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Title: British Pomology - Or the History, Description, Classification and Synonymes - of the Fruits and Fruit Trees of Great Britain
Author: Hogg, Robert
Language: English
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Transcriber’s Note


  In this plain text version of British Pomology:

    Words in italics are marked with _underscores_.
    Small capital letters are shown in UPPER CASE.

  Variant spellings and inconsistent hyphenation are retained.

  Spellings of French, German and Latin words and names are kept as
  originally printed.

  Punctuation and formatting are inconsistent in the list of references
  and in headings. These have not been standardized.

  As well as many abbreviations not being marked with a full stop,
  some words are followed by a full stop, as though they were
  abbreviations. These have not been standardized.

  Illustrations are moved to the beginning of the description of
  the variety of apple which they illustrate.

  Footnotes are moved to the end of the paragraph, or the
  description of the variety of apple, in which they occur.

  Other changes that have been made are listed at the end of the book.



            BRITISH POMOLOGY;


  HISTORY, DESCRIPTION, CLASSIFICATION,
              AND SYNONYMES,

                 OF THE

          FRUITS AND FRUIT TREES

                   OF

             GREAT BRITAIN;

  ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS,

                   BY

              ROBERT HOGG.

  ----------------“Fruit of all kinds, in coat
  Rough or smooth rind, or bearded husk or shell.”--MILTON.


               THE APPLE.

  “Arboris est suavis Fructus, sunt dulcia Poma,
  Dulcior est inquam Nectare, et Ambrosia.”


  LONDON: GROOMBRIDGE AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW;
          EDINBURGH: JAMES HOGG;
          GLASGOW: DAVID BRYCE.

                MDCCCLI.



         PRINTED BY WILLIAM FORD,
  28, RUSSELL COURT, BRYDGES STREET, COVENT GARDEN,
                LONDON.



                   TO
          MR. ROBERT THOMPSON,
                   FOR
  THE IMPORTANT SERVICES HE HAS RENDERED TO THE
           STUDY OF POMOLOGY
                 AND FOR
  HIS UNWEARIED LABORS IN DETERMINING AND ARRANGING
         POMOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE.
                THIS WORK
      IS DEDICATED BY HIS SINCERE FRIEND,
                THE AUTHOR.



PREFACE.


It is much to be regretted, that of late years, so little attention has
been given in this country, to the study of pomology, and that so few
efforts have been made to encourge a taste for this most important,
most instructive, and intellectual branch of horticultural science.

Towards the end of the last, and beginning of the present century, when
the late Mr. Knight was in the full vigor of his scientific pursuits,
this was the subject which engaged so much of his powerful intellect,
and from which he succeeded in producing such great and beneficial
results. With Mr. Knight as president, and Mr. Sabine as secretary,
the Horticultural Society of London did much for the advancement of
this subject, and in extending a knowledge not only of the fruits of
this country, but of the most valuable varieties of the continent of
Europe, and America. Through the exertions of these gentlemen, and in
conjunction with the illustrious pomologists, Dr. Diel and Professor
Van Mons, and other eminent continental correspondents, was obtained
that vast collection of fruits which once existed in the Society’s
garden; and by means of which that great undertaking of determining and
arranging the nomenclature was accomplished. During this period the
Society’s Transactions teemed with rich, and interesting pomological
papers, and several works of a high character were ushered into
existence. Of these the most important were the Pomonas of Brookshaw
and Hooker, the Pomological Magazine, and Ronalds’s Pyrus Malus
Brentfordiensis; but these are all of such a class, as from their great
cost to be regarded more as works of art, than of general utility. The
only one which was at all calculated to be of general benefit was,
Lindley’s “Guide to the Orchard;” a work which furnished descriptions
of, and embraced a greater number of varieties than had hitherto been
attempted. This then may be regarded as the most complete work for
general reference, with which pomologists in this country had ever been
furnished.

Upwards of twenty years have now elapsed since the “Guide to the
Orchard” issued from the press, and during that period, Knight, Sabine,
and many great patrons of pomology have entered into their rest,
leaving none behind them to prosecute, with the same vigour, that
study which they so much loved and adorned. But although there has
been no corporate effort to promote and stimulate this study, private
enterprize has not altogether been awanting to keep pace with the rapid
progression of the Continent and America; but for this, we might yet
have been in total ignorance of many of the most desirable fruits of
modern times, and particularly of those valuable varieties, the result
of the later labors of Van Mons, Esperen, and others; together with
several of considerable merit, furnished by the fertile pomology of the
New World.

Since the publication of Lindley’s “Guide,” therefore, there has
not only been such additions to our varieties of fruits, but such a
complete reformation and arrangement of pomological nomenclature as
to have rendered that book, as a work of reference of considerably
less value; and it was on account of the necessity for a new work,
adapted to the wants of the present day, and embracing the most
recent information on the subject, that I entered upon the present
undertaking. The facilities I have possessed for carrying it out,
are perhaps greater than fall to the lot of most men. My earliest
associations were with fruits and fruit trees; the greater part of my
active life has been engaged in their cultivation and devoted to their
study; and for nearly ten years, I had the advantage of making an
annual tour throughout the length and breadth of England and Scotland,
during which, I allowed no opportunity to escape of making myself
acquainted with the fruits of the various districts, and securing
correspondents to whom I could apply, in cases of necessity. With these
advantages, I some years ago established an orchard, for the purpose of
examining the distinctive characters and determining the nomenclature
of fruits; and there I have succeeded, in securing all the varieties it
is possible to procure, either in this country or abroad, and thereby
to obtain from personal observation all the information attainable on
the subject.

In the execution of this work, my object has been, not to give a mere
selection of the best varieties of fruits cultivated in this country,
but to describe minutely, and at length, all the varieties with their
essential characters, distinguishing those which are, and those which
are not worthy of cultivation. I have endeavoured to embrace all the
fruits which are recorded as existing in Great Britain, and although it
cannot be supposed I have been able to obtain the whole of them, still,
I have secured such a number as will leave but a very small portion
un-noticed. The plan which I have adopted in the general arrangement
will be found to embrace all matters both descriptive, historical,
and critical, touching the several varieties. The nomenclature I have
followed is, except in some instances for reasons given, that of the
London Horticultural Society’s Catalogue, a valuable work prepared by
that patient and indefatigable pomologist, Mr. Robert Thompson. The
advantage of this identity of nomenclature is evident, as it sets at
rest that mass of confusion, which so long existed as to the correct
names of fruits. In describing each variety, the approved name, that
is the name which shall serve as a standard by which that variety
shall in future be distinguished, is printed in Roman Capitals; and
either abbreviated, or in full length, is annexed the name of the
author who first records or describes it. When the variety is of such
antiquity as not to be identified with any particular author, the
name of the one who first distinctly describes it is given. Following
the standard name, is the identification or list of works in which the
variety is identified as being described; the synonymes or names by
which it is mentioned in all works on pomology, or known in various
districts; and then a list of works in which it is most correctly and
faithfully figured. Then follow the description, history, and critical
observations, when such are necessary. I have furnished diagrams, of
the newest, rarest, and most esteemed varieties; and this mode of
illustration conveys a better idea of the general character of the
fruit, than a fore-shortened drawing, and answers the same purpose as
a highly finished engraving, without swelling the price of the work to
such an extent, as to render it unavailable for ordinary use. At the
end, I have given lists of the most excellent varieties adapted for
various districts of the country, as also such as are suited for being
grown as Standards, Dwarfs, and for Cyder. The whole work is terminated
by a copious index, which includes all the synonymes, and which of
itself, will afford much valuable assistance, in all matters relating
to pomological nomenclature.

It now remains for me to acknowledge the favors I have received from
many kind friends, who have, by furnishing materials and information,
rendered me much valuable assistance. To Mr. Robert Thompson, already
mentioned, I am particularly indebted for the liberal way in which
he has always supplied me with any information I required. To the
late Mr. John Ronalds, of Brentford, for the free use of his valuable
collection; as also to his excellent and much respected foreman,
Mr. William Waring. To Mr. James Lake, nurseryman, of Bridgewater,
for specimens of, and communications respecting the fruits of the
Somerset, Devon, and West of England orchards. To Mr. William
Fairbread, of Green-street, near Sittingbourne, for those of the
great orchard districts of Kent. To Mr. Mannington, of Uckfield, and
Mr. Henry Barton, of Heathfield, Sussex, for the fruits of these
neighbourhoods. To Mr. J. C. Wheeler, of Gloucester, and the late
Mr. Hignell, orchardist, of Tewkesbury. To George Jefferies, Esq.,
of Marlborough Terrace, Kensington, for some of the valuable fruits
of Norfolk; and to the Rev. Henry Manton, of Sleaford. To Mr. Roger
Hargreave, of Lancaster, for a complete collection from the Lancashire
orchards. To Archibald Turnbull, Esq., of Belwood, near Perth, whose
choice and extensive collection, was freely placed at my disposal.
To Mr. A. Gorrie, of Annat, and Robert Mathew, Esq., of Gourdiehill,
in the Carse of Gowrie, for much valuable information, and specimens
of the fruits of that great orchard district of the North. To Mr.
Evans, superintendent of the Caledonian Horticultural Society’s
Garden, Edinburgh, for much valuable assistance derived from a free
inspection of the collection of the Society. To my brother, Mr. Thomas
Hogg, of Coldstream, for the fruits of the Tweedside orchards, and to
numerous nurserymen and private individuals, who have aided me in the
prosecution of this work, I now tender my warmest and heartfelt thanks.

                                                              R. H.

 _13, Gilston Road, Brompton,
   Dec., 1851._



ABBREVIATIONS, AND LIST OF BOOKS REFERRED TO IN THE FOLLOWING WORK.


 _Aber. Dict._        }
 _Aber. Gard. Dict._  }
    The Universal Gardener and Botanist; or a General Dictionary of
        Gardening and Botany, by John Abercrombie, 1 vol. 4to.,
        _London,_ 1778.

 _Acc, or acc._--When this abbreviation is prefixed to a citation, it
  signifies _according to_, or _on the authority of_, as _acc Hort
  Soc. Cat_, according to, or on the authority of the Horticultural
  Society’s Catalogue.

 _Aldro. Dend._--Ulyssis Aldrovandi, Dendrologiæ naturalis scilicet
  Arborum Historiæ libri duo. Sylva Glandaria, Acinosumque Pomarium.
  1 vol. fol. _Bononiæ_, 1668.

 _Ang. Obs._--Observations sur L’Agriculture, et Le Jardinage, pour
  servir d’instruction à ceux qui desireront s’y rendre habiles, par
  Angran de Rueneuve. 2 vols. 12mo., _Paris_, 1712.

 _Aust. Orch._   }
 _Aust. Treat._  }
    A Treatise of Fruit Trees, shewing the manner of Grafting,
        Planting, Pruning, and Ordering of them, in all respects,
        according to new and easy rules of Experience, &c. &c., by
        Ralph Austen. 1 vol. 4to.,_Oxford_, 1657.

 _Bauh. Hist._--Historia Plantarum universalis, Johanno Bauhino.
  3 vols. fol. _Ebroduni._ i and ii. 1650, iii. 1651.

 _Baum. Cat._--Catalogue général des Végétaux de pleine terre,
  disponsibles dans l’etablishment horticole d’Aug. Nap. Baumann à
  Bolwyller, 1850-51.

 _Bon. Jard._--Le Bon Jardinier almanach pour l’année, 1843. _Paris._

 _Booth Cat._--A Catalogue of Fruit Trees cultivated by G. Booth,
  Hamburg.

 _Brad. Fam. Dict._--Dictionaire Oeconomique; or Family Dictionary, &c.
  &c., by Richard Bradley. 2 vols. fol. _London_, 1725.

 _Brad. Treat._--A General Treatise of Husbandry and Gardening, by
  Richard Bradley. 3 vols. 8vo., _London_, 1721-1722.

 _Bret. Ecole._--L’Ecole du Jardin Fruitier, par M. de la Bretonnerie.
  2 vols. 12mo. _Paris_, 1784.

 _Brook. Pom. Brit._--Pomona Britannica; or a collection of the most
  established fruits at present cultivated in Great Britain, &c., by
  George Brookshaw. 1 vol. fol. _London_, 1812.

 _Caled. Hort. Soc. Mem._--Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural
  Society, 8vo. _Edinburgh_, vol. I. 1819, _et seq._

 _Cal. Traité._--Traité complet sur les Pépiniers &c., par Etienne
  Calvel. ed. 2, 3 vols. 12mo., _Paris._ _N. D._

 _Chart. Cat._--Catalogue des Arbres à Fruits les plus excellent, les
  plus rares, et les plus estimés, qui se cultivent dans les pépiniers
  des Révérendes Peres Chartreux de Paris. 1 vol. 12mo., _Paris_, 1775.

 _Christ Gartenb._--Allgemein-practisches Gartenbuch für Bürger und
  Landmann über den Küchen-und Obstgarten, von Dr. Joh. Ludw. Christ.
  1 vol. 8vo. _Heilbronn_, 1814.

 _Christ Handb._--Handbuch uber die Obstbaumzucht und Obstlehre, &c.,
  von Joh. Ludw. Christ. 1 vol. 8vo., _Frankfurt a M._, ed. 1, 1794;
  ed. 2, 1797; ed. 3, 1804; ed 4, 1817.

 _Christ Handworter._--Pomologisches Theoretisch-practisches
  Handworterbuch, &c. von Joh. Ludw. Christ. 1 vol 4to. _Leipzig_, 1802.

 _Christ Vollst. Pom._--Vollständige Pomologie &c. &c. von Joh. Ludw.
  Christ. 2 vols. 8vo., _Frankfurt_, 1809.

 _Coles Adam in Eden._--Adam in Eden, or Nature’s Paradise. The History
  of Plants, Fruits, and Flowers, by William Coles. 1 vol. fol.,
  _London_, 1657.

 _Cord. Hist._--Valerii Cordi Historiæ Stirpium Libri iv. 1 vol. fol.,
  _Argentorati_, 1561.

 _Cours Comp. d.Agric._--Nouveau Cours complet d’Agriculture, par M. M.
  Thouin, Parmentier, Bosc, Chaptal, &c. &c., 16 vols. 8vo., _Paris_,
  1823.

 _Coxe View._ }
 _Coxe Cult._ }
    A View of the cultivation of Fruit Trees in the United States, and
        of the management of Orchards and Cyder, by William Coxe, 1 vol.
        8vo., _Philadelphia_, 1817.

 _Curtius Hort._--Hortorum Libri xxx, auctore Benedicto Curtio. 1 vol.
  fol., _Lugduni_ 1560.

 _Dahuron Traité._--Traité de la taille des Arbres Fruitiers, et de la
  maniere de les bien elever, par Renè Dahuron. 1 vol. 12mo., _Cell_,
  1699.

 _Dec. Prod._--Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetablis. Aug.
  Pyr. Decandolle, 8vo., _Paris_, vol. 1, 1824, _et seq._

 _Diel Kernobst._--Versuch einer systematischen Beschreibung in
  Deutschland vorhandener Kernobstsorten, von Dr. Aug. Fried.
  Adr. Diel. 21 Hfte 8vo., _Frankfurt a M._, 1799-1819. 6 Bdchn,
  _Stuttgart_, 1821.-1832.

 _Ditt. Handb._--Systematisches Handbuch der Obstkunde, von J. G.
  Dittrich. 3 vols. 8vo., _Jena_, 1839-1841.

 _Doch. Centralobst._--Die Allgemeine Centralobstbaumschule, irhe
  Zwecke und Einrichtung von F. J. Dochnahl. 1 vol. 8vo., _Jena_, 1848.

 _Down. Fr. Amer._--The Fruit and Fruit Trees of America; or the
  culture and management in the garden and orchard of Fruit Trees
  generally, by A. J. Downing. 1 vol. 8vo., _New York_, 1845.

 _Duh. Arb. Fruit._--Traité des Arbres Fruitiers; contenant leur
  figure, leur description, leur culture &c., par Henri Louis Duhamel
  du Monceau. 2 vols. 4to _Paris_, 1768.

 _Ellis Mod. Husb._--The Modern Husbandman, or the Practice of Farming,
  by William Ellis. 8 vols. 8vo., _London_, 1744-1747.

 _Evelyn Fr. Gard._--The French Gardiner; instructing how to cultivate
  all sorts of Fruit Trees and Herbs for the garden, &c., by John
  Evelyn, Esq. Ed. 3, 1 vol. 12mo., _London_, 1672.

 _Evelyn Pom._--Pomona: or an appendix concerning Fruit Trees, in
  relation to Cyder; the making, and several ways of ordering it, by
  John Evelyn. Published with the Sylva. 1 vol. fol., _London_, 1829.

 _Filass. Tab._--Tableau générale des principeaux objects qui composent
  la Pépiniere, dirigée par M. Filassier. 1 vol. _Paris_, 1785.

 _Fors. Treat._--A Treatise on the culture and management of Fruit
  Trees, by William Forsyth. Ed. 7, 1 vol. 8vo. _London_, 1824.

 _Gallesio Pom. Ital._--Pomona Italiana ossia trattato degli Alberi
  Fruttiferi di Georgeo Gallesio. fol. _Pisa_, 1817. _et seq._

 _Gard. Chron._--The Gardener’s Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette,
  edited by Professor Lindley. fol. _London_, 1841, _et seq._

 _Ger. Herb._--The Herbal, or General History of Plants, by John
  Gerard. 1 vol. fol., _London_, 1597.

 _Gibs. Fr. Gard._--The Fruit Gardener, containing the manner of
  raising stocks, for multiplying of Fruit Trees by budding, grafting,
  &c. &c. 1 vol. 8vo., _London_, 1768.
  ⁂ The authorship of this work is ascribed to John Gibson, Esq., M.D.,
    at one time a surgeon in the Royal Navy.

 _Googe Husb._--The whole Art and Trade of Husbandry contained in foure
  books, by Barnaby Googe, Esq. 1 vol. 4to., _London_, 1614.

 _H._--When this initial of the author’s name is placed after the
  standard name of any variety, it signifies, that that variety has not
  been recorded or described in any previous work.

 _Henne Anweis._--Anweisung wie man eine Baumschule von Obstbäumen in
  grossen anlegen und gehörig unterhalten solle, von Sam. Dav. Lud.
  Henne. Ed. 3, 1 vol. 8vo., _Halle_, 1776.

 _Hitt Treat._--A Treatise of Fruit Trees, by Thomas Hitt, ed. 3, 1 vol
  8vo. _London_, 1768.

 _Hook. Pom. Lond._--Pomona Londonensis, &c., by William Hooker. 1 vol.
  4to., _London_, 1813.

 _Hort. Soc. Cat._-- }
 _H. S. C._          }
    A Catalogue of the Fruits cultivated in the garden of the
        Horticultural Society of London. 1 vol. 8vo., _London_. Ed. 1,
        1826. Ed. 2, 1842. Ed. 3, 1843.
  ⁂ The second and third Editions of this work, were prepared by Mr.
    Robert Thompson, the superintendent of the Fruit department in the
    Society’s Garden.

 _Hort. Trans._--Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London,
  4to., _London_, vol. 1, 1813, _et seq._

 _Husb. Fr. Orch._--The Husbandman’s Fruitfull Orchard, &c. &c. 1 vol.
  4to, _London_, 1597.

 _Ibid._--When this abbreviation is made use of among the synonymes, it
  refers to the same work as is quoted immediately preceding it.

 _Inst. Arb. Fruict._--Instructions pour les Arbres Fructiers, par M.
  R. T. P. D. S. M. Ed. 3, 1 vol. 12mo., _Roven_, 1659.

 _Jard. Franç._--Le Jardinier François, qui enseigne à cultiver les
  Arbres, Herbes, Potageres, &c. &c. Ed. 4, 1 vol. 12mo., _Paris_, 1653.

 _Jard. Fruit._--See _Nois. Jard. Fruit._

 _Ken. Amer. Or._--The New American Orchardist, by William Kenrick.
  1 vol. 8vo., _Boston_, 1833.

 _Knoop Pom._--Pomologie; ou description des meilleurs sortes des
  Pommes et des Poires, &c. &c. 1 vol. fol. _Amsterdam_, 1771.

 _Lang. Pom._--Pomona; or the Fruit Garden illustrated, by Batty
  Langley. 1 vol. fol., _London_, 1729.

 _Laws. Cat._--Catalogue of Fruit Trees, et cætera. Peter Lawson and
  Son, _Edinburgh_, 1851.

 _Laws. New. Or._-- }
 _Laws. Orch._      }
    A New Orchard and Garden; or the best way for planting, grafting,
        and to make any ground good for a rich orchard, &c., by William
        Lawson. 1 vol. 4to., _London_ 1597.

 _Leslie & Anders. Cat._--Catalogue of Hardy Shrubs, Greenhouse and
  Hothouse Plants, Fruit and Forest Trees, &c., &c., sold by Leslie,
  Anderson, and Co., _Edinburgh_, 1780.

 _Lind. Guide._--A Guide to the Orchard and Kitchen Garden; or an
  account of the most valuable Fruit and Vegetables cultivated in Great
  Britain, by George Lindley. 1 vol. 8vo., _London_, 1831.

 _Lind. Plan. Or._--A Plan of an Orchard, by George Lindley, 1796.

 _M. C. H. S._--See _Caled. Hort. Soc. Mem._

 _McInt. Orch._--The Orchard, including the management of Wall and
  Standard Fruit Trees, by Charles McIntosh. 1 vol. 8vo, _London_, 1839.

 _Maund Fruit._--The Fruitist, by Benjamin Maund, 4to., _London_,
  published along with Maund’s British Flower Garden.

 _Mayer Pom. Franc._--Pomona Franconica; oder natürliche Abbildung und
  Beschreibung der besten und vorzüglichsten Europaischen Gattungen
  der Obstbäumen und Fruchte, von J. Mayer. 3 vols. 4to., _Nürenberg_,
  1776-1801.

 _Meager Eng. Gard._--The English Gardener; or a sure Guide to young
  planters and gardeners, in three parts, by Leonard Meager. 1 vol.
  4to., _London_, 1670.

 _Merlet Abrégé._--Abrégé des bons fruits, avec la maniere de les
  connoitre et de cultiver les arbres, par Jean Merlet. ed. 2, 1 vol.
  12mo., _Paris_, 1675.

 _Meyen Bäumsch._--Physicalisch-oeconomische Bäumschule, &c., von J. J.
  Meyer. _Stettin_, 1795.

 _Mid. Flor._--The Midland Florist, by William Wood. 12mo.,
  _Nottingham_, V. Y.

 _Mill. Dict._--The Gardener’s Dictionary, by Philip Miller, ed. 8, 1
  vol. fol. _London_, 1768.

 _Miller & Sweet Cat._--A Catalogue of Fruit and Forest Trees, &c. Sold
  by Miller and Sweet, nurserymen, _Bristol_, 1790.

 _Nicol Gard. Kal._--The Gardener’s Kalendar; or Monthly Directory of
  operations in every branch of Horticulture, by Walter Nicol. 1 vol.
  8vo., _Edinburgh_, 1810.

 _Nicol Villa Gard._--The Villa Garden Directory; or Monthly Index of
  work to be done in the town and villa gardens, by Walter Nicol. 1
  vol. 8vo., _Edinburgh_, 1809.

 _Nois. Jard. Fruit._--Le Jardin Fruitier, par Louis Noisette. ed. 1, 3
  vols. 4to., _Paris_, 1821. ed. 2, 2 vols. 8vo., _Paris_, 1839.

 _Nourse Camp. Fel._--Campania Felix; or a Discourse of the benefits,
  and improvements of Husbandry, by Tim. Nourse. 1 vol. 8vo., _London_,
  1700.

 _Park. Par._--Paradisi in sole Paradisius Terrestris, &c., by John
  Parkinson. 1. vol. fol. _London_, 1629.

 _Philips Cyder._--Cyder, a Poem in two books, by John Philips. 1 vol.
  8vo., _London_, 1708.

 _Plin. Hist. Nat._--C. Plinii Secundi, Historiæ Mundi Libri xxxvii,
  annotat. Jacobi Dalechampi. 1 vol. fol., _Frankfurt ad Moenum_, 1599.

 _Poit. et. Turp._--Traité des Arbres Fruitiers de Duhamel, nouvelle
  edition augmentée, par Poiteau et Turpin. 5 vols. fol. _Paris_, 1808,
  _et seq._

 _Poit. Pom. Franç_--Pomologie Française; Receuil des plus beaux fruits
  cultivés en France, par Poiteau., 4to., _Paris_, 1838, _et seq_

 _Pom. Heref._--Pomona Herefordienses; or a descriptive account of the
  old Cyder and Perry fruits of Herefordshire, by Thomas Andrew Knight.
  1 vol. 4to., _London_, 1809.

 _Pom. Lond._--See _Hook. Pom. Lond._

 _Pom. Mag._--The Pomological Magazine; or Figures and Descriptions of
  the most important varieties of Fruits cultivated in Great Britain. 3
  vols. 8vo. _London_, 1827-1830.

 _Portæ Villæ_--Villæ Jo. Baptistæ Portæ, Neopolitani Libri xii. 1 vol.
  4to, _Frankfurti_, 1592.

 _Quint. Inst._--Instructions pour les Arbres Fruitiers et Potageres,
  par M. de la Quintinye. 2 vols. 4to., _Paris_, 1695.

 _Quint. Traité._--See _Quint. Inst._

 _Raii. Hist._--Historia Plantarum, Joannis Raii. 3 vols. fol.,
  _Londini_, 1686, 1693, and 1704.

 _Rea Pom._--Flora, Ceres, et Pomona, by John Rea. 1 vol. fol.
  _London_, 1665.

 _Riv. Cat._--Catalogue of Fruit Trees cultivated by Thomas Rivers,
  nurseryman, Sawbridgeworth, Herts, V. Y.

 _Riv. et Moul. Meth._--Methode pour bien cultiver les Arbres Fruits
  et pour élever des Treilles. par De La Riviere & Du Moulin. 1 vol.
  12mo., _Utrecht_, 1738.

 _Rog. Fr. Cult._--The Fruit Cultivator, being a practical and accurate
  description of all the most esteemed species and varieties of Fruit,
  cultivated in the Gardens and Orchards of Britain, by John Rogers. 1
  vol. 8vo., _London_, 1837.

 _Ron. Cat._--Catalogue of Fruit Trees cultivated by Hugh Ronalds and
  Sons, Brentford, Middlesex.

 _Ron. Pyr Mal._--Pyrus Malus Brentfordiensis; or a concise description
  of selected apples, with a figure of each sort, by Hugh Ronalds. 1
  vol. 4to., _London_, 1831.

 _Salisb. Orch._--Hints addressed to proprietors of Orchards and to
  growers of fruit in general, &c. &c., by William Salisbury. 1 vol.
  8vo., _London_, 1816.

 _Saltz. Pom._--Pomologie oder Fruchtlehre enthaltend eine Anweisung
  alles in freier Luft unseres klimas Wachsende Obst, &c., zu erkennen,
  von F. Z. Saltzmann. 1 vol. 8vo., _Berlin_, 1793.

 _Schab. Prat._--La Pratique du Jardinage, par. L’Abbé Roger Schabol. 2
  vols. 8vo., _Paris_, 1774.

 _Sickler Obstgärt._--Der Teutsche Obstgärtner, von J. B. Sickler. 22
  vols. 8vo., _Weimar_, 1794-1804.

 _Switz. Fr. Gard._--The Practical Fruit Gardener, by Stephen Switzer.
  1 vol. 8vo., _London_, 1724.

 _Thomp._--Where this abbreviation is made use of, it refers to the
  authority of Mr. Robert Thompson, author of the Horticultural
  Society’s Catalogue of Fruits, and many valuable pomological and
  other scientific papers.

 _Toll. Traité._--Traité des Végétaux qui composent l’Agriculture de
  l’empire Française par Tollard. 1 vol. 8vo., _Paris_, 1805.

 _Tragus. Hist._--Hieronymi Tragi De Stirpium, &c. interprete Davide
  Kybro. 1 vol. 4to., _Argentorati_, 1552.

 _Walter Gartenb._--Allgemeine Deutsches Gartenbuch, von J. J. Walter.
  1 vol. 8vo, _Stuttgart_, 1799.

 _West. Bot._--The Universal Botanist and Nurseryman, containing
  descriptions of the species and varieties of all the Trees, Shrubs,
  Herbs, Flowers, and Fruits, native and exotics, &c., by Richard
  Weston. 4 vols. 8vo., _London_, 1770, 1774.

 _Willich Dom. Encyc._--The Domestic Encyclopedia, by A. F. M. Willich.
  5 vols. 8vo., _London_.

 _Worl. Vin._--Vinetum Britannicum, or a Treatise of Cyder, and such
  other Wines and Drinks, that are extracted from all manner of fruits
  growing in this Kingdom, by J. Worlidge. 1 vol. 8vo., _London_, 1676.

 _Zink. Pom._--Dieser Pomologie, von J. C. Zink. 1 vol. fol.,
  _Nürnberg_, 1766.



BRITISH POMOLOGY.

ETC. ETC. ETC.



THE APPLE.


There is no fruit, in temperate climates, so universally esteemed,
and so extensively cultivated, nor is there any which is so closely
identified with the social habits of the human species as the apple.
Apart from the many domestic purposes to which it is applicable,
the facility of its cultivation, and its adaptation to almost every
latitude, have rendered it, in all ages, an object of special attention
and regard. There is no part of our island where one or other of its
numerous varieties is not cultivated, and few localities where the
finest cannot be brought to perfection.

The apple is a native of this, as well as almost every other country
in Europe. Its normal form is the Common Wild Crab, the _Pyrus Malus_
of Linnæus, and the numerous varieties with which our gardens and
orchards abound, are the result either of the natural tendency of
that tree to variation, or by its varieties being hybridized with
the original species, or with each other. It belongs to the natural
order _Rosaceæ_, section _Pomeæ_, and is, by botanists, included in
the same genus as the pear. The principal difference between apples
and pears, when considered botanically, consists in their stamens and
styles; the stamens of the apple have their filaments straight, united
together at the base, and forming a bundle round the styles, of which
they conceal the inferior part. All the filaments of the pear on the
contrary are divergent, disposed almost like the radii of a wheel, and
leave the bases of the styles entirely naked and exposed. The styles
in the apple are united at their base into one body, and are generally
villous in that part where they adhere to each other: in the pear,
however, they are separate at their base. But although the apple and
pear very much resemble each other in their botanical characters, they
differ very materially in their form, cellular tissue, and specific
gravity. Apples have always the base umbellicate, or hollowed with
a deep cavity, in which the stalk is inserted, and are generally
spherical. The pear, on the other hand, is elongated towards the stalk,
and is generally of a pyramidal shape, or nearly so. The cellular
tissue of the apple, according to the microscopical observations
of Turpin, is composed of a great number of agglomerated, distinct
vesicles, each existing independent of the other, varying in size in
the same fruit, and, in general, larger, as the apple is large and
light. These vesicles are colorless and transparent, and vary in their
form according to the want of space requisite for their individual
development. They contain in greater or less abundance, a sugary, acid,
or bitter juice, which is perceivable in the different varieties. The
cellular tissue of the apple possesses no stony concretions, and its
specific gravity is greater than that of the pear; so much so, that by
taking a cube of each, of equal size, and throwing them into a vessel
of water, that of the apple will float, while that of the pear will
sink. In its natural or wild state the apple tree is of a small size,
attaining generally about twenty feet in height, of a crooked habit of
growth, with small, harsh, and austere fruit, and small thin leaves.
But when improved by cultivation, it loses much of its original form,
assumes a more free and luxuriant growth, with larger, thicker, and
more downy leaves, and produces fruit distinguished for its size,
color, and richness of flavor.

Some authors have ascribed the introduction of the apple into this
country to the Romans, and others to the Normans; in both cases,
however, without any evidence or well grounded authority. Mr. Loudon
says, “The apple was, in all probability, introduced into Britain
by the Romans, as well as the pear; and like that fruit, perhaps,
re-introduced by the heads of religious houses on their establishment,
after the introduction of christianity.”[A] It is more probable that
it has existed as an indigenous tree throughout all ages, and that
the most ancient varieties were accidental variations of the original
species, with which the forests abounded. These being cultivated, and
subjected to the art and industry of man, would give rise to other
varieties, and thus a gradual amelioration of the fruit would be
obtained. The earliest records make mention of the apple in the most
familiar terms. That it was known to the ancient Britons, before the
arrival of the Romans is evident from their language. In Celtic, it is
called _Abhall_, or _Abhal_; in Welch, _Avall_; in Armoric, _Afall_
and _Avall_; in Cornish, _Aval_ and _Avel_. The word is derived from
the pure Celtic, _ball_, signifying any round body.[B] The ancient
Glastonbury was called by the Britons Ynys Avallaç, and Ynys Avallon,
which signify an apple orchard,[C] and from this its Roman name
_Avallonia_ was derived. The apple must therefore have been known in
Britain before the arrival of the Romans; and that it continued to
exist after they left the island, and before the Norman conquest, is
certified by William of Malmesbury, who says, that King Edgar in 973,
while hunting in a wood was left alone by his associates; in this
situation he was overcome by an irresistable desire to sleep, and
alighting from his horse he lay down under the shade of a _wild apple
tree_.[D] Shortly after the Norman conquest, the same author writes
with reference to Gloucestershire. “Cernas tramites publicos vestitos
pomiferis arboribus, non insitiva manus industria, sed ipsius solius
humi natura.” Some writers[E] entertain the popular error that the
cultivation of apples was not a branch of rural economy in England
before Richard Harris planted orchards in several parts of Kent, in the
reign of Henry the Eighth; but there is evidence to the contrary. In
a bull of Pope Alexander the Third, in the year 1175, confirming the
property belonging to the monastery of Winchcombe, in Gloucestershire,
is mentioned, “The town of Twining with all the lands, _orchards_,
meadows, &c.;”[F] and in a charter of King John, granting property to
the priory of Lanthony, near Gloucester, is mentioned “the church
of Herdesley, with twelve acres of land, _and an orchard_.”[G] But
its cultivation was not confined to the southern counties, for we
find there was an extensive manufacture of cider as far north as
Richmond, in Yorkshire, in the early part of the thirteenth century.
It would be too much to say that all the varieties cultivated at an
early period, were indigenous to this country; many no doubt, were
introduced at the Norman conquest, and it is probable that in the
middle ages some varieties were introduced from the continent, by
members of the different religious houses which then existed, who not
unfrequently had personal intercourse with France, and who devoted
considerable attention to horticulture; but there is every reason to
believe that the earliest varieties were native productions. The oldest
works which treat on the cultivation of fruits, afford little or no
information as to these early varieties. In some ancient documents of
the twelfth century, we find the Pearmain[H] and Costard mentioned,
but the horticultural works of the period are too much occupied with
the fallacies and nonsense which distinguish those of the Roman
agricultural writers, to convey to us any knowledge of the early
pomology of this country. Turner in his Herbal, has no record of any of
the varieties, and simply states, in reference to the apple, “I nede
not to descrybe thys tre, because it is knowen well inoughe in all
countres.” Barnaby Googe mentions as, “Chiefe in price, the Pippin, the
Romet, the Pomeroyall, the Marigold, with a great number of others that
were too long to speake of.” Leonarde Mascal gives instruction how “to
graffe the Quyne Apple;” but that is the only variety he mentions. In
a note book in the possession of Sir John Trevelyan, of Nettlecombe,
near Taunton, which was kept by one of his ancestors, from the year
1580 to 1584, is an entry of “The names of Apelles, which I had their
graffes from Brentmarch, from one Mr. Pace--_Item_, the Appell out
of Essex; Lethercott, or Russet Apell; Lounden Peppen; Kew Goneling,
or the Croke; Glass Appell or Pearmeane; Red Stear; Nemes Appell, or
Grenlinge; Bellabone; Appell out of Dorsettsher; Domine quo Vadis.” In
“The Husbandman’s Fruitfull Orchard,” we have Pippins, Pearemains,
John Apples, Winter Russetings, and Leather Coats. Gerard enumerates
and figures “The Pome Water, the Baker’s Ditch, the King of Apples, the
Quining or Queene of Apples, the Sommer Pearemaine,” and “the Winter
Pearemaine;” and he says, “I have seene in the pastures and hedgerowes
about the grounds of a worshippfull gentleman, dwelling two miles from
Hereford, called _M. Roger Bednome_, so many trees of all sortes, that
the seruants drinke for the most part no other drinke, but that which
is made of Apples. The quantitie is such, that by the report of the
gentleman himselfe, the parson hath for tithe many hogsheads of Syder.”

[A] Arb. Brit. vol. ii, p. 895.

[B] Armstrong’s Gaelic Dictionary.

[C] Owen’s Dictionary of the Welch Language.

[D] Lib. ii. cap. 8.

[E] Duncumb’s History of Herefordshire, vol. 1, p. 187.

[F] Rudder’s History of Gloucestershire, App. liii., No. xxxv.

[G] Rudder’s History of Gloucestershire, App. xxvii., No. xix.

[H] Blomefield’s History of Norfolk, vol. xi., p. 242.

But it is to Parkinson we are indebted for the best account of
the early English varieties, of which he enumerates no less than
fifty-nine, with “tweenty sorts of sweetings and none good;” and from
him may be dated the dawn of British Pomology. Hartlib mentions one who
had 200 sorts of apples, and was of opinion that 500 sorts existed.
Rea, in his Pomona, enumerates twenty varieties, sixteen of which are
not mentioned by Parkinson; and Meager gives a list of eighty-three,
which were cultivated in the Brompton Park, and some other nurseries
round London, of which fifty-one are not found in the lists of either
Parkinson or Rea. Worlidge mentions ninety-two, which are chiefly
cider fruits. The seventy-seven varieties of Ray are much the same as
those enumerated by Worlidge. During the last century, the writings
of Switzer, Langley, Hitt, Miller, and Abercrombie, added little to
what have already been noticed, except that Switzer first mentions
the Nonpareil; and it is to Forsyth that we are indebted for a more
extended knowledge of the different varieties, then known to exist in
this country. With Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., the first President of
the London Horticultural Society, a new era in the history of pomology
commenced, and during his lifetime there was more attention devoted to
this study, than had been since the days of Evelyn and De Quintinye.
It was with this zealous horticulturist, that a practical application
of the discovery of the sexes of plants, was first systematically
carried into operation; and the success which attended his labors in
hybridization, is evinced by the many valuable varieties of fruits
which he was the means of producing. Through the exertions of this
gentleman, and his illustrious cotemporaries, Sabine, Williams, and
Braddick, the gardens of the Horticultural Society, became a depository
for all the varieties which could be gathered together from all parts
of Europe and America, and the result has been, that in the last
edition of the Society’s Catalogue, Mr. Thompson has enumerated upwards
of 1400 varieties of the apple alone, the greater portion of which,
however, are proved to be unworthy of cultivation for any purpose
whatever.

The apple is a very wholesome fruit. In its raw state it is highly
esteemed in the dessert, and when either roasted, boiled, or in pies,
it forms an excellent and nutritious food. Dr. Johnson says he knew a
clergyman, of small income, who brought up a family very reputably,
which he chiefly fed on apple dumplings! Administered to invalids it
is cooling, refreshing, and laxative. It is well known as furnishing
an excellent sauce; and apple jelly forms one of the finest preserves.
Norfolk Beefings are that variety of apple baked in ovens, after the
bread is drawn, and flattened to the form in which they are sold in the
shops of the confectioners and fruiterers. In Normandy and America,
apples are to a considerable extent dried in the sun, in which state
they may be preserved for a long period and used at pleasure, when
they form an excellent dish stewed with sugar, cloves, and other
spices. Those dried in America are cut into quarters, while those of
Normandy are preserved whole. There is a drink with which our ancestors
were wont to regale themselves called _Lambs-wool_, or more properly
_Lamasool_, a word derived from _La maes Abhal_, which signifies the
day of apple fruit. This drink was composed of ale and the pulp of
roasted apples, with sugar and spice. It is mentioned by Gerard, and in
an old song, called “The King and the Miller,” we find it referred to

    “A cup of _Lambs-wool_ they drank to him there.”

Besides these, and many other uses to which the apple is applied, its
juice produces cider, which forms, in many parts of this country, in
Normandy, and the United States, an indispensable beverage. The juice
of the wild species, called crab vinegar, or verjuice, when applied
externally is good for strains, spasms, and cramps.

The chemical composition of the apple is, chlorophylle, sugar, gum,
vegetable fibre, albumen, malic acid, tannin and gallic acid, lime, and
a great quantity of water.

The apple may be grown on almost any description of soil, provided
it is not absolutely wet. That on which it succeeds best is a humid
sandy loam, or a well-drained strong clay, which if it possesses a
calcareous, or gravelly subsoil, will be still more advantageous. It
is not requisite that it should be of so great depth as for pears, as
the apple, having no tap-root, does not penetrate so far into the soil.
From eighteen inches to two feet will be found a good depth; but where
the soil is good, and the subsoil sufficiently humid without being
literally wet, even a foot to eighteen inches will answer every purpose.



CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES.


A great desideratum in pomological science is, a system of
classification for the apple, founded on characters which are at once
permanent and well defined. The Germans have been most assiduous
in endeavoring to attain this object, and many systems have been
suggested, of which those of Manger, Sickler, Christ, and Diel, are
most generally known. But it is to Diel that the greatest merit is
due, for having produced a system, which, though far from perfect, is
greatly in advance of any which had hitherto been produced; and which
has been universally adopted by all the German pomologists. In 1847,
my friend Dochnahl, an eminent and assiduous pomologist, published a
system, based upon that of Diel, of which it is a modification, and
which possesses such advantages over its type, as to be more easily
reduced to practise.

As the systems of Diel and Dochnahl, are certainly the best which have
yet appeared, I have introduced them here, for the benefit of those who
may want a groundwork on which to form an arrangement.


DIEL’S CLASSIFICATION.


CLASS I. RIBBED APPLES.

1. They are furnished with very prominent, but regular ribs round the
eye, extending also over the fruit, but which do not render the shape
irregular.--2. Having wide, open, and very irregular cells.


ORDER I. TRUE CALVILLES.

1. They taper from about the middle of the fruit towards the eye.--2.
They are covered with bloom when on the tree.--3. They have, or acquire
by keeping, an unctuous skin.--4. They are not distinctly and purely
striped.--5. They have light, spongy, delicate flesh.--6. They have a
strawberry or raspberry flavor.


ORDER II. SCHLOTTERÄPFEL.

1. The skin does not feel unctuous.--2. They are not covered with
bloom.--3. They are either of a flat, conical, cylindrical, or tapering
form.--4. They have not a balsamic, but mostly a sweetish or sourish
flavor.--5. They have a granulous, loose, and coarse-grained flesh.


ORDER III. GULDERLINGE.

1. They are not balsamic like Order I., but of an aromatic flavor.--2.
They have a fine flesh, almost like that of the Reinettes.--3. They are
either of a conical or flat shape.--4. They are most prominently ribbed
round the eye.


CLASS II. ROSENÄPFEL.--ROSE APPLES.

1. They are covered with blue bloom when on the tree.--2. They have
not unproportionally large, but often only regular cells.--3. They
emit a pleasant odor when briskly rubbed.--4. The skin does not feel
unctuous.--5. They are handsomely and regularly ribbed round the eye,
and often also over the fruit.--6. They have a tender, loose, spongy,
and mostly fine-grained flesh.--7. They have a fine rose, fennel, or
anise flavor.--8. They are mostly of short duration, and are often only
summer, or autumn apples.--9. They are mostly striped like a tulip.


ORDER I. FRUIT TAPERING OR OBLONG.


ORDER II. FRUIT ROUND OR FLAT.


CLASS III. RAMBOURS.

1. They are all large apples, and comprise the largest sorts.--2. They
have mostly, or almost always, two unequal halves, namely one side
lower than the other.--3. They are constantly furnished with ribs
round the eye, which are broad, rising irregularly the one above the
other, and extending over the fruit, so as to render it irregular in
its shape; they are also compressed and have one side higher than the
other.--4. They are constantly broader than high, and only sometimes
elongated.--5. They have all a loose, coarse-grained, and often very
pleasant flesh.


ORDER I. WITH WIDE CELLS.


ORDER II. WITH NARROW CELLS.


CLASS IV. REINETTES.

1. They have a fine-grained, delicate, crisp, firm, or tender
flesh.--2. They are mostly the ideal of a handsome shaped apple; in
them the convexity or bulge of the middle of the apple, towards the
eye, is the same as that towards the stalk, or not much different.--3.
They are all grey dotted, or have russety patches, or completely
covered with russet.--4. They have only rarely an unctuous skin.--5.
They have all the rich, aromatic, sugary, and brisk flavor, which is
called the Reinette flavor--6. They decay very readily, and must, of
all apples, hang longest on the tree.--7. The really sweet, and at the
same time aromatic apples, belong to the Reinettes, only as regards
their shape, their russety character, and their fine or firm flesh.--8.
Apples with fine, firm, crisp flesh, which cannot of themselves form a
separate class,--for instance, the Pippins also belong to this class.


ORDER I. SELF COLORED REINETTES.

1. Having an uniform green ground color, which changes to the most
beautiful golden yellow.--2. Having no lively colors or marks of russet
on the side next the sun; except those that are very much exposed, and
which assume a slight tinge of red.--3. Having no covering of russet,
but only slight traces of russety stripes.


ORDER II. RED REINETTES.

Having all the properties of the self colored Reinettes, but of a pure
red on the side next the sun, without any mixture of russet.


ORDER III. GREY REINETTES.

1. Their ground color is green, changing to dingy dull yellow.--2. The
coating of russet, or the russety patches spread over the greater part
of the fruit are very conspicious.--3. The side next the sun is often
dull brownish, or ochreous red.


ORDER IV. GOLDEN REINETTES.

1. On the side next the sun they are washed, or striped with beautiful
crimson.--2. The ground color changes by keeping to beautiful deep
yellow.--3. Over the ground color, and the crimson of the exposed side,
are spread light thin patches, or a complete coat of russet.


CLASS V. STREIFLINGE.--STRIPED APPLES.

1. They are all, and almost always, marked with broken stripes of
red.--2. These stripes are found either over the whole fruit, or only
very indistinctly on the side exposed to the sun.--3. The stripes may
be distinct, that is to say, truly striped; or between these stripes on
the side next the sun, the fruit is dotted, shaded, or washed with red;
but on the shaded side the stripes are well defined.--4. The cells are
regular.--5. They are of a purely sweet, vinous, or acid flavor.--6.
They have not the same flavor as the Rosenäpfel.--7. They do not decay
except when gathered before maturity, or after the period when properly
ripened.--8. They form a large and somewhat considerable class among
the culinary fruits.


ORDER I. FLAT STREIFLINGE.

1. They have the bulge at the same distance from the eye, as from the
stalk, and are broadly flattened.--2. They are constantly half an inch
broader than high.


ORDER II. TAPERING STREIFLINGE.

1. They are broader than high.--2. They diminish from the middle of
the apple towards the eye, so that the superior half is conical, or
pyramidal, and is not at all similiar to the inferior half.


ORDER III. OBLONG OR CYLINDRICAL STREIFLINGE.

1. The height and breath are almost equal.--2. They diminish gradually
from the base to the apex.--3. Or from the middle of the fruit, they
gradually diminish towards the base and apex equally.


ORDER IV. ROUND STREIFLINGE.

1. The convexity of the fruit next the base and the apex is the
same.--2. The breadth does not differ from the height, except only
about a quarter of an inch.--3. Laid in the hand with the eye and stalk
sideways, they have the appearance of a roundish shape.


CLASS VI. TAPERING APPLES.

1. They have the cells regular.--2. They are not covered with
bloom.--3. They are not striped, and are either of an uniform color, or
washed with red on the side next the sun.--4. Constantly diminishing to
a point towards the eye.--5. They are sweet, or vinous, approaching a
pure acid.--6. They do not decay readily.


ORDER I. OBLONG, CYLINDRICAL, OR CONICAL.

Characters the same as Order III. of the Streiflinge.


ORDER II. TAPERING TO A POINT.

Characters the same as Order II. of the Streiflinge.


CLASS VII. FLAT APPLES.

1. They are constantly broader than high.--2. They are never
striped.--3. They are either of an uniform color, or on the side
exposed to the sun more or less washed or shaded with red.--4. They
have regular cells.--5. They are not unctuous when handled.--6. They do
not decay readily.--7. Flavor purely sweet or purely sour.


ORDER I. PURELY FLAT APPLES.

1. The difference is obvious to the eye.--2. The breadth is constantly
half an inch more than the height.


ORDER II. ROUND-SHAPED FLAT APPLES.

1. The eye cannot easily detect a distinction between the breadth and
height.--2. The breadth rarely exceeds the height by a quarter of an
inch.--3. The fruit cut transversely, exhibits almost or quite two
equal halves.

       *       *       *       *       *


DOCHNAHL’S CLASSIFICATION.


SECTION I.

PLEUROIDEA.--_ANGULAR OR RIBBED APPLES._

Having sharp or flat ribs, which extend over the length of the fruit,
and are most prominent round the eye, where they are most generally
situated.


CLASS I. MALA CYDONARIA.--QUINCE-SHAPED APPLES.


ORDER I. CALVILLA,--_CALVILLES._

1. They have large heart-shaped cells, open towards the axis, or often
entirely torn; the cells extend very often from the stalk, even to
the tube of the calyx.--2. They diminish from about the middle of the
fruit, or a little above it towards the eye.--3. They are regular,
and provided generally with fine ribs, which do not disfigure the
fruit.--4. On the tree the fruit is covered with bloom.--5. They
are never distinctly striped.--6. Their flesh is soft, loose, fine,
and light, of a balsamic flavor, similar to that of strawberries or
raspberries.--7. The eye is frequently closed.--8. Many of them acquire
by keeping, an oily or unctuous skin.


GROUP I. FRUCTUS RUBRI--_FRUIT RED._

The fruit almost entirely covered with red.


GROUP 2. FRUCTUS BICOLORES.--_FRUIT TWO-COLORED._

Yellow, very much striped or washed with red.


GROUP 3. FRUCTUS LUTEI.--_FRUIT YELLOW._

Of a whitish, greenish, or golden yellow.


ORDER II. PSEUDO-CALVILLA.--_BASTARD CALVILLES._

1. The cells are the same as the true Calvilles, very large and
open.--2. The calycinal tube is wide and generally very short.--3.
They are slightly narrowed towards the eye, and flattened towards the
stalk.--4. Their ribs are very prominent, especially round the eye.--5.
They are aromatic, and have not the balsamic flavor of the true
Calvilles.--6. Their flesh is fine, opaque, a little succulent, and
almost equal to the Reinettes.

 _The Groups are the same as in the First Order._


CLASS II. MALA PYRARIA.--_PEAR-SHAPED APPLES._

Their flavor is neither balsamic nor aromatic; they are purely sweet or
acid, their flesh is granulous and loose.


ORDER I. TREMARIA.--_SEEDS LOOSE._

1. These are almost always large apples, the skin of which is neither
unctuous nor covered with bloom.--2. They are also furnished with ribs,
but they are not so regular as in the Calvilles.--3. The cells are very
large, irregular, widened, and generally open.--4. The calycinal tube
is most generally widely conical, and does not extend to the cells.--5.
They are of a flattened, conical, cylindrical, or pointed shape.--6.
Their flesh is loose, more often a little coarse, and of a slight
balsamic flavor.--7. The leaves of these trees are very large, rather
deeply dentated, and less downy than those of the Calvilles and Bastard
Calvilles.


GROUP 1. FRUCTUS UNICOLORES.--_FRUIT SELF-COLORED._

Green, greenish-yellow, or golden yellow, and lightly tinged with red.


GROUP 2. FRUCTUS BICOLORES.--_TWO COLORED._

Yellow or green, and distinctly striped or washed with red.


ORDER II. RAMBURA.--_RAMBURES._

1. They are all very large.--2. They have almost always the two
halves unequal.--3. They are constantly broader than high, and appear
sometimes higher than they are.--4. They are not furnished with ribs
except round the eye; these ribs are often irregular in numbers, and
frequently form broad projections on the fruit.--5. They do not decay,
but shrivel when they are past maturity.--6. The flesh is coarsely
granulous, rarely aromatic, often, nevertheless, very agreeable.


GROUP 1. CAPSULIS AMPLIS.--_CELLS WIDE._


GROUP 2. CAPSULIS ANGUSTIS.--_CELLS NARROW._


SECTION II.

SPHÆROIDEA.--_SPHERICAL APPLES._

They have sometimes prominences on the fruit and round the eye, but
never true ribs.


CLASS III. MALA MESPILARIA.--_MEDLAR-SHAPED APPLES._

Their flavor is sweet, aromatic, similar to that of the rose, fennel,
or anise.


ORDER I. APIANA.--_APIS OR ROSE APPLES._

1. Their flesh is soft, loose, marrowy, very fine-grained and of
a snow-white color.--2. The cells are almost always regular and
closed.--3. They are regularly ribbed round the eye, and often also
over the fruit, but sometimes not at all ribbed.--4. They have a
balsamic flavor, accompanied with a very agreeable odor.--5. They emit
a pleasant odor, especially when briskly rubbed.--6. When they are on
the tree, they are frequently covered with blue bloom, and striped like
a tulip.--7. The fruit is mostly small or middle sized.--8. They are
mostly of short duration, and lose their good flavor the same year.


GROUP 1. FRUCTUS OBLONGI.--_OBLONG FRUIT._


GROUP 2. FRUCTUS SPHÆRICI.--_ROUND OR FLATTENED FRUIT._


ORDER II. REINETTA.--_REINETTES._

1. These are apples which have generally the most regular and handsome
shape; having the bulge in the middle, at the same distance from the
eye as from the stalk.--2. All are dotted, clouded, or entirely covered
with russet.--3. They are very rarely inclined to be unctuous, but
generally rough when handled.--4. They all decay very readily, (they
must therefore be left as long as possible on the tree.)--5. Their
flesh is fine-grained, crisp, firm, or fine and delicate.--6. They are
all charged with only a balsamic, sugary acid, which is called Reinette
flavored.


GROUP 1. FRUCTUS UNICOLORES.--_SELF COLORED._

1. Having an uniform green ground color, which changes to the most
beautiful golden yellow.--2. Having no lively colors nor marks of
russet, on the side next the sun; except those that are very much
exposed, and are slightly tinged with red.--3. Having no covering of
russet, but only slight traces of russety stripes.


GROUP 2. FRUCTUS RUBRI.--_FRUIT RED._

Having all the properties of the self colored Reinettes; but on the
side next the sun, they are of a red color, with a mixture of russet.


GROUP 3. FRUCTUS RAVI.--_FRUIT RUSSETED._

1. Their ground color is green, changing to dingy dull yellow.--2. The
coatings of russet are very conspicious.--3. The side next the sun is
often dingy, brownish, or ochreous-red.--4. They all decay very readily.


GROUP 4. FRUCTUS AUREI.--_YELLOW OR GOLDEN FRUIT._

GOLDEN REINETTES.

1. On the side next the sun they are washed or striped with beautiful
crimson.--2. The ground color changes by keeping, to beautiful deep
yellow.--3. Over the crimson there is a light, thin trace, or complete
covering of russet.


CLASS IV. MALA MALARIA.--_PERFECT OR PURE APPLE SHAPED._

They are of a perfectly sweet or vinous flavor, approaching to pure
acid.


ORDER I. STRIOLA.--_STRIPED APPLES._

1. They are all, and almost always, marked with broken stripes of
red.--2. These are either over the whole fruit, or only indistinctly
on the side exposed to the sun.--3. The stripes may all be distinct,
that is, clearly and finely striped; or between these stripes on the
side next the sun, the fruit is dotted, shaded, or washed with red;
but on the shaded side, the stripes are well defined.--4. The cells
are regular.--5. The fruit does not decay, except when gathered before
maturity, or after the period when it has been properly ripened.


GROUP 1. FRUCTUS DEPRESSI.--_FRUIT FLAT._

1. They have the bulge at the same distance from the eye, as from the
stalk, and are broadly flattened.--2. They are always half an inch
broader than high.


GROUP 2. FRUCTUS ACUMINATI.--_POINTED FRUIT._

1. They are broader than high.--2. They diminish from the middle of
the apple towards the eye, so that the superior half is conical or
pyramidal, and is not at all similiar to the inferior half.


GROUP 3. FRUCTUS OBLONGI.--_FRUIT OBLONG OR CYLINDRICAL._

1. The height and breadth are almost equal.--2. They diminish gradually
from the base to the apex.--3. Or from the middle of the fruit, they
gradually diminish towards the base and apex equally.


GROUP 4. FRUCTUS SPHÆRICI.--_FRUIT ROUND._

1. The convexity of the fruit next the base and the apex is the
same.--2. The breadth does not differ from the height, except only
about a quarter of an inch.--3. When laid on their sides they present a
spherical shape.


ORDER II. CONTUBERNALIA.--_STORING OR HOUSEHOLD APPLES._

1. Having the cells regular.--2. They are not striped, and are either
of an uniform color, or washed with red on the side next the sun.--3.
They do not decay readily.--4. They are not unctuous when handled.--5.
They are never covered with bloom.


GROUP 1. FRUCTUS ACUMINATI.--_FRUIT TAPERING._

Diminishing towards the eye.


GROUP 2. FRUCTUS DEPRESSI.--_FRUIT FLAT._

They are constantly broader than high.

       *       *       *       *       *

Such is the classification of Dochnahl, and although it is not all
that could be desired, it is certainly the best which has yet been
published, and will serve as a good foundation on which to raise a more
perfect work.

I have not had an opportunity of applying either of these arrangements
to the classification of our British apples, but for the purpose of
affording a little assistance in identifying the different varieties
described in this work, I have prepared the following, which, although
I am aware is not what could be desired, will at least be sufficient
for all general purposes. The period of duration, and the coloring of
fruits, vary to a considerable extent according to circumstances of
soil, situation, and season; but in the following arrangement, I have
endeavored to embrace those characters which they are most generally
found to possess.


I. SUMMER APPLES.

Consisting of such as either ripen on the tree, or shortly after being
gathered, and which generally do not last longer than the beginning of
October.


§--ROUND, ROUNDISH, OR OBLATE.


A. PALE COLORED.

 _Being either of an uniform pale color, or occasionally tinged with
 faint red._

 Calville Blanche d’Eté
 Dutch Codlin
 Early Harvest
 Early Julien
 Early Spice
 Joanneting
 Large Yellow Bough
 Madeleine
 Oslin
 Sack and Sugar
 Stirzaker’s Early Square


B. STRIPED.

 _Being wholly or partially marked with stripes, either on a pale or
 colored ground._

 Borovitsky
 Duchess of Oldenburgh
 Nonesuch
 Ravelstone Pippin
 Whorle


C. RED.

 _Having either a cloud of red on the side next the sun, or entirely
 covered with red._

 Calville Rouge d’Eté
 Calville Rouge de Micoud
 Cole
 Devonshire Quarrenden
 Irish Peach
 Maiden’s Blush
 Passe Pomme d’Automne
 Passe Pomme Rouge
 Red Astrachan


§§--OBLONG, CONICAL, OVAL, OR OVATE.


A. PALE COLORED.

 _Being either of an uniform pale color, or occasionally tinged with
 faint red._

 Carlisle Codlin
 Early Wax
 English Codlin
 Keswick Codlin
 Manks Codlin
 Springrove Codlin
 Sugar Loaf Pippin
 Summer Golden Pippin
 Teuchat’s Egg
 White Astrachan


B. STRIPED.

 _Being wholly or partially marked with stripes, either on a pale or
 colored ground._

 American Summer Pearmain
 Creeper
 Kerry Pippin
 Longville’s Kernel
 Margaret
 Pigeonnet


C. RED.

 _Having either a cloud of red on the side next the sun, or entirely
 covered with red._

 Dr. Helsham’s Pippin
 Hollow Core
 King of the Pippins
 Sugar and Brandy


II. AUTUMN APPLES.

Including such as are in use from the time of gathering to Christmas.


§--ROUND, ROUNDISH, OR OBLATE.


A. PALE COLORED.

 _Being either of an uniform pale color, or occasionally tinged with
 faint red._

 American Fall
 Bland’s Jubilee
 Breedon Pippin
 Bridgewater Pippin
 Broadend
 Broad Eyed Pippin
 Cobham
 Dowell’s Pippin
 Downton Pippin
 Drap d’Or
 Early Nonpareil
 Flanders Pippin
 Forest Stire
 Franklin’s Golden Pippin
 Gloria Mundi
 Golden Monday
 Golden Noble
 Gooseberry Apple
 Grange
 Harvey Apple
 Pawsan
 Small Stalk
 Stead’s Kernel
 Waltham Abbey Seedling
 White Westling
 Winter Lading
 Yellow Elliot


B. STRIPED.

 _Being wholly or partially marked with stripes, either on a pale or
 colored ground._

 Bachelor’s Glory
 Biggs’s Nonesuch
 Cellini
 Chester Pearmain
 Creed’s Marigold
 Elford Pippin
 Flushing Spitzenburgh
 Gravenstein
 Green Woodcock
 Hermann’s Pippin
 Hoary Morning
 Hollandbury
 Kentish Fill Basket
 Kingston Black
 Longstart
 Monkton
 Nanny
 Rabine
 Rambour Franc
 Red-Streak
 Red Streaked Rawling
 Siberian Harvey
 Summer Strawberry
 Trumpington


C. RED.

 _Having either a cloud of red on the side next the sun, or entirely
 covered with red._

 Api Etoillé
 Bere Court Pippin
 Borsdorffer
 Burn’s Seedling
 Calville Rouge d’Automne
 Cherry Apple
 Contin Reinette
 Flower of Kent
 Forge
 Foxley
 Glory of the West
 Greenup’s Pippin
 Hawthornden
 Isle of Wight Pippin
 Lady’s Delight
 De Neige
 Red-Must
 Rymer
 Scarlet Crofton
 Scarlet Tiffing
 Scotch Bridget
 Siberian Bitter Sweet
 Summer Broadend


D. RUSSET.

 _Being entirely or to a great extent covered with russet._

 Brown Kenting
 Cornish Aromatic
 Ten Shillings


§§--OBLONG, CONICAL, OVAL, OR OVATE.


A. PALE COLORED.

 _Being either of an uniform pale color, or occasionally tinged with
 faint red._

 Brookes’s
 Catshead
 Coccagee
 Costard
 Cray Pippin
 Green Tiffing
 Hargreave’s Green Sweet
 Harvey’s Wiltshire Defiance
 Isleworth Crab
 Kilkenny Pearmain
 Lucombe’s Pine
 Marmalade
 Melrose
 Monkland Pippin
 Nelson Codlin
 Pitmaston Golden Wreath
 Proliferous Reinette
 Sheep’s Nose
 Tarvey Codlin
 Toker’s Incomparable
 Transparent Codlin
 White Wine
 Wormsley Pippin
 Yellow Ingestrie


B. STRIPED.

 _Being wholly or partially marked, with stripes, either on a pale or
 colored ground._

 Augustus Pearmain
 Belle Bonne
 Colonel Vaughan’s
 Bennet Apple
 Best Bache
 Broughton
 Cowarne Red
 Duke of Beaufort’s Pippin
 Duncan
 Emperor Alexander
 Fill Basket
 Garter
 Glory of England
 Golden Streak
 Golden Winter Pearmain
 Hagloe Crab
 Mère de Ménage
 Moore’s Seedling
 Queen of Sauce
 Summer Pearmain
 White Paradise


C. RED.

 _Having either a cloud of red on the side next the sun, or entirely
 covered with red._

 Fox Whelp
 Friar
 Ganges
 Grey Leadington
 Kentish Pippin
 Long Nose
 Pigeon
 Red Ingestrie
 Wickham’s Pearmain
 Woodcock


D. RUSSET.

 _Being entirely, or to a great extent covered with russet._

 Bowyer’s Russet
 Patch’s Russet
 Pine Apple Russet


III.--WINTER APPLES.

Including such as are in use during the whole of the Winter and Spring.


§--ROUND, ROUNDISH, OR OBLATE.


A. PALE COLORED.

 _Being either of an uniform pale color, or occasionally tinged with
 faint red._

 Alfriston
 Bedfordshire Foundling
 Belledge Pippin
 Birmingham Pippin
 Blenheim Pippin
 Bringewood Pippin
 Calville Blanche d’Hiver
 Cluster Golden Pippin
 Court of Wick
 Devonshire Buckland
 Dredge’s Fair Maid of Wishford
 Dredge’s Fame
 Essex Pippin
 Fair’s Nonpareil
 Famagusta
 Fenouillet Jaune
 Gogar Pippin
 Golden Pippin
 Holland Pippin
 Hollow Crowned Pippin
 Hughes’s Golden Pippin
 Minchall Crab
 Morris’s Court of Wick
 Rambo
 Reinette Diel
 Reinette Franche
 Reinette Jaune Sucrée
 Reinette Vert
 Rhode Island Greening
 Saint Julien
 Screveton Golden Pippin
 Siely’s Mignonne
 Sleeping Beauty
 Spitzenberg
 Veiny Pippin
 Wyken Pippin
 Yellow Newtown Pippin


B. STRIPED.

 _Being wholly or partially marked with stripes, either on a pale or
 colored ground._

 Brabant Bellefleur
 Calville Rouge d’Hiver
 Caroline
 Christie’s Pippin
 Dutch Mignonne
 Fulwood
 Golden Reinette
 Gros Faros
 Hall Door
 Hambledon Deux Ans
 Hoskreiger
 Keeping Red Streak
 Kirke’s Lord Nelson
 Lincolnshire Holland Pippin
 Lucombe’s Seedling
 Newtown Spitzenberg
 Ribston Pippin
 Round Winter Nonesuch
 Royal Reinette
 Scarlet Nonpareil
 Selwood’s Reinette
 Shakespere
 Shepherd’s Fame
 Somerset Lasting
 Spice Apple
 Striped Beefing
 Striped Monstrous Reinette
 Taunton Golden Pippin
 Watson’s Dumpling
 West Grinstead Pippin
 Yorkshire Greening


C. RED.

 _Having either a cloud of red on the side next the sun, or entirely
 covered with red._

 Api
 Api Gros
 Api Noir
 Baddow Pippin
 Bank
 Belle Grisdeline
 Braddick’s Nonpareil
 Brickley Seedling
 Calville Malingre
 Clara Pippin
 Coul Blush
 Court-pendu Plat
 Dumelow’s Seedling
 Fair Maid of Taunton
 Fearn’s Pippin
 Harvey’s Pippin
 Haute Bonté
 London Pippin
 Mela Carla
 Minier’s Dumpling
 Newtown Pippin
 Nonpareil
 Norfolk Beefing
 Norfolk Paradise
 Northern Greening
 Osterley Pippin
 Padley’s Pippin
 Pearson’s Plate
 Petworth Nonpareil
 Pomewater
 Reinette de Breda
 Reinette Blanche d’Espagne
 Reinette de Canada
 Reinette Van Mons
 Rose de China
 Royal Shepherd
 Sir William Gibbons’s
 Sops in Wine
 Squire’s Greening
 Sturmer Pippin
 Surry Flat Cap
 Turk’s Cap
 Wanstall
 Wheeler’s Extreme
 White Virgin
 Winter Colman
 Winter Greening
 Winter Majetin


D. RUSSET.

 _Being entirely, or to a great extent, covered with russet._

 Acklam’s Russet
 Aromatic Russet
 Ashmead’s Kernel
 Boston Russet
 Byson Wood Russet
 Fenouillet Gris
 Fenouillet Rouge
 Golden Harvey
 Horsham Russet
 Keeping Russet
 Knobbed Russet
 Morris’s Russet
 New Rock Pippin
 Pennington’s Seedling
 Pile’s Russet
 Pitmaston Nonpareil
 Pomme Grise
 Powell’s Russet
 Reinette Carpentin
 Reinette Grise
 Robinson’s Pippin
 Ross Nonpareil
 Royal Russet
 Sam Young
 Sweeney Nonpareil
 Sykehouse Russet
 Wheeler’s Russet


§§--OBLONG, CONICAL, OVAL, OR OVATE.


A. PALE COLORED.

 _Being either of an uniform pale color or occasionally tinged with
 faint red._

 Barton’s Incomparable
 Beachamwell
 Bossom
 Cockle Pippin
 Coe’s Golden Drop
 Colonel Harbord’s Pippin
 Darling Pippin
 Hanwell Souring
 Hormead Pearmain
 Hunthouse
 Lemon Pippin
 Mitchelson’s Seedling
 Norfolk Stone Pippin
 Nottingham Pippin
 Oxnead Pearmain
 Pitmaston Golden Pippin
 Pope’s Apple
 Tower of Glammis
 Trumpeter
 Warner’s King
 Winter Codlin


B. STRIPED.

 _Being wholly or partially marked with stripes, either on a pale or
 colored ground._

 Adams’s Pearmain
 Baldwin
 Baxter’s Pearmain
 Beauty of Kent
 Benwell’s Pearmain
 Bess Pool
 Bristol Pearmain
 Claygate Pearmain
 Cornish Gilliflower
 Esopus Spitzenburgh
 Federal Pearmain
 Grange’s Pearmain
 Lamb Abbey Pearmain
 Lewis’s Incomparable
 Loan’s Pearmain
 Margil
 Parry’s Pearmain
 Royal Pearmain
 Scarlet Leadington
 Scarlet Pearmain
 Seek-no-Farther
 Winter Pearmain
 Winter Quoining


C. RED.

 _Having either a cloud of red on the side next the sun, or entirely
 covered with red._

 Barcelona Pearmain
 Farleigh Pippin
 Foulden Pearmain
 Hunt’s Deux Ans
 Hutton Square
 Irish Reinette
 Lady’s Finger
 Mannington’s Pearmain
 New York Pippin
 Ord’s Apple
 Petit Jean
 Pomeroy
 Ponto Pippin
 Russet Table Pearmain
 Tulip
 Vale Mascal Pearmain
 Violette
 Wadhurst Pippin
 Whitmore Pippin
 Woolman’s Long


D. RUSSET.

 _Being entirely, or to a great extent, covered with russet._

 Betsey
 Forman’s Crew
 Golden Knob
 Golden Pearmain
 Golden Russet
 Hubbard’s Pearmain
 Hunt’s Duke of Gloucester
 Martin Nonpareil
 Morris’s Nonpareil Russet
 Pinner Seedling
 Rosemary Russet
 Rushock Pearmain
 Uellner’s Gold Reinette



THE APPLE.--ITS VARIETIES.


1. ACKLAM’S RUSSET.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 92. Lind. Guide, 85. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed.
 3, n. 733.

 SYNONYME.--Aclemy Russet, _Gibs. Fr. Gard._ 359.

Fruit, below the medium size, two inches and a quarter wide, and two
inches high; round and somewhat flattened. Skin, pale yellow tinged
with green, and covered with thin grey russet, particularly on the side
exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a smooth, round, and
shallow basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a moderately deep cavity.
Flesh, white with a greenish tinge, firm, crisp, juicy, and highly
flavoured.

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality; ripe in November, and
will keep under favourable circumstances till March.

The tree is very hardy, and an excellent bearer. It succeeds best in a
dry soil, and is well adapted for espalier training.

This variety is supposed to have originated at the village of Acklam,
in Yorkshire.


2. ADAMS’S PEARMAIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 60. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 529.

 SYNONYME.--Norfolk Pippin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 685.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 133.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large, varying from two inches and a half to three inches high
and about the same in breadth at the widest part; pearmain-shaped,
very even, and regularly formed. Skin, pale yellow tinged with green,
and covered with delicate russet on the shaded side; but deep yellow
tinged with red, and delicately streaked with livelier red on the side
next the sun. Eye, small and open, with acute erect segments, set in
a narrow, round, and plaited basin. Stalk, varying from half an inch
to an inch long, obliquely inserted in a shallow cavity, and generally
with a fleshy protuberance on one side of it. Flesh, yellowish, crisp,
juicy, rich, and sugary, with an agreeable and pleasantly perfumed
flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from December to
February. It is a large and very handsome variety, and worthy of
general cultivation.

