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Title: Dr. Stearns's Tour from London to Paris
Author: Stearns, Samuel
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Dr. Stearns's Tour from London to Paris" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

  Transcriber's notes:

  Errata have been left as in the original book and not altered in the

  Obvious printer's errors have been corrected as they were not listed
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  Other than that, the archaic and inconsistent spelling from the
  original has not been altered.

  [Illustration:  Dr. Samuel Stearns.  An American Philosopher.]






A Description of the Kingdom of France--The Customs, Manners, Polity,
Science, Commerce, and Agriculture of the Inhabitants--Its ANCIENT
form of Government,--and the NEW--Particulars concerning the Royal
Family--Causes of the late Revolution--Proceedings and Decrees of the
National Assembly--An Account of the Destruction of the Bastille, and
of many dreadful Commotions which have happened in the Nation--With a
minute Detail of the late grand Proceedings at the Champ de Mars.--The
whole interspersed with a Variety of Reflections, _humourous_, _moral_,
_critical_, and _philosophical_.





       *       *       *       *       *

"Applicans animum meum ad disquirendum & ad explorandum Sapientiam
de omni eo quod fit sub cælis." Sol.

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON, Printed:


       *       *       *       *       *



Entered at Stationers Hall.


  Kind Reader,

As I am obliged to spend the greatest part of my time in mathematical,
philosophical, and physical studies, it was not my design to have
written on this subject, although I was advised to do it more than
twelve months ago; but on seeing the movements in France, on account
of the _Revolution_, I altered my mind, kept a journal of many things
which I saw and heard, and have accordingly written the following
pages, which are presented for your perusal and consideration.

I have endeavoured to avoid error, and to compile the narration as
accurate as possible: if any thing of that kind shall be discovered,
I hope it will be imputed to my being misinformed, and not to any
intention of mine to impose upon the public.

As it is the duty of every philosopher to promote the union, harmony,
and felicity of mankind, I have mentioned many things which I hope
may be productive of establishing the peace and happiness of the
inhabitants of the world. But, alas! it is to be regretted, that
some who have shone greatly in the philosophical profession, instead
of promoting this laudable work, and for the sake of ingrossing the
riches, honours, and profits of this perishing world to themselves,
have, under a cloak of religion and liberty, sowed discord amongst
brethren, excited insurrections, mobs, and riots, which have terminated
in carnage and desolation, and proved destructive of the public
tranquillity, and of the liberty and happiness of the people. But these
abominable works are by no means the business of a true philosopher,
who will attempt to do good instead of doing evil.

How far the politicians of the present, or future ages, may agree with
me in sentiment, time alone must determine. But if the things that are
written in the subsequent sheets shall prove useful and profitable, it
will rejoice the author.

After wishing your health and prosperity, and the felicity of mankind
through the world,

  I subscribe myself,
  kind Reader,
  Your's and the Public's
  most obedient
  humble Servant,


 London, Sept. 30, 1790.


  Page 13. line 13. for _ni_ read _in_.
       14. ----  3. --  _abliged_ read _obliged_.
       18. ---- 19. --  _was_ read _were_.
       23. ----  5. --  _market_ read _marked_.
       26. ----  7. --  _received into the centre_ read
                          _received them into the centre_.
       36. ---- 18. --  _meteria_ read _materia_.
       71. ---- 10. --  _malconduct_ read _maleconduct_.
       96. ---- 20. --  _againt_ read _against_.
       98. ---- 15. --  _The semicolon should have been placed
                          after the word_ only;--.





 _The_ Doctor _engages a Passage to_ Paris.--_Copy of a Card
 received at Piccadilly.--He arrives at_ Dover, _and_ Calais.--_Is
 met by a number of Gentlemen, who welcome him to France.--An Account
 of the Beggars, and of the French Diet.--Observations on drinking

  July 7, 1790.

Having had an inclination to go to Paris for some months past, I went
to Piccadilly this day, where I engaged a passage on board the stage
coaches, called the diligences, for which I paid five guineas, and was
told "That I would be found for that sum, with every thing that might
be needful on the way, only I must give about five shillings to the

At Piccadilly I received a card, a copy of which I publish for the
information of strangers, and benefit of the owners of the stages.

"The Paris diligences to and from London, set out from the office next
the White Bear Inn, Piccadilly, every Monday, Thursday, and Saturday,
at five o'clock in the morning. Five guineas each person, for carriage,
sea passage, diet and lodging: Port fees excepted. Fourteen pounds
luggage allowed; all above to pay three-pence farthing per pound.

"N. B. In case passengers should be detained by contrary winds, they
are to pay their own expences from the next day of their arrival at the
seaport, to the time of their shipping.

"Also a wagon, every Monday at ten o'clock in the morning, to carry
goods and merchandize, which are registered at the said office, and at
the Blossoms Inn, Lawrence-lane, Cheapside, where declarations must
be delivered in writing, and signed by the owner, of the quality,
quantity, and value of the said merchandize, which will be conveyed to
Paris in the course of a fortnight, at the rate of seventeen shillings
per hundred weight, Custom-house duties excepted. The proprietors, for
the conveniency of the public, will discharge the said duties either in
England or France, and charge them with the carriage to the person they
are directed to, without requiring any interest or commission whatever.

"Attendance at the above offices every day from nine in the morning
till seven in the evening, where parcels are registered to Paris, and
to every part of France.

"*** Passengers luggage must be sent to the office between six and
seven o'clock in the evening, or it will be left 'till the following

As I was on my way to Piccadilly, I was informed that the king of
France was to be crowned on the fourteenth of this month, and sworn to
adhere to the new Constitution which has been framed by the National
Assembly. This made me anxious to get to Paris as soon as possible: but
being told the places were all taken in the coaches, and that it was
impossible for me to set off till the 12th, I was obliged to wait till
that time, but was informed that I must be at Piccadilly with my trunk,
&c. by seven in the evening of the 11th; and I was there at the time;
lodged at the White Bear inn, and at five the next morning set off for
Paris in company with five gentlemen. A lady in a post-chaise overtook
us near Greenwich, and came into the diligence.

We breakfasted at a good inn on the road, and dined at Canterbury,
where the lady left us, and at evening reached Dover, where we supped,
lodged, and went to breakfast. About eleven in the morning of the
13th, we embarked for Calais, and arrived there in about three hours;
but had a very rough passage, in consequence of which almost every lady
and gentleman on board was afflicted with sea-sickness, which I believe
was advantageous to the greatest part of us.

On our arrival at Calais a great number of French gentlemen came to
our vessel, to welcome us to France, and invite us to put up at their
houses; but on finding that some of us belonged to the diligences, and
that there was a place prepared for our entertainment, they went off

Although we had been told that we should have nothing to pay, only
about five shillings to the porters, we found ourselves mistaken; for
we were obliged to pay for the wine which we drank when we dined and
supped on the preceding day, and to give money to a swarm of servants,
&c. At Calais we were obliged to give in a list of our names to the
Custom-house officers, and to give them some money to buy liquor with,
that they might drink our healths--that being the custom, as we were

We put up at a hotel, called _De la Messagrie_; where we left another
list of our names; for such were the orders of the mayor of the city.

An English lady that had come from Dover with us, and was a decent
well-behaved person, and one of excellent sense and understanding, put
up at this hotel: she told me she had travelled above 4,000 miles on
the European Continent, had been through France, Germany, &c. and was
then on her way to Flanders.

At this place we were soon beset with a number of beggars, as

1. By a priest of the order of St. Francis.

2. By the captain of the vessel, that brought us over the English

3. By the steward of the vessel.

4. By the sailors that came with us.

5. By the poor of the city.

6. By the porters, &c.

We gave the priest some money, and he pronounced a blessing and
departed very well pleased. I was told that he and his convents got
their living altogether by begging. We gave the captain half a crown
a-piece, and some silver, sous, &c. to the other beggars.

In a few minutes another swarm of beggars came that belong to Calais,
and as we did not supply all their wants, some of them broke one of
the windows belonging to the room where we were sitting, by a rapid
stroke with a stick, stone, or some such thing.

We soon sat down to dinner. The table was spread in an elegant manner,
with napkins laid in our plates, which we used to keep our clothes

I was asked, _A'imez vous la soupe à la Françoise, Monsieur?_

My answer was--_Oui, Madame_.

Besides soup, we had beef, mutton, veal, rabbits, hares, geese, fowls,
pigeons, &c. several sorts of pies, excellent wine, and sweet cakes,
figs, appricots, cherries and strawberries; the latter we mixed with
white sugar and wine, and eat the composition with spoons, which is the
French fashion. Their loaves of bread were about two feet in length,
and six inches in breadth, and their knives had picked points, and
their forks four tines a piece. Every one of us was allowed a tumbler
to drink out of: but the French do not drink healths, though they
pretended at the Custom-house, that we must give them money to buy
liquor with for that purpose. We did not pay for our wines in France as
we were on our way to Paris, as we had done at Dover, &c.

The drinking of healths has been, and still is, too much practised both
in Great Britain and America; and especially among the lower class
of people. For when Timothy Toss Pot is in company, he says, "_Your
healths ladies and gentlemen_," every time he drinks, which will be
perhaps fifty times in an evening; whereas it might be as well, nay
much better, to drink their healths but once, or not at all, which
would save much trouble, and prevent the company from being interrupted
with such clamours.

I have asked why the health drinkers do not follow that practice when
they drink tea, or coffee; as the Irish woman did when she partook
of the sacrament; and have been told, that it is _because it is not
the fashion_, and that from hence it has been omitted. The fashion,
however, must be followed, right or wrong; for, Out of the fashion out
of the world, according to the old woman's scripture: And, When we are
among the Romans we must do as the Romans do. For,

    "Custom is a living law, whose sway
    "Men more than all the written laws obey."

Says the poet. Because it is customary I have sometimes been induced to
drink healths myself, when I have been in company, through fear that I
should be called an uncivil and an unpolite person. But this needless
custom is now growing out of use; for our nobility and gentry have
discovered that it is superfluous, and many of them have forsaken the
needless practice; which example will undoubtedly be followed by the
commonality in process of time.

We are told in Bailey's Dictionary, that the custom of drinking healths
sprang from Rowena, a beautiful daughter of Hengistus, general of the
Saxons. The general invited king Vortigern to supper, and after it was
over called for Rowena, who, richly attired, and with a graceful mein,
enters with a golden bowl full of wine in her hand, and drinks to the
king, saying, "Be of health, lord king:" to which he replied, "Drink
health." The king enamoured with her beauty, married her, and gave her
and her father all Kent. This was upwards of 1300 years ago.

We are also told in the Historian's _Vade-mecum_, that the custom of
drinking healths was in fashion so early as 1134 years before Christ.
The accounts do not agree, and which is the truest I cannot tell.


 _The Latitude, Longitude, and Description of_ Calais.--_The_
 Doctor _and others obliged to wear National
 Cockades.--English Money and Bank Notes not passable in France.--How
 Strangers ought to be dressed.--A Table of French Coins, with their
 Value in English Money.--Of French Measures, in Length._

Calais is situated in latitude 50 deg. and 58 min. North, and longitude
1 deg. and 49 min. East from the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. It
is a very pleasant town, invironed with ramparts thrown up at a vast

At this place we found the people under arms, and they seemed to
be filled with joy in consequence of the Revolution. We that were
strangers, were obliged to put on and wear National Cockades, to
prevent being insulted by mobs; and no lady or gentleman was suffered
to travel without.

Whilst we tarried at Calais we were informed that English money would
not pass in France, and that it would be best for us to get our guineas
changed. We therefore took change for some, and received 26 livres for
each guinea, although an English guinea commonly passes for but 24
livres in France. Hence, about twelve-pence is lost by the exchange.

Bank notes are not negotiable in France; therefore those that travel
into that country, ought to take gold and silver, otherwise they will
meet with much difficulty. If you draw on the bankers, they will charge
you eight _per cent._ discount; but sometimes it is done at _par_ by
French merchants who want to send money to London. No money is allowed
to pass in France, unless coined in the present king's reign. Strangers
ought therefore to be upon their guard, lest they get imposed upon by
taking old coin.

They that go to France ought to dress in the French mode, to prevent
being known by sharpers, who sometimes try to take the advantage of
those they find to be foreigners.

As it may be of some utility to strangers going into France, I will
just add

A TABLE _of_ FRENCH COINS, _with their value in_ ENGLISH.

                                | £. _S._ _D._  | £. _S._ _D._
  A Louis d'or, 24 Livres       | 2   0   0     | 1   0    0
  A Grand Ecu, 6 ditto          | 0  10   0     | 0   5    0
  The Ecu, 3 ditto              | 0   5   0     | 0   2    6
  The Vingt-quatre Sols Piece   | 0   2   0     | 0   1    0
  A Livre                       | 0   1   8     | 0   0   10
  A douze Sols Piece            | 0   1   0     | 0   0    6
  A Six Sols Piece              | 0   0   6     | 0   0    3
  A deux Sols                   | 0   0   2     | 0   0    1
  A Sols 1/2                    | 0   0   1-1/2 | 0   0    0-3/4
  A Sol, or Sous                | 0   0   1     | 0   0    0-1/2
  A deux Liard Piece            | 0   0   0-1/2 | 0   0    0-1/4
  A Liard                       | 0   0   0-1/4 | 0   0    0-1/8

A louis d'or is a gold coin. A grand ecu, the ecu, vingt quatre sols
piece, the livre, a douze sols piece, and the six sols pieces, are
silver: though a livre is no coin, but nominal only. The deux sols, and
the sols and half, are a mixture of copper and silver, and the other
coins are all copper.

The French measure the distances between their towns by leagues, posts,
&c. and a post is two leagues, of their measure.

A French league is fifty-seven yards and nine inches longer than an
English league.

A French toise, or fathom, is 76-3/4 inches longer than an English; and
a French foot is equal to 12-79/100 inches English measure, &c.


 _Leaves_ Calais.--_A Description of the Stage Coaches in France.--The_
 Doctor _arrives at_ Paris.--_A further Account of the
 Beggars.--With a Description of the Country._

Early in the morning of the memorable 14th of July we left Calais,
and proceeded in a stage coach, drawn by eight horses, on our journey
towards Paris.

These coaches are almost as large as a small house. They are very
heavy; and eight persons may sit comfortably in the inside, and I
believe a dozen more upon the outside. We had a conductor who rode
armed on the fore-part of this wonderful machine, and a very large dog
sitting upon his rump at the conductor's left hand; both of which were
employed as sentinals to guard us on the way.

The harnesses for the horses were made of ropes instead of leather, and
were very long. Hence, as our coach was very large and the traces very
long, we made a grand appearance as we travelled!

Upon the hindmost and foremost horses, on the near side, two Frenchmen
were mounted, with boots of a most surprizing magnitude, so well
constructed with leather, wood, and iron, that if a horse falls down
the rider is not in much danger of having his legs broke; for the
prevention of which, the boots were thus made.

The horses were not quite so large as ours in England; but we drove
about five or six miles in an hour, and at the end of every post the
horses and postillions were changed. The postillions received twelve
sous of us when we parted with them, which gave content.

We breakfasted at Boulogne, dined at Montreul, and in the evening came
to Abbeville, where we lodged. The people were in arms through the
country. Scarce any body was at work in the fields, as it was a time
of feasting, and all seemed rejoiced at the sound of the liberty they
expect, in consequence of the great and glorious Revolution.

At this place there was a young lady, who manifested by her actions,
which speak louder than words, that she had an inclination to lodge
with me that night; but as I had no disposition to deal in such
commodities, she was disappointed.

