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Title: First Lessons in the Maori Language - with a short vocabulary
Author: Williams, William Leonard
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "First Lessons in the Maori Language - with a short vocabulary" ***

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  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

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  More detail can be found at the end of the book.







  [Illustration: (colophon)]



The object of the following pages is not to give anything like a
complete treatise on the Maori language, nor even a complete outline
of Maori Grammar; but rather to furnish, in as small a compass as
possible, some practical hints on the ordinary modes of using the
different parts of speech; and to clear away some of the difficulties
which are most likely to occur to one who is making his first
acquaintance with the language; and, I should add, to do this to
the satisfaction, in some degree at least, of those who are willing
to avail themselves of my guidance. How far I have succeeded such
persons must decide.

There are doubtless some things--probably not a few--which are not
even here alluded to, but which might be advantageously set down,
even in a small work like this: but the task of selection has not
proved altogether an easy one. I have had to settle _a priori_ what
points are, and what are not likely to present difficulty to an
English student of the Maori language. In doing this I could not
fall back on my own experience in learning the language, for Maori
has never been exactly a strange language to me, and I have had but
little opportunity of availing myself of the experience of others. I
shall be glad therefore to receive any suggestions which may help in
any way to render this little book more useful to those for whose use
it is intended.

In conclusion, I may be allowed to offer one caution; and that is,
that it is not easy to learn to _speak_ a language merely from books.
Books, properly used, are of great service; and in the present case
Maunsell's Grammar will repay a careful study: but there is no school
for learning to speak any given language like frequent intercourse
with the people who use that language and no other.

Turanga, April 13, 1862.


     I. ON READING                         3
   III. DEFINITIVES                       12
    IV. ADJECTIVES                        18
     V. NUMERALS                          20
   VII. VERBS                             30
    IX. RELATIVE CLAUSES                  44
     X. ADVERBS                           48
    XI. PREPOSITIONS                      49
   XII. HAVE, HAD &c.                     52

    VOCABULARY                            54



§ 1. THE ALPHABET consists of the following fifteen letters:

  FORM.        NAME.      SOUND.

  A  a          a         f_a_ther
  E  e          e         s_e_nd
  H  h          ha
  I  i          i         h_i_t
  K  k          ka
  M  m          ma
  N  n          na
  Ng ng         nga       si_ng_ing
  O  o          o         _o_bey, without the _w_ sound
  P  p          pa          generally connected with
  R  r          ra          it in English.
  T  t          ta
  U  u          u         b_oo_t
  W  w          wa
  Wh wh         wha

§ 2. PRONUNCIATION. Those letters which have not the pronunciation
marked in the above table may be pronounced as in English: _t_ and
_r_, however are articulated farther forward in the mouth in Maori
than they are in English; and _wh_ is not, as it is written, a letter
compounded of _w_ and _h_, but a simple consonant, the effect of
breath emitted smartly between the lips; the same sound, in short, as
is made in blowing from the mouth.

_Ng_, as used in Maori to begin a syllable, is found difficult by
some people; but the difficulty may soon be overcome by bearing in
mind that the position of the organs of speech is the same for this
letter as for _g_ and _k_, to which it stands in the same relation
that _m_ does to _b_ and _p_, and _n_ to _d_ and _t_. Pronounce the
three letters successively with the Maori vowel _a_, thus; _ka_,
_ga_, _nga_, and practise this till the letter is mastered.

The vowels have each but one sound, though they may all vary in
length in different words. When two stand together in a word, the
first of the two is generally pronounced more strongly than the
other. The doubling of a vowel amounts simply to a lengthening of it.

The consonants always stand singly, and every syllable ends with a

§ 3. CAUTION. Be careful always to give each vowel its own sound, and
so to avoid confusion between _ae_ and _ai_, as in the words waewae
and wai; between _ao_ and _au_, as in the words tao and tau; between
_ou_ and _u_, as in the words koutou and mutu.


§ 4. The nouns have no INFLEXIONS, nor any distinctions of GENDER to
affect grammatical construction.

OBS. The common interrogative pronoun aha, _what_, is treated as a
common noun.

§ 5. NUMBER. The number of a common noun is denoted

  1. by a lengthened pronunciation of certain words for the plural,
  as in the following:

  SINGULAR.                              PLURAL.

  Mătua, _parent_.                  Mātua, _parents_.
  Tŭpuna, _ancestor_.               Tūpuna, _ancestors_.
  Tăngata, _man_.                   Tāngata, _men_.
  Wăhine, _woman_.                  Wāhine, _women_.
  Tuăhine, _sister (of a man)_.     Tuāhine, _sisters_.
  Tuăkana, _elder brother_.         Tuākana, _elder brothers_.

  The word tamaiti, _child_, is only used in the singular, the plural
  being tamariki.

  2. by the number of the definitive in connexion with the noun. See
  §§ 14, 15.

§ 6. NOMINAL PREFIX _a_. Use the nominal prefix _a_ with _names of

  1. when they stand as subject in a sentence;

  2. when they follow any of the prepositions ki, i, hei, or kei.

Use it with _personal pronouns_ (except ahau) only when they follow
the prepositions ki, i, hei, or kei; or when they are repeated by
way of explanation: not ordinarily when they stand as subject in a

Use it with _names of places_ and _nouns of locality_ (§ 10) only
when they stand as subject in a sentence, or are repeated by way of


  Ka ora a Hoani, _Hoani is well_.

  Kei a Tamati to hoiho, _Your horse is in the possession of Tamati_.

  Ma Pita tenei, _This is for Pita_.

  He taone a Akarana, _Auckland is a town_.

  Homai ki a au, _give it to me_.

  Ka wera a waho o te rakau, _the outside of the tree is burnt_.

§ 7. MA. When any person is spoken of in connexion with others whom
it is not necessary to specify put _ma_ after the name, thus:

  Kahutia ma, _Kahutia and his companions_.

Also when addressing more persons than one it may be used with the
different forms of address, thus:

  E hoa ma! _Friends!_

With the pronouns Wai? and mea it makes a kind of plural.

  A wai ma? _Who?_ (pl.)

  A mea ma, _such and such persons_.

§ 8. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. The personal pronouns have three numbers,
Singular, Dual, and Plural, as shewn by the following table.


                    SINGULAR.     DUAL.      PLURAL.
  1st Person        Ahau, or au   Maua       Matou
  1st includ. 2nd.                Taua       Tatou
  2nd Person        Koe           Korua      Koutou
  3rd Person        Ia            Raua       Ratou
  Interrog.         Wai?          Wai ma?    Wai ma?
  Indef.            Mea           Mea ma     Mea ma

Of the dual and plural pronouns of the first person, taua and tatou
include the person or persons spoken to, while maua and matou exclude

§ 9. The SINGULAR PERSONAL PRONOUNS ahau, _I_, koe, _thou_, ia, _he_,
become respectively -ku, -u, -na, when they follow the possessive
prepositions a, o, _of_, na, no, _belonging to_, ma, mo, _for_, and
the compounds ta, and to (which consist of the article te and the
prepositions a and o). Owing to this irregularity the preposition and
pronoun in each case are generally written as one word.

  Ahau, _I_; aku, or oku, _of me_; naku, or noku, _belonging to me,
  mine_; maku, or moku, _for me_; taku or toku, _my_ (literally te a
  ku, _the ... of me_.)

  Koe, _thou_; au, or ou, _of thee_; nau, or nou, _belonging to thee,
  thine_; mau, or mou, _for thee_; tau, or tou, _thy_.

  Ia, _he_ or _she_; ana, or ona, _of him_; nana, or nona, _belonging
  to him, his_; mana, or mona, _for him_; tana, or tona, _his_.

§ 10. NOUNS OF LOCALITY, which have the nominal prefix _a_; § 6.

  Ko, _that place_ (at a distance), _yonder_.

  Konei, _this place_ (near the speaker).

  Kona, _that place_ (near the person spoken to).

  Reira, _that place_ (before mentioned).

  Runga, _the top_.

  Raro, _the bottom_.

  Roto, _the inside_.

  Waho, _the outside_.

  Tawahi, _the other side_ (of a river, valley &c.).

  Tua, _the other side_ (of a hill, house &c.).

  Tatahi, _the sea shore_ (as opposed to places inland).

  Tahaki, _the shore_ (as opposed to the water).

  Uta, _the dry land_ (as opposed to the water).

  ---- _inland places_ (opposed to tatahi).

  Mua, _the front_.

  Muri, _the rear_.

  Waenganui, _the midst_.

§ 11. When nouns are IN APPOSITION (i. e. when a second noun is added
to explain the first), repeat the preposition &c. of the first noun
with the second, and place the most general noun first, the most
particular afterwards.


  Ko toku hoa ko Hemi, _it is my friend Hemi_.

  He kai ma tona tupuna ma Paora, _food for his grandfather Paora_.

In these examples, "toku hoa", and "tona tupuna", are more general
terms than "Hemi" and "Paora", and they therefore stand first; and
"ko" and "ma" are repeated with the particular names "Hemi" and

§ 12. COMMON NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. All common nouns may be used as


  He whare papa, _a boarded house_.

  He kakahu rinena, _a linen garment_.

§ 13. When speaking of a number of persons COLLECTIVELY, use the dual
or plural pronouns followed by the name, or names, of the additional
persons, introducing each name with _ko_.


  Maua ko Hemi, _Hemi and I_.

  Koutou ko Hemi, ko Hohepa, _You and Hemi and Hohepa_.