The tree is a free and healthy grower, producing long slender shoots,
by which, and its cucullated ovate leaves, it is easily distinguished.
It is an excellent bearer even in a young state, particularly on the
paradise or doucin stock, and succeeds well as an espalier.


3. ALFRISTON.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 8. Lind. Guide,
 26. Down. Fr. Amer. 97.

 SYNONYMES.--Lord Gwydyr’s Newtown Pippin, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed.
 3. Oldaker’s New, _Ibid._ Shepherd’s Pippin, _in Sussex_. Shepherd’s
 Seedling, _Ibid._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxv. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, of the largest size, generally about three inches and a half
wide, and from two and three quarters to three inches high; roundish,
and angular on the sides. Skin, greenish yellow on the shaded side,
and tinged with orange next the sun, covered all over with veins, or
reticulations of russet. Eye, open, set in a deep and uneven basin.
Stalk, short, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp,
juicy, sugary, and briskly flavoured.

This is one of the largest and best culinary apples. It comes into use
in the beginning of November and continues till April.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, very hardy, and an abundant
bearer.

This variety is supposed to have been raised by a person of the name
of Shepherd, at Uckfield, in Sussex, and has for many years been
extensively cultivated in that county, under the names of _Shepherd’s
Seedling_, and _Shepherd’s Pippin_, two names by which it is there
most generally known. Some years ago a Mr. Brooker, of Alfriston,
near Hailsham, in Sussex, sent specimens of the fruit to the London
Horticultural Society, by whom, being unknown, it was called the
_Alfriston_, a name by which it is now generally known, except in its
native county. By some it is erroneously called the _Baltimore_ and
_Newtown Pippin_.


4. AMERICAN FALL PIPPIN.--H.

 SYNONYME.--Fall Pippin, _Coxe. View_, 109, _Down. Fr. Amer._ 84.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; roundish, ribbed on the sides, and almost the same width
at the apex as the base. Skin, yellow tinged with green, and strewed
with brown dots on the shaded side; but with a tinge of brown, and
numerous embedded pearly specks on the side next the sun. Eye, large
and open, with broad, flat segments, set in a wide, deep, and rather
angular basin. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, inserted in a
rather shallow cavity, which is slightly marked with russet. Flesh,
yellowish, slightly tinged with green at the margin, tender, juicy,
sugary, slightly perfumed, and pleasantly flavoured.

Unlike the majority of American Apples, this comes to great perfection
in this country, and is a valuable and first-rate culinary apple. It is
ripe in October and will last till Christmas.

This is the true Fall Pippin of the American orchards, and a very
different variety from the Fall Pippin of this country, which is known
by the names of Cobbett’s Fall Pippin, and Reinette Blanche d’Espagne.


5. AMERICAN SUMMER PEARMAIN.--Ken.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Ken. Amer. Or. 1. Hort Soc. Cat. ed. 3. Down. Fr.
 Amer. 70.

 SYNONYME.--Early Summer Pearmain, _Coxe. View_, 104.

Fruit, medium sized; oblong, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin,
yellow, covered with patches and streaks of light red, on the shaded
side; and streaked with fine bright red, interspersed with markings of
yellow on the side next the sun. Eye, set in a wide and deep basin.
Stalk, slender, inserted in a round and deep cavity. Flesh, yellow,
very tender, rich, and pleasantly flavored.

An excellent early apple, either for dessert or kitchen use. It is ripe
in the end of August, and will keep till the end of September.

The tree is a healthy grower, a prolific bearer, and succeeds well on
light soils.


6. API.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fr. I. 309. Quint. Traité, 1, 202.

 SYNONYMES.--Lady Apple, _Coxe. View_, 117. _Down. Fr. Amer._ 115.
 Pomme d’Apict, _Inst. Arb. Fr._ 154. Pomme Appease, _Worl. Vin._ 165.
 L’Api, _Bret. Ecole._ II. 478. Pomme d’Apis, _Knoop. Pom._ 68, t. xii.
 Api Rouge, _Poit. Pom. Franç._ t. 113. Pomme d’Api, _Fors. Treat._
 121. Petit Api Rouge, _Nois. Jard. Fr. ed._ 2, pl. 105. Api Petit,
 _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 11. Pomme Rose, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._
 erroneously. Pomme Dieu and Long Bois, _in some provinces of France_.
 Kleine Api Apfel, _Christ. Handb. ed._ 2, n. 145. Der Jungfernapfel,
 _Christ Handworter_, 17. Der Einfache, der Welsche Api, _Ibid._ Bollen
 oder Traubenapfel, _Ibid._ Api Roesje, _Ibid._ Appius Claudius,
 _Evelyn. Fr. Gard._ 124. Malus Apiosa, _Hort. Par._

 FIGURES.--Duh. Arb. Fr. I. pl. ix. Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. lxxxvii. f.
 1. Jard. fruit, ed. 2, pl. 105. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxii. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; oblate. Skin, thick, smooth, and shining, yellowish green
in the shade, changing to pale yellow as it attains maturity; and deep
glossy red, approaching to crimson, on the side next the sun. Eye,
small, set in a rather deep and plaited basin. Stalk, short, and deeply
inserted. Flesh, white, crisp, tender, sweet, very juicy, and slightly
perfumed.

A beautiful little dessert apple in use from October to April.

It should be eaten with the skin on, as it is there that the perfume is
contained. The skin is very sensitive of shade, and any device may be
formed upon it, by causing pieces of paper, in the form of the design
required, to adhere on the side exposed to the sun, before it has
attained its deep red color.

The tree is of a pyramidal habit of growth, healthy, and an abundant
bearer. It succeeds well in almost any situation, provided the soil
is rich, loamy, and not too light or dry; and may be grown with equal
success either on the doucin, or crab stock. When worked on the French
paradise it is well adapted for pot culture. The fruit is firmly
attached to the spurs and forcibly resists the effects of high winds.

It has been asserted, that this apple was brought from Peloponessus to
Rome, by Appius Claudius. Whether this be true or not, there can be no
doubt it is of great antiquity, as all the oldest authors regard it
as the production of an age prior to their own. Dalechamp and Harduin
are of opinion that it is the Petisia of Pliny; but J. Baptista Porta
considers it to be the Appiana of that author, who thus describes it,
“Odor est his cotoneorum magnitudo quæ Claudianis, color rubens.”[I]
From this description it is evident that two varieties are referred
to, the Appiana and Claudiana. Such being the case, J. Baptista Porta
says, “duo sunt apud nos mala, magnitudine, et colore paria, et
preciosa, quorum unum odorem servat cotoneorum, alterum minimè. Quod
odore caret, vulgo dictum _Melo rosa_. Id roseo colore perfusum est,
mira teneritudine et sapore, minimè fugax, pomum magnitudine media,
ut facile cum ceteris de principatu certet, nec indignum Claudii
nomine. Hoc Claudianum dicerem.”[J] This Melo Rosa may possibly be the
Pomme Rose or Gros Api; and if so, we may infer that the Api is the
_Appiana_, and the Gros Api the _Claudiana_ of Pliny. This, however,
may be mere conjecture, but as the authority referred to, was a native
of Naples, and may be supposed to know something of the traditionary
associations of the Roman fruits, I have deemed it advisable to record
his opinion on the subject. According to Merlet, the Api was first
discovered as a wilding in the Forest of Api, in Brittany.

Although mentioned by most of the early continental writers, the Api
does not appear to have been known in this country, till towards the
end of the 17th century. It is first mentioned by Worlidge, who calls
it “Pomme Appease, a curious apple, lately propagated; the fruit is
small and pleasant, which the Madams of France carry in their pockets,
by reason they yield no unpleasant scent.” Lister, in his “Journey to
Paris, 1698,” speaking of this as being one of the apples served up in
the dessert, says, “Also the Pome d’Apis, which is served here more
for show than for use; being a small flat apple, very beautiful, and
very red on one side, and pale or white on the other, and may serve the
ladies at their toilets as a pattern to paint by.” De Quintinye calls
it “Une Pomme des Damoiselles et de bonne compagnie.”

Under the name of _Lady Apple_, large quantities of the Api are
annually imported to this country from the United States, where it is
grown to a great extent, and produces a considerable return to the
growers, as it always commands the highest price of any other fancy
apple in the market. In the winter months, they may be seen encircled
with various coloured tissue papers, adorning the windows of the
fruiterers in Covent Garden Market.

There are other varieties mentioned by J. B. Porta as belonging to the
Api family; one which ripened in August, in size like the Claudiana
already mentioned, and commonly called _Melo Appio Rosso_, because it
retained the scent of the Api; this is probably the Rother Sommer-api
of Diel. There is another, of which he says, “Assererem tuto esse
Melapium Plinii,” and which was held in such estimation as to give rise
to the proverb--

    “Omme malum malum præter appium malum.”

[I] Plinii Hist. Nat. Lib. xv., cap. 14.

[J] Villæ, p. 278.

7. API GROS.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fr. 1, 312. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3.

 SYNONYMES.--Pomme Rose, _Quint. Traité_, I. 203, but not of Knoop.
 Pomme d’Api Gros. _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 39. Passe-rose, _Chart. Cat._ 55.
 Grosser Api, Rosenapi, _Diel Kernobst._ iv., 228. Api Rose. Doppelter
 Api, _Acc. Christ Handworter_. Rubenapfel, _Ibid._ Api Grand, _Ibid._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xx. f. 1.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, and
two inches high; oblate. Skin, pale green, changing as it ripens to
pale yellow on the shaded side, and pale red, mottled with green,
where exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a shallow and
plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a wide, rather deep, and
russety cavity. Flesh, greenish, tender, crisp, very juicy, and briskly
flavored.

Suitable either for the dessert, or for culinary purposes; it is
inferior to the Api and not a first-rate apple. In use from December to
March. The tree has much similarity to the Api in its growth, and is a
good bearer.

This is a variety of the preceding, and closely resembles it in all
its parts, except that it is much larger. “La Pomme Rose resemble
extremement partout son exterieur a la Pomme d’Apis, mais à mon goût
elle ne la vaut pas quoy que puissent dire les curieux du Rhône, qui
la veulent autant élever aussi au dessus des autres, qu’ils élevent la
Poire Chat au dessus des autres Poires.”--_De Quintinye._


8. API ETOILLE.--Diel.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Diel. Kernobst. B. iv. 31.

 SYNONYMES.--Pomme Etoillée, _Duh. Arb. Fr._ I. 312. Pomme d’Etoille,
 _Ibid._ Gelber Sternförmiger Api, _Diel Kernobst._ B. iv. 31.
 Sternapfel, _Christ Handworter_, 106. _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 797.

This is a variety of the Api, from which it is distinguished by being
very much flattened, and furnished with five very prominent angles on
the sides, which give it the appearance of a star, hence its name. It
is of a deep yellow on the shaded side, and redish orange next the sun.
It is a well-flavored apple, but only of second-rate quality. It ripens
about the middle or end of September.

The variety received under this name by the London Horticultural
Society must have been incorrect, as in the last edition of their
catalogue it is made synonymous with Api Petit.


9. API NOIR.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fr. I. 311. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3.

 SYNONYME.--Schwarzer Api, _Diel Kernobst._ ix. 214.

 FIGURE.--Poit et. Turp. pl. 137.

Fruit, small, but a little larger and somewhat flatter than the Api, to
which it bears a close resemblance. Skin, tender, smooth, and shining
as if varnished, and almost entirely covered, where exposed to the sun,
with very dark crimson, almost approaching to black, like the Pomme
Violette, but becoming paler towards the shaded side, where there is
generally a patch of light yellow; it is strewed with fawn-colored
dots, and some markings of russet. Eye, very small, set in a pretty
deep and plaited basin. Stalk, slender, about three quarters of an
inch long, inserted in a rather deep, wide, and funnel-shaped cavity,
which is slightly marked with russet. Flesh, pure white, firm and
juicy, tinged with red under the skin, and with a pleasant, vinous, and
slightly perfumed flavor.

A dessert apple, inferior to the Api, and cultivated merely for
curiosity. It is in use from November to April, but is very apt to
become meally.

The habit of the tree is similar to that of the Api, but it is rather a
larger grower.


10. AROMATIC RUSSET.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 86. Rog. Fr. Cult. 105.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. viii.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and about two inches
and a quarter high; roundish-ovate, and flattened at both ends. Skin,
greenish yellow, almost entirely covered with brownish grey russet,
strewed with brownish scales on the shaded side, and slightly tinged
with brownish red, strewed with silvery scales on the side exposed to
the sun. Eye, small and open, with broad recurved segments, and set
in a rather shallow basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and round
cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, firm, crisp, brisk, sugary, and richly
aromatic.

A dessert apple of the first quality, in use from December to February.

The tree is very hardy and an abundant bearer.


11. ASHMEAD’S KERNEL.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 86. Ron. Pyr. Mal. 63, but not of Hort.
 Soc. Cat. ed. 2.

 SYNONYME.--Dr. Ashmead’s Kernel, _in Gloucestershire_.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxii. f. 5.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size; round and flattened, but sometimes
considerably elongated; the general character, however, is shown in
the accompanying figure. Skin, light greenish yellow, covered with
yellowish brown russet, and a tinge of brown next the sun. Eye, small
and partially open, placed in a moderately deep basin. Stalk, short,
inserted in a round and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp,
juicy, sugary, rich, and highly aromatic.

A dessert apple of the very first quality, possessing all the richness
of the Nonpareil, but with a more sugary juice. It comes into use in
November, but is in greatest perfection from Christmas till May.

The tree is very hardy, an excellent bearer, and will succeed in
situations unfavorable to the Nonpareil, to which its leaves and shoots
bear such a similarity, as to justify Mr. Lindley in believing it to be
a seedling from that variety.

This delightful apple was raised at Gloucester, about the beginning of
last century, by Dr. Ashmead, an eminent physician of that city. The
original tree existed within the last few years, in what had originally
been Dr. Ashmead’s garden, but was destroyed in consequence of the
ground being required for building. It stood on the spot now occupied
by Clarence Street. It is difficult to ascertain the exact period
when it was raised; but the late Mr. Hignell, an eminent orchardist
at Tewkesbury, in Gloucestershire, informed me, that the first time
he ever saw the fruit of Ashmead’s Kernel, was from a tree in the
nursery of Mr. Wheeler, of Gloucester, in the year 1796, and that the
tree in question had been worked from the original, and was at that
time upwards of thirty years old. From this it may be inferred that
the original tree had attained some celebrity by the middle of last
century. The Ashmead’s Kernel has long been a favorite apple in all
the gardens of West Gloucestershire, but it does not seem to have
been known in other parts of the country. Like the Ribston Pippin
it seems to have remained long in obscurity, before its value was
generally appreciated; it is not even enumerated in the catalogue of
the extensive collection which was cultivated by Miller and Sweet,
of Bristol, in 1790. I find it was cultivated in the Brompton Park
Nursery, in 1780, at which time it was received from Mr. Wheeler,
nurseryman, of Gloucester, who was author of “The Botanist’s and
Gardener’s Dictionary,” published in 1763, and grandfather of Mr. J.
Cheslin Wheeler, the present proprietor of the nursery, to whom I am
indebted for specimens of the fruit, and much valuable information
connected with the varieties cultivated in that district.


12. AUGUSTUS PEARMAIN--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3. p. 30.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size; pearmain-shaped, regular and handsome. Skin,
thick and membranous, yellow in the shade, and marked with a few
broken stripes of red; but red, streaked all over with deeper red on
the side next the sun; it is dotted with grey dots, and sometimes
marked with patches of grey-colored russet, which is strewed with
scales of a darker color. Eye, small and closed, with long segments,
set in a narrow and even basin. Stalk, very short, not protruding
beyond the base, and having the appearance of a knob obliquely
attached. Flesh, tender, juicy, brisk, and vinous, with a pleasant
aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple, generally of only second-rate quality; but in some
seasons it is of a rich flavor and of first-rate quality.

It is in use from November to Christmas.


13. BACHELOR’S GLORY.--H.

Fruit, large, three inches wide, and two and three quarters high;
roundish and irregularly ribbed, generally higher on one side of the
eye than the other. Skin, smooth and shining, striped with deep golden
yellow, and crimson stripes. Eye, closed, with broad flat segments, and
set in a plaited, irregular, and angular basin. Stalk, about half an
inch long, deeply inserted in a funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined
with rough scaly russet. Flesh, yellow, tender, juicy, and pleasantly
flavored.

A second-rate fruit, suitable either for the dessert or culinary
purposes; in use from October to November.

This is a variety grown in the neighbourhood of Lancaster, where
it is much esteemed, but in the southern districts, where the more
choice varieties can be brought to perfection, it can only rank as a
second-rate fruit.


14. BADDOW PIPPIN.--H.

 SYNONYME.--Spring Ribston, _Riv. Cat._ 1848.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; roundish or rather oblate, with prominent ribs on
the sides, which terminate in four, and sometimes five considerable
ridges at the crown, very much in the character of the London Pippin.
It is sometimes of an ovate shape, caused by the stalk being prominent
instead of depressed, in which case the ribs on the sides, and ridges
round the eye, are less apparent. Skin, deep lively green, changing
as it ripens to yellowish green, on the shaded side; but covered on
the side next the sun with dull red, which changes to orange where it
blends with the yellow ground; the whole considerably marked with thin
brown russet, and russety dots. Eye, rather large and open, with short
segments, and set in an angular basin. Stalk, very short, not more than
a quarter of an inch long, and inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh,
greenish white, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, and with a particularly
rich and vinous flavor, partaking somewhat of the Nonpareil and
Ribston, but particularly the latter.

This is a first-rate dessert apple, in use in November, and possessing
the desirable property of keeping till April or May.

This variety originated in the garden of Mr. John Harris, of
Broomfield, near Chelmsford, and was first introduced to public notice
in the autumn of 1848.


15. BALDWIN.--Ken.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Ken. Amer. Or. 41. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 22.
 Down. Fr. Amer. 98.

 SYNONYMES.--Red Baldwin, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 2. Butter’s,
 _Ibid._ Woodpecker, _Ibid._

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and about three inches
high; ovato-conical. Skin, smooth, yellow on the shaded side; and on
the side next the sun, deep orange, covered with stripes of bright red,
which sometimes extend over the whole surface to the shaded side, and
marked with large russety dots. Eye, closed, set in a deep, narrow,
and plaited basin. Stalk, about an inch long, slender, and inserted in
a deep cavity, from which issue ramifying patches of russet. Flesh,
yellowish, crisp, juicy, and pleasantly acid, with a rich and agreeable
flavor.

A culinary apple, in season from November to March. The tree is
vigorous, and an abundant bearer; but like the generality of the
American sorts, it does not attain the size, or flavor in this country,
which it does in its native soil.

This is considered one of the finest apples in the Northern States of
America, and is extensively grown in Massachussets, for the supply of
the Boston Market.


16. BANK APPLE.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and about
two inches and a half high; roundish-ovate, regularly and handsomely
formed. Skin, greenish yellow, with a blush and faint streaks of
red next the sun, dotted all over with minute dots, and marked with
several large spots of rough russet; the base is covered with a
coating of russet, strewed with silvery scales. Eye, large and open,
set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, half an inch long, obliquely
inserted by the side of a fleshy prominence. Flesh, firm, crisp, brisk,
juicy, and pleasantly acid, resembling the Winter Greening in flavor.

It is an excellent culinary apple, in use from November to February;
but as it has nothing to recommend it, in preference to other varieties
already in cultivation, it need only be grown in large collections.

The original tree was produced from a pip, accidentally sown in the
home nursery of Messrs. Ronalds, of Brentford, and from growing on a
bank by the side of a ditch, it was called the _Bank Apple_.


17. BARCELONA PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 532. Lind. Guide, 62. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 74.

 SYNONYMES.--Speckled Golden Reinette, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, n. 933.
 Speckled Pearmain, _Ibid._ ed. 2. Polinia Pearmain, _Acc. Rog. Fr.
 Cult._ Reinette Rousse, _Duh. Arb. Fr._ I. 302. Reinette des Carmes,
 _Acc. Chart. Cat._ 51. Glace Rouge, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, n. 365.
 Kleine Casseler Reinette, _Diel Kernobst._ I. 182. Cassel Reinette,
 _Christ. Handb._ No. 58.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 85, Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxi., f. 4.

[Illustration]

Fruit, of medium size; oval. Skin, clear pale yellow, mottled with
red in the shade; but dark red next the sun, the whole covered with
numerous star-like russety specks, those on the shaded side being
brownish, and those next the sun yellow. Eye, small and open, with
erect acuminate segments, and set in a round, even, and pretty deep
basin. Stalk, about an inch long, slender, inserted in a rather shallow
cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, firm,
crisp, very juicy, and with a rich, vinous, and highly aromatic flavor.

One of the best dessert apples, and equally valuable for culinary
purposes. It comes to perfection about the end of November, and
continues in use till March.

The tree is a free grower, but does not attain the largest size. It is
very hardy, an abundant bearer, and succeeds well either as a standard
or an espalier.

In the third edition of the Horticultural Society’s Catalogue, this is
said to be the same as Reinette Rouge. I do not think that it is the
Reinette Rouge of the French, which Duhamel describes as being white,
or clear yellow in the shade, having often prominent ribs round the
eye, which extend down the sides, so as to render the shape angular; a
character at variance with that of the Barcelona Pearmain. But I have
no doubt of it being the Reinette Rousse of the same author, which is
described at page 302, vol. 1, as a variety of Reinette Franche, and
which he says is of an elongated shape, skin marked with a great number
of russety spots, the most part of which are of a longish figure, so
much so, when it is ripe, it appears as if variegated with yellow and
red; a character in every way applicable to the Barcelona Pearmain.


18. BARTON’S INCOMPARABLE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 352?

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size; in shape somewhat like a Golden Knob, ovate
or conical, with prominent ribs on the sides, which terminate in five
ridges round the eye. Skin, yellowish green, covered with patches of
pale brown russet, thickly strewed with large russety freckles, like
the Barcelona Pearmain, and tinged with orange next the sun. Eye,
small, partially open, with reflexed segments, set in a narrow and
angular basin. Stalk, nearly three quarters of an inch long, inserted
in a narrow and round cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, crisp,
brittle, very juicy, and when eaten is quite a mouthful of lively,
vinous juice.

A dessert apple of the highest excellence, in use from October to
February.

The tree is a good and healthy grower, attains a considerable size, and
is an excellent bearer.

This variety seems to be but little known, and considering its
excellence rarely cultivated. I am not aware that it exists in any of
the nurseries, or that it was at any period extensively propagated. The
only place where I ever met with it was, in the private garden of the
late Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith, whence I procured grafts from a tree in
the last stage of decay.


19. BAXTER’S PEARMAIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--G. Lind. in Hort. Trans. vol. iv., p. 67. Lind.
 Guide, 62. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 533.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and three inches high;
roundish-ovate, and slightly angular. Skin, pale green, but tinged
with red, and marked with a few indistinct streaks of darker red, on
the side exposed to the sun. Eye, open, with long spreading segments,
and placed in a moderately deep basin. Stalk, short and thick, not
deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, firm, brisk, and sugary, and with an
abundance of pleasantly acid juice.

An excellent apple, suitable either for culinary purposes, or the
dessert; in use from November to March.

The tree is hardy, vigorous, a most abundant bearer, and even in
seasons when other varieties fail, this is almost safe to ensure a
plentiful crop. It is extensively cultivated in Norfolk, and deserves
to be more generally known in other districts of the country.


20. BEACHAMWELL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION--Lind. Guide, 35. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 13.

 SYNONYMES.--Beachamwell Seedling, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 42.
 Motteux’s Seedling, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 82. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxvii. f. 6.

Fruit, small, about two inches wide, and the same in height; ovate,
handsomely and regularly formed. Skin, greenish yellow, covered with
patches and dots of russet, particularly round the eye. Eye, small and
open, set in a shallow, narrow, and even basin. Stalk, about half an
inch long, almost embedded in a round cavity. Flesh, yellowish white,
tender, crisp, and very juicy, with a rich, brisk, and sugary flavor.

A rich and deliciously flavored dessert apple, of the highest
excellence; in use from December to March.

The tree is perfectly hardy, a healthy and vigorous grower, but does
not attain a large size; it is an excellent bearer.

This variety was raised by John Motteux, Esq., of Beachamwell, in
Norfolk, where, according to Mr. George Lindley, the original tree
still existed in 1831. It is not very generally cultivated, but ought
to form one even in the smallest collections.


21. BEAUTY OF KENT.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 93. Lind. Guide, 27. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed.
 3, n. 37. Down. Fr. Amer. 81.

 SYNONYME.--Kentish Pippin, of some, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURES.--Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xc. f. 6. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xv. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large; roundish-ovate, broad and flattened at the base, and
narrowing towards the apex, where it is terminated by several prominent
angles. Skin, deep yellow slightly tinged with green, and marked with
faint patches of red, on the shaded side; but entirely covered with
deep red, except where there are a few patches of deep yellow, on the
side next the sun. Eye, small and closed, with short segments, and set
in a narrow and angular basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a wide and
deep cavity, which, with the base, is entirely covered with rough brown
russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, and juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid
flavor.

A valuable and now well-known culinary apple, in use from October
to February. When well grown the Beauty of Kent is perhaps the most
magnificent apple in cultivation. Its great size, the beauty of its
coloring, the tenderness of the flesh, and profusion of delicate
sub-acid juice, constitute it one of our most popular winter apples,
for culinary purposes, and one of the most desirable and useful, either
for a small garden, or for more extended cultivation.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, attains a large size, and is
a good bearer; but I have always found it subject to canker when grown
on the paradise stock, and in soils which are moist and heavy.

I have not been able to ascertain the time when, or the place where
this variety originated. It is first noticed by Forsyth in his Treatise
on Fruit Trees, but is not enumerated in any of the nurserymen’s
catalogues, either of the last, or the early part of the present,
century. It was introduced to the Brompton Park Nursery, about the
year 1820, and is now as extensively cultivated as most other leading
varieties. In America, Downing says, “the fruit in this climate is one
of the most magnificent of all apples, frequently measuring sixteen or
eighteen inches in circumference.”


22. BEDFORDSHIRE FOUNDLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 42. Lind. Guide, 63. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 107.

 SYNONYME.--Cambridge Pippin, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxviii. f. 2.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and three inches and
a half high; roundish-ovate, inclining to oblong, with irregular and
prominent angles on the sides, which extend to the apex, and form
ridges round the eye. Skin, dark green at first, and changing, as it
attains maturity, to pale greenish yellow on the shaded side; but
tinged with orange on the side next the sun, and strewed with a few
fawn-colored dots. Eye, open, set in a deep, narrow, and angular basin.
Stalk, short, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender,
pleasantly sub-acid, and with a somewhat sugary flavor.

An excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality, in use from November
to March.


23. BELLE BONNE.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 63. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 43.

 SYNONYMES.--Winter Belle boon, _Park. Par._ 587. Winter Belle and
 Bonne, _Raii Hist._ II. 1448. Winter Belle and Bon, _Worl. Vin._ 156.
 Rolland, _Acc. Lind. Guide_.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and three and a quarter
high; ovato-conical. Skin, thick, pale greenish yellow, and marked with
a few redish streaks on the side next the sun. Eye, small and closed.
Stalk, half-an-inch long, obliquely inserted under a fleshy lip. Flesh,
firm, juicy, and well-flavored.

A valuable culinary apple, in use from October to January. The tree is
very hardy, a strong, vigorous, and healthy grower, and a good bearer.

This is a very old English variety. It was known to Parkinson so early
as 1629, and also to Worlidge and Ray. But it is not noticed by any
subsequent author, or enumerated in any of the nursery catalogues
of the last century, until discovered by George Lindley, growing
in a garden at Gatton, near Norwich, and published by him in the
Transactions of the London Horticultural Society, vol. iv., p. 58. He
seems to be uncertain whether it is the Summer, or Winter Belle Bonne
of these early authors, but Worlidge’s description leaves no doubt as
to its identity. He says “The Summer Belle et Bonne is a good bearer,
but the fruit is not long lasting. The Winter Belle and Bon is much
to be preferred to the Summer in every respect.” I have no doubt,
therefore, that the latter is the Belle Bonne of Lindley. Parkinson
says “they are both fair fruit to look on, being yellow, and of a meane
(medium) bignesse.”


24. BELLEDGE PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 49.

 SYNONYMES.--Belledge, _Lind. Guide_, 36. Belledge Pippin, _Hort. Soc.
 Cat._ ed. 1, 65.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xvi., f. 4.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two inches
high; roundish, narrowing a little towards the apex, regularly and
handsomely formed. Skin, pale green, changing to yellow as it ripens,
with a tinge of brown where exposed to the sun, and strewed with
grey, russety dots. Eye, small, partially closed with short segments,
and placed in a round, narrow, and rather shallow basin. Stalk,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a round and deep cavity. Flesh, greenish
yellow, tender, soft, brisk, sugary, and aromatic.

An excellent, but not first-rate apple, suitable either for the dessert
or culinary purposes. It is in use from November to March.


25. BELLE GRIDELINE.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Plan Or. 1796. Lind. Guide, 36.

 SYNONYME.--Belle Grisdeline, _Fors. Treat._ 93.

Fruit, medium sized; round, and regularly formed. Skin, clear yellow,
marbled and washed with clear red, and intermixed with thin grey russet
next the sun. Eye, set in a deep, round basin. Stalk, slender, deeply
inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, white, firm, crisp, and briskly
flavored.

An excellent dessert apple, in season from December to March. The tree
is healthy and vigorous, of the middle size, and an excellent bearer.

This beautiful variety was first brought into notice by Mr. George
Lindley, who found it growing in a small garden near Surrey Street
Gates, Norwich, where it had originated about the year 1770. Mr.
Lindley first propagated it in 1793, and the original tree died about
seven years afterwards.


26. BENNET APPLE.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION AND FIGURE.--Pom. Heref. t. 21. Lind Guide, 101.

Fruit, somewhat long, irregularly shaped, broad at the base, and narrow
at the apex, but sometimes broader at the middle than either of the
extremities. A few obtuse angles terminate at the eye, which is small
and nearly closed, with very short segments. Stalk, half-an-inch long,
and very slender. Skin, dingy colored russety grey in the shade; and
shaded on the sunny side with numerous streaks and patches of orange
color and muddy red.

The specific gravity of the juice is 1073.

This is a good cider apple, and produces liquor of great excellence
when mixed with other varieties. It is chiefly grown in the deep
strong soils of the south-west part of Herefordshire, and is common in
the district known as the Golden Vale. Knight says it was a very old
variety, and was known previous to the 17th century, but I have not
been able to find any record of it in the early works on Pomology.


27. BENWELL’S PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 534. Lind. Guide, 64.

Fruit, medium sized; pearmain-shaped. Skin, dull green with broken
stripes of dull red, on the side next the sun. Eye, small, set in a
shallow and slightly plaited basin. Stalk, deeply inserted in a round
cavity, scarcely protruding beyond the base. Flesh, yellowish white,
crisp, juicy, brisk, and aromatic.

A dessert apple, in use from December to January.

It received its name from a gentleman of the name of Benwell, of
Henley-on-Thames, from whom it was received, and brought into
cultivation by Kirke, a nurseryman at Brompton.


28. BERE COURT PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. v. p. 400. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 55. Lind. Guide, 10.

Fruit, medium sized; round, and slightly flattened. Skin, pale green,
and changing to yellow as it ripens, with stripes of red next the sun.
Eye, open, placed in a wide and shallow basin. Stalk, inserted in a
deep cavity. Flesh, crisp, juicy, and briskly acid.

An excellent culinary apple, in use during September and October.

This variety was raised by the Rev. S. Breedon, D.D., of Bere Court,
near Pangbourne, in Berkshire.


29. BESS POOL.--Ron.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. 46.

 SYNONYME.--Best Pool, _Fors. Treat._ 94.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxiii. f. 8.

Fruit, above medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, and
nearly three inches high; conical, and handsomely shaped. Skin, yellow,
with a few markings of red on the shaded side; but where exposed to
the sun it is almost entirely washed and striped with fine clear red.
Eye, small, and partially open, set in a rather deep and plaited basin,
which is surrounded with five prominent knobs or ridges. Stalk, short
and thick, inserted in a rather shallow cavity, with generally a fleshy
protuberance on one side of it, and surrounded with yellowish brown
russet, which extends over a considerable portion of the base. Flesh,
white, tender, and juicy, with a fine, sugary, and vinous flavor.

An excellent apple either for culinary or dessert use. It is in season
from November to March.

The tree is hardy, a vigorous grower, and an abundant bearer. The
flowers are very late in expanding, and are, therefore, not liable to
be injured by spring frosts.


30. BEST BACHE.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 16. Lind. Guide, 194.

 SYNONYME.--Bache’s Kernel, _Acc. Pom. Heref._

Fruit, medium sized; oblong, with obtuse angles on the sides, which
extend to the apex. Skin, yellow, shaded with pale red, and streaked
with darker red, interspersed with a few black specks. Eye, small,
segments short and flat. Stalk, short and stout.

Specific gravity of the juice 1073.

A cider apple, grown in the south-east part of Herefordshire.


31. BETSEY.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 57.

Fruit, small, about two inches wide, and an inch and three quarters
high; roundish, inclining to conical and flattened. Skin, dark green
at first, and considerably covered with ashy grey russet; but changing
to pale yellow, and with a brownish tinge on the side next the sun.
Eye, open, with short reflexed segments, and set in a very shallow
depression. Stalk, short, about a quarter of an inch long, with a
fleshy protuberance on one side of it, and inserted in a shallow and
narrow cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, tender, juicy, rich, and sugary.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, in use from November to January.


32. BIGGS’S NONESUCH.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. I. p. 70. Lind. Guide, 88. Rog. Fr.
 Cult. 40.

 SYNONYME.--Bigg’s Nonsuch, _Fors. Treat._ 116.

 FIGURE.--Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. lxxxviii., f. 3.

Fruit, medium sized; round, and broadest at the base. Skin, yellow,
striped with bright crimson next the sun. Eye, open, with long reflexed
segments, set in a wide and deep basin. Stalk, short, and deeply
inserted. Flesh, yellowish, tender, and juicy.

An excellent culinary apple, in use from October to December. It is
fit for use immediately it is gathered off the tree, and has a strong
resemblance to the old Nonesuch, but keeps much longer.

The tree is hardy and an excellent bearer; attains to the medium size,
and is less liable to the attacks of the Woolly Aphis than the old
Nonesuch.

This variety was raised by Mr. Arthur Biggs, the intelligent and
scientific gardener to Isaac Swainson, Esq., of Twickenham, Middlesex.


33. BIRMINGHAM PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 38. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 59.

 SYNONYMES.--Grumas’s Pippin, _Fors. Treat._ 105. Brummage Pippin, and
 Grummage Pippin, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Stone Pippin _of the Nursery
 Catalogues_.

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and an inch and three
quarters high; round, and slightly flattened. Skin, pale dingy yellow,
mottled and veined with very thin grey russet, and russety round the
base. Eye, small, quite open, frequently without any segments, and
placed in a very slight depression. Stalk, short, scarcely at all
depressed. Flesh, greenish, very firm, crisp, and juicy, briskly and
pleasantly flavored.

A very good dessert apple; in use from January to June.

It is remarkable for the firmness and density of its flesh, and Mr.
Lindley says, its specific gravity is greater than that of any other
apple with which he was acquainted.

The tree is of diminutive size, with short but very stout shoots. It is
a good bearer.

This variety is supposed to be a native of Warwickshire. It is what is
generally known in the nurseries, under the name of Stone Pippin, but
the Gogar Pippin is also known by that name.


34. BLAND’S JUBILEE.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Jubilee Pippin, _Hort. Trans._ vol. v., 400. Bland’s
 Jubilee Rose Pip, _Nursery Catalogues_.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and
three quarters high; round, narrowing a little towards the eye, and
obscurely ribbed. Skin, dull yellow tinged with green, but changing
to clear yellow as it ripens; marked with russet in the basin of the
eye, and strewed over its surface with large russety dots. Eye, small
and closed, with long acuminate segments, set in a narrow, deep, and
even basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a moderately deep cavity. Flesh,
yellowish, tender, crisp, juicy, sugary, and perfumed.

An excellent apple, either for culinary purposes, or the dessert. It is
in use from October to January.

This was raised by Michael Bland, Esq., of Norwich. The seed was sown,
on the day of the jubilee which celebrated the 50th year of the reign
of George III., in 1809, and the tree first produced fruit in 1818. It
is not a variety which is met with in general cultivation, but deserves
to be more extensively known.


35. BLENHEIM PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 70. Lind. Guide, 38. Down
 Fr. Amer. 81.

 SYNONYMES.--Blenheim, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Blenheim Orange, _Ibid._
 Woodstock Pippin, _Ibid._ Northwick Pippin, _Ibid._ Kempster’s Pippin.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 28. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxi. f. 2.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large, the average size smaller than represented in the
accompanying figure, being generally three inches wide, and two and a
half high; globular, and somewhat flattened, broader at the base than
the apex, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, yellow, with a tinge
of dull red next the sun, and streaked with deeper red. Eye, large and
open, with short stunted segments, placed in a round and rather deep
basin. Stalk, short and stout, rather deeply inserted, and scarcely
extending beyond the base. Flesh, yellow, crisp, juicy, sweet, and
pleasantly acid.

A very valuable and highly esteemed apple, either for the dessert
or culinary purposes, but, strictly speaking, more suitable for the
latter. It is in use from November to February.

The common complaint against the Blenheim Pippin is, that the tree is
a bad bearer. This is undoubtedly the case when it is young, being
of a strong and vigorous habit of growth, and forming a large and
very beautiful standard; but when it becomes a little aged, it bears
regular and abundant crops. It may be made to produce much earlier, if
grafted on the paradise stock, and grown either as an open dwarf, or an
espalier.

This valuable apple was first discovered at Woodstock, in Oxfordshire,
and received its name from Blenheim, the seat of the Duke of
Marlborough, which is in the immediate neighbourhood. It is not noticed
in any of the nursery catalogues of the last century, nor was it
cultivated in the London nurseries till about the year 1818.

The following interesting account of this favorite variety was recently
communicated to the Gardener’s Chronicle. “In a somewhat delapidated
corner of the decaying borough of ancient Woodstock, within ten yards
of the wall of Blenheim Park, stands all that remains of the original
stump of that beautiful and justly celebrated apple, the Blenheim
Orange. It is now entirely dead, and rapidly falling to decay, being a
mere shell about ten feet high, loose in the ground, and having a large
hole in the centre; till within the last three years, it occasionally
sent up long, thin, wiry twigs, but this last sign of vitality has
ceased, and what remains will soon be the portion of the woodlouse and
the worm. Old Grimmett, the basket-maker, against the corner of whose
garden-wall the venerable relict is supported, has sat looking on it
from his workshop window, and while he wove the pliant osier, has
meditated, for more than fifty successive summers, on the mutability of
all sublunary substances, on juice, and core, and vegetable, as well
as animal, and flesh, and blood. He can remember the time when, fifty
years ago, he was a boy, and the tree a fine, full-bearing stem, full
of bud, and blossom, and fruit, and thousands thronged from all parts
to gaze on its ruddy, ripening, orange burden; then gardeners came in
the spring-tide to select the much coveted scions, and to hear the tale
of his horticultural child and sapling, from the lips of the son of the
white-haired Kempster. But nearly a century has elapsed since Kempster
fell, like a ripened fruit, and was gathered to his fathers. He lived
in a narrow cottage garden in Old Woodstock, a plain, practical,
laboring man; and in the midst of his bees and flowers around him, and
in his “glorious pride,” in the midst of his little garden, he realized
Virgil’s dream of the old Corycian:--“Et regum equabat opes animis.”

The provincial name for this apple is still “_Kempster’s Pippin_,” a
lasting monumental tribute, and inscription, to him who first planted
the kernel from whence it sprang.”


36. BOROVITSKY.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 74. Lind Guide, 3. Down. Fr.
 Amer. 70.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 10.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches high, and about the same in width;
roundish and slightly angular. Skin, pale green strewed with silvery
russet scales on the shaded side; and colored with bright red, which is
striped with deeper red on the side next the sun. Eye, set in a wide
and plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long, deeply inserted in a rather
wide cavity. Flesh, white, firm, brisk, juicy, and sugary.

An excellent early dessert apple, ripe in the middle of August.

This was sent from the Taurida Gardens, near St. Petersburg, to the
London Horticultural Society in 1824.


37. BORSDORFFER.--Knoop.

 IDENTIFICATION--Knoop. Pom. t. x. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 73. Down.
 Fr Amer. 99.

 SYNONYMES.--Porstorffer, _Cord. Hist._ Reinette Batarde, _Riv. et
 Moul. Meth._ 192. Borstorf, _Knoop. Pom._ 56. Borstorff Hative,
 _Ibid._ 129. Borstorff à long queue, _Ibid._ 129. Bursdoff, or
 Queen’s Apple, _Fors. Treat._ ed. 3, 15, Red Borsdorffer, _Willich
 Dom. Encyc._ Borsdorff, _Lind. Guide_, 39. Postophe d’Hiver, _Bon
 Jard._ 1843. p. 512. Pomme de prochain, _Acc. Diel. Kernobst._
 Reinette d’Allemagne, _Ibid._ Blanche de Leipsic, _Acc. Knoop. Pom._
 Reinette de Misnie, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Grand Bohemian Borsdorffer,
 _Ibid._ Edler Winterborstorffer, _Diel. Kernobst._ II. 80. Edel
 Winterborsdorfer, _Ditt. Handb._ I. 372. Witte Leipziger, _Acc. Knoop.
 Pom._ Maschanzker, _Acc. Diel Kernobst._ Weiner Maschanzkerl, _Baum.
 Cat._ 1850. Winter Borsdorffer, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Garret Pippin,
 _Ibid._ King, _Ibid._ King George, _Ibid._ King George the Third,
 _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 26.

 FIGURES.--Knoop. Pom. t. x. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xiii. f. 8.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size; roundish oblate, rather narrower at the apex
than the base, handsomely and regularly formed, without ribs or other
inequalities. Skin, shining, pale waxen yellow in the shade, and bright
deep red next the sun; it is strewed with dots, which are yellowish on
the sunny side, and brownish in the shade, and marked with veins and
slight traces of delicate, yellowish-grey russet. Eye, large and open,
with long reflexed segments, placed in a rather deep, round, and pretty
even basin. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a narrow, even, and
shallow cavity, which is lined with thin russet. Flesh, white with a
yellowish tinge, crisp and delicate, brisk, juicy, and sugary, and with
a rich, vinous, and aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple of the first quality, in use from November to January.

The tree is a free grower and very hardy, not subject to canker, and
attains the largest size. It is very prolific when it has acquired
its full growth, which, in good soil, it will do in fifteen or twenty
years; and even in a young state it is a good bearer. If grafted on the
paradise stock it may be grown as an open dwarf, or an espalier. The
bloom is very hardy, and withstands the night frosts of spring better
than most other varieties.

This, above all other apples, is the most highly esteemed in Germany.
Diel calls it the Pride of the Germans. It is believed to have
originated either at a village of Misnia, called Borsdorf, or at a
place of the same name near Leipsic. According to Forsyth, it was such
a favorite with Queen Charlotte, that she had a considerable quantity
of them annually imported from Germany, for her own private use. It
is one of the earliest recorded varieties of the continental authors,
but does not seem to have been known in this country before the close
of the last century. It was first grown in the Brompton Park Nursery
in 1785. It is mentioned by Cordus, in 1561, as being cultivated in
Misnia; which circumstance has no doubt given rise to the synonyme
“Reinette de Misnie;” he also informs us it is highly esteemed for its
sweet and generous flavor, and the pleasant perfume which it exhales.
Wittichius, in his “Methodus Simplicium,” attributes to it the power of
dispelling epidemic fevers and madness!


38. BOSSOM.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv., 528. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n.
 75. Lind. Guide, 64.

Fruit, large and conical; handsomely and regularly formed. Skin, pale
greenish yellow, considerably covered with russet, and occasionally
marked with bright red next the sun. Eye, set in a shallow and plaited
basin. Stalk, an inch long, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh,
yellowish white, tender, crisp, juicy, and sugary, and with a pleasant
sub-acid flavor.

An excellent culinary apple, though not of the first quality, in use
during December and January. The flesh is said to assume a fine color
when baked.


39. BOSTON RUSSET.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 736. Down. Fr. Amer. 133.

 SYNONYMES.--Roxbury Russeting, _Ken. Amer. Or._ 53. Shippen’s Russet,
 _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Putman’s Russet.

Fruit, medium sized, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches
and a half high; roundish, somewhat flattened, narrowing towards the
apex, and slightly angular. Skin, covered entirely with brownish
yellow russet intermixed with green, and sometimes with a faint tinge
of redish brown next the sun. Eye, closed, set in a round and rather
shallow basin. Stalk, long, slender, and inserted in a moderately deep
cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, juicy, sugary, briskly, and richly
flavored.

A very valuable dessert apple, of the first quality, in season from
January to April, and will even keep till June. It partakes much of the
flavor of the Ribston Pippin, and, as a late winter dessert apple, is
not to be surpassed.

The tree is not large, but healthy, very hardy, and an immense bearer,
and, when grafted on the paradise stock, is well suited for being grown
either as a dwarf, or an espalier.

This is an old American variety, and one of the few introduced to this
country which attains perfection in our climate. It is extensively
grown in the neighbourhood of Boston, U.S., both for home consumption
and exportation, and realizes a considerable, and profitable return to
the growers.


40. BOWYER’S RUSSET.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 38. Lind. Guide, 87.

 SYNONYME.--Bowyer’s Golden Pippin, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 121.

Fruit, small, two inches high, and about two and a half broad at the
base; roundish-ovate. Skin, entirely covered with fine yellow colored
russet. Eye, small and closed, set in a small and slightly plaited
basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, greenish white
tinged with yellow, crisp, brisk, and aromatic.

A dessert apple of the first quality, in use during September and
October.

The tree attains a good size, is an abundant bearer, very healthy, and
not subject to canker.


41. BRABANT BELLEFLEUR.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 45. Down. Fr. Amer. 102.

 SYNONYMES.--Brabansche Bellefleur, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 55.
 Brabant, or Glory of Flanders, _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 46. Iron Apple, _Acc.
 Ron. Pyr. Mal._ Kleine Brabänter Bellefleur, _Diel Kernobst._ viii.
 133.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. tab. xxxi. f. 3.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and three and a quarter
high; roundish-ovate, inclining to oblong, or conical, ribbed on the
sides, and narrowing towards the eye. Skin, greenish yellow, changing
to lemon yellow as it attains maturity, and striped with red next the
sun. Eye, large and open, with long broad segments, set in a wide and
angular basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and wide cavity, which
is lined with brown russet. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, crisp, and
juicy, with a sugary, aromatic, and pleasantly sub-acid flavor.

An excellent culinary apple of the finest quality, in use from November
to April.

The tree is hardy, and though not strong, is a healthy grower,
attaining the middle size, and an excellent bearer.

This variety was forwarded to the gardens of the London Horticultural
Society by Messrs. Booth, of Hamburgh.


42. BRADDICK’S NONPAREIL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. 268. Lind. Guide, 87. Fors.
 Treat. 118. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 465.

 SYNONYME.--Ditton Nonpareil, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. t. xxiv. f. 3. Hort. Trans. vol. iii. t. 10,
 f. 3.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; roundish and flattened, inclining to oblate. Skin,
smooth, greenish yellow in the shade, and brownish red next the sun,
russety round the eye, and partially covered, on the other portions of
the surface, with patches of brown russet. Eye, set in a deep, round,
and even basin. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a round and
rather shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, rich, sugary, and aromatic.

One of the best winter dessert apples, in use from November to April,
and by many considered more sweet, and tender, than the old Nonpareil.

The tree is quite hardy, a slender grower, and never attains to a
large size, but is a very excellent bearer. It succeeds well on the
paradise stock, and is well adapted for dwarfs, or for being grown as
an espalier.

This excellent variety was raised by John Braddick, Esq., of Thames
Ditton.


43. BREEDON PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. p. 268. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 85. Lind. Guide, 64. Rog. Fr. Cult. 82.

 FIGURE.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. pl. 10, f. 1.

Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a quarter
high; roundish, and somewhat oblate, broader at the base than the apex,
where it assumes somewhat of a four-sided shape. Skin, deep dull yellow
tinged with redish orange; inclining to red on the side exposed to
the sun, and marked with a few traces of delicate brown russet. Eye,
open, with short ovate reflexed segments, which are frequently four in
number, set in a broad, shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, half an inch
to three quarters long, inserted in a round and shallow cavity. Flesh,
yellowish, firm, and with a rich, vinous, and brisk flavor, resembling
that of a pine-apple.

This is one of the best dessert apples; it is in use during October
and November. It bears some resemblance to the Court of Wick, but is
considerably richer in flavor than that variety.

The tree is hardy; a slender grower, and does not attain a large size;
it is, however, an excellent bearer. It is well adapted for dwarf
training, and succeeds well on the paradise stock.

This esteemed variety was raised by the Rev. Dr. Symonds Breedon, at
Bere Court, near Pangbourne, Berkshire.


44. BRICKLEY SEEDLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 86. Lind. Guide, 39. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 62.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 124.

Fruit, small, two inches and a half broad, and two inches high;
roundish, and narrowing towards the apex. Skin, greenish yellow in the
shade, and red where exposed to the sun, with a few streaks of red
where the two colors blend. Eye, small and open, set in a smooth, and
rather shallow basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a wide cavity. Flesh,
yellowish, firm, rich, sugary, and highly flavored.

A very desirable winter dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it is in
use from January to April.

The tree is hardy and an abundant bearer.


45. BRIDGEWATER PIPPIN.--Rea.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Rea. Pom. 210. Worl. Vin. 158. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 87.

Fruit, large; roundish, and somewhat flattened, with prominent ribs on
the sides, which extend to the basin of the eye. Skin, deep yellow,
strewed with russety dots, and with a blush of red which sometimes
assumes a lilac hue near the stalk. Eye, large and open, set in a
deep and angular basin. Stalk, rather short, inserted in a deep,
wide, irregular, and angular cavity. Flesh, yellowish, briskly, and
pleasantly flavored.

A good culinary apple of second-rate quality, in use from October to
December.

This is a very old English variety, being mentioned by Rea, in 1665,
and of which, he says, “it is beautiful to the eye, and pleasant to the
palat.”


46. BRINGEWOOD PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 88. Lind. Guide, 40. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 88.

Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and an inch and three
quarters high; almost round, a good deal like a flattened Golden
Pippin. Skin, of a fine rich yellow color, covered with greyish dots,
russety round the eye, and marked with a few russety dots on the side
next the sun. Eye, small and open, with reflexed segments, and placed
in a shallow basin. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a moderately
deep cavity, which is lined with greenish grey russet. Flesh,
yellowish, firm, crisp, and sugary, with a rich and perfumed flavor.

An excellent, though not a first-rate dessert apple, in use from
January to March. Its only fault is the flesh being too dry.

The tree is hardy, but a weak and slender grower, and never attains a
great size. It succeeds well on the paradise stock.

This is one of the varieties raised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., of
Downton Castle, Herefordshire, and which he obtained by impregnating
the Golden Pippin, with the pollen of the Golden Harvey.


47. BRISTOL PEARMAIN.--H.

Fruit, small, about two inches and a quarter wide, and the same in
height; oblong, slightly angular on the side, and ridged round the eye.
Skin, dull yellowish green, with a few pale stripes of crimson, and
considerably covered with patches and dots of thin grey russet on the
shaded side; but marked with thin dull red, striped with deeper and
brighter red, on the side exposed to the sun, and covered with numerous
dark russety dots. Eye, small and closed, with erect, acute segments,
set in a deep, round, and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a
shallow cavity, which is lined with thin brown russet, strewed with
silvery scales. Flesh, yellow, firm, not very juicy, but briskly
flavored.

An apple of little merit, in use from October to February.

The only place where I have ever met with this variety, is in the
neighbourhood of Odiham, in Hampshire.


48. BROAD-END.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 89.

 SYNONYMES.--Winter Broading, _Hort. Trans._ vol. iv., p. 66. _Lind.
 Guide_, 57. Kentish Broading, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 47. Broading, _Acc.
 Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxiv. f. 1.

Fruit, large, three inches and three quarters broad, and three inches
high; roundish, broadest at the base, and considerably flattened at
the ends, somewhat oblate. Skin, yellowish green in the shade, but
tinged with red next the sun, interspersed with a few streaks of red,
and covered in some places with patches of fine russet. Eye, large and
open, set in a rather deep and angular basin. Stalk, short, inserted in
a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, crisp, rich, juicy, and
with a pleasant sub-acid flavor. An excellent culinary apple of the
first quality, in use from November to Christmas.

The tree is a strong, healthy, and vigorous grower, and an excellent
bearer.


49. BROAD-EYED PIPPIN.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 95. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 90.

Fruit, large and oblate. Skin, greenish yellow in the shade, and
slightly tinged with red on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, large and
open, set in a wide and shallow basin. Flesh, yellowish white, firm,
crisp, brisk, and juicy.

An excellent culinary apple, of the first size and quality, in use from
September to January, but said by Forsyth to keep till May.

This is a very old English variety; it is mentioned by Ray, who makes
it synonymous with Kirton or Holland Pippin.


50. BROOKES’S.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 91. Ron. Pyr. Mal. 45.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxiii. f. 2.

Fruit, small, two inches wide, and the same in height; conical. Skin,
yellow in the shade, but orange, thinly mottled with red next the
sun, and considerably covered with thin, brown russet. Eye, open and
prominent, with reflexed segments, and placed in a very shallow basin.
Stalk, short, inserted in a small, round, and shallow cavity, which is
lined with rough russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, not very juicy, but
with a rich, sweet, and highly aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple of the first quality, in use from September to
February. The tree is a slender grower, and never attains a great size,
but is a good bearer.


51. BROUGHTON.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 92.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small, conical, and regularly formed. Skin, pale greenish yellow
in the shade, but covered with fine, delicate, lively red, which is
marked with a few streaks of deeper red on the side next the sun, and
strewed with minute russety dots. Eye, small and closed, set in a
shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a
round, and shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, tender, delicate,
brisk, sugary, and richly flavored.

A valuable dessert apple of first-rate quality, in use from October to
December.


52. BROWN KENTING.--Hort.

Fruit, above medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a half high; roundish, and slightly ribbed on the sides.
Skin, greenish yellow, marked with distinct and well defined figures,
and reticulations of russet, like the Fenouillet Jaune, on the shaded
side, and over the base; but green, which is almost entirely covered
with a coating of smooth, thin, pale brown russet, on the side next the
sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a narrow, and shallow basin. Stalk,
an inch long, slender and woody, inserted in a funnel-shaped cavity,
which is of a green color, and very slightly marked with russet. Flesh,
yellowish, crisp, and tender, with a brisk, somewhat sugary, and
pleasant aromatic flavor.

An excellent dessert apple, of first-rate quality, in use from October
to Christmas, after which it becomes meally.


53. BURN’S SEEDLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 102.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
and a quarter high; roundish, flattened at the base, and narrowing
towards the apex, sometimes inclining to conical. Skin, yellow, but
with a blush and a few streaks of red next the sun, marked with a few
patches of russet, and sprinkled with russety dots, which are thickest
round the eye. Eye, large and open, set in a shallow and irregular
basin. Stalk, short, thick and fleshy, generally obliquely inserted by
the side of a fleshy swelling, and surrounded with a patch of rough
russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, and sub-acid.

An excellent culinary apple of the first quality, in use from October
to Christmas.

This variety was raised by Mr. Henry Burn, gardener to the Marquis of
Aylesbury, at Tottenham Park, near Marlborough.


54. BYSON WOOD RUSSET.

 SYNONYME.--Byson Wood, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 104.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size; oblato-ovate, regularly and handsomely
shaped. Skin, green, entirely covered with ashy grey russet, and
strewed with greyish white freckles. Eye, small, and slightly closed,
set in a round and even basin. Stalk, an inch long, slender, inserted
in a rather shallow and angular cavity. Flesh, greenish, firm, crisp,
and juicy, with a brisk, sugary, and aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple of the first quality, in use from December to February.


55. CALVILLE BLANCHE D’ÉTÉ.--Knoop.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Knoop Pom. 13. Chart. Cat. 56. Diel Kernobst. B. II.
 7. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 109.

 SYNONYMES.--White Calville, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Calville Blanc,
 _Jard. Franç._ 106. Wahrer Weiszer Sommer Calville, _Diel Kernobst._
 B. II. 7. Weisser Sommerkalwil, _Baum. Cat._ 1850.

 FIGURE.--Knoop Pom. t. 1.

Fruit, medium sized, about three inches broad, and two inches high;
roundish and flattened at the ends, with prominent ribs on the sides,
which extend to the eye and form ridges round the apex--the true
character of the Calvilles. Skin, tender and delicate; when ripe, of a
very pale straw color, and without the least tinge of red on the side
exposed to the sun, but sometimes marked with a few traces of delicate
russet, but no dots. Eye, large, and closed with long, broad, acuminate
segments, and set in a pretty deep and very angular basin. Stalk, three
quarters of an inch long, stout, inserted in a wide and rather shallow
cavity, which is lined with thin russet. Flesh, white, tender, and
delicate, with a sweet and pleasant flavor.

A very good early culinary apple, but not of the finest quality, being
too soft and tender; it is ripe during August, and lasts till the
middle of September.

The tree is a very strong and vigorous grower, with a large round head,
and is an excellent bearer. It is distinguished by its very large
foliage, the leaves being 4½ inches long by 3¼ broad.

This is an old continental variety, but has been very little noticed
by writers on Pomology. It is mentioned in the Jardinier Français, of
1653, and by De Quintinye, but the first work in which it is either
figured or described, is Knoop’s Pomologie. Duhamel does not notice
it, although it is enumerated in the catalogue of the Chartreuse, from
whose garden he received the materials for producing his work on fruits.


56. CALVILLE BLANCHE D’HIVER.--Knoop.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Knoop Pom. 66. Duh. Arb. Fruit, I. 279. Hort. Soc.
 Cat. ed. 3, n. 110.

 SYNONYMES.--Calville Blanche à Côtes, _Merlet Abregé_, 134. Calville
 Acoute, _Lang. Pom._ 134, t. lxxviii. f. 1. Calleville Blanc, _Schab.
 Prat._ II. 88. Calville Blanc, _Bret. Ecole_, II. 472. Calville
 Blanche, _Chart. Cat._ 51. Calville Tardive, _Acc. Christ Handb._ ed.
 1, 381. Pomme de Framboise, _Ibid._ Pomme de Coin, _Ibid._ Pome de
 Fraise, _Ibid._ Rambour à Côtes Gros, _Acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Bonnet
 Carré, _Acc. Bon. Jard._ Pomme Glace, _Ibid._ 1810, but erroneously.
 White Calville, _Switz. Fr. Gard._ 135. _Coxe View_. 136. White
 Autumn Calville, _Aber. Dict._ Winter White Calville, _Fors. Treat._
 96. _Lind. Guide_, 59. White Winter Calville, _Down. Fr. Amer._ 103.
 Französischer Quittenapfel, _Zink. Pom._ n. 89. Weiszer Himbeerapfel,
 _Meyen Baumsch._ 300. Weiszer Erdbeerenapfel, _Henne Anweis_, 130.
 Weiszer Wintercalville, _Diel Kernobst._ II. 12. Parisapfel, _Acc.
 Christ Handb._ Eckapfel, or Ekkeling, in Lower Saxony, _Acc. Christ._
 Weisser Winterkalwil, _Baum. Cat._ 1850.

 FIGURE.--Knoop Pom. Tab. xi. Duh. Arb. Fr. vol. i., pl. ii. Jard.
 Fruit, ed. 2, pl. 103.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and three inches and a
quarter high; roundish and flattened, with broad uneven and unequal
ribs, extending the whole length of the fruit, and terminating at the
apex in prominent unequal ridges. Skin, delicate pale yellow tinged
with green, becoming bright golden yellow at maturity, washed with deep
red on the side next the sun, and strewed with brown dots, and a few
markings of greyish white russet. Eye, small and closed with stout and
pointed segments, set in a deep, irregular, five-ribbed basin, which is
surrounded with knobs. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, slender,
and inserted the whole of its length in a deep and angular cavity,
which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, delicate, and
juicy, with a rich, lively, and agreeable aromatic flavor.

A valuable winter apple, admirably adapted for all culinary purposes,
and excellent also for the dessert. It is in use from January to April.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and a good bearer, but does
not attain more than the middle size. It is rather liable to canker in
damp situations, and is better suited for a dwarf than a standard; if
grown on the paradise stock the appearance of the fruit is very much
improved.

This variety is sometimes called _Pomme Glace_, which is, however, a
distinct variety, known by the names of _Rouge des Chartreux_, and
_Pomme de Concombre_; it is a variety of Calville Blanche d’Hiver, the
fruit is about the size of an egg, but twice as long.


57. CALVILLE MALINGRE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 114.

 SYNONYMES.--Pomme de Malengre, _Chart. Cat._ 50. _Cal. Traité_, iii.
 40. Calville Normande, _acc. Calvel_. Malengre d’Angleterre, _Merlet
 Abregé_, 137. Calville Rouge de la Normandie, _acc. Poit et Turp._
 Malus Aegra, _Ibid._ Normännische rothe Wintercalville, _Ditt. Handb._
 iii. 3.

 FIGURE.--Poit et Turp, pl. 41.

Fruit, very large, elongated, and prominently ribbed like the Calville
Blanche d’Hiver, but not so much flattened as that variety. Skin, a
little yellow on the shaded side, and of a beautiful deep red next the
sun, which is marked with stripes of darker red, strewed all over with
minute dots. Eye, small, set in a broad, deep, and angular basin, which
is surrounded with prominent knobs. Stalk, slender, deeply inserted in
an angular cavity. Flesh, white, delicate, very juicy, and charged with
an agreeable acid.

A culinary apple of the first quality; in use from January to April,
and “keeps well.” According to the Chartreux Catalogue, “est bonne
cuite pour les malades.”

The tree is a very vigorous grower, much more so than the generality of
the Calvilles; it is very hardy and an abundant bearer, and is better
adapted for being cultivated as a dwarf than an espalier; but it does
not succeed well on the paradise stock.

According to the French pomologists, this variety seems to have some
connection with this country, but there is no evidence that it was at
any period grown to any extent in England, or that it was ever known
to any of our early pomologists. It is said by some that the name
_malingre_ is applied to this variety from the fruit becoming meally
or unsound, but from the observation in the Chartreux Catalogue, it is
more probable that it is so called from being useful to invalids.


58. CALVILLE ROUGE D’AUTOMNE.--Knoop.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Knoop Pom. 24. Bret. Ecole, ii. 471. Hort. Soc. Cat.
 ed. 3, p. 9. Bon. Jard. 1843, 512.

 SYNONYMES.--Calville d’Automne, _Quint. Traité_, i. 201. _Mill.
 Dict._ No. 6. Calleville d’Automne, _Merlet Abregé_. Pomme Grelot,
 _acc. Couver. Traité_. Pomme Sonnette, _Ibid._ Herfst-Present, _acc.
 Knoop_. Gelder’s Present, _Ibid._ Rode Herfst-Calville, _Knoop Pom.
 tab._ iii. Autumn Calville, _Mill. Dict._ No. 6. Autumn Red Calville,
 _Fors. Treat._ 96. Red Autumn Calville, _Ken. Amer. Or._ 38. Rothe
 Herbstcalville, _Diel Kernobst._ iii. 8. Rother Herbstkalwil, _Baum.
 Cat._ 1850.

 FIGURE.--Knoop Pom. tab. iii. Mayer. Pom. Franc. tab. xi. Sickler
 Obstgärt. ix. 205. t. 8.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and three and a quarter
high; not so much flattened as the other Calvilles. Skin, pale red,
with a trace of yellow on the shaded side, but of a beautiful deep
crimson next the sun, and marked with yellowish dots on the shaded
side. Eye, half open, set in a rather shallow, and ribbed basin, which
is lined with fine down. Stalk, rather short, inserted in a wide and
deep cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, white, tinged with red
under the skin, and very much so on the side which is exposed to the
sun; it is tender, delicate, and juicy, with a pleasant, vinous, and
violet scented flavor.

A culinary apple of inferior quality in this country, but highly
esteemed on the Continent, both as a culinary and a dessert fruit. It
is in season during October and November.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and attains the largest size.
It is also an abundant bearer. To have the fruit in perfection it ought
to be grown on the paradise stock as an open dwarf, in a fine sandy
loam, and not too closely pruned.


59. CALVILLE ROUGE D’ÉTÉ.--Quint.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Quint. Traité. i. 201. Knoop Pom. 12. Hort. Soc. Cat.
 ed. 3, n. 117. Henne Anweis. 101.

 SYNONYMES.--Calville d’Eté, _Bret. Ecole_, ii. 470. Calleville
 d’Eté, _Schab. Prat._ ii. 89. Calleville d’Esté, _Merlet Abregé_,
 132. Madeleine, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ but not of Calvel. Calville,
 _Bon Jard._ 1810, 113. Passe-Pomme, _acc. Bon Jard._ 1810. Grosse
 Pomme Magdeleine, _Ibid._ Calville Plané Rouge d’Eté, _acc. Christ
 Handb._ Calville Royale d’Eté, _Ibid._ Cousinotte ou Calville
 d’Eté, in Normandy, _Ibid._ Grosse Rouge de Septembre, _Ibid._
 Red Calville, _Lind. Guide_, 9. Rother Sommercalville, _Diel
 Kernobst._ iv. 6. Sommer Erdbeerenapfel, _Henne Anweis._ 101. Rother
 Rosmarinapfel, _acc. Mayer_. Rother Stricherdbeerapfel, _Ibid._
 Rothe Sommer-Erdbeer-Apfel, _Sickler Obstgärt._ ii. 20, t. 3. Rode
 Zomer-Calville, _Knoop Pom._ tab. i.

 FIGURE.--Knoop Pom. tab. i. Sickler. Obstgärt. ii. t. 3. Mayer Pom.
 Franc, tab. iv.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and about the same
high; roundish, narrowing towards the apex, and with prominent ribs on
the sides like the other Calvilles. Skin, yellowish white, streaked and
veined with red on the shaded side; but covered with beautiful deep
shining crimson, on the side next the sun, and strewed with numerous
white dots. Eye, small and prominent, set in a narrow and wrinkled
basin. Stalk, from an inch to an inch and a half long, inserted in a
deep and narrow cavity, which is lined with thin russet. Flesh, white
tinged with red, crisp and tender, agreeably and pleasantly flavored.

A culinary apple of second-rate quality, ripe during July and August.
The flesh is stained with red, particularly on the side next the sun,
and partakes somewhat of the flavor of the strawberry. It is valued
only for its earliness.

The tree is of small habit of growth, but an excellent bearer. There
is great confusion subsisting between this variety and the Passe-pomme
Rouge, which Duhamel has described under the name of Calville d’Eté.


60. CALVILLE ROUGE D’HIVER.--Knoop.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Knoop Pom. 62. Christ Handb. ed. 1, n. 17. Hort. Soc.
 Cat. ed. 3, n. 118.

 SYNONYMES.--Calville Rouge, _Duh. Arb. Fruit._ i. 280. Calleville
 Rouge, _Schab. Prat._ ii. 88. Calville dit Sanguinole, _Merlet
 Abregé_. Calville Rouge Longue d’Hyver, _Zink. Pom._ n. 66. Calville
 Longue d’Hiver, _acc. Christ. Handb._ Calville Royale d’Hiver,
 _Ibid._ Rother Ekapfel, _Ibid._ Caillot Rosat, _Ibid._ Calville Rouge
 Couronnée, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Calville Sanguinole, _acc. Knoop_.
 Calville Rouge Dedans et Dehors, _Ibid._ Calville Musquée, _Ibid._
 Sanguinole, _Ibid._ Red Calville, _Lang. Pom._ 134, tab. lxxv. f. 3.
 Winter Red Calville, _Lind. Guide_, 85. Rode Wintercalville, _Knoop.
 Pom._ Tab. ix. Aechter rother Wintercalville, _Diel Kernobst._ iii.
 1. Rothe Wintercalville, _Sickler Obstgärt._ viii. 95, t. 6. Rother
 Winterquittenapfel, _Walter_, _acc. Diel_. Rother Winterkalwil, _Baum.
 Cat._ 1850.

 FIGURE.--Knoop Pom. Tab. ix. Duh. Arb. Fr. i. Tab. iii. Poit. et Turp.
 pl. 87.

Fruit, large, about three inches high, and the same in width; oblong,
but not nearly so much ribbed on the sides as the other Calvilles
already described. Skin, covered with a bluish bloom, deep shining
crimson on the side next the sun, but paler red on the shaded side, and
strewed with numerous yellowish dots. Eye, large and closed, with long
segments set in a deep warted and wrinkled basin. Stalk, slender, three
quarters of an inch long, inserted in a deep cavity, which is lined
with thin brown russet. Flesh, greenish white stained with red, not
very juicy, tender, vinous, and with a pleasant perfumed flavor.

A culinary apple of second-rate quality, ripe during November and
December. The tree attains about the middle size, is vigorous and
healthy in its young state, and is a good bearer. It is well adapted
for growing as dwarfs on the paradise stock, and requires a rich and
warm soil.


61. CALVILLE ROUGE DE MICOUD.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. v., p. 242. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 119.

Fruit, below medium size; oblate, and ribbed on the sides. Skin, tough,
and bitter tasted, red all over; but of a deeper and darker color on
the side next the sun, and streaked and spotted with paler red on
the shaded side. Eye open, placed in a wide and deep basin. Stalk,
long, inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tender and
delicate, crisp, sweet, and perfumed.

This curious apple has the extraordinary property of producing three
crops of fruit in one season. The first flowers appear at the usual
time in April, the second in June, and then for a time it ceases to
produce any more till the month of August, when it again blooms during
the whole of that month, September, October, and November, until it is
checked by the severity of the frosts. The first fruit is generally
ripe during August; the second in October, which are about the size of
a pigeon’s egg, and quite as good as the first. And so on it continues
until retarded by the frosts; but those last produced are rarely fit
for use.

This variety was first brought into notice by M. Thouin, of Paris, who
says the tree originated on the farm of the Baroness de Micoud, near La
Charité sur Loire, in the department of Nièvre.


62. CARLISLE CODLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 154.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. iii. f. 2.

Fruit, above medium size; ovate flat at the base, irregular and angular
on the sides. Skin, smooth and unctuous, pale yellow and strewed with
a few russety specks. Eye, closed, set in a narrow, rather deep, and
plaited basin. Stalk, very short, embedded in the cavity, which is
lined with russet, a few lines of which extend over the base. Flesh,
white, tender, crisp, and juicy, with a fine, brisk, and sugary flavor.

A culinary apple of the first quality, in use from August to December.
It is one of the most useful as well as one of the best culinary apples
we have, being fit for use when no larger than a walnut, and after
perfecting their growth continuing in perfection as late as Christmas.
If blanched in warm water, when used small, the outer rind slips off,
and they may be baked whole; their color is then a transparent green;
and their flavor is exquisite, resembling that of a green apricot.
When it is about the size of a large nutmeg, it may be made into apple
marmalade, or a dried sweetmeat, which rivals the finest Portugal
plum.--_M.C.H.S._

The tree is very hardy, a free grower, and an abundant bearer. As it
does not attain a great size, it may be grown more closely together
than most other sorts. It is a dwarf variety of the old English Codlin.