The next morning we set out early, breakfasted at Amiens, dined at the
Breteuil, supped at Clermont, and rode all night; but were obliged to
pay for our breakfasts out of our own pockets the next morning before
we came to Paris. We arrived at Paris about nine in the morning, being
the 16th of July, having been four days and four hours on our journey.
We were abliged to give the conductor half a crown a-piece; and I spent
near three guineas on the way, besides what I paid at Piccadilly.

At Paris we had our trunks searched at the Custom-house, and went from
thence in a coach to the _Hotel de Beauvais, Rue des Vieux Augustins,
No. 69, Quartier du Palais Royal_, where a gentleman that had come from
London with me, and myself, hired three large rooms, neatly furnished,
for four livres a-day. We breakfasted at this place, which cost us
fifteen sous a-piece each morning, besides what we gave to the servants.

I hired a servant, who remained with me all the time I tarried at
Paris: he charged me forty sous per day; but he conducted me so well,
that I gave him more than double that sum.

I found Paris very full of people from the country, and from foreign
parts. They had met to celebrate the Revolution, and tarried till the
next Sunday in order to have another grand convention at the _Champ de

Whilst we were on our way from Calais to Paris, we were followed, in
some of the intermediate towns and villiages, by swarms of beggars, who
seemed to be in great distress. I asked the reason of their begging;
and was told that they were reduced to poverty in consequence of the
commercial treaty between England and France; that the manufactories in
Great Britain were so much cheaper than they were in France, that the
merchants bought many of their goods in England, which had thrown those
poor people out of employ, and obliged them to beg for a livelihood.

We frequently contributed to the relief of those distressed objects:
but because we could not give to every one, some of them threw a stone
at our coach, which did not happen to strike any of us. At, and near
Paris, we found but a few beggars, in proportion to the great number of
people. Some how or another, they seemed to be much better provided for
than they were in the country.

The face of the country between Calais and Paris, appears much like
many parts of the Province of Quebec, in America. But I think the soil
is not quite so rich. Though some have supposed it is full as good by
nature as the island of Great Britain; and that it would produce as
large crops, if it was as well manured and cultivated. I was told, that
agriculture had been much discouraged in France, before the Revolution,
by reason of the oppression that the peasants were under.

More then three-fourths of the land between Calais and Paris, appeared
to be overspread with grain, consisting of rye, wheat, oats, and
barley. There was also some excellent hemp and flax. The people had
begun to reap, and there was a sign of a very plentiful harvest; but
the crops were not so large in general as they are in England. We saw
but a very few cattle, horses and sheep, and those we did see were
small. The fields are not fenced, but lie open to the high-way. We
often passed by boys holding cows to feed, by lines tied round their
horns, to keep them from running into the fields. The wages for reaping
are, generally, thirty sous per day. Both men and women follow the
business, begin early, and lie down on the ground, and sleep in the
open sunshine, at about ten or eleven in the morning; a practice which
I esteem to be unhealthy. Perhaps one may see fifty asleep at a time.


 _Views and Describes the_ Champ de Mars.--_Goes to the Royal Palace
 belonging to the Duke of Orleans.--Dines with the French Officers at
 the Grand Hotel._

On the day of our arrival at Paris, I went in a coach with the
gentleman that had put up at the hotel with me, and viewed the _Champ
de Mars_. Here we saw great multitudes of people, eating, drinking, and
dancing at the sound of the bands of music. At this place the oaths
of allegiance had been administered to the people on the preceding
Wednesday; and both the king and the subjects were sworn to adhere to
the constitution that has been framed by the National Assembly.

Some of the French took me by the hand when I entered into the _Champ
de Mars_, and cried, "Entrée, entrée, Monsieur." I viewed the place
with admiration, and was informed that it took about fifty thousand
people near ten days to erect the seats and other great works there.

The _Champ de Mars_ was formed into a grand amphitheatre, having at
one end the military school, against which was erected a covered
gallery two hundred and twenty-eight feet (French measure) in length,
and twenty-one in heighth, for the king, queen, foreign ambassadors,
national assembly, &c. &c. and at the other the triumphal arch; from
which, to the military school, on either side were thirty rows of
seats raised one above another, two thousand seven hundred and ninety
French feet in length. In the middle of the area was an altar in a
circular form, whose circumference was six hundred and forty-eight
feet, French measure, and whose heighth was twenty feet, built of stone
taken from the Bastille. The rest of the area, except the places for
the federation, was filled with seats; the whole forming an oblong,
capable of accommodating between four and five hundred thousand people.
Out of these limits were a number of galleries, erected for a great
multitude of spectators. Opposite the triumphal arch, a bridge of boats
was thrown across the Seine, and the banks of the river was lined with

For a great distance round the _Champ de Mars_, a number of temporary
buildings were erected for the entertainment of the people.

When we had surveyed these admirable works, we went to the royal
palace, which was built by cardinal Richelieu, and given by him to
Lewis the XIV. but is now the town seat of the duke of Orleans, who is
a nobleman of royal blood, and enjoys the greatest revenue in France.
This palace is a most elegant and magnificent structure, which is
adorned and beautified with splendid ornaments, that dazzle the eyes
of a spectator. In the centre of this structure is an oblong square,
laid out in beautiful walks, interspersed with trees, flowers, &c.

Sometimes the duke resides in one part of the palace himself. But the
other part is let out in shops, which are under piazzas, and the rooms
over them to gay fashionable ladies and gentlemen.

In this palace there is a gallery, which contains most of the
illustrious personages that France has produced, drawn by the greatest
masters: Italy has been ransacked, and no expence spared to make the
whole complete, with pictures, busts, statues, medals, and other
curiosities worthy of being collected. It is thought that this building
exceeds all in Europe for beauty and grandeur.

After we had viewed the palace we went to a grand hotel, where we dined
with a great number of officers. We had a variety of dishes, very
excellent wines, and was entertained with much civility and politeness,
and at a very reasonable rate. At evening we retired to our lodgings,
very well pleased with the entertainments of the day.


 _The Contents of the King's Proclamation.--Of the Obedience paid to
 it--and, the Proceedings of the Grand Confederation, on the 14th of
 July, at the_ Champ de Mars.

Having in the preceding chapter given a description of the _Champ de
Mars_, I shall attempt in this to exhibit how matters were conducted
on the 14th: but it may be proper to premise, that on the 11th, the
king, to prevent confusion and disorder, wisely issued a proclamation,
setting forth how the different corps that were to compose the
confederation was to march, &c. His majesty ordered that no troops, but
those on guard, should be armed with guns; nor any carriages suffered
to follow those of his majesty, the royal family, and their trains.
That if any deputy of the confederation, or person invited, should be
unable to walk, they might ride in a carriage, and be escorted by a
_Chevalier d'Ordonnance_ to the military school, providing they had
permission from the mayor of Paris.

That M. de la Fayette should be commander-general of the Parisian
national guard, then charged by a decree of the national assembly, and
sanctioned by his majesty, with the care of the public tranquillity,
should fulfil, under the king's orders, the functions of major-general
of the confederation; and in that quality the orders should be given
and observed as the orders of his majesty himself.

That the king had in like manner nominated M. Gouvion, major-general of
the Parisian guard, lieutenant-general of the confederation for the day
of the ceremony.

That when all persons were placed, the blessing the flags and colours
should be proceeded to, and the celebration of the mass.

That the king empowered the said M. de la Fayette, to pronounce the
confederation oath in the name of all the deputies of the national
guards, and those of the troops and marines, according to the forms
decreed by the national assembly, and accepted by his majesty; and that
all the deputies of the confederation should hold up their hands.

That then the president of the national assembly should pronounce the
civic oath for the members of the national assembly; and that the king
should in like manner pronounce the oath, the form of which had been
decreed by the national assembly, and accepted by his majesty.

That the _Te Deum_ should be sung, and conclude the ceremony; after
which the procession should return from the _Champ de Mars_ in the
same order it came.

In obedience to this proclamation, an order of procession was drawn up,
and proper measures concerted to prevent tumult and disorder, by M. de
la Fayette, and M. Bailli, the mayor of Paris.

On the 13th, at ten o'clock in the evening, 4000 Paris guards on
the outside of the _Champ de Mars_, and 2000 within, were placed to
preserve order. Before eleven the people began to assemble and seat
themselves and came in small parties till day-break; from three to
nine they poured in in crowds at the great avenues, where the guards
cautioned them not to hurry.

By ten o'clock the seats were filled, the outside gallaries, the
windows, and roofs of houses; and every place where a glimpse of the
grand procession could be had, was filled with people of all ranks,
sexes, and ages, who kept their places till the business was finished,
notwithstanding the rain fell in torrents, accompanied with cold
squalls of wind from eight till four.

Those guards that were not wanted in the procession, danced in circles,
and in great parties marched triumphantly at the beat of the drums,
with their hats and caps on the points of their swords, forming
battalions, and making sham fights, &c. Sometimes they ran in all
directions, flourishing their swords, and being filled with joy cried,
"_Vive la Libertie! Vive la Loi! Vive la Roi! Vive la Confederation
National! Vive mon Frere!_"--embracing one another, and the spectators
that sat near them.

One, personating a victim of tyranny, was carried with great solemnity
to a market spot, where the body was laid, and made the occasion of
more firmly uniting, which was testified with a variety of actions.

Having an abbé within the circle, they marched him round with a gun in
his hand and a grenadier's cap on his head; and in the same manner they
marched a capuchin friar.

At seven o'clock a crucifix was placed on the great altar.

Just before nine a body of priests appeared on the altar, and tied
sashes of national colours around their waists, and decorated the
crucifix, and various parts of the altar, with ribbons of the same.

At half past ten the bishop of Auton, with more than one hundred
priests, proceeded in a double line, guarded by a strong body of
national troops, from the grand pavilion to the altar, carrying with
them the tables with the commandments, and the sacred books. When they
had ascended the altar they began the ceremony of consecrating it.

Just before twelve, a grand salute of one hundred cannon announced the
near approach of the procession to the triumphal arch; and the guards
formed into ranks for their reception.

The national federatives, and all who assisted in the grand procession,
had assembled at six this morning on the Boulevards, between the gates
of St. Martin and St. Antoine, and were drawn up in the following order:

1. A troop of horse, with standards, and six trumpets.

2. One division of music, consisting of several hundred instruments.

3. A company of grenadiers.

4. The electors of the city of Paris.

5. A company of volunteers.

6. The assembly of the representatives of the commons.

7. The military committee.

8. A company of chasseurs.

9. A band of drums.

10. The presidents of the districts.

11. The deputies of the commons, appointed to take for them the federal

12. The sixty administrators of the municipality, with the city guards.

13. The second division of music.

14. A battalion of children, pupils of the military school, carrying a
standard with the words,

    "The hopes of the nation."

15. A detachment of the colours of the national guard of Paris.

16. A battalion of veterans.

17. The deputies of forty-two chief departments of the nation, in
alphabetical order.

18. The _oriflamme_, or grand standard of France, borne by the
marischalls of France, general officers, officers of the staff,
subaltern officers, commissioners of war, invalids.

19. The lieutenants of the marischalls of France,--deputies of
infantry,--deputies of cavalry.

20. Deputies of hussars, dragoons, and chasseurs.

21. General officers, and deputies of the marine, according to rank.

22. The deputies of forty-one last departments, in alphabetical order.

23. A company of volunteer chasseurs.

24. A company of cavalry, with a standard and two trumpets.

Each department was preceded by a banner, borne by the oldest deputy.
These banners were a present from the city of Paris. They consisted
of two branches, forming an oak wreath, tied together with national
coloured ribbons, bearing on one side--_The National Confederation at
Paris, July 14, 1790_; and the other--_The Constitution_, with the
number and device of the department to which they severally belong.

The military deputies had only their side arms.

At nine the procession passed along the streets of St. Denis, of the
Forronerie, to St. Honoré Royal, to the palace of Louis XV. where they
halted; and the detachment of the colours of the national guard Paris
opening to the right and left, received into the centre.

The procession then moved on through the _Cours la Reine_, along the
quay to the bridge of boats; and the deputies from the provinces
received loud acclamations of applause from the people, which were
answered by _Vivent lis Parisians!_

At the end of the bridge the triumphal arch appeared, adorned with
various allegorical paintings which represented the gate of St. Antoine.

Over the principal entrance, referring to figures that were darting
through all the obstacles to reach the law, was inscribed on the side:

 "Sacred to the grand work of the constitution: We will finish it."

On the other:

 "Under this defender, the poor man shall no more fear lest the
 oppressor should spoil him of his heritage."

Over the lateral entrance on the left side, figures of warriors taking
the civic oath, seemed to utter,

 "Our country, or the law alone can arm us: Let us die to defend it,
 let us live to love it."

Over the lateral entrance, on the right, heralds sounding trumpets,
proclaimed peace throughout the kingdom, and the people were singing,

 "Every thing is propitious to our happiness; every thing flatters
 our wishes; sweet peace drives tumult far from us, and fills up the
 measure of our pleasures."

On the front, next the amphitheatre, over the middle arch, was a
picture of deputies from various nations, come to do homage to the
national assembly, with this inscription:

 "The rights of men were unknown for ages: They have been
 re-established for the whole human race."

Under this picture,

 "The king of a free people is alone a powerful king."

Over a picture--a woman chaining lions to her ear, with Force and Power
in her suite, and leaning on the book of the law. The king and queen
holding the dauphin by the hand, follow, preceded by a group of sages.
A combat is exhibited with a dreadful hydra, whose head was seen struck

 "We dread you no more, ye subordinate tyrants, who oppressed us under
 a hundred various names."

In another place an immense multitude listening with attention to the
sage exhortations of a victorious warrior, who seemed to say,

 "You prize this liberty, you possess it while you do: Shew yourselves
 worthy to preserve it."

At one o'clock the van of the procession appeared under this triumphal

M. de la Fayette leading a body of cavalry, himself mounted on a milk
white charger, rode into the amphitheatre amid the acclamations of
the people, _Vive la Fayette!_ The cavalry filed off to the right,
and ranged themselves in the exterior line, on the opposite side to
the entrance. The company of grenadiers formed under the steps of the
amphitheatre, as well as all the companies who were employed as escorts.

The civil bodies took the places allotted for them, which was
previously marked out. The battalion of youths of the military school,
formed about one hundred paces from the grand altar, crossing the
_Champ de Mars_; but facing the altar on the side next the military

While the national assembly passed through the triumphal arch, the
escort of colours passed through the lateral gates, and the members
took their seats on the right and left of the chair of state, and the
chair of their own president.

The battalion of veterans was placed a hundred paces behind the altar,
across the _Champ de Mars_, but facing the altar.

The detachments of the national guards, appointed to take the oath,
ranged themselves under each banner, indicative of his place in the

The music collected into one band, and occupied the side of the
platform under the altar, next to the invalids; and the band of drums
were placed on the opposite side.

The detachment of cavalry that closed the procession, formed the
exterior line, on the side where they entered, opposite to the first

The altar was after an antique model. The ascent to it was by four
stair cases; at each corner was a platform supporting an urn, which
exhaled perfumes. On the south front were these verses from Mahomet,
under a picture of arts and sciences:

    "Les mortals sont egaux, ce ne'st pas leur naissance,
    "C'est la seule vertu qui fait leur difference."

 "Men are equal: it is not by birth. It is virtue alone that confers

And these,

    "La loi dans tout doit etre universelle,
    "Le mortels quels qu'ils soient egaux devant elle."