  A Hemi raua ko Hoani, _Hemi and Hoani_.

  Ki a Hoani ratou ko Hemi ma, _to Hoani, Hemi_ &c.


§ 14. DEFINITIVES are those words which shew how far, or in what
way the signification of a noun is limited. The name therefore will
comprehend what are commonly known as articles, possessive pronouns,
possessive cases of nouns, and demonstrative pronouns. All these,
with one exception, have two numbers, singular and plural; and all
stand _before_ the nouns with which they are connected.


  SINGULAR.                          PLURAL.

  He, _a_, or _an_.                  He ----
  Te, _the_.                         Nga, _the_.
  Tetahi, _a_, _one_, _some_.        Etahi, _some_.
  Tenei, _this_.                     Enei, _these_.
  Tena, _that_ (near the person      Ena, _those_ (near the person
    spoken to).                        spoken to).
  Tera, _that_ (at a distance).      Era, _those_ (at a distance).
  Taua, _that_ (before mentioned).   Aua, _those_ (before mentioned).
  Ia, _that_.                        (No plural.)
  Tehea? _which?_                    Ehea? _which?_
  Taku, _my_.                        Aku, _my_.
  Toku, _my_.                        Oku, _my_.
  Tau, _thy_.                        Au, _thy_.
  Tou, _thy_.                        Ou, _thy_.
  To, _thy_.                         O, _thy_.
  Tana, _his_, or _her_.             Ana, _his_, or _her_.
  Tona, _his_, or _her_.             Ona, _his_, or _her_.
  Ta taua, _our_.                    A taua, _our_.
  To taua, _our_.                    O taua, _our_.
  Ta tatou, _our_.                   A tatou, _our_.
  To tatou, _our_.                   O tatou, _our_.

And so on with all the other personal pronouns, with names of
persons, or places, with nouns of locality (§ 10), and with all
common nouns when they follow any definitive except _he_, by
prefixing _ta_, or _to_, for the singular, and _a_, or _o_, for the


  Toku whare, _my house_.

  Enei hoiho, _these horses_.

  He whare, _a house_, or _houses_.

  Ta Hemi pukapuka, _Hemi's book_.

  To tenei tangata kaainga, _this man's dwellingplace_.

§ 16. PECULIARITIES OF _he_ AND _te_. (_a_) Never use _he_ after a
preposition, but substitute _tetahi_, thus:

  He tangata, _a man_.

  Ki tetahi tangata, _to a man_.

(_b_) When a common noun is used to denote a class, as the simple
plural is often used in English, use _te_ in the _singular_, and not
_he_, thus:

  He kararehe kaha te hoiho, _the horse is a strong beast_.

  Te hoiho, _the horse_; i. e. _horses_ in general.

§ 17. POSSESSIVE PREPOSITIONS following Definitives. (_a_) When a
possessive follows _he_, always use either of the prepositions _na_,
or _no_, never _a_, or _o_.


  He pukapuka naku, _a book of mine_, or _belonging to me_.

  He whare no tenei tangata, _a house belonging to this man_, or _of
  this man's_.

(_b_) When a possessive follows any other definitive, except _he_,
always use either of the prepositions _a_, or _o_, _never_ na, _or_


  Te pukapuka a Pita, _Pita's book_.

  Tenei taha oku, _this side of me_.

  Taua whara o Hemi, _that house of Hemi's_.

§ 18. Of the DEMONSTRATIVES, _tena_ denotes that the thing spoken of
is near, or in some way connected with the person spoken to; _tera_,
that it is at a distance from or unconnected with either the speaker
or the person spoken to; _taua_, that it has been already mentioned.
_Ia_ is generally used distributively for _each_, both it and the
noun being repeated. _Tenei_, _tena_, and _tera_ may also be used in
the same way.


  Ia tangata ia tangata, _each man_.

  Tenei rōpū tenei rōpū o ratou, _each company of them_.

_Tera_ is often used in an emphatic way for the personal pronoun of
the third person singular.

_Tenei_, _tena_, and _tera_ often stand alone, the noun being
understood, but _taua_ is never used in this way.


  Naku tenei, nau tena, _this is mine, that is yours_.

  Ne rangatira taua tangata, _that man is a chief_.

§ 19. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN _a_ AND _o_, which applies also to _na_,
_no_, _ma_, _mo_, _ta_, _to_, is this; _a_ is active, and _o_ is
passive, that is to say, _a_ is used with reference to the agent, _o_
with reference to the person or thing acted upon, thus:

  Taku patunga i a koe, _my striking you_.

  Toku patunga e koe, _my being struck by you_.

They are also strictly correlatives, _a_ having reference to the
superior, and _o_ to the inferior, thus:

  Toku pāpā, _my father_.

  Tana tamaiti, _his child_.

  Tona rangatira, _his master_.

  He pononga nana, _a servant of his_.

Always use _o_ in speaking of members of the body, clothes, houses,
names, medicine, water for drinking, washing &c., but _a_ in speaking
of work, food &c.


  Tona kakahu, _his garment_.

  Ou waewae, _your feet_.

  He kai mau, _food for you_.

  Tetahi wai moku, _some water for me_.

  Tou ingoa, _your name_.

  Taku ingoa mou, _my name for you_ (i. e. _which I have given you_).

OBS. To, _thy_, plural o, resembles _tau_ rather than _tou_ in
the way in which it is used, though it often appears to be used
indiscriminately for either.


§ 20. GENDER, NUMBER &c. Adjectives have no distinctions of gender,
number, or case, and always stand after the nouns which they qualify.


  He whare pai, _a good house_.

  Tana hoiho nui, _his large horse_.

NOTE. There are some adjectives which in strict usage are only
plural, and they always have the first syllable repeated.


  He rakau ririki, _small trees_.

  Nga tangata roroa, _the tall men_.

§ 21. DEGREES OF COMPARISON are expressed by the adverbs _atu_, or
_ake_ for the comparative degree, and _tino_, or _rawa_, with the
definite article _te_ for the superlative degree. _Tino_ or _rawa_,
with the indefinite article _he_ form an intense comparative.

OBS. _Tino_ always stands _before_ the adjective and _rawa_ after it.


  He mea pai atu i tena, _a better thing than that_.

  Te mea pai rawa, _the best thing_.

  He mea tino pai, _a very good thing_.

  Te mea tino pai rawa, _the very best thing_.

  He mea pai rawa i tena, _a far better thing than that_.

§ 22. When two or more adjectives are used to qualify the same noun,
repeat the noun with each, or substitute mea for the noun after the
first time.


  He whare kowhatu, he whare pai, _a good stone house_.

  He pukapuka nui, he mea taimaha, _a large heavy book_.




Hia? _how many?_

     1 Tahi, or Kotahi.
     2 Rua.
     3 Toru.
     4 Wha.
     5 Rima.
     6 Ono.
     7 Whitu.
     8 Waru.
     9 Iwa.
    10 Tekau, or Ngahuru.
    11 Tekau ma tahi.
    12 Tekau ma rua.
    13 Tekau ma toru.
    14 Tekau ma wha.
    20 Rua tekau.
    21 Rua tekau ma tahi.
    30 Toru tekau.
    40 Wha tekau.
   100 Kotahi rau.
   101 Kotahi rau ma tahi.
   123 Kotahi rau e rua tekau ma toru.
  1000 Kotahi mano.
  2001 E rua mano ma tahi.
  2384 E rua mano e toru rau e waru tekau ma wha.

§ 24. In COUNTING use _ka_ before the numeral, thus:

  Ka hia? _how many? [does that make?]_

  Ka tahi, _one_; ka rua, _two_; ka toru, _three_ &c.; ka tekau,
  _ten_; ka tekau ma tahi, _eleven_; ka rua tekau, _twenty_; ka
  kotahi rau ka rua tekau ma rima, _one hundred and twenty five_.

In asking for any number of things use _kia_ in the same way before
the numeral, thus:

  Mauria mai etahi toki kia rua, _bring two axes_.

  Kia hia? how many? Kia rua, _two_.

§ 25. WITH NOUNS. When used in immediate connexion with nouns, let
_kotahi_ stand for _one_, not _tahi_, and put _e_ before the others,
from two to nine.


  He tangata kotahi, _one man_.

  Nga tangata e toru, _the three men_.

  He pukapuka kotahi tekau ma rua, _twelve books_.

  Nga whare e wha tekau, _the forty houses_.

In speaking of _persons_, the numerals form _rua_ to _iwa_ inclusive,
and the interrogative _hia_, may have _toko-_ prefixed instead of


  Tokohia? _how many?_

  Nga tangata tokoiwa, _the nine men_.

§ 26. DISTRIBUTIVE. In using the numerals distributively prefix
_taki-_ to the simple numeral, thus:

  Takirua, _by twos_, _two and two_.

  Takitahi, _singly_, or _by ones_.


§ 27 Ordinals used ABSOLUTELY, i. e. not in immediate connexion with
nouns, are expressed by the simple numeral with _te_, thus:

  Te tahi, _the first_.

  Te rua, _the second_.

  Te hia? _Which in order?_

§ 28. AS ADJECTIVES. When using ordinals as adjectives in immediate
connexion with nouns prefix _tua-_ to the simple numeral from one to
nine, thus:

  Te tangata tuatahi, _the first man_.

Above nine, without _tua-_, thus:

  Te tekau o nga hoiho, _the tenth of the horses_, or _the tenth

  Te rua tekau ma toru o nga whare, _the twenty third of the houses_,
  or _the twenty third house_.