63. CAROLINE.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 41. Hort. Trans. vol. iv., p. 66. Hort.
 Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 128.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish. Skin, fine rich deep yellow, streaked
with broad patches of red. Eye, small, set in a narrow and plaited
basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity, which is lined with
russet. Flesh, firm, brisk, juicy, and highly flavored.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality, in use from November to
February.

This variety was named in honor of Lady Caroline Suffield, the wife of
Lord Suffield, of Blickling and Gunton Hall, Norfolk.--_Lindley._


64. CATSHEAD.--Ray.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Raii Hist. ii. 1447, n. 8. Lind. Guide, 65. Down. Fr.
 Amer. 103. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 130.

 SYNONYME.--Cat’s Head, _Fors. Treat._ 97.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter broad, and the same in height;
oblong, nearly as broad at the apex as at the base, with prominent ribs
on the sides, which extend into the basin of the eye, and terminate
in several knobs. Skin, smooth and unctuous, pale green; but with a
brownish tinge next the sun, and strewed with minute russety dots. Eye,
large and open, set in a large, angular, and rather deep basin. Stalk,
short, and slender for the size of the fruit, inserted in a shallow and
angular cavity. Flesh, tender, juicy, and sweet, with a pleasant, acid,
and slightly perfumed flavor.

One of our oldest and best culinary apples; it is in use from October
to January.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and attains the largest
size, and though not an abundant bearer during the early period of its
growth, it is much more productive as it becomes aged.

In the Horticultural Society’s Catalogue of Fruits, and also in
Lindley’s “Guide to the Orchard.” This is made synonymous with the
Costard of Ray, which is undoubtedly an error, the Costard being a
distinct variety.

The Catshead is one of our oldest varieties, and was always highly
esteemed for its great size. Phillips, in his poem on Cyder, says--

    “-------- Why should we sing the Thrift,
    Codling or Pomroy, or of pimpled coat
    The Russet, or the _Cat’s-Head’s_ weighty orb,
    Enormous in its growth, for various use
    Tho’ these are meet, tho’ after full repast,
    Are oft requir’d, and crown the rich dessert.”

In Ellis’s “Modern Husbandman,” he says the Catshead is, “a very useful
apple to the farmer, because one of them pared and wrapped up in dough,
serves with little trouble for making an apple-dumpling, so much in
request with the Kentish farmer, for being part of a ready meal,
that in the cheapest manner satiates the keen appetite of the hungry
plowman, both at home and in the field, and, therefore, has now got
into such reputation in Hertfordshire, and some other counties, that it
is become the most common food with a piece of bacon or pickle-pork for
families.”


65. CELLINI.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 132.

[Illustration]

Fruit, rather above medium size; roundish and flattened at both ends.
Skin, rich deep yellow, with spots and patches of lively red on the
shaded side; and bright red streaked and mottled with dark crimson
next the sun, with here and there a tinge of yellow breaking through.
Eye, large and open, with short, acute, and reflexed segments, and set
in a shallow and slightly plaited basin. Stalk, very short, inserted
in a funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, brisk, and
pleasantly flavored.

A culinary apple of the first quality; in use during October and
November. It is a fine, showy, and handsome apple, bearing a strong
resemblance to the Nonesuch, from which in all probability it was
raised. It originated with Mr. Leonard Phillips, of Vauxhall.


66. CHERRY APPLE.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Siberian Crab _of some_. Kirschapfel, Pomme Cerise, _Diel
 Kernobst._ ix. 238.

[Illustration]

Fruit, very small, about three quarters of an inch broad, and the same
in height; oblato-oblong. Skin, thin, and shining, of a beautiful lemon
color on the shaded side, but entirely covered with dark blood-red
on the side exposed to the sun, and which extends towards the shaded
side of a fine crimson. Stalk, very slender, an inch and a half long,
inserted in a small round cavity. Eye, small, without any segments, and
placed in a shallow basin. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, and juicy, with
a very pleasant and lively sub-acid flavor.

A beautiful little apple, more resembling a cherry in its general
appearance than an apple. It is ripe in October.

The tree, when full grown, is from fifteen to twenty feet high,
and produces an abundance of its beautiful fruit. It is perfectly
hardy, and may be grown in almost any description of soil. It forms a
beautiful object when grown as an ornamental tree on a lawn or in a
shrubbery.


67. CHESTER PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 30. Lind. Guide, 65. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 73. Diel Kernobst, iv. B. 43.

Fruit, medium sized, three inches broad, and two inches and a half
high; oblate, narrowing from the base to the crown. Skin, pale yellow,
but pale red striped with crimson where exposed to the sun, and covered
with large russety spots. Eye, small, and partially closed with broad
segments, and set in a pretty deep basin. Stalk, three quarters of an
inch long, slender, inserted in a deep, funnel-shaped, and russety
cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, soft, and juicy, with a
pleasant, sugary, and perfumed flavor.

A dessert apple of second-rate quality; in use from October to
Christmas.

The tree is hardy, a free grower, a good bearer, and attains a
considerable size. It is said to be extensively cultivated in the
neighbourhood of Chester.


68. CHRISTIE’S PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 10. Lind. Guide, 12. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 84.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xli. f. 3.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches high;
oblate, without angles, and handsomely shaped. Skin, yellow, tinged
with green on the shaded side; but streaked and mottled with red next
the sun, and speckled all over with large russety dots. Eye, partially
closed, set in a round, even, and rather shallow basin. Stalk, short
and slender, not protruding beyond the margin, inserted in a deep
cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, tender,
brisk, juicy, sugary, and pleasantly flavored.

A dessert apple of the first quality; in use from December to February.

The tree is an abundant bearer, but constitutionally weak, a delicate
grower, and subject to canker and mildew. On the paradise stock it
forms a beautiful, compact, and handsome little pyramid.

It was raised by a Mr. Christie, at Kingston-on-Thames.


69. CLAYGATE PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. v. p. 402. Lind. Guide, 65. Hort.
 Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 538. Down. Fr. Amer. 122.

Fruit, medium sized; pearmain-shaped. Skin, dull yellow mixed with
green, and a thin coating of russet and numerous dots on the shaded
side; but marked with broken stripes of dark red, on the side exposed
to the sun. Eye, large and open, with long segments set in a deep
basin. Stalk, an inch long, inserted in a smooth and rather deep
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, rich, and sugary, partaking of
the flavor of the Ribston Pippin.

A valuable and highly esteemed dessert apple of the first quality; it
comes into use in November, and will continue till March.

The tree, though not a strong or vigorous grower, is hardy and healthy,
attains the middle size, and is an abundant bearer. It succeeds well
grafted on the paradise stock, and grown as an espalier or an open
dwarf. Its shoots are slender and drooping.

This excellent variety was discovered by John Braddick, Esq., growing
in a hedge near his residence at Claygate, a hamlet in the parish of
Thames Ditton, in Surry, and by him widely and freely distributed.


70. CLARA PIPPIN.--Thomp.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Thomp. in Gard. Chron. 1848, p. 300.

Fruit, small; roundish-ovate. Skin, thick and membranous, orange in the
shade, and brownish red next the sun. Eye, small and closed, placed
almost even with the surface, or set in a slight depression. Stalk,
half an inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, orange, firm,
rich, brisk, and sugary.

A very valuable dessert apple of the first quality, remarkable for the
deep orange color of its flesh. It is in use about December and will
keep till May. It was raised by F. J. Graham, Esq., of Cranford, and
first noticed in the Gardeners Chronicle, April, 1848.


71. CLUSTER GOLDEN PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 282. Diel Kernobst. xi. 103.

 SYNONYMES.--Cluster Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Twin Cluster
 Pippin, _Ibid._ Thickset, _Ibid._ Cluster Apple, _Diel Kernobst._ xi.
 103. Englische Büschelreinette, _Ibid._

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and two inches high;
round, and slightly flattened at the apex. Skin, smooth, yellowish
green at first, but changing to yellow on the shaded side; with an
orange tinge next the sun, marked all over with veins and reticulations
of pale, brownish grey russet, with large patches round the stalk and
the eye. Eye, large and open, placed in a very shallow depression.
Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm,
crisp, and tender, with a brisk, sugary, and perfumed flavor.

A very good dessert apple, but not of first-rate quality; in use from
November to March. The fruit is produced in clusters, and it not
unfrequently happens that two are found joined together.

The tree is hardy, a small grower, and a good bearer.


72. COBHAM.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 148. Lind. Guide, 13.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and over two inches and
three quarters high; roundish and angular. Skin, lemon yellow tinged
with green; but with a few patches and pencilings of red next the sun,
and covered with specks and patches of russet. Eye, open, with short
segments, set in a wide and angular basin. Stalk, short and slender,
inserted in a wide, deep, and russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp,
firm, delicate, and juicy, with a brisk and sugary flavor.

An excellent culinary apple, and not unworthy of the dessert; it is
in use from November to Christmas, and partakes of the Ribston Pippin
flavor.

The tree is hardy, vigorous, and an excellent bearer.

The Cobham is so like a variety which is cultivated near Faversham, in
Kent, under the name of Pope’s apple, that there is some difficulty in
distinguishing the one from the other. Further observation may prove
them to be synonymous.--_See Pope’s Apple._


73. COCCAGEE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 150. Lind. Guide, 102.

 SYNONYMES.--Cockagee, _Fors. Treat._ 97. Cocko Gee.

Fruit, medium sized; ovate, and slightly angular. Skin, smooth, pale
yellow, interspersed with green specks. Eye, small and closed, set in a
deep, uneven, and irregular basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a narrow
and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, soft, sharply acid, and
austere.

One of the oldest and best cider apples. Although it is perhaps the
most harsh and austere apple known, and generally considered only fit
for cider, still it is one of the best for all culinary purposes,
especially for baking, as it possesses a particularly rich flavor when
cooked.

The name is said to be derived from _Cocko-Gee_ signifying
_Goose-dung_. In Langley’s “Pomona,” it is said, “This fruit is
originally from Ireland, and the cyder much valued in that country.
About sixteen or eighteen years since [1727] it was first brought over,
and promoted about Minehead, in Somersetshire. Some gentlemen of that
county have got enough of it now to make five, six, or eight hogsheads
a year of the cyder; and such as have to spare from their own tables,
sell, I am told, from four to eight pounds a hogshead. The cyder is
of the color of sherry (or rather of French white wine), and every
whit as fine and clear. I have tasted of it from several orchards in
Somersetshire. It hath a more vinous taste than any cyder I ever drank,
and as the sight might deceive a curious eye for wine, so I believe the
taste might pass an incurious palate for the same liquor.”


74. COCKLE PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 151. Lind. Guide, 66. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 96.

 SYNONYMES.--Cockle’s Pippin, _Fors. Treat._ 98. Nutmeg Pippin, _acc.
 Hort. Soc. Cat._ Nutmeg Cockle Pippin, _Ibid._ White Cockle Pippin,
 _Ibid._ Brown Cockle Pippin, _acc. Gard. Chron._ 1846, 148.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxiii. f. 9.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; conical, and slightly angular on the sides.
Skin, greenish yellow, changing as it ripens to deeper yellow, dotted
with small grey dots, and covered all over the base with delicate pale
brown russet. Eye, small and slightly closed, set in an irregular,
and somewhat angular basin. Stalk, an inch long, rather slender, and
obliquely inserted in a round and deep cavity, which is lined with
russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, tender, crisp, juicy, and sugary, with
a pleasant aromatic flavor.

An excellent dessert apple of the finest quality, in use from January
to April. Tree healthy, hardy, and an excellent bearer. This variety is
extensively grown in Surry and Sussex.


75. COE’S GOLDEN DROP.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 274.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small, conical, even, and regularly shaped. Skin, green at
first, but changing as it ripens to yellow, with a few large crimson
spots, on the side exposed to the sun, and marked with small patches
of thin delicate russet. Eye, small and open, even with the surface,
and surrounded with a few shallow plaits. Stalk, three quarters of an
inch long, inserted in a small, and shallow depression, which, together
with the base, is entirely covered with russet. Flesh, greenish-yellow,
firm, crisp, and very juicy, brisk, sugary, and vinous.

A delicious little dessert apple of the first quality, in use from
November to May.

The tree is hardy, a free upright grower, and a good bearer. It attains
about the middle size. If grafted on the paradise stock it is well
suited for espaliers, or growing as an open dwarf.

This excellent variety was introduced to notice by Gervase Coe, of Bury
St. Edmonds, who raised the Golden Drop Plum. It has been said that it
is a very old variety, which has existed for many years in some Essex
orchards, but was propagated by Coe as a seedling of his own.


76. COLE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 172. Lind. Guide, 13. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 71.

 SYNONYME.--Scarlet Perfume, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 104. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxvii. f. 3.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter broad, and two and a half
high; roundish, considerably flattened, almost oblate, and angular on
the sides. Skin, yellowish, almost entirely covered with deep crimson,
and slightly marked with russet. Eye, large and closed, set in a wide
and open basin. Stalk, long, covered with down, and inserted in a close
narrow cavity, with a fleshy prominence on one side of it. Flesh,
white, firm, juicy, and sweet, with a rich, brisk, and pleasant flavor.

A first-rate early kitchen apple, and second-rate for the dessert. It
is in use during August and September, and will even keep as long as
Christmas, if well preserved.

The tree is hardy, vigorous, and a good bearer, and on account of the
size of the fruit should be grown rather as a dwarf than a standard.


77. COLONEL HARBORD’S PIPPIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--G. Lind. in Hort. Trans. vol. iv., p. 65. Lind.
 Guide, 66. Hort Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 174.

Fruit, large, about three inches and a half wide, and the same in
height; conical, and angular on the sides. Skin, pale yellowish-green,
partially russeted on one side. Eye, large, set in a rather shallow
basin, surrounded with plaits and wrinkles. Stalk, half an inch long.
Flesh, white, tinged with green, soft, and very juicy, with a brisk
tart flavor.

An excellent culinary apple of the first quality; in use from November
to March. It originated at Blickling Hall, in Norfolk.


78. COLONEL VAUGHAN’S.--H.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size, one and three quarter inches high, and two
inches broad; oblato-conical, or conical. Skin, smooth and shining, the
side next the sun entirely covered with bright crimson, streaked with
very dark crimson, and thinly strewed with greyish white dots; but of a
fine waxen yellow, streaked and dotted with broken streaks of crimson
on the shaded side. Eye, small and closed, set in a wide, rather
shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, about a quarter of an inch long,
inserted in a round, deep, and even cavity, which is lined with thin
pale brown russet. Flesh, white, slightly tinged with red under the
skin on the side next the sun, firm, crisp, and brittle, very juicy,
with a sweet, brisk, and fine strawberry flavor.

A very excellent dessert apple; ripe in the end of September and during
October, at which season it is very common in Covent Garden Market.

In some parts of Kent this excellent little apple is produced in large
quantities for the supply of the London markets, but it is one which is
not met with in general cultivation.


79. CONTIN REINETTE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. vii., p. 339. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed.
 3, n. 645.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, somewhat resembling the old Nonpareil.
Skin, deep dull yellow on the shaded side, and fine red where exposed
to the sun. Flesh, yellowish, firm, highly flavored, and pleasantly
acid.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, peculiarly adapted for
cultivation in the northern districts of Scotland. It is in use during
October and November.

The tree is very hardy, an excellent and sure bearer, but a slender
grower.

It was raised by Sir George Stuart Mackenzie, Bart., of Coul, in
Rosshire, a gentleman who for a long series of years devoted his time
and talents to the advancement of horticulture.


80. CORNISH AROMATIC.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 181. Lind. Guide, 42. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 81.

 SYNONYME.--Aromatic Pippin. _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 87.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 58. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xix, f. 3.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; roundish, angular, slightly flattened, and narrowing
towards the eye. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, and covered with
large patches of pale brown russet, which extend all over the base, and
sprinkled with green and russety dots; but of a beautiful bright red,
which is streaked with deeper red, and strewed with patches and dots of
russet on the side exposed to the sun. Eye small and closed, with long
flat segments, which are reflexed at the tips and set in an irregular
basin. Stalk short, inserted in a deep and narrow cavity which is lined
with russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, rich, and highly
aromatic.

A valuable dessert apple of first-rate quality, in use from October to
Christmas.

The tree is a free grower and an excellent bearer.


81. CORNISH GILLIFLOWER.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 267. Lind. Guide, 67. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 102.

 SYNONYMES.--July-flower, _Hort. Trans._ vol. ii., p. 74. Cornish
 July-flower, _Ibid._ vol. iii., p. 323. Calville d’Angleterre, _Baum.
 Cat._ Pomme Regelans, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 140. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xix, f. 4.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and the same in height;
ovate, angular on the sides, and ribbed round the eye, somewhat like
a Quoining. Skin, dull green on the shaded side, and brownish red
streaked with brighter red on the side next the sun; some parts of the
surface marked with thin russet. Eye, large and closed, set in a narrow
and angular basin. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, inserted in a
rather shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, rich, and aromatic.

This is one of our best dessert apples, remarkable for its rich and
aromatic flavor; it is in use from December to May.

The tree is hardy, and a free grower, attaining the middle size, but
not an abundant bearer; it produces its fruit at the extremities of
the last year’s wood, and great care should, therefore, be taken to
preserve the bearing shoots. It succeeds well, grafted on the paradise
stock, and grown as an espalier or an open dwarf.

This valuable apple was brought into notice by Sir Christopher Hawkins,
who sent it to the London Horticultural Society, in 1813. It was
discovered about the beginning of the present century, growing in a
cottager’s garden, near Truro, in Cornwall.

The name July-flower is very often applied to this and some other
varieties of apples, and also to flowers, but it is only a corruption
of the more correct name Gilliflower, which is derived from the French
_Girofle_, signifying a clove, and hence the flower which has the
scent of that spice, is called _Giroflier_, which has been transformed
to _Gilliflower_. In Chaucer’s “Romaunt of the Rose,” he writes it
_Gylofre_.

    “There was eke wexyng many a spice,
    As Clowe Gylofre and liquorice.”

Turner writes it _Gelower_ and _Gelyfloure_. The proper name,
therefore, is Gilliflower, and not July-flower, as if it had some
reference to the month of July.


82. COSTARD.--Ray.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Raii Hist. ii. 1447. Laws. New. Orch. 32. Worl. Vin.
 167.

 SYNONYMES.--Coulthard, _in Lancashire_. Prussian Pippin, _Ibid._

Fruit, above medium size, two inches and three quarters, or three
inches wide, and three inches and a quarter high; oblong, but narrowing
a little towards the eye, distinctly five-sided, having five prominent
ribs on the sides, which extend into the basin of the eye, and form
ridges round the crown. Skin, smooth, dull yellowish green, strewed
all over with embedded grey specks. Eye, partially closed with long
acuminate segments, and set in a rather deep and angular basin. Stalk,
about a quarter of an inch long, inserted in a round, rather shallow,
and narrow cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, tender, juicy, and with a
brisk, and pleasant sub-acid flavor.

An excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality. It is in season from
October to Christmas.

The tree is hardy, a strong and vigorous grower, with strong downy
shoots, and an abundant bearer.

The Costard is one of our oldest English apples. It is mentioned under
the name of “Poma Costard,” in the fruiterers’ bills of Edward the
First, in 1292, at which time it was sold for a shilling a hundred.
The true Costard is now rarely to be met with, but at an early period
it must have been very extensively grown, for the retailers of it
were called Costardmongers, an appellation now transformed into
Costermongers. It is mentioned by William Lawson, in 1597, who, in his
quaint style, says, “Of your apple-trees you shall finde difference
in growth. A good Pipping will grow large, and a Costard-tree: stead
them on the north side of your other apples, thus being placed, the
least will give sunne to the rest, and the greatest will shroud their
fellowes.”

Modern authors make the Costard synonymous with the Catshead, chiefly,
I think, on the authority of Mr. George Lindley, who has it so in the
“Guide to the Orchard;” but this is evidently an error. All the early
authors who mention both varieties regard them as distinct. Parkinson
describes two varieties of Costard--the “Gray,” and the “Greene.” Of
the former, he says, “it is a good great apple, somewhat whitish on
the outside, and abideth the winter. The Green Costard is like the
other, but greener on the outside continually.” Ray describes both the
Catshead and Costard as distinct, and Leonard Meager enumerates three
varieties of Costard in his list--the white, grey, and red; but which
of these is identical with that described above, it is difficult now to
determine.

Some etymologists, and Dr. Johnson among the number, consider this name
to be derived from _Cost_, a head; but what connection there is between
either the shape or other appearance of this apple, and a head, more
than any other variety, must puzzle any one to discover. Is it not
more probable that it is derived from Costatus (_Anglice_, costate, or
ribbed), on account of the prominent ribs or angles on its sides? I
think this a much more likely derivation.


83. COUL BLUSH.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. vii., p. 340. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed.
 3, n. 184 Mem. Cal. Hort. Soc. iv. 556.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, and angular on the sides. A good deal
resembling the Hawthornden. Skin, pale yellow, marked with dull red
next the sun, and streaked and dotted with deeper red. Stalk, slender.
Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, brisk, and well-flavored.

An excellent culinary apple, in use from October to February. It is
said to be of finer flavor than the Hawthornden, and to be even a good
dessert apple.

The tree is hardy, a strong, vigorous, and upright grower, and an
abundant bearer. It is well suited for all northern and exposed
situations.

This is one of the varieties raised by Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Bart., of
Coul, Rosshire.


84. COURT OF WICK.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 187. Lind. Guide, 42. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 105. Rog. Fr. Cult. 87.

 SYNONYMES.--Court of Wick Pippin, _Fors. Treat._ 98. Court de Wick,
 _Hook. Pom. Lond._ Rival Golden Pippin, _acc. Ron. Pyr. Mal._ Fry’s
 Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Golden Drop, _Ibid._ Wick’s Pippin,
 _Ibid._ Wood’s Huntingdon, _Ibid._ Wood’s Transparent, _Ibid._
 Kingswick Pippin, _Ibid._ Phillip’s Reinette, _Ibid._

 FIGURE.--Hook. Pom. Lond. t. 32. Pom. Mag. t. 32. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl.
 xii f. 23.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size; oblato-ovate, regular and handsome. Skin,
when fully ripe, of a fine clear yellow, with bright orange, which
sometimes breaks out in a faint red next the sun, and covered all over
with russety freckles. Eye, large and open, with long, acuminate, and
reflexed segments, set in a wide, shallow, and even basin. Stalk, short
and slender, inserted in a smooth and even cavity, which is lined with
thin russet. Flesh, yellow, tender, crisp, very juicy, rich, and highly
flavored.

One of the best and most valuable dessert apples, both as regards the
hardiness of the tree, and the rich and delicious flavor of the fruit,
which is not inferior to that of the Golden Pippin. It is in use from
October to March.

The tree attains the middle size, is healthy, hardy, and an abundant
bearer. There is scarcely any description of soil or exposure where
it does not succeed, nor is it subject to the attacks of blight and
canker. It grows well on the paradise stock, producing fruit much
larger than on the crab, but not of so long duration.

This variety is said to have originated at Court of Wick, in
Somersetshire, and to have been raised from a pip of the Golden Pippin.
It is first mentioned by Forsyth, but I have not been able to discover
any facts relative to its history.


85. COURT-PENDU PLAT.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 185. Down. Fr. Amer. 105.
 Gard. Chron. 1846, 100.

 SYNONYMES.--Courtpendû, _Lind. Guide_. 43. Court-pendû plat Rougeâtre,
 _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ pl. xii. _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 212. Court-pendû
 rond gros, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, n. 216. Court-pendû rond très
 gros, _Ibid._ n. 218. Court-pendu rond rougeâtre. _Ibid._ n. 317.
 Court-pendu rosat, _Diel Kernobst._ xii. 171. Court-pendû musqué,
 _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, n. 209. Court-pendû rouge musqué, _acc. Hort.
 Soc. Cat._ Court-pendû rouge, _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 41. Courpendû vermeil,
 _Inst. Arb. Fr._ 154. Corianda Rose, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, n. 200.
 Rosenfarbiger, Kurtzstiel, _Diel Kernobst._ xii. 171. Courtpendû
 Rouge, _Knoop Pom._ 60, t. x. Courtpendû Rosaar, _Ibid._ 129. Reinette
 Courtpendû Rouge, _Ibid._ 129. Der Rothe Kurzstiel, _acc. Thomp._ Rode
 Korpendu, _Ibid._ Pomme de Berlin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Princesse
 Noble Zoete, _Ibid._ Garnons, _Ibid._ Woolaton Pippin, _Ibid._ Wise
 Apple, _acc. Thomp._

 FIGURE.--Knoop Pom. t. x. Pom. Mag. t. 66. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xii.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; oblate, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin,
bright green at first on the shaded side, but changing as it ripens
to clear yellow, marked with traces of russet, and russety dots; but
entirely covered with deep crimson, which is also marked with traces
of russet on the side next the sun, extending even to some portion of
the shaded side. Eye, open, with short segments, which are reflexed at
the tips, and set in a wide, even, and deep basin. Stalk, very short,
inserted in a wide and deep cavity, lined with russet, which extends
over a portion of the base. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, crisp, brisk,
rich, and sugary, with an abundance of vinous and perfumed juice.

A valuable dessert apple of the first quality; in use from December to
May.

The tree is of small habit of growth, but very hardy and an abundant
bearer. It is well adapted for espalier training when worked on the
paradise stock; and if grafted on the Pomme Paradis of the French, it
may be grown in pots, in which it forms a beautiful and interesting
object when laden with its beautiful fruit.

The bloom expands later than that of any other variety, and on that
account is less liable to be injured by spring frosts, hence, according
to Thompson, it has been called the _Wise Apple_.

This is not the Capendu of Duhamel, as quoted by Lindley and Downing;
neither is it the Court-pendu of Forsyth and De Quintinye, that variety
being the Fenouillet Rouge of Duhamel, _see No. 123_. The Courpendu of
Miller is also a different apple from any of those just mentioned,
and is distinguished by having a long and slender stalk, “so that
the fruit is always hanging downwards.” The name of this variety is
derived from _Corps pendu_ translated by some _Hanging Body_, whereas
that of the variety above described, is from _Court pendu_, signifying
_suspended short_, the stalk being so short, that the fruit, sits, as
it were, upon the branch. The name Capendu or Capendua, is mentioned
by the earliest authors, but applied to different varieties of apples.
It is met with in Ruellius, Tragus, Curtius, and Dalechamp, the latter
considering it the _Cestiana_ of Pliny. Curtius applies the name
to a yellow apple, and so also does Ruellius; but Tragus considers
it one of the varieties of Passe-pomme, he says, “Capendua magna
sunt alba et dulcia, in quorum utero semina per maturitatem sonant,
Ruellio _Passipoma_ apellantur.” They are also mentioned by J. Bauhin,
“Celeberrimum hoc pomi genus est totius Europæ, sic dicta, quòd ex
curto admodum pendeant pediculo.”


86. COWARNE RED.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION AND FIGURE.--Knight, Pom. Heref. t. 28.

Fruit, of a pretty good size, a little more long than broad, but narrow
at the crown, in which appear a few obtuse and undefined plaits. Eye,
small, with very short converging segments of the calyx. Stalk, hardly
half an inch long, very stiff and straight. Skin, a small part of it
pale gold on the shaded side, and round the base, but of a bright red
over a great part, and where fully exposed to the sun, of an intense,
deep, purplish crimson; there are numerous short streaks, which mark
the shady part of the fruit.

Specific gravity of its juice 1069.

A cider apple, which takes its name from the parish of Cowarne, near
Broomyard, in Herefordshire, where it was raised about the beginning of
the last century.--_Lindley._


87. CRAY PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. v., p. 401. Lind. Guide, 27.

Fruit, below medium size; conical, and angular on the sides. Skin, pale
yellow with a tinge of red next the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in
an even basin. Stalk, short, and deeply inserted. Flesh, yellow, crisp,
sweet, and highly flavored.

An excellent dessert apple, ripe in October.

This variety was raised at St. Mary’s Cray, in Kent, by Richard Waring,
Esq., and was exhibited at the London Horticultural Society, on the
15th of October, 1822.


88. CREED’S MARIGOLD.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a quarter high; roundish. Skin, fine deep rich yellow
on the shaded side; but deep orange next the sun, and covered with
beautiful red, which is striped with darker red, the whole marked with
patches of thin and delicate brown russet, and thickly strewed with
dark russety dots. Eye, open, with broad flat segments, and set in a
narrow, shallow, and regularly plaited basin. Stalk, short, set in a
deep cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellow, tender, crisp,
juicy, sugary, and richly flavored.

An excellent dessert apple, in use during October and November, after
which it becomes dry and meally but does not shrivel.

This variety was raised from a seed of the Scarlet Nonpareil, by Mr.
Creed, gardener, at Norton Court, near Faversham, in Kent.


89. CREEPER.--H.

Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a quarter high, and
about the same in width; somewhat conical or roundish-ovate. Skin,
smooth and shining, at first of a fine dark green on the shaded side,
and entirely covered with red, which is thickly marked with broken
streaks of darker red on the side next the sun; but as it ripens, the
shaded side changes to yellowish-green, and the exposed to crimson.
Eye, open, set in a pretty deep basin. Stalk, very short, embedded in
a shallow cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, sweet, and pleasantly
flavored, with a slight aroma.

A very good second-rate summer dessert apple; ripe in September.

This variety is very common in the Berkshire orchards.


90. DARLING PIPPIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Plan. Or. 1796. Lind. Guide, 68.

 SYNONYMES.--Darling, _Rea Pom._ 210. _Raii Hist._ ii. 1448.

Fruit, of medium size; oblato-conical. Skin, bright lemon yellow,
thickly set with small embedded pearly specks. Eye, small, and placed
in a shallow basin, surrounded with prominent plaits. Stalk, short and
slender, not deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, and
sugary, with a pleasant sub-acid flavor.

A dessert apple of good quality; in use from November to January.

This is one of our old English varieties. It is mentioned by Rea, in
1665, who calls it “a large gold yellow apple, of an excellent, quick,
something sharp taste, and bears well.” It is also noticed by Ray as
“Pomum delicatulum Cestriæ.”


91. DEVONSHIRE BUCKLAND.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 97.

 SYNONYMES.--Dredge’s White Lily, _Fors. Treat._ 99. White Lily, _acc.
 Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. Lily Buckland, _Ibid._

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and a half
high; roundish and flattened, with irregular and prominent angles
on the sides. Skin, dull waxen yellow, strewed all over with minute
russety dots, which are larger on the side exposed to the sun. Eye,
open, set in a plaited basin. Stalk, rather deeply inserted in a round
cavity, from which issue ramifications of russet. Flesh, yellow, crisp,
very juicy, brisk, sugary, and perfumed.

A very excellent apple; of first-rate quality as a culinary fruit, and
suitable also for the dessert. It is in use from October to February.

The tree is quite hardy, and an excellent bearer.


92. DEVONSHIRE QUARRENDEN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 122. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 603.
 Down. Fr. Amer. 71.

 SYNONYMES.--Quarrington, _Raii. Hist._ ii. 1448. Devonshire
 Quarrington, _Mort-Art._ ii. 290. Red Quarentine, _Miller and Sweet,
 Cat._ 1790. Red Quarenden, _Hook. Pom. Lond._ t. 13, _Lind. Guide_,
 6. Sack Apple, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, n. 1012. Quarentine, _in
 Devonshire_.

 FIGURES.--Hook. Pom. Lond. t. 13. Pom. Mag. t. 94. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl.
 i. f. 7.

[Illustration]

Fruit, rather below medium size; oblate, and sometimes a little angular
in its outline. Skin, smooth and shining, entirely covered with deep
purplish red, except where it is shaded by a leaf or twig, and then
it is of a delicate pale green, presenting a clear and well-defined
outline of the object which shades it. Eye, quite closed, with very
long tomentose segments, and placed in an undulating and shallow basin,
which is sometimes knobbed, and generally lined with thick tomentum.
Stalk, about three quarters of an inch long, fleshy at the insertion,
deeply set in a round and funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, white tinged
with green, crisp, brisk, and very juicy, with a rich vinous, and
refreshing flavor.

A very valuable and first-rate dessert apple. It ripens on the tree the
first week in August, and lasts till the end of September. It is one of
the earliest summer dessert apples, and at that season, is particularly
relished, for its fine, cooling, and refreshing, vinous juice.

The tree attains a considerable size, it is particularly hardy, and
a most prolific bearer. It succeeds well in almost every soil and
situation, and is admirably adapted for orchard planting. In almost
every latitude of Great Britain, from Devonshire to the Moray Frith,
I have observed it in perfect health and luxuriance, producing an
abundance of well ripened fruit, which, though not so large, nor so
early in the northern parts, still possessing the same richness of
flavor as in the south.

This is supposed to be a very old variety, but there is no record
of it previous to 1693, when it is mentioned by Ray; and except by
Mortimer, it is not noticed by any subsequent writer till within a very
recent period. It seems to have been unknown to Switzer, Langley, and
Miller; nor do I find that it was grown in any of the London nurseries
before the beginning of the present century. The only early catalogue
in which I find it is that of Miller and Sweet, of Bristol, in 1790.


93. DR. HELSHAM’S PIPPIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 8.

Fruit, medium sized; conical, more long than broad, eight or nine
inches in circumference, a little angular on the sides. Eye, small,
in a rather wide and oblique basin. Stalk, half an inch long, deeply
inserted. Skin, yellowish-green, with several redish spots; on the
sunny side of a fine clear red. Flesh, white. Juice sweet, with a
slight aromatic flavor.

Ripe in August and beginning of September.

The branches of this tree droop in the manner of a Jargonelle Pear. It
is an abundant bearer and deserves cultivation.

The original tree which is a large one, was raised by the late Dr.
Helsham, and is now growing in the garden of Mr. Etheredge, of Stoke
Ferry, in Norfolk.--_Lindley._

I have never met with this variety, but as Mr. Lindley recommends it
as worthy of cultivation, and as it may be better known in Norfolk
than elsewhere, I am induced to insert here with Mr. Lindley’s own
description.


94. DOWELL’S PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. v. p. 268. Lind. Guide, 27. Hort
 Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 13.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, narrowing towards the apex. Skin, green,
almost entirely covered with thin delicate russet, tinged with brownish
red next the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a narrow and rather
deep basin. Stalk, short, and deeply inserted. Flesh, yellow, tender,
crisp, juicy, sugary, and finely flavored.

A dessert apple in use from October to January.

This variety was raised by Stephen Dowell, Esq., of Braygrove,
Berkshire, from a pip of the Ribston Pippin, to which it bears a close
resemblance both in shape and flavor.


95. DOWNTON PIPPIN.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. Hort. Trans. vol. i., p. 145. Lind.
 Guide, 28. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 217. Down. Fr. Amer. 82.

 SYNONYMES.--Elton Pippin, _Fors. Treat._ 135. Elton Golden Pippin,
 _Salisb. Or._ 130. Knight’s Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3.
 Knight’s Golden Pippin, _Ibid._ St. Mary’s Pippin, _Ibid._ Downton’s
 Pepping, _Diel Kernobst._ v. B. 37.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Heref. t. 9. Pom. Mag. t. 113.

Fruit, small, two inches broad, and an inch and three quarters high;
somewhat cylindrical, and flattened at the ends, bearing a resemblance
to the Golden Pippin. Skin, smooth, of a fine lemon yellow color, and
with a slight tinge of red next the sun, marked with a few traces
of delicate russet, and strewed with numerous pale brown dots. Eye,
large and quite open, with long, flat, acuminate segments, set in a
wide, flat, and shallow basin. Stalk, slender, half-an-inch long, and
inserted in a shallow cavity which is lined with delicate russet.
Flesh, yellowish white, delicate, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a rich,
brisk, vinous and somewhat aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, resembling the Golden Pippin
both in size, shape, and color, as well as flavor. It is in use from
November to January.

The tree is a strong, healthy, and vigorous grower, a most abundant
bearer, and attains about the middle size. It may be grown as an open
dwarf, and is well suited for espaliers. The fruit is also valuable for
the cider it produces, the specific gravity of the juice being 1080.

This excellent variety was raised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., of
Downton Castle, from the seed of the Isle of Wight Orange Pippin,
impregnated with the pollen of the Golden Pippin, and the original tree
is still in existence at Wormsley Grange, Herefordshire.


96. DRAP D’OR.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit, i. 290. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n.
 219. Down. Fr. Amer. 71.

 SYNONYMES.--Vrai Drap d’Or, _Duh. Arb. Fruit_, i. 290. Drap d’Or Vrai,
 _Poin. Ami. Jard._ i. 192. Bay Apple, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Bonne de
 Mai, _Ibid._ Goldzaugapfel, _Diel. Kernobst._ iii. p. 115.

 FIGURES.--Duh. Arb. Fruit, t. i. xii. 4. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxvi. f. 2.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter broad, and two inches and
three quarters high; roundish, sometimes inclining to cylindrical,
or rather oblato-cylindrical. Skin, smooth and shining, of a fine
pale yellow color intermixed with a greenish tinge, which is disposed
in faint stripes extending from the base to the apex, on the shaded
side; but of a clearer, and deeper yellow on the side next the sun,
the whole marked with patches of delicate, dark brown russet, and
strewed with numerous russety dots; sometimes there is a faint tinge
of red on the side next the sun. Eye, small and closed, with acuminate
segments, which are covered with white tomentum, and set in a wide,
deep, irregular and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, and somewhat
fleshy, inserted in a wide, rather shallow, and smooth cavity. Flesh,
yellowish-white, tender, crisp, and juicy, with a brisk, vinous, and
sugary flavor.

A pretty good apple of second-rate quality, more suitable for culinary
purposes than the dessert. It is in use from October to Christmas.

The tree is a healthy and free grower, attaining about the middle size,
and is a free and early bearer, being generally well set with fruit
buds. It requires a rich soil and warm situation.

There is another apple totally different from this to which the name of
Drap d’Or is applied.--See _Fenouillet Jaune_.


97. DREDGE’S FAIR MAID OF WISHFORD.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 99. Rog. Fr. Cult. 55.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
and a quarter high; oblato-cylindrical, with obtuse angles on the
sides. Skin, yellow, covered with large patches and reticulations of
thin brown russet, which is strewed with rougher russety freckles, and
tinged with orange and a few streaks of red next the sun. Eye, rather
large, with long acuminate segments, which almost close it; and set in
a wide, angular, and pretty deep basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a
narrow, angular and smooth cavity, which is tinged with green. Flesh,
yellowish, firm, brisk, juicy, sugary, and richly flavored.

An excellent apple for culinary purposes, and even worthy of the
dessert. It is in use from December to March.

This, with the following variety, was either raised or first brought
into notice, by a Mr. William Dredge, of Wishford, near Salisbury. In
a letter dated November, 1802, which is in my possession, he writes to
the late Mr. Forsyth with specimens of these varieties, and of this he
says, “not in eating till Easter, great bearer, most excellent flavor.”

The tree is a free grower, attaining about the middle size, and is an
excellent bearer.


98. DREDGE’S FAME.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 100. Rog. Fr. Cult. 51.

[Illustration]

Fruit, above medium size; roundish, inclining to ovate, and furrowed
round the eye. Skin, dull dingy yellow, with a tinge of green, covered
with patches of thin russet, and large russety dots, particularly
over the base; and mottled with pale red on the side exposed to the
sun. Eye, closed, set in a deep and angular basin. Stalk, about three
quarters of an inch long, inserted in a deep cavity which is lined with
russet. Flesh, greenish-yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, brisk, and sugary,
with a rich aromatic flavor.

This is a valuable and very excellent apple, suitable either for
dessert use, or culinary purposes. It is in use from December to March.
In his letter to Mr. Forsyth, referred to above, Mr. Dredge says, “This
is the best apple yet known; in eating from Easter till Midsummer--most
excellent.”

The tree is hardy, a vigorous grower, an early and abundant bearer, but
according to Rogers, liable to be attacked by the woolly aphis; still
I have never found it more susceptible of that disease than most other
varieties.

There are several other varieties mentioned by Forsyth as _seedlings_
of Dredge’s, which I have not met with, as Dredge’s Queen Charlotte,
Dredge’s Russet, and Dredge’s Seedling. I have also in my collection,
Dredge’s Emperor and Lord Nelson, both of which are grown in the
West of England, but I have not yet had an opportunity of seeing the
fruit. It is, however, a question whether these are really seedlings
of Dredge’s or not; there are several varieties to which he affixed
his name, which have been ascertained to be identical with others that
existed before him, such as Dredge’s White Lily, which is synonymous
with Devonshire Buckland, and Dredge’s Beauty of Wilts, which is the
same as Harvey’s Pippin. Such instances tend to weaken our faith in the
high encomium passed upon him, by Rogers, of Southampton, in the “Fruit
Cultivator,” and induce us to class him with those who not only change
the name of some varieties, and append their own to others under the
pretence of their being new, and seedlings of their own, but dispose
of them at greater prices than they could have procured, had they
been sold under their correct names. We have but to glance over the
Horticultural Society’s Catalogue, or the Index to this work, to find
numerous instances confirmatory of this statement.


99. DUCHESS OF OLDENBURGH.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 221. Down. Fr. Amer. 82.
 Ron. Pyr. Mal. 12.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. vi. f. 6.

Fruit, large, about three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches
and a half high; round, and sometimes prominently ribbed on the sides
and round the eye. Skin, smooth, greenish-yellow on the shaded side,
and streaked with broken patches of fine bright red, on the side next
the sun, sometimes assuming a beautiful dark crimson cheek; it is
covered all over with numerous russety dots, particularly round the
eye, where they are large, dark, and rough. Eye, large and closed, with
long broad segments, placed in a deep and angular basin. Stalk, long
and slender, deeply inserted in a narrow and angular cavity. Flesh,
yellowish-white, firm, crisp, and very juicy, with a pleasant, brisk,
and refreshing flavor.

An excellent early dessert apple of the first quality; ripe in the
middle of August, and continues in use till the end of September.

The tree is hardy, a free grower, and an excellent bearer.

This variety is of Russian origin.


100. DUKE OF BEAUFORT’S PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 14. Lind. Guide, 28.

Fruit, medium sized; conical, and angular on the sides. Skin, green,
strewed with freckles of russet; and streaked with red on the side
exposed to the sun. Eye, set in a deep and angular basin. Stalk, short,
inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, crisp, and tender,
very juicy, and sub-acid.

A culinary apple of second-rate quality; in use from October to
Christmas.


101. DUMELOW’S SEEDLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv. 529. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n.
 224. Lind. Guide, 44.

 SYNONYMES.--Dumelow’s Crab, _acc. Hort. Trans._ Duke of Wellington,
 _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 37. Normanton Wonder, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Winter
 Hawthornden, _acc. Riv. Cat._ Wellington’s, _Diel Kernobst._ v. B. 55.
 Wellington’s Reinette, _Ibid._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xix. pl. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large; roundish and flattened. Skin, pale yellow, strewed
with minute russety dots, and greenish embedded specks under the
surface and with a tinge of pale red on the side next the sun, which
is sometimes almost entirely covered with a bright red cheek. Eye,
large and open, with broad, reflexed, acuminate segments, set in an
irregular, uneven, and pretty deep basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long,
deeply inserted in a narrow, and funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined
with russet. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, crisp, brisk, and very
juicy, with a slight aromatic flavor.

One of the most valuable culinary apples; it is in use from November to
March.

The tree is one of the strongest, and most vigorous growers, very
hardy, and an excellent bearer. The young shoots which are long and
stout, are thickly covered with large greyish white dots, which readily
distinguish this variety from almost every other.

This excellent apple was raised by a person of the name of Dumeller,
(pronounced _Dumelow_), a farmer at Shakerstone, a village in
Leicestershire, six miles from Ashby-de-la-Zouch, and is extensively
cultivated in that, and the adjoining counties under the names of
Dumelow’s Crab. It was first introduced to the neighbourhood of London,
by Mr. Richard Williams, of the Turnham Green Nursery, who received it
from Gopsal Hall, the seat of Earl Howe, and presented specimens of the
fruit to the Horticultural Society in 1820. It was with him that the
name of Wellington Apple originated, and by which only it is now known
in the London markets.


102. DUNCAN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 14?

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters broad, and two
inches and a half high; conical, with ribs on the sides which terminate
in irregular and unequal knobs round the eye. Skin, pale yellow in the
shade; but deep orange finely veined with rich deep crimson next the
sun. Eye, partially closed with short, broad segments, and set in a
deep, irregular, and prominently angular basin. Stalk, very short, set
in a round cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, crisp, juicy, and pleasantly
acid.

A handsome, showy, and very good culinary apple; in use from November
to January.


103. DUTCH CODLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 155. Lind. Guide, 29. Down.
 Fr Amer. 83.

 SYNONYMES.--Chalmers’s Large, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ White Codlin _of
 the Scotch Nurseries_. Glory of the West, _acc. Lind._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxvii.

Fruit, very large, four inches wide, and three inches and a half high;
roundish, inclining to oblong, irregularly and prominently ribbed.
Skin, pale green at first, but changing to pale yellow, with a faint
tinge of red next the sun. Eye, small, and deeply inserted in a narrow
and angular basin. Stalk, short and thick, inserted in a deep cavity.
Flesh, white, firm, somewhat sugary, and pleasantly sub-acid.

An excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use during August
and September.

The tree is healthy and vigorous, and a good bearer.

According to Lindley this variety is sometimes called _Glory of the
West_, but that is quite a different apple, _see_ No. 141.


104. DUTCH MIGNONNE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv., p. 70. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 225. Lind. Guide, 44. Down. Fr. Amer. 107.

 SYNONYMES.--Christ’s Golden Reinette, _Lipp. Taschenb._ p. 405.
 Reinette Dorée, _Mayer. Pom. Franc._ t. xxx. but not of Knoop or
 Duhamel. Grosze oder doppelte Casseler Reinette, _Diel Kernobst._ iv.
 140. Paternoster Apfel, _Audibert. Cat._ Pomme de Laak, _acc. Pom.
 Mag._ Stettin Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Dutch Minion, _Ron. Pyr.
 Mal._ Holländische Goldreinette, _acc. Ditt. Handb._

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 84. Ron. Pyr. Mal. t. xxvi. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, even and handsomely shaped, narrowing a
little towards the apex, where it is sometimes slightly ribbed. Skin,
dull greenish-yellow, marked all over with broken streaks of pale red
and crimson, with traces of russet, and numerous russety dots, which
are thickest round the eye. Eye, small and closed, with short and
pointed segments, placed in a deep and narrow basin. Stalk, an inch
long, inserted in a round and deep cavity, which, with a portion of
the base, is lined with rough russet. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, very
juicy, rich, sugary, and aromatic.

A very valuable and delicious dessert apple; in use from December to
April.

The tree is hardy, a vigorous grower, and a very abundant bearer.
It attains about the middle size when fully grown. The shoots are
thickly set with fruit spurs. It is well adapted for dwarf or espalier
training, and for these purposes succeeds well on the paradise stock.


105. EARLY HARVEST.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 228. Down. Fr. Amer. 72.
 Gard. Chron. 1845, p. 800.

 SYNONYMES.--Early French Reinette, _Coxe. View_. 101. July Pippin,
 _Floy Lind._ Prince’s Harvest, _acc. Coxe_. Prince’s Early Harvest,
 _Prince Cat._ Large Early, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ July Early Pippin,
 _Ibid._ Yellow Harvest, _Ibid._ Large White Juneating, _acc. Down._
 Tart Bough, _Ibid._ Prince’s Yellow Harvest, _acc. Gard. Chron._ July
 Early Pippin, _Ibid._ Pomme d’Eté, of Canada, _Ibid._

Fruit, of medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a quarter high; round. Skin, smooth, pale yellowish-green
at first, but changing to clear pale yellow as it ripens, and set with
embedded white specks, particularly round the eye. Eye, small and
closed, set in a round and shallow basin. Stalk, half an inch long,
inserted in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, white, tender, crisp, and
juicy, with a quick and pleasantly sub-acid flavor, and as is justly
remarked by Mr. Thompson, “closely approximates that of the Newtown
Pippin, of perfect American growth.”

An estimable and refreshing early dessert apple, of the first quality;
ripe in the end of July and the beginning of August.

The tree is a healthy, and free, though not a vigorous grower, and an
abundant bearer. It is well adapted for dwarf or espalier training
when grown on the paradise stock, and ought to find a place in every
collection however small.

Though of American origin this variety succeeds to perfection in this
country; a qualification which few of the American apples possess.


106. EARLY JULIEN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. v. p. 267. Lind. Guide, 4. Rog. Fr.
 Cult. 32.

Fruit, of medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, and
two inches and a quarter high; roundish, slightly flattened, and
prominently ribbed from the eye downwards to the base. Skin, smooth,
pale yellow, with an orange tinge next the sun, strewed all over with
minute dots and a few whitish specks. Eye, closed with broad segments,
and set in a deep, irregular, and angular basin. Stalk, short, not
extending beyond the base, and inserted in a deep and angular cavity.
Flesh, yellowish-white, crisp, very juicy, and with a brisk, pleasant,
and refreshing flavor.

An excellent early culinary apple, of first-rate quality, ripe in
the second week of August. It might with propriety be called the
Summer Hawthornden, as it equals that esteemed old variety in all its
properties.

The tree is healthy and hardy, but not a large grower. It is, however,
a good bearer, though not so much so as the Hawthornden, and is well
adapted for growing as a dwarf.

This variety is said to be of Scotch origin, but I cannot ascertain
where, or when it was first discovered. It is not mentioned by Gibson,
neither is it enumerated in the catalogue of Leslie and Anderson, of
Edinburgh, or any of the Scotch nurserymen of the last century. It
was first introduced to the south by the late Mr. Hugh Ronalds, of
Brentford, who exhibited it at the London Horticultural Society.


107. EARLY NONPAREIL.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Plan. Or. 1796. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 467.
 Lind. Guide, 88. Rog Fr. Cult. 67.

 SYNONYMES.--Stagg’s Nonpareil, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ New Nonpareil,
 _Ibid._ Summer Nonpareil, _Ron. Cat._ Hicks’s Fancy, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._
 4. Lacy’s Nonpareil, _acc. Rogers_.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. ii. f. 6.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; somewhat oblato-ovate. Skin, dull yellow, covered
with thin brownish grey russet, and marked with large russety dots.
Eye, open, placed in a small, round, and rather shallow basin. Stalk,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a narrow, deep, and russety cavity.
Flesh, yellowish-white, tender, crisp, juicy, and sugary, with a brisk
and rich aromatic flavor, resembling the old Nonpareil.

A delicious apple for the dessert, and of the first quality; it is in
use during October and November, after which it becomes dry and meally.

The tree is a free and upright grower, perfectly hardy, an early and
abundant bearer; even in the nursery quarters it produces freely
when only two years from the graft. It is well adapted for dwarf and
espalier training, when grown on the paradise stock.

This esteemed variety was raised about the year 1780, by a nurseryman
of the name of Stagg, at Caister, near Yarmouth, in Norfolk. The name
of Hicks’s Fancy was given to it by Kirke, formerly a nurseryman at
Brompton, near London, from the circumstance of a person of the name
of Hicks, giving it the preference to the other varieties which were
fruited in the nursery. An instance of the absurd system by which the
names of fruits have been multiplied.


108. EARLY SPICE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 786.

Fruit, of medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a quarter high; roundish, and somewhat angular. Skin,
smooth, of an uniform pale yellow or straw color, and thinly strewed
with greenish dots. Eye, small and open, with long, reflexed segments,
and set in a small basin. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, deeply
inserted in a rather angular cavity, which is thickly lined with
russet. Flesh, white, tender, marrowy and very juicy; with a pleasant,
refreshing and sub-acid flavor.

An excellent early culinary apple, which is well suited for baking,
and is also good as an eating apple. It is ripe in the first week of
August, but soon becomes woolly after being gathered.


109. EARLY WAX.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 2, p. 14.

 SYNONYME.--Wax Apple, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 3.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. ii. f. 1.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches wide, and two inches and a half
high; oblong, and somewhat ribbed, particularly at the base. Skin,
thick and membranous, of an uniform waxen yellow color. Eye, partially
open, with long reflexed segments, and set in a moderately deep basin.
Stalk, long and slender, inserted in a deep and angular cavity, from
which issue prominent ribs. Flesh, yellowish-white, tender and soft,
with a sweet and abundant juice.

A dessert apple of ordinary merit, valuable only for its earliness, as
it ripens in the first week of August, but does not keep any time.


110. ELFORD PIPPIN.--M.

 IDENTIFICATION AND FIGURE.--Maund. Fruit, pl. 45.

Fruit, of medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, and the same
in height; roundish, inclining to ovate, and ribbed round the eye.
Skin, yellowish-green, with markings of russet on the shaded side, but
covered with red, which is striped with darker red on the side next the
sun. Eye, large, and somewhat closed, with broad flat segments like
those of Trumpington, placed in a rather deep and somewhat undulating
basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a rather shallow cavity, which is
lined with delicate yellowish-brown russet. Flesh, yellowish, crisp,
and tender, with a fine, brisk, sugary, and vinous flavor.

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality, in use from October
to Christmas. The tree is a healthy and vigorous grower, and a good
bearer.

The Elford Pippin is supposed to have been raised at Elford, near
Lichfield, where it is a very popular variety, and to which locality it
is at present chiefly confined.


111. EMPEROR ALEXANDER.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. ii., p. 407. Lind. Guide, 14.

 SYNONYMES.--Alexander, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 6, and ed. 3, n. 7.
 Phœnix Apple, _Brook. Pom. Brit._ Aporta, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._
 Russian Emperor, _Ibid._ Kaiser Alexander von Russland, _Diel
 Kernobst._ 2 B. 65. Aporta Nalivia, _acc. Diel Kernobst._

 FIGURES.--Hort. Trans. vol. ii. t. 28. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxv. f. 2.

[Illustration]

Fruit, of the largest size; ovate. Skin, smooth, greenish-yellow,
with a few streaks of red on the shaded side; and orange covered with
streaks and patches of bright crimson on the side exposed to the sun,
the whole strewed with numerous russety dots. Eye, large, and half
open, with broad, erect, and acuminate segments, set in deep, even,
and slightly ribbed basin. Stalk, an inch or more in length, inserted
in a deep, round, and even cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh,
yellowish-white, tender, crisp, juicy, and sugary, with a pleasant and
slightly aromatic flavor.

A beautiful and valuable apple, both as regards its size and quality.
It is more adapted for culinary than dessert use, but is also desirable
for the latter were it only on account of its noble appearance at the
table. It is in use from September to December.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, producing long stout shoots,
is perfectly hardy and a good bearer.

This apple was introduced to this country by Mr. Lee, nurseryman
of Hammersmith, in 1817, and was exhibited by him at the London
Horticultural Society; the specimen produced being five inches and a
half in diameter, four inches deep, sixteen inches in circumference,
and weighed nineteen ounces. It is generally supposed that this was
its first appearance in England; but there can be little doubt that
it is the _Phœnix Apple_ figured by Brookshaw, whose account of it
in 1808, is as follows:--“It was much grown fifty years back in the
neighbourhood of Twickenham, but was rather lost. The late Mr. Ash,
nurseryman at Strawberry Hill, near Twickenham, preserved it from his
father, who had an old tree of it. This specimen came from that tree.
This apple was seen in Russia by an English nobleman, who thought it
so excellent an apple, that he was induced to send some trees of it
to England, and what will appear extraordinary to English gardeners,
they were taken up in the summer with their leaves on, when they could
not be less than twelve years old by their appearance, and when they
arrived, after being six months before they came to hand, they were
planted and produced fruit, and are now fine trees. The apple has a
bloom on it like a red plum when on the tree, and is a very excellent
beautiful apple, ripens in October, and will keep through December. It
is to be had at the late Mr. Ash’s nursery, at Strawberry Hill, near
Twickenham, under the name of Phœnix Apple, from its being lost and
revived.”


112. ENGLISH CODLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 1, n. 176. Lind. Guide, 29. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 63.

 SYNONYMES.--Quodling _Aust. Treat._ 66. Codling. _Raii Hist._ ii.
 1447. Old English Codlin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 163. Common
 Codlin, _Aber. Bot. Arr._ ii. 312.

 FIGURE.--Lang. Pom. t. lxxiv. f. 3.

Fruit, above medium size; conical, irregular in its shape. Skin, pale
yellow with a faint blush on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, closed,
set in a moderately deep basin. Stalk, short, stout, and rather deeply
inserted. Flesh, white, tender, and agreeably acid.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; ripe in August and continues in
use till October.

The trees are excellent bearers, but in most orchards they are
generally found unhealthy, cankered, and full of the woolly aphis, a
state produced, according to Mr. Lindley, by their being raised from
suckers, and truncheons stuck into the ground. In the “Guide to the
Orchard,” he says, “Healthy, robust, and substantial trees are only to
be obtained by grafting on stocks of the real Sour Hedge Crab; they
then grow freely, erect, and form very handsome heads, yielding fruit
as superior to those of our old orchards, as the old, and at present
deteriorated Codlin is to the Crab itself.” This circumstance was
noticed by Worlidge nearly two hundred years ago--“You may graft them
on stocks as you do other fruit, which will accelerate and augment
their bearing; but you may save that labor and trouble, if you plant
the Cions, Slips, or Cuttings of them in the spring-time, a little
before their budding; by which means they will prosper very well, and
soon become Trees; but these are more subject to the canker than those
that are grafted.”

This is one of our oldest English apples, and still deserving of
more general cultivation than is at present given to it. Formerly it
constituted one of the principal dishes in English cookery, in the
shape of “Codlings and Cream.” Ray says, “Crudum vix editur ob duritiem
et aciditatem, sed coctum vel cum cremore lactis, vel cum aqua rosacea
et saccharo comestum inter laudatissima fercula habetur.” The name is
derived from _coddle_, to parboil.


113. ESOPUS SPITZENBURGH.--Coxe.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Coxe. View. 127. Down. Fr. Amer. 138.

 SYNONYMES.--Æsopus Spitzenberg, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, 790. Æsopus
 Spitzenburg, _Ken. Amer. Or._ 40. True Spitzenburgh, _acc. Down._

 FIGURE.--Down. Fr. Amer. 138.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and three inches high;
ovate, and regularly formed. Skin, almost entirely covered with clear
bright red, and marked with fawn-colored russety dots, except on a
portion of the shaded side, where it is yellow tinged and streaked with
red. Eye, small and closed, set in a moderately deep and undulating
basin. Stalk, slender, about an inch long, inserted in a wide, round,
and deep cavity. Flesh, yellow, crisp, juicy, richly, and briskly
flavored.

A most excellent dessert apple; in use from November to February.

This is a native of the United States, and is there considered one of
the best dessert apples. Along with the Newtown Pippin it ranks as
one of the most productive and profitable orchard fruits, but like
many, and indeed almost all the best American varieties, it does not
attain to that degree of perfection in this country that it does in its
native soil. The tree is tender and subject to canker, and the fruit
lacks that high flavor, and peculiar richness which characterizes the
imported specimens. It was raised at Esopus, on the Hudson, where it is
still grown to a large extent.


114. ESSEX PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 239.

Fruit, small; round and flattened, somewhat oblate. Skin, smooth, green
at first, but becoming of a yellowish-green as it ripens, and with a
faint tinge of thin red where exposed to the sun. Eye, open, with long,
reflexed, acuminate segments, placed in a shallow basin. Stalk, three
quarters of an inch long, slender, inserted in a round and even cavity.
Flesh, yellowish, firm, and crisp, with a brisk, sugary, and rich
flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, nearly allied to the Golden
Pippin; it is in use from October to February.


115. FAIR MAID OF TAUNTON.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 15

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and an inch and three
quarters high; ovato-oblate, and rather irregularly formed. Skin,
smooth and shining, thick and membranous, of a pale straw color, and
with a faint of red on the side exposed to the sun; thickly strewed
all over with small russety dots. Eye, somewhat closed, with broad,
flat segments, which are reflexed at the tips, and set in a shallow
and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a wide cavity, which
is lined with rough brown russet. Flesh, yellowish-white, tender, very
juicy, sweet, and though not richly yet pleasantly flavored.

A dessert apple, but not of the first quality; in use from November to
February.


116. FAIR’S NONPAREIL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 469.

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter broad, and two inches high;
ovate, even, and regularly shaped. Skin, tender, of a bright green
color at first, but changing as it attains maturity, to a fine clear
yellow without any tinge of red. Eye, closed, set in a shallow, and
finely plaited basin. Stalk, inserted in a pretty deep cavity, which
has sometimes a fleshy protuberance on one side of it. Flesh, fine,
firm, crisp, and juicy, with a rich, refreshing, sugary, and vinous
flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, in use from November to February.


117. FAMAGUSTA.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 15.

Fruit, medium sized, about two inches and three quarters wide, and
two inches and a half high; roundish-ovate, somewhat ribbed towards
the eye. Skin, smooth, clear deep yellow, thinly strewed with large
brownish russety dots, on the shaded side, and marked with patches
and veins of thin, delicate, pale brown russet, and a faint tinge of
red on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, closed, set in a narrow and
even basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a narrow and shallow
cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, sweet,
aqueous, and slightly perfumed.

A culinary apple, in use from December to February.

The Famagusta of the Horticultural Society’s Catalogue cannot be the
original Famagusta mentioned by Rea, Worlidge, and Ray, because Rea
says it is “a fair large _early_ apple,” which is confirmed by Worlidge
placing it “in the number of the best _early_ apples.” The name is,
therefore, now given to a variety different from that to which it was
originally applied, but which may still be in existence in some parts
of the country.


118. FARLEIGH PIPPIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 243. Lind. Guide, 68. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 97.

 SYNONYME.--Farley Pippin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, n. 319.

Fruit, medium sized; oblong-ovate, and with prominent ribs on
the sides, which terminate at the crown in bold ridges. Skin,
yellowish-green on the shaded side; and brownish-red where exposed to
the sun. Eye, deeply set in an angular basin. Flesh, greenish, firm,
rich, and sugary.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from January to April.

The tree is a strong, vigorous, and upright grower, very hardy, and an
abundant bearer.

This variety originated at Farleigh, in Kent.


119. FEARN’S PIPPIN.--Hooker.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 2, n. 245. Lind. Guide, 47. Fors.
 Treat. 102. Rog. Fr. Cult. 85.

 SYNONYMES.--Clifton Nonesuch, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Ferris Pippin,
 _Ibid._ Florence Pippin, _in Covent Garden Market_.

 FIGURE.--Hook. Pom. Lond. t. 43. Pom. Mag. t. 67. Ron. Pyr. Mal. t.
 xii. f. 2.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, and flattened at both ends. Skin, pale
greenish-yellow, streaked with dull red on the shaded side; and bright
dark crimson, strewed with grey dots, and small patches of russet on
the side next the sun, and extending almost over the whole surface.
Eye, large, partially open, with broad connivent segments, which are
reflexed at the tips, and set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, a
quarter of an inch long, inserted in a wide and shallow cavity. Flesh,
yellowish-white, firm, crisp, brisk, sugary, and pleasantly flavored.

An excellent apple, either for the dessert or culinary purposes; it is
in use from November to February.

The tree is very hardy and a great bearer. It is only of late years
that it has been brought into general cultivation, and now it is grown
very extensively by the London market gardeners, for the supply of
Covent Garden Market.


120. FEDERAL PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 540.

Fruit, below medium size; pearmain-shaped. Skin, yellowish on the
shaded side; with a little red, and a few dark red streaks on the side
next the sun; the whole thickly covered with large russety dots, and
a few patches of russet. Eye, set in a pretty deep and ribbed basin.
Stalk, about half-an-inch long, inserted in a funnel-shaped and russety
cavity. Flesh, fine and delicate, very juicy, with a rich, sugary, and
vinous flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; ripe in December, and continues
till March.


121. FENOUILLET GRIS.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit. i. 287. t. 5. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 246. Lind. Guide, 88. Down. Fr. Amer. 110. Diel Kernobst. iv. 117.
 Quint. Inst. i. 202.

 SYNONYMES.--Fenouillet, _Knoop Pom._ 52. t. ix. Fenellet, _Lang. Pom._
 134, t. lxxv. f. 1. Fenouillet, d’Or Gros, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Gros
 Fenouillet _acc. Calvel_. Petit Fenouillet, _Ibid._ Pomme d’Anis,
 _acc. Merlet_. Anis, _Duh. Arb. Fruit._ i. 287. George de Pigeon,
 _acc. Knoop_. 130. Graue Fenchelapfel, _Diel Kernobst._ iv. 117.
 Grauer Fenchelapfel. Anisapfel, _Mayer Pom. Franc._ t. xxxii. f. 55.
 Winter Anisreinette, _Christ Handb._ No. 116.

 FIGURE.--Nois. Jard. Fr. ed. 2, pl. 99. Poit. et Turp. 151.

Fruit, small, about two inches and a quarter broad, and the same in
height; roundish-ovate, and broadest at the base. Skin, of a fine deep
yellow color, like a Golden Pippin, but almost entirely covered with
russet, which is brown on the shaded side, and grey where exposed to
the sun, mixed with a tinge of redish brown. Eye, small and open, set
in a round, wide, and rather deep basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long,
inserted in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, tender,
crisp, rich, sugary, and aromatic, partaking much of the flavor of
Anise--hence the origin of one of the synonymes.

An excellent dessert apple, and when well ripened is considered of
first-rate quality by those who are partial to its peculiar flavor. It
is in season from December to March, and at an advanced period becomes
woolly.

The tree is a small and slender grower; but an abundant bearer. It
requires a rich soil and warm situation, and succeeds well as a dwarf
on the paradise stock.


122. FENOUILLET JAUNE.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit. i. 290. Down. Fr. Amer. 109. Bon.
 Jard.

 SYNONYMES.--Drap d’Or, _Knoop Pom._ 59. Caracter Appel, _Ibid._ t.
 x. Pomme de Caractère, _Ibid._ 130. Reinette Drap d’Or, _Ibid._ 130.
 Embroidered Pippin, _Lind Guide_, 46.

 FIGURE.--Jard. Fruit. ed. 2, pl. 105.

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter broad, and an inch and three
quarters high; roundish, flattened, and broadest at the base; even and
regularly formed. Skin, fine bright yellow, marked with reticulations
of pale brown russet. Eye, small and closed, set in a wide and
pretty deep basin. Stalk, short and stout, inserted in a deep and
funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, white, firm, sugary, and richly perfumed.

A delicious little dessert apple; in use from December to April.

The tree is a free grower, quite hardy, and an excellent bearer; but
requires a light and warm soil.

According to Knoop, this apple is called Pomme de Caractère, from
the linear tracings of russet with which it is covered, being so
disposed as to give it the appearance of being marked with letters or
_characters_.


123. FENOUILLET ROUGE.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION--Duh. Arb. Fruit, i. 289. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n.
 247. Lind. Guide, 47. Down. Fr. Amer. 109. Diel Kernobst. iii. 199.

 SYNONYMES.--Courtpendû, _Quint. Inst._ i. 202. Reinette Courtpendû,
 _Knoop Pom._ 129. Courtpendû Gris, _Ibid._ 60. Reinette de Goslinga,
 _Ibid._ 129. Carpendy, _Gibs. Fr. Gard._ 355. Petit Courtpendu Gris,
 _Inst. Arb. Fr._ 154. Bardin, _Schab. Prat._ ii. 88. Pomme de Bardin,
 _Riv. et Moul. Meth._ 191. Curtipendula Minora, _Bauh. Hist._ i. 23.
 Rothe Fenchelapfel, _Diel Kernobst._ iii. 199. Reinette Grise de
 Champagne, _acc. Bret. Ecole_.

 FIGURE.--Jard. Fruit. ed. 2, pl. 99. Mayer Pom. Franc. tab. xxxiii.
 Poit. et Turp. pl. 67.

Fruit, small, two inches broad and about the same in height; roundish,
and a little flattened. Skin, pale greenish-yellow, but so entirely
covered with dark grey russet as to leave none of the ground color
visible, except that portion exposed to the sun, which is dark redish
brown. Eye, large and closed, set in a wide and rather shallow basin.
Stalk, about an inch long, sometimes obliquely inserted, by the
side of a fleshy prominence, in a wide and shallow cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, firm, rich, sugary, and highly perfumed with the flavor
of anise or fennel.

An excellent dessert apple; in use from November to January.

The tree is a small grower, but an abundant bearer, and requires a warm
and rich soil to have the fruit in perfection.


124. FILL-BASKET.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and the same in
height; conical, round at the base, flattened at the apex, and
distinctly angular on the sides. Skin, pale dull greenish-yellow on the
shaded side, and streaked with broken patches and pencilings of pale
red, where exposed to the sun, the whole covered with russety dots.
Eye, closed, as if drawn together or puckered, placed level with the
flat crown, and with a small knob or wart at the base of each segment.
Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, thickest at the insertion, and
placed in a small, round, and shallow cavity, which is surrounded with
dark brown russet. Flesh, greenish-white, tender, juicy, and acid, with
a brisk and pleasant flavor.

An excellent culinary apple, extensively grown in the neighbourhood of
Lancaster, where it is highly esteemed; it is in use from October to
January.

This, which may be called the Lancashire Fill-basket, is very different
from the Kentish variety of that name.


125. FLANDERS PIPPIN.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and two and a quarter high;
oblate, and marked on the sides with ten distinct angles, five of which
are more prominent than the others. Skin, pale green, changing to pale
greenish-yellow as it ripens, and occasionally tinged with a cloud
of thin dull red on the side exposed to the sun, and thinly strewed
with a few dots. Eye, closed, with long and downy segments, set in a
narrow and ribbed basin. Stalk, from half-an-inch to an inch in length,
slender, and inserted in a deep funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined
with russet. Flesh, white, tender, and marrowy, juicy, and briskly
flavored.

A culinary apple of second-rate quality; in use during October and
November.

It is much grown in the Berkshire orchards.


126. FLOWER OF KENT.--Park.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Park. Par. 587. Raii Hist. ii. 1448. Fors. Treat.
 101. Lind Guide, 14. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 254. Down. Fr. Amer.
 83. Rog. Fr. Cult. 37.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xv. f. 2.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large; roundish, and considerably flattened, with obtuse angles
on the sides, which extend into the basin of the eye, where they form
prominent knobs on the apex. Skin, greenish-yellow, thickly strewed
with green dots on the shaded side; but next the sun, dull red marked
with patches and streaks of livelier red, and dotted with light grey
dots. Eye, large and open, with broad reflexed segments, and placed
in a large angular basin, which is marked with russet. Stalk, an
inch long, thick and strong, deeply set in an angular cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a pleasant and briskly
acid flavor.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from November to January.

The tree is a pretty good bearer, one of the strongest and most
vigorous growers, and consequently more suitable for the orchard than
the fruit garden.

This is a very old variety, being mentioned by Parkinson, Leonard
Meager, and Ray, but there is no notice of it in the works of any
subsequent writer till the publication of Forsyth’s Treatise.


127. FLUSHING SPITZENBURGH.--Down.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Down. Fr. Amer. 139.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, narrowing towards the eye. Skin,
entirely covered with deep red, which is streaked with deeper red,
except on any small portion where it has been shaded, and there it is
green, marked with broken streaks and mottles of red, the whole surface
strewed with light grey russety dots. Eye, small and closed, very
slightly depressed, and surrounded with plaits. Stalk, nearly an inch
long, inserted in a deep and russety cavity. Flesh, greenish, tender,
sweet, juicy, and without any predominance of acid.

An American dessert apple of little value; in use from October to
January.

In the Horticultural Society’s Catalogue this is made synonymous with
Esopus Spitzenburgh, but it is quite a different variety.


128. FOREST STYRE.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. pl. xii.

 SYNONYMES.--Stire, _Marsh. Gloucest._ ii. 251. _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed.
 3, n. 799. Forest Styre, _Lind. Guide_, 104.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Heref. pl. xii.

