 3d Lieutenant; served from 1831; died in 1868.


    served on various vessels; rose from Second Assistant Engineer; has
    served since 1853.

Midshipman JEFFERSON H. NONES, 1840-1846.

Second Assistant Engineer WASHINGTON H. NONES (1850-1853),

    died while in service.

Midshipman ABRAM PHILLIPS (1812-1813).

    Drowned, 1813.


Captain ISAAC PHILLIPS (1798-1799).

Assistant Surgeon MANUEL PHILLIPS (1809-1824).


    Wounded in the attack on Fort Fisher (1863-1866).


    Past Assistant Surgeon in the Marine Hospital Service.

Acting Ensign ALBERT P. SAMPSON (1862-1865).

Acting Ensign ISAAC P. SAMPSON (1863-1865).

J. SCHLESINGER, U. S. Steamer Pocahontas.

M. J. SIESEL, U. S. Steamer Hartford.

Sergeant SIEGMUND SILVERBURG, U. S. Marine Corps.

Midshipman BENJAMIN SOLOMON (1809-1810).

Purser EZEKIEL SOLOMON (1814-1816).

CHARLES STEIN, Marine Corps,

    Died of exposure in the service.


    served fourteen years on sea and did seven years' duty on land.


    served four years.

LEO WISE, U. S. Steamer Springfield.


As a fitting prelude to the record of Jewish activity in the War of
the Rebellion, there may be cited here an episode in its history which
has had no counterpart in the course of the world's affairs. Recondite
and romantic incidents are present in the annals of all nations, and
the history of the Jewish people especially is fraught with many
striking instances of unhoped and unexpected deliverance from impending
calamity, but they were largely the outcome of times and conditions
widely at variance with those of the present day. The narrative of Haym
Salomon's sacrifice in behalf of American freedom and the cause of
human liberty forms a singular chapter in the annals of the American
Revolution. But a yet more remarkable incident, one that appears wholly
foreign to the _laisser-faire_ spirit of our modern time, and which is
likely in the future to centre a much greater degree of attention than
it has yet received, is a transaction that has but lately become part
of the history of the Civil War.

On October 2, 1863, the British Government seized in the shipyard of
the Lairds, at Birkenhead, two armored vessels which had ostensibly
been built for the government of China, but which, according to
constantly reiterated reports, had been built for the Southern
Confederacy in rebellion against the United States. The contemporary
chronicles of the Civil War contain at most only such reports of that
incident as became public in the course of the controversy over the
subject, but the inner details of the occurrence, notable enough even
in its most obvious features, remained for many years a diplomatic
secret until revealed by the then Register of the Treasury, Mr. L. E.
Chittenden, in his "Recollections of President Lincoln."

The two vessels had indeed been embargoed by the British Government,
but under conditions which had been settled upon by the advisers of
the Crown with the almost clearly manifest purpose of permitting the
vessels to escape, while at the same time apparently complying with
the requirements of international law and the representations of the
American Minister. The sympathies of the ruling powers in Great Britain
were strongly with the Southern cause; the fact that the success of
that cause meant the perpetuation of negro slavery, against which
the English people had constantly inveighed, was held by many of the
leaders of the party in power to be of small moment in comparison
with the advancement of British interests, which these leaders
believed would result from the disruption of the American Republic.
They were accordingly ready to take advantage of a virtual breach of
international comity and law, under cover of a technical compliance
with its provisions, and incur the risk of all the terrible outcome
of a war between the two great Anglo-Saxon nations of the world. That
such a war would surely have resulted if the two armored corsairs had
eventually been let loose upon this country, no student of history
can doubt. It was being busily fomented by that arch enemy, both of
England and America, Napoleon III., who had assiduously been seeking
an adequate pretext to recognize the independence of the Confederate
States. He was actively conferring with British parliamentary leaders
with the purpose of a joint intervention in our struggle, and if these
ships were liberated to prey upon our commerce, lift the blockade of
the Confederate ports, weaken the Federal power and strengthen that of
the Rebellion, he would then assuredly be able to build up his empire
in Mexico. That empire was already planted on the soil of the Mexican
Republic, and the triumph of the Southern cause meant the success
of the foolhardy and villainous undertaking which Napoleon III. had
established under Maximilian. If the outcome of British co-operation
for the disruption of the American Union were eventually to be a war
between England and the United States, it would but be further grist
for the mill of the French usurper.

From all of this procession of possible and unmeasured evils it appears
that the world was saved through the timely and powerful interposition
of a single will. It was the will of a man who was manifestly near
enough to the mainspring of affairs to be aware of its primary
movements, who was yet so hidden from public view that his action
would remain as secret as he himself determined it to be; whose purpose
was clearly in opposition to the motives of the ruling powers, and who
possessed the means with which to effect his purpose.

Who was it that so signally changed the current of the world's affairs?
Whose influence yet remains as mysterious as it was far-reaching? The
question has been often asked and still remains unanswered. He still
remains unnamed on the page of history. His position, his motive and
his means of action appear to be defined, and it was clearly with these
considerations in view that Mr. Chittenden wrote the letter which is
here subjoined. The "process of exclusion" to which he so pointedly
adverts leaves but very few among whom he is to be sought, and to the
almost unerring indication which Mr. Chittenden has given is to be
added a still nearer one which the author of the present work obtained
from another source. Miss Kate Chase, daughter of Salmon P. Chase, the
then Secretary of the Treasury, while assuring Mr. Wolf that the name
of the mysterious personage was unknown to her, was yet able to inform
him that the man was a Jew. That it was a Jew, one well known for his
outspoken admiration and love for our country as the home of religious
liberty, a man who was not of the unsympathetic government, nor of the
hostile aristocracy, nor of the jealous manufacturing class, might well
be surmised from all the circumstances of this remarkable occasion,
and his identity can scarcely be misinterpreted in the light of Mr.
Chittenden's indications.

The following is a copy of Mr. Chittenden's letter, which may well
serve as an author's preface to the chapter of his "Recollections" to
which it refers, in which the incident is narrated in detail, and which
we shall quote in full:

    11 PINE ST., NEW YORK, May 7, 1892.

    DEAR SIR:--

    It would give me great pleasure to answer your letter of April 26th
    and a large number of others on the same subject. You will readily
    see that the name may be reached by a process of exclusion as
    definitely as by its direct statement. The extraordinary character
    of the incident did not occur to me at the time, or I should have
    probably suppressed it. As it is I have no alternative but silence.

    However, it gives me pleasure to say one thing. The experience of
    an active life now drawing to its close has taught me that race
    prejudices have no place in the heart of a true American, and I am
    certainly not conscious that I have ever entertained a shadow of
    them against any one of Hebrew origin. On the contrary I have found
    much in the history of that persecuted race to respect and admire.
    Illness has delayed this reply to your note.

    Yours truly,

    Washington, D. C.



(Chapter XXV, Pages 197-203. N. Y., Harper & Brothers, 1891.)

Mr. Charles Francis Adams (our minister) had for several weeks been
aware, and had communicated the fact to his government, that the
Messrs. Laird, extensive ship builders, were building at their yards
in Birkenhead, near Liverpool, two armored vessels for the Confederate
government. They were to be furnished with powerful engines, and
capable of great speed. When completed they were to proceed to a small
unfrequented British island in the West Indies, where they were to be
delivered to the agents of the Confederacy. They were then to receive
their armament, previously sent thither, take their crews on board,
and then set forth on their piratical cruises, after the example of
the _Alabama_. After sweeping our remaining commerce from the seas, by
burning and sinking every merchantship bearing our flag, they were to
come upon our own coast, scatter our blockading fleet, and open all the
Southern ports to British commerce, which would no longer be required
to take the great risk of breaking the blockade. This feat was to be
accomplished by vessels which had never entered a Confederate port,
nor, indeed, any harbor which was not covered by the British or some
other flag which protected the ironclads against pursuit or capture by
vessels of the United States Navy.

Greater danger than these vessels never threatened the safety of
the Union. In tonnage, armament and speed, they were intended to be
superior to the _Kearsarge_, and every other vessel of our navy. Their
armor was supposed to render them invulnerable. If the blockade was
not maintained, an immediate recognition of the belligerent character
of the rebels by Great Britain was anticipated. Even if that did not
take place, all the cotton gathered in Confederate ports would be
released and find a profitable market, while the old wooden vessels,
now principally constituting the blockading fleet, would not resist one
of these iron-clad vessels long enough for a second broadside.

The impending danger was fully appreciated by Mr. Adams. With his
accustomed energy, notwithstanding the secrecy in which all the
Confederate movements in Great Britain were shrouded, he had collected
and laid before the English authorities clear proofs of the rebel
ownership, and intended unlawful purpose of these vessels. He had even
procured copies of the contracts under which the Messrs. Laird were
building them, and had ascertained that payments on their account
had been made from proceeds of cotton owned by the Confederacy. He
had represented that the evidence furnished by him, verified by the
oaths of credible witnesses, was sufficient not only to justify their
seizure, but to secure their condemnation in the courts, and he had
insisted with a force apparently unanswerable, that it was the duty
of Great Britain to prevent the vessels from leaving the Mersey and
setting forth upon their piratical career.

But, unfortunately, the sympathies of the party in power in England
were not with the Union cause. It suited the view of of the
law-officers of the Crown not to interfere, and to excuse their
inaction by raising objections to the legal sufficiency of the
evidence. The situation was perfectly comprehended by the President
and his Cabinet, but remonstrance appeared to be unavailing, and the
departure of the vessels was expected at an early day.

Hopeless as the task appeared to be, neither Mr. Adams nor his active
agents relaxed their efforts for a moment. Their recent investigations
had been prosecuted with such energy that the minister had finally
been able to furnish the British premier with the sworn affidavits of
some of the officers and men actually enlisted in Liverpool, and other
English cities, for service on these vessels; that the advance payments
to these men had been made by Confederate agents, that the ships were
to leave the Mersey at an early appointed date for an island near
Bermuda; that their guns and ammunition had already been sent thither.
Mr. Adams had also secured the names of the ships' officers, with
copies of their commissions, bearing the signature of President Davis
and the seal of the Confederacy.

The last instalment of affidavits forwarded by our minister proved to
be more than the crown lawyers could digest. They covered every defect
named in their former objections; they could not be answered even by
a special demurrer. They were reinforced by the caustic pen of Mr.
Adams, whose arguments so clearly pointed out the duty of the English
government in the premises that it would obviously be regarded as
conclusive by every one but these lawyers, who possessed the exclusive
power to move the slow authorities of the customs to action. The crown
lawyers finally decided that the demand of Mr. Adams must be complied
with, and that an order must issue, prohibiting the departure of these
vessels from the Mersey until the charges of the American minister had
been judicially investigated.

There were, however, some incidents attending this most important
decision, which prevented its communication from giving to Mr. Adams
a satisfaction wholly unalloyed. The decision had been withheld until
the vessels were on the very eve of departure. The order must be
immediately served, and possession taken by the customs authorities, or
the vessels would escape. The crown lawyers, properly enough, observed
that the affidavits furnished by Mr. Adams were _ex-parte_--the
witnesses had not been cross-examined. If Mr. Adams should fail to
prove his charges by evidence which would satisfy the judicial mind,
and the vessels be released, the damages caused by arresting them might
be very heavy. It was a settled rule of procedure in the courts in such
cases to secure the payment of such damages beyond any peradventure.
The restraining order would, therefore, be issued, but it would not be
enforced against the vessels until these damages had been secured by a
deposit of £1,000,000 sterling _in gold coin_.

The situation was well known to be critical. Within three days the
vessels were to sail for their destination; if necessary, they might
sail forthwith. The cable was useless, broken or disabled--and
Mr. Adams could not communicate with his own government. Without
such communication he had no authority to bind his government as an
indemnitor, or to repay the money if he could borrow it. Even if he had
the fullest authority, where was the patriotic Briton who would furnish
a million pounds on the spur of the moment to a government which was
believed by the party in power in Great Britain to be _in articulo
mortis_? Unless, therefore, the crown lawyers supposed our minister to
have anticipated their decision by providing himself with this money,
they must have known that this condition could not be complied with,
and that they might just as well have declined to interfere. If they
had intended that these ships should not be prevented from making
their intended crusade against our commerce and our cause, no better
arrangement could possibly have been devised. It is not to be denied
that suspicions existed that such was their purpose.

But the unexpected sometimes happens. The event which prevented these
floating engines of destruction from entering upon their intended
work was as unanticipated as a miracle. It constituted, possibly,
the most signal service ever rendered by a citizen of one country to
the government of another. It was all the more noble, because it was
intended to be anonymous. The eminently unselfish man who performed it
made a positive condition that it should not be made public, that not
so much as his name should be disclosed, except to the officers of our
government, whose co-operation was required in order to transact the
business in a proper manner and upon correct principles. So earnest
was his injunction of secrecy that his identity will not even now be
disclosed, although he has long since gone to his reward.

Within the hour after the crown lawyers' decision, with its conditions,
had been made known to Mr. Adams, and when he had given up all hope of
arresting these vessels, a quiet gentleman called upon him and asked
if he might be favored with the opportunity of making the deposit
of coin required by the order? He observed "that it had occurred
to him that if the United States had that amount to its credit in
London, some question of authority might arise, or Mr. Adams might
otherwise be embarrassed in complying with the condition, especially
as communication with his government might involve delay; so that the
shortest way to avoid all difficulty would be for him to deposit the
coin, which he was quite prepared to do."

Had a messenger descended from the skies in a chariot of fire, with
$5,000,000 in gold in his hands, and offered to leave it at the embassy
without any security, Mr. Adams could not have been more profoundly
surprised. He had accepted the condition as fatal to his efforts;
he had concluded that nothing short of a miracle could prevent the
departure of the vessels; and here, if not a miracle, was something
much like one. He made no secret of the pleasure with which he accepted
the munificent offer, provided some method of securing the liberal
Englishman could be found. The latter seemed indisposed to make any
suggestion on the subject. "It might be proper," he said, "that some
obligation might be entered into, showing that the American government
recognized the deposit as made on its account; beyond that he should
leave the matter wholly in the hands of Mr. Adams."

The existing premium on gold was then about sixty per cent. in the
United States. It would have been largely increased by the departure of
these ironclads. The "five-twenties" or "sixes" of 1861, as they were
popularly called, were then being issued, and were the only securities
upon "long time" then authorized by Congress. The best arrangement
that occurred to Mr. Adams, and which he then proposed, was that
$10,000,000, or £2,000,000, in these bonds, to be held as collateral
security for the loan of £1,000,000 in gold, should be delivered to
the lender, to be returned when the loan was paid or the order itself
was discharged and the coin returned to the depositor. The proposition
of Mr. Adams was satisfactory to the gentleman, but he said that to
prevent the disclosure of his name the deposit should be made in coupon
and not in registered bonds. The coupons were payable to bearer; the
registered were required to be inscribed on the books of the Treasury
in the owner's name.

Mr. Adams then volunteered the assurance that these bonds, to the
amount of $10,000,000, should be transmitted to London by the
first steamer which left New York after his despatch concerning the
transaction was received at the State Department at Washington.

It was this assurance of Mr. Adams which the President and both of the
Secretaries desired should be made good. They regarded the faith of the
government as pledged for its performance, and that faith they proposed
should not be violated.

All the details of this transaction were not then disclosed. They
reached the government in private, confidential despatches from Mr.
Adams, some of them long afterwards. The despatch in question was
understood to be confidential; certainly that part of it which related
to the deposit and security proposed. It was necessarily brief, for
in order to reach the steamer the special messenger had to leave
London within a very few hours after the proposition of the deposit
was made. There was enough in it to show that an inestimable service
had been rendered to the country by some one to whom Mr. Adams had
pledged the faith of the nation for the transmission of these bonds by
the next steamer which left New York. There was no dissent from the
conclusion that the pledge of Mr. Adams, if it were in the power of the
government, must be performed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Since the publication of the foregoing facts in _Harper's Magazine_
for May, 1890, I have been solicited by many correspondents to give
the name of the gentleman who offered to perform such a signal service
to our country. It must be obvious that nothing could give greater
pleasure than to publish his name, and to secure for him the enduring
gratitude of the American people. I have, however, a special reason
for my present determination not to disclose it, nor to permit myself
to speculate upon the consequences of the disclosure. When we were
informed that the emergency had passed, it became necessary to make
a change in the entries of this large amount upon the books of the
register. This was found to be a difficult matter, unless a plain
statement of the issue, to the gentleman in question, and its purpose
was made with its subsequent cancellation. This course I proposed to
Secretary Chase. He was decided in his opinion that the value of the
service would not have been enhanced if an actual deposit of the money
had been required, and that, as the gentleman himself had imposed the
obligation, he was the only authority who could possibly release it.
While I regarded his conclusion as incontrovertible, I did suggest that
our first duty was the official one, to our own obligation to conceal
nothing, and to make our official records strictly conform to the fact.

"We should have thought of that at the time," said the Secretary. "We
might have declined his offer, coupled as it was with the obligation
to conceal his name, but I do not remember that we considered that
question. Do you?"

"No," I said. "Nothing was discussed in my presence except the
possibility of compliance with his conditions to the letter."

"Then, I think, we must continue to keep his secret whatever the
consequences may be, until he releases us from the obligation," was the
final conclusion of the Secretary.

I am, I believe, the only survivor of those to whom this gentleman's
name was known. I have hitherto declined to discuss the question of his
name or its disclosure. I depart from my practice far enough to say
that I do not believe he was interested in the price of cotton, or that
he was moved in the slightest degree by pecuniary motives in making
his offer. More than this, at present, I do not think I have the moral
right to say. If I should at any time hereafter see my way clear to a
different conclusion, I shall leave his name to be communicated to the
Secretary of Treasury, who will determine for himself the propriety of
its disclosure.


The consciousness of the imperfect nature of the several rosters
included under our present head has been the only influence that has
detracted from the satisfaction which the preparation of this work in
general has afforded the author. This feeling has already been adverted
to in the introduction to this work and will not further be dwelt upon
beyond the hope that the present volume may become the forerunner of a
more complete and perfected result in the future.[25]

The unquestionably large proportion of Jewish soldiers in both the
Union and Confederate armies is vouched for by such statistics as
have been thoroughly verified and by the statement of many individual
observers. In this connection the following communications to the
author may well be quoted as having a definite bearing on this subject,
and as coming from sources whose authority is beyond question:

    December 30th, '91.


    I have your favor of the 22nd instant, asking for some expression
    of opinion from me regarding the bravery and faithfulness of Hebrew
    soldiers in the War of the Rebellion. There were many Hebrews under
    me while serving as Brigade and Division Commander; and, while the
    great lapse of time renders it impossible for me to recall names
    or recount specific acts of gallantry, I take pleasure in saying
    that I always found the soldiers of Jewish faith as firm in their
    devotion to the cause of the country they were serving as any
    others, and ever ready to perform any duty to which they might be

    Yours very truly,
    J. STAHEL.

    Washington, D. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

    January 2d, 1892.


    It is impossible for me to do justice to those who served with me
    under my command who are known to be of Hebrew extraction. I would
    hardly be justified without their permission to give their names.
    I had a Jewish Aide-de-Camp, one of the bravest and best, in the
    first battle of Bull Run; he is now a distinguished officer of the
    army, a man of high scientific attainment. I had another aide who
    was killed at the battle of Chancellorsville, a true friend and
    a brave officer. Two of my brigade commanders, who answer to the
    above description, one of whom you have mentioned, served ably and
    faithfully at Gettysburg and in other great battles of the war. So
    many of the German officers and men, the Poles and the Hungarians,
    were of Jewish lineage that I am unable to designate them. I can
    assure you, my dear sir, that, intrinsically, there are no more
    patriotic men to be found in the country than those who claim to be
    of Hebrew descent, and who served with me in parallel commands or
    more directly under my instructions. I have always greatly esteemed
    the Jewish people, and in fact, the highest hopes I have in the
    great future are derived from him whom I think justly claimed to
    be the spiritual king of the Jews. So far as bravery is concerned,
    bravery often carries to rashness. History affords no example
    superior to those of the Maccabees and other leaders of the Jews,
    back to the time of Jacob, the prince, who prevailed with God.

    Very truly yours.

    Major General U. S. Army.

    Washington, D. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

Further testimony of a like character with reference to the Jews in the
Union Army might be adduced from numerous sources if space limits would
permit, but the following citations regarding the Jewish soldiers in
the Southern Armies are not only warranted by the occasion but by the
exceptionally interesting data which they contain.

[_From the Nashville American, May 25, 1894._]

    "Among the delegates to the recent Convention of the B'nai B'rith
    there were thirty who were old enough to take up arms during
    the late war. Of this number twenty-five had shouldered their
    muskets in defence of their country, twenty-four belonging to
    the Confederate and one to the Federal Army. This shows that
    the Israelite is as much of a patriot as any other man when the
    liberties of his country are endangered. In this connection the
    following letter will be read with interest."

    "_Galveston, Texas, May 17, 1894._
    LEO N. LEVI, ESQ., _Galveston_.

    DEAR SIR:--

    "My attention having been called by you to the published remarks
    of a writer in disparagement of the patriotism and gallantry of
    the Jew as a soldier, and having had the honor to command a force
    composed to a considerable extent of Israelites, I feel impelled
    by this attempted injustice to the race to give my experience with
    them as soldiers.

    "Under a commission from the Government I organized 'Waul's Texas
    Legion,' upon the express terms that they were to leave the State,
    cross the Mississippi River and join in the fray where the blows
    fell heaviest and thickest. The Legion consisted of ten companies
    of infantry, five companies of cavalry and two companies of
    artillery. Two of the infantry companies had a large number of
    Jews in their ranks, and the largest company in the command--120
    men--was officered by Jews, and three-fourths of the rank and file
    were of that faith. There were also a number of Jews scattered
    through the command in the other companies.

    "They were all volunteers, and I know there was not a Jew
    conscript in the Legion. As soldiers they were brave, orderly and
    well-disciplined and in no respect inferior to the gallant body of
    which they formed a prominent part. Their behavior in the camp, as
    in the field, was exemplary. No Jew in the command was arraigned
    before a court-martial, and, in proportion to their numbers, there
    were fewer applications for leaves of absence, and their regular
    habits caused very few of their names to appear on the hospital

    "In battle, without distinction of race or religion, all were
    apparently willing and eager for the contest. I will say, however,
    I neither saw nor heard of any Jew shrinking or failing to answer
    to any call of duty or danger.

    "I regret I cannot go more in details, but am unwilling to permit
    an aspersion that remotely may affect the Jews who served with me
    to pass unnoticed, as, to a considerable extent, the reputation
    won by the command and personally obtained by myself was acquired
    by their conduct, courage and soldierly qualities. I state without
    hesitation that in no attribute suited to the soldier, whether as
    an officer or in the ranks, will the Jew suffer by comparison with
    the best and bravest of our army.

    "As these happenings were before your time, I jot down these
    recollections that you may have the testimony of one Gentile to
    attest the courage, endurance and patriotism of the Jew as a

    Yours sincerely,
    T. N. WAUL."

       *       *       *       *       *

The discussion of the question of Jewish participation in the Civil War
elicited the following expression from a Charleston newspaper:

    "The list of South Carolina Jews who remained true to their country
    and to their country's cause in the darkest hours and who proved
    their fidelity and patriotism by laying down their lives upon the
    field of battle could be greatly extended. Their names are graven
    upon many a monument throughout the land, and their prowess in
    arms is a part of the military glory of the country. As Montaigne
    says, the virtue and valor of a man consist in the heart and in the
    will, and by this rule the Hebrew soldiers of South Carolina may
    be fairly judged. What they had they gave freely to the State and
    on many a bloody field did they prove the high quality of their
    courage. They possessed, what Napoleon called "the two o'clock in
    the morning courage" and they followed the flag with superb loyalty
    to victory and defeat. When the history of South Carolina's part in
    the great struggle is written and the books are finally posted, we
    are sure that the Hebrew soldiers of this State, who wore the grey
    will have their full meed of praise."

       *       *       *       *       *

Another communication which is at hand, originally made to one of our
Jewish weeklies, may also be quoted as affording an effective side
light on our present subject:

    "From the beginning of the late war until its close I was connected
    with the War and Navy Departments of the Confederate States as
    a contractor for side arms and accoutrements. In this capacity
    I became acquainted with the organization and direction of the
    Army and Navy and also became well acquainted with the governing
    officials of the State, War and Navy Departments.

    "Shortly before the Fall Festivals of our Jewish observance in 1864
    I came to Richmond, Va., and as usual, met my late old friend, the
    Rev. Mr. Michelbacher. After receiving an assurance of my readiness
    to aid him in the purpose which he outlined to me, he detailed his
    request as follows:

    "'There are right around here and in our other armies many Jewish
    soldiers who would like to keep _Rosh Hashanah_ but especially
    _Yom Kippur_ according to our law and ritual. I am trying to get a
    furlough for these soldiers over these Holy Days, but do not know
    how to go about it. Here is a petition to the Secretary of War;
    you know him well; will you present it or will you go with me to
    introduce me? or will you get Mr. Benjamin to recommend it?' I
    informed Mr. Michelbacher that as far as Mr. Benjamin was concerned
    it did not come within the scope of his special office; that if his
    recommendation was needed I could pledge it, and that the whole
    matter was for Mr. Seddon to decide. Next morning Mr. Michelbacher
    and myself went to Mr. Seddon, who received us, as he did all
    his petitioners, with kindness. He read the petition quietly and
    talked the matter over with us for some time, even at more length
    than the pressing duties upon him seemed to warrant. After mature
    deliberation he spoke about as follows: 'Well, gentlemen, as far as
    I am concerned I will give my consent, but must refer the matter
    to the Adjutant and Inspector-General. Whatever he does, I will
    sanction.' He thereupon wrote his endorsement on the petition and
    Mr. Michelbacher and I took it up to General Cooper, who, like
    Mr. Seddon, received us kindly, and with great interest discussed
    the proposition with us. He would gladly, he said, grant the
    furloughs, but, 'gentlemen,' he added, 'look, we have here a roster
    of all our soldiers and we know, as far as possible from their
    names, how many of them belong to your religious denomination, and
    astonishing it is that we count about 10,000 to 12,000 Jews who are
    serving in our Army. Now should I grant the furloughs you request,
    you will readily see, that for the time being, it would perhaps
    disintegrate certain commands in the field and might work to a bad
    effect; besides, the commanders of the different army corps should
    certainly be consulted. On the whole it would be impracticable, as
    you, Goldsmith (turning to me) will readily acknowledge. In fact,'
    he pleasantly added, 'you will admit that if your forefathers had
    fought Titus on the Sabbath day, during the siege of Jerusalem they
    most certainly would have beaten him. You see, therefore, I cannot
    conscientiously grant your request.' So it ended, but we had the
    satisfaction of having learned that out of the small number of Jews
    then living in the South, it was believed that over 10,000 were
    serving in the Confederate Army. Those who would not serve left
    the country. For many of these latter I myself procured passports
    and permits, deeming it better that they should leave quietly and
    unmolested than that they should be forced into the ranks where
    they would have made unwilling defenders of the country.

    "I am still a living witness and can, from my own memory, give you
    many names of gallant Jewish soldiers of the Confederate army.
    I had ample opportunity to see and to know. Many a wounded Jew
    have I met in the hospitals of Richmond and administered to his
    wants, and many a Jewish soldier have I seen walking on his crutch
    or having his arm in a sling, travelling to and from his command
    during the war. And I know further that it was simply a sense of
    loyalty to their homes and their neighbors that prompted them to
    fight for the South. If not, they could readily have left this
    country at any time as well as I myself could have done, had I
    so chosen. But love for our adopted country kept us here and we
    offered all we had in its behalf.


The closing paragraph of Mr. Goldsmith's letter is truly expressive of
Jewish sentiment. It emphasizes the fact that the Jew, while retaining
his racial and religious distinctiveness, identifies himself with the
people among whom he dwells, if he is not deliberately excluded from
the possibility of doing so. Were further evidence of this required
beyond the records of earlier times, a convincing proof can be found in
the presence of large numbers of Jews in both the Union and Confederate
armies throughout the Civil War.

It should not be overlooked that the profession of arms for its own
sake is not distinctively a Jewish trait; the business of war having
always been taken up as the means to an end rather than the end itself.
This phase of the Jewish character finds a significant expression in
the large proportion of Jewish combatants in both the Revolutionary and
Civil Wars. In both cases the issue was one in which they felt a deep
and abiding interest, and they manifested their earnestness in the most
positive manner by taking an active and determined part in the decision
of the issue. That interest was far from being prevalent during the
War of 1812 and the subsequent war with Mexico. The former lacked the
support of a large fraction of the people, being held by the Federal
party of that time to be a heedless and needless undertaking, which in
many respects it was, and the latter, the Mexican War, was regarded by
the anti-slavery Whigs as tending to aggrandize the slave power by an
extension of its territory. Both these wars were party measures, and
in both a decidedly smaller proportion of Jewish combatants took part
than would otherwise have been the case. Where home, or liberty or law
is at stake the Jewish people have never been chary of the uttermost
sacrifice, and the muster rolls of the armies in the great war between
the States afford the fullest evidence of their ample share in its
burdens and its sufferings.


[25] The numerous communications from correspondents in various parts
of the country, which are being received while this volume is in course
of completion by the printer, renders it altogether probable that the
author's hope will be realized. The information conveyed by these
correspondents, frequently too late for incorporation in the present
work, will be collated with the view to its eventual publication, and
all who feel an interest in our present subject, and who can contribute
such data as will further the correction of these records, are
earnestly requested to communicate their information to the author.


    (From a paper read by the present author before the American Jewish
    Historical Society, Washington, D. C., December 26, 1894.)

On the 12th day of July, 1862, President Lincoln gave his approval to
an Act of Congress, authorizing the President to cause to be prepared
2,000 "Medals of Honor," to be presented to such non-commissioned
officers and privates as would especially distinguish themselves by
their gallantry in action, and by other soldierly qualities during the
war then in progress.

While I am not prepared to say how many soldiers of Hebrew faith were
honored with such medals, I can mention seven who have come under my

_First_, LEOPOLD KARPELES, Color Sergeant, of the 57th Massachusetts
Infantry, at the Battle of North Anna, distinguished himself by a noble
defence of the flag under a terrific fire from the enemy. Although
seriously wounded, he held the colors aloft until through weakness
from loss of blood he had at last to give them to a comrade. Sergeant
Karpeles has high testimonials from his superior officers for bravery,
daring and discipline, and is at present a clerk in the General
Post-Office Department.

_Second_, BENJAMIN B. LEVY, who enlisted at the age of sixteen as a
drummer boy, in the 1st New York Volunteers. He was detailed as Orderly
to General Mansfield. While on board the steamer "Express," carrying
dispatches to General Wool at Fortress Monroe, the vessel was attacked
by the Confederate gunboat, "Seabird." The "Express" with all on board,
was in imminent danger of capture, when young Levy saved the steamer by
cutting loose a water schooner which was in tow. For his prompt action,
Levy was highly complimented by Generals Mansfield and Wool. At Charles
City Cross Roads, two of the colors of his regiment were saved by him
from capture, for which act he was promoted on the field by General
Kearney to Color Sergeant of his regiment. At the expiration of his
term, he re-enlisted in the 40th New York (Mozart) regiment, and was
seriously wounded at the battle of the Wilderness. He was appointed by
President Lincoln to the New York Custom House.

_Third_, Sergeant Major and Adjutant ABRAHAM COHN, who enlisted as
private in the 6th New Hampshire Infantry. For distinguished services
he was gradually promoted to Adjutant; he served until the close of the
war. Some time after Adjutant Cohn received the "Medal of Honor," from
the Assistant Adjutant General's office, he was addressed the following
highly complimentary communication:

    _Washington_, August 14, 1879.

    The Medal, mentioned within, was given for conspicuous gallantry
    displayed in the battle of the Wilderness, in rallying and forming
    disorganized troops, under heavy fire; also for bravery and
    coolness in carrying orders to the advance lines under murderous
    fire in the battle of the Mine, July 30, 1864.

    (Signed) S. N. BENJAMIN,
    _Assistant Adjutant General_.

Adjutant Cohn has the most gratifying testimonials from his superior
officers. Before enlisting in the 6th New Hampshire he had served in
the 68th New York as a private and rose gradually to be captain. Owing
to sickness he was honorably discharged, being then, in the opinion of
the surgeons, unfit for further duty. Notwithstanding his discharge as
Captain, when strong and able again, he re-enlisted as Private, in the
6th New Hampshire, and rose to the rank of Adjutant.

_Fourth_, DAVID OBRANSKI, of the 58th Ohio Infantry, who received a
Medal of Honor for distinguished bravery and coolness under heavy fire
at Shiloh, Tennessee, and at Vicksburg, Mississippi.

_Fifth_, HENRY HELLER, of Company A, 66th Ohio Infantry. He earned the
Medal of Honor for daring bravery at Chancellorsville.

_Sixth_, ABRAHAM GRUNWALT, of Company G, 104th Ohio Infantry, who
earned his Medal of Honor, at Franklin, Tennessee, November 30, 1864 in
the capture of Corps headquarters' flag.

_Seventh_, Corporal ISAAC GANS, of the 2nd Ohio Cavalry, who for
bravery displayed on the battle-field was appointed escort to the
colors captured by the Third Division.


    [Compiled from a paper read by the present author before the
    American Jewish Historical Society, Washington, D. C., December 26,

One of the most remarkable facts developed by the records of our Civil
War, and especially gratifying because unsurpassed, if equalled, is the
spontaneous and cheerful alacrity with which our citizens of Hebrew
faith entered their country's service in the hour of its need. In a
number of families all the male members able to bear arms were enrolled
in the army. My list of these may not be complete, and there may be
other equally notable examples, but I here name only those which have
been definitely reported to me.

North Carolina is to the fore with a host of six militant brothers,
united in the cause which they held at heart as well as by the ties
of blood. They bear the titular name of the priestly brother of
Moses, and their devotion lends it new lustre. The list of these six
brothers-in-arms is as follows:


Mississippi claims a set of five brothers in the field, but, remarkable
enough, one of these was arrayed on the side of the Union against his
four Confederate brothers, a fair example of the Jewish spirit of
loyalty to conviction. The following is the list:

  EDWARD JONAS, 50th Illinois Infantry.
  S. A. JONAS,
  HON. BENJAMIN F. JONAS (of Louisiana).

South Carolina also had five brothers enrolled in the Confederate army.
Their names are:


Georgia mustered a family of four, a father and three sons, bearing the
same historic name as their South Carolina comrades:

  A. L. MOSES.

Arkansas furnishes an instance of three brothers, namely:


Another trio hail from the South, two from Georgia and one from South


Virginia sent out another three:


Louisiana has also a list of three brothers on her muster rolls:


And yet another trio went forth from Alabama:


This makes a total of nine families on the Southern side, embracing a
membership numbering thirty-five, of whom one was enrolled in the Union

The preponderance of such instances in the ranks of the Confederates
is due to the fact that the Jews of the Southern States were, in a
much larger proportion than those of the North, natives of the soil
or residents of long standing. While the Jews were doubtless more
numerous at the North than at the South, they were, for the most part,
immigrants of a comparatively recent date, and therefore less intensely
imbued with the spirit of the conflict.

On the Union side, New York, the nucleus of the Jewish population of
this country, naturally furnished the largest quota of Jewish soldiers,
and among them were three bands of brothers; one of the families being
reinforced by the presence of the father. The roll is as follows:

First, a family of five:


Second, a father and his three sons:


Hon. FERDINAND LEVY, Ex-Coroner and present Register of New York City.

Third, a trio of brothers:


Pennsylvania also sent three Jewish brothers to the front:


From Ohio we have another list of three brothers who together took part
in the War for the Union:


We have thus a list of five families on the Union side, containing
eighteen men, a total for both the Confederate and Union sides of
fourteen families sending fifty-three men to the war.


Assistant Adjutant-General MYER ASCH,

    entered the service September 19, 1861, as 2d Lieutenant Company H,
    1st New Jersey Cavalry Volunteers; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and
    Adjutant, December 29, 1861, and Captain, March 24, 1862; served on
    staff of Major-General John Pope, subsequently appointed Assistant
    Adjutant-General to Major-General Kautz; also distinguished in
    other ways; held civic honors, particularly during the Centennial
    Exhibition of 1876 at Philadelphia.


    on staff of Major-General Philip H. Sheridan.


    enlisted as Private in Company K, 6th New York Volunteers; promoted
    to serve on staff of Major-General Oliver O. Howard.

Captain ISIDORE BUSH, aide-de-camp to General Fremont.


    enlisted in the 41st New York; promoted with rank of Captain on the
    staff of General Sigel.

Captain ---- DESSAUER,

    on staff of Major-General Oliver O. Howard; killed at


    of Philadelphia, served as Chaplain of United States Hospitals
    during the Civil War, by appointment of President Lincoln.


    enlisted in Illinois on staff of Major-General Prentice.

Major M. LULLEY,

    formerly on staff of Louis Kossuth, during the Hungarian Revolution
    of 1848; rendered valuable services during the Civil War, under
    direction of Secretary of War.

Colonel ISAAC MAY,

    aide-de-camp to Governor Andrew G. Curtin, of Pennsylvania.

Sergeant LOUIS H. MAYER,

    enlisted in the 27th Ohio Regiment, served on staff of General
    Pope; also with Generals Rosecrans and Grant, taking part in
    various campaigns.


    on staff of Major-General John Pope, as Commander of his
    body-guard; he sacrificed his life by remaining in Memphis,
    Tennessee, and tending to the suffering during a terrible
    visitation of Yellow fever in 1878.


    Adjutant-General 3d Army Corps, staff of Major General Heintzelman;
    subsequently under General Banks.


    on staff of General Van Buren.

Lieutenant M. SZEGELY,

    on staff of General Sigel.


    aide-de-camp with rank of Major to Major-General D. B. Birney
    (April 14, 1862--May 16, 1864).



    on staff of General Elzey.

Doctor I. BARUCH, Assistant Surgeon-General.


    on the staff of General Kershaw; enlisted as private; wounded
    at first Battle of Manassas; mentioned in general orders for
    distinguished bravery; killed at the Battle of the Wilderness.

Captain H. L. BENJAMIN, General Staff.

Honorable JUDAH P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

General DAVID DE LEON, Surgeon-General.

    The first surgeon-general of the Confederate Army. He was born in
    South Carolina in 1822. In the Mexican War he twice took the place
    of commanding officers, who had been killed or wounded and acted
    with such gallantry and ability as to receive twice the thanks of
    the United States Congress. In February, 1861, he resigned his rank
    as Surgeon and Major in the United States Army and was appointed
    Surgeon-General of the Armies of the Confederacy.

Honorable EDWIN DE LEON,

    Special Confederate States Envoy to Court of Napoleon III.


    on Staff of General Wheeler, 1st Tennessee Battalion of Cavalry;
    entered as private; promoted step by step; Assistant Provost


    Staff of General Bagly, Green's Brigade.

N. KRAUS, Staff of General Miller.


    Richmond, Virginia; Staff of General Magruder; wounded at Big

Captain M. LEVY,

    6th Arkansas, Staff of General Baxton Bragg; Enlisted Co. E, 6th

Lieutenant M. J. MARCUS, Staff of General Benning.

VICTOR MEYER, Staff of General Barksdale.

Assistant-Adjutant-General J. RANDOLPH MORDECAI

    entered the service of the Confederate States as private in the
    Washington Artillery, South Carolina, December 19, 1860; shortly
    afterwards was appointed 2nd Lieutenant, when transferred to the C.
    S. Army, afterward assigned to duty as Assistant-Adjutant-General
    to General White's Brigade Light Artillery until July, 1863, to A.
    A. M., C. S. Army, and assigned to General Taliaford's Division.

Captain A. J. MOSES, Staff of General Hannon.

Major ALFRED T. MOSES, Staff of General R. Taylor;

    enlisted Co. E, 6th Arkansas.

ALTAMONT MOSES, Military Telegraph Service.

F. J. MOSES, Assistant Surgeon.

Colonel RAPHAEL J. MOSES, Staff of General Longstreet.

    Appointed chief commissary for the State of Georgia. Known to
    Generals Lee and Longstreet as the "honest commissary." He turned
    over thirty thousand dollars in gold to General Molyneux at the
    close of the war on condition that it should be used for the
    benefit of the Confederate soldiers and Confederate hospitals,
    which was done.

General A. C. MYERS, Quartermaster General C. S. A.

Major J. M. NANEZ, Staff of General Longstreet.

Major ISAAC SCHERCK, Staff of General Hardee;

    enlisted in Mississippi.

MORRIS STRAUS, Staff of General Jenkins;

    enlisted in South Carolina.


Lieutenant BARNHAM.

PERRY DE LEON, South Carolina.

Captain L. C. HARBY, South Carolina.

    When South Carolina seceded he resigned his commission in the
    United States Navy and entered the Confederate service with the
    rank of Commodore in the Navy and afterwards distinguished himself
    in the defence of Galveston, when he commanded the Neptune at the
    capture of the Harriet Lane, and later on when in command of a
    fleet of gunboats on the Sabine river.

LOUIS P. LEVY, Gunboat Chicora, Virginia;

    A midshipman at the age of fifteen.


    detailed as Signal Officer on blockade running.




Paymaster I. C. MOSES, Navy.

Lieutenant R. J. MOSES, Jr., C. S. S. Merrimac, Georgia.

Z. P. MOSES, Navy Department.



  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  ABRAHAM, JACOB                                   3d Infantry
  ABRAHAM, ISAAC                                 1st Artillery
  ABRAHAM, JOSEPH                        B          2d Cavalry
  ALTEMOUNT, SIMON                       C       12th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, D.                            B         1st Cavalry
  ALTMAN, ----                                   12th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, A.                            G        6th Infantry

  BLOCK, MAURICE                                 27th Infantry
      Killed at Seven Pines.
  BEAN, LEWIS                                     33d Infantry

  BAMBURGER, SOLOMON S.,   Major                  6th Infantry
      Wounded at Seven Pines; after which General
      Johnston appointed him Private Secretary.
  BLUM, ELIAS                                    10th Infantry
      Wounded at Frazier's Farm.
  BENEDICK, F.                                     3d Infantry
  BERNSTEIN, P.                                   Eufala Light
  BARWALD, M.                            G        6th Infantry
  BARWALD, D.                                      3d Infantry

  COHN, L. J.                                      3d Infantry
  COHEN, LOUIS                                    4th Infantry
  COLEMAN, ----            Sergeant                6th Infatry
  CAHN, JACOB                            B        4th Infantry
  COLLING, WILLIAM                       B        4th Infantry
  CAHN, S.                                         3d Infantry

  DANIEL, WILLIAM                        A        1st Infantry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  DREYFUS, SAMUEL                        B       1st Artillery

  EINHORN, AARON                         B        4th Infantry
  EHLBERT, M.                                    21st Infantry

  FALK, L. M.                            D         5th Cavalry
  FISCHER, E.             Captain        A       12th Infantry
      Promoted from private.

  GOODMAN, HENRY                         A       10th Infantry
  GOLDSTEIN, ISIDORE                     E        4th Infantry
  GERSON, M. L.                                    3d Infantry
  GERSON, A.                                       3d Infantry
  GOLDSTEIN, I.                          B         1st Cavalry
  GUTMAN, JOSEPH                         B         1st Cavalry
  GRIEL, LOUIS                                   14th Infantry
  GUTMAN, EMANUEL                        G       10th Infantry

  HIRSCHFELD, JACOB                      E       14th Infantry
      Killed at Sharpsburg.
  HEYMAN, S.                             A        18th Cavalry
      Wounded at New Hope Church; disabled from field
      duty; on detached service until surrender.
  HERZBERG, H.            Lieutenant     J        18th Cavalry
      Killed at New Hope Church.
  HEYMAN, ISAAC                          J        18th Cavalry
      Wounded seven times; promoted on the field of battle
      for bravery.
  HAAS, SIEGMUND                         C        12th Cavalry
  HARTMAN, JOSEPH                                   3d Cavalry
  HIRSCHFIELDER, JACOB                             5th Cavalry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  HOFHEIMER, HENRY                            Washington Light
  HIRSCHER, E.                                     3d Infantry
  HENLEIN, A.                            B        4th Infantry
  HARRISON, JOSEPH                       A        1st Infantry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  ISRAEL, I.                             D       60th Infantry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  JACOBSON, JOSEPH                       A        42d Infantry
  JONAS, ISRAEL                                    3d Infantry
      Killed in action.
  JACOBSON, ADOLPH                       B       20th Infantry
      Wounded at Vicksburg, June 14, 1863; served balance of
      time in hospital.
  JOSEPH, LEONCE G.                      H    Temple's Battery
                                               and 7th Cavalry
  JOSEPH, J.                                   Lafayette Guard
  JARETZKY, MORRIS                       G        6th Infantry
  JACKSON,----                           G        6th Infantry

  KOHN, SOLOMON                          D       14th Infantry
  KRAUS, LEE                             D        7th Infantry
  KOHN, JACOB                            B        1st Infantry
  KULEMAN, E.                                      3d Infantry
  KARCHER, E.             Captain        A       12th Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  KOFFSKY, S.             Lieutenant     A       12th Infantry
      Killed at Seven Pines.
  KERN, SIMEON                           K       17th Infantry
  KLEIN, LOUIS                           E      State Reserves
  KAISER, LAZARUS M.                     E      State Reserves
  KAHN, KARL                                      23d Infantry
  KLEIN, ABRAHAM                         A        42d Infantry

  LEVEY, ----                                      3d Infantry
      Lost a leg; subsequently killed.
  L'ETONDAL, E.                          A       12th Infantry
  LEVIS, LAZARUS                                 24th Infantry
  LOEWI, HENRY                           E      State Reserves
  L'ETONDAL, F.            Captain               12th Infantry
      Promoted for bravery.
  LOWENTHAL, JACOB                               12th Infantry
  LEWY, HENRY                                      3d Infantry
  LEVY, B. M.                                      3d Infantry
  LOBMAN, H.                                       3d Infantry
  LEVY, SAMUEL                                     3d Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  LOEWI, SAMUEL                          E      State Reserves
  LEMLO, L.                              B         1st Cavalry
  LEITER, I.                             B         1st Cavalry
  LEVY, JULIAN C.                        E         3d Infantry
      Killed at battle of Malvern Hill.
  LEVY, SOLOMON                                    3d Infantry,
                                           (Montgomery Blues.)

  MOSES, MONTEFIORE,      Surgeon
  MOSES, HENRY C.} Brothers                           Infantry
  MEYER, HERMAN                          A        42d Infantry
  MEETIF, S. A.                                    3d Infantry
  MARKS, SAMUEL           Lieutenant               3d Infantry
  MYER, MOSES                            B       1st Artillery
  MYER, CHARLES                          A        42d Infantry
  MYER, HENRY                            B        4th Infantry
  MOOK, A.                               K       11th Infantry
  MEYERBERG, L.                                    3d Infantry
  MARKSTEIN, MAX                         C        5th Infantry

  NEUBRIK, F.                                    12th Infantry

  PEPPERMAN, MARX                        B         1st Cavalry
  PICKARD, SAMUEL                        C       12th Infantry
  PROSKAUER, ADOLPH       Captain        A       12th Infantry
      Entered the Confederate Army as private; was
      appointed Color Sergeant; rose to be Captain; was
      wounded four times.

  RICHMOND, CHARLES                      B          2d Cavalry
  RICHARDS, JULIUS                       K       44th Infantry
      Discharged 1862 for disability.
  RAUFMAN, S.                                    11th Infantry
  ROHOTSCH, ----                                   3d Infantry
  RICHARD, J.                            G         3d Infantry
  RICHARD, AARON                         A       44th Infantry

  SOLOMON, DAVID          Colonel
      Appointed by the Governor of Alabama, as
      Aide-de-Camp, with the rank of Colonel.
  STEINER, L.                                      3d Infantry
  SUSSMAN, DAVID                                 27th Infantry
      Killed at Seven Pines.
  STEINER, M.                                      3d Infantry
  STRASSBURGER, H.        Lieutenant               3d Infantry
  SUSSMAN, H.                            B        4th Infantry
  SCHOENBACHER, H.                       B        1st Infantry
  STRAUS, I.                             B        1st Infantry
      Served until disabled.
  SCHARF, E.                             B         1st Cavalry
  SOLOMON, JOSEPH                        B         1st Cavalry
  SULSBACHER, A.                                  4th Infantry
  SCHALHOFER, PHILIP                     K        8th Infantry
  STERNE, SAMUEL                              Eufala Artillery
      Wounded at Atlanta.
  STERN, JOSEPH                                  12th Infantry
  STRAUSS, LEOPOLD                                     Cavalry
      Served three years until disabled by wounds.
  SIEGEL, MOSES                          C       12th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  SOMENTHEIL, JACOB                      C       12th Infantry
  SCHIFFMANN, JACOB                    { G         3d Infantry
                                       { A       44th Infantry
      Killed at Seven Pines.
  SIEGLE, ----                                     3d Infantry

  TURGUEIM, DAVID                                  3d Infantry
  TANHAUSER, GUSTAV                               23d Infantry
      Killed in action.

  ULFELDER, M.                                     3d Infantry
  ULLMAN, WILLIAM                        A         8th Wheeler

  WALDMAN, L.                                      3d Infantry
  WEIL, D.                                         3d Infantry
  WEIL, H.                                         3d Infantry
  WAMBACHER, LOUIS                       B       20th Infantry
      Killed at Vicksburg, June 14, 1863.
  WOLF, MAX                              C        2nd Infantry

  YOUNG, L.                                        3d Infantry
  YARETSKI, JULIUS         Lieutenant    A        33d Infantry
      Served four years; promoted from private.

  ZADICK, ABRAHAM                        C          2d Cavalry


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  AUERBACH, A. K.                                  8th Cavalry

  BURGAUER, I.                                Woodruff Battery
  BURGAUER, E.                                Woodruff Battery
  BAUM, HENRY                                 Woodruff Battery

  COHN, WOLF                                  West's Artillery
  COHEN, ALBERT                                   6th Infantry

  DANIEL, DAVID                                   1st Infantry
  DRYFUS, MARCUS                                   1st Cavalry
  DRYFUS, THEO.                                    1st Cavalry

  ERB, JACOB                                       1st Cavalry
  ERB, S.                                   1st Mounted Rifles

  FRANK, ISAAC                                     1st Cavalry
  FLECHTER, J. G.         Captain        A        6th Infantry
  FRANKLIN, SAMUEL                                 1st Cavalry
  FOX, W.                                B         2nd Cavalry
  FEBS, E.                                        6th Infantry
  FRANK, I.                                        4th Cavalry

  GANS, MORRIS                                Parson's Cavalry
  GATES, DAVID                           A    Woodruff Battery
      Served four years.
  GATES, FERDINAND                       A   Marmaduke Command
      Served four years.
  GATES, ISAAC                                   Ross Arkansas
     Served four years.
  GOODMAN, HERMAN                                 1st Infantry

  HIRSCHFIELD, HENRY                     A        5th Infantry
  HINEMAN, M. L.                         A        6th Infantry
  HEILBRONER, HENRY                                3d Infantry
  HOOVER, E.                                  West's Artillery

  KEMPNER, JACOB                                    3d Cavalry
  KALISCHER, S.                                    1st Cavalry
  KLEIN, ABRAHAM                                    3d Cavalry
  KUHN, SIGISMUND                             West's Artillery
  KEMPNER, JACOB                                    3d Cavalry

  LEVY, JULIUS                           A        6th Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.
  LEWIS, L.                              B        4th Infantry

  MEYER, HENRY                                   34th Infantry
  MEYER, GABRIEL                                  4th Infantry
  MOCK, MOSES                            E        6th Infantry
  MOOK, SAMUEL                                    6th Infantry

  NEWMAN, MYER                                   19th Infantry

  OTTENHEIMER, PHILIP                             1st Infantry
  OTTENHEIMER, ABRAHAM                            1st Infantry

  PFARFFER, PHILIP                                 4th Cavalry
  POLLOCK, ABRAHAM                                  3d Cavalry
  POLLOCK, M.                                       3d Cavalry
  POLLOCK, LEO                              Woodruff's Battery
  PFEIFER, PHILIP                                  1st Cavalry

  RICH, RUDOLPH                                   6th Infantry

  SIMMONS, JACOB                                  1st Infantry
  STERN, SOLOMON                                   1st Cavalry
  SAMUELS, J.                                       3d Cavalry
  SIMMONS, HARVEY                                 1st Infantry

  VOLLENER, LOUIS                                 4th Infantry

  WINTERS, SAMUEL                        H        6th Infantry
  WINTERS, MOSES                         H        6th Infantry


  NAME.           RANK.         COMPANY.       REGIMENT.

  ALEXANDER, A.                          A        2nd Infantry
  ADLER, L.                                       6th Infantry

  BACHARACH, JOSEPH                      A        2nd Infantry

  COHN, S. B.                            F        6th Infantry
  COHEN, SOLOMON          Corporal       C         3d Infantry
      Served three years.

  DAVIDSON, SOLOMON                                1st Cavalry

An officer of distinction made the following remarks concerning this
gallant soldier:

"Personally I know several Hebrews who served in the California
regiments known as the 'California Column' but in the long years that
have elapsed I have forgotten their names. They were all good, faithful
soldiers to the flag they enlisted to defend. One I remember, by name,
Solomon Davidson. Comrade Davidson belonged to a cavalry regiment; I
think it was the 1st California, ordered for service in Arizona, Texas
and New Mexico. That regiment has seen more hard service in the saddle
than any other I know of wearing Uncle Sam's uniform. Comrade Davidson
was a brave man, carrying dispatches and orders from one part of the
command to another, regardless of storms and dangers of Indian ambush
so often to be encountered in the Territories. Davidson was a loyal,
gallant soldier, and I am glad to be able to say this much for our old
Jewish comrades in arms. We knew no distinction on account of birth or
religion in the army, but we loved all loyal men who gave their lives
to the government in the hour of its need. Let me in conclusion express
my conviction that a comparison of services will not be determined
detrimentally to our Hebrew comrades."

  FAUGHT, SOLOMON                                 1st Infantry
  FOX, A.                                H        1st Infantry
  FRANK, M.                              F         1st Cavalry

  GUGGENHEIM, SOLOMON                    E        6th Infantry

  HARRIS, DAVID                          M         1st Cavalry
      Served three years.
  HOFFMAN, J.                            D         1st Cavalry
  HESS, LOUIS                            C         2nd Cavalry
  HEUBSMAN, J. B.                        C        4th Infantry

  KLAUS, MOSES                           B        2nd Infantry

  LAMBERT, F. H.                         H        1st Infantry
  LEVICK, L.                             H        1st Infantry

  MILLER, LOUIS                                   6th Infantry
  MEYERS, OTTO                           H        1st Infantry
  MEYER, A.                              I         6th Cavalry

  SOLOMON, E.                            H        1st Infantry
  SIMON, EMIL                            A        2nd Infantry
  SICHEL, EUGENE                         H         2nd Cavalry
  SIMON, ISADORE                         G         6th Cavalry
  SCHILLER, HENRY         Sergeant       A         2nd Cavalry
      Entered as private.
  TOKLAS, JACOB W.        2nd Lieutenant K         6th Cavalry
      Enlisted as private; promoted for bravery.
  TOKLAS, FERDINAND                      K        6th Infantry
      Served three years.

  ZACHARIAS, JACOB                       K        6th Infantry
      Protecting United States Mail overland from Indian and
      Mormon attacks and riot at San Francisco.


  NAME.           RANK.         COMPANY.       REGIMENT.

  COHEN, HENRY                                    7th Infantry
  CLINE, SAMUEL                          E       26th Infantry
  CANTROWITZ, SAMUEL                     D       10th Infantry

  DETTELBACH, HARRY                      D       10th Infantry
  DRYFUSS, CHARLES                       D       10th Infantry

  HOSHLAND, NATHAN                       I        7th Infantry
  HARRIS, HENRY                          D       10th Infantry

  ISAAC, JULIUS                          D       10th Infantry

  LAUBER, LOUIS                          D       10th Infantry

  MORRIS, SIMON                          I       20th Infantry

  NEWMAN, LEON                           B         3d Infantry

  ROSENTHAL, SAMUEL                              10th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, SIMON                       C       10th Infantry

  STRAUS, MOSES                                  10th Infantry
  SCHIFF, LUDWIG                         D       10th Infantry

  WOLFSOHN, S.                           E        7th Infantry
  WERTHEIMER, ----                       D       10th Infantry


  NAME.           RANK.         COMPANY.       REGIMENT.

  BEHREND, A., Doctor.
      entered as Private, transferred to 2nd U. S. Regulars,
      promoted to Hospital Steward, Army of the Potomac.

  FREIRICK, CHARLES                    { B       Turner Rifles
                                       {         8th Battalion

  MUNDHEIM, LEWIS                                8th Artillery
      Junior Vice Commander Garfield Post No. 7, G. A. R.


  NAME.           RANK.         COMPANY.       REGIMENT.

  COHEN, GUS                                  Milton Artillery

  DANIEL, M.                             A        1st Infantry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.


  NAME.           RANK.         COMPANY.       REGIMENT.

  AARONHEIM, D.                          D       49th Infantry
  ABRAMS, J. J.                                   1st Infantry
  ABRAHAMS, J. M.                                49th Infantry

  BAER, SAMUEL                                    6th Infantry
      Served until close of war.
  BENJAMIN, S.                                   51st Infantry
  BROWN, M.                              D       2nd Battalion
  BRANDT, ADOLPH                                  5th Infantry
  BLOOMFIELD, ISAAC                      A       10th Infantry
      Killed; buried in Jewish cemetery at Richmond, Virginia.

  COLEMAN, ----                                  51st Infantry
  COHEN, SOLOMON                                 51st Infantry
  CRONE, HERMAN                          A       20th Infantry
      Sixteen years old when enlisted; taken prisoner at
  COHEN, PHILIP                          A        8th Infantry

  DREYER, LOUIS A.                                 1st and 63d
  DE YOUNG, HARRY                                2nd Battalion
  DAVISSON, D.                                   2nd Battalion
  DAVIDSON, DAVID         Captain                50th Infantry

  EICHBAUM, JOSEPH                               44th Infantry
      Wounded several times.
  ELKAN, M.                                       63d Infantry
  EHRLICH, A.                                     1st Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  EBERHART, JACOB                        G         7th Cavalry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  FALKNER, C.                            B        4th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Hanover Court House.
  FRIEDENTHAL, L.                                  1st Cavalry
  FEUCHTWANGER, ----                             2nd Battalion
  FOOTE, ABRAHAM                                 14th Infantry
  FRIESLEHEN, JACOB                      D        4th Infantry
      Killed; buried at Jewish cemetery at Richmond, Virginia.

  GOLDSMITH, M. M.        Lieutenant               Home Guards
      Killed near Macon, Georgia.
  GREEN, WILLIAM                                 57th Infantry
  GOODMAN, CHARLES                               2nd Battalion
  GANS, JACOB                            A        4th Infantry
  GREENBAUM, JACOB                               51st Infantry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  GOODMAN, ISAAC                                  3d Battalion
  GOLDMAN, EDWARD                        A       2nd Battalion
      Subsequently Drill Officer of 38th North Carolina Infantry.
  GEISENHEIMER, M.                       B        1st Infantry
  GOODMAN, HENRY          Sergeant       B       14th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; wounded in three actions--Harper's
      Ferry, Chancellorsville and the Wilderness.
  GOLDSTEIN, ----                                18th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  GOLDSMITH, I.                              Wellington Ranger
      Died of fever contracted in camp.

  HAAS, SOLOMON                          A        1st Infantry
      Enlisted, 1861; when mustered out, re-enlisted
      in                                        12th Artillery
  HERTZ, J. H.                           I        2nd Infantry
  HIRSCHLER, I.                          D        2nd Infantry
  HARRIS, ELISHA                                 Cobb's Legion
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York
  HEYMAN, ISAAC                          D        4th Infantry
      Wounded at Malvern Hill.
  HAYMAN, CHARLES                        D        4th Infantry
      General Phil. Cook introduced this soldier to General
      Gordon at the reunion of the old brigade with the
      words: "General, this was one of the bravest men
      in my brigade."
      Killed; buried at Jewish cemetery at Richmond, Virginia.

  ISAACS, A.                                     46th Regiment
  ISAACS, EMANUEL                                  2nd Battery
  ISAACS, ISAAC                                  2nd Battalion
  ISAACS, M.                                    13th Battalion

  JONAS, SIEGFRIED                       I        8th Infantry
  JACOBUS, JACOB H.       Lieutenant              5th Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.
  JACKSON, I.                                    51st Infantry
  JACOBS, WILLIAM M.                              5th Infantry

  KOPPEL, JACOB                                   5th Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.
  KAHN, MOSES                                     5th Infantry
  KOHN, BERNARD                             Cherokee Artillery
  KAUFMAN, SELIG                         A        8th Infantry
  KOHN, JACOB                                     63d Infantry

  LIPPMAN, JULIUS                        E       12th Infantry
  LEVY, JACOB             Sergeant                22d Infantry
      Wounded; served until close of war.
  LEVY, MORRIS                                    4th Infantry
  LIPPMAN, LOUIS                                  8th Infantry
      Wounded at Bull Run.
  LEHMAN, A.                                      63d Infantry
  LIPPMAN, JACOB                                  63d Infantry
  LEVY, SIMON                                     6th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEVY, NATHAN             Lieutenant             5th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks; killed.
  LEVY, JACOB             Lieutenant              5th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; killed at Petersburg.
  LEON, MORRIS                                   44th Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  LEVY, DICK                                     10th Infantry
  LEVY, M. D.                                     1st Infantry
  LEISSER, L.                            A        4th Infantry
      Wounded at the Wilderness.
  LYON, LEONAREANDE,      Colonel
      Graduate of West Point; Adjutant of State Troops.

  MOUNT, SAMUEL B.,       Lieutenant              9th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  MARCUS, ----                                    63d Infantry
  MEINHART, ISAAC                                 63d Infantry
  MEINHART, SAMUEL                                63d Infantry
  MORRIS, W.                             C         3d  Battery
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  MEHLINGER, J.                          C        2d Battalion
  METZGER, ISAAC                         A        2d Battalion
  MAYER, GABRIEL                                  4th Infantry
  MOSS, L. A.                                     4th Infantry
  MARCUS, M.              Captain                15th Infantry
      Killed, October 13th, 1864; buried in Jewish Cemetery
      at Richmond, Virginia.
  MAGNUS, SOLOMON                           Cherokee Artillery
      Killed at Resaca, Georgia.
  MANNERS, JACOB                         I        8th Infantry
  MEYER, BERNARD                         A        1st Infantry
      Killed at Manassas.
  MANES, E.                              H        8th Infantry
      Color-bearer at 2nd battle of Manassas, and at Sharpsburg.
  MEYER, SIMEON                                   5th Infantry
  MAYERS, AARON                                   Silver Grays
  MORRIS, PHILIP                                  Silver Grays
  MAYER, ISAAC            Major                   5th Infantry
  MEYER, LAZARUS                                   3d Infantry
  MOSES, ----             Lieutenant     C          2d Battery
  MOSES, I. CLIFTON                      A       10th Infantry
  MOSES, MONTEFIORE J.                             2d Infantry
      Promoted Surgeon.
  MOSES, WILLIAM MOULTRIE                          2d Infantry
  MEHLINGER, M                           B        4th Infantry
  MYERS, BERNARD                                  1st Infantry
      Killed at Rich Mountain.
  MERZ, LOUIS                            D        4th Infantry
      Killed at Sharpsburg.
  MOISE, EDWARD M.        Captain        A       10th Infantry
      Enlisted in 7th Cavalry; served until surrender;
      commanded the 10th; had three horses shot from
      under him in one day; commanded the advance in
      the Hampton cattle raid; captured 2785 head of
      cattle in the rear of General Grant's army in
      the fall of 1864.
  MOISE, A. W.            Lieutenant     H       24th Infantry
      Enlisted at the age of sixteen years as private in first
      battalion of Maryland Cavalry; transferred to 24th
      Regiment; wounded at the Wilderness carrying the
      colors until disabled; promoted from the ranks.

  NEWMAN, C.                                     49th Infantry

  POPPER, I.                                      63d Infantry

  ROSENBERG, I.                                    3d Infantry
      Killed; buried at Jewish Cemetery at Richmond, Virginia.
  RUSH, GEORGE W.         Captain                 22d Infantry
      Killed at Petersburg.
  ROBINSON, A.                                   15th Infantry
      Killed in action June 26th, 1863; buried at Jewish
      Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
  ROSENWALT, LAZARUS                               3d Infantry
  RUSSELL, PHILIP M.                              1st Infantry

  SHERLEIN, LEOPOLD                               5th Infantry
  STERN, ISAAC                           A        2d Battalion
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  SCHIFF, JOSEPH                         C         2d Infantry
  STERNE, LEVI                           D        4th Infantry
  STERNE, ANSELM                         D        4th Infantry
      Wounded by a shell.
  SIMON, N.                                      51st Infantry
  SEGAL, M.                                      50th Infantry
  SYLVESTER, L.                                   5th Infantry
  SARLING, SOLOMON                                5th Infantry
  SCHIFF, JONAS                                  44th Infantry
  SCHIFF, P.                                     44th Infantry
  STERN, JACOB                                    63d Infantry

  TRIEST, JACOB                                 13th Battalion

  WALLERSTEIN, H.                                44th Infantry
  WERTHEIMER, SAMUEL                     K        2nd Infantry
  WEIL, JACOB                                      3d Infantry
  WITTKOWSKY, DAVID                              51st Infantry
  WITTKOWSKY, ALEXANDER   Lieutenant             19th Infantry
  WARNER, L.                                      Silver Grays
  WERTHEIMER, HARRIS                          Carten Battalion
  WERTHEIMER, HENRY                      B        4th Regiment
      Killed; buried in Jewish cemetery at Richmond, Virginia.

  ZITTERBART, ----                                4th Infantry


At the outbreak of the Civil War there existed in Macon, Georgia,
an Artillery Company named "The Macon, Georgia, German Artillery,"
composed entirely of American citizens, of German birth, about
one-third being of Hebrew faith. We give the names and positions of a
few only, remembered by a survivor.

  NAME.                RANK.

  BINSWANGER, NATHAN   2nd Lieutenant
  BINSWANGER, J.       Corporal
  BINSWANGER, G.       Private
  EINSTEIN, ----          "
  FENDIG, ----            "
  HOCHSER, ----           "
  KAHN, ----           Orderly-Sergeant
  MILLER, H.           Private
  NORDLINGER, B.       Bugler
  NORDWALT, A.         Private
  SANGER, A.              "
  SANGER, R.              "

1st Camp, Harrison, between Savannah and Brunswick.

2nd Camp, Satilla, near Brunswick, Georgia.

3d Camp, Failfair, near Savannah, Georgia.

Under Brigadier-General Capers. The Company was subsequently
transferred to General Walker.


  NAME.                   RANK.         COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  ALEXANDER, ISAAC                                8th Infantry
  ASHER, JULIUS           Sergeant       B        9th Infantry
  AUERBACK, SALOMON                             {10th Infantry
                                                {31st Infantry
      Served until the close of the war.
  ABRAHAMSON, OTTO                       E       10th Infantry
  ARNOLD, AARON                          B       12th Infantry
  ADLER, CHARLES                         G       14th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, AUGUST                        B       20th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, WILLIAM                               21st Infantry
      Wounded at Stone River.
  ADLER, W.                              C       30th Infantry
  ABRAMS, SAMUEL                                 34th Infantry
  ASH, DAVID L.           1st Lieutenant B       37th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  ABRAMS, FRANK                          A       39th Infantry
  ABRAHAMS, FREDERICK     Lieutenant             44th Infantry
  ADOLPH, JACOB                                  44th Infantry
  ARNOLD, ISAAC A.        Captain        A       46th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  ARNOLD, DAVID           Captain                57th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  ABRAHAM, JACOB                                 67th Infantry
  ASH, NATHAN                                    81st Infantry
  AARON, G.                              A        83d Infantry
  ABRAHAMSON, WILLIAM                    K       84th Infantry
  ARNOLD, SIMON                                   92d Infantry
  AARONS, GEORGE                                120th Infantry
  ARNOLD, JACOB                                 130th Infantry
  ARNOLD, REUBEN                         E      131st Infantry
  ADLER, FERDINAND                               153d Infantry
  ASHER, SAMUEL                          E      154th Infantry
  AARON, JULIUS                                 156th Infantry
  ADLER, HENRY                                      3d Cavalry
  ARNOLD, ISRAEL                         M          3d Cavalry
      Died in Service.
  ALEXANDER, W.                                    4th Cavalry
      Died in camp.
  ABRAMS, HENRY  Sergeant                          4th Cavalry
      Enlisted as private.
  ABRAHAM, ALEXANDER                               5th Cavalry
  AARON, WILLIAM                                  10th Cavalry
  ABRAMS, H.                             C        11th Cavalry
  ACKERMAN, JACOB                        H        11th Cavalry
                          Lieutenant              12th Cavalry
  ARNOLD, ABRAHAM                                 17th Cavalry
  ABRAHAMSON, J.                                 1st Artillery
  ADLER, DANIEL  Corporal                    Hershaw Artillery
  ADLER, DANKMAR Corporal                       ---- Artillery

  BEHRENS, A.                                     8th Infantry
  BERLIN, DAVID                          B        8th Infantry
  BLIND, PHILIP                          K        8th Infantry
  BACHMAN, JACOB                                  8th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, CHARLES A.                           13th Infantry
  BERNARD, GEORGE                        K       13th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, W.                           A       13th Infantry
  BRESLAUER, MORRIS                      K       19th Infantry
  BRESLAUER, JOSEPH                              19th Infantry
  BEHRENDS, BERNHART                             21st Infantry
  BENJAMIN, JOHN                         K        22d Infantry
      Served three years.
                          Corporal       K       24th Infantry
      Enlisted as private;
      served three years.
  BLUMENTHAL, EDWARD                     K       24th Infantry
  BAMBERGER, ALEXANDER                   K       24th Infantry
  BAUM, BENJAMIN Corporal                        25th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  BENJAMIN, JACOB                                25th Infantry
  BRUCKER, S. S.          Lieutenant     C       39th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  BAER, JOSEPH                           C       39th Infantry
  BIEN, FREDERICK                        G       39th Infantry
  BIEN, DAVID C.                                  42d Infantry
  BAUM, HENRY                                    44th Infantry
  BAMBERGER, V.                                  49th Infantry
  BAUM, GEORGE                                   49th Infantry
  BLUM, GUSTAV                                   57th Infantry
  BAUER, FERDINAND                       E       58th Infantry
  BERNHARD, JACOB                                 63d Infantry
      Killed in battle.
  BAMBERGER, SALOMON                     A       65th Infantry
  BERNSTEIN, SAMUEL        Sergeant      K       67th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  BRUM, SAMUEL             Captain               81st Infantry
      Wounded at Guntown; promoted to Captain for bravery on
      the battlefield; served three years.
  BAUM, GEORGE             Sergeant      B        82d Infantry
  BLUM, LOUIS                                     82d Infantry
  BAUER, JACOB                           H        82d Infantry
  BRAND, JACOB                                    82d Infantry
  BREDE, CHARLES                         C        82d Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  BURGHEIM, HERMAN                       C        82d Infantry
  BAUM, CHARLES                                 112th Infantry
  BEHRENS, FERDINAND                     E      113th Infantry
  BIEN, JACOB                            B      126th Infantry
  BAUM, SAMUEL                                   142d Infantry
  BRESLAUER, MORITZ       Sergeant              147th Infantry
  BAER, REUBEN B.                        D         4th Cavalry
  BAUM, FRANKLIN                                   4th Cavalry
  BAER, DANIEL                           M         7th Cavalry
  BAUER, HERMAN                                    9th Cavalry
  BLUM, CHARLES                                   16th Cavalry
      Died of wounds.
  BEHRENS, HEINRICH                               16th Cavalry
  BLUM, LOUIS                                     16th Cavalry
  BLUMENBERG, LEWIS                               2d Artillery

  COLEMAN, ALEXANDER                              8th Infantry
  CORNELIUS, ADOLPH                               9th Infantry
      Re-enlisted as Veteran; died of wounds.
  CERFF, GEORGE                                  13th Infantry
      Killed at Little Rock, Arkansas.
  COLEMAN, ISAAC                                 15th Infantry
      Re-enlisted after expiration of term.
  COHN, J.                               E       18th Infantry
  COLEMAN, HENRY                                 18th Infantry
  CORNELIUS, SAMUEL                      B       26th Infantry
  CAUFFMAN, ALBERT        Lieutenant     E        33d Infantry
  COLEMAN, ISAAC                         D       42nd Infantry
  COHEN, A.                              H       46th Infantry
  COLEMAN, J.                                    56th Infantry
  COHN, FRIEDRICH                        C       82nd Infantry
  COHEN, HENRY                           K       82nd Infantry
  COHEN, JACOB                           H      147th Infantry
  COHEN, LOUIS                                     7th Cavalry
  COHEN, WILLIAM          1st Lieutenant B        12th Cavalry
      Promoted from Corporal.

  DARMSTADTER, JACOB                     A        8th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, HENRY                                12th Infantry
      Died from wounds.
  DAVIDSON, SAMUEL,        Assistant-Surgeon     14th Infantry
  DE WOLF, HENRY                         A       15th Infantry
  DAVID, DANIEL                                  18th Infantry
  DANIELS, ABRAHAM                       H       29th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, MARCUS L.                    G       35th Infantry
  DANIELS, JOSEPH                                35th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, DAVID J.                     F       38th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  DAVIDSON, BENJAMIN T.    Sergeant      B       40th Infantry
  DE WOLF, DAVID           Captain               47th Infantry
      Killed at the battle of Corinth.
  DANIEL, JOSEPH                                 49th Infantry
  DURST, JACOB                           G       57th Infantry
  DANIELS, ALEXANDER                             65th Infantry
  DAVID, E.                                      65th Infantry
  DAVID, LEASER                          A       65th Infantry
  DANIEL, JACOB                          K       87th Infantry
  DAVID, JACOB                                   97th Infantry
  DAVID, ISAAC                           B      132nd Infantry
  DANIELSON, ELOF                        I      132nd Infantry
  DAVID, ISAAC            Captain               151st Infantry
  DAVIDSON, DAVID                                  5th Cavalry
  DANIELSON, GUSTAV                      B         9th Cavalry
  DE WOLF, WILLIAM                       B       1st Artillery
  DANIELSON, AUGUST                              1st Artillery

  ERLACHER, MAX                          D       24th Infantry
  ESSLINGER, JOSEPH                              30th Infantry
  ENGEL, FERDINAND                       H        43d Infantry
  ENGEL, ASA                                     72nd Infantry
  ENGEL, FRANK                           B      132nd Infantry
  ECKSTEIN, LEWIS                                   3d Cavalry
  EINDEN, SALOMON         Lieutenant              12th Cavalry
      Enlisted as private.
  EHRLICH, WILLIAM                                12th Cavalry
  ENGEL, MORITZ                                   12th Cavalry

  FRANKS, WILLIAM                        F        8th Infantry
  FRANK, JOSEPH                                  10th Infantry
      Re-enlisted as Veteran.
  FRANK, PHILIP                                  12th Infantry
  FREEMAN, JOSEPH                        H       14th Infantry
  FRANK, DAVID E.                                21st Infantry
  FRANK, FREDERICK                               28th Infantry
  FREEMAN, MOSES                         C       32nd Infantry
  FRANKS, E. S.                                  39th Infantry
  FRANK, CARL                            D        43d Infantry
      Killed in action.
  FRANK, HERMAN                                   43d Infantry
      Badly wounded.
  FRANKENBERG, ELI                               46th Infantry
  FRANK, SIMON                           C       57th Infantry
  FREEMAN, J.                            A       66th Infantry
  FALKENTHAL, ADOLPH                     D       70th Infantry
  FRIEDENBERG, ISAAC                             75th Infantry
  FRANK, JACOB                                   76th Infantry
  FRANK, I.                              A       82nd Infantry
  FRANK, MEIER            Captain        C       82nd Infantry
  FRANK, MORITZ                          C       82nd Infantry
  FRANK, MAYER            Captain        C       82nd Infantry

    Enlisted at Chicago; was elected Lieutenant of Company C of the
    82nd Regiment, in which he served about two years, when he was
    promoted to Captain. He was at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg from
    first to last. Subsequently he was appointed Brigade Inspector
    and ordered West. He took part in the battle of Wauhatchie and at
    Missionary Ridge, commanding the 80th. He went with Sherman to
    Knoxville to relieve Burnside. Captain Frank's deeds entitle him
    to a place among the bravest Captains in the service of the United
    States. When Captain Frank volunteered to dislodge Confederate
    sharpshooters, his whole Company to a man followed him. It was
    subsequent to this act that he was appointed Brigade Inspector.
    Two horses were shot from under him at the first day's battle at
    Gettysburg. He scouted for some time in Georgia, Tennessee and
    Alabama against guerilla chief "Roddy."

  FRANK, JESSE                                   86th Infantry
  FRANK, ISAAC                                  104th Infantry
  FRANK, DAVID            Sergeant       I      105th Infantry
  FRANKS, WILLIAM         1st Lieutenant B      168th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  FRANK, ISAAC                                  118th Infantry
  FRANKENBERG, BENJAMIN                         119th Infantry
    Died of wounds received in battle.
  FRANK, EMANUEL                                130th Infantry
  FISHEL, SAMUEL                                135th Infantry
  FISHEL, DANIEL                                135th Infantry
  FRANKENBERGER, DAVID                          150th Infantry
  FRANKENBERGER, EPHRAIM                        150th Infantry
  FRANK, ISRAEL                          B         2nd Cavalry
  FRANK, NOAH                                      3d Infantry
    Died in the service.
  FREEMAN, MARCUS                                 7th Infantry
  FRANK, HENRY                           B        9th Infantry
  FREUND, LUDWIG                                 13th Infantry
    Died in the service.
  FRANK, PHILIP                                  2nd Artillery

  GOLDSMITH, DAVID                       H        7th Infantry
  GREENWALL, DAVID                       A        8th Infantry
  GOTTLOB, THEO.          Lieutenant              9th Infantry
  GLEISER, N.                            G       10th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, J.           Corporal               14th Infantry
    At expiration of term re-enlisted as a veteran.
  GOTTLOB, ADOLPH                        G       14th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, GEORGE                              14th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, ALEXANDER                           10th Infantry
      Re-enlisted after being honorably discharged.
      Wounded in action at Stone River.
  GOLDSMITH, ALEXANDER    Corporal       F       19th Infantry
      Wounded at Stone River, Kentucky.
  GOLDSMITH, JONAS                       F       19th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; re-enlisted after being
      honorably discharged. Killed at Stone River,
  GOLDSMITH, ABRAHAM                             24th Infantry
  GOODMAN, DANIEL                        E       27th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, HENRY                       K       28th Infantry
  GOTTLIEB, JOSEPH                       G       28th Infantry
  GOTTSHALK, EMANUEL                     H       37th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JACOB                       I       37th Infantry
  GREENEBAUM, SAMUEL                     C       39th Infantry
  GREEN, S. W.                                   42nd Infantry
  GREENWALT, SAMUEL                              49th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, BENJAMIN                    F       70th Infantry
  GOLDMAN, E.                                    71st Infantry
  GOTTLOB, JOSEPH         Captain        I       82nd Infantry
    Promoted from Lieutenant.
  GREENHUT, JOSEPH B.     Captain        K       82nd Infantry

    Enlisted as a private at Chicago, April, 1861, in 12th Illinois
    Infantry, being the second man on the enrollment list of those
    who enlisted in Chicago for the war. He was promoted to Sergeant,
    August, 1861; was with the 12th Illinois Regiment through all the
    campaigns under General Grant, in Kentucky and Tennessee, up to and
    including the Battle of Fort Donaldson, in February, 1862, at which
    battle, while storming the Fort and just before its surrender,
    he was badly shot in the right arm which caused his retirement
    from the 12th Illinois shortly thereafter. In August, 1862 he was
    appointed Captain of Company K, 82nd Illinois Infantry, in which
    Regiment he passed through the various campaigns and battles in
    Virginia, under Generals Burnside, Hooker and Meade. Captain
    Greenhut participated in the memorable Battle of Gettysburg,
    July 1st, 2nd and 3d, 1863. He was then transferred to the staff
    of Brigade Commander Hecker, being appointed Adjutant-General
    of the brigade. This brigade, after the Gettysburg Battle,
    Rosecrans who, with his army, was surrounded at was transferred
    to the Western army to relieve General Chattanooga, Tennessee.
    The brigade had a severe battle at Wauhatchie, near Chattanooga,
    in opening communications with Rosecrans. The same brigade also
    took a prominent part in the battles of Mission Ridge and Lookout
    Mountain, as well as shortly thereafter of that of Knoxville,
    Tennessee. On the retirement of General Hecker, in February, 1864,
    Captain Greenhut also resigned his position in the army; the
    following communication being handed him on his retirement, by
    General McGroarty, who succeeded in the command of the brigade:

    "Headquarters 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 11th Corps.
    WHITESIDE, TENN., February 28th, 1864.
    _General order No. 9._

Captain Joseph B. Greenhut, of the 82nd Regiment Illinois Volunteers,
having tendered his resignation, is, in pursuance of special order,
No. 55, Headquarters Department of the Cumberland, February 24, 1864,
relieved from duty as Assistant Adjutant-General of this Brigade, and
Lieutenant Rudolph Muller is announced as his successor. In parting
with Captain Greenhut, the Colonel commanding feels it both a duty and
a pleasure to bear testimony to his diligence, zeal and fidelity in the
performance of his duty in the office, as well as in the field, and he
regrets to see so excellent and brave an officer as Captain Greenhut
leave his command.

Matters of important character only could induce Captain Greenhut to
leave the army in which he served three long and hard years, taking
active part in all the most decisive battles east and west.

To be read on dress parade to the troops to-day.

  By order of Colonel MCGROARTY,
  Commanding Brigade and Post.

  1st Lieutenant and A. A. A. General.

  Assistant Adjutant-General, 3d Brigade."

In recent years Captain Greenhut was appointed by Governor Fifer one
of the three commissioners to erect a monument on the battle-field of
Gettysburg, in honor of the Illinois soldiers who participated in that
battle. He delivered the dedicatory address at the unveiling of the
monument, September 3, 1891, in the presence of Governor Fifer, and a
large multitude of veterans and representative citizens of the State of
Illinois, who visited the battle-field on that occasion.

The _Chicago Tribune_, of September 4, 1891, prints Captain Greenhut's
speech, as follows:

    "Friends and Comrades: We are assembled here to-day on the spot
    where, on the first day of July, 1863, our regiment stood in line,
    at the beginning of the first day's memorable Battle of Gettysburg.
    More than twenty-eight years have passed since that eventful
    struggle, but our memory is refreshed and brightened when we cast
    our eyes about us and view these familiar surroundings, and we are
    impressed in part with the feelings which raged in our breasts when
    we were formed into line on this field to stem the advance of the
    Rebel Army. It was an herculean task to perform when we consider
    that only a small portion of our army was in the field on the first
    day of the battle, while the larger portion of Lee's Army was
    concentrated on our front and right.

    "None of us knew what a hot day's fight was before us when we broke
    camp at Emmetsburg early on the morning of July 1st, and began our
    march towards Gettysburg. We had not gone far when orders came to
    move faster and to be prepared for an engagement. As we approached
    the town of Gettysburg on the Emmetsburg road, we could hear the
    first shots that were being fired on the cavalry skirmish lines and
    soon thereafter received word that the First Corps, which was ahead
    of us, was already engaging the enemy, and then came the sad news
    that General Reynolds had been killed. We then moved double-quick
    through the town to this field where our batteries were placed in
    position, and at once opened fire on the advancing enemy. I was
    detailed in command of two companies of our regiment to support
    Dilger's battery, and I can bear witness to the effective work done
    by that gallant battery in holding the enemy in check. We were
    exposed to the fearful cannonade fire which the enemy opened in our
    front, and by which we had several of our men wounded. We held our
    ground for a long time against the large force in our front, but
    later in the afternoon Ewell's corps flanked us on the right, and
    as our numbers were still entirely too small to combat with the
    overwhelming forces of the approaching enemy on our right, there
    was no alternative for us but to retreat through the town and take
    up a position on Cemetery Hill. It was in this retreat through the
    town that our regiment suffered most severely, the rebels coming
    in through the side streets, which compelled us to fight our way
    through the entire town.

    "Besides the killed and wounded we suffered in this street
    conflict, a number of our officers were cut off and captured by the
    enemy. It was a fearful struggle against great odds, and as our
    regiment covered the rear of our brigade in that retreat it has
    been a surprise to me that we were not entirely annihilated in our
    endeavors to force our way through the town up to Cemetery Hill.
    Each one of us can, however, vividly recollect the hair-breadth
    escapes experienced on that occasion without any allusions on my
    part. From Colonel Salomon, who had his horse shot from under him
    in the street, down through the entire rank of officers and men,
    none will ever forget that terrible day. As soon as we reached
    Cemetery Hill, we felt that we were in a better position and could
    resist any further attacks, if they should be made, and the rebels
    evidently came to that conclusion, as they did not make any further
    attempt that day.

    "During the night we were reinforced by the remainder of our army,
    which reached Gettysburg from different points and which brought
    confidence and encouragement to us who had withstood the hardships
    of the engagement of the first day's battle. When daylight appeared
    July 2nd, we were prepared and ready for the second day's struggle.

    "Early morning hours on the second day were spent in comparative
    quiet, each army in full view of the other, and each waiting
    for the other to begin the fight. The rebels, however, who had
    possession of the town, had filled the houses standing on the
    outskirts of the town, just below Cemetery Hill, with sharpshooters
    for the purpose of picking off our officers, whom they could easily
    spy standing or walking about on the hill. This had become quite
    troublesome and General Schurz requested Colonel Salomon to send
    a detail of about one hundred men to dislodge the sharpshooters.
    I had the honor to command that detail, which was made up of
    volunteers, and stormed those houses, driving out the sharpshooters
    and keeping possession of the houses the balance of the day. In
    making up this detail an incident happened which I shall surely
    remember as long as I live, and I cannot refrain from referring to
    it at this time. Brave John Ackerman, a private in my company, who
    on every previous occasion was the first to respond when volunteers
    were asked for to engage in some daring work, did not come to the
    front on this occasion. I was much surprised at his action, and
    stepped over to speak to him about it. He said to me:

    "'Captain, I cannot go with you this time; I feel as though
    something terrible was going to happen to me to-day.'

    "He looked pale and despondent. Believing that he did not feel
    well, I left him, after saying a few encouraging words to him.
    Within an hour after I left him, Ackerman was killed, a rebel shell
    cutting off more than half his head. His remains were buried on
    Cemetery Hill, close to where he was killed. It is singular, that
    he is the only one of our regiment killed at Gettysburg whose name
    appears on any headstone in the National Cemetery.

    "The great artillery duel, consisting of the firing of more than
    200 cannon, which was the beginning of the second day's battle,
    was especially severe on the exposed position occupied by the
    Eleventh Corps on Cemetery Hill, and the rebels seemed determined
    to dislodge us from our position, but were unsuccessful in their
    efforts. All of us can recollect the myriads of shells and bombs
    that flew in our midst and over our heads, dealing out death
    wherever they struck in our ranks, and few of the headstones which
    marked the graves in the old cemetery were left unbroken after that
    shower of shells.

    "The terrible charge the rebels made in the evening of the second
    day to force us from our position on Cemetery Hill has passed
    into history as one of the most desperate and bloody of this
    memorable battle. The charge was made from the streets of the town
    by the rebel brigade known as the 'Louisiana Tigers,' and it is
    officially stated that out of 1700 men in that brigade less than
    300 'Tigers' returned to the town after that charge. The third
    day's battle was nearly a duplicate of the day previous, our
    regiment holding the same position on Cemetery Hill and standing
    the terrible fire of the enemy with the same bravery and gallantry
    that had characterized our organization from the beginning. We
    can all recollect how with frantic desperation the rebels tried to
    dislodge us from the position we occupied, but all their attempts
    were unavailing, and when the radiant sun sank behind the western
    horizon after the third day's fight, the rebels signalized their
    defeat by a hasty retreat southward. We can also vividly remember
    how light-hearted and joyous we felt on that early Fourth of July
    morning when we gazed on those fields and hills in our front which
    only the evening before were full of life, covered with rebel
    soldiers and cannon, and now looked deserted and forsaken. We then
    first began to realize the great victory we had won, a victory
    which I confidently believe was the turning point for the salvation
    of this country. But while the face of every Union soldier on that
    morning was glowing with the flush of heroism, there were but few,
    however, who could pass without sad emotions over the fields which
    were so thickly strewn with dead and dying that in some places it
    was impossible to walk without stepping on some of the dead bodies.
    But these are the consequences of war, and I sincerely hope it
    may never again become necessary in this glorious country to call
    out large armies and to bring such great sacrifices in order to
    perpetuate our liberties and freedom. (Cheers.)

