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Title: Flowers of Mountain and Plain - Third Edition
Author: Clements, Edith S.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                         [Illustration: Plate 1


                            BUTTERCUP FAMILY

               1 Monkshood, Aconite: Aconitum columbianum
                  2 Blue Columbine: Aquilegia coerulea
                 3 Red Columbine: Aquilegia canadensis
                4 Blue Larkspur: Delphinium scopulorum]



                               Flowers of
                           Mountain and Plain


                      _Edith S. Clements, Ph. D._


                             THIRD EDITION


                        The H. W. Wilson Company
                                New York
                                  1926

                           Copyright 1926 by
                           Edith S. Clements
                          Reprinted June 1945
                        Reprinted November 1949
                          Reprinted March 1955

                Printed in the United States of America



                                PREFACE


“Flowers of Mountain and Plain” is intended primarily for travelers and
flower lovers who wish a short cut to recognizing flowers seen on
excursions or from car windows. It may also serve as a souvenir of
pleasant summer days or vacation trips. The book consists of the
twenty-five color plates to be found in “Rocky Mountain Flowers”
(Clements and Clements, 1914), representing one hundred and seventy-five
of the most beautiful and striking flowers of the mountains and plains
of the West. If it succeeds in opening the eyes of the passer-by to an
appreciation of the flowers by the way, or in further stimulating an
already awakened interest, it will have served its purpose.
                                                      Edith S. Clements.

  _University of Minnesota_
    _March 30, 1915_



                     PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION


Opportunity has been taken of the demand for a second edition of
“Flowers of Mountain and Plain” to add a simple text to the plates. It
is hoped that this will increase the interest in the flowers of the
region and help create a sentiment in favor of their preservation.
                                                      Edith S. Clements.

  _Alpine Laboratory,_
  _Manitou, Colorado,_
    _July 9, 1920._



                     Flowers of Mountain and Plain



                            BUTTERCUP FAMILY


               Monkshood, Aconite    Aconitum columbianum

                            Plate 1, fig. 1

The flowers of the Monkshood are usually deep purple-blue, but yellowish
white ones are often found. The tall plants, 4-8 ft. high, grow in
mountain meadows and along streams at 6000-12000 ft., and bloom from
early July to late August. The Aconite disguises its relation to the
buttercups by having irregular sepals, developed by insect visitors in
search of nectar. The two nectaries are underneath and at the base of
the cowl-shaped upper sepal which gives the plant its name. In seeking
nectar, the bees crawl over the group of stamens and stigmas and in so
doing either collect or deposit the pollen which clings to their legs
and abdomens. The Monkshood is frequently cultivated in gardens and some
of the species furnish a powerful drug, aconite, used in medicine. All
are poisonous and often produce fatal results among stock when feed is
scarce.


                  Blue Columbine    Aquilegia coerulea

                            Plate 1, fig. 2

This Columbine varies in color through several shades of blue and may
rarely be white. It is the state flower of Colorado, growing in spruce
and aspen woods, or in mountain meadows at 6500-12000 ft. It is usually
2-3 ft. high and blossoms from early summer to midsummer. Like the
Monkshood and Larkspur, the columbines also belong to the group of
irregular buttercups. The nectar is contained in the swollen tips of the
petals. Pollination is effected by long-nosed bees which cling to the
petals while inserting the proboscis up the spur and at the same time
touch the group of pendant stamens with the underside of the body.
Short-nosed bees are unable to get at the nectar in this way and steal
the honey by biting holes in the tips of the spurs. The columbines make
beautiful garden plants and the Blue Columbine as well as one or two
other native species is cultivated. The ordinary columbine of the
garden, however, belongs to the European _Aquilegia vulgaris_. The name
“Aquilegia” is derived from the Latin “aquila,” eagle, and probably
refers to the resemblance of the spurred petals to eagles’ talons.


                 Red Columbine    Aquilegia canadensis

                            Plate 1, fig. 3

The blossoms of this plant are bright red, usually more or less tinged
with yellow. It is 1-2 ft. tall, grows on wooded mountain-sides at
7500-11000 ft. and blooms in July and August. The mountain form has
smaller, more brightly colored flowers than the eastern plant.


                 Blue Larkspur    Delphinium scopulorum

                            Plate 1, fig. 4

The Larkspur, like the Monkshood, has developed oddly shaped sepals, but
the upper one, instead of resembling a cowl, is more like the spur of a
bird. The common name refers to this resemblance. The plants grow as
tall as 6-8 ft. and are found on foothills and mountain-sides at
5000-10000 ft. They bloom in midsummer and the flowers vary from pale
blue to deep purple-blue. The Blue Larkspur, like many other species of
larkspur, is poisonous to stock.


               Anemone, Wind Flower    Anemone multifida

                            Plate 3, fig. 1

This Anemone is usually white, but it varies through pink to deep
rose-red. It is 1-2 ft. tall, grows in meadows and on hillsides at
7000-12000 ft. and blooms throughout the summer. Most anemones have an
acrid juice which irritates the skin and is poisonous if taken
internally. They make very attractive garden plants, though the native
species are little cultivated as yet.


                   Alpine Clematis    Clematis alpina

                            Plate 3, fig. 2

The Alpine Clematis differs from the cultivated species in climbing but
rarely. The plants are usually but a few inches high and bear very
ornamental lavender or purple-blue flowers. Under favorable conditions
they may clamber over shrubs for a few feet. They are found in open
forest and woodland at 7000-10000 ft. The flowers open in spring and
early summer and are visited by insects for the plentiful pollen, though
they contain no honey. Like the cultivated species, the seed-like fruits
have long feathery styles which form silvery clusters.


                Alpine Buttercup    Ranunculus Macauleyi

                            Plate 3, fig. 6

The Alpine Buttercup has bright yellow, cup-like flowers that fit our
ideas of a buttercup much better than do those of the Trailing Buttercup
described below. It is more rarely found, since it grows only on alpine
peaks at 10000-14000 ft. It prefers wet places among the rocks and near
snow-banks and blooms in midsummer. Many species of buttercup possess a
more or less acrid juice. For this reason, they are little eaten by
cattle and hence the notion that the deep color of butter in early
spring is due to the buttercup is, of course, without foundation.


              Trailing Buttercup    Ranunculus cymbalaria

                            Plate 3, fig. 3

The flowers of this little trailing plant are lemon-yellow, and rather
inconspicuous, blooming from June throughout the summer. The plants are
only a few inches tall and grow in wet or alkaline soil at 3000-10000
ft.


                         [Illustration: Plate 3


                            BUTTERCUP FAMILY

               1 Anemone, Wind Flower: Anemone multifida
                   2 Alpine Clematis: Clematis alpina
              3 Trailing Buttercup: Ranunculus cymbalaria
                5 Pasque Flower: Pulsatilla hirsutissima
                6 Alpine Buttercup: Ranunculus Macauleyi


                           WATER LILY FAMILY

               4 Yellow Water Lily: Nymphaea polysepala]


                Pasque Flower    Pulsatilla hirsutissima

                            Plate 3, fig. 5

The Pasque Flower is one of the earliest spring blossoms, as is
indicated by the name which is from the French for Easter. The word
“Pulsatilla” means wind flower and indicates its relationship to the
anemones. The color of the flower ranges from whitish through pale blue
or pink to purple. By the end of spring, the flowers have all developed
into beautiful feathery clusters of fruits, very like those of the
Clematis. The plants are 6-15 in. high and densely covered with fuzzy
white hairs. They occur abundantly on plains and foothills and in
mountain meadows at 4000-10000 ft. The Pasque Flower is the state flower
of South Dakota and is sometimes cultivated in gardens.



                           WATER LILY FAMILY


                Yellow Water Lily    Nymphaea polysepala

                            Plate 3, fig. 4

Water lilies are not lilies at all but are very like buttercups in the
structure of the flower. The famous Lotus Flower of the Nile is a water
lily. The flowers of the Rocky Mountain species are yellow, tinged with
red. They may be found from May to August, floating on the surface of
lakes and slow streams up to 11000 ft. The seeds from the large
mucilaginous pods are used as food by the Indians of the Northwest. They
are dried and roasted, after which they taste very much like popcorn, or
they may be ground into meal and made into porridge or bread. Nymphaea
means “water nymph” and refers to the home of the plant.


                         [Illustration: Plate 5


                             VIOLET FAMILY

                     1 Yellow Violet: Viola biflora
                   2 Prairie Violet: Viola pedatifida


                              CAPER FAMILY

              3 Rocky Mountain Bee Plant: Cleome serrulata


                             MUSTARD FAMILY

                    4 Wall Flower: Erysimum asperum
                     5 Golden Whitlow: Draba aurea
                  7 Bladder pod: Physaria didymocarpa


                         BLEEDING HEART FAMILY

                   6 Golden Smoke: Capnoides aureum]



                             VIOLET FAMILY


                     Yellow Violet    Viola biflora

                            Plate 5, fig. 1

The plants of the Yellow Violet are low and the deep-green leaves often
form carpet-like masses along the moist edges of brook-banks at
7000-11000 ft. The flowers are small and yellow with red-brown stripes,
the lower petal hanging down in the form of a lip. They bloom from
spring to early summer.


                   Prairie Violet    Viola pedatifida

                            Plate 5, fig. 2

The flowers of the Prairie Violet are large and deep blue, though albino
forms are sometimes found. The plants are stemless and only a few inches
high, blooming on prairies at 3000-6000 ft. from April to June. The
Prairie Violet may easily be mistaken for the Bird’s-foot Violet of the
East on account of its deeply cut leaves, which serve also to
distinguish it from the Blue Violet so common in woodlands.



                              CAPER FAMILY


              Rocky Mountain Bee Plant    Cleome serrulata

                            Plate 5, fig. 3

This plant is a conspicuous feature of disturbed or waste places on the
plains and in the foothills at 3000-7000 ft. It usually forms dense
clumps or thickets in which the plants may be 6-10 ft. high. The flowers
occur in large rose-purple, pink or rarely white clusters which are
found throughout the summer. They contain much nectar and consequently
are great favorites among the bees. This plant is a relative of the
capers which are cultivated for their pungent flower-buds used in
salads.



                             MUSTARD FAMILY


                    Wall Flower    Erysimum asperum

                            Plate 5, fig. 4

The Wall Flower has a wide range of coloring, varying from pure yellow
to burnt-orange and even rose-purple. It is 1-2 ft. high and occurs on
prairies, plains and mountain-sides at 3000-12000 ft. The flowers are
fragrant and occur in dense clusters which are found from spring to
midsummer. The Wall Flower is a close relative of the Stocks of
old-fashioned gardens.


                     Golden Whitlow    Draba aurea

                            Plate 5, fig. 5

This little plant bears small golden-yellow blossoms in spring and
summer. It is found in sunny spots and in open woodland and forest
throughout the mountains from 7000-13000 ft.


                  Bladder Pod    Physaria didymocarpa

                            Plate 5, fig. 7

The flowers of the Bladder Pod are pale yellow and the stems prostrate,
growing on dry hills and gravel-slides at 5000-10000 ft. and blooming in
spring and early summer. The Bladder Pod receives its name from its
inflated fruits which roll around on the gravel-slide.



                         BLEEDING HEART FAMILY


                    Golden Smoke    Capnoides aureum

                            Plate 5, fig. 6

This plant belongs to the same family as the familiar Bleeding Heart and
Dutchman’s Breeches, but the flower is yellow in color and has only one
spur. It is especially fond of open, sandy or gravelly soils and is
found widely distributed in woodlands and on hillsides at 4000-10000 ft.
The plants begin flowering in June and continue throughout the summer.
They vary greatly in size from tiny individuals an inch or two high, to
great masses, 2 ft. or more across. Some of the species possess an odor
like smoke, to which both the scientific and the common names refer.