 "The law in all things ought to be universal: Men of all descriptions
 are equal in its eyes."

On the opposite side were four angels sounding trumpets, with this

 "Hold in your remembrance these sacred words, which are the guarantee
 of your decrees;--The nation, the law, and the king. The nation is
 yourselves--the law is your own, for it is your will--and the king is
 the guardian of the law."

On the front, next to the Seine, was the figure of Liberty, dispersing
the surrounding clouds, with attributes of Agriculture, and Abundance;
and the Genius of France hovering in the air, and pointing to the word

On the front, facing the throne, were warriors pronouncing the federal
oath, _viz._

 "We swear to remain ever faithful to the _nation_, the _law_, and the
 _king_: to maintain, with all our power, the constitution decreed by
 the national assembly, and accepted by the king: to protect, according
 to the law, the surety of persons and property, the circulation
 of corn and provisions within the realm, the levying of public
 contributions, under whatever form they may exist; and to continue
 united to all the French by the indissoluble ties of brotherhood."

At three the signal was made for conducting the _oriflamme_, or sacred
royal standard, with the banners of the eighty-three departments, to
the altar to receive the benediction.

Upon the same signal the queen, (with her attendants) made her
appearance in a partitioned place immediately behind the king's chair,
having the dauphin with her, whom she placed on her knee: she was well
received, and the dauphin much applauded. She was most becomingly
dressed; her cap decorated with pearls, a pearl necklace, and pearl

As soon as she was seated, the king entered and took his chair of
state, which was fixed upon a line with a lesser chair, upon which the
president of the national assembly sat. From the top of the king's
state chair, the crown had been removed, and the cap of liberty
substituted in its place. He was superbly dressed in a rich suit of
gold tissue, and appeared to be in good spirits. He directed his
conversation to the president, and it drew forth continual bursts of

At forty minutes after three the conclusion of the ceremony of
consecrating the banners was announced, by a heavy discharge of the
artillery, and the sound of martial music.

The banners having rejoined their several stations, the great body of
the national guards, who hitherto had lined the extreme of the inner
circle, now formed on each side a half circle, from the foot of the
pavilion steps to the altar; the ensigns of each of the sixty of Paris
districts, all of which were extremely beautiful, and various in their
devices, being marched first up to the front of the pavilion, and
saluting as they passed it.

The bishop of Autun, as grand Almoner, assisted by sixty deputy
Almoners, elected by sixty districts of Paris, then celebrated mass, to
the sound of the musical instruments.

Some delay took place in the expectation that the king would advance to
the altar, and there take the civic oath. But his majesty remained on
the throne.

M. de la Fayette then gave the signal for the national deputies to come
forward and take the oath. He ascended the altar; and on the sound of
the trumpet, extending his right hand, and looking steadfastly at the
altar while the oath was reading, pronounced the words,--"I swear it."
Which the national guards all repeated after him, turning round their
hats on the points of their bayonets.

The discharge of a bomb was the signal.

Mons. Bonnay, the president of the national assembly, next rose from
his seat, and advancing to the front of the covered gallery, in which
the members of the national assembly and the civil bodies were seated,
fixed his eyes on the altar, extended his right arm, and as the oath
was repeating, pronounced with great dignity, "I swear it:" followed
in like manner by the legislative, and the deputies of the civil and
municipal bodies.

At forty-five minutes past four the king rose; and, waiting till every
thing was silent, read very audibly, and with an excellent majesty of
manner, the OATH[1] assigned to him; extended his arm, looked
steadfastly at the altar, and pronunced, "I swear it."

Footnote 1: "I swear to be faithful to the Nation, the Law, and the
King, and to maintain the Constitution to the utmost of my power, as
decreed by the National Assembly, and confirmed by the King."

The acclamations of the people, shouting "_Long live_ Louis,
_our Country, and Constitution!_"--the clattering of sixty thousand
swords, the waving of one hundred and forty-three banners and ensigns,
and the discharge of an immense line of artillery, excited feelings
which words cannot express, and which the human imagination, unaided
by a view of the grand and glorious scene, can form no adequate
conception of. The awful and unbroken stillness maintained during the
administration of the oaths, rendered the acclamations which followed
more forcible than they would otherwise have been.

_Te Deum_ was then sung by a choir of more than three hundred voices,
accompanied by three hundred drums, and all the military musical

The ceremony being over, the king went away almost immediately.

The procession moved off in the order in which it entered.

The people walked home as they came, without crowding; and in little
more than an hour the place was cleared.

A repast for the deputies was served up at the _Chateau de la Muette_.
Each battalion of Parisian guards undertook to be entertainers of
their provincial brethren, who all partook of the repast with the
utmost order.

Thirty thousand persons dined in the gardens, and wine and provisions
were distributed to more than one hundred thousand. The people were
so temperate, that I cannot learn that any of the troops were seen at
night reeling about the streets, in a state of intoxication.

The day concluded with dances in all places near the _Champ de Mars_.
In the evening a superb fire-work was exhibited in the square of the
_Hotel de Ville_; and at night there was a general illumination.

This is the most accurate account that I have been able to obtain of
the proceedings of the king and the people.

As it is thought there were more people collected together upon
this occasion then ever met at one time and place in the world, and
as some people are desirous of having a particular description of
the transactions of the day; it is hoped the reader will excuse the
author for being more than usually copious in the incidents treated of
throughout this chapter.


 _Inquiry is made whether the_ Doctor _had Recommendations,
 &c.--His Advice to Gentlemen and Ladies.--He is visited by a Physician
 to the Court of Spain.--Views the Place where the Bastille stood.--How
 that Place was taken, and the Governor and other Officers executed._

  Paris, July 17.

This morning the gentleman who had put up at the hotel with me, asked
if I had any letters of recommendation from any gentlemen in London, to
any in Paris? I told him I had not: that I had had the offer of some,
but for the want of time did not go to receive them: That as I could
not tarry long, and had money enough to bear my expences, I believed
that _that_ would be recommendation enough, if I behaved well. I had
though, by the way, a general recommendation from some gentlemen of
my acquaintance, but it was not directed to any body in particular in
Paris; and I also had a diploma in my pocket, which was a sufficient
recommendation, in any quarter of the globe; but I did not let the
inquirer know I had any such thing with me. He seemed to think I would
cut but a poor figure without recommendations; but as it happened I
had no need of shewing any--though I would not advise any gentleman
or lady to travel without; because a recommendation may be of great
service sometimes, and especially in a time of war.

At about nine this morning, I was visited by M. Iberti, _Docteur en
Médecine_, and physician to the Court of Spain. He informed me that he
had heard that an English physician had arrived, and that he was come
to tell me, that if he could be of any service to me any way, he should
be happy in doing of it. I thanked him for his kindness, and told him
that I wanted to get an account of the practice of the hospitals, and
with that an account of the operation of medicines in France:

That for more than sixteen years I had been preparing for publication,
a New Dispensatory, which will contain;

1. The _meteria medica_.

2. The operation of medicines.

3. The art and science of pharmacy.

4. The composition of medicines.

5. An index of diseases, and their remedies; with,

6. The manual operations and remedies used in surgery.

That the work would be adorned with cuts of the chymical and surgical
instruments, and also with chymical characters and botanical figures:

That I had travelled in Great Britain and America, to obtain knowledge;
and was come to Paris for the same purpose.--

Said he, I am employed by the court of Spain on the same business, and
have travelled through England, Scotland, and Ireland; and am come here
to collect all the knowledge I possibly can. He gave me a description
of the state and condition of the hospitals in Paris; and told me where
I could obtain the publications I wanted, which are entirely new, and
had not reached London. He also advised me to view the hospitals, and
to go to Cherenton and see the anatomical productions there, which he
said exceeded every thing of the kind in the world.

He visited me three times, and brought a French physician to see me

I visited M. Iberti once, and he gave me a book he had published,
entitled, _Observations Generales sur les Hopitauz; suivies d'un
Projeett d'Hospital_. In consequence of which the Royal Academy of Arts
and Sciences at Paris had honoured him with a _medal_, in token that
his works were highly applauded. He also told me that he had the use of
the king's library.

I told him that I would endeavour to make him a present of a New
Dispensatory, if he would let me know where I could send one that would
get to him: he thanked me, and desired I would send one to the Spanish
Ambassador in Great Britain, with whom he said he was well acquainted.

The Spanish physician's advice did me infinite service: I followed his
direction, and obtained what I went after.

Among the many curiosities that I viewed this day was the ground where
the Bastille stood, which had been a horrible place of punishment for
about 400 years. I found this prison almost demolished, though a few
of the dungeons remained: but the people were taking down the arches,
walls, &c. An amazing quantity of stone had been carried from this
disagreeable prison, and piled up in a street that environs the city,
besides those at the _Champ de Mars_.

Before this prison was demolished it was surrounded by a ditch, and had
no entrance to it but by a draw-bridge.

On the 6th of July, 1789, the National Assembly having established a
committee of finances, which consisted of 64 members, and appointed M.
Necker, president; the king afterwards appointed Baron de Breteuil,
president, in the room of M. Necker; and having removed several
other officers, the indignation of the populace was raised, who armed
themselves, and were joined by the French guards. A slight skirmish
ensued in the _Place de Louis XV._ in which two was killed, and two
wounded, which belonged to the Duc de Choiseu's regiment of dragoons.

On the 8th the populace forced the convent of St. Lazare, in which was
found a quantity of corn, arms, ammunition, &c. A general consternation
prevailed; the shops were shut, and business was at a stand.

On the 14th the hospital of invalids surrendered to about 20,000
citizens, headed by the French guards: About 4,000 troops, 52,000
stands of arms, besides cannon, ammunition, &c. were taken. In the
evening about 10 or 12,000 men, with two pieces of cannon, demanded the
ammunition deposited in the Bastille. The governor held out a white
flag, and opened one of the gates, through which about forty citizens
and soldiers entered: he immediately drew up the bridge, and his troops
massacred those that had entered. This breach of faith enraged the
populace: a battle ensued, and the Bastille was taken in about three
hours. The governor, the jailor, chief gunner, and two others were
carried prisoners to the Hotel de Ville, where they were tried and
executed, by being shot, and afterwards beheaded. M. de Flesselles, the
first municipal officer of Paris, underwent the same fate, on being
suspected of betraying the citizens. Their heads were carried in
triumph through the streets of the city. In taking the Bastille about
300 were killed, besides those the governor massacred. The prisoners
were liberated; and an old man, who had been in a dungeon thirty years,
fell down when he came out, by reason of the operation the light had
upon him.

Those that took the Bastille are honoured with a particular mark in
their apparel, to distinguish them from other people.


 _The_ Doctor _goes to the_ Champ de Mars--_an Air Balloon
 descends on his Head.--He dines at a Grand Hotel, where commences_ un
 tête à tête _with a fine Lady.--He goes to the Italian Opera._

  Paris, July 18.

This morning, being Sunday, I sent my servant for a coach to carry
me to the _Champ de Mars_; but he returned without any, with this
intelligence from the coachman, _viz._ that they were all forbid to
move a coach that day, by reason of the great multitude of people that
was to convene; as it was supposed, that many would be crushed to death
if they were allowed to ride in coaches. The nobility, gentry, and
commonalty, were therefore all obliged to walk to the _Champ de Mars_;
at which place I took a seat, a little to the left of the National
Assembly, where I had a fine prospect. There was the greatest multitude
of people collected that I ever saw at one time, and they behaved with
decency and good order. The Marquis de la Fayette rode at the head of
the army, and was frequently honoured with huzzas, loud acclamations,
and other demonstrations of joy. Among the bands of music was a very
large drum, that seemed to make the earth tremble when it was beat.

I took a seat about ten, and tarried about five hours. About half past
one, an air balloon, of a large magnitude, ascended to the southward
of the _Champ de Mars_. It was conducted by a great number of men,
who held its lines, over the place where I was sitting. It descended
on our heads, and the French cried, _En bas, en bas, Monsieur_: Down,
down, Sir. I bowed myself almost to the ground, to prevent being hurt;
but arose, and pushed the balloon upwards with my hand: It ascended,
and went to the northward; but descended again several times, and
afterwards passed to the southward by the National Assembly, almost in
a horizontal direction. When it had got at a little distance from the
_Champ de Mars_, the inflammable air took fire, and the balloon split,
with a report something like that of a cannon. It was said that several
persons were considerably burnt when the balloon burst. I understood
the next day, that some of the French supposed, that a great blessing
will follow those upon whom the balloon descended.

After I had left the _Champ de Mars_, I dined at a grand hotel, where
thirty-two tables were spread in one room. At this place a French
lady viewed me with an _amorous eye_; and I perceived by some of her
_motions_, after I had dined, that she had an inclination to _lead me
into temptation_: but I was soon off with myself, and was thereby
_delivered from evil_.

In the evening I went to the _Italian opera_, where sixty-two persons
appeared on the stage at the first view. The vocal and instrumental
music was excellent, and the other performances very entertaining.


 _The_ Doctor _views three Hospitals, and the largest
 Cathedral in the Kingdom.--An Account of the Foundling Hospital. He
 goes to_ Versailles--_views the King and Queen's Palaces, returns to_
 Paris, _and sees the Dauphin of France_.

  Paris, July 19.

This morning I viewed the grand hospital, the lying-in hospital, the
foundling hospital, and the greatest cathedral in the kingdom, called
_L'Eglise de Notre Dame_. It is a grand Gothic structure, has a very
fine choir, altar, &c. and many paintings, some of which represent the
miracles and resurrection of Christ.

There were 17,500 children belonging to the foundling hospital, above
7,000 of which had been taken in within the compass of a year. They
were kept very clean, and I did not hear a child cry amongst the whole

The matron, or governess of the hospital, shewed me their grand stores
of linen and garments for the children, which was worth beholding.

This hospital is a most excellent institution: People of all kinds,
and from all countries, are allowed to bring their children into it;
and no questions are asked; only the person that leaves the child is
asked if the child has been christened. If that has not been done, they
get it done at the hospital. Those that bring their children put a
ribbon round their necks, or mark them with something whereby they may
be known in some future time, and they are permitted to take them away
when they please.

Those that remain in the hospitals, are put out to learn trades, when
they are old enough;--and sums of money are given to those who take

I was told that a young woman from Great Britain had just lain in
at the lying-in hospital, and had put her child into the foundling
hospital. Perhaps she may pass for a _virgin_ again, on her arrival in

This hospital must be of great utility to the people, because it
relieves the poor, and prevents murder; as women have not the
temptation to kill their children through fear of not having them
supported; and also, because it produces a great number of good members
of society.

After I had viewed the hospitals, I made a purchase of two books, which
contained all I was in pursuit after. I also viewed the house where
Voltaire the famous French poet died.

The same day I went in a coach with my servant to Versailles, which
is about twelve miles from Paris. We arrived there about noon; and I
viewed the king and queen's palaces, which are said to be the richest
in the world, or at least, the most beautiful and magnificent in
Europe. I also viewed the royal chapel and two of the royal theatres,
and the king's gardens planted with tropical and other trees, plants,
and herbs. The buildings are adorned and beautified with gold, and
many splendid ornaments, and there are a great number of statues, and
elegant paintings; all of which afford a very beautiful prospect.

Versailles is a pleasant place, and there are about 60,000 inhabitants
in the town. I dined after I had viewed the curiosities, and returned
to Paris in the evening, where I saw the Dauphin of France, attended by
a monk.