§ 29. SUBJECT AND PRÆDICATE. The Subject in a sentence is that of
which anything is said.

The Prædicate is that which is said of the Subject.


  John is a boy. John runs. In both these "John" is the Subject: "a
  boy", and "runs" are Prædicates.

The Subject and Prædicate do not always occupy the same relative
positions in English, for though the Subject is generally placed
first, it is sometimes placed last, especially in poetry. It will be
sufficiently accurate for the purposes of this chapter to consider
the Prædicate identical with the most emphatic member of the

§ 30. SUBSTANTIVE VERB. In English, when the prædicate is not a verb,
the verb "to be", commonly called the substantive verb, is used to
connect the prædicate with its subject. This verb has no equivalent
in Maori, but its place is supplied by the relative position of the
different words in the sentence.

§ 31. IN AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES, the prædicate stands first, and the
subject after it; and two nouns, or an adjective and noun, placed in
these relative positions form a sentence although without a verb.
In negative sentences, this relative position is apparently (§ 34)

Sentences of this kind are made either with, or without the particle

§ 32. USE "_ko_", when the prædicate is either

  1. A proper name, or personal pronoun, a noun of locality (§ 10),
  or either of the interrogatives _wai_, or _hea_.

  2. A common noun with any of the definitives except _he_.


  Ko ia tenei, _this is he_.

  Ko Hemi tona ingoa, _his name is Hemi_.

  Ko toku whare tera, _that is my house_.

§ 33. WITHOUT "_ko_". Make a sentence without _ko_ when the prædicate
is either

  1. A common noun, an adjective, or a verb with the article _he_.

  2. A noun or pronoun, verb, or adjective following a preposition.

In both these cases, the verb or adjective is treated as a noun.


  He hanga whare tana mahi, _his work is to build houses_.

  I te mahi a Wiremu, _Wiremu was at work_.

  Kei hea he whare mo taua? _Where is there a house for us_?

  Noku te potae mangu, _the black hat is mine_.

§ 34. PRÆDICATE OF MANY WORDS. When the prædicate consists of many
words, the most emphatic word generally stands alone in the place
of the prædicate, the rest being placed after the subject. This is
the case when the prædicate contains an explanatory or a relative
clause; or a clause in any other way dependent on the principal word.
This also accounts for the _apparent_ reversing of the positions of
subject and prædicate in negative sentences, the negation being the
most prominent thing in such sentences.


  He tangata tenei no Akarana, _this is a man from Auckland_.

  Ko te tangata tera e mohio ana ki te whakairo rakau, _that is the
  man who understands carving wood_.

§ 35. NEGATIVES. The negatives of sentences with _ko_ are always made
with _ehara ... i_, _ko_ being dropped.


  Ehara tenei i a ia, _this is not he_.

  Ehara tona ingoa i a Hemi, _his name is not Hemi_. (See above, § 34.)

The negatives of sentences without _ko_ are made sometimes with
_ehara ... i_ and sometimes with _kahore_. Those of class 1, in § 33
are always with _ehara ... i_.


  Ehara tenei i te whare, _this is not a house_. See § 16 (_b_).

  Ehara tana i te pukapuka pai, _his is not a good book_.

Of those in class 2, § 33, when the preposition is _na_, or _no_, the
negative is made with _ehara ... i_, and the preposition dropped.


  Ehara i a ia te potae mangu, _the black hat is not his_.

When the preposition is _ma_ or _mo_ signifying _for_, use _ehara i
te mea_, retaining the preposition.

  Ehara i te mea mau te pukapuka, _the book is not for you_.

When the preposition is _hei_ signifying _at_, or _in possession of_,
use _kauaka_.


  Kauaka hei kona te pukapuka, _let not the book be there_.

  Kauaka hei a Hemi taku pu, _let not my gun be in the possession of

When the preposition is _kei_, or _i_ signifying _at_, or _in
possession of_, use _kahore_ for the negative, with the preposition
_i_ only and never _kei_.


  Kei hea te hoiho? Kahore i konei. _Where is the horse? It is not

  Kahore i a ia to pukapuka, _your book is not in his possession_.

§ 36. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES do not differ in form from those which
are not interrogative. Those which are not essentially such from the
meaning of the words, are shewn to be so by the tone with which they
are uttered. Those which are essentially interrogative are those
which contain an interrogative pronoun or adverb.


  He hoiho tau? _Have you a horse?_

  Nou tena potae? _Is that hat yours?_

  Na wai tenei mara? _Whose is this cultivation?_

  He kai ranei kei roto i te whare? _Is there any food in the house?_

  Kahore o pukapuka maku? _Have you no book for me?_

§ 37. The TIME of these "sentences without verbs" may, as far as
the form of the sentence is concerned, be either past, present, or
future. When it is not shewn by the essential meaning of any of the
words it must be gathered from the context. If no clue to the time is
given, what is said will be understood in _present_ time.


  Kahore aku pukapuka inanahi, _I had no book yesterday_.

  E hia nga hoiho mana? _How many horses are there for him?_


§ 38. VOICE AND TENSE. The only inflexion of the original form of the
verb is in the formation of the Passive Voice, and consists in the
addition of a Passive termination to the Active form.

Differences of Tense are denoted by certain auxiliary particles, the
same form in each case serving for all persons and numbers. Some of
these particles vary, or are differently used in negative sentences,
and some of the tenses have their own peculiar negative adverb, and
admit of no other, as will be seen in the following example.




  E pupuri ana ahau, _I hold_, or _am holding_.

  Kahore ahau e pupuri ana, _I am not holding_.


  Kua pupuri ahau, _I have held_.

  Kahore ahau kia pupuri, _I have not held_.

  3. PAST.

  I pupuri ahau, _I held_.

  Kihai ahau i pupuri, _I did not hold_.

  4. FUTURE.

  E pupuri ahau, _I shall hold_.

  E kore ahau e pupuri, _I shall not hold_.

  Tera ahau e pupuri, _I shall hold_.

  Tera ahau e kore e pupuri, _I shall not hold_.


  Ka pupuri ahau, _I became (or shall become) holding_.

  Ka kore ahau e pupuri, _I became (or shall become) not holding_.

§ 40. REMARKS ON TENSES. The Present and Perfect may be also used
either in Past time, or in Future time, when they respectively become
either (_a_) Past Imperfect, and (_b_) Past Perfect, or (_c_) Future
Imperfect, and (_d_) Future Perfect.

In the Future the addition of _tera_ gives emphasis.

The Transitional denotes a transition or change from one state or
action to another; or the commencement of a new action or condition,
and may be either (_e_) Past or (_f_) Future: the actual time to be
determined by the context.


  (_a_) Te taenga mai o Rewi e kokoti witi ana ahau, _when Rewi
  arrived I was cutting wheat_.

  (_b_) Te taenga mai o Rewi, kahore ano ahau kia hopu i te hoiho,
  _when Rewi arrived I had not yet caught the horse_.

  (_c_) Kia tae mai a Hori apopo e hopu ana ahau i te hoiho, _when
  Hori arrives to-morrow I shall be catching the horse_.

  (_d_) Kia hoki mai koutou i Waiapu kua hauhakea aku kumara, _when
  you return from Waiapu my kumara will have been dug up_.

  (_e_) No to karangatanga i a Hemi ka haere atu ia ki a koe, _when
  you called Hemi he went to you_.

  (_f_) Kia hoki mai koe ka hanga ahau i toku whare, _when you return
  I shall build my house_.

In the two last examples, "he went", and, "I shall build", both
denote the commencement of a fresh action.



  Me e pupuri ana ahau, _if I were holding_.

  Me kahore ahau e pupuri ana, _if I were not holding_.

  2. PAST.

  Me i pupuri ahau, _if I had held_.

  Me i kahore ahau i pupuri, _if I had not held_.

  3. FUTURE.

  Ki te pupuri ahau, _if I should hold_.

  Ki te kore ahau e pupuri, _if I should not hold_.

In the Present and Past it is implied that the contrary to the
alternative expressed is the fact. In the Future simple uncertainty
is expressed.


  1. With "kia".

  Kia pupuri ahau, _let me hold_, or, in a dependent sentence, _that
  I may hold_.

  Kaua ahau e pupuri, _let me not hold_.

  Kia kaua ahau e pupuri, _that I may not hold_.

  2. With "kei".

  Kei pupuri ahau, _let me not hold_, or, _lest I should hold_.

  Kei kore ahau e pupuri, _lest I should not hold_. (This negative is
  only used in dependent sentences.)


  Pupuri! or E pupuri! _hold!_

  Kaua e pupuri! _do not hold!_

§ 44. INFINITIVE MOOD. This is merely the verb treated as a noun,
always attended by one or other of the definitives.


  He aha tana? He pupuri i to hoiho. _What is his object? To hold
  your horse._

  Ko te mahi ahau i toku whare, _I am going to work at my house_.

§ 45. PASSIVE VOICE. The passive voice is formed generally by the
addition of one of the following terminations to the active: -a, -ia,
-hia, -kia, -mia, -ngia, -ria, -tia, -whia, -na, -ina. No rule can
be laid down which termination is to be used with any given verb:
some form the passive with one only, others again with several; the
passive termination, therefore, of each verb must be learnt with the

Those verbs which have the first syllable doubled in the active
drop the repetition in the passive; thus _pupuri_ becomes (not
_pupuritia_, but) _puritia_.

§ 46. THE TENSES of the different moods in the Passive voice are
formed in the same way as in the Active, the passive form of the verb
being merely substituted for the active,--_puritia_ for _pupuri_.