Fruit, below medium size; roundish, inclining to oblate, regularly
and handsomely shaped. Skin, pale yellow, with a blush of red on the
side which is exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, with short
obtuse segments, set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, very short,
inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, firm.

Specific gravity of the juice from 1076 to 1081.

This is a fine old Gloucestershire cider apple, which is extensively
cultivated on the thin limestone soils of the Forest of Dean. The cider
that it produces is strong bodied, rich, and highly flavored.

The tree produces numerous straight, luxuriant, upward shoots, like
a pollard willow; it runs much to wood, and in deep soils attains a
considerable size before it becomes fruitful.


129. FORGE.--H.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, obscurely ribbed, and sometimes
narrowing towards the eye, where it is angular. Skin, smooth and
shining, of a fine golden yellow color, strewed with mottles of crimson
on the shaded side; and dark red marked with patches of deep crimson
on the side exposed to the sun; sometimes when much exposed to the sun
the yellow assumes a deep orange tinge. Eye, small and closed, set in
an angular basin. Stalk, very short, not a quarter of an inch long,
inserted in a small, round, and shallow cavity, surrounded with thick
russet. Flesh, yellowish-white, tender, mellow, juicy, sweet, and
finely perfumed.

A beautiful and valuable apple, suitable either for the dessert,
culinary use, or for the manufacture of cider. It is in use from
October to January.

The tree attains about the middle size, is perfectly hardy and healthy,
and quite free from canker and disease. It is a most abundant and
regular bearer.

I am surprised that this beautiful apple has hitherto escaped the
notice of pomologists, it being so universally grown, and generally
popular, in the district to which it belongs. In the north-eastern
parts of Sussex, and the adjoining county of Surrey, it is extensively
cultivated, and I believe there is scarcely a cottager’s garden where
it is not to be met with, nor is there a cottager to whom its name
is not as familiar as his own, it being considered to supply all the
qualifications that a valuable apple is supposed to possess; and
although this judgment is formed in contrast with the other varieties
grown in the district, nevertheless, the Forge is a useful and valuable
apple, particularly to a cottager, whether we consider its great
productiveness, its uses as a dessert and excellent cooking apple, or
the excellent cider which it produces. It is said to have originated at
a blacksmith’s forge near East Grinstead.


130. FORMAN’S CREW.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 256. Lind. Guide, 69. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 60.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 89.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half high, and two inches
wide; conical, and flattened at both ends. Skin, pale yellowish-green,
with redish-brown on the side exposed to the sun, covered with
pale, thin, yellowish-brown russet. Eye, small and open, set in a
shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, short, not deeply inserted. Flesh,
greenish-yellow, juicy, rich, and highly flavored, with much of the
flavor of the Nonpareil and Golden Pippin.

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality; it comes into use in
November, and keeps till April.

The tree is a great bearer, but tender and subject to canker.

It is well adapted for dwarf training when worked on the paradise stock.

This variety was raised by Thomas Seton Forman, Esq., Pennydarron
Place, near Merthyr Tydvil, Glamorganshire.


131. FOULDEN PEARMAIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. in Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 69. Lind. Guide,
 69. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 541.

 SYNONYME.--Horrex’s Pearmain, _acc. Lind. in Hort. Trans._

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half high, and about the
same broad; ovate. Skin, yellow in the shade, and clear thin red on
the side exposed to the sun, strewed all over with small russety dots.
Eye, small and open, set in a narrow and shallow basin. Stalk, three
quarters of an inch long, inserted in a round and moderately deep
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, very juicy, and briskly acid.

An excellent culinary apple, and suitable also for the dessert; in use
from November to March.

This variety originated in the garden of Mrs. Horrex, of Foulden, in
Norfolk, and was first brought into notice by Mr. George Lindley, who
communicated it to the Horticultural Society, March 7, 1820.


132. FOXLEY.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 14. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 258.
 Lind. Guide, 104.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Heref. t. 14.

[Illustration]

Fruit, growing in clusters of two or three together, very small, not
much larger than a good sized cherry; roundish, and sometimes a little
flattened, and narrowing towards the crown. Skin, deep, rich, golden
yellow on the shaded side; and bright redish-orange on the side exposed
to the sun. Eye, small and closed, not depressed, and surrounded with
a few knobs. Stalk, about an inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity,
which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellow.

Specific gravity of the juice 1080.

A valuable cider apple.

This variety was raised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., from the Cherry
Apple, impregnated with the pollen of the Golden Pippin. It was named
Foxley from the seat of the late Uvedale Price, Esq., in whose garden,
where it had been grafted, it first attained maturity. Mr. Knight says,
“there is no situation where the common Wild Crab will produce fruit,
in which the Foxley will not produce a fine cider.”


133. FOX-WHELP.--Evelyn.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Evelyn Pom. Lind. Guide, 105. Fors. Treat. 101. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 146. Rog. Fr. Cult. 112. Worl. Vin. 162.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Heref. t. 3.

Fruit, medium sized; ovate, and irregularly shaped, with prominent
angles on the sides. Skin, yellow and red, mixed with a good deal of
deeper red streaked all over the fruit.

Specific gravity of the juice 1076 when the fruit is healthy; and when
small and shrivelled it is 1080.

The juice of this variety is extremely rich and saccharine, and enters
in a greater or less proportion into the composition of many of the
finest ciders in Herefordshire, to which it communicates both strength
and flavor.

This is one of the oldest of our cider apples, and is enumerated by
Evelyn; but is not so highly extolled as the Redstreak, and some other
varieties. In Evelyn’s “Advertisements concerning Cider,” a “person of
great experience,” says “Cider for strength and a long lasting drink
is best made of the _Fox-Whelp_ of the _Forest of Dean_, but which
comes not to be drunk till two or three years old.” By Worlidge it was
“esteemed among the choice cider fruits.”


134. FRANKLIN’S GOLDEN PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 283. Fors. Treat. 101.
 Lind. Guide, 15. Down. Fr. Amer. 83. Diel Kernobst. x. 92.

 SYNONYME.--Sudlow’s Fall Pippin, _Hort. Trans._ vol. iv. p. 217.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 137. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xviii. f. 3.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; oblato-ovate, even and regularly formed. Skin, of
an uniform deep yellow, covered all over with dark spots interspersed
with fine russet, particularly round the apex. Eye, small, with long
narrow segments overlapping each other, partially open, and set in a
wide and deep basin. Stalk, short and slender, about half-an-inch long,
inserted in a round, narrow, and smooth cavity. Flesh, yellow, tender,
and crisp, very juicy, vinous, and aromatic.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from October to December.

The tree does not attain a large size, but is vigorous, healthy, and
hardy, and an excellent bearer. It is well suited for a dwarf or
espalier, and succeeds well on the paradise stock.

This is of American origin, and was introduced to this country by John
Sudlow, Esq., of Thames Ditton, and first exhibited at the London
Horticultural Society in 1819.


135. FRIAR.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 30. Lind. Guide, 105. Salisb. Or. 126.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Heref. t. 30.

Fruit, of good size; somewhat conical, being broad at the base, and
narrow at the crown. Skin, dark grass-green on the shaded side;
and dark muddy livid red where exposed to the sun. Eye, sunk, and
surrounded by four or five obtuse but prominent ridges. Stalk, short
and stiff, notwithstanding which the fruit is generally pendant.

Specific gravity of its juice 1073.

This is a cider apple cultivated in the north-west parts of
Herefordshire, where the climate is cold, and the soil unfavourable,
and where proper attention is never paid by the farmer to the
management of his cider, which in consequence is generally fit only for
the ordinary purposes of a farm-house.--_Knight._

The trees are vigorous and productive.

Mr. Knight says, “The Friar probably derived its name from some
imagined resemblance between its color and that of the countenance of a
well-fed ecclesiastic.”


136. FULWOOD.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 261. Lind. Guide, 48.

 SYNONYME.--Green Fulwood, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and a half
high; roundish, with broad irregular ribs on the sides. Skin, green,
covered with broken stripes of dark dull red on the side next the sun.
Eye, large and closed, moderately depressed, and surrounded with broad
plaits. Stalk, short and slender, deeply inserted in a narrow and
uneven cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, firm, crisp, very juicy, briskly
acid, and slightly perfumed.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from November to March.


137. GANGES.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 69. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 262.

Fruit, large; oblong and irregular. Skin, green, with a few specks of
darker green interspersed; and dashed with red on the sunny side. Eye,
hollow. Stalk, half-an-inch long, deeply inserted, quite within the
base. Flesh, pale yellowish-green, sub-acid, and of good flavor.

A culinary apple; in use from October to January.--_Lindley._


138. GARTER.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 26. Lind. Guide, 105. Salisb. Or. 125.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Heref. t. 26.

Fruit, medium sized; oblong, tapering from the base to the crown,
perfectly round in its circumference, and free from angles. Skin, pale
yellow on the shaded side; but when exposed to the sun of a bright
lively red, shaded with darker streaks and patches quite into the crown.

Specific gravity of its juice 1066.

Though this contains but a small portion of saccharine matter, it
contributes to afford excellent cider when mixed with some of the older
varieties.


139. GLORIA MUNDI.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 271. Down. Fr. Amer. 110.

 SYNONYMES.--Monstrous Pippin, _Coxe View_, 117. Baltimore, _Hort.
 Trans._ iii. 120. _Lind. Guide_, 61. Glazenwood Gloria Mundi, _acc.
 Hort. Soc. Cat._ New York Gloria Mundi, _Ibid._ American Gloria Mundi,
 _Ibid._ American Mammoth, _Ibid._ Mammoth, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 13. Ox
 Apple, _acc. Downing_. Pomme Josephine, _Poit et Turp._ v. tab. 423.
 Pomme Melon, _Ibid._ Belle Josephine, _Lelieur_. Belle Dubois, _acc.
 Dubrieul_. Paternoster, _Ibid._ Rhode Island, _Ibid._ Hausmütterchen,
 _Teutsche G. Mag._ ii. 453, t. 29. Menagère, _Ibid._

 FIGURES.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. t. 4. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxiv. f. 2.
 Poit. et Turp. tab. 423.

Fruit, immensely large, sometimes measuring four inches and a half in
diameter; of a roundish shape, angular on the sides, and flattened
both at the base and the apex. Skin, smooth, pale yellowish-green,
interspersed with white dots and patches of thin delicate russet, and
tinged with a faint blush of red next the sun. Eye, large, open, and
deeply set in a wide and slightly furrowed basin. Stalk, short and
stout, inserted in a deep and open cavity, which is lined with rough
russet. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and though not highly flavored, is
an excellent culinary apple.

It is in use from October to Christmas.

This variety is of American origin, but some doubts exist as to where
it was first raised, that honor being claimed by several different
localities. The general opinion, however, is, that it originated in
the garden of a Mr. Smith, in the neighbourhood of Baltimore, and was
first brought over to this country by Captain George Hudson, of the
ship Belvedere, of Baltimore, in 1817. It was introduced from America
into France by Comte Lelieur, in 1804. But from the account given in
the Allgemeines Teutsches Gärtenmagazin, it is doubtful whether it is
a native of America, for in the volume of that work for 1805, it is
said to have been raised by Herr Künstgartner Maszman, of Hanover. If
that account is correct, its existence in America is in all probability
owing to its having been taken thither by some Hanoverian emigrants.
At page 41, vol. iii., Dittrich has confounded the synonymes of the
_Gloria Mundi_ with _Golden Mundi_, which he has described under the
name of _Monstow’s Pepping_.


140. GLORY OF ENGLAND.--H.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and over two inches and
three quarters high; ovate, somewhat of the shape of Emperor Alexander,
ribbed on the sides, and terminated round the eye by a number of
puckered-like knobs. Skin, dull greenish-yellow, with numerous embedded
whitish specks, particularly round the eye, and covered with large dark
russety dots, and linear marks of russet; but on the side exposed to
the sun it is of a deeper yellow, with a few broken streaks and dots of
crimson. Eye, small and slightly closed, set in a shallow and puckered
basin. Stalk, short and fleshy, inserted in a wide, deep, and russety
cavity. Flesh, greenish-yellow, tender, soft, juicy, sprightly, and
slightly perfumed.

An excellent culinary apple; in use from October to January.


141. GLORY OF THE WEST.--Diel.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Diel Kernobst. xii. 83.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter broad, and two inches and
three quarters high; oblate, ridged and angular about the eye, and
ribbed on the sides. Skin, smooth and shining, yellow, mixed in some
parts with a tinge of green, and washed with thin clear red on the
side next the sun; the whole surface is strewed with minute russety
dots, and several large dark spots, such as are often met with on the
Hawthornden. Eye, large, with long segments, and set in an angular
basin. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, inserted in a deep
cavity, which is surrounded with a large patch of rough grey russet.
Flesh, yellowish-white, firm but tender, very juicy, with a pleasant,
brisk, and slightly perfumed flavor.

A culinary apple of first quality; it is in use the end of October and
continues till Christmas.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, attaining a great size, and
is an excellent bearer.

I had this variety from Mr. James Lake, of Bridgewater, and it is
evidently identical with the Glory of the West of Diel, a name which,
according to Lindley, is sometimes applied to the Dutch Codlin. The
variety here described bears a considerable resemblance to that known
by the name of Turk’s Cap.


142. GOGAR PIPPIN.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 126. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 273.
 Lind. Guide, 48. Nicol. Villa. Gard. 31.

 SYNONYME.--Stone Pippin, of some, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, obscurely angled, and slightly
flattened. Skin, thick and membranous, pale green, strewed all
over with small russety dots, and faintly mottled with a tinge of
brownish-red next the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a narrow,
shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a very shallow
cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, tender, juicy, sugary, and brisk.

A dessert apple of second-rate quality; in use from January to March.

This variety is of Scotch origin, and is said to have originated at
Gogar, near Edinburgh.


143. GOLDEN HARVEY.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 275. Lind.
 Guide, 49. Down. Fr. Amer. 111. Rog Fr. Cult. 61.

 SYNONYMES.--Brandy, _Fors. Treat._ 95. _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 45. Round
 Russet Harvey, _Rea Pom._ 210. _Worl. Vin._ 159?

 FIGURES.--Pom. Heref. t. 22. Pom. Mag. t. 39. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl.
 xxiii. f. 4.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; oblato-cylindrical, even and free from angles. Skin,
entirely covered with rough scaly russet, with sometimes a patch of
the yellow ground color exposed on the shaded side, and covered with
brownish-red on the side next the sun. Eye, small and open, with very
short, reflexed segments, set in a wide, shallow, and slightly plaited
basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh,
yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, with an exceedingly rich and
powerful aromatic flavor.

This is one of the richest and most excellent dessert apples; it is
in use from December to May; but is very apt to shrivel if exposed to
light and air as most russety apples are.

The tree is a free grower, and perfectly hardy. It attains about the
middle size and is an excellent bearer. When grown on the paradise
stock it is well adapted for dwarf training, and forms a good espalier.

Independently of being one of the best dessert apples, it is also one
of the best for cider; and from the great strength of its juice, the
specific gravity of which is 1085, it has been called the _Brandy
Apple_.


144. GOLDEN KNOB.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 104. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 279. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 54.

 SYNONYME.--Kentish Golden Knob, _Nursery Catalogues_.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxii. f. 9.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter wide, and the
same in height; ovate, sometimes a little flattened, which gives it
a roundish shape. Skin, pale green, becoming yellowish-green as it
attains maturity; much covered with russet round the base and on the
shaded side; but yellow, marked with streaks of a redish tinge, with
crimson dots next the sun, and thickly strewed all over with large
freckles of russet. Eye, open, generally with long segments, but in the
roundish specimens they are short and stunted, and placed in a shallow
basin. Stalk, very short, and quite embedded in the cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, firm, crisp, and very juicy, of a brisk, sweet flavor.

A good dessert apple, of second-rate quality; in use from December to
March.

The tree is hardy and a vigorous grower, producing enormous crops,
and on that account extensively cultivated, particularly in Kent, for
the supply of the London markets. Though a good apple it is one more
deserving the attention of the orchardist than the fruit gardener.


145. GOLDEN MONDAY.--Switz.

 SYNONYME.--Monstow’s Pepping, _Ditt. Handb._ iii. 41.

Fruit, small, about two inches and a half wide, and two inches high;
roundish, inclining to oblate. Skin, smooth, pale grass green on
the shaded side; but fine clear golden yellow dotted with crimson
dots, on the side exposed to the sun, and in some parts marked with
ramifications of very thin delicate brown russet, which generally issue
from the basin of the eye. Eye, small, and rather open, with narrow,
acute, and stiff segments, set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stalk,
very short, not a quarter of an inch long, quite embedded in a narrow,
round, and rather deep cavity, which, with the base, is covered with
very thick and rough scaly russet. Flesh, yellowish-white, crisp, not
very juicy, sugary, brisk, and perfumed, not unlike the flavor of the
Golden Pippin.

A very excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from
October to Christmas.

I do not know what the Golden Mundi of Forsyth is, which he describes
as a fine handsome apple, beautifully streaked with red; but that now
described is the Golden Monday of the Berkshire orchards, and the same
as has been cultivated in the Brompton Park nursery for upwards of a
hundred years.

The Golden Russet is sometimes called by the name of Golden Monday, but
it is a very distinct variety from this.


146. GOLDEN NOBLE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv., p. 524. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 280. Lind. Guide, 49.

Fruit, large; round, and narrowing towards the eye, handsome. Skin,
smooth, clear bright yellow, without any blush of red, but a few small
redish spots and small patches of russet. Eye, small, set in a round
and deep basin, surrounded with plaits. Stalk, short, with a fleshy
growth on one side of it, which connects it with the fruit. Flesh,
yellow, tender, with a pleasant acid juice, and baking of a clear amber
color, perfectly melting, with a rich acidity.

A valuable culinary apple; in use from September to December.

This was first brought into notice by Sir Thomas Harr, of Stowe Hall,
Norfolk, whose gardener procured it from a tree supposed to be the
original, in an old orchard at Downham, and communicated it to the
Horticultural Society of London, in 1820.


147. GOLDEN PEARMAIN.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 103. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 542.
 Lind. Guide, 70

 SYNONYME.--Ruckman’s Pearmain, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 755.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxiii. f. 6.

Fruit, medium sized, about two inches and a half in diameter, and the
same in height; abrupt pearmain-shaped, irregularly ribbed on the
sides, and uneven at the apex. Skin, pale yellow, strewed with patches
of russet, and covered with minute russety dots on the shaded side;
but deep redish orange, streaked with deeper color, and strewed with
minute russety dots on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, large and
open, with reflexed segments, and set in a wide, deep, and angular
basin. Stalk, slender, three quarters of an inch long, and obliquely
inserted, with frequently a fleshy protuberance on one side of it,
in a rather shallow cavity, which is lined with green russet. Flesh,
yellowish, firm, crisp, very juicy, sweet, and lacking acidity, which
gives it a sickly flavor.

An apple of second-rate quality, suitable either for culinary purposes
or the dessert; in use from November to March.

The tree is an upright grower and a free bearer, but requires to be
grown in good soil.

In America this is esteemed as a cider apple.


148. GOLDEN PIPPIN.--Evelyn.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Evelyn Pom. Raii Hist. ii. 1447. Switz. Fr. Gard.
 135. Pom. Heref. Lind. Guide, 16. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 281. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 112.

 SYNONYMES.--Small Golding Pippin, or Bayford, _Meag. Eng. Gard._
 85. Barford Pippin, _acc. Raii Hist._ Russet Golden Pippin, _Lang.
 Pom._ 130, t. lxxix. f. 5. Balgown Pippin, _Leslie and Anders. Cat._
 English Reinette, _acc. West. Univ. Bot._ iv. 139. Old Golden Pippin,
 _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 98. English Golden Pippin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed.
 1, n. 382. London Golden Pippin, _Ibid._ 387. Herefordshire Golden
 Pippin, _Ibid._ 384. Milton Golden Pippin, _Ibid._ 388. Warter’s
 Golden Pippin, _Ibid._ 394. Balgone Pippin, _Ibid._ 35. Balgone Golden
 Pippin, _acc. Ibid._ ed. 3. Bayfordbury, _acc. Ibid._ ed. 3. American
 Plate, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 63, pl. xxxii. f. 2. Guolden Peppins, _Quint.
 Inst._ i. 202. Reinette d’Angleterre, _Schab. Prat._ ii. 88 Pepin
 d’Or, _Knoop Pom._ 54, tab. ix. Pomme d’Or, _Duh. Arb. Fruit._ i. 292,
 t. 7. Gelbe Englische Pipe, _Meyen Baumsch._ No. 14. Gold Pepping,
 _Diel Kernobst._ ii. 69. Peppin d’Or, _Knoop. Pom._ tab. ix. Goud
 Pepping, _Ibid._ 131. Goudeling’s Pepping, _Ibid._ Gulden Pipping,
 _Ibid._ Engelsche Goud Pepping, _Ibid._ Litle Pepping, _Ibid._ Kœnings
 Peppeling, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, n. 527.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Heref. t. 2. Hook. Pom. Lond. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xviii.
 f. 5. Jard. Fruit, ed. 2, pl. 108.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; roundish, inclining to oblong, regularly and handsomely
shaped, without inequalities or angles on the sides. Skin, rich yellow,
assuming a deep golden tinge when perfectly ripe, with a deeper tinge
where it has been exposed to the sun; the whole surface is strewed with
russety dots, which are largest on the sunny side, and intermixed with
these are numerous embedded pearly specks. Eye, small and open, with
long segments, placed in a shallow, smooth, and even basin. Stalk, from
half-an-inch to an inch in length, inserted in a pretty deep cavity.
Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, very juicy and sugary, with a brisk,
vinous, and particularly fine flavor.

One of the oldest and by far the most highly esteemed of our dessert
apples, and neither the Borsdorffer of the Germans, the Reinette of
the French, nor the Newtown Pippin of the Americans, will ever occupy
in the estimation of the English the place now accorded to the Golden
Pippin. It is also an excellent cider apple. The specific gravity of
its juice is 1078.

It is in season from November to April.

The tree is a free and vigorous grower, but does not attain a great
size. It is also an excellent bearer.

When and where the Golden Pippin was first discovered, are now matters
of uncertainty; but all writers agree in ascribing to it an English
origin, some supposing it to have originated at Parham Park, near
Arundel, in Sussex. Although it is not recorded at so early a period
as some others, there is no doubt it is a very old variety. It is
not, however, the “Golding Pippin” of Parkinson, for he says “it is
the _greatest_ and best of all sorts of Pippins.” It was perhaps this
circumstance that led Mr. Knight to remark, that from the description
Parkinson has given of the apples cultivated in his time, it is evident
that those now known by the same names, are different, and probably
new varieties. But this is no evidence of such being the case, for I
find there were two sorts of Golden Pippin, the “Great Golding,” and
the “Small Golding, or Bayford,” both of which are mentioned by Leonard
Meager, and there is no doubt the “Golding Pippin,” of Parkinson, was
the “Great Golding.” Whether it was because it was little known, or its
qualities were unappreciated, that the writers of the 17th century were
so restrictive in their praises of the Golden Pippin, it is difficult
to say; but true it is whilst Pearmains, Red Streaks, Codlings, and
Catsheads, are set forth as the desiderata of an orchard, the Golden
Pippin is but rarely noticed. Ralph Austin calls it “a very speciall
apple and great bearer.” Evelyn certainly states that Lord Clarendon
cultivated it, but it was only as a cider apple: for he says “at
Lord Clarendon’s seat at Swallowfield, Berks, there is an orchard of
1000 Golden _and other cider_ Pippins.” In his Treatise on Cider he
frequently notices it as a cider apple; but never in any place that I
can recollect of as a dessert fruit. In the Pomona, he says, “About
London and the southern tracts, the Pippin, and especially the Golden,
is esteemed for making the most delicious cider, most wholesome, and
most restorative.” Worlidge merely notices it as “smaller than the
Orange Apple, else much like it in color, taste, and long keeping.”
Ray seems the first who fully appreciated it, for after minutely and
correctly describing it, he says, “Ad omnes culinæ usus præstantissimum
habetur, et Pomaceo conficiendo egregium.” De Quintinye’s remarks are
not at all complimentary. He says it has altogether the character of
the paradise or some other wild apple, it is extremely yellow and
round, little juice, which is pretty rich, and without bad flavor.
But the Jardinier Solitaire, more impartial, or with better judgment,
says, “son eau est tres sucrée; elle a le goût plus relevé que la
Reynette; c’est ce que luy donne le mérite d’être reconnuë pour une
tres excellente pomme.” The opinion of Angran de Rueneuve is also worth
recording.

“La Pomme d’Or est venuë d’Angleterre; on l’y apelle Goule-Pepin.
J’estime qu’elle doit être la Reyne des Pommes, et que la Reynette ne
doit marche qu’aprés elle; car elle est d’un plus fin relief que toutes
les autres Pommes.” Switzer calls it “the most antient, as well as most
excellent apple that is.” But it is not my intention to record all that
has been written in praise of the Golden Pippin, for that of itself
would occupy too much space, my object in making these extracts being
simply to show the gradual progress of its popularity.

The late President of the London Horticultural Society, T. A. Knight,
Esq., considered that the Golden Pippin, and all the old varieties of
English apples, were in the last stage of decay, and that a few years
would witness their total extinction. This belief he founded upon the
degenerate state of these varieties in the Herefordshire orchards, and
also upon his theory that no variety of apple will continue to exist
more than 200 years. But that illustrious man never fell into a greater
error. It would be needless to enter into any further discussion upon
a subject concerning which so much has already been said and written,
as there is sufficient evidence to confute that theory. The Pearmain,
which is the oldest English apple on record, shows no symptoms of
decay, neither does the Catshead, London Pippin, Winter Quoining, or
any other variety; those only _having been allowed to disappear_ from
our orchards, which were not worth perpetuating, and their places
supplied by others infinitely superior.

It is now considerably upwards of half a century since this doctrine
was first promulgated, and though the old, exhausted, and diseased
trees of the Herefordshire orchards, of which Mr. Knight spoke,
together with their _diseased_ progeny--now that they have performed
their part, and fulfilled the end of their existence--may ere this have
passed away, we have the Golden Pippin still, in all the luxuriance of
early youth, where it is found in a soil congenial to its growth; and
exhibiting as little symptoms of decay as any of the varieties which
Mr. Knight raised to supply the vacancy he expected it to create.

In the Brompton Park Nursery, where the same Golden Pippin has been
cultivated for nearly two centuries, and continued from year to year by
grafts taken from young trees in the nursery quarters, I never saw the
least disposition to disease, canker, or decay of any kind; but, on the
contrary, a free, vigorous, and healthy growth.

But this alarm of Mr. Knight for the safety of the Golden Pippin, and
his fear of its extinction, were based upon no new doctrine, for we
find Mortimer a hundred years before, equally lamenting the Kentish
Pippin. After speaking of manures, &c., for the regeneration of fruit
trees, he says, “I shall be glad if this account may put any upon the
trial of raising that excellent fruit the Kentish Pippin, which else,
I fear, will be lost. For I find in several orchards, both in Kent,
Essex, and Hertfordshire, old trees of that sort, but I can find no
young ones to prosper. A friend of mine tried a great many experiments
in Hertfordshire, about raising them, and could never get them to
thrive, though he had old trees in the same orchard that grew and bore
very well. I likewise tried several experiments myself, and have had
young trees thrive so well, as to make many shoots of a yard long in
a year, but these young shoots were always blasted the next year, or
cankered; which makes me think that the ancients had some particular
way of raising them, that we have lost the knowledge of.” Although this
was written a hundred and fifty years ago, we have the Kentish Pippin
still, which though not so much cultivated, or so well known now as
then, is nevertheless where it does exist as vigorous and healthy as
ever it was.


149. GOLDEN REINETTE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 661. Lind. Guide, 50. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 129. Rog. Fr. Cult. 101.

 SYNONYMES.--Aurore, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 26. Dundee, _Ibid._ 289.
 Megginch Favorite, _Ibid._ 600. Princesse Noble, _Ibid._ 814. Reinette
 d’Aix, _Ibid._ 860. Reinette Gielen, _Ibid._ 888. Yellow German
 Reinette, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. Elizabeth, _Ibid._ Englise
 Pippin, _Ibid._ Wygers, _Ibid._ Court-pendu dorée, _Hort. Soc. Cat._
 ed. 1, 206. Kirke’s Golden Reinette, _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 102. Golden
 Renet. _Raii Hist._ ii. 1448. Golden Rennet, _Lang. Pom._ 134, t.
 lxxvi. f. 6. _Fors. Treat._ 103. Pomme Madame, _Knoop Pom._ 65, t. xi.
 Wyker Pipping, _Ibid._ 132.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 69. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xii. f. 6.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, and a little flattened. Skin, a fine
deep yellow, which towards the sun is tinged with red, streaked with
deeper and livelier red, and dotted all over with russety dots. Eye,
large and open, with short dry segments, and set in a wide and even
basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, deeply inserted in a round and even
cavity. Flesh, yellow, crisp, brisk, juicy, rich, and sugary.

A fine old dessert apple of first-rate quality; it is in use from
November to April.

The tree is healthy, vigorous, and an abundant bearer. It requires a
light and warm soil, and is well adapted for dwarf training when worked
on the paradise stock. Large quantities of this fruit are grown in the
counties round London for the supply of the different markets, where
they always command a high price.

This variety has been long known in this country and esteemed as one of
the finest apples. Worlidge, in 1676, says, “It is to be preferred in
our plantations for all occasions.” Ellis, in his “Modern Husbandman,”
1744, says, “The Golden Rennet, when of the largest sort, may be truly
said to be the farmer’s greatest favorite apple, because when all
others miss bearing, this generally stands his friend, and bears him
large quantities on one tree.”


150. GOLDEN RUSSET.--Ray.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Raii Hist. ii. 1447. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 740.
 Lind. Guide, 89. Fors. Treat. 103. Rog. Fr. Cult. 105. Down. Fr. Amer.
 132.

 SYNONYME.--Aromatick, or Golden Russeting, _Worl. Vin._ 156.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxix. f. 2.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
and a quarter high; ovate. Skin, thick, covered with dingy yellow
russet, which is rough and thick on the shaded side, and round the
base; and sometimes with a little bright red on the side next the sun.
Eye, small and closed, set in a prominently plaited basin. Stalk, very
short, inserted in an uneven cavity, and not protruding beyond the
base. Flesh, pale yellow, firm, crisp, sugary, and aromatic; but not
abounding in juice.

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from December
to March.

The tree is healthy and an excellent bearer, but requires a warm
situation to bring the fruit to perfection.

This is another of our old English apples. Worlidge calls it the
Aromatick, or Golden Russeting, “it hath no compear, it being of a
gold-color coat, under a russet hair, with some warts on it. It lives
over the winter, and is, without dispute, the most pleasant apple that
grows; having a most delicate aromatick hautgust, and melting in the
mouth.”


151. GOLDEN STREAK.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a quarter high; ovate. Skin, fine clear yellow, marked all
over with broken streaks of fine bright crimson. Eye, large and open,
considerably depressed. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a russety
basin. Flesh, yellow, brisk, and pleasantly flavored.

A Somersetshire cider apple.


152. GOLDEN WINTER PEARMAIN.--Diel.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Diel Kernobst. x. 174.

 SYNONYMES.--King of the Pippins, _Hort. Soc. Cat. ed._ 3, n. 383.
 _Fors. Treat._ 110. _Lind. Guide_, 31. _Down. Fr. Amer._ 88. Hampshire
 Yellow, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 431. Hampshire Yellow Golden Pippin,
 _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 86. Jones’s Southampton Pippin, _acc. Rogers_.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 117. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxviii. f. 4.

Fruit, medium sized; abrupt pearmain-shaped, broadest at the base.
Skin, smooth, of a deep, rich, golden yellow, which is paler on the
shaded side than on that exposed to the sun, where it is of a deep
orange, marked with streaks and mottles of crimson, and strewed with
russety dots. Eye, large and open, with long, acuminate, and reflexed
segments; and placed in a round, even, and rather deep basin. Stalk,
three quarters of an inch long, stout, and inserted in a rather shallow
cavity, which is lined with thin pale brown russet mixed with a tinge
of green. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, breaking, juicy, and sweet;
with a pleasant and somewhat aromatic flavor.

A beautiful and very handsome apple of first-rate quality, and suitable
either for the dessert or for culinary purposes; it is in use from the
end of October to January.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, a most abundant bearer, and
attains a considerable size. It is perfectly hardy, and will grow in
almost any situation.

This variety was first brought into notice by Mr. Kirke, a nurseryman,
at Brompton, under the name of _King of the Pippins_. I have, however,
thought it advisable to discontinue that name in connection with this
variety, because Diel previously possessed and described it under the
name of _Golden Winter Pearmain_, which is much more appropriate; and
the name of King of the Pippins belongs to another and very distinct
variety.--_See No. 199_.


153. GOOSEBERRY.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 293.

[Illustration]

Fruit, very large; roundish-ovate. Skin, smooth, deep lively green,
with a brownish tinge where exposed to the sun; strewed all over with
minute russety dots, which are large and redish next the sun. Eye,
open, with broad, flat, ovate segments, set in a deep and plaited
basin. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, inserted in a deep,
round, and slightly russety cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, very tender,
delicate, and marrowy, juicy, brisk, and pleasantly flavored.

A culinary apple of the finest quality, and surpassed by none for the
purpose to which it is applicable; it is in use from October to January.

This is a valuable apple to the market gardener, and is now extensively
cultivated in the Kentish orchards, particularly about Faversham, and
Sittingbourne, for the supply of the London Markets. This is a very
different apple from the Gooseberry Pippin of Ronald’s Pyrus Malus
Brentfordensis.


154. GRANGE.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 7. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 295.
 Lind. Guide, 106.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxii. f. 6.

Fruit, below medium size; roundish, regularly and handsomely shaped.
Skin, smooth, of a rich golden yellow, assuming a slight orange tinge
next the sun, and strewed with minute russety dots. Eye, large and
open, with broad, flat, and reflexed segments; and scarcely at all
depressed. Stalk, very short and fleshy, inserted in a wide and shallow
cavity, which is tinged with green color and slightly russety. Flesh,
yellow, firm, crisp, sugary, and briskly flavored.

A very excellent apple either for the dessert or for the manufacture of
cider; it is in use from October to January.

The specific gravity of its juice is 1079.

The tree is perfectly hardy and an excellent bearer.

This is one of the excellent productions of T. A. Knight, Esq. It was
raised in 1791, from the seed of the Orange Pippin, impregnated with
the pollen of the Golden Pippin, and introduced in 1802. The original
tree is at Wormsley Grange, in Herefordshire.


155. GRANGE’S PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3.

 SYNONYME.--Grange’s Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

Fruit, large, three inches wide, and the same in height;
pearmain-shaped, as large, and very much the shape of the Royal
Pearmain. Skin, yellow, with a tinge of green, and studded with
embedded pearly specks, on some of which are minute russety points, on
the shaded side; but marked with broken stripes and spots of crimson,
interspersed with large russety dots on the side exposed to the sun.
Eye, partially closed with broad flat segments, set in a round, deep,
and plaited basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, stout, and rather fleshy,
inserted in a deep and russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, crisp,
tender, juicy, and sugary, with a brisk and pleasant flavor.

A fine large apple of first-rate quality as a culinary fruit, and also
very good for the dessert. It bakes beautifully, and has a fine and
pleasant acid; it is in use from November to February.

The tree is hardy and an excellent bearer.


156. GRAVENSTEIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 297. Lind. Guide, 71. Hort.
 Trans. vol. iv. p. 216. Fors. Treat. 104. Down. Fr. Amer. 85.

 SYNONYMES.--Grave Slije, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Sabine, of the
 Flemings, _Ibid._ Gräfensteiner, _Diel Kernobst._ viii. 8. _Sickler
 Obstgärt._ xxi. 116.

 FIGURES.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv. t. 21. Pom. Mag. t. 98. Ron. Pyr. Mal.
 pl. x. f. 1.

Fruit, above the medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and
three quarters high; roundish, irregular, and angular on the sides, the
ribs of which extend from the base even to the eye. Skin, smooth, clear
pale waxen-yellow, streaked and dotted with lively crimson, intermixed
with orange, on the side next the sun. Eye, large and open, with
long segments, which are a little reflexed, and set in an irregular,
angular, and knobbed basin, which is sometimes lined with fine delicate
russet, and dotted round the margin with minute russety dots. Stalk,
very short, but sometimes three quarters of an inch long, set in a
deep and angular cavity. Flesh, white, crisp, very juicy, with a rich,
vinous, and powerful aromatic flavor; and if held up between the eye
and the light, with the hand placed on the margin of the basin of the
eye, it exhibits a transparency like porcelain.

This is a very valuable apple of the first quality, and is equally
desirable either for the dessert or culinary purposes; it is in use
from October to December.

The tree is hardy, a vigorous and healthy grower, and generally a good
bearer. It has somewhat of a pyramidal habit of growth, and attains a
considerable size.

Though not of recent introduction, this beautiful and excellent apple
is comparatively but little known, otherwise it would be more generally
cultivated. It is one of the favorite apples of Germany, particularly
about Hamburgh, and in Holstein, where it is said to have originated in
the garden of the Duke of Augustenberg, at the Castle of Grafenstein.
The original tree is said to have been in existence about the middle of
the last century. According to Diel some suppose it to be of Italian
origin.


157. GREEN TIFFING.--H.

 SYNONYME.--Mage’s Johnny, _in Lancashire_.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half high, and about the same in
width; conical, rounded at the base, and somewhat angular and ribbed on
the sides and round the eye. Skin, smooth, green at first, but changing
as it ripens to yellowish-green; next the sun it is quite yellow,
strewed with minute russety dots, and a few dots of red. Eye, small and
closed, set in a shallow basin, and surrounded with prominent plaits.
Stalk, short, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, white, crisp,
tender, very juicy, and pleasantly acid.

A most excellent culinary apple; in use from September to December.

This is an esteemed variety in Lancashire, where it is extensively
cultivated.

The tree is a free grower and an excellent bearer.


158. GREEN WOODCOCK.

Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and two inches and a half high;
round, and somewhat flattened. Skin, green, changing to yellow on the
shaded side, and dotted with a few grey dots; but red, mottled with
broad broken stripes of darker red on the side next the sun, which
become paler as they extend to the shaded side. Eye, open, with long
acuminate segments, deeply set in an angular basin. Stalk, short,
inserted in a shallow cavity, lined with rough russet, which extends
over the base. Flesh, white, deeply tinged with green, tender, juicy,
and briskly flavored.

A culinary apple; in use from October to Christmas.

This variety is grown in some parts of Sussex particularly about
Hailsham and Heathfield.


159. GREENUP’S PIPPIN.--H.

 SYNONYME.--Greenus’s Pippin, _of some Catalogues_.

[Illustration]

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two and a half high;
roundish, broadest at the base, and with a prominent rib on one side,
extending from the base to the crown. Skin, smooth, pale straw colored
tinged with green, on the shaded side; but covered with beautiful
bright red on the side next the sun, and marked with several patches of
thin delicate russet. Eye, closed, with long flat segments, placed in a
round, rather deep, and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in
a wide cavity. Flesh, pale yellowish-white, tender, juicy, sweet, and
briskly flavored.

An excellent apple, either for culinary or dessert use.

In the northern counties it is a popular and highly esteemed variety,
and ranks as a first-rate fruit. It is in use from October to December.

The tree is hardy and healthy; it does not attain a large size, but is
an abundant bearer. When grown against a wall, as it is sometimes in
the North of England, and border counties, the fruit attains a large
size, and is particularly handsome and beautiful.

This variety was first discovered growing in the garden of a shoemaker,
at Keswick, named Greenup, and was first cultivated and made public by
Clarke and Atkinson, nurserymen at that place about fifty years ago.
It is now much cultivated throughout the border counties, and is a
valuable apple where the more choice varieties do not attain perfection.


160. GREY LEADINGTON.--Gibs.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Gibs. Fr. Gard. 354. Nicol. Villa. Gard. 31. Fors.
 Treat. 111. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 401.

 SYNONYMES.--Leadington’s Grauer Pipping, _Diel Kernobst._ x. 144. Gray
 Leadington Pippin, _Ibid._

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and the same in
height; oblong or conical, and slightly angular on the sides. Skin,
greenish-yellow, covered with cinnamon-colored russet, on the shaded
side, and pale red when exposed to the sun; the whole covered with
whitish-grey dots. Eye, large and open, with long acuminate segments,
and set in a rather deep basin. Stalk, short and stout, inserted in a
pretty deep cavity. Flesh, white, firm, tender, very juicy, and of a
rich, vinous, sugary, and aromatic flavor.

An excellent apple of first-rate quality, desirable either for the
dessert or for culinary purposes; it is in use from September to
January.

The tree is a strong grower, vigorous, hardy, and an excellent bearer.
It succeeds well as a dwarf on the paradise stock.

This is a favorite apple in Scotland, where it ranks among the best
dessert fruits.


161. GROS FAROS.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit. i. 385. Schab. Prat. ii. 90. Hort.
 Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 244.

 SYNONYME.--Faros, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches high;
roundish and flattened, broadest at the base, and narrowing towards the
eye, sometimes slightly angled. Skin, smooth, pale greenish-yellow,
with a few streaks of red where shaded; and entirely covered with
red, which is striated with deeper red where exposed to the sun. Eye,
small and open, set in a narrow, round, and rather deep basin. Stalk,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a wide and deep cavity, which is lined
with dark brown russet. Flesh, greenish-white, crisp, firm, juicy,
sweet, slightly acid, and perfumed.

A dessert apple of good but not first-rate quality; in use from
December to March.

The tree is healthy and vigorous, and a good bearer.


162. HAGLOE CRAB.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 5. Fors. Treat. 106. Lind. Guide, 107.

Fruit, small, two inches wide, and the same in height; ovate,
flattened, and irregularly shaped. Skin, pale yellow, streaked with red
next the sun, and covered with a few patches of grey russet. Eye, open,
with flat, reflexed segments. Stalk, short. Flesh, soft and woolly, but
not dry.

Specific gravity of its juice 1081.

This is a most excellent cider apple; the liquor it produces being
remarkable for its strength, richness, and high flavor. It requires,
however, to be grown in certain situations; a dry soil with a
calcareous subsoil, being considered the best adapted for producing its
cider in perfection. Marshall says, “It was raised from seed by Mr.
Bellamy, of Hagloe, in Gloucestershire, grandfather of the present Mr.
Bellamy, near Ross, in Herefordshire, who draws from it (that is, from
trees grafted with scions from this parent stock) a liquor, which for
richness, flavor, and _pure on the spot_, exceeds perhaps every other
fruit liquor which nature and art have produced. He has been offered
sixty guineas for a hogshead (about 110 gallons) of this liquor. He has
likewise been offered bottle for bottle of wine, or spirituous liquors,
the best to be produced; and this without freight, duty, or even a mile
of carriage to enhance its original price.”


163. HALL DOOR.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 106. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 313. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 57.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxiii. f. 1.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; oblate, puckered round the eye. Skin, pale green at
first, but changing to dull yellow, streaked with red. Eye, set in
a wide and irregular basin. Stalk, short and thick, inserted in a
moderately deep cavity. Flesh, white, firm, but coarse, juicy, and
pleasantly flavored.

A dessert apple of ordinary merit; in use from December to March.


164. HAMBLEDON DEUX ANS.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 202. Ron. Pyr. Mal. 83.

 FIGURE.--Ron Pyr. Mal. pl. xlii. f. 4.

Fruit, large, three inches wide, and two inches and a half high;
roundish, rather broadest at the base. Skin, greenish-yellow in the
shade; and dull red, streaked with broad stripes of deeper and brighter
red, on the side next the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a rather
shallow basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, firm, crisp, not very juicy, but richly and briskly
flavored.

One of the most valuable culinary apples, and not unworthy of the
dessert; it is in use from January to May, and is an excellent keeper.

This variety originated at Hambledon, a village in Hampshire, where
there are several trees of a great age now in existence.


165. HANWELL SOURING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 219. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 319. Lind. Guide, 71.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxx. f. 4.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; roundish-ovate, angular, or somewhat five-sided, and
narrowing towards the eye. Skin, greenish-yellow, sprinkled with large
russety dots, which are largest about the base; and with a faint blush
of red next the sun. Eye, closed, set in a deep, narrow, and angular
basin, which is lined with russet. Stalk, very short, inserted in an
even funnel-shaped cavity, from which issue ramifications of russet.
Flesh, white, firm, crisp, with a brisk and poignant acid flavor.

An excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use in December
and keeps till March, when it possesses more acidity than any other
variety which keeps to so late a period.

It is said to have been raised at Hanwell, a place near Banbury, in
Oxfordshire.


166. HARGREAVE’S GREEN-SWEET.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a half high; oblato-cylindrical, angular on the sides, with
prominent ridges round the eye. Skin, yellow, tinged with green, on
the shaded side; but deeper yellow tinged with green, and marked with
a few faint streaks of red next the sun, and strewed all over with
small russety dots. Eye, half open, with linear segments, placed in a
deep and angular basin, which is surrounded with ridges formed by the
termination of the costal angles. Stalk, three quarters of an inch
long, slender, and inserted in a deep, round cavity, which is lined
with rough russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, and perfumed.

A good dessert apple but lacks acidity; it is in use during September
and October.

About Lancaster this is a well-known apple. The original tree, which is
of great age, is still standing in the nursery of John Hargreave and
Sons, hence it is called Hargreave’s Green-Sweet.


167. HARVEY APPLE.--Park.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Park. Par. 587. Aust. Orch. 54. Worl. Vin. 159. Raii
 Hist. ii. 1448. Switz. Fr. Gard. 138. Lind. Guide, 72.

 SYNONYME.--Doctor Harvey, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 208.

Fruit, large, three inches wide, and about the same high; ovate, and
somewhat angular. Skin, greenish-yellow, dotted with green and white
specks, and marked with ramifications of russet about the apex. Eye,
small, very slightly depressed, and surrounded with several prominent
plaits. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in an uneven and deep
cavity. Flesh, white, firm, crisp, juicy, pleasantly acid, and perfumed.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality, well-known and extensively
cultivated in Norfolk; it is in use from October to January.

The tree is large, hardy, and a great bearer.

In the Guide to the Orchard, it is said, “When baked in an oven which
is not too hot, these apples are most excellent; they become sugary,
and will keep a week or ten days, furnishing for the dessert a highly
flavored sweetmeat.”

This is one of the oldest English apples. It is first mentioned by
Parkinson as “a faire, greate, goodly apple; and very well rellished.”
Ralph Austen calls it “a very choice fruit, and the trees beare well.”
Indeed it is noticed by almost all the early authors. According to
Ray it is named in honor of Dr. Gabriel Harvey, of Cambridge, “Pomum
Harveianum ab inventore Gabriele Harveio Doctore nomen sortitum
Cantabrigiæ suæ deliciæ.”


168. HARVEY’S PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 19.

 SYNONYME.--Dredge’s Beauty of Wilts, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ _Rog. Fr.
 Cult._ 53.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, but
washed with fine red on the side next the sun, and marked with crimson
dots. Flesh, firm, crisp, juicy, and richly flavored.

An excellent and useful apple either for culinary purposes or dessert
use; it is in season from December to February.

The tree is a free grower and an excellent bearer; it attains above the
middle size, and may be grown either as an open dwarf, or an espalier,
when grafted on the paradise stock.


169. HARVEY’S WILTSHIRE DEFIANCE.--H.

[Illustration]

Fruit, of the largest size; conical, and very handsomely shaped,
distinctly five-sided, having five prominent and acute angles
descending from the apex, till they are lost in the base. Skin, fine
deep sulphur yellow; of a deeper shade on the side which is exposed
to the sun, and covered all over with minute russety dots, with here
and there ramifying patches of russet. Eye, pretty large and open,
with short ragged segments, and set in a rather shallow and angular
basin. Stalk, very short, about half-an-inch long, and not extending
beyond the base, inserted in a round and deep cavity, lined with rough
scaly russet, which branches out over a portion of the base. Flesh,
yellowish, firm, crisp, and juicy, sugary, vinous, and richly flavored.
Core, very small for the size of the apple.

A very handsome and most desirable apple, being of first-rate quality,
either as a dessert or culinary fruit; it is in use from the end of
October to the beginning of January.

This variety seems to be comparatively little known; but it is well
deserving the notice either of the fruit gardener, or the orchardist;
to the latter particularly so, as its size, fine appearance, and
handsome shape make it attractive at market; and its solid and weighty
flesh give it an advantage over many apples of its size.


170. HAUTE BONTÉ.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit. i. 315. Quint. Inst. i. 203. Hort.
 Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 323.

 SYNONYMES.--Reinette grise, haute bonté, _Bon Jard._ 1843, 514.
 Blandilalie, in Poitou, _acc. Quint._

 FIGURES.--Nois. Jard. Fr. ed. 2, pl. 106. Duh. Arb. Fruit. i. pl. xii.
 f. 1.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, somewhat ribbed on the sides, and
flattened at both ends; broadest at the base, and narrowing towards
the apex, which is terminated by prominent ridges. Skin, smooth and
shining, green at first, but changing to yellow as it ripens, and with
a faint tinge of red on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, half open,
with long acuminate segments, set in a deep and angular basin. Stalk,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a deep and irregular cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, tender, juicy, sugary, rich, brisk, and aromatic.

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality when grown to
perfection; it is in use from January to May.

This is a variety of the Reinette Grise, and a very old French apple.


171. HAWTHORNDEN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 324. Lind. Guide, 17. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 86. Rog. Fr. Cult. 26.

 SYNONYMES.--Hawthorndean, _Fors. Treat._ 107. White Hawthorndean,
 _Nicol. Gard. Kal._ 256. Red Hawthorndean, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._
 White Apple, _acc. Nicol. Villa Gard._ 30.

 FIGURE.--Hook Pom. Lond. t. 44. Pom. Mag. t. 34. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl.
 iv. f. 1.

Fruit, varying very much in size, according to the situation and
condition of the tree; sometimes it is very large, and again scarcely
attaining the middle size; generally, however, it is above the medium
size; roundish and depressed, with occasionally a prominent rib on one
side, which gives it an irregularity in its appearance. Skin, smooth,
covered with a delicate bloom; greenish-yellow, with a blush of red on
one side, which varies in extent and depth of color according as it has
been more or less exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, with broad
and flat segments, placed in a pretty deep and irregular basin. Stalk,
short, stout, and sometimes fleshy, inserted in a deep and irregular
cavity. Flesh, white, crisp, and tender, very juicy, with an agreeable
and pleasant flavor.

One of the most valuable and popular apples in cultivation. It is
suitable only for kitchen use, and is in season from October to
December.

The tree is very healthy and vigorous, and as an early and abundant
bearer is unrivalled by any other variety. It succeeds well in almost
every description of soil and situation where it is possible for apples
to grow.

This variety was raised at Hawthornden, a romantic spot near Edinburgh,
celebrated as the birthplace and residence of Drummond the poet,
who was born there in 1585. I have never learnt at what period the
Hawthornden was first discovered. The first mention of it is in the
catalogue of Leslie and Anderson, of Edinburgh; but I do not think
it was known about London till 1790, when it was introduced to the
Brompton Park nursery.


172. HERMANN’S PIPPIN.--H.

 SYNONYME.--Grosser Gestreifter Hermannsapfel, _Diel Kernobst._ vii. 99?

Fruit, above medium size, three inches broad, and the same in height;
roundish, and irregularly formed. Skin, yellow, tinged with green on
the shaded side; but striped and mottled with dark crimson on the side
next the sun, and thickly strewed with russety dots round the eye. Eye,
open, with long green acuminate segments, which are recurved at the
tips, and set in a deep and slightly plaited basin. Stalk, short and
stout, inserted in a round, deep, and even cavity, which is lined with
rough grey russet, extending over almost the whole of the base. Flesh,
yellowish-white, very tender and juicy, but with little flavor.

An apple of very ordinary quality, which seems only suitable for
culinary purposes; it is in use from October to January.

I received this variety from Mr. James Lake, of Bridgewater, and it
seems to be so like the description of Diel’s Grosser Gestreifter
Hermannsapfel, that I have adopted it as a synonyme.


173. HOARY MORNING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 336. Lind. Guide, 18. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 113.

 SYNONYMES.--Dainty Apple, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 234. Downy, _Ibid._
 275. Sam Rawlings, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 53. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxviii. f. 1.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; roundish, somewhat flattened and angular. Skin,
yellowish, marked with broad pale red stripes on the shaded side; and
broad broken stripes of bright crimson on the side next the sun; the
whole surface entirely covered with a thick bloom, like thin hoar
frost. Eye, very small, set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk,
short, inserted in a wide and round cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white,
tinged with red at the surface under the skin, brisk, juicy, rich, and
slightly acid.

A beautiful and very good culinary apple, of second-rate quality; it is
in use from October to December.


174. HOLLANDBURY.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 338.

 SYNONYMES.--Hollingbury, _Fors. Treat._ 107. Hawberry Pippin, _acc.
 Hort. Soc Cat._ ed. 3. Horsley Pippin, _Ibid._ Beau Rouge, _Ibid._
 Bonne Rouge, _Ibid._ Howbury Pippin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 467.
 Kirke’s Scarlet Admirable, _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 38. Kirke’s Schöner
 Rambour, _Diel. Kernobst._ v. B. 52.

 FIGURES.--Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xciii. f. 5. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl xl. f.
 2.

Fruit, very large, three inches and three quarters wide, and three
inches high; roundish and flattened, with irregular and prominent
angles or ribs extending from the base to the apex. Skin, deep yellow,
tinged with green on the shaded side; but bright deep scarlet where
exposed to the sun, generally extending over the whole surface. Eye,
closed, with long acuminate segments, and set in a wide and deep basin.
Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a deep funnel-shaped cavity,
which is generally lined with russet. Flesh, white, with a slight tinge
of green, delicate, tender and juicy, with a brisk and pleasant flavor.

A beautiful and showy apple for culinary purposes, but not of
first-rate quality; it is in use from October to Christmas.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, but not a very abundant
bearer. It succeeds well on the paradise stock.


175. HOLLAND PIPPIN.--Langley.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lang. Pom. 134, t. lxxix. f. 1. Mill. Dict. Hort.
 Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 339. Lind. Guide, 51. Down. Fr. Amer. 86.

 SYNONYMES.--Summer Pippin, _acc. Down._ Pie Pippin, _Ibid._

Fruit, large, three inches wide, and two inches and a half high;
roundish and flattened, with ribs on the sides. Skin, greenish-yellow,
with a slight tinge of pale brown where exposed to the sun, and
strewed with large green dots. Eye, small and closed, set in a round,
narrow, and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, embedded in a wide and
deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, tender, juicy, sugary, and
briskly acid.

A valuable apple, of first-rate quality for culinary purposes; it is in
use from November to March.

The tree is a strong grower, vigorous, healthy, and a good bearer.

This is the Holland Pippin of Langley and Miller, but not of Ray or
Ralph Austen, who make it synonymous with the Kirton Pippin, which
Ray describes as being small and oblate, and the same as is called
Broad-eye in Sussex. The Holland Pippin is a native of the Holland
district of Lincolnshire, hence its name.


176. HOLLOW CORE.--H.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and three inches high;
conical, irregular in its outline, ribbed, and distinctly four-sided;
at about four-fifths of its length towards the crown it is very much
contracted and swells out again towards the eye, altogether very much
resembling a codlin in shape. Skin, smooth and shining, pale grass
green on the shaded side, and covered with a cloud of pale red next
the sun, thinly strewed with dots, which are red on the exposed, and
dark green on the shaded side. Eye, small and closed, set in a narrow,
contracted, and plaited basin, which is surrounded with several small
knobs. Stalk, green and downy, half-an-inch long, inserted in a narrow,
close, and deep basin, which is quite smooth. Flesh, white, very tender
and delicate, with a brisk, mild, and pleasant flavor. Core, very
large, with open cells.

An excellent culinary apple, with a fine perfume; ripe in September.

This variety is extensively grown in Berkshire, particularly about
Newbury and Reading, whence large quantities are sent to London for the
supply of Covent Garden Market.


177. HOLLOW CROWNED PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 341. Lind. Guide, 72.

 SYNONYME.--Hollow-eyed Pippin, _Fors. Treat._ 107.

Fruit, medium sized; oblato-oblong, the same width at the apex as the
base, and slightly angular on the sides. Skin, pale green, becoming
yellow at maturity, with a faint blush of red where it is exposed to
the sun. Eye, large, and set in a wide and deep basin. Stalk, short,
thick, and curved, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, firm,
juicy, sugary, and briskly acid.

An excellent culinary apple; in use from November to February.


178. HOOD’S SEEDLING.--Ronalds.

 IDENTIFICATION AND FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxiii. f. 5.

This appears to me to be identical with the Scarlet Pearmain. The
fruit is exactly the same, and not distinguishable from it. The only
difference I can detect is, that the young trees are more strong and
vigorous than that variety; but the distinction is altogether so
slight, that if not really identical, they are so similar as not to
require separate descriptions.


179. HORMEAD PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 545.

 SYNONYMES.--Arundel Pearmain, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 744. Hormead
 Pippin _Ibid._ 462.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and the same in
height; of the true pearmain-shape, regular and handsome. Skin, of an
uniform clear yellow, strewed with brown russety dots. Eye, large and
closed, with long segments, and set in a shallow and uneven basin.
Stalk, very short and stout, deeply inserted. Flesh, white, tender,
very juicy, and pleasantly acid.

An excellent apple, of first-rate quality for culinary use, and
suitable also for the dessert; it is in season from October to March.


180. HORSHAM RUSSET.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. in Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 69. Lind. Guide, 89.

Fruit, about the size of the Nonpareil, but not so regular in its
outline, generally about two inches and a quarter in diameter, and
two inches deep. Eye, small and closed, in a small depression without
angles. Stalk, short, rather thick, rather deeply inserted in a wide,
uneven cavity. Skin, pale green, covered with a thin, yellowish-grey
russet round its upper part, with a pale salmon-colored tinge on the
sunny side. Flesh, greenish-white, firm, crisp. Juice, plentiful, of a
high aromatic Nonpareil flavor.

A dessert apple; in season from November till March.

Raised from the seed of a Nonpareil about thirty years ago (1821), by
Mrs. Goose, of Horsham St. Faith’s, near Norwich. It is a very hardy
tree, and a good bearer.


180. HOSKREIGER.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 343.

 SYNONYME.--Heidelocher, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURE.--Maund. Fruit. pl. 51.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and
three quarters high; roundish and considerably flattened, almost
oblate. Skin, of a fine grass-green, which changes as it ripens to
yellowish-green, and marked with broad streaks of pale red, on the side
next the sun, which is strewed with rather large russety freckles. Eye,
small and open, with erect, acute segments, and placed in a rather
deep, narrow, and undulating basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a round,
funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with pale brown russet. Flesh,
white, tender, crisp, and juicy, with a brisk and pleasant flavor.

A first-rate culinary apple; in use from November till March.

The tree is a vigorous and healthy grower, and an abundant bearer.


181. HUBBARD’S PEARMAIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. in Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 68. Hort. Soc. Cat.
 ed. 3, n. 546.

 SYNONYMES.--Hubbard’s, _Fors. Treat._ 108. Russet Pearmain, _acc.
 Fors. Treat._ Golden Vining, _acc. Pom. Mag._ Hammon’s Pearmain, _acc.
 Riv. Cat._

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 27.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; ovate, and regularly formed. Skin, covered with pale
brown russet, and where any portion of the ground color is exposed,
it is yellowish-green on the shaded side, and brownish-red next the
sun; but sometimes it is almost free from russet, particularly in hot
seasons, being then of an uniform yellowish-green, mottled with orange
or pale red next the sun. Eye, small and closed, with short segments,
and set in a shallow basin. Stalk, short, about half-an-inch long,
inserted in a round and even cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, not juicy,
but very rich, sugary, and highly aromatic.

This is one of the richest flavored dessert apples; it is in use from
November to April.

The tree is a small grower, but healthy, hardy, and an abundant bearer.

Hubbard’s Pearmain was first introduced to public notice by Mr. George
Lindley, at a meeting of the London Horticultural Society in 1820.
“This,” says Mr. Lindley, “is a real Norfolk apple, well known in the
Norwich market; and although it may be found elsewhere, its great
excellence may have caused its removal hence. The merits of Hubbard’s
Pearmain as a table apple are unrivalled, and its superior, from the
commencement of its season to the end, does not, I am of opinion, exist
in this country.”


182. HUGHES’S GOLDEN PIPPIN.--Hooker.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hook. Pom. Lond. t. 26. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n.
 284. Lind. Guide, 18. Rog. Fr. Cult. 85.

 SYNONYME.--Hughes’s New Golden Pippin, _Fors. Treat._ 108. _Diel
 Kernobst._ x. 97.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 132. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xviii. f. 4.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two inches
high; round, and flattened at both extremities. Skin, rich yellow,
covered with large, green, and russety dots, which are thickest round
the eye. Eye, open, with short, flat, acuminate segments, which are
generally reflexed at the tips, and set in a wide, shallow, and plaited
basin. Stalk, very short, and not at all depressed, being sometimes
like a small knob on the flattened base. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm,
rich, brisk, juicy, sugary, and aromatic.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from December to February.

The tree is hardy, and healthy, though not a strong grower, the shoots
being long and slender. It is also an excellent bearer.


183. HUNT’S DEUX ANS.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 201.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, by two inches
and a half high; somewhat conical, irregularly formed, and angular.
Skin, greenish, and covered with grey russet on the shaded side; but
redish-brown covered with grey russet, and large russety dots, on the
side exposed to the sun. Eye, large, and open, with long, spreading,
acuminate segments, placed in a deep, angular, and irregular basin.
Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a deep, oblique cavity, and not
extending beyond the base. Flesh, yellowish-white tinged with green,
firm and leathery, juicy and sugary, with a rich and highly aromatic
flavor, very similar to, and little inferior to the Ribston Pippin.

A dessert apple of the first quality, whether as regards its long
duration, or the peculiar richness of its flavor: it is in use from
December to March; but according to Mr. Thompson--no mean authority--it
will keep for two years. It may, however, be a question whether or
not this is identical with the Hunt’s Deux Ans of the Horticultural
Society, which Mr. Thompson regards as only a second-rate fruit. If it
is the same, the climate of Somersetshire, whence I had both trees and
specimens of the fruit, is more adapted for bringing it to perfection
than that of Chiswick.


184. HUNT’S DUKE OF GLOUCESTER--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 525. Lind. Guide, 90. Hort.
 Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 222.

Fruit, below medium size; roundish ovate. Skin, almost entirely covered
with thin russet, except a spot on the shaded side, where it is green;
and where exposed to the sun it is of a redish-brown. Flesh, white
tinged with green, crisp, juicy, and highly flavored.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from December to February.

This variety was raised from a seed of the old Nonpareil, to which it
bears a strong resemblance, by Dr. Fry of Gloucester, and received the
name it now bears, from being sent to the Horticultural Society of
London, by Thomas Hunt Esq., of Stratford-on-Avon, in 1820. Mr. Lindley
gives Hunt’s Nonpariel as a synonyme of Duke of Gloucester; but it is a
very distinct variety; it was, however, a seedling raised by Mr. Hunt
from the Duke of Gloucester, and is a very first-rate variety.


185. HUNTHOUSE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 347. Rog. Fr. Cult. 57.

Fruit, of medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, by two
inches and a half high; conical, ribbed on the sides, and terminated at
the apex, with rather prominent knobs. Skin, at first grass-green, but
changing as it ripens to greenish-yellow; where exposed to the sun it
is tinged with red, and marked with small crimson dots and a few short
broken streaks of the same color; but where shaded it is veined with
thin brown russet, particularly about the eye, and very thinly strewed
with russety dots. Eye, large, half open, with broad flat segments, set
in a narrow, and deeply furrowed basin. Stalk, an inch long, straight,
inserted in a very shallow cavity, sometimes between two fleshy lips,
but generally with a fleshy protuberance on one side of it. Flesh,
greenish-white, firm, tender, and with a brisk, but rather coarse and
rough acid flavor.

A useful culinary apple; in use from December to March.

Its chief recommendation is, the immense productiveness of the tree,
which is rather small, with pendulous shoots, and extremely hardy; it
succeeds in exposed situations where many other varieties could not
grow. Rogers says, “it is a tree of the third class in the orchard,
and will answer well in exposed situations, trained as dwarfs or
half-standards, it being equal in hardihood, and very fit to be planted
along with the Grey Leadington.”

This variety was discovered at Whitby, in Yorkshire, where it is
extensively cultivated.


186. HUTTON SQUARE.--H.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large; roundish-ovate, and irregular in its outline, being much
bossed on the sides, and knobbed about the eye and the stalk. Skin,
smooth, dull greenish-yellow where shaded, and strewed with minute
russety dots; but washed with dull red next the sun, and dotted with
black dots. Eye, small and closed, placed in an angular and plaited
basin. Stalk, short, deeply embedded in an angular cavity. Flesh,
white, firm, crisp, sweet, briskly and pleasantly flavored.

A valuable culinary apple of first-rate quality, and not unsuitable for
the dessert, where a brisk and poignant flavored apple is preferred; it
is in use from November to March.

This variety is extensively grown about Lancaster; and is said to have
originated at the village of Hutton, in that vicinity.

The tree is an excellent bearer.


187. IRISH PEACH.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 527. Lind. Guide, 4. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 74.

 SYNONYMES.--Early Crofton, _Hort. Trans._ vol. viii. p. 321. _Ron.
 Pyr. Mal._ 15.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 100. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. viii. f. 1.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, by two inches
and a quarter high; roundish, somewhat flattened, and slightly angular.
Skin, smooth, pale yellowish-green, tinged with dull redish-brown, and
thickly dotted with green dots on the shaded side; but fine lively red,
mottled and speckled with yellow spots on the side exposed to the sun.
Eye, small and closed, set in a rather deep, and knobbed basin, which
is lined with thick tomentum. Stalk, short, thick, and fleshy, inserted
in a pretty deep cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, tender, and crisp,
abounding in a rich, brisk, vinous, and aromatic juice, which, at this
season, is particularly refreshing.

An early dessert apple of the finest quality. It is ripe during the
first week in August, and lasts all through that month. It is a most
beautiful, and certainly one of the most excellent summer apples,
possessing all the rich flavor of some of the winter varieties, with
the abundant and refreshing juice of the summer fruits. Like most of
the summer apples it is in greatest perfection when eaten from the
tree, which is hardy, vigorous, and an abundant bearer.


188. IRISH REINETTE.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, by two
inches and a half high; oblong, somewhat five-sided, with five ribs
which extend from the base to the apex, where they run into the eye,
forming five prominent ridges. Skin, yellowish-green, strewed with
minute russety dots on the shaded side; but dull brownish-red, almost
entirely covered with large patches of dull leaden colored russet, on
the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, placed in a ribbed
and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a round, deep, and even
cavity. Flesh, greenish-yellow, firm, crisp, and very juicy, with a
brisk, and poignant acid juice.

A valuable culinary apple; in use from November to February.

This variety is much cultivated about Lancaster, and in the county of
Westmoreland, where it is highly esteemed.


189. ISLE OF WIGHT PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 360. Lind. Guide, 108. Rog.
 Fr. Cult, 82. Fors. Treat. 109.

 SYNONYMES.--Isle of Wight Orange, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 484. Orange
 Pippin, _Pom. Heref._ t. 8. Pomme d’Orange, _Knoop Pom._ 47, t. viii.
 Engelse Oranje Appel, _Ibid._ 171.

 FIGURES.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxii. f. 4. Pom. Heref. t. 8.

Fruit, small, two inches wide, by an inch and a half deep; globular.
Eye, slightly sunk, with broad acute segments of the calyx. Stalk, very
short. Skin, yellowish-golden grey, with a russety epidermis, highly
colored with orange and red next the sun. Flesh, firm and juicy, with a
rich and aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, and also valuable as a cider
fruit; it is in use from September to January.

The specific gravity of its juice is 1074.

This is a very old variety, and is no doubt the “Orange Apple” of Ray
and Worlidge. According to Mr. Knight, it is by some supposed to have
been introduced from Normandy to the Isle of Wight, where it was first
planted in the garden at Wrexall Cottage, near the Undercliff, where it
was growing in 1817. There are several other varieties of apples known
by the name of “Orange” and “Orange Pippin,” but they are all very
inferior to this.

The tree does not attain a large size, but is hardy, healthy, and an
excellent bearer. It succeeds well when grafted on the paradise stock,
and grown as an open dwarf, or an espalier.


190. ISLEWORTH CRAB.--Hort.

 SYNONYME.--Brentford Crab, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, p. 21.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, by the same in
height; conical. Skin, smooth, of a pale yellow color, with a deeper
tinge where exposed to the sun, and covered with small redish-brown
dots. Eye, small and open, with reflexed segments, set in a round and
narrow basin. Stalk, slender, inserted in a deep, round, and even
cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, crisp, sweet, juicy, and pleasantly
flavored.

A pretty good culinary apple of second-rate quality; in use during
October; but scarcely worth cultivation.


191. JOANNETING.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Jennetting, _Coles’ Adam in Eden_, 257. Juniting, _Rea
 Pom._ 209. Jeniting, _Worl. Vin._ 161. Ginetting or Juneting, _Raii
 Hist._ ii. 1447, 1. Juneting, or Jenneting, _Switz. Fr. Gard._ 134.
 Genneting, _Lang. Pom._ t. lxxiv. f. 2. Juneting, _Fors. Treat._ 109.
 Early Jenneting, or June-eating, _Aber. Dict._ White Juneating, _Hort.
 Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 374. _Down. Fr. Amer._ 78. Juneating, _Lind.
 Guide_, 4. _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 27. Owen’s Golden Beauty, _Hort. Soc.
 Cat._ ed. 1, 717. Primiting, _in Kent and Sussex_.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. i. f. 3.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; round, and a little flattened. Skin, smooth and shining,
pale yellowish-green in the shade; but clear yellow, with sometimes
a faint tinge of red or orange next the sun. Eye, small and closed,
surrounded with a few small plaits, and set in a very shallow basin.
Stalk, an inch long, slender, and inserted in a shallow cavity, which
is lined with delicate russet. Flesh, white, crisp, brisk, and juicy,
with a vinous and slightly perfumed flavor, but becoming meally and
tasteless, if kept only a few days after being gathered.

This is the earliest apple of the year, the first of Pomona’s autumnal
offerings; it is in greatest perfection when gathered off the tree, or
immediately afterwards, as it very soon becomes dry and meally.

The tree does not attain a large size, but is hardy and healthy. It is
not a great bearer, which may, in a great measure, account for it not
being so generally cultivated, as its earliness would recommend it to
be. If worked on the paradise stock it may be grown in pots, when the
fruit will not only be produced earlier, but in greater abundance than
on the crab, or free stock.

This is one of our oldest apples, and although generally known and
popular, seems to have escaped the notice of Miller, who does not
even mention it in any of the editions of his dictionary. As I have
doubts of this being the Geneting of Parkinson--his figure being
evidently intended for the Margaret, which in some districts is called
Joanneting--the first mention we have of this variety is by Rea, in
1665, who describes it as “a small, yellow, red-sided apple, upon a
wall, ripe in the end of June.”

The orthography which I have adopted in the nomenclature of this apple
may, to some, at first sight, seem strange; but I am nevertheless
persuaded it is the correct one. The different forms in which it has
been written will be found in the synonymes given above, none of which
afford any assistance as to the derivation or signification of the
name. Abercrombie was the first who wrote it June-eating, as if in
allusion to the period of its maturity, which is, however, not till the
end of July. Dr. Johnson, in his Dictionary, writes it Gineting, and
says it is a corruption of Janeton (_Fr._) signifying Jane or Janet,
having been so called from a person of that name. Ray[K] says, “Pomum
Ginettinum, quod unde dictum sit me latet.” Indeed there does not seem
ever to have been a correct definition given of it.