Versailles is said to be the dearest place for entertainment that there
is in France, owing to the great number of nobility and gentry that
resort there: Therefore ought every traveller to be well provided with
money when he goes to see that place.


 _Views two Hospitals, the Royal Observatory, and sundry other
 Magnificent Buildings.--Goes to the French Theatre, &c.--A Caution
 against going into bad Company._

  Paris, July 20.

This day I viewed the charity hospital, and the hospital for invalids.
The latter is a large and elegant building, in which there is a chapel,
that is said to cover as much ground as the cathedral of St. Paul's,
in London. The floors of the domes are made of fine marble, and each
dome is dedicated to some saint, whose statue is placed in a niche, or
hallow. There are some of the finest paintings in this chapel that I
ever saw; and the hospital commonly contains about 200 officers, and
3,000 soldiers.

Afterwards I viewed the house of Bourbonne, and the royal observatory,
where _astronomical observations_ are taken. I looked through the
telescopes, and surveyed the mathematical instruments. I saw an
account of the late observations, and perceived that the French are
very accurate in performances of that kind: but I did not give them to
understand that I was a professor of the science.

I also viewed a great church, called _Jamies_, which has been near
twenty years in building, and is not yet wholly finished. In this
church there are some of the largest and finest pillars that I ever

Afterwards I took a survey of the buildings and gardens which belong
to the king's eldest brother; and went to the French theatre and saw
the grand performances there. After the play was over, on returning
to my lodgings, I was seized on the way by a very gay young lady, who
accosted me with--_J' aime vous, Monsieur.--Voulez vous venir avec
moi?_--My answer was in the negative. I was obliged to break her hold,
and be off with myself. "Perhaps, said I, if I go with you, I may be
robbed and murdered: it is best for me to keep out of the fire whilst
it is in my power."

I had heard but a few days before of a man that was so simple as to
accept of the invitation of two lewd women, who took him to their
lodgings; but before morning he was robbed, not only of his watch and
money, but of his clothes, and turned out naked into the street by
some whore-mongers that frequented the house. This shews how dangerous
it is to venture one's-self amongst strangers, and especially those
of this sort. It is safest for every one, either at home or abroad,
to shun all such kind of company, as well as the company of thieves,
drunkards, gamesters, and those that use bad language: for the keeping
of bad company has been the destruction of thousands; and especially
the greatest mischief has been done among unthinking _youth_: their
inexperience, and unsuspecting dispositions, making them the fit
subjects for villainy to work upon.


 _Contemplations, Philosophical and Moral, on the State and Condition
 of the Living and the Dead, which the Author indulges at the Abbey of
 St._ Denis, _where the Kings of France are buried_.

  St. Denis, July 21,

  _At half past one_, P. M.

I am now standing in the abbey of St. Denis, which is about six miles
from Paris, and have been told that all the kings of France, excepting
Lewis XVI. are buried here, and that the house of Bourbon lie under my
feet.--Alas! said I, here is the end of those mighty monarchs, that
once ruled the kingdom, commanded armies, fought battles, obtained
victories, collected riches, and enjoyed the honours, the profits and
the pleasures of this perishing world.--Here they lie silent! and their
dominion, strength, and power, are wholly gone!--Their bodies are
returned to the elements out of which they were formed, _viz._ to the
earth, air, fire, and water. Alas! continued I, the present king of
France, with all the mighty kings and princes on the globe, together,
with the rest of the human race, must soon pass through this change!
And not only the human race, but the birds, beasts and fishes, trees,
plants, and herbs; even every thing that hath life must be dissolved,
and return to the elements, _viz._ Earth to earth, air to air, fire
to fire, and water to water; for it is the _decree_ of the _Divine
Artificer_, who is the former of our bodies, and the father of our
spirits, that all these things shall _once die_!--And, none of the
mighty kings, or learned physicians, can hinder themselves or others,
from experiencing this awful change.

Moreover, I had further contemplations upon the state of the living and
the condition of the dead. I considered the mutability of our bodies;
that they are continually changing; that they increase in proportion
to the quantity of nutrition which they receive from meat, drink,
the circumambient air, &c. or, decrease in proportion to a want of
nourishment from those things.

That they are continually flying off by insensible perspiration and
other evacuations, and would soon come to a dissolution, if not
nourished by the vegetable and animal productions.

That the bodies we had seven years ago, are totally dissolved by those
evacuations; and from hence we have new flesh, new bones, new skin, new
hair, new nails, &c. formed out of the four elements.

That the time we have lived, is past and gone; and, that the time we
are to live is not yet come, so that we only live at the present time.

That death is only a change from this state to another,--as our
bodies return again to the elements, and our spirits to Him that gave
them: that the dead, being at rest, are totally free from the cares,
troubles, and vexations of a mortal life. The king is not afraid of
losing his kingdom, nor the beggar of perishing with hunger.

I beg leave to conclude this chapter with the following reflections,
which will not, I hope, detract from their solemnity, because cast in
a _poetical_ mould.

      Short is our passage thro' this nether world,
    For soon by death we from the stage are hurl'd.
    The tender infants in their lovely bloom,
    Are often hurry'd to the silent tomb!
    Adults grown up, nay some of ev'ry age,
    By cruel death are taken from the stage;
    The high, the low, the rich, the poor, the small,
    By the great _king of terrors_ soon must fall.
    The richest man, (it cannot be deny'd)
    Who with good things most amply is supply'd;
    Soon, too, he feels th' impartial stroke of death,
    Down falls his body, and off flies his breath:
    But where it goes, or how far it doth fly,
    No mortal man can tell below the sky.
    The elements that in the body are,
    Return to those from whence they taken were.
    Thus, dust to dust, and air to air, we find,
    And heat to heat, are soon again combin'd,
    Water to water soon again doth flow,
    And the whole mass to dissolution go!

      Await, O man! thy doom; for 'tis the fate
    Of ev'ry creature in this mortal state:
    Yet shall th' immortal spark ascend on high,
    Of righteous ones who _in the_ LORD _do die_.
    Thus whilst their bodies are behind at rest,
    Their pious souls with happiness are blest.

    ---- Again.----

    O happy state in which the dead are cast!
    Their pain is gone and all their trouble's past.
    When roaring winds bring up the thick'ned cloud,
    And the deep thunder rumbles out aloud;
    When the earth quakes, when lofty cities fall,
    When places sink, and can't be found at all;
    When inundations o'er the land arise,
    And burning mountains burst towards the skies;
    When famine and the pestilence doth rage,
    And wicked nations in a war engage;
    When blood and carnage greatly doth expand,
    And desolation overspreads the land,
    And boist'rous tempests rage upon the sea;
    Then are the Dead from danger wholly free.
    They're not afraid of being hurt, or slain,
    Like wretched mortals who alive remain.
    Let not the living then at Death repine,
    Since it was made by God an _act divine_,
    To raise the Just--the _husband_, _child_, and _wife_,
    From scenes of trouble to a better life!


 _Of the Curiosities in the Abbey of St. Denis.--The_
 Doctor _views the King's Treasure.--Goes to the Italian
 Theatre.--Observations on the Actors, &c._

Whilst I was at the abbey of St. Denis, I viewed many elegant statues
and paintings, and the font, or baptismal bason, out of which the kings
of France had been christened. Afterwards I was admitted by a monk into
the king's treasure, where I saw the crowns of the kings and queens of
France, with many golden vessels and splendid ornaments.

I dined at a hotel in St. Denis, and returned to Paris; but in my rout
I ascended a hill which commands a sight of the city, and affords a
fine prospect. On this hill there is a great number of wind-mills,
dwelling-houses, and other buildings. In the evening I went to the
Italian theatre, where I was very well entertained with performances of
different kinds. Their artificial thunder and lightning, was alarming;
as the claps were very loud and sudden, and the flashes appeared as
natural as those from the clouds.

The theatres in Paris are very large. They are opened at five o'clock,
and the performances begin at six, and end at nine,--which is much
better then to keep people till almost midnight; because they have time
to return to their dwellings in season.

I have often thought that the actors are deficient in one thing; that
is, in their not apprising the spectators of the subject before the
play begins; and whether it is to be a tragedy or a comedy, and who
or what it is to be in imitation of; and whether it is to represent a
battle, a duel, or a courtship, &c. for the entering upon these things
without any previous notice, is like a divine's preaching without
naming his text, or letting his auditors know what subject he is about
to discourse upon.

It is true, indeed, that the actors often send forth publications, to
let the people know what is to be represented such and such evenings;
but I do not think that more than one person in twenty that attends the
plays ever reads the publications; and those that do, are put to the
trouble of carrying them to the theatres, and of tracing them through
the evening, or they will not know before-hand what play is to be acted


 _Views the Anatomical Productions at_ Cherenton. _A Description of the
 Vineyards.--The People meet where the Bastille stood, and pray for
 the Souls of them that were slain in taking that Place. Their Form of
 Prayer.--Surveys the King's Physical Gardens._

  Paris, July 22.

This morning I went to Cherenton, which is two leagues from Paris, and
viewed a great number of skeletons, not only of human bodies, but of
birds, beasts, and fishes; and I must join in opinion with the Spanish
physician, _viz_. that they exceed every thing of the kind in the
world, or at least that I ever saw or heard of. Here are skeletons of
infants and adults, mounted upon the skeletons of horses, of different
sizes; some with the bones only, and some with the veins and arteries,
muscles, &c. In short every part of the human machine is exposed to
the view of the spectator. The various parts of the body are also
preserved in spirits, and anatomy is demonstrated in all its branches
in the best manner; which must be of excellent use to young students.

As I was returning to Paris, I viewed a number of vineyards which are
cultivated for the purpose of raising grapes. The vines in general
were planted about two feet apart, and are hoed much like the maze,
or Indian corn, in America. In some places they have rows of potatoes
between the vines, but at such places they are planted more than two
feet apart; and for want of knowledge in philosophy, many hill their
potatoes too high, which hinders their growth, by obstructing the
rays of the sun from heating their roots.

The vines run upon poles, that are about four or five feet high; and
after the grapes are gathered in the fall, the vines are cut down close
to the ground, and from the roots another set arises, which bear grapes
the next year. It appears to me that such vines would grow in many
parts of America, if they were properly cultivated.

On entering into Paris, I passed by the place where the Bastille stood;
and, behold! a number of the priests, with a great multitude of people,
had met together to pray for the souls of them that had been slain,
when the Bastille was taken on the 14th of July, 1789. I was told, that
this was the first time that the priests and the people had met to pray
on that occasion since the battle happened.

The catholics have various forms of prayer, which they make use of
when they pray for the dead. The one for brethren, relations, and
benefactors, runs thus:

 "O God, the giver of pardon, and lover of the salvation of man,
 we beseech thy clemency in behalf of our brethren, relations, and
 benefactors, who departed this life; that by the intercession of the
 Blessed Virgin _Mary_, and of all thy saints, thou wouldest receive
 them into the joys of thy eternal kingdom: through our Lord Jesus
 Christ, _Amen_."

At the end of each form, the following is used: "Eternal rest give to
them, O Lord; and let perpetual light shine upon them."

After I had left the place where the people were praying, I walked
through the king's physical gardens, where there are about seven
thousand different kinds of vegetables, consisting of trees, plants
and herbs, collected from the four quarters of the globe, that can
possibly be made to grow in Paris. I have been informed, that this
botanical garden, and a museum of natural curiosities, which may be
seen every Wednesday and Friday in the afternoon, costs the king 72,000
livres _per annum_.

In these gardens there is a mount, which I ascended by a path that runs
round it, in a spiratic course. At the top of this hill I had a fine
prospect, not only of the gardens, but of the city.

I observed as I passed through the gardens, that the vegetables were
distinguished from one another by Latin inscriptions, as _calamus_
_aromaticus_, _sambucus_, _rhabarbarum_, &c.


 _A Description of_ Paris.--_Of the River_ Seine.--_Of the
 Climate.--Dress,--Anecdote of a Frenchman.--French Courtship, and the
 Fondness of the Ladies_, &c.

Paris, the capital of France, is situated in lat. 48 deg. 50 min.
north; and long. 2 deg. 10 min. east of the royal observatory at
Greenwich; and is called one of the grandest and most beautiful cities
in Europe. It is built in a circular form, and was about eighteen miles
in circumference, 'till of late it has been made much larger by the
augmentation of their buildings, and the erection of a new wall,
which encompasses the old one at a great distance. The city is walled
in to prevent smuggling, sentries being placed at the gates, where
duties are paid, &c. The houses in this city are from six to eight
stories high in general, built chiefly of hewn stone, which are of a
lightish colour. These stories are much higher than ours in London. The
buildings are very magnificent; and the city is amazingly populous.

It contains upwards of 22,000 houses,--979 streets,--52 parishes,--130
convents,--28 hospitals,--and about 800,000 people.

The streets of this city are narrow; and being paved to the sides of
the houses, with stones much like those in the middle of the streets in
London, makes the walking inconvenient, and exposes travellers to the
danger of being hurt by the carriages.

It is a pity that the streets of Paris, and many other cities, had not
been laid out at right angles, at proper distances, and at convenient
breadths, when the places were first built.

Paris is divided almost into equal parts by the river Seine, which did
not appear to me to be so large as the river Thames. There is a number
of bridges over the Seine, and several of them have buildings on either
side, which form a complete street. This river rises in Burgundy, and
running through Paris, empties itself into the English Channel, between
Havre-de-Grace and Honfleur.

The tides are not strong enough to bring heavy vessels up to Paris.
The people are obliged to make use of long barges, and to tow them up
with horses. There are some water-mills erected on this river, for the
purpose of grinding grain, &c.

The air is much clearer at Paris than it is at London; and the
country is healthy: the climate in the south of France is called the
wholesomest in Europe. It is something remarkable that I did not see
one funeral all the time I was in France; which made me suppose that
they buried their dead in the night: but this, on enquiry, I found not
to be the practice.

The inhabitants of Paris are polite, gay and luxurious; many of them
very handsome. The amusements of the city are pleasing, and the people
enjoy their pleasures at a cheap rate, as foreigners contribute much
towards the support of their theatres, hotels, &c.

The people in France do not seem to be much given to intemperance; and
I was told, that when the farmers and mechanics have received their
wages, they spend them at home in their families, instead of being
drunk at ale-houses; a thing too common in England. I was also told,
that the French do not use so much corrupt and abominable language as
the English and Irish do.

The ladies have a much handsomer head dress than the English; they do
not wear stays, neither do they make many of their gowns so long as to
draw on the ground, which is a waste, and a dirty indecent fashion.
The gentlemen dress much as we do in London, only they sometimes wear
cloaks, and the collars of their coats are not quite so high as ours. I
have sometimes wondered that cloaks are not more in fashion in London.

The French are very merry and cheerful; and their light and airy
turn makes them patient in times of adversity; they have also the
just reputation of being witty; and it has been said, that they are
sometimes too cunning for the English. This brings to my mind the
following anecdote, _viz._ A Frenchman, who had supped and lodged at an
inn kept by an Englishman, demanded his reckoning: the landlord made
out a bill of ten shillings, which the Frenchman paid, thinking in
the mean time that his host was something extravagant in his demands,
and was therefore resolved to be _up_ with him. The landlord soon
complained that he was very much troubled with rats. "Vell," said the
Frenchman, "for von bouteille of vin, I vill tell how you may get rid
of dem all." The landlord gave the wine. "Vell," said the Frenchman,
"do you make out a bill, and charge dem rats ten shillings a-piece for
every night da have lodged in your house, and I vill be bound da vill
all go off, and never trouble you any more."