The Imperative Passive is not, like the Imperative Active, confined
to the second person, but is more commonly used in the first or third
person, the command at the same time being addressed to the second


  Puritia tenei pukapuka! _be this book held [by thee!]_ i. e. _hold
  this book!_

§ 47. USES OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE. The Passive Voice is generally used
when the _action_ is emphatic rather than the _agent_, and therefore
is much more frequently required than the Active Voice in strictly
active verbs. But when an active verb follows a neuter verb and is
in apposition with it, it will retain the active construction of the
neuter verb.


  I mauria e ia te pukapuka, _the letter was taken by him_, i. e. _he
  took the letter_.

  Ka haere ahau ka mau i taku pukapuka, _I will go and take my

§ 48. TRANSITIVE PREPOSITIONS &c. Every active verb is connected with
its _object_, or the thing acted upon, by either of the prepositions
_i_, or _ki_; some verbs requiring one, some the other, and some
again taking either. These prepositions in some cases may be
translated by an English preposition; but in most cases they merely
represent the connexion between the verb and its object, and may
therefore be called transitive prepositions.

Every passive verb is connected with the _agent_ by the preposition
"_e_", which is rendered "_by_" in English.


  Whakarongo ki nga kupu a Rewa, _listen to the words of Rewa_.

  E matau ana ahau ki taua tangata, _I know that man_.

  Kei te tiki ia i tana hoiho, _he is fetching his horse_.

  I mahia e wai? _by whom was it done?_

§ 49. AGENT EMPHATIC. When special emphasis is to be laid on the
_agent_ an irregular construction is used, the preposition _na_ being
placed before the subject in the past tense, and _ma_ in the future.
In sentences of this kind the subject, being the most emphatic member
of the sentence, stands first, and the object either before or after
the verb, but without any transitive preposition. This construction
is not properly used with neuter verbs.


  Naku i pupuri tena tangata, _I detained that man_, i. e. _it was I
  who detained him_.

  Ma Hone e hanga he whare mou, _Hone shall build a house for you_.

§ 50. IMPERATIVE FUTURE. Another irregular construction is that of
the Imperative Future with _me_, in which the verb is active in form
but passive in sense.


  Me kawe e koe taku pukapuka, _you shall carry my letter_ (or, _my
  letter must be carried by you_).

  I mahara ahau me patu tenei manu, _I thought that this bird was to
  be killed_.

This is not used with a negative.

_The verb_ ai, "_there is", "it is_" &c.



  E ai ki tana, or E ai tana, _according to his [saying] it is_ i. e.
  _he says_.

  E ai ta wai? _who says so?_


  Ka ai he toki mana, _there is an axe for him_, i. e. _he has an



  Me e ai ana he toki, _if there were an axe_.

  2. FUTURE.

  Ki te ai he toki, _if there should be an axe_.


  1. With "kia".

  Kia ai he toki, _let there be an axe_, i. e. _when_, or, _as soon
  as there is an axe_.

  2. With "kei".

  Kei ai he toki, _lest there should be an axe_.


with the verb substantive.

§ 54. The place of the SUBSTANTIVE VERB in connexion with Adjectives
and Participles, is supplied by the verbal particles, the adjective
or participle being treated as though it were a verb. It will be seen
by the following example of the adjective ora, _well_, _in health_,
that the notion of _becoming_, which is peculiarly the characteristic
of the transitional, runs more or less through almost all the tenses.

The present tense with e--ana is not required with participles.

[A] By participles here are meant, not participles derived
from verbs, as in the European languages, but a class of words
of independent origin which can only be rendered into English by
participles. Such are oti, _completed_; makona, _satisfied_; pau,
_consumed_; &c.



  E ora ana ahau, _I am well_.

  Kahore ahau e ora ana, _I am not well_.


  Kua ora ahau, _I have become well_.

  Kahore ahau kia ora, _I have not become well_.

  3. PAST.

  I ora ahau, _I was well_, or _became well_.

  Kihai ahau i ora, _I was not well_.

  4. FUTURE.

  E ora ahau, _I shall be_ (or _become_) _well_.

  E kore ahau e ora, _I shall not be_ (or _become_) _well_.


  Ka ora ahau, _I become well_.

  Ka kore ahau e ora, _I become not well_.



  Me e ora ana ahau, _if I were well_.

  Me kahore ahau e ora ana, _if I were not well_.

  2. PAST.

  Me i ora ahau, _if I had been well_.

  Me i kahore ahau i ora, _if I had not been well_.

  3. FUTURE.

  Ki te ora ahau, _if I should be_ (or _become_) _well_.

  Ki te kore ahau e ora, _if I should not be_ (or _become_) _well_.


  1. With "kia".

  Kia ora ahau, _that I should be_ (or _become_) _well_.

  Kia kaua ahau e ora, _that I should not be_ (or _become_) _well_.

  2. With "kei".

  Kei ora ahau, _lest I should be_ (or _become_) _well_.

  Kei kore ahau e ora, _lest I should not be_ (or _become_) _well_.

§ 58. The remarks made on the tenses of the verbs in §§ 40, 41 are
applicable also here.

§ 59. PREPOSITION _i_. Adjectives and participles are followed by the
preposition _i_ (not _e_, which belongs only to passive verbs), to
denote the agency or instrumentality by which the effect has been or
is to be produced.


  Kua ora ahau i to rongoa, _I have become well by means of your

  Ka pau tana kai i te kuri, _his food is consumed by the dog_.

§ 60. EXPLANATORY VERB. Sometimes a verb in the infinitive mood is
added to a participle by way of explanation, and in that case the
preposition will be different according as the agent is placed after
the participle, or after the verb. If after the participle, it will
be _i_: if after the verb, it will be _e_.


  Ka pau to paraoa i te kuri te kai, or, Ka pau te paraoa te kai e te
  kuri, _the bread is eaten up by the dog (is consumed by eating)_.


§ 61. There are NO RELATIVE PRONOUNS in Maori. Their place is
supplied either by the position of the words forming the relative
clause; or by the personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular; or
again, by the use of certain particles.

§ 62. WHO. When the relative in English is the subject of a verb in
the relative clause:

(_a_) That verb may be placed immediately after the antecedent
portion of the sentence without any expressed subject.


  Te tangata e hanga whare ana, _the man who is house-building_.

  Te hoiho i kitea e taua, _the horse which was seen by you and me_.

(_b_) If the relative clause is past or future, the construction
mentioned in § 49 may be used; the pronoun of the third person
singular serving _for all persons and numbers_.


  Ko Hemi te tangata nana i patu taku witi, _the man who threshed my
  wheat was Hemi_.

  Ko nga tangata enei nana i tahu te ngahere, _these are the men who
  set the forest on fire_.

§ 63. WHOM, OR WHICH. When the relative in English is objective,
and is governed by a verb or by one of these prepositions: _by_,
_by-means-of_, _on-account-of_, _by-reason-of_; the verb in the
relative clause is followed by _nei_, _na_, _ra_, or _ai_, without
a preposition; and in the present tense _ana_ after the verb is
omitted. For the force of _nei_, _na_, and _ra_, see § 18. Use
_ai_ only with the past and future. The subject of the verb in the
relative clause may either be expressed directly, or it may be
implied in a possessive definitive placed before the antecedent.


  Te whare e hanga nei koe, _the house which you are building_.

  Tau pukapuka e korero na, _that book which you are reading_.

  Te mea e raru ai ahau, _the thing by means of which I shall be

  Tau tangata i karanga ai, _the man whom you called_.

§ 64. INVERTED CONSTRUCTION. In those cases in which the relative is
governed by the verb in the relative clause the construction may be
inverted, by making the verb passive (§ 47), with the relative as its


  Te whare e hangaa nei e koe, _the house which is being built by

  Te pukapuka e korerotia na e koe, _the book which is being read by

§ 65. WHOSE, FOR WHOM &c. When the relative in English is possessive,
or governed by any other preposition than those enumerated in § 63,
use the personal pronoun of the third person singular _for all
persons and numbers_ with the requisite preposition.


  Te iwi nona te whenua, _the people whose the land is_.

  Te tangata i hoatu nei e ahau ki a ia te pukapuka, _the man to whom
  I gave the book_.

§ 66. WHOSOEVER. There is no equivalent in Maori for the word
whosoever: it must therefore always be resolved into "the man who",
"the persons who", "if any man" &c., but not into "he who", or "those


  Te tangata he pukapuka tana, _whoever has a book_ (_the man who_

  Nga tangata e matau ana ki te korero pukapuka, _whosoever knows how
  to read_ (_the men who_ &c.).


§ 67. POSITION. The following adverbs, tino, _very_; maatua, _first_;
and ata, _gently_, _quite_, always stand before the words which they
qualify; other adverbs after the qualified words.


  He tangata tino pai, _a very good man_.

  Kia maatua rapua te toki, _first let the axe be looked for_.

  He kino rawa tena, _that is very bad_.

§ 68. ADDED TERMINATIONS. Other adverbs, which have reference to the
_manner_, _intensity_ &c. of an action when they qualify, have the
passive termination -tia added to them when used with passive verbs,
and the termination -tanga when used with verbal nouns.


  I kainga otatia nga kumara, _the kumara were eaten raw_.

  Mo tana patunga pukutanga i a au, _on account of his secretly
  striking me_.



  A,   _of_, _belonging to_. (See § 19.)
       _at_, of future time: a hea? _at what time?_

  O,   _of_, _belonging to_, passive of a (§ 19).