    "It is not necessary to-day to eulogize the many brave deeds of
    the officers and men of our regiment on this battle-field, as the
    official records bear ample testimony on that subject, and I doubt
    whether any regiment can show a better record for bravery than the
    old 82nd Illinois. (Applause.)

    "This monument which has been erected through the generosity
    of the State of Illinois to commemorate the noble deeds of the
    82nd Regiment will stand for ages as a tribute of a grateful
    people to her sons, now living or dead, who participated in this,
    the greatest battle which was fought during the war for the
    preservation of the Union. (Cheers.)

    "We, the surviving members of the 82nd Regiment, fully appreciate
    this token erected in our honor by the State of Illinois and in
    behalf of our comrades I desire to express through his excellency,
    Governor Fifer, our sincere thankfulness for the same." (Applause.)

       *       *       *       *       *

    "Mr. Greenhut concluded by paying a handsome compliment to the old
    Colonel of the 82nd, Colonel E. S. Salomon, and the ceremonies
    closed with the recitation of a short poem in German by Lieutenant
    John Baus, of Chicago."

  GOODMAN, ABRAHAM                                83d Infantry
  GOODMAN, LEWIS                                 87th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, W                                    93d Infantry
      Wounded in battle.
  GOLDSMITH, J.                                  103d Infantry
  GOODMAN, MOSES          Lieutenant            109th Infantry
  GOODMAN, JACOB                                116th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JOSEPH                      D      118th Infantry
  GOODMAN, E.                                   120th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, DAVID                              155th Infantry
  GANS, HENRY                            C          2d Cavalry
  GOLDSMITH, J.           Corporal                 4th Cavalry
  GANS, LEVI                                      10th Cavalry
  GOLDSMITH, WILLIAM                              10th Cavalry
  GOLDSMITH, G. W.                       I        14th Cavalry
  GOTTHELF, JOSEPH        Adjutant                16th Cavalry
      Enlisted as private; promoted for bravery to 1st
      Lieutenant and Adjutant. After being mustered out
      re-enlisted in 4th Regiment, Hancock's Veteran
      Corps; served as Quartermaster Sergeant.
  GOTTHART, MORITZ                       E        2d Artillery

  HAYS, BENJAMIN                         B        7th Infantry
  HESS, JOSEPH                           A        8th Infantry
      Severely wounded at Fort Donelson.
  HAHN, MARTIN                           D        8th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, HENRY                        A        9th Infantry
  HAAS, FERDINAND                        A        9th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, J.                           A        9th Infantry
  HERRMAN, FRANK                         B        9th Infantry
  HESS, ALEXANDER                        B       11th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, WILLIAM                      A       12th Infantry
      Killed at Fort Donelson.
  HAYS, MOSES                                    18th Infantry
  HESS, ABRAHAM                                  19th Infantry
      Re-enlisted as a veteran.
  HELLER, ADOLPH                                 19th Infantry
  HERRICK, C. K.                                 19th Infantry
      Died from wounds received at Elizabethtown, Kentucky
  HELLER, ALBERT                                 19th Infantry
  HAHN, CHARLES                                  22nd Infantry
  HAYS, ABRAHAM           Corporal       C       25th Infantry
      Mustered out as Sergeant.
  HAYS, FRANKLIN                         C       25th Infantry
  HAYS, DAVID                            C       25th Infantry
  HAYS, HENRY                                    25th Infantry
  HESS, JACOB             Corporal       A       20th Infantry
  HAYS, MORRIS                                    33d Infantry
  HAYS, LEVI                                     34th Infantry
  HART, AARON                                    34th Infantry
  HAYS, DANIEL                                   35th Infantry
  HOFFMAN, ADOLPH         Captain                39th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  HERRMAN, M.    } 2 brothers                    41st Infantry
  HERRMAN, HENRY }                               41st Infantry
  HEINEMAN, GEORGE                       A        43d Infantry
  HERRMAN, LOUIS                         B        43d Infantry
  HESS, JACOB                            G        43d Infantry
  HEINEMAN, HENRY                        K        43d Infantry
  HEILBRUN, JOSEPH                                43d Infantry
  HAHN, DANIEL                                   44th Infantry
      Wounded and captured.
  HESS, AARON                            B       46th Infantry
  HAYS, MORRIS                           C       47th Infantry
  HAYS, B                                B       54th Infantry
  HAYS, LEVI                                     55th Infantry
  HAYMAN, A.                             F       57th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, JOSEPH                       A       58th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, JACOB                        F       58th Infantry
  HERRMAN, FRANK                                 59th Infantry
  HART, ISAAC                                     63d Infantry
  HIRSCH, JOSEPH                         F       64th Infantry
  HIRSCH, JULIUS                                 64th Infantry
  HAYS, JOSEPH                                   65th Infantry
  HAAS, JOSEPH                           F       65th Infantry
  HARRIS, CHARLES                                66th Infantry
  HAYS, ISAAC                                    66th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, WILLIAM                      E       67th Infantry
  HAAS, MORRIS                                   72nd Infantry
  HAAS, ALEXANDER                                79th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, LOUIS                              80th Infantry
  HERRMAN, JULIUS                        A       82nd Infantry
  HERRMAN, JACOB                         C       82nd Infantry
  HESSBERGER, LEOPOLD                    C       82nd Infantry
  HENSHALL, ALEXANDER                    C       82nd Infantry
  HEYMAN, JACOB                          C       82nd Infantry
  HIRSCHLEIN, LEOPOLD                    C       82nd Infantry
  HIRSCH, L.                             C       82nd Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  HESSLEIN, ISIDORE                      C       82nd Infantry
  HAHN, ISAAC                                     93d Infantry
  HAHN, JACOB                                     93d Infantry
  HIRSCH, AUGUST          Lieutenant     C      100th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERGER, AARON     Lieutenant            107th Infantry
  HIRSCH, BENJAMIN                              108th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERGER, HERMAN                          111th Infantry
  HIRSCHMAN, JACOB                       H      117th Infantry
  HERZBERGER, F.                                117th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, HENRY                               120th Infantry
  HESS, JACOB                                   120th Infantry
  HARRIS, JACOB                                 130th Infantry
  HARRIS, CHARLES                        K      134th Infantry
      Served four years.
  HOLZMAN, S. L.                         A      140th Infantry
  HAYS, JACOB             Captain               142nd Infantry
  HARRIS, BENJAMIN        Lieutenant             143d Infantry
  HERRMAN, GOTTLIEB                      K      144th Infantry
  HIRSCH, HENRY                                 152nd Infantry
  HERZ, DAVID                                   156th Infantry
  HART, AARON                                      1st Cavalry
  HERRMAN, HERMAN                                   3d Cavalry
  HIRSCHMAN, JOSEPH                                 3d Cavalry
  HERRMAN, JACOB                         G         5th Cavalry
  HAHN, HENRY                            K         7th Cavalry
  HEROLD, HERMAN          Lieutenant              11th Cavalry
      Enlisted as private; promoted for gallant conduct.
  HAHN, SAMUEL                                   1st Artillery
  HART, LEVI              Captain                1st Artillery
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  HERMAN, GOTTLIEB                               2nd Artillery
  HESS, HENRY                                    2nd Artillery
  HYMAN, L.                                   Chicago Board of
                                                 Trade Battery

  ISAACS, JOSEPH                         F        8th Infantry
  ISRAEL, SAMUEL                                 18th Infantry
  ISRAEL, AARON           Sergeant       K        23d Infantry
  ISENSTEIN, GEORGE       Captain                24th Infantry
  ISAACS, AARON                                  42nd Infantry
  ISAAC, CHARLES                                 59th Infantry
  ISAACSON, ISAAC                                92nd Infantry
  ISAACS, W. A.                                 117th Infantry
  ISAAC, DAVID                                  119th Infantry
  ISRAEL, W.                                      12th Cavalry

  JACOBS, C.                                      8th Infantry
  JACOBS, BENJAMIN        Corporal       G        9th Infantry
      Killed at Fort Donelson.
  JOSEPH, JOSEPH                         H       10th Infantry
  JACOBS, JAMES                          A       12th Infantry
  JACOBSON, FR.                          D       12th Infantry
  JACOBS, G.                                     18th Infantry
  JACOBS, DANIEL          Corporal       H       25th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOSEPH N.                      A       26th Infantry
  JACOBS, SAMUEL                                 30th Infantry
  JACOBS, FR.                                    37th Infantry
  JACOBS, ELIAS                          D       38th Infantry
  JACOBS, J. B.                                  38th Infantry
  JACOBS, BERNHART                               39th Infantry
  JACOB, PHILIP                          K        43d Infantry
  JACOBSON, JACOB                                44th Infantry
  JACOBS, HENRY                          K       47th Infantry
  JACOBSON, JACOB                                 53d Infantry
  JACOBS, ABRAHAM                                 53d Infantry
  JACOBS, E.                                     56th Infantry
  JACOBS, BENJAMIN                               57th Infantry
  JACOBS, S.                                     62nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  JACOBS, HENRY                          H       65th Infantry
  JACOB, AARON                                   66th Infantry
  JACOBS, SAMUEL                         F       78th Infantry
  JACOBSON, A.                           I       82nd Infantry
  JACOBS, WILLIAM                                 93d Infantry
      Died in the field.
  JACOBSON, CHARLES                              94th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOSEPH                         C       98th Infantry
  JACOBS, AARON                                  98th Infantry
  JACOBS, SAMUEL                         E       98th Infantry
  JACOBS, W.              Corporal               103d Infantry
  JACOBS, JOSEPH                                 133d Infantry
  JACOBS, HENRY C.                       C      134th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOSEPH E.                              143d Infantry
  JONAS, EDWARD           Captain               149th Infantry
  JULIAN, DAVID                                  153d Infantry
  JACOBS, CHARLES                                  2nd Cavalry
  JACOBS, J.                                        3d Cavalry
  JACOBS, JOSEPH, JR.                    H         9th Cavalry
  JACOBSON, J.                                     9th Cavalry
  JACOBS, CHARLES                        H        11th Cavalry
  JACOBS, CHARLES         Corporal       F        11th Cavalry
  JACOBS, HENRY                                   11th Cavalry
  JACOBS, ALEXANDER                               12th Cavalry
  JACOBS, BERNHARD                                12th Cavalry
  JACOBS, A.                                      15th Cavalry
  JACOBS, DAVID F.                       A       1st Artillery
  JACOBS, JACOB                          G       1st Artillery
  JACOBS, DAVID M.                               2nd Artillery
  JACOBS, DANIEL W.                              2nd Artillery
  JACOBS, DANIEL                            Chicago Mercantile
  JACOBS, C. G.                             13th United States
  JONAS, EDWARD            Major                 50th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; promoted to 2nd Lieutenant,
      Captain and Major; captured at Shiloh.

  KAHN, MOSES                            D        9th Infantry
  KOHN, EDWARD                           H       12th Infantry
  KURZ, ELIAS                            C       14th Infantry
  KATZ, ELIAS                            C       14th Infantry
  KUHN, GEORGE                                   16th Infantry
  KAHN, HENRY                                    20th Infantry
  KOHN, HENRY                                    24th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, MORITZ         1st            H       24th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  KAUFMAN, JACOB                         K       24th Infantry
  KRAUSKOPF, G.           Sergeant       A       39th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ISAAC          Corporal               47th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, REUBEN         Corporal               54th Infantry
  KING, LOUIS                            H       57th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, JOSEPH                                58th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, LEVI           Corporal       I       68th Infantry
  KOCH, HERMAN            Sergeant       F       82nd Infantry
  KOCH, FRANK                            F       82nd Infantry
  KOCH, GUSTAV                           H       82nd Infantry
  KRAMER, SAMUEL                         C       82nd Infantry
  KARMINSKI, JACOB                       G       88th Infantry
      Wounded at Stone River.
  KOHN, JACOB                                    95th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, LEVI                                 106th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ISAAC                                106th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ISAAC C.                      F      115th Infantry
  KONIG, JACOB                                  132nd Infantry
  KAUFMAN, JACOB                                149th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, PHILIP                        I         1st Cavalry
  KAUFMAN, E. B.                         C         2nd Cavalry
  KOHN, N.                                          3d Cavalry
  KAUFMAN, PHILIP                        E         7th Cavalry
  KONIGSTEIN, JACOB       Corporal                 7th Cavalry
      Wounded in action.
  KOHN, FREDERICK                                  8th Cavalry
  KOHN, CHARLES                                    9th Cavalry
  KAHN, FRIEDRICH                        H        13th Cavalry
  KAUFMAN, BENJAMIN       Sergeant                14th Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  KOCH, LOUIS                            C        16th Cavalry
  KAUFMAN, MICHAEL                               1st Artillery
  KAUFMAN, MARTIN                                2nd Artillery
  KOCH, JOSEPH M.         2nd United States Veteran Volunteers
  KOCH, LEWIS             2nd United States Veteran Volunteers

  LEAVIT, LEVI                           G         3d Infantry
  LESSER, SAMUEL B.                      I        8th Infantry
  LEIB, HERMAN            Major                   8th Infantry
  LEHMAN, JACOB           Corporal                8th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  LEHMAN, REUBEN                         F       10th Infantry
  LOESER, LEVI                           H       14th Infantry
  LEVIN, CHARLES                         E       17th Infantry
  LEVY, MICHAEL                                  19th Infantry
  LANG, ADOLPH                                   19th Infantry
  LEHMAN, ERNST                          A       20th Infantry
  LUDWIG, OSCAR           Captain                20th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  LEHMAN, FRANK                                  20th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  LEHMAN, JACOB                                  20th Infantry
  LIEBERMAN, MARTIN                              21st Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  LEVY, JOSEPH                           A       24th Infantry
  LEOPOLD, WILLIAM                               45th Infantry
  LORCH, ALEXANDER                               46th Infantry
  LEHMAN, JOSEPH                      B          47th Infantry
  LEHMAN, HENRY                       B          47th Infantry
  LOEB, PHILIP                                   49th Infantry
  LYON, JACOB F.                                 50th Infantry
  LOUIS, LEVI                                    50th Infantry
  LEHMAN, HENRY L.        1st         A          59th Infantry
  LEHMAN, HENRY           Corporal               59th Infantry
  LEDERMAN, DAVID                     E          59th Infantry
  LEDERMAN, DANIEL                    E          59th Infantry
  LEHMAN, J.                                     70th Infantry
  LOEB, WILLIAM           2nd         C          82nd Infantry
  LEVY, LOUIS                         C          82nd Infantry
  LAMMFROMM, JACOB                    C          82nd Infantry
  LASALLE, JACOB          Captain     C          82nd Infantry
  LOEB, WILLIAM           Captain     C          82nd Infantry
      Entered as private; promoted for gallant conduct.
  LEHMAN, LEWIS                       B          86th Infantry
  LICHTENBERG, JACOB                             87th Infantry
  LISTNER, LOUIS                                  93d Infantry
  LEDERMAN, ABRAHAM                   F         113th Infantry
  LEDERMAN, A.                                  130th Infantry
  LANDENBURG, ABRAHAM                           137th Infantry
  LYON, DAVID M.          Captain               138th Infantry
  LORCH, JACOB                                  144th Infantry
  LEIB, LEVI H.                                    2nd Cavalry
      Died of wounds.
  LUDWIG, DANIEL                                    3d Cavalry
  LICHTENBERGER, ALFRED                             3d Cavalry
  LEHMAN, FREDERICK                                4th Cavalry
  LEOPOLD, WILLIAM                                 8th Cavalry
  LOESER, JACOB                                    9th Cavalry
  LIEBMAN, DANIEL                                 10th Cavalry
      Died of disease contracted in camp.
  LEHMAN, JACOB                                   12th Cavalry
  LEVI, R.                            B           13th Cavalry
  LEHMAN, FREDERICK                   F           13th Cavalry
  LEHMAN, MICHAEL         2nd                     13th Cavalry
  LEHMAN, MAX             1st                     16th Cavalry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  LEOPOLD, WILLIAM                               1st Artillery

  MENDEL, NOAH E.         Captain                 7th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant; killed at Fort Donelson.
  MYERS, LEO W.           1st                     7th Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.
  MORRISON, SAMUEL                                8th Infantry
  MEYER, LEO                                      9th Infantry
  MAYER, CHARLES                         G       12th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  MEYERS, HERMAN                                 12th Infantry
  MEYERS, DAVID                                   7th Infantry
  MEYERS, HENRY                                   8th Infantry
  MEYER, JACOB                                    9th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MOSES, FRANK                           C        9th Infantry
  MEYER, MOSES                                    9th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MEYERS, AARON                          H        9th Infantry
  MYERS, DANIEL                                   9th Infantry
  MEERHOLZ, HEINRICH                     D       10th Infantry
  MARKS, A. L.                           K       13th Infantry
      Served four years under the name of Charles Harris.
  MORRIS, LEVI                           C       14th Infantry
  MYERS, FRANK                                   14th Infantry
  MOSES, GEORGE                                  15th Infantry
  MENKEN, HERMAN                                 16th Infantry
  MEYERS, DAVID                                  19th Infantry
  MAYER, JACOB                           A       20th Infantry
  MEYERS, SAMUEL                                 20th Infantry
  MYER, ALEXANDER                                20th Infantry
  MYER, JONAS                            G       22nd Infantry
  MAYER, A.               Sergeant       A       24th Infantry
  MEYER, SAMUEL           Sergeant               24th Infantry
  MEIER, JACOB                           E       25th Infantry
  MAYER, CHARLES          Corporal       F       24th Infantry
      Captured; died in Andersonville Prison.
  MEIER, ISIDORE                         K       24th Infantry
      Captured; died in Andersonville Prison.
  MEIER, LOUIS                                   26th Infantry
  MYERS, JOSEPH                                  26th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  MANUEL, JOSEPH                         G       27th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  MOSES, ALBERT           Major                  28th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  MEIER, CHARLES                                 28th Infantry
  MANN, ISAAC             Corporal       B       30th Infantry
      Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
  MARKS, ISAAC            Corporal               30th Infantry
  MEIER, JACOB                                   31st Infantry
  MORRIS, SIMEON                                 31st Infantry
  MORRIS, LEVI E.                                31st Infantry
  MEYERS, ABRAHAM                        A        33d Infantry
      Killed at Vicksburg.
  MYERS, JOSEPH           Captain                34th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  MARCUS, FREDERIC                               36th Infantry
  MORRIS, SOLOMON                                37th Infantry
  MYERS, ABRAHAM                         G       40th Infantry
  MANN, CHARLES                          B        43d Infantry
  MEIER, FRANK                                    43d Infantry
  MEYER, LOUIS                           K        43d Infantry
  MANN, GUSTAV                                   44th Infantry
  MEIER, LEWIS                                   44th Infantry
  MEYERS, JOSEPH          1st Lieutenant         44th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  MOSES, LEWIS                                   46th Infantry
  MOSES, WILLIAM                                 46th Infantry
  MAYER, ISAAC                           H       46th Infantry
  MYERS, JACOB                                   47th Infantry
  MENDEL, DAVID                          H       47th Infantry
  MORITZ, WILLIAM                                48th Infantry
  MAY, CHARLES            Lieutenant             50th Infantry
  MYERS, LOUIS                                   54th Infantry
  MAYER, CHARLES          Adjutant               58th Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  MEYERS, HENRY                          E       58th Infantry
  MOSES, CHARLES                         F       58th Infantry
  MAYER, BENJAMIN                                59th Infantry
  MAYER, ABRAHAM                                 62nd Infantry
  MEYER, FREDERICK                                63d Infantry
  MEYERS, SIMEON          2nd Lieutenant          63d Infantry
  MAY, AARON E.           Adjutant               64th Infantry
  MEYER, CHARLES          Sergeant               65th Infantry
  MEIER, CHARLES E.       Corporal       G       65th Infantry
  MEIER, SAMUEL                          G       65th Infantry
  MANN, MARTIN            Captain                65th Infantry
  MANTEL, A.                             E       69th Infantry
  MEYER, CHARLES                                 69th Infantry
  MEYERS, WILLIAM                                69th Infantry
  MEYERS, ALEXANDER                              70th Infantry
  MEYER, GUSTAV                                  72nd Infantry
  MEIER, FERDINAND                               72nd Infantry
  MANTEL, CHARLES                                 73d Infantry
      Killed in action.
  MAYER, SAMUEL                                  76th Infantry
  MARX, C. H.                            G       80th Infantry
  MARKS, NATHAN                          C       82nd Infantry
  MEIER, DANIEL                          C       82nd Infantry
  MEIER, PHILIP                          C       82nd Infantry
  MANNHEIM, E.                           C       82nd Infantry
  MEIER, GOTTLIEB                        D       82nd Infantry
  MAYER, WILLIAM                         D       82nd Infantry
  MEIER, JACOB            Corporal       K       82nd Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  MEYERS, DAVID                          I       82nd Infantry
  MANHEIMER, GODFREY                     C       82nd Infantry
      Wounded at Atlanta.
  MEYERS, ISAAC                                   83d Infantry
  MANN, ISAAC             Corporal               85th Infantry
  MEYERS, SOLOMON                                85th Infantry
  MAYER, JACOB                                   87th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          F       87th Infantry
  MEYERS, FRANK                                  89th Infantry
  MAYERS, W.              Lieutenant             92nd Infantry
  MYERS, ISAAC                                   103d Infantry
  MYERS, HENRY                                  111th Infantry
  MORGENTHAL, JACOB                             116th Infantry
  MAYER, CHARLES                                118th Infantry
  MAY, ABRAHAM            Lieutenant            130th Infantry
  MYERS, LEWIS                                  131st Infantry
  MORRIS, NATHAN                         D      131st Infantry
  MEYER, GUSTAV                          D      134th Infantry
  MAYER, HENRY                                   142d Infantry
  MEIER, JOSEPH                                  142d Infantry
  MOSES, REUBEN           Lieutenant            146th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  MOSES, AARON            Sergeant                 1st Cavalry
  MOSES, REUBEN           Sergeant                 1st Cavalry
  MEYERS, HENRY                                    2nd Cavalry
  MANN, LEVI                                       7th Cavalry
  MEYERS, MORRIS                         G         7th Cavalry
  MEIER, HENRY                                     7th Cavalry
  MEYERS, DANIEL                                   8th Cavalry
  MAY, OSCAR                                       9th Cavalry
  MEIER, HERMAN                                    9th Cavalry
      Died of wounds.
  MEIER, WILLIAM                                   9th Cavalry
  MEIER, HERMAN                                   10th Cavalry
  MEIER, AUGUST           Lieutenant              10th Cavalry
      Enlisted as private.
  MAYER, MOSES                           A        12th Cavalry
  MARKS, SAMUEL                          L        12th Cavalry
  MEYERS, HENRY                                   13th Cavalry
  MEYER, FERDINAND                                13th Cavalry
  MARX, FELIX             Captain                 13th Cavalry
      Promoted from                Lieutenant.
  MEIER, MOSES                           B        15th Cavalry
  MANN, EUGENE            Corporal       H        15th Cavalry
  MEYERS, CHARLES                        A        16th Cavalry
  MAYER, J.                              B        16th Cavalry
  MEIER, HERMAN                                   16th Cavalry
  MARX, JOHN F.           Lieutenant              16th Cavalry
  MEIERS, NATHAN                                  17th Cavalry
  MEYERS, DAVID                          C       1st Artillery
  MEIERS, FRANK                          G       1st Artillery
  MEYERS, HENRY           Sergeant               1st Artillery
      Enlisted as private.
  MARX, LOUIS                            A       2nd Artillery
  MOSES, FERDINAND                       K       2nd Artillery
  MANN, LEWIS                     Chicago Mercantile Artillery
  MEYER, HENRY                                 Elgin Artillery

  NEUMAN, ALBERT                         C        9th Infantry
      At expiration of term re-enlisted in Company B; was
      killed at Fort Donelson.
  NATHAN, G. M.                          B       24th Infantry
  NATHAN, MORRIS                                 24th Infantry
  NEWMAN, JOSEPH                         F       42nd Infantry
  NEWMAN, J.                                     66th Infantry
  NIEMAN, MORITZ                         A        82d Infantry
  NEWMAN, BENJAMIN                               91st Infantry
  NEWMAN, JACOB                          F       82nd Infantry
  NATTINGER, S. L.                       E      104th Infantry
  NEWMAN, JESSE                                 112th Infantry
  NEWMAN, SIMON           Captain               145th Infantry
  NEWMAN, J.                                       4th Cavalry
  NEWMAN, DAVID                                   13th Cavalry
      Died of wounds.
  NEWMAN, JACOB           Corporal       Springfield Artillery
  OCHS, GEORGE                           C        9th Infantry
  OCHS, FERDINAND                        H       24th Infantry
  OPPERMAN, JULIUS                               24th Infantry
  OCHS, MARTIN                                   27th Infantry
  OCHS, CHARLES           Corporal       B       71st Infantry
  OCHS, FRIEDRICH                                72nd Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, ABRAHAM                            17th Cavalry

  PHILLIPSON, AARON                      D          3d Cavalry

  ROSE, E.                               E       10th Infantry
  RESSIE, ADOLPH                         K       10th Infantry
  ROSENBACH, MOSES                       G       10th Infantry
  ROSE, DANIEL                           H       12th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, HENRY                               21st Infantry
  ROSENFELD, FRANK                       K        23d Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, M.                          K        43d Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, CHARLES                             49th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, C. W.        Lieutenant             57th Infantry
  ROSE, DANIEL                                   58th Infantry
      Mortally wounded at Shiloh.
  RICE, JOSEPH                                   58th Infantry
  ROSENBAUM, ALEXANDER                   A       75th Infantry
  ROSENBAUM, WILLIAM                             76th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, SAMPSON                             82nd Infantry
  ROSENHAUPT, JOSEPH                            107th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, S.                                 118th Infantry
  ROSENHAUPT, SIMON                      I      142nd Infantry
  RAPP, JACOB                                   146th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, J.                                     3d Cavalry
  RUBEN, FREDERICK                                12th Cavalry

  SIMPSON, ELIAS                                  7th Infantry
  SIMPSON, DAVID                         K        7th Infantry
  SIMONSON, ISAAC                        E        8th Infantry
      At expiration of term re-enlisted as veteran; promoted
      to Sergeant; killed at Fort Blakely.
  STURMER, JOSEPH                        G       10th Infantry
  SANDERS, FRANK                                 16th Infantry
  SAMUELS, CHARLES                       H       19th Infantry
  SIMON, JOSEPH                          G       24th Infantry
  SUMMERFIELD, ELIAS                             24th Infantry
  SANDERS, JACOB                                 25th Infantry
  SOLOMON, F.                            A       25th Infantry
  STERN, JACOB                                   30th Infantry
  SIMPSON, ISAAC                         I       31st Infantry
  SIMPSON, WILLIAM                       I       31st Infantry
  STERN, JOSEPH                                  35th Infantry
  SIMONS, ADOLPH                         C       37th Infantry
  SIMONS, MARCUS                         C       37th Infantry
  SIMONS, LEVI            Corporal       F       37th Infantry
  SIMPSON, JOSEPH                                38th Infantry
  SIMPSON, DANIEL                                40th Infantry
  SAMUELSON, ALEXANDER                   C        43d Infantry
  SAMUELSON, CHARLES                     C        43d Infantry
  SAMUELSON, CHARLES A.                  C        43d Infantry
  SANGER, LOUIS                                  47th Infantry
  SOLOMON, HENRY                         D       48th Infantry
  SIMON, LEWIS                                   51st Infantry
  SOLOMON, DAVID                                 52nd Infantry
  SAMPSON, SAMUEL                                 53d Infantry
  SIMPSON, SAMUEL         Corporal               55th Infantry
  SAMUELSON, CHARLES                             55th Infantry
      Killed at Kenesaw Mountain.
  SOLOMON, D.                                    58th Infantry
  STRAUSS, CHARLES                       E       59th Infantry
  STINE, ISAAC                                   68th Infantry
  SIMONS, ALEXANDER                              78th Infantry
  SOMMER, FRANK           Corporal       B       82nd Infantry
  SALOMON, A.                            C       82nd Infantry
  SIMON, GUSTAV                          C       82nd Infantry
  STEINBACH, M. JOSEPH                           82nd Infantry
  SIMPSON, HERMAN         Corporal               82nd Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  SHOENWALT, FRANK        Lieutenant     K       82nd Infantry
  SALOMON, ABRAHAM                       C       82nd Infantry
  SIESEL, SIEGMUND                       C       82nd Infantry
  SALOMON, EDWARD S.      Brigadier-General      82nd Infantry

    Joined the 24th Illinois as 2nd Lieutenant, participating in
    the battles of Frederickton and Mainfordsville, Kentucky. His
    gallantry in action and general proficiency in tactics were the
    cause of successive promotions till in 1862 Lieutenant Salomon was
    gazetted Major of the regiment. Owing to disagreement among the
    officers of the command of Colonel Hecker, Major Salomon and other
    officers resigned and organized another regiment under the official
    designation of the 82nd Illinois Infantry, of which Major Salomon
    ultimately became Colonel. As a member of the 11th Army Corps
    under General Howard, he participated in the campaign of which the
    actions at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg were salient features.
    He also took part in the battles round Chattanooga, Lookout
    Mountain, and Missionary Ridge; fought in fact throughout all the
    campaign in the Southwest and was ultimately brevetted to the rank
    of Brigadier-General.

    President Grant appointed General Salomon to the Governorship of
    Washington Territory which position he held four years to the
    satisfaction of the citizens and to the increased industrial
    prosperity of the North-west.

       *       *       *       *       *

    As the subject of this sketch has also been prominent in politics
    on the Republican side, his military service has frequently been
    attacked by political enemies. To show with what little justice
    these attacks have been made, we publish a few of the opinions
    entertained by prominent Generals of the army:

    August 20, 1863.

    Commanding 11th Corps.


    Of the part taken by my Division in the actions of July 2 and 3 at
    Gettysburg, I have the honor to submit the following report: One of
    the five regiments of the 1st Brigade, the 74th Pennsylvania, was
    left with General Ames to strengthen his right wing; the remaining
    four were directed towards a strip of woods on the right of the
    Division, in which the firing had become very heavy, and where,
    according to a report of some staff officers of the 1st Corps,
    immediate aid was needed. Two regiments, the 157th New York and the
    61st Ohio, were guided by one of their officers, while the other
    two, the 82nd Illinois and the 45th New York, were led by my Chief
    of Staff, Lieutenant-Colonel Otto, of the 50th New York.

    It had meanwhile become quite dark, the direction of the fight
    being indicated by nothing but the sound of musketry. The regiment
    entered the woods with the greatest determination, and drove the
    enemy from our rifle pits.

    It is my pleasant duty to mention as especially deserving, the
    names of Lieutenant-Colonel Otto, who superintended this operation
    with great judgment and courage, and Lieutenant Colonel Salomon, of
    the 82nd Illinois, who displayed the highest order of coolness and
    determination under very trying circumstances.

    I am, General,

    Very respectfully yours,
    (Signed)      C. SCHURZ,
    Major-General Commanding Division.

       *       *       *       *       *

    June 26th, 1864.

    Adjutant-General, State of Illinois.


    I have the honor to respectfully request that you issue a Colonel's
    commission to Lieutenant-Colonel Edward S. Salomon, commanding
    the 82nd Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, belonging to his
    brigade. I take pleasure in saying that it is my sincere belief
    that Lieutenant-Colonel Salomon fully deserves this favor, not
    only by his inherent ability and merit as an officer, but more
    particularly by the gallantry and efficiency he has displayed
    during this campaign. The regiment he commands is his best
    recommendation, it being soldierly, gallant and thoroughly
    disciplined. It will be accepted as a personal favor if you will
    make special effort to obtain the approval of Lieutenant-Colonel
    Salomon's commission as Colonel, and his muster as such by the War

    Respectfully, your obedient servant,
    Colonel Commanding 3d Brigade,
    1st Division 20th Army Corps.

       *       *       *       *       *

    June 28th, 1864.

    Respectfully forwarded, heartily concurring with the within

    (Signed)      A. S. WILLIAMS,
    Brig. Gen. Commanding Division.

       *       *       *       *       *

    June 28th, 1864.

    Respectfully forwarded. I fully concur in the within recommendation
    Lieutenant Colonel Salomon has won the good opinion of all his
    comrades by his great gallantry and good conduct, and it will be
    but a just and grateful appreciation of his services to confer the
    preferment upon him.

    (Signed)      JOSEPH HOOKER,
    Major-General Commanding.

       *       *       *       *       *

    GOLDSBORO, N. C., April 2nd, 1865.

    Secretary of War.


    I have the honor to recommend and earnestly request the appointment
    of Colonel Edward S. Salomon, of the 82nd Regiment, Illinois
    Volunteers, as Brevet Brigadier-General for gallant and meritorious

    Colonel Salomon joined this brigade with his regiment at the
    opening of the campaign against Atlanta in the spring of 1864.
    During the fighting before Resaca, Georgia, on the 14th and 15th of
    May, this regiment behaved with great gallantry.

    Again, at New Hope, Georgia, on the 25th of the same month, Colonel
    Salomon led his command with admirable coolness and courage against
    the enemy. After having advanced under a severe fire of musketry
    and artillery more than a mile, he held his line close to the
    entrenched position of the enemy, without a breastwork, and with a
    scanty supply of ammunition.

    At the battle near Peach Tree Creek, before Atlanta, Georgia, on
    the 20th of July, 1864, Colonel Salomon performed a most gallant
    and meritorious part in repulsing the repeated onslaughts made by
    the enemy. In the face of a furious raking fire, he held his line
    for four hours, when the enemy withdrew from his front with great

    During the siege of Atlanta, Colonel Salomon was ever prominent for
    his energy, coolness and judgment.

    In the fight near Averysboro, North Carolina, on the 16th of March,
    1865, Colonel Salomon, as usual, led his regiment into action with
    great gallantry and skill.

    At the battle of Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, Colonel
    Salomon and his command drew the unqualified admiration of all who
    witnessed their coolness and discipline under fire, and their
    effectual services in repulsing several determined attacks of the

    Colonel Salomon has distinguished himself in other engagements
    besides those which have been mentioned. At Gettysburg and Missouri
    Ridge his gallantry was conspicuous and challenged the highest

    I consider Colonel Salomon one of the most deserving officers of my
    acquaintance. His regiment is his highest praise In point of drill
    and discipline it is second to none in this corps. Its record will
    bear safe comparison with any other of the same age in the army.

    Colonel Salomon has had a commission as Colonel since April, 1864,
    but his regiment not containing the requisite number of men he has
    been unable to get mustered.

    Earnestly hoping that his claims will meet your favorable attention.

    I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

    (Signed)      J. S. ROBINSON,
    Brig. Gen. U. S. V., Commanding 3d Brigade,
    1st Division, 20th Army Corps.

       *       *       *       *       *

    GOLDSBORO, April 2, 1865.

    I cordially concur in the recommendation of General Robinson. The
    officer (Colonel Salomon) has just merits. He is intelligent,
    gallant, brave and faithful. I have had several occasions to mark
    his distinguished merit. There can be no promotion more deserved.

    Brevet Maj. Gen. Commanding.

       *       *       *       *       *

    WASHINGTON, June 15, 1865.


    You are hereby informed that the President of the United States has
    appointed you for distinguished gallantry and meritorious services
    during the war, a Brigadier General of Volunteers, by brevet in the
    service of the United States, to rank as such from the thirteenth
    day of March, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five. Should
    the Senate at the next session advise and consent thereto, you will
    be commissioned accordingly.

    _Secretary of War_.


       *       *       *       *       *

What was thought of General Salomon and his administration as Governor
by the people of Washington Territory is best explained by quoting the
following article from the _Pacific Tribune_, published at the time he
resigned his office of Governor:


    "The acceptance of Governor Salomon's resignation by the President
    is universally regretted by our people. He was honest, fearless
    and capable. He mingled freely with the people, identified himself
    with their interests and generously expended his time and means
    to bring hither population and to promote our material interests.
    He has established a reputation in the office which will make his
    administration a source of pride to his fellow-citizens, and he
    carries into his retirement the consolation that the good and true
    of all parties regard it fortunate that he should have been called
    to preside over our destinies. We speak the sentiment of our people
    when we express unfeigned regret that he felt it his duty to resign
    his office. His official acts are his best records; they have all
    met with the heartiest commendation of our people.

    "A thorough and consistent Republican, baptized in the fire of
    battle, when gallantly sustaining the flags, he has always been
    true and steadfast to the principles of the party of which he was
    so distinguished a member. While ever ready with purse, pen and
    tongue to maintain his partisan principles, he was singularly free
    from a partisan bigotry in the exercise of official functions. He
    governed the Territory. Party behests never made him swerve from
    official integrity or duty to the whole people. How proudly can he
    look to this episode of his life. He governed well. He satisfied
    all, for the welfare of the whole was constantly in his eye; he was
    true to the position he so happily filled.

    "But his successor is soon to come among us. We are ready to accord
    to the Executive a cordial welcome. We can wish him, however, no
    higher or better aspiration than that he may prove worthy to be
    the successor of one who so faithfully and well performed all his
    duties as Edward S. Salomon."

  SHANWALT, JACOB                                91st Infantry
  SAMUELSON, G.                                 105th Infantry
  STINE, ABRAHAM                                111th Infantry
  SWITZER, MOSES                                118th Infantry
  SALOMON, TOBIAS                               122nd Infantry
  SALOMON, LEVI                          C       123d Infantry
  SALOMON, SAMUEL                        C       123d Infantry
  STRAUSS, DAVID                                124th Infantry
  SIMONS, SAMUEL                                132nd Infantry
  STRAUSS, ALBERT                               156th Infantry
  SIMON, DAVID S.                                  2nd Cavalry
  STERNBERG, H.                                    2nd Cavalry
  SIMONS, DANIEL                                   4th Cavalry
  STRAUSS, CHARLES                                 4th Cavalry
  SCHIFF, GOTTLIEB                                 8th Cavalry
  STRAUSS, LEWIS                                   8th Cavalry
  SAMUELSON, DAVID        Corporal                10th Cavalry
  SALOMON, HENRY,         1st Lieutenant          10th Cavalry
      Enlisted as private.
  SAMPSON, SIMON                                  10th Cavalry
      Died of wounds.
  SOLOMON, H. J.          2nd Lieutenant          10th Cavalry
  STROUSE, CHARLES                                12th Cavalry
  SACHS, ADAM             Captain                 13th Cavalry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  SIMON, HENRY                           A        17th Cavalry
  SCHONEMAN, JACOB                               2nd Artillery

  ULMAN, A.                                      58th Infantry

  VOGEL, BERNHARD                        D        9th Infantry
  VOGEL, LOUIS                           D        43d Infantry
  VOGEL, LOUIS                                   44th Infantry
  VOGEL, JACOB                                     67 Infantry
  VOGEL, GOTTLIEB                                72nd Infantry
  VOGEL, CHARLES          Captain        B      132nd Infantry
  VOGEL, LEWIS                                     2nd Cavalry

  WOLF, JULIUS                           K        7th Infantry
      At expiration of term re-enlisted as Veteran.
  WOLF, LOUIS                            A        9th Infantry
  WEIL, LOUIS                            E        9th Infantry
  WODIC, EMANUEL                         K       10th Infantry
      Has testimonies from his superior officers, speaking in
      the highest terms of his devotion and courage.
  WEISE, SIMON                           G       11th Infantry
  WOLF, M. P.                            G       12th Infantry
  WOLFSON, R.                                    16th Infantry
  WOLF, G. W.                                    16th Infantry
  WOLF, CHARLES                          K       18th Infantry
  WOLF, JOSEPH                                   21st Infantry
  WOLF, HENRY                            G       21st Infantry
  WELLNER, JACOB                         A        23d Infantry
  WOLLNER, JACOB                         B        23d Infantry
      Served three years.
  WOLF, CHARLES                                  24th Infantry
  WOLF, JACOB                            F       25th Infantry
  WISE, SIMON                            A       26th Infantry
  WISE, ISAAC                                    31st Infantry
  WURZBURGER, ABRAHAM                    A       82nd Infantry
  WOLF, MOSES                            C       82nd Infantry
  WEISS, JOSEPH                          H       82nd Infantry
  WATERMAN, ALFRED        Surgeon               105th Infantry
      Promoted from Assistant Surgeon.
  DE WOLF, HENRY          Sergeant       D      134th Infantry
  WATERMAN, DAVID                                  9th Cavalry
  WEIL, SAMUEL                                   1st Artillery

  ZUCKER, SIMON                          F       10th Infantry
  ZAELLNER, LOUIS                        C       82nd Infantry


  NAME.                   RANK.        COMPANY.  REGIMENT.

  ADLER, HENRY            Corporal       I       15th Infantry
  ADOLPH, JACOB                          A       22nd Infantry
  AARON, ALLEN                                    33d Infantry
  ASHER, W. H.                           E        33d Infantry
  ASHER, H. C.                                    33d Infantry
  ASH, ISAAC                             B       37th Infantry
  APPEL, MOSES                           A       38th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Stone River.
  APPEL, JOSEPH                          A       38th Infantry
  ASHER, S.                                      54th Infantry
  ASCHER, DAVID                          E       57th Infantry
  ASH, JOSEPH                            H       67th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, BENJAMIN                      C       68th Infantry
  ASH, C. M.                             E       70th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, EZEKIEL                       B        83d Infantry
  AARON, DANIEL                                  90th Infantry
  ASH, DANIEL             Captain                99th Infantry
  ARNOLD, MOSES                          D       99th Infantry
  ASH, SALOMON                           E       99th Infantry
  ALBERT, LEVI                                  106th Infantry
  AARON, ADOLPH                          H      107th Infantry
  ASHER, NOAH             Corporal       E      128th Infantry
      Mustered out as Sergeant.
  ASHER, SIMPSON                         E       133d Infantry
  ASH, HENRY                             E      144th Infantry
  ABRAHAMSON, EUGENE                     K      152nd Infantry
  ALEXANDER, LEVI                                 13th Battery

  BAER, SAMUEL A.                        I        7th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at the Wilderness.
  BERLIN, JACOB                          C        9th Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.
  BENJAMIN, ABRAHAM       Corporal       C       10th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  BENJAMIN, THEODORE                     F        6th Infantry
  BAIR, MANASSEH                         K        8th Infantry
  BARNETT, ISAAC                         D        9th Infantry
  BARNETT, LEWIS                         D       11th Infantry
  BACHMAN, BENJAMIN                      A       13th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, JULIUS                       F       13th Infantry
  BARNETT, S.                                    18th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, DAVID                        B       20th Infantry
  BERNARD, JACOB          Corporal       D       20th Infantry
  BERNARD, M.                              1st Heavy Artillery
  BAIR, SIMON                            E       26th Infantry
  BERNARD, HENRY                         K         1st Cavalry
  BENJAMIN, DAVID J.                     G       29th Infantry
  BERNARD, WILLIAM                       E       32nd Infantry
  BLUM, MARCUS                           H       32nd Infantry
  BERNARD, A.                                    32nd Infantry
  BARNHARD, DAVID                        G        33d Infantry
  BENSON, DAVID S.                                  3d Cavalry
  BERNARD, L.                                    38th Infantry
  BARNHARD, JACOB                        F       40th Infantry
  BEERS, MARCUS                          G       40th Infantry
  BACHMAN, L.                                    42nd Infantry
  BEAN, SOLOMON                          G       44th Infantry
  BEAR, LEVI                             E       46th Infantry
  BAUM, C.                                       46th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, ABEL                         G       46th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, PHILIP M.                    G       46th Infantry
  BAER, MANASSEH N.       Corporal       B       47th Infantry
  BAER, DANIEL                           B       47th Infantry
  BAER, DAVID                            G       72nd Infantry
  BAER, AARON                            I       74th Infantry
      Mustered out as Quartermaster Sergeant.
  BLUM, B.                                       77th Infantry
  BAIER, J.                                      89th Infantry
  BAMBERGER, HERMAN J.                   A      107th Infantry
  BEAR, MANASSEH                         B      116th Infantry
  BAUM, ADAM E.                          E      116th Infantry
  BAUM, ZACHARIAH                        E      116th Infantry
  BERNHEIMER, LEOPOLD                    A      136th Infantry
  COFFMAN, MARCUS                        F       11th Infantry
  CAHN, AD.                                      32nd Infantry
  CAHN, JULIUS                                   32nd Infantry
  COFFMAN, ISAAC                         D       40th Infantry
  COFFMAN, SAMUEL L.                     B         2nd Cavalry
  COFFMAN, LEVI                          A         8th Cavalry
  COFFMAN, NATHAN                        B        43d Infantry
      Captured; died in Rebel prison.
  COFFMAN, LEVI           Sergeant       L          3d Cavalry
  CORNELIUS, ABRAHAM                     B       51st Infantry
  COHN, GABRIEL           Sergeant       C       68th Infantry
  COFFMAN, JACOB                         E       75th Infantry
  COFFMAN, JONAS                                 75th Infantry
  COFFMAN, ISAAC                         D       81st Infantry
  COFFMAN, ISAAC                         D       97th Infantry
  COHEN, CHARLES, JR.                           110th Infantry
  COFFMAN, JOSEPH                        F      116th Infantry
  COHEN, CHARLES                         F      116th Infantry
  COFFMAN, JOSEPH                        K      128th Infantry
  COHEN, ISAAC                           B        13th Cavalry
  COFFMAN, JACOB                                   8th Battery
  CAHN, ALBERT            Lieutenant            135th Infantry
  COHEN, MAX                                        3d Cavalry
  COHN, A. J.             Captain         Pleasanton's Cavalry
  DAVID, DANIEL                          C        6th Infantry
  DAVID, LEVI                            F        7th Infantry
  DAVID, EPHRAIM          Corporal       H        7th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, MORDECAI                     A       17th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, DAVID                        G       20th Infantry
  DRYFUS, JACOB                          I       32nd Infantry
  DANIEL, J.                                     44th Infantry
  DE WITT JOHN                                   52nd Infantry
  DESAR, DAVID            Lieutenant            107th Infantry

  EPSTEIN, FRANK                         D        7th Infantry
  ESLINGER, ISIDOR        Captain        E       32nd Infantry
  EMANUEL, BENJAMIN                      E       50th Infantry
  ELLINGER, JACOB S.                     D        53d Infantry
  ESLINGER, A.                                   59th Infantry
  ENGEL, ELIAS (Minute Men)              D      105th Infantry
  ENGEL, N. (Minute Men)                 A      106th Infantry
  EMANUEL, DANIEL                        A      116th Infantry
  ENGELHART, H. D.                       C        83d Infantry
  ELLINGER, REUBEN                                25th Battery

  FRANKS, ERNST                          K       17th Infantry
  FRIEDLEIN, ADAM                        K       19th Infantry
  FRANK, SAMUEL                          F         1st Cavalry
  FREUND, HENRY                          I       32nd Infantry
  FRED, EPHRAIM                          H        53d Infantry
  FRED, JACOB                            H        53d Infantry
  FRYBERGER, A. J.                       I       54th Infantry
  FRANK, MOSES                           H       59th Infantry
  FISHEL, SOLOMON                        K       99th Infantry
  FISHEL, DAVID                          K       99th Infantry
  FALK, ISAAC W.                         F      100th Infantry
  FALK, JOSEPH                           B      100th Infantry
  FRIEDLEIN, MICHAEL                     C      118th Infantry
  FRANKFODER, D.          Lieutenant            142nd Infantry
  FRIEDLEIN, JOSEPH                      E      147th Infantry
  FRIEDLEIN, EMANUEL                     E      147th Infantry
  FRANK, ADAM             Lieutenant               6th Battery
  FRANK, JOSEPH                                   10th Battery
  FRANK, MORRIS F.                                25th Battery

  GRUNBURG, MARKS                                 8th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JOSEPH                      F       11th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, J. L.                       K       15th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JOEL L.                     E       18th Infantry
      Wounded at Pea Ridge.
  GOODMAN, C.             Corporal                23d Infantry
  GOLDMAN, W. H.                         A        23d Infantry
  GOODMAN, BENJAMIN S.                   B       24th Infantry
  GOODMAN, D.                                    26th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, FREDERICK                   H       26th Infantry
  GOODMAN, JACOB                         D       30th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, G. B.                       A       31st Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, J. L.                       G        33d Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JOHN                        F       34th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, M.                          B       38th Infantry
  GOODMAN, J.                                    38th Infantry
  GOODMAN, MAIER                         E       38th Infantry
  GREENFIELD, HENRY                      G         2nd Cavalry
  GOLDSMITH, HENRY                       B       44th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, J. W.                       F       44th Infantry
  GREEN, SOLOMON A.                      A       54th Infantry
  GOODMAN, CHARLES B.                    B       54th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, GEORGE W.                   B       57th Infantry
  GOODMAN, A.                                    58th Infantry
      Killed at Stone River.
  GOLDMAN, JESSE                         I       60th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, M. H.                       K       67th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, W. H.                       I       68th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JAMES                       D       80th Infantry
  GOLDMAN, ALEXANDER                     I       80th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JOSEPH                      K       103d Infantry
  GOLDSTEIN, SAMUEL (Minute Men)         E      107th Infantry
  GOODMAN, ABRAHAM (Minute Men)          A      113th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, BERNARD                     D      136th Infantry
  GOLDMAN, JONATHAN                      I      142nd Infantry
  GOLDMAN, P.                            D      144th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, J. G.        Corporal                 9th Battery
  GOLDSMITH, EDWIN        Adjutant              100th Infantry

  HAYMAN, LOUIS           Corporal       K       18th Infantry
  HARRIS, SIMON                          H       20th Infantry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  HESS, LEOPOLD                          B        23d Infantry
  HIRSCH, PHILIP                         K       26th Infantry
  HESS, LEVI M.           Lieutenant     B       29th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant
  HESS, JOSEPH                           H       31st Infantry
  HAHN, C.                                       32nd Infantry
  HAHN, J.                                       32nd Infantry
  HIRSCH, JACOB                          C       37th Infantry
  HINNEMAN, DAVID                        B         8th Cavalry
  HINNEMAN, JOSEPH                       B         8th Cavalry
  HOFFMAN, SOLOMON                       A         2nd Cavalry
  HESS, ALEXANDER         Lieutenant     F         2nd Cavalry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  HOFFMAN, EMANUEL L.                    E       42nd Infantry
  HERSH, J. W.                           C       44th Infantry
  HOFFMAN, AARON          Corporal       D          3d Cavalry
  HERRMAN, ABRAHAM B.                    D       46th Infantry
  HERMAN, JOSEPH          Corporal       F       46th Infantry
  HESS, J.                                       46th Infantry
  HOFFMAN, JACOB                         D       47th Infantry
  HUFFMAN, SIMON                         D       47th Infantry
  HESS, JACOB             Captain        K       21st Infantry
  HERSCHMAN, G. W.                       B       51st Infantry
  HELLER, DANIEL                         H       51st Infantry
  HOCHSTETTER, JOSEPH                    A       52nd Infantry
      Killed by guerillas.
  HOCHSTETTER, JACOB                     C       52nd Infantry
  HEACHBURGER, LEVI                      C        63d Infantry
  HERZOG, ISAAC                          D        63d Infantry
  HOCHSTETTER, BENJAMIN   Lieutenant             67th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERGER, ABRAHAM                  D       72nd Infantry
  HIRSCHBERGER, NOAH                     D       72nd Infantry
  HYNEMAN, J.                            E       80th Infantry
  HYNEMAN, LEWIS                         D        83d Infantry
  HIRSCH, WOLF                           C       82nd Infantry
      Wounded at Chickamauga and taken prisoner; he
      served throughout the Civil War.
  HIRSCHMAN, EZEKIEL                     G      100th Infantry
  HART, AARON             Corporal       D       103d Infantry
  HAHN, JOSEPH (Minute Men)              G      106th Infantry
  HERRMAN, A. (Minute Men)                      107th Infantry
  HART, AARON                            I         9th Cavalry
  HERMAN, REUBEN                         H       12th Infantry
  HIRSCH, GEORGE                         G      135th Infantry
  HIRSCH, JACOB                          A      136th Infantry
  HAHN, JACOB                            A      136th Infantry
  HESS, L.                                      136th Infantry
  HIRSCH, AUGUST                         A      142nd Infantry
  HEINEMAN, WILLIAM       Corporal       F      146th Infantry
  HERMAN, JACOB                          F      149th Infantry
  HERZOG, JACOB C.                       D      154th Infantry
  HELLER, ABRAHAM                        H      155th Infantry
  HIRSCH, FERDINAND                                6th Battery
  HIRSCHLER, ABRAHAM                     M         4th Cavalry
      Died in Libby Prison.

  ISAACSON, J. A.                        H       15th Infantry

  JOSEPHS, ABRAHAM C.     Sergeant       K       11th Infantry
  JOSEPH, MARK P.         Captain        K       11th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; wounded.
  JACOBS, NATHAN                         G       13th Infantry
  JUDAH, SAMUEL                          K       20th Infantry
  JOSEPH, MARX                             1st Heavy Artillery
  JACOBS, ELIAS                          K       30th Infantry
  JUDAH, ISRAEL                          F       31st Infantry
  JACOBY, S.                                     48th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  JUDAH, H.                                      90th Infantry
  JACOBS, A. M.                          E      114th Infantry
  JUDAH, TH. O.                          D      117th Infantry
  JOSEPH, JOHN                           A          3d Cavalry
  JACOBSON, SAMUEL                                14th Battery

  KAUFMAN, JACOB C.                      G       20th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ADOLPH                        F       32nd Infantry
  KOCH, JOSEPH                           A       60th Infantry
  KOCH, L.                Corporal               60th Infantry
  KOCH, P.                                       60th Infantry
  KAHN, JULIUS                           I       76th Infantry
  KING, ISAAC                            B       88th Infantry
  KISER, MOSES                           B       88th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, JACOB          Corporal       A       89th Infantry
  KAHN, ELI (Minute Men)                 D      110th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, BENJAMIN                     A      118th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, ABRAHAM                      G        11th Cavalry
  KUHN, LEO                              B      136th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, BENJAMIN                     G      139th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, ABRAHAM                      G      149th Infantry
  KUHN, S.                                          3d Battery
  KIRSCHLER, A.           Sergeant       M         4th Cavalry
      Captured; died in Andersonville Prison.
  KUBITSHEK, MICHEL                      I       88th Infantry
  KUBITSHEK, HENRY        Lieutenant     G       48th Infantry
      Promoted from ranks.
  KNEFLER, FREDERICK      Brigadier-             79th Infantry

    Attained the highest rank of any Israelite who served during
    the Civil War. He enlisted as a private in the 79th Regiment,
    Indiana Volunteers, and rose step by step until he was promoted
    to the Colonelcy of his Regiment. Subsequently he was appointed
    Brigadier-General, then Brevet Major-General for meritorious
    conduct at Chickamauga. He participated in the principal battles
    of the Army of the Cumberland under Generals Rosecrans, Thomas,
    Sherman, and Grant, and took part in the engagements under Sherman
    in the march to the sea. General Knefler has the reputation of
    having been one of the most gallant soldiers. He is now living in
    Indianapolis, honored and respected.

  LICHTENBERGER, LOUIS                   G        6th Infantry
  LILIENTHAL, HENRY                      H       11th Infantry
  LIPPMAN, FR. L.                        A       12th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, ISIDOR S.    Corporal       G       18th Infantry
  LEHMAN, SIMON           Corporal       C       21st Infantry
  LEHMAN, C.                             C       21st Infantry
  LEHMAN, RUDOLPH                                 23d Infantry
  LEVI, J. S.                            E        23d Infantry
  LAZARUS, HENRY                         C       24th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, ADAM S.      Captain        H       29th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; promoted at the battle of Stone
  LEHMAN, HENRY                          F       31st Infantry
  LEHMAN, H. D.                          F       31st Infantry
  LEVI, NATHAN                           H       32nd Infantry
  LEVY, NATHAN            Lieutenant             32nd Infantry
  LEVY, ABRAHAM                          K       32nd Infantry
  LEOPOLD, W. W.                                   8th Cavalry
  LICHTENWATER, DAVID                    B       44th Infantry
  LORSCH, DAVID C.                       K       44th Infantry
  LEVI, MORRIS                           I       52nd Infantry
  LEHMAN, SAMUEL J.                      K       57th Infantry
  LIPPOLD, JULIUS                        G       58th Infantry
  LEAVIT, SAMUEL                                 44th Infantry
  LEVI, J. S.             Corporal       G       66th Infantry
      Killed at Richmond, Kentucky.
  LEVI, WASHINGTON                       G       123d Infantry
  LETTERMAN, JOSEPH                      M        10th Cavalry
  LOWENTHAL, THEODORE                    D      135th Infantry
  LOEB, ISAAC                            G      138th Infantry
  LUDWIG, HERMAN          Lieutenant              20th Battery
  LOEB, JACOB                                      1st Battery

  MAY, FRANK                                      2nd Infantry
  MYERS, LEVI D.                                  7th Infantry
  MEYER, JACOB                           D        7th Infantry
  MAYER, FERDINAND        Corporal               10th Infantry
      Promoted to Lieutenant.
  MARX, ISAAC I.                         I       11th Infantry
  MANUEL, JULIUS P.                      B       12th Infantry
  MEYER, ABRAHAM                         K       12th Infantry
  MARKS, SAMUEL                          D       13th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  MEYER, ADOLPH           Lieutenant     K       14th Infantry
  MENDEL, G. W.           Corporal       E       16th Infantry
  MEYERS, DAVID R.                               17th Infantry
  MAY, ISAAC M.           Major                  19th Infantry
  MEYERS, L.                             F       19th Infantry
  MORITZ, JACOB                          B       22nd Infantry
  MORITZ, FREDERICK                      B       22nd Infantry
  MARCUS, ALEXANDER B.                   G       24th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          K       27th Infantry
  MANUEL, SIMON                          E       29th Infantry
  MORITZ, CHARLES                        F       29th Infantry
  MARKS, JESSE N.                        I       29th Infantry
  MEYER, ERNST            Lieutenant             32nd Infantry
  MAIER, HENRY                           F       30th Infantry
  MAYER, LEOPOLD                         B       32nd Infantry
  MAIER, JACOB                           E       32nd Infantry
  MEIER, FERDINAND C.     Sergeant       K       32nd Infantry
  MEYER, HENRY                           G        33d Infantry
  MAY, LEWIS                             K       34th Infantry
  MEYER, JACOB            Sergeant       I       37th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  MAYER, HERMAN L.                       C       44th Infantry
  MAYER, JULIUS                          I       46th Infantry
  MAYER, SAMUEL                          D       48th Infantry
  MORITZ, DANIEL                         C       54th Infantry
  MAY, SIMON                             F       58th Infantry
  MAYER, J. G.            Lieutenant               7th Cavalry
  MAYER, ABRAHAM                         I       59th Infantry
  MAYER, HENRY                           D       60th Infantry
  MYER, ISAAC F.          Corporal       C        63d Infantry
  MOSES, SAMUEL                          D        63d Infantry
  MAAS, ISAAC             Captain                65th Infantry
  MOSES, ISAAC                           A       66th Infantry
  MAIER, JOSEPH                          C       67th Infantry
  MAYER, HENRY                           D       69th Infantry
  MANN, DAVID                            E       69th Infantry
  MANN, ISAAC                            E       69th Infantry
  MAYER, HENRY F                         G       76th Infantry
  MANN, DANIEL                           A       79th Infantry
  MOSES, JAMES                           K       80th Infantry
  MAY, ABRAHAM                           F       82nd Infantry
  MAY, JACOB                             F       82nd Infantry
  MEYER, JACOB                           K       89th Infantry
  MARKS, JACOB                           A       90th Infantry
  MANN, SAMUEL                           C       90th Infantry
  MARKS, HENRY                           A       91st Infantry
  MANUEL, JACOB                          D        93d Infantry
  MOSS, LEWIS             Lieutenant            107th Infantry
  MAYER, LOUIS (Minute Men)              B      107th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH (Minute Men)             I      107th Infantry
  MARKS, ISAAC H. (Minute Men)           C      108th Infantry
  MAY, FRANK (Minute Men)                K      108th Infantry
  MAY, ELI (Minute Men)                  D      110th Infantry
  MARKS, ABRAHAM                         F      138th Infantry
  MORRIS, MORDECAI                       B      138th Infantry
  MYERS, SOLOMON                         D      147th Infantry
  MYERS, ISAAC                           A      148th Infantry
  MYERS, JACOB                           D      151st Infantry
  MYERS, BENJAMIN                        H      151st Infantry
  MEYER, HERMAN H.                       B      156th Infantry
  MEIER, ADOLPH H.                       D      156th Infantry
      Mustered out as Sergeant.
  MAYER, JULIUS           Corporal              1st Battery

  NATHAN, HARRIS                         H        7th Infantry
  NEUMAN, REUBEN                         C        33d Infantry
  NUSSBAUM, JOSIAH                       B       47th Infantry
  NUSSBAUM, HENRY                        B       47th Infantry
  NUSSBAUM, JOEL                         F        53d Infantry
  NEWMAN, JOSEPH                         G       58th Infantry
  NEWMAN, SIMON                          C       60th Infantry
  NUSSBAUM, JOSEPH                       A       89th Infantry
  NEWBERGER, SYLVESTER                   G      138th Infantry
  NUSSBAUM, JACOB                                 13th Battery

  OCHS, LEWIS                            G       11th Infantry
  OCHS, FRIEDRICH                        F       32nd Infantry
      Killed at Chickamauga.
  OSCAR, MARCUS                          D       59th Infantry

  RUSSELL, E. J.                         F       19th Infantry
      Severely wounded.
  ROSENBAUM, WILLIAM                     C       26th Infantry
  ROSE, JOSEPH                           E       38th Infantry
  ROSE, SOLOMON                          E       38th Infantry
  ROSENTHALER, J. G.                     E       46th Infantry
  ROSCHILD, ALBERT                       I        53d Infantry
  RICH, DAVID                            E       67th Infantry
  RICH, JONAH                            E       67th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, PHILIP                      A       81st Infantry
  ROSENGARTEN, LEON T.                   I      104th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, MOSES                       H      106th Infantry
      (Minute Men)
  ROSENTHAL, SAMUEL                      E      107th Infantry
      (Minute Men)
  ROSENTHAL, WILLIAM                     H      110th Infantry
      (Minute Men)
  ROSENBERG, JOHN                        B      129th Infantry
  RICH, NATHAN                           C      137th Infantry

  SALMON, ENOCH C.                       K       10th Infantry
  SALOMON, ISAAC                         D       10th Infantry
  SCHLESSINGER, LEWIS                    E       10th Infantry
  STERN, HENRY           Lieutenant              13th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  STETTNER, HENRY                        K       11th Infantry
  SPEYER, JOSEPH                         K       13th Infantry
  SAMUELSON, AUGUST                      B       17th Infantry
  STROUSE, W. H.                         G       18th Infantry
  SIMON, ISAAC D.                        K       18th Infantry
  SOLOMON, WILLIAM                       D       21st Infantry
  STEINER, JACOB                                 24th Infantry
  SEGALL, BERNHARD                       F       29th Infantry
      Wounded at Shiloh and at Grand Gulf.
  STROUSE, MARTIN                        A       30th Infantry
  SOLOMON, JACOB                         C       31st Infantry
  STEIN, EMIL                            H       32nd Infantry
  SACHS, MAX               Lieutenant    C       32nd Infantry

    Killed at Bowling Green, Kentucky. He had refused to surrender to
    the rebels surrounding him, but succeeded in retarding the enemy's
    progress long enough to enable his comrades to obtain support and
    disperse the enemy--one of the most heroic feats during the war.

  SELIG, SIEGMUND          Lieutenant     K      32nd Infantry
  SIMON, LEVY                             B      34th Infantry
  STROUSE, SIMON                          K      34th Infantry
  SCHOTT, EZEKIEL                         F      37th Infantry
  SANDERS, AARON                          A      38th Infantry
  SOLOMON, MICHAEL                        B        2nd Cavalry
  STROUSS, LEWIS                          H      42nd Infantry
  STROUSE, JOSEPH                         A      44th Infantry
  STROUSE, FREDERICK                      D         3d Cavalry
  STROUSE, DANIEL                         B      47th Infantry
  SULZER, JACOB                           G       53d Infantry
  SALMON, WILLIAM C.                      C      54th Infantry
  STEINER, JACOB                          B      58th Infantry
  STERN, SAMUEL            Quartermaster         58th Infantry
  SIMON, JOSEPH                           F      59th Infantry
  SCHOENFELD, JACOB                       F      60th Infantry
  SWARZ, ISAAC                            H      60th Infantry
  SWARZ, LEVI                             H      60th Infantry
  SIMON, LOUIS                            D      65th Infantry
  STEIN, JOSEPH L.                        C      69th Infantry
  SIMON, JOSEPH, JR.                      F      69th Infantry
  SIGMONDS, JOEL                          I      69th Infantry
  SPIEGEL, DANIEL                         A      70th Infantry
  SOLOMON, JAMES                          H      71st Infantry
  SCHILLER, DANIEL                        C       73d Infantry
  SCHILLER, I.                                    73d Infantry
  SAMUELSON, SAMUEL                       E       73d Infantry
  SOLOMON, LEWIS                          C      80th Infantry
  SALMON, JACOB N.                        I      81st Infantry
  SOLOMON, DAVID N.                       E      85th Infantry
  STERN, JACOB                            C      90th Infantry
  SOLOMON, LEVI                           D      91st Infantry
  SOMMERS, AARON                          I      91st Infantry
  SHOEMAKER AARON          Lieutenant           101st Infantry
  SPIEGEL, EDWARD (Minute Men)            A     107th Infantry
  SOLOMON, CHARLES (Minute Men)           I     107th Infantry
  SOLOMON, JAMES (Minute Men)             F     112th Infantry
  SCHOEN, MAX              Sergeant       G        7th Cavalry
  SCHELT, WILLIAM                         B     132nd Infantry
      Mustered out as Sergeant.
  STROUSE, DAVID                          G      133d Infantry
  STERNS, ISAAC                           A     137th Infantry
  SHOTT, EZEKIEL           Lieutenant     I     139th Infantry
  STEIN, HERMAN                           E     142nd Infantry
  SOLOMON, PHILIP          Corporal       G     149th Infantry
  SIMONS, SOLOMON                                  5th Battery
  SEIXAS, EUGENE                                  21st Battery
  SAMPSON, JOSEPH          Lieutenant           154th Infantry

  WATERMAN, SOLOMON        Captain        I       7th Infantry
      Promoted for gallantry; killed at the Battle of Port
      Republic, Virginia, while at the head of his Company.
  WOLF, JACOB                             C       9th Infantry
  WATERMAN, MOSES                         I      11th Infantry
  WOLF, SAMUEL                            K      11th Infantry
  WOLF, SAMUEL                            M      11th Infantry
  WOLF, JOEL               Lieutenant-           16th Infantry
      Killed at Richmond, Kentucky.
  WOLF, DAVID                             C      21st Infantry
  WIENER, SIMON                           F      30th Infantry
  WEILER, AARON                           G      32nd Infantry
  WEIL, BERNARD                           K      32nd Infantry
  WOLF, SAMUEL                            L        8th Cavalry
  WOLF, SAMUEL                            H      42nd Infantry
  WOLF, DAVID                             G      48th Infantry
  WOLF, AARON                             I       53d Infantry
  WOLF, LEVI                              K      54th Infantry
  WISE, ABRAHAM C.                        I      65th Infantry
  WOLF, SAMUEL             Lieutenant             73d Infantry
  WOLF, LEWIS                             F      74th Infantry
  WOLF, REUBEN                            K      74th Infantry
      Killed at Murfordsville.
  WOLF, JACOB                             C      87th Infantry
  WOLF, LEVI                              B      97th Infantry
  WATERMAN, HENRY                         C     100th Infantry
  WOLF, JOSEPH                            I     100th Infantry
  WATERMAN, HENRY F.       Lieutenant           101st Infantry
      Killed at Mission Ridge.
  WOLF, LEVI (Minute Men)                 A     106th Infantry
  WOLF, MOSES (Minute Men)                E     107th Infantry
  WOLF, ISAAC (Minute Men)                      107th Infantry
  WISE, EMANUEL D.                        G     118th Infantry
  WOLF, MOSES A.                          I     118th Infantry
  WOLF, LEVI               Lieutenant           124th Infantry
  WOLF, SOLOMON                           C     124th Infantry
  WOLF, ADAM               Lieutenant           130th Infantry
  WOLF, EMANUEL            Corporal       G     138th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  WISE, ABRAHAM B.                        B       10th Cavalry
  WOLF, JACOB                             A     152nd Infantry
  WIESENTHAL, LOUIS        Lieutenant              7th Battery
  WOLF, JOSEPH                                     9th Battery
  WATERHOUSE, CHARLES                             Brigade Band


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  APPEL, ALEXANDER M.      Sergeant              16th Infantry

    Distinguished for saving regimental colors at Pittsburg Landing;
    enlisted as private; promoted for gallantry. For fifteen years a
    member of George G. Meade Post, of the Grand Army of the Republic,
    honored with the election as Post Commander and in 1893 appointed
    Assistant Inspector of G. A. R. Posts.

  BENNY, WILLIAM B.                      C        4th Infantry
      Wounded at Pea Ridge.
  BOEHM, S.                Corporal      F        6th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.

  ELLER, JACOB                           I       34th Infantry

  GERSON, N.                                       6th Cavalry

  KLEIN, MAX                                       1st Cavalry

  MEYERS, JACOB                          D       10th Infantry
  MELLER, ISAAC                          D       24th Infantry
      Answered first call for 75,000 men; subsequently
      enlisted for the war.

  NEWBOLD, H.              Colonel               14th Infantry
      Killed at Red River.

  SANDERS, LEOPOLD                                4th Infantry
  STRAUSS, CHARLES                       C       24th Infantry


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  BONDI, AUGUST            Sergeant      K         5th Cavalry
      Wounded three times; discharged; disabled.

  FRANK, HENRY                                        Infantry

  LIEBSCHUTZ, ADOLPH       Brevet 1st    K         9th Cavalry
      Enlisted as private; brevetted for meritorious conduct;
      wounded at Prairie Grove, Arkansas.

  ROSENFELD, ----          Quartermaster          3th Infantry

  ULMER, J.                              C         8th Cavalry

  WITTENBERG, ARNOLD                     H        2nd Infantry
  WITTENBERG, MARCUS                     H         5th Cavalry
      Killed on the battlefield.
  WOLF, EUGENE                                     5th Cavalry
      Seriously wounded.
  WITTENBERG, MORITZ                     B        2th Infantry


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  DAVIS, HENRY                           B       16th Infantry
  DAVID, JOSEPH                          E         1st Cavalry

  FEIST, JACOB            Sergeant       G        1st Infantry
      Promoted from private; four years' service.
  HOFFMAN, LAZARUS                       B       15th Infantry
      Three years' service; wounded at Chickamauga.
  HECHT, NOAH                            D        23d Infantry
  HILP, JACOB                                      1st Cavalry

  LOWENSTEIN, SAMUEL B.                  K         1st Cavalry

  LEVI HENRY                               { 23d Infantry and
                                           { 2nd United States
                                           { Cavalry

  POLLOCK, ABRAHAM         Quartermaster         21st Infantry
  PFEIFER, JOSEPH                                21st Infantry

  ROTHSCHILD, A.           Captain       B       15th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; promoted for bravery at Stone
      River; wounded.
  ROSENTHAL, SAMUEL                      D       34th Infantry

  STRAUS, LOUIS                          E        6th Infantry
  SCHOENBERG, ELIAS                      C       16th Infantry
  SPITZER, JOSEPH                        C       16th Infantry
  SPEYER, HENRY            Captain       D        23d Infantry
  SEESSEL, HENRY                         I         1st Cavalry
  SLAUGHTER, JOSEPH                      K         1st Cavalry

  TRAUERMAN, BERNARD                     F        1st Infantry

  ULMAN, GUS.                                      3d Infantry

  WEIL, MOSES                                     2nd Infantry
  WEIL, BERNARD                                    3d Infantry


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  ADLER, ADOLPH                                   5th Infantry
  AARON, MOSES                           B       11th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, JOSEPH                        B       11th Infantry
  ASHER, I.                              K       11th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, J.                          K       11th Infantry
  ANSELM, JACOB                                  18th Infantry
      Died on the field of battle.
  ASSENHEIMER, DAVID       Captain       F       22nd Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  ALBRECHT, ADOLPH                    Crescent Heavy Artillery
  ARONSTEIN, JULIUS                Colonel Wingfield's Battery

  BRANDT, J. R.                          B        1st Infantry
      Served during the war.
  BAUM, G. A.                            C        2nd Infantry
  BENSON, F.               Corporal      C         3d Infantry
  BRANDENSTEIN, M.                       K         3d Infantry
      Killed at Vicksburg.
  BADT, W.                                         3d Infantry
  BATH, H.                                        6th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, MICHAEL                      B       11th Infantry
  BARD, JACOB                            B       11th Infantry
  BLOOM, ABRAHAM                         K       11th Infantry
  BROWN, LOUIS                           K       11th Infantry
  BLOOMENSTEIL, ISAAC                    K       11th Infantry
  BAER, M.                               K       11th Infantry
  BODENHEIMER, LAZARUS                   K       11th Infantry
  BLUM, M.                               K       11th Infantry
  BERNSTEIN, JACOB                       K       11th Infantry
  BROWN, HERMAN                           Washington Artillery
  BLUM, SAMUEL P.         Lieutenant     D       22nd Infantry

  COHN, M.                               D         3d Infantry
  CASPARI, L.              Captain       G         3d Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  CALINSKI, P.                           H         3d Infantry
  COHN, I.                               A        5th Infantry
  COHEN, J. C.             Captain                5th Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  COHEN, JACOB A.                        A       15th Infantry
      Killed at Manassas, August 30th, 1862; buried in
      Jewish cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.

  DANZIGER, ISADORE                      B      Orleans Guards
  DALSHEIMER, ALEXANDER                  K         3d Infantry
      Taken prisoner at Corinth.
  DE MEZA, J. H.                          Washington Artillery

  ELLIS, LEWIS C. L.                             22nd Infantry

  FRANKEL FELIX                          K         3d Infantry
  FLORENCE, HENRY C.                      Washington Artillery
  FISCHEL, CHARLES                       F        8th Infantry
  FALK, S.                                       11th Infantry
  FALK, FERDINAND                        K       11th Infantry
  FRIEDLIENER, BENJAMIN                          12th Infantry
      Served three years.
  FRIEDHEIM, HERMAN                      F       12th Infantry

    "Joined a company of Confederate soldiers which became Company F
    of 12th Infantry. No braver man ever fired a gun. At the Battle of
    Franklin, Tennessee, when there was not a commissioned officer to
    lead, he as Sergeant, led his company, and passed over the parapet
    into the Federal intrenchments, and with James A. Platt, a comrade,
    he was captured and sent to Camp Douglas, in Illinois, and was kept
    a prisoner until the expiration of the war."--_From a newspaper

  FLORENCE, LEWIS                         Under Colonel Thomas
      Killed at Vicksburg.

  GERSHOLT, WILLIAM                      B        1st Infantry
  GOLDCHEAUSE, J.                        D       11th Infantry
  GALT, JACOB                            K       11th Infantry
  GUSDOFER, MORRIS                       K       11th Infantry
  GROSS, CHARLES                                 17th Infantry

  HARBY, I. K.                            Washington Artillery
  HAAS, A. M.                            G        1st Infantry
  HABER, FERDINAND A.                             1st Infantry
  HYAMS, S. M.             Lieutenant-Colonel      3d Infantry
      Promoted for bravery. Colonel of Cavalry.
  HAAS, HENRY                                      3d Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; served until close of war.
  HIRSCH, B.                             A         3d Infantry
      Killed at battle of Iuka.
  HOCHINSKI, W.                          D         3d Infantry
  HYAMS, J. P.                           G         3d Infantry
      Promoted for gallant conduct at the battle of Elk Horn.
  HIRSCH, H.                             K         3d Infantry
      Killed at the battle of Iuka.
  HELLMAN, H.                            A        5th Infantry
  HART, ALEXANDER          Major                  5th Infantry

    Promoted from Non-Commissioned Officer, from 1863, Colonel,
    being wounded; commanded regiment; taken prisoner at Sharpsburg;
    seriously wounded at Sharpsburg, again at Gettysburg.

  HAAS, ISIDORE                          E        8th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; served until close of war.
  HIRSCHFIELD, BENJAMIN                  C       11th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, FREDERICK                  D       11th Infantry
  HOLZMAN, BENJAMIN                      K       11th Infantry
  HYMES, I.               Lieutenant     K       11th Infantry
  HYMES, P.                              K       11th Infantry
  HERZOG, S.                             K       11th Infantry
  HART, SIDNEY A.                                13th Infantry
  HIRSCH, N.                                     18th Infantry
  HERTZ, SOLOMON                                 22nd Infantry
  HERRMANN, H.                                   41st Infantry

  ISAACSON, H. M.          Captain             22nd Washington
  ISRAEL, E. L.                                   5th Infantry

  JACOBS, ----                                    5th Infantry
  JASTRENSKI, LEON                               10th Infantry
      Promoted for gallantry and daring.
  JACOBS, JULIUS A.                       K      11th Infantry
  JACOBS, AARON                           B      11th Infantry
  JACOBS, ISAAC                                  22nd Infantry
  JONAS, BENJAMIN F.                          Fenner's Battery
      Served as private until close of war; afterwards United
      States Senator from Louisiana.
  KURSHEEDT, E. I.                    2nd Washington Artillery
      Promoted for bravery.
  KOHLMAN, S.                                 Watson's Battery
      Enlisted at eighteen and served from 1861 until the
      close of the war.
  KLOTZ, ABRAHAM                      Donaldsonville Artillery
      Served four years.
  KLING, GABRIEL                      Donaldsonville Artillery
      Served four years.
  KAHN, GABRIEL                          E        2nd Infantry
  KAHN, SELIG                            A         3d Infantry
      Wounded at Vicksburg; served four years.
  KAHN, ABRAHAM                                   8th Infantry
  KAHN, MOSES                            B        9th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, S.                                    11th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, MOSES                         K       11th Infantry
  KAHN, ISAAC Sergeant                   K       11th Infantry
  KAHN, A.                               K       11th Infantry
  KAHN, JULIUS                           K       11th Infantry
  KUHN, SAMUEL                                   20th Infantry

  LEVY, EDGAR                         1st Washington Artillery
  LEVY, LIONEL L.                     5th Washington Artillery
  LEVY, SIMON                         5th Washington Artillery
  LOEB, HENRY                         Donaldsonville Artillery
      Served through the war.
  LEVY, EUGENE H.             }          C       Dreux Battery
      Wounded at Petersburg;  }
      served through the war. }
  LEVY, JULIUS H.             }          C       Dreux Battery
      Served through the war. } (3 brothers)
  LEVY, JOSEPH C.             } Lieutenant        1st Infantry
      Killed in leading charge}
      at Shiloh.              }
  LEVY, LIONEL C., JR.                        Fenner's Battery
      Enlisted at fifteen and served until the close of the war.
  LEVY, D. C.                                     1st Infantry
      Killed at Franklin.
  LEVY, DAVID C.                                  1st Infantry
      Distinguished for courage; killed at Shiloh.
  LISSO, JULIUS                                   1st Infantry
  LISSO, MARX                                     1st Infantry
  LEVY, JULIAN S.                        B        1st Infantry
  LABAT, JACOB C.                                 2nd Infantry
  LICHTENSTEIN, WOLF                     A        2nd Infantry
  LEVY, D.                               D        2nd Infantry
  LIPMAN, JOSHUA           Orderly { }   G        2nd Infantry
                           Sergeant{ }   H        5th Infantry
      Wounded at Winchester; subsequently Lieutenant.
  LEVY, WILLIAM            Colonel                2nd Infantry
  LEVY, HENRY M.                                  2nd Infantry
  LEVY, L.                               I         3d Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; served until the close of the war;
      wounded at Oak Hill.
  LYONS, ISAAC L.          Captain                5th Infantry
      Seriously wounded at Malvern Hill, yet served until
      the close of the war.
  LIPPMAN, LEWIS P.        Captain       E        5th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; promoted for bravery; killed at
  LABAT, DAVID COHEN       Captain                5th Infantry

      When, in consequence of severe illness, contracted in
      the service, resulting in chronic asthma, Captain
      Labat was compelled to resign his commission, J.
      Bankhead Magruder, the General commanding, endorsed
      the Captain's letter of resignation with the
      words: "Captain Labat's resignation is a loss to the
      public service."

  LIPPMAN, L. S.           Lieutenant             5th Infantry
      Killed May 9, 1863; buried at Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  LEVY, JULIEN                                    5th Infantry
      Subsequently with "Stonewall" Jackson.
  LABAT, JACKSON E.                               5th Infantry
      Captured at Vicksburg.
  LIPPMAN, LOUIS C.                      E        5th Infantry
  LEVY, ISAAC                           Point Cooper Artillery

    Served through the war with a surgeon's discharge in his pocket;
    displayed notable bravery at the battle of Baker's Creek. His
    willingness, skill and undaunted courage combined to render him in
    every respect an efficient soldier.

  LEVY, ALBERT                      Louisiana Guards Artillery
  LION, SYLVAIN                       Donaldsonville Artillery
  LEVY, E.                              Donaldsville Artillery
  LICHTENSTEIN, WILLIAM                     Louisiana Reserves
  LANDMAN, BENJAMIN                      K       11th Reserves
  LEVY, DANIEL                           K       11th Reserves
  LOEB, SOLOMON                          E       11th Infantry
  LEVY, H.                               K       11th Infantry
  LEVY, S., JR.                          K       11th Infantry
  LEVY, DAVID C., JR.    Lieutenant      H       13th Infantry
      Promoted from private; Acting Adjutant; twice
      wounded; killed at Murfreesboro.
  LIPPMAN, ASHER                                  22d Infantry
  LYONS, DAVID                                   22nd Infantry
  LEVY, AARON              Sergeant      D       30th Infantry

  MARKS, HARRY H.                               1st Washington
      Fell in charge at Malvern Hill.
  MARKS, EDWIN                         National Guards Battery
  MEERTIF, SAMUEL                                 1st Infantry
  MARCUSS, M.                                      2d Infantry
  MEYER, ADOLPH                                    3d Infantry
  MAYER, J. P.             Corporal      E         3d Infantry
      Wounded at Iuka and again at Vicksburg.
  MARCH, ----                                      3d Infantry
  MARCH, HENRY                                    5th Infantry
      Promoted to Assistant Quartermaster.
  MAAS, MAX                              A        5th Infantry
  MOSES, PHILIP                                   5th Infantry
  MARKS, HENRY CLAY        Lieutenant            10th Infantry
      Killed at Malvern Hill.
  MEYER, LEO W.                          B       11th Infantry
  MEYER, E. H.                           E       11th Infantry
  MANNHEIMER, B.                         G       11th Infantry
  MEYER, E.                              K       11th Infantry
  MOCH, HENRY                            K       11th Infantry
      Killed in battle.
  MEYER, SIEGMUND                                17th Infantry
  MAGNER, BERNARD                             Fenner's Battery
      Served through war.
  MARKS, WASHINGTON        Major                 22nd Infantry
  MARKS, D. H.             Captain               22nd Infantry
  MARKS, MARION            Lieutenant            22nd Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  MARKS, HILLEL                          E       22nd Infantry
  MARKS, LEON R.           Colonel               27th Infantry
      Killed at Vicksburg.
  MARKS, I.                                    Boone's Battery
  MILLED, CHARLES D.                           Dreux Battalion
  MARKS, FREDERICK                   Louisiana Guard Artillery
  MOOSE, CHARLES                      Donaldsonville Artillery
  MEYER, ADOLPH            Hon. General

  NEWMAN, A.                             C         3d Infantry
      Captured at Corinth.
  NATHAN, WOLF                                    8th Infantry
  NATHAN, M.                             B        9th Infantry
  NEWMAN, HENRY                          G       11th Infantry
      Wounded at Murfreesboro.
  NEWMAN, ----             Major                 14th Infantry
  NATHAN, SAMUEL                                  22d Infantry

  OCHS, LOUIS                            B        9th Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, BENJAMIN                           22d Infantry

  PHILLIPS, EDWARD                                 3d Infantry

  ROSENFIELD, JULIUS                              7th Infantry
  ROSENSTEIN, MATHIAS                             8th Infantry
  REISS, ALEXANDER                       G       11th Infantry
  REISS, GUSTAVE                         G       11th Infantry
  ROSE, EMANUEL                                  27th Infantry
  REESE, ABRAHAM           Sergeant          Crescent Infantry
      Served four years.
  SAMUEL, M.                             E         2d Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; served until close of war.
  SILBANAGEL, BENJAMIN                   B         3d Infantry
  SINGER, LOUIS                          F         3d Infantry
      Killed at Vicksburg.
  SAMPSON, ED.                                    5th Infantry
      Killed at Gaines' Mills.
  SEIXAS, J. MADISON                  5th Washington Artillery
      Served through war.
  STRAUS, JOSEPH           Lieutenant    B       11th Infantry
  STRASSER, EPHRAIM                      B       11th Infantry
  SELIGMAN, J.             Sergeant      K       11th Infantry
  SELIGMAN, I.                           K       11th Infantry
  SIMON, HENRY                           K       11th Infantry
  STRAUSS, I.                            K       11th Infantry
  STERN, ----              Captain       B       14th Infantry
  SARTARIUS, PHILIP                              14th Infantry
  SCHLENKER, JACOB                               17th Infantry
  STEIN, DANIEL                                  17th Infantry
  STRAUSS, NAGEL                                21st Artillery
  SCHLENKER, ALEXANDER        Quartermaster's Department North
  STROMEYER, GEORGE                      F       22nd Infantry
  SCHEUER, JONATHAN                   Donaldsonville Artillery
      Wounded; died at Richmond during the war; buried
      in Jewish Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.

  TAYLOR, RICHARD (DICK)                    "Louisiana Tigers"

  UNGER, MEYER                           F        1st Infantry
  UNGER, EMANUEL                         E       11th Infantry

  WEIL, ALEXANDER                        I         2d Infantry
      Wounded at Antietam while trying to recover the
      regiment's flag; wounded seriously at Gettysburg and
  WINNER, MARKS                          C         3d Infantry
  WOLF, JOSEPH                           D         3d Infantry
  WEIL, SAMUEL                                      3d Cavalry
  WEINBERG, SELIG                                 5th Infantry
  WEINBERG, SOLOMON                               6th Infantry
  WAGNER, G.                                      8th Infantry
  WITKOWSKY, LOUIS                       B        9th Infantry
  WEISS, B.                              B        9th Infantry
  WAGNER, LOUIS                          B        9th Infantry
  WILCUISKI, BENJAMIN                    B       11th Infantry
  WOLFSOHN, ELIAS                        B       11th Infantry
  WOLFF, LEON                            B       11th Infantry
  WEISS, SOLOMON                         B       11th Infantry
  WECHSLER, A.                           K       11th Infantry
  WEIL, NATHAN                           K       11th Infantry
  WOLFF, ISAAC                           K       11th Infantry
  WECHLER, S.                            K       11th Infantry
      Killed in battle.
  WEIL, GABRIEL                          K       11th Infantry
  WORKUM, DAVID J.                               13th Infantry
  WEIL, ----               Major                 14th Infantry
  WOLFF, MOSES                            Washington Artillery
  WOLFF, C.                            Pouinte Coupee Infantry

  ZARK, JULIUS                                    7th Infantry
      Killed in skirmish; buried at Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  ZIMMERN, J.                            F       22nd Infantry


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  GOLDMAN, A.              Captain               17th Infantry


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  BLUMENBERG, LEOPOLD     Brevet         5th Maryland Infantry
                          Brigadier-General, U. S. V.