                              FLAX FAMILY


                       Blue Flax    Linum perenne

                            Plate 7, fig. 1

The delicate blue flowers of the Flax open soon after sunrise, and the
petals drop late in the morning, so that the plant is hardly noticeable
for the rest of the day. The plants are found on the plains and in the
foothills at 5000-10000 ft. and bloom all summer. The Blue Flax is grown
in gardens for ornamental purposes and is cultivated by the Indians for
the sake of its remarkably strong fibres. The Klamath Indians make these
into string and cords which are then used in baskets and mats, fish
nets, the meshes of snow-shoes, etc. General cultivation of this native
species has not proven profitable, however, since the common flax excels
it both in fibre and in seeds, and is commercially one of our most
useful plants.



                             OXALIS FAMILY


                     Wood Sorrel    Oxalis stricta

                            Plate 7, fig. 2

Children call this Wood Sorrel with yellow blossoms “Snake Sorrel” and
think it poisonous, though without reason. It blooms all summer in
woods, fallow fields and along roadsides at 4000-8000 ft. The leaflets
fold together and “sleep” at night, as the clovers do. Both the common
and the botanical names refer to the sour juice of the stems and leaves,
and it is this quality that causes the Violet Wood Sorrel to be used in
salads and pies.


                         [Illustration: Plate 7


                              FLAX FAMILY

                       1 Blue Flax: Linum perenne


                             OXALIS FAMILY

                     2 Wood Sorrel: Oxalis stricta


                             MALLOW FAMILY

                  3 Rose Mallow: Sidalcea neo-mexicana
                   7 Red Mallow: Malvastrum coccineum
                 8 Poppy Mallow: Callirhoe involucrata


                             SPURGE FAMILY

              4 Snow-on-the-Mountain: Euphorbia marginata


                            GERANIUM FAMILY

              5 Storksbill, Alfilaria: Erodium cicutarium
             6 Geranium, Cranesbill: Geranium caespitosum]



                             MALLOW FAMILY


                  Rose Mallow    Sidalcea neo-mexicana

                            Plate 7, fig. 3

The Rose Mallow bears rose-colored or rose-purple flowers from early
summer to midsummer. The plants are 1-2 ft. tall and usually grow
scattered. They are found in foothills and mountain valleys at
6000-10000 ft.


                   Red Mallow    Malvastrum coccineum

                            Plate 7, fig. 7

The Red Mallow is one of the most striking flowers of the plains and
foothills. The vermilion blossoms grow in clusters which often give a
vivid color to extensive areas. The plants occur at 3000-9000 ft. and
bloom throughout the summer.


                 Poppy Mallow    Callirhoe involucrata

                            Plate 7, fig. 8

The crimson blossoms of the Poppy Mallow are abundant on prairies and
plains at 3000-6000 ft. They bloom in early summer and midsummer and
usually make deep masses of color among the grasses. Their beauty amply
warrants introduction into home gardens.



                             SPURGE FAMILY


              Snow-on-the-Mountain    Euphorbia marginata

                            Plate 7, fig. 4

The beauty of the Snow-on-the-Mountain is due to the white border of the
leaves and bracts, and not at all to the flowers, which are reduced to
tiny stamens and pistils. A field of these plants with their snowy
foliage makes clear the reason for the common name. They may be found
all summer in abundance in the clay soil of pastures and roadsides at
4000-7000 ft., but should be handled with care since the milky juice is
poisonous. Where it touches the skin, it often causes itching and
inflammation, accompanied with pimples and blisters very like those
caused by poison ivy. This blistering action is so decided that the
juice is said to be used to brand cattle in some parts of the West, as
the scar heals more rapidly than one made by the branding iron. Honey
made from the flowers is also poisonous, but since it is hot and
disagreeable to the taste, it is not apt to be eaten.

Snow-on-the-Mountain has considerable value as an ornamental plant for
the garden, and it furnishes some rubber, though not in sufficient
quantity to be commercially important. Other species of _Euphorbia_, or
spurge, were formerly used as cathartics and stimulants, but they are
all too acrid for safe application, either externally or internally. The
small species are sometimes used to cauterize warts, but other means are
more certain in their effect and less likely to cause injury to the
surrounding skin.



                            GERANIUM FAMILY


              Storksbill, Alfilaria    Erodium cicutarium

                            Plate 7, fig. 5

The fruit of the Storksbill bears a fancied resemblance to the long beak
of a crane or stork, and both the common and scientific names refer to
this resemblance. The flowers are rose-purple and look like those of a
small geranium. The twisted fruits have been carried everywhere by
sheep, and the plants are especially common in roadsides and pastures at
4000-7000 ft. The Storksbill has been somewhat used in medicine as a
mild astringent and tonic, and under the name of “Filaree” it is greatly
prized by stockmen as forage, especially for sheep.


              Geranium, Cranesbill    Geranium caespitosum

                            Plate 7, fig. 6

The Geranium, like the Alfilaria, has a fruit resembling the long beak
of the crane or stork. The flowers are bright pink, red or purple, while
the plants closely resemble those of the White Geranium. The latter,
however, grows usually along brook-banks and in wet meadows, while the
Red Geranium occurs on dry foothills, gravel-slides and in pine woods at
5000-10000 ft. Both Geraniums bloom from late spring to midsummer.



                          FOUR O’CLOCK FAMILY


                    Fringe Cup    Allionia linearis

                            Plate 8, fig. 1

The purple flowers of the Fringe Cup open late in the afternoon and
wither as they close in the heat of the sun the next morning. As with
most red and blue flowers, albino forms are sometimes found. The plants
are 2-5 ft. in height and may be found in bloom all summer on prairies,
foothills and gravel-slides at 4000-9000 ft.


                  Four O’Clock    Mirabilis multiflora

                            Plate 8, fig. 2

This plant resembles the Four O’Clock of the garden, but the flowers are
much larger. It also opens late in the afternoon and withers the next
morning. The large rose-red blossoms grow on plants 1-2 ft. high and
usually densely clustered. They are found on the plains and foothills at
4000-7000 ft.


                         [Illustration: Plate 8


                          FOUR O’CLOCK FAMILY

                    1 Fringe Cup: Allionia linearis
                  2 Four O’Clock: Mirabilis multiflora


                            GOOSEFOOT FAMILY

               3 Strawberry Blite: Chenopodium capitatum


                            BUCKWHEAT FAMILY

         4 Lady’s Thumb, Heart’s Ease: Polygonum pennsilvanicum
                 5 Golden Buckwheat: Eriogonum Jamesii
                     8 Crimson Wings: Rumex venosus


                              PINK FAMILY

              6 Alpine Pink, Moss Campion: Silene acaulis
                    7 Cow Pink: Saponaria vaccaria]



                            GOOSEFOOT FAMILY


               Strawberry Blite    Chenopodium capitatum

                            Plate 8, fig. 3

The flowers of the Strawberry Blite are very tiny, but are clustered
together into conspicuous spikes, usually a brilliant red in color,
though they may vary from greenish to purple. The plants generally grow
along brook-banks in fir and spruce forests at 6000-10000 ft. and bloom
from late spring to midsummer.



                            BUCKWHEAT FAMILY


         Lady’s Thumb, Heart’s Ease    Polygonum pennsilvanicum

                            Plate 8, fig. 4

The flowers of this plant are small, but they are grouped to form
brilliant rose-colored spikes an inch or two long. The plants are 2-5
ft. high and are found in wet ground and dried-up ponds and hence are
often pests in grain fields during wet years. They are found at
3000-5000 ft. and bloom all summer. The Heart’s Ease is valuable as a
honey plant and its seeds occur as a common impurity in clover seed.


                 Golden Buckwheat    Eriogonum Jamesii

                            Plate 8, fig. 5

The tiny whitish to yellow flowers of the Golden Buckwheat are clustered
in round heads at the tips of stiff gray-green stems. The latter have a
bunch of leaves at the base and hence form dense mats in gravelly soil
on plains and in the foothills at 4000-9000 ft. The flower clusters are
conspicuous throughout the summer.


                     Crimson Wings    Rumex venosus

                            Plate 8, fig. 8

The name Crimson Wings is applied to this dock on account of the
brilliant rose-colored calyx. The latter becomes enormously enlarged as
the flower goes to seed and thus forms a device for the carriage of the
seed by the wind. The low plants grow in sandy soil at 4000-8000 ft. and
bloom in spring and early summer. This species has no value except
possibly as an ornamental, but other species of the genus are cultivated
for salad, and several of the wild species furnish excellent “greens.”



                              PINK FAMILY


              Alpine Pink, Moss Campion    Silene acaulis

                            Plate 8, fig. 6

The pink or purplish flowers of the Alpine Pink grow densely clustered
in mats on exposed mountain tops, often near the snow. They are polar as
well as alpine plants and are found in these regions throughout the
Northern Hemisphere. In the mountains they occur at 9000-14000 ft. and
bloom throughout the summer.


                     Cow Pink    Saponaria vaccaria

                            Plate 8, fig. 7

The botanical name of the Cow Pink refers to the soap-like sap of some
species, which sometimes leads to their use as a substitute for soap.
The flowers are white, pink or pale red and bloom all summer. The plant
is a troublesome weed in grain fields and grows in waste places at
5000-8000 ft. The seeds are poisonous.



                            PRIMROSE FAMILY


                Bird’s-eye Primrose    Primula farinosa

                            Plate 16, fig. 1

The lilac flowers of the Bird’s-eye Primrose grow in clusters at the
tips of unbranched stems. The plants are 4-8 in. high and bloom in the
spring. They are found along brook-banks and in wet meadows at 7000-9000
ft. Both the botanical and common names of the Primrose refer to the
almost universal habit of blooming in early spring.


                 Yellow Primrose    Steironema ciliatum

                            Plate 16, fig. 2

The blossoms of the Yellow Primrose grow in pairs in the axils of the
leaves and bloom in summer. The plants are 2-5 ft. high and grow in
grassy meadows and along streams at 3000-8000 ft.


                       Primrose    Primula Parryi

                            Plate 16, fig. 3

The red-purple blossoms of this Primrose grow in large, loose clusters
on stems 6 in.-2 ft. tall. The plants are strong-scented and are found
hidden away in alpine rock-clefts or along subalpine torrents at
9000-14000 ft. They bloom in early and midsummer and have a fragrance
very like musk. The flowers are large and resemble those of the
cultivated primroses.


                  Shooting Star    Dodecatheon meadia

                            Plate 16, fig. 4

The Shooting Stars vary in color from pale pink to deep bright
reddish-purple, and occasionally white ones are found. They hang
downward in loose clusters from the tips of leafless reddish stems, 6-20
in. tall, and bloom in early and midsummer. They occur along brook-banks
and in wet meadows at 5000-12000 ft.


                        [Illustration: Plate 16


                            PRIMROSE FAMILY

                1 Bird’s-eye Primrose: Primula farinosa
                 2 Yellow Primrose: Steironema ciliatum
                       3 Primrose: Primula Parryi
                  4 Shooting Star: Dodecatheon meadia
                 5 Rock Jasmine: Androsace chamaejasme
                 6 Fairy Primrose: Primula angustifolia
                       8 Seawort: Glaux maritima
                 9 Douglas Primrose: Douglasia montana


                           WINTERGREEN FAMILY

                    7 Wintergreen: Pirola uliginosa


                              HEATH FAMILY

          10 Bearberry, Kinnikinnic: Arctostaphylus uva-ursi]


                 Rock Jasmine    Androsace chamaejasme

                            Plate 16, fig. 5

The tiny Rock Jasmine carpets alpine gravel-slides with its moss-like
leaves or hides shyly away in alpine rock-clefts at 10000-14000 ft. The
flowers are white and primrose-like, with pink or yellow centers, and
they often turn pink as they wither. They grow in tiny clusters at the
tips of dwarf stems 1-3 in. high. The flowers are fragrant and bloom
from early to midsummer.