In the middle ages, it was customary to make the festivals of the
church, or saint’s days, periods on which occurrences were to take
place, or from which events were dated. Even in the present day, we
hear the country people talking of some crop to be sown, or some other
to be planted at Michaelmas, St. Martin’s, or Saint Andrew’s-tide. It
was also the practice, during the reign of Popery in this country,
as is still the case in all Roman Catholic countries, for parents to
dedicate their children to some particular saint, as Jean Baptiste,
on the recurrence of whose festival, all who are so named keep it as
a holiday. So it was also in regard to fruits, which were named after
the day about which they came to maturity. Thus, we have the Margaret
Apple, so called from being ripe about St. Margaret’s day--the 20th of
July. The Magdalene, or Maudlin, from St. Magdalene’s day--the 22nd of
July. And in Curtius[L] we find the _Joannina_, so called, “Quod circa
divi Joannis Baptistæ nativitatem esui sint.” These are also noticed
by J. B. Porta; he says, “Est genus alterum quod quia circa festum
Divi Joannis maturiscit, vulgus _Melo de San Giovanni_ dicitur.” And
according to Tragus,[M] “Quæ apud nos prima maturantur, Sanct Johans
Öpffel, Latine, Præcocia mala dicuntur.”

We see, therefore, that they were called Joannina, because they ripened
about St. John’s Day. We have also among the old French pears Amiré
Joannet--the Admired, or Wonderful Little John, which Merlet informs us
was so called, because it ripened about St. John’s Day. If then we add
to Joannet the termination _ing_, so general among our names of apples,
we have _Joanneting_. There can be no doubt that this is the correct
derivation, and signification of the name of this apple, and although
the orthography may for a time appear singular, it will in the course
of usage become as familiar as the other forms in which it as been
written.

[K] Hist. Plant. ii. 1447.

[L] Hortorum, p. 522.

[M] Hist. p. 1043.


192. KEEPING RED-STREAK.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 627.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, flattened, angular on the sides. Skin,
green at first, changing to greenish-yellow, and striped with red on
the shaded side; but entirely covered with dark red on the side next
the sun, marked with russet, and numerous grey dots. Eye, open, set in
a shallow and undulating basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded in a narrow
and shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish-yellow, firm, brisk, and pleasantly
flavored.

A culinary apple; in use from December to April.


193. KEEPING RUSSET.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and five eighths wide, and two inches
and a quarter high; roundish. Skin, entirely covered with thin, pale
yellowish-brown russet, like the Golden Russet, and occasionally with a
bright, varnished, fiery-red cheek on the side next the sun, which is
sometimes more distinct than at others. Eye, open, set in a round and
plaited basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded in a rather shallow cavity.
Flesh, yellow, firm, juicy, and sugary, with a particularly rich,
mellow flavor, equal to, and even surpassing that of the Ribston Pippin.

A delicious dessert apple, of first-rate quality: in use from October
to January, and, under favorable circumstances, will even keep till
March.

This is an apple which is very little known, and does not seem at all
to be in general cultivation. I obtained it from the private garden of
the late Mr. James Lee, at Hammersmith. It certainly deserves greater
publicity.


194. KENTISH FILL-BASKET.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 377. Down. Fr. Amer. 114.

 SYNONYMES.--Lady de Grey’s, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1. 532. Kentish
 Pippin, _of same_.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. ix. f. 1.

Fruit, very large, four inches wide, and three inches and a quarter
high; roundish, irregular, and slightly ribbed. Skin, smooth,
yellowish-green in the shade, and pale yellow with a redish-brown
blush, which is streaked with deeper red, on the side next the sun.
Eye, large, set in a wide and irregular basin. Flesh, tender and juicy,
with a brisk and pleasant flavor.

This is an excellent culinary apple, of first-rate quality, in use from
November to January.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, attaining a large size, and
is an abundant bearer.

This is not the Kentish Fill-basket of Miller and Forsyth, nor yet of
Rogers; the variety described under this name by these writers being
evidently the Kentish Codlin.


195. KENTISH PIPPIN.--Ray.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Raii. Hist. ii. 1448. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 378.
 Lind. Guide, 73. Rog. Fr. Cult. 92.

 SYNONYMES.--Red Kentish Pippin, _Diel Kernobst._ viii. 121. Rother
 Kentischer Pepping, _Ibid._ Vaun’s Pippin, _acc. Riv. Cat._

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters broad, and two
inches and a half high; conical and slightly angular. Skin, pale
yellow, with brownish-red next the sun, studded with specks, which are
greenish on the shaded side, but yellowish next the sun. Eye, small,
and partially open, set in a wide, shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk,
very short and fleshy, almost imbedded in a deep and wide cavity,
which is smooth or rarely marked with russet. Flesh, yellowish-white,
delicate, very juicy, with a sweet, and briskly acid flavor.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from October to January.

The tree attains a pretty good size, is hardy, vigorous, and a good
bearer.

This is a very old and favorite apple, first mentioned by Ray, and
enumerated in the list of Leonard Meager, as one of the varieties
then cultivated in the London nurseries, in 1670. Mortimer made a sad
lamentation on the fancied degeneration of the Kentish Pippin, which I
have quoted in treating of the Golden Pippin.


196. KERRY PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. p. 454. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 380. Lind. Guide, 19. Down. Fr. Amer. 88. Rog. Fr. Cult. 79.

 SYNONYME.--Edmonton’s Aromatic Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURES.--Hook. Pom. Lond. t. 20. Pom. Mag. t. 107. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl.
 iv. f. 3.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size; oval, sometimes roundish-oval. Skin, smooth
and shining, greenish-yellow at first, but changing as it ripens to a
fine clear pale yellow color, tinged and streaked with red, on the side
next the sun; but sometimes when fully exposed, one half of the surface
is covered with bright shining crimson, streaked with deeper crimson;
it is marked on the shaded side with some traces of delicate russet.
Eye, small and closed, with broad, erect, and acuminate segments, set
in a shallow basin, which is generally surrounded with five prominent
plaits. Stalk, slender, three quarters of an inch long, obliquely
inserted in a small cavity, by the side of a fleshy protuberance.
Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, crisp, and very juicy, with a rich,
sugary, brisk, and aromatic flavor.

An early dessert apple of the highest excellence; It is in use during
September and October.

The tree is a free grower, hardy, and a good bearer, attaining about
the middle size. It is well adapted for grafting on the paradise stock,
and being grown either as a dwarf, or espalier.

This variety was introduced chiefly through the instrumentality of Mr.
Robertson, the nurseryman of Kilkenny, in Ireland.


197. KESWICK CODLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 158. Lind. Guide. 31. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 87. Rog. Fr. Cult. 65.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. iii. f. 3.

Fruit, large; conical and angular. Skin, pale yellow, with a blush on
the side exposed to the sun. Eye, large, set in a deep and angular
basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, pale yellow,
very juicy, and briskly flavored.

One of the earliest, and most valuable of our culinary apples. It
may be used for tarts so early as the end of June; but its greatest
perfection is during August and September.

The tree is healthy, vigorous, and an immense bearer, attaining to the
middle size. It succeeds well in almost every soil and situation, and
when grown on the paradise stock, is well suited for espalier training.

This excellent apple was first discovered, growing among a quantity of
rubbish, behind a wall at Gleaston Castle, near Ulverstone, and was
first brought into notice by one John Sander, a nurseryman at Keswick,
who having propagated it, sent it out under the name of Keswick Codlin.

In the Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, Sir John
Sinclair says, “the Keswick Codlin tree has never failed to bear a crop
since it was planted in the Episcopal garden at Rose Castle, Carlisle,
twenty years ago (1813). It is an apple of fine tartness and flavor,
and may be used early in autumn. The tree is a very copious bearer,
and the fruit is of good size, considerably larger than the Carlisle
Codlin. It flourishes best in a strong soil.”


198. KILKENNY PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 547.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and the same
in height; roundish, inclining to conical. Skin, yellow, sprinkled
with russety dots, and sometimes covered with slight reticulations
of russet; tinged with orange, and a few streaks of red, on the side
exposed to the sun. Eye, small, and rather open, set in a narrow basin.
Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity, and surrounded with a large
patch of russet. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, and sweet; but
of dry texture, and lacking acidity.

A dessert apple of no great merit; in use from October to Christmas.


199. KING OF THE PIPPINS.--H.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; ovate or conical, regularly and handsomely shaped.
Skin, greenish yellow, with a blush of red next the sun, and marked
with a little rough brown russet. Eye, large, and partially open, with
long and broad segments, which are connivent, but reflexed at the tips,
set in a shallow and undulating basin. Stalk, a quarter of an inch
long, just extending beyond the base. Flesh, white with a yellowish
tinge, firm, crisp, very juicy and sugary, with a rich vinous flavor.

This is one of the richest flavored early dessert apples, and
unequalled by any other variety of the same season; it is ripe in the
end of August, and beginning of September.

This is the original, and true King of the Pippins, and a very
different apple from that generally known by the same name. _See_
Golden Winter Pearmain. I suspect this is the _King Apple_ of Rea.


200. KINGSTON BLACK.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3.

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and one and three quarters
high; roundish. Skin, pale yellow, striped with red on the shaded side;
and very dark red, striped with dark purple, or almost black stripes,
on the side next the sun; thickly strewed all over with light-grey
russety dots, and with a large patch of russet over the base. Eye,
open, with broad reflexed segments, and set in a deep basin. Stalk,
very short, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, white, stained with
red under the skin, on the side next the sun, tender, juicy, sweet, and
pleasantly flavored.

This is a beautiful little apple, extensively grown in Somersetshire,
where in the present day it is considered the most valuable cider
apple. It keeps till Christmas.


201. KIRKE’S LORD NELSON.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 414.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xiv.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and
three quarters high; roundish, and narrowing a little towards the
apex. Skin, smooth, pale yellow, streaked all over with red. Eye, open,
with short reflexed segments, and set in a plaited basin. Stalk, short
and slender. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, juicy and aromatic, but
wants acidity.

An inferior variety, neither a good dessert apple, nor at all suitable
for culinary purposes; It is in use from November to February.


202. KNOBBED RUSSET.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Knobby Russet, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 741. _Hort.
 Trans._ vol. iv. p. 219. _Lind. Guide_, 90. Winter Apple, _Hort. Soc.
 Cat._ ed. 1, 1167. Old Maid’s, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

Fruit, medium sized; roundish-oval, and very uneven on its surface;
being covered with numerous knobs, or large warts, some of which are
the size of peas. Skin, greenish-yellow, and covered with thick scaly
russet. Eye, set in a deep basin. Stalk, inserted in a deep cavity.
Flesh, yellowish, crisp, sweet, and highly flavored; but not very juicy.

A singular looking dessert apple, of first-rate quality. It is in use
from December to March.

This variety was introduced to the notice of the London Horticultural
Society in 1819, by Mr. Haslar Capron, of Midhurst, in Sussex.


203. LADY’S DELIGHT.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and two inches and a quarter
high; oblate, and ribbed on the sides. Skin, smooth and shining,
greenish-yellow, marked with a number of imbedded dark-green specks;
washed with red on the side next the sun, and with a circle of red rays
round the base. Eye, partially closed, with broad and flat segments;
set in an angular and plaited basin. Stalk, short and slender, inserted
in a round and rather deep cavity. Flesh, white, tender, crisp, very
juicy, sweet, brisk, and pleasantly aromatic.

An excellent culinary or dessert apple, highly esteemed about
Lancaster, where it is much grown; it is in use from October to
Christmas.

The habit of the tree is drooping, like that of the Weeping Willow.


204. LADY’S FINGER.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 111.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter wide, and two inches
and three quarters high; pyramidal, rounded at the base, distinctly
five sided, flattened at the apex, where it is terminated in five
prominent knobs, with a smaller one between each. Skin, smooth, dull
greenish-yellow, strewed with minute, grey russety dots; tinged on the
side next the sun with a dull blush, which is interspersed with spots
of deep lively red. Eye, small and partially closed, set in a small
and regularly notched basin. Stalk, slender, short, and obliquely
inserted under a fleshy protuberance. Flesh, yellow, tender, juicy, and
pleasantly acid.

A culinary apple much grown about Lancaster; it is in use from
November, to March or April.

This is a very different apple from the _White Paradise_, which is
sometimes called “The Lady’s Finger.”


205. LAMB ABBEY PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. v. p. 269. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 2,
 549. Lind. Guide, 74. Diel Kernobst. vi. B. 84.

 SYNONYME.--Laneb Abbey Pearmain, _McInt. Orch._ 24.

 FIGURES.--Hort. Trans. vol. v. t. 10, f. 2. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxi. f.
 2.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; roundish or oblato-oblong, regularly and handsomely
shaped. Skin, smooth greenish-yellow on the shaded side, but becoming
clear yellow when at maturity; on the side next the sun it is dull
orange, streaked and striped with red, which becomes more faint as it
extends to the shaded side, and dotted all over with minute, punctured,
russety dots. Eye, rather large, and open, with long, broad segments,
reflexed at the tips, and set in a wide, deep and plaited basin. Stalk,
from a quarter to half-an-inch long, slender, deeply inserted in a
russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, crisp, very juicy and
sugary, with a brisk, and rich vinous flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, and very valuable, both as
regards the richness of its flavor, and the long period to which it
remains in perfection; it is in use from January, and keeps till April
without shrivelling.

The tree is healthy, a free grower, and good bearer.

This variety was raised in the year 1804, by the wife of Neil Malcolm
Esq. of Lamb Abbey, near Dartford in Kent, from the pip of an imported
fruit of the Newtown Pippin.


206. LARGE YELLOW BOUGH.--Down.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Down. Fr. Amer. 74.

 SYNONYMES.--Large Early Yellow Bough, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. Sweet
 Bough, _acc. Kenrick_. Early Bough, _Ken. Amer. Or._ 26. Bough, _Coxe,
 View_, 101. Sweet Harvest, _acc. Down._

Fruit, above medium size; oblong oval, handsomely and regularly formed.
Skin, smooth, pale greenish-yellow. Eye, set in a narrow and deep
basin. Stalk, rather long. Flesh, white, very tender, crisp, and very
juicy, with a rich, sweet, sprightly flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality. Ripe in the beginning of August.
The tree is a vigorous and luxuriant grower, and a good bearer.


207. LEMON PIPPIN.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 112. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 406.
 Lind. Guide, 75. Down. Fr. Amer. 115. Rog. Fr. Cult, 81.

 SYNONYMES.--Kirke’s Lemon Pippin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 551.
 Quince, _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 66. Englischer Winterquittenapfel, _Diel
 Kernobst._ ii. B. 21.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 37. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. ix. f. 4.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; oval, with a large fleshy elongation covering the
stalk, which gives it the form of a lemon. Skin, pale yellow tinged
with green, changing to a lemon yellow as it attains maturity, strewed
with russety freckles, and patches of thin delicate russet. Eye, small,
and partially open, with short segments, and set in an irregular basin,
which is frequently higher on one side than the other. Stalk, short,
entirely covered with a fleshy elongation of the fruit. Flesh, firm,
crisp, and briskly flavored.

A very good apple, either for culinary or dessert use; it is in season
from October to April, and is perhaps the most characteristic apple we
have, being sometimes so much like a lemon, as at first sight to be
taken for that fruit. Forsyth says it is excellent for drying.

The tree does not attain a large size; but is healthy, hardy, and a
good bearer.

It is uncertain at what period the Lemon Pippin was first brought
into notice. Rogers calls it the “Quince Apple,” and, if it is what
has always been known under that name, it must be of considerable
antiquity, being mentioned by Rea, Worlidge, Ray, and almost all the
early writers; but the first instance wherein we find it called Lemon
Pippin, is in Ellis’s “Modern Husbandman” 1744, where he says it is
“esteemed so good an apple for all uses, that many plant this tree
preferable to all others.”


208. LEWIS’S INCOMPARABLE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 356. Ron. Pyr. Mal. 59.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxx. f 2.

Fruit, large, three inches wide and two inches and three quarters high;
conical, broad at the base and narrow at the apex, which is generally
higher on one side than the other. Skin, deep lively red, streaked with
crimson on the side next the sun; but yellow, faintly streaked with
light red on the shaded side, and strewed with numerous minute russety
dots. Eye, small and open, with broad, and slightly connivent segments,
set in a rather narrow, and somewhat angular basin. Stalk, very short,
inserted in a wide, and deep cavity, which is lined with thin grey
russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a brisk and
slightly perfumed flavor.

A useful apple either for culinary purposes or the dessert but only of
second-rate quality; it is in use from December to February.

The tree attains the largest size, is strong, vigorous, and an abundant
bearer.


209. LINCOLNSHIRE HOLLAND PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, 409.

 SYNONYME.--Striped Holland Pippin. _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1. 1075.
 _Lind. Guide_, 23.

 FIGURES.--Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xc. f. 1. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xiv. f. 4.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches and a half wide, and three
inches and a quarter high; roundish, inclining to ovate, and somewhat
angular on the sides. Skin, yellow on the shaded side; but orange,
streaked with crimson, on the side next the sun, and studded all over
with numerous imbedded green specks. Eye, small, set in a rather deep
basin. Stalk short, inserted in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, white
and pleasantly sub-acid.

A very pretty, but very useless apple, fit only for kitchen use, and
then only of second-rate quality; it is in season from November to
February.


210. LOAN’S PEARMAIN.--Ray.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Raii. Hist. ii. 1448. Lang. Pom. 134. t. lxxvi. f. 2.
 Switz. Fr. Gard. 138. Mill. Dict. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 550.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxii. f. 3.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a
quarter high; abrupt pearmain-shaped. Skin, greenish-yellow, with a
few faint streaks of red, and strewed with numerous large russety dots
on the shaded side; but deep orange mottled and streaked with crimson,
and covered with patches of thin grey russet, on the side next the sun.
Eye, open, with reflexed segments, set in a wide, even, and plaited
basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a rather shallow cavity,
with a fleshy protuberance on one side of it. Flesh, greenish-white,
tender, crisp, and very juicy, with a sugary and pleasant flavor.

An excellent old dessert apple; in use from November to February.

This is a very old variety. It is first mentioned by Ray, but is not
enumerated in Meager’s list.


211. LONDON PIPPIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. in Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 67. Fors. Treat.
 ed. 7, 112. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 410. Rog. Fr. Cult. 93.

 SYNONYMES.--Five-Crowned Pippin, _Fors. Treat._ ed. 3. 99. Royal
 Somerset, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1. 971. New London Pippin, _Ibid._ 562.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xiv. f. 2.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters broad, and two
inches and a quarter high; roundish, and flattened, with a few ribs on
the sides which increase in size towards the crown where they terminate
in five prominent and equal ridges, from which circumstance it has been
called the Five-Crowned Pippin. Skin, at first pale yellowish-green,
changing to pale yellow or lemon color, with brownish-red on the
side next the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a rather shallow
basin. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, and deeply inserted. Flesh,
yellowish-white, firm, crisp, tender, and juicy, with a brisk and
pleasant flavor.

An excellent culinary apple, and serviceable also for the dessert; it
is in use from November to April, when it is perfectly sound and shows
no symptoms of shrivelling.

The tree attains about the middle size, is not a strong grower, but
quite hardy, and an excellent bearer.

Although there is no record of this variety in the writings of any
pomological author before Mr. Lindley, it is nevertheless a very old
English apple. In an ancient note-book of an ancestor of Sir John
Trevelyan, Bart., of Nettlecombe, in Somersetshire, so early as 1580,
the “Lounden Peppen” is mentioned among the “names of Apelles which I
had their graffes from Brentmarch, from one Mr. Pace.” From this we
may learn, that we are not to take for granted the non-existence of
any variety, simply because there is no notice of it, previous to the
period when it may have been first recorded, in works on pomology.


212. LONG NOSE.--H.

Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a half high, and about
the same in width at the base; conical, with prominent angles on the
sides. Skin, smooth and shining, grass green, changing to greenish
yellow, with a cloud of bright red on the side exposed to the sun.
Eye, closed, set in a shallow basin. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long,
fleshy at the insertion, sometimes with a fleshy protuberance on one
side of it, and inserted in a narrow, shallow, and russety cavity.
Flesh, yellowish-white, crisp, and tender, with a slightly sweet but
rather indifferent flavor.

An apple of little merit, being of no value either for culinary
purposes or the dessert; it is in season from October to December, and
is met with in the Berkshire Orchards.


213. LONGSTART. H.

 SYNONYME.--Westmoreland Longstart.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, narrowing towards the eye, somewhat
like the old Nonpareil in shape. Skin, almost entirely covered with
red, which is streaked with deeper red; except on the shaded side
where there is a patch of greenish-yellow, tinged with thin red. Eye,
partially open, with broad, flat segments, and set in a shallow and
plaited basin. Stalk, about an inch long, inserted in a wide cavity,
which is lined with russet. Flesh, white, crisp, tender, juicy, with a
pleasant sub-acid flavor.

A very excellent culinary apple; comes into use during October, and
lasts till Christmas.

This variety is much grown about Lancaster, and some parts of
Westmoreland, where it is a great favorite among the cottagers.


214. LONGVILLE’S KERNEL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 411. Lind. Guide, 32. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 90.

 SYNONYME.--Sam’s Crab, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 1021.

 FIGURE.--Pom Mag. t. 63.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two inches
and a quarter high; ovate, slightly angular, but handsomely shaped.
Skin, greenish-yellow, tinged with red, and streaked with dark red on
the side next the sun. Eye, small and open, with short erect segments,
set in a deep and plaited basin. Stalk, short, and deeply inserted.
Flesh, yellow, firm, sweet, slightly acid, and with a perfumed flavor.

A dessert apple, of good, but only second-rate quality; in use during
August and September.

According to Mr. Lindley “It is said that this apple was originated
in Herefordshire, where it is at present but little known: it is very
handsome, and of considerable merit.”


215. LUCOMBE’S PINE-APPLE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 585.

 SYNONYMES--Pine Apple, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1. 789. Pine Apple
 Pippin, _Ibid._ 790.

 FIGURE.--Maund. Fruit, 49.

Fruit, rather below medium size; ovate or conical, slightly and
obscurely ribbed about the eye. Skin, of an uniform, clear, pale,
yellow, but with an orange tinge on the side next the sun, the whole
surface thinly strewed with pale-brown russety dots. Eye, small and
closed, with somewhat ovate segments, set in a narrow, shallow, and
plaited basin. Stalk, stout, about a quarter of an inch long, inserted
in a narrow, and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, tender and
delicate, juicy and sugary, with a rich aromatic flavor, resembling
that of a pine apple.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; it is in use from the beginning
of October to Christmas.

This desirable apple was raised in the nursery of Messrs. Lucombe,
Pince, & Co., of Exeter, and is well worthy of general cultivation.


216. LUCOMBE’S SEEDLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 416. Lind. Guide, 52. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 49.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 109. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xiv. f. 3.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; roundish, and angular. Skin, pale greenish-yellow,
strewed with dark dots, and imbedded green specks on the shaded side;
but bright red, which is streaked with crimson, on the side next the
sun. Eye, small and open, set in an angular and plaited basin. Stalk,
short and thick, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, white, firm,
juicy, and pleasantly flavored.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from October to February.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, attains a large size, and is
an excellent and early bearer.

This variety as well as the preceeding was raised in the Exeter nursery.


217. MADELEINE.--Calvel.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Calvel. Traité. iii. 24.

 SYNONYMES.--Margaret, _Mill. Dict._ Summer Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc.
 Cat._ ed. 3.

Fruit, rather below medium size; roundish. Skin, yellowish-white, with
numerous imbedded pearly specks, with an orange tinge next the sun,
and sometimes marked with faint streaks of red. Eye, small and closed,
set in a narrow basin, and surrounded with several unequal plaits.
Stalk, short and slender, not extending beyond the base, and inserted
in a funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, white, very crisp and tender, juicy,
sugary, and highly flavored.

An early dessert apple, of good, but only second-rate quality; ripe in
the middle and end of August.

The tree is a free grower, and is readily distinguished by the
excessive pubescence of its leaves and shoots.

Mr. Lindley in the “Guide to the Orchard” considers this variety as
identical with the Margaret of Ray, which is a mistake. It is no doubt
the Margaret of Miller, but certainly not of any English author either
preceeding, or subsequent to him. It is to be observed that the lists
of fruits given by Miller in his Dictionary are chiefly taken from the
works of the French pomologists, while the fruits of his own country
are almost wholly neglected; and the only reason I can assign for him
describing this variety for the Margaret is, because our own Margaret
being by some authors called the _Magdalene_, he might have thought the
two synonymous.--See Margaret.


218. MAIDEN’S BLUSH.--Coxe.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Coxe, View, 106. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 420. Fors.
 Treat. 213. Down. Fr. Amer. 90.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and a
half high; roundish and flattened. Skin, of a fine, rich, pale-yellow
color, tinged with a blush of beautiful red on the side exposed to the
sun. Eye, pretty large and closed, set in a round, even, and rather
deep basin, Stalk, short, inserted in a deep, and round cavity. Flesh,
white, tender, brisk, and pleasantly acid.

A very beautiful culinary apple, but not of first-rate quality. It is
in use during September and October.

The tree is a vigorous grower, and an abundant bearer.

This variety is of American origin. It is highly esteemed in the
neighbourhood of Philadelphia, and considered one of the best culinary
apples in America; it is also much used for drying, for which purpose
it is considered the best. It is not however held in great repute in
this country, its size and color being its chief recommendation.


219. MANKS CODLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. 161. Lind. Guide, 32. Rog. Fr. Cult.
 66.

 SYNONYMES.--Irish Pitcher, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. Irish Codlin,
 _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 178. Eve, _in Scotland_. Frith Pippin, _acc.
 Lind. Guide_.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. iii. f. 1.

Fruit, large; conical, and slightly angular. Skin, smooth,
greenish-yellow at first, but changing as it ripens to clear
pale-yellow, tinged with rich orange-red on the side next the sun;
but sometimes, when fully exposed, assuming a clear bright-red cheek.
Eye, small and closed, set in a small, plaited, and pretty deep basin.
Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, more or less fleshy, sometimes
straight, but generally obliquely inserted, and occasionally united
to the fruit by a fleshy protuberance on one side of it. Flesh,
yellowish-white, firm, brisk, juicy and slightly perfumed.

A very valuable early culinary apple, of first-rate quality. It is ripe
in the beginning of August, and continues in use till November.

The tree is very hardy, and healthy, but not a large grower. It is a
very early and abundant bearer, young trees in the nursery quarters
generally producing a considerable quantity of fruit, when only two
years old from the grafts. It is well suited for planting in exposed
situations, and succeeds well in shallow soils. It forms a beautiful
little tree when grafted on the paradise stock, and is well adapted for
espalier training.


220. MANNINGTON’S PEARMAIN.--H.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; abrupt pearmain-shaped. Skin, of a rich
golden-yellow color, covered with thin brown russet, on the shaded
side; but covered with dull brownish-red, on the side next the sun.
Eye, partially closed, with broad flat segments, set in a shallow
and plaited basin. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, obliquely
inserted in a moderately deep cavity, with generally a fleshy
protuberance on one side of it. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, and
very sugary; with a brisk and particularly rich flavor.

This is one of the best and richest flavored of our dessert apples. It
is only of recent introduction; but will no doubt, ere long, prove one
of the most popular, as it is one of the most valuable varieties in its
class; not only on account of its excellence, but for the long period
during which it is in perfection; it comes into use in October and
November, and continues in good condition till March.

A communication of some importance has been forwarded to me by Mr.
Cameron of Uckfield, by whom this variety was first propagated. He
says the fruit should be allowed to hang late on the tree before it is
gathered, so as to secure its peculiar richness of flavor, and long
period of duration; for if gathered too soon, it looses much of its
fine richness and is very apt to shrivel.

The tree does not attain a large size, but is perfectly hardy, and an
early and excellent bearer; young trees, only two or three years from
the graft, producing a considerable crop of handsome, well-grown fruit.

This esteemed variety originated about the year 1770, in a garden now
in the possession of Mr. Mannington, a respectable butcher at Uckfield
in Sussex. At the time it was raised the garden belonged to Mr. Turley,
a blacksmith, and grandfather of Mr. Mannington. The original tree grew
up at the root of a hedge, where the refuse from a cider press had been
thrown; it never attained any great size, but continued to preserve a
stunted, and diminutive habit of growth, till it died about the year
1820. Previous to this, however, grafts had been freely distributed to
persons in the neighbourhood, many of whom were anxious to possess such
a desideratum; but it does not seem to have been known beyond its own
locality, till the autumn of 1847, when Mr. Mannington caused specimens
of the fruit to be forwarded to the London Horticultural Society,
and by whom it was pronounced to be a dessert fruit of the highest
excellence. It was designated by Mr. Thompson “Mannington’s Pearmain.”


221. MARGARET.--Rea.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Rea. Pom. 209. Raii. Hist. ii. 1447. Lang. Pom. 134,
 t. lxxiv. fig. 1. Rog. Fr. Cult. 30. Fors. Treat. 114.


 SYNONYMES.--Early Red Margaret, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 425.
 _Lind. Guide_, 8. _Down. Fr. Amer._ 73. Early Red Juneating, _Hort.
 Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 504. Red Juneating, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Striped
 Juneating, _Ibid._ ed. 1, 506. Early Striped Juneating, _Ibid._
 Striped Quarrenden, _Ibid_, ed. 1, 823. Summer Traveller, _Ibid_,
 1083. Eve Apple, _In Ireland, acc. Robertson in Hort. Trans._ iii.
 452. Early Margaret, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Marget-Apple, _Meager.
 Eng. Gard._ Maudlin, _Switz. Fr. Gard._ 135. Magdalene, _Gibs. Fr.
 Gard._ 352. Marguerite, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Lammas, _acc. Fors.
 Treat._

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 46. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. vi. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; roundish-ovate, and narrowing towards the eye,
where it is angular. Skin, greenish-yellow on the shaded side; but
bright-red next the sun, striped all over with darker red, and strewed
with grey russety dots. Eye, half open, and prominent; with long,
broad, erect segments, surrounded with a number of puckered knobs.
Stalk, short and thick, about half-an-inch long, inserted in a small,
and shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, brisk, juicy, and vinous,
with a pleasant and very refreshing flavor.

A first-rate early dessert apple; it is ripe in the beginning of
August, but does not keep long, being very liable to become meally. To
have it in perfection, it is well to gather it a few days before it
ripens on the tree, and thereby secure its juicy, and vinous flavor.

The tree does not attain a large size, being rather a small grower.
It is a good bearer, more so than the Joanneting, and is quite hardy,
except in light soils, when it is liable to canker. It is well adapted
for growing as dwarfs, either for potting or being trained as an
espalier, when grafted on the paradise, or pomme paradis stock.

This is a very old English apple. It is without doubt the Margaret
of Rea, Worldige, Ray, and all our early pomologists except Miller;
Mr. Lindley, however, is of a different opinion, for he believes the
Margaret of Miller to be identical with that of Ray. That this variety
is the Margaret of Rea, his description is sufficient evidence. “The
_Margaret or Magdelen Apple_ is a fair and beautiful fruit, yellow, and
thick striped with red, early ripe, of a delicate taste, sweet flavor,
and best eaten off the tree.” Ray gives _no description_ of it, but it
is only reasonable to suppose, that it is this variety he refers to,
seeing it is the Margaret of all authors both immediately preceeding,
and subsequent to him. And indeed in no instance is that of Miller
noticed by any English author, but himself, anterior to Mr. Lindley.


222. MARGIL.--Hook.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hook. Pom. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 428. Lind.
 Guide, 53. Down. Fr. Amer. 117. Thomp. in Gard. Chron. 1847, p. 116.

 SYNONYMES.--Margill. _Fors. Treat._ 114. Rog. Fr. Cult. 48. Never
 Fail, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 629. Munches Pippin, _Ibid._ 623. Small
 Ribston, _M.C.H.S._

 FIGURES.--Hook. Pom. Lond. t. 33. Pom. Mag. t. 36. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl.
 xii. f. 4.

Fruit, small, two inches and an eighth wide, and the same in height;
conical, distinctly five sided, with acute angles on the side, which
terminate at the crown in five prominent ridges. Skin, orange,
streaked with deep red, and covered on one side with patches of russet.
Eye, small and closed, compressed as it were between the angles of the
basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, slender, and rather deeply inserted
in a round, and russety cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, juicy, rich, and
sugary, with a powerful, and delicious aromatic flavor.

One of the finest dessert apples, a rival of the Ribston Pippin,
excelling it in juiciness, and being of a better size for the dessert;
it is in use from November to February.

The tree is quite hardy, and generally an abundant bearer, except in
seasons when the bloom is injured by frosts, to which it is liable. It
is of a small, and slender habit of growth, and is well adapted for
growing as dwarfs, or espaliers, when grafted on the paradise stock.

There seems to be no record of this variety before the publication
of the _Pomona Londonensis_, although it was known for many years
previously. Rogers says, he saw a tree of it growing as an espalier in
the garden at Sheen, which was planted by Sir William Temple. I find it
was cultivated to a considerable extent in the Brompton Park nursery,
so early as 1750; it must therefore have been well known at that
period; but I cannot discover any trace of its origin. It may have been
introduced from the continent by George London who was for some years
in the gardens at Versailles under De Quintinye, and afterwards in
partnership with Henry Wise as proprietor of the Brompton Park nursery,
as the name seems to indicate more of French than English origin.


223. MARMALADE PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 429. Diel Kernobst. i. B.
 23.

 SYNONYMES.--Althorp Pippin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 8. Welsh Pippin,
 _acc. Ron. Pyr. Mal._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxviii. f. 3.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and
three quarters high; oblong, with a prominent rib on one side, and
flattened at the apex, where it terminates in several prominences.
Skin, very thick, hard, and membranous; deep yellow, with a brownish
tinge next the sun, and strewed with numerous imbedded pearly specks.
Eye, small and open, with long acuminate and reflexed segments, set
in a deep, and angular basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in
a deep, and smooth cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm and tender,
sweet, juicy, and pleasantly flavored.

A culinary apple, but only of second-rate quality; it is in use from
October to January.

The tree is hardy and an abundant bearer.

This variety was introduced in 1818--the year in which the original
tree first produced fruit--by a Mr. Stevens of Stanton Grange, in
Derbyshire, by whom it was raised from a seed of the Keswick Codling.
The Marmalade Pippin of Diel which is described in the 22 vol. and
which he says is an English apple, is not the same as the above, for he
describes it as “a true streaked apple, and ripe in August”.


224. MARTIN NONPAREIL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. p. 456. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 475. Lind. Guide, 91. Rog. Fr. Cult. 68.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 79.

Fruit, below medium size; ovate, and angular on the sides. Skin, pale
yellow, sprinkled with yellowish-brown russet. Eye, large and open, set
in an angular basin. Stalk, short and thick. Flesh, yellow, firm, rich,
juicy and sugary.

An excellent dessert apple, but equal to the old Nonpareil;
consequently can only be regarded as a second-rate variety; it is in
use from December to March.

The tree is a vigorous grower, hardy and a good bearer.

This apple was received from a nursery, as a crab stock, by the Rev.
George Williams of Martin-Hussingtree, near Worcester, and after
producing fruit, was communicated by him to the London Horticultural
Society.


225. MELA CARLA.--Gallesio.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Gallesio Pom, Ital. vol. i. p. 1.

 SYNONYMES.--Male Carle, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 424. _Down. Fr.
 Amer._ 116. Malcarle, _Lind. Guide_, 52. Pomme Malecarle, _Cal.
 Traité_. iii. 63. Mela di Carlo, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Pomme de
 Charles, _Ibid._ Pomme Carl, _Ibid._ Pomme Finale, _Ibid._ Charles
 Apple, _acc. Hort. Trans._ vol. vii. p. 259. Der Malacarle, _Diel
 Kernobst._ xxi. 35.

 FIGURES.--Galles. Pom. Ital. vol. i. t. 1. Hort. Trans. vol. vii. t. 7.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and the same
in height; roundish, inclining to ovate, narrowing a little towards the
eye, but generally of an ovate shape. Skin, thin and tender, pale green
at first, changing as it ripens to fine delicate waxen-yellow, on the
shaded side; but covered with fine dark crimson, on the side next the
sun. Eye, small and closed, with long acuminate segments, and set in a
pretty wide, and deep basin, which is sometimes a little ribbed. Stalk,
three quarters of an inch long, inserted in a small, and smooth cavity.
Flesh, white with a greenish tinge, very delicate, juicy, and tender,
with a sweet and vinous flavor, and a perfume like that of roses.

A dessert apple, which, when in perfection, is of the most exquisite
flavor, but being indigenous to a warmer climate, it does not attain
its full maturity in this country. By the aid of a south wall, in
a warm and sheltered situation, it may however be brought to some
degree of perfection. At Elvaston Castle, Mr. Barron has successfully
cultivated it upon earthen mounds, with an inclination to the sun, of
45°. When in perfection, its flesh is said to be as melting as that of
the Beurré, and Doyenné pears; it is in use from December to March.

The tree is a strong, and vigorous grower, and an abundant bearer.

This apple is of Italian origin, and is extensively cultivated about
Turin. Its name is by some supposed to have been given in honor of
Charlemagne, who is said to have held this fruit in high estimation.


226. MELROSE.--H.

 SYNONYME.--White Melrose, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, p. 25.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large; roundish-ovate, inclining to conical, and broad at the
base; it has an irregularity in its outline, caused by prominent ribs,
which extend from about the middle, to the basin of the eye, where they
form large and unequal ridges; and also by several flattened parts on
the sides, giving it the appearance as if indented by a blow. Skin,
smooth and shining, pale yellow tinged with green, on the shaded side;
but yellow tinged with orange, and marked with crimson spots and dots,
on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, large and closed, with broad flat
segments, and deeply set in a plaited, and prominently ribbed basin.
Stalk, very short, not more than a quarter of an inch long, inserted
in a deep, irregular cavity, in which are a few streaks and patches of
rough russet. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, but tender and marrow-like,
with a sweet, and pleasantly sub-acid flavor.

A very valuable and fine looking apple, of first-rate quality, suitable
either for culinary purposes or the dessert; it is in use from October
to January.

The tree is a strong, healthy, and vigorous grower, and forms a large
round head. It is also an abundant and free bearer.

This is an old Scotch apple, the cultivation of which is confined
exclusively to the Border counties, where it was probably first
introduced by the monks of Melrose Abbey. Though it is one of the most
popular apples of the Tweedside orchards, it does not seem to have been
ever known beyond its own district. It is without doubt the largest,
and one of the most useful apples of which Scotland can boast, and
requires only to be more generally known, to be cultivated throughout
the length and breadth of that country. Even in the south it is not to
be disregarded, as both in size, and quality, it is one of the most
attractive market apples. I have known them sold at two shillings a
dozen. The figure given above is only from a medium-sized specimen of
the fruit.


227. MERE DE MENAGE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 436.

Fruit, very large; conical. Skin, red, streaked with darker red all
over, except a little on the shaded side where it is yellow. Eye, set
in an angular basin. Stalk, very stout, inserted in a deep cavity, so
much so as to be scarcely visible. Flesh, firm, crisp, brisk and juicy.

A valuable and very beautiful culinary apple of first-rate quality; in
use from October to January.


228. MINCHALL CRAB.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 115. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 440.
 Lind. Guide, 54. Rog. Fr. Cult. 58.

 SYNONYMES.--Minshul Crab, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1. 609. Mincham’s
 Crab, _Brook. Pom. Brit._ Lancashire Crab, _Ibid._ 536. Lancaster
 Crab, _Ibid._ 539.

 FIGURES.--Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xciii. f. 2. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl.
 xxxiii. f. 4.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and a
half high; roundish, and considerably flattened, almost oblate. Skin,
yellow, covered with dark dots, and a few veins of russet; russety over
the base, and marked with a few broken stripes and mottles of pale
crimson on the side next the sun. Eye, large and open, with short, and
ragged segments, set in a wide, shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, white,
firm, crisp, and juicy, with a rough, and sharp acid flavor.

A culinary apple, but only of second-rate quality; it is in use from
November to March.

The tree is very hardy, and is not subject to canker, or the attacks of
insects. It is an abundant bearer.

This apple is extensively grown in the southern parts of Lancashire,
and is a great favorite in the Manchester market, and all the other
manufacturing towns of that district. It receives its name from the
village of Minchall in Cheshire, where, according to Rogers, the
original tree existed in 1777.


229. MINIER’S DUMPLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. i. 70. Fors. Treat. 114. Lind.
 Guide, 54.

Fruit, large, from three to three inches and a half wide, and nearly
the same in height; roundish, somewhat flattened and angular on the
sides. Skin, dark green, striped with darker green on the shaded side;
but covered with dark red where exposed to the sun. Stalk, an inch
long, rather thick, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, firm,
juicy, sub-acid and pleasantly flavored.

An excellent culinary apple, of first-rate quality; in use from
November to May.

The tree is a strong grower, hardy, and an excellent bearer.


230. MITCHELSON’S SEEDLING.--H.

[Illustration]

Fruit, above the medium size; somewhat ovate. Skin, of a fine deep
yellow, thinly strewed with minute brown dots, interspersed with
slight patches of very delicate russet; but faintly mottled with clear
red, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, large and open, with short
stunted segments, and set in a rather deep, and plaited basin. Stalk,
very short, inserted in a round, and even cavity, which is tinged with
green, and lined with fine delicate grey russet. Flesh, yellowish,
firm, crisp, brisk, very juicy and vinous, abounding in a rich and
agreeable perfume.

A very excellent apple, suitable either for culinary purposes, or the
dessert; it is in use from December to February.

This beautiful apple, was raised by Mr. Mitchelson, a market gardener
at Kingston-on-Thames.


231. MONKLAND PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 442.

Fruit, small, two inches wide, and the same in height; oval, even, and
regularly formed, with five obscure ribs round the eye. Skin, green,
becoming yellow as it attains maturity, marked with imbedded green
specks, and numerous very minute dots. Eye, half open, set in a round,
and plaited basin. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, slender, and
inserted in a round, narrow cavity, which is lined with rough russet.
Flesh, greenish-white, soft and juicy, but with little or no flavor.

An apple of which it is difficult to say to what use it is applicable,
having nothing whatever to recommend it; it is ripe in November.


232. MONKTON.--H.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches high; oblate, slightly ribbed on the sides, and ridged round
the eye. Skin, entirely covered with beautiful red, which is marked
with spots, and broken stripes of deep crimson; the color on the shaded
side is paler than on the side exposed to the sun; it is strewed all
over with russety dots, and round the stalk, and in the basin of the
eye it is of a clear waxen-yellow. Eye, small and open, with broad,
erect segments, set in a moderately deep basin. Stalk, short and thick,
inserted in a rather shallow cavity, which is lined with thick grey
russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, and brisk.

A beautiful cider apple, raised at Monkton, near Taunton, in
Somersetshire.


233. MOORE’S SEEDLING.--H.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and three inches high;
conical and angular, flattened at the base. Skin, greenish-yellow on
the shaded side; and marked with broken streaks of red where exposed to
the sun, interspersed with numerous large dark spots. Eye, small and
open, set in a plaited basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded in a small,
narrow cavity, and surrounded with a patch of russet. Flesh, yellow,
tender, rather sweet and pleasantly flavored.

A good culinary apple; ripe in October, and keeps till December.


234. MORRIS’S COURT OF WICK.--H.

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter broad, and an inch and three
quarters high; roundish-oblate, regularly and handsomely shaped, very
closely resembling its parent, the old Court of Wick. Skin, pale green
on the shaded side; but washed with light red next the sun, which is
covered with darker red spots, and marked with thin grey russet, round
the eye. Eye, open, with reflexed segments, equally as characteristic
as that of the old Court of Wick, and placed in a wide, shallow basin.
Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, firm but
tender, with a profusion of rich, vinous, and highly flavored juice.

A delicious dessert apple, excelling even the old Court of Wick; it is
in use from October to February.

This variety was raised some years ago, by Mr. Morris, a market
gardener at Brentford, near London.


235. MORRIS’S NONPAREIL RUSSET.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 743?

 SYNONYME AND FIGURE.--Nonpareil Russet, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 25, pl. xiii.
 f. 3.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; conical and irregularly formed, being generally larger
on one side than the other, and having the eye placed laterally. Skin,
green, covered with large patches of thin grey russet, strewed with
silvery scales, and marked with green dots. Eye, small and open, with
segments reflexed at the tips, and set in a plaited basin. Stalk,
short, and deeply inserted in an oblique cavity. Flesh, greenish, firm,
crisp, juicy, sugary, briskly flavored, and charged with a pleasant
aroma.

An excellent dessert apple, of the first quality; in use from October
to March, and will keep even as long as May and June.

Can this be the same as the Morris’s Nonpareil Russet, of the London
Horticultural Society’s catalogue, which is said to be oblate? I know
that the variety described above is the true one, the friend from whom
I received it having procured it from Mr. Morris himself.

This variety was raised by Mr. Morris of Brentford.


236. MORRIS’S RUSSET.--H.

Fruit below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and
a quarter high; round, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, covered
with a coat of smooth, thin, brown russet, with occasionally a bright,
fiery-crimson flame breaking out on the side next the sun, sometimes
so large as to form a fine, smooth, and varnished crimson cheek. Eye,
large and open, set in a small and shallow basin. Stalk, very short,
inserted in a rather small cavity. Flesh, firm, but tender, juicy,
brisk and sugary, charged with a very rich, and powerful aromatic
flavor.

This is a dessert apple, of the highest excellence, and ought certainly
to form one in every collection, however small; it is in season from
October to February.

This, like the two preceeding varieties, was raised by Mr. Morris of
Brentford.


237. NANNY.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 452.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a half high; roundish, narrowing towards the apex, and
somewhat angular on the sides. Skin, smooth, greenish-yellow with
broken streaks of red, on the shaded side; but bright red, streaked
with dark crimson, on the side next the sun; the whole strewed with
russety dots. Eye, open, with flat segments, placed in an angular
basin, which is marked with linear marks of russet. Stalk, short,
inserted in a rather deep, round cavity, thickly lined with rough
russet, which extends in ramifications over the base. Flesh, yellow,
rather soft and tender, juicy, sugary, and highly flavored.

A dessert apple of excellent quality, and when in perfection, a
first-rate fruit; it is in use during October, but soon becomes meally.

The tree attains the middle size and is a good bearer, much more so
than the Ribston Pippin, to which the fruit bears some resemblance in
flavor.


238. DE NEIGE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 454. Lind. Guide, 22. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 91.

 SYNONYMES.--Fameuse, _Fors. Treat._ 101. _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 38.
 Sanguineus, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. La Fameuse, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._
 1.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. i. f. 2.

Fruit, about the medium size, two inches and a half broad, and two
inches high; roundish, sometimes oblate. Skin, tender, smooth and
shining, of a beautiful pale waxen-yellow color, tinged with pale red,
on the shaded side; but covered with deeper red, on the side next the
sun. Eye, small, half open, and set in a shallow and plaited basin.
Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a round, and pretty deep cavity.
Flesh, pure white, very tender and delicate, sweet and pleasantly
flavored.

A very beautiful and handsome apple, but not of great merit. It is
suitable for dessert use, and is in perfection from November to January.

The tree is of a small habit of growth, hardy, and bears well; but in
some soils it is liable to canker.

This variety is supposed to be of Canadian origin, and was introduced
to this country by a Mr. Barclay, of Brompton near London. This is not
the Pomme de Neige of Diel.


239. NELSON CODLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 162.

 SYNONYMES.--Nelson’s Codlin, _Lind. Guide_, 32. Backhouse’s Lord
 Nelson, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 49. Nelson. _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxv. f. 3.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large and handsome; conical or oblong. Skin, greenish-yellow
strewed with russety specks, on the shaded side; but where exposed to
the sun of a fine deep yellow, covered with rather large dark spots,
which are encircled with a dark crimson ring. Eye, open, with short
segments, set in a deep, plaited, and irregular basin. Stalk, about a
quarter of an inch long, inserted in a very deep, and angular cavity.
Flesh, yellowish-white, delicate, tender, juicy and sugary.

A very excellent apple, of first-rate quality as a culinary fruit, and
also valuable for the dessert; it is in use from September to January.

This variety was discovered many years ago, in the West Riding of
Yorkshire, where it is now cultivated to a large extent. It was
first brought into notice by John Nelson, a noted Wesleyan preacher
in that part of the country, who, during his professional visits
distributed grafts of it among his friends. From this circumstance
it became generally known by the name of the Nelson Apple. It was
called Backhouse’s Lord Nelson by Mr. Ronalds in the Pyrus Malus
Brentfordiensis, from having been received from the York nursery; but
Mr. Backhouse, to whom it refers, disclaims having any merit either in
the origin or introduction of it, and prefers retaining simply the name
of “Nelson”, as a tribute to the memory of the excellent man after whom
it was named.

The tree is a strong, vigorous, and healthy grower, and a most abundant
bearer.


240. NEW ROCK PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. v. p. 269. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 460. Lind. Guide, 75.

Fruit, of medium size; round. Skin, dull green on the shaded side, and
brownish-red where exposed to the sun, entirely covered with brown
russet. Eye, deeply set in a round basin. Stalk, short. Flesh, yellow,
firm, sweet, rich, and perfumed with the flavor of anise.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from January to May.

This variety was raised by Mr. William Pleasance, a nurseryman at
Barnwell, near Cambridge, and was communicated by him to the London
Horticultural Society, in 1821. It belongs to the Nonpareil family, and
is valuable as a late winter apple.


241. NEWTOWN PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3. 458. Lind. Guide, 54. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 118. Fors. Treat. 115. Rog. Fr. Cult. 95.

 SYNONYMES.--Large Yellow Newton Pippin, _Coxe View_, 142. American
 Newtown Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Green Newtown Pippin, _Hort.
 Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 636. Large Newtown Pippin, _Ibid._ 638. Petersburgh
 Pippin, _Ibid._ 780. Green Winter Pippin, _acc. Down. Fr. Amer._
 Newton Pippin, _Aber. Dict._ Neujorker Reinette, _Diel. Kernobst._ v.
 152.

 FIGURES.--Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xciii. f. 6. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xvii.
 f. 1.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, broadest at the base, with broad obscure
ribs extending to the apex, which give it an irregularity in its
outline. Skin, at first dull green, but changing as it ripens to a fine
olive-green, or greenish-yellow, with a redish-brown tinge next the
sun, and dotted all over with small grey russety dots. Eye, small and
closed, set in a small and rather shallow basin. Stalk, half-an-inch
long, slender, and inserted all its length, in a deep, round cavity
lined with delicate russet, which extends over a portion of the base.
Flesh, yellowish-white tinged with green, firm, crisp, very juicy, with
a rich, and highly aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple, which, when in perfection, is not to be surpassed. It
is in use from December to April. This description being taken from an
imported specimen, it must not be expected that fruit grown in this
country, will attain the same degree of perfection; for like most of
the best American apples, it does not succeed in this climate. Even
with the protection of a wall, and in the most favorable situation, it
does not possess that peculiarly rich aroma, which characterizes the
imported fruit.

The tree is a slender, and slow grower, and is always distinguished,
even in its young state, by the roughness of its bark. It prefers a
strong, rich, and genial soil, and, according to Coxe, does not arrive
at maturity till 20 or 25 years old.

This is an old American apple. It originated at Newtown, on Long
Island, U. S., and was introduced to this country about the middle
of the last century. I find it was cultivated in the Brompton Park
nursery so early as 1768, under the name of “Newtown Pippin from New
York.” Forsyth remarks that it is said to have been originally from
Devonshire, but if it were so, there would still have been some trace
of it left in that county. It is extensively cultivated in New York,
and all the middle states, and particularly on the Hudson, where the
finest American orchards are. There are immense quantities produced
which are packed in barrels and exported to Britain and other parts.
The month of January, is generally the season they arrive in this
country, and then they are the most attractive of all dessert apples in
Covent Garden market; the name serving in many instances, as a decoy
for the sale of many other and inferior varieties. The Alfriston, in
many collections, is erroneously cultivated under the name of Newtown
Pippin.


242. NEWTOWN SPITZENBERG.--Coxe.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Coxe. View. 126. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 791. Lind.
 Guide, 55. Down. Fr. Amer. 139.

 SYNONYMES.--Matchless, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1. 397. Burlington
 Spitzenberg, _acc. Coxe Cult_ 126. English Spitzemberg, _Ibid._

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 144. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. x. f. 3.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches and a quarter wide, and two
inches and a quarter deep; roundish, regularly and handsomely formed,
a little flattened, somewhat resembling a Nonesuch. Skin, smooth, at
first pale-yellow tinged with green, but changing to a beautiful clear
yellow, on the shaded side; but of a beautiful clear red streaked with
deeper red, on the side next the sun, and strewed with numerous small,
russety dots. Eye, open, set in a wide, and even basin. Stalk, short
and stout, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, rich and
pleasantly flavored.

An American dessert apple, very pretty, and handsome; of good quality,
but only second-rate; it is in use from November to February.

This variety originated at Newtown on Long Island U. S. It received the
name of Matchless, from the late William Cobbett, who sold it under
that name.


243. NEW YORK PIPPIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind, Plan. Or. Lind. Guide, 76.

Fruit, rather large, of an oblong figure, somewhat pyramidal, rather
irregular in its outline, and slightly pentangular on its sides, three
of which are generally much shorter than the other, forming a kind of
lip at the crown; from two inches and a half to three inches deep, and
the same in diameter at the base. Eye, closed, rather deeply sunk in a
very uneven irregular basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, slender, rather
deeply inserted in a wide uneven cavity. Skin, dull greenish-yellow,
with a few green specks, intermixed with a little skin, (thin?) grey
russet, and tinged with brown on the sunny side. Flesh, firm, crisp,
tender. Juice, plentiful, saccharine, with a slight aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple; in use from November to April.

An American variety of excellence. The tree grows large, and bears well.
It sometimes happens with this as it does with Hubbard’s Pearmain, that
smooth fruit grow upon one branch and russety ones upon another; and in
cold seasons the fruit are for the most part russety.

It was named the New York Pippin by Mr. Mackie, and first propagated in
his nursery, at Norwich, about forty years ago. (1831.)

Never having seen or met with this apple, I have here given Mr.
Lindley’s descriptions verbatim, for the benefit of those who may meet
with it; as it is no doubt still in existence in the county of Norfolk.


244. NONESUCH.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 489. Lind. Guide, 20.

 SYNONYMES.--Nonsuch, _Fors. Treat._ 116. _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 36. _Down.
 Fr. Amer._ 91. Langton Nonsuch, _Hanb. Pl._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxvii. f. 2.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a
quarter high; roundish-oblate, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin,
smooth, pale yellow, mottled with thin pale red, on the shaded side;
and striped with broad, broken stripes of red next the sun. Eye, small
and closed, set in a wide, shallow, and even basin. Stalk, short and
slender, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy,
sugary and slightly perfumed.

An excellent culinary apple, of first-rate quality, and, according to
Mr. Thompson, excellent for apple jelly; it is ripe in September, and
continues during October.

The tree is a free grower, attaining about the middle size, and is an
abundant, and early bearer, young trees three years old from the graft
producing an abundance of beautiful fruit.

Although an old variety, I do not think this is the Nonesuch, of Rea,
Worlidge, or Ray, as all these authors mention it as being a long
keeper, for which circumstance, it might otherwise have been considered
the same. Rea says “it is a middle sized, round, and red striped apple,
of a delicate taste, and long lasting.” Worlidge’s variety is probably
the same as Rea’s he says “The Non-such is a long lasting fruit, good
at the table, and well marked for cider.” And Ray also includes his
Non-such among the Winter Apples.


245. NONPAREIL.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit. i. 113, t. xii. f. 2. Switz. Fr.
 Gard. 136. Lang. Pom. 134. t. lxxix. f. 4. Mill. Dict. Fors. Treat.
 117.

 SYNONYMES.--Old Nonpariel, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. n. 476. _Lind.
 Guide_, 91. _Down. Fr. Amer._ 120. Old or Original Nonpareil, _Rog.
 Fr. Cult._ 70. English Nonpareil, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Hunt’s
 Nonpareil, _Hort Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 659. Lovedon’s Pippin, _Ibid._ 573.
 Reinette Nonpareil. _Knoop. Pom._ 51, t. ix. Nonpareil d’Angleterre,
 _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 647. Duc d’Arsel, _Ibid._ 283. Grüne
 Reinette, _Sickler. Obstgärt._ iii. 177, t. 10. _Diel Kernobst._ v.
 95. Nompareil, _Chart. Cat._ 54. Pomme-poire, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._
 ed. 3.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 86. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxiv. f. 5.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, broad at the base and narrowing
towards the apex. Skin, yellowish-green, covered with large patches
of thin grey russet, and dotted with small brown russety dots, with
occasionally a tinge of dull red, on the side next the sun. Eye, rather
prominent, very slightly if at all depressed, half open, with broad
segments which are reflexed at the tips. Stalk, an inch long, set in
a round and pretty deep cavity which is lined with russet. Flesh,
greenish, delicate, crisp, rich, and juicy, abounding in a particularly
rich, vinous, and aromatic flavor.

One of the most highly esteemed and popular of all our dessert apples.
It is in use from January till May.

The tree is a free grower, and healthy, scarcely attaining the middle
size, and an excellent bearer. It prefers a light and warm soil,
succeeds well on the paradise stock, and is well adapted for growing
in pots, when grafted on the pomme paradis of the French. Bradley in
one of his tracts records an instance of it being so cultivated. “Mr.
Fairchild (of Hoxton) has now (February) one of the Nonpareile apples
upon a small tree, in a pot, which seems capable of holding good till
the blossoms of this year have ripened their fruit.” In the northern
counties and in Scotland, it does not succeed as a standard as it does
in the south, and even when grown against a wall, there is a marked
contrast in the flavor when compared with the standard grown fruit of
the south.

It is generally allowed that the Nonpareil is originally from France.
Switzer says “It is no stranger in England; though it might have its
original from France, yet there are trees of them about the Ashtons in
Oxfordshire, of about a hundred years old, which (as they have it by
tradition) was first brought out of France and planted by a Jesuit in
Queen Mary or Queen Elizabeth’s time.” It is strange, however, that an
apple of such excellence, and held in such estimation as the Nonpareil
has always been, should have received so little notice from almost all
the early continental pomologists. It is not mentioned in the long
list of the Jardinier François of 1653, nor even by De Quintinye, or
the Jardinier Solitaire. Schabol enumerates it, but it is not noticed
by Bretonnerie. It is first described by Duhamel and subsequently by
Knoop. In the Chartreux catalogue it is said “elle est forte estimée
en Angleterre”, but, among the writers of our own country, Switzer is
the first to notice it. It is not mentioned by Rea, Worlidge or Ray,
neither is it enumerated in the list of Leonard Meager. In America it
is little esteemed.


246. NORFOLK BEEFING.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Norfolk Beaufin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 34. _Lind.
 Guide_, 55. _Down. Fr. Amer._ 120. Norfolk Beau-fin, _Rog. Fr. Cult._
 59. Norfolk Beefin, _Fors. Treat._ ed. 3, 124. Reeds Baker, _Hort.
 Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 858. Catshead Beaufin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURES.--Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xcii. f. 3. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxiii.
 f. 3.

Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; oblate, irregular in its outline, caused by several
obtuse angles or ribs, which extend from the base to the basin of the
eye, where they form prominent knobs or ridges. Skin, smooth, green at
first, but changing to yellow, and almost entirely covered with dull
brownish-red, which is thickest and darkest next the sun; sometimes it
is marked with a few broken stripes of dark crimson, and in specimens
where the color extends over the whole surface, the shaded side is
mottled with yellow spots. Eye, open, set in a rather deep and angular
basin. Stalk short, inserted in a deep and russety cavity. Flesh, firm
and crisp, with a brisk and pleasant flavor.

A well known and first-rate culinary apple; it is in use from January
to June. It is extensively cultivated in Norfolk, where, besides being
applied to general culinary purposes, they are baked in ovens, and form
the dried fruits met with among confectioners and fruiterers, called
“Norfolk Biffins.”

The tree is vigorous in its young state, but unless grown in a rich
soil, and a favorable situation, it is apt to canker, particularly if
it is too moist.

The name of this apple has hitherto been written Beaufin, as if of
French origin; but it is more correctly Beefing, from the similarity
the dried fruit presents to raw beef.


247. NORFOLK PARADISE.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 117. Lind. Guide, 77. Hort. Soc. Cat.
 ed. 3.

 FIGURE.--Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xcii. f. 4.

Fruit, medium sized; oblong, irregularly formed. Eye, very large,
deeply sunk in an uneven, oblique hollow. Stalk, rather short, not
deeply inserted. Skin, greenish-yellow; on the sunny side of a
brownish-red, streaked with a darker color. Flesh, white, very firm.
Juice, abundant and of a very excellent flavor.

A dessert apple; in use from October till March.

Its name seems to indicate a Norfolk origin; but I never could find it
in any part of the county.--_Lindley._


248. NORFOLK STONE PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 804.

 SYNONYMES.--Stone Pippin, _Lind. in Hort. Trans._ vol. iv. p. 69.
 _Lind. Guide_, 82. _Diel Kernobst._ xi. 119. White Stone Pippin,
 _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 1071. White Pippin, _in Norfolk_. Englischer
 Kleiner Steinpepping, _Diel Kernobst._ xi. 119.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches broad, and the same in height;
oblong, slightly angular on the sides, and narrowing a little towards
the apex. Skin, smooth and very thin, pale green at first, but changing
by keeping to pale yellow with a mixture of green; sometimes it has
a slight tinge of red next the sun. Eye, small, half open, with
acuminate segments, set in a rather shallow and wide basin. Stalk,
slender, half-an-inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity with a fleshy
protuberance on one side of it. Flesh, white, firm and breaking, brisk,
sweet, and perfumed.

An excellent long-keeping culinary apple, and useful also in the
dessert; it is in use from November to July. In the “Guide to the
Orchard,” Mr. Lindley says “This is a valuable Norfolk Apple known in
the Norwich market by the name of White Pippin. The fruit when peeled,
sliced, and boiled in sugar, becomes transparent, affording for many
months a most delicious sweetmeat for tarts.”

The tree is a free and vigorous grower, and attains the middle size. It
is a regular and abundant bearer.


249. NORTHERN GREENING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 497. Fors. Treat. 117.
 Lind. Guide, 77. Diel Kernobst. xi. 83.

 SYNONYMES.--Walmer Court, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1. 1134. Cowarne
 Queening, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 49. John, of some, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxv. f. 4.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters broad, and about
three inches high; roundish, inclining to ovate, being narrowed towards
the eye. Skin, smooth and tender, of a beautiful grassy green in the
shade, and dull brownish-red marked with a few broken stripes of a
darker color, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed,
with long segments, set in a narrow, round, deep, and even basin.
Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, inserted in a narrow and deep
cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, tender, crisp, and very juicy, with a
brisk and somewhat vinous flavor.

An excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from November
to April.

The tree is a very strong and vigorous grower, attaining the largest
size, and is an abundant bearer.

This is sometimes called Cowarne Queening, but that is a very different
variety, and is a cider apple.


250. NOTTINGHAM PIPPIN.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters broad, and two
inches and a half high; ovate. Skin, smooth, pale yellow at first, but
changing by keeping to lemon yellow, without any trace of red, but with
slight markings of russet. Eye, closed, with long green segments, set
in a wide and rather deeply plaited basin. Stalk, three quarters of
an inch long, inserted in a deep, funnel-shaped, and russety cavity.
Flesh, white, fine and marrowy, juicy, sugary, and vinous.

A second-rate dessert apple; in use from November till February.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and an excellent bearer.


251. ORD’S APPLE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. ii. p. 285. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 507. Lind. Guide, 77.

 SYNONYME.--Simpson’s Pippin, _acc. Hort. Trans._

 FIGURE.--Hort. Trans. vol. ii. t. 19.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; conical or oblong, very irregular in its outline,
caused by prominent and unequal ribs on the sides, which extend to
and terminate in ridges round the eye. Skin, smooth and shining, deep
grassy green, strewed with imbedded grey specks, and dotted with brown
russety dots on the shaded side; but washed with thin brownish-red,
which is marked with spots or patches of darker and livelier red,
and strewed with star-like freckles of russet on the side exposed to
the sun. Eye, small and closed, placed in a rather deep and angular
basin, which is lined with linear marks of rough russet. Stalk, about
half-an-inch long, somewhat obliquely inserted by the side of a fleshy
swelling, which is more or less prominent. Flesh, greenish-white,
tender, crisp, and brittle, abounding in a profusion of rich, brisk,
sugary, and vinous juice, with a finely perfumed and refreshing flavor.

An excellent apple, of first-rate quality, and well deserving of more
general cultivation; It is in use from January to May, and keeps well.

Some thirty years ago, Ord’s apple was brought into public notice
as a variety which was worthy of universal cultivation; and was
considered of such importance as to form the subject of a paper in the
Horticultural Society’s Transactions, by A. Salisbury Esq. At that
time it was received into all the collections in the London nurseries,
and was very generally grown; but in the course of years it was again
lost sight of, and I believe there are now very few places where it
is to be met with. I shall be glad, however, if this notice should
direct the attention of some lover of a good apple, to rescue this
excellent variety from the oblivion into which it is likely to fall,
and to restore it to the position it once occupied as one of our finest
dessert apples.

This excellent variety originated at Purser’s Cross, near Fulham,
Middlesex. It was raised in the garden of John Ord, Esq. by his
sister-in-law, Mrs. Anne Simpson, from seed of a Newtown Pippin
imported in 1777. There is another variety called _Simpson’s Seedling_,
raised from the seed of Ord’s apple, to which it is very similar; but
being much inferior in quality, its cultivation has been in a great
measure discontinued.


252. OSLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 511. Fors. Treat. 119.
 Lind. Guide, 5. Down. Fr. Amer, 75. Gard. Chron. 1845, 784. Rog. Fr.
 Cult. 33.

 SYNONYMES.--White Oslin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed, 2. Scotch Oslin.
 Orglon, _Gibs. Fr. Gard._ 353. Orgeline or Orjeline, _Fors. Treat._
 ed. 5, 119. Arbroath Pippin, _acc. Fors. Treat._ ed. 7. Original
 Pippin, _Nicol Villa Gard._ 28. Mother Apple, _acc. Caled. Hort. Mem._
 i. 237. Golden Apple, _Ibid._ 238. Bur-Knot, _Ibid._ Summer Oslin,
 _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 11.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 5. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. vi. f. 2.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches
high; roundish-oblate, evenly and regularly formed. Skin, thick and
membranous, of a fine pale yellow color, and thickly strewed with brown
dots; very frequently cracked, forming large and deep sinuosities on
the fruit. Eye, scarcely at all depressed. Stalk, short and thick,
inserted in a very shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp
and juicy, rich and sugary, with a highly aromatic flavor, which is
peculiar to this apple only.

A dessert apple of the highest excellence; ripe in the end of August,
and continues during September, but does not last long. Nicol says
“this is an excellent apple, as to flavor it is outdone by none but the
Nonpareil, over which it has this advantage, that it will ripen in a
worse climate and a worse aspect.”

The tree is a free grower, of an upright habit, and an excellent
bearer; but is subject to canker as it grows old. The branches are
generally covered with a number of knobs or burrs; and when planted in
the ground these burrs throw out numerous fibres which take root and
produce a perfect tree.

This is a very old Scotch apple, supposed to have originated at
Arbroath; or to have been introduced from France by the monks of the
Abbey which formerly existed at that place. The latter opinion is, in
all probability, the correct one, although the name, or any of the
synonymes quoted above are not now to be met with in any modern French
lists. But in the “Jardinier François” which was published in 1651, I
find an apple mentioned under the name of Orgeran, which is so similar
in pronounciation to Orgeline, I think it not unlikely it may be the
same name with a change of orthography, especially as our ancestors
were not over particular, in preserving unaltered the names of foreign
introductions.


253. OSTERLEY PIPPIN.--H.

 SYNONYME AND FIGURE.--Osterley Apple, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 59, pl. xxx. f.
 1.

Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two
inches and a quarter high; orbicular, flattened at the base and apex.
Skin, yellowish-green, strewed with thin russet and russety dots on the
shaded side; but washed with thin red, and strewed with russety specks
on the side next the sun. Eye, large and open, with short stunted
segments, set in a wide and shallow basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long,
inserted in a wide, and rather shallow cavity, which is lined with thin
russet. Flesh, greenish-yellow, firm, crisp, rich, juicy and sugary,
with a brisk and aromatic flavor, somewhat resembling, and little
inferior to the Ribston Pippin.

A handsome and very excellent dessert apple; it is in use from October
to February, and is not subject to be attacked with the grub, as the
Ribston Pippin is.

This variety was raised from the seed of the Ribston Pippin, at
Osterley Park, the seat of the Earl of Jersey, near Isleworth,
Middlesex, where the original tree is still in existence.


254. OXNEAD PEARMAIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 78.

 SYNONYME.--Earl of Yarmouth’s Pearmain, _Lind. Pl. Or._ 1796.

Fruit, small and conical. Skin, entirely grass green, always covered
with a thin russet; sometimes when highly ripened it is tinged with a
very pale brown on the sunny side. Eye, very small, surrounded with
a few obscure plaits. Stalk, very slender, three quarters of an inch
long. Flesh, pale green, very firm and crisp, not juicy, but very rich
and highly flavored.

A dessert apple; in use from November to April.

I have never seen this apple. It was first noticed by Mr. George
Lindley whose description of it I have given above. He says “it is
supposed to have originated at Oxnead, near Norwich, the seat of the
Earl of Yarmouth. It has been known many years in Norfolk, no doubt
prior to the extinction of that Peerage in 1733, and I have never seen
it out of the county. The tree is a very small grower; its branches
are small and wiry and of a grass green color; it is very hardy and an
excellent bearer.”


255. PADLEY’S PIPPIN.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 119. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 516.
 Lind. Guide, 21. Gard. Chron. 1847, 36. Rog. Fr. Cult. 83.

 SYNONYMES.--Compôte, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. Padley’s Royal
 George Pippin, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 32.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 151. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xvi. f. 5.

Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch and a half high;
roundish-oblate. Skin, pale greenish-yellow rather thickly covered with
thin grey russet, and faintly tinged with orange next the sun. Eye,
small and closed, set in a shallow and rather angular basin. Stalk,
three quarters of an inch long, slender, and inserted in a rather
shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, juicy, sugary, brisk and richly aromatic.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use during December and
January.

The tree is of small dimensions, but healthy, and a prolific bearer.
It is well adapted for dwarf training, when grown on the paradise or
doucin stock.

This variety was raised by Mr. Padley, gardener to his Majesty George
III., at Hampton Court. According to Rogers, Mr. Padley was a native
of Yorkshire, and after coming to London and filling a situation of
respectability, he was appointed foreman in the kitchen garden at Kew.
“On the death of the celebrated ‘Capability Brown’ Mr. G. Haverfield
was removed from Kew to Hampton Court, and took Mr. Padley with him
as foreman. On the death of Haverfield, Padley’s interest with his
sovereign out-weighed all the interests of other candidates, though
urged by the most influential persons about Court. ‘No, no, no,’ said
his Majesty, ‘it is Padley’s birthright.’”


256. PARRY’S PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 554. Ron. Pyr. Mal. 41.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxi. f. 3.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; oval, and regular in its shape. Skin, almost entirely
covered with dark dull red, and striped with brighter red, except
a portion on the shaded side, which is green; the whole surface is
thickly strewed with small russety dots, which give it a speckled
appearance. Eye, small and open, set in a shallow basin. Stalk,
sometimes short and fleshy as represented in the accompanying figure;
and at other times, about half-an-inch long, and woody, but still
retaining the swollen boss at its union with the fruit. Flesh, firm in
texture, crisp, very juicy and pleasantly acid, with a sweet, brisk,
and poignant flavor.