    After the attack on Fort Sumter he helped to organize the 5th
    regiment, Maryland Volunteers, of which he was appointed Major.
    He served near Hampton Roads after which he was attached to
    Mansfield's Corps and participated in the Peninsular Campaign,
    and subsequently in Maryland, where his regiment was engaged in
    the battle of Antietam, under his command. Here he was shot in
    the thigh and confined to his bed for many months. Being disabled
    for further military duty President Lincoln appointed him Provost
    Marshal of the 3d Maryland District. President Johnson subsequently
    promoted him to the rank of Brevet Brigadier-General, U. S.

    It may not prove inappropriate to mention here the remarks made by
    William P. Wood, Esq., one of Washington's best known gentlemen,
    with reference to the late General Blumenberg in a communication to
    the present writer:

    "I was intimate with General Leopold Blumenberg, who commanded in
    person the 5th Regiment, Maryland Volunteers; you and others of
    his friends are familiar with the deserved encomiums passed upon
    that gallant and kind-hearted American Jew, who received terrible
    wounds in leading his regiment on the battle-field of Antietam, and
    of which wounds he died after having served in several important
    positions in Baltimore.

    "Without being either Christian or Jew, I am familiar with many
    heroes of your faith, and believe in according honor to whom honor
    is due. Hoping your work will meet with the success which I believe
    the subject-matter warrants, I am

  Yours truly,
  (Signed)      William P. Wood."

  FELDSTEIN, S.                                   2nd Infantry

  GROSS, A. F.                                    2nd Infantry

  SEEMAN, JULIUS D.                      A        2nd Infantry
  STERN, LIL.                                      1st Cavalry

  UHLFELDER, SAMUEL                      G          3d Cavalry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.

  WHITE, HARMAN                                    2nd Cavalry
      Ordered on detailed service on staff of General Siegel.


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  ASH, WILLIAM             Corporal      D        5th Infantry
  ADLER, JOSEPH                                    2nd Cavalry
      Served three years.
  ABRAHAM, CHARLES                       B       19th Infantry
  ASH, DAVID B.                          B       19th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, BENJAMIN                      I       21st Infantry
  ABRAHAMS, DAVID                        F       22nd Infantry
  ASH, JACOB                             K       55th Infantry

  BOERNSTEIN, HENRY                      B       42nd Infantry
  BLOOM, JULIUS R.                       A       44th Infantry
  BLUMENTHAL, ROBERT                     B          3d Cavalry
  BAUMGARTEN, MORRIS                     L         4th Cavalry
  BOERNSTEIN, MAYER                              21st Infantry
  BLUMENTHAL, HENRY                      H       30th Infantry
  BRAND, FREDERICK                       F       35th Infantry
  BLOOM, JOSEPH                                Veteran Reserve
  COHN, JULIUS                           K        1st Infantry
  COHEN, ABRAHAM                                 20th Infantry
  COHEN, JOSEPH                                  20th Infantry
  COHEN, WILLIAM                         B       21st Infantry
  COHN, DAVID                            F       29th Infantry
  COHN, WILLIAM            Corporal      B       56th Infantry

  DESSAUER, JOHN           Corporal                 3d Cavalry
  DIAS, DAVID                            G       22nd Infantry
  DIAS, EMANUEL                          G       22nd Infantry
  DIAS, SAMUEL A.                        A       38th Infantry
      Served three years.
  DIAS, EMANUEL            Corporal      C            3d Heavy

  EPHRAIM, JOSEPH H.                     K       31st Infantry
      Served four years.
  EMANUEL, MICHAEL                       K       32nd Infantry

  FRIEND, JOEL M.                        A       50th Infantry
  FRIEND, ELLIS A.                              10th Battalion
  FRANKLE, JONAS           Brevet                17th Infantry
      Promoted from Major.
  FELDMAN, JULIUS          Sergeant      F         2nd Cavalry
  FRANK, ERNST                                     2nd Cavalry
  FRIEDMAN, LEWIS                        I       30th Infantry
  FRIEND, SOLOMON                        K       30th Infantry
  FRIEDMAN, GOTTLIEB                               4th Cavalry

  GANS, CHARLES                          K         4th Cavalry
  GUGGENHEIMER, SAMUEL                   A       13th Infantry
  GOLDBERG, JACOB                        C       20th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  GLAZIER, JAMES E.                      F        23d Infantry
      Served three years.
  GOLDSMITH, ALBERT        Corporal      C       30th Infantry
  GUGGENHEIMER, SAMUEL                           32nd Infantry
  GERSHEL, MANHEIM         Corporal      G       34th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, BENJAMIN F.                 A       59th Infantry
  GOTTLIEB, JOSEPH                       F        4th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, DANIEL, JR.               27th unattached company
  GOLDSMITH, DANIEL                        1st Heavy Artillery

  HESS, HENRY                            K        1st Infantry
  HART, ISAAC C.                         L        4th Infantry
  HART, SAMUEL S.                        D 1st Heavy Artillery
      Served three years.
  HERRMAN, JULIUS                        C  3d Heavy Artillery
  HAMMERSLOUGH, EDWARD                             1st Cavalry
  HART, DANIEL C.                        F         1st Cavalry
  HARTMAN, I.                            M          3d Cavalry
  HERZ, JOSEPH                           B       20th Infantry
  HELLER, LOUIS                          B       20th Infantry
  HART, ISAAC C.                         D        23d Infantry
  HART, DAVID                            D       27th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HART, BERNARD                          D       28th Infantry
  HIRSCH, JACOB                          A       35th Infantry
  HARRIS, MOSES                          F       54th Infantry
  HART, JOSEPH                           A       56th Infantry
  HART, DAVID A.                         K       57th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HART, DANIEL                           Veteran Reserve Corps
  HOFMAN, JACOB                          Veteran Reserve Corps
  HOFMAN, JOSEPH                         Veteran Reserve Corps

  ISAACS, CHARLES E.                     B        6th Infantry
  ISAACS, JOSEPH                         K 4th Heavy Artillery
  ISAACS, JOHN                           E       11th Infantry
  ISAAC, ALEXANDER                       B       12th Infantry
      Killed at Antietam.
  ISAAC, W. H.                           Veteran Reserve Corps

  JACOBS, GUSTAV                         G      18th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  JOSEPH, EMANUEL                        C       20th Infantry
  JACOBY, FERDINAND                      G       25th Infantry
  JACOBSON, HENRY                        H       29th Infantry
  JOSEPH, JOSEPH M.                      Veteran Reserve Corps
  JOEL, HENRY                               3d Heavy Artillery
  JACOB, JOSEPH                          M          3d Cavalry
  JOSEPH, HENRY                                    6th Battery
  JACOBS, HENRY           Corporal               35th Infantry
  JACOBS, JACOB                                  59th Infantry

  KOHN, HENRY             Corporal       F         3d Infantry
  KAUFMAN, LEOPOLD                               6th Battalion
      Served three years.
  KUHN, ISRAEL                           D       26th Infantry
      Served three years.
  KUHN, FREDERICK                        C       32nd Infantry
  KLEIN, JULIUS                          G       32nd Infantry
  KOWALTZKI, LUDWIG                      H       35th Infantry
  KOHLER, JACOB                          Veteran Reserve Corps
  KARPELES, LEOPOLD       Color Sergeant E       57th Infantry

    Enlisted September, 1862 in Company A, 46th Regiment. After
    expiration of service re-enlisted in Company E, 57th Massachusetts,
    1865. He was wounded at the Battle of North Anna River
    (Wilderness), but rejoined his regiment after a short time, though
    unable to walk without the aid of a cane, and was finally disabled,
    totally, in December, 1864, at Petersburg.

    Sergeant Karpeles received a medal of honor from Congress for
    distinguished services in the Battle of the Wilderness, May 8,
    1864, he having saved a part of the army from being captured during
    a retreat in disorder by rallying troops around his colors, thereby
    checking the enemy's pursuit.

    April 10, 1870.

    This is to certify that Leopold Karpeles was a soldier under my
    command during part of the late war. My estimation of his good
    qualities may be judged from the fact that I entrusted him the
    _colors_ of the 57th Massachusetts Infantry.

    He was always faithful in the discharge of his duties as a soldier,
    and if my certificate to that effect can assist him in getting
    employment in some position for which he is qualified, I very
    gladly give it.

    Late Brigadier-General, U. S. V.,
    Brevet Major-General.

       *       *       *       *       *


    New Berne, N. C., May 17, 1863.

    This is to certify that Mr. Leopold Karpeles is a Corporal of
    Company A of this regiment. * * * * In the battles of Kingston,
    Whitehall and Goldsborough he bore the State colors. The
    promptness with which he came upon the line of battle, and the
    firmness with which he stood his ground, though his flag was
    several times pierced by the bullets of the enemy, were so
    conspicuous as to be the subject of remark and commendation.

    I have no hesitation in endorsing him as a man who in any position
    would only have to know his duty, and he would discharge it to the
    best of his ability.

    (Signed)      S. B. SPOONER,
    Major 46th Regiment, Massachusetts V. M.

       *       *       *       *       *

    I very readily give my testimonial to the efficiency and soldierly
    qualities of L. Karpeles, within named, having frequently remarked
    and observed his alertness, promptness and faithfulness to duty.

    (Signed)      W. S. SHURTLESS.
    Colonel Commanding.

       *       *       *       *       *

    I cheerfully concur in the above.

    (Signed)      S. B. WALKLEY,
    Lieutenant-Colonel 46th Regiment, M. V. M.

       *       *       *       *       *

    June 1, 1888.

    Your letter of the 13th of May just received, and I hasten to
    reply. I was glad to hear from you and glad to find you still on
    the shores of mortality, where our numbers are fast diminishing.
    Our duty now lies in planting the principles and memory of the
    great struggle in the hearts of generations to follow us, endear
    to them the old flag that you carried from the Wilderness to North
    Anna, so gallantly and faithfully, and teach them to love their
    country which was saved at such a sacrifice.

    Yes, Karpeles, I well remember you at the Battle of North Anna; I
    remember that you carried the colors of the glorious old "57th,"
    far beyond any other colors; your bravery was conspicuous. I
    remember that you fell, badly wounded; another Sergeant was sent
    to take the colors from you but you refused to give them up but
    carried them forward until loss of blood, or another wound, I have
    forgotten which, compelled you to give them into the hands of
    another. I remember all of this distinctly as I felt justly proud
    of you as a Sergeant of Company "E." * * * *.

    Please write me and accept my very best wishes.

    Sincerely and fraternally yours,
    1st Lieutenant, 18th Infantry,
    U. S. Army.

  LEVY, WILLIAM                          A       10th Infantry
  LEHMIER, LOUIS                         E       11th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LIPPMAN, JOHN W.                       E       11th Infantry
      Died in service.
  LEHMAN, AARON W.                       K       11th Infantry
  LOESTEIN, SIMON                        B       20th Infantry
  LEON, ALEXANDER                        C       20th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, LOUIS                       F       20th Infantry
  LYON, MARCUS E.                        I       24th Infantry
      Killed at Deep Run, Virginia.
  LEVY, DAVID                            H       26th Infantry
  LIPPMAN, CARL N.                       K       27th Infantry
  LEHMAN, ALBERT                         E       28th Infantry
  LEVIN, SIMONCorporal                   H       30th Infantry
  LEVI, RAPHAEL                          I       30th Infantry
  LEO, LOUIS Corporal                            35th Infantry
  LEVY, JOSEPH                                   35th Infantry
  LEVY, ADOLPH M. F                              38th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEVINS, MORRIS E                               39th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LYON, JULIUS M.          Lieutenant    H       42nd Infantry
  LYON, CHARLES F.                       F       42nd Infantry
  LEVY, MORRIS                           C        43d Infantry
  LEO, EUGENE                            A       44th Infantry
  LEVY, DAVID                                   13th Battalion
  LEVI, SAMUEL                             2nd Heavy Artillery
  LEOPOLD, HENRY A.        Corporal      H         1st Cavalry
  LYON, DANIEL                           L         4th Cavalry
  LEVI, SAMUEL                           F       56th Infantry
      Killed at Spottsylvania.
  LEWIN, W. H.                           F       58th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  LEOPOLD, AUGUST                        Veteran Reserve Corps
  LEVY, BERNARD H.                       Veteran Reserve Corps
  LOEBS, JACOB                           Veteran Reserve Corps

  MARKS, EDWARD                                  11th Infantry
  MAY, SIMON               Sergeant      D       21st Infantry
  MARCUS, HERMAN                         H       30th Infantry
  MEIER, JACOB                           C       20th Infantry
  MAYER, CHARLES                         A       30th Infantry
  MARKS, HENRY                             1st Heavy Artillery
  MAIER, ADOLPH                          Veteran Reserve Corps

  NUSSBAUM, LEVI                         D       47th Infantry
  NATHAN, JOSEPH                         B         5th Cavalry

  OCHS, JOSEPH A.                        B       45th Infantry

  ROSE, BENJAMIN                         C        8th Infantry
  ROSE, ELI                            18th Unattached company
  ROSE, BENJAMIN, JR.                  27th Unattached company
  ROSENAU, HENRY                                    3d Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  ROSENTHAL, JACOB                       L         4th Cavalry
  ROSE, ARNOLD                                   13th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, JOHN          Corporal      B       40th Infantry
  RICH, REUBEN                           H       56th Infantry
  ROSE, SAMUEL                           Veteran Reserve Corps
  ROSE, ABRAHAM                          Veteran Reserve Corps

  SPIEGEL, CHARLES                                2nd Infantry
  SOLOMON, MORRIS          Sergeant      A        2nd Infantry
  SOLOMON, HENRY           Sergeant              10th Infantry
  SIMONS, WOLF                                   10th Infantry
  SIMON, FREDERICK                       E       29th Infantry
  SOMMER, ADOLPH                                 35th Infantry
  STEINER, FERDINAND       Corporal      I       35th Infantry
  STEINGARDT, BENJAMIN                           38th Infantry
  STEINGARDT, DANIEL                             38th Infantry
  STEINGARDT, JOSEPH                             38th Infantry
  SAMUELS, SAMUEL D.                    7th unattached Company
  SAMUEL, JOSEPH                        7th unattached Company
  SILBERMAN, BARNEY                      A       47th Infantry
  SIMON, JOHN T.          Corporal       A       50th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  STEINMAN, LOUIS                        B 2nd Heavy Artillery
  SAMUEL, JOSEPH          Sergeant       K 4th Heavy Artillery
  SAMUELS, SAMUEL D.                     K 4th Heavy Artillery
  SOLOMON, JOSEPH A.                     D         5th Cavalry
  SIMON, DANIEL J.        Sergeant       B       57th Infantry
  SAMUEL, SOLOMON                8th Battalion Light Artillery

  VOGEL, HENRY                           C       20th Infantry
  VOGEL, LOUIS                           I       35th Infantry
  VOGEL, FERDINAND                       K       47th Infantry

  WATERMAN, FRANK                        H        5th Infantry
  WOLF, SAMUEL                           C          3d Cavalry
  WATERMAN, FRANKLIN                     H       15th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  WOLF, JOSEPH            Sergeant       C       20th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  WOLF, MICHAEL                                  20th Infantry
      Killed at Cold Harbor.
  WATERMAN, BENJAMIN                     A       24th Infantry
  WEISS, JACOB                           C       24th Infantry
      Served four years.
  WEISS, JOSEPH                          D       24th Infantry
  WATERMAN, CHARLES       Sergeant       D       28th Infantry
  WATERMAN, FRANKLIN                     F       34th Infantry
  WEISS, REUBEN                          Veteran Reserve Corps


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  ASH, MICHAEL                           I        1st Infantry

  BENJAMIN, H.                           C         4th Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  BARLOW, ADOLPH                         C        5th Infantry
  BROWN, MOSES                           E        8th Infantry
      Served three years.
  BUSH, LEVI                             K         9th Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  BUSH, SIMEON                           M         9th Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  BLUM, SIMEON                                    14th Battery

  COHEN, CHARLES                         I        10th Cavalry

  FUCHS, DAVID                           C        1st Infantry
  FRANK, SIMEON H.        Lieutenant     K        1st Infantry
  FREUND, JOSEPH                         A        2nd Infantry
      Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  FRIEDENBERG, JOSEPH                    H        6th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  FRIEDENBERG, CHARLES A.                E        8th Infantry
      Re-enlisted as Veteran.
  FOX, J. H.                             E       11th Infantry
  FRIEDENBURG, ELYAH                     I       22nd Infantry
  FRANK, A.                                        1st Cavalry
  FRIEDENBERG, ALBERT                    G         5th Cavalry
  FRIEDENBERG, BENJAMIN                  C         7th Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  FRANK, SIMON H.         1st Lieutenant G 1st Light Artillery
      Enlisted as private in K 1st Infantry; re-enlisted in
      Battery G; served as non-commissioned officer until
      promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
  FRIEDLANDER, CHARLES                   H 1st Light Artillery

  GOLDSMITH, GUSTAV                      F        1st Infantry
  GOODMAN, DAVID                         H        8th Infantry
      Re-enlisted as Veteran.
  GOODHEART, JACOB                       A        9th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, ----          Captain       17th Infantry Reserve
  GANS, JACOB                            D         8th Cavalry
  GOODMAN, FRANK                         I         8th Cavalry

  HOFMAN, MOSES                          A        1st Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  HOFMAN, MOSES                          G        1st Infantry
  HOFMAN, JACOB                          K        1st Infantry
  HEINE, JULIUS                          F        2nd Infantry
  HOFMAN, S.                                      4th Infantry
  HOFMAN, S.                                      4th Infantry
  HOFMAN, F.                             F        4th Infantry
  HERRMAN, MARK                          G        9th Infantry
  HARRIS, LIONEL W.                      B       10th Infantry
  HELLER, EMIL                           A       14th Infantry
  HESS, JOSEPH                           D       16th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HOFMAN, D.                                     17th Infantry
  HATTENDORF, CHARLES                    C           3d Cavalry
  HAMBURG, FREDERICK                     L         11th Cavalry

  JONAS, H.                              G        22d Infantry
  JONAS, JULIUS                          G        22d Infantry

  KATZ, ISAAC                            E        1st Infantry
  KLEIN, SAMUEL                          C        2nd Infantry
  KLEIN, JACOB                           C         3d Infantry
  KLEIN, JACOB                           I        5th Infantry
  KLEIN, H.                                       8th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  KAUFMAN, SIMPSON                       E        8th Infantry
  KING, JOSEPH                           I       10th Infantry
  KLEIN, DAVID                           E       26th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  KRONBERG, AUGUST                       B        10th Cavalry
      Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  KOHN, WILLIAM                          G 1st Light Artillery
  KOHN, M.                               L 1st Light Artillery
  KLEIN, EMANUEL                                  14th Battery

  LAZARUS, DANIEL                        E         3d Infantry
  LEVINGSTON, MEYER                      F         3d Infantry
      Killed on the field of battle.
  LIMBERGER, WILLIAM E.                  F        4th Infantry
  LYON, SOLOMON T.         Captain                5th Infantry
  LYON, EPHRAIM W.         Major                  8th Infantry
  LYON, ISAAC C.                         A        9th Infantry
      Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  LEVY, NATHAN             1st Lieutenant        10th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  LYONS, ISAAC B.                        G       11th Infantry
  LYON, ASHER                            G       13th Infantry
  LEVY, D.                               E       16th Infantry
  LYON, DAVID                            H       22nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  LYON, HENRY J.                         H       22nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  LYON, DAVID                            L 1st Light Artillery
      Died in the service.
  LEWIS, LEVI                            K         2nd Cavalry
  LEVY, NATHAN             Lieutenant               3d Cavalry
  LYON, AARON D.                         F         5th Cavalry
      Captured; died in Andersonville Prison.
  LEWIS, ABRAHAM                         K         5th Cavalry
  LYON, D.                                         8th Cavalry
  LEVY, JOHN C.                          H        10th Cavalry
  LYON, MOSES F.                         I        10th Cavalry

  MOSES, HENRY                           F        4th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          I        7th Infantry
  MARK, LEOPOLD                                   9th Infantry
  MARK, ISAAC                            C       12th Infantry
      Re-enlisted as veteran.
  MANDEL, AUGUST                         G       22nd Infantry
      Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  MANDEL, JULIUS                         G       22nd Infantry
  MANDEL, LOUIS                          G       22nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MANN, JOSEPH                                   27th Infantry
      Killed at Cold Harbor.
  MANDEL, CHARLES                                1st Engineers
      Served three years.
  MAYER, SIMON                                   1st Engineers
  MANN, SOLOMON                          A 1st Light Artillery
  MANN, ELI                              G 1st Light Artillery
  MEYERS, ELISHA                         G 1st Light Artillery
  MAYER, FREDERICK                       G 1st Light Artillery
  MAYER, BENJAMIN                        K 1st Light Artillery
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          A         8th Cavalry
      Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  MOCK, LEOPOLD                                    9th Cavalry
  MANN, S.                                        10th Cavalry
  MANN, DAVID                            M        82nd Cavalry
      Died in the service.

  NATHAM, LEWIS W.                       B        9th Infantry
  NATHAN, C.                             E         7th Cavalry
  NATHANS, LEWIS                         B         9th Cavalry
      Re-enlisted as Veteran.
  NATHAN, CHARLES W.                              16th Cavalry
      Killed at Bull Run.

  ROTHSCHILD, LEVI                       I        2nd Infantry
      Killed at Petersburg, Virginia.
  ROSENFELD, JOHN                        H         3d Infantry
      Died in the service.
  ROSE, MOSES                            C        4th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  RICE, NATHAN H.                        K        5th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, CORNELIUS                   C       10th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  RICH, ANSCHEL                          B       11th Infantry
  RICH, HENRY                            K       27th Infantry
      Killed at Petersburg, Virginia.
  RICH, DAVID                            A         1st Cavalry
      Served three years.
  RICH, DAVID                            H         1st Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  ROSENBERG, C.                          C         5th Cavalry

  STERNBERG, NATHAN                      K        1st Infantry
  STRAUS, LEVI                           B        5th Infantry
  SCHWAB, FRANK                          K        5th Infantry
  STEIN, FREDERICK                       K        5th Infantry
      Re-enlisted as Veteran.
  STRAUS, JACOB                          E        9th Infantry
  STEIN, JOSEPH                          H        9th Infantry
      Re-enlisted as Veteran.
  SOLOMON, JOHN                          G       13th Infantry
  STEIN, DANIEL                          G       17th Infantry
      Killed at Spottsylvania.
  STERN, ADAM                            B 1st Light Artillery
  STEIN, JACOB C.                        A         2nd Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  SOLOMON, JOSHUA                        K          3d Cavalry
      Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  SACHS, HENRY                           F         4th Cavalry
  SOMMERS, JOSEPH                        K         8th Cavalry
  SCHONEMAN, SAMUEL                      K         8th Cavalry
  SAMPSON, JOEL                          K         9th Cavalry
  SAMPSON A.                             K         9th Cavalry

  VOGEL, JACOB                           G       27th Infantry

  WERTHEIMER, SIMON                               1st Infantry
  WEINBERG, REUBEN                       E       11th Infantry
  WEINBERG, WILLIAM                      E       11th Infantry
  WEILER, FRANK J.                       I         6th Cavalry


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  ADLER, MOSES                           A       10th Infantry
  ADAMS, ----              Colonel                  2d Cavalry
  ASH, JULIUS                            D        28th Cavalry
  AXMAN, ----                              Kit Mott's Regiment
  AUERBACH, MORRIS                             17th Drum Corps

  BRADINSKY, ----          Lieutenant             1st Infantry
      Served until close of war.
  BAUM, DANIEL                           I       13th Infantry
  BLOOM, RAPHAEL                         G       16th Infantry
  BERNHEIM, MORRIS F.      Quartermaster         17th Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  BRUNN, ADOLPH                          C       18th Infantry
  BARUCH, SIMON, DR.,      Brigade Surgeon       21st Infantry
      Appointed to General Barkdale's Division; subsequently
      Chief Surgeon of Confederate Hospitals in North Carolina.
  BERKSON, THEODORE                      A       1st Artillery
      Captured; when exchanged rejoined his regiment.
  BLYTH, ----                            Mississippi Battalion

  CAHN, WILLIAM                          G       16th Infantry

  DREYFUS, H.                                     4th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861.
  DE YOUNG, SIMON H.                              4th Infantry
  DRYER, H.                Sergeant-Major         33d Infantry
      Served until close of war

  ETTINGER, JOSEPH                                2nd Infantry
      Died from wounds received at Murfreesboro.
  EISEMAN, GUS.            Corporal              12th Infantry
      Killed; buried at Jewish Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
  EICHEL, AARON                          G       16th Infantry
  EISENMAN, C.                                   18th Infantry
      Killed at Gaines' Mills, Virginia.
  ELSON, JULIUS                      Mississippi Sharpshooters

  FRANK, SA.               Major                 12th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  FOLTZ, F.                                      16th Infantry
      Killed; buried at Jewish Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
  FRANKENTHAL, MAX                       A       16th Infantry
  FOLTZ, S.                              A       16th Infantry
  FOLTZ, THEO.                                   16th Infantry
      Killed at Sharpsburg.
  FRAUENHELD, ----                       A       16th Infantry
  FORSCHHEIMER, B.                            Warden Artillery
  FRANK, THEODORE                            Steward's Cavalry
  FARBUSH, ----                             Washington Cavalry

  GROSS, CHARLES L.                      K       13th Infantry
  GATTMAN, JACOB                         C       18th Infantry
  GOODMAN, LOUIS                         H       38th Infantry
      Served two years.
  GERSON, A.                             K       44th Infantry
  GROSS, EMIL                            K       44th Infantry
      Lost a leg at Shiloh.
  GUSDOFER, MARX                             Warren's Dragoons
  GUSDOFER, I.                               Warren's Dragoons

  HIRSCH, LEOPOLD                                 9th Infantry
  HOLBERG, L.                            F       11th Infantry
      Wounded at Manassas.
  HANSMAN, M.                            I       11th Infantry
  HORATMEL, LOUIS                                12th Infantry
  HESSER, LOUIS                          H       15th Infantry
      Wounded at Corinth.
  HYMAN, JACOB                           A       16th Infantry
  HILLER, JONAS                          A       16th Infantry
  HERMAN, J.                             A       16th Infantry
  HILLER, WILLIAM                        A       16th Infantry
  HILLER, MAX.                           A       16th Infantry
  HAZEN, HYMAN                           I       16th Infantry
      Killed at Fredericksburg.
  HART, M.                               A       16th Infantry
  HART, P.                               A       16th Infantry
  HILL, NATHAN                           A       16th Infantry
  HILLER, NATHAN                         A       17th Infantry
  HAAS, SAMUEL                                   18th Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.
  HART, JOSEPH                           K       18th Infantry
  HAVERMAN, GABRIEL                      K       44th Infantry
  HIRSCH, JOSEPH                               Barnes' Battery
  HAYES, E. P.                           H      Conner Battery
  HESSER, LEO              Captain            Blight's Battery
      Promoted at battle of Chickamauga from private.
  HOLBERG, JACOB                                   1st Cavalry
  HAAS, S.                                         2nd Cavalry
  HILBORN, B.                            A        16th Cavalry
  HYMAN, B.                              A        16th Cavalry
  HILLER, M.                             A        16th Cavalry

  JACOBS, VICTOR                                 11th Infantry
  JOEL, MORDECAI                                 18th Infantry
  JOEL, MOSES                            K       18th Infantry
  JONAS, CHARLES H.}                        Barksdale Infantry
  JONAS, JULIAN    }(Five brothers)         Barksdale Infantry
  JONAS, HON. B. F.}                        Louisiana Infantry
  JONAS, S. A.     }       Major            Barksdale Infantry
  JONAS, EDWARD    }                (_50th Illinois Infantry_)

  KLAUS, A.                              C       11th Infantry
  KRAUS, FREDERICK                       A       12th Infantry
  KAHN, C. J.                            G       16th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, W. M.                         G       16th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, W.                            G       16th Infantry
  KAHN, GABRIEL                          K       16th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, I.                            A       16th Infantry
  KAHN, GUSTAVUS                                 16th Infantry
      Killed; buried in Jewish cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
  KAUFMAN, HERMAN                        C       18th Infantry
  KUHN, J.                               D       38th Infantry

  LOWENSTEIN, LEOPOLD                             8th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, M.                         C        8th Infantry
  LEVY, OSCAR S.                                 10th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; subsequently attached to Army Signal Corps.
  LEVENS, LOUIS                                  11th Infantry
  LEVY, ED.                                      12th Infantry
  LOEB, ISIDORE                                  12th Infantry
  LINCOLN, S.                                    12th Infantry
  LOEB, SAMUEL                                   13th Infantry
  LEVY, SOLOMON                          D       13th Infantry
  LOEB, SAMUEL                           K       13th Infantry
  LEVY, ABRAHAM                                  14th Infantry
  LICHENSTEIN, ISAAC                     A       16th Infantry
  LICHENSTEIN, SIMON                     A       16th Infantry
  LEVY, MOSES                            G       16th Infantry
      Killed May 31, 1862; buried in Jewish cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  LONETHEIM, A. J.                       G       17th Infantry
      Discharged for disability.
  LEVY, S.                               K       18th Infantry
  LOEB, A.                               D       38th Infantry
  LORSCH, ADOLPH                         K       44th Infantry
  LOWENHAUPT, BENJAMIN                            28th Cavalry
  LEHMAN, H. F.                          D        28th Cavalry
  LECINSKI, E. L.                        H        28th Cavalry
  LEE, SEYMOUR                              Washington Cavalry

  LEVY, DANIEL S.                        G 1st Light Artillery
  LOWENSTEIN, MARX                       C        8th Reserves
  LEVY, ISRAEL                           B       Ward's Legion
  LEVINSON, A.                           B       Ward's Legion
  LEVINSON, PAUL                         B       Ward's Legion
  LOTTERHOSS, PHILIP                        Wither's Artillery
      Enlisted at eighteen years of age; served with conspicuous
      bravery; killed at Kenesaw Mountain.
  LOUCHEIM, ABRAHAM                   17th Regiment Drum Corps
  LEVY, J. C.                                  17th Drum Corps

  MOSES, I. O.                           G        2nd Infantry
  MANSBACH, H. H.                                 9th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; promoted at Greensboro.
  MAYER, D.                                      10th Infantry
  MYERS, ----              Captain               14th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  MOOSER, ABRAHAM                        H       15th Infantry
      Wounded four times at Shiloh.
  MOCH, ABRAHAM                          A       16th Infantry
  MOAK, C.                               A       16th Infantry
  MOYSE, ISIDORE                         A       16th Infantry
  MYERS, JOHN                            A       16th Infantry
  MEYER, ALEXANDER                       E       36th Infantry
  MOOSER, ISAAC            Adjutant          Wheeler's Cavalry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  MEYER, BLUM                            H    Conner's Battery
  MYERS, ----              Major,        Quartermaster-General
                                         Price's Command

  NATUTIOUS, OTTO          Captain       B       Wand's Legion

  OURY, S.                                       10th Infantry
      Killed June 16, 1864; buried in Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.

  PICKARD, M.                                    Warren Guards
  PORODAR, SOLOMON                               Warren Guards

  RUBEL, EMANUEL                         D       19th Infantry
  REINACH, DAVID                         Bolivar Troop Cavalry
  ROTH, CHARLES            Lieutenant             Swamp Ranger
      Killed in action.

  SCHAEFER, EMILE                        A         3d Infantry
      Appointed Orderly Sergeant; subsequently detached
      and served in the Quartermaster's Department.
  STONE, E. S.             Sergeant      D        7th Infantry
  SHARP, BENJAMIN                        F       12th Infantry
  SHERCK, LOUIS                          A       16th Infantry
  SAMUELS, A.                                    17th Infantry
  SCHARFF, B.                                    17th Infantry
  STINE, S. E.                                   17th Infantry
  STORM, E.                              D        28th Cavalry
  SHRINSKI, ----                         D        28th Cavalry
  SULSPACHER, AARON                        Kit Mott's Regiment

  UNGER, SOLOMON                         H        9th Infantry
  ULLMAN, SAMUEL                         C       16th Infantry
      Wounded at Cross Keys, and again at Sharpsburg;
      served gallantly through the war; now Rabbi at Birmingham,
  URIC, SOLOMON                          H       16th Infantry
      Killed at Cold Harbor, Virginia.

  VAN RONKEL, ISAAC                              18th Infantry

  WILE, M.                               A       16th Infantry
      Served four years.
  WEINER, SAMUEL                         A       16th Infantry
  WEIL, CHARLES                          D       16th Infantry
  WEINBERG, JONAS                                19th Infantry
  WOLFE, M.                          G Vicksburg Sharpshooters
  WEINER, SAMUEL                         Mississippi Artillery
  WATERMAN, LOUIS                        D        28th Cavalry
  WESTHEIMER, MORRIS                       Jefferson Artillery
      Served through war.
  WEXLER, PHILIP                         A         1st Cavalry
  WIENER, SOLOMON                               Carrol Rangers
  WILE, SIMON              Sergeant         Stanford's Battery
      Promoted from ranks.
  WATERMAN, LEOPOLD                         Washington Cavalry


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  ANSELM, ALBERT           Lieutenant-             3d Infantry

  BENDER, SAMUEL                                   3d Infantry
  BERKSON, S.                                      3d Infantry
  BOHN, HERMAN G.                                  5th Cavalry
  BOHN, ISAAC G.           2nd Lieutenant         11th Cavalry
  BENDEL, HERMAN           Captain               12th Infantry
  BOERNSTEIN, GUSTAV       Captain               41st Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.

  CARSE, LEVI                            I        7th Infantry
  COHEN, ALBERT B.         Captain                11th Cavalry
  COHN, L.                                          Home Guard

  DARMSTADER, LOUIS CAPTAIN                      17th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.

  EPSTEIN, MAX.1st Infantry
  EISEMAN, ANTHONY         Captain               12th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  ERDMAN, ADOLPH           Quartermaster         15th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  EPPSTEIN, FRANCIS        2nd Lieutenant        48th Infantry
  EPPSTEIN, JOSEPH A.      Lieutenant-             5th Cavalry
  EDEMAN, MICHAEL S.       1st Lieutenant       {  5th Cavalry
                                                { 12th Cavalry

  FRIEDLEIN, GEORGE D.     Captain                 3d Infantry
  FALK, HENRY              2nd Lieutenant        48th Infantry
  FRANK, PHILIP            Captain                 4th Cavalry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  FRANK, CHARLES           2nd Lieutenant       2d U. S. R. C.
  FRIEDLEIN, GEORGE G.     1st Lieutenant          4th Cavalry
  FURTH, SAMUEL                                     Home Guard

  GUTMAN, LOUIS                          E         3d Infantry
      Served three years.
  GREENBAUM, SIMON                       D        7th Infantry

  HARTMAN, J.                                     1st Infantry
  HOLZMAN, SAMUEL                        I        1st Infantry
  HOMBURG, S.              Adjutant               4th Infantry
  HERRMAN, THEODORE        Captain               12th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  HESS, FERDINAND          1st Lieutenant          4th Cavalry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant; also Adjutant  1st Battery
  HAMBURGER, HENRY         2nd Lieutenant         13th Cavalry
  HOFMAN, JOSEPH           1st Lieutenant        1st Artillery
  HURWITZ, HARMAN                    General Lyon's Body-guard

  JACOBS, PHILIP                         H        1st Infantry
      Received Medal of Honor.
  JACOBS, EMIL                           K        8th Infantry
  JACOBY, MORRIS           2nd Lieutenant         7th Infantry

  KLEIN, MOSES             Captain               13th Infantry
  KEMPINSKI, A.            Captain               49th Infantry
      Served four years.
  KEMPINSKI, LEO                         F       49th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ALBERT B.     { Captain              { 11th Cavalry
                         { Major                { 10th Cavalry
  KLEIN, BERNHART          1st Lieutenant      2nd U. S. R. C.
  KOCH, JULIUS             1st Lieutenant      4th U. S. R. C.

  LIEBSCHUTZ, A.                         C        2nd Infantry
  LIPMAN, LOUIS            1st Lieutenant         8th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, I. S.                       G       18th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, CHARLES      2nd Lieutenant        2nd Artillery
  LEVISTEINE, ISAAC M.     Lieutenant    L       2nd Artillery
      Died from wounds received in action.
  LEVI, SOLOMON I.         Captain                 1st Cavalry
      Appointed by Governor Clark, of Missouri (1839), of
      the 1st Militia.
  LEVI, JACOB J.                                   6th Cavalry
  LIEBERMAN, LORENZO       1st Lieutenant      1st U. S. R. C.

  MONTZHEIM, JULIUS        1st Lieutenant        17th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  MEYER, B. F.                                   24th Infantry
  MOHSBERG, A.                           G       41st Infantry
  MEYER, LOUIS                           F       49th Infantry
  MANN, CHARLES           { 2nd
                          { Lieutenant         {  11th Cavalry
                          { Major              { 1st Artillery

  MOSES, T. W.             Quartermaster          14th Cavalry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  MANDELBAUM, FRANK                                Home Guards
  MANDELBAUM, JOHN W.                              Home Guards
  MANDELBAUM, S. E.                                Home Guards

  NEWDORF, JULIUS          1st Lieutenant         2nd Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.

  ROSENSTEIN, D. W.        Captain                1st Infantry
  RINDSKOPF, T.                                    1st Cavalry
  RINDSKOPF, I.                          A         1st Cavalry
  ROSENBAUM, H. A.         1st Lieutenant        29th Infantry
  RAPHAEL, JACOB                           1st Light Artillery
      Served three years.

  SINGER, DAVID                          D        1st Infantry
      Served three years.
  SICHER, WILLIAM                        C        2nd Infantry
  SIMON, JOSEPH                          G        2nd Infantry
  SOLOMON, CHARLES E.      Colonel                5th Infantry
  SOLOMON, FREDERICK       Captain                5th Infantry
  SCHWERINER, THEODORE                   H        8th Infantry
      Wounded in Arkansas; totally disabled at Vicksburg.
  STEINBERG, O.            Captain               12th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  STERNBERG, E.                          F       17th Infantry
  STEIN, GEORGE W.         1st Lieutenant        21st Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  STEINAN, EMANUEL                               21st Infantry

    Not being of sufficient measurement his offer to enlist was
    refused; but determined to fight for his adopted country, he
    followed his regiment in which many personal friends had enlisted,
    until finally he was mustered in.

  SOMMERS, HERMAN          1st Lieutenant        41st Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  SLINSKY, LOUIS                         F       49th Infantry
  SIMONS, A.                             A         2nd Cavalry
  SINSHEIMER, A. H.                      G         2nd Cavalry
      Enlisted at eighteen years of age.
  STEINMAN, E. H.          Captain                 5th Cavalry
  SANDERS, FRANK           2nd Lieutenant          7th Cavalry
  SOLOMON, G. A. M.        1st Lieutenant          8th Cavalry
  SALTZMAN, GUSTAV         2nd Lieutenant        1st Engineers
  SALTZMAN, SIEGMUND       2nd Lieutenant        1st Artillery
  STUGER, DAVID                          D       Bender Cadets

  TAKRZEWSKI, HERMAN       Captain             2nd U. S. R. C.


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  ISSERMAN, T. W.                        A         1st Cavalry

  JACOBS, SIMON L.                       A         1st Cavalry

  MANHEIM, DAVID           Colonel                 1st Cavalry
      Enlisted as private; promoted step by step.


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  COHN, ABRAHAM           Adjutant                6th Infantry

    enlisted as private; promoted for efficiency and distinguished
    bravery to Sergeant and Adjutant; wounded at Petersburg; the
    recipient of the Congressional "Medal of Honor;" served until the
    close of the war.

    WASHINGTON, August 24, 1865.


    Herewith I enclose the "Medal of Honor" which has been awarded to
    you by the Secretary of War, under the resolution of Congress,
    approved July 12, 1862. To provide for the presentation of "Medals
    of Honor" to the enlisted men of the army and volunteer forces who
    have distinguished or may distinguish themselves in battle during
    the present rebellion.

    Very Respectfully,
    Your obedient servant,
    (Signed)      E. D. TOWNSEND,
    Assistant Adjutant General.

    To Sergeant-Major ABRAHAM COHN,
    6th N. H. Veteran Volunteers,
    439, 8th Avenue, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

    WASHINGTON.  August 14, 1879.

    The medal mentioned within was given for conspicuous gallantry
    displayed in the battle of the Wilderness, Virginia, in rallying
    and forming under heavy fire disorganized troops; also for bravery
    and coolness in carrying orders to the advance lines under
    murderous fire in the battle of the Mine, July 20, 1864.

    (Signed)      S. N. BENJAMIN,
    Assistant Adjutant-General.

       *       *       *       *       *

    CONCORD, August 17, 1865.


    I take great pleasure in bearing testimony to the faithful services
    of Adjutant Abraham Cohn, both as a private and as an officer in
    the late 6th Regiment of New Hampshire Volunteers Infantry. His
    record in connection with this regiment has been one of great
    fidelity and ability and his successive promotions have been well
    merited rewards. I am also happy to bear testimony to the untiring
    industry and literary ability which Adjutant Cohn has displayed in
    collecting data for an official history of the Sixth Regiment, New
    Hampshire Volunteer Infantry.

    Very Respectfully,
    (Signed)      NATT HEAD.

(NATT HEAD, subsequently Adjutant, Inspector and Quartermaster, became
Governor of the State of New Hampshire.)

       *       *       *       *       *

    KEENE, N. H., November 23, 1865.

    This certifies that Abraham Cohn enlisted in the 6th New Hampshire
    Volunteers, of which regiment I was the Colonel, on the 5th day
    of January, 1864, and very soon after joined the command in the
    State of Kentucky. He at once attracted the attention and won the
    approbation of his officers by his soldierly bearing and faithful
    performance of duty, as well as by his accomplishments in being
    able to communicate with recruits from European countries in their
    own various languages.

    On the 28th day of March, 1864, he was promoted to the position of
    Sergeant-Major of the regiment, and throughout the great campaign
    that followed--from the Rapidan to the capture of Petersburg and
    Richmond--displayed remarkable bravery and coolness in action,
    endurance in the field and efficiency in his office.

    He was wounded at the "battle of the Mine" in front of Petersburg,
    July 30, 1864, where he won a "Medal of Honor" for his
    distinguished bravery awarded by the War Department.

    In appreciation of his meritorious services during this campaign
    he was promoted to the rank of Adjutant of his regiment, in which
    capacity he remained until the close of the war, winning the
    esteem and admiration of all who knew him by his gentlemanly and
    officer-like deportment, his sobriety and integrity, and by his
    noble devotion to the cause of the country of his adoption.

    (Signed)      S. G. GRIFFIN.
    Late Brigadier-General and Brevet Major-General U. S. Volunteers.

S. G. GRIFFIN was subsequently elected Speaker of the House of
Representatives of New Hampshire.

  ROME, C. M.                            E        4th Infantry


  NAME.                    RANK.          COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  ASH, JOSEPH W.                         K        1st Infantry
  ABRAHAM, C. S.          2nd Lieutenant B        1st Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  ABRAHAM, AARON                         K        1st Infantry
  AARONSON, NAPOLEON                     B        4th Infantry
  AARONSON, FREDERICK     2nd Lieutenant B        4th Infantry
  ADLER, HERMAN                          C        5th Infantry
  ABRAMS, ISAAC N.                       K        7th Infantry
  ABRAHAMS, JOSEPH        Corporal       B       10th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  ADLER, MORRIS                          G       15th Infantry
  AARONSON, BENJAMIN      Corporal       I        23d Infantry
  ADLER, HENRY                           B       24th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Fredericksburg.
  ASH, W. H.                             C       26th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, BENJAMIN                      E        33d Infantry
  ALEXANDER, DAVID                       D       34th Infantry
  ARNOLD, JOSEPH                         K       34th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  ASCH, MYER              Brevet Major             1st Cavalry
      Promoted from Adjutant for gallant and meritorious
  ADLER, LEOPOLD                         Veteran Reserve Corps
  ADLER, ISIDOR                                      Battery A

  BUXBAUM, WILLIAM                       D        2nd Infantry
  BLANKENSTEIN, LEVI                     D       10th Infantry
  BAUM, JACOB                            I       11th Infantry
  BALL, ABRAHAM S.                       C       13th Infantry
      Served three years.
  BACHMAN, SAMUEL                        D       13th Infantry
  BUSH, AARON              Corporal      E       22nd Infantry
  BALL, ISAAC                            K       26th Infantry
  BAER, FREDERICK                        E       29th Infantry
  BERNHEIM, WILLIAM                      C       30th Infantry
  BACHMAN, WILLIAM H.                    A       31st Infantry
  BLOOM, ISAAC                           F       31st Infantry
  BACHMAN, SAMUEL                        I       31st Infantry
  BALL, AARON                            I       35th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  BLUHM, JACOB                           B       35th Infantry
      Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  BIEN, ALPHONSE                         I       39th Infantry
  BAUM, FREDERICK                        B       40th Infantry
  BAUER, JACOB                           B          3d Cavalry
  BACHMAN, SAMUEL                        F          3d Cavalry
  BAER, AUGUST                                       Battery C
  BAER, MAX                                    Veteran Reserve
  BARNETT, MORRIS                        C       66th Infantry

  COHEN, THOMAS                          D       10th Infantry
  COHN, HARRIS                           G       10th Infantry
  COHN, GEORGE                           H       13th Infantry
  COHEN, EDWARD                          C       34th Infantry
  COHEN, ISAAC                           E         1st Cavalry

  DANNENBERGER, JOSEPH     Corporal      A        2nd Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  DAVIDSON, DAVID          Sergeant      G       38th Infantry

  ECKSTEIN, SIEGMUND                     C        8th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Petersburg.
  ENGEL, JACOB                           K       13th Infantry
  ERDMAN, LOUIS                          B        33d Infantry
  EPPSTEIN, DANIEL         Sergeant      A       34th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  ELLINGER, EMANUEL                      F       34th Infantry
  ETTINGER, MARK                         F       34th Infantry
  ELSAS, JACOB                           D          3d Cavalry
      Wounded at Mount Jackson, Virginia.
  ERDMAN, HENRY            Corporal      K          3d Cavalry
      Enlisted as private.

  FRANK, CHARLES                         F        1st Infantry
  FOX, SOLOMON J.                        C        2nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  FOX, JACOB                             A        4th Infantry
  FEEDER, HENRY                          K        7th Infantry
  FOX, ISAAC               Corporal      I       12th Infantry
      Killed near Petersburg.
  FRIEBERG, HENRY                        F       15th Infantry
  FEEDER, MORRIS                         C       22nd Infantry
  FRANK, FREDERICK                       K       35th Infantry
  FREUND, GUSTAV                         A       39th Infantry
  FRANK, JACOB             Sergeant      B       39th Infantry
  FALK, JACOB                            B       39th Infantry
  FREUND, AUGUST                         B       39th Infantry
  FREUND, THEODORE                       F         1st Cavalry
  FRIEDLANDER, CHARLES                   B         2nd Cavalry
      Captured; died in Andersonville.
  FUCHS, EUGENE           Sergeant       D          3d Cavalry
      Enlisted as private.
  FRIEDMAN, WILLIAM                                  Battery A

  GOLDSMITH, WILLIAM                     G        2nd Infantry
      Captured; died at Andersonville.
  GREEN, JACOB                           I        5th Infantry
  GLUCKAUL, JACOB                        A        8th Infantry
  GOLDBERG, CHARLES                      F         1st Cavalry
  GOLDSMITH, CHARLES                     G         2nd Cavalry
      Died in service.
  GOLDMAN, CHARLES                       I         2nd Cavalry

  HAAS, BERNHARD                                  1st Infantry
  HERZOG, LOUIS                          K        1st Infantry
  HOFMAN, JACOB H.        2nd Lieutenant B        2nd Infantry
  HAHN, MORRIS S.         2nd Lieutenant D        2nd Infantry
  HERMAN, CHARLES                        B        2nd Infantry
  HART, DAVID                            B        2nd Infantry
  HERRMAN, EMIL                          E        2nd Infantry
  HOFMAN, JACOB                          E        2nd Infantry
  HEINEMAN, HERMAN                     { H        2nd Infantry
                                       { K       15th Infantry
  HIRSCHFELD, ALFRED                   { K         2d Infantry
                                       { K       14th Infantry
  HIRSCH, JACOB                          A        4th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HOFMAN, SAMUEL                         H        4th Infantry
  HOFMAN, JACOB                          I        4th Infantry
  HOFMAN, LEVI W.                        I        7th Infantry
  HOFMAN, AARON           Sergeant       H        8th Infantry
     Promoted from Corporal.
  HOFMAN, ABRAHAM                        H        8th Infantry
  HOFMAN, ELIAS                          H        8th Infantry
  HAYS, DAVID                            I       10th Infantry
  HAAS, JACOB                            G       10th Infantry
  HARRIS, ABRAHAM M.      Corporal       D       13th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  HELLER, JOSEPH                         C       13th Infantry
  HARTMAN, REUBEN         Sergeant       H        23d Infantry
  HOFMAN, BENJAMIN                       D       24th Infantry
  HELLER, ADOLPH                         D       24th Infantry
  HAHN, HENRY                            B       26th Infantry
  HART, JOSEPH S.                        B       27th Infantry
  HART, NOAH L.                          B       28th Infantry
  HARRIS, ABRAHAM C.                     H       30th Infantry
  HART, ABRAHAM                          K       30th Infantry
  HOFMAN, DAVID                          A       31st Infantry
  HAMBURG, AUGUST                        E        33d Infantry
  HIRSCH, FERDINAND                      F        33d Infantry
  HEYMAN, HENRY                          I       35th Infantry
  HENMAN, JOSEPH                         K       35th Infantry
  HESS, JOSEPH                           I       40th Infantry
  HART, JACOB                            A         1st Cavalry
  HART, DAVID                            H         1st Cavalry
  HARRIS, ABRAHAM SERGEANT               I         1st Cavalry
      Enlisted as Private; served four years.
  HARRIS, BENJAMIN                       C         2nd Cavalry
  HIRSCH, FREDERICK                      E         2nd Cavalry
  HART, SAMUEL                           I         2nd Cavalry
  HARRIS, ELIAS                          M         2nd Cavalry
  HOFMAN, AARON                          A          3d Cavalry
  HERRMAN, GUSTAV                        C          3d Cavalry
  HARRIS, DAVID                          G          3d Cavalry
  HARRIS, SAMUEL                         H          3d Cavalry
  HERZBERG, ALBERT         Captain       I          3d Cavalry
  HIRSCH, LOUIS                          K          3d Cavalry

  ISAAC, HENRY                           H         3d Infantry

  JACOBY, AUGUST                         D        2nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBY, FRITZ                                   4th Infantry
  JACOBSON, CHARLES                      A        4th Infantry
  JOSEFF, EMANUEL                        E        4th Infantry
  JOSEFF, PHILIP                         E        4th Infantry
  JACOBSON, WILLIAM E.                   B        8th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBSON, ISRAEL J.                    K       11th Infantry
      Captured; died at Libby Prison.
  JACOBUS, ABRAHAM                       F       15th Infantry
  JACOBY, SAMUEL                         I       28th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  JACOBSON, W. E.         Corporal       D       38th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  JACOBSON, LOUIS                        D       40th Infantry
  JACOB, D.                              A       1st Artillery

  KING, MOSES W.                         G        1st Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ADOLPH                        K        1st Infantry
  KAUFMAN, FREDERICK                     C        2nd Infantry
  KAMINZKY, JOSEPH                       D        2nd Infantry
  KATZENBERG, JOSEPH                     B        4th Infantry
  KOCH, JACOB                            K        7th Infantry
  KING, ASHER             Corporal       C        8th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  KLEIN, MANUEL           2nd Lieutenant A       15th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  KING, ABRAHAM G.                       B       15th Infantry
      Killed at Spottsylvania.
  KLEIN, JULIUS                          A       21st Infantry
  KING, AARON                            A       25th Infantry
  KING, JACOB                            C       25th Infantry
  KOHN, LEIB                             I       35th Infantry
  KLEIN, BENJAMIN                        G       38th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, JACOB                         B       40th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, SAMUEL                          5th Hancock's Corps
  KATZ, JACOB                            D         2nd Cavalry
  KOCH, GOTTLIEB                         I          3d Cavalry
  KOEHLER, ELIAS                         K          3d Cavalry
  KOCH, HERMAN                                       Battery C

  LYON, BENJAMIN                         D        1st Infantry
  LINDEMAN, ADOLPH                       K        1st Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, GEORGE                      K        1st Infantry
  LILIENDALL, GUSTAV      Captain        D        2nd Infantry
  LOEB, LOUIS                            I         3d Infantry
      Leg amputated.
  LEO, CHARLES                           C        4th Infantry
  LEOPOLD, WILLIAM                       B        5th Infantry
  LIMBURGER, ALBERT                      H        5th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  LOEB, JOHN E.           Sergeant       I        6th Infantry
  LOEB, W. W.                            I        6th Infantry
  LYON, SAMUEL                           C        7th Infantry
  LEVY, JOSEPH                           I        8th Infantry
  LEAVY, CHARLES M.                               9th Infantry
  LEVY, WILLIAM P.                       K        9th Infantry
  LICHTENFELZ, LUDWIG                    I       12th Infantry
  LANGENDORF, JACOB                      A       13th Infantry
  LEVI, DAVID                            B       13th Infantry
      Served four years.
  LEHMAN, CHARLES                        F       14th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, LEWIS                       C       22nd Infantry
  LEVI, MARCUS                           C       26th Infantry
  LEVI, MORRIS                           I       30th Infantry
  LEVI, HERMAN J.                        G       34th Infantry
  LYON, SAMUEL                           C       35th Infantry
  LIMBURGER, DAVID                       K       35th Infantry
  LIMBURGER, W. H.                       K       35th Infantry
  LEVINE, WILLIAM                        F       40th Infantry
  LEVI, MAX                              C         1st Cavalry
  LEVI, MORRIS                           D         1st Cavalry
      Died in the service

  MENDEL, JACOB                          K        1st Infantry
  MARX, CHARLES                          E        2nd Infantry
  MAYER, JACOB                           G        2nd Infantry
  MARX, AUGUST                           F         3d Infantry
  MAYER, FRANK                           D        7th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MARX, MARTIN            Corporal       B        7th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  MEYER, JACOB            Corporal       H        9th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MARKS, EMANUEL                         B       10th Infantry
  MEIER, HENRY                           C       11th Infantry
  MEYERS, JACOB           Sergeant       G       11th Infantry
      Wounded at Chancellorsville.
  MAYERS, JACOB                          E       15th Infantry
  MAAS, FREDERICK W.                     E       22nd Infantry
  MARKS, JOSEPH                          D       29th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MAYER, SAMUEL                          E       29th Infantry
  MENDEL, WILLIAM                        B       30th Infantry
  MARKS, JOSEPH C.                       F       38th Infantry
  MAYER, JACOB                           I       40th Infantry
  MAYER, AUGUST                                      Battery A
  MANN, FERDINAND                                    Battery C
  MEYER. ADOLPH           2nd Lieutenant         1st Regiment,
                                               Hancock's Corps
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  MARKS, FREDERICK                               1st Regiment,
                                               Hancock's Corps

  NAUMAN, GUSTAV                         F        9th Infantry
  NUSSBAUM, MICHAEL                      H       10th Infantry
  NEWMAN, DAVID M.       Corporal        I       29th Infantry
  NAUMAN, JULIUS         Corporal        I       31st Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  NAUMAN, JULIUS                         I       35th Infantry
  NEUSTADT, MAX                          C       66th Infantry

  OPPENHEIM, DAVID                       K        1st Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, JACOB                                 Battery C

  PINCUS, ADOLPH                         K        7th Infantry
  PINCUS, SIMON                          C       66th Infantry

  ROSE, ELIAS M.                         C        1st Infantry
  ROSENBORGER, JOHN                      D        4th Infantry
      Captured; died at Andersonville.
  RICE, DAVID S.                         B        5th Infantry
  RAPHAEL, WILLIAM                       I        8th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  ROSE, DANIEL M.                        I        8th Infantry
  ROSE, ABRAHAM H.                       F        9th Infantry
  ROSE, SAMUEL                           E       11th Infantry
  ROSE, HENRY                            D       14th Infantry
  ROSE, SAMUEL B.                        F       14th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  RICE, DAVID                            A       21st Infantry
  ROSENDALE, GEORGE                      B       30th Infantry
  ROSENDALE, GEORGE                      A       35th Infantry
  RUBENSTEIN, SAMUEL                     K         1st Cavalry
  ROSENBERG, JOHN                        G         2nd Cavalry
  ROSE, BENJAMIN                         A          3d Cavalry
  RICE, JACOB                            D         2nd Cavalry
  ROSENBERG, BENJAMIN                    Veteran Reserve Corps
  SOLOMON, CHARLES                       A        1st Infantry
  SAMPSON, DAVID                         A        2nd Infantry
      Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  STEIN, GUSTAV                          H        2nd Infantry
  SALMON, ABRAHAM         1st Lieutenant A         3d Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  SOLOMON. SAMUEL D.                     G         3d Infantry
  SALZMAN, LOUIS                         K         3d Infantry
  SACHS, HENRY                           H        5th Infantry
  STRAUS, CHARLES                        H        5th Infantry
  STRAUSS, JONATHAN                      G        6th Infantry
  STERN, JOSEPH                          H        7th Infantry
  SPANNENGBERG, MOSES                    I        7th Infantry
  SPANNENGBERG, WILLIAM                  I        7th Infantry
  SICKLES, SOLOMON                       H       14th Infantry
  STEIN, JACOB                           A       14th Infantry
  SALMON, LEWIS A.        Sergeant       F       15th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  SIMON, ADOLPH                          G       21st Infantry
  STRAUSS, WILLIAM                       C       22nd Infantry
  STINE, ISAAC                           K       27th Infantry
  STEINFELD, HARRY                       C       34th Infantry
  SIMONS, LEWIS                          I       34th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  SOLINGER, LEE                          K       35th Infantry
  SACHS, ABRAHAM                         B       40th Infantry
  SACHS, NOAH                            B       40th Infantry
  STRAUSS, NATHANIEL                     E       40th Infantry
  STEIN, HERMAN                          Veteran Reserve Corps
  SACKS, DAVID                                       Battery A
      Died in the service.
  STEIN, HERMAN SERGEANT                             Battery C
      Entered as Private.

  WOLF, NATHANIEL                        D        1st Infantry
  WEISS, ADOLPH           Captain        A        2nd Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  WOLF, CHARLES                          I        4th Infantry
  WOLF, HERMAN                           F        8th Infantry
  WOLF, HENRY                            A        9th Infantry
  WOLF, JOSEPH            Corporal       I        9th Infantry
  WOLF, SAMUEL                           B       27th Infantry
  WOLF, FERDINAND         Lieutenant     C       27th Infantry
  WOLF, DAVID             Corporal       A        33d Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  WEIL, JOSEPH                           I        33d Infantry
  WOLF, SELIG                            B       39th Infantry
  WEILER, JOSEPH                         R       39th Infantry
  WOLF, JOSEPH                           K       40th Infantry
  WEISS, AARON                           I         1st Cavalry
  WOLF, GUSTAV                           I          3d Cavalry
  WOLF, FREDERICK                        I          3d Cavalry
  WOLF, DAVID                                          Militia


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  KAHN, EMIL M.                          F        7th Infantry
      Killed at Fort Laramie by Indians.

  MAYER, ADOLPH A.        Inspector-General       4th Infantry
    Promoted for efficiency Inspector-General, and by special
    appointment of President Lincoln assigned toPennsylvania.


  NAME.                   RANK.           COMPANY.   REGIMENT.

  ABRAHAM, EDWARD                        I        1st Infantry
  ASHER, WILLIAM                         G         3d Infantry
  ASSENHEIMER, O. C.                     B        5th Infantry
  ADLER, HEINRICH                        I        8th Infantry
  ARENSON, DANIEL                        D        9th Infantry
  ASH, JACOB                             B       13th Infantry
  APPLE, SALOMON                         D       20th Infantry
  AUGUST, SIMON                          A       24th Infantry
  ADLER, SIMON                           E       25th Infantry
  ABRAMS, WILLIAM H.                     H       27th Infantry
  ARNHEIM, JULIUS                        I       29th Infantry
  ABRAMS, ANDREW                         K       30th Infantry
  ABRAMS, JOHN                           K       30th Infantry
  ADLER, ISIDOR                          C       31st Infantry
  ARNOLD, DAVID                                  35th Infantry
  ARNOLD, EPHRAIM                        H       36th Infantry
  AARON, LEWIS                           B       38th Infantry
  ARNZ, J.                                       39th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, SAMUEL                      H       39th Infantry
  ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM                      D       40th Infantry
  ARNOLD, H.                             C       41st Infantry
  ARNOLD, GUSTAVE                        G       41st Infantry
  ALEXANDER, JOSEPH                      I       41st Infantry
  ASHER, JACOB H.                        C       44th Infantry
  ARNOLD, LOUIS                          G       45th Infantry
  ANSEL, JACOB                           H       45th Infantry
  ALTMAN, JOSEPH                         I       46th Infantry
  AARON, GABRIEL                         B       47th Infantry
  ABRAMS, AUGUST                         B       48th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, EPHRAIM                     R       50th Infantry
  AARONS, GEORGE                         H        53d Infantry
  ADLER, JOSEPH                          F       54th Infantry
  AUFANGER, SIEGMUND                     H       54th Infantry
  ASCHER, SAMUEL          Lieutenant     H       54th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  AUERBACH, JOSEPH                                 5th Cavalry
      Killed at Fredericksburg.
  ABRAHAMS, EDWARD                       F       57th Infantry
  ARNOLD, JACOB                          G       64th Infantry
  ALTENBURG, MORRIS                      H       64th Infantry
  ABRAHAMS, HENRY                        F       67th Infantry
  ASHER, PHILIP           Sergeant       I       68th Infantry
  ASHER, ADOLPH           Sergeant       K       68th Infantry
  ASHER, LOUIS            Sergeant       K       68th Infantry
  AUERBACH, J.                                   68th Infantry
  ABRAMS, JAMES                          C       70th Infantry
  ARNOLD, AARON                          B       72nd Infantry
  ACKERMAN, JOSEPH                       G        73d Infantry
  ARNOLD, FRANK                          A       76th Infantry
  ARNOLD, DAVID W.                       A       76th Infantry
  ACKERMAN, JACOB                        A       78th Infantry
  ARNOLD, NATHAN K.       Lieutenant             79th Infantry
  ACKERMAN, A.                           A        83d Infantry
  ABRAMS, GEORGE                         K       88th Infantry
  ABRAMS, EDWARD          Corporal       A       95th Infantry
  ABRAMS, W.B.                           F       97th Infantry
  ARNOLD, NATHAN J.                      A      100th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, JACOB                       F      100th Infantry
  ASHER, M. S.                                   103d Infantry
  ABRAHAM, JOSEPH                        A      112th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, OSCAR                       I      115th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, MOSES                         E      119th Infantry
  ABRAMS, DANIEL                         H      122nd Infantry
  ANTHONY, A.                                   131st Infantry
  ASH, MORRIS                            C      132nd Infantry
  ASH, DAVID                             K      142nd Infantry
  ARNOLD, MARCUS                         I      146th Infantry
  ARNOLD, DANIEL W.       Sergeant       A      151st Infantry
  ABRAMS, LEVI                           D      158th Infantry
  ABRAHAM, LEVY           Lieutenant     H      164th Infantry
  ABRAHAMS, JOSEPH S.     Lieutenant            164th Infantry
      Killed at Cold Harbor.
  ACKERMAN, ABRAHAM                      K      170th Infantry
  ADLER, ALBERT           Corporal       G      178th Infantry
  ACKERMAN, LEWIS         Lieutenant     I      189th Infantry
  ADELMAN, EUGENE                        B           5th S. V.
  ABRAHAM, HENRY                         F           5th S. V.
  ASH, SAMUEL                            B           7th S. V.
  ABRAHAM, THEO.                         A          25th S. M.
  ACKERMAN, GUSTAVE       Corporal       A         4th Cavalry
  ABABOT, DAVID           Lieutenant     B         5th Cavalry
  ABRAHAM, AARON                         B         7th Cavalry
  ABRAMS, W. H.           Sergeant       G         9th Cavalry
  ACKERMAN, DAVID R.      Corporal       C        11th Cavalry
  ADLER, ISIDOR           Corporal       F        14th Cavalry
  ALEXANDER, EPHRAIM                     D        15th Cavalry
  ARNOLD, JACOB                          D        20th Cavalry
  ARNDT, ALBERT           Major        1st Battalion Artillery
      Killed at Sharpsburg.
  ABRAMS, SAMUEL                         A  1st Mounted Rifles
  ARNOLD, BENJAMIN                       E       9th Artillery
  ABRAMS, MAURICE                        A      16th Artillery
  ABRAHAM, MOSES                      3d Independent Artillery
  ADLER, SAMUEL                      9th Independent Artillery
  ANSBACHER, MOSES                  24th Independent Artillery

  BARNARD, LEON           Captain        G        1st Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant; transferred 9th Infantry.
  BLUMENSTEIN, J.                                 4th Infantry
  BLUMENTHAL, J.                                  4th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, EMANUEL                      A        4th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, LEVY                         B        4th Infantry
  BERNSTEIN, JACOB                       D        4th Infantry
  BERNSTEIN, MARK                        G        4th Infantry
  BARNETT, SAMUEL                        K        4th Infantry
  BACHARACH, JULIUS                               6th Infantry
  BORCHARD, NEWMAN                       K        6th Infantry
  BEHREND, WILLIAM        Captain        A        7th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  BERNHARD, FRANK                        C        7th Infantry
  BADER, ADOLPH                          D        7th Infantry
  BERNHARD, MORITZ                       F        7th Infantry
  BLUM, JACOB                            I        7th Infantry
  BARUCH, BERNHARD                       K        7th Infantry
  BEISHEIM, THEODORE      1st Lieutenant          8th Infantry
  BEHREND, M.                            C        8th Infantry
  BERNHARD, EDWARD        1st Lieutenant         11th Infantry
  BAHR, FRANK                            B       12th Infantry
  BERNHARDT, ALEXANDER                   F       16th Infantry
  BALL, FELIX                            F       18th Infantry
  BACHMAN, JOSEPH                        C       20th Infantry
  BEHRENS, GUSTAVE                       H       20th Infantry
  BIEN, MARTIN                           F        23d Infantry
  BENJAMIN, DAVID W.                     G       26th Infantry
  BACHMAN, SIEGMUND                      E       27th Infantry
  BERNE, MAX              Lieutenant             29th Infantry
  BRANDEIS, H.                                   38th Infantry
  BLUHM, JACOB                           B       39th Infantry
  BERLINER, SIEGMUND                     F       39th Infantry
  BAER, BERNHARD          Captain        H       39th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  BEHRENS, AUGUST                        H       39th Infantry
  BERNHARD, ADAM                         H       39th Infantry
  BROD, HERMAN                                   39th Infantry
  BARNETT, DANIEL                        B       40th Infantry
  BEHRENDS, HERMAN                       D       41st Infantry
  BRESLAUER, CHARLES                     D       41st Infantry
      Wounded in the head and abdomen, killed in action
      at 2nd Battle Bull Run.
  BERNSTEIN, LOUIS CORPORAL              I       41st Infantry
  BEER, JACOB                            B       42nd Infantry
  BARNETT, SAMUEL                        C       42nd Infantry
  BAEHR, WILLIAM                                 45th Infantry
  BAUM, JOSEPH                           B       45th Infantry
  BLUM, JACOB                            H       45th Infantry
  BERNHARD, JOSEPH                       A       52nd Infantry
  BLOCK, JULIUS                          G       52nd Infantry
  BLOCK, LOUIS                           G       52nd Infantry
  BERNHARD, JOSEPH                       E        53d Infantry
  BERNSTEIN, JOSEPH                      G       54th Infantry
  BLOCK, EMIL                            C       55th Infantry
  BRUCKHEIMER, MOSES                    {         6th Infantry
                                        {D       55th Infantry
      Disabled in the service.
  BENJAMIN, CHARLES                      G       55th Infantry
  BOSCOWITZ, C. J.                       D       56th Infantry
  BASH, ADOLPH            Lieutenant             58th Infantry
  BAUM, ADOLPH                           C       58th Infantry
  BLUMENTHAL, WILLIAM                    I       58th Infantry
  BERNHARD, ISIDOR                       A       62nd Infantry
  BAACH, JACOB             Corporal      F       62nd Infantry
                                         (Anderson's Zouaves')
      Wounded at Fredericksburg and at the Wilderness.
  BERLINER, SOLOMON                      K       62nd Infantry
  BACHARACH, MAX.                        D       63d Infantry
  BARNETT, MORRIS                                66th Infantry
  BAMBERGER, JOSEPH                      E       66th Infantry
  BIRNBAUM, ADOLPH         Lieutenant            68th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, GOTTLIEB                     K       68th Infantry
  BRUNN, JACOB             Captain       E       70th Infantry
      Killed at Williamsburg.
  BEHREND, A.                                    72nd Infantry
  BENJAMIN, ISAAC, JR.                   B       75th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, ISAAC                        B       78th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, OSCAR A.                     I       81st Infantry
  BENJAMIN, HENRY                        C       87th Infantry
  BARNETT, ISAAC                                 90th Infantry
      Severely wounded.
  BUXBAUM, JULIUS                        D       91st Infantry
  BENJAMIN, DANIEL H.                    E       92nd Infantry
  BENJAMIN, DANIEL                       A        93d Infantry
  BENJAMIN, JOEL                         A        93d Infantry
  BASH, J.                                       98th Infantry
  BARNHART, BENJAMIN                             98th Infantry
  BLOOMINGDALE, ALEXANDER                C      102nd Infantry
  BAER, LEOPOLD                          C       103d Infantry
  BERLINER, MEIER          Sergeant      F       103d Infantry
  BERKENMEYER, A.                        G       103d Infantry
  BEAR, FRANK              Sergeant      G      110th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, JOSEPH W.                    H      117th Infantry
  BEHRENS, L.                                   119th Infantry
  BACHMAN, ADOLPH                        H      119th Infantry
  BLOOMINGTON, EMIL                      K      119th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, FRANK L.                     F      121st Infantry
  BENJAMIN, ELISHA                       B      124th Infantry
  BLOOMINGDALE, JOSEPH                   D      125th Infantry
  BACHMAN, JACOB H.        Corporal      I      126th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, MARCUS                       K      126th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, A.            Lieutenant     D      131st Infantry
      Killed at Port Hudson.
  BLUM, ABRAHAM                          A      132nd Infantry
  BEHRENS, JOSEPH                               135th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, DAVID                        K      138th Infantry
  BERNHARD, HERMAN                       C       143d Infantry
  BAER, FRANK             Lieutenant     G      147th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  BRONNER, SAMUEL         Lieutenant     A      149th Infantry
  BAMBERG, FREDERICK                     C      178th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, DAVID                        C      179th Infantry
  BACHMAN, JACOB                         E      187th Infantry
  BERNARD, JOSEPH E.                     I      188th Infantry
  BERNHEIM, JULIUS                       K     1st Independent
  BLUM, JACOB                            K           5th S. V.
  BEHR, ISAAC                            F           7th S. V.
  BERNSTEIN, MORRIS                      F          22nd S. M.
  BACHMAN, JOSEPH         Corporal       G         1st Cavalry
  BERLINER, EMIL                         I         1st Cavalry
  BEHREND, MORITZ         Battalion                4th Cavalry
  BAUER, MORITZ                          M         4th Cavalry
  BLANK, SIMON                           H         6th Cavalry
  BACHMAN, FREDERICK                     H         8th Cavalry
  BERKOWITZ, LEON                        B        13th Cavalry
  BERKOWITZ, ISIDOR       Corporal       D        13th Cavalry
  BLOOMINGDALE, DAVID                    D        21st Cavalry
  BACHMAN, FREDERICK                     F        22nd Cavalry
  BLUM, E.                                        25th Cavalry
  BAER, JACOB                            I       1st Artillery
  BERNHARD, SIMON                        K      13th Artillery
  BLANKENBERGER, A.                      K      15th Artillery
  BENJAMIN, AARON                        H      16th Artillery
  BENJAMIN, FERDINAND                    B    Marine Artillery
  BEHRENS, A.                        2nd Independent Artillery
  BRILL, JOSEPH                     25th Independent Artillery
  BAER, SIMON                       30th Independent Artillery
  BENDELL, HERMAN       } Assistant }      6th Heavy Artillery
                        }   Surgeon }
                        } Surgeon   }            86th Infantry
    Brevetted Lieutenant-Colonel for meritorious and honorable conduct;
    afterwards Superintendent of Indian affairs for Arizona.

  CALISH, ARNOLD H.                      I        1st Infantry
  COHEN, HENRY E.         Corporal       H        5th Infantry
  COHEN, HERMAN                          K        6th Infantry
  CORPEL, BENJAMIN                       K        6th Infantry
  COHN, ALBERT                                    8th Infantry
  COHEN, LEWIS                           H        8th Infantry
  COHEN, ISAAC                           H       10th Infantry
  COHEN, THOMAS                          G       11th Infantry
  CANTER, LEON A.                           12th State Militia
    Captured at Harper's Ferry; exchanged; re-enlisted after being
    discharged at expiration of term (May 21, 1862--July 20, 1863).
  COHEN, SAMUEL                                  20th Infantry
  CONHEIM, JULIUS                        D       20th Infantry
  CHAPMAN, HARRIS A.                     A       24th Infantry
  COLEMAN, F.                                    27th Infantry
  COHEN, HARRIS                          C       31st Infantry
  CZAMANSKI, JULIUS                      C       31st Infantry
  COHEN, DAVID                           B       39th Infantry
  COHEN, ISIDOR                          A       41st Infantry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  COHN, ISAAC                            A       41st Infantry
  COHN, ISIDOR                           K       45th Infantry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  COHEN, JACOB                           F       52nd Infantry
  COHEN, JULIUS           Corporal       F       54th Infantry
  COHEN, JOHN                            C       62nd Infantry
  COHEN, ABRAHAM                         I       62nd Infantry
  COHEN, JOSEPH                          B       68th Infantry
  COHEN, LOUIS                           B       68th Infantry
  COHEN, ABRAHAM          Captain        E       68th Infantry

    Entered as a Private; for his soldier-like qualities, strict
    discipline and gallantry on the battle-field was promoted in quick
    succession to Corporal, Sergeant, Sergeant-Major, 2d Lieutenant,
    1st Lieutenant, and Captain of Company E, acting part of the time
    as Regimental Adjutant.

    Besides participating in many skirmishes Captain Cohen took part
    in the battles at Cross Keys, Port Republic, Rappahannock Station,
    White Sulphur Springs, Slaughter Mountain, Manassas, Bull Run and

    Being disqualified for further active duty he was honorably
    discharged, as shown by the annexed official order:

    WASHINGTON, December 23, 1862.

    _Special Order No. 408._

    The following officer is honorably discharged from the military
    service of the United States on account of disability: Captain A.
    Cohen, Company E, 68th New York Volunteers.

    By command Major-General Halleck,
    (Signed) E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

       *       *       *       *       *

    February 11, 1863.

    I hereby certify that I have known Captain Cohen as acting Adjutant
    and subsequently as Captain in the 68th Regiment, New York
    Volunteers, and that I have known him to be an efficient officer,
    while the 68th Regiment was under my command; I recollect that his
    name was favorably mentioned in connection with the battle of Bull
    Run, August 30, 1862.

    (Signed)      W. Krzyzanowski,
    Colonel Commanding 2nd Brigade, 3d Division, 11th Corps.

       *       *       *       *       *

    February 11, 1863.

    From the reports that have reached me, I take pleasure in
    certifying to Captain Cohen's efficiency as an officer and his good
    conduct in action.

    (Signed)      C. Schurz,
    Brigadier-General, Commanding 3d Division, 11th Corps.

       *       *       *       *       *

    STAFFORD, C. H., FEBRUARY 12, 1863.

    I take pleasure in stating to all concerned that Captain Cohen is a
    very efficient officer and has conducted himself in action bravely.

    (Signed)      JULIUS STAHEL,
    Brigadier-General, Commanding 1st Division, 11th Corps.

  COHEN, MOSES                           B        73d Infantry
  COHEN, LEOPOLD                         A      102nd Infantry
  COHEN, ----                            E      113th Infantry
  CORNELIUS, ABRAHAM                     G      125th Infantry
  CORNELIUS, JACOB                       E      127th Infantry
  COHEN, DAVID                           B      131st Infantry
  CORNELIUS, DAVID                       F      134th Infantry
  COHN, MAX                              F       163d Infantry
  COHN, WILLIAM                          E       173d Infantry
  COHEN, LEWIS                           E      174th Infantry
  COHEN, PHILIP, JR.                             193d Infantry
  COHN, ISAAC             Captain                    8th S. V.
  COHEN, COLEMAN                         B           13th S.M.
  COLEMAN, SAMUEL                        B         7th Cavalry
  COHN, HENRY                            A        18th Cavalry
  COHN, JOSEPH                           G       5th Artillery
  COHEN, SIMON                           E       7th Artillery
  COHEN, LOUIS                           G      16th Artillery
  COHNHEIM, MAX           Captain                41st Infantry
   (the author)
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  CASPAR, ----                           B     1st Independent
  COHEN, MOSES S.                             2nd Fire Zouaves

  DAVIS, SAMUEL                          H        1st Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID                           H        1st Infantry
  DAVIS, CHARLES                         F         3d Infantry
  DAVIS, BENJAMIN                        D        4th Infantry
  DAVID, SIMPSON                         D        5th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID P.                        F        5th Infantry
  DAVIS, HENRY                           D        6th Infantry
  DAVIS, GOMPERTS                        K        6th Infantry
  DAMPF, MEIER                                    7th Infantry
  DANTZIGER, ----                        H        7th Infantry
      Died from wounds received at Fredericksburg.
  DAVIS, G. D.            Lieutenant     I        7th Infantry
  DAMPF, MORITZ                                   8th Infantry
  DAVID, MORITZ           Corporal       E        8th Infantry
  DAVISON, GUSTAV                        K        8th Infantry
  DREYFUS, GUSTAV                        A        9th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID                           H        9th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID M.                        A       10th Infantry
  DEUTSCH, J.                            A       11th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, JESSE                        K       13th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, EDMOND                       K       13th Infantry
  DAVID, B. MORITZ                               17th Infantry
  DAVIS, JOSEPH                          D       18th Infantry
  DRYFUS, CHARLES                        A       20th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, ALFRED                       C       22nd Infantry
  DAVIS, BENJAMIN                        C       24th Infantry
  DAVIS, OSCAR C.                        B       26th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, WILLIAM                      B       26th Infantry
  DAVIS, EUGENE M.         Sergeant      C       27th Infantry
  DAVIS, JOSEPH L.                       F       27th Infantry
  DAVIS, SAMUEL                          C       28th Infantry
  DAVIS, JOSEPH                          E       28th Infantry
  DAVIS, JOSHUA C.                       E       28th Infantry
  DAVIS, SAMUEL H.                       K       28th Infantry
  DONDORF, EDWARD                        A       29th Infantry
  DAVIDS, SAMUEL                         A       34th Infantry
  DAVIS, L. H.            Lieutenant             35th Infantry
  DAVIS, ISAAC H.                        H       38th Infantry
  DAVIS, ISAAC                           H       38th Infantry
  DERNDINGER, LEO         Lieutenant             39th Infantry
  DAVID, EMILE            Corporal       K       39th Infantry
  DAVISON, GUSTAV                        D       41st Infantry
  DAVIS, HENRY                           G       42nd Infantry
  DAVIDSON, SAMUEL        Lieutenant     I        43d Infantry
  DAVIS, ALEXANDER                       C       44th Infantry
  DAVIS, LEWIS W.                        C       44th Infantry
  DESSAUER, FR. A.        Captain                45th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant on General Howard's staff;
      killed in action.
  DAVIDSON, DAVID C.                     A       51st Infantry
  DAVIDSON, CHARLES                      D        53d Infantry
  DREYFUS, HENRY                         K       54th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID C.                        D       56th Infantry
  DAVIS, MOSES                           K       56th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, SAMUEL                       B       59th Infantry
  DAVIDMEYER, LEWIN                      A       68th Infantry
  DAVIS, REUBEN                          H       80th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID A.                        G       81st Infantry
  DRYFUS, EMANUEL         Sergeant       C        83d Infantry
  DAVIS, FRANK                           E       87th Infantry
  DAVIS, MOSES                           H       89th Infantry
  DE WOLF, D. C.                         F       94th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID                           I       95th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID                           F       98th Infantry
  DAVIS, JOSEPH                          I      102nd Infantry
  DAVIS, ABRAHAM                         C      105th Infantry
  DAVIS, JULIUS                          G      110th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID                           G      111th Infantry
  DAVIS, ABRAHAM L.                      G      115th Infantry
  DAVIS, ABRAHAM A.                      B      118th Infantry
  DAVID, REUBEN                          C      118th Infantry
  DAVIS, ISRAEL                          F      119th Infantry
  DAVIS, DANIEL                          A      120th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID                           A      120th Infantry
  DAVIS, ISAAC                           A      120th Infantry
  DAVIS, SIMEON                          C      120th Infantry
  DAVIS, SIMEON J.                       C      120th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, D.            Corporal              121st Infantry
  DRYFUS, JOACHIM         Sergeant       D      127th Infantry
  DAVIS, BENJAMIN                        A      129th Infantry
  DAVIS, LEVI C.                         I      130th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, MORRIS        Adjutant       K    { 130th Infantry
      Lieutenant and Brevet Captain           { 176th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, MORRIS M.,    Quartermaster  K    { 131st Infantry
                                              { 176th Infantry
  DAVIS, EMANUEL                         K      137th Infantry
  DAVIS, EZEKIAH         Corporal        E      144th Infantry
  DAVIS, JOSEPH A.       Lieutenant             149th Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  DANIELS, JOSHUA                        F      150th Infantry
  DANIELSON, WILLIAM E.                  A      151st Infantry
  DAVIS, ABRAHAM                         D       153d Infantry
  DAVIS, ISAAC L.                        D      156th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, JOSEPH B.                    C      161st Infantry
  DAVIS, AARON B.                        C      169th Infantry
  DAVIS, NATHAN M.                       D      175th Infantry
  DURST, JOSEPH                          K      177th Infantry
  DE WOLF, MOSES                         H      184th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID J.                        C      185th Infantry
  DAVIS, BENJAMIN                        C      189th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, DAVID B.                     H           8th S. V.
  DAVIS, ABRAHAM                         L          3d Cavalry
  DAVIDSON, SOLOMON                      F         6th Cavalry
  DAVISON, ALEXANDER                     B        12th Cavalry
  DAVID, SAMUEL                          F        13th Cavalry
  DAVID, SAMUEL           Lieutenant     F        25th Cavalry
  DAVIS, EUGENE M.                       A    1st Net. Cavalry
  DAVIS, BENJAMIN                        E    1st Net. Cavalry
  DAVIS, SIMON                           H  1st Mounted Rifles
  DAVIS, ISAAC            Sergeant       C       2nd Artillery
  DE SILVA, HENRY                        B       4th Artillery
  DE SILVA, HOMER                        B       4th Artillery
  DAVIS, ABRAHAM                         K       7th Artillery
  DE SOUZA, W. H.                        B      15th Artillery
  DAUZER, CARL                                    30th Battery
      Killed at Gaines' Mill.