                 Fairy Primrose    Primula angustifolia

                            Plate 16, fig. 6

The Fairy Primrose is another alpine dwarf, growing but a few inches
high in meadows at 10000-14000 ft. The reddish-purple flower with yellow
center is usually solitary at the tip of the stem and blossoms in early
summer, which is of course spring at these altitudes.


                       Seawort    Glaux maritima

                            Plate 16, fig. 8

The Seawort receives its name from the fact that it possesses fleshy
leaves and prefers saline soil, though it is also found in dry regions
at 3000-6000 ft. The tiny pink flowers occur in the axils of the leaves
along the stems which are 2-12 in. tall. They bloom in summer and are
found in northern countries around the globe.


                 Douglas Primrose    Douglasia montana

                            Plate 16, fig. 9

The lilac blossoms of this slender little plant open in early and
midsummer. The plants grow but 2-5 inches tall and are found in mountain
meadows at 6000-11000 ft.



                           WINTERGREEN FAMILY


                    Wintergreen    Pirola uliginosa

                            Plate 16, fig. 7

The delicate drooping pink blossom of the Wintergreen grow in open
spikes on slender stems 5-7 in. tall and bloom in early and midsummer.
The leaves are evergreen and the plants are usually grouped in such a
way as to form evergreen carpets on brook-banks, and in fir and spruce
woods at 7000-11000 ft.



                              HEATH FAMILY


           Bearberry, Kinnikinnic    Arctostaphylus uva-ursi

                           Plate 16, fig. 10

The Bearberry is a trailing plant with evergreen leaves that forms dense
mats in pine forests and on gravel-slides and denuded hills at
3000-10000 ft. The drooping clusters of tiny waxen blossoms with pink
edges are hidden beneath the leaves in early summer. They later develop
into crimson berries which contrast with the evergreen foliage and hence
serve as decorations, resembling the well-known holly of the Christmas
season.



                             GENTIAN FAMILY


                   Rose Gentian    Gentiana amarella

                            Plate 18, fig. 1

The Rose Gentian is interesting on account of its great variability in
size and form. In dry spots and on alpine peaks, the plants are often
only 1/2-1 in. tall with the flower even longer than the stem. In moist
situations and in shade they may be a foot or two high and much
branched. The flowers are lilac with a fringe of hairs at the opening of
the paler tube. They bloom throughout the summer and are found in
meadows and in fir, spruce and aspen forests at 6000-12000 ft.


                  Fringed Gentian    Gentiana serrata

                            Plate 18, fig. 2

The Fringed Gentian is named from the finely cut edges of the petals and
is closely related to the Fringed Gentian of the East. The deep blue
flowers have lighter streaks or patches downward and they bloom
throughout the summer. The plants grow in wet meadows and along
brook-banks at 8000-13000 ft.


                   Green Gentian    Frasera speciosa

                            Plate 18, fig. 3

The flowers of the Green Gentian are pale greenish-white with dark
bluish spots on the tips of the petals. They are crowded in huge
clusters a foot or two long on plants 2-6 ft. tall. They bloom all
summer and are visited by many kinds of insects in search of honey. The
nectaries are protected by a fringe of hairs. The plants grow in spruce
and aspen woods or in grassy clearings at 6000-10000 ft.


                Fragrant Gentian    Gentiana barbellata

                            Plate 18, fig. 4

This is also a fringed gentian with very fragrant flowers which bloom in
late summer. The petals are pale blue and curiously long. The plants are
rare but may be found in open parks and meadows at 9000-12000 ft.


                        [Illustration: Plate 18


                             GENTIAN FAMILY

                   1 Rose Gentian: Gentiana amarella
                  2 Fringed Gentian: Gentiana serrata
                   3 Green Gentian: Frasera speciosa
                4 Fragrant Gentian: Gentiana barbellata
                5 Prairie Gentian: Eustoma russellianum
                   6 Blue Gentian: Gentiana calycosa
                   7 Star Gentian: Swertia perennis]


                Prairie Gentian    Eustoma russellianum

                            Plate 18, fig. 5

The Prairie Gentian is one of the largest flowered gentians. Wet meadows
at 4000-5500 ft. are brilliant in midsummer with the deep reddish-purple
flowers. The plants rarely grow taller than 15 in.


                   Blue Gentian    Gentiana calycosa

                            Plate 18, fig. 6

The deep blue flowers of this Gentian grow in clusters on plants 5-20
in. tall. They bloom in midsummer and autumn and are found in aspen
woods and meadows at 8000-12000 ft. Practically all species of Gentians
yield a substance which is one of the best simple bitters and is used in
medicine.


                    Star Gentian    Swertia perennis

                            Plate 18, fig. 7

The starry blue-purple or white flowers of the Star Gentian are
clustered on stems 3-20 in. tall. They grow along brook-banks and in wet
meadows and bogs at 8000-13000 ft. and bloom during midsummer.



                             POTATO FAMILY


                Purple Ground Cherry    Quincula lobata

                            Plate 19, fig. 1

This Ground Cherry has beautiful purple flowers, each with a
white-rayed, woolly star in the center of the corolla. The plants are
low and spreading, and 2-8 in. high. They are found in waste places and
along roadsides at 4000-6000 ft., blooming in early and midsummer. The
common Ground Cherries usually have yellow flowers and the berries are
edible, often being made into jams and pies.


                        [Illustration: Plate 19


                             POTATO FAMILY

                1 Purple Ground Cherry: Quincula lobata
                    4 Buffalo Bur: Solanum rostratum


                          MORNING GLORY FAMILY

               2 Bush Morning Glory: Ipomoea leptophylla


                              PHLOX FAMILY

                    3 Trumpet Phlox: Gilia aggregata
                   5 Nectar Cup: Polemonium speciosum
                6 Jacob’s Ladder: Polemonium pulchellum
                   7 Tiny Trumpet: Collomia linearis]


                    Buffalo Bur    Solanum rostratum

                            Plate 19, fig. 4

The yellow flowers of the Buffalo Bur are similar to those of its near
relative, the potato. They grow on bushy plants, 1-3 ft. high and are
found along roadsides, in fallow fields and pastures at 4000-6000 ft.
They bloom throughout the summer and the prickly pods are found along
with the flowers. The common name refers to the prickles on pod and
stem, and the specific one to the curious beak of the flower. The
Buffalo Bur is an annual and hence it can be easily gotten rid of by
cutting or burning.



                          MORNING GLORY FAMILY


               Bush Morning Glory    Ipomoea leptophylla

                            Plate 19, fig. 2

The bushy form of this plant makes it a very strange Morning Glory in
looks, but the flowers are characteristic, opening in the morning and
closing and withering later in the day. The large pink or red blossoms
cover the bushes with a riot of color during the summer. The bushes grow
to a height of 2-5 ft. and possess huge roots, some of them attaining
the size of a man. They are found on plains and foothills and in
sandhills at 3000-6000 ft. The Bush Morning Glory is highly ornamental
and should be in cultivation.



                              PHLOX FAMILY


                    Trumpet Phlox    Gilia aggregata

                            Plate 19, fig. 3

The flowers of the Trumpet Phlox show a wide range of color. In the
mountains they are usually pink, while on the plains pure white and deep
red are the commonest colors. The blossoms are clustered along the
slender stems which are 2-4 ft. tall. The plants are widely distributed
on plains, foothills and open places in the mountains at 6000-10000 ft.
and they bloom throughout the summer. The humming-bird is a regular
visitor of this flower for the sake of its nectar. In fact, the latter
can be secured only by humming-birds and butterflies because of the
length of the tube. In Indian legend, the nectar of the Trumpet Phylox
was the drink of the wild dove.


                   Nectar Cup    Polemonium speciosum

                            Plate 19, fig. 5

The fragrant pale blue flowers of the Nectar Cup are hidden away on the
highest peaks of Colorado at 12000-14000 ft. They grow in dense heads at
the tips of stems about a foot tall and bloom in midsummer. The name
refers to the abundant honey at the base of the corolla tube.


                Jacob’s Ladder    Polemonium pulchellum

                            Plate 19, fig. 6

Jacob’s Ladder doubtless receives its name from the ladder-like leaves.
The flowers are delicately blue with white tubes and are clustered on
graceful stems a foot tall or less. They may be found in spruce forests
on the mountains at 8000-14000 ft. and bloom in summer, often so
abundantly as to form a blue carpet on the forest floor.


                   Tiny Trumpet    Collomia linearis

                            Plate 19, fig. 7

The tiny white to reddish flowers of this plant may easily be overlooked
on account of their size. They are grouped on stems which vary from a
few inches to about 3 ft. in height, and grow in dry and sandy soil at
4000-9000 ft. They come into bloom in the spring and blossom throughout
the summer.



                             BORAGE FAMILY


                  Chiming Bells    Mertensia sibirica

                            Plate 21, fig. 1

The very graceful drooping clusters of Chiming Bells vary through
delicate shades of blue and pink. The plants grow 2-5 ft. tall and are
found blooming all summer long in fir and spruce forests and along shady
streams at 6000-13000 ft.


                 Golden Borage    Krynitzkia leucophaea

                            Plate 21, fig. 2

The yellow or yellowish flowers of the Golden Borage are clustered at
the ends of stems 4-10 in. high. They bloom in spring and early summer
and are found on hills at 3000-7000 ft.


                  Puccoon    Lithospermum multiflorum

                            Plate 21, fig. 3

The bright yellow flowers of the Puccoon hang in dense clusters from
tips of stems 1-3 ft. high. They occur on hills and mountains and in
canyons at 6000-10000 ft. and bloom in spring and early summer. The
botanical name means “stone seed” and refers to the mature seeds which
are hard, white and shining. The French call this plant the “Plante aux
Perles” since the ripe seeds resemble pearls.


                  Forget-me-not    Myosotis alpestris

                            Plate 21, fig. 4

This rare little flower is the true Forget-me-not and is widely
cultivated in gardens. The blossoms are blue, pink or white and grow in
clusters on stems 4-10 in. high, in mountain meadows at 9000-12000 ft.
They are very fragrant and bloom from spring throughout the summer.


                        [Illustration: Plate 21


                             BORAGE FAMILY

                  1 Chiming bells: Mertensia sibirica
                 2 Golden Borage: Krynitzkia leucophaea
                  3 Puccoon: Lithospermum multiflorum
                  4 Forget-me-not: Myosotis alpestris
                5 Alpine Forget-me-not: Mertensia alpina
                    7 Comfrey: Symphytum officinale
              8 Dwarf Forget-me-not: Eritrichium argenteum
                    9 Stickseed: Lappula floribunda


                            WATERLEAF FAMILY

                   6 Purple Fringe: Phacelia sericea]


                Alpine Forget-me-not    Mertensia alpina

                            Plate 21, fig. 5

The Alpine Forget-me-not is not a true Forget-me-not, but is universally
called such in the Rocky Mountains, where it is very abundant on the
highest peaks of Colorado at 10000-14000 ft. The flowers are blue or
pink and are very fragrant. They grow in dense clusters on stems 2-16
in. high and bloom in early summer. This flower would well repay
cultivation at lower altitudes.


                    Comfrey    Symphytum officinale

                            Plate 21, fig. 7

The yellowish or purplish flowers of the Comfrey occur on stems 2-3 ft.
tall along roadsides in Colorado at 5000 ft. They come into bloom in
early summer and continue throughout the summer. The plant is medicinal,
yielding an astringent as well as an emollient. The leaves when young
form a good green vegetable and are not infrequently eaten by country
people where the plant abounds. They are also sometimes used to flavor
cakes and other articles of food, but when fully grown they become
coarse and unpleasant to the taste.