  Na,  _of_, _belonging to_. (§§ 16, 19.)
       _by_, _by means of_, _on account of_.

  No,  _of_, _belonging to_ (§§ 16, 19), passive of na.
       _from_, of place, but not after verbs of motion.
       _from_, _at_, of time past.

  Ma,  _for_. (§ 19.)
       _by_, of means.
       _by_, _through_, of direction.

  Mo,  _for_, passive of ma.
       _at_, _on_, of time future.

  E,   _by_, of agent, only after passive verbs. (§ 48.)

  I,   _by_, of agent or instrument, after participles, adjectives, and
             neuter verbs. (§ 59.)
       _by reason of._
       _from_, after verbs of motion.
       _with_, == _in possession of_, or _having in possession_.
       _at_, of time, generally past.
       _at_, of place, generally in time past.
       _in state of_, _in act of_, in time past, govern adjectives or
       simply transitive, no English equivalent. (§ 48.)

  Kei, _at_, of place, in time present.
       _with_ == _in possession of_, in time present.
       _in state of_, _in act of_, with adjectives or verbs in time

  Hei, _at_, of place, or time, future.
       _with_ == _in possession of_, in time future.
       _for_ == _to serve as_, without any definitive.

  Ki,  _to_, of place or action.
       _at_, or _in_, of place in which a thing is done &c.
       _with_, of instrument.
       _according to_, _concerning_.
       after verbs without any English equivalent. (§ 48.)

  Me,  _with_, _in addition_, _and--too_.

  Ko,  _to_, _going to_, with nouns of place and infinitives of active

§ 70. COMPLEX PREPOSITIONS. These are irregular modes of using some
of the nouns of locality enumerated in § 10.


  Ki runga ki,   }
  I runga i,     } _upon_, _on the top of_.
  Kei runga kei, }
  Hei runga hei, }
  No runga no, _from upon_, i. e. _belonging to the top of_.
  I runga i, _from upon_, with special idea of motion from.
  Mo runga mo, _for the top of_.
  Ma runga ma, _over_, _by the top of_ (direction).
  Ko runga ko, _to the top of_.


  Ki runga i,  }
  I runga i,   } _above_, _over_.
  Kei runga i, }
  Hei runga i, }
  No runga i, _from above_, i. e. belonging to that situation.
  I runga i, _from above_, implying motion from.
  Mo runga i, _for above_, i. e. to be above.
  Ma runga i, _by above_, _over_, (of direction).
  Ko runga i, _to above_, _over_.

In the second of these series _o_ may be substituted for _i_, in
which case the construction will be regular.

The simple prepositions may be combined in the same way with _raro_,
to signify _under_, _beneath_ &c.; with _roto_, to signify _in_,
_into_, _inside_ &c.; with _waho_, to signify _without_, _outside_,
_from without_ &c.

_Mua_ and _Muri_ are only used in series 2.


§ 71. THE VERB "TO HAVE" having no equivalent in Maori, its place is
supplied by the following expedients.

1. By the use of the possessive definitives (§ 15) the time (present
or past) being gathered from the context.


  He hoiho tana, _he has a horse_, or, _he had a horse_.

  Kahore ana hoiho, _he had no horse_.

2. By the use of the prepositions _kei_, _i_, _hei_, respectively for
present, past and future.


  Kei a au to pukapuka, _I have your book_.

  Kahore i a au to pukapuka, _I have not your book_.

3. By using the verb _ai_ (§ 51) followed by the preposition ma or mo.


  Ka ai he toki mana, _he has an axe_.

  Me e ai ana he hoiho mau, _if you had a horse_.

4. By using the adjective _whai_, which signifies _possessing_, the
thing possessed being used as another adjective qualifying _whai_.

  Kua whai pukapuka koe? _have you a book?_ (literally, have you
  become book-possessing?)



In pronunciation, unless a word is otherwise marked, always
accentuate the first syllable.

  A, _def._, he;
    _pl._ he.

  Able, to be, _v._, ahei.

  Abode, _s._, kaainga.

  Above, _prep._, ki runga i;
    kei runga i;
    i runga i;
    hei runga i. (See § 70.)

  Absent, _adj._, ngaro.

  Abundant, _adj._, nui;

  Across, _prep._, ki tawahi o.

  Add together, _v._, huihui;
    _pass._ huihuia.

  Adult, _s._, kaumaatua.

  After, _prep._, ki muri i;
    kei muri i;
    i muri i;
    hei muri i. (See § 70.)

  Afterwards, _adv._, muri iho.

  Again, _adv._, ano.

  All, _adj._, katoa.

  Allow, _v._, tuku;
    _pass._ tukua.

  Ancle, _s._, pona.

  Angry, _adj._, riri.

  Answer, _v._, whakahoki kupu (_followed by prep._ ki).

  Any, _def._, tetahi;
    _pl._ etahi.

  Arise, _v. n._, ara.

  Arm, _s._, taakakau;

  Army, _s._, taua.

  Arouse, _v._, whakaára;
    _pass._ whakaárahia.

  Arrive, _v. n._, tae;
    _pass._ taea, _be arrived at._

  Ashes, _s._, pungarehu.

  Ask, _v._ (put a question), ui;
    _pass._ uia (_followed by prep._ ki).

  Ask for, _v._, tono;
    _pass._ tonoa.

  Assemble, _v. a._, whakamíne;
    _pass._ whakamínea.

  Assemble, _v. n._, huihui.

  Attack, _v._, whakaeke;
    _pass._ whakaekea.

  Axe, _s._, toki.

  Back, _s._, tuara.

  Bad, _adj._, kino.

  Bag, _s._, peeke.

  Bald, _adj._, pakira.

  Bank of a river, _s._, tahataha.

  Barter, _v._, hoko;
    _pass._ hokoa.

  Bathe, _v. n._, kaukau.

  Battle, _s._, pakanga.

  Bay, _s._, kokoru.

  Beak, _s._, ngutu.

  Beard, _s._, pahau.

  Beast, _s._, kararehe.

  Beautiful, _adj._, ataáhua.

  Because, _conj._, no te mea.

  Bed, _s._, moenga.

  Before, _prep._, ki mua i;
    kei mua i;
    i mua i;
    hei mua i. (See § 70.)

  Beg, _v._, inoi;
    _pass._ inoia.

  Begin, _v._, timata;
    _pass._ timataia.

  Behind, _prep._, ki muri i;
    kei muri i;
    i muri i;
    hei muri i. (See § 70.)

  Believe, _v._, whakapóno (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ whakapónohia.

  Belly, _s._, kopu.

  Below, _prep._, ki raro i;
    kei raro i;
    i raro i;
    hei raro i. (See § 70.)

  Bent, _adj._, piko.

  Bird, _s._, manu.

  Birth, _s._, whanautanga.

  Bite, _v._, ngau;
    _pass._ ngaua.

  Bitter, _adj._, kawa.

  Black, _adj._, mangu.

  Blind, _adj._, matapo.

  Blood, _s._, toto.

  Blunt, _adj._, puhuki.

  Board, _s._, papa.

  Body, _s._, tinana.

  Boil, _v. n._, koropupuu;
    _v. a._, kohua;
    _pass._ kohuatia.

  Bone, _s._, wheua.

  Book, _s._, pukapuka.

  Bottom, the, _s._, raro. (See § 10.)

  Box, _s._, pouaka.

  Boy, _s._, tamaiti tane;
    _pl._ tamariki tane.

  Brain, _s._, roro.

  Branch, _s._, manga.

  Break, _v._ (a stick &c.), whawháti;
    _pass._ whatiia;
    (a cord &c.), momótu;
    _pass._ motuhia.

  Breast, _s._, uma.

  Breathe, _v. n._, ta te manawa. (Ex. ka ta toku manawa, _I breathe_.)

  Bring, _v._, mau mai;
    _pass._ mauria mai.

  Broad, _adj._, whanui.

  Broken, _adj._, whati;
    motu. (See Break.)

  Brook, _s._, manga.

  Brown, _adj._, pakaakaa.

  Build, _v._, hanga;
    _pass._ hangaa.

  Bury, _v._, tanu;
    _pass._ tanumia.

  But, _conj._, otira.

  Buy, _v._, hoko;
    _pass._ hokoa.

  By, _prep._,
    1. _of agent, after passive verbs_, e;
    2. _of agent or instrument, after neuter verbs, adjectives &c._, i;
    3. _of direction_, ma.

  Call, _v._, karanga;
    _pass._ karangatia.

  Calm, _adj._, marino.

  Can, _v. n._, ahei (not followed by a preposition).

  Canoe, _s._, waka.

  Carry, _v._, kawe;
    _pass._ kawea.
  ---- _on the shoulders_, pikau;
    _pass._ pikaua.

  Catch, _v._, hopu;
    _pass._ hopukia.

  Cause, _s._, take.

  Cautious, _adj._, tupato.

  Chain, _s._, mekameka.

  Charcoal, _s._, waro.

  Cheek, _s._, paapaaringa.

  Chest, the, _s._, poho.

  Chief, _s._, rangatira.

  Child, _s._, tamaiti;
    _pl._ tamariki.

  Chin, _s._, kauwae.

  Choose, _v._, whiriwhiri;
    _pass._ whiriwhiria.

  Claw, _s._, matikuku.

  Clean, _adj._, ma.

  Climb, _v. n._, piki;
    _pass._ pikitia, _be climbed up or over_.