  ECKSTEIN, SAMUEL                       G        1st Infantry
  ESAU, FERDINAND                        E        5th Infantry
  EICHBERG, JAMES T.                     B        6th Infantry
  ELSNA, CARL                            C        7th Infantry
  EPPENSTEIN, CARL                       F        8th Infantry
  ELSNER, CHARLES F. 1st  Lieutenant             29th Infantry
  EISNER, GUSTAV                         I       29th Infantry
  ENGEL, HERMAN                          F       39th Infantry
  EHRLICH, HERMAN                        H       39th Infantry
  ECKSTEIN, DAVID         Corporal       B       41st Infantry
  ENGEL, MORITZ                          I       41st Infantry
  ENOCH, LEOPOLD                         I       41st Infantry
  EISEMAN, LOUIS          Corporal       C       46th Infantry
  ENGEL, JOSEPH                          C       46th Infantry
  ELIAS, BENJAMIN                        E       54th Infantry
  ENGEL, GILBERT                                 61st Infantry
  ELKAN, S.                                      62nd Infantry
  EMANUEL, ULLMAN                        E       66th Infantry
  ELSAS, JACOB                           H       68th Infantry
  ETTINGER, JOSEPH                       A       70th Infantry
  ELLIS, DANIEL                          C       94th Infantry
  ELLIS, ISAAC                           C       94th Infantry
  EISMAN, FELIX                          F      100th Infantry
  EPSTEIN, DAVID                         C      131st Infantry
  ENGEL, ADOLPH                          B      185th Infantry
  ENGEL, HERMAN           Sergeant       C           7th S. V.
  ELLINGER, ADOLPH                       C           7th S. V.
  EPHRAIM, MORRIS         Sergeant       H          47th S. M.
  ENGEL, ALBERT           Corporal       C        13th Cavalry
  ELLINGER, CHARLES                      D        18th Cavalry
  ERLANGER, MARTIN                  30th Independent Artillery

  FULT, LOUIS                            G        1st Infantry
  FRIEDENBERG, JAMES A.                  A        1st Infantry
  FRIEDBERG, ALFRED      Ensign          I        1st Infantry
  FRANKFURTER, BENJAMIN E.               D        5th Infantry
  FRANK, EMIL                            E        5th Infantry
  FRANK, AUGUST                          C        6th Infantry
  FREUND, AUGUST                         C        6th Infantry
  FRANK, LOUIS                           B        7th Infantry
  FRANK, JACOB                           B        7th Infantry
  FEDER, MAX                             E        7th Infantry
  FALKENBERG, HERMAN                     E        7th Infantry
  FISCHER, P. J.                         E        7th Infantry
  FRIEDMAN, ALBERT        Sergeant       D        8th Infantry
  FRANKENSTEIN, L.                                8th Infantry
      Killed at Fredericksburg.
  FROHBACH, A.                                    8th Infantry
  FROHBACH, GUSTAV                       I        8th Infantry
  FROHBACH, HERMAN                       I        8th Infantry
  FRIEDENTHAL, ABRAHAM    Sergeant       A       12th Infantry
  FIX, MAX                Sergeant       B       12th Infantry
  FELSENHEIMER, MARTIN                   B       12th Infantry
  FRANKENSTEIN, PHILIP                          20th Infantry
  FULD, MOSES                            C       20th Infantry
      Lost an arm in action.
  FLATTO, HARRIS                         A       24th Infantry
  FRIEDENBERG, WILLIAM                   H       24th Infantry
  FRANK, HENRY                           B       26th Infantry
  FRANK, JULIUS                          D       29th Infantry
  FRANKEL, LOUIS          Sergeant       F       29th Infantry
  FREUND, LOUIS           Captain        G       29th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  FRANK, LOUIS            Lieutenant             29th Infantry
  FLEISCHMAN, WILLIAM                    G       29th Infantry
  FRANKEL, HERMAN         Corporal       C       31st Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  FRANKENBERG, JULIUS                    C       31st Infantry
  FREUDENTHAL, DAVID                     C       31st Infantry
  FREEMAN, JOSEPH         Sergeant       G       35th Infantry
  FREDENBERG, DAVID                              35th Infantry
  FREDENBERG, J.                                 35th Infantry
  FREUDENBERG, ALEXANDER                 E       39th Infantry
  FREEMAN, SIMON                         C       40th Infantry
  FREEMAN, SIMON                         E       40th Infantry
  FLEISCHMAN, OSCAR       Captain        A       41st Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  FREUND, JOSEPH                         B       41st Infantry
  FRANK, JOACHIM J.                      K       41st Infantry
  FRANK, JACOB                           C       46th Infantry
  FLEISCHMAN, CARL                       F       46th Infantry
  FLEISCHMAN, JOSEPH                     I       46th Infantry
  FALK, JOSEPH                           B       49th Infantry
  FRIEDENFELD, CHARLES                   C       49th Infantry
  FRIEDENBERG, HENRY                     C       49th Infantry
  FRIEDENBERG, ABRAHAM                   K       50th Infantry
  FRANK, WILLIAM          Lieutenant     A       52nd Infantry
  FRANK, EMIL             Lieutenant     A       52nd Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  FRIEDENBERG, DAVID                     C       52nd Infantry
  FRIEDENBERG, ADOLPH     Captain        E       54th Infantry
  FLEISCHMAN, AUGUST                     H       54th Infantry
  FREUND, BERNARD                        H       54th Infantry
  FREUDENBERGER, L.                              55th Infantry
  FRANK, JACOB                           K       57th Infantry
  FRIEDLANDER, GOTTLIEB   Captain        C       58th Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  FLEISCHER, JULIUS       Lieutenant     D       58th Infantry
  FREEMAN, HENRY                                 65th Infantry
  FEDER, HENRY   } (Three brothers)              66th Infantry
  FEDER, ABRAHAM }         Sergeant      C       66th Infantry
  FEDER, ADOLPH  }         Corporal      C       66th Infantry
  FISCHER, ----           Lieutenant     K       66th Infantry
  FRIEDENBERG, NATHAN                    E       66th Infantry
  FALK, JACOB                            C       68th Infantry
  FRANKE, HERMAN                         I       68th Infantry
  FRANKE, JULIUS                         F       68th Infantry
  FELDSTEIN, THEODORE     Captain        I       68th Infantry
  FRANK, GOTTLIEB                        K       68th Infantry
  FRANZ, ELI                                     68th Infantry
  FRAENKEL, MOSES                        A       72nd Infantry
  FRIEDMAN, WILLIAM                      B        73d Infantry
  FRANKENBERG, WILLIAM                            83d Infantry
  FRIEDENTHAL, R.                                91st Infantry
  FIRTH, ISAAC                           E       91st Infantry
  FRANKFURTER, ABRAHAM                   E       91st Infantry
  FRIEDMAN, JACOB                        A      100th Infantry
  FRANK, C. P.                           E      100th Infantry
  FRANK, JULIUS           Lieutenant     A       103d Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  FALK, JOSEPH                           E       103d Infantry
  FREUND, HEINRICH                       D      119th Infantry
  FRANKEL, JACOB                         K      119th Infantry
  FRIEDLANDER, MAX        Lieutenant            122nd Infantry
  FIX, JULIUS                            E      122nd Infantry
  FRIEDENBERG, MORRIS                    G      128th Infantry
  FRIEDMAN, HENRY         Corporal       G      131st Infantry
  FREEDMAN, DANIEL        Corporal       B       143d Infantry
  FRANK, DAVID            Corporal       G      154th Infantry
  FRANK, MOSES                           F      160th Infantry
  FRANKLIN, MARCUS                              178th Infantry
  FRIEDENTHAL, FREDERICK                 K      178th Infantry
  FRANKEL, FRIEDRICH      Captain               187th Infantry
  FERDINANDSON, JULIUS    Lieutenant            191st Infantry
  FREUND, JOSEPH          2nd Lieutenant C     1st Independent
      Promoted from private.
  FRIEDMAN, PHILIP                       K           5th S. V.
  FRIEDMAN, JOSEPH                       B           7th S. V.
  FRIEDLANDER, DAVID      Major                     25th S. M.
  FRIEDENTHAL, JACOB      Captain        A          25th S. M.
  FREEMAN, BENJAMIN                      G          71st S. M.
  FREEMAN, CHARLES                       K          71st S. M.
  FREEMAN, ABRAHAM                       D         2nd Cavalry
  FRANK, GUSTAV                          M         4th Cavalry
  FRANKENBERGER, H.                                7th Cavalry
  FREUND, JACOB                          B         8th Cavalry
  FRIEND, FRANK                          E        13th Cavalry
  FRIEND, ISAAC B.                       B        13th Cavalry
  FRANK, LEOPOLD                         G        18th Cavalry
  FRANK, LEOPOLD                         I  1st Mounted Rifles
  FRANK, LEWIS                           L       2nd Artillery
  FRIEDMAN, HEINRICH                            13th Artillery
  FALK, JACOB                            E      14th Artillery
  FLEISCHMAN, GUSTAV                     E      15th Artillery
  FRANK, EMIL                            F      15th Artillery
  FRANK, JOSEPH                          F    Marine Artillery
  FELLEMAN, WILLIAM M.                   G         1st Battery
  FALK, JACOB                       13th Independent Artillery
  FLECK, C. C.                                    30th Battery
  FREUND, MAX.                                    30th Battery

  GANS, ALBERT                           H        6th Infantry
  GUMPRECHT, DAVID                       K        6th Infantry
  GOTTWALT, HERMAN                       A        7th Infantry
  GLAUBENKSLY, T. G.      Adjutant                7th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  GUTMAN, HENRY                          B        7th Infantry
  GUMPRECHT, HENRY                                8th Infantry
      Wounded at Fredericksburg.
  GUMPRECHT, JULIUS                               8th Infantry
      Killed at Fredericksburg.
  GOTTLIEB, JULIUS                       E        8th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, LEWIS                       C        9th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, ISAAC                       I       11th Infantry
  GREENWALL, PHILIP                              12th Infantry
  GREENFIELD, ALBERT                     K       19th Infantry
  GREENFIELD, CHARLES                    K       19th Infantry
  GRUNEWALD, FRIEDRICH                           20th Infantry
  GRUNTHAL, EDWARD                       I       29th Infantry
  GRUNEWALD, GUSTAV                      I       29th Infantry
  GOLDFISCH, ADAM                        C       31st Infantry
  GREENFELD, MORRIS                      H       31st Infantry
  GOODMAN, LEVI                          A        33d Infantry
  GANS, AUGUST            Sergeant       C       38th Infantry
  GOTTSCHALK, MICHAEL G.                 D       39th Infantry
  GOTTLIEB, HENRY E.      Captain                40th Infantry
  GANS, JACOB                            G       39th Infantry
  GOLDBERG, SAMUEL                               40th Infantry
  GOTTHOLD, ISAAC N.      Captain        F       42nd Infantry

    Promoted from Lieutenant. Mr. Gotthold was a gifted actor, whose
    impersonations of leading characters won for him high favor, and
    demonstrated his superior histrionic abilities.

  GRUNBAUM, JOHN                         K       45th Infantry
  GOLDMAN, FRIEDERICH                    H       46th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, ABRAHAM                     I       47th Infantry
  GOLDSCHMIDT, JULIUS                    F       49th Infantry
  GREENWALT, JOSEPH                              50th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, CARL                        I       52nd Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, L.                          G       54th Infantry
  GOLDVOGEL, ALEXANDER                   C       55th Infantry
  GOODMAN, HENRY                         K       56th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, CHARLES                     K       56th Infantry
  GOODMAN, BENJAMIN       Captain        B       77th Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  GOODMAN, ALBERT                        B       57th Infantry
  GOSLINE, HENRY S.       Colonel          Pinckney's Regiment
  GOLDMAN, AUGUST                        E       58th Infantry
  GOLDMAN, WILLIAM                       E       58th Infantry
  GANS, EMIL                             A       68th Infantry
  GOTTHOLD, AUGUST                       G       68th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, A.                          F       70th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, LEOPOLD                     C       71st Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, H.                                  80th Infantry
  GOODMAN, H. J.                         C       82nd Infantry
  GOODMAN, SAMUEL G.                     H        93d Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, WILLIAM                     F       94th Infantry
  GREENFELD, DAVID                       F       97th Infantry
  GREENHUT, S.                                  100th Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  GUGGENHEIM, J.                                100th Infantry
      Killed in attack on Morris Island.
  GOODMAN, HENRY S.                      A      100th Infantry
  GOLDSTEIN, PHILIP                      F       103d Infantry
  GREEN, S.                                     107th Infantry
  GOTTSCHALK, JACOB                      K      115th Infantry
  GANS, LOUIS                            E      119th Infantry
  GREEN, BENJAMIN H.                     E      125th Infantry
  GREEN, SOLOMON                         D      126th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JOSEPH W.                   H      127th Infantry
  GOODMAN, JOSEPH                        H      131st Infantry
  GOTTHELF, JACOB                        F      146th Infantry
  GREENWALT, HARRIS                      K      152nd Infantry
  GREENWAT, MARCUS                       K      152nd Infantry
  GREEN, OSCAR                           G       153d Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, HENRY                       B      164th Infantry
  GANS, ISAAC                            A      175th Infantry
  GANS, FREDERICK                        B      185th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, ABRAHAM                     A     1st Independent
  GOLDSMITH, G. B.       Corporal        A          22nd S. M.
  GOLDSMITH, J. W.       Sergeant        C          22nd S. M.
  GOLDSMITH, M.                          C         2nd Cavalry
  GOLDSTEIN, A.                          M         6th Cavalry
  GREEN, DAVID                           H        11th Cavalry
  GOLDSMITH, S.                          F        18th Cavalry
  GOTTLIEB, LUDWIG       Corporal        K       1st Artillery
  GOLDSMITH, WILLIAM                     E      16th Artillery
  GLASER, ADOLPH                         K      15th Artillery
      Killed in Virginia.
  GUMPEL, SAMUEL                         C      15th Artillery
  GREEN, MOSES S.        Captain                15th Engineers

  HAAS, PHILIP                                    1st Infantry
  HARRIS, JACOB                          A        2nd Infantry
  HIRSCH, ANDREW                         K        2nd Infantry
  HEYMAN, PHILIP                         D        4th Infantry
  HESS, CHARLES                          G        4th Infantry
  HART, DAVID H.         Sergeant        F        5th Infantry
  HEYMAN, NATHAN                         F        6th Infantry
  HIRSCHSON, EDMUND                      B        7th Infantry
  HESS, FRIEDRICH                        B        7th Infantry
  HEIMBERGER, CHARLES    Lieutenant               7th Infantry
  HARTZHEIM, CHARLES                     D        7th Infantry
  HEIMBURG, JULIUS        Captain                 7th Infantry
  HELLER, FRIEDRICH                      D        7th Infantry
  HOCHHEIM, LOUIS         Captain        F        7th Infantry
  HAAS, LEONARD J.                                7th Infantry
  HERZBERG, ALBERT        Lieutenant     C        8th Infantry
  HERZFELD, JOSEPH                       E        8th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, THEODORE                     E        8th Infantry
  HOFFMAN, JACOB                         H        8th Infantry
  HIRSCH, JULIUS                         I        8th Infantry
  HART, JOSEPH A.         Drum Major              9th Infantry
  HAYS, JACOB                            C        9th Infantry
  HARRIS, JOSEPH                         B       10th Infantry
  HARRIS, DANIEL                         K       11th Infantry
  HERSCH, J. S.           Corporal       G       13th Infantry
  HARRIS, LOUIS                          A       14th Infantry
  HESSE, ADOLPH                          C       14th Infantry
  HAYS, MICHAEL                          E       15th Infantry
  HARRIS, DAVID                          E       16th Infantry
  HARRIS, JOSEPH                         E       17th Infantry
  HARRIS, DAVID                          K       18th Infantry
  HOYM, OTTO              Captain                20th Infantry
  HOFFMAN, L.                                    20th Infantry
  HERRMAN, AUGUST                        C       20th Infantry
  HERRMAN, WILLIAM                       C       20th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, CHARLES                      D       20th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, HENRY                        F       20th Infantry
  HESS, JACOB                            K       20th Infantry
      Lost an arm at Chancellorsville.
  HARRIS, CHARLES                        G        23d Infantry
  HARRISON, SAMUEL                       A       24th Infantry
      Lost a leg at the Battle of New Hope Church.
  HART, BENJAMIN B.                      H       24th Infantry
  HERRMAN, HENRY          Corporal       C       25th Infantry
  HARRIS, ISRAEL          Corporal       E       25th Infantry
  HAMBURGER, SIMON                       I       25th Infantry
  HARRIS, ISAAC                          K       27th Infantry
  HERRMAN, JACOB                         G       28th Infantry
  HAHN, JACOB                            B       29th Infantry
  HUEBSCH, CHARLES                       H       29th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, CHARLES                    A       31st Infantry
  HIRSCH, MORRIS                         C       31st Infantry
  HOFFMAN, LOUIS                         D       31st Infantry
  HIRSCH, JACOB                          E       31st Infantry
  HAHN, JOSEPH            Sergeant       F       31st Infantry
  HAHN, FERDINANd                        G       31st Infantry
  HAHN, GEORGE                           G       31st Infantry
  HEIMAN, HENRY                          G       31st Infantry
  HART, DAVID                            B        33d Infantry
  HOOFMAN, EUGENE                        F       34th Infantry
  HAYMAN, SAMUEL          Colonel        B       37th Infantry
  HESS, ADOLPH                           A       39th Infantry
  HOCHHEIMER, CARL                       B       39th Infantry
  HEINE, LOUIS                           H       39th Infantry
  HAHN, CHARLES                                  39th Infantry
  HERZOG, LOUIS                          K       39th Infantry
  HIRSCHFELD, HERMAN      Surgeon        B       41st Infantry
  HIRSCHFELD, ERNST       Lieutenant     C       41st Infantry
  HERZ, JACOB                            C       41st Infantry
  HIRSCH, GEORGE                         C       41st Infantry
  HIRSCH, JACOB                          E       41st Infantry
  HIRSCH, SELIGMAN                       I       41st Infantry
  HART, SAMUEL                           F        43d Infantry
  HAYS, JOEL                             C       44th Infantry
  HAYS, NATHANIEL                        C       44th Infantry
  HARRIS, DAVID S.                       K       44th Infantry
  HAHN, P.                                       45th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, C.                           B       45th Infantry
  HESS, HENRY                            F       45th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, WILLIAM                      G       45th Infantry
  HAHN, CARL                             B       46th Infantry
  HAHN, CARL MORITZ                      G       46th Infantry
  HAHN, AUGUST                           K       47th Infantry
  HAYS, MICHAEL                          B       48th Infantry
  HERRMAN, JACOB                         E       49th Infantry
  HAMMERSLAUGH, SAMUEL                   A       54th Infantry
  HAMMERSLAUGH, SIMON                    A       54th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Chancellorsville.
  HEINEMAN, GOTTLIEB                     C       54th Infantry
  HERSCHFELD, CHARLES                    E       54th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, HEINRICH                     F       54th Infantry
  HERTZ, ALEXANDER                       F       54th Infantry
  HIRSCHFELD, HERMAN                     K       54th Infantry
  HOTTHEIMER, HENRY                              54th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  HARRIS, ISAAC C.                       F       56th Infantry
  HARRIS, JOSEPH                         F       56th Infantry
  HERRMAN, FERDINAND       Captain       D       58th Infantry
  HERZBERG, ADOLF                        C       59th Infantry
  HERSCHFELD, ELIAS                      I       59th Infantry
  HERSCHFELD, JACOB                      I       59th Infantry
  HART, DAVID E.                         A       60th Infantry
  HARTFELD, ----                                 62nd Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, DAVID                      F       62nd Infantry
  HERZBERG, FRIEDRICH      Lieutenant    A       66th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  HOCKSTER, MAYER                                66th Infantry
  HIRSCH, JULIUS                         C       66th Infantry
  HERRMAN, SIMON           Sergeant      K       66th Infantry
  HESS, JACOB                            K       66th Infantry
  HARRIS, LEVI                           H       67th Infantry
  HERZBERG, RUDOLF                       D       68th Infantry
  HAYS, SAMUEL                           E       70th Infantry
  HESS, JACOB             Sergeant               71st Infantry
      Color Sergeant and Commissary.
  HESS, MORRIS                           F       71st Infantry
  HARRIS, FRANK           Corporal       G       77th Infantry
  HERRMAN, ALEXANDER H.   Sergeant       C       80th Infantry
  HOUSEMAN, N.                                    83d Infantry
  HAYS, JACOB                            C        83d Infantry
  HART, LEWIS                            A       86th Infantry
  HERRMAN, WILLIAM                       C       86th Infantry
  HAMBURGER, SIMPSON      Captain        D       91st Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  HART, ALEXANDER                        D       91st Infantry
  HARRIS, JOSEPH A.                      H       95th Infantry
  HAYS, OSCAR A.                         G       97th Infantry
  HERRMAN, LOUIS          Sergeant       H       97th Infantry
  HECHT, BENJAMIN         Captain        B       98th Infantry
  HEILBRUN, PHILIP                              100th Infantry
  HESS, JOSEPH                           C      101st Infantry
  HAYS, ABRAM                            D      118th Infantry
  HART, JOEL                             G      113th Infantry
  HERRMAN, JACOB                         I       123d Infantry
  HIRSCHLER, NATHANIEL                          124th Infantry
  HAYS, DANIEL                           A      127th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, OSCAR                        A      132nd Infantry
  HEINEMAN, CHARLES H.                   A      134th Infantry
  HERRMAN, DANIEL                        E      136th Infantry
  HART, B.                                      139th Infantry
  HALLER, JACOB                                 140th Infantry
  HAYS, JOSEPH            Lieutenant            142nd Infantry
  HESS, JOSEPH                           A      144th Infantry
  HEINSFURTER, JOSEPH                           149th Infantry
  HYAMS, JACOB                           A      149th Infantry
  HARRIS, CHAPMAN A.                     A      149th Infantry
  HAYS, HENRY                            E      149th Infantry
  HAYS, DANIEL                           E      149th Infantry
  HAYS, SIDNEY                           K      151st Infantry
  HAYS, BENJAMIN E.                      H        10th Zouaves
  HEYMAN, R. B.           Corporal       A       153d Infantry
  HARRISON, HENRY                        K      158th Infantry
  HERRMAN, ALEXANDER                     C      162nd Infantry
  HAHN, LOUIS                            C       163d Infantry
  HAHN, PHILIP                           F      176th Infantry
  HERZOG, CHARLES                        B      178th Infantry
  HIRSCH, HENRY                          I      178th Infantry
  HAYS, BENJAMIN T.                      G      179th Infantry
  HARRIS, LEVI E.                        A      184th Infantry
  HESS, JONAH                            K      192nd Infantry
  HARRIS, FRANK                          H      194th Infantry
  HOLT, N.                               B     1st Independent
      Killed at Morris Island.
  HIRSCH, JOHN            Lieutenant     C     1st Independent
  HOLZ, LOUIS                            G     1st Independent
  HAYS, BENJAMIN J.                      D           7th S. V.
  HERZOG, JOSEPH                         G           7th S. V.
  HERZ, CARL                                        22nd S. M.
  HARRIS, SAMUEL F.                      H          37th S. M.
  HIRSCH, HERMAN          Corporal       E         1st Cavalry
  HIRSCH, PHILIP                         E         1st Cavalry
  HERZFELD, MORITZ                       I         1st Cavalry
  HEIDENHEIM, HENRY                      I         1st Cavalry
  HAYS, MICHAEL           Lieutenant               4th Cavalry
  HERMAN, LOUIS                          K         4th Cavalry
  HAHN, HENRY                            I         8th Cavalry
  HART, ISAAC                            E        12th Cavalry
  HART, JOSEPH                           F        12th Cavalry
  HAAS, LOUIS             Lieutenant              12th Cavalry
  HERRMAN, CHARLES T.     Corporal       K        12th Cavalry
  HESS, JULIAN                           L        14th Cavalry
  HAHN, ADOLPH                           F        16th Cavalry
  HAYS, SOLOMON E.                       B        26th Cavalry
  HOFHEIMER, SIEGMUND                    F  1st Mounted Rifles
  HAYS, ISAAC C.                         C  2nd Mounted Rifles
  HEINEMAN, WILLIAM                      E  2nd Mounted Rifles
  HERRMAN, MAX                           F        3d Artillery
  HART, ELI W.                           G       6th Artillery
  HAYS, ABRAHAM                          D       7th Artillery
  HAYS, DAVID H.                         K      13th Artillery
  HERZOG, CHARLES         Adjutant              15th Artillery
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  HESS, DAVID                            A      15th Artillery
  HESS, HERMAN                           C      15th Artillery
  HESS, JULIUS            Lieutenant              28th Battery
      Promoted from private.
  HESS, JULIUS            2nd Lieutenant         1st Engineers
  HARTFIELD, ----                        K       62nd Infantry
  HYAMS, JACOB                                            ----

  ISAACS, CHARLES L.                     A        5th Infantry
  ISAACS, JOSEPH          Corporal       A        9th Infantry
  ISENSTEIN, GEORGE                              24th Infantry
  ISAACS, SOLOMON                        A       40th Infantry
  ISAACS, ISAAC                          B       44th Infantry
  ISRAELS, LEHMAN         Lieutenant     A       55th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  ISAYAH, E.                                     59th Infantry
  ISIDOR, LEOPOLD                        F       61st Infantry
  ISAAC, JULIUS                              De Kalle Regiment
  ISAACS, J. J.                          D       76th Infantry
  ISAACS, LEVI                           K       78th Infantry
  ISAACS, MOSES M.                       D        83d Infantry
  ISAACS, ISAAC                          I        83d Infantry
  ISAACS, HENRY                          G       90th Infantry
  ISAACS, MICHAEL                        G       90th Infantry
  ISAACS, ALFRED S.       Color Sergeant H       95th Infantry
      Promoted from private; wounded at Gettysburg.
  ISAACS, SAMUEL                         D      132nd Infantry
  ISAAC, LEWIS            Captain                  5th Cavalry
      Promoted from private.
  ISAACS, DAVID                          B         5th Cavalry
  ISAACS, BENJAMIN                       E      16th Artillery
  ISAAC, V.                              F      16th Artillery

  JACOB, HENRY F.                        B        1st Infantry
  JACOBS, WILLIAM C.                     I         3d Infantry
  JACOBSON, PHILIP        Lieutenant              5th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  JACOBS, JOHN                           C        5th Infantry
  JOACHIM, CHARLES                       H        6th Infantry
  JULIUS, OSCAR           1st Lieutenant          7th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  JOSEPH, GOTTFRIED                      F        7th Infantry
  JACOBY, FRIEDRICH       1st Lieutenant G        7th Infantry
      Promoted from private; killed at Fredericksburg.
  JUPITZ, F.                           {          7th Infantry
                                       { I     3d (New Jersey)
  JACOBS, JOSEPH                         A        8th Infantry
  JACOBSON, IVOR          Captain        D        8th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  JACOBY, JOSEPH                         A        8th Infantry
  JACOBS, EDWARD                         D        9th Infantry
      Captured; died a prisoner of war.
  JACOBSON, LOUIS         Lieutenant     E        9th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  JACOBS, GEORGE A.                      H       17th Infantry
  JACOBS, GEORGE M.                      H       19th Infantry
  JACOBS, CHARLES E.                     H       19th Infantry
  JACOBY, ADAM                           F       20th Infantry
  JACOB, W.                              G       21st Infantry
  JACOBS, HYMES                          G       24th Infantry
  JACOBS, MORRIS                         E       25th Infantry
  JOST, J.                                       29th Infantry
  JACOBSON, HERMAN                       C       29th Infantry
  JONES, ABRAHAM                         I       31st Infantry
  JACOBUS, JESSE                         I       34th Infantry
  JACOBUS, HENRY                         I       34th Infantry
  JACKEL, JULIUS                                 39th Infantry
  JACOBS, CARL                           F       39th Infantry
  JACOBSON, JULIUS                       A       41st Infantry
  JACOBS, B.                             B       42nd Infantry
  JACOBS, GOTTLIEB                       K       45th Infantry
  JACOBY, SAMUEL                         K       50th Infantry
  JONES, BENJAMIN                        G       51st Infantry
  JACOBS, SAMUEL                         K       51st Infantry
  JACOBY, LOUIS           Corporal       I       52nd Infantry
  JACOBS, BENJAMIN                       B        53d Infantry
  JOSEPH, HENRY                          F       54th Infantry
  JOACHIMSEN, PHILIP J. Brevet Brigadier-General 59th Infantry

A New York paper makes the following remarks concerning This
distinguished officer, under date of January 7, 1890:

    "At the breaking out of the Civil War, the high virtues of this
    officer showed themselves in their brightest hue. He organized the
    59th New York Volunteer Regiment and, appointed as its Colonel,
    was ordered to the front. The Regiment was stationed at Fortress
    Monroe. While there he was appointed as United States Paymaster.
    Subsequently he was ordered to New Orleans under the command of
    General B. F. Butler. While on duty he fell from his horse and was
    so severely hurt as to be sent to New York. Rendered disqualified
    for further military duty, he was honorably discharged. Governor
    Fenton, of the state of New York, in acknowledging his eminent
    services, appointed him Brevet Brigadier-General."

  JACOBS, GEORGE ALBERT                  C       61st Infantry
  JULIAN, THEODOR                                62nd Infantry
  JOSEPH, ----                           E       66th Infantry
  JACOB, JULIUS                          K       66th Infantry
  JOSEPH, JOSEPH M.       Corporal       K       66th Infantry
  JACOBSIG, GUSTAV                       A       67th Infantry
  JOSEPH, J. ADOLPH       1st Lieutenant         68th Infantry
  JACOBS, HENRY D.                       K       70th Infantry
  JOSEPH, LIONEL                         C       72nd Infantry
  JACOBSON, EUGENE P.     1st Lieutenant         74th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  JACOBS, BENJAMIN                       I       82nd Infantry
  JOEL, JULIUS                           B        83d Infantry
  JACOBS, JACOB           Captain        F        83d Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  JACOB, LOUIS                           H       84th Infantry
  JACOBS, ISRAEL P.       Corporal       E       89th Infantry
  JACOBS, BENJAMIN                       G       90th Infantry
  JACOBS, CHARLES                        G       90th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOHN                           G       90th Infantry
  JACOBS, HENRY F.        Sergeant       G       91st Infantry
  JACOBSON, ISAAC                        H       91st Infantry
  JACOBS, J. S.                          H       92nd Infantry
  JONAS, DANIEL                          E      100th Infantry
  JACOBS, EDWARD                         I      101st Infantry
  JACOBY, MAX                            A       103d Infantry
  JACOBSON, HERMAN        Corporal       D       103d Infantry
  JACOBS, ELI                            B      109th Infantry
  JACOBS, HENRY C.                       H      110th Infantry
  JACOBSON, HERMAN        Sergeant       K      119th Infantry
  JONES, JOSEPH                          F      124th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOHN                           F      127th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOHN H.                        K      127th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOSEPH W.                      K      127th Infantry
  JACOBS, WILLIAM S.                     K      127th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOSEPH                         A      129th Infantry
  JACOBS, DANIEL T.       Captain        I       133d Infantry
  JACOBS, HENRY P.                       K      139th Infantry
  JACOBS, REUBEN                         G      141st Infantry
  JONES, ISAAC                           C      147th Infantry
  JACOBS, GEORGE C.                      A      149th Infantry
  JACOBS, BERNHARD                       D      156th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOSEPH                         D      156th Infantry
  JACOBS, ALFRED                         K      162nd Infantry
  JACOBS, MORRIS                         B      165th Infantry
  JACOBS, CHARLES                        C       173d Infantry
  JACOBSON, A. D.                        D      176th Infantry
  JONES, LEVI                            A      179th Infantry
  JACOBS, JACOB                          I      185th Infantry
  JACOBSON, ABRAHAM                      I       193d Infantry
  JACOBSON, HERMAN                       C     1st Independent
  JOSEPH, A.                             D           5th S. V.
  JACOBSON, W. H.         Lieutenant                 7th S. V.
  JACOBS, MAURICE H.                     F          17th S. V.
  JACOBSON, A. C.                        C          71st S. M.
  JONES, ABRAHAM          Lieutenant     A         1st Cavalry
  JACOBS, G.                             B         1st Cavalry
  JACOBSON, HENRY S.                     H        10th Cavalry
  JACOBS, CHARLES         Corporal       H        12th Cavalry
  JACOBS, CARL                           C        13th Cavalry
  JACOBS, EUGENE                         K        18th Cavalry
  JONES, HENRY                           G        22nd Cavalry
  JACOB, BENJAMIN                        M        22nd Cavalry
  JONES, JACOB T.                        E 1st Veteran Cavalry
  JACOBSON, HENRY                        B 2nd Veteran Cavalry
  JACOBS, ISAAC                          G       4th Artillery
  JACOBSON, W. C.         1st Lieutenant         5th Artillery
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  JACOBS, JOSEPH                         B       8th Artillery
  JONES, ISAAC                           F      13th Artillery
  JOST, JACOB                            I      15th Artillery
  JACOBOWSKY, MARCUS                 23d Independent Artillery
  JONES, MOSES                      28th Independent Artillery
  KLUGEMAN, NATHAN                       E     2nd Independent
      Also Veteran Mexican War.
  KUHN, JOSEPH                           I        1st Infantry
  KOHN, PHILIP            Captain                 5th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  KAISER, WILLIAM                                 6th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, WILLIAM B.     Sergeant       B        6th Infantry
  KOERPEL, BENJAMIN                               6th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, WILLIAM B.     Captain        F        6th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  KUHN, FERDINAND                        C        7th Infantry
  KRUEGER, LOUIS                         F        7th Infantry
  KONIGSDORFER, L.                                7th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, JULES          1st Lieutenant          7th Infantry
  KONIG, AUGUST           Lieutenant              7th Infantry
  KESSLER, LEVI                                   7th Infantry
      Wounded at Wilson Creek, N. C.; captured; confined
      in Libby Prison.
  KOHN, HEYMAN                           H        7th Infantry
  KOLB, JACOB                            I        7th Infantry
  KOHN, JOSEPH                           F        7th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, NORMAN                                 7th Infantry
      Wounded at Fredericksburg on left leg, and shell
      wound on right hip.
  KAUFMAN, JACOB                         A        8th Infantry
  KOHN, HYMAN                                     8th Infantry
      Killed at Fredericksburg.                  (reorganized)
  KAUFMAN, P.                                     8th Infantry
  KAHN, HENRY                            G       10th Infantry
  KOCH, LEOPOLD                          C       13th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, WILLIAM        Drum Major             20th Infantry
  KAISER, JACOB                          A       20th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ADOLPH                        B       20th Infantry
  KRAUSKOPF, GEORGE                      B       21st Infantry
  KIRSCH, JACOB                          E       21st Infantry
  KATZ, MICHAEL                          I       29th Infantry
  KOHN, BARNET            Corporal       C       31st Infantry
  KASSEL, JOSEPH                                 31st Infantry
  KOTTNER, L.                                    31st Infantry
  KAUFMAN, GUSTAV                        E       39th Infantry
  KATZ, LOUIS                            B       41st Infantry
  KAUFMAN, GOTTLOB                       D       41st Infantry
  KIRITZ, MICHAEL                                42nd Infantry
  KAUFMAN, C.             Corporal               45th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, LOUIS                         D       45th Infantry
  KAHN, CHARLES                          G       45th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, GOTTLOB        Sergeant       H       45th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, FREDERICK                     H       45th Infantry
  KLINGENSTEIN, J.                               45th Infantry
  KOHN, JULIUS                           D       46th Infantry
  KING, FERDINAND                        K       50th Infantry

  KOHEN, NICOLAUS                        D       51st Infantry
  KARPELES, HENRY M.      Lieutenant-            52nd Infantry
      Promoted from Major.
  KARPELES, R.            Lieutenant             52nd Infantry
      Killed in action.
  KAHN, CARL                             A       54th Infantry
  KAHN, CHARLES                          H       54th Infantry
  KOCH, LEWIS                            G       57th Infantry
  KOHN, JACOB                                    57th Infantry
      Wounded at Seven Pines.
  KAUFMAN, ALEXANDER                     E       58th Infantry
  KOHN, ISAAC             2nd Lieutenant A       66th Infantry
  KAHN, HERMAN                           A       66th Infantry
  KELLER, JULIUS                         K       68th Infantry
  KOHN, ADOLPHUS          Corporal       K       78th Infantry
  KING, JOSEPH                           A       81st Infantry
  KING, JACOB                            F       89th Infantry
  KING, NOAH                             H      100th Infantry
  KING, JOSEPH                           I      102nd Infantry
  KRAUTH, HERMAN          Captain                103d Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  KOHN, CHARLES                          A       103d Infantry
  KAUFMAN, HEINRICH                      A       103d Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ADAM                          F      104th Infantry
  KOCH, JACOB                            E      106th Infantry
  KOHNSTADT, ISIDOR                      G      132nd Infantry
  KOHN, FREDERICK                        F      134th Infantry
  KATZENSTEIN, JOSEPH                    F      140th Infantry
  KING, DAVID                            B      142nd Infantry
  KING, LEVI              Corporal       I      150th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, M.                                   159th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, C.                                   163d Infantry
  KATZENBERG, CHARLES                    F       163d Infantry
  KOHN, OTTO                             C       173d Infantry
  KOHN, HERMAN                           C      178th Infantry
  KATZENSTEIN, CHARLES                   D      178th Infantry
  KOHN, JACOB                            A     1st Independent
  KOHN, JOSEPH                           C           7th S. V.
  KOHUT, JACOB                           H           7th S. M.
  KALISH, HERMAN                         D         1st Cavalry
  KRAUSS, HENRY                          I         1st Cavalry
  KRAUSS, JOSEPH                         A         4th Cavalry
  KAUFMAN, JACOB                         K       1st Artillery
  KUHNE, LEVI                                     3d Artillery
  KAUFMAN, ADOLPH                        A      15th Artillery
  KOCH, JACOB                       29th Independent Artillery

  LEAVY, FREDERICK        Sergeant                1st Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  LILIENTHAL, JOHANN                     I        1st Infantry
  LIPOWITZ, HERMAN        Lieutenant     K        1st Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  LIMBERGER, AUGUSTUS     Lieutenant               3d Infantry
  LEVY, MAX                              G        4th Infantry
  LISBERGER, D.                          K        6th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, SIEGMUND     Lieutenant              6th Infantry
  LEVY, JOSEPH                           F        6th Infantry
  LEOPOLD, EMIL                          B        7th Infantry
  LEPMAN, CHARLES                        D        7th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, HENRY                       D        7th Infantry
      Wounded at White House Landing.
  LOWENSTEIN, JULIUS                     E        7th Infantry
  LICHTENHAHN, GEORGE                    F        7th Infantry
  LOEB, MAX                              K        7th Infantry
  LESTER, SIMON                          H        8th Infantry
  LIEBOLD, HERMAN         Captain                 7th Infantry
  LEVI, CARL                             A        8th Infantry
  LEVY, LOUIS                            B        9th Infantry
  LYON, MARK                             B       11th Infantry
  LYON, W.                                       11th Infantry
  LAZARUS, JOHN                          G       11th Infantry
  LAZARUS, HARRY         Corporal        G       11th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, PHILIP                      D       12th Infantry
  LOEB, ABRAHAM                                  12th Infantry
  LEDERMAN, WILLIAM                      B       12th Infantry
  LEVY, ABRAHAM                                  12th Infantry
  LEWIS, DAVID J.                        H       16th Infantry
  LINDNER, B.                            F       18th Infantry
  LORCH, CHARLES         Adjutant                20th Infantry
      Promoted for gallantry.                    (reorganized)
  LILIENTHAL, ADOLF      Sergeant        H       20th Infantry
  LEHMAN, V.                             I       20th Infantry
  LYONS, JOSEPH                          E        23d Infantry
  LYONS, DAVID                           K        23d Infantry
  LICHTENSTEIN, OSCAR                    A       29th Infantry
  LEWIS, EDWARD, A.       Captain                26th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  LORCH, RUDOLPH          Sergeant       C       29th Infantry
  LIEBMAN, FREDERICK                     F       29th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, MORITZ                     H       29th Infantry
  LICHENSTEIN, JACOB                     I       29th Infantry
  LEVY, HERMAN                           C       31st Infantry
  LEO, HENRY                             G       31st Infantry
  LEDERMAN, JOSEPH                       H       31st Infantry
  LEWIS, MARK A.                         C       34th Infantry
  LEWIS, ISAAC H.                        D       34th Infantry
  LEWIS, SALOMON                         E       34th Infantry
  LOSHER, JOSEPH                                 38th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, BENJAMIN                    D       39th Infantry
      Wounded at Cross Keys; also at Bristow Station;
      captured at Spottsylvania and taken to Andersonville
  LEIBNITZ, FERDINAND                    B       39th Infantry
  LEHMAN, HEINRICH                       C       39th Infantry
  LIESER, M.              Sergeant               39th Infantry
  LEDERER, EMANUEL M.     Lieutenant     G       39th Infantry
      Entered as private; twice wounded; promoted for
  LION, SIMON                            I       39th Infantry
  LEVY, ADOLPH                           K       39th Infantry
  LEWIS, D.                                      40th Infantry
  LEWIS, J.                                      40th Infantry
  LEVY, JOHN                             A       40th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, JOHN                       B       41st Infantry
  LEVY, REUBEN                           C       41st Infantry
  LEWIS, MOSES                                   42nd Infantry
  LEVI, ABRAHAM                          I       42nd Infantry
  LIPPMAN, ----                              Turner's Infantry
  LEVY, BENJAMIN                         B       40th Infantry
      Wounded at the Wilderness. U. S. Congress
      awarded him a "medal of honor."

Benjamin B. Levy enlisted at the age of sixteen, in the First New York
Volunteers, at the breaking out of the Rebellion, as a drummer boy,
and while his regiment was stationed at Newport News, Virginia, he
was detailed as Orderly for General Mansfield. While he was conveying
dispatches on board the steamboat "Express" to General Wool at Fort
Monroe, the steamboat was attacked opposite Norfolk, by the rebel
gunboat "Seabird." The "Express," with all on board, was in imminent
danger of capture, when young Levy saved the steamboat by cutting loose
a water schooner they had in tow. The water schooner was captured, but
the "Express" arrived safely at Fort Monroe. For this act Levy was
highly complimented by Generals Mansfield and Wool.

On the retreat from Richmond, under General McClellan, his tent-mate
was very ill, and to save him from being taken prisoner, Levy threw
away his drum, and taking his comrade's gun and equipments, went into
the fight with his regiment at Charles City Cross Roads and saved
two of the colors of his regiment from capture. For this act he was
promoted on the field by General Phil. Kearney to Color Sergeant of his

After the regiment's two years' service had expired, he re-enlisted
in the Fortieth Few York (Mozart) regiment, and at the battle of the
Wilderness he was distinguished for his gallantry. Here he was stricken
down by a serious wound, receiving a compound fracture of the left
thigh. Left on the field he was captured by Colonel White's Guerillas.
He lay on the field with no shelter for two weeks, and was then
recaptured by our troops that came from Fredericksburg. He was one of
the first from this State to receive a medal of honor from Congress.

Mr. Levy is a member of Phil. Kearney Post, No. 8, New York.

  LEHMAN, ARTHUR          Sergeant       G       41st Infantry
  LEHMAN, SAMUEL                         H       41st Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, HERMAN                     K       41st Infantry
  LYONS, HENRY                                    43d Infantry
  LEWIS, ISAAC                           I        43d Infantry
  LESTER, JOSEPH                                 44th Infantry
  LEVY, SAMUEL            Corporal       A       45th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  LIEBMAN, FREDERICK                     A       45th Infantry
  LEHMAN, GOTTLIEB                       F       45th Infantry
  LUDWIG, B.                                     45th Infantry
  LOESCH, S.                                     46th Infantry
  LEHMAN, WILLIAM                        B       46th Infantry
  LEWIS, LEWIS                                   47th Infantry
  LEHMAN, LOUIS                          B       49th Infantry
  LYONS, EUGENE                          K       50th Infantry
  LUDWIG, JACOB                          D       51st Infantry
  LEWIS M.                               B       51st Infantry
  LICHTENSTEIN, PHILIP    Major                  52nd Infantry
  LORCH, HENRY            Sergeant       C       52nd Infantry
  LEOPOLD, LOUIS          Lieutenant     F       52nd Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  LEOPOLD, FRIEDRICH                     I       54th Infantry
  LEVY, LEON                             A       55th Infantry
  LEHMAN, CHARLES                        F       55th Infantry
  LEWIS, ABRAHAM                         K       56th Infantry
  LEWIS, BENJAMIN                        K       56th Infantry
  LICHTENSTEIN, THEO.     Major                  58th Infantry
  LEVYSON, ABRAHAM                       F       58th Infantry
  LEVY, ROBERT                           G       58th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, HENRY                      H       58th Infantry
  LEVY, HARRY                            H       58th Infantry
  LIPPMAN, FRIEDRICH                     K       58th Infantry
  LYON, DAVID H.                         C       60th Infantry
  LAWACH, ----            Lieutenant             62nd Infantry
  LEO, FREDERICK P.                      G       64th Infantry
  LIEBERMAN, JOHN                        F       65th Infantry
  LIESER, JACOB                          F       65th Infantry
  LEVY, HERZ                             E       66th Infantry
  LEOROLDI, LEOPOLD       Captain        K       66th Infantry
  LOEB, LOUIS                            K       66th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, JOSEPH                     K       66th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, SOLOMON                    K       66th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, SELIGMAN     Corporal      B       68th Infantry
  LASSNER, OTTO                          C       68th Infantry
  LEHMAN, ADOLPH                         I       68th Infantry
  LIEBMAN, GEORGE                        K       68th Infantry
  LOEWE, A.                                      68th Infantry
  LEVI, WILLIAM            Sergeant      A       70th Infantry
  LIPPERWITZ, HERMAN                     F       71st Infantry
  LICHENSTEIN, PHILIP G.   Lieutenant-Colonel    72nd Infantry
      Promoted from Captain.
  LOEWE, MAX                             A       72nd Infantry
  LOEB, DANIEL             Adjutant      H       72nd Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  LOCHTE, DANIEL           Lieutenant            72nd Infantry
  LEWIN, CHARLES                         E        73d Infantry
  LEHMAN, C.                             F       74th Infantry
  LEOPOLD, ISIDOR                        A       78th Infantry
  LEVIE, JOSEPH                          H       82nd Infantry
  LEVY, JAMES                            E       87th Infantry
  LYONS, MICHAEL                         C       88th Infantry
  LEVY, JOHN                             I       88th Infantry
  LOWE, WILLIAM                          I       88th Infantry
  LEWIS, I.                                      89th Infantry
  LUDWIG, JACOB P.                       H       89th Infantry
  LEWIS, M.                                      96th Infantry
  LEHMAN, PHILIP                         I       97th Infantry
  LEWIN, LEWIS                           I       98th Infantry
  LEWIS, EUGENE H.         Corporal      F      101st Infantry
  LEWIS, ABRAHAM                         B      102nd Infantry
  LYON, DAVID E.                         H      102nd Infantry
  LEHMAN, ALBERT                         C       103d Infantry
  LEVY, ABRAHAM                          H       103d Infantry
  LEWIN, JOSEPH                          I       103d Infantry
  LEWIS, SAMUEL                          C      107th Infantry
  LEWIS, LEWIS                           H      108th Infantry
  LEWIS, SAMUEL                          I      112th Infantry
  LEWIN, N.                Lieutenant           114th Infantry
  LEDERER, CHARLES                       D      116th Infantry
  LEHMAN, WILLIAM          Corporal      E      116th Infantry
  LEHMAN, P.                                    116th Infantry
  LYON, DAVID              Sergeant      B      119th Infantry
  LANDAUER, MOSES                        C      119th Infantry
  LAZARUS, JACOB                         D      119th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, EDWARD                     I      119th Infantry
  LIMBURGER, GUSTAV                      E      121st Infantry
  LAZARUS, LEVI                          H      125th Infantry
  LEWIS, L.                                     127th Infantry
  LEIVY, ABRAHAM           Commissary Sergeant  132nd Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, LEVI                       D      132nd Infantry
  LEWIS, ISAAC                           K      132nd Infantry
  LYON, ABRAHAM                          E       133d Infantry
  LESTER, M.                                    134th Infantry
  LEOPOLD, GEORGE                        E      145th Infantry
  LESTER, LEVY                           E      147th Infantry
  LEHMAN, JOSEPH                         H      148th Infantry
  LIGHT, SOLOMON           Captain              149th Infantry
      Paralyzed in service.
  LEVY, HYMAN                            A      149th Infantry
  LIGHT, LEWIS                           A      149th Infantry
      Wounded at Pine Mountain, Georgia; severely
      wounded at Lost Mountain.
  LIEBMAN, HERMAN                        A      149th Infantry
  LAZARUS, NEWMAN                        A      149th Infantry
  LAUDERWITZBERG, LOUIS                  A      149th Infantry
  LEHMAN, MOSES                          A      149th Infantry
  LAZARUS, HARRY                         A      149th Infantry
  LOWITCH, MICHAEL                       A      149th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  LEOPOLD, FRANK           Lieutenant    C      151st Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  LEWIS, SIMON                           A      156th Infantry
  LEDERMAN, FRANK                        C      161st Infantry
  LEWIS, ISAAC J.                        D      161st Infantry
  LOESCHER, SAMUEL                       C      162nd Infantry
  LICHTENFELZ, CHARLES                   C      162nd Infantry
  LIPOLD, ABRAHAM                        A      168th Infantry
  LESTER, FELIX                          B      169th Infantry
  LOEB, ABRAHAM                          I      175th Infantry
  LEHMAN, A.                                    176th Infantry
  LOEWENTHAL, BARNEY                     F      177th Infantry
  LEHMAN, JOSEPH                         B      178th Infantry
  LEVY, ADOLPH                           C      178th Infantry
  LESTER, LOUIS                          G      184th Infantry
  LEVY, SIMON              {      } Colonel    1st Independent
  LEVY, FERDINAND          {Father} Captain    1st Independent
      Enlisted as Private. { and  }
  LEVY, ALFRED             { three} Lieutenant 1st Independent
      Enlisted as Private. { sons }
  LEVY, BENJAMIN C.        {      }        14th U. S. Infantry

The following are the records of these men:

    Colonel Simon Levy was commandant of Camp "Sprague," Staten Island,
    and general recruiting officer during the year 1863. Afterwards
    he received his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 1st
    Independent Battalion, New York Volunteers, and took command of
    that regiment at St. Helena Island, South Carolina, continuing
    in command of the same until its consolidation with the 47th and
    48th New York Volunteers in February, 1864. The Battalion Regiment
    participated, while under the command of Colonel Simon Levy, in the
    capture of Folly and Morris Islands, South Carolina, and in several
    other engagements.

    Captain Ferdinand Levy was in command of the skirmishing party
    of General Strong's Brigade at the capture of Morris Island,
    South Carolina, July 10th, 1863. This command was the first to
    land on the island, being the advance guard. Captain Levy was
    honorably mentioned for gallant services in brigade orders shortly
    afterwards. He is a well-known Israelite; and has served as
    Coroner, and is now Register of the city of New York; he is also
    active in Jewish institutions, secret societies, etc.

    Lieutenant Alfred Levy enlisted as private in the 1st Independent
    Battalion; was promoted to Sergeant and subsequently to Lieutenant
    for meritorious conduct. After the consolidation of the regiment he
    joined the 5th United States Artillery and served until the close
    of the war.

    Benjamin C. Levy enlisted in the 14th United States Infantry at the
    breaking out of the war and served until its close. He participated
    in fourteen general engagements and numerous skirmishes. His
    bravery on several occasions has been honorably mentioned.

  LYONS, C. H.            Adjutant                   7th S. V.
  LOWENTHAL, HENRY                       B           7th S. V.
  LEVY, JACOB                            E           7th S. V.
  LEVY, JACOB                            F           7th S. V.
  LIEBOLD, HERMAN         Captain        H           7th S. V.
  LEVY, ADOLPH                           C           8th S. V.
  LEVY, ALEXANDER                        F           8th S. V.
  LEVY, JOSEPH C.                        C          37th S. M.
  LEOPOLD, DAVID                         H          37th S. M.
  LEWIS, FERDINAND                       G         2nd Cavalry
  LYON, ISAAC             Captain        B         5th Cavalry
  LEVY, BERNHARD H.                      B         5th Cavalry
  LEON, ELIAS                                      5th Cavalry
  LEWIS, DANIEL           Quartermaster-           9th Cavalry
  LEWIS, ISAAC B.                        E        11th Cavalry
  LEVI, CHARLES                          E        11th Cavalry
  LEHMEIER, G.                                    12th Cavalry
  LUDWIG, EMIL                           F        14th Cavalry
  LOWENSTEIN, FREDERICK                  K        14th Cavalry
  LIEBMAN, FREDERICK                     K        14th Cavalry
  LOEB, EMIL                             M        14th Cavalry
  LEVI, FRANK                            C        16th Cavalry
  LAZARUS, H. LOUIS       1st Lieutenant H        16th Cavalry
  LEWIS, MORRIS           Captain                 18th Cavalry
  LAZARUS, HENRY           Captain                25th Cavalry
  LAUTHERMAN, HENRY                               3d Artillery
  LESTER, JACOB                           F        1st Veteran
  LEWIS, CHARLES E.                       F        1st Veteran

  LOEB, SIEGMUND           1st Lieutenant        7th Artillery
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  LEVY, MEIER                                    7th Artillery
  LEWIS, OSCAR                            H     10th Artillery
  LIEVY, JACOB                            B     13th Artillery
  LOWENSTEIN, MORITZ       2nd Lieutenant F     15th Artillery
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  LEVY, HENRY                             E     16th Artillery
  LOWENSTEIN, MORITZ                 2nd Independent Artillery
  LEWIS, SAMUEL           Lieutenant 5th Independent Artillery
  LOWENTHAL, LEOPOLD                            21st Artillery
  LOWENTHAL, JACOB                  31st Independent Artillery
  LIEBMAN, NEWMAN                                         ----
  LEHMAN, MOSES                                           ----
  LAZARUS, HARRIS                                         ----
  LEVY, HYMAN                                             ----
  LICHTENBURG, LOUIS                                      ----

  MORNINGSTEIN, HENRY                     A       1st Infantry
  MEYERS, JOSEPH                          B       1st Infantry
  MILETINSKI, MORITZ                      I       1st Infantry
  MANNHEIMER, MARTIN                      K       1st Infantry
  MORRIS, HENRY                           K       1st Infantry
  MYERS, SIMEON                           A       2nd Infantry
  MANN, A. ENSIGN                                  3d Infantry
  MEYERS, LEWIS F.                                 3d Infantry
  MYERS, OSCAR                            C       4th Infantry
  MEYER, FREDERICK                        B       5th Infantry
  MARKS, WILLIAM                          A       6th Infantry
  MARKS, AUGUST                           K       6th Infantry
  MOSER, J.                                       6th Infantry
  MEYER, HENRY                            C       8th Infantry
  MEYER, LOUIS                            E       8th Infantry
  MEYER, A.                                       8th Infantry
  MARX, GEORGE                           G        8th Infantry
  MEYER, LUDWIG                          I        8th Infantry
  MAY, MARCUS                            A        9th Infantry
  MEYERS, MARTIN                         C        9th Infantry
  MARTIN, J.                                      9th Infantry
  MORRISON, WOLF                                 11th Infantry
  MEYER, JACOB                           C       13th Infantry
  MEYERS, SIMEON                         K       13th Infantry
  MEYERS, JOSEPH                         A       16th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          E       16th Infantry
  MORRIS, MOSES                          K       16th Infantry
  MENCKE, ISAAC            1st Lieutenant        17th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  MAIER, J. JACOB                        I       19th Infantry
  MYERS, SAMUEL                          I       19th Infantry
  MAAS, JACOB                            A       20th Infantry
  MEYER, CARL              Corporal      B       20th Infantry
  MARKOWSKY, AUGUST                      B       20th Infantry
  MANN, MAX                Corporal      C       20th Infantry
  MASINS, LEOPOLD                        C       20th Infantry
      Lost an arm in action.
  MAYER, JOSEPH            Corporal      D       20th Infantry
  MEYER, MARTIN                          G       20th Infantry
  MAYERS, HENRY                          C       22nd Infantry
  MOSES, MARCUS            Corporal      F        23d Infantry
  MAY, D.                                        26th Infantry
  MEYERS, JACOB                          H       28th Infantry
  MOSER, JOSEPH                          A       29th Infantry
  MEYER, LOUIS I.                        D       29th Infantry
  MORITZ, JOSEPH           Corporal      I       29th Infantry
  MEYER, ADAM                            K       29th Infantry
  MEYERS, ISAAC                          D       30th Infantry
  MAYER, LEVI                            F       31st Infantry
  MANN, F.                 Corporal               33d Infantry
  MOSIER, L.                                      33d Infantry
  MARKS, FRANK                           F       35th Infantry
  MENDEL, SIDNEY           Major                 35th Infantry
      Promoted from Captain.
  MARKS, JOSEPH                          G       35th Infantry
  MYERS, DAVID                           E       36th Infantry
  MYER, CHARLES                          E       37th Infantry
  MOSES, ISAAC            Adjutant-General

    Adjutant-General of the 3d Army Corps of the Army of the Potomac,
    commanded by General Heintzelman; participated in the battles of
    the Peninsular Campaign; subsequently served with General Banks.

  MAIER, A.                                      38th Infantry
  MARSIN, F.                                     38th Infantry
  MAIER, JOSEPH                          C       38th Infantry
  MAIER, DAVID                           C       38th Infantry
  MOSES, DAVID                           F       38th Infantry
  MAY, H.                                        39th Infantry
  MEIER, HERMAN                          B       39th Infantry
  MAYER, CARL                            G       39th Infantry
  MEIER, FRIEDRICH                       H       39th Infantry
  MAYER, WILHELM                         I       39th Infantry
  MENTZ, S. D.                           K       39th Infantry
  MORRIS, DANIEL                         E       40th Infantry
  MORGENSTEIN, L.                                41st Infantry
  MEIERSON, MAX                          B       41st Infantry
  MEYERSTEIN, H.                         C       41st Infantry
  MEIER, JOSEPH                          E       41st Infantry
  MAY, HENRY              Hospital Steward       45th Infantry
  MAYER, AUGUST                          E       45th Infantry
  MAYER, JACOB                           K       45th Infantry
  MORITZ, JOSEPH                         K       45th Infantry
  MAYER, CARL             Lieutenant             46th Infantry
  MANTEL, LOUIS                          A       46th Infantry
  MEINHART, JACOB                        B       46th Infantry
  MILLER, EDWARD S.                      H       46th Infantry
  MARX, CARL                             H       46th Infantry
  MANDELL, J.                            K       46th Infantry
  MARKS, JOSEPH                          D       49th Infantry
  MOSES, AUGUST           Sergeant       G       49th Infantry
  MORRIS, H.                                     50th Infantry
  MEYER, ADOLPH           Quartermaster          52nd Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  MEYER, THEODORE                        B       52nd Infantry
  MOSES, GEORGE                          H       52nd Infantry
  MYERS, JOSEPH                          A        53d Infantry
  MAYER, FREDERICK                       F        53d Infantry
  MAYER, JACOB                           G       54th Infantry
  MOSES, HENRY                           K       54th Infantry
  MEYER, JACOB                           H       55th Infantry
  MEYER, GUSTAV                          B       58th Infantry
  MEIER, ISAAC                           E       58th Infantry
  MOSESSON, MAYER                        E       58th Infantry
  MARX, JOSEPH                           G       58th Infantry
  MARX, LOUIS                            G       58th Infantry
  MENDELSON, GUSTAV       Sergeant       D       59th Infantry
  MARKS, SAMUEL                          I       59th Infantry
  MEYERS, LEVI                           C       61st Infantry
  MORRIS, BERNHARD        1st Lieutenant D       62nd Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  MORRIS, A.              Lieutenant     K       62nd Infantry
  MEYERSTEIN, H.                         C       62nd Infantry
  MEYERSTEIN, ----                       F       62nd Infantry
  MEYER, ISAAC                           G       62nd Infantry
  MEYERS, SIMEON                         G       64th Infantry
  MIELZINER, ISAAC                                     Zouaves
      Killed at Bull Run.
  MEYER, ADOLPH            1st Lieutenant        66th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  MANNHEIM, SIMON          Corporal      A       66th Infantry
  MASIUS, LEOPOLD                        A       66th Infantry
  MANNHEIM, THEO.                        C       66th Infantry
  MOSES, J. HENRY          Captain       F       66th Infantry
  MANDELBAUM, S.                         K       66th Infantry
  MARCUS, SAMUEL                         K       66th Infantry
  MELZHEIMER, SAMUEL                     K       66th Infantry
  MEYER, ALBERT                          K       66th Infantry
  MEIER, CARL                            A       67th Infantry
  MORRISON, WOLF                             Ellsworth Zouaves
  MEIER, GOTTLIEB                        B       68th Infantry
  MOSES, SELIG                           B       68th Infantry
  MANTEL, LOUIS                          E       68th Infantry
  MEYER, FERDINAND                       K       68th Infantry
  MOSES, ISRAEL           Lieutenant-Colonel     72nd Infantry

    Was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the U. S. Army in 1847, and
    served with the Army of Occupation at Vera Cruz and Toluca, Mexico,
    and at Fort Crawford, Fort Leavenworth, in Oregon, Washington
    Territory, and Texas until his resignation in 1855. In the Civil
    War he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of a regiment attached to
    Sickles' Brigade, but was soon compelled, by failing health, to
    resign. He was appointed Surgeon of the United States Volunteers
    and placed in charge of camp hospitals in the Army of the Potomac
    and subsequently served with General Gordon Granger, in the West.
    He was mustered out of service in 1865, after receiving the Brevet
    of Colonel for faithful and meritorious services.

  MASIUS, LEOPOLD                        C       20th Infantry
  MARCUS, LEOPOLD         Lieutenant     H       72nd Infantry
  MEYERS, ABRAHAM                        A       74th Infantry
  MANN, GUSTAV                           D       74th Infantry
  MORRIS, P.                             K       77th Infantry
  MARKS, REUBEN                          A       81st Infantry
  MOSES, ABRAHAM                         H       82nd Infantry
  MEYERS, LEOPOLD                        I       82nd Infantry
  MOSES, J. C.            Corporal       C        83d Infantry
  MEYER, ALBERT                          K        83d Infantry
  MOSS, B.                                       90th Infantry
  MORRIS, J.                                     90th Infantry
  MENDES, DAVID                          G       90th Infantry
  MENDES, JOHN                           G       90th Infantry
  MOSES, SAMUEL B.                       I       90th Infantry
  MEYER, MARTIN                          C       97th Infantry
  MENZ, JACOB                            D       98th Infantry
  MEYERS, MARKS H.                       K      100th Infantry
  MENDEL, FREDERICK       Quartermaster          103d Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  MORITZ, FRIEDRICH                      A       103d Infantry
  MEYER, EMIL                            A       103d Infantry
  MAINSFIELD, MOSES        Corporal      D       103d Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  MAYER, LIPPMAN                         F       103d Infantry
  MEYER, HERMAN                          G       103d Infantry
  MORITZ, WILLIAM                        H       103d Infantry
  MAYER, FERDINAND                       I      108th Infantry
  MACEY, JUDAH                           B      110th Infantry
  MESSENGER, MORRIS                      H      112th Infantry
  MORRIS, SAMUEL           Corporal      C      113th Infantry
  MYERS, LEVI                            C      115th Infantry
  MANN, DANIEL L.                        E      115th Infantry
  MEYER, ISIDORE           Sergeant      C      117th Infantry
  MEYER, MOSES             Corporal      B      119th Infantry
  MORRIS, J.                                    120th Infantry
  MANNHEIMER, ISRAEL                     E      122nd Infantry
  MYER, AARON B.           Captain              125th Infantry
      Died of wounds received in action.
  MORITZ, JOSEPH                         I      125th Infantry
  MEYER, JULIUS                          G      132nd Infantry
  MAYER, JACOB                           K      138th Infantry
  MEYER, AUGUST            Captain       B      140th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  MARKS, DANIEL                          H      147th Infantry
  MAYER, ISAAC                           I      154th Infantry
  MARKS, SAMUEL N.                              157th Infantry
  MARKS, JOSEPH                          F      160th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH            Sergeant      F       163d Infantry
  MEYERS, BENJAMIN         Corporal      D      168th Infantry
  MAYER, EDWARD                          C       173d Infantry
  MAYER, AUGUST                          B      176th Infantry
  MARKS, ABRAHAM                         D      176th Infantry
  MAYER, JACOB                           K      177th Infantry
  MEIER, JACOB                           G      178th Infantry
  MEIER, JOSEPH                          I      178th Infantry
  MEIER, LOUIS                           E      179th Infantry
  MEYER, ABRAHAM                         I      179th Infantry
  MARKS, DANIEL E.                       H      184th Infantry
  MARBURGER, J.                                 188th Infantry
  MYERS, ISAAC            2nd Lieutenant         193d Infantry
  MEIERS, JACOB                          H       193d Infantry
  MORRIS, MARK                           A     1st Independent
  MAYER, JACQUES                         F     1st Independent
  MOSES, HERMAN                          G     1st Independent
      Wounded at Fort Wagner and at Petersburg.
  MEYER, GUSTAV                          B           5th S. V.
  MAYER, FERDINAND        Captain        D           5th S. V.
  MAYER, JACOB                           A           7th S. V.
  MORITZ, EDWARD                         K            7th S.V.
  MORITZ, DAVID           Sergeant       I          17th S. V.
  MEYER, LOUIS                           I          17th S. V.
  MOSES, NATHAN F.        Major                      7th S. M.
  MAYER, BERNARD          Lieutenant     B           7th S. M.
  MEIER, JACOB                           E           7th S. M.
  MEYERSON, FRANK G.                     D         1st Cavalry
  MAAS, AUGUST                           I         1st Cavalry
  MAYER, MAX                                       2nd Cavalry
  MOSIER, LEVI            Corporal       E          3d Cavalry
  MEYER, ADOLPH           Surgeon                  4th Cavalry
  MEYER, EMIL                            M         4th Cavalry
  MYERS, ----                                      5th Cavalry
  MINZESHEIMER, MOSES     Adjutant       A         5th Cavalry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  MEIER, ELI                             B         6th Cavalry
  MEYERS, DAVID                          C         8th Cavalry
  MAIER, JACOB                           H         8th Cavalry
  MOAK, JULIUS                                    10th Cavalry
  MOAK, HARRIS P.                                 10th Cavalry
  MEYERS, MOSES                          C        12th Cavalry
  MENDELSON, BERNARD                     E        13th Cavalry
  MEYERS, ISAAC                          L        15th Cavalry
  MAAS, ADOLPH                           I        16th Cavalry
  MAAS, JACOB                            L        16th Cavalry
  MARKS, FRANK                           B        20th Cavalry
  MEIERS, ISAAC, JR.                     A        21st Cavalry
  MOSES, MARK E.          Sergeant       F        22nd Cavalry
  MEYER, RAPHAEL                         E        25th Cavalry
  MOSES, PHILIP                          G 1st Veteran Cavalry
  MANN, DANIEL P.         Captain          Independent Cavalry
  MARKS, SAMUEL N.                         Independent Cavalry
  MAYER, ALEXANDER                       E      15th Artillery
  MAYER, LUDWIG                          H      15th Artillery
  MAYER, A.                                 1st Mounted Rifles
  MEIER, HERMAN                          H  1st Mounted Rifles
  MEYERS, JOSEPH                         D  2nd Mounted Rifles
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          K  2nd Mounted Rifles
  MAX, SAMUEL             Corporal       E       2nd Artillery
  MARKS, SAMUEL                          F       2nd Artillery
  MEYERS, JACOB B.                       K       2nd Artillery
  MENDELSON, MORITZ                      E       4th Artillery
  MEYERS, NATHAN                         F       8th Artillery
  MEYER, SAMUEL                          B       9th Artillery
  MAYER, JACOB                           K       9th Artillery
  MARKS, JOSEPH                          I      10th Artillery
  MEYERS, K.                             A      13th Artillery
  MARKS, LOUIS            Corporal       A      15th Artillery
  MEIER, JOSEPH                          H      15th Artillery
  MEIER, JACOB                           H      15th Artillery
  MARK, ISAAC                            E      16th Artillery
  METZGER, SALOMON                       E    Marine Artillery
  MYERS, DAVID                           H    Marine Artillery
  MEIER, MOSES                       2nd Independent Artillery
  MEIER, LOUIS                       9th Independent Artillery
  MEIER, LOUIS                       9th Independent Artillery
  MOSES, JOSEPH                          C    24th Independent
  MAYER, WILLIAM          General

    During the Draft Riots at New York City he did heroic service for
    which he received an autograph letter from President Lincoln,
    thanking him for the eminent services rendered by him to our
    country during those days of darkness. Subsequently, he devoted
    himself to journalism, editing several leading German newspapers.

  NEWMAN, ABEL R.                        I         3d Infantry
  NEWMAN, HENRY                          F        4th Infantry
  NATHAN, MICHAEL                        F        6th Infantry
  NEUSTADTER, JOSEPH       Quartermaster          8th Infantry
  NEWMAN, PHILIP                         B       10th Infantry
  NEWBURG, JOSEPH          Captain       G       10th Infantry
      Wounded at Fredericksburg; joined service again
      after discharge from hospital.
  NEUBURG, LIONEL C.       Sergeant      H       10th Infantry
      Entered as private.
  NUSSBAUMER, CHARLES                    C       13th Infantry
  NOAH, DAVID G.                         G       20th Infantry
  NOAH, MOSES D.                         G       20th Infantry
  NEWMAN, LAZARUS                        A       24th Infantry
      Lost a foot in action.
  NEWMAN, LEOPOLD C.       Lieutenant-   B       31st Infantry

    Was mustered in service as Captain; he rose to the rank of
    Lieutenant-Colonel. His term of service expiring a few days prior
    to the battle of Chancellorville, May 2, 1863, he expressed a
    desire to remain at the front and during that terrible struggle
    his foot was shattered by a cannon ball; was taken to Washington,
    where he died shortly after. President Lincoln visited him at his
    bedside, and brought his commission promoting him to the rank of

  NEWMAN, WILLIAM                        F       31st Infantry
  NEWMAN, LEVI L.          Corporal      I       32nd Infantry
  NIEMAN, CARL                           H       39th Infantry
  NEUBAUER, L.                                   46th Infantry
  NEWMAN, LOUIS                          G        53d Infantry
  NEWMAN, CHARLES          Lieutenant            54th Infantry
  NEUHAUSER, FERDINAND                   C       54th Infantry
  NEWMAN, ADOLPH                         H       54th Infantry
  NATHAN, WOLF                           D       55th Infantry
  NUSSBAUM, ABRAHAM        Quartermaster         58th Infantry
  NEUBERGER, AUGUST                      C       58th Infantry
  NEWMAN, ISAAC            Sergeant      I       61st Infantry
  NEWMAN, CHARLES                        A       61st Infantry
  NEWMAN, SAMUEL                         A       66th Infantry
  NEWMAN, ABRAHAM                        K       66th Infantry
  NUSSBAUM,  HENRY                       F       68th Infantry
  NEWBERGER, LOUIS                       G       70th Infantry
  NEWBERGER, ANSEL                       D       72nd Infantry
  NATHAN, HENRY            Corporal      K        73d Infantry
  NEELIS, ----             Captain               90th Infantry
      Killed at Port Hudson.
  NEWMAN, ABRAHAM D.                     F       95th Infantry
  NEWMAN, AUGUST           Lieutenant    D       103d Infantry
      Died of wounds received in action.
  NIEDERLANDER, F.                              115th Infantry
  NATHANSON, NATHAN                      B      119th Infantry
  NEWMAN, BENJAMIN F.      Sergeant      B      137th Infantry
  NEWMAN, FERDINAND                      G      140th Infantry
  NEWMAN, MORRIS                         D      146th Infantry
  NEWMAN, JOSEPH           Corporal      F      162nd Infantry
  NIEMAN, GOTTLIEB         Sergeant      K      174th Infantry
  NOAH, D.                                      186th Infantry
  NEWMAN, CARL                           D           7th S. V.
  NEWMAN, OSCAR                          K           7th S. V.
  NEWMAN, SIMON                          F          47th S. M.
  NIEBERGALL, JULIUS                              3d Artillery
  NEWMAN, ABRAHAM                        F       4th Artillery
  NUMBURGER, ALEXANDER                             4th Cavalry
                           Regimental Quartermaster
  NEUBERGER, MEIER                       L         7th Cavalry
      Captured; died in Andersonville Prison.
  NEWMAN, SIMON                          G        20th Cavalry

  OPPENHEIM, JACOB                       A        1st Infantry
  OPPENHEIM, ARNOLD        Adjutant               7th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  OPPENHEIMER, LOUIS                     H        8th Infantry
  OCHS, JOHN                             D       41st Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, HENRY       Corporal      B       42nd Infantry
  OCHS, JOSEPH                           C        16th Cavalry
  OPPENHEIM, DAVID         Sergeant      L      15th Artillery
  OSTROSKY, LEOPOLD                   1st Independent Infantry
      Wounded at Alutra.

  PINKSON, HENRY           Corporal      E        1st Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  PHILLIPS, LEWIS                        G        2nd Infantry
  PHILLIPS, JOSEPH                       E        6th Infantry
  PROSKAUER, HERMAN                      H        7th Infantry
  PHILLIPSON, FERDINAND                  C        8th Infantry
  PHILLIPS, MEYER D.                     A       10th Infantry
  PHILLIPS, ALFRED         Quartermaster         36th Infantry
  POLLOCK, BERNHARD        1st                   39th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; promoted for bravery
      at Cross Keys.
  PECK, LOUIS                            D       40th Infantry
  PISKO, EDWARD                          C       45th Infantry
  PROSKAUER, ADOLPH        Sergeant      G       52nd Infantry
  POTZNONSKY, MORITZ                     E       54th Infantry
  PINKSON, ISIDOR                        K       59th Infantry
  PHILLIPS, HENRY          Corporal      G       62nd Infantry
  POLLOCK, JOSEPH B.                     D        83d Infantry
  POLLOCK, DAVID           Sergeant      E       96th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  PHILLIPSON, ----                              100th Infantry
  PINKUS, L.               Sergeant      D       103d Infantry
      Wounded at Stone Creek; promoted from Private;
      captured and sent to Libby Prison.
  PHILLIPS, L.                           E      115th Infantry
  PEISNER, ELIAS           Colonel              119th Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  PEISNER, FERDINAND       Captain              119th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  PEISNER, FRANCIS         1st                  119th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  PINKSON, ISIDOR                               119th Infantry
  PINKSON, HENRY                         E      119th Infantry
  POSNER, JACOB                          E      131st Infantry
  PHILLIPS, ABRAHAM                      E      132nd Infantry
  PHILLIPS, ISAAC                        E      132nd Infantry
  PLATTO, HARRIS                         A      149th Infantry
  POPPELSTEIN, SAMUEL                    A      149th Infantry
  POLLOCK, JACOB                         I      149th Infantry
  PEYSER, NATHAN           Sergeant      K     1st Independent
  PEYSER, M.               Corporal      G     1st Independent
  PEIXOTTO, MOSES L.       Captain       B           7th S. M.
      Entered as Private.
  PHILLIPS, ----                                   5th Cavalry

  ROSENTHAL, JOHN                        G        1st Infantry
  ROSENSTRAUS, SELIGMAN                  D        4th Infantry
  REIZENSTEIN, CHARLES                   A        6th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, JACOB                       B        6th Infantry
  RHEIN, MORITZ            Captain                7th Infantry
  RITTER, G.                                      7th Infantry
  ROSENSTEIN, ADOLPH                     D        7th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, SAMUEL                      G        7th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, AUGUST                      I        7th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, M.                          D        8th Infantry
  RAUSCHER, J.                                    8th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, HERMAN                      F        8th Infantry
  RAPHAEL, JACOB           Corporal      H        8th Infantry
  REICH, SAMUEL                          I       10th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, JOSEPH                      K       10th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, GEORGE                      A       13th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, LOUIS                       D       17th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, CHARLES                     I       19th Infantry
  ROSENFELD, JOSEPH                      E       20th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, I.                          A       24th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, MILO                        A       24th Infantry
  ROTHSCHILD, MOSES                      A       24th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  ROSENBERGER, L.                        C       25th Infantry
  RASZHE, JULIUS                         C       31st Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, MORRIS                      C       31st Infantry
  ROWE, MORRIS             Corporal      E       31st Infantry
  REITLER, LOUIS           Sergeant              32nd Infantry
      Killed at Crampton Pass, Maryland.
  ROSENBAUM, JOSEPH D.                   D       35th Infantry
  ROWE, SAMUEL E.                        H       37th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, LEWIS                       C       38th Infantry
  RICH, GEORGE L.                        B       39th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL. GUSTAV                      F       39th Infantry
  RAPHAEL, ALFRED MAURICE  Lieutenant            40th Infantry
      Recipient of testimonials for bravery at Gettysburg.
  RACHEL, AUGUST           Quartermaster         41st Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  ROSENBERG, SAMUEL                      A       41st Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, JACOB                       I       41st Infantry
  ROSENBERG, JOSEPH                      C       47th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, M.                                  50th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, ANDREW J.                   K       50th Infantry
  ROSENBURG, MAX           Lieutenant            54th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, A.            Lieutenant            54th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, GEORGE                              54th Infantry
  ROSENFELD, HENRY                       C       54th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, DANIEL                      K       54th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, BARNEY                              55th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, ISAAC                       A       56th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, MOSES                       B       58th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, LOUIS                       K       58th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, K.                          K       58th Infantry
  REESE, J.                                      62nd Infantry
      Seriously wounded at Gettysburg.
  REES, ----                             K       62nd Infantry
  ROSENDALE, CHARLES H.                          65th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, EDWARD                      A       66th Infantry
  ROTHSCHILD, MORITZ       Lieutenant    K       66th Infantry
  ROSENDALE, SILAS         Captain               68th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  ROSENTHAL, JOSEPH                      G       79th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, JOSEPH                      F       82nd Infantry
  RAU, MAX                               B       90th Infantry
  ROWE, JOSEPH                           C       91st Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, GEORGE        Corporal      H       97th Infantry
  ROSENBERGER, FREDERICK                 K      105th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, EDWARD                      G      113th Infantry
  RICH, FRANK E.                         I      115th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, LEVY                        I      117th Infantry
  ROSENSTEIN, DAVID                      E      119th Infantry
  REHMAN, MARCUS                         E      119th Infantry
  ROSENSTEIN, LOUIS                      E      119th Infantry
  REGENSBURGER, J.                              119th Infantry
  RICH, AARON P.                         B      125th Infantry
  ROSENDALE, DANIEL                      F      131st Infantry
  ROSENBURG, ADAM          Corporal      G      136th Infantry
  ROWE, MOSES                                   137th Infantry
  ROSE, ISAAC E.                         D      141st Infantry
  ROTHSCHILD, MOSES                      A      149th Infantry
      Killed at Lookout Mountain. Far in advance of his
      company he tore down the rebel flag, when he was
      killed by bullets.
  ROSENBERG, ISAAC                       A      149th Infantry
  ROSE, DANIEL                           I      149th Infantry
  ROSENBURG, N. J.                       I      151st Infantry
  ROSENBURG, ISAAC                       B      155th Infantry
  ROSENDALE, SAMUEL        Corporal      D      177th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  ROSENDALE, CHARLES H.                  K      185th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, D.                          D     1st Independent
  ROSENBERG, D.                          D     1st Independent
  ROTHSCHILD, SAMUEL                     F           5th S. V.
  ROSENBAUM, LOUIS                       B           7th S. V.
  ROSENBURG, ADOLPH                      H           7th S. V.
  REBHUN, JACOB                                     22nd S. M.
  ROSENBLATT, M.                         E         1st Cavalry
  REISS, NATHAN                          M         2nd Cavalry
  RICHTER, HERMAN          Lieutenant              4th Cavalry
  ROSENTHAL, ISAAC                       E        13th Cavalry
  RICH, BENJAMIN                         H        22nd Cavalry
  ROSENBURG, JOSEPH                      E        25th Cavalry
  ROSENTHAL, EDWARD                      G       7th Artillery
  REISS, SOLOMON           Lieutenant              8th Battery
  ROSENBURG, AUGUST                      C        14th Battery
  ROSENTHAL, MILO                                         ----
  ROSENBURG, ISRAEL                                       ----

  SILVA, FRANCIS           Captain                1st Infantry
  SCOOLER, HENRY                                  1st Infantry
  SEBESKY, WOLF                                   1st Infantry
  STEINHARDT, ----                                1st Infantry
  STERNBERGER, J.                        A        4th Infantry
  SOLOMON, JAMES                         B        4th Infantry
  SCHWARZSCHILD, HERMAN                  D        4th Infantry
  SIMON, JACOB                           B        6th Infantry
  SCHEIER, IGNAZ,                        K        6th Infantry
  STERNBERG, SIEGMUND      Captain                7th Infantry
  STERN, ALEXANDER         Lieutenant             7th Infantry
  STERNE, LOUIS            Captain                7th Infantry
  SIMONS, B.                                      7th Infantry
  STRAUS, JACOB                          F        7th Infantry
  SACHS, LOUIS                           H        7th Infantry
  SCHIMMEL, AUGUST         Captain and            8th Infantry
                           Assistant Quartermaster.
  SILVA, FRANK             Lieutenant             8th Infantry
  STRAUSS, FRIEDRICH                     A        8th Infantry
  STERNFELD, PHILIP                      D        8th Infantry
  SOBESKY, WOLF                          G        8th Infantry
  SCHWARTZ, EDWARD                       H        8th Infantry
  STRAUSS, SOLOMON                       H        8th Infantry
  SPOREHASE, ALEXANDER                            8th Infantry
  SACHS, LOUIS                                    8th Infantry
  STEINER, JOSEPH          Captain                9th Infantry
  SCHWEIZER, HERMAN P.                   A        9th Infantry
  SIMONS, HARRIS                         H        9th Infantry
  SOLOMON, BENJAMIN                      K       10th Infantry
  SIMPSON, FRANK H.        Commissary    A       11th Infantry
  SEIXAS, ISAAC G.         Lieutenant    C       11th Infantry
  STEFFTER, WILLIAM                              11th Infantry
  STRAUSS, PETER           Captain               12th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  SIMMONS, JACOB           Corporal      B       12th Infantry
  SALMON, LEON N.                        B       13th Infantry
  SIMON, JACOB                           I       15th Infantry
  SCHOENBURGER, NAPOLEON   Quartermaster         20th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  STERNBERG, MORITZ        1st
                           Lieutenant            20th Infantry
  SCHOENTHAL, JACOB                      B       20th Infantry
  SILBERSTEIN, MORITZ                    C       20th Infantry
      Wounded at Chancellorsville.
  SCHLESINGER, MORITZ                    D       20th Infantry
  SALOMON, LEOPOLD                       H       20th Infantry
  SIMON, JULIUS                          H       20th Infantry
  SCHWAB, GUSTAV                         H       20th Infantry
  SANDERS, HERMAN                        G       21st Infantry
  SALMON, DAVID                          D        23d Infantry
  STRAUSS, GEORGE                        E        23d Infantry
  STRAUSS, JOHN                          E        23d Infantry
  SHALENSKY, CHARLES                          {  24th Infantry
                                              { 149th Infantry
  SALOMON, HENRY                         K       25th Infantry
  STRAUSBERG, AUGUST                     K       28th Infantry
  SPEAR, JACOB                           D       29th Infantry
      Seriously wounded.
  SONNENBERG, EDWARD       Sergeant      E       29th Infantry
  SALOMON, LOUIS                         F       29th Infantry
  SIMON, CHARLES                         G       29th Infantry
  SIMONS, DAVID                          A       31st Infantry
  SALOMON, S.                            C       31st Infantry
  SUMMER, SOLOMON                        C       31st Infantry
  STRAUSS, ABRAHAM                       C       31st Infantry
  SULMAN, S.                             C       31st Infantry
  SALEK, ADOLF                           C       31st Infantry
  STRAZNISKY, J.                         C       31st Infantry
  STERN, LOUIS                           C       31st Infantry
  SCHONFELD, E.                                  31st Infantry
  STEINBACK, D.                                  31st Infantry
  SIMPSON, J.              Lieutenant            35th Infantry
  SIMONS, HENRY F.                       B       35th Infantry
  SALOMON, CORNELIUS                             37th Infantry
  SCHOENWALT, C.                                 38th Infantry
  STERN, JACOB                           C       38th Infantry
  SPIEGEL, LUDWIG                        C       38th Infantry
  SIMONS, LEWIS                          H       38th Infantry
  SIMONS, NOAH                           H       38th Infantry
  SIEGMUND, OSCAR                        F       39th Infantry
  SACHS, LEOPOLD           Corporal      I       39th Infantry
  SCHAINBERGER, ALEXANDER                A       41st Infantry
  SCHWEITZER, JULIUS                     B       41st Infantry
  SCHWEITZER, HENRY                      B       41st Infantry
  SIMON, HENRY                           B       41st Infantry
  STRAUSS, FERDINAND                     D       41st Infantry
  SACHS, FRIEDRICH                       H       41st Infantry
  SCHOENFELDER, GUSTAV                   K       41st Infantry
  SIMON, FRIEDRICH                       K       41st Infantry
  STRASSBURGER, J.                               41st Infantry
  SCHLESSINGER, ANTON      Sergeant      B       42nd Infantry
  SULCHMAN, ----           Lieutenant            44th Infantry
  SIMPSON, L.                                    44th Infantry
  STRAUSS, MAX                           G       45th Infantry
  SUSEDORF, CARL FREDERICK Captain               46th Infantry
  SCHLESINGER, AUGUST                    B       46th Infantry
  SELIG, JACOB             Captain       D       46th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  SELIG, ANDREAS                                 46th Infantry
  SCHIFF, SIMON                          C       47th Infantry
  SIMPSON, D.              Corporal              47th Infantry
  STEIN, GOTTLOB                                 49th Infantry
  SALMON, DAVID                          E       49th Infantry
  STEINBURG, SAMUEL                      G       51st Infantry
  SICKEL, M.               Quartermaster         52nd Infantry
  STERNBERGER, JOSEPH                    A       52nd Infantry
  SAMUELS, ISAAC           Corporal      D       52nd Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  SIMON, HENRY                           E        53d Infantry
  STERN, ADOLPH            Sergeant      I        53d Infantry
  STERN, WILLIAM           Lieutenant    E       54th Infantry
  STRAUSS, ABRAHAM         Sergeant      G       54th Infantry
  SCHULER, J.              Sergeant              54th Infantry
  SCHULER, F.                                    54th Infantry
  STRAUSS, DANIEL                        B       55th Infantry
                                                       (S. M.)
  SCHULER, CHARLES         Corporal              55th Infantry
  SILBERMAN, HENRY                       D       55th Infantry
  SCHWAB, HERMAN                         H       55th Infantry
  SIMONS, LOUIS                          H       56th Infantry
  SILBERBERG, ANSELM                             58th Infantry
  SALOMON, JOSEPH                        B       58th Infantry
  STEINER, LEOPOLD                       C       58th Infantry
  STEINBERG, ALBERT                      I       58th Infantry
  SAMUELS, HENRY           Corporal      C       59th Infantry
  STRAUSS, FRANZ                         C       59th Infantry
  STRAUSS, ABRAHAM                       D       59th Infantry
  SAMUELS, LOUIS           Sergeant      H       62nd Infantry
  SALOMON, PHILIP                        B        63d Infantry
  SILBERMAN, JOSEPH                      A       66th Infantry
  STERN, FERDINAND                       A       66th Infantry
  STRAUSS, ADAM            Corporal      E       66th Infantry
  STRAUSS, JACOB                         E       66th Infantry
  SIMON, LOUIS             Quartermaster         68th Infantry
  SPITZER, LOUIS           1st
                           Lieutenant            68th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  SCHWERIN, HERMAN         Lieutenant    B       68th Infantry
  SCHWEITZER, EMANUEL                    C       68th Infantry
  STRAUSS, WILLIAM                       C       68th Infantry
  SIMON, EMIL                            D       68th Infantry
  SIMON, LOUIS             Captain       E       68th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  SINSHEIM, GOTTLIEB                     E       68th Infantry
  STERNBERG, FRANZ                       K       68th Infantry
  SULZBERGER, JACOB                      K       68th Infantry
  SOLOMON, CHARLES                       B       70th Infantry
  SOLOMON, LOUIS                         B       70th Infantry
  SCHIFF, DAVID                          B       70th Infantry
  STEINBERG, HENRY                       B       70th Infantry
  SIMON, SAMUEL                          A       72nd Infantry
  SOLOMON, MORRIS          Sergeant      K       72nd Infantry
  SILVA, MANUEL            Captain                73d Infantry
  SILBERMAN, LOUIS                       B       74th Infantry
  SALMONS, CHARLES HARMON                G       75th Infantry
  SIMON, BENJAMIN F.                     B       77th Infantry
  SOLOMON, A.                            F       77th Infantry
  STEIN, FRANK                           B        83d Infantry
  STRAUSS, LOUIS                         G       84th Infantry
  SPEAR, LEOPOLD                         E       87th Infantry
  SIMONSON, JOSEPH         Corporal      H       87th Infantry
  SOMMER, LOUIS            Sergeant      D       89th Infantry
  SAMPSON, CHARLES                               91st Infantry
  STRAUSS, GEORGE                        G       95th Infantry
  STEINER, JACOB                         H      101st Infantry
  STRAUSS, G. CAPTAIN                    A       103d Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  STEINBACH, FRIEDRICH                   A       103d Infantry
  SIEBERT, JULIUS                        H       103d Infantry
  SIMON, LEWIS                           E      105th Infantry
  SALMON, JOSEPH                         H      105th Infantry
  SAMSON, LEVI C.                        C      110th Infantry
  SPEYER, MORRIS           Corporal      A      119th Infantry
  SCHWERIN, HENRY R.       Captain              119th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  SUSSMAN, WILLIAM         Sergeant      I      119th Infantry
  STERNBERGER, T.          Quartermaster        121st Infantry
  SAX, JACOB                             I      122nd Infantry
  SIMMONS, LEWIS                         C      128th Infantry
  STRASS, MORITZ            Sergeant     G      128th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  SACHS, LOUIS                           B      140th Infantry
  SCHONEMAN, HENRY                       B      140th Infantry
  STRAUSS, JOHN                          B      149th Infantry
  SCHOENTHAL, GOTTLIEB                   K      152nd Infantry
  STRAUSS, SIMON            Corporal     C      175th Infantry
  STERNBERG, SIEGMUND       Lieutenant          175th Infantry
  STERN, MOSES                           C      177th Infantry
  STEINER, D.                                   177th Infantry
  SOLOMON, PHINEAS          Captain      D      178th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  SOLOMON, LEVI                          E      184th Infantry
  STERNBERG, ABRAHAM        Major               186th Infantry
  STERN, MOSES                           A      191st Infantry
  SOMMER, JACOB                          C     1st Independent
  SELIGMAN, LOUIS           Lieutenant   D     1st Independent
      Enlisted as private.
  SCOOLER, HENRY                               1st Independent
  SIMON, JACOB                           F     1st Independent
  SEBESKY, WOLF                          F     1st Independent
  SIMON, L.                              G     1st Independent
      Enlisted as private.
  STEINHARDT, ----                       G     1st Independent
  SILVA, FRANK A.          Captain       E           7th S. M.
  SCHLESSINGER, NATHANIEL F.             E           7th S. V.
  STRAUSS, G. ADAM                       F           7th S. V.
  STRAUSS, SALOMON                       F           7th S. V.
  STERN, ALEXANDER                       K           7th S. V.
  STEIN, LEOPOLD                         B          17th S. V.
  SALOWSKY, HENRY          Adjutant                1st Cavalry
  SCHWARZENBERG, J.                                1st Cavalry
  SACHS, HENRY                           G         1st Cavalry
  SWAAL, T. W.             Lieutenant              2nd Cavalry
  SAMSON, JULIUS           Lieutenant              4th Cavalry
  SACHS, H.                              A         5th Cavalry
  SOLOMON, BENJAMIN                      B         5th Cavalry
  SAMUELSON, JOHN                        F         9th Cavalry
  SAMUELSON, SAMUEL A.                   F         9th Cavalry
  STERN, CHARLES H.                      K        12th Cavalry
  SCHWAB, SIMON                          C        13th Cavalry
  SHOLEM, LOUIS                          K        13th Cavalry
  SCHWAAB, FREDERICK W.     Lieutenant            16th Cavalry
  STRASBURGER, JOSEPH                    M  1st Mounted Rifles
  SOLOMON, JOSEPH                        D  2nd Mounted Rifles
  STADEKER, JULIUS                               1st Artillery
      Wounded; captured; died in Libby Prison.
  STEIN, HENRY                           L       2nd Artillery
  STEIN, ADOLPH                          B       8th Artillery
  SIMON, FRANK                           K      14th Artillery
  STEIN, GUSTAV                          H      15th Artillery
  STEIN, JULIUS                          H      15th Artillery
  SAMUELS, ALEXANDER R.              6th Independent Artillery
  SIMON, HENRY                       9th Independent Artillery
  SOLOMON M.                Sergeant          27th Independent
  SCHWEITZER, ABRAHAM                             30th Battery
  SHALMEK, CHARLES                                        ----

  TRAUB, ADOLPH                                  20th Infantry
  TANNHAUSER, HERMAN                             29th Infantry
  TSCHOPICK, ADOLPH                              45th Infantry
  TRUFFINGER, PHILIP        Lieutenant           57th Infantry
  THALHEIMER, JACOB                      E      151st Infantry
  THALHEIMER, ANTON                      H         8th Cavalry

  ULLMAN, BENJAMIN                       A       55th Infantry

  VIEXELBAUM, ----                             1st Independent
      Captured and sent to Andersonville Prison.
  VAN ETTEN, DAVID                       D        23d Infantry
  VAN BAALEN, HENRY                      E       49th Infantry
      Killed at the Wilderness.
  VEIT, MEYER                                    54th Infantry
  VAN BOSH, MAX             Lieutenant            3d Artillery
  VAN ETTEN, JACOB                       I       5th Artillery

  WOLF, CHARLES                          E        2nd Infantry
  WOLF, JOSEPH                           H        2nd Infantry
  WOLF, WILLIAM                          C        3d Infantry
  WOLF, HENRY                            C        4th Infantry
  WOLF, MAX                              D        4th Infantry
  WOLF, CHARLES                          G        4th Infantry
  WEIL, OSCAR             Adjutant                5th Infantry
  WEIL, CHARLES           Lieutenant              8th Infantry
  WEISS, ADOLPH           Lieutenant              8th Infantry
  WOLF, WILLIAM           Corporal       B        8th Infantry
  WILDA, M.                                       8th Infantry
  WOLF, WILLIAM                          A        9th Infantry
  WOLF, WILLIAM                          A        9th Infantry
  WOLF, EDWARD                           B       12th Infantry
  WOLF, W. W.                            K       16th Infantry
  WOLF, JOHN                             I       17th Infantry
  WOLF, MARK                                     18th Infantry
  WISEMAN, SAMUEL                        I       19th Infantry
  WOLF, WILLIAM                          A       20th Infantry
  WEISS, ADOLPH                          B       20th Infantry
  WOLF, ADAM                                     20th Infantry
  WENK, JOSEPH                                   20th Infantry
      Lost an arm; Past Commander of Colt's Post No. 32.
  WEISS, JULIUS A.                       C       21st Infantry
  WEYMAN, NATHAN                                 24th Infantry
  WASSERMAN, IGNATIUS     1st Lieutenant         29th Infantry
       Mustered out as Captain.
  WEINBERG, THEO.         Sergeant       C       29th Infantry
  WOLF, GUSTAV            Corporal       C       29th Infantry
  WEINER, GUSTAV          Lieutenant     E       29th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  WOLF, EMIL                             F       29th Infantry
  WEISHEIMER, C.                         C       31st Infantry
  WIENER, GUSTAV                         E       39th Infantry
  WEIL, JOSEPH                           E       39th Infantry
  WOLF, FREIDRICH         Surgeon                39th Infantry
  WOLF, JACOB                            I       39th Infantry
  WIENER, GUSTAV                         B       41st Infantry
  WOLF, JACOB                            B       41st Infantry
  WOLF, LEOPOLD                          B       41st Infantry
  WOLF, LOUIS             1st Lieutenant         52nd Infantry
      Killed at siege of Petersburg.
  WERTHEIMER, EDWIN       Captain                54th Infantry

    Special mention is made of the heroic conduct of Captain Wertheimer
    at the battle on the plains of Manassas: With a small guide flag
    in his hands he advanced and cheered the men to follow him, while
    the enemy were pouring a perfect hail of lead into the Union lines.
    At the Battle of Chancellorsville, Captain Wertheimer particularly
    distinguished himself by gallantly rescuing the State flag during
    a murderous cross-fire of the enemy. While severely wounded, he
    proudly and nobly defended it until unable to bear up any longer,
    he placed the flag in charge of a brother officer.