              Dwarf Forget-me-not    Eritrichium argenteum

                            Plate 21, fig. 8

The Dwarf Forget-me-not receives its name from its resemblance to the
true Forget-me-not, _Myosotis_. The flowers are white, pale blue or deep
blue with some yellow in the throat and are clustered on tiny stems, 1-3
in. high. They grow only on alpine peaks at 11000-14400 ft. and bloom
all summer long. The flowers are fragrant and the foliage silvery-green
because of the presence of many white hairs.


                    Stickseed    Lappula floribunda

                            Plate 21, fig. 9

The Stickseed receives its name from the bur-like fruits covered with
tiny hooks which cling tenaciously to objects that touch them. These
fruits are somewhat injurious to animals that eat the plants. The tiny
flowers are blue or white and are clustered on graceful stems 2-4 ft.
high. They bloom all summer on hillsides and among bushes at 5000-10000
ft.



                            WATERLEAF FAMILY


                   Purple Fringe    Phacelia sericea

                            Plate 21, fig. 6

The flowers of the Purple Fringe are blue-violet to deep red-purple,
rarely white. They are densely clustered on low stems 6-15 in. high.
They bloom in midsummer and possess a strong, disagreeable odor. The
plants live in alpine meadows and rock-fields on high peaks at
10000-13000 ft.



                           SNAPDRAGON FAMILY


                    Speedwell    Veronica americana

                            Plate 22, fig. 1

The Speedwell is a water-plant and its blue or white, purple-striped
flowers may be found in wet meadows and about ponds at 4000-12000 ft.
The stems grow 4 in.-2 ft. tall and the flowers bloom throughout the
summer.


                   Gold Tongue    Orthocarpus luteus

                            Plate 22, fig. 2

The common name is suggested by the appearance of the yellow flowers.
These occur in stiff spikes on stems 4-16 in. tall and bloom all summer.
They may be found on plains and in foothills and meadows at 4000-10000
ft.


                    Eyebright    Veronica Buxbaumii

                            Plate 22, fig. 3

The Eyebright is a very close relative of the Speedwell. Some twenty of
the species of Veronica have been used as drugs. The flowers are blue
with darker stripes and bloom from early spring through the summer and
fall. The stems are 6-16 in. tall and are found in waste places at
5000-8000 ft.


                  Monkey Flower    Mimulus Langsdorfii

                            Plate 22, fig. 4

The yellow Monkey flowers grow on stems 6 in.-2 ft. high and are found
in swamps and along streams, especially in muddy places, at 8000-12000
ft. They bloom in spring and summer. The Greek name of the genus means
“comic actor” and refers to the grinning corolla, which also gives point
to the common name.


        Indian Paintbrush, Painter’s Brush    Castilleia miniata

                            Plate 22, fig. 7

The brilliant red color of the Indian Paintbrush is furnished mainly by
the upper leaves. The corollas are enfolded in the brightly colored
bracts, which, clustered together at the end of the stem, give the
effect of a gorgeous blossom. The plants are partial parasites and
obtain their food ready-made from their neighbors. They grow 1-3 ft.
tall and occur in foothills, mountains and forests at 6000-11000 ft. The
flowers bloom all summer.


                 Blue-eyed Mary    Collinsia parviflora

                            Plate 22, fig. 8

The blue or blue and white flowers of this plant grow on spreading stems
2-6 in. high. They occur on shaded hillsides at 5000-9000 ft. and bloom
in spring and early summer.


                        [Illustration: Plate 22


                           SNAPDRAGON FAMILY

                    1 Speedwell: Veronica americana
                   2 Gold Tongue: Orthocarpus luteus
                    3 Eyebright: Veronica Buxbaumii
                  4 Monkey Flower: Mimulus Langsdorfii
        7 Indian Paintbrush, Painter’s Brush: Castilleia miniata
                 8 Blue-eyed-Mary: Collinsia parviflora
            9 Lousewort, Turtle Head: Pedicularis canadensis
                  10 Butter-and-eggs: Linaria vulgaris
             11 Little Elephant: Elephantella groenlandica


                           BLADDERWORT FAMILY

                  5 Bladderwort: Utricularia vulgaris


                           BROOM-RAPE FAMILY

                    6 Broom-rape: Thalesia uniflora]


            Lousewort, Turtle Head    Pedicularis canadensis

                            Plate 22, fig. 9

The flowers of this Lousewort are yellowish and occur in crowded heads
on low spreading stems, 4-6 in. high. They occur in mountain meadows at
6000-9000 ft. and bloom in spring and early summer. The name Lousewort
is derived from the Latin one which was bestowed upon it, because once
upon a time farmers believed that when their flocks fed upon the flowers
the sheep were liable to be attacked by certain tiny lice or “pediculi.”
The name Turtle Head is from a fancied resemblance of the flower to the
protruded head of a turtle. The plants are supposed to be poisonous to
sheep.


                  Butter-and-Eggs    Linaria vulgaris

                           Plate 22, fig. 10

The flowers of Butter-and-Eggs are yellow and orange, and the common
name refers to these two shades of yellow. They bloom throughout the
summer and fall and are common in waste places and fields at 3000-7000
ft. The plants are persistent deep-rooted perennial weeds, 8-20 in.
tall, and may be eradicated whenever desired by short rotation of crops
and thorough cultivation in spring and fall. They are regarded with
suspicion as being poisonous and the juice mingled with milk constitutes
a fly poison. At one time, however, the plants yielded what was
considered a valuable skin lotion.


              Little Elephant    Elephantella groenlandica

                           Plate 22, fig. 11

The flowers of the Little Elephant are pinkish-purple, and the elongated
curved tube of the upper petal has a comical resemblance to an
elephant’s trunk. The stems grow 4-24 in. tall and are found in swamps
and wet meadows at 8000-12000 ft. The flowers are arranged in open
spikes and bloom all summer long.



                           BLADDERWORT FAMILY


                  Bladderwort    Utricularia vulgaris

                            Plate 22, fig. 5

The yellow flowers of the Bladderwort grow on erect branches from
submerged stems 1-4 ft. long, and are found in lakes, ponds, etc. at
3000-12000 ft. The Bladderwort receives its name from the tiny black
bladders which grow on the submerged, finely divided leaves. These
little bladders serve as traps and absorptive organs for tiny animals in
the water, and the plants thus live partly on insects, larvae, etc.



                           BROOM-RAPE FAMILY


                    Broom-rape    Thalesia uniflora

                            Plate 22, fig. 6

The Broom-rape is a parasite and absorbs its food from the roots of its
neighbors. This habit accounts for the pale color of both plants and
blossoms, since all such robber-plants lose their green food-making
matter through disuse. The flowers are violet-tinged and bloom in early
summer. The plants may be found in damp woods at 5000-10000 ft.



                           SNAPDRAGON FAMILY


             Pink Beard-tongue    Pentstemon secundiflorus

                            Plate 23, fig. 1

The Pentstemons or Beard-tongues receive both the scientific name of the
genus and the common name from the sterile fifth stamen, which is
characteristically very hairy in the Beard-tongues. They are closely
related to the Foxglove of the garden, though few of the American
species are as yet cultivated. The flowers of the Pink Beard-tongue are
rose-purple or pink and grow on stiff stems 1-2 ft. high. They may be
found on dry plains, foothills, hills and mountains at 5000-9000 ft.
blooming in early summer.


                 Dark Pentstemon    Pentstemon glaucus

                            Plate 23, fig. 2

The Dark Pentstemon usually bears wine-colored to nearly black flowers,
though sometimes pale yellowish or whitish ones occur. They are
ornamented with darker longitudinal stripes and bloom in midsummer in
the mountains at 8000-12000 ft. At the higher altitudes the stems are
dwarfed and attain no more than 4 in. in height, while ordinarily they
grow to 3 ft.


                 Blue Pentstemon    Pentstemon gracilis

                            Plate 23, fig. 3

This dainty little Pentstemon carpets the ground with its blue flowers,
with here and there a bunch of delicate pink ones, in early and middle
summer. The stems grow 6 in.-2 ft. tall on plains and in the mountains
at 4000-10000 ft.


                 Scarlet Bugler    Pentstemon barbatus

                            Plate 23, fig. 4

The bright red flowers of the Scarlet Bugler are conspicuous on
hillsides and mountains at 5000-9000 ft. The stems are usually quite
tall, 2-6 ft., and the flowers bloom in early summer. This Pentstemon as
well as many others would be a welcome addition to the garden.


              Clustered Pentstemon    Pentstemon confertus

                            Plate 23, fig. 5

The small yellowish to blue-purple and rose-purple flowers of the
Clustered Pentstemon grow, as the name indicates, in crowded groups and
bloom in early summer. The plants are rather small, being usually but
4-15 in. high. They occur on hills and mountains at 7000-10000 ft.


                        [Illustration: Plate 23


                           SNAPDRAGON FAMILY

             1 Pink Beard-tongue: Pentstemon secundiflorus
                 2 Dark Pentstemon: Pentstemon glaucus
                 3 Blue Pentstemon: Pentstemon gracilis
                 4 Scarlet Bugler: Pentstemon barbatus
              5 Clustered Pentstemon: Pentstemon confertus
             6 Blue Beard-tongue: Pentstemon unilateralis]


              Blue Beard-tongue    Pentstemon unilateralis

                            Plate 23, fig. 6

The blue-purple flowers of the Blue Beard-tongue are large and grow in
conspicuous one-sided spikes on stems 2-5 ft. tall. They bloom in
midsummer and are found in the mountains at 5500-8000 ft.



                              MINT FAMILY


                   Skull Cap    Scutellaria resinosa

                            Plate 24, fig. 1

The blue flowers of the Skull Cap grow in pairs on leafy stems 4-15 in.
high. They bloom in early summer and in fruit the reddish-brown calyx
resembles a jockey’s cap rather more than a skull cap. The plants occur
on plains, foothills and gravel slides at 5000-10000 ft.


                     Heal-all    Prunella vulgaris

                            Plate 24, fig. 2

The flowers of the Heal-all are purple or white and bloom from early
spring throughout the summer and fall. The stems are
decumbent-ascending, 4-12 in. high, and are widely distributed in woods,
along roadsides and in wet places at 4000-9000 ft. The Heal-all has a
bitter and astringent taste and is somewhat used in medicine.


                    Brook Mint    Mentha canadensis

                            Plate 24, fig. 3

The tiny pink or lavender flowers of the Brook Mint are clustered in the
axils of the paired leaves, and bloom throughout the summer. The plants
grow 4-12 in. tall and are widely distributed as a common weed in low
ground and wet places, at 4000-8000 ft. Where troublesome as a weed, the
Brook Mint can be readily exterminated by thorough cultivation and
dragging the soil. It is used to some extent in medicine, and the
Klamath Indians make a tea from the leaves. Other mints, such as
Peppermint, Spearmint, etc., are among the most highly valued aromatics.


                        [Illustration: Plate 24


                              MINT FAMILY

                   1 Skull Cap: Scutellaria resinosa
                     2 Heal-all: Prunella vulgaris
                    3 Brook Mint: Mentha canadensis
                    4 Horse Mint: Monarda fistulosa
                      5 Blue Sage: Salvia Pitcheri
                    6 Marsh Mint: Stachys palustris
                    8 Pennyroyal: Hedeoma Drummondii


                             VERBENA FAMILY

                 7 Verbena, Vervain: Verbena bracteosa]


                    Horse Mint    Monarda fistulosa

                            Plate 24, fig. 4

The pink to rose-purple flowers of the Horse Mint form roundish heads at
the tips of stiff stems 3-4 ft. tall. The plants grow in dense clusters
in grassy meadows, thickets and on mountain-sides at 3000-9000 ft. The
flowers bloom in midsummer and are worth cultivating in the garden. The
common name refers to the tall or coarse stems.