  Clod, _s._, pai oneone.

  Clothes, _s._, kakahu.

  Cloud, _s._, kapua.

  Coast, _s._, tahatai.

  Cold, _s._, huka.

  Cold, _adj._, matao.

  Come, _v. n._, haere mai.

  Command, _v._, whakaháu;
    _pass._ whakaháua.

  Companion, _s._, hoa.

  Consent, _v._, whakaáe (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ whakaáetia, _be agreed to_.

  Consumed, _part._, pau.

  Cooked, _adj._, maoa.

  Cool, _adj._, matao.

  Corpse, _s._, tupapaku.

  Courtyard, _s._, marae.

  Cover, _s._ (lid &c.), taupoki;
    (cloth &c.) hipoki.

  Cover, _v._, taupoki;
    _pass._ taupokina;
    _pass._ hipokina.

  Cry, _v._, tangi (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ tangihia, _be cried for_.

  Cure, _v._, whakaóra;
    _pass._ whakaórangia.

  Current, _s._, au.

  Cut, _v._, tapahi;
    _pass._ tapahia.

  Dark, _adj._, pouri.

  Daughter, _s._, tamahine.

  Dawn, _s._, puaotanga.

  Day, _s._, ra.

  Daylight, _s._, awatea.

  Dead, _adj._, mate.

  Deaf, _adj._, turi.

  Deceive, _v._, maminga;
    _pass._ mamingatia.

  Deep, _adj._, hohonu.

  Dig, _v._, keri;
    _pass._ keria.

  Dirty, _adj._, poke.

  Distant, _adj._, tawhiti.

  Dive for, _v._, ruku;
    _pass._ rukuhia.

  Dog, _s._, kuri.

  Door, _s._, tatau.

  Doorway, _s._, kuwaha.

  Down, ad_v._, iho.

  Drag, _v._, to;
    _pass._ toia.

  Dream, _s._, moemoeaa.

  Drink, _v._, inu;
    _pass._ inumia.

  Drive, _v._, a;
    _pass._ aia.

  Drop, _s._, pata.

  Drop, _v. n._ (as water), maturuturu;
    (as anything solid), marere.

  Duck, _s._, paarera.

  Dust, _s._, puehu.

  Dwell, _v. n._, noho;
    _pass._ nohoia, be dwelt in.

  Ear, _s._, taringa.

  Earth, _s._, oneone.

  Eat, _v._, kai;
    _pass._ kainga.

  Ebb, _v. n._, timu.

  Elbow, _s._, tuke.

  Embrace, _v._, awhi;
    _pass._ awhitia.

  Empty, _adj._, takoto kau.

  Enemy, _s._, hoariri.

  Enlarge, _v._, whakanúi;
    _pass._ whakanúia.

  Enter, _v._, tomo;
    _pass._ tomokia.

  Equal, _adj._, rite.

  Evening, _s._, ahiahi.

  Eye, _s._, kanohi.

  Eyebrow, _s._, tukemata.

  Face, _s._, mata.

  Faint, _adj._, hemo.

  Fall, _v. n._ (from an upright position), hinga;
    _pass._ hingaia, _be fallen upon_.
  ---- (as water), rere.
  ---- (as a landslip &c.), horo.
  ---- off, taka.

  Farewell! (if the person addressed is going) Haere ra!
    (if remaining) Hei kona!

  Fat, _s._, ngako.

  Fat, _adj._, momona.

  Father, _s._, paapaa.

  Fear, _v._, wehi (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ wehingia.

  Feed, _v._, whangai;
    _pass._ whangaia.

  Female, _adj._, wahine;
    (of animals), uha.

  Fence, _s._, taiepa.

  Fetch, _v._, tiki;
    _pass._ tikina.

  Few, _adj._, torutoru.

  Fight, _v._, whawhai (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ whawhaitia.

  Find, _v._, kite;
    _pass._ kitea.

  Finger, _s._, maikara.

  Finger-nail, _s._, maikuku.

  Fire, _s._, ahi.

  Firm, _adj._, u.

  Fish, _s._, ika.

  Flame, _s._, mura.

  Flat, _adj._, pararahi.

  Flesh, _s._, kiko.

  Float, _v. n._, maanu.

  Flood, _s._, waipuke.

  Flower, _s._, puaawai.

  Fly, _s._, namu.

  Fog, _s._, kohu.

  Follow, _v._, whai;
    _pass._ whaia.

  Foot, _s._, waewae.

  For, _prep._, mo; ma.

  Forehead, _s._, rae.

  Form, _s._, ahua.

  Friend, _s._, hoa.

  Frost, _s._, huka.

  Fuel, _s._, wahie.

  Full, _adj._, ki.

  Gate, _s._, tatau.

  Gateway, _s._, kuwaha.

  Girl, _s._, kotiro.

  Give, _v._, homai; hoatu;
    _pass._ homai; hoatu;
    (mai denoting direction _towards_,
    atu _away from_ the speaker).

  Glad, _adj._, koa.

  Go, _v. n._, haere;
    _pass._ haerea, _be travelled over_.

  God, _s._, atua.

  Gone, _part._, riro.

  Good, _adj._, pai.

  Grandfather, or grandmother, _s._, tupuna;
    _pl._ tuupuna.

  Grey hairs, _s._, hina.

  Ground, _s._, oneone.

  Guide, _s._, kai arahi.

  Gun, _s._, pu.

  Hair, _s._, makawe.

  Hand, _s._, ringaringa.

  Hang, _v. n._, iri.
  ---- _v. a._, whakaíri.

  Hard, _adj._, pakeke.

  Hatchet, _s._, paatiitii.

  Have, _v._ See part I, § 71.

  Head, _s._, upoko.

  Headache, _s._, anini.

  Hear, _v._, rongo;
    _pass._ rangona.

  Heat, _s._, werawera.

  Heaven, _s._, rangi.

  Heavy, _adj._, taimaha.

  Heel, _s._, rekereke.

  Height, _s._, tiketike.

  Hence, _adv._, i konei.

  Henceforth, _adv._, a mua ake nei.

  Herd, _s._, kahui.

  Here, _adv._, ki konei;
    kei konei;
    i konei;
    hei konei.

  Hereafter, _adv._, a muri nei.

  Hide, _v._, huna;
    _pass._ hunaa.

  High, _adj._, tiketike.

  Hill, _s._, puke.

  His, _def._, tana;
    _pl._ ana;
    _pl._ ona.

  Hither, _adv._, ki konei.

  Hold, _v._, pupúri;
    _pass._ puritia.

  Hole, _s._, rua.

  Hollow, _adj._, puare.

  Holy, _adj._, tapu.

  Hook, _s._, matau.

  Hoop, _s._, whiti.

  Hope for, _v._, tumanako (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ tumanakohia.

  Hot, _adj._, wera.

  House, _s._, whare.

  How, _adv._, pehea.

  Hunger, _s._, hemokai.

  Hungry, _adj._, hemokai.

  Husband, _s._, tane.

  I, _pron._, ahau.

  Idle, _adj._, mangere.

  If, _conj._, ki te mea;
    me he mea. (See § 41.)

  Ignorant, _adj._, kuware.

  Impatient, _adj._, whaawhai.

  In, _prep._, ki roto i;
    kei roto i;
    i roto i;
    hei roto i. (See § 70.)

  Ink, _s._, mangumangu.

  Inside, the, _s._, roto. (See § 10.)

  Into, _prep._, ki roto ki.

  Interpret, _v._, whakamáori;
    _pass._ whakamáoritia.

  Interval, _s._, takiwa.

  Iron, _s._, rino.

  Jaw, _s._, kauwae.

  Join, _v._, hono;
    _pass._ honoa.

  Joint, _s._, pona.

  Judge, _s._, kai whakarite whakawa.

  Just, _adj._, tika.

  Keep, v. (retain), pupúri;
    _pass._ puritia;
    (take care of), tiaki;
    _pass._ tiakina.

  Kill, _v._, patu;
    _pass._ patua.

  Kind, _adj._, atawhai.

  Knee, _s._, turi.

  Kneel, _v._, tuturi.

  Knot, _s._, pona.

  Know, _v._, matau (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ matauria.

  Lame, _adj._, kopa.

  Land, _s._, whenua.

  Language, _s._, reo.

  Large, _adj._, nui.

  Last, _adj._, whakamútunga.

  Laugh, _v. n._, kata;
    _pass._ kataina, _be laughed at_.

  Law, _s._, ture.

  Lay., _v._, whakatákoto;
    _pass._ whakatákotoria.

  Leaf, _s._, rau.

  Leap, _v. n._, tupeke.

  Learn, _v._, ako;
    _pass._ akona

  Left, _part._, mahue.

  Left hand, ringa maui.

  Leg, _s._, waewae.

  Length, _s._, roa.

  Letter, _s._, pukapuka.

  Lest, _conj._, kei.

  Lie, _v. n._, takoto.

  Lie, _s._, korero teka.

  Life, _s._, oranga.

  Lift, _v._, hapai;
    _pass._ hapainga.

  Light, _adj._ (not heavy), maamaa.

  Light, _adj._ (not dark), maarama.

  Line, _s._ (cord), aho.

  Lip, _s._, ngutu.

  Listen, _v. n._, whakaróngo (_followed by prep._ ki).

  Little, _adj._, iti;
    _pl._ ririki.

  Long, _adj._, roa.

  Look at, _v._, titiro (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ tirohia.

  Loose, _adj._, korokoro.