A nice sharp-flavored dessert apple; but considered only of second-rate
quality; it is in use from December to March.


257. PATCH’S RUSSET--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 747. Lind. Guide, 92.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two inches
and a quarter high; oval, and slightly angular on its sides. Skin,
greenish-yellow, entirely covered with thin grey russet. Eye, small,
with long acuminate segments, set in a narrow and irregular basin.
Stalk, an inch long, very slender, inserted in a round, even, and deep
cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, crisp, brisk and aromatic.

A good dessert apple of second-rate quality; in use during November and
December.


258. PASSE POMME D’AUTOMNE.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fr. i. 278. Dahuron. Traité. 115. Chart.
 Cat. 50. Rog. Fr. Cult. 39.

 SYNONYMES.--Passe Pomme Rouge d’Automne, _Diel. Kernobst._ ii. 50.
 Générale, _acc. Duhamel_. Pomme d’Outre passe, _Ibid._ Passe Pomme
 Cotellée, _Merlet. Abregé_. Herbststrich Apfel, _Mayer. Pom. Franc._
 Tab. iii. f. 3. Rother Herbststrichapfel, _Diel Kernobst._ ii. 50.

 FIGURES.--Mayer. Pom. Franc. t. iii. f. 3. Sickler Obstgärt. xv. t. 7.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and
a quarter high; round and slightly flattened, with prominent ribs
on the sides, which extend into the basin of the eye. Skin, pale
straw-colored, almost white, with a few stripes of red on the shaded
side; but entirely covered with beautiful crimson, which is striped
with darker crimson, and strewed with small grey dots where exposed
to the sun. Eye, large and closed, set in a rather shallow and ribbed
basin. Stalk, fleshy, set in a wide and deep cavity. Flesh, very white,
tinged with red, more so than the Passe Pomme Rouge, tender, juicy,
rich, sugary and vinous.

An excellent autumn culinary apple; ripe in September.

The tree is vigorous and healthy, but does not attain a large size.
It is a very abundant bearer, and well suited for dwarf training when
grown on the paradise or doucin stock.

Dahuron says of this apple “on la nomme en Hollande _Pomme de
Jerusalem_;” but according to Knoop, the Dutch pomologist, it is the
Pigeon, which is known under that name.


259. PASSE POMME ROUGE.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit, i. 277. Dahuron Traité. 114. Bret.
 Ecole, ii. 470. Bon. Jard. Chart. Cat. 49. Rog. Fr. Cult. 32.

 SYNONYMES.--Rother August-Apfel, _Henne Anweis_, 150. Rothe
 Sommerpasspomm, _Christ Handworter_, 68. Rothe Kurzdauerende Apfel,
 _Ibid._

 FIGURE.--Nois. Jard. Fruit, ed. 2, pl. 92.

Fruit, small; roundish-oblate, even and regularly formed. Skin, thick,
red all over, pale on the shaded side, but of a deep and bright
color next the sun; and so sensitive of shade, if any portion of it
is covered with a leaf or twig, a corresponding yellow mark will be
found on the fruit. Eye, small, set in a narrow, even, and rather
deep basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, slender, set in a wide, deep,
and even cavity. Flesh, white, tinged with red under the skin on the
side exposed to the sun, crisp, juicy, and richly flavored when first
gathered, but soon becomes dry and woolly.

An excellent early apple, suitable either for culinary purposes or
dessert use; it is ripe in the beginning of August, but may be used in
pies before then. Bretonnerie says it may be used “en compôte” in the
beginning of July, and is preferable to the Calville Rouge d’Eté.

The tree is rather a delicate grower, never attaining a large size, but
healthy and hardy, and an excellent bearer. It succeeds well as a dwarf
on the paradise or doucin stock.


260. PAWSAN.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 15. Lind. Guide, 109.

Fruit, above the middle size, two inches and three quarters wide,
and two inches and a quarter high; pretty round, without angles, but
sometimes it is oval. Crown, but little hollow. Eye, small, with short
reflexed segments of the calyx. Skin, dull muddy olive-green, a good
deal reticulated with fine network. Stalk, three quarters of an inch
long, slender, causing the fruit to be pendant.

Specific gravity of the juice, 1076.

Many trees of the Pawsan are found in the south-east, or Ryland
district of Herefordshire, which have apparently stood more than a
century. Its pulp is exceedingly rich and yellow, and in some seasons
it affords cider of the finest quality. Its name cannot be traced to
any probable source.


261. PEARSON’S PLATE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 565. Down. Fr. Amer. 126.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; roundish, inclining to oblate, regularly and handsomely
formed. Skin, smooth, greenish-yellow in the shade; but washed with
red, and streaked with deeper red on the side next the sun. Eye,
open, with short segments, set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a round and rather shallow cavity.
Flesh, greenish-yellow, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a rich, and brisk
sugary flavor, somewhat resembling the Nonpareil.

A most delicious little dessert apple of the first quality; it is in
use from December to March.

In some specimens of the fruit there is no red color, but altogether
green, and covered with thin brown russet.


262. PENNINGTON’S SEEDLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 571. Lind. Guide, 93. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 127.

Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and two inches and three
quarters deep; oblato-ovate. Skin, green at first, changing to
yellowish-green, and covered with large russety spots on the shaded
side; but with rough brown russet and a tinge of brown on the side
next the sun. Eye, closed, with long and narrow segments, set in a
round, shallow, and undulating basin. Stalk, an inch long, stout, and
straight, inserted in a wide and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish,
firm, crisp, juicy, sugary and brisk; with an excellent aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple of the highest excellence, either as a dessert or a
culinary fruit; it is in use from November to March.


263. PETIT JEAN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 581. Lind. Guide, 79. Hort.
 Trans. vol. iv. p. 525.

Fruit, small; oval, and flattened at the ends. Skin, almost entirely
covered with brilliant red; but where shaded, it is pale yellow marked
with a few stripes of red. Eye, small, set in a narrow basin. Stalk,
very short, and inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, very white and
tender, with a mild and agreeable flavor.

By some considered as a dessert apple; but of inferior quality. Mr.
Thompson thinks it may, perhaps, do for cider; it is in use from
November to March.

The tree is a very abundant bearer.

This is a Jersey apple, and has for a long period been cultivated in
the orchards of that Island. It was transmitted to the gardens of the
London Horticultural Society, by Major General Le Couteur, of Jersey,
in the year 1822.


264. PETWORTH NONPAREIL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 477. Salisb. Orch. 134.

 SYNONYME AND FIGURE.--Green Nonpareil, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 67, pl. xxxiv.
 f. 4.

This variety very closely resembles the old Nonpareil; but is rather
larger; and though it possesses the flavor of the old variety, it is
not nearly so rich. The tree is hardy and an excellent bearer. It was
raised at Petworth, in Sussex, at the seat of Lord Egremont.


265. PIGEON.--Knoop.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Knoop. Pom. 62, tab. xi. Duh. Arb. Fruit, i. 306, t.
 xii. f. 3. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 582.

 SYNONYMES.--Jerusalem, _Quint. Inst._ i. 201. _Lang. Pom._ 134. t.
 lxxvi. f. 4. Cœur de Pigeon, _acc Duhamel_. Pigeon Rouge, _Diel.
 Kernobst._ iii. 58. Gros Cœur de Pigeon, _Filass. Tab._ Passe-Pomme,
 _acc. Knoop_. Duif Apfel, _Knoop_. Rother Taubenapfel, _Mayer. Pom.
 Franc._ No. 28, tab. xviii. Rothe Taubenapfel, _Sickler. Obstgärt._ v.
 323. t. 16. Arabian Apple, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3.

 FIGURES.--Jard. Fruit, ed. 2. pl. 98. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxiii. f. 1.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and
three quarters high; conical and angular. Skin, membranous, shining,
pale yellow with a greenish tinge, which it loses as it attains
maturity; but covered with fine clear red on the side next the sun,
and strewed all over with minute russety dots and imbedded white
specks; the whole surface is covered with a bluish bloom, from which
circumstance it receives the name of Pigeon, being considered similar
to the plumage of a dove. Eye, open, with erect segments, prominently
set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in
a deep and russety cavity. Flesh, white, tender, soft and juicy,
pleasantly flavored, but not at all rich.

A dessert apple of second-rate quality; but excellent for all culinary
purposes; it is in use from November to January. It is necessary in
storing this apple that care should be taken to prevent fermentation,
by which its pleasant acidity is destroyed.

The tree, though vigorous in its young state, never attains a great
size. Its shoots are long, slender and downy. It is an abundant and
regular bearer.

This apple is called Pomme de Jerusalem, from, as some fancy, the core
having four cells, which are disposed in the form of a cross, but this
is not a permanent character, as they vary from three to five.

Diel erred in applying the synonymes of Knoop’s Pigeon bigarré to this
variety, which is very distinct from the Pigeonnet.


266. PIGEONNET.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit. i. 305. Calvel. Traité, iii. 32.
 Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 583.

 SYNONYMES.--Pigeon Bigarré, _Knoop. Pom._ 62. Passe-pomme Panachée,
 _Ibid._ 132. Pigeonnet Blanc, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed 1, 786. Pigeonnet
 Blanc d’Eté, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. Pigeonnet Gros de Rouen,
 _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 787. Museau de Lièvre. _Bon. Jard._ American
 Peach, of some, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Taubenartige, Taubenfarbige
 Apfel, _Christ Handworter_, 110.

 FIGURES.--Jard. Fruit. ed. 2, pl. 98. Poit. et. Turpin. t. 80.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter wide, and the same
in height; oblato-ovate. Skin, pale greenish-yellow on the shaded side;
but entirely covered with red on the side next the sun, and striped
and rayed with darker red, some of the stripes extending to the shaded
side. Eye, small and open, with erect segments, set in a slightly
depressed basin. Stalk, short and thick, inserted in a rather shallow
cavity. Flesh, white and delicate, of an agreeable acidulated and
perfumed flavor.

A dessert fruit of second-rate quality; in use during August and
September.


267. PILE’S RUSSET.--Miller.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Mill. Dict. Fors. Treat. 120. Lind. Guide, 93. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 107. Diel. Kernobst. iii. B. 8.

 SYNONYME.--Pyle’s Russet, _Brad. Fam. Dict._

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a quarter high; roundish-oblate and obscurely ribbed on the
sides. Skin, dull green, thickly covered with pale brown russet, which
is strewed with greyish-white dots, and pale green stelloid freckles
on the shaded side; but dull olive mixed with orange, with a tinge
of brown, and strewed with scales of silvery russet, intermixed with
rough dots of dark russet, on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, with
long broad segments, set in a deep and plaited basin. Stalk, short,
inserted in a deep and oblique cavity, which is lined with scales of
rough russet. Flesh, greenish, tender, crisp, breaking, very juicy and
sugary, with a brisk and very poignant juice.

A very superior old English apple, particularly for culinary purposes;
it is in use from October to March.

The tree is very healthy and vigorous, and attains the largest size. It
is also an excellent bearer.


268. PINE APPLE RUSSET.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Plan. Or. Lind. Guide, 94.

 SYNONYME--Hardingham’s Russet, _in Norfolk_.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
and a half high; roundish-ovate, with broad obtuse angles on its sides.
Skin, pale greenish-yellow, almost covered with white specks on one
part, and rough thick yellow russet on the other, which extends round
the stalk. Eye, small, with short connivent segments, placed in a
shallow, plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long, inserted half its length
in an uneven cavity.

Flesh, very pale yellow, tender, crisp, very juicy, sugary, brisk and
richly aromatic.

A very valuable dessert apple; in use during September and October. Mr.
Lindley says the juice of this apple is more abundant than in any he
had ever met with. The oldest tree remembered in Norwich was growing a
century ago (1830) in a garden belonging to a Mr. Hardingham.


269. PITMASTON NONPAREIL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. p. 265. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 478. Fors. Treat. 117. Lind. Guide, 95. Rog. Fr. Cult. 67.

 SYNONYMES.--St. John’s Nonpareil, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 669.
 Pitmaston Russet Nonpareil, _acc. Hort. Trans._

 FIGURE.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. t. 10. f. 4.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and a half
high; roundish and flattened. Skin, pale green, almost entirely covered
with russet, and with a faint tinge of red on the side next the sun.
Eye, open, set in a broad, shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, short,
inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish-yellow, firm, rich, and
highly aromatic.

A dessert apple of the greatest excellence. It is in use from December
to February.

This variety was raised by John Williams, Esq., of Pitmaston, St.
John’s, near Worcester, and was first communicated to the London
Horticultural Society in 1820.


270. PITMASTON GOLDEN WREATH.--M.

 IDENTIFICATION AND FIGURE.--Maund. Fruit, pl. 16.

Fruit, very small, half-an-inch wide by half-an-inch high; conical and
undulating round the eye. Skin, of a fine deep rich yellow, strewed
with russety dots. Eye, large and open, with long, spreading, acuminate
segments, set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long, very
slender, inserted in a narrow and shallow cavity. Flesh, rich yellow,
crisp, juicy and sugary.

A pretty little apple; in use from September to Christmas.

This beautiful variety was raised by J. Williams, Esq., of Pitmaston,
from the Golden Pippin, impregnated with the pollen of the Cherry
apple, or what is usually called the Siberian Crab.


271. PINNER SEEDLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 530. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 587. Lind. Guide, 79.

 SYNONYME.--Carel’s Seedling, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 791.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized, roundish-ovate, and slightly angular on
the sides. Skin, greenish-yellow, nearly covered with clear
yellowish-brown russet, so much so, that only spots of the ground
color are visible; it has also a varnished redish-brown cheek next the
sun which is more or less visible according to the quantity of russet
which covers it. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a narrow and
deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tinged with green tender, crisp, juicy,
sugary and briskly flavored.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; it is in use from December to
April.

This excellent apple was raised by James Carel, a nurseryman at Pinner,
Middlesex, in 1810. The tree first produced fruit in 1818, and was
introduced to the notice of the London Horticultural Society, in 1820.


272. POMME GRISE.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 120. Down. Fr. Amer. 124.

 SYNONYMES.--Grise, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 305. Gray Apple, _acc.
 Downing_.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xvi. f. 6.

Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch and three quarters high;
roundish and inclining to ovate. Skin, rough, with thick scaly russet,
green in the shade, and deep orange on the side next the sun. Eye,
small and open, set in a narrow and shallow basin. Stalk, about
half-an-inch long, inserted in a shallow and small cavity. Flesh,
yellowish, crisp, very juicy and sugary, with a brisk and highly
aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from October to February.

The tree is rather a weak grower, but an abundant bearer.

This apple, according to Forsyth, was first introduced to this country
from Canada, by Alexander Barclay, Esq., of Brompton, near London.


273, 274. POMEROY.

There are two very distinct varieties of apples, which, in different
parts of the country, are known by the same name of Pomeroy. The one is
that which is cultivated in Somersetshire and the West of England, and
the other is peculiar to Lancashire and the Northern counties.

The POMEROY _of Somerset_, is medium sized, two inches and three
quarters wide, and the same in height; conical. Skin, greenish-yellow,
covered with thin grey russet, on the shaded side; but orange, covered
with stripes of deep red, and marked with patches and spots of russet
on the side exposed to the sun, and strewed all over with numerous
large, dark russety dots. Eye, open, set in a round and even basin.
Stalk, short, not extending beyond the base, inserted in a round, even,
and russety cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, and
highly flavored.

An excellent dessert apple; in use from October till December.

The POMEROY _of Lancashire_, is medium sized, two inches and three
quarters wide, and two inches and a half high; roundish, slightly
ribbed at the apex. Skin, smooth, pale yellow on the shaded side, but
clear pale red next the sun, which blends with the yellow towards the
shaded side, so as to form orange; the whole covered with russety dots.
Eye, small and closed, placed in a small and shallow basin. Stalk,
short, imbedded in an angular cavity with a swelling on one side of it,
and from which issue a few ramifications of russet. Flesh, whitish,
tender, crisp, juicy, and with a brisk flavor, a good deal like that of
the Manks Codlin.

An excellent culinary apple; in use during September and October.

The tree is healthy, hardy, and an excellent bearer, well adapted for
orchard planting, and succeeds well in almost all situations.

There are several other varieties which are cultivated under this
appellation, to which local specific names are attached; but as I
have not seen any of these, they will be found among the “additional
varieties” at the end of that portion of this work which treats on the
apple.


275. POMEWATER.--Gerard.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Ger. Herb. Park. Par. 587. Raii. Hist. ii. 1447.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
and a half high; roundish, and narrowing a little towards the apex,
distinctly five-sided, and terminating at the crown in five prominent
ridges. Skin smooth, yellowish-green, tinged with thin brownish-red
in the shade; but covered with dark dull red on the side next the
sun. Eye, closed, placed in a rather deep and angular basin. Stalk,
stout, an inch long, inserted in a round and even cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, firm, crisp, and pleasantly flavored.

A culinary apple; in use from December to January.

I think there is little doubt that this is the Pome Water of Gerard. It
is still grown in Lancashire, and on the borders of Cheshire, of which
county Gerard was a native, and with the fruits of which, he was, in
all probability, best acquainted.


276. PONTO PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 594.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and the same in
height; conical, narrow at the eye. Skin, pale greenish-yellow in the
shade; but red on the side next the sun, and strewed all over with
spots and dots of dark russet. Eye, small and closed, set in a narrow
and irregular basin. Stalk, short, set in a wide and shallow cavity.
Flesh, greenish-white, crisp, tender, juicy, sugary, with a brisk and
rich flavor.

A dessert apple, of good, though not of first-rate quality; it is in
use from November to February.


277. POPE’S APPLE.--H.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large; ovate, handsomely and regularly formed. Skin, clear
yellow, tinged with greenish patches, and strewed with dark dots;
on the side next the sun it is marked with a few faint streaks of
crimson. Eye, large and open, like that of the Blenheim Pippin, and
set in a wide and plaited basin. Stalk, short, deeply inserted in a
round cavity, which is lined with rough russet, and with an incipient
protuberance on one side of it. Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, sugary
and juicy, with a rich and excellent flavor.

A very valuable apple either for the dessert or culinary purposes; it
is in use from November to March.

This variety has all the properties of the Blenheim Pippin, and is much
superior to it, keeps longer, and has the great advantage of being an
early and abundant bearer.

This excellent apple is as yet but little known. I met with it in the
neighbourhood of Sittingbourne, in Kent, where it is greatly esteemed
and now extensively cultivated for the supply of the London markets.
The account I received of it was, that the original tree grew in the
garden of a cottager of the name of Pope, at Cellar Hill, in the parish
of Linstead, near Sittingbourne. It was highly prized by its owner, to
whom the crop afforded a little income, and many were the unsuccessful
applications of his neighbours for grafts of what became generally
known as _Pope’s Apple_. The proprietor of this cottage built a row
of other dwellings adjoining it, in the gardens of which there were
no fruit trees; for the sake of uniformity, and in spite of Pope’s
importunities and the offer of twenty shillings annual increase in the
rental, the tree was condemned, and cut down in 1846, at which period
it was between 50 and 60 years old. A few days after it was destroyed,
Mr. Fairbeard, a nurseryman at Green Street, procured a number of the
grafts which he was successful in propagating, and it is to him I am
indebted for this variety.


278. POWELL’S RUSSET.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 748. Lind. Guide, 95. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 74,

 FIGURE--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xiii. f. 9.

Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch and three quarters high;
roundish, and regularly formed, broad and flattened at the base, and
narrowing a little towards the eye. Skin, almost entirely covered
with pale brown russet; but where any portion of the ground color is
visible, it is greenish-yellow on the shaded side, and tinged with
brown where exposed to the sun. Eye, open, placed in a round, even, and
shallow basin. Stalk, about half-an-inch long, inserted in a rather
wide, and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, very juicy and sugary,
with a rich and highly aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple of the very first quality; it is in use from November
to February.


279. PROLIFEROUS REINETTE.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and the same
in height; oval, with ten obscure ribs, extending from the base to the
apex, where they form five small crowns. Skin, of a dull yellow ground
color, marked with small broken stripes or streaks of crimson, and
thickly covered with small russety specks. Eye, closed, placed in a
shallow, plaited, and knobbed basin. Stalk, from half-an-inch to three
quarters long, deeply inserted the whole of its length in a round and
smooth cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, very juicy and sugary, with a
rich and brisk flavor.

A very fine, briskly flavored dessert apple; in use from October to
December.

I received this variety from the garden at Hammersmith, formerly in the
possession of the late Mr. James Lee.


280. QUEEN OF SAUCE.--H.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter broad, and two inches and a
half high; obtuse-ovate, broad and flat at the base, narrowing towards
the crown, and angular on the sides. Skin, greenish-yellow on the
shaded side; but on the side exposed to the sun it is flushed with red,
which is marked with broken streaks of deeper red; it is strewed all
over with patches of thin delicate russet, and large russety specks,
those round the eye being linear. Eye, open, set in a deep and angular
basin, which is russety at the base. Stalk, about a quarter of an inch
long, deeply inserted in a round cavity, which is lined with coarse
russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy and sugary, with a brisk
and pleasant flavor.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality, and not unworthy of the
dessert; it is in use from November to January.


281. RABINE.--Hort.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches and a quarter wide, and two
inches and a quarter high; roundish, and much flattened, ribbed on the
sides, and undulated round the margin of the basin of the eye. Skin,
greenish-yellow, marked with a few faint, broken streaks and freckles
of red, and strewed with grey russety dots on the shaded side; but
dark dull red, marked and mottled with stripes of deeper red, on the
side next the sun. Eye, partially open, with broad flat segments,
and placed in an angular basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and
uneven cavity, from which issue a few linear markings of russet. Flesh,
yellowish, tender, crisp, very juicy and sugary, with a brisk and
pleasant flavor.

An excellent apple, suitable either for culinary purposes or for the
dessert, but more properly for the former; it is in use from October to
Christmas.


282. RAMBO.--Coxe.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Coxe View. 116. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3. Down. Fr.
 Amer. 93.

 SYNONYME--Romanite, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. American
 Seek-no-farther, _Ibid._ Bread and Cheese Apple, _acc. Down. Fr. Amer._

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and a
quarter high; roundish oblate. Skin, smooth, pale yellow on the shaded
side; but yellow, streaked with red, on the side next the sun, and
strewed with large russety dots. Eye, closed, set in a wide, rather
shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long, and slender, inserted
more than half its length in a deep, round, and even cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, tender and delicate, with a brisk and pleasant flavor.

An American apple, suitable either for the dessert or for culinary
purposes; and esteemed in its native country as a variety of first-rate
excellence; but with us of inferior quality, even as a kitchen apple;
it is in use from December to January.


283. RAMBOUR FRANC.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit. i. 307, pl. x. Mill. Dict. Hort.
 Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 615. Down. Fr. Amer. 94.

 SYNONYMES.--Frank Rambour, _Switz. Fr. Gard._ 135. _Lind. Guide_, 15.
 Rambour Gros, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 844. Rambour Blanc, _Merlet.
 Abrégé_. Rambour, _Quint. Inst._ i. 202. _Dahur. Traité_. 115. Le
 Rambour, _Bret. Ecole_, ii. 470. Rambourg, _Riv. et Moul. Meth._ 190.
 Rambourge, _Gibs. Fr. Gard._ 353. Pome de Rambures, _Rea Pom._ 210.
 Rambour d’été, _Poit. et Turp._ Rambour d’été or Summer Rambour, _Coxe
 View_. Cambour, _Bauh. Hist._ i. 21. Charmant Blanc, _Zink Pom._ No.
 10. t. 2. Pomme de Nôtre Dame, _acc. Dahuron_. Früher Rambourger,
 _Mayer Pom. Franc._ No. 18, t. 13. Weisse Sommerrambour, _Sickler
 Obstgärt._ ix. 25. Lothinger, _Saltz. Pom._ No. 5. Lothinger Rambour,
 _Diel Kernobst._ i. 93.

 FIGURES.--Jard. Fruit. ed. 2, pl. 94. Sickler Obstgärt. ix. t. 3.

Fruit, very large, four inches broad, and three inches high; roundish
and flattened, with five ribs on the sides which extend to the eye,
forming prominent ridges round the apex. Skin, yellow, marked with thin
pale russet on the shaded side; but streaked and mottled with red on
the side next the sun. Eye, closed, and deeply set in an angular basin.
Stalk, short, deeply inserted in a round, even, and regular cavity,
which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellow, firm, and of a leathery
texture, brisk and sugary, with a high flavor.

A good culinary apple; in use during September and October.

This is an old French apple which must have been long cultivated
in this country; as it is mentioned by Rea so early as 1665. It is
supposed to take its name from the village of Rembures, in Picardy,
where it is said to have been first discovered.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and an abundant bearer.


284. RAVELSTON PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 522. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 622. Lind. Guide, 9.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
and a half high; roundish, irregular in its shape, caused by several
obtuse ribs which extend into the basin of the eye, round which they
form prominent ridges. Skin, greenish-yellow, nearly covered with red
streaks, and strewed with russety dots. Eye, closed, and set in an
angular basin. Stalk, short and thick, inserted in a round cavity.
Flesh, yellow, firm, sweet, and pleasantly flavored.

A dessert apple, of such merit in Scotland as to be generally grown
against a wall; but in the south, where it has to compete with the
productions of a warmer climate, it is found to be only of second-rate
quality. Ripe in August.


285. RED ASTRACHAN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 522. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 17. Lind. Guide, 6. Down. Fr. Amer. 75. Rog. Fr. Cult. 33.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 123. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. v. f. 2.

Fruit, above the medium size, three inches and a quarter wide, and
three inches high; roundish, and obscurely angular on its sides. Skin,
greenish-yellow where shaded, and almost entirely covered with deep
crimson on the side exposed to the sun, the whole surface covered
with a fine delicate bloom. Eye, closed, set in a moderately deep and
somewhat irregular basin. Stalk, short, deeply inserted in a russety
cavity. Flesh, white, crisp, very juicy, sugary, briskly and pleasantly
flavored.

An early dessert apple, but only of second-rate quality. It is ripe in
August, and requires to be eaten when gathered from the tree, as it
soon becomes meally.

This variety was imported from Sweden, by William Atkinson, Esq., of
Grove End, Paddington, in 1816.

The tree does not attain a large size, but is healthy and vigorous, and
an abundant bearer.


286. RED INGESTRIE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. i. 227. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n.
 358. Lind. Guide, 23. Down. Fr. Amer, 95. Rog. Fr. Cult. 81.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 17. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. i. f. 6.

Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a quarter
high; ovate, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, clear bright
yellow, tinged and mottled with red on the side exposed to the sun,
and strewed with numerous pearly specks. Eye, small, set in a wide and
even basin. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a small and shallow
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, juicy, and highly flavored.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use during October and
November.

This excellent little apple was raised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq.,
from the seed of the Orange Pippin impregnated with the Golden Pippin,
about the year 1800. It, and the Yellow Ingestrie, were the produce of
two pips taken from the same cell of the core. The original trees are
still in existence at Wormsley Grange, in Herefordshire.


287. RED-MUST.--Evelyn.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Evelyn Pom. Worl. Vin. 162. Pom. Heref. Lind. Guide,
 109.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Heref. t. 4.

Fruit, nearly, if not quite, the largest cider apple cultivated in
Herefordshire. It is rather broad and flattened, a little irregular at
its base, which is hollow. Stalk, slender. Crown, sunk. Eye, deep, with
a stout erect calyx. Skin, greenish-yellow on the shaded side, with
a deep rosy color where exposed to the sun, and shaded with a darker
red.--_Lindley._

The Red Must has at all periods been esteemed a good cider apple,
though the ciders lately made with it, unmixed with other apples, have
been light, and thin; and I have never found the specific gravity of
its expressed juice to exceed 1064.--_Knight._


288. RED-STREAK.--Evelyn.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Evelyn Pom. Worl. Vin. 164. Nourse Camp. Fel. 143.
 Fors. Treat. 123. Lind. Guide, 110. Pom. Heref. t. 1. Down. Fr. Amer.
 146.

 SYNONYMES.--Herefordshire Red-Streak, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 625.
 Scudamore’s Crab.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Heref. t. 1. Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xciii. f. 4.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
and a quarter high; roundish, narrowing towards the apex. Skin, deep
clear yellow, streaked with red on the shaded side; but red, streaked
with deeper red on the side next the sun. Eye, small, with convergent
segments, set in a rather deep basin. Stalk, short and slender. Flesh,
yellow, firm, crisp, and rather dry.

Specific gravity of the juice, 1079.

A cider apple, which at one period was unsurpassed, but now
comparatively but little cultivated.

Perhaps there is no apple which at any period created such a sensation,
and of which so much was said and written during the 17th century, as
of the Red Streak. Prose and verse were both enlisted in its favor.
It was chiefly by the writings of Evelyn it attained its greatest
celebrity. Philips, in his poem--_Cyder_, says

    “Let every tree in every garden own
    The Red Streak as supreme, whose pulpous fruit,
    With gold irradiate, and vermilion, shines
    Tempting, not fatal, as the birth of that
    Primæval, interdicted plant, that won
    Fond Eve, in hapless hour to taste, and die.
    This, of more bounteous influence, inspires
    Poetic raptures, and the lowly muse
    Kindles to loftier strains; even I, perceive
    Her sacred virtue. See! the numbers flow
    Easy, whilst, cheer’d with her nectareous juice,
    Her’s, and my country’s praises, I exalt.”

but its reputation began to decline about the beginning of the last
century, for we find Nourse saying, “As for the liquor which it yields,
it is highly esteemed for its noble colour and smell; ’tis likewise fat
and oily in the taste, but withal very windy, luscious and fulsome, and
will sooner clog the stomach than any other cider whatsoever, leaving a
waterish, raw humour upon it; so that with meals it is no way helpful,
and they who drink it, if I may judge of them by my own palate, will
find their stomachs pall’d sooner by it, than warm’d and enliven’d.”

The Red Streak seems to have originated about the beginning of the 17th
century, for Evelyn says “it was within the memory of some now living,
surnamed the Scudamore’s Crab, and then not much known save in the
neighbourhood.” It was called Scudamore’s Crab, from being extensively
planted by the first Lord Scudamore, who was son of Sir James
Scudamore, from whom Spencer is said to have taken the character of
Sir Scudamore in his “Fairie Queen.” He was born in 1600, and created
by Charles I. Baron Dromore and Viscount Scudamore. He was attending
the Duke of Buckingham when he was stabbed at Portsmouth, and was so
affected at the event that he retired into private life, and devoted
his attention to planting orchards, of which the Red-Streak formed the
principal variety. In 1634 he was sent as ambassador to France, in
which capacity he continued for four years. He was a zealous royalist
during the civil wars, and was taken prisoner by the parliament party,
while his property was destroyed, and his estate sequestered. He died
in 1671.


289. RED STREAKED RAWLING.--H.

 SYNONYME AND FIGURE.--Rawling’s Fine Redstreak. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. x.
 f. 2.

Fruit, large, three inches wide by two and a quarter deep; roundish,
and slightly angular. Skin, yellow, streaked with red on the shaded
side; but entirely covered with clear dark red, and striped with still
darker red on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, set
in a narrow and plaited basin. Stalk, long and slender, inserted in a
wide and deep cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish,
tender, sweet, juicy and well flavored, abounding in a sweet and
pleasant juice.

A culinary apple, well adapted for sauce; it is in use from October to
Christmas.

This is an old Devonshire apple, and no doubt the _Sweet Rawling_
referred to in a communication to one of Bradley’s “Monthly Treatises,”
from which the following is an extract. “We have an apple in this
country called a Rawling, of which there is a sweet and a sour; the
sour when ripe (which is very early) is a very fair large fruit, and
of a pleasant taste, inclined to a golden color, full of narrow red
streaks; the Sweet Rawling, has the same colours but not quite so
large, and if boiled grows hard; whereas the sour becomes soft. Now
what I have to inform you of is, _viz._: I have a tree which bears both
sorts in one apple; one side of the apple is altogether sweet, the
other side sour; one side bigger than the other; and when boiled the
one side is soft, the other hard, as all sweet and sour apples are.”


290. REINETTE DE BREDA.--Diel.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Diel Kernobst. i. 110. Sickler Obstgärt. ix. 212.

 FIGURE.--Sickler Obstgärt. ix. t. 9.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two and
a quarter high; roundish and compressed. Skin, at first pale yellow,
but changing as it ripens to fine deep golden yellow, and covered with
numerous russety streaks and dots, and with a tinge of red and fine
crimson dots, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, set in a wide and
plaited basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a russety cavity.
Flesh, yellowish-white, firm and crisp, but tender and juicy, with a
rich vinous and aromatic flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from December to March.

This is the Reinette d’Aizerna of the Horticultural Society’s
Catalogue, and may be the Nelguin of Knoop, but it is certainly not the
Reinette d’Aizema of Knoop.


291. REINETTE BLANCHE D’ESPAGNE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc, Cat. ed. 3, n. 636. Diel Kernobst. v. B.
 80. Mayer Pom. Franc. Down. Fr. Amer. 130.

 SYNONYMES.--Reinette d’Espagne, _Bret. Ecole_, ii. 477. Reinette
 Tendre. Blanc d’Espagne, _Bon. Jard._ 1843, 514. D’Espagne, _acc.
 Hort. Soc. Cat._ De Rateau, _acc. Pom. Mag._ Concombre Ancien, _Ibid._
 Fall Pippin, _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 95. Cobbett’s Fall Pippin, _acc. Hort.
 Soc. Cat._ Large Fall Pippin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 315 Camuesar,
 _in Spain_. White Spanish Reinette, _Pom. Mag._ _Lind Guide_, 83.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 110.

Fruit, very large, three inches and a half wide, and three inches and
three quarters high; oblato-oblong, angular on the sides and uneven at
the crown, where it is nearly as broad as at the base. Skin, smooth
and unctuous to the feel, yellowish-green in the shade, but orange
tinged with brownish-red next the sun, and strewed with dark dots.
Eye, large and open, set in a deep, angular, and irregular basin.
Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a narrow, and even cavity. Flesh,
yellowish-white, tender, juicy and sugary.

An apple of first-rate quality, suitable for the dessert, but
particularly so for all culinary purposes. It is in use from December
to April.

The tree is healthy and vigorous, and an excellent bearer. It requires
a dry, warm, and loamy soil.


292. REINETTE DE CANADA.--Bret.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Bret. Ecole, ii. 476. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3. 868.
 Bon. Jard.

 SYNONYMES.--Reinette du Canada, _Cal. Traité_. iii. 51. _Hort. Soc.
 Cat._ ed. 3, n. 640. Grosse Reinette d’Angleterre, _Duh. Arb. Fruit_,
 i. 299, t. xii. f. 5. Reinette de Canada Blanche, _Hort. Soc. Cat._
 ed. 1, 868. Reinette de Canada à Côtes, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 869.
 Reinette de Caen, _Ibid._ 867. De Canada, _Ibid._ 139. De Bretagne,
 _Ibid._ 104. Portugal, _Ibid._ 803. Janurea, _Ibid._ 489. Reinette
 Grosse de Canada, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ St. Helena Russet, _Ibid._
 Wahre Reinette, _Ibid._ Grosse Englische Reinette, _Diel Kernobst._
 i. 106. Canadian Reinette, _Lind. Guide_, 40. _Pom. Mag._ Canada
 Reinette, _Down. Fr. Amer._ 129. Grosse d’Angleterre, Mala Janurea,
 _of the Ionian Islands_.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 77. Jard. Fruit, ed. 2. pl. 96. Ron. Pyr. Mal.
 pl. xi. f. 1. Poit. et Turp. pl. 32.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and three inches deep;
oblato-conical, with prominent ribs originating at the eye, and
diminishing as they extend downwards towards the stalk. Skin,
greenish-yellow, with a tinge of brown on the side next the sun,
covered with numerous brown russety dots, and reticulations of russet.
Eye, large, partially closed, with short segments, and set in a rather
deep and plaited basin. Stalk, about an inch long, slender, inserted
in a deep, wide, and generally smooth cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white,
firm, juicy, brisk, and highly flavored.

An apple of first-rate quality, either for culinary or dessert use; it
is in season from November to April.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and attains a large size. It
is also an excellent bearer; the finest fruit are produced from dwarf
trees.


293. REINETTE CARPENTIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 35.

 SYNONYME.--Kleine Graue Reinette, _Sickler Obstgärt._ ix. 413. Der
 Carpentin, _Diel Kernobst._ i. 174.

 FIGURE.--Sickler Obstgärt. ix. t. 18.

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and two inches high;
roundish or rather oblato-oblong. Skin, yellowish-green on the shaded
side; but striped, and washed with dark glossy red, on the side next
the sun, and so much covered with a thick cinnamon-colored russet
that the ground colors are sometimes only partially visible. Eye, set
in a wide saucer-like basin, which is considerably depressed. Stalk,
an inch long, thin, and inserted in a round and deep cavity. Flesh,
yellowish-white, delicate, tender and juicy, with a brisk, vinous, and
peculiar aromatic flavor, slightly resembling anise.

A first-rate dessert apple; in use from December to April.

The tree is a free grower, with long slender shoots, and when a little
aged, is a very abundant bearer.


294. REINETTE DIEL.--Van Mons.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Diel Kernobst. i. B. 78. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n.
 647.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches wide, and two and a quarter high;
oblate, even, and handsomely shaped. Skin, at first yellowish-white,
but changes by keeping to a fine yellow color; on the side next the
sun it is marked with several crimson spots and dots, strewed all over
with russety dots, which are large and brownish on the shaded side, but
small and greyish on the other. Eye, open, with short segments, set in
a wide and rather shallow basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in
a deep and russety cavity, with sometimes a fleshy boss at its base.
Flesh, white, firm, crisp, delicate and juicy, with a rich, sugary, and
spicy flavor.

A beautiful and excellent dessert apple of the first quality; it is in
use from December to March.

The tree is a strong, healthy, and vigorous grower, and an abundant
bearer.

This variety was raised by Dr. Van Mons, and named in honor of his
friend Dr. Aug. Friedr. Adr. Diel.


295. REINETTE FRANCHE.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit, i. 300. Bret. Ecole, ii. 474. Knoop
 Pom. 53, t. ix. Lind. Guide, 56.

 SYNONYMES.--Reinette Blanche, _Quint. Inst._ i. 201. Reinette Blanche
 dite Prime, _Merlet Abrégé_. Reinette Blanche or Franche, _Mill.
 Dict._ French Reinette, _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 104. Franz Renette, _Mayer
 Pom. Franc._ 3, No. 46. Reinette de Normandie, _Christ Handb._ No, 92.
 Weisse Reinette, _Salz. Pom._ No. 22. Französische Edelreinette, _Diel
 Kernobst._ i. 120.

 FIGURE.--Nois. Jard. Fruit, ed. 2, pl. 93.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches and a quarter wide, and two
inches and a half high; roundish-oblate, slightly angular on its sides,
and uneven round the eye. Skin, smooth, thickly covered with brown
russety spots; greenish-yellow, changing as it ripens to pale-yellow;
and sometimes tinged with red when fully exposed to the sun. Eye,
partially open, with long green segments, set in a wide, rather deep,
and, prominently plaited basin. Stalk, short, and thick, deeply
inserted in a round cavity, which is lined with greenish-grey russet.
Flesh, yellowish-white, tender, delicate, crisp and juicy, with a rich,
sugary, and musky flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from November to April.
Roger Schabol says, it has been kept two years, in a cupboard excluded
from the air.

The tree is a free grower, and an abundant bearer; but subject to
canker, unless grown in light soil, and a dry and warm situation.

This is a very old French apple, varying very much in quality according
to the soil in which it is grown; but so highly esteemed in France as
to take as much precedence of all other varieties, as the Ribston and
Golden Pippin does in this country.


296. REINETTE GRISE.--Quint.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Quint. Inst. i. 201. Duh. Arb. Fruit, i. 302. Knoop
 Pom. 50. t. ix. Mill. Dict. Fors. Treat. 123. Rog. Fr. Cult. 103.

 SYNONYMES.--Reinette Grise Extra, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 895.
 Belle Fille, _Ibid._ 53. Prager, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 2. Grauwe
 Franse Renett, _Knoop Pom._ 132. Aechte Graue Französische Reinette.
 Reinette Grise Française _Diel Kernobst._ i. 168. Reinette Grise
 d’Hiver, _Riv. et. Moul. Meth._ 191.

 FIGURES.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxii. f. 8. Brook. Pom. Brit. lxxxviii.
 f. 1.

Fruit, medium sized, three inches broad, and two and a half high;
roundish, flattened on both sides, rather broadest at the base,
and generally with five obscure angles on the sides. Skin, dull
yellowish-green in the shade, and with a patch of thin, dull,
brownish-red on the side next the sun, which is so entirely covered
with brown russet that little color is visible; the shaded side is
marked with large linear patches of rough brown russet. Eye, closed,
with broad flat segments, and set in a deep and angular basin. Stalk,
very short, imbedded in a deep and angular cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm,
crisp, juicy, rich, and sugary, with a brisk and excellent flavor.

A very fine dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from November
to May.

The tree is a healthy and vigorous grower, and an excellent bearer.

This is one of the finest old French apples; but considered inferior to
the Reinette Franche.


297. REINETTE JAUNE SUCRÉE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 673. Diel Kernobst. v. 112.

 SYNONYMES.--Citron, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 159. D’Angloise, _Ibid._
 13. Chance, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3. Gelbe Zuckerreinette, _Diel
 Kernobst._ v. 112.

Fruit, rather above medium size, three inches broad, and two and a half
high; roundish, and very much flattened at the base. Skin, thin and
tender, pale green at first, but changing as it attains maturity to
a fine deep yellow, with a deeper and somewhat of an orange tinge on
the side exposed to the sun; and covered all over with numerous large
russety dots, and a few traces of delicate russet. Eye, open, with long
acuminate, green segments, set in a wide, rather deep, and plaited
basin. Stalk, an inch long, inserted in a deep round cavity, which is
lined with thin russet. Flesh, yellowish, delicate, tender and very
juicy, with a rich sugary flavor and without much acidity.

Either as a dessert or culinary apple, this variety is of first-rate
excellence; it is in use from November to February.

The tree is a free and vigorous grower, and a good bearer, but it is
very subject to canker unless grown in a light and warm soil.


298. REINETTE VAN MONS.

Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two
inches and a quarter high; inclining to conical in shape. Skin, yellow
on the shaded side, but redish-brown, shading off to orange-yellow,
where exposed to the sun; the whole strewed with numerous russety
dots. Eye, closed, and placed in a small, round basin. Stalk, short,
inserted in a shallow cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh,
yellow, tender, crisp, rich, and sugary.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from December till April
or May.


299. REINETTE VERTE.--Merlet.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Merlet Abrégé. Riv. et Moul. Meth. 192. Knoop Pom.
 49, t. 8. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed, 3, n. 699.

 SYNONYMES.--Groene Franse Renette, _acc. Knoop Pom._ 132. Groene
 Renet, _Ibid._ t. 8. Grüne Reinette, _Sickler Obstgärt._ iii. 177.
 Diel Kernobst. v. 95.

 FIGURE.--Mayer Pom. Franc. t. xxvi. Sickler Obstgärt. iii. t. 10.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two and
a quarter high; roundish, considerably flattened at the base, and
slightly ribbed at the eye, handsome, and regularly shaped. Skin, thin,
smooth and shining, pale green at first, but becoming yellowish-green
as it attains maturity, with sometimes a redish tinge, and marked with
large grey russety dots and lines of russet. Eye, partially closed,
with long acuminate segments, set in a pretty deep and plaited basin.
Stalk, about an inch long, inserted in a deep and round cavity, lined
with russet, which extends in ramifications over the whole of the base.
Flesh, yellowish-white, tender and juicy, with a sweet, vinous, and
highly aromatic flavor, “partaking of the flavors of the Golden Pippin
and Nonpareil”.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from December to May.

The tree is vigorous and healthy, and a good bearer; but does not
become of a large size.


300. RHODE ISLAND GREENING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Coxe View, 129. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 37. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 128.

 SYNONYMES.--Green Newtown Pippin, _Lind. Guide_, 50. Jersey Greening,
 _Coxe View_, 129. Burlington Greening, _acc. Coxe_.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and a
half high; roundish and slightly depressed, with obscure ribs on the
sides. Skin, smooth and unctuous to the touch, dark green at first,
becoming pale as it ripens, and sometimes with a faint blush near the
stalk. Eye, small and closed, set in a slightly depressed basin. Stalk,
three quarters of an inch long, curved, thickest at the insertion, and
placed in a narrow and rather deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tinged
with green, tender, crisp, juicy, sugary, with a rich, brisk, and
aromatic flavor.

An apple of first-rate quality for all culinary purposes, and excellent
also for the dessert; it is in use from November to April.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, hardy, and an excellent
bearer; succeeds well in almost any situation.

This variety is of American origin, and was introduced to this country
by the London Horticultural Society, who received it from David Hosack,
Esq., M.D., of New York. It is extensively grown in the middle states
of America, where the Newtown Pippin does not attain perfection, and
for which it forms a good substitute.


301. RIBSTON PIPPIN.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. ed. 7, 124. Hort. Soc Cat. ed. 3, n.
 704. Lind. Guide, 80. Diel Kernobst. xi. 93. Down. Fr. Amer. 131. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 88.

 SYNONYMES.--Glory of York, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 946. Formosa
 Pippin, _Ibid._ 341. Traver’s Pippin, _Ibid._ 1117. _Diel Kernobst._
 vi. B. 108.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 141. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxvii. f. 5. Pom. Lond.
 Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. lxxxviii. f. 6.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, and irregular in its outline, caused by
several obtuse and unequal angles on its sides. Skin, greenish-yellow,
changing as it ripens to dull yellow, and marked with broken streaks
of pale red on the shaded side; but dull red changing to clear faint
crimson, marked with streaks of deeper crimson, on the side next the
sun, and generally russety over the base. Eye, small and closed, set
in an irregular basin, which is generally netted with russet. Stalk,
half-an-inch long, slender, and generally inserted its whole length in
a round cavity, which is surrounded with russet. Flesh, yellow, firm,
crisp, rich and sugary, charged with a powerful aromatic flavor.

An apple so well known, as to require neither description nor encomium.
It is in greatest perfection during November and December; but with
good management will keep till March.

The tree is in general hardy, a vigorous grower, and a good bearer,
provided it is grown in a dry soil; but if otherwise it is almost
sure to canker. In all the southern and middle counties of England it
succeeds well as an open standard; but in the north, and in Scotland,
it requires the protection of a wall to bring it to perfection. Nicol
calls it “a universal apple for these kingdoms; it will thrive at John
O’Groat’s, while it deserves a place at Exeter or at Cork.”

There is no apple which has ever been introduced to this country, or
indigenous to it, which is more generally cultivated, more familiarly
known, or held in higher popular estimation, than the Ribston Pippin.
It has long been in existence in this country, but did not become
generally known till the end of the last century. It is not mentioned
in any of the editions of Miller’s Dictionary, or by any other author
of that period; neither was it grown in the Brompton Park nursery in
1770. In 1785 I find it was grown to the extent of a quarter of a row,
or about 25 plants; and as this supply seems to have sufficed for three
years’ demand, its merits must have been but little known. In 1788,
it extended to one row, or about one hundred plants, and three years
later to two rows; from 1791, it increased one row annually, till 1794,
when it reached five rows. From these facts we may pretty well learn
the rise and progress of its popularity. It is now in the same nursery
cultivated to the extent of about 25 rows, or 2500 plants annually.

The original tree was first discovered growing in the garden at Ribston
Hall, near Knaresborough, but how, when, or by what means it came
there, has not been satisfactorily ascertained. One account states
that about the year 1688, some apple pips were brought from Rouen and
sown at Ribston Hall, near Knaresborough; the trees then produced from
them were planted in the park, and one turned out to be the variety in
question. The original tree stood till 1810, when it was blown down
by a violent gale of wind. It was afterwards supported by stakes in a
horizontal position, and continued to produce fruit till it lingered
and died in 1835. Since then, a young shoot has been produced about
four inches below the surface of the ground, which, with proper care,
may become a tree, and thereby preserve the original of this favorite
old dessert apple. The gardener at Ribston Hall, by whom this apple was
raised, was the father of Lowe, who during the last century was the
fruit tree nurseryman at Hampton Wick.


302. ROBINSON’S PIPPIN.--Forsyth.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 124. Lind. Guide, 56. Hort. Soc. Cat.
 ed. 3, n. 711. Rog. Fr. Cult. 97.

 FIGURES.--Hook. Pom. Lond. t. 42. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxii. f. 3.
 Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xci. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, small; roundish, narrowing towards the apex, where it is quite
flat, and covered with thin russet. Skin, greenish-yellow on the shaded
side; but brownish-red where exposed to the sun, and strewed all over
with minute russety dots. Eye, prominent, not at all depressed, and
closed with broad flat segments. Stalk, half-an-inch long, stout, and
inserted in a slight depression. Flesh, greenish, tender, crisp, sweet,
and very juicy; with a fine, brisk, poignant, and slightly perfumed
flavor, much resembling that of the Golden Pippin and Nonpareil.

A very excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality; it is in use from
December to February. The fruit is produced in clusters of sometimes
eight and ten, at the ends of the branches.

The tree is of small size and slender growth, and not a free bearer.
It is well adapted for dwarf and espalier training when grafted on the
doucin or paradise stock, in which case it also bears better than on
the crab stock.

According to Mr. Lindley this variety was grown for many years in the
old kitchen garden at Kew; and Rogers thinks it first originated in the
Turnham Green nursery, which was during a portion of the last century,
occupied by a person of the name of Robinson.


303. ROSE DE CHINA.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 718.

Fruit, medium sized, or rather below medium size; roundish and
flattened, almost oblate, regularly formed, and without angles. Skin,
smooth and delicate, pale greenish-yellow, with a few broken streaks of
pale red, intermixed with crimson, on the side exposed to the sun, and
strewed with minute dark colored dots. Eye, partially closed, set in a
shallow and slightly plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long, very slender,
inserted in a round, deep, smooth, and funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh,
yellowish-white tinged with green, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a sweet
and pleasant flavor.

A very good, but not first-rate, dessert apple; it is in use from
November to February. This does not appear to be the “Rose Apple of
China” of Coxe, which he imported from England, and which he says is a
large oblong fruit with a short thick stalk.


304. ROSEMARY RUSSET.--Ronalds.

 IDENTIFICATION AND FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. 31, pl. xvi. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size; ovate, broadest at the base and narrowing
obtusely towards the apex, a good deal of the shape of a Scarlet
Nonpareil. Skin, yellow, tinged with green on the shaded side; but
flushed with faint red on the side exposed to the sun, and covered with
thin pale brown russet, particularly round the eye and the stalk. Eye,
small and open, with erect segments, set in a narrow, round, and even
basin. Stalk, very long, inserted in a round and wide cavity. Flesh,
yellowish, crisp, tender, very juicy, brisk, and sugary, and charged
with a peculiarly rich and highly aromatic flavor.

A most delicious and valuable dessert apple of the very first quality;
it is in use from December till February.


305. ROSS NONPAREIL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. p. 454. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 480. Lind. Guide, 96. Down. Fr. Amer. 95.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 90. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxiv. f. 7.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches high, and two inches and a half broad;
roundish, even, and regularly formed, narrowing a little towards the
eye. Skin, entirely covered with thin russet, and faintly tinged with
red on the side next the sun. Eye, small and open, set in a shallow
and even basin. Stalk, an inch long, slender, inserted half its length
in a round and even cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, firm, crisp, brisk
and sugary, charged with a rich and aromatic flavor, which partakes
very much of that of the varieties known by the name of Fenouillet, or
Fennel-flavored apples.

This is one of the best dessert apples; it is in use from November to
February.

The tree is an excellent bearer, hardy, and a free grower, and succeeds
well on almost any description of soil.

This variety is of Irish origin.


306. ROUND WINTER NONESUCH.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 491.

Fruit, large, over three inches wide, and two and a half high; roundish
and very considerably flattened, or somewhat oblate; uneven in its
outline, caused by several obtuse and unequal, though not prominent
ribs on the sides. Skin, thick and membranous, smooth, pale yellow
slightly tinged with green on the shaded side; but on the side exposed
to the sun, it is marked with broken stripes and spots of beautiful
deep crimson, thinly sprinkled all over with a few russety dots. Eye,
large and closed, so prominently set and raised above the surface as to
appear puffed up, and set on bosses. Stalk, very short, inserted in a
round funnel-shaped cavity, and not protruding beyond the base. Flesh,
greenish-white, tender, sweet, juicy, and pleasantly flavored.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; it is in use from November to
March.

The tree is an excellent bearer, and the fruit being large and
beautiful, this variety is worthy the notice of the market gardener and
orchardist.


307. ROYAL PEARMAIN.--Rea.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Rea Pom. 210. Lind. Guide, 81. Gibs. Fr. Gard. 357.
 Rog. Fr. Cult. 73. Diel Kernobst. xii. 132. Meag. Eng. Gard.

 SYNONYMES--Herefordshire Pearmain, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, 544.
 _Switz. Fr. Gard._ 137. _Down. Fr. Amer._ 112. Hertfordshire Pearmain,
 _Mill. Dict._ Pearmain Royal, _Knoop Pom._ 71, tab. xii. Pearmain
 Royal De Longue Durée, _Ibid._ 131. Engelsche Konings of Kings
 Pepping, _Ibid._ Merveille Pearmain, _Ibid._ Pearmain Double, _Ibid._
 Englische Königsparmäne, _Diel Kernobst._ xii. 132.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxii. f. 4.

Fruit, large, three inches wide, and the same in height;
pearmain-shaped and slightly angular, having generally a prominent
rib on one side of it. Skin, smooth, dark dull green at first on the
shaded side, but changing during winter to clear greenish-yellow, and
marked with traces of russet; on the side next the sun it is covered
with brownish-red and streaks of deeper red, all of which change during
winter to clear crimson strewed with many russety specks. Eye, small
and open, with broad segments which are reflexed at the tips, and set
in a wide, pretty deep, and plaited basin. Stalk, from half-an-inch
to three quarters long, inserted in a deep cavity which is lined with
russet. Flesh, yellowish, tinged with green, tender, crisp, juicy,
sugary and perfumed, with a brisk and pleasant flavor.

A fine old English apple, suitable chiefly for culinary purposes, and
useful also in the dessert. It comes into use in November and December,
and continues till March.

The tree attains the middle size, is a free and vigorous grower, very
hardy, and an excellent bearer.

In the Horticultural Society’s Catalogue this is called the old
Pearmain, but this name is applicable to the Winter Pearmain. Rea
is the first who notices the Royal Pearmain, and he says “it is a
much bigger and better tasted apple than the common kind.” The Royal
Pearmain of some nurseries is a very different variety from this, and
will be found described under _Summer Pearmain_.


308. ROYAL REINETTE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 529. Hort, Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 692. Lind. Guide, 82.

Fruit, large; conical. Skin, yellow, smooth and glossy, strewed all
over with russety spots; stained and striped with brilliant red on the
side next the sun. Eye, large and open, set in an even and shallow
basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a very narrow and shallow cavity.
Flesh, pale yellow, firm and tender, juicy and sugary, with a brisk and
pleasant flavor.

A very good apple for culinary purposes, and second-rate for the
dessert; it is in use from December to April.

The tree is an abundant bearer, and is extensively grown in the western
parts of Sussex, where it is esteemed a first-rate fruit.


309. ROYAL RUSSET.--Miller.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Mill. Dict. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 749. Fors.
 Treat. 125. Rog. Fr. Cult. 108. Lind. Guide, 96.

 SYNONYME.--Passe Pomme de Canada, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Reinette de
 Canada Grise, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 870. Reinette de Canada Platte,
 _Ibid._ 871. Leather Coat, _Laws. Orch._ 65. _Raii. Hist._ 1448.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xix. f. 1.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; roundish, somewhat flattened and angular. Skin, covered
with rough brown russet, which has a brownish tinge on the side next
the sun; some portions only of the ground color are visible, which is
yellowish-green. Eye, small and closed, set in a narrow and rather
shallow basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a wide and deep
cavity. Flesh, greenish-yellow, tender, crisp, brisk, juicy and sugary.

A most excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality; it is in use
from November to May, but is very apt to shrink and become dry, unless,
as Mr. Thompson recommends, it is kept in dry sand.

The tree is of a very vigorous habit, and attains the largest size. It
is perfectly hardy and an excellent bearer.

This has always been a favorite old English variety, being mentioned by
Lawson so early as 1597, and much esteemed by almost every subsequent
writer.


310. ROYAL SHEPHERD.--H.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two and three quarters
high; roundish, inclining to ovate, slightly ribbed, and narrowing
towards the eye. Skin, greenish-yellow in the shade; but covered with
dull red next the sun, and strewed all over with minute russety dots.
Eye, partially closed, set in a round and rather deep basin. Stalk
short, inserted in a deep funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with
ramifications of russet. Flesh, greenish-white, firm, crisp, brisk and
pleasantly flavored.

A very good culinary apple, grown in the neighbourhood of Lancaster.
It is in use during November and December and will keep till March or
April.


311. RUSSET TABLE PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 557. Ron. Pyr. Mal. 41.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxi. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size; oblong-ovate. Skin, very much covered with
brown russet; except on the shaded side, where there is a little
yellowish-green visible, and on the side next the sun, where it is
orange, with a flame of deep bright crimson, breaking through the
russet. Eye, open, with erect, rigid segments, and set in a wide,
shallow, saucer-like, and plaited basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long,
slender, and extending beyond the base. Flesh, yellow, firm, very rich,
juicy, and sugary, with a fine aromatic, and perfumed flavor.

A beautiful and handsome little apple of first-rate excellence. It is
in use from November to February.


312. RUSHOCK PEARMAIN.--M.

 IDENTIFICATION AND FIGURE.--Maund. Fruit, 70

Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and the
same in height; conical, even and handsomely formed. Skin, of a fine
deep yellow color, almost entirely covered with cinnamon-colored
russet, with a brownish tinge on the side next the sun. Eye, large and
open, with broad, flat segments, which generally fall off as the fruit
ripens. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, stout, and inserted in a
pretty deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a
brisk, sub-acid, and sugary flavor.

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality; it is in use from
Christmas to April. It is frequently met with in the Birmingham
markets. This variety was, according to Mr. Maund, raised by a
blacksmith of the name of Charles Taylor, at Rushock in Worcestershire,
about the year 1821, and is sometimes known by the name of _Charles’s
Pearmain_.


313. RYMER.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. p. 329. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 358. Lind. Guide, 33.

 SYNONYMES.--Caldwell, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed i. 124. Green Cossings,
 _Ibid._ 411. Newbold’s Duke of York, _Ibid._ 286. Cordwall

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xli. f. 2.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and
three quarters high; roundish, and flattened, with five obscure ribs,
on the sides, extending into the basin of the eye. Skin, smooth,
thinly strewed with redish-brown dots, and a few faint streaks of pale
red on the shaded side; and of a beautiful deep red, covered with
yellowish-grey dots, on the side next the sun. Eye, open, with broad
reflexed segments, set in a round and moderately deep basin. Stalk,
short, inserted in a round and deep cavity, lined with rough russet,
which extends in ramifications over the base. Flesh, yellowish, tender,
and pleasantly sub-acid.

A good culinary apple, in use from October to Christmas.


314. SACK AND SUGAR.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 761. Rog. Fr. Cult. 41.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. i. f. 1.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter wide, and an inch
and three quarters high; roundish, inclining to oval, with prominent
ridges round the eye. Skin, pale yellow. Eye, large, and open with
erect segments, and rather deeply placed in a round, wide, and angular
basin. Flesh, white, soft, tender, very juicy, sugary, and pleasantly
flavored.

A good early apple, either for culinary purposes or the dessert; ripe
in the end of July and beginning of August, and continuing during
September.

The tree is a free and vigorous grower, and an immense bearer, so much
so, as to be injurious to the crop of the following year.

This apple was raised nearly half a century ago, by Mr. Morris, a
market gardener, at Brentford, and is sometimes met with under the name
of _Morris’s Sack and Sugar_.


315. SAINT JULIEN.--Calvel.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Cal. Traité, iii. 27. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 764.
 Pom. Mag. iii. 165.

 SYNONYMES.--Seigneur d’Orsay, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Concombre des
 Chartreux. Heilige Julians apfel.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; roundish, narrowing towards the eye, and angular on
its sides. Skin, yellowish-green, covered with large patches of ashy
colored russet, and in dry warm seasons, sometimes tinged with red.
Eye, open, set in a rather shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, an inch
long, slender, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white,
firm, juicy, sugary, and richly flavored.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; it is in use from December to
March.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and an excellent bearer.


316. SAM YOUNG.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. p. 324. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 768. Lind. Guide, 97. Down. Fr. Amer. 134.

 SYNONYME.--Irish Russet, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. i. 985.

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 130

Fruit, small, an inch and three quarters high, and about two inches
and a half wide; roundish-oblate. Skin, light greenish-yellow, almost
entirely covered with grey russet, and strewed with minute russety dots
on the yellow part, but tinged with brownish-red on the side next the
sun. Eye, large and open, set in a wide, shallow, and plaited basin.
Stalk, short, not deeply inserted. Flesh, yellow, tinged with green,
firm, crisp, tender, juicy, sugary, and highly flavored.

A delicious little dessert apple, of the first quality; in use from
November to February.

This variety is of Irish origin, and was first introduced to public
notice by Mr. Robertson, the nurseryman of Kilkenny.


317. SCARLET CROFTON.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iii. p. 453. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 192.

 SYNONYME.--Red Crofton, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

Fruit, medium sized; oblate, slightly angular on the sides. Skin,
covered with yellowish russet, except on the side next the sun, where
it is bright red, with a mixture of russet. Eye, set in a wide and
shallow basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a moderately deep cavity.
Flesh, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, and richly flavored.

A most delicious dessert apple, of first-rate quality; in use from
October to December, and does not become meally.

The Scarlet Crofton is of Irish origin.


318. SCARLET LEADINGTON.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 404.

Fruit, above medium size; oval, angular, broadest at the base and
narrowing towards the eye, where it is distinctly four-sided. Skin,
striped with yellow, and bright red or scarlet streaks, and thickly
covered with russety specks. Eye, large and closed, with long broad
segments, and set in a shallow basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a wide
and shallow cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish,
streaked and veined with pink or lilac-red veins, firm, crisp, juicy,
and sugary, with a brisk and pleasant flavor.

An apple much esteemed in Scotland, as a first-rate variety, both for
the dessert and culinary purposes; but it does not rank so high in the
south; it is in use from November to February.


319. SCARLET NONPAREIL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 482. Lind. Guide, 98. Fors.
 Treat. 118. Down. Fr. Amer. 120. Rog. Fr. Cult. 69.

 SYNONYME.--New Scarlet Nonpariel, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 87. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxiv. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; globular, narrowing towards the apex, regularly
and handsomely shaped. Skin, yellowish on the shaded side; but covered
with red, which is streaked with deeper red, on the side next the sun;
and covered with patches of russet and large russety specks. Eye, open,
set in a shallow and even basin. Stalk, an inch or more in length,
inserted in a small round cavity, which is lined with scales of silvery
grey russet. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, juicy, rich, and sugary.

A very excellent dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it is in use
from January to March.

The tree is hardy, a good grower, though slender in its habit; and an
excellent bearer.

The Scarlet Nonpareil, was first discovered growing in the garden of a
publican, at Esher, in Surrey, and was first cultivated by Grimwood, of
the Kensington nursery.


320. SCARLET PEARMAIN.--Hitt.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hitt Treat. 296. Fors. Treat. 93. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed.
 3, n. 558. Lind. Guide, 33. Down. Fr. Amer. 96. Rog. Fr. Cult. 72.

 SYNONYMES.--Bell’s Scarlet Pearmain, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 15. Bell’s
 Scarlet, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. i. 767. Oxford Peach Apple, _Ibid._
 741. Englische Scharlachrothe Parmäne. _Diel Kernobst._ x. 111.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 62. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. viii. f. 2.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a
quarter high; conical, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, smooth,
tender and shining, of a rich, deep, bright crimson, on the side next
the sun; but of a paler color, intermixed with a tinge of yellow, on
the shaded side; and the whole surface sprinkled with russety dots.
Eye, half open, with long broad segments, set in a round, even, and
rather deep basin. Stalk, from three quarters to an inch long, deeply
inserted in a round, even, and funnel-shaped cavity, which is generally
russety at the insertion of the stalk. Flesh, yellowish, with a tinge
of red under the skin; tender, juicy, sugary, and vinous.

A beautiful, and handsome dessert apple, of first-rate quality; in use
from October to January.

The tree is a free and vigorous grower, attaining about the middle
size; and is an excellent bearer. It succeeds well on the paradise
stock, on which it forms a good dwarf or espalier tree. The variety
called Hood’s Seedling, seems to me to be identical with the Scarlet
Pearmain.


321. SCARLET TIFFING.--H.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and a
quarter high; roundish, inclining to oblate, and irregularly angular.
Skin, pale yellow, tinged with green on the shaded side, and round the
eye; but deep scarlet where exposed to the sun, extending in general
over the greater portion of the fruit. Eye, small and closed, set in an
irregular, ribbed, and warted basin. Stalk, fleshy, about half an inch
long, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, pure white, very tender,
crisp, juicy, and pleasantly acid.

A valuable and excellent culinary apple, much grown in the orchard
districts about Lancaster. It is in use during November and December.


322. SCOTCH BRIDGET--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a quarter high; roundish, broadest at the base, and
narrowing towards the apex, where it is rather knobbed, caused by the
terminations of the angles on the sides. Skin, smooth, greenish-yellow,
on the shaded side, and almost entirely covered with bright deep red on
the side next the sun. Eye, closed, set in an angular and warted basin.
Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, straight, thick, and stout,
inserted in a very narrow and shallow cavity. Flesh, white, tender,
soft, juicy, and briskly flavored.

An excellent culinary apple, much grown in the neighbourhood of
Lancaster; in use from October to January.


323. SCREVETON GOLDEN PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. iv. 218. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 288.

Fruit, larger than the old Golden Pippin, and little, if at all,
inferior to it in flavor. Skin, yellowish, considerably marked with
russet. Flesh, yellow, and more tender than the old Golden Pippin.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; raised in the garden of Sir John
Thoroton, Bart., at Screveton, in Nottinghamshire, about the year 1808.
It is in use from December to April.


324. SEEK-NO-FARTHER.--Ronalds.

 IDENTIFICATION & FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. 45, pl. xxiii. f. 3.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized; conical, or pearmain-shaped. Skin,
yellowish-green, streaked with broken patches of crimson, on the shaded
side; and strewed with grey russety dots; but covered with light red,
which is marked with crimson streaks, and covered with patches of fine
delicate russet, and numerous large, square, and stelloid russety
specks like scales, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and
closed, with broad, flat, segments, the edges of which fit neatly
to each other, set in a rather deep and plaited basin. Stalk, about
half-an-inch long, stout, and inserted in a deep, round, and regular
cavity. Flesh, greenish-yellow, crisp, juicy, rich, sugary, and vinous,
charged with a pleasant aromatic flavor.

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality. It is in use from
November to January.

This is the true old _Seek-no-farther_.


325. SELWOOD’S REINETTE.--Rog.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Rog. Fr. Cult. 103.

Fruit, large, three inches wide, and about two inches and a half high;
round and flattened, angular on the sides, and with five prominent
plaits round the eye, which is small, open, and not at all depressed,
but rather elevated on the surface. Skin, pale green, almost entirely
covered with red, which is marked with broken stripes of darker red,
those on the shaded side being paler, and not so numerous as on the
side exposed to the sun. Stalk, about half-an-inch long, very stout,
and inserted the whole of its length in a russety cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, tender, brisk, and pleasantly flavored.

A culinary apple, of good, but not first-rate, quality. It is in use
from December to March.

The tree is a strong and healthy grower, and an abundant bearer.

This is certainly a different variety from the Selwood’s Reinette of
the Horticultural Society’s Catalogue, which is described as being
small, pearmain-shaped, greenish-yellow, and a dessert apple. It is
however, identical with the Selwood’s Reinette of Rogers, who, as we
are informed, in his “Fruit Cultivator,” received it upwards of sixty
years ago from Messrs. Hewitt and Co., of Brompton. The tree now in
my possession, I procured as a graft from the private garden of the
late Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith; and as it has proved to be the same as
Rogers’s variety, I am induced to think that it is correct, while that
of the Horticultural Society is wrong. It was raised by a person of the
name of Selwood, of Lancaster.


326. SHAKESPERE.--M.

 IDENTIFICATION & FIGURE.--Maund Fruit. pl. 71.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
and a half high; roundish, narrowing a little towards the eye. Skin,
dark green on the shaded side, and brownish-red on the side next the
sun, which is marked with a few broken stripes of darker red; the
whole strewed with russety dots. Eye, small, and partially open, set
in a narrow and irregular basin, which is ridged round the margin.
Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh,
greenish-yellow, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a brisk vinous flavor.

An excellent dessert apple, of first-rate quality. In use from
Christmas to April.

This variety was raised by Thomas Hunt, Esq., of Stratford-on-Avon,
from the seed of Hunt’s Duke of Gloucester, and named in honor of the
poet Shakespere.


327. SHEEP’S NOSE.--Hort.

 SYNONYMES.--Bullock’s Pippin, _Coxe View_, 125. Long Tom, _Ibid._

Fruit, large, about three inches and a half long, and about three
inches wide; conical, narrowing gradually to the crown, which is
considerably higher on one side than the other; generally with ten ribs
on the sides. Skin, smooth, yellow, and strewed with a few russety
dots. Eye, small, set in a deep, plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted
in a deep round, and russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, tender,
very juicy, and sweet.

A very good variety for culinary purposes; but chiefly used as a cider
apple in Somersetshire, where it is much grown for that purpose.


328. SHEPHERD’S FAME.--Hort.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and a
half high; obtuse-ovate, broad and flattened at the base, narrowing
towards the eye, with five prominent ribs on the sides, and in every
respect, very much resembling a small specimen of Emperor Alexander.
Skin, smooth, pale straw-yellow, marked with faint broken patches
of crimson, on the shaded side; but streaked with yellow and bright
crimson, on the side next the sun. Eye, open, with short, stunted
segments, placed in a deep, angular, and plaited basin. Stalk, short,
imbedded in a round, funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, yellowish, soft, and
tender, transparent, sweet, and briskly flavored, but rather dry.

An apple of very ordinary quality, in use from October to March.


329. SIBERIAN BITTER SWEET.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 23. Lind. Guide, 111. Down. Fr. Amer.
 146.

Fruit, small, and nearly globular. Eye, small, with short connivent
segments of the calyx. Stalk, short. Skin, of a bright gold color,
tinged with faint and deeper red on the sunny side. The fruit grows a
good deal in clusters, on slender wing branches.

Specific gravity of the juice, 1091.

This remarkable apple was raised by Mr. Knight from the seed of the
Yellow Siberian Crab, impregnated with the pollen of the Golden Harvey.
I cannot do better than transcribe from the Transactions of the London
Horticultural Society, Mr. Knight’s own account of this apple. “The
fruit contains much saccharine matter, with scarcely any perceptible
acid; and it in consequence affords a cider, which is perfectly free
from the harshness which in that liquid offends the palate of many, and
the constitution of more; and I believe that there is not any county in
England in which it might not be made to afford, at a moderate price,
a very wholesome and very palatable cider. This fruit differs from
all others of its species with which I am acquainted, in being always
sweet, and without acidity, even when it is more than half grown.