                      Blue Sage    Salvia Pitcheri

                            Plate 24, fig. 5

The slender stems of the Blue Sage grow 2-6 ft. tall and bear blue or
bluish blossoms in terminal spikes. They bloom from midsummer to fall on
prairies at 3000-7000 ft. The Red Sage of gardens is a near relative of
the Blue Sage, which well deserves cultivation also. Some of the sages
are used for making a tea or tonic.


                    Marsh Mint    Stachys palustris

                            Plate 24, fig. 6

The purplish or reddish blossoms of the Marsh Mint are clustered in the
axils of leaves on stems 1-3 ft. high. They bloom in midsummer and are
found on moist banks across the continent at 4000-8500 ft. The Marsh
Mint is sometimes called “Woundwort” on account of its formerly great
reputation for healing wounds. Its surgical value may be doubted, though
it certainly is somewhat astringent. It is useful, however, because of
its edible roots. These are tuberous and when boiled form a wholesome
and nutritious food of rather agreeable flavor. The young shoots of the
plant may likewise be eaten, being cooked like asparagus, but though
pleasant to the taste they have a strong and disagreeable smell.


                    Pennyroyal    Hedeoma Drummondii

                            Plate 24, fig. 8

The tiny blue, pink or purple flowers of the Pennyroyal occur in open
spikes on stems 4-8 in. high. They bloom in early and midsummer on dry
plains and hills at 5000-7000 ft. The name Pennyroyal has no
significance, as it is a corruption of an older name.



                             VERBENA FAMILY


                 Verbena, Vervain    Verbena bracteosa

                            Plate 24, fig. 7

The tiny blue to purple flowers of the Verbena are grouped in dense
heads on decumbent stems. They bloom all summer on prairies, plains and
in waste places at 4000-7500 ft. The garden Verbena is a near relative
of the wild Verbena and originally came from Brazil.



                              ROSE FAMILY


                      Wild Rose    Rosa acicularis

                            Plate 25, fig. 1

The pale to deep pink flowers of the Wild Rose come into bloom in early
summer. They grow on shrubs 1-3 ft. high which are found on hills,
mountain-sides and in open woods at 5000-10000 ft. The scarlet and
crimson fruits of the Wild Rose make the bushes ornamental even after
the flowers have passed blooming.


              Gold Cup, Potentilla    Potentilla gracilis

                            Plate 25, fig. 2

The Potentillas may easily be mistaken for buttercups, though they
actually belong to the Rose Family. The scientific name of the genus
comes from a Latin word meaning powerful, and refers to the former use
of the plants in medicine. This species, called Gold Cup on account of
the shape and color of the blossoms, is bright yellow with an orange
spot at the base of each petal. The flowers grow on graceful stems 6
in.-3 ft. high and bloom in midsummer. The plants grow in meadows and
open woodlands at 5000-10000 ft.


                  Golden Avens    Sieversia turbinata

                            Plate 25, fig. 3

The Golden Avens also looks like a buttercup with its cup-like, yellow
flowers that bloom in midsummer. The plants grow 4-20 in. high and are
found on the higher peaks at 10000-14000 ft.


                    Pink Plumes    Sieversia ciliata

                            Plate 25, fig. 4

The brilliant rose to purple coloring of this flower is found in the
sepals, the petals being rather inconspicuous and cream-colored with
rose veins. The nodding blossoms of Pink Plumes occur on graceful
rose-colored stems 4-18 in. tall and bloom in early summer. They are
found on hills at 8000-12000 ft. The fruits form feathery clusters after
the petals have fallen.


                Creamy Cinquefoil    Drymocallis arguta

                            Plate 25, fig. 6

The flowers of the Creamy Cinquefoil vary from pale cream to a pure
yellow. They grow on erect stems 6 in.-4 ft. tall and blossom in early
summer. They are widely distributed on prairies, plains, meadows and
hillsides at 3000-12000 ft.


                        [Illustration: Plate 25


                              ROSE FAMILY

                      1 Wild Rose: Rosa acicularis
              2 Gold Cup, Potentilla: Potentilla gracilis
                  3 Golden Avens: Sieversia turbinata
                    4 Pink Plumes: Sieversia ciliata
               5 Shrubby Cinquefoil: Dasyphora fruticosa
                6 Creamy Cinquefoil: Drymocallis arguta]


               Shrubby Cinquefoil    Dasyphora fruticosa

                            Plate 25, fig. 5

The Cinquefoils receive this name from the French and it refers to the
five-parted leaves. The Shrubby Cinquefoil has yellow blossoms on erect
shrubby stems that form good-sized bushes, or may be only a few inches
tall at high elevations. They occur in meadows, along brooks and on
gravel-slides at 6000-12000 ft., and bear flowers all summer.



                               PEA FAMILY


                  Golden Banner    Thermopsis montana

                            Plate 27, fig. 1

The bright yellow flowers of the Golden Banner occur in open spikes on
plants 1-3 ft. high, and bloom in late spring. They may be found in
meadows at 3000-11000 ft. The plants are supposed to poison stock, and
several cases of the poisoning of children who have eaten the seeds are
also reported.


                  Silvery Lupine    Lupinus argenteus

                            Plate 27, fig. 2

The Silvery Lupine, so named on account of the foliage, has blue to
purple flowers arranged in open spikes which bloom in early summer. The
plants are somewhat spreading and bush-like and grow 1-3 ft. high on
prairies and in meadows at 5000-9000 ft.


                Prairie Clover    Petalostemon purpureus

                            Plate 27, fig. 3

The Prairie Clover bears tiny rose-pink to purple blossoms in small but
crowded heads. An albino form is occasionally found. The stems grow 6
in.-3 ft. tall on plains and prairies at 4000-7000 ft. and the flowers
bloom all summer.


                        [Illustration: Plate 27

                               PEA FAMILY

                  1 Golden Banner: Thermopsis montana
                  2 Silvery Lupine: Lupinus argenteus
                3 Prairie Clover: Petalostemon purpureus
                   4 Wild Sweet Pea: Lathyrus ornatus
                    5 Purple Vetch: Vicia americana]


                   Wild Sweet Pea    Lathyrus ornatus

                            Plate 27, fig. 4

The flowers of the Wild Sweet Pea are purple and white and blossom in
the spring and early summer. The stems are low, 4-12 in., and occur on
plains and prairies at 4000-8000 ft.


                    Purple Vetch    Vicia americana

                            Plate 27, fig. 5

The Purple Vetch bears blue to purple flowers in loose clusters on
climbing or scrambling stems 1-1/2-3-1/2 ft. long. They bloom in spring
and early summer and may be found on prairies and in rich river valleys
at 4000-10000 ft.


                       Loco    Aragalus Lamberti

                            Plate 28, fig. 1

The flowers of the Loco are deep red-purple or white, often turning blue
with age. They occur in open spikes on stems 4-12 in. tall and bloom in
spring and summer. The plants occur on plains, prairies, hills and
table-lands at 4000-9000 ft. The Loco is very poisonous to stock. After
acquiring a taste for the plant they will eat nothing else and die from
the effects in a few months or one or two years. In this way, millions
of dollars of stock are lost annually. A cure for the disease has been
found recently.


                       Alfalfa    Medicago sativa

                            Plate 28, fig. 2

The small blue to purple blossoms of Alfalfa grow in loose, small heads
on branching plants that attain a height of 1-2 ft. They bloom all
summer long. The plant has escaped from cultivation and grows thriftily
at 5000-6000 ft. Alfalfa forms a most nourishing fodder for horses and
cattle and has been cultivated for ages in Southern Europe. When sown in
deep, rich soils, few plants yield so heavy a crop. During the World
War, meal was made from the dried and ground plants and used as a
substitute for flour.


                        [Illustration: Plate 28


                               PEA FAMILY

                       1 Loco: Aragalus Lamberti
                       2 Alfalfa: Medicago sativa
                 3 Alpine Clover: Trifolium dasyphyllum
                    4 Psoralea: Psoralea tenuiflora
                    5 Dwarf Clover: Trifolium nanum
                 6 Prairie Pea: Astragalus hypoglottis
                  7 Rose Locust: Robinia neo-mexicana]


                 Alpine Clover    Trifolium dasyphyllum

                            Plate 28, fig. 3

The flowers of the Alpine Clover have a cream-white standard and
rose-purple wings and keel. They are clustered in heads on stemless
plants which form mats or cushions 4-20 in. across and grow only on
alpine peaks at 12000-14000 ft. They bloom in midsummer. The name
“Clover” comes from the Latin word meaning “club” and refers to the
resemblance between the leaf and the 3-headed club of Hercules. The
clubs of playing-cards are also no doubt an imitation of the cloverleaf.
The 3-parted leaves of the clovers fold together and “sleep” at night.
The cultivated clovers are valuable as fodder and the white-flowered
species makes beautiful lawns.


                    Psoralea    Psoralea tenuiflora

                            Plate 28, fig. 4

Psoralea bears its small blue to purplish flowers in open spikes on
branching plants 1-4 ft. tall. They bloom in early summer and are found
on dry plains and hills at 4000-8000 ft. Some species of this genus are
used in medicine and one, _Psoralea esculenta_, has a tuberous root that
is edible.


                    Dwarf Clover    Trifolium nanum

                            Plate 28, fig. 5

The pink to rose-purple flowers of the Dwarf Clover occur usually in
pairs on prostrate or spreading stems in the high mountains. They bloom
in midsummer and are found only at 9000-14000 ft. The Latin name for the
genus means “three-leaves,” and the 3-parted leaf is characteristic of
practically all clovers.


                 Prairie Pea    Astragalus hypoglottis

                            Plate 28, fig. 6

The flowers of the Prairie Pea are usually blue to purple, rarely
whitish or yellowish. They occur in dense heads on procumbent or
ascending stems 4-8 in. long and bloom in midsummer. The plants are
found in meadows and river valleys at 4000-9000 ft.


                  Rose Locust    Robinia neo-mexicana

                            Plate 28, fig. 7

The Rose Locust is a shrub or tree 3-15 ft. tall, which grows along
streams at 4000-7000 ft. The flowers are white to rose-colored with a
touch of yellow on the standard and keel, and their large showy clusters
come into bloom in spring and early summer. It is the handsomest of the
locusts, and should be cultivated wherever winters are not too severe.



                            STONECROP FAMILY


                   Rose Crown    Clementsia rhodantha

                            Plate 30, fig. 1

The rose-pink to nearly white flowers of the Rose Crown are crowded into
heads at the ends of stiff stems 4-20 in. tall. They bloom in midsummer
and may be found in meadows and bogs and along streams at high
altitudes, 10000-13000 ft.


                King’s Crown, Roseroot    Rhodiola Rosea

                            Plate 30, fig. 3

The tiny deep red-purple flowers of the King’s Crown are crowded into
dense roundish heads at the ends of unbranched stems 4-12 in. high. They
bloom in midsummer and are found only on alpine peaks at 9000-14000 ft.
The plant is used in Greenland as a salad, and the leaves in poultices
for headache. The root has a pleasant rose-like odor, which gives rise
to the name Roseroot, sometimes used for this species.


                    Stonecrop    Sedum stenopetalum

                            Plate 30, fig. 8

The yellow flowers of the Stonecrop occur in loose clusters at the ends
of stems 1-8 in. high. The plants possess succulent leaves which store
water and thus enable them to grow in dry, rocky or gravelly situations.
They are found at 4000-12000 ft. and bloom all summer.