  WOLF, A. B.                                    54th Infantry
  WEINBURG, ISAAC                                54th Infantry
  WOLF, ARTHUR S.         Surgeon                55th Infantry
  WORMS, A. C.            Quartermaster  K       58th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  WORMS, CHARLES          2nd Lieutenant K       58th Infantry
  WERTHEIM, MORITZ        Corporal       K       66th Infantry
  WENK, AARON                            K       66th Infantry
  WENK, AUGUST                           K       66th Infantry
  WENK, JOSEPH                           K       66th Infantry
  WERTHEIM, LOUIS                        K       66th Infantry
  WOLF, DAVID                            K       66th Infantry
  WOLF, CARL                             A       68th Infantry
  WOOG, EMANUEL                          C       68th Infantry
      Wounded at Bull Run.
  WOLF, SIMON                            D       68th Infantry
  WOLF, ADOLPH                           I       68th Infantry
  WOLF, LOUIS                            C       71st Infantry
  WASSERMAN, MOSES                       G       71st Infantry
  WARNER, WILLIAM                                72nd Infantry
  WARNER, PHILIP                         H       72nd Infantry
  WOLFSOHN, CHARLES                      B       74th Infantry
  WOLFSKY, LOUIS                         B       74th Infantry
  WEIL, JOSEPH                           B       78th Infantry
  WERTHEIM, HENRY                        F       84th Infantry
  WATERMAN, CHARLES                      E       86th Infantry
  WOLFSOHN, LOUIS                        C       87th Infantry
  WOLF, PHILIP                           K       87th Infantry
  WATERMAN, SAMUEL H.                    A       91st Infantry
  WOLF, FREDERICK                        K       97th Infantry
  WEILER, JOSEPH                         E      101st Infantry
  WOLF, CHARLES H.                       I      102nd Infantry
  WOLF, CHARLES                          F      117th Infantry
  WEIL, JOSEPH                           B      119th Infantry
  WEIL, LYON                             B      119th Infantry
  WIENER, JOSEPH                         I      119th Infantry
  WEINSTEIN, JACOB                       I      119th Infantry
  WOLF, HERMAN                           F      127th Infantry
  WISE, SOLOMON S.                       I      136th Infantry
  WOLF, ABRAHAM B.                       D      148th Infantry
  WOLF, HENRY                            B      154th Infantry
  WOLF, JOSEPH                           F       163d Infantry
  WENZLICK, R.                           G       173d Infantry
  WOLF, WILLIAM           Lieutenant            178th Infantry
  WOLF, ADAM                             K      178th Infantry
  WOLF, LEOPOLD                          B     1st Independent
  WOLF, HENRY                            E     1st Independent
  WOLF, GABRIEL                          F           5th S. V.
  WOLF, C.                               H           5th S. V.
  WOLF, JOSEPH                           F           7th S. V.
  WOLF, WILLIAM                          B           7th S. M.
  WIESBADEN, JULIUS                      D           7th S. M.
  WOLF, LOUIS                            F        12th Cavalry
  WEINBERG, MORRIS                       D        14th Cavalry
  WOLF, LEOPOLD                          L        14th Cavalry
  WOLF, JOSEPH                           L      14th Artillery
  WOLF, CHARLES                          F      15th Artillery
  WERTHEIM, HENRY                   32nd Independent Artillery
  WOLF, JOSEPH C.                        I         2nd Cavalry
  WISE, THEODORE                                   5th Cavalry

  ZOLLER, OTTO                                    7th Infantry
  ZIMMERMAN, B.                          F        7th Infantry
  ZABINSKI, GABRIEL       Corporal               4th Artillery


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  AARON, MEYER                                    1st Infantry
      Killed in battle; buried in Jewish cemetery, Richmond
  ABRAHAM, F.                            B         6th Cavalry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  ALTMAN, NATHAN                         G       40th Infantry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  BEHRENDS, L.                           C        1st Infantry
  BRANDT, JACOB                                   5th Infantry
  BASS, BENJAMIN                         H       45th Infantry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  COHEN, E. B.            Lieutenant     C        1st Infantry

  DANIEL, HENRY                          F       10th Infantry
      Captured; died, and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  DANANE, JACOB                          B        53d Infantry

  EIGENBRUN, I.                          C        1st Infantry
  ENGEL, JONAS                           C      { 1st Infantry
                                                { 53d Infantry
  ELIAS, LOUIS            Lieutenant             11th Infantry
  EIGENBRUN, ISAAC                               35th Infantry

  FRIEDHEIM, ARNOLD                      K        4th Infantry
      Wounded at Seven Pines and at the Wilderness.

  GOODMAN, HENRY                         G       26th Infantry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  HYMAN, S.                              C        1st Infantry
  HOFFLEIN, MARCUS        Captain                 4th Infantry
      Afterwards on the staff of General Grimes.
  HEINEMAN, MORRIS                       D        4th Infantry
  HARRIS, EDWARD                         G       36th Infantry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  ISRAEL, J.                             E       51st Infantry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  JONAS, DANIEL                          D        1st Infantry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  JACOBY, NATHANIEL                              25th Infantry

  KATZ, I.                               C        1st Infantry
  KATZ, JACK                                     35th Infantry
  KATZ, AARON                            B        53d Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.

  LEAVY, CHARLES M.                                  ---- ----
      Appointed Commissary by General Palmer in Special
      Order, Number 23.
  LURIA, ALBERT (MOSES)   Lieutenant             ---- Infantry

    Promoted from Sergeant. At the age of nineteen years he was
    appointed Lieutenant in a North Carolina Infantry Regiment. He was
    killed at Seven Pines, in June, 1862, while rallying his Company,
    having seized the colors falling from the hands of the dying

    An incident of this brave officer's career is worth recording.
    At the engagement at Sewell's Point, in May, 1861, an eight-inch
    shell, with fuse still burning, fell into the Company's gun-pit,
    and young Albert without a moment's hesitation, seized it in his
    arms and put it in a tub of water, quenched the fuse and thereby
    saved his own and his comrades' lives. The Company in recognition
    of his heroism had the shell engraved with a history of the
    incident, and adding the words, "The pride of his Regiment and the
    bravest of the brave," sent it to his parents. It now stands upon a
    pillar over his grave at the "Esquiline," near Columbus, Georgia,
    as a fitting monument.

  LEVI, ISAAC C.                         C        1st Infantry
  LEON L.                                C      { 1st Infantry
                                                { 53d Infantry
  LEVY, J. C.                            C        1st Infantry
  LEWIS, LOVET            Captain        D        4th Reserves
  LEWIS, DAVID                           C       22nd Infantry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery, Elmira, New York.

  MEYER, AARON                                    1st Infantry
      Killed; buried in Jewish cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
  MYERS, MARCUS                                   2nd Infantry
  MYERS, EZEKIEL                              Reilly's Battery
  MYERS, WILLIAM                              Reilly's Battery

  OPPENHEIMER, ----                    { C        1st Infantry
                                       {         44th Infantry
  OTTINGER, L.                                    2nd Infantry
      Killed at Seven Pines.
  OPPENHEIMER, S.                        B       44th Infantry

  PHELPS, H. M.           Sergeant       B        1st Infantry
  PINNER, I. M.                          E         3d Infantry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  PINKUS, L.                             D       103d Infantry

  ROSE, JOSEPH                                     3d Infantry
  RICE, IGNATIUS                         B        8th Infantry
          Commissary and Quartermaster-Sergeant
  ROESSLER, J.           Captain        E        13th Infantry
      Severely Wounded at the Battle of the Wilderness;
  ROESSLER, JACOB        Captain        F        13th Infantry

  STERNGLANTZ, D.                       D         4th Infantry
  SOUTHAN, LEVI                         A        28th Infantry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, Mew York.
  SELLERS, J.            Sergeant       G        36th Infantry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  SIMON, JESSE                          C        20th Infantry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  SIMMONS, MOSES                        G        20th Infantry
      Captured; died, and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  TELLER, E.                                     18th Infantry

  WOLF, G. C                                      1st Infantry
      Died from exposure; buried in Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  WEIL, HARMAN                           D        4th Infantry
  WEISENFIELD, M.                        A        4th Infantry
  WERTHEIMER, HENRY                              35th Infantry
  WERTHEIMER, GEORGE                     B        53d Infantry
  WERTHEIMER, H.                         B        53d Infantry
      Died in the service.


  Name.                   Rank.          Company.    Regiment.

  ABRAHAM, ALEXANDER                     G        2nd Infantry
  ASHER, ALBERT                                    3d Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  ADLER, MOSES                                    4th Infantry
  ARNOLD, LEVi                                    4th Infantry
      Served three years.
  AMBURG, LOUIS C.        Sergeant               26th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  APPEL, JOSEPH                                  28th Infantry
  AARON, THEODORE                        F       34th Infantry
  ADLER, JOSEPH                          A       37th Infantry
  AARON, HERMAN           Sergeant       F       37th Infantry
  AARONSON, I.                           I       37th Infantry
  ABRAM, JOSEPH                          C       39th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  APPEL, SAMUEL                          F       39th Infantry
  APPEL, DAVID H.                                45th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  ABRAHAM, HENRY          Corporal       I       49th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; died in the service.
  ADLER, JOSEPH                                  58th Infantry
  ARNBACH, SIMON                                 74th Infantry
  AUERBACH, HENRY H.                     H       85th Infantry
  AARON, LOUIS            Sergeant       A      108th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  BAER, ISAAC                            B        1st Infantry
  BAER, SAMUEL                           I        1st Infantry
      Served three years.
  BRANSTETTER, ABRAHAM                   A        2nd Infantry
  BERNHEIMER, SAMUEL                              4th Infantry
  BACHMAN, ADAM                          A        5th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Resaca.
  BAER, WILLIAM                                   5th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  BAUM, ISAAC                            E        5th Infantry
  BLUM, HENRY                                     8th Infantry
  BLUHN, ERNST                                    9th Infantry
  BAER, HENRY             Corporal                9th Infantry
  BACHMAN, JACOB                                 12th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  BASH, SIMON                            K       13th Infantry
  BLUMBERG, JOSEPH                       C       14th Infantry
  BLUM, DAVID                            K       18th Infantry
  BUNZEL, W. J.                                  22nd Infantry
  BERNSTEIN, LEWIS                               24th Infantry
  BAER, DAVID                            G       25th Infantry
  BAUM, JOSEPH                           G        33d Infantry
  BAUMGARDNER, SOLOMON                   C       34th Infantry
  BAER, HERMAN                                   37th Infantry
  BLAU, EMIL                                     37th Infantry
  BAUM, AUGUST                                   37th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  BLAU, A.                                       37th Infantry
      Killed in Virginia.
  BENJAMIN, DAVID         Captain                39th Infantry
  BAUM, J. C.                            H       42nd Infantry
  BENJAMIN, FRANK                        D       48th Infantry
  BING, JOSEPH                                   56th Infantry
  BLOUT, HENRY                                   56th Infantry
  BACHMAN, SOLOMON                       F       58th Infantry
  BACHMAN, JOSEPH                        G       58th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  BLUMENTHAL, FREDERICK                          61st Infantry
  BIEN, EMANUEL           Sergeant       I       61st Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  BLUM, MANUEL                           E       67th Infantry
  BAER, ABRAHAM                          A       68th Infantry
      Served three years.
  BAER, SAMUEL                           G       68th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, SAMUEL                       F       69th Infantry
  BLAUT, HENRY                           E       75th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, J. A.                        C       76th Infantry
  BAER, JONAS                            C       80th Infantry
  BAUM, HERMAN                           C       80th Infantry
  BAUM, KAUFMAN                          C       80th Infantry
  BERLIN, JACOB           Corporal       K       80th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; wounded at Mission Ridge.
  BERLIN, SOLOMON                                80th Infantry
      Served three years.
  BUSH, JACOB             Sergeant-Major         82nd Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; served three years.
  BREYFOGEL, ISRAEL       Corporal       C       86th Infantry
  BERNHEIMER, SAMUEL                     H       91st Infantry
  BERNHEIMER, WILLIAM                    H       91st Infantry
      Served three years.
  BENJAMIN, LEVI                         D       97th Infantry
  BAMBERGER, ADAM         Sergeant       E      104th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal; served three years.
  BAMBERGER, CYRUS                              104th Infantry
  BAER, JACOB             Corporal       F      106th Infantry
      Served three years.
  BACHMAN, LEOPOLD        Sergeant       I      106th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  BERNHEIMER, AARON                      D      107th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  BIEN, MORDECAI P.       Lieutenant     G      113th Infantry
  BAUMGARDNER, EMANUEL                          114th Infantry
     Served three years.
  BAER, JOEL                                    120th Infantry
      Died in Louisiana.
  BAER, JACOB P.          1st Sergeant   A       123d Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; captured at Winchester.
  BAMBERGER, JOHN                        G      128th Infantry
  BRAUNSCHWEIGER, JACOB                  G      130th Infantry
  BAER, JACOB                            B       133d Infantry
  BREYFOGEL, C. W.                       F         9th Cavalry

  COHN, HENRY S.                         D        5th Infantry
      Served three years.
  COHEN, J.                                      12th Infantry
  COHEN, JACOB                                   18th Infantry
  COBLENZ, EPHRAIM                               19th Infantry
  COHEN, AARON                           C       21st Infantry
  COHN, BERNARD                                  22nd Infantry
  COHEN, JACOB C.         Lieutenant             27th Infantry
  COHEN, ISRAEL                          A       30th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  COHN, JOSEPH                           H       34th Infantry
      Wounded at Winchester.
  COHEN, ISAAC D.         Corporal       B       35th Infantry
  COHN, HENRY                            K       38th Infantry
  COBLENZ, DANIEL                                41st Infantry
  COBLENZ, ADAM                          C       50th Infantry
      Served three years.
  COHEN, WILLIAM F.                      F       55th Infantry
  COHEN, J. W.                           C       69th Infantry
      Killed at Jonesboro, Georgia.
  COEN, REUBEN L.                        D       77th Infantry
      Killed in Tennessee.
  COHEN, HENRY            Sergeant       G      106th Infantry
      Wounded at Hartsville, Tennessee.
  COHEN, WILLIAM          Corporal       H      114th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  COBLENZ, NOAH                          H      115th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  COBLENZ, JOSEPH D.                     C      128th Infantry

  DURST, GABRIEL                                  1st Infantry
      Served three years.
  DAVIDSON, JOSHUA                                5th Infantry
  DARLEY, DAVID                                   7th Infantry
  DAVID, LEWIS            Lieutenant              8th Infantry
  DRYFUS, ARTHUR                                  9th Infantry
  DANIELS, ABRAHAM                       H       15th Infantry
  DE SILVA, MANUEL        Lieutenant     E       16th Infantry

  EZEKIEL, DAVID J.       Brevet Captain        { 7th Infantry
                                                   {U. S. Army
      Wounded at Shiloh and promoted from Sergeant by
      order of General Banks for meritorious conduct.
  EHRLICH, HENRY                         H       22nd Infantry
  EPPSTEIN, LEOPOLD                              24th Infantry
  EPHRAIM, W. H.                         G       25th Infantry
  ENGEL, SAMUEL           Corporal       K       85th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  ELIAS, ISRAEL                                 108th Infantry
  ELIAS, ELIJAH                          A      115th Infantry
  ERDMAN, CHARLES W.      Sergeant-Major        121st Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  ENGEL, DAVID A.         Corporal       C      131st Infantry
  ENGEL, SAMUEL C.                       K      131st Infantry
  EISENSTAEDT, B.                        E      146th Infantry

  FRIEDMAN, DAVID         Captain                 2nd Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  FOX, A.                                         2nd Infantry
      Captured at Chickamauga; prisoner at Andersonville.
  FRANK, JACOB                           G         3d Infantry
  FRANK, WILLIAM                         D        5th Infantry
  FRANK, SAMUEL                                   5th Infantry
  FURST, JOSEPH                          F        6th Infantry
  FRANKS, HENRY                                   7th Infantry
      Killed at Cedar Mountain.
  FRANK, A.                                       9th Infantry
  FRANK, HERMAN                                   9th Infantry
  FALK, NATHAN            Corporal       H       25th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  FALK, C.                                       28th Infantry
  FOX, LEVI                              E       31st Infantry
  FALK, C.                                       35th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  FRIEDMAN, JACOB                                37th Infantry
      Served three years.
  FRANKFURTER, DAVID                             37th Infantry
      Served three years.
  FLEISCHMAN, MORITZ      Lieutenant     I       37th Infantry
  FRIEDLEIN, JACOB                       C       42nd Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  FRANK, CHARLES          Corporal       E       49th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  FRANK, BENJAMIN                                49th Infantry
  FRANK, JACOB                                   57th Infantry
  FLEISCHMAN, G.                                 60th Infantry
  FISHEL, DANIEL          Corporal       A       61st Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  FRANK, JOEL                            E       61st Infantry
      Killed in battle.
  FRANKHAUSER, D.                                 63d Infantry
  FRANKHAUSER, S.                                 63d Infantry
  FRANKHAUSER, L.                                 63d Infantry
  FRANKHAUSER, SOLOMON                   A       64th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  FRANKENFIELD, JOSEPH                   K       66th Infantry
      Died in service.
  FRANK, DANIEL                          D       69th Infantry
      Served four years.
  FRANK, DAVID                           D       69th Infantry
      Served three years.
  FRANKFURT, H.                                  69th Infantry
      Killed near Atlanta.
  FELDHEIM, EDWARD                       K       70th Infantry
  FREUND, JACOB                          E       80th Infantry
  FREIBERGER, DANIEL                     H        83d Infantry
  FLEISCHER, JACOB F.                    B       86th Infantry
  FRANKFURTER, JACOB                     F       86th Infantry
  FRANKFURTER, H.                                86th Infantry
  FRANKFURTER, ALEXANDER                         90th Infantry
      Served three years.
  FISHEL, SOLOMON                        H      105th Infantry
      Served three years.
  FURST, JACOB                           B      107th Infantry
      Served three years.
  FELS, JOSEPH            Corporal       F      107th Infantry
      Promoted at Chancellorsville.
  FRANCK, C.                                    107th Infantry
  FLEISCHMAN, F.          1st Lieutenant        108th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  FRANK, DAVID    108th Infantry

  FRIEDMAN, DAVID         Captain        E      108th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; served three years.
  FRANK, JACOB                           K      110th Infantry
  FELS, SAMUEL                           D      114th Infantry
      Wounded at Thompson's Hill, Mississippi.
  FURST, JACOB H.                        E      114th Infantry
  FURST, JACOB H.                        D      120th Infantry
      Wounded at Jackson, Mississippi.
  FRANK, DANIEL                          E      120th Infantry
  FRIEND, LEVI                           E      134th Infantry
  FRANK, C.                                     137th Infantry
  FRANK, JOSEPH                          A      139th Infantry
  FURST, SAMUEL                          C      139th Infantry

  GUNTHER, A.                                     7th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  GOLDSMITH, JOSEPH       Quartermaster          15th Infantry
  GREENWALT, D                                   24th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JAMES                       K       29th Infantry
  GUGGENHEIM, THEODORE                   C       34th Infantry
  GROSS, JACOB                                   34th Infantry
  GROSS, D.                                      34th Infantry
  GANS, DAVID M.          Captain        E       35th Infantry
  GRATZ, MORRIS                          F       35th Infantry
      Wounded at Fort Donelson.
  GRATZ, EMANUEL                         I       35th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  GOLDSMITH, GEORGE                      E       42nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  GORREL, LEVI                           H       46th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JACOB                               47th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, HENRY M.     Lieutenant             56th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  GEIGER, JOSHUA                         G       72nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  GOLDSMITH, LEOPOLD                     K       72nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  GOLDSMITH, HENRY                       K       76th Infantry
      Served three years.
  GOLDSMITH, JOHN                        B       77th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, B.                          B        83d Infantry
  GREENWALT, ABRAHAM                     G      104th Infantry
      Awarded by Secretary of War "Medal of Honor"
      for capturing Rebel Corps flag in the battle of
      Franklin, Tennessee.
  GOLDSMITH, WILLIAM                     C      113th Infantry
      Died at Nashville, Tennessee.
  GOODMAN, ISAAC                         A      125th Infantry
      Died in the service at Franklin, Tennessee.
  GREENWALT, MICHAEL                     K      129th Infantry
  GEIGER, JACOB                          G      130th Infantry
  GREEN, SIMEON                          G      130th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JOHN                        C       133d Infantry
  GOTTSCHALK, GUSTAV                     D      138th Infantry
  GREEN, SIMON            Corporal       F      177th Infantry
  GANS, ISAAC             Corporal                 2nd Cavalry
      Received a Congressional "Medal of Honor" for
      bravery displayed on the battlefield.
  GUGGENHEIM, S. S.                               10th Cavalry

  HART, BENJAMIN                         H        2nd Infantry
  HARRIS, SOLOMON S.                     C        2nd Infantry
  HARRIS, ISAAC                          K         3d Infantry
  HELLER, ELIAS                          C        4th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HIRSCH, J.                             K        5th Infantry
  HERMAN, HENRY                          A        6th Infantry
  HAHNEMAN, A.                           H        6th Infantry
  HOFMAN, HENRY                                   7th Infantry
      Wounded at Chancellorsville.
  HEILBRUN, ALEXANDER    1st Lieutenant           9th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  HERZOG, P.                                      9th Infantry
      Killed at Chickamauga.
  HEINEMAN, FREDERICK                    B        9th Infantry
  HESSBERG, ISAAC                        C        9th Infantry
  HERRMAN, JACOB                         C        9th Infantry
      Wounded at Chickamauga.
  HIRSCHMAN, ----                        F        9th Infantry
      Killed at Chickamauga.
  HIRSCHBAUM, A.                                  9th Infantry
  HIRSH, J.                                      10th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HERZOG, JACOB                          H       12th Infantry
  HIRSCH, WILLIAM                                12th Infantry
  HERRMAN, HENRY                         A       17th Infantry
  HESS, ISAAC                            C       18th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, ISAAC                              19th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HESS, JACOB                                    19th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, DAVID                      D       19th Infantry
  HERRMAN, ADOLPH                                22nd Infantry
  HIRSCHMAN, JOSEPH                      K       22nd Infantry
  HERZOG, ADOLPH                                 24th Infantry
  HEYMAN, JACOB                          B       26th Infantry
  HECHT, MOSES                           H       27th Infantry
  HIRSCH, JOHN W.                                28th Infantry
  HIRSCHMAN, JOHN                        A       28th Infantry
  HERRMAN, FERDINAND                     C       28th Infantry
  HERRMAN, BERNHARD                              28th Infantry
  HERRMAN, JOSEPH                        K       29th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HIRSCH, JACOB                          E       32nd Infantry
  HOFMAN, LEVI                                   32nd Infantry
  HOFFMAN, S.             Sergeant                33d Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  HERZOG, BENJAMIN                                33d Infantry
  HESS, JACOB                            A        33d Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, HENRY                      B        33d Infantry
  HIRSCH, HENRY                          D       35th Infantry
  HERRMAN, LEWIS          Sergeant       I       35th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  HELLER, EMIL            Quartermaster-         37th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served four years.
  HEINEMAN, HENRY                                37th Infantry
  HERRMAN, HENRY                                 37th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  HESS, FERDINAND                        E       37th Infantry
  HART, ABRAM                            D       39th Infantry
  HESS, JACOB                                    39th Infantry
  HAHN, LEVI                             A       40th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HAHN, MORITZ                           A       40th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HELLER, JOSEPH                         C       41st Infantry
  HOFMAN, REUBEN                                 41st Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HELLER, HERMAN                         B       46th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  HOFMAN, LEVI                                   46th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HERRMAN, JACOB                         H       47th Infantry
  HERRMAN, HENRY                         K       47th Infantry
  HOFMAN, JOSEPH           Sergeant      A       48th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  HEINEMAN, WILLIAM                              49th Infantry
      Killed at Stone River.
  HELLER, SIMON P.                               52nd Infantry
  HEIMAN, JACOB                          H        53d Infantry
  HAHN, WILLIAM                                  56th Infantry
  HERZOG, FELIX                                  57th Infantry
  HESS, DAVID                                    57th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HERRMAN, ADOLPHUS        Corporal      B       58th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  HOFMAN, JACOB                                  58th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  HERRMAN, JACOB                                 58th Infantry
  HEINE, JACOB                           G       58th Infantry
  HOFMAN, SAMUEL                                 59th Infantry
  HAHN, REUBEN                                   60th Infantry
  HELLER, ELIAS                          F        63d Infantry
  HAAS, MOSES              Corporal      G        63d Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, SAMUEL                     K       64th Infantry
  HESS, ABRAHAM                          F       65th Infantry
  HOFMAN, ABRAHAM                        H       65th Infantry
  HELLER, HENRY            Sergeant      A       66th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; received Congressional
      "Medal of Honor" for bravery and daring.
  HEINEMAN, AUGUST                       B       68th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Champion Hills.
  HERZFELD, JACOB                         H      68th Infantry
      Served four years.
  HAHN, W. C.                             C      69th Infantry
      Served four years.
  HESS, D.                                       69th Infantry
  HAAS, JOSEPH                                   70th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HAHN, HENRY                                    70th Infantry
  HOFMAN, JACOB           Sergeant       C       72nd Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; captured; served three years.
  HAHN, CHARLES                          G       72nd Infantry
  HOFMAN, JACOB                                   73d Infantry
  HIRSCHMAN, ISAAC        Corporal       F       74th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  HELLER, WILLIAM         Commissary             78th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  HART, ISRAEL                           G       78th Infantry
  HERZOG, D.                                     80th Infantry
      Served four years.
  HERZOG, JACOB                          D       80th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HESS, MOSES                            D       80th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HART, SAMUEL                           K       82nd Infantry
  HAYS, AARON                            C       84th Infantry
  HEYMAN, FRANK          Adjutant                84th Infantry
  HELLER, GEORGE                         K       84th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, HENRY                      B       86th Infantry
  HELLER, CHARLES                        I       90th Infantry
      Died at Murfreesboro.
  HEINEMAN, ADAM                         K       92nd Infantry
  HOFMAN, LEVI                                   96th Infantry
      Died at Young's Point, Louisiana.
  HAHN, JACOB                            D      106th Infantry
  HAHN, HENRY                            D      107th Infantry
      Captured at Chancellorsville.
  HAAS, JACOB                            A      108th Infantry
  HERRMAN, CHARLES        Sergeant       D      108th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; died from wounds at Resaca.
  HOFMAN, JACOB                          H      108th Infantry
  HART, LEVI                             H      110th Infantry
      Wounded at Winchester and at Monocacy, Maryland.
  HELLER, NATHAN                         D      111th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HAHN, HENRY                            I      111th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HARRIS, ISRAEL                         K      111th Infantry
  HUHN, JOSEPH S.         Sergeant       F      114th Infantry
      Promoted Corporal; wounded at Vicksburg.
  HEIDELBACH, JACOB                      F      114th Infantry
  HEIDELBACH, HENRY                      F      114th Infantry
  HEIDELBACH, DAVID                      G      114th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HEIDELBACH, H.                                114th Infantry
  HOFMAN, L.                                    115th Infantry
  HAYS, ABRAHAM                          F      118th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HEIDELBACH, C.                                122nd Infantry
      Captured; served three years.
  HEIDELBACH, A.                                122nd Infantry
  HEYMAN, SAMUEL          Sergeant       F       123d Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; captured at Winchester.
  HEYMAN, JACOB                          F       123d Infantry
  HAAS, JACOB                            K       123d Infantry
      Died at Clarksburg, West Virginia.
  HELLER, MOSES           Corporal                        ----
      Captured at Winchester; served three years.
  HERRMAN, SIMON                         K       123d Infantry
      Captured at Winchester.
  HESS, DAVID K.                         F      125th Infantry
  HELLER, CHARLES                        G      125th Infantry
  HART, MARKS                            K      128th Infantry
  HAMBURGER, FRANCIS                     D      131st Infantry
  HOFMAN, EPHRAIM                        K      131st Infantry
  HERRMAN, JOSEPH                        I      137th Infantry
      Was honorably mentioned by President Lincoln.
  HESS, NATHAN                           C      167th Infantry

  ISRAEL, P.                                       3d Infantry
      Wounded at Chaplin Hills.
  ISRAEL, ALFRED                                 19th Infantry
  ISRAEL, ELISHA                         F       77th Infantry
  ISRAEL, DAVID                                  97th Infantry
      Died at Murfreesboro.
  ISRAEL, WILLIAM                                97th Infantry
  ISRAEL, ELIAS                          K      108th Infantry

  JOSEPH, JOSEPH                         F       15th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  JACOBY, BENJAMIN                               35th Infantry
  JACOBSON, OTTO                                 39th Infantry
  JOSEPH, NATHAN B.                              47th Infantry
  JACOB, JULIUS                          F       47th Infantry
  JUDELL, D.                             G       47th Infantry
  JACOBSON, DANIEL        Corporal       F       49th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  JACOBY, DAVID                          K       49th Infantry
  JACOBY, DAVID H.                       K       49th Infantry
  JACOBY, HENRY                          K       49th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  JACOBS, FERDINAND       Corporal               57th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBS, JACOB                          C       57th Infantry
  JOSEPH, NATHAN                         C       59th Infantry
  JACOBS, JOSEPH          Lieutenant     B       67th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  JACOBS, HENRY           Sergeant       B       67th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  JACOBY, FRANK                          F       69th Infantry
  JACOBS, BENJAMIN                       F       70th Infantry
  JACOBS, DANIEL                         G       71st Infantry
  JACOBS, LEWIS W.        Sergeant       I       71st Infantry
      Enlisted as private; served four years.
  JACOBS, M.              Sergeant               71st Infantry
  JACOBS, ALEXANDER                      E       75th Infantry
      Wounded at Bull Run.
  JACOBS, HENRY           Sergeant       F       75th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; died from wounds received at McDowell.
  JACOBS, DAVID                          H       75th Infantry
  JACOBS, FRANK           Corporal       I       76th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; served four years.
  JOSEPH, JACOB                          A       80th Infantry
      Wounded and captured.
  JACOBY, HENRY           Lieutenant     D       82nd Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; killed at Gettysburg.
  JACOB, MARTIN                                  82nd Infantry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  JACOBS, BERNHARD                       C        83d Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBS, HENRY                          I       86th Infantry
  JULIAN, S.                                     88th Infantry
  JACOBS, HENRY                          A       91st Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOB, JOSHUA                          B       94th Infantry
  JUDAH, EMANUEL                         F       94th Infantry
  JUDAH, JOHN H.                         F       94th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JONES, S.                                      95th Infantry
  JACOBS, HENRY                          A       99th Infantry
  JACOBS, JACOB                          H      107th Infantry
  JACOB, LOUIS            Corporal       C      108th Infantry
  JACOB, HENRY J.         Sergeant       K      110th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal; served three years.
  JACOBS, CHARLES                        B      111th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBS, MICHAEL                        H      111th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBS, A.                                    125th Infantry
  JACOBY, N.                                    115th Infantry
  JACOBS, S.                                    125th Infantry
  JACOBS, ABRAHAM                        I      128th Infantry
  JACOBY, EDWIN           Sergeant       B      130th Infantry
  JACOBS, GUSTAV                         F      130th Infantry
  JACOBS, S.                                    135th Infantry
  JACOBS, BENJAMIN T.                    A      135th Infantry
  JACOBS, LOUIS C.                       A      138th Infantry

  KLINE, M.               Lieutenant     K        1st Infantry
  KLINE, MOSES                           A        2nd Infantry
      Captured at Chickamauga.
  KIEFER, WILLIAM                        A        2nd Infantry
  KAUFMAN, DAVID                         B        2nd Infantry
  KAUFMAN, SAMUEL                        F        4th Infantry
      Wounded at Chancellorsville.
  KOHN, SIEGMUND                         G        5th Infantry
      Killed at Port Republic.
  KAUFMAN, JOSEPH                                 5th Infantry
      Served three years.
  KING, SAMUEL                                    7th Infantry
  KOCH, MICHAEL                                   9th Infantry
  KUHN, ISIDORE                          H        9th Infantry
      Served three years.
  KUHN, JACOB                            F       10th Infantry
      Served three years.
  KAUFMAN, G.                                    12th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  KAUFMAN, JACOB                         K       16th Infantry
      Served three years.
  KAUFMAN, DAVID                         G       18th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, JONATHAN                              21st Infantry
      Died in the service.
  KLEIN, MOSES            Captain        H       22nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  KLEIN, FRANK                           H       22nd Infantry
  KLEIN, DAVID            Corporal               24th Infantry
  KAHN, SIMON                            G       25th Infantry
      Wounded at Cross Keys.
  KOENIGSBERGER, HERMAN   Lieutenant             28th Infantry
  KOCH, LEWIS                                    28th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, FRANK                         A       28th Infantry
  KAHN, LEWIS                            F       28th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, FRANK                         K       28th Infantry
  KOCH, JACOB                            H       30th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, SOLOMON        Quartermaster          32nd Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  KOCH, SAMUEL                           H        33d Infantry
      Died in the service.
  KAUFMAN, JOSEPH C.                             36th Infantry
  KLEIN, MORITZ                          E       37th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, SAMUEL                        C       38th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, FRANK          Sergeant       K       42nd Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  KING, EMANUEL                          E       44th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, BENJAMIN                              44th Infantry
  KLEIN, DAVID            Sergeant               47th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; captured.
  KLEIN, ABRAHAM                         B       48th Infantry
  KLEIN, JACOB W.         Lieutenant             49th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; captured at Stone River.
  KLEIN, DAVID                                   49th Infantry
  KOCH, JOSEPH            Sergeant       G       50th Infantry
  KING, JACOB                            H       50th Infantry
  KLEIN, DAVID                                   51st Infantry
  KAUFMAN, W. H.          1st Lieutenant A       52nd Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  KOCH, HENRY                            K       52nd Infantry
  KLEIN, JACOB                                   58th Infantry
  KING, DAVID                                    62nd Infantry
      Killed in action.
  KAUFMAN, LEVI           Lieutenant     B       68th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  KAUFMAN, DAVID                         H       71st Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ISAAC                                 72nd Infantry
      Wounded at Shiloh.
  KLEIN, JOSEPH                          H        73d Infantry
  KLEIN, DAVID B.                        B       74th Infantry
  KLEIN, D. J.                                   75th Infantry
      Wounded and captured at Gainesville.
  KLEIN, ISAAC                           A       76th Infantry
  KLEIN, LOUIS                           E       76th Infantry
  KLEIN, ISAIAH           Sergeant       G       77th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; died in the service.
  KLEIN, FRANK                                   82nd Infantry
  KLEIN, FRANK                                    83d Infantry
  KAUFMAN, HENRY                         I        83d Infantry
      Served three years.
  KOCH, JACOB                            E       84th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, DAVID                         C       86th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, HERMAN S.      Corporal       I       86th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, FRANK                         I       87th Infantry
  KLEIN, D.                                      91st Infantry
  KLEIN, S.                                      92nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  KAUFMAN, ABRAHAM                       A       94th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, FRANK                                 94th Infantry
  KLEIN, JACOB             Sergeant      A       96th Infantry
  KLEIN, JACOB             Sergeant      A       96th Infantry
      Enlisted at Private; served three years.
  KLEIN, JONAS                           C       96th Infantry
  KLEIN, JACOB             Sergeant      F       96th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  KAUFMAN, JACOB J.       Corporal       F       96th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, EMANUEL        Captain               100th Infantry
      Died at Knoxville, Tennessee.
  KAUFMAN, DANIEL                        D      102nd Infantry
      Captured at Athens; died in rebel prison.
  KLEIN, JOSEPH                                 102nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  KAUFMAN, HENRY                         A      106th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, LOUIS          Captain        C      106th Infantry
  KOCH, HENRY                            C      108th Infantry
      Killed at Hartsville, Tennessee.
  KING, DAVID             Sergeant       I      108th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; wounded near Petersburg; served three years.
  KAUFMAN, PHILIP                        E      110th Infantry
      Wounded near Petersburg.
  KAUFMAN, HENRY                         I      110th Infantry
      Captured at Winchester, and wounded at Cedar Creek.
  KLEIN, JONAS L.         Corporal              111th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  KLEIN, ISAAC N.                        A      116th Infantry
  KAHN, JACOB                            I      124th Infantry
  KOHLER, DANIEL                         K      125th Infantry
  KING, SOLOMON           Corporal       I      126th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served four years.
  KOCH, MAX                              F      103th Infantry
  KLEIN, EMANUEL                         D      131st Infantry
  KLEIN, LEVI J.                         D      131st Infantry
  KAUFMAN, HENRY                         K      131st Infantry
  KAUFMAN, FRANK         1st Lieutenant  B      132nd Infantry
  KRAUSKOPF, SOLOMON     Corporal        B      132nd Infantry
  KLEIN, SOLOMON                         D      132nd Infantry
  KING, LEVI                             B       133d Infantry
  KRAUSKOPF, JUSTIS                      I      138th Infantry
  KLEIN, JACOB                           F      139th Infantry
  KLIPPSTEIN, MEYER                                7th Cavalry
  KOCH, MOSES }                                 150th Infantry
  KOCH, HERMAN} (three brothers)                 4th Artillery
  KOCH, JOSEPH}                                 177th Infantry
  KOCH, JACOB                                   164th Infantry

  LEVI, CHARLES                          G        2nd Infantry
  LEHMAN, LEWIS                                   4th Infantry
  LOSER, JOSEPH                          B        4th Infantry
  LAZARUS, ED.            Sergeant       G        7th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal; wounded at Winchester;
      also at Cedar Mountain.
  LAZARUS, MARTIN                                 7th Infantry
      Killed at Antietam.
  LOWENTHAL, JACOB                       G        8th Infantry
      Died from sickness contracted in camp.
  LANDAUER, SAMUEL        Sergeant                9th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  LOVENSTEIN, NATHAN                     C        9th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LOWENSTEIN, J.                         C        9th Infantry
  LEHMAN, JOSEPH          Corporal       F        9th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; wounded at Chattanooga.
  LEVY, NATHAN                           K        9th Infantry
  LIEBERMAN, WILLIAM                             14th Infantry
  LEHMAN, BENJAMIN        Corporal       C       15th Infantry
      Killed at Pickett's Mills.
  LOWENSTEIN, GEORGE                     D        23d Infantry
  LEOPOLD, WILLIAM                       H        23d Infantry
  LICHENFELD, ADOLPH      Corporal       A       24th Infantry
  LOESER, LEWIS                          A       26th Infantry
  LEHMAN, THEODORE                       G       26th Infantry
  LEHMAN, JACOB           Sergeant               28th Infantry
  LEHMAN, HERRMAN                        B       28th Infantry
  LEHMAN, FERDINAND                      D       28th Infantry
  LEOPOLD, FRANK                         G       28th Infantry
  LEHMAN, JACOB                          E       32nd Infantry
  LEHMAN, HENRY           Sergeant       H       32nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  LYONS, JOSEPH                                   33d Infantry
  LYONS, DAVID                           A       34th Infantry
  LEVY, WILLIAM                          F       38th Infantry
  LEHMAN, DANIEL                         F       39th Infantry
  LYONS, JACOB                                   40th Infantry
      Killed in battle.
  LEHMAN, ALEXANDER                      F       41st Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  LEHMAN, ABRAHAM                        G       41st Infantry
  LEHMAN, SAMUEL                         F       42nd Infantry
  LEVY, J. J.                                     43d Infantry
      Served three years.
  LIEBMAN, FREDERICK                     I        43d Infantry
  LEHMAN, JOSEPH                         A       46th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEVY, B.                                       46th Infantry
      Wounded; served four years.
  LEHMAN, NOAH                           D       48th Infantry
  LEHMAN, ALEXANDER                      K       54th Infantry
  LUDWIG, BENJAMIN                               58th Infantry
  LEVY, JOHN A.                          A       77th Infantry
  LEHMAN, ISAAC                          D       81st Infantry
      Served three years.
  LOWENTHAL, THEODORE                    I       81st Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, J.                                  81st Infantry
  LEHMAN, NATHAN                         C        83d Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEHMAN, LEWIS           Sergeant       D       86th Infantry
  LEHMAN, SAMUEL S.                      D       86th Infantry
  LICHTENSTEIN, JOSEPH                   F       87th Infantry
  LEHMAN, DANIEL                         A        93d Infantry
  LEHMAN, JULIUS                         H        93d Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEHMAN, HENRY M.        Corporal       H       99th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  LOWENTHAL, THEODORE                    E      101st Infantry
  LEHMAN, HENRY                          F      102nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEHMAN, DANIEL                         F      102nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEHMAN, HENRY                          A      107th Infantry
  LEOPOLD, GUSTAV         Corporal       C      107th Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  LEHMAN, NOAH                           I      107th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEHMAN, HERMAN                         C      108th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LOWENSTEIN, DANIEL                     G      108th Infantry
  LUDWIG, FRANK           Corporal       E      111th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; captured at Stone Mountain,
  LEHMAN, JACOB           Sergeant       D      114th Infantry
  LEHMAN, SAMUEL                                114th Infantry
      Died at Vicksburg.
  LEHMAN, JUDAH                          H      115th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEHMAN, JACOB           Sergeant       A      120th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal; captured.
  LEHMAN, SALOMON                        H      131st Infantry
  LEHMAN, DAVID E.        Corporal       H      134th Infantry
  LEVY, W. H.                            D      137th Infantry
  LEVY, SAMUEL                           C      139th Infantry
  LINDERMAN, J.                          C       1st Artillery
  LEVI, HENRY I.                                   2nd Cavalry

  MACHNER, EMANUEL                       E        1st Infantry
  MOSES, WILLIAM                         E        1st Infantry
  MEYERS, SAMUEL                         B        2nd Infantry
  MORRIS, AARON                                   2nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  MICHELS, ABRAHAM                       F        2nd Infantry
  MESSNER, LEVI                                    3d Infantry
  MILLER, JONAS AARON                    E        5th Infantry
  MEYER, BERNARD                         C        6th Infantry
  MOSLER, HERMAN                         C        6th Infantry
  MARKS, JACOB            Corporal       B        7th Infantry
      Wounded at Cedar Mountain and at Dallas, Georgia.
  MARKS, WILLIAM                                  8th Infantry
      Killed at Antietam.
  MARIENTHAL, SIMON                               8th Infantry
  MAIER, LOUIS                           C        9th Infantry
  MANGOLD, AD.            Lieutenant     K        9th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  MANDEL, CHARLES                                 9th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  MAYER, HENRY                                    9th Infantry
  MAYER, JOSEPH                                  10th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MEYER, JACOB                                   11th Infantry
  MARKS, SAMUEL                          F       11th Infantry
  MAURICE, ISAAC                         I       11th Infantry
  MANN, FREDERICK                                14th Infantry
  MOSES, SAMUEL                          F       16th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MANN, JOSEPH                                   18th Infantry
  MAAS, DAVID                                    18th Infantry
  MEIER, LEOPOLD                         A       22nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MILLER, ALEXANDER                      H       22nd Infantry
  MILLER, WILLIAM                        H       22nd Infantry
  MYERS, ABRAHAM                                 24th Infantry
  MEYER, HENRY                                   24th Infantry
  MEIER, FRANK                                   24th Infantry
  MORRIS, NATHAN                         C       25th Infantry
  MEYER, ADOLPH                                  25th Infantry
      Wounded at Cross Keys.
  MARX, EMIL                                     25th Infantry
  MEIER, HENRY                                   25th Infantry
  MENKEN, JACOB          Captain         B       27th Infantry
  MAYER, LOUIS H.         Commissary             27th Infantry
      Afterwards Corporal of Company B, 27th Infantry;
      subsequently detached for staff duty.
  MAYER, ADOLPH           Sergeant       B       27th Infantry
  MOAK, J. H.             Lieutenant     A       28th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  MARX, J. H.                            A       28th Infantry
  MEYER, FRANK                           B       28th Infantry
  MEYER, FRANK                           G       28th Infantry
  MEYER, HERMAN                                  28th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  MEIER, LEOPOLD                                 28th Infantry
  MEYER, HERMAN                                  28th Infantry
  MAYER, JOSEPH                                  28th Infantry
  MAY, DAVID              Corporal               32nd Infantry
  MARKS, ABRAHAM                         E       32nd Infantry
      Killed in action.
  MANN, SAMUEL                                    33d Infantry
  MORRIS, ISRAEL                                 34th Infantry
  MEYERS, JACOB                                  34th Infantry
  MEYERS, NOAH                           D       34th Infantry
  MEYERS, SAMUEL                                 34th Infantry
  MEYER, EDWARD                                  34th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH           Sergeant               35th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  MEYERS, JACOB T.                       B       35th Infantry
  MAIER, ISIDORE                                 35th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MANDELBAUM, SOLOMON                            35th Infantry
  MAINZ, ABRAHAM                                 36th Infantry
  MYERS, DAVID                                   36th Infantry
  MORITZ, CARL            Captain                37th Infantry
  MAY, JACOB                                     37th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MARCUS, FREDERICK                              37th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  MORITZ, JOSEPH                                 37th Infantry
  MEIER, BERNHART                        L       37th Infantry
  MAYER, FREDERICK                               37th Infantry
  MANN, DAVID                            D       39th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  MORITZ, JACOB           Sergeant       H       46th Infantry
      Entered as Private; served four years.
  MANN, AARON B.                         I       46th Infantry
  MYERS, SOLOMON                                 47th Infantry
  MEYER, JACOB            Sergeant               49th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  MARKS, SAMUEL           Sergeant       K       51st Infantry
  MEYERS, JACOB                          B       52nd Infantry
  MEYER, SAMUEL                                  54th Infantry
  MEYERS, JOSEPH                                 54th Infantry
  MANN, SAMUEl                           I       54th Infantry
  MEYERS, ALEXANDER                      I       54th Infantry
      Captured; died in rebel prison.
  MEYER, JACOB            Corporal                        ----
      Enlisted as Private; wounded in action.
  MENDEL, WILLIAM                                56th Infantry
  MEYER, HENRY                                   56th Infantry
  MEYERS, JACOB                                  57th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MARKS, HENRY                                   57th Infantry
  MEYER, JACOB                           E       60th Infantry
  MARKS, SAMUEL A.                       E       60th Infantry
      Killed at Petersburg.
  MARKS, ISAAC N.                        H       60th Infantry
  MARKS, SAMUEl                          H       60th Infantry
  MEYER, HERMAN                                  61st Infantry
  MEIER, MARCUS           Lieutenant     I       64th Infantry
  MEYERS, JOSEPH                         B       65th Infantry
  MARKS, JONAS S.                        H       66th Infantry
  MARKS, ISAAC                           H       66th Infantry
  MAIER, ISAAC                           I       66th Infantry
  MANN, ABRAHAM                          A       68th Infantry
  MANN, AARON                            D       70th Infantry
  MANN, ISAAC             Lieutenant     C       71st Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  MANN, JACOB             Sergeant       C       71st Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal; served three years.
  MAAS, HENRY                                    72nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MAY, SAMUEL                            B        73d Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MAY, JOSEPH                            C        73d Infantry
  MAYER, SIMON                           D        73d Infantry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  MANN, ISAAC                                    75th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MYERS, ISRAEL                          A       76th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MEYERS, JACOB                          E       76th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MYERS, FRANK                                   76th Infantry
  MARX, EMIL                             I       78th Infantry
  MENDEL, WILLIAM                        I       78th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MANN, JACOB                            K        83d Infantry
  MAIERS, SOLOMON                        A       98th Infantry
  MEYERS, DAVID                                  99th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MANN, SAMUEL                           H      102nd Infantry
  MEYERS, DAVID                                 102nd Infantry
  MEYERS, LEWIS H.                              102nd Infantry
  MANN, SAMUEL                           K      104th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MAIER, WILLIAM                         B      105th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MEYER, SERAPHIM         Colonel               107th Infantry
      Captured at Chancellorsville.
  MEIER, JOSEPH                          H      107th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MANN, JACOB             Corporal       K      107th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MAIER, JOSEPH                                 107th Infantry
  MEYERS, HENRY           Commissary Sergeant   108th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; served three years.
  MEYERS, JACOB, JR.      1st Sergeant   B      108th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          B      108th Infantry
  MEIER, DANIEL                          D      108th Infantry
  MOSLER, MAX             Lieutenant     E      108th Infantry
  MEYER, HENRY                           F      108th Infantry
  MENKE, HENRY                           G      108th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          H      108th Infantry
  MANTEL, LEWIS                          I      113th Infantry
  MANN, DAVID                            C      116th Infantry
      Captured at Winchester; died in the service.
  MAY, SIMON              Corporal       E      118th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  MANN, JACOB                            E      118th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MANN, SAMUEL                           E      118th Infantry
      Killed at Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia.
  MYERS, DAVID                           I      120th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MAY, SAMUEL                            B      121st Infantry
  MANN, JOSEPH                           H      121st Infantry
      Served three years.
  MEYERS, HENRY                          I      122nd Infantry
  MEYERS, JOSEPH                         D       123d Infantry
      Wounded at Opequan, Virginia; served three years.
  MEYERS, JOSEPH P.       Corporal       I       123d Infantry
      Served three years.
  MEYER, ANSELM           Corporal       H      125th Infantry
  MOSES, HENRY S.         Sergeant-Major        126th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  MOSES, DAVID                           G      126th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Spottsylvania, Virginia.
  MYERS, DAVID H.                        H      126th Infantry
      Captured at Monocacy, Maryland.
  MARKS, ALBERT                          B      128th Infantry
  MEYERS, JACOB                          B      128th Infantry
  MYERS, JACOB C.                        B      128th Infantry
  MARX, LOEB                             C      128th Infantry
  MAYER, ALBERT                          K      128th Infantry
  MOSES, FRANK A.                        E      130th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH                                 130th Infantry
  MANN, CHARLES                          E      131st Infantry
  MEYERS, DAVID                          A      132nd Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MEYERS, JACOB                          K      132nd Infantry
  MEYERS, SAMUEL                         K      132nd Infantry
  MORGENTHAL, HENRY                      B      136th Infantry
  MEYERS, MICHAEL                        D      136th Infantry
  MOSES, GEORGE                          B      137th Infantry
  MEYER, JACOB                           A      138th Infantry
  MANN, JOSEPH B.         Sergeant       C      138th Infantry
  MEYER, HENRY                           C      138th Infantry
  MEYERS, ISAAC                                 169th Infantry
  MEYERS, SAMUEL                                169th Infantry

  NEUBERGER, FREDERICK                           28th Infantry
  NEUBERGER, SAMUEL                              44th Infantry
  NEUSTAT, DAVID                                 58th Infantry
  NEUMAN, CHARLES                                61st Infantry
  NIEMAN, DANIEL                         C        83d Infantry
      Served three years.
  NUSSBAUM, FRANK                        A       88th Infantry
  NEWHOUSE, DAVID K.                     K      101st Infantry
      Killed at Stone River.
  NUSSBAUM, FREDERICK     Sergeant       C      107th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal; served three years.
  NATHANS, HENRY                         K      107th Infantry
  NEUMAN, HENRY                          F      108th Infantry
  NUSSBAUM, HENRY                        A      113th Infantry
  NEWBAUER, JACOB B.                     E      115th Infantry
      Served three years.
  NAUMAN, JACOB           Corporal       G      120th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  NEUMAN, JACOB                          H       123d Infantry
  NEUBERGER, WILLIAM M.                  F      134th Infantry
  NEWMAN, JOSEPH          Lieutenant               4th Cavalry

  OCHS, FERDINAND         Sergeant-Major          1st Infantry
      Promoted from Private; served three years.
  OCHS, GEORGE                           K       13th Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, BENJAMIN                          19th Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, J.                        C       28th Infantry
  OCHS, JOHN                                     37th Infantry
  OCHS, JULIUS                                   52nd Infantry
  ORBANSKI, DAVID                        B       58th Infantry
      Was awarded a Congressional "Medal of Honor" for
      distinguished bravery at Shiloh, Tennessee, and at
      Vicksburg, Mississippi.
  OCHS, HENRY                            B       82nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  OPPENHEIMER, ALEXANDER                 K      108th Infantry
  OCHS, THEODORE                         G       123d Infantry
      Killed at Petersburg.
  OCHS, JULIUS            Captain          Independent Company

  POLLOCK, HENRY          Corporal       A        4th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  POLLOCK, JOSEPH                                 7th Infantry
  PERLEY, VICTOR                                  7th Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  PASSAUER, JOSEPH                                9th Infantry
      Wounded at Chickamauga.
  PARADISE, SOLOMON                      G       13th Infantry
      Killed in battle.
  PHILLIPS, ISRAEL                       I       13th Infantry
      Served three years.
  POLLOCK, WILLIAM                               15th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  POLLOCK, DAVID          Corporal       E       48th Infantry
  PEIXOTTO, MOSES L.      Captain        G       103d Infantry
      Brother of Honorable Benjamin Franklin Peixotto.
  PIKE, HENRY C.          Lieutenant     G         2nd Cavalry

  RHEINHEIMER, JACOB                     E        1st Infantry
      Wounded at Resaca.
  RICE, ASHER                                     4th Infantry
  RICE, SIMPSON                                   6th Infantry
  ROSENFELD, WILLIAM                     C        9th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, ABRAHAM                             10th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  ROTHSCHILD, DAVID                      A       11th Infantry
  ROSENAU, G.                                    13th Infantry
      Wounded at Chattanooga; captured; died of wounds.
  ROSE, HENRY                            B       13th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ROSENBERG, DAVID                       A       21st Infantry
      Killed at Chickamauga.
  RICHMIRE, SOLOMON                      G        23d Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, SAMUEL       Lieutenant             28th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  ROSENBERG, GUSTAV                      I       28th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, JACOB                       G       29th Infantry
      Killed at Port Republic.
  ROSENBERG, W.                          C       34th Infantry
  ROSENBAUM, HERMAN       Captain                37th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  ROSENFELD, GUSTAV                              38th Infantry
      Served four years.
  RAPP, JACOB                                    49th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, GUSTAV                              57th Infantry
  ROSENFELD, ALEXANDER                   D       58th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  ROSENBAUM, WILLIAM                     D       58th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, GUSTAV                              61st Infantry
  RUBEL, WILLIAM                                  63d Infantry
  RICE, SIMON P.                         K       66th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  RICE, ISAAC L.                         C       67th Infantry
      Killed at Winchester.
  ROSENBERG, HENRY                       I       69th Infantry
  RAU, LOUIS                                     72nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  ROSENBERG, DAVID                       G       76th Infantry
  ROSE, GERSHOM           Corporal       B       78th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; served three years.
  ROSENBAUM, SAMUEL                      K       82nd Infantry
  ROSENBAUM, ISAAC                       D       89th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ROSENBAUM, JACOB                       D       89th Infantry
  REICHMAN, BENJAMIN                              8th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ROSE, JACOB                            G      102nd Infantry
      Captured; died in the service.
  ROSE, DANIEL                                  104th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ROSENBAUM, G. W.                              104th Infantry
      Served three years.
  RUBEL, ISAAC                           F      106th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ROSENBERG, JOSEPH                      H      106th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ROSENFELD, SIEGMUND     Corporal       E      107th Infantry
      Captured at Gettysburg.
  ROSE, D.                                      113th Infantry
      Killed at Chickamauga.
  RICE, ESAU                             F      113th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ROSENDALE, CHARLES                     G      113th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  ROSE, EZEKIEL                          F      114th Infantry
  ROSE, DANIEL                           B      116th Infantry
      Captured at Winchester; served three years.
  RICH, SOLOMON                          H      116th Infantry
      Died of wounds at Piedmont, Virginia.
  RICE, LEVI              Sergeant       B      118th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; killed at Nashville, Tennessee.
  ROSE, LEVI B.                          H      118th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ROSE, JESSE                            H      118th Infantry
      Served three years.
  RUHRMAN, ABRAHAM                       K      120th Infantry
  ROSENBAUM, OSWALD H.    Sergeant       G       123d Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal; captured at Winchester.

  SCHERCK, SOLOMON                       D        1st Infantry
  SCHANE, ABRAHAM M.                     G        1st Infantry
  SUMMAS, JACOB                          G        2nd Infantry
  SCHWAB, CHARLES                                  3d Infantry
  SOLOMON, J. S.                                  5th Infantry
  SOMMER, LEVI                           F        6th Infantry
  STERN, CHARLES H.                      A        7th Infantry
      Killed at Winchester.
  STEIN, DAVID G.                                 7th Infantry
  STRAUSS, J.                                     7th Infantry
      Killed at Cedar Mountain.
  SIMON, LEWIS                           F        8th Infantry
  STERN, WILLIAM                         F        9th Infantry
  STRAUSS, ERNST                         F        9th Infantry
      Served three years.
  SOMMER, JACOB                                   9th Infantry
      Served three years.
  SOMMER, JULIUS                                 10th Infantry
      Served three years.
  SUSMAN, MAURICE         Lieutenant             13th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; three years service.
  SCHELT, MOSES           Sergeant       B       13th Infantry
  STRAUS, LEHMAN          Corporal       C       14th Infantry
      Served three years.
  SAMPSON, SAMUEL         Corporal               15th Infantry
  SIEGMUND, EPHRAIM                      D       17th Infantry
  SCHLOSS, JACOB                         G       17th Infantry
  SACHS, JACOB                           C       28th Infantry
  SILBERMAN, CHARLES                     G       28th Infantry
  SCHWARTZ, LOUIS HENRY                          28th Infantry
  SAMPSON, JOSEPH         Corporal               31st Infantry
  SCHWAB, JACOB                                   33d Infantry
  SOLOMON, R.                            K        33d Infantry
      Died in the service.
  SACHS, JOHN                                    34th Infantry
  SCHWARZ, ISAAC                                 34th Infantry
  SAMUELS, NATHAN                        C       35th Infantry
      Wounded at Chickamauga.
  SIEDENBERG, HENRY                      B       37th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  SCHWARZ, ADOLPH                        D       37th Infantry
      Wounded; served four years.
  SCHWAB, ADOLPH                                 37th Infantry
      Served four years.
  SIMON, AUGUST           Sergeant       F       39th Infantry
  SANGER, GEORGE          Corporal               41st Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  SAMPSON, SAMUEL                                41st Infantry
      Served four years.
  SCHWARZ, DAVID                         H       46th Infantry
  STERN, SOLOMON          Sergeant       K       46th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  STERNBERG, HENRY                               47th Infantry
  SOLOMON, J. E.                                 48th Infantry
  STRAUSS, EDWARD                        G       51st Infantry
  SALTSMAN, BENJAMIN                             52nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  SALTSMAN, JOSHUA                               52nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  SAMPSON, DAVID W.                               53d Infantry
  STRAUSS, WILLIAM                       B       57th Infantry
  SALOMON, JOSEPH                        H       57th Infantry
  SEELIG, SAMUEL          Sergeant               58th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; wounded.
  STRAUS, FREDERIC                               58th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  STEIN, JACOB                                   58th Infantry
  SAMLUNG, EDWARD                        B       58th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Shiloh.
  SCHLESINGER, DAVID B.                          58th Infantry
      Served four years.
  STRAUS, DAVID                          B        63d Infantry
  STRAUS, AARON                          K        63d Infantry
  SOLOMON, ABRAHAM                       H       64th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  STRAUS, FREDERICK                              66th Infantry
  STERN, ISAAC                           K       72nd Infantry
  SIMON, JOSEPH                                  81st Infantry
  STERN, JACOB G.                        G       82nd Infantry
      Wounded at Bull Run.
  SCHWARZ, ABRAHAM                               82nd Infantry
      Wounded at Chancellorsville.
  SCHWARZ, JOSEPH                                82nd Infantry
      Wounded at Dallas, Georgia.
  STEIN, LEWIS                                   84th Infantry
  STEIN, L.                                      85th Infantry
  STRAUSS, ABRAHAM                       D       86th Infantry
  STERN, JOHN                            K       86th Infantry
  STEIN, LOUIS                           A       88th Infantry
  STERNBERG, JACOB                       H       88th Infantry
  SAMPSON, SAMUEL                                92nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  STRAUSS, GEORGE                        I        93d Infantry
      Killed at Chickamauga.
  SCHWAB, SOLOMON                        A       94th Infantry
  SCHARFF, NATHAN                        B       94th Infantry
      Captured near Lexington, Kentucky.
  SOLOMON, JOSEPH                        K       95th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  STINER, ABRAHAM                                96th Infantry
      Wounded in Louisiana.
  STEIN, REUBEN D.                       K      100th Infantry
      Captured at Limestone Station, Tennessee.
  SOLOMON, ISAIAH         Corporal              101st Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  SAMPSON, FRANKLIN                      D       103d Infantry
  SCHREIER, FRANK                        G       103d Infantry
  STEIN, JACOB                           A      105th Infantry
  STEIN, HENRY            Lieutenant     B      105th Infantry
      Promoted from Private.
  SACHS, WILLIAM                         K      106th Infantry
  STRAUSS, JACOB                         A      107th Infantry
  SCHWAB, SAMUEL                         I      107th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  SCHIFF, SIMON                                 108th Infantry
  STEINBERG, A.           Corporal              108th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; died at Chattanooga.
  SIMON, ALBERT                                 108th Infantry
      Died at Rossville, Georgia.
  SIMPSON, SAMUEL                        G      110th Infantry
  SCHWARZ, JOSEPH         Corporal              111th Infantry
      Wounded at Resaca; served three years.
  STRAUSS, PHILIP                        E      111th Infantry
  SCHWARZ, ABRAHAM                       B      113th Infantry
  STRAUSS, NATHAN         Captain        I      113th Infantry
  STRAUSS, ABRAHAM        Sergeant       I      113th Infantry
      Served three years.
  SCHWARZ, LEVI                          D      115th Infantry
      Served three years.
  SACHS, JACOB C.                        I      115th Infantry
  SULZBERGER, LEWIS       Corporal       C      116th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  STEIN, JOSEPH                          C      118th Infantry
      Served three years.
  SPIEGEL, MARCUS M.      Colonel               120th Infantry

    Enlisted in the 67th Ohio Infantry; was soon promoted to 2nd
    Lieutenant, Captain, Lieutenant-Colonel, and for bravery manifested
    on the battle-field, was appointed Colonel of the 120th Ohio
    Infantry. This brave officer was wounded at Vicksburg, Mississippi,
    and notwithstanding entreaties, rejoined his regiment, but to
    fall at Snaggy Point, on the Red River, Louisiana. But for his
    untimely death, Colonel Spiegel would have been promoted to
    Brigadier-General, for which position he had been recommended by
    his superior officers. Colonel Spiegel was the son of a well-known
    Rabbi, of Oppenheim-on-the-Rhine, and a relation of the Greenbaum
    family, of Chicago.

  STEINER, JOSEPH                        A      121st Infantry
      Served three years.
  STRAUSS, JOHN                          G      121st Infantry
  STEINBERG, MORRIS                      D      124th Infantry
      Served three years.
  STRAUSS, JOSEPH J.      Corporal       E      126th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; served three years.
  SOLOMON, CHARLES                       D      128th Infantry
      Served three years.
  SCHWAB, JACOB                          B      129th Infantry
  STERNBERGER, MARK                      F      129th Infantry
  STRAUSS, DAVID                         F      130th Infantry
  STRAUSS, JOHN                          F      130th Infantry
  SOMMER, CHARLES                        F      130th Infantry
  SOLOMON, EDWARD B.                     A      131st Infantry
  STEINER, HARRY                         G      131st Infantry
  STEINER, HENRY                         G      131st Infantry
  STRASBURG, J.                                  133d Infantry
  STERNBERG, NATHAN                      D      138th Infantry
  SIMON, ISAAC                           E      138th Infantry
  STRAUSS, DAVID W.                      E      140th Infantry

  TANNHAUSER, A.                         B        6th Infantry
      Served three years.
  TANNHAUSER, MOSES                      B        6th Infantry
  TACHAN, HENRY G.        Lieutenant     K        6th Infantry
  TYROLER, SIGO                                   7th Infantry
  TROWNSTEIN, PHILIP      Captain        B         5th Cavalry

  ULLMAN, JOSEPH                         G       16th Infantry
  ULLMAN, ISAAC                          A        23d Infantry
  ULLMAN, FRANK                          K       28th Infantry
  ULLMAN, AUGUST                                  43d Infantry
  ULMAN, ISAAC            Captain        A       80th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  ULMAN, FREDERICK                               80th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Vicksburg.

  VOGEL, ISRAEL                          D       32nd Infantry
  VOGEL, FRANK                                   39th Infantry
  VOGEL, ELISHA                          C       41st Infantry
  VOGEL, NOAH                                    57th Infantry

  WITKOWSKY, H.                                   1st Infantry
      Served three years.
  WISE, JACOB                                      3d Infantry
  WISE, SAMUEL                           G        4th Infantry
  WOLF, ALBERT                                    5th Infantry
  WENDELSTEIN, MORITZ                             5th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  WOLF, JULIUS                                    7th Infantry
  WIESNER, LOUIS                         G       10th Infantry
  WOLF, SAMUEL                                   17th Infantry
  WOLF, DAVID                                    18th Infantry
  WEIS, JACOB                                    19th Infantry
  WOLF, DAVID                            F       21st Infantry
  WOLF, SAMUEL                           G       21st Infantry
  WOLF, MAX                                      24th Infantry
      Died in service.
  WISE, SAMUEL                           G       25th Infantry
  WOLF, ADOLPH                           G       28th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  WOLF, ADOLPH A.                                30th Infantry
      Killed at Antietam.
  WISE, JOSEPH                                   31st Infantry
  WATKOWSKY, KAN                         K       35th Infantry
  WISE, SAMUEL                                   36th Infantry
  WEILER, JACOB                          C       37th Infantry
  WEINBERG, LEWIS                        D       37th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  WOLF, ADOLPH            Sergeant       K       37th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  WISE, LEVI                             K       39th Infantry
  WOLF, AARON                                    39th Infantry
  WISE, BENJAMIN L.                      I       40th Infantry
      Served three years.
  WATERMAN, HENRY                                46th Infantry
  WEIL, JACOB                                    47th Infantry
  WOLF, JACOB             Lieutenant     F       49th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; killed at Chattanooga.
  WOLF, ISAAC                            A       50th Infantry
  WOLF, DAVID                                    51st Infantry
      Died in the service.
  WISE, JOSEPH M.                        B        53d Infantry
      Captured; died in hospital.
  WOLF, ISAAC                            H       54th Infantry
  WISE, JACOB                                    55th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  WOLF, ISRAEL                                   57th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  WEISS, LEWIS                           E       57th Infantry
  WOLF, LEVI                             H       57th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  WATERMAN, HENRY                        H       60th Infantry
  WOLF, JACOB                            I       67th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  WOLF, LEVI M.                          C       68th Infantry
  WISE, ABRAHAM                          A       71st Infantry
  WIEN, ALEXANDER                                71st Infantry
      Died in the service.
  WOLF, MARCUS                                    72d Infantry
  WEIS, LOUIS                            B        73d Infantry
      Served four years.
  WOLF, JACOB                            I       80th Infantry
  WISE, DANIEL W.                                82nd Infantry
  WISE, HENRY                            K       82nd Infantry
  WERTHEIMER, ANDREW                     B        83d Infantry
      Served three years.
  WISE, SAMUEL                           K       87th Infantry
  WEINSTEIN, CHARLES W.                  E       88th Infantry
  WOLF, JACOB                            I       94th Infantry
      Died of wounds at the siege of Atlanta.
  WISE, LEVI                             I      101st Infantry
      Served three years.
  WOLF, EMANUEL                                 101st Infantry
  WISE, EMANUEL           Corporal       A      104th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  WOLF, M.                               I      104th Infantry
  WISE, JACOB                            D      107th Infantry
      Captured at Chancellorsville.
  WEINMAN, LEOPOLD        Sergeant       F      107th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; wounded at Gettysburg.
  WEIS, JOSEPH                           H      107th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  WOLF, JACOB             Sergeant       K      107th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal; captured at Chancellorsville.
  WISE, LEVI              Corporal       E      115th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  WOLF, JACOB                            G      121st Infantry
  WENTZ, JACOB            Sergeant       G       123d Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; captured at Winchester; died in
      Rebel prison.
  WOLF, JACOB             Sergeant       K       123d Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; captured at Winchester.
  WORMSER, NATHAN                        A      128th Infantry
      Served three years.
  WOLF, LEVI                             H      128th infantry
  WISE, JOSEPH A.         Lieutenant     E      131st Infantry
  WEISS, SAMUEL                          K      135th Infantry
  DE WOLF, ISRAEL                        A      135th Infantry
  DE WOLF, SIMON          Lieutenant     B      136th Infantry
  WIENER, MICHAEL                               150th Infantry
  WOLF, SOLOMON B.        Surgeon               165th Infantry
      Served through the war.
  WOLF, LEOPOLD                          C         1st Cavalry


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.     REGIMENT.

  ARNOLD, AMOS            Sergeant       A       14th Infantry
  ARNOLD, BENJAMIN                       B       17th Infantry
  APPLE, JACOB            Corporal       G       22nd Infantry
  ASH, SOLOMON                           C       25th Infantry
  ARNOLD, MAX                            A       27th Infantry
  ADELSHEIMER, JACQUES    Captain        B       27th Infantry

      Enlisted as Private; promoted step by step to
      Captaincy; wounded at Chancellorsville; mentioned
      in special orders for gallantry.

  ADLER, NOAH                            B       27th Infantry
      Captured at Gettysburg; sent to Belle Island.
  ADLER, JACOB N.                        B       27th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, JASTROW      Lieutenant     H       27th Infantry

    Enlisted as Private; promoted to Regimental Adjutant subsequently
    Adjutant on staff of General von Steinwehr; mentioned in special
    orders for gallant conduct at Chancellorsville.

  APPEL, FRANCIS                         H       27th Infantry
  APPEL, HENRY                           H       27th Infantry
  ADELSHEIMER, S.                                27th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, J.                                  27th Infantry
  ARNOLD, AARON                                  40th Infantry
  ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM                      G       48th Infantry
  APPLE, SAMUEL A.        Sergeant       B       51st Infantry
      Served four years.
  ALLABACH, C. H.                        E       54th Infantry
      Subsequently in the United States Army as Assistant
  ARNOLD, GEORGE                                  63d Infantry
  AARONS, SOLOMON                        B       69th Infantry
      Served through the war.
  ASHER, ASHER                           I       69th Infantry
      Killed on picket duty near Richmond.
  ASHER, MORRIS                          B       71st Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg; Served three years.
  APPLE, DAVID A.         Captain        B        83d Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant, Lieutenant and Captain in
      Veteran Reserve Corps. Died of wounds.
  ABRAHAM, ISAAC M.       Major                  85th Infantry
      Promoted from Captain; wounded near Deep Bottom,
  APPEL, CHARLES A.     { Lieutenant     A       92nd Infantry
                        { Captain        F
  AARONS, JOSEPH                         B      109th Infantry

    Enlisted as a drummer boy while quite young; captured while
    delivering a dispatch in second Battle of Bull Run; after release
    appointed "orderly" on staff of General Geary, 2nd Division, 12th
    Army Corps; served until close of war.

  ARNOLD, JACOB E.        Corporal       E      114th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ABEL, JACOB W.                                115th Infantry
     Also in Veteran Reserve Corps; served as
     army-hospital steward.
  ARNOLD, HENRY                          F       133d Infantry
      Wounded at Fredericksburg.
  ARNOLD, ELI                            I      137th Infantry
  ARNOLD, SIMON                          G      140th Infantry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  ARNOLD, LEVI            Sergeant       F       143d Infantry
      Also Veteran Reserve Corps; served three years.
  ARNOLD, SIMON J.        Sergeant-Major        151st Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant of Company K; Wounded
  at Gettysburg.
  ARNOLD, SIMON                          I      151st Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  ARNOLD, MOSES P.        Sergeant       A      172nd Infantry
  ANSTEIN, JACOB                         D      194th Infantry
  APPLE, BENJAMIN         Corporal       I      209th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, SAMUEL       Assistant-               1st Cavalry
      Killed at Dranesville, Virginia.
  ALLEN, MICHAEL MITCHELL Chaplain                 5th Cavalry
  AUB, JACOB              Quartermaster            5th Cavalry
  ARMHOLD, MAX                           A         5th Cavalry
  APPEL, HENRY                           B         5th Cavalry
  ALTMAN, SOLOMON                        K        14th Cavalry
  ARNOLD, HENRY           Corporal       Battery 5th Artillery
  ASCH, CHARLES J.                         Independent Battery

  BARNET, MOSES                          A        1st Infantry
  BIRNBAUM, CHARLES                      I       22nd Infantry
  BLUMENTHAL, SIMON                      A       27th Infantry
  BACH, LOUIS                            D       27th Infantry
  BIGGARD, ISAAC                         K       27th Infantry
  BELSINGER, LAZARUS                     D       28th Infantry
     Served three years.
  BEAR, ABRAHAM E.                       B       30th Infantry
  BERNARD, AARON A.                      H       30th Infantry
  BRANDON, ISAAC M.       Corporal       K       30th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, OSCAR H.      Sergeant       B       41st Infantry
  BLOOM, NATHANIEL F.     Corporal       F       45th Infantry
      Wounded at Petersburg.
  BACHENHEIMER, JACOB     Sergeant               51st Infantry
      Wounded at Cold Harbor.
  BARNETT, PHILIP A.      Corporal       B       51st Infantry
  BAHNEY, MOSES           Corporal       B       54th Infantry
  BERKOWITZ, LEON         Corporal       H       59th Infantry
  BARNETT, NATHANIEL P.   Assistant              72nd Infantry
  BAIR, JOSEPH                           A       79th Infantry
      Wounded at Chickamauga; Served four years.
  BAMBERGER, HENRY        Corporal       E       79th Infantry
      Died of disease contracted in the service.
  BARNETT, DAVID A.       Corporal       B       99th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Kelly's Ford, Virginia.
  BLOOM, SAMUEL S.        Lieutenant     H      111th Infantry
  BEAR, ELIAS                            C      122nd Infantry
  BAER, BENJAMIN F.       Captain        F      122nd Infantry
      Served three years.
  BENEDICT, JACOB         Corporal       H      122nd Infantry
  BAER, MICHAEL           Major        { F       123d Infantry
                                       {        204th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  BENEDICT, JOSEPH        Sergeant       K      126th Infantry
      Severely wounded.
  BEAR, HENRY                            H       133d Infantry
  BLUM, AARON                            B       153d Infantry
  BUSH, ASHER                            B       153d Infantry
  BEAR, JOSEPH            Sergeant       I       153d Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  BLOOM, DAVID S.                        I      137th Infantry
  BAIR, ISRAEL            Sergeant       F      195th Infantry
  BACHMAN, JOSEPH         Sergeant       H      195th Infantry
  BAUM, SAMUEL            Corporal       G      200th Infantry
      Wounded at Fort Steadman, Virginia.
  BACHMAN, H.                            C         2nd Cavalry
  BLOOM, DAVID H.                        A         5th Cavalry
  BIRNBAUM, HENRY F.      Hospital       H         5th Cavalry
      Promoted from Private; served about four years.
  BERG, HENRY             Corporal       D        11th Cavalry
      Enlisted as Private; wounded near Richmond;
      served three years.
  BLUM, JULIUS            Corporal       A         Independent
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.

  COHEN, JACOB DA SILVA   Assistant              26th Infantry
    SOLIS                   Surgeon
      Subsequently in United States Navy, in Commodore
      Du Pont's expedition to Port Royal.
  CAHN, LOUIS                                    27th Infantry
  CROMELIEN, WASHINGTON   Sergeant-Major         27th Infantry
      Discharged to accept Commission as Lieutenant
      65th Infantry
  COHN, IGNATZ          { Lieutenant    C        27th Infantry
                        { Captain       B
  CALKER, ISAAC                         B         33d Infantry
      Died from effects of wounds.
  CASNER, ABRAHAM                       I        38th Infantry
  COHEN, J.               Sergeant               62nd Infantry
  COHEN, LEWIS                          F       122nd Infantry
  CANTNER, JACOB                        C       126th Infantry
  CONSTINE, LEWIS                       C        143d Infantry
      Killed at White Oak Church.
  COHEN, A. J.            Captain       A          5th Cavalry
      Seriously wounded.
  CROMELIEN, ALFRED       1st           C          5th Cavalry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant; elected to Loyal
      Legion U. S. Commandery of Pennsylvania; acting
      Recorder of Commandery; titled Major.
  CROMELIEN, JAMES        Lieutenant    G          5th Cavalry
      Also Quartermaster.
  COHEN, LEON SOLIS       Corporal            Keystone Battery
      Wounded in action.
  COONS, JACOB            Captain               Wyoming Jägers

  DINBACHER, S.                          B        6th Infantry
  DURLACHER, S.                          H        6th Infantry
  De Young, Washington R. Lieutenant     I       17th Infantry
      Brevetted Captain for bravery.
  DAVID, LOUIS N.                        E       18th Infantry
  DOON, THEODORE          Sergeant                23d Infantry
  DUSCH, ABRAHAM                         C       27th Infantry
      Also Veteran Reserve Corps.
  DAVIDSON, JOSEPH        Sergeant               28th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; killed at Chancellorsville.
  DAVIDSON, ISAAC                        H      122nd Infantry
      Died at Falmouth, Virginia, in 1862.
  DAVIS, EVAN                            D      125th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; died of wounds received
      at Chancellorsville.
  DAVIDSON, JOSEPH A.                    I      134th Infantry
      Killed at Fredericksburg.
  DAVIDSON, ELIAS B.                     G      136th Infantry
  DASHER, SAMUEL                         D      192nd Infantry
  DINKELBERGER, J. R.                    E         1st Cavalry
  DE HAAN, AARON                         A       2nd Artillery
  DE HAAN, HENRY          Sergeant       M        3d Artillery
      Transferred to United States Veterans, 2nd Regiment.

  ELLENGER, JACOB                        I       26th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ELLENGER, WILLIAM                      I       26th Infantry
  EINSTEIN, MAX           Colonel                27th Infantry

    Born at Buchau, Wurtemberg, Germany, October 10, 1822; 1st
    Lieutenant of Washington Guards, 1852; Captain of Philadelphia
    (Flying) Artillery Company, 1853; Aide-de-Camp (with rank
    of Lieutenant-Colonel) to Governor James Pollock, of
    Pennsylvania, and Paymaster-General of Pennsylvania (with rank
    of Brigadier-General) 1856; Brigadier-General 2nd Brigade,
    Pennsylvania Militia, 1860; Colonel of 27th Regiment of Volunteers
    (Pennsylvania) 1861. This Regiment, under Colonel Einstein's
    command, succeed in covering the retreat of the Union Army in the
    first battle of Bull Run, and won credit by its conduct. Colonel
    Einstein was subsequently appointed by President Lincoln, United
    States Consul at Nüremburg Germany, and since then served as United
    States Internal Revenue Agent in Philadelphia, where he still

  ELLINGER, EMANUEL                      C       27th Infantry
  EPPSTEIN, DANIEL        1st Lieutenant D       27th Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant.
  EISENMAN, JACOB                        H       27th Infantry
  EMANUEL, LYON LEVY      Major                  82nd Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant and Captain; distinguished
      for bravery; served three years.
  EMANUEL, LOUIS MANLY    Brigade Surgeon        82nd Infantry
      Promoted from Surgeon; rendered valuable
      services; served three years.
  ETTING, CHARLES EDWARD  Captain        D      121st Infantry

    Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant; Regimental Adjutant on Brigade Staff;
    assigned to 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 1st Army Corps; served three

  ECKERMANN, JACOB B.                    E      139th Infantry
      Wounded at Salem Heights and at the Wilderness.
  EISENBERG, DANIEL                    { I         5th Cavalry
      Transferred to                   { B

  FRAUENTHAL, ABRAHAM     Corporal     { C        8th Infantry
                                       { D         9th Cavalry
      At expiration of service, Lieutenant, Company I, 83d
      Infantry. Served nearly four years.
  FLOERSHEIM, HENRY       Lieutenant     A       27th Infantry
  FRANKEL, MAYER                         A       27th Infantry
      Honorably mentioned by Secretary of War.
  FUCHS, JACOB                           B       27th Infantry
      Transferred to 109th Regiment.
  FRANK, CHARLES                         I       27th Infantry
  FRIEDHEIM, ADOLPH                      E       98th Infantry
  FELLENBAUM, DAVID                      K      122nd Infantry
  FRANKENFIELD, E.                       B       153d Infantry
  FRANKENFIELD, GEORGE                   B       153d Infantry
  FROMM, NATHAN           Corporal       A      167th Infantry
  FRANK, JACOB            Corporal       C      197th Infantry
  FRIEDMAN, MAX           Colonel                  5th Cavalry

    Born in Mühlhausen, Bavaria, Germany, March 21, 1825. He was
    Major of a regiment of Pennsylvania Militia before the Civil War;
    Colonel of 65th Regiment (5th Pennsylvania Cavalry) 1861; severely
    wounded in battle of Vienna, Virginia, in February, 1862. After
    his resignation, Colonel Friedman was commissioned to organize
    other Cavalry Regiments in Pennsylvania. He was Special Inspector
    of the Revenue Department (1867-1868); he started the Union Square
    National Bank, of New York City, in 1869, and became its cashier.
    He is President of the Veteran Corps of "Cameron Dragoons" (by
    which title the 65th Regiment has been known). Colonel Friedman
    resides in New York City.

  FRANK, JACOB                           I         5th Cavalry
  FISHBLATT, LEWIS        Lieutenant     E         8th Cavalry
  FRANKEL, REV. JACOB     Chaplain      United States Hospital

  GROSS, J. L.                           E        1st Infantry
  GOODMAN, AARON                         A       14th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JAMES                       F       26th Infantry
      Served three years; captured at Gettysburg.
  GOLDBERG, SAMPSON      Sergeant        A       27th Infantry
  GROSS, LEOPOLD                         A       27th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Cross Keys, Virginia.
  GOODMAN, BENJAMIN B.    Lieutenant     B       27th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant.
  GENTER, NATHAN                         B       27th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  GASSENHEIMER, GUS                              27th Infantry
  GLASER, ADOLPH                                 27th Infantry
      Transferred to 15th Heavy Artillery, New York.
  GOODMAN, DAVID J.                      A        33d Infantry
      Served three years.
  GROSSMAN, LEWIS                        C       40th Infantry
      Served three years; lost an arm and leg at Spottsylvania;
      died from wounds; buried in National
      Cemetery, Arlington.
  GROSS, ABRAM                           F       41st Infantry
      Transferred to 190th Infantry; served over three
  GROSS, ISAAC                           H       50th Infantry
  GOLDSTEIN, LOUIS                       B       61st Infantry
  GREMITZ, ----           Captain                62nd Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, JOSEPH       Captain        A       74th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.
  GOODMAN, DAVID          Sergeant       B       78th Infantry
      Served four years.
  GOODMAN, ISAAC          Sergeant               91st Infantry
      Promoted from Private; wounded at Petersburg;
      served four years.
  GOLDBERG, ----          Corporal       A       91st Infantry
  GASSENMAIER, JOSEPH                    D       98th Infantry
  GOLDENBERG, C. D.                      F      110th Infantry
  GOLDENBERG, HENRY                      F      110th Infantry
  GALLINGER, JOSEPH                      B       123d Infantry
      Enlisted at eighteen years of age.
  GISNER, GEORGE          Corporal              142nd Infantry
  GOLDBACHER, ISAAC       Sergeant              150th Infantry
  GROSS, AARON                           C       153d Infantry
      Captured at Gettysburg.
  GOLDSTROM, LEOPOLD      Quartermaster- E         5th Cavalry
      Entered as Private; served four years.
  GERSCHEL, ADOLPH                       I         6th Cavalry
      Served three years, until expiration of term.
  GOLDSCHMIDT, ANTON      Lieutenant     A        12th Cavalry
      Promoted from Sergeant; served three years and until
      the close of the war.
  GOLDSMITH, JAMES        Sergeant       H        18th Cavalry
      Promoted from Corporal; served three years.

  HAYS, DAVID                            C        2nd Infantry
  HIRSH, JACOB            Lieutenant     G       18th Infantry
  HIRSH, MORRIS           Corporal       G       18th Infantry
  HIRSCH, ISIDOR          Lieutenant     A       22nd Infantry
  HELLER, HENRY           Surgeon                27th Infantry
  HELLER, MAXIMILIAN      Surgeon                27th Infantry
  HEYMAN, HERMAN                         A       27th Infantry
  HARRIS, B.                             B       27th Infantry
  HEIMBURG, JULIUS        Quartermaster  B       27th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  HERRMAN, FRANK          Lieutenant     C       27th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  HELLER, DAVID                          C       27th Infantry
  HOUSEMAN, JACOB                        E       27th Infantry
  HERMAN, PHILIP                         H       27th Infantry
  HOCHSTETTER, A.                                27th Infantry
  HIRSCH, A.                                     27th Infantry
  HERTZOG, JOEL J.        Corporal     { M       28th Infantry
      Served three years.              { D      147th Infantry
  HERTZOG, JOSEPH                        E       29th Infantry
  HENRY, B.                              D       32nd Infantry
  HESS, JACOB                            H       36th Infantry
  HESS, MICHAEL                          H       36th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Fredericksburg.
  HASSLER, AUGUSTUS       Sergeant     { F       41st Infantry
                                       {        190th Infantry
  HERMAN, JACOB                          G       57th Infantry
  HIGHTULL, ISRAEL        Sergeant               61st Infantry
  HOFFMAN, S.                                    67th Infantry
  HARRIS, BENJAMIN        Sergeant       G       72nd Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  HAMBERG, ANSEL          Lieutenant   { A       91st Infantry
                          Major        {         44th Infantry
                          Colonel      {         12th Infantry
      He has been Junior and Senior Vice-Commander of
      George G. Meade Post, No. 1. Grand Army of the
  HART, ABRAHAM                          I        73d Infantry
      Captain and Brigade Adjutant-General.