“When the juice is pressed from ripe, and somewhat mellow fruit,
it contains a very large portion of saccharine matter; and if a
part of the water it contains be made to evaporate in a moderately
low temperature, it affords a large quantity of a jelly of intense
sweetness, which to my palate is extremely agreeable; and which may be
employed for purposes similiar to those to which the inspissated juice
of the grape is applied in France. The jelly of the apple prepared
in the manner above described, is, I believe, capable of being kept
unchanged during a very long period in any climate; the mucilage
being preserved by the antiseptic powers of the saccharine matter,
and that being incapable of acquiring, as sugar does, a state of
crystallization. If the juice be properly filtered, the jelly will be
perfectly transparent.”

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower; a most abundant bearer, and a
perfect dreadnought to the woolly aphis.


330. SIBERIAN HARVEY.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 23. Lind. Guide, 111. Hort. Soc. Cat.
 ed. 3, n. 777.

Fruit, produced in clusters, small; nearly globular. Eye, small, with
short connivent segments of the calyx. Stalk, short. Skin, of a bright
gold color, tinged with faint and deeper red on the sunny side. Juice
very sweet. Ripe in October.

Specific gravity of the juice, 1091.

A cider apple raised by T. A. Knight, Esq., and, along with the Foxley,
considered by him superior to any other varieties in cultivation. It
was produced from a seed of the Yellow Siberian Crab, fertilized with
the pollen of the Golden Harvey, the juice of this variety is most
intensely sweet, and is probably, very nearly what that of the Golden
Harvey would be in a southern climate, the original tree produced its
blossoms in the year 1807, when it first obtained the annual premium of
the Herefordshire Agricultural Society.


331. SIELY’S MIGNONNE.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 98.

 SYNONYME.--Pride of the Ditches, _acc. Lind. Guide_.

Fruit, rather small, about one inch and three quarters deep, and the
same in diameter; almost globular, but occasionally flattened on one
side. Eye, small, with a closed calyx, placed somewhat deeply in a
rather irregularly formed narrow basin, surrounded by a few small
plaits. Stalk, half-an-inch long, slender, about one half within the
base, in a narrow cavity, and occasionally pressed towards one side
by a protuberance on the opposite one. Skin, when clear, of a bright
yellow, but mostly covered with a grey netted russet, rendering the
skin scabrous. Flesh, greenish-yellow, firm, crisp, and tender. Juice,
saccharine, highly aromatic, and of a most excellent flavor.

A dessert apple, in use from November to February.

This neat and very valuable little apple, was introduced to notice
about the beginning of the present century, by the late Mr. Andrew
Siely, of Norwich, who had it growing in his garden on the Castle
Ditches, and being a favorite with him he always called it the “Pride
of the Ditches.” The tree is a weak grower and somewhat tender. It
is therefore advisable to graft it on the doucin stock, and train it
either as a dwarf or as an espalier in a garden.--_Lindley._


332. SIR WILLIAM GIBBON’S.--Hort.

Fruit, very large, three inches and three quarters wide, and three
inches high; calville-shaped, being roundish-oblate, with several
prominent angles, which extend from the base to the apex, where they
terminate in five or six large unequal knobs. Skin, deep yellow, tinged
with green, and strewed with minute russety dots on the shaded side;
but deep crimson, streaked with dark red, on the side exposed to the
sun. Eye, open, with short ragged segments, set in a deep, wide, and
irregular basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded in a deep and angular
cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish-white, crisp,
juicy, and slightly acid, with a pleasant vinous flavor.

A very showy and excellent culinary apple, in use from November to
January.


333. SLEEPING BEAUTY.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Winter Sleeping Beauty. Sleeper.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish, and somewhat flattened, slightly angular
on the sides, and undulating round the eye; in some specimens there
is an inclination to an ovate, or conical shape, in which case the
apex is narrow and even. Skin, pale straw-colored, smooth and shining,
occasionally washed on one side with delicate lively red, very thinly
sprinkled with minute russety dots. Eye, large, somewhat resembling
that of Trumpington, with broad, flat, and incurved segments, which
dove-tail, as it were, to each other, and set in a shallow, uneven, and
plaited basin. Stalk, from a quarter to half-an-inch long, slightly
fleshy, inserted in a narrow, round, and rather shallow cavity, which
is tinged with green, and lined with delicate pale brown russet. Flesh,
yellowish-white, crisp, tender, and juicy, with a fine poignant and
agreeably acid flavor.

A most excellent, and very valuable apple for all culinary purposes;
and particularly for sauce. It is in use from November till the end of
February.

The tree is a most excellent bearer, and succeeds well in almost every
situation.

This excellent apple bears such a close resemblance to Dumelow’s
Seedling, that at first sight it may be taken for that variety; from
which however, it is perfectly distinct, and may be distinguished
by the want of the characteristic russet dots on the fruit, and the
spots on the young wood of the tree. It is extensively cultivated in
Lincolnshire, for the supply of the Boston markets.


334. SMALL STALK.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches high;
roundish, slightly angular on the sides, and knobbed at the apex. Skin,
dull greenish-yellow, with a tinge of orange on the side next the sun,
and thickly covered with redish brown dots. Eye, small, and closed
with long flat segments, and placed in an angular basin. Stalk, about
an inch long, slender, inserted in a wide and rather shallow cavity.
Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and well flavored.

A good apple for ordinary purposes, much grown about Lancaster. It is
in use during September and October.


335. SOMERSET LASTING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 2, n. 782.

 FIGURE--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xvii. f. 2.

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and a
quarter high; oblate, irregular on the sides, and with undulating
ridges round the eye. Skin, pale yellow, streaked, and dotted with a
little bright crimson, next the sun. Eye, large and open, with short
stunted segments, placed in a wide and deep basin. Stalk, short,
inserted in a wide and deep cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh,
yellowish, tender, crisp, very juicy, with a poignant, and somewhat
harsh flavor.

A culinary apple, in use from October to February.


336. SOPS IN WINE.--Park.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Park. Par. 588. Raii. Hist. ii. 1447.

 SYNONYMES.--Sops of Wine, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 874. _Lind.
 Guide_, 34. _Down. Fr. Amer._ 77. Sapson, _Ken. Amer. Or._ 28.
 Sapsonvine, _acc. Kenrick_.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. ii. f. 4.

Fruit, rather above medium size, two inches and three quarters broad,
and the same in height; roundish, but narrowing a little towards the
eye, and slightly ribbed on the sides. Skin, covered with a delicate
white bloom, which when rubbed off exhibits a smooth, shining, and
varnished rich deep chestnut, almost approaching to black, on the side
exposed to the sun; but on the shaded side, it is of a light orange
red, and where very much shaded quite yellow, the whole strewed with
minute dots. Eye, small, half open, with long, broad, and reflexed
segments, placed in a round and slightly angular basin. Stalk,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a deep funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, red,
as if sopped in wine, tender, sweet, juicy, and pleasantly flavored.

A very ancient English culinary and cider apple; but perhaps more
singular than useful. It is in use from October to February.

The tree is vigorous and spreading, very hardy, an excellent bearer,
and not subject to canker.


337. SPICE APPLE.--Diel.

 IDENTIFICATION--Diel Kernobst. x. 34.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half broad, and two and a quarter
high; roundish, but narrowing towards the eye. Skin, deep yellow, but
marked with broad streaks of crimson on the side next the sun. Eye,
open, with long, broad, reflexed, downy segments, set in a narrow,
shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a round cavity,
which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, brisk, and
perfumed.

A good second-rate dessert apple, in use from November to February.

This is not the Spice Apple of the Horticultural Society’s Catalogue,
but one which was cultivated by Kirke, of Brompton, under that name,
and so described by Diel.--_See Aromatic Russet._


338. SPITZEMBERG.--Booth Cat.

 IDENTIFICATION AND FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. i. f. 5.

 SYNONYME.--Pomegranate Pippin, _acc. Ron. Pyr. Mal._

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half broad, and two inches high;
roundish, flattened at the base, and narrowing a little towards the
eye. Skin, deep yellow, with an orange tinge on the side exposed to
the sun, and strewed with large stelloid russety specks. Eye, partially
open, with long, broad, and erect segments, set in a narrow and shallow
basin. Stalk, short and stout, inserted in a small narrow cavity.
Flesh, tender, juicy, sweet, and pleasantly flavored.

An apple of second-rate quality, in use from November to Christmas.

This is the Spitzemberg of the German nurseries.


339. SPRINGROVE CODLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. i. p. 197. t. 11. Lind. Guide, 7.
 Rog. Fr. Cult. 65.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. iii. f. 4. Hort. Trans.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide at the base, and two inches
and three quarters high; conical, and slightly angular on the sides.
Skin, pale greenish-yellow, tinged with orange on the side exposed
to the sun. Eye, closed, with broad segments, and set in a narrow,
plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh,
greenish-yellow, tender, juicy, sugary, brisk, and slightly perfumed.

A first-rate culinary apple. It may be used for tarts, as soon as
the fruit are the size of a walnut, and continues in use up to the
beginning of October. It received the name of Springrove Codlin, from
being first introduced by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., who resided at
Springrove, near Hounslow, Middlesex.


340. SQUIRE’S GREENING.--H.

Fruit, about medium size; roundish and flattened, irregular in its
outline, having sometimes very prominent, unequal, and obtuse angles,
on the sides, which terminate in undulations round the eye. Skin, of a
fine clear grass-green color, which it retains till the spring, covered
with dull brownish-red where exposed to the sun, thinly strewed all
over with minute dots. Eye, small and closed, inserted in a narrow,
irregular, and plaited basin. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a
round, narrow, and deep cavity, which is lined with rough scaly russet.
Flesh, yellowish-white, firm and crisp, with a brisk, somewhat sugary
and pleasant flavor.

A good culinary apple, and useful also as a dessert variety. It is in
use from Christmas till April or May.

This variety was raised on the property of Mrs. Squires, of Nigtoft,
near Sleaford.


341. STEAD’S KERNEL.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t. 25. Lind. Guide, 112.

Fruit, a little turbinate, or top-shaped, somewhat resembling a quince.
Eye, small, flat, with a short truncate or covered calyx. Stalk, short.
Skin, yellow, a little reticulated with a slight greyish russet, and a
few small specks intermixed.

Specific gravity of the juice, 1074.

As a cider apple, this appears to possess great merit, combining
a slight degree of astringency, with much sweetness. It ripens in
October, and is also a good culinary apple during its season. It was
raised from seed by Daniel Stead, Esq., Brierly, near Leominster,
Herefordshire.--_Knight & Lindley._


342. STIRZAKER’S EARLY SQUARE.--H.

Fruit, below medium size; roundish, with prominent ribs which run into
the eye, forming sharp ridges at the crown. Skin, of an uniform pale
yellow, freckled and mottled, with very thin dingy brown russet on the
shaded side, and, completely covered with the same on the side next
the sun. Eye, small, half open, set in an irregular and angular basin.
Stalk, very short, imbedded in a deep cavity. Flesh, white, tender,
juicy, and pleasantly flavored.

An early apple, grown in the neighbourhood of Lancaster. It is ripe in
August, and continues in use during September.


343. STRIPED BEEFING.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Striped Beaufin. Lind. Guide, 57.

[Illustration]

Fruit, of the largest size; beautiful and handsome, roundish, and
somewhat depressed. Skin, bright lively green, almost entirely covered
with broken streaks, and patches of fine deep red, and thickly strewed
with russety dots; in some specimens the color extends almost entirely
round the fruit. Eye, like that of the Blenheim Pippin, large and
open, with short erect ragged segments, set in a deep, irregular, and
angular basin. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, and pleasantly
acid.

One of the handsomest and best culinary apples in cultivation; for
baking it is unrivalled. It is in use from October till May.

The tree is very hardy, and an excellent bearer.

This noble apple was introduced by Mr. George Lindley, who found it
growing in 1794, in the garden of William Crowe, Esq., at Lakenham
near Norwich. He measured a specimen of the fruit, and found it twelve
inches and a half in circumference, and weighing twelve ounces and
a half, avoirdupoise. It does not seem ever to have been in general
cultivation, as it is not mentioned in any of the nursery catalogues;
nor is it enumerated in that of the London Horticultural Society.
Through the kindness of George Jefferies, Esq., of Marlborough Terrace,
Kensington, who procured it from his residence in Norfolk, I had the
good fortune in 1847, to obtain grafts, which when propagated, I
distributed through several of the principal nurseries of the country,
and by this means I trust, it will become more generally known, and
universally cultivated.


344. STRIPED MONSTROUS REINETTE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 37. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl.
 xxxvi. f. 1.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half broad, and three inches high;
roundish, and a little flattened, irregular in its outline, having
prominent angles on the sides, which extend from the base to the apex.
Skin, smooth, of a deep yellow-ground color, which is almost entirely
covered with pale red, and streaked with broad stripes of dark crimson.
Eye, closed, with long acuminate segments, set in a narrow, angular
basin. Stalk, an inch long, slender, deeply inserted in a round, and
russety cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and pleasantly flavored.

A culinary apple of second-rate quality. It is in use during November
and December.


345. STURMER PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 808. Down. Fr. Amer, 135.
 Gard. Chron. 1847, 135.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter broad, by one
inch and three quarters high; roundish, and somewhat flattened, and
narrowing towards the apex, a good deal resembling the old Nonpariel.
Skin, of a lively green color, changing to yellowish-green, as it
attains maturity, and almost entirely covered with brown russet, with
a tinge of dull red, on the side next the sun. Eye, small, and closed,
set in a shallow, irregular, and angular basin. Stalk, three quarters
of an inch long, straight, inserted in a round, even, and russety
cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, very juicy, with a brisk and rich
sugary flavor.

This is perhaps the most valuable dessert apple of its season, it is
of first-rate excellence; and exceedingly desirable both on account
of its delicious flavor, and arriving at perfection, at a period when
the other favorite varieties are past. It is not fit for use till the
Ribston Pippin is nearly gone, and continues long after the Nonpariel.
The period of its perfection may be fixed from February to June.

The Sturmer Pippin, was raised by Mr. Dillistone, a nurseryman at
Sturmer, near Haverhill, in Suffolk, and was obtained by impregnating
the Ribston Pippin, with the pollen of the Nonpareil.

The tree is hardy and an excellent bearer, and attains about the middle
size.


346. SUGAR AND BRANDY.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters broad at the bulge,
and the same in height; conical, and angular, with a very prominent rib
on one side, forming a high ridge at the apex, terminated at the apex,
by a number of knobs which are the continuations of the costal angles.
Skin, deep dull yellow, freckled with pale red on the shaded side,
the remaining portion entirely covered with bright orange-red. Eye,
small and closed, set in a deep and furrowed basin. Stalk, very short,
inserted in a round and shallow cavity, which is lined with rough
russet. Flesh, deep yellow, spongy, juicy, very sweet, so much so, as
to be sickly.

An apple grown about Lancashire, in use during the end of August and
September.


347. SUGAR-LOAF PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 811. Lind. Guide, 10. Down.
 Fr. Amer. 76.

 SYNONYMES.--Hutching’s Seedling, _acc. Pom. Mag._ Dolgoi Squoznoi, in
 Russia, _acc. Pom. Mag._

 FIGURE.--Pom. Mag. t. 3.

Fruit, above medium size, two inches and three quarters wide, and three
inches high; oblong. Skin, clear pale yellow, becoming nearly white,
when fully ripe. Eye, set in a rather deep and plaited basin. Stalk, an
inch long, inserted in a deep and regular cavity. Flesh, white, firm,
crisp, juicy, brisk, and pleasantly flavored.

An excellent early culinary apple of first-rate quality; ripe in the
beginning of August, but in a few days becomes mealy.

This variety was introduced from St. Petersburg, by the London
Horticultural Society.


348. SUMMER BROAD-END.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Summer Broadend, _Lind. Guide_, 24. Summer Colman, _Lind.
 Plan. Or._ 1796.

Fruit, above the middle size, about two inches and three quarters in
diameter, and two inches and a quarter deep; slightly angular on the
sides. Eye, small, with a closed calyx, in a rather narrow basin,
surrounded by some angular plaits. Stalk, short, slender, deeply
inserted, not protruding beyond the base. Skin, dull yellowish-green,
tinged on the sunny side, with pale dull brown. Flesh, greenish-white,
not crisp. Juice, sub-acid, with a pretty good flavor.

A culinary apple in use in October and November. This is an useful
Norfolk apple, and known in the markets by the above name. The trees
are rather small growers, but great bearers.--_Lindley._

I have never seen the Summer Broad-End, and have therefore here
introduced the description of Mr. Lindley, for the benefit of those
under whose observation it may fall.


349. SUMMER GOLDEN PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 290. Lind. Guide, 7. Down.
 Fr. Amer, 77. Rog. Fr. Cult. 78.

 SYNONYMES.--Summer Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ White Summer Pippin,
 _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 11.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 50. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. vi. f. 4.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter broad at the base,
and two inches and a quarter high; ovate, flattened at the ends. Skin,
smooth and shining, pale yellow, on the shaded side; but tinged with
orange and brownish-red on the side next the sun, and strewed over with
minute russety dots. Eye, open, set in a wide, shallow, and slightly
plaited basin. Stalk, thick, a quarter of an inch long, completely
imbedded in a moderately deep cavity, which is lined with russet.
Flesh, yellowish, firm, very juicy, with a rich, vinous, and sugary
flavor.

This is one of the most delicious summer apples, and ought to form one
of every collection, however small. It is ripe in the end of August,
and keeps about a fortnight.

The tree is a small grower, and attains about the third size. It is an
early and abundant bearer, and succeeds well when grafted on the doucin
or paradise stock. When grown on the pomme paradis of the French, it
forms a beautiful little tree, which can be successfully cultivated in
pots.


350. SUMMER PEARMAIN.--Park.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Park. Par. 587. Aust. Or. 54. Raii. Hist. ii. 1447.
 Mill. Dict. Fors. Treat. ed. 7, 126. Lind. Guide, 34. Rog. Fr. Cult.
 72.

 SYNONYMES.--Autumn Pearmain, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 531. American
 Pearmain, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Gestreifte Sommerparmäne. Drue Summer
 Pearmain. Diel Kernobst. vi. 129.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag., t. 116. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxii. f. 1.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide at the base,
and the same high; conical, or abrupt pearmain-shaped, round at the
base, and tapering towards the apex. Skin, yellow, streaked all over
with large patches, and broken streaks of red, mixed with silvery
russet, strewed with numerous russety dots, and covered with large
patches of rough russet on the base. Eye, closed, half open, with
long acuminate segments, placed in a wide, shallow, and plaited
basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, obliquely inserted under a fleshy
protuberance on one side of it, which is a permanent and distinguishing
character of this apple. Flesh, deep yellow, firm, crisp, juicy,
richly, and highly perfumed.

An excellent apple, long cultivated, and generally regarded as one
of the popular varieties of this country, it is suitable either for
culinary purposes, or the dessert, and is in use during September and
October.

The tree is a good grower, and healthy; of an upright habit of growth,
and forms a fine standard tree of the largest size. It succeeds well
grafted on the paradise stock, when it forms handsome espaliers, and
open dwarfs.

This is what in many nurseries is cultivated as the _Royal Pearmain_,
but erroneously. It is one of the oldest English varieties, being
mentioned by Parkinson, in 1629.


351. SUMMER STRAWBERRY.

Fruit, rather below medium size, two and a half inches broad, and
an inch and three quarters high; oblate, even and regularly formed.
Skin, smooth and shining, striped all over with yellow, and blood-red
stripes, except on any portion that is shaded, and there it is red.
Eye, prominent, not at all depressed, closed with long flat segments,
and surrounded with prominent plaits. Stalk, three quarters of an inch
long, inserted in a round, narrow cavity, which is lined with russet.
Flesh, white, tinged with yellow, soft, tender, juicy, brisk and
pleasantly flavored.

A dessert apple, ripe in September, but when kept long becomes dry
and mealy. It is much cultivated in all the Lancashire and northern
orchards of England.


352. SURREY FLAT-CAP.--H.

Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and a
quarter high; oblate, even and regularly formed. Skin, of a pale
bluish-green, or verdigris color, changing as it ripens to a yellowish
tinge, and marked with dots and flakes of rough veiny russet, on the
shaded side; but deep red, which is almost obscured with rough veiny
russet on the side next the sun. Eye, open, with broad segments,
reflexed at the tips, set in a wide, shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a round and deep cavity. Flesh, yellow,
firm, not very juicy, but rich and sugary.

A very excellent dessert apple, remarkable for its singular color, but
is rather void of acidity. It is in use from October to January.


353. SWEENY NONPAREIL.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. iv. 526. Lind. Guide, 99. Hort.
 Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 484.

Fruit, above medium size, two inches and three quarters broad, and two
inches high; very similar in form to the old Nonpariel. Skin, of a fine
lively green color, which is glossy and shining, but almost entirely
covered with patches, and reticulations of thick greyish-brown russet,
which in some parts is rough and cracked; sometimes tinged with brown
where exposed to the sun. Eye, very small, half open, with short, flat,
ovate segments, and set in a small, narrow, and rather shallow basin.
Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, inserted in a rather shallow and
russety cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, firm, crisp, sugary, and with a
very powerful yet pleasant sub-acid flavor.

An excellent culinary apple admirably adapted for sauce; but too acid
for the dessert. It is in use from January to April.

The tree is a vigorous grower, and an excellent bearer.

This variety was raised in 1807, by Thomas Netherton Parker, Esq.,
of Sweeny, in Shropshire, and twenty specimens of the fruit, were
exhibited at the London Horticultural Society, in 1820, the aggregate
weight of which, was seven pounds thirteen ounces.


354. SYKE HOUSE RUSSET.--Hooker.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hook. Pom. Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 752. Lind.
 Guide, 100. Fors. Treat. 126. Rog. Fr. Cult. 106.

 SYNONYMES.--Sykehouse, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Englische
 Spitalsreinette, _Diel Kernobst._ x. 139.

 FIGURES.--Hook. Pom. Lond. t. 40. Pom. Mag. t. 81. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl.
 xxxviii. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter broad, by one inch
and three quarters high; roundish-oblate. Skin, yellowish-green, but
entirely covered with brown russet, strewed with silvery grey scales;
sometimes it has a brownish tinge on the side which is exposed to the
sun. Eye, small and open, set in a shallow basin. Stalk, half-an-inch
long, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and
juicy, with a rich, sugary, and very high flavor.

One of the most excellent dessert apples; it is in use from October to
February.

The tree is a free grower, hardy, and an excellent bearer; it attains
about the middle size, and is well adapted for growing as an espalier,
when grafted on the paradise stock.

This variety originated at the village of Syke House, in Yorkshire,
whence its name.

Diel’s nomenclature of the Syke House Russet, affords a good example of
the transformations the names of fruits are subject to, when translated
from one language to another; he writes it Englische Spitalsreinette,
which he translates Sik-House Apple, because as he supposed it received
this appellation, either from the briskness of its flavor being
agreeable to invalids, or from its having originated in the garden of
an hospital, He says he finds it only in Kirke’s Fruit Tree Catalogue,
_where it is erroneously printed Syke-House_!


355. TARVEY CODLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. vii. p. 383. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 167. Lind. Guide, 83.

Fruit, large and conical. Skin, dull olive-green, with an imperfect
mixture of yellow on the shaded side, and yellowish-red, much spotted
with broken rows of large blood-red dots, next the sun. Flesh, white
and juicy, somewhat resembling the English Codlin.

A good culinary apple for a northern climate, in use during November
and December.

This variety was raised from seed of the Manks Codlin, impregnated with
the Nonpariel, by Sir. G. S. Mackenzie, Bart., of Coul, in Rosshire.


356. TAUNTON GOLDEN PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 18.

 FIGURE.--Maund. Fruit. pl. 21.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter wide, and the same
in height; oblato-cylindrical, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin,
deep rich yellow, strewed with markings and freckles of russet on the
shaded side, but covered with a cloud of red, which is marked with
deeper red streaks, on the side next the sun. Eye, open, set in a wide,
rather deep, and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a narrow,
and rather shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, and delicate,
with a brisk, sugary, and particularly rich vinous flavor.

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from December to March.

The tree is hardy, healthy, and an abundant bearer, attaining about the
middle size. It is well adapted for growing on the paradise stock.


357. TEN SHILLINGS--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 824.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half broad, and two inches
high; roundish-oblate, with obtuse angles on the sides. Skin,
greenish-yellow, almost entirely covered with pale brown russet; but
with orange, streaked with red, on the side next the sun. Eye, large,
with long narrow segments, which are not convergent, set in an angular
basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a moderately deep cavity.
Flesh, yellowish-white, tender, sweet, and slightly acid.

A second-rate dessert apple; ripe in November.


358. TENTERDEN PARK.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 825.

Fruit, about medium size, two inches and a half broad, by two inches
high; roundish, inclining to ovate. Skin, smooth and glossy, as if
varnished, yellowish-green where shaded, and entirely covered with deep
red, which is marked with streaks of still deeper red, where exposed
to the sun. Eye, large, half open, with broad, flat segments, set in
a rather shallow, round, and saucer-like basin. Stalk, very short,
inserted in a round and shallow cavity, which is slightly marked with
russet. Flesh, greenish-white, tender, crisp, brisk, and juicy, but
with no particular richness of flavor.

A second-rate dessert apple, of neat and handsome appearance; in use
from October to February.


359. TEUCHAT’S EGG.--Gibs.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Gibs. Fr. Gard. 351.

 SYNONYMES.--Chucket Egg, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, p. 10. Summer
 Teuchat Egg, _Leslie & Anders. Cat._

Fruit, below medium size, varying in shape from ovate to conical, and
irregularly ribbed on the sides. Skin, pale yellow, washed with pale
red, and streaked with deep and lively red. Eye, partially closed, with
long, broad segments, placed in a narrow and angular basin. Stalk, very
short, imbedded in a close shallow cavity, with a fleshy protuberance
on one side of it, and surrounded with rough russet. Flesh, tender,
juicy, and pleasantly flavored.

A second-rate dessert apple, peculiar to the Scotch orchards of
Clydesdale and Ayrshire; ripe in September.

Teuchat signifies, the Pee-wit or Lapwing.


360. TOKER’S INCOMPARABLE.

Fruit, very large, three inches and three quarters broad, and two
inches and three quarters high, in shape, very much resembling the
Gooseberry Apple; ovate, broad and flattened at the base, and with five
prominent ribs on the sides which render it distinctly five-sided.
Skin, smooth and shining, of a beautiful dark green, which assumes a
yellowish tinge as it ripens; and with a slight trace of red, marked
with a few crimson streaks, where exposed to the sun. Eye, large, and
nearly closed, with broad flat segments, set in a saucer-like basin,
which is surrounded with knobs, formed by the termination of the ribs.
Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, inserted in a wide cavity, which
is lined with a little rough russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp,
tender, juicy, and marrow-like, with a brisk and pleasant acid.

A first-rate culinary apple, grown in the Kentish orchards, about
Sittingbourne and Faversham; in use from November to Christmas.


361. TOWER OF GLAMMIS.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 835. Leslie & Anders. Cat.
 43. Caled Hort. Soc. Mem. vol. iv. 474.

 SYNONYMES.--Glammis Castle, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Late Carse of
 Gowrie, _Ibid._ Carse of Gowrie, _Caled. Hort. Soc. Mem_, vol. i. 325.
 The Gowrie, _in Clydesdale Orchards_.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large; conical, and distinctly four-sided, with four prominent
angles, extending from the base to the apex, where they terminate in
four corresponding ridges. Skin, deep sulphur-yellow, tinged in some
spots with green, and thinly strewed with brown russety dots. Eye,
closed, with broad ragged segments, set in a deep and angular basin.
Stalk, an inch long, inserted in a deep, funnel-shaped cavity, and only
just protruding beyond the base. Flesh, greenish-white, very juicy,
crisp, brisk, and perfumed.

A first-rate culinary apple, peculiar to the orchards of Clydesdale,
and the Carse of Gowrie; it is in use from November to February.

The tree is an excellent bearer.


362. TRANSPARENT CODLIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. Guide, 35. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 169.

Fruit, large and conical. Skin, smooth, clear yellow, tinged with pale
crimson, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, with
short segments, placed in a deep and angular basin. Stalk, short and
slender, inserted in a deep, round, and wide cavity. Flesh, tender,
almost transparent, juicy, sugary, and well flavored.

A culinary apple, in use from September to November.


363. TRUMPETER.--H.

 SYNONYME.--Treadle-Hole, _in Lancaster_.

Fruit, large, two inches and three quarters wide, and three inches
high; oblong, irregularly shaped, angular on the sides, and prominently
ribbed round the eye. Skin, pale green, with a tinge of yellow on the
side exposed to the sun. Eye, small, closed, and set in a deep and
angular basin, surrounded with four or five prominent knobs. Stalk,
about five-eights of an inch long, slender for the size of the fruit,
and inserted in a deep irregular cavity, which is lined with rough
cracked russet. Flesh, greenish-white, crisp, very juicy, and sweet,
with a brisk and pleasant sub-acid flavor.

A very excellent apple either for the dessert or culinary purposes,
much esteemed in the orchards about Lancaster; it is in use from
October to January.


364. TRUMPINGTON.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 44.

 SYNONYMES.--Delware, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 75. Eve, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxviii. f. 2.

Fruit, small, two inches and three-eights wide, and one inch and
five-eights high; oblate, even and handsomely shaped. Skin, of a fine
deep golden-yellow, tinged and mottled with pale red on the shaded
side; but of a fine bright red, which extends over the greater part,
where exposed to the sun. Eye, large and closed, with broad, flat,
ovate segments, set in a wide and somewhat undulating basin. Stalk, a
quarter of an inch long, inserted in a wide, and deep cavity, which
is tinged with green, and lined with russet. Flesh, white, firm, and
pleasantly flavored.

A pretty dessert apple of second-rate quality; in use from September to
Christmas.


365. TULIP.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 841.

 SYNONYMES.--Tulp, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Tulpen, _Ibid._ Dutch Tulip,
 _Ron. Cat._

Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a half at the widest
part, and two inches and a half high; ovato-conical, regularly and
handsomely shaped, ridged round the eye. Skin, fine deep purple,
extending over the whole surface of the fruit, except on any part
which may be shaded, and then it is yellow. Eye, open, with short,
ovate segments, set in a furrowed and plaited basin. Stalk, about
half-an-inch long, straight and slender, inserted in a deep, and rather
angular cavity. Flesh, greenish-yellow, crisp, juicy, sweet, and
slightly sub-acid.

A beautiful and handsome dessert apple, but only of second-rate
quality; in use from November to April.


366. TURK’S CAP.--Hort.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, by two inches and a half
high; roundish, and very much flattened, or oblate; irregularly and
prominently ribbed. Skin, smooth, fine deep golden-yellow, covered with
grey dots, and a few ramifications of russet, and with a brownish-red
tinge on the side next the sun. Eye, large and open, placed in a deep,
wide, and angular basin. Stalk, an inch long, deeply inserted in an
angular cavity, which is lined with thick scaly russet, extending over
the margin. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a pleasant
sub-acid, but slightly astringent flavor.

An excellent apple for culinary purposes, and also for the manufacture
of cider; it is in use from November to Christmas.


367. UELLNER’S GOLD REINETTE.--Diel.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Diel. Kernobst. ii. B. 122. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed 3, n.
 696.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter broad, and two
inches and an eighth high; oval. Skin, of a fine clear lemon-yellow,
sprinkled with a little russet on the shaded side; but entirely covered
on the side next the sun, with beautiful vermilion, which is strewed
with cinnamon-colored russet. Eye, open, with short segments, set in a
rather wide, round, even, and moderately deep basin. Stalk, slender,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a deep cavity, which is lined with
russet. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, very juicy, rich and sugary, and
with a fine aromatic flavor.

A most delicious dessert apple, of the very first quality; “small, but
handsome and rich.” It is in use from January till May.

The tree is a free and excellent grower, and a great bearer.


368. VALE MASCAL PEARMAIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 561.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches broad, by two inches high; ovate,
regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, greenish-yellow on the shaded
side; but bright red next the sun, and covered with spots of russet.
Eye, closed, with broad flat segments, and set in a round, shallow,
and plaited basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a narrow and
shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, crisp, sugary, and richly flavored.


369. VEINY PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 44.

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter broad, and an inch and three
quarters high; roundish-oblate. Skin, greenish-yellow, covered with
veins, and reticulations of russet. Eye, open, set in a round and deep
basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a round, and slightly russety cavity.
Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, juicy, but wanting both sugar and
acidity.

An indifferent and worthless apple, in use from December to February.

The tree is a great bearer.


370. VIOLETTE.--Duh.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Duh. Arb. Fruit, i. 284. Mill. Dict. Fors. Treat.
 121. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 849.

 SYNONYMES.--Grosse Pomme Noire d’Amerique, _Cal. Traité_. iii. 44.
 Violette de Quatres Goûts, _Cours. Comp. d’Agric._ xii. 220. Violet
 Apple, _West. Bot._ iv. 39. Red Calville, of some, _acc. Hort. Soc.
 Cat._ but erroneously. Black Apple, _acc. Ron. Pyr. Mal._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xx. f. 2.

Fruit, above medium size; roundish-ovate, or conical, even and
regularly formed. Skin, smooth and shining, covered with a fine
violet-colored bloom, and yellow, striped with red, on the shaded side;
but of a dark red, approaching to black, on the side exposed to the
sun. Eye, closed, set in a rather deep and plaited basin. Stalk, three
quarters of an inch long, stout, and inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh,
yellowish-white, tinged with red under the skin, which is filled with
red juice, leaving a stain on the knife with which it is cut; firm,
juicy, and sugary, with a vinous and pleasant flavor.

A culinary apple of good, but not first-rate quality; in use from
October to March.

Duhamel, and following him, almost all the French writers on pomology,
attribute the name of this apple to the perfume of violets being found
in the flavor of the fruit; a peculiarity I could never detect. It
is more probable it originated from the fruit being covered with a
beautiful blue violet bloom, a characteristic which was observed by
Rivinius and Moulin, a hundred and fifty years ago.


371. WADHURST PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, p. 44.

Fruit, above medium size, sometimes very large, but generally averaging
three inches wide, and two inches and three quarters high; conical, or
pearmain-shaped, and angular on the sides. Skin, yellow, tinged with
green on the shaded side; and more or less mottled with brownish-red,
on the side next the sun, and strewed with minute grey dots. Eye,
closed, set in a wide, deep, and angular basin. Stalk, a quarter of an
inch long, stout, placed in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp,
juicy, and briskly flavored.

A culinary apple of excellent quality; in use from October to February.
It originated at Wadhurst in Sussex.


372. WALTHAM ABBEY SEEDLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. v. p. 269. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3,
 n. 853. Lind. Guide, 24.

Fruit, large; roundish. Skin, pale yellow, assuming a deeper tinge as
it attains maturity, with a faint blush of red where exposed to the
sun, and strewed all over with minute russety dots. Eye, large and
open, set in a shallow and even basin. Stalk, short, deeply inserted,
and surrounded with rough russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy,
sweet, and pleasantly flavored, and when cooked assumes a clear pale
amber.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from September to
Christmas.

This apple was raised about the year 1810, by Mr. John Barnard, of
Waltham Abbey, in Essex, and was introduced by him at a meeting of the
London Horticultural Society, in 1821.


373. WANSTALL.--H.

 SYNONYME.--Green-street Apple.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and
a quarter high; roundish, but narrowing a little towards the eye,
with five prominent angles on the sides, which terminate in ridges
round the apex, rendering the shape distinctly five-sided. Skin, deep
golden-yellow on the shaded side; but red, which is striped and mottled
with darker red, on the side next the sun; marked with patches and
veins of thin grey russet, and strewed all over with russety dots. Eye,
half open, with broad, flat segments, set in an angular and plaited
basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, deeply inserted in a round cavity.
Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, rich, sugary, and highly flavored.

A dessert apple of the very first quality; equal in flavor to the
Ribston Pippin, and will keep till May and June.

This variety was raised at Green-street, near Sittingbourne, in Kent,
by a tailor of the name of Wanstall, about 40 years ago.


374. WARNER’S KING.--M.

 IDENTIFICATION AND FIGURE.--Maund. Fruit, pl. 59.

Fruit, very large, four inches wide, and three inches and a half high;
ovate. Skin, of an uniform clear deep yellow, strewed with russety
dots and patches of pale brown russet. Eye, small and closed, with
long acuminate segments, and set in a narrow, deep, and slightly
angular basin. Stalk, about half-an-inch long, deeply inserted in a
round, funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with thin yellowish-brown
russet. Flesh, white, tender, crisp, and juicy, with a fine, brisk, and
sub-acid flavor.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from November to March.

The tree is a free and vigorous grower, and a good bearer; very hardy,
and not subject to disease.


375. WATSON’S DUMPLING.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 856. Down. Fr. Amer. 142.

Fruit, large; roundish, and regularly formed. Skin, smooth,
yellowish-green, and striped with dull red. Eye, large, not deeply
sunk. Stalk, short, inserted in a round, and rather deep cavity. Flesh,
tender, juicy, and sugary, with a pleasant sub-acid flavor.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from October to February.


376. WEST GRINSTEAD PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 858.

 SYNONYME & FIGURE.--East Grinstead, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 53, pl. xxvii. f.
 1.

Fruit, medium sized; two inches and three quarters broad, by two inches
and a half high; roundish, and slightly ribbed about the eye. Skin,
light green, striped and mottled with light red on the side next the
sun; and strewed all over with greyish-white dots, on the exposed,
and brown dots on the shaded side. Eye, open, set in a plaited basin.
Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, soft, tender, juicy, and briskly acid.

A good second-rate apple for the dessert: in use from November to
April, and keeps well without shrivelling.


377. WHEELER’S RUSSET.--Langley.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lang. Pom. 134. Mill. Dict. Fors. Treat. 129. Lind.
 Guide, 100. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 753. Diel Kernobst. xi. 109.
 Rog. Fr. Cult. 107.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters broad, and two
inches and a quarter high; roundish-oblate, and somewhat irregular in
its outline. Skin, entirely covered with pale yellowish-grey russet;
with redish-brown where exposed to the sun, strewed with russety
freckles. Eye, small and closed, with short segments, set in a wide,
and undulated basin. Stalk, from a quarter to half-an-inch long,
inserted in a round, narrow, and deep cavity. Flesh, greenish-white,
firm, juicy, brisk, and sugary, with a rich, vinous, and aromatic
flavor.

A valuable, and highly flavored dessert apple of the first quality;
it is in use from November to April; and as Mr. Lindley says, when
ripened, and begins to shrivel, it is one of the best russets of its
season.

The tree is a free grower, healthy, and hardy, but does not attain
above the middle size. It is generally a good bearer, and succeeds well
in almost any soil, provided it be not too moist.

This apple was raised by James Wheeler, the founder of the Gloucester
nursery, now in the occupation of his grandson, Mr. J. Cheslin Wheeler.
He was an intelligent and assiduous man in his profession, and
published in 1763, “The Botanist’s and Gardener’s New Dictionary.” He
died about the beginning of the present century, having attained over
ninety years of age.


378. WHEELER’S EXTREME.--Forsyth.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 129.

Fruit, small, nearly two inches wide, and one inch and a quarter high;
oblate, much resembling the Api in shape. Skin, pale greenish-yellow,
considerably marked with russet, particularly round the eye; and
covered with fine clear red, which is mottled with deeper red, on the
side next the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a shallow basin.
Stalk, very short, inserted in a small, shallow cavity. Flesh,
yellowish-white, crisp, tender, sweet, and delicately perfumed.

A pretty little dessert apple, but not of first-rate quality; it is in
use from November to February.

This, as well as the preceding, was raised by James Wheeler, of
Gloucester. The original tree is still existing in the nursery of
his grandson, to whom I am much indebted for several pomological
favors. The name of “Extreme,” is supposed to have been applied to
this variety, from the circumstance of producing its fruit on the
extremities of the last year’s shoots.


379. WHITE ASTRACHAN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 18. Lind. Guide, 7. Down.
 Fr. Amer, 78.

 SYNONYMES.--Pyrus Astracanica, _Dec. Prod._ ii. 635. Pomme
 d’Astrachan, _Schab. Prat._ ii. 90. Pomme de Glace, _Duh. Arb. Fruit_,
 i. 307. Transparent Apple, _Mill. Dict. Fors. Treat._ 128. Russian
 Transparent, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 75. Russian Ice Apple, _Will. Dom.
 Encyc._ iv. p. 179. Muscovite Transparent Apple, _West. Bot._ iv.
 141. Glace de Zélande, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1. 366. Astracanischer
 Sommerapfel, _Diel. Kernobst_, vi. 77.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Mag. t. 96. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. i. f. 8, & pl. xxxviii.
 f. 3.

[Illustration]

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and nearly the same
in height; roundish-ovate, or rather conical, flattened at the base,
with obtuse angles on the sides, which extend and become more prominent
and rib-like round the eye. Skin, smooth, pale yellow, with a few
faint streaks of red next the sun, and covered with a delicate white
bloom. Eye, closed, set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stalk, thick and
short, inserted in a small and very shallow cavity. Flesh, pure white,
semi-transparent, with somewhat gelatinous-like blotches, tender,
juicy, with a pleasant and refreshing flavor.

A dessert apple but not of first-rate quality; ripe in August, and the
early part of September.

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and an excellent bearer.

The Transparent Apple of Rogers, and the Muscovy Apple of Mortimer,
cannot be identical with this variety, for they are described by
both as winter apples; may they not be the _Russischer Glasapfel, or
Astracanischer Winterapfel_ of Diel?

Respecting this apple, a correspondent in the Gardener’s Chronicle, for
1845, has the following remark, “When at Reval many years ago, I made
particular inquiries as to the mode of cultivation of the Transparent
Apple; I learned that the soil of the apple orchards there, is almost a
pure sand, but that it is customary to add to it so much stable manure,
that half the bulk of ground may be said to consist of manure. The
friend with whom I was staying, had some of these apples at dessert;
they were transparent, not in blotches, but throughout, so that held
to the light, the pips may be seen from every part; these apples
were juicy as a peach, about the size of a large one, and of a very
agreeable flavor and texture.”


380. WHITE PARADISE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 520.

 SYNONYMES.--Lady’s Finger, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1. 533. Long May,
 _Ibid._ 565. May, _acc. Ibid._ Egg, _Ron. Cat._ Eve, _Ron. Pyr. Mal._
 4. Paradise Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. ii. f. 5.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and three inches high;
oblong, broader at the base than the apex. Skin, smooth, thick and
tough, of a fine rich yellow, thinly and faintly freckled with red on
the shaded side, but covered with broken streaks and dots of darker
red, interspersed with dark brown russety dots, on the side exposed to
the sun. Eye, open, set in a shallow basin. Stalk, an inch long, fleshy
at the insertion; and inserted in an even, round, cavity. Flesh,
yellowish, tender, crisp, juicy, sugary, and pleasantly flavored.

A second-rate, but beautiful and handsome dessert apple; in perfection
the beginning of October, but towards the end of the month, becomes dry
and mealy. It is, I believe, a Scotch apple, and much grown in some
districts, particularly in Clydesdale, where it is known by the name of
_Egg Apple_, and where the fruit lasts longer, than when grown in the
warmer climate of the South.

The Lady’s Finger of Dittrich, vol. i. p. 505, is a flat apple of a
Calville shape, and must be incorrect.


381. WHITE VIRGIN.--H.

 SYNONYME.--Scotch Virgin.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
high; oblate. Skin, smooth and shining, pale yellow, on the shaded
size; but thin orange red, streaked with deep red, on the side next the
sun, and strewed with dark dots and a few veins of russet. Eye, large
and closed, with broad ovate segments, set in a wide, shallow, and
plaited basin. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, inserted in a narrow,
and shallow cavity. Flesh, white, soft, tender, juicy, and briskly acid.

An excellent culinary apple; in use from October to February.


382. WHITE WESTLING.--H.

Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a half broad at the
middle, and two inches and a half high; roundish, inclining to oval,
towards the eye; angular on the sides, and ribbed round the apex. Skin,
yellow, tinged with green, and strewed with redish-brown dots on the
shaded side; but deep yellow, with large dark-crimson spots, on the
side next the sun, and covered with russet over the base. Eye, small
and closed, set in a narrow and angular basin. Stalk, half-an-inch
long, very slender, inserted in a deep, narrow, and russety cavity.
Flesh, white, tender, sweet, and briskly flavored.

An apple of hardly second-rate quality, grown about the north-eastern
parts of Sussex; it is in use from October to Christmas.


383. WHITE WINE.--H.

Fruit, about medium size, two inches and a half broad in the middle,
and two inches and a half high; narrowing towards the apex, conical,
slightly angular on the sides, and ribbed round the eye. Skin,
greenish-yellow, strewed with russety dots on the shaded side; but
deep yellow, reticulated with fine russet, and dotted with small
russety specks on the side exposed to the sun, and with a ray of fine
lilac-purple on the base encircling the stalk. Eye, open, with long
acute segments, set in a deep and ribbed basin. Stalk, five-eights of
an inch long, downy, thick and fleshy, inserted in a round cavity,
which is lined with delicate russet. Flesh, white, firm, crisp, and
pleasantly acid.

A culinary apple much grown in the Tweedside orchards, where it is
known by the name of the _Wine Apple_; it is in use from October to
Christmas.


384. WHITMORE PIPPIN.--Forsyth.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 129. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 861.
 Lind. Guide, 84.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter wide at the base,
and the same in height, but narrowing towards the apex; conical, and
obtusely angled on the sides. Skin, pale greenish-yellow in the shade;
but with a beautiful red cheek next the sun, and very sparingly strewed
with a few minute dots. Eye, closed, set in a narrow and shallow basin.
Stalk, about half-an-inch long, inserted in a wide, round, and even
cavity. Flesh, white, tinged with green, tender, juicy, sub-acid, and
slightly sweet.

A dessert apple of second-rate quality; in use from November to April.


385. WHORLE PIPPIN.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Summer Thorle, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 830. Watson’s
 New Nonesuch, _acc. Ibid._ Thorle Pippin, _Leslie & Anders, Cat._
 Thoral Pippin, _acc. Ron. Pyr. Mal._

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. ii. f. 3.

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter wide at the middle,
and an inch and three quarters high; oblate, handsome, and regularly
formed. Skin, smooth, shining, and glossy, almost entirely covered
with fine bright crimson, which is marked with broken streaks of
darker crimson; but on any portion which is shaded, it is of a fine
clear yellow, a little streaked with pale crimson. Eye, scarcely at
all depressed, large, half open, with broad, flat segments, which
frequently appear as if rent from each other by an over-swelling of the
fruit; and set in a very shallow basin, which is often very russety,
and deeply and coarsely cracked. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long,
inserted in a wide cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm, crisp, and
very juicy, with a brisk, refreshing, and pleasant flavor.

A beautiful little summer dessert apple, of first-rate quality; ripe in
August. In the south it is but little known, but in Scotland it is to
be met with in almost every garden and orchard.

In all probability the word Thorle is a corruption of Whorle, which is
no doubt the correct name of this apple. The name is supposed to be
derived from its resemblance to the _whorle_, which was the propelling
power, or rather impetus of the spindle, when the distaff and spindle
was so much in use.


386. WICKHAM’S PEARMAIN.--H.

 SYNONYMES.--Wick Pearmain, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, p. 31.

Fruit, small, two inches wide, and about two inches high;
pearmain-shaped, and quite flat at the base. Skin, yellow, tinged and
dotted with red on the shaded side; but bright red on the side next
the sun, and marked with patches and specks of russet round the eye.
Eye, large and open, with long acuminate segments, reflexed, and set
in a round, even, and plaited basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, fleshy,
inserted without any depression. Flesh, greenish-yellow, tender, crisp,
juicy, sugary, and highly flavored.

An excellent dessert apple; in use from October to December. It was
raised by a Mr. Wickham, of Wick, near Winchester. In the catalogue of
the London Horticultural Society, it is called “Wick Pearmain,” but as
the name I have adopted is that by which it is best known in Hampshire,
I prefer retaining it.


387. WINTER CODLIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 170.

Fruit, very large, three inches and an eighth wide at the middle,
and three inches and a half high; conical, generally five-sided,
with prominent ribs on the sides, which extend to the apex, forming
considerable ridges round the eye. Skin, smooth, yellowish-green, and
marked with dark dots. Eye, large and open, set in a deep and very
angular basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a deep, smooth,
and angular cavity. Flesh, greenish-white, tender, juicy, sweet, and
sub-acid.

A fine old culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from September
to February.

The tree is a strong, vigorous, and healthy grower, and an excellent
bearer.


388. WINTER COLMAN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. in Hort. Trans. vol. iv. p. 66. Hort. Soc. Cat.
 ed. 3, n. 875 Rog. Fr. Cult. 58.

 SYNONYMES.--Norfolk Colman, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. i. 683. Norfolk
 Storing, _Fors. Treat._ 117.

 FIGURES.--Brook. Pom. Brit. pl. xcii. f. 5. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxxiii.

Fruit, above medium size; roundish and flattened. Skin, pale yellow,
mottled with red on the shaded side, but deep red on the side next
the sun. Eye, open, set in a rather shallow and plaited basin. Stalk,
short, thick, and deeply inserted. Flesh, firm, crisp, and briskly acid.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality; in use from November to April.

The tree is a very strong and vigorous grower, so much so, that in its
young state, it is not a great bearer; but when grafted on the paradise
stock, it produces abundantly.


389. WINTER GREENING.--Aber.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Aber. Gard. Dict.

 SYNONYMES.--French Crab, _Fors. Treat._ 102. Easter Pippin, _Lind.
 Guide_, 45. _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 233. _Down. Fr. Amer._ 109.
 Claremont Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ Ironstone Pippin, _Ibid._
 Young’s Long Keeping, _Ibid._ John Apple, _Rog. Fr. Cult._

 FIGURES.--Brook. Pom. Brit., pl. xciii. f. 1. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xlii.
 f. 3.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two inches
and a quarter high; roundish, widest at the middle, and narrowing
towards the crown, round which are a few small ridges. Skin, smooth
and shining, of a dark lively green, strewed with minute russety dots;
and with a blush of dull red where exposed to the sun. Eye, small
and closed, set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, half-an-inch
long, inserted in a round cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh,
greenish, very close in texture, brittle and juicy, with a very
poignant and pleasant acid.

A culinary apple of first-rate quality, which comes into use in
November, and has been known to last under favorable circumstances, for
two years. Dry sand is a good article to preserve it in.

The tree is very hardy, a free and good grower, and an abundant bearer.

I have not adopted here, the nomenclature of the Horticultural
Society’s Catalogue, for two reasons. First, because Winter Greening
is the previous name, and, so far as I can find, the original one. It
is also very applicable, and not subject to the same objection which
Mr. Lindley has to French Crab. Second, because there is already
in the Horticultural Society’s Catalogue, the “White Easter”--the
“Paasch Appel,” of Knoop--and the two names being so similar, may
tend to confusion, a result of already too frequent occurrence, and
most desirable to be avoided. The name Winter Greening is also more
descriptive.


390. WINTER LADING.--H.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, at the middle,
and two inches and a half high; roundish, and narrowing towards the
crown, irregularly formed, sometimes with one prominent angle on one
side. Skin, bright green, marked with patches and dots of thin russet.
Eye, closed, set in an angular basin. Stalk three quarters of an inch
long, curved, inserted in a deep, round cavity. Flesh, greenish-white,
juicy, sweet, very tender, and delicate, with a pleasant acid.

An excellent sauce apple; in use from October to Christmas. It is grown
in the north-eastern parts of Sussex, about Heathfield.


391. WINTER MAJETIN.--Lind.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Lind. in Hort. Trans. vol. iv. 68. Hort. Soc. Cat.
 ed. 3, n. 876. Lind. Guide, 58.

Fruit, medium sized; roundish-ovate, with ribs round the crown. Skin,
smooth, dark green, covered with thin dull brownish-red on the side
next the sun. Eye, small and open, set in a deep basin, which is much
furrowed and plaited. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, slender,
inserted in a deep and narrow cavity, which is lined with russet.
Flesh, greenish-white, firm, crisp, brisk, and pleasantly flavored.

A first-rate culinary apple, bearing a considerable resemblance to the
London Pippin, but does not change to yellow color by keeping as that
variety does. It is in use from January to May.

This variety is, strictly speaking, a Norfolk apple, where it is much
grown for the local markets. It was first made public by Mr. George
Lindley, who introduced it to the notice of the London Horticultural
Society. In the “Guide to the Orchard,” it is stated that the Aphis
Lanigera or “Meally Bug,” so destructive to most of our old orchard
trees, seems to be set at defiance by the Majetin. “An old tree now
growing in a garden belonging to Mr. William Youngman, of Norwich,
which had been grafted about three feet high in the stem, has been for
many years attacked by this insect below the grafted part, but never
above it; the limbs and branches being to this day perfectly free,
although all the other trees in the same garden have been infested more
or less with it.”

The tree is a most abundant bearer.


392. WINTER PEARMAIN.--Ger.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Ger. Herb. Aust. Treat. 54. Raii. Hist. ii. 1448.
 Lang Pom. 134. t. lxxviii. f. 4. Gibs. Fr. Gard. 356. Fors. Treat.
 130. Lind. Guide, 84. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 563. Rog. Fr. Cult. 76.

 SYNONYMES.--Great Pearmaine, _Park. Par._ 587. Pearmain. _Evelyn
 Pom._ 65. Peare-maine, _Husb. Fr. Orch._ Old Pearmain, _Pom. Heref._
 t. 29. Parmain d’Hiver, _Knoop. Pom._ 64. t. xi. Pèpin Parmain
 d’Hiver, _Ibid._ 131. Pepin Parmain d’Angleterre, _Ibid._ Grauwe of
 Blanke Pepping Van Der Laan, _Ibid._ Peremenes _Ibid._ Zeeuwsche
 Pepping, _Ibid._ Duck’s Bill, _in some parts of Sussex_. Druë Permein
 d’Angleterre, _Quint. Inst._ 202.

 FIGURES.--Pom. Heref. t. 29. Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xxii. f. 2.

[Illustration]

Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and about the same in
height; of a true pearmain shape, somewhat five sided towards the
crown. Skin, smooth and shining, at first of a greenish-yellow, marked
with faint streaks of dull red on the shaded side, and entirely covered
with deep red on the side next the sun; but changes by keeping to fine
deep yellow, streaked with flesh color on the shaded side; but of a
beautiful, clear, deep red or crimson, on the side next the sun, and
strewed all over with small russety dots. Eye, large and open, with
short segments, set in a pretty deep, and prominently plaited basin.
Stalk, very short, not exceeding a quarter of an inch long, inserted
in a deep, funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh,
yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, and sugary, with a brisk, poignant, and
very pleasant flavor.

A highly esteemed old English apple, suitable principally for culinary
purposes, but also valuable for the dessert; it is in use from December
to the end of April.

The tree attains about the middle size, is a free and healthy grower,
and an excellent bearer.

This is, I believe, the oldest existing English apple on record.
It is noticed as being cultivated in Norfolk, as early as the year
1200,--what evidence against Mr. Knight’s theory! In Blomefield’s
History of Norfolk, there is mention of a tenure in that county by
petty serjeanty, and the payment of two hundred pearmains, and four
hogsheads of cider of pearmains into the Exchequer, at the feast of St.
Michael, yearly. It is the original of all the Pearmains, a name now
applied to a great variety of apples. Much doubt has existed as to the
origin of this word, and in a communication to the Gardener’s Chronicle
for 1848, I there stated what I conceived to be its meaning. The early
forms in which it was written, will be seen from the synonymes above,
they were Pearemaine and Peare-maine. In some early historical works
of the same period, I have seen Charlemagne written _Charlemaine_, the
last portion of the word having the same termination as _Pearemaine_.
Now, Charlemagne being derived from _Carolus magnus_ there is every
probability that Pearemaine is derived from _Pyrus magnus_. The
signification therefore of Pearmain is the _Great Pear Apple_, in
allusion no doubt, to the varieties known by that name, bearing a
resemblance to the form of a pear.


393. WINTER QUOINING.

 SYNONYMES.--Winter Queening, Rea. Pom. 212. _Raii. Hist._ ii. 1448.
 _Fors. Treat._ 100. _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 610. Winter Quinin,
 _Nourse Camp. Fel._ 146. Calville d’Angleterre. Langer Rother
 Himbeerapfel, _Diel Kernobst._ v. 15.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a quarter wide, and rather more
than two inches and a half high; conical, distinctly five-sided,
with five acute angles, extending the whole length of the fruit, and
terminating at the crown in five equal, and prominent crowns. Skin,
pale-green, almost entirely covered with red, which is striped and
mottled with deeper red, and marked on the shaded side with a thin coat
of russet. Eye, small, and closed, set in a narrow and angular cavity.
Stalk, about half-an-inch long and slender, deeply inserted in a narrow
and angular cavity. Flesh, greenish-yellow, tender, soft, not very
juicy, sugary, rich, and perfumed.

A good old English apple, suitable either for the dessert or culinary
purposes; it is in use from November to May.

The Winter Quoining, is a very old English apple. I have here adopted
an orthography, different from that usually employed, because I
conceive it to be the most correct. The name is derived from the word
Coin or Quoin, the corner stones of a building, because of the angles
or corners on the sides of the fruit. Thus Rea in his Pomona says,
when speaking of this apple, “it succeeds incomparably on the paradise
apple, as the Colviele, (Calville) and all other sorts of Queenings
do,” regarding the Calville also as a Queening from the angularity of
its shape.


394. WOODCOCK.--Evelyn.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Evelyn Pom. 102. Pom. Heref. t. 10. Lind. Guide, 112.
 Rog. Fr. Cult. 112.

Fruit, medium sized; of an oval shape, tapering a little towards the
crown, which is narrow. Eye, flat, with broad segments of the calyx.
Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, thick, and fleshy, and curved
inwards towards the fruit. Skin, yellow, nearly covered with a soft
red, and much deeper color on the sunny side.

Specific gravity of the juice, 1073.--_Lindley._

This is one of the oldest cider apples, and is highly commended by the
writers of the seventeenth century; but according to Mr. Knight it has
long ceased to deserve the attention of the planter. It is said that
the name of this apple, is derived from an imagined resemblance in the
form of the fruit, and fruit-stalk, in some instances, to the head
and beak of a woodcock; but Mr. Knight thinks it probable that it was
raised by a person of that name.


395. WOOLMAN’S LONG.--Coxe.

 IDENTIFICATION--Coxe View, 169. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 884.

 SYNONYMES.--Ortley, _Hort. Trans._ vol. vi. p. 415. _Lind. Guide_, 78.
 Van Dyne, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 1128.

Fruit, medium sized; oblong. Skin, clear deep yellow, on the shaded
side; but bright scarlet, on the side next the sun, sprinkled with
imbedded pearly specks, and russety dots. Eye, large, set in a
moderately deep and plaited basin. Stalk, slender, inserted in a rather
deep and even cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, brittle, juicy, with a
rich, brisk, and perfumed flavor.

An excellent apple of first-rate quality, suitable either for culinary
or dessert use; it is in season from December to April.

This is an American apple, and originated in the state of New Jersey,
U. S.


396. WORMSLEY PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 885. Down. Fr. Amer. 97.
 Gard. Chron. 1846, 853. Rog. Fr. Cult. 80.

 SYNONYME.--Knight’s Codlin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. iv. f. 2.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half broad in the middle, and three
inches high; ovate, widest at the middle, and narrowing both towards
the base and the apex, with obtuse angles on the sides, which terminate
at the crown in several prominent ridges. Skin, smooth, deep clear
yellow, with a rich golden or orange tinge, on the side next the sun,
and covered with numerous dark spots. Eye, large and open, with long
acuminate segments, placed in a deep, furrowed, and angular basin.
Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and round cavity, which is thickly
lined with russet. Flesh, yellow, tender, crisp, rich, sugary, brisk,
and aromatic.

A most valuable apple either for the dessert or culinary purposes; it
is in season during September and October.

This admirable apple was raised by T. A. Knight, Esq., and first
brought into notice in 1811. As a culinary apple it is not to be
surpassed; and even in the dessert, when well ripened, Mr. Knight
considered it closely resembled the Newtown Pippin. The tree is hardy,
healthy, a free and abundant bearer. It has been found to succeed in
every latitude of these kingdoms. Even in Rosshire, the late Sir. G.
S. McKenzie, found it to succeed well as an espalier. It ought to be
cultivated in every garden, however small.


397. WYKEN PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 886. Lind. Guide, 25. Rog.
 Fr. Cult. 93.

 SYNONYMES.--Warwickshire Pippin, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 39. Arley,
 _Ibid._ 18. Girkin Pippin, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xli. f. 1.

[Illustration]

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half broad, and two
inches high; oblate, even and handsomely shaped. Skin, smooth, pale
greenish-yellow in the shade; but with a dull orange blush next the
sun, and sprinkled all over with russety dots and patches of delicate
russet, particularly on the base. Eye, large and open, set in a wide,
shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded in a shallow
cavity. Flesh, yellow, tinged with green, tender, very juicy, sweet,
and richly flavored.

A valuable and delicious dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use
from December to April.

The tree is a healthy and good grower, and an excellent bearer.

This variety is said to have originated from seed saved from an
apple which Lord Craven had eaten while on his travels from France
to Holland, and which was planted at Wyken, about two miles from
Coventry. According to Mr. Lindley, the original tree, then very old,
was in existence in 1827, and presented the appearance of an old trunk,
with a strong sucker growing from its roots.


398. YELLOW ELLIOT.--Knight.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Pom. Heref. t 17. Lind. Guide, 113.

 SYNONYMES.--Eleot, _Worl. Vin._ 163. Eliot, _Philips Cid._ Yellow
 Eyelet, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, p. 15.?.

Fruit, of a good size, rather more flat than long, having a few obtuse
angles terminating in the crown. Eye, small, with short diverging
segment of the calyx. Stalk, short. Skin, pale yellow, slightly shaded
with orange on the sunny side.

Specific gravity of the juice, 1076.

The cider of this apple in a new state, is harsh and astringent, but
grows soft and mellow with age, and was much esteemed by the writers of
the seventeenth century.


399. YELLOW INGESTRIE.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Trans. vol. 1, p. 227. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed 3, n.
 359. Lind. Guide, 26. Diel Kernobst. iii. B. 43. Rog. Fr. Cult. 81.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. i. f. 4.

Fruit, small, an inch and three quarters wide, and an inch and
five-eights high; of a handsome cylindrical shape, flattened at both
ends. Skin, smooth, of a fine clear yellow, tinged with a deeper yellow
on the side next the sun, and marked with small pinky spots. Eye,
small, and partially closed, set almost even with the surface; but
sometimes in a wide, and shallow basin. Stalk, from half-an-inch to
three quarters long, set in a rather shallow, and smooth cavity. Flesh,
yellow, firm, crisp, and delicate, with a profusion of brisk, and
highly flavored vinous juice.

A beautiful and delightful little dessert apple, of first-rate quality,
bearing a considerable resemblance to the Golden Pippin; it is in use
during September and October.

The tree is large, spreading, and an excellent bearer.

This and the Red Ingestrie, were raised by T. A. Knight, Esq.


400. YELLOW NEWTOWN PIPPIN.--Hort.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 595.

 SYNONYME.--Large Yellow Newtown Pippin, _Coxe View_. 142.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and three
quarters high; roundish, irregular in its outline, and prominently
angled on the sides. Skin, of an uniform deep straw-color, which is
rather deeper and richer on the side next the sun, than on the other;
and thinly covered with delicate reticulations of fine grey russet,
interspersed with several large dark spots. Eye, large and closed, with
long linear segments, set in a wide and irregular basin, from which
issue several deep russety furrows. Stalk, short, deeply inserted in
an uneven and angular cavity, which is partially lined with russet.
Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, and slightly sub-acid, but with an
agreeable flavor.

A first-rate dessert apple; in use from December to March, and ripens
better in this climate than the Newtown Pippin.


401. YORKSHIRE GREENING.--Fors.

 IDENTIFICATION.--Fors. Treat. 131. Hort. Soc. Cat. ed. 3, n. 889.
 Lind. Guide, 60. Rog. Fr. Cult. 60.

 SYNONYMES.--Coates’s, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 1, 165. Seek-no-farther,
 _Ibid._ 1032. Yorkshire Goose Sauce, _acc. Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3.

 FIGURE.--Ron. Pyr. Mal. pl. xi. f. 2.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and a
half high; oblate and slightly angular on the sides. Skin, very dark
green; but where exposed to the sun, tinged with dull red, which is
striped with broken stripes of deeper red, very much speckled all over
with rather bold grey russet specks, and over the base with traces
of greyish brown russet. Eye, closed, set in a shallow, irregular,
and plaited basin. Stalk, short, stout, and fleshy, covered with
grey tomentum, inserted in a wide and rather shallow cavity. Flesh,
greenish-white, firm, crisp, and very juicy, with a brisk, but pleasant
acidity.

A first-rate culinary apple; in use from October to January.



ADDITIONAL VARIETIES OF APPLES.


The following is an enumeration of apples which are known to exist in
Great Britain, but of the great majority of which I have no personal
knowledge. They are either recorded in other works on pomology, or
have been communicated to me by correspondents. The most of these
have only a local reputation, and do not possess sufficient merit to
make them attractive out of their own districts. A great number are
continental varieties, which have chiefly been introduced through the
instrumentality of the London Horticultural Society, in whose garden
they are only to be found; and many of these are worthy of being more
generally known. There are also several varieties which have come under
my notice, since the preceding part of this work was published; but of
the greater part enumerated, I have had no opportunity of seeing the
fruit; the descriptions, therefore, are either from the works in which
they are recorded, or the correspondents with whom I have communicated;
my object in supplying these additional varieties, being to furnish a
complete record of all that are known to exist in Great Britain so far
as that can be ascertained.


402. ACHMORE.

A Scotch apple of medium size, and conical shape, green on the shaded
side, and red next the sun; of second-rate quality as a dessert fruit,
and in season during December and January.--_H. S. C._ n. 2.


403. ADAM’S APPLE.

A worthless variety, unless for cider; it is of medium size, oblong,
dark red, and in use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ n. 3.


404. ATKIN’S SEEDLING.

A medium sized apple, of first-rate quality either as a culinary or
dessert fruit; the shape is roundish, the color greenish yellow; in use
in November. The tree is hardy, a free bearer, and nearly allied to the
Hawthornden.--_Laws. Cat._


405. ALBAN.

A cider apple, of medium size, round, green on the shaded side, and red
next the sun; in use from December to February.--_H. S. C._ n. 5.


406. ALDERSTON PIPPIN.

A small early dessert apple; it is ovate, pale yellow, of second-rate
quality, and ripe in August.--_H. S. C._ p. 4.


407. AMERICAN NONPAREIL.

A beautiful apple of medium size, its color yellow, streaked and
stained on the sunny side with bright red; its form oblong, a good
deal contracted at the summit; its stalk deeply sunken; the flesh
white, firm, juicy, and good. This apple ripens in October and
November. A very fine fruit, and externally resembles the Hubbardston
Nonsuch.--_Ken. Amer. Or._ 30.


408. AMERICAN PEACH.

Of medium size, and second-rate quality; roundish, red and yellow, and
ripe in September.--_H. S. C._ p. 4.


409. ANIS-SEED.

 SYNONYME.--Rival Golden Pippin.

A small, oblate, greenish-yellow dessert apple, of second-rate quality;
in use from October to January.--_H. S. C._ p. 4.


410. ANTRIM NONPAREIL.

A small dessert apple of second-rate quality; it is of a roundish
shape; skin, striped with red; and is in use from December till March.
_H. S. C._ p. 27.


411. API PANACHÉ.

A small, roundish, yellow and green apple, of third-rate quality, in
use from October to December. More curious than useful.--_H. S. C._ n.
10.


412. ASHBY SEEDLING.

A medium sized, roundish, yellow and red dessert apple, of second-rate
quality; in use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ p. 5.


413. D’ASTMS.

 SYNONYME.--Streifling d’Hiver.

A noble kitchen fruit, large, and of a globular shape, a little
flattened at the eye, which is deeply sunk and large; green, with some
dull red streaks, chiefly on the top of the fruit. It is a first-rate
sort, firm, with rich flavor, and dresses well; will keep till March or
April.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 61. pl. xxxi. f. 1.


414. AUNT’S APPLE.

A large kitchen fruit, of second-rate quality; it is roundish, and
striped, and is in season from November till March.--_H. S. C._ p. 3.


415. AUTUMN GOLDEN PIPPIN.

Fruit, below medium size. Stalk, short. Eye, large and prominent. Skin,
fine blush next the sun, deep yellow in the shade. Flesh, crisp, not
very juicy, but the flavor is rich and agreeable. The tree is a strong
upright grower, forming a fine second class standard. Cultivated in
some parts of Kent.--_Rog. Fr. Cult._ 84.


416. AUTUMN REINETTE.

Fruit, of middle size, rather oval, of a mottled red next the sun, and
the shaded side yellow; pulp, crisp, and contains a fine quantity of
rich juice; in use from October to February.--_Rog. Fr. Cult._ 102.


417. BAINS’S.

Fruit, medium sized; oblate; striped; of second-rate quality, suitable
either for kitchen or dessert use, and possessing the flavor of the
Ribston Pippin, but not so rich; it is in use from November to March.
_H. S. C._ n. 20.


418. BALDERSTONE SEEDLING.

A medium sized, second-rate, kitchen apple, of conical shape, and
striped with red; it is in use during October and November.--_H. S. C._
p. 5.


419. BALMANNO PIPPIN.

A small Scotch dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is
roundish-ovate, green and brownish, and in use from October to
December.--_H. S. C._ n. 24.


420. BATH.

A large, roundish, yellow, kitchen apple, of second-rate quality; in
use during November and December.--_H. S. C._ n. 30.


421. BAUDRONS.

Tree an excellent bearer, fruit keeps well, and is of good quality,
with much acid, excellent for tarts; tree middle size and healthy. This
is a rare variety, and is supposed to exist only in the Gourdie Hill
orchard, Carse of Gowrie.--_M. C. H. S._ vol. iv. 472.


422. BEAT’S PIPPIN.

A dessert apple of large size, round, striped with red; in use from
November to January.--_H. S. C._ n. 33.


423. BEAUFINETTE.

A small sized culinary apple, of oblate shape, and red color; in use
from November to February.--_H. S. C._ n. 36.


424. BELLE ANGLAISE.

 SYNONYME.--Beauty of England.

A large apple, of first-rate quality either as a culinary or dessert
apple; it is in use from November till December. The tree bears well as
a standard.--_Laws. Cat._


425. BELLE HERVY.

A large culinary apple of roundish shape, green color, and second-rate
quality; in use from November to March.--_H. S. C._ n. 47.


426. BENLOMOND.

A large, oblong, culinary fruit; of a greenish-yellow color; in use
from October to December. The fruit is of good quality; tree bears
steadily, has long slender twigs, is of middle size, leaves large, of
uncommon figure. A variety cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie orchards.
_M. C. H. S._ vol. iv. p. 470.


427. BENWELL’S LARGE.

A large, roundish, green variety, of inferior quality; in use in
December.--_H. S. C._ p. 6.


428. BENZLER.

A medium sized cider apple, of ovate shape, striped with red, and in
season from December to May.--_H. S. C._ n. 54.


429. BETLEY CODLIN.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of conical shape; skin, yellow, with
brownish-red towards the sun; in use from October till January.--_H. S.
C._ p. 153.


430. BISCHOFF’S REINETTE.

A middle sized, very valuable dessert apple, it is conical or
pearmain-shaped; the skin is of a fine lemon color, without any red
next the sun, but with markings of russet. Flesh, whitish-yellow,
very fine, juicy, sugary, vinous, and aromatic. Ripe in November, and
continues in use all the winter.--_Diel Kernobst._ i. B. 82.