I shall here give a slight specimen of the _French courtship_, which a
gentleman repeated to me; and if the gentlemen in England, Scotland,
Ireland, America, or elsewhere, shall see fit to follow the same mode
of address to the ladies, I shall have no objection, providing they
address themselves to proper persons.


"Upon the consideration of the good reputation you bear in the
nation, I find an inclination to offer you my salutation; and, upon
my salvation, if this my declaration finds your acceptation, it will
cause an obligation that will be of long continuation, even from
generation to generation."

The ladies in France are very amorous, and those that are married are
not much troubled with their husbands being jealous of them, let them
be honest or dishonest: and you may court a Frenchman's wife before
his face, and he will not be jealous of you, as I was informed. Great
numbers of the lewd women are said to be licensed by authority, to keep
public houses for the entertainment of persons of that character.

The disease that is commonly spread by such people is rather upon the
decline at Paris, it is said; owing to the frequent use of different
kinds of remedies, as preventatives, &c.


 _The Length, Breadth, Boundaries, Inhabitants, New Divisions,
 Mountains, Rivers, Soil, Produce, Manufactories, Commerce, Religion,
 and Laws of_ France.

The kingdom of France is about six hundred and twenty-two miles in
length from north to south, and six hundred and twenty in breadth
from east to west: It is bounded--Easterly on Germany, Switzerland,
Savoy, and Piedmont--Southerly on the Mediterranean sea, and the
Pyrenean mountains, which separate it from Spain--Westerly on the
Bay of Biscay--Northerly on the English channel--and North-easterly
on the Spanish Netherlands. It contains near 26,950-7/12 square
leagues--25,000,000 of inhabitants--Eighteen arch-bishoprics--167,000
clergymen--28 universities--25 academies--750 great convents of
monks--200 of nuns--10,000 of a smaller kind--and upwards of 200,000 of
monks and nuns.

I understand that the National Assembly have divided the kingdom into
eighty grand divisions, or counties, of eighteen leagues in length, and
as many in breadth; and each grand division into nine commonalities,
that are six leagues square; and also each commonality into nine
cantons, of two leagues in length, and two in breadth.

Hence there are eighty grand divisions, seven hundred and twenty
commonalities, and 6480 cantons in the kingdom.

The mountains in France are, the Alps--the Pyrenees--the Vague--Mount
Jura--the Convennes--and Mount Dor.

The chief rivers are, the Rhone--the Garoune--the Loire--the Seine--the
Somme--and the Ardour.

The climate is mild and healthy, as has already been observed; and the
soil fruitful, though not equal to Great Britain for corn: but their
fruits are more numerous, and of a higher flavour than ours, by reason
of their growing in a more southern country. They have the largest
plumbs I ever saw: but their beans, peas, and strawberries were small.
In the northern provinces they have good cider and perry; and in the
southern the best of wines. In the province of Languedoc they raise
silk and olive oil.

France does not abound in coal, which obliges the people to raise and
burn wood, and sometimes turf. There are many excellent forests between
Paris and Calais, and some beds of turf. In Paris they have the largest
magazines of wood that I ever saw.

The animals in France are of the same kinds of those in England; only
they have some wolves, as I was informed.

The French manufacture silks, woollens, velvets, brocades, alamodes,
lawns, laces, cambrics, tapestry, glass, hardware, war-like implements,
paper, hats, thread, toys, &c. but I do not think their manufacturies
are equal to those of England in all respects.

France carries on the greatest foreign trade of any kingdom in the
world, except Great Britain; and the inland trade is very large, by the
way of their navigable rivers, canals, &c. One of the latter is said to
be one hundred miles in length, and opens a communication between the
ocean and the Mediterranean; it is carried over mountains and vallies,
and through one mountain. It was begun and finished in the reign of
Lewis XIV. It is called the Royal Canal, or Canal of Languedoc.

The established religion of France is that of the Roman Catholicks; but
of late the Protestants have been allowed a toleration.

I was told at Paris that many of the people look upon the Romish clergy
as impostors, and that they had found them out, and intend to pull them

It was said that a few of the laws of France were very arbitrary
and tyrannical before the late Revolution, as they were totally
inconsistent with the laws of humanity; among which was that for
confiscating the property of foreigners dying in France, and
appropriating it to the use of the state. But since my arrival at
Paris the National Assembly have abolished for ever that unreasonable
decree. Had I died whilst I was in that kingdom, and before the decree
was abolished, my hat, shirts, coats, waistcoats, breeches, stockings,
shoes, buckles, books, trunk, money, diploma, recommendations, &c.
would have been confiscated and taken from my heirs; and for no other
crime than that of my going to see the country, and do business for
myself in Paris!

How unreasonable was it, that the heirs of the deceased, _viz._ the
poor widows and the fatherless children, should have their property
alienated in such a manner! Surely such a transaction must be
disgraceful, not only to Christendom, but even to the most barbarous

I was told that the National Assembly had also abolished, for ever, two
other decrees, which they deemed unreasonable. They were those that
debarred the clergy from the liberty of entering into the bands of
matrimony, and certain females the same privilege; and also, for the
keeping them in confinement all the days of their lives in nunneries.

Before the Revolution the laws were executed with the utmost severity.

A servant would be hung for stealing less then a shilling. Murderers
and high-way robbers, and those that attempted to poison any body, were
broke on the wheel.

Smugglers were condemned to be gally-slaves for life.

Women brought to bed with dead bastard children, without having made
known their pregnancy, were burnt alive.

Priests that revealed the confessions of penitents, had their tongues
tore out, their gowns stripped off, and were expelled from their

He that robbed a church had his hands cut off at the church door, and
was afterwards burnt at the place of execution, which was always in the
centre of the town.

People of family, convicted of a capital offence, though not executed,
are disennobled, with all their relations, turned out of their public
employments, and rendered incapable of holding any afterwards, and all
marriage contracts become void.

The nobility and clergy, with the burgesses of Paris, and some other
free cities, were exempted from paying land taxes.


 France _an unlimited Monarchy before the Revolution.--The Kingdom was
 divided into fifteen Parts, in which were as many Parliaments.--It
 was also divided into twenty-five Generalities.--The King nominated
 the Bishops.--The Privileges of the Clergy.--The Orders of
 Knighthood.--From what the Revenues were collected.--A Statement
 of the Annual Incomes and Expences.--Of the Gold and Silver in
 Circulation.--National Debt, &c._

Having, partly from my own knowledge, and partly from credible
information, given in the preceding chapter a short geographical
description of the kingdom of France, I proceed, in the next place, to
say something concerning its Constitution and Government before the
late Revolution.

Let us therefore observe,

1. That France was an unlimited monarchy.

2. That both the legislative and executive powers resided in the king.

3. That his decrees had the same force as our acts of parliament.

4. That the kingdom was divided into fifteen parts, each of which had
a parliament; as that of Paris, Toulouse, Rouen, Grenoble, Bordeaux,
Dijon, Aix, Rennes, Pau, Besancon, Metz, Dowa, Perpignan, Arras, and

5. That these parliaments consisted of a certain number of presidents
and inferior judges, who purchased their offices of the crown, or of
those that possessed them, as they were for life, unless the officers
were found guilty of malconduct in the execution of their office.

6. That the parliament of Paris was esteemed the highest, because
it was composed of princes of royal blood, dukes and peers, besides
ordinary judges. Here the king frequently came in person, and had his
royal edicts recorded and promulgated.

7. That the kingdom was also divided into twenty-five generalities,
every one of which had an intendant, on whom the king depended for the
administration of justice, in civil and criminal causes; for ruling and
governing the subordinate officers, and ordering and conducting his
finances and revenues.

8. That the king nominated the bishops and their livings, and then the
pope sent his bulls of consecration.

9. That the crown seized all the temporalities of archbishopricks, and
bishopricks, which was called the _regal_, and the king frequently
gave pensions to laymen out of the bishopricks.

The privileges of the clergy were:

1. An exemption from paying land-taxes.

2. From having their books seized, with the other things they used in
divine service.

3. They might be tried in criminal causes, if they chose it, before the
grand chamber, which is a court where the nobility were tried.

4. They had the liberty of being degraded, or placed lower, before they
could be executed for any atrocious crime.

5. They were exempt from having soldiers quartered on them.

6. Their persons could not be taken with executions in civil actions.

7. They were exempted from being brought before lay courts for personal

But they could not bring a layman before an ecclesiastical court.

All spiritual actions were recognizable in the ecclesiastical courts,
providing they were not blended with temporal matters; and when that
was the case, they were obliged to try their causes before the civil

There have been four orders of knighthood in France:

  _Viz._ 1. Knights of the Holy Ghost,}               { 1578.
         2. Knights of St. Michael,   } Instituted in { 1469.
         3. Knights of St. Louis, and }               { 1693.
         4. Knights of St. Lazarus,   }

The annual revenues were collected by a land-tax--by the customs--by a
tax on salt--by a poll-tax--by a tenth of estates and employments--by
a sale of all offices of justice--and by a tenth, or free gift of the
clergy. But this revenue was subject to an enlargment, by raising
the value of the coin, and by the compounding of the state bills and

The annual revenue of France, before the Revolution, was said to be
585,000,000 of livres, or 24,375,000 pounds sterling. Of which sum the
clergy possessed 130,000,000 of livres. The annual balance of trade
in favour of France, was 70,000,000 of livres. The gold and silver
supposed to be in circulation 2,000,000,000 of livres, and the annual
increase of it 40,000,000 more.

The annual expences of France 610,000,000 livres, or 25,416,666_l._
13_s._ 4_d._ sterling. The annual income 24,375,000_l._ The nation run
in debt 1,041,666_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._ _per annum_.

A GENERAL STATEMENT _of the Expences, Incomes, &c. stands thus_:

                                      Livres       Sterling.

  Expences for collecting taxes     58,000,000   2,416,666 13 4
  Annual of importations           230,000,000   9,583,333  6 8
  Ditto of exportations            300,000,000  12,500,000  0 0
  Ditto of balance of commerce      70,000,000   2,916,666  6 8
  An. int. of the national debt    207,000,000   8,625,000  0 0
  Annual charge of the army        124,650,000   5,193,750  0 0
  Ditto of the navy                 45,200,000   1,883,333  6 8
  The amount of the taxes, &c.     585,000,000  24,375,000  0 0
  Annual expences of the state     610,000,000  25,416,666 13 4
  Gold and silver coin           2,200,000,000  91,666,666 13 4
  Supposed annual increase          40,000,000   1,666,666 13 4
  National debt                  3,400,000,000 141,666,666 13 4
  May 1, 1779, National expen.     475,294,000
               Revenue             431,533,000
               Nation fell in debt  43,761,000


 _The Constitution of_ France _changed from Monarchy to Democracy.--The
 Number and Power of the National Assembly.--The King is only an
 executive Officer.--A Decree of the National Assembly.--Titles of
 Nobility abolished._

Having in the preceding chapter given an account of the constitution
and government of France before the Revolution, let us consider, in the
next place, of the present constitution and government of that kingdom.

We must therefore observe:

1. That the constitution is changed from monarchy to democracy; that
the legislative powers are taken from the king, and vested in the

2. That the kingdom is divided into eighty grand divisions, and
subdivided into seven hundred and twenty commonalities and 6480 cantons.

3. That each commonality is empowered to send one representative to the
National Assembly.

4. That the National Assembly is composed of seven hundred and twenty
members, when the whole are convened.

5. That this assembly is the supreme legislative head of the nation.

6. That the power of making laws, raising of taxes, the coining,
borrowing, and lending of money; the setting up and pulling down of
officers, granting of commissions and employments; the making of war
and peace; and the entering into treaties and alliances with foreign
powers, belongs to this assembly only.

7. That the king is only an executive officer, as he is to see the laws
of the representatives of the nation executed.

The king is to execute the actual decrees of the National Assembly,
respecting war and peace; and is allowed to provide for the safety of
the realm, in case of a foreign invasion, during the recess of the

A decree of the National Assembly, passed in May last, runs thus:

"The king shall have the right to provide for the security of the
frontiers, to make every preparation, and take every necessary step to
defend the national possessions; to manage the operations of the war,
and to propose whatever he thinks proper for the general good:

"But the legislative body shall have the right to decide on the
propriety of the war, make peace, and settle treaties.

"In case of war, the king shall give immediate notice of it to the
legislative body, if the assembly is sitting, and if not, it shall be
summoned immediately."

I was informed in Paris, that the National Assembly have abolished all
the titles of nobility; and observed that their coats of arms were
taken from their carriages.

It was also reported, that the nobility are to pay land and other
taxes, in proportion to their abilities.

These are some of the fundamental alterations in the Constitution,
according to the best information that I have been able to obtain. Let
us then, in the next chapter, consider of the causes of the Revolution.


 _Supposed Causes of the Revolution.--The Resolutions of the National
 Assembly.--Names of some of the Officers appointed under the New

It is said that the Revolution arose from various causes: as,

1. The people had no part of the power of legislation.

2. They were deprived of the right of a trial by jury.

3. They paid more than their proportion of the public taxes, because
the nobility, clergy, &c. were exempted from paying a land-tax.

4. They were under some laws peculiarly oppressive.

Their grievances will appear by the following resolutions, which on the
4th of August, 1789, the National Assembly unanimously agreed to, as a
proof of their genuine patriotism to the people, as their affectionate
and disinterested representatives, devoid of every motive but the
common good; and, to give a great example to nations and ages, in the
sacrifice of every abusive right and privilege whatsoever, incidental
to all the orders, provinces, cities and communities, will raise the
French name to a heighth unparalleled in history, and consecrate
their memory as worthy of representing the enlightened knowledge, the
courage, and the virtues of so great and generous a people.

"Article I. An equality of taxes, to commence from the present moment.

"II. The renunciation of all privileges for orders, cities, provinces,
and individuals; a general uniformity to take place through the whole

"III. The redemption of all feudal rights.

"IV. A suppression of mortmain and personal servitude.

"V. The produce of the redemption of the estates of the clergy to be
applied to the augmentation of the salaries of the parish priests.

"VI. The abolition of the game laws, _capitaineries_.

"VII. The abolition of seigniorial jurisdictions.

"VIII. The abolition of the venality of officers.

"IX. Justice to be rendered gratuitously to the people.

"X. The abolition of privileged dove-coats and warrens, (a dreadful and
serious grievance to the French peasant).

"XI. The redemption of tithes and field-rents.

"XII. It is forbidden to create in future any rights of the same
nature, or any other feudal rights whatever.

"XIII. The abolition of the fees of parish priests, for births,
marriages, or deaths, except in the cities.

"XIV. A speedy augmentation of the benefices of parish priests.

"XV. A suppression of the _droits d'annates_, or first fruits. (The
sum paid by France to the pope on this head, ammounted annually to
357,133_l._ sterling.)

"XVI. The admission of all ranks of citizens to civil and military

"XVII. The suppression of the duties of removal, paid by parish priests
to the bishops in certain provinces.

"XVIII. The suppression of corporations and wardenships.

"XIX. The suppression of the plurality of livings.

"XX. A medal to be struck to consecrate this memorable day; expressive
of the abolition of all the privileges, and of the complete union of
all the provinces and all the citizens.

"XXI. _Te Deum_ to be sung in the king's chapel, and throughout all

"XXII. Louis XVI. proclaimed the restorer of public liberty."

There were several other articles, _viz._

The abolition of all unmerited pensions.