    Captain Abraham Hart, at present commander of Kit Carson Post,
    Grand Army of the Republic, one of the large Posts of the District
    of Columbia, was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, in 1832. At the
    age of eighteen years he came to the United States and was employed
    in a large house in Philadelphia, where he was residing at the
    outbreak of the Rebellion in 1861.

    He volunteered as a soldier in the 73d Regiment of Pennsylvania
    Infantry, commanded by Colonel John A. Koltes; he aided Colonel
    Koltes in enlisting other volunteers, and as early as August,
    1861, was on his way with the regiment to help in the defences
    of Washington on the Virginia side. While there, Lieutenant
    Hart--for he had been promoted to a lieutenancy--was frequently
    sent out on reconnoitring expeditions, and in one of these he had
    a sharp brush with a body of Confederate cavalry which was also
    out reconnoitring. Subsequently, Lieutenant Hart was promoted to a
    captaincy, and when Colonel Koltes was elevated to the command of a
    brigade in General Blenker's Division of the Army of the Potomac,
    Captain Hart was detailed as Adjutant-General of the Brigade. In
    this capacity he participated in the battle of Cross Keys, in
    numerous skirmishes, and in the second battle of Bull Run.

    At the battle of Cross Keys, the commanding General desired
    information as to the position and movements of the opposing force
    under "Stonewall" Jackson, and Captain Hart undertook to obtain it
    for him. In pursuance of this undertaking, and in company with a
    squad of picked men, he successfully made the circuit of the rebel
    camp, obtained the desired information, and reported it to the

    At Sulphur Springs he was entrusted by General Sigel with the
    command of a force to destroy a bridge over the Rappahannock which
    was defended by rebel artillery, and he succeeded in destroying it.
    At another time he had the good fortune to rescue several hundred
    Union soldiers who had been captured by the Confederates.

    But perhaps Captain Hart's most important service was done at the
    second battle of Bull Run. General von Steinwehr's (Blenker's)
    Division was in advance, and engaged in the first day's battle,
    as well as in the second and third. In the afternoon of the
    third day (August 30) of the fight, Koltes' Brigade was ordered
    to silence a rebel battery which was doing us great damage. The
    Brigade was several times driven back, but each time rallied, and
    finally captured and spiked the guns. It was here that the Brigade
    Commander, Colonel Koltes, was killed, and here that the Brigade
    suffered the heaviest loss.

  FUCHS, EUGENE           Sergeant       D          3d Cavalry
  HERRMAN, JACOB          Sergeant       C       98th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; wounded at Cedar Creek; served
      four years.
  HIRSCH, M. L.                                 101st Infantry
  HIRSCH, AUGUST          Corporal       A      102nd Infantry
      Wounded at the Wilderness; three years service.
  HERMAN, EMANUEL         Captain        D       103d Infantry
  HOFFMAN, LEOPOLD                       C      113th Infantry
      Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant; promoted from
  HYNEMAN, JACOB EZEKIEL                 G      119th Infantry

    Wounded at Fredericksburg; also at Brandy Station and Mine Run;
    transferred to United States Signal Corps; served three years
    (1862-1865); has served since during riots in Pennsylvania; has
    held several military ranks.

  HOFFMAN, ABRAHAM        Corporal       E      186th Infantry
  HYNEMAN, ELIAS LEON     Sergeant       C         5th Cavalry

    A reference to this brave soldier and the sacrifice which cost
    him his life is contained in our "Introduction," page 5, so that
    little is left to record. Hyneman voluntarily enlisted in the 5th
    Cavalry, after the first Battle of Bull Run. He was promoted from
    Corporal to Sergeant, and was always eager for active service,
    distinguishing himself in several battles, and being one of twelve
    skirmishers who advanced on the enemy in the Battle of Gettysburg.
    He fought dismounted in the Battle of the Wilderness. His term
    expired in 1864, but so anxious was he to serve his country that he
    re-enlisted, only to meet so untimely a fate as recorded. He died
    on January 7, 1865, at Andersonville, of starvation and sickness,
    and his body was brought for interment to Philadelphia five months

    As to Hyneman's course as a soldier, no stronger testimony than
    that contained in the following official paper is required:

    "I hereby certify on honor that I was well and personally
    acquainted with Elias Leon Hyneman, who was a Sergeant of Company
    C, 5th Regiment, Pennsylvania Cavalry, Volunteers, that the said
    Elias L. Hyneman was a thorough and efficient soldier, and a person
    of excellent habits, and known and respected as such by all in the
    regiment. That he was ever foremost in the line of duty and at the
    post of danger, and vigilant and patient in the prosecution of his
    patriotic services. That by his zeal and enthusiasm to be foremost
    among the defenders of his flag he was unhappily captured by a
    merciless foe, and consigned to an ignominious and beastly prison
    house, there to suffer for many months and at last to yield up his
    noble spirit in death. Even his last life scenes were worthy of a
    soldier and full of true manfulness. That I, being a prisoner of
    war at the same time with said Elias L. Hyneman, heard of his many
    sufferings with deepest regret. I sympathize sincerely with his
    afflicted relatives and all who mourn his loss. He fought and fell
    in the glorious cause of freedom and justice omnipotent.

    "Given at Camp, Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry, near Richmond, Va.,
    this 1st day of May, 1865.

    "_Capt. Com'd'g Company C, Fifth Penn. Cavalry._"

    Colonel Commanding Regiment."

  HARRIS, ABRAHAM B.      Lieutenant     F         5th Cavalry
  HOFFMAN, DAVID B.                      G         5th Cavalry
  HASSLER, JACOB          Sergeant       D         9th Cavalry
      Served about four years.
  HERZOG, JACOB           Captain        E        12th Cavalry
  HAMBURGER, HERMAN       Lieutenant     L        18th Cavalry

    Assistant Adjutant-General, 1st Brigade, 3d Cavalry Corps, Army of
    the Potomac; has been Judge in Carbon County, Pennsylvania, etc.,

  ISRAEL, DANIEL                         F       10th Infantry
  ISAACS, HENRY                          I       18th Infantry
  ISRAEL, JACOB                          B       27th Infantry
  ISAACS, HENRY                        { M       72nd Infantry
                                       { C

  JOSEPHS, GUSTAV                        C         3d Infantry
      And one year in Hancock's Veteran Corps;
      served three years.
  JACOBS, HENRY                          B        4th Infantry
  JACOBS, JACOB           Corporal       K       11th Infantry
  JACOBY, HENRY           Corporal       I       18th Infantry
  JOSEPHS, AARON                         F       19th Infantry
  JACQUES, HENRY          Lieutenant     G       26th Infantry
      Wounded in second Battle of Bull Run, and other
  JACOBSON, AUGUSTUS                     A       27th Infantry
      Transferred to United States Navy.
  JACOBY, HERMAN                         A       27th Infantry
      Wounded at Missionary Ridge; served throughout
      the war.
  JACOB, JOHN                            B       27th Infantry
  JOSEPHS, ABRAHAM                       F       27th Infantry
      And one year in Hancock's Veteran Corps; served
      three years.
  JACOBY, HUGO            Sergeant     { A       27th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal;          {        109th Infantry
      transferred to
  JACOBY, H.                             H       27th Infantry
  JACOBS, HENRY                          F       28th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBS, SAMUEL                         H       29th Infantry
      Served four years.
  JACOBS, ISRAEL                         D       30th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBS, ABRAHAM B.                   { A       34th Infantry
      Subsequently                     {     6th U. S. Cavalry
  JACOBY, MOSES           Corporal       E       47th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  JACOBS, HENRY           Lieutenant     F       51st Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; served four years.
  JACOBS, SIMON                          D       99th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBS, HENRY H.        Sergeant       F      165th Infantry
  JACOBS, ALEXANDER       Corporal       F      165th Infantry
  JACOBY, JOSEPH          Sergeant       I      167th Infantry
  JACOBS, THEODORE        Assistant             187th Infantry
  JACOBY, SIMON P.                       E        3d Artillery
  JACOBS, S. H.           1st Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry

  KOENIGSBERG, MAX        Lieutenant     A       12th Infantry
      Wounded at Gaines' Mills; captured and sent to
      Libby Prison.
  KAUFFMANN, ISAAC B.     Lieutenant     C       16th Infantry
  KIRSCHHEIMER, JOSEPH    Sergeant               27th Infantry
  KUHN, MAGNUS                           A       27th Infantry
  KUHN, MARCUS                           A       27th Infantry
  KOHN, IGNAZ             Captain        B       27th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  KUHN, ABRAHAM                          B       27th Infantry
  KAHN, LOUIS                            C       27th Infantry
  KATZ, JACOB F.                         C       35th Infantry
      Served three years.
  KAUFFMAN, SAMUEL                       A       46th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, LEVI H.       Corporal       H       52nd Infantry
  KLINE, JOSEPH                          I       61st Infantry
      Killed at Fair Oaks, Virginia.
  KARPEL, JACOB                          C        63d Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Bull Run.
  KOHEN, FRANK P.         Lieutenant     I       67th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, BENJAMIN L.   Corporal     { D       90th Infantry
                                       { H       11th Infantry
  KOSHLAND, NICHOLAS N.                  A       91st Infantry
  KAYSER, MORRIS          Captain        B       91st Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant; served about three years.
  KATZ, EMANUEL                                  98th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, JACOB         Corporal       A      101st Infantry
  KLINE, NATHAN                          K      119th Infantry
      Served three years.
  KAUFFMAN, SOLOMON B.    Corporal       F      126th Infantry
  KRAMER, SOLOMON H.      Sergeant       G      128th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, JONAS H.      Assistant             151st Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, JOSEPH A.     Lieutenant     B      154th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, JACOB         Corporal       F      171st Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, DAVID S.      Sergeant       F      179th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, SOLOMON B.    Sergeant       B      202nd Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, ISSAC B.      2nd Lieutenant H         9th Cavalry
      Died of wounds received at Moore's Hill, Kentucky.
  KARPELES, LEO                                  2nd Artillery

  LIVERMAULI, MOSES                      B        2nd Infantry
  LEVY, DAVID                            I        5th Infantry
  LEVY, ABRAHAM                          E        6th Infantry
  LEVI, CHARLES           Corporal       F        7th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, SAMUEL                      G        9th Infantry
      Served four years.
  LAZARUS, DAVID                         F        23d Infantry
  LEWENBERG, JOSEPH                      I        23d Infantry
  LEVY, AARON                            A       26th Infantry
      Transferred to Signal Corps.
  LUESCHER, JACOB         Sergeant       A       27th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEO, CHARLES            Lieutenant     H       27th Infantry
     Regimental Adjutant.
  LOWENSTEIN, M.                                 27th Infantry
  LAZARUS, AARON          Brevet Captain D       28th Infantry

    Enlisted as Private, and promoted to Corporal, Sergeant, 1st
    Sergeant, 2nd Lieutenant, 1st Lieutenant, Regimental Adjutant, and
    Brevet Captain, United States Volunteers; served three years; has
    since been Captain and Major; member of Loyal Legion of the United
    States (Commandery of Pennsylvania).

  LACHENHEIMER, F.                       K       29th Infantry
  LYON, ABRAHAM           Corporal       H       35th Infantry
  LANG, PHILIP                           I       37th Infantry
  LOWENTHAL, SAMUEL                      G       38th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEBENGOOD, JACOB                       E       40th Infantry
      So seriously wounded as to be disabled for further service.
  LEVI, WILLIAM P.        Sergeant       C       54th Infantry
  LICHTENBERGER, DANIEL   Sergeant       I       76th Infantry
       Enlisted as Private.
  LEO, HENRY F.           Captain        B      115th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; served three years.
  LAZARUS, HENRY                         C      119th Infantry
      Also Veteran Invalid Reserve Corps; served through
     the war.
  LEVY, HERMAN                                  119th Infantry
  LEHMAN, EMANUEL                        D      127th Infantry
  LEHMAN, JACOB                          D      127th Infantry
  LILLIENSTINE, CHARLES                  I      127th Infantry
  LEVI, JOSEPH            Corporal       G      129th Infantry
  LAZARUS, WILLIAM                       E      132nd Infantry
      Killed at Antietam.
  LOEB, JACOB                            H      151st Infantry
  LOEB, SAMUEL B.                        H      151st Infantry
  LOEB, WILLIAM C.                       H      151st Infantry
      Died at Fairfax Seminary, Virginia, June 27, 1863.
  LONG, ISAAC                            H      151st Infantry
  LEVY, PHILIP            Sergeant       G       193d Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  LIPOWITZ, HERMAN        Sergeant       H      215th Infantry
  LANGSDORF, SIMON        Corporal       B         5th Cavalry
      Discharged for injuries received at Williamsburg.
  LEVY, MEYER S.                         C         5th Cavalry
  LEVY, SAMUEL                           C         5th Cavalry
  LEVY, THEODORE                         C         5th Cavalry
  LANG, ERNST                            E         5th Cavalry
  LEVI, SIMON                            I         5th Cavalry
  LINDHEIMER, BARNEY                               6th Cavalry
  LANG, MORRIS                                    12th Cavalry
      Captured at second Battle of Bull Run.
  LEVY, BENJAMIN J.       Brevet-Major            21st Cavalry
      Promoted from Commissary of Subsistence.
  LIEBSCHUTZ, ADOLPH      Lieutenant             2nd Artillery
      Promoted from the ranks for gallantry; served three

  MILLER, JONAS                          E        5th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MAY, SAMUEL F.                         K        8th Infantry
  MAYER, LOUIS H.         Sergeant       C       13th Infantry
      Also in Ohio Infantry, and staff officer in Regular Army.
  MYERS, SOLOMON          Lieutenant     A       16th Infantry
  MILLER, MOSES                          K       19th Infantry
  MILLER, SAMUEL                         K       19th Infantry
  MAY, SOLOMON W.                                19th Infantry
  MEYER, C.                              B       21st Infantry
  MILLER, ALEXANDER                      H       22nd Infantry
  MAYER, JACOB CORPORAL                  B        23d Infantry
  MITCHELL, M.                           F        23d Infantry
  MORITZ, JOSEPH                         C       26th Infantry
  MOSS, JOHN                           { E       26th Infantry
    Served three years. Transferred to {         99th Infantry
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          I       26th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg; transferred to 99th Infantry;
      served four years.
  MAY, LOUIS                             A       27th Infantry
  MOSER, LEO SERGEANT                    C       27th Infantry
  MAY, MEYER                             D       27th Infantry
  MAYER, HERMAN                          D       27th Infantry
  MEYER, MOSES                           E       27th Infantry
  MEYER, EMIL             Lieutenant     G       27th Infantry
  MARX, DAVID                            G       27th Infantry
  MAIER, JACOB                           H       27th Infantry
  MOSER, DAVID                           H       27th Infantry
      Died at Winchester, Virginia.
  MAX, JACOB                                     27th Infantry
  MEYER, MAX                                     27th Infantry
  MYERS, SIMON P.                        G       28th Infantry
  MARKS, EMANUEL                         K       28th Infantry
      Died at Rectortown, Virginia.
  MILLER, AARON                          I       36th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MYERS, LEVI                            I       36th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MOSES, JOSHUA                          I       42nd Infantry
  MILLER, JACOB                          A       45th Infantry
      Killed at South Mountain.
  MOSES, DANIEL           Corporal       K       48th Infantry
  MOSES, DAVID            Lieutenant     K       52nd Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; served until the close of the war.
  MILLER, SOLOMON C.      Sergeant       A       57th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MILLER, JACOB                          C       61st Infantry
  MILLER, JACOB           Corporal       H       61st Infantry
      Disabled at Malvern Hill.
  MYERS, EMANUEL          Sergeant               62nd Infantry
  MAZUR, F.                                       63d Infantry
  MYERS, ISRAEL           Corporal       E       67th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  MOSS, WILLIAM           Surgeon                70th Infantry
      Surgeon United States Volunteers.
  MYERS, ISAAC            Corporal       G       74th Infantry
  MYERS, SIGMUND          Corporal       I       76th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MAYER, JACOB            Sergeant       F       82nd Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  MYERS, SOLOMON          Captain        E       87th Infantry
      Served over three years.
  MOSER, HENRY            Corporal       F      107th Infantry
      Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  MOSS, JACOB                                   119th Infantry
  MYERS, HENRY                           H      122nd Infantry
  MYERS, DANIEL S.                       I      127th Infantry
  MYERS, ALBERT           Sergeant       H      128th Infantry
  MILLER, AARON                          F      129th Infantry
  MYERS, BENJAMIN F.                     C      130th Infantry
  MYERS, JACOB                           A      150th Infantry
      Also Veteran Reserve Corps.
  MARKS, ISRAEL                          E      151st Infantry
  MYERS, AARON J.         Sergeant       I       153d Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Gettysburg.
  MYERS, HERMAN           Corporal       A      155th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MOYER, EMANUEL          Sergeant       H      162nd Infantry
      Killed at White House, Virginia.
  MYERS, EMANUEl          Sergeant-Major        165th Infantry
  MARX, AARON J.                         F      169th Infantry
  MYERS, LEVI             Lieutenant     E      178th Infantry
  MYERS, DAVID            Corporal       H       183d Infantry
      Enlisted as private; seriously wounded at Cold Harbor.
  MILLER, AARON           Corporal       K      190th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  MICHAELS, DAVID         Lieutenant     I      210th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal and Sergeant.
  MENKEN, NATHAN D.       Captain                 ---- Cavalry

    At the outbreak of the Civil War he organized a body of cavalry and
    was chosen Captain. At the Second Battle of Bull Run his horse was
    shot under him. As commander of General Pope's body-guard, he won
    the esteem and admiration of his brother officers for his bravery,
    courtesy and firmness. In 1878, during the yellow fever scourge in
    Memphis, Tennessee, Captain Menken refused to quit that city, but
    remained at his post, attending to the suffering until the terrible
    plague made this hero also a victim.

  MILLER, JACOB                                     3d Cavalry
      Died of wounds received at Mine Run, Virginia.
  MOSS, JOSEPH L.         Major                    5th Cavalry
      Lieutenant-Colonel 12th Cavalry; served three years.
  MOSS, JACOB                          { C         5th Cavalry
                                       { H
  MYERS, EMANUEL                         K         5th Cavalry
  MAX, CHARLES                           E         6th Cavalry
  MOELER, MAX             Lieutenant     E        11th Cavalry
  MEYER, LEOPOLD          Captain        C        12th Cavalry
      Served over three years.
  MILLER, MOSES           Corporal       H        14th Cavalry
  MOSER, HENRY            Quartermaster-          19th Cavalry
      Served three years.
  MARKS, SIMON                    Custer's Division of Cavalry
  MENDEL, HERMAN          Sergeant       L      { 3d Artillery
                                                {  4th Cavalry
      Subsequently in United States Army.
  MESSING, BERNHARD       Sergeant       M        3d Artillery
      Transferred 62nd Regiment, U. S. V.

  NATHANS, OSCAR S.                      H       18th Infantry
  NATHANS, THEODORE                      H       18th Infantry
  NATHAN, LEWIS                          A       51st Infantry
  NEYMAN, JACOB                                   Signal Corps

  OTTENHEIMER, SOLOMON                   A       19th Infantry
  OSTHEIMER, NATHAN                      K       62nd Infantry
      Killed at Harrison's Landing.
  OCHS, JOSEPH                           E         5th Cavalry
  OPPENHEIMER, LOUIS                     E         5th Cavalry

  PINHEIRO, SOLOMON                      G       26th Infantry

    Enlisted quite young as a drummer boy; subsequently entered United
    States Navy; served there three years and took part in a number of

  PICKARD, M.                                    27th Infantry
  POLLOCK, A.                                    27th Infantry
  PROSKAUER, A.                                  27th Infantry
  PHILLIPS, ISAAC W.                     K       29th Infantry
  PHILLIPS, ISAAC H.                     F       36th Infantry
  PHILLIPS, DAVID J.      Adjutant     {         81st Infantry
                          Captain      { I
  PODOLSKY, THEODORE                            101st Infantry
      Promoted from 2nd Lieutenant, etc.

  ROSENSTEEL, JACOB                      I       11th Infantry
      Wounded at Rappahannock Station; served four
  ROSENFELT, NATHAN       Sergeant       D       26th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Gettysburg.
  ROSENTHAL, MAX                       { D       26th Infantry
      Transferred to                   {         99th Infantry
  ROSENSTEIN, WILLIAM                    F       26th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, ARNDT        Major                  27th Infantry
  ROEDELSHEIMER, SOLOMON  Captain        A       27th Infantry
  ROSENGARTEN, HENRY     {Corporal       A       27th Infantry
                         {Sergeant       K
  RINGETSTEIN, JACOB                     A       27th Infantry
  ROSENHEIM, BERNARD                     A       27th Infantry
  ROTH, LEWIS                            A       27th Infantry
  REINHARD, FRANCIS                      B       27th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, MAURICE      Sergeant       C       27th Infantry
      Wounded at Lookout Mountain.
  ROSENTHAL, ABRAHAM                     E       27th Infantry
  REINHART, NATHAN F.     Corporal       F       27th Infantry
  ROSENSTEIN, DAVID                      I       27th Infantry
  ROSENSTOCK, JACOB                      A       28th Infantry
      Wounded at Chancellorsville; served three years.
  ROSENBAUM, MICHAEL                     F       29th Infantry
  RASHKE, MORITZ          Sergeant                63d Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  ROSENFELT, NATHAN A                            72nd Infantry
      Wounded and captured at Antietam; when released,
      transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps.
  ROTHSCHILD, SAMUEL      Sergeant       I       74th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  ROSENBERG, LOUIS        Corporal       K       82nd Infantry
  ROTHSCHILD, LEWIS                      K       99th Infantry
  ROSENBERGER, L. A.      Lieutenant     D      104th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; captured at Gloucester Point,
      Virginia; served three years.
  ROSENGARTEN,            Lieutenant     D      121st Infantry
      Major on staff of General John F. Reynolds, Army of the Potomac;
      Brevet Captain in United States Volunteers; served three years.
  ROWE, SAMUEL W.         Captain        B      122nd Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  ROSENBERGER, SAMUEL                    G      126th Infantry
  RICH, ISAAC B.          Sergeant       B      129th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  ROSENSTEEL, JACOB       Sergeant       F      139th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; wounded at the Wilderness;
      served three years.
  RINEHARD, ALFRED A.     Captain        D      148th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; wounded at Po River, Virginia;
      served three years.
  ROSENSTEIN, MICHAEL     Lieutenant     K       173d Infantry
  ROSENSTEEL, TOBIAS      Lieutenant               4th Cavalry
      Served three years.
  ROWLAND, ADOLPHUS       Major                    5th Cavalry
      Promoted from Lieutenant for distinguished bravery.
  ROSENTHAL, LEOPOLD      Captain        A         5th Cavalry
      Wounded at Fort Magruder.
  RHINE, MICHAEL                         G         5th Cavalry
  ROSENTHAL, EPHRAIM      Sergeant       A        12th Cavalry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years, and until close
      of war.
  REUBENTHAL, ELIAS       Sergeant       I        12th Cavalry
      Served over three years.
  ROSENGARTEN, ADOLPH G.  Major                   15th Cavalry
                                              (Anderson Troop)
      Promoted from Sergeant; killed at Stone River, Tennessee.
  ROSENBERGER, S.         Assistant Surgeon      2nd Artillery

  SONTHEIMER, BERNARD                             6th Infantry
  SCHWARZ, S. F.                         I       16th Infantry
  SCHONEMAN, ABRAM P.     Lieutenant   { E       19th Infantry
                                       {         65th Infantry
                                       {      Keystone Battery
  STERN, ABRAM E. Corporal               G       19th Infantry
  STERN, CHARLES                                 19th Infantry
  STERNBERGER, CHARLES                           19th Infantry
  STEIN, JACOB            Corporal       B       21st Infantry
  SELIGMAN, MARCUS                     { F       26th Infantry
      Transferred to                   {         99th Infantry
  SALINGER, B.            Lieutenant             27th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  SCHLOSS, ABRAHAM                       A       27th Infantry
  SCHONEMAN, EMANUEL      Sergeant       B       27th Infantry
  SPAETH, HENRY           Sergeant       B       27th Infantry
  SHEIER, MOSES                          B       27th Infantry
  SIEDLER, JOSEPH                        B       27th Infantry
  SILBERBERG, MAX                        B       27th Infantry

    Enlisted at eighteen years of age; took part in battles in
    Pennsylvania, including Gettysburg; served twice as Commander of
    August Willich Post, G. A. R.; also as President of Employment
    Bureau of Grand Army of the Republic Association of Hamilton
    County, Ohio.

  STRAUS, JONAS                          B       27th Infantry
  STEIN, LOUIS                           D       27th Infantry
  SCHOEN, DAVID                          G       27th Infantry
  STERN, JULIUS           Sergeant       H       27th Infantry
  SCHLOSS, MOSES                         K       27th Infantry
      Served three years.
  SCHLOSS, DAVID                                 27th Infantry
  SELKER, ADOLPH                                 27th Infantry
  STROUSE, CYRUS          Major                  28th Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  SNOWBERGER, ELIAS                      K       29th Infantry
  STERN, DAVID                                   32nd Infantry
  SNELLENBURG, ISAAC                     B        33d Infantry
      Killed at Charles City Cross Roads, Virginia, buried
      on the battle-field.
  STROUS, JACOB                          G       34th Infantry
      Served three years.
  STEIN, JACOB                           A       37th Infantry
  SIGMUND, ALBERT M.      Assistant Surgeon      38th Infantry
  STEIN, LEWIS                           E       41st Infantry
      Served three years.
  SILBERMAN, MARX         Corporal       A       51st Infantry
    Raised a company of men in three days and became Corporal of the
    company; started the company by signing first.
  STINE, JACOB                           C       54th Infantry
  STEINER, JACOB                         G       55th Infantry
    Also Veteran Reserve Corps.
  STROUSS ELLIS C.        Captain        K       57th Infantry
      Entered as private; wounded at Charles City Cross
      Roads and at Wilderness; served four years.
  STROUSE, HENRY          Corporal       D       76th Infantry
  STERN, HENRY            Captain        G       77th Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  STERN, HERMAN                          B        83d Infantry
  SOLOMON, AUGUSTUS       Sergeant       B        93d Infantry
      Promoted from private; also in Veteran Reserve Corps.
  STEINBRUN, J.                          D       98th Infantry
  SNOWBERGER, ALBERT LEOPOLD                     99th Infantry

    Born in Philadelphia, April 4, 1845. He was sent to the Military
    Academy, at Portsmouth, Virginia, when but fifteen years of age.
    When the war broke out he enlisted in the Union Army, despite his
    youthful age. He took part in a number of engagements with the
    enemy, but at the Battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13,
    1862, he was mortally wounded, yet even in his agonies this young
    hero "waved his cap and urged his comrades on to victory." He died
    January 6, 1863. Of this gallant boy the lad's commander wrote to
    his mother that "his bravery and heroism were remarkable for one so

  SALISBURG, DAVID S.     Corporal       B      102nd Infantry
  STRAUSS, HENRY          Surgeon               115th Infantry
  STINE, DANIEL                          I      126th Infantry
  STROUSE, LEHMAN K.      Corporal       F      128th Infantry
  SALISBURG, SAMUEL B.    Sergeant       G      138th Infantry
      Wounded at Monocacy, Maryland; served three years.
  STROUSE, FERDINAND K.                  E      151st Infantry
  STRAUSE, JOEL S.                       H      151st Infantry
  STRAUSE, SALOMON                       H      151st Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  STRAUSE, WILLIAM S.                    H      151st Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  STRAUSE, WILLIAM T.                    H      151st Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  SIMON, MICHAEL                         I      151st Infantry
  STERNBERGER, LEVIN                     I      151st Infantry
  SULZBACH, MILTON        Quartermaster         166th Infantry
  STRAUS, DANIEL          Corporal       F      167th Infantry
  SILVA, DAVID            Corporal       G      181st Infantry
  SIMON, JACOB            Corporal       E       183d Infantry
      Promoted from private.
  STEINER, LEVI A.                       H      194th Infantry
  SCHLESINGER, MORRIS     Adjutant              210th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant; died from wounds received
      at Gravelly Run, Virginia.
  SCHLOSS, HENRY          Corporal       E         5th Cavalry
      Wounded near Richmond; served four years.
  SCHLOSS, ABRAHAM                       E         5th Cavalry
      Wounded before Richmond.
  SONTHEIMER, MORRIS                     K        11th Cavalry
      Served four years.
  SCHOENFELD, J.                                  15th Cavalry
  STEIN, JACOB            Corporal       K        3d Artillery
  SALZMAN, ADAM           Corporal       G       5th Artillery
  STRASSMAN, A.                                    2nd Battery
      Wounded twice.
  SCHONEMAN, R. A.                            Keystone Battery

  THALHEIMER, ALBERT                     B        23d Infantry
      Captured at Cold Harbor; served about four years.
  TSCHOPEK, JOSEPH                       D       27th Infantry
  TAFEL, ADOLPH           Lieutenant     H       27th Infantry
  TELLER, MICHAEL,                       K      119th Infantry
      Served three years.
  TRAUTMAN, JACOB         Sergeant       E         5th Cavalry
      Served four years.

  ULMAN, JOHN             Sergeant       D       27th Infantry
      Served three years.
  ULLMAN, JACOB                          E       75th Infantry
      Served four years.
  ULLMAN, ----            Captain        E         5th Cavalry

    Was noted for his bravery; served throughout the Civil War; he was
    also engaged in the war with the Sioux Indians in 1876, and was
    one of those in the command of General Custer on that fatal day in
    June; in which the entire command was surrounded by the Indians,
    every man being slaughtered.

  VOGEL, L.               Captain        E       27th Infantry

  WIMPFHEIMER, MAX                       F       19th Infantry
  WOLF, JACOB             Corporal       H       19th Infantry
  WOHL, SAMUEL            Lieutenant     B       27th Infantry
  WEINBERGER, PAUL                       B       27th Infantry
      Transferred to 29th Infantry, New York Volunteers.
  WARBURG, SIGMUND                       D       27th Infantry
  WEINSTOCK, BERNARD                     D       27th Infantry
  WEIL, JACOB                            H       27th Infantry
  WARBURG, MOSES                                 27th Infantry
  WETZLAR, MORRIS         Lieutenant     K       37th Infantry
      Promoted; wounded at Pea Ridge; disabled.
  WATERMAN, ISRAEL                       I       40th Infantry
      Transferred to United States Regulars.
  WOLF, DAVID             Sergeant       H        89th Cavalry
      Served nearly four years.
  WOLF, MORRIS                           A          3d Cavalry
      Served three years.
                          Quartermaster- A        12th Cavalry


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  FROINSOHN, SAMUEL                               2nd Infantry

  HARRIS, BENJAMIN                               10th Infantry

  PHILLIPS, JOSEPH S.                             2nd Infantry
      On staff of Commander General Sexton, of the Grand
      Army of the Republic.

  SIEGEL, M.                             I         3d Infantry


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  ALEXANDER, ISAAC                       A       10th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, ISIDORE                     A       10th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, S.                          A       10th Infantry
  ALTMAN, JAMES P.                       A       21st Infantry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  ASHER, HENRY                                  Hampton Legion
  ASCHER, ABRAHAM                                  1st Cavalry
  ASHER, HARRIS                           Washington Artillery
  ABRAHAMS, E. H.                                     Reserves
  ABRAHAMS, THEODORE H.                          Sumter Guards

  BOWMAN, LOUIS                          E        1st Infantry
  BALL, BARNEY                                    2nd Infantry
      Lost his life at Port Royal.
  BAUM MANUS                             A        7th Infantry
  BARUCH, H.                             K        7th Infantry
      Enlisted a mere lad.
  BROWN, MENDEL SERGEANT                 F       10th Infantry
      Wounded at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and mortally
      wounded at Griffin, Georgia; died in Griffin Hospital.
  BENJAMIN, SOLOMON                      L       10th Infantry
  BROWN, JOSEPH                                  10th Infantry
  BROWN, SIMON                                   10th Infantry
  BAUM, MARX                                     15th Infantry
      Killed at the Battle of the Wilderness.
  BARUCH, B. S.                          G       16th Infantry
  BARUCH, HERMAN                         A         7th Cavalry
      Courier to General Robert E. Lee.
  BLANKENSEE, D.                                Hampton Legion
      Killed at Manassas.
  BELITZER, JACOB                         Washington Artillery
      Mortally wounded.
  BELITZER, THEODORE                            German Hussars
      Killed in action.

  CASHBY, A.                                       3d Infantry
  COHEN, MORRIS                                   7th Infantry
      Enlisted when not quite sixteen years old.
  CLARK, H.                                      10th Infantry
  COHEN, GRATZ                                   10th Infantry
      Killed at Malvern Hill.
  COHEN, LAWRENCE L.                               2nd Cavalry
      Enlisted 1861.
  COHEN, ASHER D.                            Hampton's Cavalry
      Enlisted 1861.
  COHEN, ISAAC                               Hampton's Cavalry
      Killed in action; buried in Jewish cemetery, Richmond,
  COHEN, MCDUFF                              Hampton's Cavalry
  COHEN, ANSLEY D.                            Walter's Battery
  COHEN, PHILIP I.                        Washington Artillery
      Enlisted 1861.
  COHEN, GUSTAVUS                         Washington Artillery
  COHEN, HENRY                            Washington Artillery
      Killed at Savage Station, Virginia, June 29, 1864;
      buried in Jewish cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
  COHEN, AARON    { Six brothers;          {        Washington
                  { three                  {         Artillery
  COHEN, JACOB H. { serving                {        Washington
                  { in                     {         Artillery
  COHEN, JULIUS   { South Carolina         {        Washington
                  { one                    {         Artillery
  COHEN, C. S.    { in North               {        Washington
                  { Carolina,              {         Artillery
  COHEN, FISHEL   { and two                {     10th Infantry
  COHEN, DAVID D. { in Virginia.           { Hampton's Cavalry
                                           { Jefferson Rangers
      Enlisted 1861.
  COHEN, DR. MARX E., JR.                 Washington Artillery

    One of the heroes of the Civil War was Dr. Marx E. Cohen, Jr., of
    Charleston. He enlisted at the age of twenty-one. At the battle
    of Bentonville, North Carolina, towards the close of the war,
    some shells containing explosive material were thrown into the
    Confederate lines from the guns of the Union forces. The captain
    of Hart's Battery called for volunteers to hurl them aside before
    they should burst and cause destruction to the command. Three men
    volunteered to undertake the task; Dr. Cohen being one of them. He
    and his companions were successful, but while returning to their
    own lines all three were shot dead by Federal bullets.

  DANIELS, L.                            B        15th Cavalry
      Captured; died and buried in Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  DREYFUS, HERMAN                            Cameron's Battery

  EMANUEL, EDWIN          Sergeant       A       10th Infantry
      Died from exposure contracted in service.
  EMANUEL, J.                            A       10th Infantry
  EMANUEL, SOLOMON                       A       10th Infantry
  EMANUEL, WASHINGTON                    A       10th Infantry
      Enlisted when a mere boy; died from wounds received
      at Atlanta, Georgia.
  EMANUEL, H.                                    10th Infantry
  ELLBAUM, G.                                    14th Infantry
  ESDWA, ARTHUR A.                           Culpepper Battery

  FOX, WILLIAM                           K        1st Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg and captured.
  FOX, M. SR.                            A         3d Infantry
  FRIEDMAN, BENJAMIN                     A         3d Infantry

  GUNDHAUS, S.                           I        4th Infantry
  GUNDHAUS, J. L.                        I        6th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, ISAAC                       G       16th Infantry
      Killed in action.
  GOLDSMITH, MICHAEL                     G       16th Infantry
  GOLDSMITH, ISAAC P.                            24th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  GOLDSMITH, A. A.                      Kershaw's 2nd Regiment
      Wounded at Antietam.
  GOLDSMITH, M. M.                                    Reserves

  HEYMAN, I.                             F        6th Infantry
      Wounded at Owensboro, North Carolina.
  HORNET, J. D.                                  2nd Battalion
  HAMMERSLOUGH, A.                                3d Battalion
  HAMMERSLOUGH, H.                                3d Battalion
  HARTZ, H.                                     10th Battalion
  HIRSCH, MELVIN J.       Commissary       Beauregard Infantry
     Promoted from Private; served throughout the war.
  HOLZHAUER, C.                           Washington Artillery
  HOFFMAN, JULIUS                        A       Kershaw's 1st
  HIRSCH, I. W.                          B       Kershaw's 2nd

  JOEL, JULIUS                           C        1st Infantry
      Lost an arm in the battle of the Wilderness.
  JACOBS, ISAIAH          Lieutenant     D        2nd Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks; killed at Knoxville, Tennessee.
  JOSEPHUS, JOSEPH                                 1st Cavalry
  JAMES, ----             Surgeon                7th Battalion
      Promoted to Brigade Surgeon.
  JACOBS, EMANUEL                         Washington Artillery
  JACOBUS, J. J.                          Washington Artillery
  JACOBS, FREDERICK                         Palmetto Artillery
  JACOBS, REID                                 Palmetto Guards
      Wounded in action.
  JACOBS, A. L.                          C      Hampton Legion
      Called "Little Jake;" wounded at Sharpsburg; killed
      in Tennessee.
  JACOBS, ABRAHAM                               Hampton Legion
      Killed in action.
  JACOBS, LOUIS                                 Hampton Legion
  JACOBS, MITCHELL                              Hampton Legion
  JACOBS, H.                                              ----
      Killed in battle; buried in Jewish cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.

  KAPHAN, THEODORE                         Hagood 1st Infantry
  KAHN, DAVID                                     8th Infantry
  KAMINSKI, H.            Sergeant       B       10th Infantry
  KAHN, ISAAC                                    12th Infantry
  KOHN, THEODORE                         F       25th Infantry

    From a newspaper clipping: "Theodore Kohn of Orangeburg, a veteran
    of the Edisto Rifles, 25th Regiment, South Carolina, will carry to
    his grave the wounds he received at Drewy's Bluff while gallantly
    fighting for his adopted country."

  KOHN, AUGUST                                   25th Infantry
      Served throughout the war.

  LEVI, LEOPOLD                                   5th Infantry
  LEVIN, G. W.                           A       15th Infantry
  LEVIN, SAMUEL                          A       15th Infantry
      Killed at Sharpsburg, Maryland.
  LOWENBERG, DAVID        Sergeant       A       16th Infantry
      Served three years.
  LEVY, MOSES                                     23d Infantry

    He is spoken of by his former Colonel Benhon as one of the bravest,
    truest and most devoted men in his command; he was captured at the
    last battle at Petersburg, Virginia.

  LEVIN, L. C.                                     2nd Cavalry
  LEVIN, L. J.                               Wheeler's Cavalry
  LEVY, LIONEL C. JR.                         Fenner's Battery
  LAZARUS, M. H.                              Walter's Battery
  LAZARUS, B. D.                          Washington Artillery
  LAZARUS, BENJAMIN                       Washington Artillery
  LAZARUS, MARX                           Washington Artillery
  LAZARUS, SOLOMON                        Washington Artillery
      Enlisted 1861; served until the close of the war.
  LEVY, LIONEL L.                         Washington Artillery
    Promoted to Judge Advocate.
  LOPEZ, JOHN                                  Palmetto Guards
      From 1861 until the close of the war.
  LOPEZ, MOSES                                 Palmetto Guards
      From 1861 until the close of the war.
  LEVIN, S. M.                                   Sumter Guards
      Wounded at Secessionville.
  LYONS, J. C.                                  Company Cadets
  LEHMAN, A.                                              ----
      Killed; buried at Jewish Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.

  MOSES, H. C.            1st Lieutenant          2nd Infantry
      Promoted from Private, Lucas Battalion; wounded at
  MOSES, PERRY                           D        2nd Infantry
      Killed at Malvern Hill, aged 17 years.
  MOSES, CLAREMONT                       E        2nd Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  MOSES, P.                              E        2nd Infantry
      Seriously wounded.
  MOSES, MEYER                                    2nd Infantry
  MOSES, EDWIN L.                                27th Infantry
      Captured; died prison, Camp Chase.
  MORDECAI, J. RANDOLPH   Lieutenant                Washington
                          and Assistant              Artillery
      Promoted from the ranks.
  MOISE, CAMILLUS                         Washington Artillery
      Served four years.
  MORDECAI, G. L.                         Washington Artillery

    The father of this soldier, the late Benjamin Mordecai, was the
    first contributor to the Southern cause, donating $10,000 to South

  MOSES, JOSHUA L.        1st}              {Culpepper Battery
                   Lieutenant}              {
      Wounded at             }              {
      Manassas;              }              {
      killed at Mobile,      }              {
      commanding             }              {
      Battalion.             }              {
  MOSES, JACKSON             }              {Culpepper Battery
  MOSES, HORACE              } Five         {Culpepper Battery
      Entered service at 17  }  brothers.   {
      years; captured at     }              {
      Mobile.                }              {
  MOSES, PERRY, JR.          }              {Culpepper Battery
      Wounded at Mobile.     }              {
  MOSES, I. HARBY            }              {      6th Cavalry
      Graduate of Citadel    }              {
      Academy; served        }              {
      throughout the war.    }              {
  MOSES, DANIEL                              Culpepper Battery
  MOSES, DAVID L.                            Culpepper Battery
  MOSES, I. L.                               Culpepper Battery
      Wounded at Manassas; killed at Fort Blakely.
  MOSES, M. P.                               Culpepper Battery
  MOSES T. J. JR.                            Culpepper Battery
  MOSES, Z. P.                               Culpepper Battery
  MOSES, MEYER B.                            Culpepper Battery
  MORDECAI, THOMAS W.                        Hampton's Cavalry
      Killed at Brandy Station, Virginia.
  MANNING, JACOB                                Hampton Legion
      Killed at Brandy Station, Virginia.
  MOSES A. D. L.                                Hampton Legion
      Wounded at Seven Pines.
  MOSES, A. J. SR.                           Mellet's Regiment
  MOISE, EDWARD                                Palmetto Guards
      Enlisted 1861; served until the close of the war.
  MOISE, ISAAC                                 Palmetto Guards
      Enlisted 1861; served until the close of the war.

  OPPENHEIMER, EDWIN      Sergeant       G       16th Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, JULIUS H.  Sergeant       G       16th Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, SAMUEL     Sergeant       G       16th Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, H. D. H.                  G       16th Infantry

  POLLOCK, B. C.                         A        1st Infantry
  POLLOCK, CLARENCE                      A        1st Infantry
      Killed at Spottsylvania, Virginia.
  POLLOCK, J. L.                         A        1st Infantry
  POLLOCK, T. M.                         A        1st Infantry
  PEIXOTTO, S. C.                                 1st Infantry
  PHILLIPS, ISIDORE                             Hampton Legion
  PHILLIPS, MICHAEL A.                          Hampton Legion
  POSNANSKI, GUSTAVUS                            Sumter Guards

  ROBERTSON, ABRAHAM                     A         3d Infantry
  ROBINSON, CHARLES C.                            7th Infantry
      Served throughout the war.
  RICHARDS, MEYER                                21st Infantry
  ROSENDORF, JACOB                                 1st Calvary
  ROTHSCHILD, BENJAMIN                         Hampton Cavalry
      Killed at Gaines' Mills, Virginia.

  SOLOMON, J. L.                                  2nd Infantry
  SUMMERS, AD.                                    2nd Infantry
      Drowned near Port Royal.
  SULZBACHER, WILLIAM   E                          3d Infantry
  SPIEGELBERG, MORRIS                            16th Infantry
  SEIXAS, B. M.                                  20th Infantry
  SOLOMON, J. F.                                 20th Infantry
  SCHILLER, LOUIS                                  1st Cavalry
  SOMMERS, ISAAC                               Heavy Artillery
      Killed at Siege of Fort Moultrie.
  SHAPIRA, L. D.                                Hampton Legion
  SAMPSON, HENRY                              Stuart's Command
  SAMPSON, E. J.                                          ----
      Killed on June 27, 1864; buried in Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  TRIEST, MAIER                                  24th Infantry

  VALENTINE, JACOB        Captain                     Infantry

    Served while a mere youth in the Palmetto Regiment during the
    Mexican War and was wounded in the storming of Cherubusco. He
    was believed to be the youngest pensioner of the United States
    Government. He lived in Philadelphia at the passage of "Secession,"
    and immediately went to Charleston, offering his services to his
    native State. He was appointed Lieutenant in the first South
    Carolina regular infantry and took part in the bombardment of Fort
    Sumter, in April, 1861. He served in this regiment from that time
    continuously until December, 1863, when he was severely wounded
    while in command of Fort Moultrie. This wound was of so serious a
    character as to prevent him from performing any further active
    service. He was detailed to the recruiting department in which
    he served until the close of the war. During the Mexican War he
    received two medals; one for bravery on the battle-field, and
    another for being the youngest soldier in the regiment.

  VALENTINE, ISAAC R.                            Sumter Guards
      Killed at Secessionville.
  VALENTINE, H. M.                               Sumter Guards
      Wounded at Secessionville.
  VALENTINE, HERZ                              Palmetto Guards
      Wounded in action.
  VALENTINE, I.                                Palmetto Guards
      Seriously wounded.

  WITKOWSKI, ADOLPH                               2nd Infantry
      Severely wounded at the Wilderness.
  WACHTEL, M.                                     4th Infantry
  WERTHEIM, HERMAN        Lieutenant              7th Infantry
      Killed at Spottsylvania.
  WERTHEIM, BERTHOLD                     G       16th Infantry
  WETHERHORN, SOLOMON                    E       25th Infantry
  WOLF, D.                               G       25th Infantry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.
  WERTHEIM, LEVI                              German Artillery
  WERTHEIM, JULIUS                              Hampton Legion
  WILSON, J. C.                                 Hampton Legion
  WOLF, W. M.             Lieutenant          Hagood's Brigade
      Killed; buried in Jewish Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
  WARNER, HENRY                                Colleton Rifles
  WERTHEIM, HEYMAN                           Kershaw's Command
      Killed at Gettysburg.

  ZACHARIAS, DAVID                       C         5th Cavalry
      Killed at Mechanicsville.


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  BIEBER, ----                           I       15th Infantry
  BURG, FELIX                            I       15th Infantry

  COOK, JOEL                             K        63d Infantry
      Captured; died and buried at Woodlawn Cemetery,
      Elmira, New York.

  DAHLSHEIMER, M.         Corporal       I       15th Infantry
  DANHEISER, CHARLES                     I       15th Infantry

  FREED, JULIUS                          I       15th Infantry
      Wounded at Perryville, Chickamauga, and Dallas.
  FOLTZ, BENJAMIN                                15th Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.
  FOLTZ, LEON                                    15th Infantry
      Lost a leg in battle.
  FOLTZ, MOSES                                   15th Infantry
      Lost a leg in battle.
  FREEMAN, MAX                                   15th Infantry
      Killed at Murfreesboro.

  GUTMANN, EMANUEL                       A         3d Infantry

  HIRSCHBERG, SIMON                               1st Infantry
  HOBER, G.               Major                   8th Infantry
      Taken prisoner at Port Hudson.
  HANSMAN, SAMUEL                        I       15th Infantry
  HECHT, SAMUEL                          I       15th Infantry

  JACOBY, EMIL G.                                  3d Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.

  KUHN, MAX                                      15th Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.

  LIEBSCHUTZ, JACOB                               8th Infantry
      Killed at Resaca.
  LIEBSCHUTZ, JOSEPH                              8th Infantry
      Killed at Franklin, Tennessee.
  LANG, ----                             I       15th Infantry
  LENBRIL, L.                            I       15th Infantry
  LOEB, JACOB                            I       15th Infantry

  MINKUS, J.                                      1st Infantry
  MARTIN, MORDECAI                       I       15th Infantry

  NASSAUER, LOUIS                                 1st Infantry
  NATHAN, JULIUS          Sergeant       I       15th Infantry

  PARAIRE, ISAAC                                  1st Infantry

  SCHIFFMAN, SIMON                                 3d Infantry
  SANDERS, MARK                                   4th Infantry
  SEELIG, SIMON                                   4th Infantry
  STRAUS, S.              Lieutenant     I       15th Infantry
  SEESEL, HENRY, JR.                     I       15th Infantry
  SIMONSON, ----                         I       15th Infantry
      Killed at Shiloh.

  WRONKER, MORRIS                                 4th Infantry
  WOLF, FREDERICK         Corporal       I       15th Infantry
  WASSEMAN, CHARLES                      I       15th Infantry
  WACHENHEIM, S.                                 40th Infantry

  ZUCKER, SIMON                          K        10th Cavalry


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  ALEXANDER, A. S.        Captain                 1st Infantry
      Commander Oswald's Battalion; served until close of war.
  ANGEL, A.                              A        5th Infantry
      Killed at Manassas.
  AUERBACH, DOCTOR J.                    A        5th Infantry
  AUERBACH, E.                           B        5th Infantry
      Killed at Wilderness.
  ASH, HENRY                             C        5th Infantry

  BENEDICT, JACOB                        F        1st Infantry
      Killed at Malvern Hill.
  BACHARACH, WOLF                        A        5th Infantry
  BILLIG, ISAAC                          A        5th Infantry
  BUCK, ROBERT                                   1st Artillery

  COHEN, HENRY                           L        1st Infantry
  CRAMER, JOSEPH                                  1st Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg; served until close of war.
  COBMAN, LOUIS                          A        5th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  COHEN, S.                              A        5th Infantry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  COLEMAN, LOUIS                         A        5th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  CRAMER, A.              Lieutenant     B        8th Infantry
                                         (Flourney's Regiment)
  COLEMAN, MEYER                         A       26th Infantry

  DREYFUS, SAMUEL                        B        1st Infantry
  DEUTSCH, SOLOMON                                1st Infantry
      Wounded; served until close of war.
  DAVIDBURG, DAVID D.                    B        6th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, DAVID H.                     B        6th Infantry
  DEUTSCH, S.                            C        6th Infantry
  DANIELS, J.                            C        8th Infantry
  DAVIDSON, HENRY                        A       26th Infantry
  DREYFUS, CHARLES                       A       26th Infantry
  DANNENBAUM, JOSEPH                     C       Cook Regiment

  ELSASSER, I.                           A        5th Infantry

  FRANK, J. W.                           L        1st Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; killed at Sharpsburg.
  FRANK, L.                              B   Elmore's Infantry
  FRIEDBURGER, G.                                  9th Cavalry
      Killed at Corinth.
  FRIEDLANDER, N.                        A        26th Cavalry
  FRIEDBERGER, GABRIEL                         Terry's Cavalry
  FRIEDBERGER, SAMUEL                          Terry's Cavalry
  FISCHEL, LEON                             Wirt Adams Cavalry
  FOX, ALLEN                             C     Heavy Artillery
  FOX, A.                                B       Waul's Legion

  GLASER, WOLF                                    1st Infantry
  GOLDSTICKER, J.                        A        4th Infantry
      Killed at Sharpsburg.
  GOETZ, JULIUS                          A       14th Infantry
      Wounded and taken prisoner.
  GANS, SAMUEL                                    26th Cavalry
      Wounded at Cane River.
  GANS, LEON                             A    Parson's Cavalry

  HINES, A.                              B        4th Infantry
      Lost an arm at Gaines' Mills; wounded at New Hope
  HIEF, CHARLES                          B        6th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; captured.
  HELLER, LOUIS                                   6th Infantry
  HOLDSTEIN, ISIDORE                     A        8th Infantry
  HIRSCHBERG, J.                         A        26th Cavalry
  HYAMS, S.                              A        26th Cavalry
  HARBY, HENRY J.                        C        26th Cavalry
      Enlisted at the age of sixteen years; served until close
      of war.
  HIRSCHFIELD, H.                             Parson's Brigade

  JACOBY, MAX                            A        1st Infantry
      Lost right leg at Gaines' farm.

  KAUFMAN, EDWARD                                 1st Infantry
  KEMPER, H.                                      1st Infantry
  KELLER, THEODORE        Colonel                 2nd Infantry
      Promoted; wounded at Corinth.
  KLOPMAN, L.                            A        8th Infantry
      Killed at Jenkins' Ferry, Arkansas.
  KOHLMAN, M.                            A        26th Cavalry

  LEAVE, R. B.                           B        1st Infantry
      Wounded at Malvern Hill.
  LAZARUS, S. S.                         L        1st Infantry
      Wounded at Chickamauga.
  LAZARUS, B.                            E        4th Infantry
  LEVY, ROBERT                           A        5th Infantry
  LEWIS, ISAAC                           C        5th Infantry
  LACHMAN, E.                            D        5th Infantry
      Wounded at Manassas.
  LASKER, M.                                       2nd Cavalry
  LEOPOLD, W.                              1st Heavy Artillery
  LEVY, ISAAC                            B     Light Artillery
  LEVISON, A.                            B       Waul's Legion
  LEVISON, PAUL                          B       Waul's Legion

  MORRIS, LEHMAN          Sergeant       D        1st Infantry
      Killed at Gettysburg.
  MAAS, LOUIS                            D        5th Infantry
      Killed at Manassas.
  MICHEL, HENRY                                  15th Infantry
  MELASKI, J.                            A        26th Cavalry
  MEYER, JOSEPH                          C     Heavy Artillery

  OPPENHEIMER, J.                        B        2nd Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, A.                                22nd Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, BENJAMIN                          22nd Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, S.                                22nd Infantry
  OPPENHEIMER, D.         Captain                   3d Cavalry

  PICKARD, H.                            H        5th Infantry
  PEPPER, L. S.                          A        8th Infantry
  PEPPER, SAMUEL                         A        8th Infantry
  POHALSKI, G. D.                        G       11th Infantry
      Served throughout the war.
  POHALSKI, P.                           G       11th Infantry
      Served until the close of the war.

  ROSENFIELD, ALEXANDER                  A        26th Cavalry
  ROSENFIELD, HENRY                      A        26th Cavalry
  ROSENFIELD, MICHAEL                    A        26th Cavalry
  RICH, LOUIS M.                         C      Cook's Cavalry

  SHOWLSKI, CHARLES                      E        5th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  SAMUSH, J.                             A        8th Infantry
      Wounded at Sabine River.
  SIEGEL, JOSEPH                                  8th Infantry
  SILBERBERG, GEORGE                     B        9th Infantry
      Served four years.
  SAMPSON, EDWARD J.                             10th Infantry
      Killed at Hanover Court House; buried in Jewish
      cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
  SOLOMON, JOSEPH A.                     G       11th Infantry
  STEIN, ISAAC             Colonel         Marshall's Regiment
      Lost his right arm at second battle of Manassas.
  STEINER, VICTOR                                Texas Rangers
  SEELIGSON, HENRY         Lieutenant                  Cavalry
      [_See record in Mexican War Lists._]

  TEAH, ABRAHAM                                   8th Infantry
      Promoted to Corporal, Sergeant-Major, and Aide-de-camp
      to Colonel Overton Young, commanding 1st
      Brigade, Walker's Division.
  TEAH, ABRAHAM                                  22nd Infantry

  WALKER, A.                              K       1st Infantry
  WOLF, SIMON                             F       4th Infantry
      Killed at Manassas.
  WOLF, A.                                A       5th Infantry
      Wounded at Seven Pines.
  WOLF, A. F.                             A       5th Infantry
      Killed at Sharpsburg.
  WOLF, BENJAMIN                          A       5th Infantry
  WETMORE, JAMES                          C       8th Infantry
  WEIS, ALBERT                                     2nd Cavalry
  WEIS, LEOPOLD                                    2nd Cavalry
  WIENER, SOLOMON                               Terry's Scouts


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  SELIGSON, H. A.          Colonel                        ----


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  ADLER, HENRY                         { E        1st Infantry
                                       {         14th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; killed at Roanoke Island; buried in
      Jewish Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
  ABRAMS, ISAAC                          G        1st Infantry
  ARCHER, LEWIS                          H        1st Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; honorably discharged on account of
  ANGLE, MEYER                           D       12th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; captured at Sailors' Creek.
  ANGLE, M.                              E       46th Infantry
  ANGLE, BUCK                                    46th Infantry
  ANGLE, JOSEPH                                  59th Infantry
  ADLER, A.                              A       1st Artillery

  BEAR, ALEXANDER          Lieutenant    D        4th Infantry
      Subsequently Surgeon.
  BACHARACH, M.                                           ----
      Killed before Richmond; buried at Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  BACARACH, S.                                            ----
      Killed before Richmond; buried at Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  BAACH, SIEGMUND                           Longstreet's Corps
      Captured by Union troops.
  BAACH, SELIGMAN                           Longstreet's Corps
  BAACH, SOLOMON H.                         Longstreet's Corps
      Killed in battle at Salem Church, near Fredericksburg,
  BERNHEIM, SAMUEL         Sergeant-Major       City Battalion
  BARNETT, B. J.                                Engineer Corps

  COHEN, JACOB                           B       12th Infantry
  COHEN, DAVID                                Richmond Hussars
  COHEN, MORRIS                               Richmond Hussars

  DAVIS, BENJAMIN                        B        6th Infantry
      Killed before Richmond; Buried at Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  DANIEL, JOSEPH                         B       12th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg; served until surrender.
  DEGEN, SAMUEL                          A       19th Infantry
  DREYFUS, LEON                          A        10th Cavalry
  DAVIS, ANSLEY S.                                    Reserves
  DEICHS, WILLIAM                                Norfolk Blues
      Detailed on special service.

  EZEKIEL, E. M.                       { A        1st Infantry
                                       { A       46th Infantry
      Served until the close of the war.
  EZEKIEL, JOSEPH K.                     B       46th Infantry
      Killed at Petersburg.
  EISEMAN, LOUIS                                Wise's Brigade
  EZEKIEL, JACOB                                   1st Militia
  EZEKIEL, MOSES J.      Lieutenant  Cadets Virginia Institute
      Promoted from Private.

  FRANKENTHAL, SIMON                     B       46th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; honorably discharged for disability on
      account of wounds.
  FRIEDENWALD, ISAAC                     A        53d Infantry
  FRIEDLAND, A.                           Richmond Light Blues

  GOLDSTEIN, BERNARD                     E       46th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; disabled by wounds; honorably discharged.
  GUGGENHEIM, SIMON                      E       46th Infantry
  GUNST, MICHAEL                         E       46th Infantry
  GOLDSTEIN, J.                                  46th Infantry
  GUNST, HENRY                                    ---- Cavalry
  GERSBERG, HENRY                                         ----
      Killed June 2nd, 1864; buried at Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.

  HIRSCHBERG, JOSEPH                     A        1st Infantry
  HUTZLER, SIEGMUND L.                   A        1st Infantry
  HEXTER, SIMON                        { E        1st Infantry
                                       { A       46th Infantry
  HESSBURG, JULIUS                                 3d Infantry
      Killed at Gaines' Mills; buried at Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  HEILBRONER, HENRY                      H       27th Infantry
      Wounded at Port Republic.
  HESSER, S.                             E       46th Infantry
  HIRSCH, HERMAN                         A         1st Cavalry
      Enlisted 1861; assigned to 12th Infantry.
  HESSBURG, M.                                    ---- Cavalry
  HARRIS, MOSES                               Richmond Hussars

  ISAACS, ABRAHAM                        E       46th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; wounded at Petersburg; served through
      the war.

  KUH, E. S.                             H        8th Infantry
  KULL, M. E.                            A       12th Infantry
  KAYTON, N. N.                          E       46th Infantry
  KEYTON, LOUIS                          E       46th Infantry
  KADDEN, A.                             A        10th Cavalry
  KALTEN, AARON                                 Wise's Brigade

  LICHTENSTEIN, ISIDORE                  H        1st Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, WILLIAM                          {  1st Infantry
                                               { 46th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; detailed to Medical Department; a
      member of the State Legislature, November, 1892.
  LEVY, LEWIS                            A       12th Infantry
  LOWENSTEIN, ISIDORE                    A       12th Infantry
      Wounded at Malvern Hill.
  LORSCH, HENRY                          A       19th Infantry
      Seriously wounded at Seven Pines.
  LEVY, EZEKIEL J.         Captain       E       46th Infantry
      Promoted for gallantry; served four years.
  LEVY, ISAAC J.                         E       46th Infantry
      Killed at Petersburg.
  LEVY, ALEXANDER H.                     E       46th Infantry
      Served four years.
  LEVY, JOSEPH                           E       46th Infantry
      Enlisted 1861; wounded at Petersburg, and disabled.
  LEVY, EMANUEL G.                       E       46th Infantry
  LYON, THOMAS                                   46th Infantry
  LEVY, LEOPOLD }                      { G         1st Cavalry
  LEVY, SAMPSON }  (Three brothers)    { G         1st Cavalry
  LEVY, SOLOMON }                      {          23d Infantry
      Died of wounds. }                {
  LICHTENSTEIN, K.                               19th Reserves
  LEVY, E.                Captain               Richmond Blues
  LOWENSTEIN, I.                                Richmond Grays
  LITERMAN, SIMEON                             Young's Battery

  MYERS, WILLIAM                         A        1st Infantry
  MYERS, MARKS                                   12th Infantry
      Killed at Manassas.
  MYER, MAX                              B       12th Infantry
      Disabled in action.
  MIDDLEDORFER, CHARLES                  E       12th Infantry
  MYERS, A.                                      17th Infantry
  MYERS, SOLOMON                                 18th Infantry
  MOSES, J. C.                           E       46th Infantry
      Seriously wounded.
  MYERS, C.                              E       46th Infantry
      Disabled in service.
  MYERS, LEWIS                                   46th Infantry
  MYERS, HERMAN                                    1st Cavalry
  MYERS, BENJAMIN                        C      Wise's Brigade
  MIDDLEDORFER, MAX                          Fayette Artillery

  NEWMAN, JOSEPH                         K       20th Infantry
      Captured; died of wounds; buried in Woodlawn
      Cemetery, Elmira, New York.
  NEWMAN, ISAAC                                  46th Infantry
  NEWMAN, JACOB                                  59th Infantry

  OBERMAYER, H.                                   2nd Infantry
  OETHENGER, DAVID                       B       18th Infantry
  OBERNDORFER, B.                              Young's Battery

  PYLE, HARDY                            G        1st Infantry
  PLAUT, HUGO                                    46th Infantry

  ROSENBERG, M.                          G        6th Infantry
      Specially detailed at Richmond.
  ROSENFELD, SIMON                       A       12th Infantry
  REINACH, A. S.                         B       12th Infantry
  REINACH, ISADORE                       B       12th Infantry
  ROSENHEIM, HENRY                       E       46th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, MICHAEL                    Norfolk Blues Infantry
  REINACH, MORRIS                             Petersburg Grays

  SELDNER, ISAAC           Lieutenant             6th Infantry
      Promoted from Private for bravery; killed at Chancellorsville,
      May 3, 1863; buried in Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  SCHWARTZ, ----                                 17th Infantry
  SEMON, JACOB S.                        E       46th Infantry
  SCHOENTHAL, JOSEPH                     E       46th Infantry
  SON, JACOB                             E       46th Infantry
  STRAUSS, DAVID                                   7th Cavalry
  SIMON, ISAAC                                Richmond Hussars
  SIMON, NATHAN                               Richmond Hussars
  SMITH, HENRY                                  Otoy's Battery
      Killed in first battle.
  SELIGMAN, H.                                Petersburg Grays

  TRIESDORFER, G.                        B       14th Infantry
  TUCKER, ----                                    10th Cavalry

  UNSTADTER, M.                          A        6th Infantry
      Wounded at Gaines' Mills; discharged for being disabled
      for service.

  WHITLOCK, P.                           A       12th Infantry
      Discharged for being disabled for service.
  WILZINSKY, LEWIS                       H       12th Infantry
  WOLFF, W. M.             Lieutenant            25th Infantry
                                            (Hagood's Brigade)
      Killed before Richmond; buried in Jewish Cemetery,
      Richmond, Virginia.
  WASSEMAN, LEVY                         E       46th Infantry
      Wounded and captured at Roanoke; when discharged
      served on hospital duty.
  WAMBACH, LEOPOLD                      Norfolk Blues Infantry
      Killed at Vicksburg.
  WHITEHEAD, HENRY                              Wise's Brigade


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  STEINBERGER, JUSTUS      Major                          ----
      Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General, Major and


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  EDDELMAN, G. H.                        K        6th Infantry

  HEIDELSHEIMER, W. H.     Lieutenant    G        7th Infantry

  KRAUS, SAMUEL            Captain       B        7th Infantry
      Promoted from the ranks.

  MAYER, DANIEL            Captain                5th Infantry

The following letter is of interest:

    WHEELING, May 30th, 1866.

    DOCTOR DANIEL MAYER, Charleston, W. Va.


    I am directed by his Excellency, the Governor, to present to you
    the enclosed medal in accordance with a joint resolution of the
    Legislature of the State of West Virginia, adopted February 1st,
    1866, as a slight testimonial of the high appreciation by the State
    of your devotion, patriotism and services in suppression of the
    late rebellion.

    Very respectfully,
    Your obedient servant,
    J. H. DUVAL,

  RAUSCH, C. M.                                  11th Infantry
  ROSE, ABRAHAM                          A 1st Light Artillery

  STEINACHER, WILSON                            { 2nd Infantry
                                                {  5th Cavalry


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  ABRAHAMSON, MARTIN                     B        1st Infantry
  ASH, REUBEN,            1st Lieutenant  E       2nd Infantry
      Enlisted as Corporal; wounded at Bull Run; captured
      at Gettysburg.
  AUERBACH, GUSTAV                       F         3d Infantry
  ABRAHAMSON, MARTIN                   { H         3d Infantry
                                       {         21st Infantry
      Served four years.
  ABRAHAM, AUGUST                        A        6th Infantry
  ARNSTEIN, EMIL                         F        6th Infantry
  AARON, JACOB                           C        8th Infantry
  ABRAHAMSON, JACOB                      I       13th Infantry
  ABRAHAMSON, JACOB                      A       15th Infantry
  ALEXANDER, JACOB                       F       16th Infantry
  AARON, MICHAEL                         K       20th Infantry
      Wounded at Prairie Grove, Arkansas.
  ABRAHAMSON, JOHN                       E       21st Infantry
      Served three years.
  ALEXANDER, LEVI          Corporal      G        43d Infantry
  ADLER, FREDERICK                       G       45th Infantry
  ABEL, HERMAN                           A       48th Infantry
  ADLER, MAX                                       2nd Battery

  BLUM, FERDINAND                        E        1st Infantry
  BEAR, ISAAC                            C         3d Infantry
  BIRNBAUM, CHARLES                      I        6th Infantry
      Killed at Gainesville, Virginia.
  BERNHARD, JULIUS                       B        7th Infantry
  BAUM, CHARLES F.                       E        8th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  BAHR, JULIUS                           H        8th Infantry
  BLUM, JACOB                            G        9th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, CYRUS                        H       11th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, SAMUEL                       I       11th Infantry
      Wounded; served four years.
  BAER, AARON                            A       14th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, EPHRAIM                      D       16th Infantry
  BEHREND, JOSEPH                        C       17th Infantry
  BAER, HERMAN                           D       17th Infantry
  BLUM, FERDINAND                        B       21st Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  BAUM, DANIEL                           I       22nd Infantry
  BEHRENS, S. BEHREND                    H       26th Infantry
  BLUM, JACOB                            I       26th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; wounded in action.
  BAUMGARTEN, HENRY                      K       26th Infantry
  BLUM, SAMUEL                           D       27th Infantry
  BLUM, CHARLES                          G       28th Infantry
      Served three years.
  BENJAMIN, EPHRAIM                      G       32nd Infantry
  BLUMENSTEIN, CHARLES F.  Lieutenant    E       34th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  BERNHARD, MAX                          G       35th Infantry
  BERNHARD, CARL                         G       35th Infantry
  BACHMAN, JACOB                         I       42nd Infantry
  BAUM, JULIUS                           G       44th Infantry
  BAUM, JACOB                            D       45th Infantry
  BAHRENT, JOSEPH                                45th Infantry
  BAUM, OSCAR                            D       48th Infantry
  BENJAMIN, ISAAC                        C       51st Infantry
  BAUM, JULIUS                           M         1st Cavalry
  BAMBERG, CARL                              Milwaukee Cavalry
  BEHREND, GUSTAV                        C 1st Heavy Artillery
  BENJAMIN, DANA           Corporal                9th Battery
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.

  COHEN, WILLIAM                         D       49th Infantry

  DAVISON, NATHAN S.      1st Lieutenant B       37th Infantry
      Promoted from Sergeant, 20th; wounded at Petersburg
      and at Weldon Railroad.
  DAVIS, ISAAC                           H       38th Infantry
  DAVIS, LEVI                            F       40th Infantry
  DAVIS, ISAAC                           H        43d Infantry
      Died in the service.
  DAVISON, JOSEPH                        E       44th Infantry
  DANIELSON, JACOB                       A       48th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID A.                        K       49th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID                           G       50th Infantry
  DAVIS, DAVID                           F       51st Infantry
  DAVIS, LEVY P.                         E       52nd Infantry
  DAVID, ALEXANDER         Captain       B          3d Cavalry

  ERDMAN, HERMAN           Commissary-Sergeant    9th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.                       (reorganized)
  ERDMAN, GOTTLIEB                       C       14th Infantry
      Wounded at Spanish Fort.
  ERDMAN, THEODORE                       C       14th Infantry
  EISEMAN, JACOB                         E       25th Infantry
      Wounded at Decatur, Georgia.
  ERDMAN, HENRY            Sergeant      C       26th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; wounded at Bentonville, N. C.;
      served three years.
  ESSLINGER, EMANUEL       Corporal      K        33d Infantry
      Served three years.
  ESSLINGER, SAMUEL                      K        33d Infantry
      Served three years.
  ERDMAN, GOTTLIEB         Sergeant      E       34th Infantry

  FALKENSTEIN, CHARLES                   H        1st Infantry
  FREUND, JOSEPH                         F        6th Infantry
  FRANK, SALOMON S.                      C       11th Infantry
  FRANK, SIMON                           C       16th Infantry
  FALK, JACOB                                    17th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  FRANK, JOSEPH S.                       F       18th Infantry
  FLESH, MOSES                           I        23d Infantry
      Wounded at Vicksburg and at Carrion Crow Bayou.
  FROHLICH, JULIUS         Corporal      B       26th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  FELDMAN, PHILIP                        I       26th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Gettysburg.
  FRANKE, HERMAN                         E       34th Infantry
  FRIEDLAND, FREDERICK                   D         2nd Cavalry
  FRIEBERG, HEINRICH                     H         2nd Cavalry
  FURST, LUDWIG                          H         2nd Cavalry
  FALKENBURG, ELIAS        Sergeant      M         2nd Cavalry
  FRANK, OSCAR                           E         4th Cavalry
  FRANK, GUSTAV                                    8th Battery
      Veteran; served four years.

  GANS, ADAM                             H        6th Infantry
  GANS, ISAAC                            K        22d Infantry
  GRUNEWALD, HEINRICH                    F       34th Infantry
  GOODMAN, JOSEPH                        I       45th Infantry
  GANS, ARNOLD                           K       58th Infantry
      Died in the service.

  HORWITZ, PHILIP          Lieutenant    H        1st Infantry
  HART, BENJAMIN                         D        2nd Infantry
  HESS, DAVID                            B         3d Infantry
  HERRMAN, GOTTLIEB                      A        5th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg and at Fredericksburg.
  HAAS, JACOB                            A        9th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HEINEMAN, FREDERICK                    B        9th Infantry
      Served three years.
  HERRMAN, ALBERT                        C        9th Infantry
  HESS, ADOLPH                           I        9th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  HIRSCH, JOHN                                    9th Infantry
  HARRIS, ISAAC                          B       10th Infantry
  HERRMANSON, HERMAN                     K       10th Infantry
  HARRIS, SIMON                          D       11th Infantry
  HARRIS, JOEL                           H       11th Infantry
  HERRMANN, JACOB                                14th Infantry
  HIRSCHMAN, FERDINAND                   C       16th Infantry
  HIRSCH, WILLIAM                        F       19th Infantry
  HERRMAN, HENRY                         H       19th Infantry
  HERZBERG, AUGUST                       H       20th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HERRMANSON, HERMAN                     D       21st Infantry
  HEINBERG, LOUIS                        I        23d Infantry
      Served three years.
  HAHN, HERMAN                           I       24th Infantry
  HORWITZ, PHILIP          Major                 26th Infantry
  HÜBSCHMAN, FRANCIS       Surgeon               26th Infantry
  HERRMAN, HERMAN                                26th Infantry
      Died of wounds at Chancellorsville.
  HIRSCH, FREDERICK                      I       26th Infantry
  HEINEMAN, JOSEPH                       E       27th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HART, LEVI                             F       27th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HART, BENJAMIN                         K       29th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HART, DANIEL             Sergeant      A       32nd Infantry
      Enlisted as private.
  HART, BENJAMIN                         A       32nd Infantry
  HERRMAN, JACOB                         D       32nd Infantry
  HEINEMAN, JOSEPH                       C        33d Infantry
      Died in the service.
  HEINEMAN, AUGUST                       I       37th Infantry
  HARRIS, ERWIN W.                       F       39th Infantry
  HIRSCHMAN, DAVID        Captain        G       44th Infantry
  HUEBSCH, JOSEPH                        C       45th Infantry
  HAAS, JACOB                            I       46th Infantry
  HERRMAN, LEOPOLD                       D       48th Infantry
  HART, FRANK J.                         A         1st Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  HARRIS, SIMON                          F         2nd Cavalry
  HERZFELD, JOHN                         G         2nd Cavalry
      Served three years.
  HEINEMAN, JOSEPH                       H         2nd Cavalry
  HEYMAN, WILLIAM                        D         2nd Cavalry
      Served three years.
  HERZBERG, ERNEST F.     Captain                  2nd Battery
  HESS, HENRY E.                                    3d Battery
      Captured; died in the service.
  HOFMAN, JOSEPH                                   5th Battery
      Served four years.

  ISRAEL, ABRAHAMS        Sergeant       A       14th Infantry
      Enlisted as private; Veteran; served four years.
  ISAACSON, ISAAC                        D       15th Infantry
  ISRAELSON, J. G.                       K       50th Infantry
  ISAACSON, LEWIS C.                               4th Battery
      Killed at Darby Road, Virginia.

  JACOBY, ADOLPH                         H        9th Infantry
  JACOBSON, JACOB                        B       15th Infantry
      Wounded at Chickamauga.
  JACOBSON, SALOMON                      C       15th Infantry
      Served four years.
  JACOBSON, JACOB L.                     D       15th Infantry
      Wounded at Hope Church.
  JACOBS, JUSTIN                         C       16th Infantry
      In Veteran Reserve Corps; served four years.
  JACOBSON, MARTIN                       F       18th Infantry
  JONAS, ELIAS                           C       19th Infantry
  JACOBSON, JOHN                         B       22nd Infantry
      Killed at Peach Tree Creek.
  JOACHIMSTHAL, JOSEPH                   F       26th Infantry
      Wounded at Chancellorsville; served three years.
  JACOBSON, JACOB                        I       27th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBSON, JULIUS                       C       28th Infantry
      Served three years.
  JACOBS, LYMAN C.        2nd Lieutenant B       36th Infantry
      Promoted from Corporal.
  JACOBY, FREDERICK                      B       45th Infantry
  JACOBSON, ADOLPH                                 2nd Cavalry
  JACOBSON, DAVID                        B         4th Cavalry
  JACOBSON, JACOB                        G         4th Cavalry

  KLAUBER, CHARLES                       K        1st Infantry
  KOHN, JACOB                                     5th Infantry
  KOHN, JULIUS                           D        9th Infantry
  KAUFFMAN, BENJAMIN                     E       12th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, JOSEPH                        B       18th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ELI M.                        I       20th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, BENJAMIN                      F       25th Infantry
  KOHN, MARTIN            Corporal       H       26th Infantry
      Wounded at Resaca, Georgia.
  KAUFMAN, JOSEPH L.                     H        33d Infantry
  KAUFMAN, MICHAEL                       I        43d Infantry
  KAISER, FELIX                          D       44th Infantry
  KOHN, RUDOLPH                          A       45th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, FREDERICK                     G       45th Infantry
  KAUFMAN, ELI                           H       50th Infantry
  KAHNS, FREDERICK                       C         1st Cavalry
  KOHN, FREDERICK                        C         1st Cavalry
  KAUFMAN, JULIUS                        H         2nd Cavalry
      Died in the service.
  KLEIN, ADOLPH                          L          3d Cavalry
  KOHN, FRANZ                                      2nd Battery
  KAUFMAN, JACOB A.                            Permanent Guard

  LOWENSTEIN, CHARLES                    D        1st Infantry
  LIEBENSTEIN, WILLIAM                   B         3d Infantry
  LISNER, HENRY                          F        5th Infantry
      Killed at Petersburg.
  LOEBE, MICHAEL                         C        6th Infantry
  LIEBMAN, LOUIS                         I        7th Infantry
      Wounded at Hatchers' Run.
  LEVY, THEODORE                                 10th Infantry
  LEVI, ISIDORE                          I       14th Infantry
  LEVISON, ISAAC                         E       18th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  LEWISON, LEWIS                         E       22nd Infantry
  LYON, BENJAMIN                         A        23d Infantry
      Died in the service.
  LYONS, MOSES J.                        G       24th Infantry
  LIEBENSTEIN, PHILIP                    B       26th Infantry
  LIEBENSTEIN, W.                        B       26th Infantry
  LIPPMAN, HENRY          Commissary     F       26th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  LOEB, HENRY                            C       35th Infantry
  LOEB, LEWIS                            E       36th Infantry
  LANGSTAAT, GOTFRIED     1st Lieutenant H         2nd Cavalry
      Re-enlisted as Veteran; promoted from Sergeant;
      served four years.
  LIVERMORE, JOSEPH L.                   L         2nd Cavalry
      Wounded and captured.
  LICHTENBERG, FREDERICK  Corporal       M          3d Cavalry
      Served three years.
  LOEB, ISAAC                            C         4th Cavalry
      Died in the service.

  MARK, FREDERICK                        C        1st Infantry
  MARKS, JACOB H                                  1st Infantry
  METZLER, JACOB                         K        2nd Infantry
      Wounded and captured at Gainesville.
  MOSES, EDGAR                           F        7th Infantry
      Served four years.
  MARX, JACOB                            H        9th Infantry
  MARKS, JOSEPH B.                       G       10th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  MOSES, ALBERT                          H       10th Infantry
  MAAS, MARTON                           B       11th Infantry
  MEYER, SIMON                           I       11th Infantry
  MEYER, BERNARD          2nd Lieutenant B       17th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  MEYER, EMANUEL                         B       17th Infantry
  MAAS, FREDERICK                        C       17th Infantry
  MAAS, WILLIAM                          D       17th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  MARX, PHILIP                           E       18th Infantry
  MOSES, RICHARD                         C       21st Infantry
  MOSES, JOHN                            C       21st Infantry
  MARX, JACOB                            D       21st Infantry
  MAYER, JOSEPH                          C       24th Infantry
  MAYER, LOUIS            Corporal       C       24th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; killed at Resaca, Georgia.
  MAYER, JACOB                           K       24th Infantry
  MOSES, MARTIN                          E       25th Infantry
  MANN, NATHAN                           G       25th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  METZEL, ALEXANDER       Sergeant-Major B       26th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  MEYER, LEOPOLD                         C       26th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MANGOLD, NATHAN                        K       26th Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  MANDEL, THEODORE                       D       27th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MANDEL, HEINRICH                       D       27th Infantry
      Wounded; captured; died as prisoner.
  MANDEL, FREDERICK                      D       27th Infantry
      Served three years.
  MARX, HENRY P.                         C        33d Infantry
      Served three years.
  MAIER, JACOB                           K       48th Infantry
  MAIER, HERMAN                          A       50th Infantry
  MAAS, FRITZ                            K       51st Infantry
  MOSES, ALFRED                          D       52nd Infantry
  MARCUS, BERNARD                        A         1st Cavalry
  MAYER, JOHN T.                         B         1st Cavalry
  MARX, FREDERICK                        B         2nd Cavalry
      Served three years.
  MORITZ, OSCAR                          H         2nd Cavalry
  MARKS, THEODORE                        A          3d Cavalry
  MOSES, REUEL E.                        C         4th Cavalry
  MARKS, HENRY            2nd Lieutenant          12th Battery
      Enlisted as private; served three years.
  MAYERS, JACOB                                   13th Battery
  MAIER, DAVID                           C 1st Heavy Artillery
  MANN, JACOB                            C 1st Heavy Artillery

  NAUMAN, MORITZ          Corporal       E        9th Infantry
      Captured; served three years.
  NAUMAN, FREDERICK                      E        9th Infantry
      Served three years.
  NEWMAN, CARL                           B       17th Infantry
  NATHAN, DANIEL                         I       24th Infantry
  NEWSTADFOR, NATHAN                     H       24th Infantry
      Killed at Chickamauga, Georgia.
  NUSSBAUM, GEORGE                       C        33d Infantry
      Served three years.
  NATHAN, ADOLPH                         A       41st Infantry
  NEWBAUM, MICHAEL                       G       44th Infantry
  NUSSBAUM, DANIEL                       D       51st Infantry
  NEUBERG, JACOB                         H         2nd Cavalry
      Died in the service.

  PERLEWITZ, HERMAN                      H        1st Infantry
  PERLEWITZ, H.           Sergeant       A       26th Infantry
  POLASHAK, ADOLPH                       H       26th Infantry
  POLLACK, FREDERICK J.                  B          3d Cavalry
      Died in the service.

  RICE, MORRIS S.                        C        1st Infantry
  RICHTENSTEIN, JULIUS    Corporal       C        1st Infantry
      Entered as Private.
  ROSE, ALEXANDER                                 5th Infantry
  ROTHSCHILD, MAX                                 5th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, HENRY                       D        6th Infantry
  RICE, JACOB                            C        7th Infantry
      Captured; died at Andersonville.
  ROSENBACH, CHARLES                     F        8th Infantry
      Veteran; served four years.
  ROSENTHAL, RUDOLPH                     B        9th Infantry
  ROTHSCHILD, WILLIAM                    F       10th Infantry
  ROSENAU, CHARLES B.                    F       21st Infantry
  ROSENBAUM, ARNOLD                      C       24th Infantry
      Died of wounds received at Kenesaw Mountain.
  ROSENTHAL, HENRY                       D       26th Infantry
      Wounded at Gettysburg.
  ROSENTHAL, WILLIAM                     E       26th Infantry
      Wounded in action.
  ROSENTHAL, EUGENE                      K       31st Infantry
  ROSENAU, CHARLES                       A       35th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  ROSENBERG, JAMES                       C       36th Infantry
  ROSENBERG, FREDERICK    Corporal       C       45th Infantry
  ROSENFELD, LEOPOLD      Corporal       D       48th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, AUGUST                      E       48th Infantry
  ROSENTHAL, WILLIAM                     F       50th Infantry
  ROSENHEIM, MAX                         H         2nd Cavalry
      Wounded at Grand Gulf, Missouri.
  RICE, SIMON                                      1st Battery
  RICE, NATHAN P.                                  5th Battery
      Veteran; served four years.
  ROSE, MOSES                                      6th Battery
  RICE, NATHAN B.                                 12th Battery

  STEINER, HENRY                         D        1st Infantry
  STEINER, FREDERICK                     D        1st Infantry
  STEINBERGER, JACOB                     E        1st Infantry
  SAMPSON, SAMUEL                        I        2nd Infantry
  SCHWAB, SIMON                          I         3d Infantry
  SAMUELS, ALEXANDER                     D         3d Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  SAMUELS, ALEXANDER      Quartermaster           5th Infantry
  SCHOENFELD, JOSEPH                     A        5th Infantry
  SAMUELS, DAVID                         D        5th Infantry
  SCHONEMAN, AUGUST       Corporal       D        9th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private; served three years.
  SOLOMON, JAMES F.                      E       12th Infantry
  SELIGMAN, LOUIS                      { K       13th Infantry
                                       {         24th Infantry
  SAMPSON, SAMUEL                        A       15th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  SOLOMON, EDWIN A.                      D       16th Infantry
  STEINMAN, JACOB                        E       16th Infantry
  SIMON, JACOB                           C       17th Infantry
  SOLOMON, JAMES                         C       17th Infantry
  STEIN, SAMUEL                          K       17th Infantry
      Died in the service.
  SOLOMON, G. W.                         E       19th Infantry
  SAMSON, JOEL J.                        E       21st Infantry
  SEMISCH, JULIUS                        A       26th Infantry
  STEIN, JULIUS                          C       26th Infantry
      Killed at Chancellorsville.
  SOLOMON, LEVI H.                       A       29th Infantry
  SAMPSON, REUBEN                                 33d Infantry
  STERN, WILLIAM                         F        33d Infantry
      Served three years.
  STERN, CHARLES                         F        33d Infantry
      Wounded; captured; died of wounds.
  SELIG, LUDWIG                                  45th Infantry
  SCHOENEMAN, DAVID                      F       49th Infantry
  SACHS, LEWIS                                   49th Infantry
  SALMON, JOSEPH                         H         1st Cavalry
  SEIDENBURG, HENRY                      D         1st Cavalry
  SACHS, LOUIS                           H         2nd Cavalry
      Served three years.
  SCHLESINGER, WILLIAM                   M          3d Cavalry
  SACHS, WILLIAM G.                      A         4th Cavalry
  STEINMAN, WILLIAM                      A 1st Heavy Artillery
  SIMON, CHARLES                         K 1st Heavy Artillery
  SACHS, SAMUEL                                    9th Battery
      Served four years.

  VOGEL, CARL                            I       34th Infantry
  VOGEL, JULIUS           Sergeant       K       45th Infantry

  WISE, SOLOMON                          K        1st Infantry
  WOLF, VICTOR            Captain        C        8th Infantry
      Promoted from Lieutenant.
  WEISS, JACOB                           G       10th Infantry
      Served three years.
  WOLF, JACOB                            B       11th Infantry
  WOLF, ABRAHAM                          G       11th Infantry
  WOLF, FRANK             Sergeant       D       12th Infantry
      Enlisted as Private.
  WETZEL, ALEXANDER       Major          B       26th Infantry

    Enlisted as a Private in the 20th Wisconsin Volunteers; promoted
    to Corporal, Sergeant and Major for bravery at Chancellorsville;
    he was mortally wounded at Gettysburg.

  WOLF, ALBERT                            G      26th Infantry
      Died of wounds.
  WOLF, ABRAHAM                           I      38th Infantry
      Leg amputated.
  WENK, THEODORE                          H      45th Infantry
  WOLF, SAMUEL                            A      51st Infantry
  WOLF, ADAM                              A      51st Infantry
  WOLF, JACOB                             C      51st Infantry


  NAME.                   RANK.          COMPANY.    REGIMENT.

  JUDELL, H.                             D        1st Infantry


Absent from their respective places in the foregoing rolls are the
names of a large number of men whose participation in the Civil
Conflict is found of record, but of whom the connection with their
respective commands remains unnoted. These names are printed in the
following list--a supplement to the ample quota of Jewish soldiers who
did duty during the Civil War.




  ADLER, BENJAMIN                         FEIST, MARCUS


  BREN, ROBERT                              Killed at Missionary Ridge.
  BRAND, HERMAN                           KRAUS, WILLIAM
  BUSH, GEORGE                            LEVY, ALBERT
    Killed in action.                     LEVY, ABRAHAM
  BLANKENSEE, J.                          LEVY, W. E.
    Killed in action.                       Killed in action.
  COHEN, ISAAC G.                         MOISE, E. W.
  COHEN, ISAAC S.                         MARCUS, M.
  COHEN, M.                               MINIS, P. H.
  COHEN, M. S.                            MAGNUS, ----
  FRANK, ISAAC                            ROSE, GEORGE
  GOODMAN, A.                             RUSSEL, W.
  HEYMAN, A.                              SOLOMON, W. C.
  SOLOMONS, L.                            WEISS, H.
  WEIL, E. A.                             WEISS, L.
  WEIL, HENRY                               Died of wounds; buried at
  WEISS, S.                                 Richmond.
    Buried at Richmond.                   WEISS, HENRY W.