  Loosen, _v._, wewéte;
    _pass._ wetekia.

  Love, _s._, aroha.

  Low, _adj._, hakahaka.

  Mad, _adj._, porangi.

  Maize, _s._, kaanga.

  Make, _v._, hanga;
    _pass._ hangaa.

  Male, _adj._ (human), tane;
    (of animals), toa.

  Man, _s._, tangata.

  Manure, _s._, wairakau.

  Many, _adj._, maha.

  Marry, _v._, marena;
    _pass._ marenatia.

  Medicine, _s._, rongoa.

  Meet, _v._, tutaki (_followed by prep._ ki).

  Melt, _v._, whakaréwa;
    _pass._ whakaréwaina.

  Middle, the, _s._, waenganui.

  Midnight, _s._, waenganui po.

  Milk, _s._, waiu.

  Mine, _pron._, naku.

  Mind, _s._, hinengaro.

  Mix, _v._, whakanánu;
    _pass._ whakanánua.

  Month, _s._, marama.

  Moon, _s._, marama.

  Mother, _s._, whaea.

  Move, _v._, neke;
    _pass._ nekehia.

  Mountain, _s._, maunga.

  Mouth, _s._, mangai.

  Murder, _v._, kohuru;
    _pass._ kohurutia.

  My, _pron._, taku;
    _pl._ aku;
    _pl._ oku.

  Name, _s._, ingoa.

  Narrow, _adj._, whaiti.

  Nation, _s._, iwi.

  Near, _adj._, tata.

  Neck, _s._, kakii.

  Nest, _s._, kohanga.

  Net, _s._, kupenga.

  New, _adj._, hou.

  Night, _s._, po.

  No, _adv._, kahore.

  Noise, _s._, turituri.

  Nose, _s._, ihu.

  Now, _adv._, aianei.

  Oar, _s._, hoe.

  Of, _prep._, a; o.

  Oil, _s._, hinu.

  On, _prep._, ki runga i;
    kei runga i;
    i runga i;
    hei runga i. (See § 70.)

  One, _adj._, kotáhi.

  Open, _adj._, puare.

  Open, _v._, whakapúare.

  Orphan, _s._, pani.

  Outside, the, _s._, waho.

  Oyster, _s._, tio.

  Pain, _s._, mamae.

  Palm (of the hand), _s._, kapu.

  Parent, _s._, matua;
    _pl._ maatua.

  Part, _s._, wahi.

  Past, _adj._, pahure.

  Path, _s._, ara.

  Peace, _s._, rongo mau.
    _Make peace_, hohóu rongo;
    _pass._ houhia te rongo.
    _Peace is made_, ka mau te rongo.

  Perhaps, _adv._, pea.

  Pig, _s._, poaka.

  Pigeon, _s._, kukupa.

  Pity, _v._, atawhai;
    _pass._ atawhaitia.

  Plait, _v._, whiri;
    _pass._ whiria.

  Play, _v._, takaro.

  Pleasant, _adj._, ahuareka.

  Pluck up, _v._, huhuti;
    _pass._ hutia.

  Point, _s._, matamata.

  Pool, _s._, roto.

  Poor, _adj._, rawakore.

  Possessing, _adj._, whai, (the thing possessed being treated like
       an adjective qualifying whai;)
    whai pukapuka, _book-possessing_.

  Praise, _v._, whakapái;
    _pass._ whakapáingia.

  Pray, _v._, inoi;
    _pass._ inoia.

  Present, _s._, mea hoatu noa.

  Price, _s._, utu.

  Prick, _v._, wero;
    _pass._ werohia.

  Pull, _v._, kukume;
    _pass._ kumea.

  Push, _v._, pana;
    _pass._ panaa.

  Question, _v._, patai;
    _pass._ pataia.

  Quick, _adj._, tere.

  Quiet, _adj._, ata noho.

  Rain, _s._, ua.

  Rainbow, _s._, uenuku.

  Raise, _v._, hapai;
    _pass._ hapainga.

  Ram, _v._, tuki;
    _pass._ tukia.

  Rat, _s._, kiore.

  Raw, _adj._, kaiota.

  Read, _v._, korero pukapuka;
    _pass._ korerotia.

  Receive, _v._, tango;
    _pass._ tangohia.

  Refuse, _v._, whakakíno;
    _pass._ whakakínongia.

  Reject, _v._, whakarére;
    _pass._ whakarérea.

  Religion, _s._, karakia.

  Remain, _v. n._ (in a place), noho;
    (as a residue), toe.

  Remainder, _s._, toenga.

  Rest, _v._, okioki.

  Return, _v._, hoki.

  Rib, _s._, rara.

  Rich, _adj._, whai-taonga.

  Riches, _s._, taonga.

  Rider, _s._, kai eke hoiho.

  Right, _adj._, tika.

  Right (hand), _adj._, matau.

  Ring, _s._, mowhiti.

  Ripe, _adj._, maoa.

  Rise, _v._, ara.

  River, _s._, awa.

  Road, _s._, huarahi.

  Roast, _v._, tunu;
    _pass._ tunua.

  Rob, _v._, pahua;
    _pass._ pahuatia.

  Rock, _s._, kamaka.

  Roll, _v._, huri;
    _pass._ hurihia.

  Roof, _s._, tuanui.

  Root, _s._, pakiaka.

  Rope, _s._, taura.

  Rotten, _adj._, pirau.

  Rough, _adj._, taratara.

  Round, _adj._, porotaka.

  Row, _v._, hoe;
    _pass._ hoea.

  Row, _s._, rarangi.

  Rub, _v._, muku;
    _pass._ mukua.

  Run, _v._, oma;
    _pass._ omakia, _be run for_.

  Rust, _s._, waikura.

  Sad, _adj._, pouri.

  Sail, _s._, ra.

  Salt, _s._, tote.

  Save, _v._, whakaóra;
    _pass._ whakaórangia.

  Saw, _s._, kani.

  Say, _v._, ki;
    _pass._ kiia.

  Sea, _s._, moana.

  Search for, _v._, rapu;
    _pass._ rapua.

  Seat, _s._, nohoanga.

  Second, _adj._, tuarua.

  Secret, _adj._, ngaro.

  See, _v._, kite;
    _pass._ kitea.

  Seed, _s._, purapura.

  Seize, _v._, hopu;
    _pass._ hopukia.

  Sell, _v._, hoko;
    _pass._ hokoa.

  Send, _v._, tono;
    _pass._ tonoa;
    (_Not used of sending inanimate things, presents &c.: in such cases
           use_ hoatu, _or_ homai.)

  Servant, _s._, kai mahi.

  Sew, _v._, tuitui;
    _pass._ tuituia.

  Shadow, _s._, ata.

  Shady, _adj._, marumaru.

  Shake, _v. n._, oioi.

  Shake, _v. a._, whakaoíoi;
    _pass._ whakaoíoia.

  Shame, _s._, whakamá.

  Shape, _s._, ahua.

  Shark, _s._, mango.

  Sharp, _adj._, koi.

  Sharpen, _v._, whakakói;
    _pass._ whakakóia.

  Shew, _v._, whakaátu;
    _pass._ whakaáturia.

  Ship, _s._, kaipuke.

  Shiver, _v. n._, wiri.

  Shoot, _v._, pupúhi;
    _pass._ puhia.

  Short, _adj._, poto.

  Shoulder, _s._, pokohiwi.

  Shout, _v._, hamama.

  Sick, _adj._, mate.

  Sickness, _s._, mate.

  Side, _s._, taha.

  Sift, _v._, taatari;
    _pass._ taataria.

  Sin, _s._, hara.

  Sing, _v._, waiata;
    _pass._ waiatatia.

  Single, _adj._, kotáhi.

  Sink, _v._, totóhu.

  Sister, _s._ (_a man's_), tuahine;
    (_a woman's elder_), tuakana;
    (_a woman's younger_), teina.

  Sit, _v. n._, noho;
    _pass._ nohoia, _be sat upon_.

  Skin, _s._, kiri.

  Skull, _s._, angaanga.

  Sky, _s._, kikorangi.

  Sleep, _v. n._, moe.

  Sleepy, _adj._, hiamoe.

  Slip, _v. n._, paheke.

  Slippery, _adj._, mania.

  Slow, _adj._, puhoi.

  Small, _adj._, nohinohi.

  Smear, _v._, pani;
    _pass._ pania.

  Smell, _v._, hongi;
    _pass._ hongia.

  Smell, _s._, haunga.

  Smoke, _s._, auahi.

  Smooth, _adj._, maeneene.

  Snow, _s._, hukarere.

  So, _adv._ (in that manner), pena; pera. (See § 18.)

  Soft, _adj._, ngohengohe.

  Soil, _s._, oneone.

  Sole of the foot, _s._, raparapa.

  Solid, _adj._, maaroo.

  Some, _def._, tetahi;
    _pl._ etahi.

  Son, _s._, tama.

  Son-in-law, _s._, hunaonga.

  Sow, _v._, rui;
    _pass._ ruia.

  Space, _s._, takiwa.

  Spade, _s._, kaheru.

  Speak, _v._, korero;
    _pass._ korerotia.

  Spittle, _s._, huware.

  Split, _v._, wawáhi;
    _pass._ wahia.

  Sprained, _adj._, taui.

  Spring (of water), _s._, puna.

  Square, _adj._, tapawha.

  Staff, _s._, tokotoko.

  Stand, _v._, tu.

  Star, _s._, whetuu.

  Start, _v. n._, oho.

  Stay, _v. n._, noho.