                            SAXIFRAGE FAMILY


                Fairy Saxifrage    Saxifraga chrysantha

                            Plate 30, fig. 2

The dainty little Fairy Saxifrage grows but 1-3 in. high from a cluster
of tiny leaves, and bears at the end of a slender stem a single yellow
blossom. The lower half of the petal is dotted with many orange spots.
The flowers bloom in midsummer. They are alpine dwellers only and are
found among rocks at 11000-14000 ft. The name “saxifrage” is from the
Latin meaning “rock-breaker” and refers to the habit some saxifrages
have of living on rocks.


                 Brook Saxifrage    Saxifraga punctata

                            Plate 30, fig. 5

The Brook Saxifrage takes its name from its love of springy places and
stream banks. The flowers are white and delicate and bloom in early
summer. The plants are 1-3 ft. tall and occur at 8000-12000 ft.


               Dotted Saxifrage    Saxifraga bronchialis

                            Plate 30, fig. 7

The Dotted Saxifrage has white or pale pink flowers with orange and
purple dots on the petals. They bloom all summer. The plants are small
and slender, 3-8 in. high and occur on rocks and gravel-slides at
6000-13000 ft.


                        [Illustration: Plate 30


                            STONECROP FAMILY

                   1 Rose Crown: Clementsia rhodantha
                3 King’s Crown, Roseroot: Rhodiola rosea
                    8 Stonecrop: Sedum stenopetalum


                            SAXIFRAGE FAMILY

                2 Fairy Saxifrage: Saxifraga chrysantha
                      4 Gooseberry: Ribes lacustre
                 5 Brook Saxifrage: Saxifraga punctata
                     6 Gooseberry: Ribes leptanthum
               7 Dotted Saxifrage: Saxifraga bronchialis
                 9 Purple Saxifrage: Saxifraga Jamesii
             10 Whiplash Saxifrage: Saxifraga flagellaris]


                 Purple Saxifrage    Saxifraga Jamesii

                            Plate 30, fig. 9

The pale to deep rose-purple flowers of the Purple Saxifrage grow in
crowded spikes and form bright spots of color in rock-clefts and on
rocks at 8000-13000 ft. The stems are 4-8 in. tall and the flowers bloom
in early summer.


              Whiplash Saxifrage    Saxifraga flagellaris

                           Plate 30, fig. 10

This small plant with its yellow blossoms receives its name from the
presence of little whip-like runners at the base. The plants are only
1-8 in. tall and occur on alpine peaks among the rocks at 10000-14000
ft. They bloom all summer.


                      Gooseberry    Ribes lacustre

                            Plate 30, fig. 4

This pink-flowered Gooseberry blooms in spring and early summer. It is a
shrubby plant about 1-3 ft. high and occurs in the mountains at
7000-12000 ft. The berry is red and covered with prickles.


                     Gooseberry    Ribes leptanthum

                            Plate 30, fig. 6

The yellow-flowered Gooseberry blooms in early summer. It is a shrub
about 1-3 ft. in height and grows in the mountains at 6000-10000 ft. The
berry is black when ripe, and edible. The wild gooseberries are related
to the cultivated one and to the currant.


                        [Illustration: Plate 32


                        EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY

                 1 Fireweed: Chamaenerium angustifolium
                    2 Scarlet Gaura: Gaura coccinea
                     3 Meriolix: Meriolix serrulata
                   4 Evening Primrose: Onagra biennis


                            MENTZELIA FAMILY

                  5 Evening Star: Mentzelia multiflora


                             CACTUS FAMILY

                    6 Prickly Pear: Opuntia humifusa
                   7 Purple Cactus: Cactus viviparus]



                        EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY


                 Fireweed    Chamaenerium angustifolium

                            Plate 32, fig. 1

The Fireweed, as the name indicates, is found on burnt areas especially,
though it also occurs in meadows and open woods and copses. The flowers
are pale pink to deep rose-purple and bloom all summer long. The plants
are widely distributed over the continent up to 10000 ft. and grow as
tall as 5 ft. The name “Willow Herb” is sometimes given on account of
the resemblance of the leaves to those of the willow. The Fireweed is
cultivated as an ornamental plant in England, where the leaves are also
used as an adulterant of tea. The foliage forms a wholesome vegetable
when boiled, and the young shoots or suckers make a good substitute for
asparagus. Beer and vinegar are made in Kamchatka by fermenting the
shoots and pith. The down on the seeds resembles cotton, but possesses
little tenacity, and the fibres are too brittle and short to be of any
value except in the adulteration of other material.


                    Scarlet Gaura    Gaura coccinea

                            Plate 32, fig. 2

The pinkish or red flowers of the Scarlet Gaura grow on slender plants 6
in.-2 ft. tall and bloom in spring and summer. They may be found on
plains and prairies at 4000-5500 ft.


                     Meriolix    Meriolix serrulata

                            Plate 32, fig. 3

Meriolix grows 6-15 in. tall and bears yellow flowers that bloom in
spring and summer. They are found on plains and hills at 4000-8000 ft.


                   Evening Primrose    Onagra biennis

                            Plate 32, fig. 4

The fragrant yellow flowers of the Evening Primrose open in the evening
and wither the next morning. They bloom all summer and are visited
frequently by the pink night moth in search of nectar. The plants grow
1-3 ft. high and are found in valleys and on plains at 4000-10000 ft.
They were formerly cultivated in kitchen gardens in England for their
edible roots. When boiled these are very nutritious and wholesome, but
they have been eaten very little as a table vegetable since the use of
the potato became general. They are sweet to the taste, somewhat
resembling parsnips. A drug made from the Evening Primrose is used for
coughs, colds and asthmatic troubles, and an ointment for skin
affections is also obtained.



                            MENTZELIA FAMILY


                  Evening Star    Mentzelia multiflora

                            Plate 32, fig. 5

As the name indicates, the yellow flowers of the Evening Star open in
the evening and close in the morning. They bloom all summer and are
found on branching plants 8 in.-2 ft. high. These occur on dry plains
and gravel-slides at 7000-9000 ft.



                             CACTUS FAMILY


                    Prickly Pear    Opuntia humifusa

                            Plate 32, fig. 6

The Prickly Pear bears yellow flowers on low branching spiny stems. As
in all the members of the cactus family, the plants are leafless, the
stems having been modified into food-making and water-storing organs
that take the place of foliage. The flowers bloom in midsummer on
prairies and plains at 4000-7000 ft. The fruit of the Prickly Pear is
sometimes used as food, being collected and sold in the markets in some
localities. The juice is used for coloring confectionery, and in Mexico
a drink called “Colinche” is prepared from it. The old, fibrous parts of
the joints are made into commercial articles when hard and firm.
_Opuntia cochinellifera_ is extensively cultivated in Mexico for the
purpose of breeding the cochineal insect from which the finest crimson
dye is produced.


                   Purple Cactus    Cactus viviparus

                            Plate 32, fig. 7

The many-petalled, starry blossoms of the Purple Cactus grow in groups
on ball-like fleshy stems which are but a few inches tall and covered
with radiating brown and yellow spines. They dot the prairies and
foothills at 3000-7000 ft. and bloom in midsummer.



                             PARSLEY FAMILY


             Mountain Parsley    Pseudocymopterus montanus

                            Plate 36, fig. 7

The tiny yellow flowers of the Mountain Parsley are grouped, as in all
the parsleys, in flat-topped clusters at the tip of the stem. They bloom
in early and midsummer. In alpine meadows the flowers are burnt orange
in color. The plants grow 1-2 ft. tall and may be found in forests,
woodlands and meadows at 7000-12000 ft. The Mountain Parsley is related
to the common parsley of kitchen gardens and also to Sweet Anise which
is used to flavor confectionery.



                           HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY


                    Twin Flower    Linnaea borealis

                            Plate 36, fig. 4

As indicated by the name, the Twin Flowers grow in pairs. They are
drooping, bell-shaped pink blossoms with a delicate fragrance and bloom
in midsummer. The fragile stems are but 3-8 in. tall and are found in
the moist shade of pine and spruce forests at 8000-12000 ft. The
botanical name commemorates Linnaeus, the Father of Botany.


                        [Illustration: Plate 36


                             PARSLEY FAMILY

             7 Mountain Parsley: Pseudocymopterus montanus


                           HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY

                    4 Twin Flower: Linnaea borealis
                5 Snowberry: Symphoricarpus occidentalis


                            BLUEBELL FAMILY

                 1 Purple Bellflower: Campanula Parryi
              2 Bluebell, Harebell: Campanula rotundifolia
                 6 Alpine Bluebell: Campanula uniflora


                            VALERIAN FAMILY

                    3 Valerian: Valeriana silvatica]


                Snowberry    Symphoricarpus occidentalis

                            Plate 36, fig. 5

The Snowberry bears its pale pink flowers in drooping clusters on the
spreading branches of bushes, which grow 2-5 ft. tall. They bloom in
midsummer and may be found in meadows and thickets at 3000-7000 ft. The
name refers to the snow-white berries which form the fruits.



                            BLUEBELL FAMILY


                 Purple Bellflower    Campanula Parryi

                            Plate 36, fig. 1

The blossoms of the Purple Bellflower grow singly at the tips of slender
stems and bloom in midsummer. They do not droop, as do many of the
bluebells. They are found in mountain meadows at 7000-10000 ft. The
plants are unbranched and small, growing but 4-12 in. tall. The name of
the genus, _Campanula_, means “little bell.”


              Bluebell, Harebell    Campanula rotundifolia

                            Plate 36, fig. 2

The purple-blue flowers of the Bluebell droop gracefully at intervals
along their slender stems and bloom all summer long. The plants grow but
a few inches tall in the alpine regions where each bears but a single
blossom, but they are sometimes 3 ft. high at lower altitudes,
especially in the shade. They are found on foothills and in mountain
meadows and aspen woodlands at 6000-13000 ft. This species is the true
Bluebell of Scotland.


                 Alpine Bluebell    Campanula uniflora

                            Plate 36, fig. 6

The Alpine Bluebell is a tiny plant, growing but 2-5 in. tall on account
of the effect of the high altitudes at which it lives. The single
blossom is a deep purple-blue and hangs from the tip of the fragile
stem. The botanical name of the species means “one-flowered.” The plants
bloom in early summer and must be sought in alpine meadows at
11000-14000 ft.



                            VALERIAN FAMILY


                    Valerian    Valeriana silvatica

                            Plate 36, fig. 3

The tiny pale pink flowers of the Valerian grow in flat-topped clusters
at the tips of straight stiff stems, 1-3 ft. tall. They bloom in early
summer in fir and spruce forests at 8000-11000 ft. The botanical name of
this species refers to the fact that the plants are forest-lovers. Some
species of Valerian are used in medicine as a sedative and for various
nervous troubles, and one has an edible root. They have a strong
unpleasant odor which cats and rats like. The leaves are efficacious in
healing wounds.



                              ASTER FAMILY


                  Blazing Star    Laciniaria punctata

                            Plate 37, fig. 1

The Blazing Star receives its name from the dense spikes of brilliant
red-purple blossoms. These bloom in late summer and autumn and are found
on prairies, plains and foothills at 3000-6000 ft. The plants are
unbranched and grow 6-18 in. tall. This species is the least beautiful
of several native blazing stars that deserve a place in the wild garden.


                   Blue Lettuce    Lactuca pulchella

                            Plate 37, fig. 2

The pale blue-lavender flowers of the Blue Lettuce grow in clusters on
plants 3-6 ft. high. They bloom in midsummer and are found along
roadsides and in meadows at 3000-6000 ft. Several varieties of lettuce
have narcotic properties, while the value of the garden lettuce is too
well-known to need comment.