  CAHN, AL.                              JONES, LEVI
  CASS, ----                             JONES, HENRY
  FRÜHLING, ----                         KING, ASA
  HIRSCH, WOLF                           KARLENBACH, MORRIS
  HECHT, ----                            KAHN, S.
  HELDMAN, MORITZ                        LEDERMAN, MOSES
  HEFLER, ----                           LEDERMAN, DAVID
  KLEIN, ----                            LIPPOLD, JULIUS
  KAHN, S.                               LESTER, JOSEPH
  JONES, BENJAMIN                        LEDERMAN, DANIEL
  JONES, DAVID                           LEDERMAN, SOLOMON
  JONES, ABRAHAM                         LESTER, MARCUS
  JONES, ADOLPH                          LIPPOLD, GOTTLIEB
  JONES, ISAAC                           LESTER, SIMON
  JONES, JOSEPH                          LILIENFIELD, ----
  JACOBS, BERNARD                        LEDERMAN, JOSEPH
  JONES, MOSES                           LESTER, ISAAC
  JONES, SOLOMON                         MENKE, HERMAN


  ABRAHAMS, J.                           DAVIS, MOSES
  ANCHUTZ, G.                            DAVIS, ABRAHAM
  ANSPACH, NOAH                          FRANK, GOTTLIEB
  ACKERMAN, FRANK                        FRIEDMAN, FRANK
  BALL, LEVI                             FREEMAN, NATHAN
  DAVIDSON, ELIAS                        FRANK, DAVID
  DAVIS, NATHAN                          FRANK, ISAAC
  DAVIS, ISAAC                           GREEN, AARON
  DAVIS, LEVI                            GREEN, JACOB
  DAVIS, AARON                           GOODMAN, ISAAC
  GREEN, HEYMAN                          ISRAEL, ELIJAH
  HALLER, NATHAN                         ISAACS, M.
  HALLER, JOSEPH                         JUDAH, ANDREW
  HART, ISAAC                            JACOBS, ISAAC
  HAMMERSLEY, MOSES                      JONES, ISRAEL
  HAMMERSLEY, JACOB                      LEHMAN, B.
  HALLER, DAVID                          LEHMAN, JACOB
  HARRIS, LEVI                           POLLOCK, J.
  HEINEMAN, CHARLES                      ROSENBERG, D.
  ISRAEL, JOSEPH                         SANDERS, ISAAC
  ISAACS, PHILIP                         SANDERS, SAMUEL
  ISAACS, SIMPSON                        SANDERS, AARON
  ISAACS, REUBEN                         WALLACH, B.


  DAVIS, ABRAHAM                         COHN, DAVID


  DAVIS, ISAAC                           MOSES, ABRAHAM
  DAVID, ABRAHAM                         MAYER, JACOB
  EHRLICH, MAYER                         MAYER, ISAAC
  EHRLICH, WILLIAM                       WOLF, ABRAHAM


  AARON, ISAAC                           LEON, ALEXANDER
  ARONSTEIN, MOSES                       LEVENSON, ----
  BLUM, MOSES                            ROSENAU, HERMAN
  BAER, HERMAN                           RIED, ----
  COHEN, JOSEPH                          ROSENAU, SIEGMUND
  KAUFMAN, MORRIS                        WOLF, ABRAHAM


  KAUFMAN, ISAAC                         NEWGARTEN, HARRY
  MOSES, JOSEPH                          WOLF, JACOB


  ARNOLD, O.                             JACOBS, DANIEL
  ACKERMAN, JOSEPH                       LEHMAN, FREDERICK
  ARNOLD, ISAAC                          LEHMAN, DANIEL
  ACKERMAN, DANIEL                       MEIER, JOSEPH
  BENJAMIN, MARK                         MAIER, HERMAN
  BENDER, JACOB                          MOSES, SAMUEL
  BENJAMIN, SAMUEL                       MANN, BENJAMIN
  BENJAMIN, JOSEPH                       MANN, ISAAC
  COLEMAN, JOSEPH                        MANUEL, FRANK
  COLEMAN, MOSES                         MEYERS, ISAAC
  DANIELS, MARCUS                        MEYER, LUDWIG
  DAVIS, MOSES                           MAYER, FREDERICK
  DAVIS, LEVI                            NEWMAN, FRANK
  FRANK, GUSTAV                          PHILLIPS, SAMUEL
  FREEMAN, ABRAHAM                       RICE, MOSES
  FREEMAN, NATHAN                        RICH, SAMUEL
  GREEN, DAVID                           RICE, OSCAR
  GOLDSMITH, JOSEPH                      RICE, JACOB
  GREEN, LEVI                            SAMUEL, SOLOMON
  GREEN, AARON                           SANDERS, LEWIS
  HARRIS, ISAAC                          SIMONS, BENJAMIN
  HARTMAN, MORITZ                        SANGER, DANIEL
  HALLER, DAVID                          SANGER, THEODORE
  JACOBS, JACOB                          SANDERS, NATHAN
  JACOBS, DAVID                          WIESENBACH, GUSTAV


  ACKERMAN, SAMUEL                       BENJAMIN, E.
  ARNOLD, LEWIS                          COLEMAN, LEVI
  ARNOLD, MARCUS                         COLEMAN, ISAAC
  ACKERMAN, ABRAHAM                      COLEMAN, DAVID
  ACKERMAN, JACOB                        DAVIS, OSCAR
  BALL, DAVID                            DAVIS, DAVID
  BENJAMIN, M.                           DAVIS, ISAAC
  DAVIS, AARON                           JONES, HENRY
  DAVIDSON, ISAAC                        JACOBS, LEWIS
  FREEMAN, PHINEAS                       KAISER, JACOB
  FUCHS, DAVID                           KING, AARON
  FREEMAN, LEVI                          KING, JACOB
  GREEN, ISAAC                           KARLENBACH, JOSEPH
  GREEN, BENJAMIN                        KING, MARCUS
  GREEN, NATHAN                          LEHMAN, GOTTLIEB
  HART, ISAAC                            MEYERS, JOSEPH
  HART, SAMUEL                           MYERS, DAVID
  HARRIS, ISRAEL                         NEWMAN, MOSES
  HARRIS, ABRAHAM                        NEWMAN, JOSEPH
  JONES, JACOB                           PHILLIPS, J.
  JONES, ABRAHAM                         ROSE, DAVID
  JONES, DAVID                           RICH, LEVI
  JONES, ISAAC                           SANDERS, J.


  LEVY, MEYER                            MORSE, CHARLES
    Killed in action.                    ROSENAU, MARX
  LICHTENSTEIN, S.                       WEIL, J.
                                           Died of wounds.


  ADLER, GEORGE                          DAVIS, EMMANUEL
  ADOLPH, PHILIP                         GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS
  ARNOLD, NATHAN                         GOTTSCHALK, FREDERIC
  BAER, ISAAC                            GREEN, DAVID
  BAER, WILLIAM                          GREEN, ADOLPH
  BLOCK, DAVID                           HAMMER, ISAAC
  BALL, LEON                             HARTMAN, JACOB
  BAUM, LOUIS                            HOLZINGER, CHARLES
  CLINE, CHARLES                         JACOBSON, A.
  CLINE, HENRY                           JOEL, E.
  CLIFMAN, ASA                           JOEL, BENJAMIN
  DAVID, DANIEL                          JONES, ISAAC
  DAVIDSON, ISAAC                        JONES, HENRY
  DAVID, EPHRAIM                         LEHMAN, M.
  LEIBOLD, GUSTAV                        REXINGER, MOSES
  LEUPP, JACOB                           RIA, MORRIS
  MEYERS, JOSEPH                         SEGAL, BENJAMIN
  NEWMAN, G.                             TRIBURG, EUGENE
  NOGEL, E.                              WOLF, CHARLES


  ACKERMAN, JOSEPH                       DIAZ, HENRY
  ALEXANDER, ADOLPH                      DAVIS, ISAAC C.
  ABRAHAM, JACOB                         DAVISON, LEWIS
  ACKERMAN, DAVID                        FREEMAN, MORRIS
  ACKERMAN, AARON                        FREEMAN, ALEXANDER
  ADLER, WILLIAM                         FREEMAN, SAMUEL
  ADLER, HENRY                           FUCHS, JACOB
  ARNOLD, JACOB                          FUCHS, MICHAEL
  ACKERMAN, JOSEPH                       FRANKS, HENRY P.
  ACKERMAN, MORRIS                       GREEN, AARON
  ABRAMS, ELIAS                          GREEN, MOSES
  ACKERMAN, AARON                        GEIGER, GEORGE
  ABRAMS, JACOB                          GEISINGER, ISAAC
  ABRAMS, CHARLES                        GOTTSCHALK, SAMUEL
  BUXBAUM, WILLIAM                       GREEN, AARON S.
  BAER, JOSEPH                           GEIGER, JACOB
  BEHRENS, CHARLES                       GREEN, JOSEPH
  BAUER, JOSEPH A.                       GOODMAN, MARCUS
  BALL, ABRAHAM                          HARRIS, DAVID
  BACHMAN, JACOB                         HARDENDORF, JACOB
  BAUER, JACOB S.                        HARRIS, ISAAC
  BRILL, JACOB                           HOLZMAN, GEORGE
  BAUER, MORRIS                          HARRIS, DAVID
  COLEMAN, MOSES                         HERRMAN, HENRY
  COLEMAN, REUBEN                        HAHN, MARTIN
  DAVIS, ISAAC                           HESS, CHARLES
  DAVIS, NATHAN                          HESS, SAMUEL
  HAHN, CHARLES                          KLEIN, SAMUEL
  HARRIS, ABRAHAM                        KING, JACOB
  HOFMAN, LEWIS                          KOHLER, ELIAS
  HAHN, MORRIS                           LOEB, BENJAMIN
  HOFMAN, DAVID                          LOZIER, ALEXANDER
  HARRIS, SAMUEL                         LYON, EBENEZER
  HOFMAN, BENJAMIN                       LYON, LEWIS
  HOFMAN, ISAAC                          LEHMAN, JOSEPH
  HART, DAVID                            MYERS, JULIUS
  HOFMAN, JACOB                          MEYER, ALEXANDER
  HARRIS, JOSEPH                         MEYER, HENRY
  HARTMAN, GUSTAV                        MEYER, FRANK
  HARRIS, JACOB B.                       MEYER, JOSEPH
  HART, ISAAC                            MEIER, CHARLES
  HART, JACOB C.                         MEYER, JOSEPH
  ISAAC, HENRY                           MEIER, CHARLES
  JACOBS, HENRY                          MEYERS, SAMUEL
  JACOBS, WILLIAM                        MEYER, JACOB
  JACOBS, JOSEPH                         MEYERS, ADOLPH
  JACOBS, CHARLES                        MEYER, ISAAC
  KING, MOSES                            MEYERS, JOSEPH
  KOENIG, MAXIMILIAN                     MEYERS, LOUIS
  KUHN, THEO.                            MARX, CHARLES
  KOHLER, HENRY                          MEYER, JOSEPH P.
  KUHN, FERDINAND                        MOSES, WILLIAM
  KLEIN, LUDWIG                          MOSES, A.
  KING, ISAAC                            MARKS, JOSEPH
  KING, ISAAC M.                         MEIER, HERMAN
  KING, JOSEPH                           MEIER, LEWIS
  KONIG, GUSTAV                          NEWMAN, JOSEPH
  KLEIN, JOSEPH                          NEWMAN, JACOB
  KOCH, FREDERIC                         NEWMAN, JULIUS
  KING, ALEXANDER                        NAUMAN, JULIUS
  KUHN, JACOB                            NEWMAN, DAVID
  KING, ABRAHAM                          NEWMAN, LEVI
  KING, LEWIS                            NEWMAN, JOEL
  KOHLER, JACOB                          NEWMAN, DAVID
  SANGER, CARL                           STAHL, LEOPOLD
  SIMONS, JOSEPH                         VOGEL, FERDINAND
  SIGAL, BENJAMIN                        VOGEL, LOUIS
  SIMON, SAMUEL                          VOGEL, JOSEPH
  SIMONS, LEVI                           VOGEL, LEWIS
  SIMONS, JOSEPH                         WOLF, AUGUST
  STEIN, LOUIS                           WEISS, ADOLPH
  SIMONSON, JESSE                        WOLF, CHARLES
  STEINBACH, JOSEPH                      WOLF, FREDERICK
  SIMONS, ISAAC                          WOLF, JOSEPH


  ASHER, MOSES                           BACHARACH, MORITZ
  ASHER, ISAAC                           BERNSTEIN, DAVID
  ASSENHEIMER, ISAAC                     BLUM, ADOLPH
  ADLER, MOSES                           BRILL, HENRY
  ASHER, DAVID                           BLUM, ISAAC
  ADLER, MARCUS                          Baruch, M.
  ASH, ISAAC                             BAER, ABRAHAM
  ARNHEIM, OSCAR                         BALL, SIMON
  ADLER, DAVID                           BACHMAN, ABRAHAM
  AARON, DAVID                           BAER, MOSES
  ASH, MOSES                             BIEN, MORITZ
  ARNHEIM, GUSTAV                        BERLINER, A.
  ASH, LEWIS                             BRESLAUER, ALEXANDER
  AARON, LOUIS                           BAUER, JULIUS
  AARON, MOSES                           BAUM, C.
  ARNOLD, FRANK                          BLUMENTHAL, CHARLES
  ALTMAN, ISAAC                          BAUM, WILLIAM
  ACKERMAN, ADOLPH                       BAMBERGER, LOUIS
  ALTMAN, CHARLES                        COHEN, MOSES
  ACKERMAN, GUSTAV                       DAVIDSON, JACOB
  AUERBACH, MOSES                        DAVIDSON, ISAAC
  BUNSTEIN, MOSES                        DAVIDSON, OSCAR
  BACHARACH, MARCUS                      DAVID, MOSES
  BLUMENSTEIN, MAYER                     DAVID, ISAAC
  EHRLICH, J.                            LOWENTHAL, SIMON
  EISEMAN, MAX                           LEDERMAN, MORITZ
  FRIEDBERG, H.                          LOWENSTEIN, ISAAC
  FRIEDMAN, ISAAC                        LANDAUER, JOSEPH
  FLEISCHMAN, M.                         MANNHEIMER, MOSES
  FRIEDMAN, ADOLPH                       MANN, JOSEPH
  FLEISCHMAN, GEORGE                     MAY, ADOLPH
  GOODMAN, MAYER                         MAAS, FREDERICK
  GOTTLIEB, MOSES                        MANTEL, LEWIS
  GOODMAN, M.                            MENDELSON, JOSEPH
  GOTTLIEB, A.                           MARCUS, OSCAR
  GOODMAN, LEWIS                         MANDELBAUM, ISAAC
  GOLDSMITH, I.                          NATHAN, SIMON
  HARRIS, M.                             NATHANSON, JACOB
  HARRIS, GEORGE                         NUSSBAUM, MOSES
  HARRIS, ADOLPH                         OPPENHEIMER, MAIER
  HEINEMAN, ADOLPH                       OCHS, MOSES
  HOCHHEIM, M.                           PINKSON, GUSTAV
  JACOBSON, M.                           PROSKAUER, JACOB
  JACOBSON, A.                           POLLOCK, ISAAC
  JONES, DAVID                           POLLOCK, MOSES
  JONES, MEIER                           POSNER, JOSEPH
  JONES, OSCAR                           ROSENBAUM, JOSEPH
  JONES, ADOLPH                          ROTHSCHILD, MEYER
  JONES, MARTIN                          ROTHSCHILD, JACOB
  KOHN, MAYER                            ROSENFELD, ABRAHAM
  KOHN, ALEXANDER                        RAPHAEL, JOSEPH
  KAUFMAN, ISAAC                         ROSENBLATT, JULIUS
  KAHN, OSCAR                            STRAUSS, MOSES
  KOCH, J.                               STRAUSS, OSCAR
  KATZ, JACOB                            SINZHEIMER, GUSTAV
  KONG, ISAAC                            SCHOENTHAL, GEORGE
  LOEB, JACOB                            SELIGNAN, JOSEPH
  LOEB, MOSES                            SCHOENBERG, MAYER
  LIMBURGER, ISAAC                       SILBERMAN, MOSES
  LEVY, BERNHARD                         SPIEGEL, LOUIS
  LIPPMAN, MOSES                         SCHIFF, DANIEL
  SCHWAB, ADOLPH                         WIENER, MORITZ
  SCHWAB, HENRY                          WEIL, JULIUS
  STERN, FREDERICK                       WASSEMAN, MORRIS
  SACHS, LEWIS                           WASSEMAN, SIMON


  ABRAHAM, S.                            MEYER, SAMUEL
  COHEN, MOSES                           OPPENHEIM, DAVID
  MAYER, NATHAN                          WOLF, JOSEPH
                                           Killed in action.


  AARONSTEIN, I.                         COLEMAN, ABRAHAM
  ALTMAN, FRANK                          COLEMAN, JACOB
  ACKERMAN, HENRY                        DAVIS, JOSEPH
  ALEXANDER, JACOB                       DAVIS, ASA
  ALEXANDER, ISAAC                       DAVIS, SAMUEL
  ACKERMAN, JOSEPH                       DAVIS, FRANK
  ALEXANDER, DAVID                       DAVIS, DAVID
  ALTMAN, SAMUEL                         DAVIS, HENRY
  ALTMAN, SOLOMON                        DAVIS, LEVI
  BAUER, GUSTAV                          DAVIS, ABRAHAM
  BALL, LEWIS                            DAVIS, OSCAR
  BAUER, JACOB                           DAVIS, ELI
  BALL, ABRAHAM                          DAVIS, ISAAC
  BASH, MOSES                            DAVIS, LEWIS
  BRILL, DAVID                           DAVIS, BENJAMIN
  BALL, SOLOMON                          DAVIS, JACOB
  BASH, BERNARD                          DAVIS, ISRAEL
  BAER, ISAAC                            DAVIS, NATHAN
  BAUM, CHARLES                          EHRLICH, ADOLPH
  BLAU, EMIL                             EHRLICH, CHARLES
  BLAU, A.                               EHRLICH, LEWIS
  CLINE, JACOB                           FIX, BERNARD
  FRANKS, GUSTAV                         HAHNEMAN, J.
  FRANK, HEYMAN                          ISAACSON, HENRY
  FRIEDBURG, PHILIP                      ISAACS, MOSES
  FIX, LEWIS                             ISRAEL, ELIAS
  FUCHS, DAVID                           JONES, ISAAC
  FREUND, DANIEL                         JONES, HENRY
  FREEMAN, ABRAHAM                       JONES, JACOB
  FREUND, JACOB                          JONES, DAVID
  FREEMAN, SAMUEL                        JONES, AARON
  FRIEDMAN, JACOB                        JONES, JULIUS
  FUCHS, JACOB                           JONES, LEVI
  FRANK, DAVID                           KLEIN, JESSE
  GREEN, ISAAC                           KLEIN, LEWIS
  GREEN, JACOB                           KOCH, CHARLES
  GOODMAN, JOSEPH                        KING, BENJAMIN
  GOODMAN, DAVID                         KLEIN, CHARLES
  GREEN, LEVI                            KING, JOSEPH
  GREEN, DAVID                           KLEIN, HENRY
  GREEN, ABRAHAM                         KONIGSBURGER, HENRY
  HARRIS, SOLOMON                        LIPPOLD, JACOB
  HARRIS, LEVI                           LUDWIG, LEWIS
  HART, ISAAC                            LEDERMAN, JOSEPH
  HOFMAN, HENRY                          LUDWIG, JACOB
  HARRIS, EPHRAIM                        LESTER, BENJAMIN
  HAYS, ALEXANDER                        LUDWIG, ISAAC
  HELLER, CHARLES                        LEDERMAN, SAMUEL
  HARRIS, ABRAHAM                        LUDWIG, DANIEL
  HALLER, BENJAMIN                       LESTER, DAVID
  HARRIS, SIMON                          LUDWIG, SAMUEL
  HEINE, HENRY                           LUDWIG, NOAH
  HART, FRANK                            LOWENSTEIN, J.
  HARRIS, BENJAMIN                       LOWENTHAL, I.
  HARRIS, SAMUEL                         LEVI, NATHAN
  HART, BENJAMIN                         LEVI, HENRY I.
  HARRIS, LEWIS                          MOSES, HENRY
  HELLER, JACOB                          MARKS, LESTER
  HAYS DAVID                             MANGOLD, HENRY
  MOSES, PERRY                           PERLEY, V
  MANN, LEWIS                            RAPP, DAVID
  MARIENTHAL, SIMON                      RICH, CHARLES
  MICHELS, ABRAHAM                       RAPP, ADOLPH
  MOSES, ASA                             ROSE, AARON
  MANGOLD, JACOB                         RAPP, JACOB
  MARKS, JACOB                           ROSE, NATHAN
  MUNZ, GOTTLIEB                         ROSE, DAVID
  MOSES, CHARLES                         RUBD, WILLIAM
  MANUEL, JAMES                          SCHWEITZER, JACOB
  METZGER, JACOB                         SWITZER, HENRY
  MANGOLD, GEORGE                        SAMPSON, FRANK
  MOSES, JAMES                           SCHENK, SALOMON
  MARX, J. H.                            SCHWARZ, GOTTLIEB
  MOSES, ENOCH                           SCHLOSSER, S.
  MANGOLD, JOSEPH                        SCHIFF, SIMON
  MANN, ALEXANDER                        TACHAN, HENRY G.
  MOSES, WILLIAM                         TANNHAUSER, A.
  MOAK, J.                               UTZ, JACOB
  MOSES, ENOCH                           UTZ, JOSEPH
  NIEMAN, THEODORE                       UTZ, SAMUEL
  NIEMAN, CHARLES                        YOST, EPHRAIM
  OCHS, JULIUS                           YOST, DAVID
  ORBANSKI, ABRAHAM                      YOST, CHARLES
  PHILLIPS, EMANUEL                      YOST, DANIEL
  PHILIP, NOAH                           YOST, HENRY
  PHILLIPS, LEWIS                        WISNER, HENRY
  PHILLIPS, DANIEL                       WITTKOWSKY, H.
  PIKE, H.                               WITTKOWSKY, K.


  DE YOUNG, CHARLES                      LEVY, ELIAS
  FLEISHER, MOYER                        LEWI, DAVID
    32nd Regiment of Pennsylvania        SAMUEL ABRAHAM
    State Militia.                       STERN, ISRAEL W.
  HIGHHILL, ISRAEL                         Served four years and
  HIGHHILL, SOLOMON                        three months.
  LEHMAN, SOLOMON                        STERN, SIMON


  BARUCH, D                              LYONS, ISAAC L.
  COHEN, O                                 Seriously wounded.
    Killed in action.                    MOSES, A. I.
  COHEN, HENRY                           MOSES, ISAAC C.
    Buried at Richmond.                  MENKEN, NATHAN
  GOLDSMITH, ABRAHAM                     MILLER, EZRA B.
  HIRSCH, ISAAC                            Killed in action.
  JACOBS, HENRY                          MOSES, DR. FRANK J.
    Killed in action.                    NATHAN, JULIUS
  LEHMAN, ABRAHAM                        SIMON, A.
    Killed in action.                    SOLOMON, H.
  LEOPOLD, JACK                          WEISS, SAMUEL
    Wounded in action.                     Killed in action.


  FELSENTHAL, ----} (Brothers)           FRAUENTHAL, M
  FELSENTHAL, ----}                      SOLOMON, ERNST


  FLEISCHEL, CAPTAIN                     MAYER, LEO E.
  KAUFMAN, C.                              Captured.


  BACHARACH, M.                          HOLZINGER, E.
      Buried at Richmond.                HESSBERG, I.
  BACHARACH, S.                              Killed in action.
      Buried at Richmond.                KAYTON, HERRMAN
  EICHEL, JACOB                          KROMER, C. H.
  EICHEL, A.                             LEVIN, SOLOMON M.
  FALK, EMANUEL                          MOISE, WILBORN
  GOLDBERG, ----                         MILLER, CHARLES
  GANS, LEON                             WEIL, CHARLES




    [Additional names received after printing of lists, and before
    close of present form.]

  CHARLES BAUM served in the 80th Ohio Infantry, during the Civil
    War. Mr. Baum is now a resident and a leading merchant of
    Washington, D. C.

  SOLOMON POLOCK and LOUIS POLOCK, two brothers, served in the Army
    during the Mexican War.

  LIEUTENANT LAUCHHEIMER, serves as Judge Advocate-general in the
    Regular Army of the United States.

  JACOB LYON enlisted in June, 1854, in Battery E, 2nd Regiment,
    United States Artillery. He re-enlisted in June, 1859, and was
    honorably discharged in June, 1864. Participated in eighteen

  CHARLES STEIN enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, June
    22nd, 1864, at Philadelphia, Pa., became sergeant and was honorably
    discharged, June 22nd, 1868. He died on March 6th, 1881, from
    disease contracted while in the service.

  MORITZ AUGENSTEIN served in Company E, 52nd Regiment, New York
    Infantry, during the Civil War.

  SIMON FLEISHER served in Company A, 18th North Carolina Infantry,
    during the Civil War.

  MORRIS M. KATZ served in Company A, 18th North Carolina Infantry,
    during the Civil War.

  ABRAHAM MAYER served in Company A, 18th North Carolina Infantry,
    during the Civil War.

  AARON STERN served in the Regular Army before and during the Civil
    War. Now attached to the Record and Pension Division of the War
    Department, at Washington, D. C.

  CHARLES KATZENSTEIN, Regular Army, now connected with the Record
    and Pension Division of the War Department.

  BENJAMIN JACOBS, Regular Army, now in Adjutant General's office, at
    Washington, D. C.



  In the Continental Armies (including patriots)      46
  In the War of 1812                                  44
  In the Mexican War                                  58
  In the United States Regular Army                   96
  In the United States Navy                           78


  Staff Officers in the Union Army                    16
  Staff Officers in the Confederate Army              24
  Officers in the Confederate Navy                    11
  Soldiers classified in Regiments from different
    States who served in the Union and Confederate
    Armies during the Civil War                     7038
  Soldiers unclassified as to States who served
    during the Civil War                             834
  Other Soldiers (indicated in Addenda)               12
                    Total in all wars               8257



  Alabama.                  135
  Arkansas.                  53
  California.                28
  Connecticut.               17
  District of Columbia.       3
  Florida.                    2
  Georgia.                  144
  Illinois.                 702
  Indiana.                  475
  Iowa.                      12
  Kansas.                     9
  Kentucky.                  22
  Louisiana.                224
  Maine.                      1
  Maryland.                   7
  Massachusetts.            174
  Michigan.                 130
  Mississippi.              158
  Missouri.                  86
  Nevada.                     3
  New Hampshire.              2
  New Jersey.               277
  New Mexico.                 2
  New York.                1996
  North Carolina             58
  Ohio.                    1004
  Pennsylvania.             527
  Rhode Island.               4
  South Carolina.           182
  Tennessee.                 38
  Texas.                    103
  Vermont.                    1
  Virginia.                 119
  Washington Territory.       1
  West Virginia.              7
  Wisconsin.                331
  Wyoming Territory.          1
      Total.               7038


The foregoing lists of Jewish soldiers in the armies of the Civil War
may well be supplemented by a review of Jewish activity in civil walks
in connection with that momentous struggle. In the political movements
for the abolition of slavery there were not lacking many Jews who
took an active and at times a leading part in the moulding of public
opinion, and the fact that the influence of these men did not become
more widespread may be regarded as almost wholly due to their having
been but recent immigrants from foreign lands and therefore comparative
strangers in the communities in which they settled. Such men were
Michael Heilprin, the scholar and philanthropist whose devotion to
liberty had previously been attested by his activity as a member of
Kossuth's civil staff during the Hungarian Revolution; Dr. Edward
Morwitz, then a writer and afterwards publisher of the "Demokrat," a
German newspaper of Philadelphia, and Rev. Dr. Sabato Morais, then
and still at present the Rabbi of a Philadelphia congregation. Dr.
David Einhorn's ardent advocacy of the abolition of slavery led to
his removal from Baltimore; and in New York, Rev. Samuel M. Isaacs,
then Rabbi of a congregation of that city and editor of the "Jewish
Messenger," took an earnest part in the movement.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the West, among the pioneers of the Jewish community, are to be
named in this connection Dr. James Horwitz, of Cleveland; Rabbi
Liebman Adler, then of Detroit; Henry Greenebaum, then a member of
the City Council of Chicago; Edward Salomon, afterwards County Clerk
of Cook county and subsequently Brigadier-General in the army, and
Leopold Mayer and Michael Greenebaum, likewise of Chicago. In an
article on the German pioneers of Chicago, published in a late issue
in the "Times-Herald" of that city (June 9th, 1895), are printed some
interesting reminiscences of ante-bellum times, wherein Mr. Mayer is
quoted as follows:

    "The fugitive slave law set us at loggerheads with the powers
    that were. It was sometime in 1853 when a United States Marshal,
    on the corner of Van Buren and Sherman streets, arrested a poor
    devil of a negro as a fugitive. A crowd of citizens, led by Michael
    Greenebaum, liberated the prisoner and on the same evening a big
    meeting was held to ratify this act. The enthusiasm in this meeting
    reached its highest pitch when Long John Wentworth entered the hall
    and publicly declared from the platform that he would be with us in
    resisting the enforcement of the barbaric law. From that time we
    slowly but steadily marched up hill. The first official call for a
    German mass meeting to join the Republican party appeared in the
    'Staats Zeitung' signed by George Schneider, Adolph Loeb, Julius
    Rosenthal, a cigar dealer by the name of Hanson and my humble self."

Here we find four Jews among five leaders of the German population of
Chicago in a great political movement.

       *       *       *       *       *

In another portion of the same article another of the old pioneers,
William Vocke, Esq., referring to the record of the 24th Illinois
regiment, is quoted as follows:

    "Our regiment served three years and three months. With recruits
    taken in from time to time, fully 1200 men had joined it. Only 240
    of us returned. One company of this regiment consisted exclusively
    of Hebrews. It was led by Captain Lasalle, who stuck it out with us
    to the last."

       *       *       *       *       *

Another striking incident of the forcefulness of Jewish sentiment in
the great agitation that preceded the outbreak of the war is recorded
by Rear Admiral George Henry Preble, U. S. N., in his "History of
the Flag of the United States of America," (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.,
Boston, fourth edition, 1894.) We quote as follows: (Page 406).

    "On the 11th of February, 1861, Mr. Lincoln, the President-elect
    of the United States, left his home in Springfield, Illinois,
    for the seat of government, accompanied by a few friends. His
    fellow-citizens and neighbors gathered at the railway station to
    wish him God-speed. He was visibly affected by this kind attention,
    and addressed the assembly of his friends in a few words,
    requesting they would all pray that he might receive the Divine
    assistance in the responsibilities he was about to encounter,
    without which he could not succeed, but with which success was
    certain. Before leaving Springfield, he received from Abraham Kohn,
    city clerk of Chicago, a fine picture of the flag of the Union,
    bearing an inscription in Hebrew on its folds. The verses being the
    4th to 9th verses of the first chapter of Joshua, in which Joshua
    was commanded to reign over a whole land, the last verse being:
    'Have I not commanded thee? Be strong and of a good courage; be not
    afraid, neither be thou dismayed; for the Lord, thy God, is with
    thee whithersoever thou goest.'"

       *       *       *       *       *

In a recent speech at Ottawa, Kansas, on June 20, 1895, (quoted in
the _Reform Advocate_, of Chicago, July 13, 1895,) Governor William
McKinley, of Ohio, referred to this incident as follows:

    "What more beautiful conception than that which prompted Abraham
    Kohn, of Chicago, in February, 1861, to send to Mr. Lincoln, on
    the eve of his starting to Washington, to assume the office of
    president, a flag of our country, bearing upon its silken folds
    these words from the first chapter of Joshua: 'Have I not commanded
    thee? Be strong and of good courage. Be not afraid, neither be thou
    dismayed, for the Lord, thy God is with thee, whithersoever thou
    goest. There shall not any man be able to stand before thee all the
    days of thy life. As I was with Moses so shall I be with thee. I
    will not fail thee nor forsake thee.'

    "Could anything have given Mr. Lincoln more cheer, or been better
    calculated to sustain his courage or to strengthen his faith in the
    mighty work before him? Thus commanded, thus assured, Mr. Lincoln
    journeyed to the capital, where he took the oath of office and
    registered in heaven an oath to save the Union. And the Lord, our
    God, was with him, until every obligation of oath and duty was
    sacredly kept and honored. Not any man was able to stand before
    him. Liberty was the more firmly enthroned, the Union was saved,
    and the flag which he carried floated in triumph and glory from
    every flagstaff of the republic."

       *       *       *       *       *

In reply to a letter addressed to him by the daughter of Abraham Kohn,
Mrs. Dankmar Adler (whose husband, the architect of the Auditorium
building and one of the architects of the Columbian Exposition, had
fought through the war and been wounded at Chickamauga), Major McKinley
wrote: "The incident deeply impressed me when I first learned of it,
and I have taken occasion to use it, as in my speech at Ottawa, to
which you refer.

    "I am very glad to have been able to give publicity to this
    striking incident, and I am sure that the family of Mr. Kohn should
    feel very proud of his patriotic act."

       *       *       *       *       *

The patriotism of the Jewish people in the support of the soldiers in
the field was no less positive than their participation in the fray
itself. The various bodies organized at the North for the support of
the government, such as the Sanitary Commissions, counted a full quota
of Jewish citizens among their membership everywhere.

Prominent in the West among these earnest co-workers in the cause
of the Union was the lamented Benjamin F. Peixotto, of Cleveland,
who severed the affiliations of an active political career and took
an earnest part in arousing the patriotic sentiment of the people.
He contributed largely of his means to the furtherance of the civil
movements in support of the men at the front and attained a recognized
position as a leader. When in 1872, the Jews of Roumania were subjected
to persecutions by the Government of that principality, Mr. Peixotto
was selected as Consul of the United States at Bucharest,[26] in
which capacity his services were of marked importance to the cause of
humanity and won for him the gratitude of the Jewish people at large,
as well as the confidence and support of our government. Other Jewish
patriotic leaders in the West during the war were Isidor Busch, of St.
Louis; Henry Mack, of Cincinnati; Nathan Bloom, of Louisville, and
others that ought, perhaps, to find mention here.

Notable in this connection at the East was Hon. A. S. Solomons, now the
General Agent of the Baron de Hirsch Trust in the United States. Before
the war and during its early years he was a leading Jewish citizen of
Washington and enjoyed the confidence and esteem of President Lincoln,
of Secretaries Stanton and Chase, and of many other leading spirits of
the time. His home was a centre of patriotic activity and he made heavy
sacrifices of his personal interest in behalf of the Union cause.

In the South, during the dark and trying days of the Confederacy, the
Jewish citizens of that section displayed to the full their devotion
to the cause which they held at heart. The Jewish Southerners were as
zealous in their efforts as were their neighbors all about them, and
however mistaken was their contention, they adhered to it tenaciously.
A Jew, it is said, fired the first gun against Fort Sumter, and another
Jew gave the last shelter to the fleeing President and Cabinet of the
fallen Confederacy.

Throughout the country, North and South, the earnestness of the Jewish
character found expression through an active participation by Jewish
citizens in the great movements of the time. A closer examination of
this feature of our subject would involve a detailed reference to the
leading members of the various Jewish communities throughout the land,
and carry us into fields beyond our present scope, which have already
received the careful attention of other writers.[27]

       *       *       *       *       *

One specially significant example of American Jewish citizenship and
manly worth yet claims our attention. In New York, foremost in every
patriotic movement, were the brothers Joseph and Jesse Seligman. The
place that they filled in the affairs of that time and since has
become a part of our country's history. Their influence in maintaining
the financial credit of the Government during the war was of far
reaching import for the cause of the Union, and the recognition of
their services led President Grant to offer to Joseph Seligman, who
died in 1880, a place in his Cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury. The
universal esteem in which Joseph and Jesse Seligman were held, not
alone as men of affairs, but as patriots, citizens and philanthropists,
was well betokened by the expressions given to the public feeling when
Jesse Seligman died. Some of these expressions may well be cited here,
for Jesse Seligman was, _par excellence_, as perfect a type of the
American Jew as he was typically an American citizen. He died in April,
1894, and from among the innumerable tributes to his worth, we cite a
few of the expressions of some of the leading men of the metropolis,
whose stations are a guarantee of their judgment and sincerity, and
most of whom had known him through a generation of years.

Lengthy, comparatively speaking, in view of the necessary limitations
of this volume, as are these several presentations, they yet command
our full consideration by reason of their great significance.

       *       *       *       *       *

Hon. Carl Schurz, on the occasion of the Memorial Services at the New
York Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Decoration Day, May 30, 1894, painted for
his audience in the following deeply thoughtful utterances a vivid
picture of a model Jew and a model man:

    "It is most fit that the memory of Jesse Seligman should be
    celebrated here, on this very spot. I see him now, as he stood
    here years ago, when the corner-stone of this magnificent building
    was laid, and when, owing to his friendly invitation, I enjoyed
    the privilege of taking part in the dedication ceremonies, I
    see him, his face beaming with joy over the good that had been
    accomplished, and with glad anticipation of the greater good still
    to be done, for his whole heart was in this noble work. And here,
    where his monument stands--not a mere monument of stone or brass,
    but a living monument in grateful human hearts--here, where he
    still lives and will not die, the lessons of his life may be most
    worthily learned, not to be forgotten.

    "Indeed, the legacy not only of benefactions, but of lessons which
    that life has left behind it, may be, especially to the young
    among us, if they understand well and treasure them up to inspire
    and guide their hearts and minds, of far greater value than any
    amount of his money that Jesse Seligman might have bequeathed to
    them. Some of us may, perhaps, have envied him while he lived, as
    an eminently successful man. But do we consider him worthy of envy
    now, since he is dead? Why do we honor his memory, and wish that,
    when we shall be gone, we should, in many respects, be remembered
    as he is? Because he was a rich man? Certainly not; for that is
    in itself nothing to be proud of. The ambition to be merely rich
    is only a small and vulgar ambition. It may be gratified by the
    accident of birth or of good fortune; it may be gratified by the
    diligent and constant exertion of faculties, which do not by any
    means belong to the higher attainment of human nature. Of those
    who, in the history of mankind, left most fragrant memories behind
    them, only very few were distinguished by great wealth, and the
    mere possession of that wealth never constituted their title to
    affection and reverence.

    "Are we honoring Jesse Seligman because he was a successful,
    self-made man? This is especially in our country of great
    opportunities, not in itself a distinction deserving uncommon
    esteem. I know, and no doubt you know, self-made men so
    inordinately puffed up with their own success, so forgetful of the
    merits of others in comparison with their own, so oppressive with
    the ostentations and unceasing display of their riches as their
    self-appreciation, that they rank among the most disagreeable
    members of human society, making us wish that they had made
    anything else but themselves.

    "Or do we admire Jesse Seligman above others because he was a
    patriotic man? No, for under ordinary circumstances it is only
    a natural thing to be patriotic. Especially a citizen of this
    Republic is more apt to attract attention and to be blamed when he
    is not patriotic, than to be praised when he is.

    "All these things, therefore, are in themselves not sufficient to
    make a life valuable as a memory, and as an inspiration. Jesse
    Seligman's life, as we look back upon it, is such a valuable memory
    and inspiring lesson because he was above the ordinary level of the
    merely rich, self-made, liberal and patriotic men.

    "The ideal rich man is he, who not only has come by his wealth
    honestly, but who uses his riches in such a fashion as to silence
    the voice of envy, and to make those who knew him glad and grateful
    that he was rich. To reach this ideal completely is given to but
    few. But it may truly be said that Jesse Seligman approached it.
    No doubt, he wished to be rich and worked for it. He valued the
    acquisition of wealth, but he valued it most as the acquisition
    of opportunities for something larger and nobler. He saw his
    business success but not his higher ambition and his happiness in
    his balance sheets. He felt himself greater and happier in this
    orphan-home than in his bank. He made his wealth a blessing to
    others; he enjoyed it the more, the greater the blessing to others
    it became, and there were many who wished him to be much richer,
    knowing that his greater wealth would only have become to many
    others greater relief and comfort. He was such a self-made man as
    it is a joy to meet. In a high degree he had the self-made man's
    virtues and was remarkably free from his faults. He never forgot
    his lowly beginnings, but never boasted of them, to contrast his
    success with other people's failures. His recollections only
    stimulated his sympathy with those less fortunate than himself.
    He did not in his affluence affect the rough simplicity and
    contempt of refinement in which upstarts sometimes demonstratively
    please themselves and which is only a coarse form of vanity; and
    still less was he an ostentatious swaggerer bent upon letting
    the world perceive that he possessed his millions. He lived with
    his family in a style becoming his means, but with the modesty
    becoming a gentleman. There was no gaudy display of riches, no
    obtrusive flashing of diamonds on hotel piazzas, and no flaring
    exhibition in opera boxes. But there was nothing mean about him or
    his. The hospitality of his house was hearty and most generous,
    but it abstained from anything that might have made one of his
    guests feel poor or small. Nor was there anything in him of that
    superciliousness not unfrequently met with in rich men which claims
    for them much wisdom, because they have much money.

    "In all my experience I have never met a rich man, more modest,
    more generous more tolerant of adverse opinion, or a self-made man
    less overbearing, less vain-glorious, and less conceited, more
    sympathetic and more helpful. As a matter of fact, he was thought
    much richer than he really was--richer not because of his display,
    but because of his benefactions. To judge from the good he did,
    his wealth should have been much greater. He was a liberal giver,
    but he gave much more than money. That rich man only manifests
    the true spirit of benevolence who not only gives to the needy,
    but who also thinks for them and works for them. It was by this
    that Jesse Seligman proved the genuine gold of his humanity, and
    nowhere did this gold shine more brightly than on this very spot.
    There was indeed no charitable enterprise within his reach that did
    not feel the generosity of his open hand, and, when needed, the
    kindly thoughtfulness of his counsel, from the hospital and the
    home for the aged up to that remarkable triumph of wisely directed
    energy, the Hebrew Technical Institute, which not only successfully
    demonstrates that the Jew, when well guided, will take to skilled
    handicraft with enthusiasm and with the whole force and ingenuity
    of his nature, but which also in its plan, organization and conduct
    may serve as a noble model of its kind to the educators of any
    country and of any creed.

    "All such endeavors could count upon Jesse Seligman's bountiful
    aid; and when his last will was opened and the community saw
    the list of the benevolent institutions to which he had left
    bequests, without regard to religion or nationality, with
    unsurpassed catholicity of spirit, people asked with wonder, not
    what opportunities for doing good he had thought of, but whether
    there was any he had failed to remember. It was, however, here
    in the Orphans' Home that his heart found its favorite field for
    beneficent work. Here he lived on the best of his nature. It was
    truly touching to see this man, loaded down with the enormous
    responsibilities and cares of a vast financial business, at least
    once a week, every Sunday morning, wend his way to this house,
    forget all about bonds and stocks and syndicates and chances of
    gain and financial crises in which fortunes might be lost, and to
    give all his thoughts to the little ones who are cast upon the
    mercy of the world, and study and scheme and work--as indeed he
    did often also when he was not here to turn sunshine upon their
    bereaved existence--to arm them for the struggles of life, and to
    enable them to become useful, self-reliant, self-respecting and
    happy citizens of a free country. This was the work he loved most,
    which satisfied his fondest ambition and in which he found the most
    genuine happiness. In the best sense of the word he was the father
    of the fatherless and it was his active, untiring and unceasing
    care for the welfare of these children, more than any other of his
    benefactions, that stamped him as a truly benevolent man, a genuine
    friend of humanity and therefore this is the noblest and most
    enduring of his monuments.

    "He was a patriotic man--not in the sense merely that he cheerfully
    performed all his duties as a citizen, or that he gave the
    government valuable advice and aid as a financier whenever called
    upon--but that he ardently loved his adopted country, was proud of
    it and was not only willing but eager to serve it. Some gentlemen
    of high standing among us here have in their published tributes to
    Jesse Seligman's memory, regretfully mentioned the fact that he
    and his son, too, have been struck at by anti-Semitic hostility,
    by that narrow-minded, contemptible spirit which revived the
    prejudices of dark ages and which seeks in barbarous persecution
    the remedy for evils, for which popular ignorance, sloth and
    improvidence are in the largest manner responsible; a spirit so
    utterly abhorrent to justice and enlightened reason, that it is
    difficult to understand how a person of self-respect can share it
    or behold it in others without shame and indignation.

    "I have heard it said that a Jew cannot be a patriot because he
    has no fatherland. Those who say so do not want the Jew to have a
    fatherland and would, if they had their way, make it impossible
    for him to be a patriot. A country can hardly expect those of its
    inhabitants to be ardent patriots whom it treats as aliens or
    outcasts. In the same measure as an anti-Semitic spirit prevails,
    a Jew is a patriot under difficulties. If he is a patriot under
    anti-Semitic persecution, that patriotism is in him a virtue of
    especial merit. And this virtue Jesse Seligman possessed in the
    highest degree. I saw him and spoke with him when the smart he had
    suffered was fresh. I know how keenly he felt it, but I know also
    that had at that moment the country, or what he understood to be
    the public interest, demanded of him any service or any sacrifice
    he would have offered it with the same enthusiastic devotion that
    ever had animated him. He would have remained a patriot in spite
    of any difficulty--a shining example for his own race to follow,
    putting to shame its revilers; indeed, an example to every citizen
    of whatever creed or origin.

    "And now he lies in an honored grave, and by it stand with sadness,
    but also with pride, his dear ones whom he loved so much, and who
    so warmly returned his love. And you all have come, rich and poor,
    native and foreign born, Christian and Jew and Gentile, with hearts
    full of respect and affection for the man who understood the great
    truth, and whose life has taught the greatest lesson, that our
    truest and most enduring happiness springs from the contributions
    we make to the happiness of others--a lesson that every one may
    follow according to his means and opportunities, each in his sphere
    and in his way, to win the same happiness and to deserve the same
    honor. It may well be said that he had not lived in vain whose life
    has left its mark in the advanced well being of his kind; and there
    are multitudes of human beings whose tears he has dried, whose
    distress he has relieved, whom he has helped to make strong for
    the struggle of life who now and ever will gratefully affirm and
    proclaim that Jesse Seligman has surely not lived in vain, and who
    will never cease to bless his memory."

       *       *       *       *       *

Ex-Postmaster General Thomas E. James, President of the Lincoln
National Bank of New York City, wrote the following graphic and
affecting tribute:--

    "I have received the news of the death of Jesse Seligman with the
    shock which comes only with the announcement of the sudden loss
    of an old and valued friend. My acquaintance with him commenced
    away back in the sixties; and I dearly learned to value his
    sturdy honesty, his integrity, untiring industry, and his genial,
    warm-hearted friendship. Moreover, I was impressed, in those dark
    days when I first knew him, with his sterling patriotism, he being
    one of those men of foreign birth who seemed to go beyond those of
    us of native birth, in the all-consuming zeal and devotion for our
    common flag. I think that is what particularly attracted me towards
    Mr. Seligman; and I soon found that he really did understand more
    fully and completely, perhaps, than many of us did, what the war
    meant and what the result would be. He was one of those men, too,
    who, when some were anxious, speaking hesitatingly about the
    outcome, gave by his courageous faith and heroic example, a grand
    impulse of which we afterwards saw the results in that impressive
    tender by the financiers of New York of their credit and their gold
    to the government in its extremity.

    "He had undying faith in General Grant, too, in those dark hours.
    He was one of the few men in New York who knew him personally,
    and he never wavered in his confidence in the great commander's
    ability to carry the war through to a successful issue. Later on we
    learned the grounds of his faith; for he was probably the oldest
    acquaintance of General Grant in New York, having become acquainted
    with him in Watertown, N. Y., where Grant was then stationed as a
    Second Lieutenant; and he had afterwards renewed the friendship,
    when General Grant was sent as First Lieutenant to the Pacific
    Coast, where he found his old friend Seligman one of the argonauts
    of California.

    "It was given to me, in an especially affecting and touching
    manner, to see some of those traits in Mr. Seligman's inner life
    and his family surroundings, which made his home one of the most
    delightful in New York, and gave to him unusual charms in social
    and friendly intercourse. I saw those qualities displayed in that
    sad, sad summer of 1881, when General Garfield, stricken with an
    assassin's bullet, lay on his deathbed, in a cottage at Elberon.
    Mr. Seligman's summer home was at Long Branch; and, with that
    thoughtful consideration and tenderness which distinguished the man
    he showed the official family of the dying President courtesies
    and kindnesses that were very grateful and which can never be
    forgotten. A more pleasant family circle than Mr. Seligman's I
    never met; and I will never cease to remember the charm of that
    fireside. There, perhaps, Mr. Seligman was seen in the highest
    display of the beautiful qualities of head and heart that made him
    not only foremost as a great financier, but as a faithful friend....

    ... "Of course, I do not need to speak of his genius as a
    financier. His name and fame in that particular are secure; and
    his achievements will become traditions in the history of those
    influences which have made this country the great financial power
    among the nations of the earth."

       *       *       *       *       *

Ex-Judge Noah Davis wrote as follows:

    "By the death of Jesse Seligman our country loses a loving and
    faithful citizen and friend. He loved America, though not his
    native land, with all the ardor of a native, enhanced by a keen and
    tender sense of gratitude for what it had done for his race and for
    him and his brothers ever since they became its adopted sons.

    "I have never met any foreign-born American citizen more prompt to
    express warmly and gratefully this sentiment; and yet it will be
    rare to find one who has so amply and generously repaid it. His
    gratitude was not confined to words. His deeds preceded his words;
    and if it had ever been necessary, he would have staked his whole
    fortune and his life as well, for our country and its institutions.

    "I recall an occasion, when he and I left the Union League Club
    together, at a late hour one evening, and walked arm in arm up
    the avenue to our homes. I listened as he gave me some happy
    reminiscences of his busy life. When we reached the street, I
    stopped to part with him. "No," said he, "I will walk further with
    you," and he kept on till he reached my home on 50th street. "Now,"
    I said, "it is my turn to walk with you, sir," and we walked slowly
    back to his own street, where we compromised by his walking half
    way back with me. In that delightful walk he developed to me his
    loving nature toward our country, its government and its people. I
    was chiefly a listener, but a deeply interested and pleased one,
    for I could see and feel that a pure-hearted and patriotic man was
    talking from the inmost bosom of a noble and tender nature.

    "A few days before General Grant sailed on his tour around the
    world, the brothers Seligman gave him a farewell dinner at
    Delmonico's. There were forty or fifty people present. General
    Grant was then fully relieved from all public cares, and felt that
    the honors shown him on that occasion were the tribute of pure and
    disinterested esteem and affection. He talked with me as I sat
    near him of the services his hosts had rendered the government
    during the war and to himself during his administration, with a
    warm sense of what was due to their genuine patriotism. It happened
    afterwards, and after his return from his Eastern tour, that I met
    with General Grant in Paris. He spoke on that occasion of that
    dinner and his great enjoyment of the evening, and gave a warm
    expression of his esteem for the Seligmans and for their services
    to the country and himself.

    "It was a merited tribute of a noble man to worthy citizens and
    friends, and I am glad to lay it now where General Grant would have
    placed it--on the bier of Jesse Seligman, his devoted friend....

    ... "With all his skill, ability and success in business, with
    all his love for his country, his devotion to order and good
    government, his deep and tender attachment to his family and
    friends, I think his chief virtue was 'Charity,' and that most
    comprehensive and beautiful word should be inscribed on his tomb."

       *       *       *       *       *

From General Horace Porter:

    "The news of the death of Jesse Seligman has fallen upon many of
    the most prominent business men in New York with something akin
    to the quiet of a personal bereavement. Few of our citizens have
    been more generally known or more highly esteemed. His sudden
    removal from the company of his friends and from the active walks
    of business life brings a deep regret to many hearts and recalls
    the admirable traits which adorned his character. My personal
    acquaintance with him began a few years after the war. I had before
    that time heard officers of the army and others speak in admiring
    terms of him during his sojourn on the Pacific Coast, where he had
    displayed so much public spirit and such indomitable courage at the
    time the law-abiding citizens were trying to redeem that community
    from the domination of the criminal class. I found him displaying
    the same qualities in the metropolis which had commended him to his
    fellow-citizens in the West. He had been loyally devoted to the
    cause of the Union in the great struggle for the preservation of
    its integrity, and was always an ardent laborer in all great works.
    He was never known to be anything but fearless in the advocacy of
    the principles he believed to be right, and always manifested his
    faith by his works.

    "His death removes a foremost figure in our national and business
    life; and we shall long look for one to take the place of this
    man, Who by his genius as a financier, his broad liberal charity,
    and his loving kindness towards suffering humanity, will long be
    remembered; for Mr. Seligman's life and work have made him one of
    the benefactors of mankind."

       *       *       *       *       *

From F. B. Harper, President Mutual Reserve Fund Life Association:

    "Few names in the financial and business world of New York are
    better known than that of Jesse Seligman, financier, banker,
    philanthropist, and citizen. It may truly be said of Mr. Seligman
    that he attained one of the highest positions of good citizenship
    in the metropolis of the nation. While, strictly speaking, a
    financier, he was ever ready to bring capital, business experience
    and financial ability into the broader industrial enterprises of
    the nation which, in their building up, employ labor, pay out vast
    sums in wages, add comfort to the masses, and bring prosperity
    to the country. He was not a mere banker, but closely identified
    with sound enterprises, which have built up the Empire State
    and developed the resources of the republic. He was a man to be
    respected, to be looked up to, and his career, as it seems to
    me, is one that may well be studied to advantage by the youth of
    his race and his country. The Hebrew race has undoubtedly given
    to the world more of the most extraordinary instances of great
    wealth, but at the same time it has produced many of the greatest
    philanthropists the world has ever known.

    "It is difficult to sum up in a few words such men as Mr. Seligman.
    He was a man who, by his example, as well as his action benefitted
    the community of which he was an honored member, and his death will
    be greatly regretted, not only by those who knew him intimately,
    but the whole community, because his demise will be a real loss to
    them. Our wealth of humanity is not so great, even in this great
    city, that we can afford to lose many such citizens."

       *       *       *       *       *

From Henry G. Marquand, Esq., President, Metropolitan Museum of Art:

    "I was not brought in contact with the late Jesse Seligman as often
    as some others, but during twenty years or more I saw enough of
    him to form a very high opinion of his work as a citizen of this
    republic. His views were always of the broad and generous stamp.
    They were not confined to the various schemes of philanthropy, but
    extended to the enterprises relating to high culture at home and
    abroad, and by contact with him it was easy to see how quickly his
    sympathies were aroused in favor of everything good...."

       *       *       *       *       *

Ex-Mayor Abram S. Hewitt, expresses himself as follows:

    "The story of Jesse Seligman's life should be produced as the best
    commentary on his career, and as an encouragement to all young men
    who are starting out on the journey of life. * * * Perhaps the most
    admirable point of his character was his catholic charity for the
    opinion of others and his willingness to co-operate in every great
    movement without regard to creed or race."

       *       *       *       *       *

From Cornelius N. Bliss:

    ... "No truer friend, once in Jesse Seligman's confidence did
    man ever have. With his partners, his brothers, he has been of
    inestimable service to the United States Government from the time
    of the Civil War.

    "A believer in Republican principles, he was a quiet but
    all-important influence in the councils of his party. Sagacious
    in counsel, always for peace and unity, liberal in view,
    rendering to all their just dues, he will be sorely missed in all
    circles--social, charitable, business and political."

       *       *       *       *       *

The foregoing may be fitly supplemented by the following extract from
a sermon delivered by the late Henry Ward Beecher, June 14, 1877.
Mr. Beecher's pointed references to the absurd prejudices which so
frequently manifest themselves at summer resorts have not yet lost
their force or application:

    "I have the pleasure of the acquaintance of the gentleman whose
    name has been the occasion of so much excitement--Mr. Seligman. I
    have summered with his family for several years. I am acquainted
    with him, with his honored wife, and with his sons and daughters;
    and I have learned to respect and love them. During weeks and
    months I was with them at the Twin Mountain House; and not only did
    they behave in a manner becoming Christian ladies and gentlemen,
    but they behaved in a manner that ought to put to shame many
    Christian ladies and gentlemen. They were my helpers and they were
    not only present at the Sunday services at the Twin Mountain House,
    but they were present at the daily prayer meetings on week days,
    volunteering services of kindness. I learned to feel that they were
    my deacons and that in the ministration of Christian service they
    were beyond the power of prejudice and did not confine themselves
    to the limitations which might be prescribed by their race."

Hon. Carl Schurz makes reference, as the reader will have noted, to
the "unsurpassed catholicity of spirit" manifested by Jesse Seligman's
"bequests without regard to religion or nationality." Among the
beneficiaries of his concluding bounty were numbered no less than
thirty-six different non-Jewish institutions, the aggregate of these
legacies amounting to a very large sum. Unsurpassed as was this breadth
of liberality, it was by no means the first time when a Jew gave signal
evidence of the supreme catholicity of Judaism and the Jewish spirit.
Adverting but passingly to the story of Hyam Salomon's liberality,
we may stop to remember that Judah Touro, whose patriotism had been
attested with his blood in the defense of New Orleans, in 1815, left in
his last will and testament in 1854, an example of catholic munificence
unequalled before his time and unsurpassed since. Over and above the
various bequests made by him to Jewish institutions in different cities
of the Union, he left amounts averaging $5000 to fourteen charitable
institutions under the control of various Christian denominations,
besides $80,000 to the municipality of New Orleans for the poor of
that city, and $10,000 to the city of Newport, R. I., for a public
improvement. This latter formed the nucleus of the public park of that
city, which has commemorated in its "Touro Avenue" the public spirit
of this Jewish citizen, who has yet another memorial on Bunker Hill
monument, to the erection of which he so largely contributed.[28]

Michael Reese, of San Francisco, who died in 1878, bequeathed amounts
aggregating $70,000 to a number of non-Jewish charities, besides
$50,000 to the University of California, and left provisions which
eventuated in the establishment of the non-sectarian Michael Reese
Hospital of Chicago. Rosenna Osterman, of Galveston, and Isidor Dyer,
of the same city, divided their estates among charitable institutions
without distinction of creed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Miss Ellen Phillips, of Philadelphia, whose long and useful life,
constantly devoted to the cause of charity, closed on February 2,
1891, after aiding the cause to which she was devoted by her unceasing
munificence during her lifetime, bequeathed the bulk of her property
to various charitable institutions. She left the large collection
of paintings and statuary which she inherited from her brother, the
late Henry M. Phillips, to the Commissioners of Fairmount Park, as an
addition to the collections in Memorial Hall, and divided a very large
sum of money among numerous charities, naming ten different non-Jewish
institutions among her beneficiaries.

       *       *       *       *       *

The will of Dr. J. D. Berndt, of Pittsburg, Pa., divides a considerable
estate almost equally between Jewish and non-Jewish institutions, over
twenty of the latter class being named, and the residuary estate of
nearly $35,000 is equally divided between the American Hebrew College
of Cincinnati and Carnegie Library of Pittsburg.

       *       *       *       *       *

Simon Muhr, of Philadelphia, whose untimely death in February, 1895,
was mourned by Jew and Gentile alike, after making certain personal
bequests and devoting a fund of $10,000 for the support of scholarships
in the University of Pennsylvania, left the residue of his large estate
to be divided into three parts, one part to be allotted among Jewish
charities, one part among non-Jewish charities, and the third part for
the improvement of the public school system of Philadelphia.

The Philadelphia _Times_ concluded an editorial reference to the death
of Simon Muhr as follows:

    "It was his broad and simple tolerance, his unfailing charity
    of heart as well as hand, his willingness and even eagerness to
    take personal trouble, not only to relieve distress, but to right
    wrong, and to defend the victim of oppression, however humble or
    disreputable, that gave Simon Muhr a peculiar position in the
    community and a peculiar usefulness. He was an example in this way
    to many a professing Christian, whose reading of the parable leads
    him only to condemn the priest and the Levite, and not to imitate
    the Good Samaritan."

The instances of Jewish citizenship and catholicity here cited are but
the more prominent examples of that spirit. Only less conspicuous,
but with equal breadth and depth of feeling are many more that would
likewise point a moral for us all.


[26] The appointment of Mr. Peixotto to the Roumanian Consulate was
initiated and brought about by Hon. Simon Wolf, who afterwards made a
tour among the lodges of the Order of B'nai B'rith for the purpose of
raising funds to strengthen the Consul's position at Bucharest and to
enable him to more effectively exert his influence in behalf of the
persecuted Roumanian Jews.

In this connection mention may well and properly be made of Mr.
Wolf's untiring efforts, both in his early home in Ohio and later in
Washington, in behalf of the Union cause. The movements organized by
Mr. Wolf in Washington for the systematic aid of the sick and wounded
in the numerous hospitals then established in and about Washington
gained for him the recognition of the Government and the friendship
of General Grant. In this work Mr. Wolf enlisted the support of the
mass of the Jewish citizens of the District and especially the active
co-operation of the women of the Jewish community. General Grant,
when he became President, appointed Mr. Wolf Recorder of the City of
Washington and he was subsequently appointed by President Garfield
to the mission at Cairo as Diplomatic Agent and Consul General in

[27] See Marken's "The Hebrews in America," New York, 1888; Judge
Charles P. Daly's "Settlement of the Jews in North America," edited
by Max J. Kohler, New York, 1893; "History of the Jews of Boston and
New England," by A. G. Daniels, Boston, 1892; "Eminent Israelites of
the 19th Century," by Henry S. Morais, Philadelphia, 1880; "The Jews
of Philadelphia," by the same author, Philadelphia, 1894, and the
publications of the American Jewish Historical Society.

[28] See pages 63-4.


The preceding pages have dealt with various aspects of Jewish influence
in Anglo-Saxon America, and we have yet to consider the extent of that
influence in the Latin American settlements. Here in this Western
Hemisphere, where the Jew has sought an asylum from the historic
oppressions and repressions of Old World prejudices, and where, in the
very year that saw him expelled from Spain a new future was opened for
him and all humanity, here the Jew has been at the fore from the very
landing of Columbus to the present day.[29]

In the following pages is presented a review of Jewish activity and
influence in the South American Colonies and the West Indies, which
has been collated for this volume by Mr. George Alexander Kohut. His
careful studies and scientific investigations in this hitherto almost
untrodden field of historical research have resulted in the development
of many highly interesting facts, and his work affords a most welcome
contribution to our general subject. It will be found to command very
justly the space accorded to it.


[29] See Dr. M. Kayserling's "Christopher Columbus and the
Participation of the Jews in the Spanish and Portuguese Discoveries."
Translated from the German by Charles Gross, Ph. D., Assistant
Professor of History in Harvard College. New York, 1894.





In 1624, when the Dutch conquered Brazil, several Jews, desirous of
joining their co-believers in the newly acquired Dutch dominions, where
our brethren flourished for many decades previously in the guise of New
Christians or Marranos, enlisted in the Hollandish fleet as volunteers.
Encouraged by this show of patriotism on the part of their newly
arrived co-religionists, who, under the reign of the United Provinces,
enjoyed all the blessings of peace and equality, many _Nuevos
Christianos_ openly renounced their sham faith and re-avowed Judaism,
happy once more to breathe the air of freedom without suffering
persecution. It is said that the Jewish soldiers in the navy displayed
so much zeal and courage in the taking possession of Brazil that the
government protected them ever after.[30] Even before putting to sea,
remarks a French historian of Brazil,[31] the Dutch admirals obtained
much useful information concerning the political situation of Brazil,
from the Israelites there settled, and who were all eager to remain, or
rather, to pass over to the Dutch, whose liberal spirit and religious
tolerance seemed much more inviting to them than the cruel sceptre
of Spain or Portugal. This is furthermore corroborated by another
(English) writer, Mr. Robert G. Watson, in his excellent work: _Spanish
and Portuguese South America during the Colonial Period_ (London,
1884), Vol. II, p. 1, where we read: "The religious intolerance from
which the Dutch had themselves so terribly suffered at the hands of
their Spanish rulers had taught them to be tolerant in such matters
towards others, _and to this circumstance they were now (1623-24)
indebted for much valuable information respecting Brazil, which they
received from the Jews who had taken refuge amongst them_."

It is apparent from these and other items to be mentioned later that
the Jews rendered not only military and naval service to the Dutch in
their struggle against Portugal in Brazil, but diplomatic counsel of
no little weight, by means of which Holland could conquer the American
possessions and establish herself most firmly there. The inhabitants
of Brazil at about that time (1623-38) were not very yielding. In fact
R. Southey, the reliable and painstaking historian, says[32] that "The
Portuguese were held in subjection only by fear, but many Portuguese
Jews from Holland had taken their abode in a country where they could
speak their own language as well as enjoy their own religion. _These
were excellent subjects_; they exercised the charitable industry of
their original nation secure of enjoying its fruits under a free
government." The Dutch, upon taking possession of Brazil, issued a
proclamation, no doubt with a view of attracting the Jews, whose
accession would prove beneficial to the interests of the government,
whereby they offered full possession of their property, and freedom
of worship to all such as would submit. Amongst those who were thus
brought under Dutch rule were _two hundred Jews_. (cf. Watson, _l. c._,
II, p. 2.) This liberal charter of religious freedom lasted as long as
the Dutch supremacy until the Portuguese re-conquest of Brazil in 1654,
with more or less privileges, according to the whim of the public whose
dictates even the government had to obey, as we may see from what took
place in 1638, as recorded by Southey (_l. c._, Vol. I, p. 566): "Some
of the Portuguese-Brazilians also, gladly throwing off the mask which
they had so long been compelled to wear, joined their brethren in the
synagogue. The open joy with which they now celebrated their ceremonies
attracted too much notice; it excited horror in Catholics, and _even
the Dutch themselves_, less liberal than their laws, pretended that the
toleration of Holland did not extend to Brazil; the senate conceded
to, and perhaps partook of the popular feeling, and hence arose the
edict, by which the Jews were ordered to perform their rites more in

Under Count Maurice's gentle reign our co-religionists lived in
peace and they appear to have benefited by this temporary respite
and acquired much wealth, for we find on record a petition from the
Jews of Mauritsstad, dated May 1, 1642, offering an annual present
of 3000 florins to Count Maurice if he would be induced to remain as
their Governor in Brazil.[34] In 1642, at the urgent invitation of
their co-religionists (cf. Koenen, _l. c._, p. 278), 600 Jews, headed
by Moses Raphael de Aguilar and Ishac Aboab de Fonseca, came from
Amsterdam[35] and formed a prosperous colony in Recife, which gave
promise of glorious development, had not the wars between Holland
and Portugal, in which our brethren took noble part, destroyed their
hopes. In 1642, it must be noted, they again were permitted to worship
publicly, a privilege which did not remain unrewarded, for we soon hear
of certain state services rendered by the Jews in 1644 and later, when
many mean conspiracies against the government were afoot, concocted,
no doubt by the Portuguese under Dutch rule. Watson (_Spanish and
Portuguese South America_, etc., London, 1884, Vol. II, p. 47) says:
"At length, however, the time came when his (the chief conspirator's,
Fernandes) practices could no longer be ignored by the government, _who
were set on their guard chiefly by the Jews_. These are certainly not
to be blamed for wishing a continuance of the _status quo_; since, in
the event of an outbreak, they were certain to be plundered by both
parties with complete impartiality; whilst, in the event of victory
on the part of the Portuguese, they had before them the image of the
fiendish agents of the Inquisition," which, as we have elsewhere
shown,[36] they had good reason to fear. We read later (_l. c._, p. 48)
that Fernandes could not be captured and summoned troops. Many obeyed
the call and fell upon such Dutchmen and Jews as happened to be within
their reach.

The loyalty of the Jews in the matter of revealing the various
state conspiracies is thus alluded to by Pieter Marinus Netscher in
his admirable work _Les Hollandais au Brésil_, (La Haye, 1853), p.
145: "Fortunately, national and religious fanaticism did not smother
the sentiments of humanity and justice in the hearts of all the
conspirators. Two Portuguese [Jews?] Sebastian Carvalho and Fernando
Vale, with _five Jews_, fearing that their lives and fortunes were
at stake, resolved to disclose the secret of the plot to the Grand
Council.[37] Another conspiracy was brought to light and denounced
to the government by a Jew named _Moise Accoignes_, who, against
his will, was forced to become an accessory to the plot.[38] He is
no doubt alluded to by Prof. H. Graetz, who, in his _History of the
Jews_ (English version, Philadelphia, 1895, Vol. IV, p. 693. Jewish
Publication Society of America) writes: "Of course, the Brazilian Jews
enjoyed perfect equality of rights with other citizens, _for they
rendered the Dutch essential services as advisers and warriors_. When
the native Portuguese, who bore the yoke of the Dutch impatiently,
formed a conspiracy to get rid of the Dutch authorities at a banquet
in the capital, and attack the colony bereft of government [?], _a
Jew gave warning, and_ _saved the colony from certain destruction._"
Southey, whom at the present writing we are unable to consult, (cf. his
_History of Brazil_, Vol. II, pp. 60-70), and Koenen, also chronicle
the timely intervention of a faithful Israelite,[39] who, at the risk
of his life, for the conspirators would not have scrupled to put him
out of the way, informed the authorities of the impending calamity to
the state.

We also know that a Jew in Lisbon proved instrumental in intercepting
some official papers in reference to the revolt in Brazil.[40]

The execution of one, Jacob Rabbi, an agent of Holland, who must have
been a Jew, is mentioned by Netscher in the following terms: "... The
cause of this desertion [from the Portuguese troops?] was that the
Lieutenant-Colonel, Garstman, had been sufficiently impolitic to put to
death (in 1645 or 1646?) for a real or supposed crime, a certain Jacob
Rabbi, German by birth, of a ferocious character. He had lived for many
years among the savages as agent of the Hollandish government."[41]

It is evident that the Dutch Government and especially the Governor,
Count Maurice de Nassau, was not backward in appreciating the services
of the Jews. An ordinance from the States-General reads:

"... The persons, goods and rights of the Jews in Brazil are taken
under the special protection of the Government, because of the fidelity
and courage which that nation had on every occasion displayed toward
the said Government."[42]



The best evidence of Jewish loyalty to their lenient Dutch rulers was
given at a time when the Hollandish Government was contending with the
Portuguese for the possession of Brazil. The numerous conspiracies
years previous were only a foretaste of what followed and when at last,
in the year 1645, war actually broke out, our co-religionists lost no
time in siding with their generous patrons, regardless of consequences.
Among those that distinguished themselves for their noble patriotism
and whose co-operation in behalf of the needy and distressed won all
hearts, was a wealthy Israelite, Abraham Coen by name, whose fame is
recognized in the following verses written in his honor by one of
the greatest Portuguese Jewish poets of Holland, Don Miguel Levi de
Barrios, who visited Cayenne[43] in 1660 and remained there until 1662:

    _Abraham Coen en el Brasil remoto_
    del principe Mauricio halló el agrado
    prospero y noble, y oy del Rey Empireo
    goço la luz en ideal palacio.
    _Cerco al Brasil el luso balicoso
    en nueve años continuos, que empeçaron
    en el de mil seiscientos y quarenta
    y cinco, contra el valeroso Holandio._

    Y en todos con magnanima grandeza
    el grande Abraham Coen sustento à quantos
    Judios y Cristianos de su auxilio
    en la miseria atroz necesitaron.
    _Entonces los Señoras del Supremo
    Consejo sobre el Pueblo Brasiliano
    vieron del fiel Coen la piedad grande._[44]

Dr. Hahn informs us that "in the perilous times of 1645 and 1648 great
services were rendered to the government by the Portuguese family of
Cohen in furnishing ammunition and provisions."[45]

The Portuguese besieged Recife, near Pernambuco, which boasted of
a large Jewish population (among them several fine scholars: David
Senior Coronel, Dr. Abraham de Mercado, Jahacob Mucate, Ishac Castanho
and others)[46] and the inhabitants thus deprived of every possible
communication, endured much suffering. The Jews, encouraged by their
learned and eloquent Rabbi Isaac Aboab, the friend of Menasse ben
Israel, bore their tribulations bravely, and though almost famished for
want of nourishment, defended the fort with such remarkable skill and
heroism, as to evoke the praise and gratitude of the Government. Had
it not been for the dauntless resistance offered by them, the garrison
would have been compelled to surrender.

Aboab commemorated his thrilling experiences of war in the
introductory chapter of his Hebrew version of Abraham Cohen Herrera's
_Porta Coeli_ (Sha'ar Ha'shamayîm) which he began to translate in
June, 1655 (22nd of Siwan 5415). Besides this, he wrote nine years
before (anno 1646) a poetical account of the siege in a work entitled
_Secher Rab;[47] Prayers and Confessions and Supplications, which were
composed for appealing to God in his trouble and in the distress of
the Congregation, when the troops of Portugal overwhelmed them during
their sojourn in Brazil in the year 5406 [1646]. And I have caused the
wonderful works of God to be remembered in songs and praises, when
he released them from the hands of their enemies._ It is written in
Hebrew. The Ms. is still extant in Amsterdam, in possession of the
"Arbol de las Vidas" Theological Society.[48] The part played by the
Jews in the defense of the colony is described by eminent Jewish and
Christian historians.[49] Dr. Kayserling's and Prof. Graetz's accounts
are worth citing _in extenso_. The former, who is engaged in copying
this earliest specimens of American Jewish literature, the work of
Isaac Aboab, for the American Jewish Historical Society, writes as
follows: "Aboab became _Chacham_ (Chief) of the congregation in
Recife, which would have become one of the largest and richest, had
it not been hindered in its development by the disturbances of war;
it was dissolved after a short existence. The new settlers enjoyed
tranquility only for a few years, for already in 1645 the sanguinary
struggles, for the possession of the colony, between the Portuguese
and the Hollanders began. The Jews stood faithfully on the side of the
Hollanders, who had granted them perfect equality, and distinguished
themselves by courage and heroism, as well as by succor to the
distressed. During the war Abraham Coen, a rich and high-minded man of
Amsterdam, who was in great favor with Duke Moritz of Nassau, supported
Jews and Christians in such a magnanimous way that the Supreme Council
of the Brazilian people looked with admiration at the great work of
mercy. Isaac Aboab faithfully discharged the duties of his office; he
ordered days of fasting and prayer, and his fiery speeches encouraged
his co-religionists to perseverance and devotion. It was a fierce
struggle of nine years which brought much suffering on the Jews.
Recife was besieged and the garrison decimated by hunger. 'Many of the
Jewish immigrants were killed by the enemy, many died of hunger. The
remainder were exposed to death from similar causes. Those who had been
accustomed to delicacies were glad to be able to satisfy their hunger
with dry bread; soon they could not obtain even this; they were in want
of everything, and were preserved alive as by a miracle.'"

Prof. Graetz, still more explicit, writes to the following effect: "In
1646, when open war broke out between the Portuguese and the Dutch,
and the garrison of Recife, exhausted by famine, was on the point of
surrendering unconditionally, the Jews encouraged the governor to brave
resistance. A fanatical war of race and religion between the Portuguese
and the Dutch devastated fair Brazil, and a famine ensued. The Jews
vied with the Dutch in suffering and bravery. Isaac Aboab, the Chacham
of the Brazil community, paints the suffering of the war, which he
himself endured, in lurid colors: 'Volumes would not suffice to relate
our miseries. The enemy spread over field and wood, seeking here for
booty and there for life. Many of us died, sword in hand, others from
want; they now rest in cold earth. We survivors were exposed to death
in every form; those accustomed to luxuries were glad to seize mouldy
bread to stay their hunger.'

"At last, the States-General were compelled by European wars to
surrender the colony to the Portuguese. The devoted zeal of the
Jews for the political welfare of the Dutch was a firm band, never
afterwards dissolved, between them and the Republic. The toleration and
equal position of Jews in the Netherlands were ensured forever."

Southey relates (_History of Brazil_, Vol. II, p. 241; _apud_ Koenen's
_Geschiedenis_, p. 281), that when the Dutch in Recife were besieged
the second time,[50] the Jews manifested much courage and bravery in
its defense. One of the Pintos (Jewish stock also in Surinam, where
Isaac Pinto, a member of this family, likewise displayed zeal and
heroism in resisting the enemy), is said to have manned the fort _Dos
Affrogados_ single handed, until, overwhelmed by superior force, he was
compelled to surrender.

"In the wars of the Dutch against the Spaniards," says Dr. A. Hahn,
"one of the Pintos was killed at his post while bravely defending one
of the fortresses." His death is nowhere else recorded, however.[51]

The supremacy of the United Provinces now came to an end in America.
On the 23d of January, 1654, Recife, together with the neighboring
cities of Mauritsstad, Parayba, Itamarica, Seara, and other Hollandish
possessions, was ceded to the Portuguese conquerors, with the condition
that a general amnesty be granted. (Koenen, _l. c._, p. 282). Although,
as Netscher[52] remarks, this stipulation was agreed upon, and the
Jews, who were loyal supporters of Holland, were promised every
consideration, the Portuguese governor, heeding the treacherous advice
of jealous persons, ordered the Jews to quit Brazil at once. It must be
admitted, in justice to Portugal, that he treated them kindly, inasmuch
as he placed at their disposal sixteen vessels to carry them and their
property anywhere they chose, and furnished them with passports and
safeguards. Thus after a residence of several decades, Aboab, Aguilar,
the Nassys, Pereiras, the Mezas, Abraham de Castro, Josua Sarfati, both
surnamed _el Brasil_,[53] returned to Amsterdam, and many others went
to New York, where they formed the nucleus of a prosperous colony. They
arrived in safety, although one of their vessels, attacked by pirates,
was rescued by the French and escorted to New Holland.[54]



Not all the Jews, who were by royal order expelled from Brazil in 1654,
when the Dutch possessions in South America were ceded to Portugal,
left their adopted country, where they, for a brief span of years
enjoyed all the privileges of their fellowmen. Many were so much
attached to American soil that they dared remain, despite the edict of
banishment, in Brazil and elsewhere.

In Dutch Guiana, a thrifty colony was formed as early as 1644,[55]
two years after the influx and settlement of Amsterdam Jews in Brazil
under Aboab and Aguilar. These were undoubtedly the original colonists
of Brazil. This colony soon increased by a second settlement of
Jews hailing, likewise, from Brazil, who were undoubtedly persuaded
to migrate thither by their Dutch co-religionists in Cayenne. The
President of the West Indian Company, recognizing their influence as
a commercial and political body, granted a most liberal charter of
rights[56] in 1659 (September 12th), wherein freedom of thought, and
liberty of conscience and worship were duly accorded to them through
their able representative, David Nassy, a native Brazilian, who, by
force of his personality, culture and intelligence, was destined to
play a most important part in the political and social development of
this and other colonies subsequently formed in the Guianas. So enticing
was this generous programme, that already in the following year, 1660,
152 Jews of both sexes,[57] embarked at Livorno, Italy,[58] bound for
the land of freedom, where they arrived in the ship _Monte del Cisne_,
having set sail on the memorable 9th day of Ab (August) 1660, in order
to build up their temple under more favorable auspices in another

Among their number was the famous Spanish poet and historian De
Barrios (see above), to whom we owe many important items of early
American Jewish history. His visit to America was not a happy one,
for shortly after his arrival his wife, Deborah, died in Tabago (West

The continuous wars between Holland and Portugal caused the colonists
no little grief and annoyance. The frequent devastations of the French,
too, who were equally zealous and greedy for conquest, gave them so
much anxiety that they decided to transplant the colony to Surinam--a
plan which was carried out on May 15th, 1664.[61]

As the writer is engaged in compiling an extensive work on the Jews
of Surinam he refrains now from entering into details concerning their
early career. Suffice it to say that the spirit of their Dutch masters
followed them thenceforth for more than a century and a half. The
English government then ruling the colony, true to their traditional
standard of tolerance ever since the days of Cromwell and Menasseh
ben Israel, endowed them with equal civil rights and granted them not
only full exercise of their religion, but excused them from public and
military service on the Sabbath day. The document is a precious chapter
in the history of religious liberty in America. It was published
recently by the present writer.[62] Without further prolegomena, we
desire to introduce one of the members of the famous family of Nassy,
all of whom fully deserved the distinction of nobility implied in their
name,[63] for their bravery and statesmanship.

History records the estimable services of Samuel Nassy, who but for
some unlucky circumstance would have occupied the highest official
position in Surinam. De Barrios, who probably knew him personally,
remembers him in the following words: "_Del pueblo de Sariñam Samuel
Nasi (sic) Señorea El coraçon con los dones y et estudio con la
ciencia._"[64] Dr. Kayserling, in a recent article says: "Of great
influence upon the free development of the colony, as on the condition
of the Jewish inhabitants, was the activity of Samuel Nasi, a talented
and scientifically trained man, who is designated as 'Citizens'
Captain,' and was a candidate for the position of governor."[65] It is
said that Governor Aerssens, with whom the Jews of Surinam had some
little difficulty,[66] sealed a treaty of peace with the Indians, who
molested the early settlers quite often, and in order to make it of
a more durable character, he formed an alliance with the chieftain's
daughter.[67] While he lived there was no disturbance at all, but
almost immediately after his death, the savage tribes returned to their
former aggressive attitude and made a furious onslaught on the colony.
With the help of the Jewish inhabitants, who were headed by Captain
Samuel Nassy, the Indians were promptly repulsed.[68]

Nassy soon acquired influence and prominence among his co-religionists
in particular. He strove to introduce a few necessary reforms in
ritual and ceremony--the first traces of the reform movement in
America--especially in the abrogation of certain festivals which were
perhaps too burdensome to the community. It seems, however, that in
this he met with considerable opposition, although he had the sanction
and support of the Rabbis in Amsterdam, with whom he corresponded.[69]
The authority with which he was vested by reason of his executive
ability and earnest zeal soon diminished with the arrival of the
newly appointed governor, Heer Van Scherpenhuizen, the successor of
Aerssens,[70] a fact which tended much to embitter his days and aroused
sharp controversy between him and his rival. He had the satisfaction of
being instrumental in his recall soon after his accession.[71]

Nassy flattered himself that his personal influence was necessary
to the welfare and prosperity of the colony. And he was right. The
Jews relied so implicitly upon his counsels and were so certain that
he would be proclaimed governor, for he enjoyed the esteem of Jew
and Gentile alike, that it was an unpleasant shock to them all when
quite another person, comparatively unknown, was chosen in his stead.
It is, therefore, not surprising that Samuel Nassy, seeing the loss
of his public prestige, thought fit to betake himself to Amsterdam,
unwilling to remain in a country which owed all its present affluence
to his sterling honesty and wise management, and was yet so slow in
showing its gratitude to the able statesman. His disappointment and
dissatisfaction in not succeeding Heer Van Sommelsdyk as governor
infected the whole Jewish community. The rupture which eventually
followed between the Jews and Governor Scherpenhuizen resulted in the
latter's removal.[72] This was chiefly occasioned by the unfriendly
treatment of the Jews at the governor's hands, who, seeing in them only
the partisans of his former rival, took care to harass them with unjust
taxation. This exasperated them so much that they lodged a complaint
against him with Baron de Belmonte and their "Citizens' Captain" Samuel
Nassy, both in Amsterdam, and demanded the immediate recall of their
prejudiced governor from the State-Council. Strangely enough, Nassy's
influence was still powerful, for he was replaced, in 1696, by another
governor, Paulus van der Veen by name, shortly after the petition was
filed. Scherpenhuizen embarked for Holland. Having been taken prisoner
by the French on his way thither, he arrived there only after several
months. Hardly had he landed at Amsterdam, before he was arraigned by
Samuel Nassy before the civil court and he was compelled to vindicate
his conduct.[73] The record of that trial and defense, in which Nassy
took a leading part, is still extant, published in 1697.[74]



The loyalty of the Jews to their new settlement is unparalleled in
American history. Every emergency found them ready to show their
allegiance to Holland. Thus, when in 1689, a French fleet, under
Admiral Cassard, made a sudden attack on the colony, they were met with
brave resistance by the Jews. Van Chattillon, son of the previous
governor, displayed great heroism on this occasion.[75] Two Dutch
historians make mention of the valor of the Jews. Verburg and Fr. Holf.
Merkurius relate in their _Histories of the East and West Indies_,
that "after the death of Governor Aersen (_sic_) and the arrival of
the new representative Scherpenhuizen, word was received that a French
fleet was nearing Surinam. All soldiers and sailors were ordered out
and summoned to appear at the fort. The call was obeyed by the Jews,
of whom there were many in Surinam, and despite the fact that it was
a Sabbath day, they fought valiantly for their colony. Two letters
eulogizing their action in the matter were sent to the Society _Felix
Libertate_, by a worthy citizen, H. L. Bromet, who lived for many years
in Surinam."[76]

The colony, unmolested by strife and war, soon began to thrive and
prosper. Their respite was of short duration, however, for already in
in 1712, Admiral Cassard, at the head of another powerful squadron
advanced upon the settlement. A fierce attack made in June, 1712,
was manfully repulsed. In October of the same year, Cassard's fleet
again appeared on the coast, and endeavored to sail up the Commawine
River. The inhabitants, and particularly the Jews, under Captain Isaac
Pinto[77] offered a stubborn resistance, and although they fought
valiantly, they could not prevent the enemy from landing, bombarding
the city of Paramaribo, and devastating the country. The treaty of
Utrecht sealed soon after between the French and Dutch put an end to
these vagaries.[78]

A recent writer on American Jewish history says: "In the war against
the French in 1689, members of the families Pinto da Fonsera (read
_Fonseca_), Arias, Naar, De Brito and D'Avilar fought valiantly."[79]



Hardly were the colonists freed from the depredations of the French
before danger menaced them from another direction. An anonymous writer,
cited by Hannah Adams,[80] says: "The great check to the prosperity of
Surinam has arisen from the inhabitants being exposed to the invasion
and lawlessness of the Maroons, or runaway negroes, who have formed
several communities in the inaccessible parts of the woods, and were
the most implacable and cruel enemies of the colonists. _The Jewish
militia have often signalized themselves against them, and have been
of great use to the colony_; one-third of whom were of this (Jewish)

Already in the year 1690 the negro slaves on the plantation of a
wealthy Jewish landowner, _Machado_, rebelled against their master and
murdered him. Governor Scharphuizen, who entertained bitter feelings
against the Jews, refused to lend them the slightest assistance, so
that they were thrown entirely upon their own resources.[81] More than
once the Jews, exasperated by the governor's neglect, took matters
into their own hands, and defended themselves with great success. The
negroes, nothing daunted by this spirited show of resistance assumed
a still more threatening attitude, their numbers, and hence their
audacity, increasing more and more each day. The natives knowing
full well that their advantage lay in their endurance of climate and
similar local circumstances, understood how to utilize the fact to
their benefit, and during the following years harassed the colony very
much. This state of affairs, however, could not last long. In 1730 a
desperate effort was made by the Jewish militia, which was determined
to punish the slaves, under the lead of an under-officer followed by
fourteen volunteers and thirty-six negroes. They exhibited no little
courage and bravery in the taking possession and guard of an important
post situated in the vicinity of the devastated negro villages.[82]
This determined stand of the Jews did not, by any means, intimidate
the lawless hordes who were intent upon rebellion and plunder. On the
contrary it only roused their anger all the more. In 1731 it was again
deemed imperative to check their depredations. The Citizens' Captain
_Boeyé_ and the spirited David Nassy, (who more than any one else
before and after him worked for the prosperity of Surinam) were chosen
leaders of this campaign. David Nassy is described by historians as
a man of power and integrity. He is said to have drilled the negro
slaves on his plantation so thoroughly for such enterprises, that his
co-operation was of the utmost necessity. He was the nephew of David
Nassy who first settled in Surinam and received (in 1659), the famous
charter of privileges to settle in Cayenne.[83] (See above.) It seems
that he entertained friendly relations with his negro slaves who, in
1717 were offered perfect freedom by the Political Council (_Raad van
Politie_) if they volunteered to fight against the Maroons, who made
frequent assaults on the colonists. Already in the year 1718, Nassy
enlisted in the Jewish Corps, commanded by Captain _Jacob D'Avilar_,
and distinguished himself in a combat of a similar nature. So impetuous
and brave was he in battle that he was speedily promoted from a regular
to the office of Lieutenant, and later to that of Captain of the Jewish
Citizens' Company (_Kapitein der Joodsche burger compagnie_). He was,
therefore, well qualified by dint of personal bravery and diplomatic
skill to take so important a part in the expedition against the Maroons.