All artizens to be exempt from taxes, who employ no journeymen.

All suits for seignioral and royal rights, then pending in the courts,
to be suspended till the constitution shall be completed.

All the interior councils were suppressed; and the cabinet were
composed of the following ministers, who were responsible for every
measure of state:

1. M. Necker, minister of the finances, or first lord of the treasury.

2. M. Montmorin, secretary for the foreign department.

3. M. St. Priest, secretary for the home department.

4. M. de la Lazurne, minister of the marine department.

5. M. le Comté de la Tour du Piu Paulin, minister of the war department.

6. M. l'Archeveque de Bourdeaux, keeper of the seal.

7. M. l'Archeveque de Vienne, minister for bishops and abbies.

8. M. le Prince de Beauveau, to be of the council, but with no
particular department.


 _A Declaration of the Rights which have been adopted by the National
 Assembly.--Reductions made from the Annual Revenues.--Two Banks
 established.--Criminals may employ Counsel, &c._

"The representatives of the people of France, constituted in national
assembly, considering that ignorance, forgetfulness, or neglect of
the rights of man, are the sole causes of public misfortunes, and of
the corruption of governments, have resolved to explain, in a solemn
declaration, the natural imprescriptible, inalienable, and sacred
rights of man; to the end that this declaration, being constantly
presented to all the members of society, may unceasingly recal to their
minds their duties and their rights; and to the end that the acts of
legislative and executive powers, being at all times compared with the
design of the political institution, may be more respected, and that
the appeals of the citizens, being founded henceforward on plain and
incontestible principles, may always tend to the maintenance of the
constitution and the general happiness.

"The National Assembly, in consequence, recognizes and declares in
the presence, and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the sacred
rights of the man and the citizen.

"I. Men are born and remain free and equal in their rights. No
distinction can be founded, but in principles of general utility.

"II. The object of all society ought to be the preservation of the
natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are his
liberty, his property, his security, and the resistance of oppression.

"III. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the
nation; and no authority, which is not expressly derived from thence,
can be exercised by any associations, or any individual.

"IV. Liberty consists in the power of doing every thing which does not
injure another person: Thus the exercise of the natural rights of every
man, have no other boundaries, than those which assure to men the free
exercise of the same rights. These boundaries cannot be determined by

"V. The law ought to prohibit only such actions as are injurious
to society. That which is not forbidden by the law, should not be
prevented; and no person can be compelled to do what the law does not

"VI. The law is the expression of the general will; and all
citizens have a right to contribute, either personally, or by their
representatives, to its formation. The law, whether it protects or
punishes, ought to be the same to all. All citizens being equal
in its regard, are equally admissible to all dignities, places,
and employments, according to their capacities, without any other
distinction than what arises from their virtues and their talents.

"VII. No man can be accused, arrested, or retained, but in the case
determined by the law, and under the forms which it has prescribed.
Those who solicit, forward, execute, or cause to be punished. Every
citizen called on or arrested by the power of the law, ought to obey,
and renders himself culpable by resistance.

"VIII. The law should establish no punishments but what are strictly
and evidently necessary; and no person can be punished but by the
power of the law established; promulgated at a period anterior to the
offence, and legally applied.

"IX. Every man shall be presumed innocent until he is condemned. If
it be deemed indispensibly necessary that he should be detained in
custody, all rigour that is not absolutely necessary to secure his
person, should be severely repressed by law.

"X. No person shall be disturbed for his opinions, even though on
religion, provided that the manifestation of those opinions does not
disturb the public order established by law.

"XI. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the most
precious rights of man. Every citizen shall, therefore, speak, write,
and print his opinions freely, still being responsible for the abuse of
his liberty, in cases prescribed by the law.

"XII. The security of the rights of man and of citizens requires a
public force; but this force is instituted for the advantage of all,
and not for the particular use of those to whom it is confided.

"XIII. For the maintenance of the public force, and the other expences
of government, contribution is necessary; but this should be as common
as it is indispensible, and should be levied equally on all citizens,
in proportion to their ability.

"XIV. Every citizen has a right, either by himself or his
representatives, to establish the necessity of the public contribution,
to consent to it freely, to look to its application, and to determine
on its quota, the assessment, and duration.

"XV. Society has a right to demand from every public agent an account
of his administration.

"XVI. Every society, if the guarantee of the individual rights is not
assured, and the distinction of the several powers ascertained, is
without a constitution.

"XVII. The right of property being inviolable and secured, no person
can be deprived of his, but when the public necessity, legally
established, shall evidently demand it, and then only on the just and
previous assurance of indemnification."

 In Sept. 1789, the National Assembly resolved, it is said, to make the
 following Reductions from the Annual Income:


   1. The household of the king, queen, and princes          8,000,000
   2. The foreign department                                 8,300,000
   3. The war ditto                                          8,900,000
   4. The marine ditto                                       2,000,000
   5. The finance ditto                                      1,000,000
   6. The pensions, besides the reductions made before       6,000,000
   7. The intendants and delegates                           1,800,000
   8. The registers and farmer-general                       2,600,000
   9. The mint                                               1,700,000
  10. The premiums and encouragements to trade                 600,000
  11. The royal gardens                                         36,000
  12. ---- ---- library                                         62,000
  13. ---- ---- stud, to be suppressed                         800,000
  14. The contingencies                                      2,500,000
  15. The fund reserved for lotteries, to be suppressed        173,000
  16. The plantation of forests                                817,000
  17. The clergy                                             2,502,000
  18. The charities                                          5,511,000
                                                     Livres 53,301,000
                                                 Sterling £. 2,220,875

And I understand that two public banks have been established; one
consisting of about 205 millions of livres, and the other of near 273

Criminals are now permitted to employ counsel, bring evidence, and have
the benefit of a trial by jury, in France.


 _An Account of several Insurrections, Mobs, and Riots in_ France.--_Of
 an Attempt to seize and kill the Queen.--The King, Queen, &c. go from_
 Versailles _to_ Paris.--_An Account of several other Riots.--The King,
 a wise and prudent Man._

It appears by the information I received in France, and a number of
publications that I have read, that there have been divers tumults
and outrages in different parts of the kingdom, in consequence of the
Revolution: for besides the taking of the Bastille, where more than
three hundred were slain, exclusive of those that were afterwards
executed, hostilities have commenced in other places. It has been said,
they first began in the park of the _Thuilleries_, by a regiment of
German troops, commanded by Le Prince Lambache, who is cousin to the
queen. This park being thronged by Parisians, and the prince conceiving
something that had passed among the people as a gross insult, ordered
his regiment to fire:--His orders were obeyed. The populace immediately
beat to arms, and a vast concourse joined the standard, drove the
prince and his regiment out of the park, and obliged them to fly to
Germany. The prince narrowly escaped with his life. His carriage was
burnt to ashes, his horses killed, and a reward was offered for his
head. How many were slain in this action I have not been able to learn.

The people have been much enraged against Le Compte de Artois, and have
supposed that he was the author of their wrongs. His estate has been
confiscated, and his horses, with three hundred of his houses, sold. It
was thought at Paris, that he cannot return at present with safety.

Some time in the spring, 1789, a proprietor to a large manufactory
in Paris, reported that fifteen sous per day would be sufficient to
support a journeyman and his family, providing certain taxes were
abolished. His house was soon surrounded by the manufacturers, who came
in a very hostile manner. The guards were sent to preserve the peace.
But the enraged multitude killed several of the soldiers with stones.
The military was drawn forth, and a battle ensued, in which more then
six hundred persons were killed on the spot.

At St. Germin and Poissy, the populace seized all the arms belonging
to the invalids; and upwards of six hundred went to the house of one
Sauvage, where they found between six and seven hundred sacks of flour.
He was a miller, and it is probable they supposed he meant to hoard up
his flour. He was dragged to a convent, was examined by the friars, and
declared innocent: but notwithstanding, the mob led him to a butcher,
who cut off his head; and carried it about the streets; and they were
so inhuman as to insist upon the miller's sons being present at the
execution. His daughter, unable to bear the sight, threw herself over
the bridge, into the water, and was drowned.

Dreadful were the outrages committed at Rouen: Many of the citizens
were killed by the troops, and some suffered greatly by the populace,
who ransacked and pillaged all the houses where they suspected corn
was concealed. Two vessels were stripped, and all sorts of carriages
attacked and robbed.

On the 14th of July, 1789, an insurrection happened at Lions, wherein
three peasants were killed by the dragoons, who suppressed the mob.

At the castle of Quinsay, as an immense crowd of citizens and soldiers
were amusing themselves with festivity and dancing, on account of the
Revolution, they were blown up by a powder plot, and found floating in
their blood. Scattered corpses, and dissevered members, palpitating
for life, were seen, after some spectators had arrived, near the place
where the horrible catastrophe happened. This plot was supposed to be
laid by the very man who had prepared the feast, and had invited the
people, but had withdrawn himself before the powder took fire.

On the 5th of Oct. 1789, 5,000 women, armed with different weapons,
marched from Paris to Versailles, followed by a great multitude of
people, among which were several detachments of the city militia. The
Marquis de la Fayette arrived at Versailles late in the evening, with
20,000 corps, who were under arms all night, in order to prevent acts
of violence.

About two in the morning of the 6th, a number of persons in women's
dresses, many of whom, it is said, were guards, having gained the
outward entrances of the castle, forced their way into the palace, and
went up the stair-case leading to the queen's apartment, with an intent
to seize and murder her; but they were fired upon by the king's guard.
Seventeen were killed on the spot, the rest retreated, and things
remained quiet till day-light.

The Parisian troops demanding an entrance into the palace, were fired
upon by a regiment of the king's body guard. The Parisians returned
the fire; and the action becoming more general, the Count de Lusignan,
commandant of a regiment of Flanders, ordered his troops to fire, but
they refused, and laid down their arms. The king's body guard finding
themselves overpowered, took to flight. The troops then forced the
entrances of the castle, but were prevented from entering the palace by
the prudent management and command of M. de la Fayette. It is thought
that the king, queen, and royal family, would have fallen victims to
the troops, had they entered the palace.

The Marquis was soon introduced to the king, with some of the
magistrates of Paris, and communicated the desire of the city,
that he might conduct his majesty and the royal family thither. On
being assured of protection, the king complied with the request; and
their majesties, with the dauphin, &c. the king's aunts, with their
attendants, proceeded toward town in eighteen carriages, attended by M.
de la Fayette, and about 5,000 guards.

The road from Versailles was so thronged by the mob, notwithstanding
50,000 Parisian troops had been sent to keep the way clear, that the
royal family were eight hours in reaching the _Hotel de Ville_, though
only twelve miles distance.

This tedious journey must have been rendered the more painful, by the
thoughts of being led captives in triumph to the city of Paris, and the
fear of what might follow.

The king, with the royal family, stayed near two hours at the _Hotel
de Ville_, and were afterwards conducted to the old ruinous place of
the _Thuilleries_, which had not been inhabited since the days of Lewis
XIV. and where nothing was prepared for their reception.

The regiment of the king's body guards, both officers and privates,
were composed of persons of the second order of nobility in France.
About thirty of them were killed, and their heads carried in triumph to
Paris, and shewn about the streets on tent poles. Eighty were carried
prisoners to this city; but the rest saved themselves by flight. About
fifty of the Parisian troops and mob were killed in the affray.

On the 7th, the avenues of the _Thuilleries_ were guarded by 1000 men,
and the gates of the palace were secured by a train of cannon, to
prevent any surprize or escape.

This day being court day, their majesties received the foreign
ministers in the palace. The king looked uncommonly dejected; the queen
was in tears the whole time, and only talked a little to the imperial
ambassador. The sight was uncommonly gloomy, and the court broke up
after a short time.

In the evening the districts of Paris passed a resolution, that the
regiment of the king's body guard should be immediately broken, and
never more revived; and that in future his majesty should be guarded by
citizens instead of soldiers.

This evening the National Assembly at Versailles resolved to adjourn to
Paris; and that its meeting should ever be inseparable from the king's
place of residence.

Just before the affray at Versailles, several riots had commenced at

It is said, that whilst the king, queen, &c. were on their journey from
Versailles, nothing but the watchful eye of the Marquis de la Fayette,
and the confidential guards around the royal coaches, prevented the mob
from committing the most violent outrages. The queen's name was handed
about in very gross terms: One barbarian asked his companion, "Whether
he thought her head would not make a very pretty tennis-ball?" In
short, her majesty must be in the most imminent danger.

The harmless spectators were in a dangerous condition at this
tumultuous scene. An English gentleman, dressed in white clothes, on
a riotous day, was seized by a mob, when one cried out, "That is the
miller of----, who secreted so many bags of flour:" He told them he was
an Englishman, and was innocent: but all was in vain: they insisted he
was the man; and he was so much affrighted that he spake nothing but

They dragged him to the place of execution, he protesting all the way
that he was an Englishman: at last one of the mob cried out, "D----n
you, if you are an Englishman, speak _English_." He then spake in his
own language, and was released.

Besides these insurrections, I understand that two happened in May
last: one was at Montpellier, and the other at Saumur, where several
lives were lost.

I was told in Paris, that the king would have lost his kingdom, if he
had not been a wise and prudent man; that had he opposed the National
Assembly, he would have been no longer king. And it was reported
that the representatives of the nation, are able to raise an army of
seventeen hundred thousand men, in the defence of liberty.


 _Of the Birth, Marriage, and Character of the King of France--Of the
 Birth and Character of the Queen.--An Account of the Dauphin, and of
 the Princess Royal.--Where the Royal Family may be seen._

His most Christian Majesty, Lewis XVI. king of France and Navarre, was
born August 23, 1753. He was married May 16, 1770; to Marie Antoinette,
sister to the late Emperor of Germany. The king began to reign, May
10, 1774; and was crowned June 11, 1775. He is of a middling stature,
something corpulent, and of a light complexion. His majesty is good
humoured, very humane, kind, and affable; and as he is easy of access,
and possesses the most amiable virtues, he is much beloved by his

The queen was born November 2, 1755. She is very handsome, and of a
civil, mild, complaisant, and obliging deportment. And although the
public clamour was violent againt her for a time, on a supposition that
she wished the king absolute; yet I was informed, that the spirit of
discontent has subsided.

Madame la princesse royal is about thirteen years of age. She is very
handsome, and possesses excellent accomplishments.

The dauphin is about seven years old: an active, beautiful child.

The royal family may be seen at the royal chapel on Sundays, and also
upon every other day in the week, at the same place, when they are at


 _Some of the Nobility and Clergy opposed to the Revolution.--Monks
 and Nuns have Liberty to marry.--The Standing Army reduced.--Soldiers
 Wages augmented--And the Incomes of the lower Orders of the
 Clergy.--Why the Revolution is called Glorious.--The Protest of a
 Bishop.--Observations on the King's Oath._

It is said, that some of the nobility and clergy are much opposed to
the Revolution, because the titles of honour are abolished, the annual
incomes diminished, and all are obliged to pay taxes in proportion to
their abilities.

I was informed, that the salaries of the bishops are reduced from
twenty-five thousand pounds _per annum_, to one thousand; only that
some of them could not live with twenty-five thousand, without running
in debt, and that they are now in a disagreeable situation.

It was reported that the National Assembly have given leave to the
monks and nuns to marry, a privilege that people of those orders have
been debarred from through many ages and generations. I asked, what
must be done on account of the solemn vows by which they had devoted
themselves to Heaven, by engaging to shun the pomps and vanities of
this wicked world, and the sinful lusts of the flesh? and was informed
that they were all absolved and abolished.