                Sheath Flower    Coleanthus grandiflorus

                            Plate 37, fig. 3

The pale yellow blossoms of the Sheath Flower hang from their stalks
like inverted thimbles and bloom in midsummer. The name refers to the
tiny bracts that sheathe the flower-heads closely and turn reddish brown
with age. The plants are much branched, 1-4 ft. tall, and occur in
meadows and thickets at 5000-9000 ft.


                   False Dandelion    Agoseris glauca

                            Plate 37, fig. 4

The golden-yellow heads of the False Dandelion look very like those of
its namesake. They bloom in midsummer and are found on plants 1-3 ft.
tall, in mountain meadows and along brook-banks at 8000-11000 ft.


             Goatsbeard, Salsify    Tragopogon porrifolius

                            Plate 37, fig. 5

The Goatsbeard or Salsify bears large purple flower-heads with yellow
centers at the tips of stiff, straight stems, 2-4 ft. tall. The plants
have escaped from cultivation and may be found blooming all summer,
along roadsides and in meadows at 4000-7000 ft. The roots of the Salsify
are edible and are marketed under the name of “Oyster Plant.” The name
“Goatsbeard” refer to the clusters of stiff hairy fruits.


                        [Illustration: Plate 37


                              ASTER FAMILY

                  1 Blazing Star: Laciniaria punctata
                   2 Blue Lettuce: Lactuca pulchella
                3 Sheath Flower: Coleanthus grandiflorus
                   4 False Dandelion: Agoseris glauca
             5 Goatsbeard, Salsify: Tragopogon porrifolius
                   6 Rose Thistle: Carduus undulatus
                    7 Hawksbeard: Crepis runcinata]


                   Rose Thistle    Carduus undulatus

                            Plate 37, fig. 6

The Rose Thistle is so named on account of the bright rose-purple
flower-heads, which bloom in summer and autumn. The plants are 2-5 ft.
tall and grow on plains, prairies and foothills at 5000-7000 ft. The
gray-green foliage is very spiny, but when bruised to destroy the spines
forms good food for cattle. Donkeys eat the plants, spines and all, and
seem to relish them. The Thistle is the badge of Scotland.


                     Hawksbeard    Crepis runcinata

                            Plate 37, fig. 7

The Hawksbeard has dandelion-like flower-heads of a golden yellow, which
bloom in midsummer. The plants grow 1-2 ft. tall in mountain meadows and
bogs at 8000-11000 ft.


              Prairie Goldenrod    Solidago missouriensis

                            Plate 38, fig. 1

The flower clusters of the goldenrods vary from rather slender, stiff
spikes, which give the name to the group, to large, spreading, feathery
panicles. The Prairie Goldenrod belongs to the latter class and is only
medium-sized, both as to flower-clusters and plants, which are 8 in.-2
ft. tall. It blooms from midsummer to autumn and is most at home on the
prairies, though it also occurs in meadows and on gravel-slides at
3000-10000 ft. The Goldenrod is the state flower of Nebraska. The
botanical name for the genus comes from the Greek “to make whole” which
refers to the healing properties formerly attributed to the plant.


                        [Illustration: Plate 38


                              ASTER FAMILY

              1 Prairie Goldenrod: Solidago missouriensis
                   2 Pussy’s Toes: Antennaria dioeca
                      3 Daisy: Erigeron macranthus
                4 Purple Aster: Machaeranthera Bigelovii
                     5 Leafy Aster: Aster foliaceus
                   6 Gold-top: Gutierrezia sarothrae
                    7 Golden Eye: Chrysopsis villosa
                    8 Gum Weed: Grindelia squarrosa]


                   Pussy’s Toes    Antennaria dioeca

                            Plate 38, fig. 2

The soft fuzzy balls that give this plant its name are the pistillate or
seed-bearing flowers, while the staminate or pollen-bearing ones grow in
heads on other stems. The botanical name for the genus refers to the
fact that the protruded brown anthers of the staminate heads sometimes
resemble the antennae of insects. The heads are creamy white with
rose-colored bracts enclosing them at the base, and bloom in spring and
early summer. The plants are 2-15 in. tall and grow on prairies and in
meadows and aspen woodland at 3000-10000 ft. The leaves are gray from
the white woolly hairs covering them, and grow in clusters at the base
of the flowering stems. These clusters usually form dense mats, the
leaves of which are sometimes chewed by children as Indian Tobacco or
Ladies’ Tobacco.


                      Daisy    Erigeron macranthus

                            Plate 38, fig. 3

This Daisy has yellow disks surrounded by blue-purple rays. The name is
a corruption of Day’s Eye which refers to the resemblance of the yellow
center and its rays to the sun and its rays. The plants grow 1-3 ft.
tall in meadows, fir forests, aspen woodlands and on gravel-slides at
5000-10000 ft. and bloom in midsummer. They are beautiful enough to be
given a place in the garden.


                Purple Aster    Machaeranthera Bigelovii

                            Plate 38, fig. 4

The Aster differs from the Daisy in having fewer and broader
ray-flowers. This Aster has purple rays and yellow disks. It grows 1-4
ft. tall in meadows and on gravel-slides at 6000-10000 ft. and blooms in
midsummer.


                     Leafy Aster    Aster foliaceus

                            Plate 38, fig. 5

The heads of the Leafy Aster have yellow disk-flowers and red-purple
rays. They bloom from midsummer to autumn. The plants grow 6 in.-2 ft.
tall in meadows and aspen woodlands at 7000-11000 ft. The word “aster”
comes from the Latin for “star” and refers to the rays surrounding the
yellow center.


                   Gold-top    Gutierrezia sarothrae

                            Plate 38, fig. 6

The slender yellow heads of Gold-top grow in dense clusters on plants
1-3 ft. high. They bloom from midsummer to autumn and may be found on
prairies and plains at 3000-8000 ft. They are especially typical of
pastures and over-grazed areas.


                    Golden Eye    Chrysopsis villosa

                            Plate 38, fig. 7

The name “Golden Eye” is a direct translation of the scientific name of
the genus. The flower-heads are entirely golden-yellow, ray-flowers as
well as disk-flowers, and they bloom in midsummer. The plants are
low-growing, 1-2 ft. high, and occur on prairies and gravel-slides and
in aspen woodlands at 3000-10000 ft.


                    Gum Weed    Grindella squarrosa

                            Plate 38, fig. 8

The foliage of the Gum Weed oozes a sticky substance that gives the
plant its name. The flower-heads are golden-yellow and bloom from
midsummer to autumn. The plants are branched and grow 2-4 ft. tall,
along roadsides and in pastures at 3000-7000 ft. The entire plant is
used in medicine for certain lung troubles, and a salve is made from it
that is helpful in poison-ivy poisoning.


                   Cone Flower    Ratibida columnaris

                          Plate 39, figs. 1, 6

The fertile flowers of the Cone Flower are grouped in cone-shaped heads,
which give the plant its name. The broad ray-flowers vary in color
through shades of pure yellow to brilliant orange-red, and this form is
sometimes cultivated in home gardens. The plants grow 1-3 ft. tall on
prairies and plains at 3000-7000 ft., and bear flowers all summer.


                   Golden Glow    Rudbeckia laciniata

                            Plate 39, fig. 2

The native Golden Glow is related to the popular Golden Glow of the
garden. It is a striking plant, 3-6 ft. tall and bears many large
flower-heads with long, spreading or drooping yellow rays. They bloom in
midsummer and are found in meadows and along brook-banks in aspen and
fir forests at 5000-8000 ft.


                  Black-eyed Susan    Rudbeckia hirta

                            Plate 39, fig. 4

Black-eyed Susan, unlike its near relative Golden Glow, has a
reddish-brown, almost black, center and orange-yellow rays. It is
cultivated also, but occurs naturally in meadows and bogs and along
brook-banks at 5000-11000 ft. The plants are 1-4 ft. tall and bloom all
summer.


               Rayless Thelesperma    Thelesperma gracile

                            Plate 39, fig. 3

As the name indicates, the Rayless Thelesperma has heads of fertile
flowers only, ray-flowers being lacking. The heads are grouped in
graceful clusters on slender stems, 2-4 ft. tall, and bloom all summer.
The plants occur on prairies and plains at 3000-8000 ft.


               Rayed Thelesperma    Thelesperma trifidum

                            Plate 39, fig. 8

The Rayed Thelesperma, in contrast to the one above, has broad yellow
ray-flowers around a yellow center. It is a relative of Coreopsis and
should also be cultivated in home gardens. The plants are 1-3 ft. tall
and are found along roadsides and in pastures and fields at 3000-7000
ft., blooming all summer.


                        [Illustration: Plate 39


                              ASTER FAMILY

                 1, 6 Cone Flower: Ratibida columnaris
                   2 Golden Glow: Rudbeckia laciniata
               3 Rayless Thelesperma: Thelesperma gracile
                  4 Black-eyed Susan: Rudbeckia hirta
                   5 Sun Spots: Gymnolomia multiflora
                   7 Sunflower: Helianthus petiolaris
               8 Rayed Thelesperma: Thelesperma trifidum]


                   Sun Spots    Gymnolomia multiflora

                            Plate 39, fig. 5

The heads of Sun Spots are yellow throughout and bloom all summer. The
plants are 2-5 ft. tall and grow on prairies and foothills at 5000-7000
ft.


                   Sunflower    Helianthus petiolaris

                            Plate 39, fig. 7

One scarcely needs an introduction to the cheery Sunflower which
overruns roadsides and fallow fields everywhere at 3000-8000 ft. The
plants are 2-5 ft. tall and bear flowers all summer. This species is the
western form of the common sunflower, _Helianthus annuus_. The latter
was held in high veneration by the ancient Peruvians and Mexicans, being
used by them as a sacred and artistic emblem. It also figures in Greek
mythology. The farmer of today, however, regards it quite otherwise when
it invades his cultivated fields. It is, nevertheless, the state flower
of Kansas. The name Sunflower was given this plant under the impression
that the heads turn their faces always towards the sun and follow it in
its daily course. This is not the case, however, for though the heads of
a field of sunflowers are usually turned in the same direction, this is
due to the effect of the prevailing wind rather than to sunlight.

The common sunflower is cultivated for the sake of the honey and wax
which are obtained from the flowers by the bees, and also for its seeds
which are used in various ways. They furnish feed for domestic and farm
animals, or are ground and made into cakes, or roasted and used as
coffee. In Russia they are sold in the streets and eaten as nuts. An oil
also is obtained from them that is said to be equal to olive oil.


                        [Illustration: Plate 40


                              ASTER FAMILY

                      1 Bur Marigold: Bidens levis
                  2 Mountain Arnica: Arnica cordifolia
                   3 Gaillardia: Gaillardia aristata
                     4 Butterweed: Senecio Fendleri
                   5 Goldweed: Ximenesia encelioides
                  6 Actinella: Actinella Richardsonii
                7 Dwarf Sunflower: Helianthella Parryi]


                      Bur Marigold    Bidens levis

                            Plate 40, fig. 1

The bright yellow heads of the Bur Marigold may be found blooming all
summer in marshes and ditches at 3000-6000 ft. The plants are 1-4 ft.
tall. The names, both common and botanical, refer to the tooth-like
spines on the end of the seed-like fruits.


                  Mountain Arnica    Arnica cordifolia

                            Plate 40, fig. 2

This native Arnica is a close relative of _Arnica montana_, which
furnishes the well-known tincture that is applied to bruises and
sprains. It has been employed as a stimulant in low fevers, but does not
appear to have any value when used internally. The Mountain Arnica
occurs in fir, spruce and aspen forests at 7000-12000 ft. The heads are
yellow-centered and yellow-rayed, and bloom all summer on plants 1-2 ft.
high.