In the present campaign he was not less fortunate and heroic.
Undaunted by the treacherous trick of Boeyé, who abandoned him in the
middle of the fray, he attacked the foe in their own retreats, killed
several and took as many more prisoners. Boeyé, who was his envious
rival, fearful perhaps of the consequences of his own cowardice,
accused Nassy of indiscretion and disobedience, but so universal was
the esteem and sympathy felt for the latter, who had before earned
laurels on the field and was thought incapable of such folly, that he
had but little difficulty in proving his innocence. The result was
that Nassy was honorably acquitted, whilst his jealous rival, the real
culprit, was duly punished. He added to his fame most decisively by
this new stroke of bravery and military prowess and had the honor of
being praised and glorified by the Spanish-Jewish poetess _Benvenida
Belmonte_,[84] who composed a fitting eulogy in verse on his deeds of
valor.[85] Nassy was the second South American Jew, whose nobility
of character and state services were commemorated in Spanish-Jewish
literature. (Cp. _supra_, rubric II, on Abraham Coen of Brazil.) His
generalship and scientific tactics were called into requisition about
two decades after his above detailed victory, in another expedition
against the marauding band of negroes, who troubled the peace of the
colony for nearly a century at various intervals. As previously noted,
in the case of Machado, anno 1690, the slaves of another wealthy Jewish
planter, _Manuel Pereira_, rebelled against their master, in 1738,
and, thinking to shake off the yoke of slavery, cruelly murdered him.
Hereupon, _Isaac Arias_, a former officer of the Jewish militia, who
lived in the victim's neighborhood, sent out a detachment of Jewish
volunteers, headed by _David Nassy_ and _Abraham De Brito_, to wreak
vengeance upon the rebels. The troops remained away for six weeks in
the enemy's camp,[86] and it began to be feared that they were utterly
routed and destroyed, when the company returned, bringing with them
the trophies of a most successful onslaught made against the Maroons,
namely six hands severed from fallen negroes, and forty-seven prisoners
of war.

As a reward for their bravery every officer received from the Council
(_Raad_) 75 f. (florins?); every citizen (Jewish regular) 36 f.; each
armed negro 20 f.; and each colored man who was in needy circumstances,
5 f.[87]

Five years later, in 1743, brave old Captain David Nassy, who had
conducted thirty like expeditions against the Maroons, sallied forth
for the last time to fight for his people and, according to some,
to die on the battlefield the death of a hero.[88] This time he
was arrayed against the Creoles, who by reason of their more acute
intelligence and culture (having been long associated with Europeans)
were yet the most dangerous of all their foes. Endowed with a noble
Macabbean spirit, he fell like his ancestor Matathias, in the moment
of victory. It was on the _Day of Atonement_ that the venerable sage
and warrior sallied forth to war. It must have been urgent indeed, for
David Nassy regardless of the solemnity of the festival put himself at
the head of his trusty men, crossed over the Surinam River; penetrated
further inland; pursued the enemy, set their huts ablaze; tore their
fruits out of the ground; killed many on the spot and dragged about
forty slaves along with them as captives. Nassy, who had already passed
his three score years and ten, fell a victim to the treachery of his
foes. It was told him that the negroes had poisoned all the wells in
the village, so that he was compelled to turn homeward, in order to
quench the burning thirst which afflicted him and his troops, without
awaiting the orders of the Council. This most natural step gave his
opponents a good excuse for lodging a complaint against him with the
authorities, who are usually ready to listen to malice and dispute. His
defense was scarcely heard and he was pronounced guilty. Such wanton
ingratitude the good old soldier hardly expected as a reward for his
services for the welfare of his fellowmen. Bitter disappointment and
grief undermined his health. He was seized with fever, and soon after
at the age of seventy, or thereabouts, death released him from his
sufferings. With him died the flower of the Jewish colony, an Israelite
indeed, in whom there was no guile. His co-religionist, _Isaac
Carvalho_, was chosen Captain of the Jewish Citizens' Company, in his

A few years later, a treaty of peace was made with the Western
Maroons, who were getting more and more perilous to the safety of
the colonists. But a new danger threatened them from another side.
In 1749 the Maroons in the east, known as _Tempati (?) Negroes_
(_Tempati-negers_), broke forth in mutiny, plundered a plantation
completely and carried off all the negro slaves who lived there. This
plantation (as in fact all others in Surinam) belonged to a Jewish
landowner, and was called _Auka_. Henceforth the insurrection which
originated there was named after the _Auka-negroes_. Against these
marauders, an expedition, partly under the Christian chief, Rijsdorp,
and partly in command of the Jewish captain, _Moses Naar_, was
organized and dispatched in 1757. It deserves to be mentioned, by the
way, that this was Naar's _seventeenth campaign_ against the Creoles.
The result of this undertaking was likewise favorable. Naar burned down
a whole negro-village, made a number of captives, among them being a
certain Corydon, the leader of the insurrection. For his bravery and
skilful capture he was presented with a worthy gift by the Council.[90]

We are informed by David J. C. Nasi (or Nassy), the third descendant of
the original settler of Surinam, who compiled with other intelligent
men of his age, an exhaustive and comprehensive chronicle of the
Jews in Surinam in French,[91] that already in 1750, _Moses Naar_
and _Gabriel de La Fatte_, in recognition of their active zeal in
suppressing a revolt of the negroes in their colony, were presented
with silver cups and a vote of thanks from the government.[92]

The fame achieved by his co-religionist, _Naar_, so enthused and
electrified the young and ambitious _Isaac Nassy_ that he was eagerly
anticipating another outbreak on the part of the Maroons, in order to
show his courage and reckless heroism. The impetuous youth met with a
noble, but pathetic end:

Thinking that against a well-regulated army, however small, no valor
or charge of the negroes could possibly prevail, he hastily collected
twelve of his followers upon the rumor of their approach; armed his and
their most trusty slaves; provided himself with the barest necessities
of war, sufficient for about ten or twelve days, and pursued the
retreating foe with an ardor which, if imprudent, is at least a virtue
in one so young and war-thirsty. He was, however, suddenly confronted
by a much more considerable number of negroes than he reckoned upon.
His little band stood ground but for a short while. Nassy himself
displayed great bravery, and although severely wounded by a rifle shot
in his right limb, he began to fight with a still more marvelous energy
in order to rally his terrified men and to re-arouse their fleeting
courage. But in vain. He was captured alive by the sanguinary horde and
brutally murdered. Two of their chief officers and twenty soldiers fell
with him on the battlefield.[93]

At last, the authorities saw that it was advisable and imperative
again to make a treaty of peace with the relentless Maroons, or
fugitive negroes, (_gevluchte Negers_) whose ravages for over half a
century spread ruin and terror throughout the land. Accordingly, on
the 23d of May, 1761, peace was established, to last for a good many
years, apparently.[94] It was not long, however, before hostilities
were resumed. In 1772 the State Council found it imperative to call
in the aid of the mother country against the Maroons, who grew more
audacious in proportion as they advanced in culture and education.[95]
The State General, roused to action by the serious state of affairs
in the colony, sent a company of 500 men, under command of Captain
Forgeoud, who had previously shown much courage and ingenuity in
suppressing a revolt of negroes in the Barbary States. Two years
later, a series of military posts was established, beginning from
the _Savannah of the Jews_ to the banks of the Commawine River and
from there to the sea. Forts, strengthened by means of palisades were
constructed from plantation to plantation, and when finally peace was
enforced, the colony was spared from any further molestation at the
hands of the unruly negroes.[96] Koenen, though very fair and just to
the Jews in his _History_, sees fit to reproach them for their unkind
treatment of slaves,[97] which, he opines, was the chief cause of the
rebellion, lasting over seventy years. We are inclined to think that
this rebuke is unwarranted, inasmuch as the rigid Mosaic and Rabbinic
laws regarding them, were always strictly followed by the Jews and
those in Surinam, who had men like the family of Nassy at their head,
could not have trespassed these ordinances. He admitted, however, in
his summary, that the colony in her defense was always deeply indebted
to the Jewish militia, and in social and commercial matters especially
beholden to them, for the Jews were the cultivators of the marshy and
often dangerous soil and the masters of commerce, the chief factors of
the welfare and prosperity of the settlement,[98] since its foundation.
Not desiring to anticipate our conclusions in a larger work, we content
ourselves with saying that nowhere else in the history of America is
such devotion, disinterestedness and loyalty on the part of Jewish
citizens so marked, and let us add, so gratefully recognized as in the
little Dutch Province of Surinam. And nowhere else in the New World did
the Israelites thrive more in culture, learning and religion than in
the _Jewish Savannah_ of Guiana, as their community was called. Small
wonder, then, in view of their attachment to their Hollandish masters,
when we hear that in 1785, on the occasion of the reconsecration of
their synagogue, then 100 years old, the Governor Wichers, with all
the provincial magistrates and other eminent citizens, attended in a
body the impressive ceremonies, which are graphically narrated in a
little volume published by an eye witness.[99] And that two Christian
philo-Semites wrote beautiful verses in Dutch in honor of these
festivities, republished by the writer, elsewhere.[100] Nor does it
now seem strange that the Jews loved to glorify their governors, J.
G. Wichers,[101] Sir Chas. Green,[102] and Abraham De Veer,[103] in
pretty songs and hymns, written in Hollandish and Hebrew. These were
but poetic tokens of their patriotism. As late as 1853, the records
inform us of their prosperity and constantly growing activity and
interest in the colony. In that year we find them in the courts (Ellis,
Juda, Fernandes, and others); among thirteen advocates, notaries,
and procurators, there were seven Jews (Heilbronn, Colaço, Belmonte,
de Granada, Abendañon, etc.); many served in the army as captains,
lieutenants, colonels, majors, and chaplains. In fact they minister
to the public weal in every conceivable capacity.[104] In their hands
the colony still prospers. Recent reports, made by a correspondent of
the _Jewish Chronicle_ in London, are aglow with enthusiasm for the
prosperity of their now thrifty and intelligent colony, and reassure us
of the vigor and tenacity of our faith in that distant land.


[30] See H. J. Koenen's prize essay, _Geschiedenis der Joden in
Nederland_ (Utrecht, 1843), pp. 277-78: "Machtig breide zich deze
bevolking uit als de Nederlanders omstreeks het jaar 1624 Brazilie
veroverden. Op de Hollandsche vloot hadden verscheiden Joden
vrijwillig dienst genomen, om zich in het te vermeesteren gewest met
hunne geloofsgenooten te vereenigen. Deze ontmoeting, en de voor hen
aanlichtende vrijheid onder Hollandsche Bestuur, maakten, dat vele
Braziliaansche Nieuwe Christenen wederom opentlyk het Jodendom beleden;
en dat zij eerlang eene tweede volkplanting hunner geloofsgenooten te
Cayenne stichteden, waar David Nassi, een geboren Braziliaan, zich met
goedkeuring der West-Indische Compagnie nederzette. Inmiddels hadden de
Joden, die met 's lands vloot in 1624 naar Brazilie overgestoken waren
en de Nederlanders dat land hadden helpen vermeesteren, aan hunne te
Amsterdam woonachtige broederen geschreven, en hen uitgenoodigd om zich
in het nieuw veroverde gewest op den pas ontgonnen koophandel te komen
toeleggen; waartoe eene ruime gelegendheid was, sedert de Hollanders,
na het sluiten van eenen wapenstilstand met de Portugezen, eene
publicatie hadden afgekondigd, dat het den Joden voortaan volkomen zoude
vrijstaan, zich in Brazilie te vestigen, etc."

We have copied this in full, as Koenen, whom recent historians all
follow, is the only authentic source, although in this case no
authorities are given. This point, and others in connection with the
early Jewish settlements in Brazil were discussed by the present writer
in two papers: _Early Jewish Literature in America_, in _Publications
of the American Jewish Historical Society_ (= _P. A. J. H. S._), No. 3
(1895), pp. 103-47 (cf. esp. pp. 104, 105, 134-40) and _Jewish Martyrs
of the Inquisition in South America_, to appear simultaneously with
this volume, in the same place, No. 4.

[31] See Pieter Marinus Netscher's _Les Hollandais au Brésil, Notice
Historique sur les Pays-Bas et le Brésil au XVII^e siècle_ (La Haye,
1853), p. 14: "Avant de mettre en mer (1623?), les amiraux Hollandais
obtinrent sur la situation politique du Brésil les informations les
plus utiles _par l'intermédiaire des Juifs_ qui s'y étaient établis, et
qui presque tous, désiraient avec ardeur passer sous le gouvernement
des Provinces-Unies, à cause de sa tolérance en matière de religion."
Cf. also De Beauchamp's _Histoire du Brésil_, vol. II, p. 159;
Southey's _History of Brazil_ (2nd ed.) I, pp. 477, 479, 495, supplem.
note 135; vol. II, p. 241; Judge Daly's _Settlement of the Jews in
North America_ (2nd ed. New York, 1893) p. XVII.

[32] _History of Brazil_ (London, 1810), Vol. I, p. 566; cf. also the
quotation in R. G. Watson's _Spanish and Portuguese South America_,
etc., _op. cit._, Vol. II, p. 29.

[33] See also Netscher's _Les Hollandais au Brésil_, etc., (La Haye,
1853), p. 94: "Les synagogues furent fermées, et les Juifs durent se
borner à célébrer leur culte dans l'intérieur des maisons. Le mal fut
d'autant plus sensible qu'un grand nombre de commerçants respectables
et d'autres habitants du Brésil-Hollandais étaient des Juifs, qui
depuis nombre d'années s'étaient réfugiés au Recife ou qui récemment
y avaient été attirés par la tolérance du comte Maurice." Cf. also
_ibid._, pp. 128, 202, note 82; and Judge Daly's work, op. cit., p. 6.
On the subject of religious freedom enjoyed by Jews in Brazil, more at
another time.

[34] Cf. Netscher's work, _op. cit._, p. 127. The document is preserved
in _Le rapport détaillé de Tolner, contresigné par le Comte, avec
tous les appendices, se trouve aux Arch. du Roy., Liasse Ind. Occ.,
1641-1644_. The contents of this letter will be communicated elsewhere.

[35] See Dr. M. Kayserling's article in _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 3,
(1895), p. 14 sq. Geo. A. Kohut, _ibid._, pp. 103, 105, 137 sq.

[36] Proofs for these statements may be found in my study on _The
Jewish Martyrs of the Inquisition in South America, P. A. J. H. S._,
No. 4, (1895.)

[37] We give the text in full: "Heureusement le fanatisme national et
religieux n'avait pas étouffé les sentiments d'humanité et de loyauté
dans les coeurs de tous les conjurés. Deux Portugais, Sébastian
Carvalho et Fernando Vale, _avec cinq Juifs_, craignant d'ailleurs
aussi pour leurs jours et leur fortune, se décidèrent en commun à
révéler le secrèt de la conspiration au grand conseil."

[38] Cf. Montanus Arnoldus, _De nieuwe en onbekende wereld of
beschrijving van Amerika en 't Zuidland_, Amsterdam, 1671, fol. 81;
Netscher, _l. c._, p. 144, says: "_Un Juif, Moise Accoignes_, qu'on
avait forcé à prendre part à cette conspiration le dénonça au grand
conseil." N. G. van Kampen, in his _Geschichte der Niederlande_, vol.
II, p. 118 and Frankel in _Monatsschrift_, vol. XII (1863) p. 323-324,
record, that the ringleader in this conspiracy was Joan Fernandes
Víníra (?), who intended to poison the government officials at a dinner
given at his own home, and the plot would have succeeded had not a Jew
raised the alarm.

[39] Cf. _Geschiedenis der Joden_, p. 279: "De terugroeping van Johan
Maurits, wiens edele afkomst en schitterende eigenschappen zelfs den
Portugezen eerbied inboezemden, en wiens ongelukkige opvolgers,
meestal kooplieden (merchants), leden de Westindische Maatschappij,
door hunne bekrompenheid, hebzucht en onmenschelijkheid algemeenen
afkeer verwekten, deed onder de Portugesche ingezetenen een sluw
beraamde zamenzwering tegen de Hollanders ontstaan, die op het punt was
van te gelukken, _toen een Joodsche geneesheer_ haar door het schrijven
van een naamloozen brief aan den dag bracht," etc.

[40] Netscher, _l. c._ p. 158.: "... Mais on parvint enfin en Hollande,
à se procurer, par un Juif qui demeurait à Lisbonne, le moyen
d'intercepter quelques lettres du roi, qui prouvèrent au soulèvement
dans le Brésil." (Ces lettres se trouvent aux Arch du Roy., Liasse Ind.
Occ. 1647 et 1648.)

[41] Cf. _ibid_., _l. c._, p. 154; See also _Lettre de Justif. de
Garstman aux Etats-généraux en date du 27 Septembre, 1646_. Arch. du
Roy., Liasse Ind. Occ. 1645 et 1646.

[42] Cf. Dr. A. Hahu, in _American Jews' Annual_ for 1886-1887, p. 35;
see also Isaac de Costa, _Israel und die Voelker_ (Frankfort a. M.,
1855), p. 319; and Dr. Z. Frankel, in his _Monatsschrift_, vol. XII,
(1863), p. 323.

[43] Cf. Kayserling's _Sephardim, Romanische Poesien der Juden in
Spanien_ (Leipzig 1859) p. 266; _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 3, p. 18.

[44] _P. A. J. H. S._, _l. c._, p. 15, note. Jacob Coen, Abraham's
eldest son, was afterwards appointed "Contador Mayor," Receiver-General
of Duke Moritz of Nassau. Cf. _ib. l. c._

[45] Cf. _American Jews' Annual_ for 1886-1887, p. 35; Isaac de Costa,
_l. c._, p. 318; see also Hon. Oscar S. Straus's address in _P. A. J.
H. S._, No. 3, p 3.

[46] See Kayserling in _P. A. J. H. S._, _l. c._, p. 14; Graetz,
_History of the Jews_ (Engl. transl.) vol. IV, p. 693.

[47] See full particulars concerning this work in our study on _Early
Jewish Literature in America_, _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 3, pp. 105, 106,
139, No. 9, and Dr. Kayserling's paper, _ibid. l. c._, p. 16.

[48] Cf. _l. c._, p. 16, No. 3.

[49] Cf. Van Kampen, _Geschichte der Niederlande_, vol. II, p. 120;
_apud_ Frankel, _Monatsschrift_, vol. XII (1863), p. 324; Koenen's
_Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland_ (Utrecht, 1843) p. 280 sq.; Isaac
da Costa, _Israel und die Voelker_ (Germ. ed. by K. Mann, Frankfort,
a. M., 1855) p. 318 ff.; Graetz's _History_, _l. c._, p. 693-4;
Kayserling, _ib._, _l. c._, pp. 17-18.

[50] Cf. Southey's _History of Brazil_, Vol. II, pp. 202-230; Van
Kampen, _Geschichte der Niederlande_, Vol. II, pp. 120-122; also the
same writer's _Geschiedenis der Nederlanders buiten Europa_; Isaac de
Costa, _op. cit._, p. 319.

[51] See the _American Jews' Annual_ for 1886-1887, p. 35.

[52] _Les Hollandais au Brésil_, p. 163, _ad ann._ 1653-1654: "Une
amnistie pleine et entière était accordée aux Portugais et aux Juifs,
qui avaient pris cause pour le gouvernement Hollandais, et les Juifs
et autres personnes non-catholiques qui resteraient au Brésil y
seraient traités de la meme manière, qu'au Portugal (ce qui cachait une
arriere-pensée digne de l'intolérance réligieuse de ces jours-là)." Here
he adds a note which is hardly correct: "Aujourdhui il ne se trouvent
presque pas des Juifs au Brésil."

[53] Cf. Koenen, _l. c._, p. 282; Kayserling, _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 3,
p. 17.

[54] See the _Measseph_ for 1784; _ap._ Jost, _Geschichte der
Israeliten_, Vol. VIII, pp. 241-242; Da Costa, _Israel und Die
Voelker_, _l. c._, pp. 321-322; Dr. Hahn in _The American Jews' Annual_
(1886-1887) p. 36; Rev. E. M. Myers' _The Centurial_ (New York, 1890),
p. 105; _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 2, p. 99. More fully in our paper on
_Early Jewish Literature in America_, _l. c._, p. 138-139.

[55] Cf. Koenen's _Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland_, p. 283; Dr.
M. Kayserling, _Sephardim, Romanische Poesien der Juden in Spanien_,
(Leipzig, 1859), p. 265.

[56] The Dutch text of this valuable document is published in the
_Essai Historique sur la Colonie Surinam_, Paramaribo 1788 [Amsterdam
1791], Vol. II, pp. 113-122 and in Koenen's work on the _History of the
Jews in Holland_, _l. c._, pp. 460-466. The present writer intends to
reprint the original text with an English translation in the _P. A. J.
H. S._; cf. his paper on _Early Jewish Literature in America_ in the
_Publications_ No. 3 (1895), p. 104, 136, 137.

[57] Cf. Kayserling, _Sephardim_, etc., _l. c._, p. 266; his paper on
the _Earliest Rabbis and Jewish Writers in America_, in _P. A. J. H.
S._, No. 3, p. 18; Koenen, _l. c._, pp. 283-284.

[58] From this it would appear that the Jews in South America were
corresponding and perhaps commercially connected with their brethren in
Italy. We have elsewhere proven that the Marranos in Hispañiola were
carrying on an extensive trade between various large sea-ports of Italy
(see our forthcoming paper on _The Jewish Martyrs of the Inquisition in
South America_, to appear in _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 4, 1895), and that
the Jews of Brazil as early as 1636 wrote to Rabbi Chayim Sabbathai, of
Salonica, in reference to disputes arising in their midst concerning
Jewish customs and ritual. Cf. the notes in our study quoted above, _P.
A. J. H. S._, No. 3, pp. 104-105, 137.

[59] Cf. Barrios' reference at the end of his Opuscula: "En Tisa
beab (sic) sali de Liorne año de 1660 con 152 Almas de Israel en
la nave llamada Monte del Cisne para ir apoblar a Cayana conquista
de Holandeses en America." Koenen, _l. c._, p. 283, numbers only
112 passengers, which is evidently erroneous. Cf. also Kayserling,
_Sephardim_, etc., p. 266, note 1; 355, n. 402; _P. A. J. H. S._, No.
3, p. 18.

[60] Cf. Kayserling, _Sephardim_, _l. c._, and _P. A. J. H. S._, 3, p.
18; see more fully in my paper on a _Contribution to the History of the
Jews in the Islands of St. Thomas, Jamaica and Barbadoes_, to appear in
_P. A. J. H. S._, No. 4.

[61] See Koenen's _Geschiedenis_, p. 284. The date 1654 there given is
probably a misprint for 1664.

[62] Cf. Appendix II to my paper on _Early Jewish Literature in
America_, _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 3, pp. 145-147, cf. also pp. 125-132
where some points in their history are given.

[63] Dr. E. Carmoly, in his essay on _Don Joseph Nasi, Duc de Naxos_
(Brussels, 1855), traces the relationship of this eminent personage
even to American shores, where the Nasis flourished. The word Nasi in
Hebrew indicates chief, or prince. See also Fuerst's _Orient_, XII
(1851-2), p. 335; Steinschneider's _Hammaskir_, II (1859), p. 33.

[64] See Don Miguel Levi de Barrios, _Arbol de las Vidas_, p. 90; apud
Kayserling, in _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 3, p. 18, note 2.

[65] Cf. Kayserling, _ib._, _l. c._; and his article: _Die Juden in
Surinam_, published in Frankel's _Monatsschrift für die Geschichte
und Wissenschaft des Judenthums_, Vol. VIII, (1859), p. 207; also Van
Sijpenstein, _Beschrijving van Suriname, historisch-geographisch en
statistisch overzigt. Uit officiele Bronnen bijeengebragt_ (Gravenhage,
1854,) p. 22.

[66] See Koenen's _Geschiedenis der Joden_, etc., pp. 291-92.

[67] Cf. _ibid._, _l. c._, p. 293; _Essai Historique sur la Colonie
Surinam_, etc., Vol. I, p. 42.

[68] Koenen, _l. c._: "Zij werden vooral door de Joden, aan wier hoofd
zich als Kapitein Samuel Nassy bevond, teruggedreven."

[69] Koenen, _l. c._, says: "Deze Nassy verkreeg van tijd tot tijd veel
invloed onder zijne geloofsgenooten, en trachtte eenige hervormingen
bij hen tot stand te brengen, in zonderheid met opzicht tot hunne zoo
menigvaldige feestdagen; doch hij vond daarin niet weinig tegenwerking,
ofschoon hij door brieven der Amsterdamsche Rabbijnen werd ondersteund."

[70] Koenen, _l. c._: "Zijn gezag verminderde zeer, toen de Kolonie op
nieuw een Bewindhebber verkreeg in den Heer Van Scherpenhuizen, die
Aerssens in het bestuur opvolgde."

[71] See Kayserling, in _Monatsschrift_, _l. c._, Vol. VIII, p. 207:
"_Samuel (Cohen) Nasi_ wird als Bürger-Capitaen bezeichnet und trieb
nicht allein die stets wieder neu einbrechenden Indianer mit starkem
Arm zurück, sondern bewirkte auch, dass der neu ernannte Gouverneur Jan
(Johann) van Scharphuisen von seinem Posten abberufen wurde." Cf. also
Isaac de Costa's work, _op. cit._, p. 321.

[72] See Koenen's _Geschiedenis_, etc., p. 294: "Ongelukkig ontstond er
een scherpe naijver tusschen den nieuwen Gouverneur en Samuel Nassy,
die voor zijne komst bijkans alle gezag in zich vereenigd had, en
wellicht had gehoopt den Heer Van Sommelsdyk in het bestuur te zullen
opvolgen; ten gevolge waarvan hij goedvond de nieuwe wereld te verlaten,
en zich onder zijne broederen te Amsterdam te gaan nederzetten. Ook na
zijn vertrek bleef de spanning tusschen de hoofden der Israelitische
bevolking en den Heer Van Scherpenhuizen voortduren, zoodat de eersten
zich bij den Baron de Belmonte en Samuel Nassy te Amsterdam over
hem beklaagden, hun bijstand verzochten, en de terugroeping van den
Bewindhebber op die wijs wisten te bewerken. Hij werd in 1696 vervangen
door Paulus Van Der Veen, en deze op zijne beurt in 1706 door Willem de

[73] Cp. Dr. M. Kayserling's sketch on "The Jews of Surinam," in
_Monatsschrift_, _l. c._, p. 207: "Ehe noch Scharphuizen auf Surinam
landete, hatte Samuel Nasi die Kolonie verlassen. Nasi konnte es nicht
ertragen, einen andern Mann in der Stellung zu sehen, welche er selbst
zu erlangen hoffte und welche er, vermoege seiner dem Lande erwiesenen
Dienste und Fähigkeiten mit Recht beanspruchen konnte. Er verliess
Surinam und schiffte sich nach Amsterdam ein. In Folge der Mitbewerbung
des Juden um die Gouverneurstelle hatte Scharphuizen die jüdischen
Kolonisten mit weniger Freundlichkeit behandelt und sie hoeher
besteuert als die uebrigen Bewohner der Kolonie, so dass jene bei dem
Grafen de Belmonte und ihrem Bürger-Capitän Samuel Nasi Klage führten
und die Rückberufung des Gouverneurs aufs dringenste von der Regierung
verlangten. Wirklich wurde ein anderer Gouverneur in der Person des
Paulus van der Veen bestellt. Scharphuizen schiffte sich nach Holland
ein; unterwegs von den Franzosen zum Gefangenen gemacht, gelangte
er erst nach mehreren Monaten in die Heimat. Kaum aber in Amsterdam
angekommen, wurde er von Nasi vor Gericht gefordert und gezwungen sich
oeffentlich zu vertheidigen."

[74] _Punten en articulen, und Bericht en antwoord van den Gouverneur
Jan van Scherpenhuizen._ (Amsterdam, 1697.) It would be very
interesting to have a copy of this important trial, in which Samuel
Nassy figured so prominently.

[75] Cf. Koenen, _l. c._, p. 293-294: "De Joden van Surinam bewezen
de Kolonie wederom groote diensten, toen zij in den jare 1689 eenen
aanval te verduren had van het Fransche Eskader, onder bevel van den
vlootvoogd Cassard; in welke verdediging de Heer Van Chatillon, zoon
van den vorigen Bewindhebber, zich bijzonder onderscheidde." See also
Isaac de Costa's _Israel und die Voelker_ (1855), p. 321; Frankel
in his _Monatsschrift_, vol. XII (1863), p. 362. _Révue des Études
Juives_, Vol. IV (1882), p. 131.

[76] Dr. E. Carmoly, in a brief note entitled: "Patriotismus der Juden
in Surinam," published in Dr. Leopold Loew's journal, _Ben Chananja_
(Szegedin, 1861), Vol. IV, No. 20, p. 178, n. 37, writes: "Niemand wird
ihnen den Ruhm streitig machen, nicht nur ihre Soldatendienste zu thun,
sondern auch bei Zuegen gegen ihre in die Wälder geflohene Sklaven ihre
Religionsgesetze den Interesse ihrer Buergerpflichten nachzusetzen;
sogar abergläubische Juden werden es ihnen nicht als Suende anzeichnen.
Man sehe davon einen Beweis in Verburg's _O[st] en W[est] Ind.
Geschied[enis]_, 11 D. 8, _Cyd bestek_, 35 hoofild. § 45, v. d. J.
1689, und Fr. Holf. Merkurius 40 D. wo erzählt wird, dass, da nach dem
Tode des Gouverneur Aersen (_sic_) der Bevollmächtigte Scherphuizen
bei seiner Ankunft in Surinam die Nachricht von der Annäherung der
franzoesischen Flotte erhalten habe, sogleich alle Soldaten, nebst den
Matrosen und den Bürgern auf das Kastell erboten und diesem Befehl
Gehorsam geleistet worden sei, selbst von den Juden, deren viele in
Surinam wohnen, ungeachtet es Sabbat war. Auch hat man darueber zwei
sehr schoene Briefe an die Gesellschaft: _Felix Libertate_ von dem
kuendigen Bürger H. L. Bromet der 20 Jahre lang in Surinam wohnte."
These letters may yet be extant in the State library at Amsterdam,
where many documents on Surinam are preserved.

[77] See my paper in the _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 3, p. 121, note 1; also
_Révue des Études Juives_, Vol. IV (1882), p. 131.

[78] See Van Kampen, _Geschiedenis der Nederlanders buiten Europa_, Dl.
II, bl. 416-420; _apud_ Koenen's _Geschiedenis_, etc., p. 294-295: "De
Kolonie was van jaar tot jaar in bloei en welstand toegenomen, sedert
de heilzame hervormingen van Aerssens hare talrijke vruchten begonnen
af te werpen. Geen wonder, dat die opkomende welvaart de Franschen, die
op dat pas met de Republiek in oorlog waren, geweldig in de oogen stak.
In Junij des Jaars 1712 waagden zij een vrij hevigen aanval, die echter
manmoedig werd afgeslagen. In October verscheen de Fransche vlootvoogd
Cassard op nieuw voor de kust, en trachtte de rivier Commawine binnen te
zeilen. De ingezetenen, in zonderheid de Joden onder hun Kapitein Isaac
Pinto, boden een hardnekkigen wederstand, doch konden niet beletten,
dat de vijand het land afliep, de stad Paramaribo bombardeerde, en de
volkplanting op een gruwzame wijs brandschattede. Kort daarop werd
de vrede van Utrecht gesloten, waardoor de Kolonie van dezen vijand
gelukkig voor het vervolg verlost werd." See also Dr. Kayserling, in
the _Monatsschrift_, _l. c._, p. 208. His remarks being substantially
the same, we forbear citing in full.

[79] Cp. Dr. A. Hahn's article on _Primitive Jewish Settlements in
America_, in the _American Jews' Annual_ for 1886-1887, p. 36; also
Isaac de Costa, _op. cit._, p. 321; _Révue des Études Juives_, Vol. IV
(1882), p. 131. We are inclined to think that the families mentioned,
distinguished themselves in subsequent engagements in Surinam, during
the negro revolts of which we shall speak in the next rubric.

[80] Cp. a review of the _Essai Historique sur la Colonie Surinam_,
etc., quoted often in this essay, in the _Monthly Review_ for 1792;
Frankel in his _Monatsschrift_, vol. XII (1863), p. 362; and Hannah
Adams' _History of the Jews_ (Boston, 1810) p. 457. On pp. 455-458, a
fair résumé of the History of the Jews in Surinam is given.

[81] Koenen, _l. c._, p. 295: "Reeds in het jaar 1690 waren de slaven
op de plantagie van eenen rijken Israeliet, Machado genaamd, opgestaan,
en hadden hun meester vermoord. Van toen af waren de Negers, die
kans zagen om zich van hunne heeren te ontslaan, begonnen naar de
binnenlanden te vluchten, alwaar zij zich in de bosschen nestelden. De
Gouverneur Van Scherpenhuizen vond niet goed, den Joden bij dergelijke
gelegenheden eenigen bijstand te verleenen, maar beval hun, om op hunne
eigene verdediging bedacht te zijn. Dit was een groote misslag; want,
eensdeels leerde hij daardoor de Israelitische bevolking zich onderling
tot hare eigene handhaving te verbinden, hetgeen lichtelijk voor de
Christenen bij eenige botsing gevaarlijk had kunnen worden; anderdeels
liet hij daardoor langzamerhand eene macht opkomen, die, gelijk de
ervaring geleerd heeft, niet slechts voor de rust en veiligheid, maar
voor het bestaan der volkplanting zelve hoogstgevaarlijk moest worden."
Cp. also Kayserling, _l. c._, p. 208.

[82] Koenen, _l. c._, pp. 295-296: "De Joden verdedigden zich meer dan
eenmaal met goed gevolg.... Evenwel deed men in 1730 eene krachtvolle
poging, bij welke zich eene Joodsche compagnie, onder aanvoering
van een Onderofficier met veertien blanken en zes-en-dertig Negers,
onderscheidde door het bezetten en bewaken van een belangrijken
post, na het verwoesten van de gehuchten der Boschnegers." Cp. also
Kayserling, _l. c._, p. 208.

[83] Cp. Kayserling in _Monatsschrift_, _l. c._, p. 208.

[84] Koenen, _l. c._, p. 297, has erroneously _Ben Venida del Monte_--a
name unknown in Spanish-Jewish literature. Dr. Kayserling, _l. c._,
p. 208, note 6, corrects the mistake, and identifies him with the
same authoress, who wrote in praise of the Spanish translation of the
Psalter by _Daniel Israel Lopez Laguna_, of Jamaica. Cp. the present
writer's papers on _Early Jewish Literature in America_, in _P. A.
J. H. S._, No. 3, p. 110-112; 140-141; and _Jewish Martyrs of the
Inquisition in South America_, in _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 4, (1895) where
full references are given on this famous American-Shephardic poet.

[85] See Koenen's _Geschiedenis_, _l. c._, p. 296-297: "..... Reeds
in 1718 had hij, (David Nassy) onder bevel van den Joodschen Kapitein
Jacob d'Avilar, aan een welgelukten aanslag van dien aard deel genomen:
ten gevolge van welken hij van Onderofficier tot eersten Luitenant,
straks tot Kapitein der Joodsche burger-compagnie, benoemd was. Thans
was hij niet minder voorspoedig; en ofschoon door Boeyé verlaten, trof
hij den vijand in zijne woningen aan; versloeg er velen, en nam een
aantal anderen gevangen. Boeyé, die den Israelitischen Hoofdman wegens
gebrek aan ondergeschiktheid, had aangeklaagd, werd zelf gestraft, en
Nassy oogstte van dezen tocht zoo groot eenen naam in, dat hij door
den Spaansch-Joodschen dichter (_sic_) Ben Venida del Monte (_sic_) in
sierlijke lofdichten werd bezongen en gevierd." See also Kayserling,
_l. c._, p. 208. His notes based on Koenen's are not as full.

[86] Van Kampen, in his _Geschiedenis der Nederlanders buiten Europa_,
Dl. III, bl. 116, says, curiously enough, that they were away about six
_months_ instead of six _weeks_.

[87] Cp. Koenen, _l. c._, p. 297: "In 1738 stonden de Negers der
plantagie van den Joodschen eigenaar Manuel Pereira op, en vermoorden
hunnen meester. Hierop zond Isaac Arias, voormalig Officier der
Joodsche compagnie, die zijne bezittingen in de nabuurschap had,
eenige vrijwilligers van zijne natie, onder aanvoering van David
Nassy en Abraham De Brito, tegen de Boschnegers uit. Zes weken lang
bleef deze bende op vijandelijken grond, zoodat niemand wist wat
van haar geworden was; doch bij hunne terugkomst bleek het, dat
zij een allervoorspoedigsten aanval hadden gedaan, terwijl zij de
afgehouwene handen van zes gesneuvelde Negers, en zeven-en-veertig
krijgsgevangenen medevoerden. Jeder Officier ontving daarop van den
Raad voor dezen tocht f. 75; jeder burger f. 36; elke gewapende Neger f.
20, en jeder zwarte die met levensmiddelen belast geweest was, f. 5 ter
belooning." See also Dr. Kayserling, _l. c._, pp. 208-209. He does not
state what the rewards were.

[88] Cf. Dr. Hahn's article on _Primitive Jewish Settlements in
America_, in _The American Jews' Annual_ for 1886-87, p. 36, who says
that "among those who fell on the battlefield was David Nassi, in 1743,
at the age of seventy. That was his thirty-first campaign against the
French." We are inclined to believe that this is wrong, for earlier
historians (see the following note) state that he died of a broken
heart--a victim of slander. Furthermore, he did not fight against the
French, but the Maroons. See also Isaac de Costa, _op. cit._, p. 321.

[89] Cf. Koenen, _l. c._, p. 297-98: "Vijf jaren later deed dezelfde
onvermoeide Israeliet (David Nassy), die wel dertig tochten tegen
de Boschnegers heeft ondernomen, ofschoon reeds bejaard, nog eenen
aanval op het dorp der kreoolsche Negers, die door hunne meerdere
beschaving en hun omgang met de Europeers de gevaarlijkste van alle
waren. Deze strooptocht had plaats op den grooten Verzoendag der
Joden. Zonder dat zij zich door de heiligheid van het feest lieten
terughouden, trokken deze, de rivier Suriname langs, het binnenland
in, vervolgden den vijand, staken zijne hutten in vlam, roeiden de
veldvruchten uit den grond, brachten een aantal Negers om, en voerden
veertien krijgsgevangenen met zich. Doch Nassy werd het slachtoffer
van een list des vijands. Men maakte hem diets, dat de waterbronnen
door de Negers vergiftigd waren; en hij, door gebrek aan de noodige
verversching gedwongen, neemt op zich om terug te keeren, zonder den
last of de orders ven deen Raad af te wachten. Zijne benijders en
tegenstanders wisten hem deswege bij den Raad in een kwaad gerucht te
brengen; zijne verdediging werd naauwelijks aangehoord; zijn proces
opgemaakt. Dit krenkte den wakkeren man zoo geweldig, dat hij door eene
koorts werd aangetast, die hem in den ouderdom van zeventig jaren ten
grave sleepte. Na zijnen dood werd zijn geloofsgenoot, Isaac Carvalho,
in zijne plaats tot Kapitein der Joodsche burger-compagnie benoemd."
Cp. also, Kayserling, _l. c._, p. 209.

[90] See Koenen, _l. c._, p. 298-299: "Eenige jaren daarna werd een
verdrag van vrede met de meer en meer gevaarlijk wordende westelijke
Marrons gesloten. Doch nu vertoonde zich een nieuw gevaar van den
kant der oostelijke of Tempati-negers, die in het jaar 1749 eene
plantagie plonderden, en de Negerslaven die zich aldaar bevonden,
met zich voerden. Deze plantagie behoorde eenen Joodschen eigenaar,
en heette _Auka_; van daar bleef aan deze opstandelingen de naam
van _Auka-negers_. Tegen dien vijand was het, dat in 1757 een tocht
werd ondernomen, gedeeltelijk onder den Christenoverste Rijsdorp,
gedeeltelijk onder den Joodschen Kapitein _Naar_, die reeds vroeger
zestien malen tegen denzelfden vijand opgetrokken was. De uitslag ook
van deze onderneming was allergunstigst. _Naar_ verbrandde een groot
Negerdorp, maakte een aantal gevangenen, waaronder zich zekere Corydon,
de belhamel der opstandelingen, bevond, en werd voor zijn manmoedig
bedrijf door den Raad met een aanzienlijk geschenk begiftigd." See also
Dr. Kayserling, _l. c._, p. 209: "Im Verein mit dem obersten Rijsdorp
bekriegte Naar die noch immer Verheerung anrichtenden Neger. Er
verbrannte eine ihrer groessten Doerfer, nahm ihren Häuptling gefangen
und wurde wegen seiner an den Tag gelegten Tapferkeit ansehnlich

[91] See the _Essai Historique sur la Colonie de Surinam_, etc.,
(Paramaribo, 1788; Dutch version, Amsterdam, 1791), Vol. I, p. 123. Of
this rare and valuable work, which was called forth by the writings
of Dohm on the _Emancipation of the Jews_, only one copy (in the
British Museum) is known to be in existence. The writer of these lines
is having the volumes copied in view of his _History of the Jews in
Surinam_. See for further references his paper in the _P. A. J. H.
S._, No. 3, pp. 126-30. It is worthy of mention that this is the
_first_ work published in Paramaribo.

[92] Cf. Rev. E. M. Myers' _Centurial_ (New York, 1890), p. 117, _ad
ann._ 1750.

[93] Cp. _Essai Historique sur la Colonie de Surinam_, etc.
(Paramaribo, 1788), Vol. I, pp. 98, 99; Koenen, _l. c._, pp. 299,
300 gives a graphic account: "Zoodanige belooning, de eerzucht ook
van den nog jeugdigen _Isaac Nassy_ prikkelende, berokkende dezen
moedigen jongeling zijn ondergang. Naijverig op de onderscheiding, door
zijnen geloofsgenoot verworven, en wanende, dat de Boschnegers tegen
een' geregelden aanval geen moed noch kracht wisten over te stellen,
verzamelt hij in haast een twaalftal zijner vrienden, wapent hunne
beste slaven en de zijnen, voorziet zich met een onbeduidenden voorraad
van krijgsbehoeften en levensmiddelen voor tien of twaalf dagen en
vervolgt alzoo den op de vlucht gedreven vijand. Doch hij stutte op een
veel grooter aantal dan hij berekend had. Eenen tijd lang hielden de
blanken zich nog staande. _Nassy_ leide groote dapperheid aan den dag,
en ofschoon hij een geweerschot in het rechterbeen bekomen had, deed
hij nog groote moeite om zijne lieden te hereenigen en hun zinkenden
moed weder aan te wakkeren. Doch te vergeefs. Hij werd levend door de
Negers gevat, en wreedaardig vermoord. Wellicht zouden zij hem nog het
leven gespaard hebben, ten einde de voldoening te smaken van zich door
een' blanke te laten dienen; maar de wraakzucht, die al te hevig in
hun woesten boezem blaakte, liet hun zelfs deze wreede barmhartigheid
niet toe. Zij verloren echter bij deze gelegenheid een tweetal hunner
opperhoofden, en nog wel twintig gemeenen." See also Kayserling, in
_Monatsschrift_, _l. c._, pp. 209, 210.

[94] Cf. Koenen, _l. c._, p. 300-301: "Den 23sten Mei, 1761, werd er
een vrede met hen gesloten, die thans een einde maakte aan de gewapende
tochten," etc., etc.

[95] See _Essai Historique sur la Colonie de Surinam_, etc., Vol. I, p.

[96] Cf. _Essai Historique_, etc., Vol. I, p. 135; Koenen, _l. c._, p.

[97] See Koenen, _l. c._, p. 300: "... De afkeer des verdrukten
Negers was veel grooter voor den Israelitischen meester dan voor den
Christenplanter; en de Jood was harder tegen den armen slaaf, dan zijn
landgenoot van verschillend geloof," etc.

[98] Cf. Koenen, _ibid._, _l. c._, p. 300-301: "... Haasten wij
ons intusschen, tegenover deze treurige bedenkingen de aangenamer
opmerking te maken, dat de volkplanting wegens hare verdediging niet
minder verplichtingen aan hare Joodsche bevolking in die dagen gehad
heeft, dan vroeger wegens de oorbaarmaking harer woeste gronden, of
als het moederland door de herlevendiging van deszelfs handel; en dat
dus de Jood in de kolonien door het beoefenen van den landbouw en het
waarnemen der landsbeveiliging, die verdiensten verworven heeft, die
hem in het Gemeenebest zelve nog schenen te ontbreken."

[99] _Beschrijving van de plechtigheden, nevens de lofdichten en
gebeden uitgesproken op het eerste Jubelfeest van de Synagogue der
Portugeesche Joodsche gemeente, op de Savane in de Colonie Suriname,
genaamd Zegen En Vrede. [Berakha Ve-Shalom] op den 12den van Wijnmaand
1785._ (Amsterdam, Hendrik Willem en Cornelis Dronsberg, 1786). The
volume is described at length in my paper on _Early Jewish Literature
in America_, _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 3, pp. 126-129, where the Hebrew
title is also given.

[100] See the writer's _Literary Gleanings on American Jewish History_,
No. II, in the _Menorah Monthly_ for September, 1895 (Vol. XIX), pp.

[101] See S. J. Rudelsom's _Lofzang op den bleyde dag der inhuldiging
van ... J. G. Wichers, gouverneur-generaal over de colonie v. Suriname,
2 Juni, 1785_. The Ms. of this interesting pamphlet will soon be
printed, with other works of Surinam Jews, in the French Jewish
periodical, _Révue des Études Juives_, published in Paris. See also _P.
A. J. H. S._, No. 3, p. 127.

[102] _Plechtigheden, vreugde gezangen en gebeeden in de Hoogd.
Joodsche Synagogue Neve Salom, te Suriname, op d. dag d. inhuldig.
van Sir Charles Green, Gouverneur-Generaal over Suriname, opgesteld en
gezongen d. J. M. De Vries, Voorzanger._ (Paramaribo, 1804.) See also
_P. A. J. H. S._, No. 3, p. 130.

[103] See _Plechtige Vreugde Gezangen, en Gebeden, Verricht in de
Hoogduitsche Israelitische Sinagogue Neve Salom ... te Suriname, ter
gelegenheid, en op den blyden dag der Inhuldiging van Zynen Hoog Edelen
Gestrengen Heer Abraham De Veer, Gouverneur-Generaal der gemelde
kolonie,--Gezongen door den Eerwaarden Heer Tobias Tall._ The Hebrew
title and other particulars are given in the writer's paper, _P. A. J.
H. S._, No. 3, pp. 130-131.

[104] Cf. Dr. Kayserling, _Monatsschrift_, l. c., p. 213.



Among the numerous letters, documents and registers of the Albaic
archives,[105] which bear special reference to the discovery
and colonization of America, is particularly noticeable the
culture-historic, perhaps valuable memorial address of DAVID EBRON
from Constantine, Algeria (dated December 9th, 1597), to the Emperor,
Philip II. The writer introduces himself in the preliminary note as an
Israelite, who, at a tender age, fled to Africa, and rendered important
services to the King of India and other personages of rank in various
sections of Africa.

He enumerates many items of surprising significance, apparently
anxious to array them as an overwhelming evidence of his abilities and
reliability, and eager to impress upon the august reader the great
amount of gratitude due him for his achievements. He prepared accurate
sketches of distant regions and established settlements, dependent upon
his generous bounty; he discovered countries and conquered them, and
whatsoever had been attempted in Santa Marta, South America, within the
last five years, may be safely attributed to his energetic activity and
perseverance. Thence he repaired by land to Peru, and enlisted in the
service of the monarch in Huancabelica. The last remarkable harvest in
quicksilver, which was so advantageous to the king, was chiefly due
to his judicious management. By careful husbanding of material and
laudable zeal he was instrumental in not only saving sixty and some
odd thousand pesos (!) involved in the annual transportation of small
fleets from Lima and Panama but equally as much by causing galleys to
be constructed there.

Through the personal malice and mean manoeuvers of two officials, the
well-merited reward for the last mentioned benefits was withheld from
him. "But," affirms the abused victim of ingratitude with a dignified
emphasis, which seemed to restore his confidence, "my accomplishments
in this regard may easily be ascertained by application to Gutierrez
Florez, the Indian minister of commerce in Seville."

"I do not bring these facts to your notice," continues the
self-vindicator in haughty terms, "in order to obtain reward from your
Majesty, but that your serene highness might perceive how zealously
and indefatigably, I, a _secret Hebrew_,[106] travelled everywhere,
despite harassing circumstances, obstacles end even imminent perils,
and have forsaken your realm out of pure fear to die outside of my
faith, which, according to my conception is the only true creed
appointed by the Almighty, the Creator of heaven, sun, moon, sea and
all things therein, you, gracious Sire included. I do not revive these
recollections in order to deplore my ill-fortune or petition for the
proper remuneration and recognition denied me for the various favors
rendered, for such great and weighty benefits I am yet in a position to
offer from here, without necessitating my residence there; only out of
simple attachment to your royal highness, whom I desire to serve and in
order that the memory of this Israelite and his faithful acts be not
wholly eradicated from your heart, I am quite satisfied to continue
the diligent execution of projects confided to my trust. O, would it
please the Heavenly Father, that the Jews in your dominion could enjoy
the same liberties and privileges accorded to them by the exemplary
toleration of the Pope in Rome, Venice, Milan, Naples, in the whole of
Apulia, Ragusa, Florence, Pisa, Ferrara, Mantova and Italy and _here in
Constantine_ and the Barbary States.

Would that they were permitted to migrate from one portion of your
realm to the other and live under the same circumstances as elsewhere.
Then I would not resign from the office I so loyally occupied, and
your countries would considerably increase in commercial opulence--it
is inconceivable why your Grace should not participate in the profits
reaped by others--then your armies, military exploits and campaigns
against Lutherans, heretics and other enemies would be much more
successful than they have been heretofore.

"And as regards the Spanish Inquisition against the Jews,"[107]
further declares this remarkable champion of the Mosaic faith, "I
have absolutely no objection to urge, if it is directed against such
as voluntarily embrace Christianity and secretly profess the ancient
religion." He calls the King's attention to the fact that within two
months he could at command transport 200,000 pesos cash money into the
state treasury without injuring anyone; in a similar manner he is able
in one single day, whenever the King willed it, to obtain more than one
million pieces of gold from Santa Fe in the new kingdom of Granada.
Other treasures are spoken of as accessible to the all-conquering
genius of _David Ebron_, and obtainable by him for the King, whom he
is intent on reconciling to his Jewish subjects. His eloquence reaches
the fever heat of indignation, however, when he alludes to the thievish
officials in the King's employ. "What a pity, your Majesty, that so
much money is stolen in India and Spain. I could aggravate myself to
death when I contemplate upon the mass of wealth wrongfully acquired
by your representatives and ministers. Were I to enumerate all the
outrageous robberies committed against you, O mighty Sovereign, in
Seville, and apprise you of the doings of that infamous horde there
stationed, and admitted into your court! ... O lips, if only you
would divulge the secrets which oppress the heart! O tongue! why not
reveal what you know and feel?" In concluding his remarks, he places
himself at the disposal of the government as confidential agent in the
affairs of Portugal, the marriage of the Oranian, and similar matters,
and enjoins upon the King to communicate with him under the seal of
strictest privacy, should he require his co-operation or assistance at
any future time. "The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob," says he, "who
created the universe, protect and exalt your Majesty and inspire you
to deal leniently and indulgently with your Hebrews, whom God never
totally ignores or forgets, but inflicts with penalties and disasters
only to try their fortitude and allegiance!"

This quite forgotten explorer and financier, whose eloquent plea in
behalf of his race can not fail to appeal to every one, and whose only
demand for the enormous service rendered to his king is more tolerance
toward his people, deserves an honorable place in the annals of
American Jewish History as a loyal, patriotic subject.



This is not to be a series of biographical sketches on the Rothschilds
of the Eighteenth Century, for neither the space nor the scope of this
work would permit of such an elaborate history. This chapter aims
merely to set forth the political prominence attained by the family
of Gradis,[108] to whose hands the fortunes of two continents were
entrusted, and whose labors of love and patriotic services during the
war-times of France in America, deserve to be chronicled in our annals.
Reserving the elaboration of the family's antecedents, and other
interesting particulars for another large paper on the _History of the
Jews in Martinique_--the seat of their chief activity--we shall here
detail those facts which concern our topic the most.

We may begin with _David Gradis_, who, in 1731, was naturalized in
Bordeaux,[109] and who died in 1751. Already in 1696 he founded the
great mercantile house which had commercial connections with England,
Holland, Paris, southern France and the West Indies. The exports were
linen, wine and alcohol. In the year 1715, David Gradis tided over the
financial crisis under Louis XIV., after paying a draft of 150,000
francs, which his house endorsed. In fact the hard times did not
affect him much, for we know that only two years after he conducted
all the transatlantic commerce. He fitted out three ships, one bound
for Cayenne and two for the Island of Martinique (or _Martinico_).
His cargo consisted of wine, alcohol, meal and pickled meat, which
he exchanged for sugar and indigo in the West Indian ports. Another
money-crisis in 1719, passed without materially injuring his prospects,
although he lost heavily. In spite of it, however, he again undertook
foreign expeditions and was, as before, successful. In 1724, his
business expanded to such an extent that he opened a branch on the
island of St. Domingo. His name and fame grew in popularity and
opulence, and French America was glad to acknowledge the enterprise
of this energetic man who passed under the name of _the Portuguese
Merchant_. And, although Jews were not tolerated in the French
colonies, by the stern and scheming Jesuits, as we shall have ample
occasion to show elsewhere, the government was constrained to overlook
his origin and belief, in view of his vast influence and commercial
importance. So universal was the esteem felt for the house of David
Gradis that when his son Samuel, who conducted the interests of the
business in St. Pierre, Martinique, died there in 1732, his remains
were interred in the garden of the _frères de la Charité_, and masses
were held in the cloisters for the repose of his soul. True, the monks
dared not erect a monument to mark the spot. The lieutenant of the
colony urged in argument of their expulsion the fact that were any of
the members of the house of Gradis, there established, to die, their
property would have to be confiscated, for Jews were not permitted to
have possessions. Nevertheless he shut his eyes on their prolonged
residence on the island. Abraham, eldest son of David Gradis, succeeded
his father as senior member of the firm, of which he was previously
a partner. He achieved even more fame than his predecessor. Endowed
with wonderful ability and speculative genius, he also controlled the
trade of France with the West Indies. He received important official
contracts from the government; became intimate with personages of the
highest political rank; obtained the protection and friendship of M.
Maurepas, the confidant of Louis XVI., and added much to the glory
and renown of the house of "_David Gradis, et fils_." His extensive
correspondence with the greatest men of the reign of Louis XV. and
XVI., is still extant.

Through the friends who were influential in his behalf at court, his
ships were fitted out at the cost of the government, and this gave him
further opportunity to enlarge his business connections. Nor was he
ungrateful for these privileges and for the consideration shown him
by his royal patron. Thus we hear of remarkable exploits undertaken
in behalf of his country. In the wars between England and France for
the possession of Canada, he displayed extraordinary activity. In
order to expedite matters, he fitted out ships to Canada, although
the insurance on the cargo, because of the war then pending, was most
exorbitant. If his freight vessels were captured by the armed cruisers
of the enemy, he built and replenished new ones, without caring for
losses thus incurred for France. In 1748, he organized the society of
Canada, under the auspices of the government, in order to test the
possibilities of the land, and thereby again widened the sphere of his
mercantile activity. Important missions were entrusted to him. His
ships carried valuable cargo (presumably military ammunition, etc.),
always at the expense of the firm. He even erected magazines in Quebec.
Later on the government defrayed these costs, but _David Gradis et
fils_ had no little share in the success of these projects.

After his father's death in 1751, Abraham Gradis' financial interests
were still more extended. To give an idea of the scope of his
commercial activity we will cast a momentary glance into the private
accounts of the firm. In 1758, the commerce of the house with the
French colonies alone, amounted to 2,369,326 francs. In the following
year, the firm received the commission to forward 4500 tons of goods
and ammunition for the French troops in Canada. Twelve ships, among
them _eight of his own_ were called into service for the purpose. From
1759 to 1763, when Canada ceased to be a French possession, the export
trade of the firm of Gradis was worth _nine million francs_. These
merchant vessels, on account of the war, had to be manned by a goodly
company of soldiers, who had frequent occasion to defend themselves
from attacks on the sea, and saved quite often the honor of their flag
by their fearlessness and bravery.

During the struggle between England and France for the occupation of
Canada, the house of Gradis dispatched thither many heavily laden ships
at the order and expense of the French Government, which was their
debtor to the amount of several millions on more than one occasion. Of
course these obligations could not be liquidated for some time. Gradis
& Co.'s drafts were not promptly paid, for France was impoverished by
the American wars and had no means at her disposal. Although these
noble financiers suffered heavy losses from the capture and detention
of richly cargoed vessels sent out in the name of France, they did not
lose faith and preserved their balance with a skill and energy which is
remarkable. Far from fearing to sacrifice too much for the fatherland,
they strove more and more to merit the good will and esteem of the king
and the aristocracy. It was indeed a work of charity and patriotism on
their part to ransom French captives.[110] Abraham Gradis, we are told,
authorized an influential business friend in London, to supply the
captains and commanders held as prisoners in England with everything
necessary to ease and comfort their condition.[111]

He more than once was compelled to appeal to the government for the
necessary funds due him, in order to carry on his trade with the
colonies, which was increasing in dimensions every year. The road
to the audience-chamber of the King was not always clear to even so
influential a personage as Abraham Gradis. On one occasion, being
hard pressed for money to fill a large order received from the West
Indies, he presented his claim to Minister Berryer--well known for
his harsh and imperious demeanor. The latter, hesitating to comply,
Gradis assured him that unless his demands were soon satisfied he
would be prevented from accomplishing his duties. Whereupon the
stern minister cuttingly replied: "_That will not be such a great
misfortune; you merchants are accustomed to such things; in fact you
become rich through them!_" Abraham Gradis straightened himself up at
this insult, and looking steadily at the great man, said: "The name of
Gradis, better known in four quarters of the globe than that of the
Minister of France, is free from dishonor. No taint of any kind covers
its escutcheon!" With this he urged the minister with even greater
persistence to render him satisfaction by appealing to the King in his
behalf. Berryer, unused to such show of courage and firmness, could not
but comply with his request, and Gradis' claims were duly honored.

It was no conceit that prompted his reply to the haughty
representative of King Louis XV. His sovereign gave frequent sign of
his favor and gratitude for the diplomatic skill and rare tact as
well as noble devotion with which Gradis managed the business affairs
of the empire in these revolutionary days. The minister once wrote
in the following strain to Gradis & Co.: "I considered it my duty to
remind his Majesty that your conduct was both unselfish and zealous for
the welfare and services of the state on all occasions and under all
circumstances. His Majesty commissions me to express to you his utmost
satisfaction and recognition."

As a reward for his untiring interest in behalf of the French nation,
exceptional privileges were granted to him (Abraham Gradis), and his
family in the colonies. The right of owning real estate and civil
equality in common with the other citizens of France on the Island of
Martinique, were accorded to him in 1779. It is interesting to note
that he was associated with the Superior of the Jesuit Missionaries
in Martinique--the famous _pater Lavalette_, who had charge of the
largest and most influential congregation there, and who conducted
an immense business with foreign countries. Gradis once advanced him
400,000 francs. He often received him in his own home socially, and was
charmed by the personal merits of the enterprising Jesuit. This did not
prevent Gradis--a shrewd and careful merchant who knew just how much
to risk--from severing all connections with him, for he rather early
suspected the utter collapse of Lavalette's colossal undertakings, and
thus avoided the bankruptcy which would inevitably have resulted, had
he, like other careless firms, allowed himself to be drawn into the
vortex of speculation. Similar causes of self-preservation prompted
him to withdraw from further commercial relations with the State, as
another financial crisis warned him of the outbreak of the Revolution.

Much more of interest might be told of Abraham Gradis and other
members of the same stock. Thus for instance of his acts of kindness
during the famine in the French Colonies, at which time he sent
seventeen ships laden with nourishment and merchandise for the relief
of the suffering--a fact used by the Abbé Gregoire as a plea and an
argument in favor of the emancipation of the Jews.

A rebellion in St. Domingo and in Martinique where the Gradis family
(among them David II, Benjamin, Moses Gradis, etc.), owned extensive
territory, together with the losses in the mother country during
the French Revolution, caused the downfall of this princely house.
Their possessions in St. Domingo, valued at three million francs,
were utterly ruined. The slaves in their employ were (unknown to
them) misused by their representative, hence the "habitation," as
his property was called, began to yield but sad results. The younger
brother, Moses, saved at least a meagre portion of the vast wealth
once commanded by the house of Gradis, by visiting the island and
caring for the negroes, who, in gratitude for his kind treatment of
them--eulogized by the abolitionist Schoelcher--strove to make good
their former losses. The family of Gradis is immortalized in the
history of the commerce of two continents. "Their works are their



In the West Indies, the Jews, though debarred from public office
until late, contributed much to the public good. Their constancy and
restless activity in behalf of the Government under which they served
are chronicled by many historians. It were useless to give an elaborate
account of their influence for good in the islands. It would lead
us much too far to recount them, and in fact many things have been
recorded of this nature by the present writer elsewhere.[112] If we
mention the case of _Daniel Cordoso_, who was killed while defending
Curaçao, from an attack of the English in 1805,[113] it is because his
is the only one referred to by name in the history of that island.
No doubt other researches will be made by the active members of the
_American Jewish Historical Society_, in this direction, which will
silence all calumny against our patriotism. As a fitting epilogue to
these pages, we subjoin a "List of Jews appointed to civil and military
offices in Jamaica, since the act of 1831," extracted from the official
gazettes of the island, and presented by Sir F. H. Goldsmid, in his
_Arguments advanced against the enfranchisement of the Jews, considered
in a series of letters_, Second Edition, London 1833, pp. 39-40 (First
Ed., London, 1831), arranged in the following chronological order:


  October 15th    MYER BENJAMIN, Gent., to be a Quartermaster.

  October 24th    MOSES GOMES SILVA, ESQ., to be a Provost

  October 27th    ALEXANDER BRAVO, Esq., to be a Magistrate
                    and Assistant Judge of the Court of Common
                    Pleas for the Parish of Clarendon.

  November 2nd    PHILIP LUCAS, Esq., to be a Magistrate and
                    Assistant Judge of the Court of Common
                    Pleas for the Parish of Kingston.

  December 13th   AARON GOMES DACOSTA, Gent., to be an

  December 31st   DANIEL JACOBS, Gent., to be an Ensign.


  January 19th    ALEXANDER JOSEPH LINDO, Gent., to be a

  March 8th       JACOB DE PASS, Esq., to be a Magistrate and
                    Assistant Judge of the Court of Common
                    Pleas for the Parish Port Royal.

  March 9th       SAMUEL DELISSER, Gent., to be an Ensign.

  April 27th      ISAAC GOMES DACOSTA, Gent., to be a Quartermaster.

  May 1st         GEORGE ISAACS, Gent., to be a Quartermaster.

  May 5th         BARNET ISAACS, Gent., to be an Ensign.

  July 6th        DAVID LOPEZ, Gent., to be a Lieutenant of

  July 26th       ABRAHAM ISAACS, Esq., to be a Magistrate
                    and Assistant Judge of the Court of Common
                    Pleas for the Parish of St. Ann.

  August 4th      MOSES Q. HENRIQUES, Gent., to be an

It is evident from this brief and insufficient summary of our subject,
that the Jews on American soil, north and south, east and west, were
loyal, law-abiding citizens, noble philanthropists and exemplary


[105] For completeness' sake we reproduce this chapter from a recent
sketch in the _Menorah Monthly_ (Vol. XIX), for September, 1895, pp.
145-148, entitled: _A 16th Century document written by David Ebron, a
Jewish financier in America_. This newly discovered letter is perhaps
the most important evidence yet furnished of the services rendered by
the Jews in the discovery and financial improvement of America, and
deserves to be incorporated in this work. The book containing a copy of
this document was lately published in Madrid (1891), under the title:
_Documentos Escogidos del Archivo de la Casa di Alba_. See for other
particulars the above quoted article in _Menorah_, note. We intend
publishing Ebron's letter soon in the original.

[106] On the Marranos in Hispañiola and South America, Dr. Kayserling
has published some interesting data in the _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 2; see
also his _Christopher Columbus and the Participation of the Jews in the
Discovery of America_ (New York, 1894).

[107] The writer of these pages, in another paper, treats of the
sufferings of the _Marranos_ or New Christians in Mexico, Peru and
Brazil from 1570 to 1750. See his article on "The Jewish Martyrs of the
Inquisition in South America," in _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 4, (1895). Dr.
Cyrus Adler furnishes in the same _Publications_, No. 4, a valuable
sketch on the "Trial of Jorge de Almeida by the Inquisition in Mexico,"
1590-1609, which sets forth the social condition of the secret Jews in
that country at the end of the sixteenth century.

[108] The sources whence the materials contained in this chapter
are taken, being for the most part accessible, and, as in a
forthcoming essay on the _Jews of Martinique_, all the references
will be incorporated in full, the writer merely quotes the following
authorities: _Notice sur la famille Gradis et sur la maison Gradis ét
fils de Bordeaux, par Henri Gradis_ (1875), _apud_ Graetz, "Die Familie
Gradis," in his _Monatsschrift_, etc., Vol. XXIV (1875), pp. 447-459;
XXV (1876), pp. 78-85; his _Geschichte der Juden_, Vol. XI (Leipzig,
1870), pp. 190, 200, 202, 223; see also Ad. Thierry: _Dissertation sur
cette quest, est-il des moyens de rendre les juifs plus heureux et plus
utile en France--(ouvrage couronné)_ Paris, 1788; and several books on
the history of the Jews in Bordeaux. In our narrative of the career of
the Gradis family we follow Prof. Graetz, in his _Monatsschrift_, _l.

[109] Cf. also Dr. Graetz, in _Monatsschrift_, Vol. XXIV, p. 557.

[110] This important fact is thus recorded by Prof. Graetz:
(_Geschichte der Juden_, vol. XI, p. 190) "Gradis aus einer reichen und
angesehenen Familie in Bordeaux, die grosse Bank- und ueber-seeische
Geschaefte fuer die franzoesischen Colonien betrieb, eigene Schiffe
ausruestete und dem franzoesischen Staate in den entfernten Besitzungen
_durch Ausloesung franzoesischer Gefangener aus den Haenden der
Englaender Dienste geleistet hatte_." See also the following note,
which is still more explicit.

[111] Cf. Graetz, in _Monatsschrift_, vol. XXIV., p. 452: "...
_Abraham Gradis gab einem Geschaeftsfreunde in London den Auftrag,
den gefangenen franzoesischen Capitaenen und Commandanten auf seine
Rechnung Alles zu verabreichen, was sie noethig haben sollten, um ihre
Lage zu erleichtern_."

[112] Cf. G. A. Kohut's article on _Jews in St. Thomas, Jamaica and
Barbados_, in the _P. A. J. H. S._, No. 4.

[113] See Koenen's _Geschiedenis_, etc., p. 307-8: "... Toen in
1805 de Engelschen een vruchteloozen aanval op dit eiland deden, de
Joden, aldaar woonachtig, hun plicht ter verdediging van hetzelve
moedig betracht hebben, zoodat een van hen, zijnde _Daniel Cardoso_,
geboortig van Amsterdam, bij die gelegenheid gesneuveld is." Cf. also
Van Hamelsveld, _Geschiedenis der Joden_, p. 363.

[114] This is analogous to the English office of Sheriff.

[115] This list was already published by the writer in an article on
_The Civil and Military Status of American Jews_, in _Menorah Monthly_,
Vol. XVIII, No. 4, pp. 256-7.


The purpose of the present volume, as its title indicates, is a review
of the record and the status as patriot, soldier and citizen of the
_American_ Jew. But the Jew is co-extensive with civilization, not only
historically but geographically as well, and wherever civilization
makes its way, there the Jew will be found exerting a positive
influence in furthering its progress. He will be found at the nucleus
and core of conservatism and order wherever order is akin to right, but
he has never been wanting at the front of Revolution when wrong could
no longer otherwise be righted.

Avoiding more than a passing advertence to Jewish military achievements
in the beginning of Israel's history, in the later struggles against
the Greeks and subsequently against the Romans; stopping but a moment
to remember Joshua, and Gideon, and Deborah, the successive Maccabæan
heroes, and the last desperate struggle for freedom that was led by
Bar Cochba against Hadrian; passing down through all the martyrdoms
of the Dark Ages to the present "nineteenth century," we come face to
face with the fact that Jews have been present in European armies since
the time of the Napoleonic wars. They were to be found in the ranks of
all the combatants during that bloody prelude to the great political
regeneration that is yet going on before us, and they have risen as
far above the ranks as the prejudices of the Christianity-professing
majority would admit.

In the successive Polish uprisings, in all the great political
upheavals of 1848, and especially in the Hungarian revolution of that
time, the Jews of their respective nationalities took a vigorous and
aggressive part.[116] Their position in this regard was so positive
and unmistakable that when those great socio-political disturbances
had been quieted through the partial concession of popular rights
by the monarchies of Europe, the Jews of Germany and Austria had
reached a position where they could logically demand their political
enfranchisement and the abolition of the mediæval restrictions which
remained imposed on them. That they did not obtain a full measure of
citizenship until after the establishment of the German Empire in
1871, is indeed true, and even yet the spirit of the Dark Ages is so
far prevalent in Germany and in Austria (leaving Slavic Europe out of
consideration as not yet modernized) as to preclude the advancement
of Jews to the higher posts of the army. In France, however, since
the French Revolution, and in Italy since the consolidation of the
Kingdom, Jews have been advanced to the highest military commands.
In both countries and especially in France, several Jewish soldiers
at present hold the rank of General of Division, and quite a number,
proportionately, that of Brigade and Regimental Commander.[117]


[116] ... "It is a gratifying proof of progress that the President of
the Magyars (Kossuth) has promised freedom to those who equally with
himself are struggling for the independence of their country, since it
is said that there are no less than 35,000 Israelites in the Hungarian
army." _Extract from a French newspaper reprinted in "The Occident,"
August, 1849. Phila.; Edited by Isaac Leeser._

... "It cannot be denied that already at that time the majority of
the Magyar Jews were patriotically inclined towards the country which
they called their home. As by magic, they felt themselves drawn
towards the man who preached liberty and equality, and at whose hands
they were expecting redemption from the Ghetto and from civil and
political degradation. As a matter of fact, thousands of Jews, among
them a general, fought in the Magyar army.... The contribution which
the notorious Haynau levied upon the Jewish congregations was but a
consequence of the loyalty to the man of the New Era, attributed to the
Jews." _Dr. Adolph Kohut on "The Relations of Kossuth to the Jews," in
the American Hebrew, N. Y., March, 1894._

       *       *       *       *       *

To the above may be added the following testimony of General Julius
Stahel, one of the active participants in the Hungarian Revolution, and
who subsequently made a distinguished military record in our civil war.

    NEW YORK, MAY 22d, 1895,
    _Hon. Simon Wolf, Washington, D. C._,


    I know from personal knowledge that many Jews fought in the battles
    for the independence of Hungary in 1848, with as much bravery and
    gallantry as the American Jew fought here during the late strife
    between the North and the South, and I also know that the late
    humane and illustrious apostle of liberty, Louis Kossuth, always
    fully appreciated the patriotism, loyalty and devotion of the Jews
    to the cause of Hungary during that great struggle for freedom.

    Patriotism and bravery are not the birthright of one nation or
    race, but of all mankind.

    Very sincerely yours, J. STAHEL.

[117] Referring to a newspaper item regarding the rumors of
a duel between Capt. Cremieux Foa, a French cavalry officer, and a
certain anti-Semite editor of a Paris newspaper, General Franz Sigel
wrote as follows:

played by the Jews of Europe in all the various avenues of progress
need not detain us here. The recurrent ebullitions of unreasoning
prejudice against them which become manifest from time to time, are
ultimately traceable as but distorted expressions of the unrest which
the European social organism is suffering under its abnormal political
and economic conditions. What there is left of this spirit on American
soil is but a reflex of that of Europe, but there, as here, the record
made by the Jewish people in politics and in war, in commerce and in
industry, in science, art and literature, has placed beyond question
their position as patriots, soldiers and citizens.

    _New York, May_ 31st, 1892.
    _Hon. Simon Wolf, Washington, D. C_.,


    Not knowing whether you have seen or will see the inclosed item, I
    send it to you. It shows at least that there are no less than 300
    Jewish officers serving in the French army, probably the highest
    number in any of the great European armies, which speaks well for
    France and her republican government.

    Hoping that you are well, I am,

    Truly yours, FRANZ SIGEL.


As already noted by the author in the introduction to this work, it was
in December, 1891, that another of the numberless public vilifications
of the Jewish people which have appeared from time to time had demanded
a no less public refutation of its falsities. It has furthermore been
noted that this refutation was dictated not by anything specially
remarkable in the nature of the slander itself, nor of its source,
inasmuch as the former was commonplace and the latter obscure, but that
the reply had been called forth wholly by reason of the extraordinary
condition of the public mind with regard to the subject at that
particular juncture. It was the time and the occasion that gave the
slander prominence, rather than any peculiarity of its own.

It has been so for a long time past. From the time, nearly 1900 years
ago, when Philo of Alexandria appeared before Caligula in defence
of his people, down along the centuries to the date of Menasseh ben
Israel's appeal to Cromwell in 1656, there were repeated occasions
for such defenses and appeals, and there have been many since. These
contingencies have repeatedly arisen in the course of the slow process
of popular enlightenment which makes up the history of Man, and as that
process is yet far from accomplishment it is not at all unlikely that
they may be repeated in the future.

It is, however, more than passingly remarkable that in the closing
decade of the 19th Century, when "the thoughts of men have widened
with the process of the suns," an occasion of this nature should have
arisen. That such exigencies occur but rarely in the midst of our
Western civilization, and that rare as they are, their occurrence is
always traceable to foreign impulses, only renders more apparent the
liberalizing influences of our free American institutions, while on the
other hand further emphasizing the lessons taught us by the spectacle
of Monarchic Europe. There the remnants of the mediæval system,
political, ecclesiastic and social, that remained as historic _debris_
after the cataclysm of the French Revolution, still clog the advance of
true enlightenment. In Germany and in Austria a considerable portion of
the populace is still affected by a taint of monkish fanaticism, and in
Russia only a comparatively few individuals appear to be free from it.
Schools are numerous in Austria and universities flourish in Germany,
but the prejudices which form the obverse side of folly find still some
teachers in the schools and preachers in the pulpit.

    "Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers,"

and the dictates of reason, the teachings of political and economic
science, the lessons of history, will have to be yet more than
once repeated before that umbra of the Dark Ages, the so-called
"anti-Semitism" of Slavic and Teutonic Europe, and its penumbra in
America, will have been lost in historic space.

These lessons have been learned and these teachings taught by the
foremost minds of every epoch and latterly of every generation. From
the time of Reuchlin's defense of the Talmud and Jewish literature
generally against the fanatics of his day, a defense which caused
a religious and political agitation that became the prelude to the
Reformation, down to our present time, there have not been wanting
Christian men of learning and of understanding who strove successfully
in the defense of Jewish polity against the prejudices of ignorance.
The great Renaissance of German letters in the latter half of the
18th century afforded numerous instances of men of this character,
among whom need but be cited Lessing, Herder, Schiller, and Goethe.
These writers and thinkers carried on their polemics in the domain
of idealism, in poetry and philosophy, and their thoughts were
soon re-echoed in the out-givings of the succeeding generation of
scientists, students and statesmen. We will not attempt here to adduce
all the great array of leading minds who have been impelled to express
themselves on this theme, but will limit our citations to a few of
the most authoritative thinkers and a quotation of the most positive
utterances on the subject.

In marked contrast with the accusation of the passing school of
anti-Semitic writers against Judaism as materialistic in its
tendencies, there may be cited an expression by the great German and
cosmopolitan philosopher, ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT. In a letter to a
Jewish friend regarding the natural idealism expressed in Hebrew
literature, he refers him to the following passage in his _Cosmos_
(_Vol. III, p. 44_), and closes his letter as below.

    "It is a characteristic sign of the natural poetry of the Hebrews,
    that, as a reflex of Monotheism, it always comprises the whole
    of the universe in its unity, both life on earth and the bright
    realms on high. It seldom dwells upon single phenomena, but
    rejoices in the contemplation of great masses. Nature is not
    described as self-existent, or glorified by a beauty of her own;
    to the Hebrew singer she always appears in connection with an
    over-ruling spiritual power. Nature to him is ever a thing created
    and ordained, the living utterance of God's Omnipresence in the
    works of the world of matter. Therefore, the lyrical poetry of
    the Hebrews, by reason of its subject, is grand and grave in its

    "Stand fast by your brethren who have accomplished so remarkable
    a course of martyrdom through centuries and now stand on the
    threshold of their liberation; devote all the energies of your
    intellect to the spiritual labor wherewith your millennial history
    is instinct; success cannot, will not fail you and the rich results
    that you, my young friend, will obtain from the mines of science,
    will calm and comfort you in many a sad experience in the dull and
    cloudy present, that is but the precursor of the bright dawn of the
    day of liberty."

       *       *       *       *       *

Another world-famous scientist, ALPHONSE L. P. PYRAME DE CANDOLLE, in
his _Histoire des sciences et des savants depuis deux siécles_, Geneva,
1873, makes the following very remarkable observations:

    "If Europe had been peopled by Jews only we might have witnessed
    a curious spectacle. There would no longer be any wars; hence
    the moral sensibility would be violated much less and millions
    of people would not be torn away from useful occupations. Public
    debts and taxes would decrease. The cultivation of science, of
    literature, of fine arts, especially music, for which the Jews have
    a great predilection, would be furthered to the highest extent.
    Industry and commerce would flourish. Few crimes of personal
    violence would be committed, and those against property would but
    seldom be accompanied by violence. The wealth of the community as
    a whole and of individuals would largely increase by the effect of
    intelligent and regular labor, combined with economy. This wealth
    would have a beneficent effect. The clergy would not come in
    collision with the State. Perhaps there would be less corruption
    among the officials and greater firmness."

The above passage is approvingly quoted by another great leader in
the world of science, Professor Carl Vogt, in an article published
in _Westerman's Monatshefte_, wherein the writer, treating of the
habits and qualities acquired by European peoples through hereditary
transmission, speaks of the Jewish people as having attained the
highest civilization notwithstanding their having lived for ages under

       *       *       *       *       *

On the occasion of the centennial anniversary, in 1891, of the
political enfranchisement of the French Jews, the celebrated leader of
the French Liberal Catholics, PERE HYACINTHE, addressed to the Grand
Rabbi of Paris the following expressive communication:

    "MONSIEUR LE GRAND RABBIN:--You will have seen from the papers that
    our Gallican Catholic church intends to commemorate the centenary
    of the emancipation of the Jews by the Constituent Assembly.
    The 27th of September, 1791, is a date of even greater glory to
    France than it is to the Jews. It was a day that witnessed the
    reparation of a long and cruel injustice; it inaugurated for the
    whole world an era of liberty and brotherhood from which no evil
    disposed person has since been able to make us swerve. We are
    too enlightened and too liberal-minded to become anti-Semites.
    Besides, we are Christians, and as such we must not forget that it
    is from Israel's bosom that we have sprung. Israel, the grand old
    olive tree from which we have been grafted. For the French Jews
    the interregnum which commenced with Sedecias ended with Napoleon.
    Napoleon it was, who boasted of being the King of the Jews, and the
    Jews accordingly treated him as their political Messiah. Than him
    they could not have had a greater.

    "But Napoleon's empire, like the kingdom of David, is no more, and
    the French Republic now has the keeping of these two illustrious
    necropoles, that at Jerusalem wherein reposes the race of David,
    that at Paris wherein rests the hero who was in himself his own
    sole dynasty.

    "But none the less, France has remained, as Bonaparte remarked, the
    new tribe of Judah, where Frenchmen and Jews constitute one people.

    "Republicans by virtue of the Mosaic legislation, I would almost
    say socialistic, in the best sense of the term, before they became
    monarchists by Samuel's dispensation, the traditions of the Jews
    comprise all the essentials for the service of France.

    "'Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah and bring him unto his people; let
    his hands be sufficient for him, and be Thou a help to him from his

    "These are my wishes, Monsieur le Grand Rabbin and may the God of
    the Jews, who is also the God of the Christians, cause them to be
    fulfilled speedily.

    "Accept, monsieur, the assurance of my fraternal friendship.


       *       *       *       *       *

As focussing effectively the most salient aspects of this general
subject, we will here cite a thoughtful statement from a strictly
orthodox Roman Catholic source, the French clerical journal, _Le Monde_:

    "The immortality of the soul has been repudiated by the Academie
    des Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres. The Jews had to serve as the
    occasion. The Old Testament, however, was vindicated. But in how
    many feeble minds was not an uncertainty left? How many will take
    the trouble to read over the Sacred Books, when the reading of the
    daily papers absorbs all their time? Voltaire knew well enough that
    to sustain his iconoclastic views he had to discredit the Jewish
    people, to falsify their history, and to take up again the pagan
    theory of presenting them as the most degraded of people.

    "Such, indeed, was the opinion of the Greeks and Romans in regard
    to the Jews. The Greeks, given over to all conceivable turpitude
    and tyranny, to an anarchy without bounds and without end,
    incapable of even simulating a defence against Rome, despised
    the Jewish people, and the Romans entertained the same feelings.
    They despised them for the same reason that the economists, the
    capitalists, the modern free-thinkers, despise the Catholics.
    The Jews did not worship idols; they alone did not prostrate
    themselves before nature; they condemned, despised that pantheism,
    that idol-worship, which sanctified the vices and the passions and
    which the Greeks and Romans embraced with such ardor. The dignity
    and regularity of their habits formed a striking contrast to pagan
    dissipation. They opposed in their individuality, the beauty of
    their rigorous law to the impure teachings of paganism. They never
    presented a disgraceful spectacle in the time of their prosperity;
    they never participated in the bloody games of the ring; they held
    human sacrifices in horror.

    "The Jews did not profess the principle of equity, of which the
    Greeks and Romans boasted so much--themselves absolute partisans of
    Slavery. They simply upheld the institution of family hierarchy,
    the paternal authority. Their habits and institutions, inspired
    by the parental sentiment--were they not full of kindliness and
    foresight? Could they overlook the feeble and the poor? Amongst
    them brothers could not know contention and strife, because they
    were equals in reality. Without the parent, fraternity would

    "In order to subsist it is necessary that children should always
    have before them the image, the memory, the principle of the
    paternity from which they emanated, which formed the bonds of their
    friendship. Their unity proceeds from thence, a unity, sweet,
    lively, inculcated in infancy, formed by the heart before the mind
    could grasp it. The lawgiver had no occasion, therefore, to enjoin
    fraternity, but needed only to submit it to that law of nature
    which organizes the paternal authority. The Jews were ignorant
    of those social ideas that desolated the ancient cities and that
    spring up again in modern times. The poor had no demands to make
    upon the rich. The Jews never forget, and had they done so, the law
    reminded them that the earth belongs to the Lord and that in God
    they are all brothers. The constitutional wars between the poor and
    the rich in Rome and Athens were caused by extortion. This question
    of extortion fills Roman history with its pale shadow; it is at the
    bottom of all the troubles, dissensions, periodical massacres and
    revolts. It has again taken possession of society with the reform
    of the Nineteenth Century. Only in 1789 France passed from under
    the yoke of extortion. The Jewish fraternity condemned extortion as
    a principle of tyranny.

    "This fraternity, so powerful a principle, led the Jews to love
    their fellow-beings, to see in them colleagues and brothers;
    they received the stranger willingly, extended to him their
    hospitality, even a share in the benefits of their law--something
    that was foreign to all other nations. With these other nations the
    stranger was regarded simply as an enemy; "enemy" and "stranger"
    were expressed by one and the same word. Pantheism, denying the
    principle of unity, as indicated in the Divine origin, left men in
    a continual state of war. And war never ceased; the cities fought
    with each other, until the strongest had subdued the others, and in
    their turn were conquered and absorbed by a greater. This is the
    invariable history of Greece and Rome. The dogma of Divine creation
    exhibited to the Jews all men as brethren. They did not treat the
    stranger therefore as a barbarian. They, the Israelites, alone of
    all the nations of antiquity, did not carry on aggressive wars;
    once established upon their soil, they had no other desire than to
    live in peace by living out their laws. This is the object of all
    their institutions. They do not make war upon the stranger, because
    they had no hate against him.

    "Their God, greater than the gods of the Olympus, neither flattered
    nor served their passions. He was a jealous God, who exacted the
    submission of the heart. He chastised his rebellious children. And
    this people purified by persecution and misfortune, returned to the
    laws of their fathers, to the observance of their precepts. No city
    in ancient, no people in modern times could have passed through
    like vicissitudes and recovered again. It is not through progress
    that they endured and were capable of resistance, but by holding
    fast to the past; by rallying around the law, which they had never
    abandoned and which they never modified, hard as it was. It often
    became irksome, it never bargained with its conscience. What
    else existed, before the laws of Moses, than that paganism which
    legalized all vices? The Jews defended their law with their lives;
    they fought for it against the Greek kings of Syria; they preferred
    to be buried under the ruins of Jerusalem to making a compact with
    Roman paganism. The Greeks and Romans never had the idea that one
    can die for one's religion.

    "By their habits in the government of the State the Jews were
    separated completely from Greece and Rome. They never brooked the
    insults of the ancient or modern mobocracy, because they respected
    the principle of the family, the foundation of their political,
    judicial, administrative and military organization. They alone in
    antiquity repudiated slavery. They practiced a national brotherhood
    which the Christian people are hardly capable of comprehending;
    it is so sublime, and almost beyond human nature. The institution
    of the jubilee, of the seventh year, the seventh day, was the
    perfection of social order; but even with Christianity these
    institutions could not maintain themselves. Dispersed, reduced to
    direst need and to the humiliation of exile, the Jews have never
    abandoned these first principles. Tacitus remarked the close
    ties of brotherhood that united them in his time. _Inter ipsos
    obstinata fides_. Since then and up to this time is it not the
    same sentiment? Are there many dissensions amongst them? This
    moral greatness of the Jewish people made them the target of pagan
    enmity. The policy of Rome was to be enforced upon all nations. The
    Jews share with the Christians the honor of having been singled out
    as the victims of utter extermination.

    "The Jewish nation has survived all its victors; it alone, says
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, withstood the power of time, fortune and
    defeat. Greece and Rome were enveloped in a system of superstition
    which weighed heavily upon the actions of public and private life.
    The Jews lived beyond the pale of that ignominy. The causes of this
    intellectual and moral superiority became the subject of jealous
    depreciation generally."

       *       *       *       *       *

The essential spirit of the Jewish polity has seldom, if ever, been
more effectively portrayed than by REV. DR. HENRY M. FIELD, in his
scholarly work, _On the Desert_, published by Charles Scribner's Sons,
New York, 1883. It deals with the system of law instituted by Moses,
which became ingrained in the Jewish people through long centuries of
victorious contention against barbarism in all its historic forms, and
which remains to-day the guiding principle of Jewish life in all the
relations of man to man.

We quote from Dr. Field's work as follows:


    "Perhaps it does not often occur to readers of the Old Testament
    that there is much likeness between the Hebrew Commonwealth and the
    American Republic. There are more differences than resemblances, at
    least the differences are more marked. Governments change with time
    and place, with the age and the country, with manners and customs;
    yet at the bottom there is one radical principle that divides a
    republic from a monarchy or an aristocracy; it is the natural
    equality of men--that "all men are born free and equal"--which is
    as fully recognized in the laws of Moses as in the Declaration of
    Independence. Indeed the principle is carried further in the Hebrew
    Commonwealth than in ours; for not only was there equality before
    the laws, but the laws aimed to produce equality of condition in