The standing army is to be reduced from two hundred to one hundred
and fifty thousand: but the soldiers' wages have been augmented: and
although the incomes of the bishops are greatly reduced, yet those of
the inferior orders of the clergy are to be increased; and the sale of
judicial offices will no longer be permitted. The impost on salt is
also abolished.

Before the Revolution the king had the disposal of the whole of the
national revenue; and with unbounded generosity gave 1,500,000 pounds
annually to the nobility, as I was informed.

Some call the Revolution in France _Glorious_,

1. Because (they say) that no Revolution ever conferred _liberty_ and
_equal laws_ upon so great a number of people.

2. Because it has been brought about with so little effusion of blood.

3. Because they suppose that other nations will follow the laudable
example, until liberty, in its meridian splendor, is extended and
established through the world!

It is said, that the prince bishop of Spiers has again solemnly
protested against the proceedings of the National Assembly, in
choosing mayors, and municipal members in the towns and places of
Elsas, belonging to his bishopric, and other innovations against his
rights and privileges. In this important protest he says, "That he
had laid before the king, in the most earnest manner, his opposition
to the decrees of the National Assembly; which decrees had absolutely
overset all the existing treaties with France: that he had delivered a
memorial to the emperor and to the realm upon this important subject;
notwithstanding which they had proceeded to the appointment of new
municipal officers in Elsas, according to the decrees of the National
Assembly, and against his right of jurisdiction and appointment; that
the new mayors committed great outrages, and set his subjects against
paying him any dues, and were endeavouring to make them throw off his
dominion:" and he concludes by saying, "that his powers leave him no
other remedy than to _protest_ against what is done, which he does in
the most solemn manner."

A spirit of discontent will undoubtedly reign for a time among some
of those that have had their incomes diminished in consequence of the

Agreeable to the bishop's opinion, in regard to the existing treaties,
&c. being overset, is the following paragraph, inserted in the St.
James's Chronicle, July 24, 1790.

"The king of France has now bound himself by a sacred oath, to adhere
to the decrees of the National Assembly, and support the constitution
in its renovated form; consequently there is an end to all foreign
interferences on his behalf, either in Spain, Sardinia, or any other
quarter. To countenance such an interference would be an act of
perjury, and justify his subjects in such measures as might be fatal
to himself and the whole house of Bourbon. His majesty may be deemed
unfortunate; but no prince ranks higher in the estimation of mankind,
as an honest and conscientious man."

The National Assembly have decreed to strengthen, by a treaty, the
family compact between France and Spain, and to augment the Gallic navy
in consequence of the armaments of the different nations in Europe.


 _The_ Author _sets out for_ London.--_Falls in Company with
 a Lady.--Arrives at_ Amiens.--_Views the Convent, Cathedral, &c. in
 Company with the Lady--With whom he is left alone.--They discourse
 about Matrimony._

  Paris, July 23,

Having viewed the greatest hospitals and principal curiosities in this
city, and the parts adjacent, and obtained an account of the late
observations on the operation of medicines, and collected intelligence
upon political subjects, I paid my reckoning at the hotel, bid the
people farewel, and set off for London. My landlady sent a servant
after me, praying that I would put up there again when I came to Paris.
I returned her my thanks, and told the servant that I would endeavour
to come there if I should ever visit the city again.

Some days before I had engaged a passage back to London, on board the
diligences, for which I paid five _Louis d'ors_. My servant who had
waited upon me, seemed urgent I should take him to England, having
an inclination to live with me; which I should have done, had I not
determined to spend much of my time in travelling.

I left Paris about noon, in company with two Spanish, one French, one
Irish, and two English gentlemen: one of the latter was a lawyer, who
had travelled through many countries on the European continent.

I inquired where we should dine; and was informed that we were to have
no dinner that day, unless we payed for it ourselves, although we were
to be found on the way, according to the agreement we had made when we
paid for our fare, entertainment, &c. at Paris.

As we had no inclination to starve, we stopped at a hotel, where we
dined and paid for our dinners a second time.

At evening we came to Clermont, where we supped and lodged, but was
called up before day-light, to proceed on our journey. At this place
a lady came into our coach, who had come in a post-chaise on the
preceding day from Paris.

  July 24.

At about twelve we came to Amiens, having breakfasted by the way. We
put up at a hotel, where the lady that came in company with us, said
she had an inclination to go and see the convent. Several of us waited
upon her to the convent; but just after we had set out, she said she
had so much silver with her that she could not walk; and desired I
would ease her of a part of her burthen. I took a large number of her
crowns into my pocket, and she walked betwixt the lawyer and myself.
After we had viewed the convent, and conversed with the nuns, we went
to a very elegant cathedral church at Notre Dame, where some of the
inside pillars are said to be one hundred and thirty feet high. The
pulpit is made of beautiful white marble, gilt with gold, and the
cloths of the altar are ornamented with beautiful gold and silver
embroidery: many rich vessels, and other splendid ornaments also
dignify this cathedral.

Afterwards we viewed the town, in which are eleven parish churches.
Amiens is the capital of the province of Picardie, which is esteemed
the most fruitful of all the provinces in France, for corn and flax. As
we continued our walk, our company took a wrong street, and left me
with the lady. Now, forsooth, said I to myself, we shall be taken for
_man_ and _wife_; however, that will not trouble me, inasmuch as she
is a decent behaved person, and one that appears to have an excellent
education, with a proper share of good sense and understanding.

She told me by the way that she belonged to Great Britain, but had had
her education in a convent in France: That she had been a widow about
three years, was left with four children, _viz._ with two sons and two
daughters, and had been to Paris to get her daughters into a convent,
as she esteemed such places to be the best for the instruction of young

I told her that as she was but young herself, it was probable she
would marry again; but she said that she did not intend to marry. Said
I, Perhaps you will alter your mind, peradventure you may find an
agreeable companion. Said she, If I should be inclined to marry, nobody
will have me, because I have so many children. My answer was, You
ought not to be despised because you have children. Undoubtedly many
would be glad to marry you, though you have sons and daughters. As we
had arrived at the hotel, we dropped our discourse upon this subject;
I returned her silver, and she thanked me for my kindness. She was a
beautiful woman, and was besides well stocked with cash, which often
_makes the mare to go_. But as I was not in pursuit of a wife, I did
not attempt to court her on my own account; but told her, however, that
I believed I could send her an agreeable companion.


 _The Lady concludes to lodge at_ Abbeville.--_Observations on her
 Plan.--She being disappointed about getting a Post-chaise, continues
 in the Stage Coach.--A short Description of_ Montreul.--_They arrive
 at_ Calais.--_Embark for and arrive at_ Dover.--_Of Disputes upon
 Philosophical Subjects._

  Saturday, July 24.

We dined at the hotel, and set off towards London. Sometime before
night, our lady told me, that she was almost beat out; that she had
had but a little sleep for several nights, and intended to lodge at
Abbeville, and go from thence in a post-chaise in the morning to
Calais; as she supposed that she could get there as soon that way, as
she should if she kept in the stage coach, which was to travel all
night. She told me, by the way, that she had no company, and wished she
could get somebody to ride in the post-chaise with her. I informed her,
that I had paid for my passage and entertainment to London: but if she
could do no better, I would tarry all night, and ride with her in the
morning. She thanked me, and said, it should cost me nothing; for _she
had money enough_.

Now, thought I, you are opening a fine door for another discourse upon
matrimony; now you are laying a foundation whereby we may be taken
for man and wife. This may be an artful plan of yours to get another
husband, as you may suppose I am a batchelor, or a widower; and that
we may converse, eat, drink, and even sleep together, and escape

She said she was in a great hurry to get to England; that she had
tarried longer than she had expected, and wanted to see her family,
as she supposed they thought she was dead by that time: and withal
informed me that she lived forty miles from London. But I did not ask
her name, thinking it would be an impertinent question, and esteemed

At length we arrived at Abbeville, where we supped; and as our lady
found she could not have a post-chaise till the next Monday, and as
she felt much refreshed by her supper, she concluded to take the stage
again. We travelled all night, and arrived in the morning at Montreul,
where we viewed the town and went to breakfast.

This town is situated on a high hill, and is strongly fortified with
great walls, intrenchments, &c. There are some good buildings in it,
and many genteel inhabitants.

From Montreul we went to Boulogn, where we were obliged to dine at too
early an hour, _viz._ at about eleven. Many of us had an inclination
not to dine at all; but on being informed that there would be no other
dinner for us, we consented. We left this place about twelve, and
arrived at Calais at about four in the afternoon, much fatigued with
our journey.

As we had rode all night, we escaped being haunted by the beggars,
which I have spoken of in the beginning of this _Tour_; and from hence
it did not cost me quite so much to come from Paris as it did to go

We drank tea and supped at the hotel in Calais, and were visited again
by the same monk or priest, who had begged of me at the hotel before.
We gave him some money, and he pronounced a blessing, and departed.

As the tide was down, we were not able to set off for Dover till
late in the evening. At about nine we were obliged to go down near
the vessel, and tarry till it was high-water, because we had to pass
through several gates that the people were ordered to shut at that hour.

We stayed at a public-house, where we drank punch, negus, &c. and at
about eleven we embarked for Dover, and arrived at our desired haven
about four the next morning, having had a very pleasant and agreeable
passage. But as it was low water when we came to Dover, we were obliged
to go ashore in a boat, and to pay three shillings a-piece to the
boatman for carrying us about half a mile.

Whilst I was on the way to and from Paris, we had some warm debates
upon several philosophical subjects, _viz._ Chymestry, electricity,
the cause of earthquakes, the variation of the compass; the formation,
preservation, and dissolution of the human body, &c. and, although I do
not take much delight in arguments, but have rather endeavoured to shun
and avoid them as much as possible; yet inasmuch as I had begun upon
a good basis, and found myself violently opposed, I stood my ground,
supported and maintained my cause, and at last had the satisfaction of
seeing my opponents convinced of their error.


 _Further Claims on our Bounty.--French Coin exchanged for
 English.--Views the Castle and Town of_ Dover.--_Arrives at_
 Canterbury.--_A Description of the Abbey.--Comes to_ Rochester, _and
 at length reaches_ Piccadilly.

  July 26.

When we had arrived at Dover we breakfasted at the hotel, where the
captain of the vessel, the steward, porters, &c. came and begged of us.
We gave the captain half a crown a-piece, and something to the rest of
the beggars; but were now obliged to get our French money changed for
English, and to lose considerably by the exchange.

Afterwards we walked upon the High-lands at Dover, and viewed the
castle and the town: and when the tide was up, our vessel arrived with
our baggage: our trunks were searched at the Custom-house, and one in
our company, who had brought a number of prints from Paris, had them
seized, because they were prohibited goods. A thing he said he did not
know till they were taken from him. He told me they were worth about
thirty pounds.

When our business was done at the Custom-house, we returned to the
hotel, where our lady, the lawyer, and one of the merchants, set off
in a post-chaise for London, because they had not paid their fare any
further than to Calais, and could travel faster in the chaise than
they could in the diligences. I told the lady before we parted, that
I intended to give the public a narration of my journey. She prayed I
would let her have one, and promised to call on me when she came to

The two Spanish gentlemen, a Frenchman, and two other gentlemen,
with myself, left Dover about noon, and dined at Canterbury, where
we viewed the abbey, which is a very ancient and elegant building: A
part of it has been built eleven hundred years. We were there in the
time of divine worship. They chanted the service, and their vocal
and instrumental music was very excellent: The former bishops of
Canterbury are buried here, and there are many statues and paintings in
commemoration of ancient kings, bishops, and generals.

Before we left the hotel we were obliged to pay for the wine we had

At about ten in the evening we came to Rochester, where we called for
supper: but were informed that if we had one we must pay for a part of
it, as the money was all exhausted that we had paid for our passages
and entertainment, excepting five shillings. We had a supper, and
paid an extravagent price for it, but were careful to have the five
shillings deducted.

After we had supped, we pursued our journey, and arrived at the White
Bear Inn, Piccadilly, about five the next morning, greatly fatigued;
as we had been but about eighty-nine hours upon our journey, which is
nineteen hours short of the time commonly allowed for the performance
thereof. I had not been in bed for three nights, only I lay down a few
minutes on a mattress when we were crossing the English Channel.

I do not think that the owners of the diligences can afford to carry
people to and from Paris for a less sum than what they demand, nor to
give better entertainment than such as we received, as it is a great
distance, and half a guinea is given, out of five for the conveyance
of a passenger over the English Channel: but people ought to know how
they are to fare before they set off to France; and for that reason I
have been more minute in many circumstances, than at first sight might
appear to some to be necessary.


 _Definition of Liberty.--All have a Right to it, but some deprive
 themselves of that Right by their own Conduct, and some by the
 Conduct of others.--Of the Duty of Nations.--The evil Effects of bad
 Constitutions.--Of the French Revolution.--The happy Condition of the
 British Empire._

As liberty consists in the free exercise of our religion, the enjoyment
of our rights, and the profits of our labour, with the protection of
our persons and properties, it is a privilege of an immense value. And
as it is the natural right of every man, it is our indespensible duty
to seek after it, whenever we are deprived of its benefits. But we find
that many deprive themselves of liberty by their own evil conduct--by
breaking the good and wholesome laws of the land, by doing things
dishonourable to the Creator, and injurious to mankind. Thus thieves,
robbers, murderers, &c. destroy their own freedom by their vicious
behaviour; and expose themselves, not only to confinement, but to more
severe punishments.

We also find, that many are deprived of liberty by the inhuman conduct
of tyrants, who oppress and persecute those over whom they have usurped
dominion and power, by taking from them the liberty of conscience, and
loading them with burthens which they are unable to bear.

It is the duty of every nation to guard against all these evils; and
from hence arises the necessity of having a good constitution and
system of laws in every kingdom or state; binding upon all ranks,
orders, and degrees of men. Hence also arises the necessity of having
kings, counsellors, governors, magistrates, and other officers
appointed for the administration of justice, and the preservation of
public tranquillity.

Various constitutions and systems of laws have been framed and
established amongst different nations; and where ignorance and
superstition have reigned triumphant, the constitution and laws have
been very deficient, so that things have been established and practised
that were repugnant to the principles of justice and humanity. What
numerous multitudes have been massacred for a difference of opinion
in matters of religion and modes of worship! And how many thousands
have worn out their days in vassalage and slavery, because laws have
been made contrary to the requisitions of the great law of reason!
But whenever the minds of the people are illuminated, and the clouds
of darkness, ignorance and superstition are dispelled, the spirit
of liberty breaks forth like the sun in its meridian splendor. The
constitutions are altered, oppressive laws abolished, the bands of
tyranny and oppression are broken asunder, distressed objects are
discharged from confinement, the liberal and mechanical arts and
sciences thrive and flourish, and all enjoy those liberties which are
the natural right of every man.