                   Gaillardia    Gaillardia aristata

                            Plate 40, fig. 3

Gaillardia bears very large heads with reddish-brown centers and many
yellow or orange rays. They bloom all summer. The plants grow 1-3 ft.
tall and may be found on prairies, and in meadows and aspen woodlands at
7000-10000 ft. The Gaillardias are frequently cultivated in gardens.


                     Butterweed    Senecio Fendleri

                            Plate 40, fig. 4

The yellow heads of the Butterweed are quite small but are grouped in
large clusters on stems 6 in.-2 ft. tall. They bloom in midsummer and
are found on foothills and gravel-slides at 7000-10000 ft.


                   Goldweed    Ximenesia encelioides

                            Plate 40, fig. 5

The heads of the Goldweed have yellow centers and yellow, toothed rays,
and they bloom all summer. The plants are 2-5 ft. tall, growing along
roadsides and in fallow fields at 3000-7000 ft.


                  Actinella    Actinella Richardsonii

                            Plate 40, fig. 6

The yellow heads of Actinella are small and grouped in open clusters on
stems 6 in.-2 ft. tall. They bloom in early and midsummer and are found
on plains and foothills at 5000-8000 ft. This species of Actinella is
sometimes called the “Colorado Rubber Plant,” but it does not produce
rubber in sufficient quantities to be commercially valuable.


                 Dwarf Sunflower    Helianthella Parryi

                            Plate 40, fig. 7

The heads of the Dwarf Sunflower are entirely yellow. They are borne on
slender stems 1-3 ft. tall and bloom in midsummer. They may be found in
spruce and aspen forests at 7000-10000 ft.


                        Bahia    Bahia dissecta

                            Plate 41, fig. 1

The heads of Bahia have large yellow centers and very short yellow rays.
They grow on branching stems 1-4 ft. high and bloom in midsummer. The
plants may be found on foothills and gravel-slides at 5000-9000 ft.


                     Actinella    Actinella acaulis

                            Plate 41, fig. 2

Actinella, like Bahia, has large yellow centers and short yellow rays.
The plants are unbranched and grow 6-18 in. tall. They bear flowers in
early summer and occur on prairies, plains and foothills at 3000-8000
ft.


                    Sneezeweed    Helenium Hoopesii

                            Plate 41, fig. 3

The heads of the Sneezeweed are large and orange-yellow. They grow on
stiff stems 2-6 ft. tall and bloom all summer. The plants are found in
spruce forests, aspen woodlands and subalpine meadows at 9000-12000 ft.
They are poisonous to stock. The common name has reference to the effect
that the strong odor of the flowers have on some people.


                 Cream Tips    Hymenopappus tenuifolius

                            Plate 41, fig. 4

The yellow heads of the Cream Tips are without ray-flowers. They grow on
slender stems 1-4 ft. tall and bloom in spring and midsummer. The plants
have very finely cut leaves and are found on prairies, plains and
foothills at 3000-7000 ft.


                     Taper Leaf    Pericome caudata

                            Plate 41, fig. 5

The Taper Leaf is a bushy ornamental plant covered in midsummer and
autumn with open clusters of fragment yellow flower-heads. The tips of
the leaves are narrowed to a long, slender point and this character is
expressed in both the botanical and common names. The bushes grow 3-6
ft. high, and 3-8 ft. wide and occur on foothills and gravel-slides at
6000-8000 ft.


                      Marigold    Dysodia papposa

                            Plate 41, fig. 6

The wild Marigold looks like a tiny form of the garden Marigold and has
a similar spicy fragrance. It grows 1 in.-l ft. tall and is abundant
along roadsides and in fallow fields and pastures at 3000-8000 ft.


                        [Illustration: Plate 41


                              ASTER FAMILY

                        1 Bahia: Bahia dissecta
                     2 Actinella: Actinella acaulis
                    3 Sneezeweed: Helenium Hoopesii
                 4 Cream Tips: Hymenopappus tenuifolius
                     5 Taper Leaf: Pericome caudata
                      6 Marigold: Dysodia papposa
                7 Alpine Kobold: Rydbergia grandiflora]


                 Alpine Kobold    Rydbergia grandiflora

                            Plate 41, fig. 7

This shaggy, gray-green little plant with its huge, hanging yellow head,
often as broad as the stem is tall, is weirdly suggestive of fairy-folk.
The stems grow 2-15 in. tall and bear flowers in midsummer. They are to
be found only in alpine meadows at 10000-14000 ft.



                              LILY FAMILY


                      Wild Onion    Allium cernuum

                            Plate 42, fig. 1

The Wild Onion bears open clusters of rose-purple flowers that droop in
the bud, but rise gradually as they bloom, until the fruits are erect.
They blossom in midsummer and are found in foothills, meadows, and aspen
and spruce woods at 5000-10000 ft. The plants grow 1-2 ft. tall, and the
bruised foliage and bulbs have the characteristic onion odor. The genus
is widely cultivated and furnishes several varieties of onion, chives,
leek, garlic and shallot.


                 Spring Lily    Erythronium parviflorum

                            Plate 42, fig. 3

The yellow flower of the Spring Lily droops from a slender stem, 6-15
in. tall and blooms in the spring. The plant consists merely of two
broad but pointed leaves, besides the flowering-stalk, and is found in
meadows and spruce woods at 8000-12000 ft. It certainly deserves a place
among cultivated plants.


                   Red Lily    Lilium philadelphicum

                            Plate 42, fig. 4

The scarlet petals of the Red Lily are ornamented at their bases with
dark reddish-brown spots that serve to direct visiting insects to the
honey. The blossoms are large and conspicuous and occur singly at the
tips of stiff stems, 2-4 ft. tall. They come into bloom in early summer
and midsummer, and are found in bogs and along brook-banks at 7000-11000
ft. The Red Lily is very like the Tiger Lily of the garden and should be
given a place there also, though it is not as yet widely cultivated.


                        [Illustration: Plate 42


                              LILY FAMILY

                      1 Wild Onion: Allium cernuum
                 3 Spring Lily: Erythronium parviflorum
                   4 Red Lily: Lilium philadelphicum
                     5 Wand Lily: Zygadenus elegans
                6 Mariposa Lily: Calochortus Gunnisonii


                           SPIDERWORT FAMILY

                2 Spider Lily: Tradescantia virginiana]


                     Wand Lily    Zygadenus elegans

                            Plate 42, fig. 5

The cream-colored blossoms of the Wand Lily are grouped in open spikes
on straight slender stems 4 in.-2-1/2 ft. tall. They bloom in midsummer
in meadows and spruce and aspen woods at 7000-12000 ft. The Wand Lily is
related to the poisonous Death Camas, and is probably poisonous also.


                Mariposa Lily    Calochortus Gunnisonii

                            Plate 42, fig. 6

This Mariposa Lily is usually white, though delicate lilac blossoms are
sometimes found. The petals are ornamented with various markings which
give point to the common name of the genus which means “butterfly.” The
plants grow 1-4 ft. tall in foothills, meadows and aspen forests at
4000-11000 ft. and bear flowers all summer long. The genus is widely
distributed and contains many beautiful species and varieties of
striking colors, which should be more generally cultivated.



                           SPIDERWORT FAMILY


                 Spider Lily    Tradescantia virginiana

                            Plate 42, fig. 2

The pink or blue-purple flowers of the Spider Lily open in the morning
and wither soon afterwards. They are grouped in open clusters on stiff
stems with long, grass-like leaves, and bloom from spring to midsummer.
The plants grow in clumps, 1-5 ft. tall, on prairies and foot-hills at
3000-7000 ft. The common name refers to the cobwebby hairs on the
stamens. The Spider Lily should certainly be cultivated in home gardens.



                              IRIS FAMILY


             Blue-eyed Grass    Sisyrinchium angustifolium

                            Plate 43, fig. 1

The Blue-eyed Grass is not a grass at all, but is so called on account
of the grass-like leaves. The blue-purple, starry blossoms grow in loose
clusters on stiff stems, and bloom from spring to midsummer. They remain
open but a few hours in the morning withering as the day advances. The
plants are 6-18 in. tall and are found on prairies, and foothills and in
mountain meadows at 3000-10000 ft.


                 Iris, Blue Flag    Iris missouriensis

                            Plate 43, fig. 5

The large, pale blue to purple blossoms of the Iris bloom in spring and
summer, on brook-banks and in meadows at 3000-10000 ft. The plants grow
in masses, 1-3 ft. tall, and sometimes carpet the floor of a mountain
meadow. The botanical name for the Blue Flag is from the Greek for
“rainbow” and refers to the many colors of the different species and
varieties. These are cultivated and furnish some of our most beautiful
garden plants. The earliest illustration of the Iris was made about the
beginning of the sixth century A.D. in a work by Dioscorides. In this
work, it was considered valuable as a source of drugs rather than as a
garden plant, and the number of ailments for which iris preparations
were prescribed is truly astonishing. At present, however, its medicinal
value consists merely of an extract from the root, which is used as an
emetic and cathartic. The seeds of some species are sometimes roasted
and used in Great Britain as a substitute for coffee. The orris root of
commerce is supplied by Iris florentina which has a fragrant root. The
Iris is the Fleur-de-lis of France, which was for long the royal emblem.



                             ORCHID FAMILY


                 Coral Root    Corallorhiza multiflora

                            Plate 43, fig. 2

The Coral Root receives its name from the white branching roots that
resemble coral. The plant is a saprophyte, that is, it gets its food
ready-made from decaying matter, and this accounts for the lack of green
foliage. The plants are entirely reddish-purple, though the
flower-petals are white with purple dots. They grow 6 in.-1 ft. tall, in
spruce and fir woods at 7000-10000 ft. and bloom all summer.


            Yellow Ladies’ Slipper    Cypripedium pubescens

                            Plate 43, fig. 3

The botanical name for the Ladies’ Slipper comes from the Greek for
“sock” or “buskin,” so that the fanciful resemblance of the flower to
dainty footwear is indicated by both names. Though the sack-like lower
petal of Yellow Ladies’ Slipper is a bright yellow, the other two petals
and the sepals are yellow-green with reddish markings. The flowers occur
singly on stems 8-20 in. tall, and bloom in early summer. They are found
in meadows and aspen woodlands at 6000-9000 ft.


                Rattlesnake Plantain    Peramium repens

                            Plate 43, fig. 4

The Rattlesnake Plantain receives this name because of its peculiarly
mottled leaves which resemble those of a plantain in shape, but which
have markings very like those of a snake. The tiny white blossoms occur
in crowded spikes on stems 2-8 in. tall and bloom in midsummer. The
plants grow in fir and spruce woods at 9000-10000 ft.


                        [Illustration: Plate 43


                              IRIS FAMILY

             1 Blue-eyed Grass: Sisyrinchium angustifolium
                 5 Iris, Blue Flag: Iris missouriensis


                             ORCHID FAMILY

                 2 Coral Root: Corallorhiza multiflora
            3 Yellow Ladies’ Slipper: Cypripedium pubescens
                4 Rattlesnake Plantain: Peramium repens
              6 Fairy Slipper, Calypso: Calypso borealis]


               Fairy Slipper, Calypso    Calypso borealis

                            Plate 43, fig. 6

The fairy-like rose-purple blossoms of Calypso appear in early spring.
They occur singly on stems 4-8 in. tall, in fir and spruce woods at
7000-10000 ft. The name “Calypso” is that of a nymph of Grecian legend,
and seems well fitted to this dainty plant.



                          Transcriber’s Notes


--Silently corrected a few palpable typos.

--In the text versions only, delimited _italicized_ text in underscores.

--Collated plate captions against species headings, and eliminated some
  inconsistencies.





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