  Steal, _v._, tahae;
    _pass._ tahaetia.

  Steep, _adj._, poupou.

  Stalk, _s._, kakau.

  Stomach, _s._, puku.

  Stone, _s._, kowhatu.

  Stoop, _v._, tuohu.

  Storm, _s._, tupuhi.

  Straight, _adj._, tika.

  Strange, _adj._, ke.

  Straw, _s._, taakakau.

  Strength, _s._, kaha.

  Strike, _v._, patu;
    _pass._ patua.

  String, _s._, aho.

  Strong, _adj._, kaha.

  Stumble, _v. n._, tuutuki.

  Suck, _v._, ngote;
    _pass._ ngotea.

  Summer, _s._, raumati.

  Summit, _s._, tihi.

  Sun, _s._, ra.

  Swallow, _v._, horo;
    _pass._ horomia.

  Swamp, _s._, repo.

  Sweat, _s._, kakáwa.

  Sweet, _adj._, reka.

  Swell, _v. n._, pupúhi.

  Swim, _v. n._, kauhoe.

  Take, _v._, tango;
    _pass._ tangohia.

  Talk, _v._, korero;
    _pass._ korerotia.

  Tall, _adj._, roa.

  Tame, _adj._, rata.

  Teach, _v._, whakaáko;
    _pass._ whakaákona.

  Tear, _s._, roimata.

  Tear, _v._, haehae;
    _pass._ haea.

  Tell, _v._, korero;
    _pass._ korerotia.

  Than, _conj._, i.

  That, _def._, tena; tera; taua. (See § 18.)

  Then, _adv._, i reira;
    ko reira.

  Thence, _adv._, i reira;
    i kona;
    i ko. (See § 10.)

  There, _adv._, ki reira;
    kei reira;
    i reira;
    hei reira;
    ki kona &c.;
    ki ko &c. (See §§ 10 and 69.)

  Thick, _adj._, matotoru.

  Thief, _s._, tahae.

  Thigh, _s._, huha.

  Thin, _adj._, rahirahi.

  Thine, _pron._, nau.

  Thing, _s._, mea.

  Think of, _v._, mahara (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ maharatia.

  Thirst, _s._, matewai.

  This, _def._, tenei;
    _pl._ enei.

  Thither, _adv._, ki kona;
    ki ko;
    ki reira. (See § 10.)

  Thorn, _s._, koikoi.

  Thread, _s._, miro.

  Throat, _s._, korokoro.

  Through; to go or come through, _v. n._, puta.

  Throw, _v._, maka;
    _pass._ makaa.

  Thumb, _s._, koromatua.

  Thunder, _s._, whatitiri.

  Thus, _adv._, penei.

  Thy, _def._, tau;
    _pl._ au;
    _pl._ ou;
    _pl._ o. (See § 19.)

  Tide, _s._, tai;
    _flood tide_, tai pari;
    _ebb tide_, tai timu.

  Tie, _v._, here;
    _pass._ herea.

  Tight, _adj._, kikii.

  Tip, _s._, matamata.

  To-day, _adv._, aianei;

  Toe, _s._, maikara.

  To-morrow, _adv._, apopo.

  Tooth, _s._, niho.

  Top, the, _s._, runga. (See § 10.)

  Trample on, _v._, takahi;
    _pass._ takahia.

  Translate, _v._, whakamáori;
    _pass._ whakamáoritia.

  Tree, _s._, rakau.

  Tremble, _v. n._, wiri.

  Trench, _s._, manga.

  Trouble, _s._, raruraru.

  True, _adj._, pono.

  Try, _v._, whakamátau;
    _pass._ whakamátauria.

  Turn, _v._, huri;
    _pass._ hurihia.

  Twins, _s._, maahanga.

  Twist, _v._, whiri;
    _pass._ whiria.

  Udder, _s._, u.

  Uncle, _s._, matua keekee.

  Under, _prep._, ki raro ki;
    ki raro i;
    kei raro i;
    i raro i;
    hei raro i. (See § 70.)

  Untie, _v._, wewéte;
    _pass._ wetekia.

  Utter, _v._, whakapúaki;
    _pass._ whakapúakina.

  Upper, _adj._, to runga. (See § 10.)

  Valley, _s._, awaawa.

  Vein, _s._, uaua.

  Very, _adv._, tino; rawa. (See § 67.)

  Voice, _s._, reo.

  Vomit, _v._, ruaki;
    _pass._ ruakina.

  Wade, _v. n._, kau.

  Wait for, _v._, tatári (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ taaria.

  Walk, _v. n._, haere.

  War, _s._, riri.

  Warm, _adj._, mahana.

  Wash, _v._, horoi;
    _pass._ horoia.

  Water, _s._, wai.

  Wave, _s._, ngaru.

  Way, _s._, ara.

  Weak, _adj._, ngoikore.

  Weary, _adj._, ngenge.

  Weave, _v._, whatu;
    _pass._ whatua.

  Wedge, _s._, ora.

  Weed, _s._, otaota.

  Weep for, _v._, tangi (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ tangihia.

  Weigh, _v._, pauna;
    _pass._ paunatia.

  Well (in health), _adj._, ora.

  Wet, _adj._, maakuu.

  Whale, _s._, tohora.

  What, _pron._, aha.

  When, _adv._ (_past_), nonahea;
    (_future_), a hea.

  Whence, _adv._, i hea.

  Where, _adv._, ki hea;
    kei hea;
    i hea;
    hei hea. (See § 69.)

  Which, _def._, tehea;
    _pl._ ehea.

  Whistle, _v. n._, whio.

  Whither, _adv._, ki hea;
    ko hea.

  Why, _adv._, he aha (_followed by_ ai);
    he aha koe i haere ai? _why did you go?_

  Wife, _s._, wahine.

  Wild, _adj._, maaka.

  Wing, _s._, parirau.

  Wink, _v._, whakakíni.

  Winter, _s._, hotoke.

  Wipe, _v._, ukui;
    _pass._ ukuia.

  Wish for, _v._, hiahia (_followed by prep._ ki);
    _pass._ hiahiatia.

  With, _prep._, ki.

  Woman, _s._, wahine.

  Wood, _s._, rakau.

  Word, _s._, kupu.

  Work, _v._, mahi;
    _pass._ mahia.

  Wounded, _adj._, tu.

  Wrap, _v._, takai;
    _pass._ takaia.

  Write, _v._, tuhituhi;
    _pass._ tuhituhia.

  Wrong, _adj._, he.

  Yawn, _v._, tuwaharoa.

  Year, _s._, tau.

  Yes, _adv._, ae.

  Young, _adj._, tamariki.

  Yesterday, _adv._, inanahi.

Berlin, printed by _Unger_ brothers, Printers to the King.





  A Handbook of African, Australian, and Polynesian Philology, as
  represented in the Library of His Excellency SIR GEORGE GREY,
  K.C.B., Her Majesty's Commissioner of the Cape Colony. Classed,
  annotated, and edited by SIR GEORGE GREY, and DR. H. J. BLEEK.

  Vol.  I. Part 1. South Africa, 8vo. pp. 186.          7_s_ 6_d_

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  Vol.  I. Part 3. Madagascar, 8vo. pp. 24.                  1_s_

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  Vol. II. Part 2. Papuan Languages of the Loyalty
                    Islands and New Hebrides,
                    comprising those of the Islands
                    of Nengone, Lifu, Aneiteum, Tana,
                    and others, 8vo. pp. 12.                 6_d_

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                    Supplement to Part 2, Papuan
                    Languages, and Part 1, Australia),
                    8vo. pp. 34.                           1_s_

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  Vol. II. Part 4 (_continuation_). Polynesia
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  Ko nga Mahinga a nga tupuna Maori he mea Kohikohi mai: (Mythology
  and Traditions of the New Zealanders) na SIR GEORGE GREY,
  Governor-in-chief of the New Zealand Islands.

  8vo. cloth, pp. 202. London, 1854.                 12_s_

  Ko nga Moteatea, me nga Hakirara o nga Maori. He mea Kohikohi mai,
  na SIR G. GREY. (Poetry of the New Zealanders.)

  8vo. pp. xiv, 432, and cxii. New Zealand, 1853.    21_s_

  Maori Mementos; being a Series of Addresses presented by the Native
  People to His Excellency SIR G. GREY, Governor of the Cape of Good
  Hope; with introductory Remarks and explanatory Notes; to which is
  added a small Collection of Laments, &c. by CH. OLIVER B. DAVIS.

  8vo. cloth, pp. iv, 228. Auckland, 1855.           12_s_



  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Obvious punctuation errors have been corrected after careful comparison
  with other occurrences within the text and consultation of external

  The Table of Contents has been added by the transcriber.

  Some words in the Vocabulary list (for example pupúri, kotáhi) have an
  accent but there is no accent in the main text usage. No changes have
  been made in these cases.

  Pg 4.  'letter in' replaced by 'letter is'.
  Pg 7.  'horse it' replaced by 'horse is'.
  Pg 7.  'give is' replaced by 'give it'.
  Pg 15. italic inverted for clarity; '_never_ a, _or_ o.' to
              'never _a_, or _o_.'
  Pg 27. 'not' inserted giving 'is not Hemi.'.
  Pg 28. 'posssseion' replaced by 'possession'.
  Pg 30. 'auxiliarly' replaced by 'auxiliary'.
  Pg 32. 'time to to be' replaced by 'time to be'.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "First Lessons in the Maori Language - with a short vocabulary" ***

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