The illumination of the minds of the people in France, has been
productive of the great and glorious Revolution; of the forming of
a new constitution, the enacting of new laws, and the abolishing of
those things that were repugnant to the interest and prosperity of the
kingdom. How pleasing must it be to see both the King and the National
Assembly unite together in establishing the new constitution, and in
promoting whatever may conduce to the good of the nation, and benefit
of mankind in general! May the flame of liberty, like the refulgent
beams of the sun, be extended over the face of the whole globe; and
may all nations partake of the great and glorious blessings of natural

And with pleasure we recollect, that once in the _British Empire_, the
inhabitants, fired with the love of liberty, drove ignorance, darkness,
and superstition before them; made a glorious stand for their rights,
and were thereby brought into a happy situation. We are now blest with
a good king, with good rulers, and with a good constitution and system
of laws.--Here a man enjoys a free toleration of religion.--Here he
is rewarded for his labour.--Here he is protected in his person and
property.--Here agriculture, navigation, trade, commerce, architecture,
and the manufactories thrive and flourish; and the nation has arrived
to an inconceivable pitch of grandeur and affluence. Our constitution,
being pregnant with a variety of privileges, is admired by distant
nations: foreigners come from afar, and find shelter and protection,
liberty and freedom, under our government!






  Founded upon the Principles of Justice,
  and the Laws of Humanity.

Every constitution and system of laws ought to be constructed upon the
principles of justice and humanity, which will ensure the rights of a
king, and the peace, liberty, and happiness of his subjects. I shall
therefore beg leave to observe:

1. That every man has a legal right to perform religious worship
according to the dictates of his conscience, at such times and places
as shall be most agreeable to himself; providing he doth not injure
others in their persons, characters, or properties.

2. That it is unlawful to persecute any of the human race, for a
difference of opinion in matters of religion or modes of worship.

3. That public teachers are needful to instruct people in the
principles of religion and morality.

4. That good rulers, both in church and state, ought to be reasonably
rewarded for their services, out of the public funds; and impowered to
remove officers for malconduct; and, by and with the advice and consent
of the body corporate, to expel members for vicious practices.

5. That the freedom of speech, and the liberty of the press, are the
natural rights of every man, providing he doth not injure himself nor
others by his conversation, or publications.

6. That legislative and executive officers, consisting of kings,
counsellors, governors, judges, magistrates, representatives, and other
rulers, are necessary to make and execute laws for the preservation of
the public tranquillity in empires, kingdoms, and states.

7. That it is unlawful for rulers to make and execute laws repugnant to
those of the great _Governor_ of the universe, or destructive to the
peace and prosperity of the community at large.

8. That the people have a right to chuse and send delegates, to
represent their state and condition in a legislative assembly.

9. That a legislative body ought to consist of a mixture of
monarchical, aristocratical, and democratical governments, and be
divided into three branches, as that of a king, lords, and commons.

10. That each branch ought to have a negative voice on the other
branches; and no bill ought to be passed into a law without the advice
and consent of, at least, two-thirds of the members of two of the
branches of the legislature.

11. That legislators ought to meet once in a year, and as much oftener
as the circumstances of the nation may require, at such times and
places as may be most convenient.

12. That the people have a right to petition the legislature for a
redress of grievances.

13. That every branch of an empire ought to be subject to the supreme
legislative head of a nation: To render all proper honour and obedience
to the king, and to all in authority, and to be subordinate to the good
and wholesome laws of the land.

14. That a king ought to be considered as the first supreme legislative
and executive officer in a kingdom, and to be empowered to grant
pardons to criminals whenever it may be needful. He has a right to a
free liberty of conscience; to protection in his person, character, and
property; to rule and govern his people according to the constitution,
statutes, laws and ordinances of his realm; to that honour and
obedience that is due to personages in such an exalted station; and to
such a revenue as his circumstances may require, and his subjects be
able to raise.

15. That no man ought to be chosen into office, unless he is endowed
with wisdom and knowledge, and can be well recommended for good works
and pious actions.

16. That it is lawful to confer titles of honour upon, and to give
rewards to such persons as may merit them, by their vigorous exertions
and good conduct.

17. That legislators ought to be exempted from being arrested for debt,
whilst they are passing to, remain at, and are returning from the
legislative assemblies, because an arrestment would impede the public

18. That courts of justice ought to be established, and justice
administered to all, without respect of persons.

19. That every man ought to be allowed a trial by jury.

20. That those under confinement ought to know what they are confined
for; who their accusers are; not be compelled to bear witness against
themselves; be allowed to bring evidence, with the benefit of counsel;
and should not be condemned, unless found guilty by the testimony of
two or three credible witnesses.

21. That excessive bail ought never to be demanded, excessive fines
required, nor excessive punishments inflicted.

22. That criminals under confinement, ought to have no punishment
laid upon them, but that which is requisite for the securing of their
bodies; unless after they have been found guilty, it is ordered by the
judges, agreeable to the laws of the land.

23. That no man ought to be imprisoned for debt, providing he gives up
his property to his creditors, and has not waited his time in idleness,
nor his estate by intemperance, gaming, or any other vicious practice.

24. That persons falsely imprisoned, ought to be immediately liberated,
and to have ample satisfaction for the injuries they have received; and
those guilty of the abomination of confining the innocent, ought to be
severely punished for their atrocious conduct.

25. That every one who is a subject of taxation, ought to be allowed to
vote for a representative.

26. That every man ought to be taxed in proportion to his abilities.

27. That the power of levying and collecting taxes, duties, imposts,
&c. with that of coining money, emitting bills of credit, borrowing
money for the public use, entering into treaties and alliances with
foreign powers, appointing, commissioning, and sending of ambassadors,
ministers, consuls, messengers, &c. belongs to the legislature.

28. That such treaties ought to be esteemed as a part of the law of the
land; kept inviolate; and whenever they are broken, restitution ought
to be made to the party injured.

29. That as money is a defence as well as wisdom, a circulating medium
ought to be established, consisting of gold, silver, copper, and
bills of exchange. Its credit should be kept up, and but one currency
established in a kingdom.

30. That churches ought to be built for the accommodation of the
people when they perform religious worship; public schools, colleges,
academies, and universities erected, for the promotion of literature;
hospitals founded for the reception of the sick; work-houses for the
employment of idle persons; and prisons for the securing of thieves,
robbers, murderers, and other felons;--and societies instituted, for
the purpose of making further discoveries and improvements in the
liberal and mechanical arts and sciences.

31. That custom-houses, post-offices, and post-roads, ought to be
established in every kingdom and state.

32. That weights and measures ought to be alike in every part of an
empire, if not through the world.

33. That all foreigners ought to be treated with hospitality, and
protected by the laws of the land.

34. That the heirs of an estate ought not to be disinherited by reason
of the ill conduct of their parents; nor thrown out of their posts of
honour and profit, in consequence of the unlawful behaviour of their

35. That every author ought to have the benefit of his own productions,
whether they be upon theological, mathematical, philosophical,
physical, mechanical, or any other subject.

36. That all officers, whether ecclesiastical, civil, or military,
with every other person, ought to guard against sedition, treason,
rebellion, and every thing that may tend to sow discord amongst
brethren, destroy the public tranquillity, and make mankind unhappy.

Thus have I framed a CONSTITUTION, which appears to me to
be according to the law of reason, and the dictates of sound policy.
Perhaps some things have escaped my observation, that might justly be
added. However, I believe that one calculated and established upon
these principles, would secure the rights of kings and those of their
subjects, which is all that any rational person can desire.


 _Of the impossibility of framing a Constitution that will please every
 Body.--Anecdote of two Irishmen.--The Rights of Kings, and Liberties
 of their Subjects, ought to be secured by a good Constitution and
 System of Laws.--Story of the Parson's Wig.--Thoughts on the Mode of
 chusing Representatives.--The Happiness of the People ought to be

I cannot expect my political sentiments will please every body, let
them be ever so well founded on reason; for there are such a number of
discontented mortals in the world, who lust after dominion and power,
and such multitudes that do not wish to be under any government at all,
that should the _Angel Gabriel_ frame and send a _Constitution_ from
_Heaven_, some would be found to murmur at it.

Many are of such a craving temper and disposition, that they would
engross the whole world to themselves, and rule and govern it, were it
in their power. The ambition of some men is almost boundless.--This
brings to my mind an anecdote of two Irishmen, who being intoxicated
with liquor at an inn, began to think that they were masters of the
whole globe, and agreed to divide it equally between themselves: but
as the intoxication increased, one of them, who was of a very craving
disposition, concluded that he had the best right to the world, and
swore that he would have it all to himself; whilst the other contended,
that he was justly entitled to one half of it, and wanted no more than
his right. At last they settled the matter by a number of heavy blows;
but whether the world was at last to be equally divided, or whether
one was to have it all, and the other no part of it, I have forgot,
although I had my information from a gentleman who was witness to this
very singular contest, and knew something of our _wise_ combatants.

The same temper and disposition amongst others, has prevailed too
much in the world; and has sometimes broke out into such acts of
violence, that kings and nobles have been deprived of their rights,
and oftentimes the people at large of theirs. A monarch may crave the
estates, and all the profits of the labours of his subjects; and, on
the contrary, the people may crave those things that legally belong
to their king; and, by acts of violence and injustice, both may lose
their rights. But both of these extremes ought to be carefully guarded
against, and the rights of kings, and those of their subjects, secured
by a _good Constitution_ and system of laws. Is it not strange that
mortal men, who can abide but a very short time in this troublesome
world, should be so craving as to lust after more riches, honours and
profits, than they can enjoy, or that can possibly do them any good?

    "Why doth the miser all his cares employ,
    "To gain those riches that he can't enjoy?"

When the powers of legislation are lodged altogether in one man,
and the nobles and other inhabitants of a country are shut out from
having any voice in the making of laws; or when the powers are in the
nobles, or in the people only, it will naturally generate a spirit of
discontent amongst those who have not a share in that power. Will not a
king feel very uneasy, if he has no part of the legislative power? Will
not the nobles be discontented, if they have no part of it? And, will
not the people murmur, if they have no share in the same? Therefore,
to prevent uneasiness, and promote a spirit of union and harmony in
empires, kingdoms and states, it is best, in my opinion, to have a
mixture of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy in every legislative
body, like the parliament of Great Britain.

The things of this world are so mutable, that we cannot foretel what
constitutions may be established hereafter. And although an astronomer
can determine the revolutions and rotations of the rambling planets,
and point out the directions, stations, and retrogradations of the
luminaries of heaven, for thousands of years to come; yet he cannot
foretel what will be done hereafter, even in his own country, or in
any other part of the globe, in regard to the overturning, altering,
framing, and establishing of constitutions, kingdoms, or states. It is
probable that there may be alterations in these things; and perhaps
the future generations may have a greater knowledge in politics than
the present, and be able to frame better modes of government than the
nations are in this age: for if the knowledge of philosophy increases
in the world, and the glorious sun-shine of liberty and freedom
breaks forth, the clouds of darkness and ignorance will be dispelled,
atheism, superstition and idolatry will wear away, and the people be
freed from those burthens and impositions that involve many, in the
dark and benighted corners of the globe, in vassalage and slavery!
It is probable they will discover that some constitutions have been
deficient, and be able to correct and amend whatever has been amiss.

But such is the changeableness and discontented tempers of many, that
they would be for ever altering that which is even good and complete,
and so alter till they spoil it,--_like the minister's wig_; an account
of which I will just relate as I received it.

A _Reverend Divine_ having lost his hair in his old age, bought a large
white wig to cover his naked head; but it displeased his auditors
to that degree that they had a church-meeting on the subject, and
concluded that the wearing of such a large wig was idolatry, and
accordingly sent a committee to their _Reverend Pastor_, to acquaint
him that his congregation was much displeased, &c. He told them that
he did not wish to have any uneasiness about the wig, and if they
thought it was too large they might make it smaller; and delivered
it to the committee, who laid it before the congregation to have it
altered; when one cut off a lock of hair in one place, and another in
another, &c. till the wig was utterly spoilt. At length they agreed
that it was fit to be seen in the pulpit, whereupon it was returned to
the owner; who said it could not now be _idolatry_ to wear the wig, for
it had not the _likeness_ of any thing in _Heaven_ or _Earth_.--Just
so it is with a constitution that is constructed in the best manner;
it will not suit every one; and if it is clipped by every discontented
mortal, it will be wholly ruined, _like the Reverend Divine's wig_.

There is a vanity that I have seen under the sun, and have often
wondered that it has not been suppressed in this enlightened age. I
mean the unjustifiable mode of chusing legislators in some parts of the

When the people are called upon to chuse their representatives, a
number will put up in some public place, when perhaps not more than one
or two is to be chosen. There scaffolds must be erected, publications
sent forth, mobs convened day after day, harangues delivered, and
many thousands spent to induce the freeholders to chuse their
delegates--when the whole of the work might be completed in half a day,
by the people's assembling at the places appointed for the performance
of religious worship, and carrying in their votes, in writing, to the
clerk of every parish, who might easily send them to some person that
might be authorised in the county to receive and count the same, and
to promulgate who has the greatest number, or who the people have
chosen for their legislators. Would not this mode take up less time, be
much easier to the people, and much more commendable, and beneficial
to the community, than to have the freeholders fatigue themselves by
coming a great distance, wasting their time by being kept from their
employments, day after day; quarrelling and wrangling about the choice
of a representative? or, than to have the candidates for such places
waste their estates by keeping open houses, giving away victuals,
drink, ribbands, cockades, &c. till they have ruined themselves,
families, and creditors?



Of the AUTHOR.


_A Description of the_ Road _to_ Liberty.

To all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the world.

2. Grace, mercy, and peace be multiplied unto you.

3. It hath seemed good unto me to promulgate this _Epistle_, and to
make known thereby the genuine description of the road which leads to
that liberty which is destitute of licentiousness.

4. To mention those things that will make you comfortable in this life,
and conduct you in the way to everlasting felicity in the realms of
immortal bliss and happiness.

5. I beseech you, therefore, to remember that atheism, superstition,
idolatry, sedition, treason, rebellion, covetousness, theft, robbery,
murder, intemperance, debauchery, bad language, gaming, idleness,
and all kinds of vice, will carry you out of the road that leads to
liberty, and involve you in destruction and misery.

6. Shun, therefore, all kinds of vice and immorality, and walk in the
pleasant paths of piety and virtue, which will establish your freedom
on a parmanent basis.

7. Let those who doubt the existence of a _Supreme Being_; and, those
who worship the sun, moon, or stars;--the birds, beasts, or fishes;--or
idols made by the hands of men, contemplate upon the works of the
visible creation; which will naturally convince them of their error,
and excite them to pay homage and adoration to Him, who
created, upholds, and governs the universe, and is the only proper
object of religious worship.

8. Avoid contentions, divisions and animosities, which too frequently
terminate in bloodshed and devaluation.

9. Follow peace with all men; break not your oaths of allegiance,
fulfil your obligations; fear God, honour the king, and those in
authority, and be subordinate to the good and wholesome laws of the
kingdom or state in which you reside.

10. Walk honestly; render to all their dues; pay your debts, and your
proportion of the public taxes.

11. Be kind to the poor and needy, relieve the oppressed, visit the
sick, bury the dead, feed the hungry, clothe the naked; and shew
acts of kindness, charity, and humanity to strangers, captives, and

12. Love yourselves, your families, and your neighbours; do good to
your enemies; avenge not yourselves.

13. Be not high-minded in prosperity, but patient in adversity.

14. Cultivate and improve the liberal and mechanical arts and sciences,
and promote every thing that may tend to make mankind happy.

15. Be careful of your credit, your time, and your money; shun bad
company, use not bad language, be not idle, waste not your estate
in superfluities, be temperate and exemplary in your lives and

16. Shun the pollutions that are in the world, suppress that which is
evil; do as you would be done by, and continually follow that which is
good: then will ye be in the road that leads to liberty.

17. Grace, mercy, and peace be multiplied unto you all, _Amen_.

 This Epistle of the Author, was written from
 _Anglia_, to the inhabitants of the world.


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