431. BLACK ANNETTE.

A medium sized apple of second-rate quality, suitable either for
culinary or dessert use; it is of an ovate shape, dark red color, and
in use from November to January.--_H. S. C._ p. 5.


432. BLACK AMERICAN.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of roundish
shape, dark red color, and in use during November and December.--_H. S.
C._ n. 62.


433. BLACK BESS.

An apple peculiar to the Carse of Gowrie, and said to keep long.--_M.
C. H. S._ iv. 472.


434. BLACK BORSDORFFER.

 SYNONYME.--Black Crab.

A small, roundish, dark red apple, of inferior quality; in use from
November to January. It is curious on account of its color, in other
respects worthless.--_H. S. C._ n. 64.


435. BLACK NONPAREIL.

This is a small angular apple, with the stalk thickened like that of
the Lemon Pippin. It has nothing of the character of the Nonpareil,
but is a rich high flavored apple. It is only met with in the Scotch
collections.--_Hort. Trans._ iii. 325.


436. BLAND’S ORANGE PIPPIN.

Fruit, small, flattened at both ends. Stalk, short. Eye, large and
deep. Color, light orange, deepening as it ripens, and varied with
russet specks. The pulp is crisp, very juicy, and fit for the dessert;
it is in perfection during October.--_Rog. Fr. Cult._ 79.


437. BLOOD ROYAL.

A large culinary apple of second-rate quality; it is roundish, dark
red, and in use from September to November.--_H. S. C._ p. 7.


438. BOGMILN FAVORITE.

A small Scotch dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of a round
shape, and striped with red; and in use from November to January. This
variety is peculiar to the Carse of Gowrie orchards, and is there
esteemed of excellent quality.--_H. S. C._ n. 72.


439. BONNER.

A Scotch apple peculiar to the Carse of Gowrie orchards, and there
esteemed a fine autumn apple, and the tree an excellent bearer.--_M. C.
H. S._ iv. 474.


440. BONNIE BRIDE.

A variety cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie orchards, and esteemed as
a fruit of excellent quality; tree a good bearer, middle sized and
healthy, a rare variety.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 471.


441. BOOMREY.

A pretty large handsome apple, of a flat shape, and deep red color;
and the flesh is streaked with red. It is not fit to eat raw, but will
do well for cider, or for the kitchen. It keeps till April.--_Fors.
Treat._ 94.


442. BOVEY REDSTREAK.

A handsome apple of flattish shape, beautifully streaked with a bright
red next the eye, which is small, and of a yellow color about the
footstalk. It keeps till the latter end of October.--_Fors. Treat._ 94.


443. BOWES’S NONESUCH.

A medium sized apple, for culinary purposes; the shape is roundish,
skin, green, and striped with red; in use during October.--_H. S. C._
n. 490.


444. BRAINGE.

A small cider apple of ovate shape, and striped with red; it is in use
in November.--_H. S. C._ n. 80.


445. BOURASSA.

 SYNONYME.--Barrossa.

A medium sized conical apple, of second-rate quality; it is russeted
and red, suitable either for culinary or dessert use; and is in season
from October to December.--_H. S. C._ p. 8.


446. BRAUNE MAL.

A large culinary apple of oblate shape, and brown color, and in use
from December to March.--_H. S. C._ n. 83.


447. BRAUNSCHWEIGER MILCH.

 SYNONYMES.--Milch Apfel, _Christ Gartenb._ 300.

This is an extremely beautiful and valuable German apple, roundish,
three inches high, and about the same wide. Its skin is as thin, clear,
and tender, as the finest paper, snow-white, like wax, with several
beautiful crimson stripes and dots on the sunny side; it has a very
short stalk, ripens in the beginning of August, and keeps for fourteen
days.--_Christ Gartenb._ 300.


448. BROWN’S SUMMER BEAUTY.

Of medium size, oval shape, straw color, with a flush of unmixed
red, both eye and stalk prominent; the flesh delicate, and full of
richly flavored juice. This is a first-rate table apple, ripening in
September. It was raised by Mr. Brown at Slough.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 3,
pl. ii. f. 2.


449. BROWNITE.

A medium sized apple, of oblate shape, striped with red, and of
inferior quality; it is in use during December and January.--_H. S. C._
p. 8.


450. BUCKS COUNTY.

 SYNONYME.--Solebury Cider.

A large cider apple, of conical shape, and yellow and red color; in use
from November till March. Tree a great bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 94.


451. BUCHANAN’S LONG KEEPER.

Of medium size, round, and yellowish-green color, second-rate quality,
and in use from January to April.--_H. S. C._ p. 8.


452. BUFFCOAT.

A cider apple, of roundish shape, and yellow russeted color.--_H. S.
C._ n. 98.


453. BURR KNOT.

 SYNONYME.--Burr Apple.

A large apple of globular form, smooth glossy surface, yellow, with a
flush of faint red. This is a very useful kitchen fruit in November and
December, and a profuse bearer. The tree grows in a close and compact
form, and seldom cankers. It is named Burr Knot from knots or joints on
the shoots, which render it easy to be grown from cuttings.--_Ron. Pyr.
Mal._ 77, pl. xxxix. f. 1.


454. BURRELL’S RED.

Above the medium size, of a conical shape, with wrinkles encompassing
a small shallow eye; the stalk is deeply inserted, it is of an entire
beautiful red color, approaching to scarlet. The flesh is juicy, and
rich, with an agreeable acid. This is a very desirable sauce apple
throughout November, December, and January. It is a robust grower, and
bears well.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 83, pl. xlii. f. 1.


455. BURTON SEEDLING.

Very much resembles the Manks Codlin, the flesh is tender, delicate,
and of a fine flavor, and the tree a great bearer. This variety is
chiefly to be met with in the neighbourhood of Nottingham.--_Mid.
Flor._


456. BUSHAM.

A culinary apple of medium size, and second-rate quality; it is of a
roundish shape, yellowish-green color, and is in season from December
till March.--_H. S. C._ p. 8.


457. CADBURY.

 SYNONYME.--Cadbury Pound.

A small, conical, cider apple, of a pale green or yellow color, and
good flavor, ripe in January, and keeps till March.--_Fors. Treat._ 95.


458. CALANDER.

A large Scotch apple, of first-rate quality, either as a culinary or
dessert fruit; it is of a conical shape, and in use from October to
December. The tree is a good bearer.--_Laws. Cat._


459. CAMBUSNETHAN PIPPIN.

 SYNONYMES.--Winter Redstreak; Watch Apple.

A Scotch apple, originally from the gardens at Cambusnethan, it is
rather above the middle size, round, flattened at both ends; eye, very
large, in a regular wide cavity, ground color, yellow, with a profusion
of red in irregular splotches; the flesh is white and melting, with a
very rich saccharine juice.--_Hort. Trans._ iii. 25.


460. CAMPFIELD.

A cider apple of medium size, oblate shape, yellow and red color; in
use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ n. 125.


461. CAPPER’S PEARMAIN.

 SYNONYME.--New Duck’s Bill.

A large and handsome dessert apple, but only of second-rate quality; it
is pearmain-shaped, skin, striped with red; and in use from December
till March. This variety is peculiar to Sussex.--_H. S. C._ n. 537.


462. CARNATION.

This is a beautiful middle sized fruit, finely striped with red; it is
ripe in January and keeps till May.--_Fors. Treat._ 96.


463. CARBERRY PIPPIN.

This in size and shape, resembles the French Crab, and is of a
deep green color. It is a good baking apple and will keep till
March.--_Fors. Treat._ 97.


464. CARSE REDSTREAK.

A Scotch apple, cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie orchards, it is very
beautiful, and the tree is a moderate bearer.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 474.

465. CATLINE.

 SYNONYMES.--Gregson; Catline of Maryland.

An American dessert apple of small size, oblate shape, yellow and red
color, and second-rate quality; it is in use from October to December.
_H. S. C._ n. 129.


466. CHATAIGNIER.

A French kitchen apple of medium size, ovate shape, and striped with
red. It keeps for two years, and contains a very strong acid.--_H. S.
C._ n. 136.


467. CHAUDIÈRE.

A small, roundish, green cider apple.--_H. S. C._ n. 137.


468. CHRIST’S GOLD REINETTE.

 SYNONYME.--Christ’s Deutsche Goldreinette.

Fruit, above medium size, about two inches and a half high, and about
three inches broad; oblate. Skin, pale gold-yellow, with a light red
cheek on the sunny side, and the greater part of the fruit covered with
cinnamon colored russet. Eye, set in a shallow and wide basin. Stalk,
an inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity, which is lined with russet.
Flesh, fine, tender, juicy, with an aromatic and vinous flavor.

An excellent apple either for culinary or dessert use; in use from
November till May.--_Christ Vollst. Pom._ 165.


469. CIERGE D’HIVER.

A small, conical, green cider apple, in use during November and
December.--_H. S. C._ n. 143.


470. CITRONEN REINETTE.

 SYNONYME.--Reinette de Citron.

Fruit, pretty large, two inches and three quarters, to three inches
broad, and about the same in height; abrupt pearmain-shaped. Skin,
smooth, of a beautiful shining bright yellow, with a rose colored
blush, on the side towards the sun. Eye, closed, with long acuminate
segments, set in a wide, even, and pretty shallow basin, which is
somewhat plaited. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a deep,
funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with cinnamon colored russet.
Flesh, very white, fine grained, juicy, and of a very brisk, sugary,
and vinous flavor.

A very beautiful and valuable dessert apple, of German origin. It was
raised by Herrn, Rath and Amtmann Rath, of Nassau; it is in use in
December, and keeps during the whole of the winter and spring, even
till June.--_Diel Kernobst._ iii. 132.


471. CLARET.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of conical shape, and red color; it is in
use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ n. 146.


472. CLARKE’S CODLIN.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of third-rate quality, it is of a conical
shape, and yellow color, and comes into use in November.--_H. S. C._ p.
10.


473. CLEPINGTON.

A medium sized dessert apple, ripe in September. It is a seedling from
the Oslin.--_Riv. Cat._


474. CLEY PIPPIN.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality, it is of a roundish
shape, and yellow color; and is in use from October to March.--_H. S.
C._ n. 145.


475. CLOUDED SCARLET.

A very beautiful apple, cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie orchards; the
tree bears well.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


476. CLOVE PIPPIN.

A medium sized dessert fruit, of second rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, russety-red color, and is ripe in August.--_H. S. C._ n.
147.

There is another variety in Mr. Rivers’s Catalogue, which is also
called Clove Pippin, and which is said to be a large dessert apple, of
first-rate quality, and in use from November till April.


477. COCKPIT.

Of ordinary size, oval shape, both eye and stalk (which is slender),
prominent; when ripe of a yellow color, the flesh is tender, and of
a brisk flavor. Ripe in November and December. It grows healthily,
and bears constantly. This variety is much cultivated in the North
of England, as a useful pleasant apple, either for the table or
kitchen.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 73. pl. xxxvii. f. 1.


478. COLLIN’S KEEPER.

A large kitchen apple, of roundish shape, green and yellow color, and
keeps till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 173.


479. CONQUEST DE WIGERS.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a
roundish shape, pale yellow color, and in use from January till
March.--_H. S. C._ n. 175.


480. CORSTORPHINE.

A medium sized second-rate Scotch culinary apple, of conical shape, and
pale yellow color; in use during September and October.--_Laws. Cat._


481. CORNISH NONPAREIL.

This is rather under the middle size, it is a little flatted, and of a
russet color. This is a very good apple, and keeps till the middle of
March.--_Fors. Treat._ 97.


482. CORNISH PEARMAIN.

This is of a middling size, and long shape, of a dull green color on
one side, and russet on the other. This is a very good apple, and keeps
till the latter end of April.--_Fors. Treat._ 97.


483. CORSE’S FAVORITE.

A Canadian apple, raised near Montreal. It is described as an apple
of extraordinary flavor; it commences ripening in August, and has
this singular peculiarity in maturing: it is six weeks from the time
the first are fit for the table, before the last are so; it should be
perfectly matured on the tree, and eaten immediately.--_Ken. Amer. Or._
26.

Such is the character of this fruit in America, but I have had no
experience of it here.--_H._


484. COS OR CAAS.

A native of Kingston, N. Y., where it is productive and very highly
esteemed. Fruit, large, one-sided or angular, roundish, broad and
flattened at the stalk, narrowing a good deal to the eye. Skin, smooth,
pale greenish-yellow in the shade, but red in the sun, with splashes
and specks of bright red, and a few yellow dots. Stalk, very short,
and rather strong, downy, deeply inserted in a wide, one-sided cavity.
Calyx, small, in a narrow, shallow basin. Flesh, white, tender, with a
mild, agreeable flavor. December to March.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 103.


485. COURT-PENDU NOIR.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of round shape, and dark red color; in
use from December till March.--_H. S. C._ n. 186.


486. COWARNE QUEENING.

A small, ovate apple, green and red, suitable either for cider or the
dessert use; it is in season from October till March, and is a good
bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 606.


487. COW’S SNOUT.

A large kitchen apple, of second-rate quality, it is of oblong shape,
green and yellow color, and ripe during August and September.--_H. S.
C._ n. 189.


488. CREDE’S QUITTENREINETTE.

 SYNONYMES.--Credos Gütten Reinette, _Hort. Soc. Cat._ ed. 3, n. 646.

Rather below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two inches
and a quarter high; roundish. Skin, smooth, of an uniform fine lemon
color, when ripe, and strewed with star-like russety dots. Eye, open,
with long green segments, set in a pretty deep basin. Stalk, thin,
half-an-inch long, inserted in a wide, deep, and funnel-shaped cavity,
which is lined with russet. Flesh, of a beautiful white, very fine and
juicy, with a sugary, vinous, and quince flavor. It is in use from
December till spring.--_Diel Kernobst._ xxi. 105.


489. CRIMSON QUEENING.

 SYNONYMES.--Scarlet Queening; Summer Queening; Red Queening;
 Herefordshire Queening.

A medium sized apple, of conical shape, red color, and second-rate
quality, suitable either for the dessert or culinary use; and in season
from December till March. It is not so rich as the Cornish Gilliflower,
but resembles it both in flavor and appearance.--_H. S. C._ n. 609.


490. CROOM PIPPIN.

A small, roundish, yellow apple; in use from December to January.--_H.
S. C._ n. 194.


491. CUMBERLAND PIPPIN.

Of medium size, roundish shape, prominently ribbed on the sides, and
pale green color, suitable for kitchen use; and in season during
December.--_H. S. C._ p. 12.


492. CURTIS.

A native of Virginia. The skin is smooth, of a red color; flesh, juicy
and pleasant. Ripe, middle to end of August.--_Ken. Amer. Or._ 59.


493. CYDER SOP.

A medium sized cider apple, of roundish-ovate shape, and yellow,
covered with brownish-red color.--_H. S. C._ p. 12.


494. DAISY.

A variety cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie orchards, it is a very
beautiful, small, sweet fruit, and not common.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


495. DALMAHOY PIPPIN.

This is about the size of a Golden Pippin, of a green color, and
a little streaked with red towards the sun, it has a tolerable
good flavor, rather sharp; and is in eating from September till
February.--_Fors. Treat._ 99.


496. DANVERS WINTER SWEET.

 SYNONYME.--Epse’s Sweet.

In Massachusetts, from a town in which this variety takes its name, it
has for a long time been one of the best market apples; but we think it
inferior to the Ladies’ Sweeting. It is an abundant bearer, and a very
rapid tree in its growth.

Fruit, of medium size, roundish-oblong. Skin, smooth, dull yellow, with
an orange blush. Stalk, slender, inclining to one side. Calyx, set in
a smooth, narrow basin. Flesh, yellow, firm, sweet, and rich. It bakes
well, and is fit for use the whole winter, and often till April. _Down.
Fr. Amer._ 108.


497. DARLINGTON PIPPIN.

A medium sized dessert apple, of an oblate shape, green color, and
second-rate quality.--_H. S. C._ n. 199.


498. DEPTFORD INN.

A very small dessert apple, of first-rate quality, it is of roundish
shape, brownish-red color; and in use from November till January.--_H.
S. C._ n. 200.


499. DERBYSHIRE.

A medium sized culinary apple, of ovate shape, pale yellow, and red
color; and in use from November till March.--_H. S. C._ p. 12.


500. DESCIBUS.

A medium sized apple, of oblate shape, yellow color, and inferior
quality, ripe in November.--_H. S. C._ p. 12.


501. DETROIT.

 SYNONYMES.--Red Detroit; Black Detroit; Black Apple; Large Black;
 Crimson Pippin.

Fruit of medium, or rather large size, roundish, somewhat flattened
and pretty regular. Stalk, three fourths of an inch long, planted in a
deep cavity. Skin, pretty thick, smooth, and glossy, bright crimson at
first, but becoming dark blackish purple at maturity, somewhat dotted
and marbled with specks of fawn color on the sunny side. Calyx, closed,
set in a rather deep plaited basin. Flesh, white, (sometimes stained
with red to the core in exposed specimens,) crisp, juicy, of agreeable
sprightly sub-acid flavor. October to February.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 106.


502. DEVONSHIRE GOLDEN BALL.

It is large and of globular shape, straw-colored, with a flush of
unstriped carmine; a very beautiful sauce apple, juicy, with an
agreeable acid. It is a very useful apple in January and February. The
tree grows well, and bears freely.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 83. pl. xlii. f.
2.


503. DEVONSHIRE QUEEN.

A beautiful apple, rather large, straw-colored, enriched over three
fourths of its surface, with bright red stripes. It is an excellent
apple, juicy, and briskly flavored, fit either for the table or for
sauce, but particularly the latter; ripe in October. It is a general
favorite in the West of England.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 49. pl, xxv. f. 1.


504. DEVONSHIRE RED STREAK.

An old apple, and highly esteemed in the West of England, it is of
middle size, globular, but a little oval, straw-colored, with a good
deal of scarlet striping; the flavor is poignant, with plenty of juice
and acid. It is excellent either for the dessert, or for cider, and
will keep in perfection till January.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 53. pl. xxvii.
f. 2.


505. DEVONSHIRE WHITE SOUR.

A small, oblate, greenish-yellow apple, ripe in August.--_H. S. C._ n.
204.


506. DEVONSHIRE WILDING.

Is a favorite sort in North Devon, for the manufacture of rough cider
of great strength, so much relished by the laborers of that country.
The fruit is of middle size, nearly round, flatted at the ends; color,
yellowish-green, dotted with brown; the stalk short and thick, and
closely attached to the branch, and hanging long on the tree. The pulp
is firm, and well charged with a sharp acid juice. When cider is made
of it, alone, the fruit is kept for a month before going to the mill.
The tree grows strongly, and rises to rank in the first class in the
orchard; and is, like most of the cider apples, very seldom attacked by
the American blight.--_Rog. Fr. Cult._ 111.


507. DICKSON’S GREENING.

A medium sized culinary apple, of roundish shape, green color; in use
from December till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 206.


508. DIETZER ROTHE MANDEL REINETTE.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters broad, and two
inches and a half high; round. Skin, bright green, changing as it
ripens to rich golden-yellow, the greater part washed with light red,
which terminates in stripes on the shaded side. Eye, open, with short
segments, set in a wide and shallow basin. Stalk, thin and woody, three
quarters of an inch long, inserted in a deep russety cavity. Flesh,
very fine, yellowish, firm, juicy, and with a rich, sugary, aromatic,
and musky flavor.

A valuable German dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it is ripe in
December, and will keep till summer.

The tree is an excellent grower, attains a large size, and is an
excellent bearer.--_Diel Kernobst._ xxi. 126.


509. DOBBS’S KERNEL.

Is nearly of the same size as the Golden Pippin, rather broader at the
eye, of a golden color; perhaps not quite so rich in flavor, but it has
the advantage in growing more freely, and bearing more plentifully,
which it does in clusters at the end of pendulous branches; it is ripe
in November, and will keep till March or April. This is a seedling from
the Golden Pippin, raised by Mr. Dobbs, of Salomons, about four miles
from Gloucester, about the year 1760.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 35, pl. xviii.
f. 1.


510. DOCKER’S SEEDLING.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality, ovate shape, and
striped with red; it is in use from November till January.--_H. S. C._
p. 13.


511. DOCKER’S DEVONSHIRE.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality, ovate shape, and
striped with red; in use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ p. 12.


512. DOCTOR.

 SYNONYME.--Dewit; White Doctor; Yellow Doctor; Red Doctor.

A medium sized dessert apple of second-rate quality, roundish shape,
and striped with yellow and red color; it is in use from October till
January.--_H. S. C._ n. 207.

This is an American variety, and a native of Pennsylvania.


513. DOLLAR’S KERNEL.

A small cider apple, of ovate shape, and striped with red; it is in use
during October and November.--_H. S. C._ p. 22.


514. DOMINE.

This apple is extensively planted on the Hudson, and bears a very close
resemblance to the Rambo, which is not so highly colored.

Fruit of medium size, flat. Skin, lively greenish-yellow in the shade,
with stripes and splashes of bright red in the sun, and pretty large
russet specks. Stalk, long and slender, planted in a wide cavity, and
inclining to one side. Calyx, small, in a broad basin moderately sunk.
Flesh, white, exceedingly tender and juicy, with a sprightly, pleasant,
though not a high flavor.

Young wood of a smooth, lively, light brown, and the trees are the most
rapid growers, and prodigious bearers that are known--the branches
being literally weighed down by the rope-like clusters of fruit. An
American variety, in use from December till April.--_Down. Fr. Amer._
107.


515. DOMINISKA.

 SYNONYMES.--Herrnapfel; Götterapfel.

A very large and durable apple, often five inches in diameter, and
belonging to the Rambour family. It has not only a very rich aroma, but
its flesh is very delicious and agreeable.--_Christ Handworterb_, 34.

It is in use from December till April.


516. DOONSIDE.

A Scotch apple peculiar to the Ayrshire orchards, it is of medium size,
and first-rate quality as a dessert apple; in use from September till
December. The tree is hardy and productive.--_Laws. Cat._


517. DORSETSHIRE REDSTREAK.

A small cider apple, of conical shape, and striped with red; tree a
good bearer.--_H. S. C._ p. 33.


518. DOUCE DE BOLWILLER.

A medium sized apple of second-rate quality, pearmain-shaped, and
brownish-red color, suitable either for culinary use or cider; it is in
use during November and December.--_H. S. C._ n. 216.


519. DOWNTON NONPAREIL.

A medium sized, sharp, rich flavored apple, of the first-rate quality;
it is of roundish shape, green color, very much covered with russet,
and is in use from December till April.--_H. S. C._ n. 468.


520. DOYENNÉ.

A large acid cider apple, of roundish shape, and yellow color; in use
from October till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 218.


521. DREDGE’S QUEEN CHARLOTTE.

This is a beautiful middle size apple, of a gold color, with red
towards the sun. This apple is of an exquisite flavor, comes into
eating about Christmas, and keeps till February.--_Fors. Treat._ 100.


522. DREDGE’S RUSSET.

This is a small apple, of a greenish russet color, and of a pleasant
flavor. It is ripe in November, and keeps till Midsummer.--_Fors.
Treat._ 99.


523. DUCHESS OF YORK’S FAVORITE.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality, oblate shape, yellow and
red color, and is in use during November and December.--_H. S. C._ p.
14.


524. DUTCH FULWOOD.

 SYNONYME.--Late Fulwood.

A large kitchen apple, of first-rate quality, oblong shape, and green
color; it is in use from December till May.--_H. S. C._ p. 16.


525. DYMMOCK RED.

This is under the middle size, of a fine red color, intermixed with
a little yellow on the side from the sun, it is ripe in January, and
keeps till March.--_Fors. Treat._ 100.


526. EARLY JOE.

An American dessert apple, of medium size, first-rate quality, and ripe
in September.--_Riv. Cat._


527. EARLY MARROW.

A large cream-colored Scotch apple, of globular form, but contracted
towards the eye, and with rather strong ribs; the stalk slender, and
deeply inserted. The fruit is tender and bakes well. It bears well, and
is in use in September and October.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 7. pl. vi. f. 4.


528. EARLY NEW-YORK.

This fruit is more long than round, of a light green color, slightly
tinged with red. The pulp is breaking, with much pleasant juice. As the
fruit ripen gradually, they may be gathered as wanted, for some time.
It ripens about the end of August. The tree is a good bearer in any
shape.--_Rog. Fr. Cult._ 34.


529. EARLY POMEROY.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of conical
shape, striped with red, and ripe in October.--_H. S. C._ p. 32.


530. EARLY RED.

A large kitchen apple, of second-rate quality, oblate shape, and red
color; it is in use during September and October.--_H. S. C._ n. 231.


531. EARLY STRAWBERRY.

 SYNONYME.--American Red Juneating.

A beautiful variety, which is said to have originated in the
neighbourhood of New-York, and appears in the markets there about the
middle of July. Its sprightly flavor, agreeable perfume, and fine
appearance, place it among the very finest summer apples. It is quite
distinct from the Early Red Margaret, which has no fragrance, and a
short stem.

Fruit, roundish, narrowing towards the eye. Skin, smooth, and
fair, finely striped and stained with bright and dark red on a
yellowish-white ground. Stalk, an inch and a half long, rather slender
and uneven, inserted in a deep cavity. Calyx, rather small, in a
shallow, narrow basin. Flesh, white, slightly tinged with red next the
skin, tender, sub-acid, and very sprightly and brisk in flavor, with an
agreeable aroma.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 73.


532. EDEL KÖNIG.

 SYNONYME.--Roi Très Noble.

Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and three inches high;
calville-shaped. Skin, yellowish-green, but for the most part covered
with beautiful crimson, which, on the side next the sun, is of a deep
purple, approaching to black. Eye, closed, with long green segments,
set in a shallow, ribbed, and plaited basin, round which are eight or
ten prominent ribs, which extend down the sides even to the stalk,
which render the form of the fruit very irregular. Stalk, thick, and
often very fleshy, an inch to an inch and a half long, inserted in a
deep, wide, and russety cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, tinged
with pink, of a rich, sugary, and raspberry flavor.

An excellent German culinary apple, of first-rate quality; it is in use
from October till November.--_Diel Kernobst._ ii. 1.


533. EDINBURGH CLUSTER.

 SYNONYME.--Sir Walter Blacket’s Favorite.

A medium sized kitchen apple of second-rate quality, ovate shape, and
yellow color; it is in use from November till January.--_H. S. C._ n.
235.


534. EGGERMONT’S CALVILLE.

Fruit, medium sized, three inches broad, and two inches and a half
high; oblate. Skin, somewhat unctuous to the feel, of an uniform
clear lemon-yellow color, marked here and there, with lines and
figures of russet. Eye, closed, with long segments, set in a rather
deep and ribbed basin. Stalk, half-an-inch long, inserted in a deep,
funnel-shaped, and russety cavity. Flesh, beautiful white, fine, juicy,
marrowy, and of a rich, sugary, and vinous flavor and aroma.

An excellent and beautiful dessert apple, ripe in November, and
continues during the winter.--_Diel Kernobst._ vi. B. 3.


535. ELDON PIPPIN.

A medium sized dessert apple, of first-rate quality, it is of roundish
shape; yellow, with brownish-red color; and in use from January till
April.--_H. S. C._ n. 236.


536. EMBROIDERED APPLE.

This is pretty large, and the stripes of red, very broad, from which
circumstance it takes its name. It is commonly used as a kitchen apple,
and is ripe in October.--_Fors. Treat._ 101.


537. EMBROIDERED PIPPIN.

 SYNONYME.--Reinette Brodée.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of roundish shape,
yellow color, embroidered with russety veins, and is in use from
November till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 238.


538. ENGLISCHE GRANAT REINETTE.

 SYNONYME.--Pomme Granate.

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters wide, and two
inches and a half high; oblato-cylindrical. Skin, smooth, of a clear
lemon-yellow ground color, but washed over two-thirds of the surface
with beautiful crimson, which is indistinctly striped. Eye, pretty well
closed with short segments, set in a pretty wide, and rather shallow
basin, which is somewhat bossed. Stalk, thin and woody, three quarters
of an inch long, inserted in a deep russety cavity, with one, and
sometimes two fleshy protuberances. Flesh, yellowish-white, very fine,
firm, crisp, and juicy, of a very rich, aromatic, vinous, and sugary
flavor, very similar to the Golden Pippin.

A first-rate German dessert apple, ripe in December, and continues in
use during the spring.

The tree is not a large grower, being only middle sized; but it is a
great bearer.--_Diel Kernobst._ xi. 134.


539. EVERLASTING.

 SYNONYME.--Everlasting Striped.

This is below the middle size, of a conical shape. The color is a
striped green towards the footstalk, and red towards the eye, it is of
third-rate quality; in use from January till May.--_Fors. Treat._ 101.


540. FAIR MAID OF FRANCE.

A medium sized, roundish, and striped apple, of inferior quality.--_H.
S. C._ p. 15.


541. FALLAWATER.

An American variety, of second-rate quality. It is rather large,
regularly formed, and ovato-conical; of a green and brownish-red color;
and a very good and productive variety, possessing in some degree a
Newtown Pippin flavor. It is in use in January, and suitable either for
table or kitchen use.--_H. S. C._ n. 242.


542. FAME.

A Scotch apple, peculiar to the Carse of Gowrie, but not a common
variety.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


543. FARTHING’S PIPPIN.

A small oblate, and green apple, of inferior quality; in use in
November--_H. S. C._ p. 15.


544. FLAT ANDERSON.

A Scotch variety, peculiar to the Carse of Gowrie, but rare. The fruit
is of capital quality, and the tree an excellent bearer, middle sized
and hardy. Only one tree in the orchard at Gourdiehill.--_M. C. H. S._
iv. 472.


545. FLAT NONPAREIL.

Differs from the Old Nonpareil, only in being of a flatter shape, and
in not keeping so long; but it is a very nice juicy apple. In eating,
December, January, and February. The tree grows free of canker, and
bears well.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 68, pl. xxxiv. f. 6.


546. FLETCHER’S KERNEL.

A medium sized dessert apple of first-rate quality. It is of a roundish
shape, yellow color, and is in use from November to January.--_H. S.
C._ n. 252.


547. FLEUR DE PRAIRÉAL.

A medium sized, cider apple, of oblate shape, greenish-yellow color;
and in use from November till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 255.


548. FORFAR PIPPIN.

A small dessert apple of first-rate quality, very excellent, and very
late; in use from January till June.--_Riv. Cat._


549. FORMOSA NONPAREIL.

This variety was raised in the garden of Samuel Young, at Formosa
Place, near Maidenhead, and is an extraordinary fine apple, combining
the flavor of the Nonpareil and Golden Pippin. _Hort. Trans._ iii. 322.


550. FLOWER OF THE TOWN.

 SYNONYMES.--Flowery Town; Red-Streak, _of Backhouse of York_.

A medium sized, second-rate culinary apple, it is of a roundish shape,
striped with red, and in use from September to November, but is of
indifferent quality, though a good bearer.--_H. S. C._ p. 16.


551. FRENCH CODLIN.

A large culinary apple, of second-rate quality, it is of a conical
shape, yellow color; and is in use during August and September.--_H. S.
C._ n. 156.


552. FRENCH RUSSET.

 SYNONYMES.--French Reinette; French Pippin.

A medium sized culinary apple, of roundish shape, covered with russet;
and in use during November and December.--_H. S. C._ n. 739.


553. FRENCH SPANIARD.

This is a large apple, in form of a hexagonal prism, with the angles
a little rounded, and of a yellowish-green color; it is a pretty good
apple, and keeps till the latter end of April.--_Fors. Treat._ n. 102.


554. GAESDONKER GOLD REINETTE.

Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two
inches high; oblate. Skin, thin, pale straw-colored at first, but
changing by keeping, to golden-yellow, and washed with pale red on the
side exposed to the sun; it is covered with numerous dots, which are
dark crimson on the sunny side, and where much shaded, marked with
russet. Eye, partially closed, with long pointed segments, set in a
pretty deep cavity. Stalk, woody, sometimes very short, but at others,
an inch long, inserted in a very deep and russety cavity. Flesh, white,
yellowish, very fine, firm, and juicy, with a rich, aromatic, sugary,
and vinous flavor, like that of the Golden Pippin.

A valuable German dessert apple, ripe in December, and continues in use
during the spring.--_Diel Kernobst._ i. B. 59.


555. GARGEY PIPPIN.

This is a handsome conical-shaped apple, under the middle size, of a
greenish-yellow color, with a little red towards the sun. This is a
pretty good apple, and keeps till May.--_Fors. Treat._ 103.


556. GENERAL WOLFE.

A large apple resembling the Reinette de Canada. It is of a flattened
conical shape; yellowish-green and brown color; of second-rate quality,
as a kitchen or dessert fruit; and is in use from November till
January. _H. S. C._ n. 263.


557. GESTREIFTER SOMMER ZIMMETAPFEL.

 SYNONYME.--La Canelle.

Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and two inches high;
roundish, inclining to oblong. Skin, very thin and shining, covered
with bloom when on the tree, straw-white at first, but changes when
ripe to lemon-yellow, and on the side next the sun, it is covered
with short, broken, crimson stripes. Eye, closed, with long woolly
segments, and set in a shallow basin. Stalk, an inch to an inch and
a quarter long, sometimes fleshy, inserted in a narrow and deep
cavity, with occasionally a fleshy swelling on one side of it. Flesh,
yellowish-white, fine, juicy, marrowy, and very aromatic, with a sugary
flavor, mixed with cinnamon.

A very excellent little German dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it
is ripe during August and September.

The tree is a good grower, and an excellent bearer.--_Diel Kernobst._
vi. 43.


558. GILLIFLOWER.

A medium sized culinary apple, of second-rate quality, roundish shape,
and striped with red; it is in use from October till February.--_H. S.
C._ n. 266.


559. GILLIFLOWER PEARMAIN.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality, pearmain shape,
yellow and red color; and in use from November till March.--_H. S. C._
p. 30.


560. GILPIN.

 SYNONYME--Carthouse.

A handsome cider fruit from Virginia, which is also a very good table
fruit from February till May. A very hardy, vigorous, and fruitful tree.

Fruit, of medium size, roundish-oblong. Skin very smooth and handsome,
richly streaked with deep red and yellow. Stalk, short, deeply
inserted. Calyx, in a round, rather deep basin. Flesh, yellow, firm,
juicy and rich, becoming tender and sprightly in the spring.--_Down.
Fr. Amer._ 144.


561. GLANZ REINETTE.

 SYNONYME.--Tyroler Glanzreinette.

Fruit, about medium sized, two inches and a quarter broad, and two
inches high; roundish, inclining to oblate. Skin, tender, smooth,
varnished and shining, of a beautiful lemon-color when ripe, with a
blush of delicate red on the side next the sun, which is wanting in
fruit that is shaded; strewed with brown russety dots. Eye, half open,
with very long green segments, set in a moderately deep and plaited
basin, which is surrounded with a few bosses. Stalk, from three
quarters to an inch long, inserted in a rather deep basin, which is
lined with fine russet. Flesh, snow-white, very fine, marrowy, and
juicy, with a rich, sugary, and vinous flavor.

A very beautiful waxen-like apple, of German origin; it is ripe in
December, and continues in use during the spring.

The tree is a very strong grower, forming a beautiful round-headed
tree; and is very fruitful. A valuable apple.--_Diel Kernobst._ xi. 78.


562. GLORY OF BOUGHTON.

A large culinary apple, of a round figure, yellow color; and in use
during October.--_H. S. C._ n. 272.


563. GOLD REINETTE VON BORDEAUX.

 SYNONYME.--Bordeauer Gold Reinette.

Fruit, very large; obtuse pearmain-shaped. Skin, thin, greenish-yellow
at first, but changing as it ripens to a fine rich yellow, on the side
exposed to the sun, it is washed with bright red, and on the shaded
side, it is marked with flakes and figures of russet, the whole surface
covered with grey russety dots. Eye, open, set in a shallow basin.
Stalk, short and fleshy, inserted in a wide and deep cavity, which is
lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish-white, fine, tender, and juicy,
with a rich, aromatic, and sugary flavor.

A beautiful and very valuable apple; it is ripe in December, and keeps
till March.

The tree is a good grower, but does not attain a large size.--_Dittrich
Handb._ i. 419.


564. GOLDEN BALL.

A large culinary apple, of second-rate quality, roundish shape, yellow
and red color; and in use during August and September.--_H. S. C._ p.
17.


565. GOLDEN GLOUCESTER.

This is a handsome middle-sized apple, of a flat shape, and a gold
color; with red towards the sun. This is a good apple, and keeps till
March.--_Fors. Treat._ 104.


566. GOLDEN NONPAREIL.

A small, handsome, dessert apple, of first-rate quality, it is of a
round shape, yellow and russet color; and is in use from December till
February.--_H. S. C._ n. 473.


567. GOLDEN WORCESTER.

A small dessert apple, of perfectly spherical shape; a rich golden
color, very slightly tinged with red; the eye and stalk, both
prominent; the flesh firm, well-flavored, and yellow as the skin. The
fruit keeps till January; before gathering it has a beautiful effect,
appearing like golden balls, among the leaves of the tree, which are of
light airy growth. This is also an excellent cider apple.--_Ron. Pyr.
Mal._ 25, pl. xiii. f. 4.


568.--GRAND SHACHEM.

A showy, large, dark, blood-red fruit, but rather coarse, and scarcely
worth cultivation. Fruit, very large, roundish, distinctly ribbed, and
irregular in its outline. Stalk, short and strong, and calyx set in a
well marked basin. Skin, smooth, deep dingy red over the whole surface.
Flesh, white, rather dry, and without much flavor. September. _Down Fr.
Amer._ 86.


569.--GRAUCH DOUCE.

A cider apple of large size, round shape, and striped with red; it is
in use during October and November.--_H. S. C._ n. 296.


570. GREAVES’S PIPPIN.

A large culinary apple of first-rate quality; ripe in September.--_Riv.
Cat._


571. GREEN.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of first-rate quality; it is of a round
shape and green color; keeps very sound from January till June, and
is less acid than the Winter Greening or French Crab, but not so
juicy.--_H. S. C._ n. 299.


572. GREEN BALSAM.

A culinary apple of medium size, roundish shape, yellowish-green color,
and in use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ n. 300.


573. GREEN DRAGON.

This is a fine large apple, of an excellent flavor, and pale-green
color. It is rather too large for the table, and is therefore mostly
used as a kitchen apple. It keeps till March.--_Fors. Treat._ 105.


574. GREEN EYELET.

A small cider apple, of roundish figure and green color.--_H. S. C._ n.
301.


575. GREEN LEADINGTON.

A medium sized culinary apple, of second-rate quality; it is of conical
shape, green color, and in use during September and October.--_H. S.
C._ n. 400.


576. GREEN EVERLASTING.

A small apple of inferior quality, roundish shape, and green color; it
is in use during March and April.--_H. S. C._ p. 18.


577. GREEN LANGLAST.

A scotch apple, much grown in the orchards of the Carse of Gowrie. The
tree is a most excellent bearer; fruit of capital quality when kept;
tree, middle size, bears well. The _Green Virgin_, the _Standard_, and
_Green Langlast_, may be reckoned the most profitable winter apples in
this district.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 471.


578. GREEN VIRGIN.

Tree an excellent bearer; bears when young; fruit keeps well, is of
good quality, and of a fine yellow when kept. This is one of the most
valuable apples in the Carse of Gowrie, but only known in Gourdiehill
Orchard; tree healthy, middle sized.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 471.


579. GREEN WINE

A variety peculiar to the Carse of Gowrie orchards, in Perthshire.
Fruit, of excellent quality, tree bears well, but sickly when old.--_M.
C. H. S._ iv. 474.


580. GREY QUEENING.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of an
oval shape, green and russety color; and is in use from December till
February.--_H. S. C._ n. 609.


581. GRIDDLETON PIPPIN.

This is a large angular-shaped apple, of a green color, with a
little blush towards the sun. It is a baking apple, and keeps till
March.--_Fors. Treat._ 105.


582. GROSSER EDLER PRINZESSINAPFEL.

 SYNONYME.--Princesse Noble, _acc. Diel._

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters broad, and about the
same in height; somewhat conical. Skin, tender, covered with a bloom
when on the tree, and of a pale, waxen, yellowish-green, which changes
to deep yellow color as it ripens; covered on the side exposed to the
sun, with broken stripes of beautiful crimson, and paler stripes on the
shaded side. Eye, closed, continues long green, set in a moderately
deep basin, which is surrounded with plaits, and small warts. Stalk,
very short and stout, sometimes only a fleshy knob, and set in a deep,
wide, smooth, and funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, yellowish-white, firm,
juicy, and of a very pleasant, strong cinnamon, vinous, and sugary
flavor.

A very excellent Dutch apple, of first-rate quality; it is ripe in
November, and continues during the winter.

The tree is a good grower, but does not attain over the middle size,
and is an early and excellent bearer.--_Diel Kernobst._ xi 24.


583. GROSSE RHEINISCHER BOHNAPFEL.

Fruit, large, three inches broad, and the same in height; somewhat
conical. Skin, smooth, tender, greenish-yellow at first, but changing
by keeping to clear pale yellow, and on the side exposed to the sun,
it is marked with pale red stripes, mixed with darker red. Eye, open,
set in a rather shallow and wide basin. Stalk, short and fleshy,
sometimes only a fleshy knob, and set in a shallow and russety cavity.
Flesh, very white, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a somewhat aromatic and
sweet flavor, without any acid.

An excellent German culinary apple, ripe in January, and continuing in
use till July.

The tree is a strong and good grower, very beautiful, with fine dark
green, and shining foliage; it is a good bearer.--_Diel Kernobst._ i.
220.


584. HAMPSHIRE NONESUCH.

This is a pretty large, well-shaped apple, of a greenish-yellow color,
streaked with red, it keeps till the latter end of November.--_Fors.
Treat._ 106.


585. HAMPSTEAD SWEETING.

A middle sized cider apple, of ovate shape, and green and yellow
color.--_H. S. C._ p. 19.


586. HAGGERSTON PIPPIN.

A medium sized dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it is of a
roundish shape, green and red color, and is in use from November till
April.--_H. S. C._ n. 318.


587. HARRISON.

New Jersey is the most celebrated cider making district in America, and
this apple which originated in Essex county of that state, has long
enjoyed the highest reputation as a cider fruit. Ten bushels of these
apples make a barrel of cider. The tree grows thrivingly, and bears
very large crops. It is of medium size, and ovate shape, yellow color,
rich flavor, and producing a high colored cider of great body. The
fruit is very free from rot, falls easily from the tree about the first
of November, and keeps well. The best cider of this variety, is worth
from six to ten dollars a barrel, in New-York.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 145.


588. HARRISON’S NEWARK.

A small cider apple, of conical shape, and yellow and red color.--_H.
S. C._ p. 19.


589. HARVEY’S RUSSET.

A Cornish apple. This is a large russet-colored apple, with a little
red towards the sun. This is a famous kitchen fruit, and tolerably good
raw. It has a musky flavor.--_Fors. Treat._ 106.


590. HAY’S EARLY.

A culinary apple, of medium size, oblate shape, and yellow striped with
red color, it is ripe in August.--_H. S. C._ n. 325.


591. HEDGE APPLE.

A new fruit of middle sized, and handsome conical shape, red towards
the sun, and a straw-color on the other side. This apple is of a
tolerably good flavor, and keeps till the latter end of April.--_Fors.
Treat._ 107.


592. HEREFORDSHIRE MONSTER.

A small cider apple, of roundish shape, and yellow color; in use in
December.--_H. S. C._ p. 19.


593. HENRY’S WEEPING PIPPIN.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of an oval shape,
yellow color, and in use from December till February.--_H. S. C._ n.
330.


594. HILL’S SEEDLING.

A Scotch apple raised in the Carse of Gowrie. It is rather large,
roundish and flattened, of a pale-green color, with a tinge of red next
the sun. It is a good early culinary apple, in use from the end of
August till October. The tree has much of the habit and appearance of
the Hawthornden, and quite as good a bearer.


595. HOARE’S SEEDLING.

A large culinary apple, of roundish shape, pale green color, with red
next the sun; and in use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ n.
335.


596. HOGSHEAD.

This is a small red fruit, the flesh is red, and the taste austere.
This is a cider apple, ripe in January, and keeps till March.--_Fors.
Treat._ 108.

There seems to be another variety known by this name, which is
described in the Horticultural Society’s Catalogue, as of a
greenish-yellow color, and ovate shape.


597. HOLLOW-EYED REINETTE.

This is a Cornish variety. It is a handsome flat-shaped apple, under
the middle size; of a greenish-yellow color, sometimes intermixed
with russet. This fruit is of an excellent flavor, and keeps till
April.--_Fors. Treat._ 107.


598. HOME’S LARGE.

A large culinary apple, of roundish shape, and striped with red; it is
in use from October till December.--_H. S. C._ n. 342.


599. HORSLIN.

A dessert apple of medium size, and second-rate quality; it is of an
ovate shape, pale yellow color, and is in use during November, and
December.--_H. S. C._ p. 20.


600. HOUSE.

 SYNONYME.--Grey House.

A small cider apple, of an oval shape, green on the shaded side, and
red on the other; it is in use in January.--_H. S. C._ n. 344.


601. HOW’S PIPPIN.

A dessert apple, of medium size, and second-rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, skin covered with russet, and in use from October till
December.--_H. S. C._ n. 345.


602. HUBBARDSTON NONESUCH.

A fine large early winter fruit, which originated in the town of
Hubbardstone, Massachusetts, and is of first-rate quality. The tree is
a vigorous grower, forming a handsome branching head, and bears very
large crops. It is worthy of extensive orchard culture.

Fruit, large, roundish-oblong, much narrower near the eye. Skin,
smooth, striped with splashes, and irregular broken stripes of pale,
and bright red, which nearly cover a yellowish ground. The calyx, open,
and the stalk short, in a russeted hollow. Flesh, yellow, juicy, and
tender, with an agreeable mingling of sweetness, and acidity in its
flavor. October to January.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 113.


603. HULBERT’S PRINCESS ROYAL.

A seedling from the Golden Harvey, but larger; flesh more tender, and
equally rich. It is a small dessert apple, of first-rate quality; and
ripe in May.--_Riv. Cat._


604. HULBERT’S VICTORIA.

A rich and excellent dessert apple, of small size, first-rate quality,
and in use from April till May.--_Riv. Cat._


605. HUNT’S ROYAL NONPAREIL.

Of medium size, roundish and somewhat flattened. Skin, yellowish-green,
marked with russet. Flesh, rich, sugary, and highly flavored. This is
said to be quite distinct from Hunt’s Duke of Gloucester, with which
Lindley makes it synonymous.--_Maund Fruit._ 25.


606. HUNTINGFORD.

A medium sized culinary apple, of conical shape, and very bright red
color; it is in use from January till April.--_H. S. C._ p. 20.


607. HUTCHINSON’S SPOTTED.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality, it is of an oblate shape;
skin, yellow on the shaded side, and red next the sun; in use during
November and December.--_H. S. C._ n. 349.


608. INCOMPARABLE.

A large kitchen apple of a roundish and flattened shape, prominently
ribbed on the sides, skin, greenish-yellow, it is ripe in October.--_H.
S. C._ n. 351.


609. IRON APPLE.

A small apple of second-rate quality, suitable either for kitchen or
dessert use, it is of a green and brownish color, and keeps for twelve
months.--_H. S. C._ p. 21.


610. IVES’S SEEDLING.

A culinary apple of the middle size, and second-rate quality; it is of
a roundish shape, striped with red, and is in use from November till
January.--_H. S. C._ p. 21.


611. JACK CADE.

A variety met with in some of the Carse of Gowrie orchards. The fruit
is very acid, would do for cider, or for giving pungency to tarts.--_M.
C. H. S._ iv. 473.


612. JACKSON’S PIPPIN.

 SYNONYME.--Middleton Pippin.

A small early apple, but only of third-rate quality, it is of a
roundish-oblate shape, yellow color, and is ripe in August.--_H. S. C._
p. 21.


613. JEFFREYS’S SEEDLING.

A variety raised by Jeffreys, of the Brompton Park nursery, nearly a
hundred years ago. It is a large kitchen apple, of oblate shape, yellow
color, and is in use from October till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 363.


614. JENNY SINCLAIR.

A Scotch dessert apple, of medium size, roundish shape, and
brownish-red color.--_H. S. C._ p. 21.


615. JERSEY.

A small cider apple, of conical shape, red color, and in use during
November and December. A bitter-sweet.--_H. S. C._ p. 21.


616. JOHN APPLE.

A small cider apple, of first-rate quality, it is pearmain-shaped;
skin, greenish-yellow on the shaded side, and brownish-red next the
sun; it is in use from December till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 366.


617. JONATHAN.

The Jonathan is a very beautiful dessert apple, and its great beauty,
good flavor, vigorous growth, and productiveness, unite to recommend it
to orchard planters.

Fruit, of medium size; regularly formed, roundish-ovate or tapering to
the eye. Skin, thin and smooth, the ground clear light yellow, nearly
covered by lively red stripes, and deepening into brilliant, or dark
red in the sun. Stalk, three-fourths of an inch long, rather slender,
inserted in a deep regular cavity. Calyx, set in a deep, rather broad
basin. Flesh, white, rarely a little pinkish, very tender and juicy,
with a mild sprightly flavor. This fruit evidently belongs to the
Spitzemburgh class. November to March. The original tree is growing on
the farm of Mr. Philip Rick, of Kingston, New-York.--_Down. Fr. Amer._
113.


618. JORDBAERAEBLE.

A Danish variety, of medium size, and for dessert use. It is of an
ovate shape, striped with red, and is ripe during August and September.
_H. S. C._ n. 369.


619. KANTET JORDBAERAEBLE.

A Danish variety, for kitchen use. It is round, with prominent ribs on
the sides, and of a red color.--_H. S. C._ n. 370.


620. KEDDLESTON PIPPIN.

A Derbyshire table apple, of middle size, straw-color, slightly
russeted, of a globular shape, rather pointed towards the eye, it is a
highly flavored juicy fruit, and has the peculiar property of keeping
in perfection from October till January. The tree grows well and bears
freely.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 26, pl. xiii. f. 7.


621. KENTISH CODLIN.

A large kitchen apple, of first-rate quality, it is of a conical shape,
greenish-yellow color, and is ripe during August and September.--_H. S.
C._ n. 157.


622. KERNEL PEARMAIN.

This is a small handsome apple, red towards the sun, and of a
yellowish-green, mixed with red on the other side. It is of a good
flavor, and keeps till the middle of May.--_Fors. Treat._ 109.


623. KENRICK’S AUTUMN.

 SYNONYME.--Kenrick’s Red Autumn.

A handsome apple, of second quality. Fruit, large, roundish, much
flattened at the base. Stalk, long, projecting beyond the fruit a
good deal, set in a close cavity. Skin, pale yellowish-green, striped
and stained with bright red. Flesh, white, a little stained with red,
tender, juicy, and of a sprightly acid flavor. September.--_Down. Fr.
Amer._ 87.

This variety originated on the farm of John Kenrick, Esq., in Newton,
Massachusetts.


624. KERNEL RED STREAK.

This is of a greenish-yellow, with broad streaks of a dark red all over
it, and a yellow ground finely speckled with red next the sun.--_Fors.
Treat._ 109.


625. KESTON PIPPIN.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of round shape,
red and yellow color, and in use from October till December.--_H. S.
C._ p. 22.


626. KILKENNY CODLIN.

A large culinary apple, of first-rate quality. It is of a round shape,
yellow color, and is ripe during August and September.--_H. S. C._ n.
159.


627. KING HARRY.

A middle sized dessert apple, of first-rate quality. It is
pearmain-shaped, with a russety skin; and is in use from November till
January.--_H. S. C._ n. 382.


628. KING ROBERT.

A Scotch apple, cultivated in some orchards of the Carse of Gowrie, but
not commonly met with. It is a good bearer.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


629. KING WILLIAM.

Raised from Dumelow’s Seedling. Large, conical, yellow, dotted with
russet; a most excellent culinary variety, in use from October till
April.--_Mid. Flor._


630. KIRKE’S GOLDEN PIPPIN.

 SYNONYMES.--New Golden Pippin; New Cluster Golden Pippin; Dredge’s
 Golden Pippin.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality, roundish shape, and
yellow color. It is in use from December till March. A great bearer,
but inferior in quality to the Golden Pippin.--_H. S. C._ n. 286.


631. KIRTON PIPPIN.

 SYNONYME.--Cracked Pippin.

This is a middle sized apple, of a greenish-yellow color, with little
dark spots. The coat is generally rough towards the footstalk. This is
a good apple for the table, and comes into eating in September.--_Fors.
Treat._ 111.


632. KNIGHT’S LARGE.

A large culinary apple, of roundish shape, yellow on the shaded side,
and red next the sun; it is in use during September and October.--_H.
S. C._ n. 387.


633. KNIGHT’S LEMON PIPPIN.

A medium sized apple, of first-rate quality, suitable either for
culinary use, or the dessert. It is of a roundish shape, yellow color,
and is in use from November till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 407.


634. KNOTTED KERNEL.

A small cider apple of ovate shape, and striped with red; it is in use
during October and November.--_H. S. C._ n. 379.


635. KNOTTED NORMAN.

A medium sized cider apple, of roundish shape, striped with red, and in
use from December till February.--_H. S. C._ p. 28.


636. KÖNIGS REINETTE.

 SYNONYME.--Reinette Dorée Royale.

A very beautiful, long-keeping, dessert apple, it is oblate and ribbed
on the sides, and round the eye like a Calville, and rather above
medium size, being three inches wide, and two and a half high. The
skin, when ripe, is of a fine lemon-color, with a fine blood-red cheek
on one side. The flesh is yellowish-white, very fine, firm, and very
juicy, with a rich, vinous, and sugary flavor. It ripens in December,
and continues throughout the summer, without shrivelling.--_Diel
Kernobst._ ii. B. 127.


637. KRAPPE KRUIN.

A middle sized culinary apple, of first-rate quality; it is of conical
shape, and covered with russet; and is in use from October till
March.--_H. S. C._ n. 390.


638. KRÄUTER REINETTE.

A medium sized, very valuable, and highly flavored German dessert
apple. It is two inches high, and two and a half broad; roundish.
The skin is tender and smooth, pale bright green when on the tree,
but changing during winter, to a beautiful rich yellow, with a little
green intermixed. Eye, half open, set in a wide, deep, saucer-like
basin. Stalk, an inch long, woody, but sometimes fleshy, inserted in a
deep cavity, lined with fine russet. Flesh, white, very fine, juicy,
marrowy, and with a powerful aromatic and sugary flavor. Ripe in
December and continues in use during the whole of the summer.--_Diel
Kernobst._ xi. 114.


639. KRIZAPFEL.

A Russian apple, somewhat transparent. It is of medium size,
second-rate quality, and suitable for the dessert; its form is conical,
the skin, pale green, and is in use during December.--_H. S. C._ n. 391.


640. LADIES’ SWEETING.

The Ladies’ Sweeting, we consider the finest winter sweet apple for
the dessert, yet known or cultivated in this country (America.) Its
handsome appearance, delightful perfume, sprightly flavor, and the long
time in which it remains in perfection, render it universally admired
wherever it is known, and no garden should be without it.

The fruit is large, roundish-ovate. Skin, very smooth, covered with
red next the sun, but pale yellowish-green in the shade, with broken
stripes of pale red. Flesh, greenish-white, exceeding tender, juicy,
and crisp, with a delicious, sprightly, agreeably perfumed flavor.
Keeps without shrivelling, or losing its flavor till May.--_Down. Fr.
Amer._ 136.


641. LADY LENNOX.

Large and handsome, lemon-colored, pale red next the sun, and striped
with deeper red. An excellent culinary apple, in use from November till
April. It was raised from the Rymer, and is a favorite variety in the
neighbourhood of Nottingham.--_Mid. Flor._


642. LADY LOUISA PIPPIN.

A small apple, of inferior quality, oblate shape, and pale yellow
color, it is in use during December.--_H. S. C._ p. 23.


643. LADY OF THE WEMYSS.

A large and handsome Scotch apple, of first-rate quality, suitable
either for culinary or dessert use, it is of a roundish shape, pale
green on the shaded side, but red next the sun; and is in use from
October till January. The tree is hardy, and a good bearer.--_Laws.
Cat._


644. LANCASHIRE GAP.

 SYNONYME.--Shireling.

A medium sized culinary apple, of oblate shape, yellow color, and in
use from November till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 393.


645. LANCASHIRE WITCH.

A handsome culinary apple of medium size, and second-rate quality; it
is of an oblate shape, yellow on the shaded side, but red towards the
sun; and is in season from October to December.--_H. S. C._ n. 394.


646. DE LANDE.

 SYNONYME--Fleur de Prairial.

A large culinary apple of oblong shape, striped with red, and in use
during September and October.--_H. S. C._ n. 395.


647. LARGE LEADINGTON.

A large kitchen apple, of oblong shape, and green color.--_H. S. C._ n.
402.


648. LAWMAN’S.

A medium sized dessert apple of second-rate quality, it is of an ovate
shape, yellow color, with brownish-red towards the sun; and is in use
from March till June.--_H. S. C._ n. 399.


649. LAWRENCE’S NEW WHITE PIPPIN.

A medium sized apple, of second-rate quality, conical shape, pale green
color, and in use from December till February.--_H. S. C._ p. 23.


650. LEITHEIMER STREIFLING.

 SYNONYME.--Kaiserheimer.

Fruit, large, three inches high, and the same broad; somewhat conical.
Skin, shining, bright green, which changes when ripening to deep
lemon-yellow, covered all over with shining carmine, which is darker
on the side next the sun, and paler on the shaded side; on this red
there are beautiful crimson stripes, which are dazzling to the eyes.
Eye, closed, set in a wide, deep, and much ribbed basin. Stalk, three
quarters of an inch long, inserted in a narrow, deep, and russety
cavity. Flesh, beautiful white, somewhat redish, very fine, but not
juicy, and of a rich, aromatic, sweet, and vinous flavor. Ripe in
December and continues during the spring and summer.--_Diel Kernobst._
viii. 186.


651. LEMON APPLE.

A medium sized, second-rate dessert apple, it is of roundish shape,
yellow color, and is in use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ p.
23.

This is not the same as the _Lemon Pippin_.--_H._


652. LEYDEN PIPPIN.

A good early dessert apple, of medium size, and first-rate quality,
resembling the White Astrachan. It is of a roundish-shape; skin, pale
green, with red towards the sun; ripe during August and September. The
tree is a great bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 408.


653. LITTLE BEAUTY.

This is a small table apple, spherical, a little flattened; yellow with
a brownish tinge on the sun side, and sprinkled with dark points, it is
of a rich flavor, but rather dry. The tree grows upright, and bears so
abundantly, as sometimes to cause barrenness the succeeding season.

The fruit has the peculiar good quality of adhering so firmly to the
branches, that the wind scarcely ever dislodges it. It will keep
through the winter, and is well worth cultivating.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._
25, pl. xiii. f. 5.


654. LITTLE HERBERT.

A variety cultivated in the districts round Gloucester, it is a small,
round apple, of a brown russety color, and though not of a first-rate
quality, is a good flavored dessert fruit. The tree is a shy bearer. In
use from December till February.--_H._


655. LITTLE HOLLOW CROWN.

 SYNONYME.--Diepe Kopjis.

A small apple, of second-rate quality, oval shape, yellow color, and in
use during November and December.--_H. S. C._ p. 23.


656. LOCK’S SEEDLING.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of an ovate
shape, striped with red, and in use during December and January.--_H.
S. C._ p. 23.


657. LONG LASTER.

This is a middle sized apple, of an angular shape, and fine yellow
color, with a beautiful red next the sun. It is of a tolerable flavor,
and keeps till the middle of May, but is apt to be meally.--_Fors.
Treat._ 112.


658. LONG SEAM.

This is a large angular-shaped baking apple, of a pretty good flavor,
and light green color; it keeps till the latter end of January--_Fors.
Treat._ 113.


659. LORD BATEMAN’S DUMPLING,

A large kitchen apple, of conical shape, yellow color, and in use from
November till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 412.


660. LORD CHENEY’S GREEN.

This is a middle sized Yorkshire apple, resembling the Yorkshire
Greening; it is of a dark green color, with a little of a chocolate
color next the sun. This is a baking apple, and keeps till the middle
of May.--_Fors. Treat._ 113.


661. LUCAS’S PIPPIN.

This is a handsome, middle sized, cylindrical-shaped apple; and of a
beautiful orange color. A pretty good fruit, and keeps till the latter
end of April.--_Fors. Treat._ 113.


662. MACBETH.

A Scotch variety found in the Carse of Gowrie orchards, but rare. The
tree is a good bearer.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 474.


663. MACLEAN.

A variety grown in the Carse of Gowrie orchards. The tree gets diseased
when old, requires to be planted in ground new to fruit trees; fruit
keeps well, of excellent quality, and weighs exceedingly heavy.--_M. C.
H. S._ iv. 472.


664. MACLEAN’S FAVORITE.

A variety of the highest excellence as a dessert fruit, it is of medium
size, and roundish shape; skin, of a yellow color; and in use from
October till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 419.


665. MAGGIE DUNCAN.

A Scotch apple, grown in the orchards of the Carse of Gowrie. Tree
an excellent bearer; a valuable orchard apple, though not commonly
cultivated; fruit, very sweet.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 474.


666. MAIDEN.

A Scotch apple, raised by Mr. Brown, of the Perth nursery. Tree, an
excellent bearer; fruit, very acid; but one of the best kitchen apples
that grows, does not keep well.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 474.


667. MALTSTER.

A Nottinghamshire apple, for kitchen use. It is a very fine variety,
and is in use just before the late-keeping kinds. The tree is a great
bearer, and a free grower.--_Mid. Flor._


668. MANSFIELD TART.

This is a large Nottingham apple, but most known in Yorkshire. It is
handsome, and of a green color, having a little cast of a brownish-red
with, dark spots next the sun. A baking apple and keeps till February.
_Fors. Treat._ 114.


669. MARGATE NONPAREIL.

This very much resembles the Nonpareil in size, in shape, and even
in color, except that the yellow predominates over the green, more
than in the Nonpareil. The flesh is yellowish, intermixed with green,
juicy, rich, and high flavored. It will keep six weeks in perfection,
and is an excellent intermediate fruit, between the summer and winter
Nonpareils. It was raised by John Boys, Esq., in his garden, at
Margate, from seed of the Old Nonpareil.--_Hort. Trans._ v. 268.


670. MARMORIRTER SOMMERPEPPING.

A medium sized, ovate, culinary apple, of second-rate quality; it is
red and striped, and is ripe in September.--_H. S. C._ n. 430.


671. MARYGOLD PIPPIN.

A medium sized apple of inferior quality, it is of an ovate shape,
yellow color, and in use during October and November.--_H. S. C._ p. 25.


672. MASTERS’S SEEDLING.

A good Kentish apple, in use from November till February. The fruit
is above the middle size, and of a regular round shape; color dark
green, tinged with red on one side, but yellow when ripe, the pulp is
very firm, and charged with a fine, agreeable, acid juice. The tree is
of robust growth, hardy, and not liable to blight, and well deserves
the character of being a first-rate bearer, of the first class in the
orchard.--_Rog. Fr. Cult._ 52.


673. MASON’S WHITE.

 SYNONYME.--Mason’s Early.

A medium sized early dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of a
conical shape, pale yellow color, and is ripe during August--_H. S. C._
n. 432.


674. MASSAVIS.

 SYNONYME.--Pomme d’Italie.

A small cider apple, of ovate shape, and green color, with brown
towards the sun, the tree is a good bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 433.


675. MAY GENNET.

This is rather under the middle size, of a greenish-yellow color,
slightly streaked with red next the sun. This apple keeps till
April.--_Fors. Treat._ 114.


676. MENONISTEN REINETTE.

A very beautiful, and important German dessert apple; it is above the
middle size, and of a roundish flattened shape, the skin is yellow,
with a dark flush on the side next the sun, and considerably marked
with russet. The flesh is very fine, firm, and juicy, and of a very
good aromatic, and vinous flavor. Ripe in December and continues during
the spring.--_Diel Kernobst._ x. 169.


677. MERMAID.

A Scotch apple, cultivated in the orchards of the Carse of Gowrie, but
is not common. The fruit keeps well, and is of good quality.--_M. C. H.
S._ iv. 474.


678. MERVEILLE DE PORTLAND.

A medium sized culinary apple of inferior quality, it is of a conical
shape, yellow color, and in use from January till April.--_H. S. C._ p.
25.


679. MICHAEL HENRY PIPPIN.

A New Jersey fruit, a native of Monmouth county, first described
by Coxe, and highly esteemed in many parts of the middle states of
America. It is of medium size, roundish-oblong, or ovate, somewhat
like the Newtown Pippin. Skin, of a lively green color. Flesh,
yellow, tender, juicy, and high flavored; In use from November till
March.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 118.


680. DE MICHE.

A small cider apple, of ovate shape, yellow color, and ripe in
December.--_H. S. C._ p. 25.


681. MILLER’S GLORY.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an ovate
shape, striped with red, and in use during December and January.--_H.
S. C._ n. 438.


682. MOGG’S LONG KEEPER.

A middle sized cider apple, of an oblate shape, striped with red, and
in use from January till March.--_H. S. C._ p. 24.


683. MOLLET’S GUERNSEY PIPPIN.

This is a small dessert fruit, of second-rate quality, resembling the
Golden Harvey. It is of an oblate shape, yellow color; the flesh is
yellow, crisp, juicy, and very highly flavored; in use from December
till February.--_Hort. Trans._ iv. 524.


684. MOORHEN PIPPIN.

A dessert apple, in high estimation in Hampshire. It is of middle size,
pea-green color, varigated with scarlet blotching, and some russet;
firm in substance, and rich in flavor, keeps well till April. A great
bearer, and grows well.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 64, pl. xxxii. f. 7.


685. MONSTROUS LEADINGTON.

 SYNONYME.--Green Codlin.

This is a very large fruit, and of first-rate quality for kitchen use,
its shape is oblong, and the color green; it is in use from October
till January. The tree is a good bearer, healthy, and rather large;
fruit keeps well.--_H. S. C._ n. 403.


686. MONSTROUS RENNET.

This is a very large apple, of an oblong shape, turning red towards the
sun, and of a dark green on the other side. It is generally preserved
on account of its magnitude, as the flesh is apt to be meally. It
ripens in October.--_Fors. Treat._ 115.


687. MORDEN BLOOM.

A medium sized kitchen apple of inferior quality, it is of an
oblate shape, yellow and red color, and ripens during August and
September.--_H. S. C._ p. 25.


688. MORDEN ROUND.

A small dessert apple of third-rate quality, it is round and handsome,
of a yellow color, and russeted, keeps from December till March.--_H.
S. C._ n. 445.


689. MORDEN STRIPED.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of second-rate quality, it is of a
roundish shape, striped with red, and in use from November till
January.--_H. S. C._ n. 446.


690. MOSS’S INCOMPARABLE.

A large apple of first-rate quality, either as a dessert or culinary
fruit. It is a very late keeper, being in use from April till
June.--_Riv. Cat._


691. MOTHER APPLE.

A small cider apple of ovate shape, yellow color, and in use in
December. A bitter sweet.--_H. S. C._ n. 448.


692. MOTHER RENNET.

This is rather under the middle size, of a greenish color, with a
little blush towards the sun, the eye is large and deep, and the
footstalk is small.--_Fors. Treat._ 115.


693. MOUNT STEWART.

A large kitchen apple, of oblate shape, green on one side, and red on
the other, and in use from November till January.--_H. S. C._ p. 26.


694. MOULIN À VENT.

A medium sized cider apple, of ovate shape, yellow color, and in use
during December.--_H. S. C._ n. 449.


695. MOUSE APPLE.

An American variety which originated in Ulster county, on the west
bank of the Hudson. It is there one of the most popular winter fruits,
being considered by some superior to the Rhode Island Greening, and it
deserves extensive trial elsewhere.

Fruit, light in weight; in size large; roundish-oblong, or slightly
conical. Skin, pale greenish-yellow when ripe, with a brownish blush on
one side, marked with a few russety grey dots. Stalk, three quarters
of an inch long, rather slender, not deeply inserted. Calyx, closed,
and set in a narrow basin, slightly plaited at the bottom. Flesh,
very white, and fine-grained, and moderately juicy, with a sprightly,
delicate, and faintly perfumed flavor.--_Down Fr. Amer._ 117.


696. MOXHAY PIPPIN.

A small apple of inferior quality, it is of a conical shape, pale
yellow color, and is ripe in October.--_H. S. C._ p. 26.


697. MUNSTER PIPPIN.

A large kitchen apple, it is of a conical shape, pale green color, and
in use from October till January.--_H. S. C._ p. 26.


698. MURPHY.

This is an agreeable, pearmain-flavored apple, strongly resembling
indeed the Blue Pearmain. It is a seedling raised by Mr. D. Murphy,
of Salem, Massachusetts. Fruit, pretty large, roundish-oblong. Skin,
pale red, streaked with darker red, and marked with blotches of the
same color. Calyx, set in a narrow basin. Flesh, white, tender, with an
agreeable, rather rich flavor. November to February.--_Down. Fr. Amer._
118.


699. MUSCAT REINETTE.

 SYNONYME.--Reinette Musquée.

This is a middle sized, exquisite, and valuable German dessert apple.
It is of a somewhat conical shape. The skin is of a beautiful yellow
color, covered over two thirds of its surface with dark crimson
stripes. The flesh is yellowish-white, juicy, and of an exquisite,
rich, aromatic, and sugary flavor, like a mixture of musk, and anise.
Ripens in November, and keeps till the summer.--_Diel Kernobst._ iii.
169.


700. MY JOE JANET.

A Scotch apple, cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie orchards. The tree is
a good bearer; and the fruit of fine quality.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


701. NEWARK KING.

This is an American dessert apple, of the middle size, and second-rate
quality. It is of a pearmain-shape, green color on the shaded side, and
red towards the sun; it is in use from November till February.--_H. S.
C._ n. 455


702. NEWARK PIPPIN.

 SYNONYMES.--French Pippin; Yellow Pippin, _of the Americans_.

A handsome and very excellent early winter variety, easily known by the
crooked, irregular growth of the tree, and the drooping habit of the
branches.

The fruit is large, roundish-oblong. Skin, greenish-yellow, becoming
a fine yellow when fully ripe, with clusters of small black dots, and
rarely a very faint blush. Calyx, in a regular and rather deep basin.
Stalk, moderately long, and deeply inserted. Flesh, yellow, tender,
very rich, juicy, and highly flavored. November to February.--_Down.
Fr. Amer._ 121.


703. NEW ENGLAND PIPPIN.

A large angular-shaped apple, of a green color, with a little
brownish-red towards the sun. It has a pretty good flavor, and keeps
till March.--_Fors. Treat._ 115.


704. NEW HAWTHORNDEN.

A large culinary apple, of first-rate quality; in use during December
and January. The fruit is larger, and keeps longer than the old sort,
habit of the tree more robust.--_Riv. Cat._


705. NEW NORTHERN GREENING.

A round green apple, of the largest size, said to be a decided
improvement on the Northern Greening, from which it was raised. It is
in use from November till April. Cultivated about Nottingham. Tree a
great bearer.--_Mid. Flor._


706. NEW POMEROY.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an
ovate shape, covered with russet, and in use during November and
December.--_H. S. C._ n. 591.


707. NEW REINETTE GRISE.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality. It is of an oblate shape;
skin yellow, covered with russet; in use from January till March. Tree
a good bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 668.


708. NEW WOODCOCK.

A medium sized cider apple, of roundish shape, striped with red, and in
use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ n. 882.


709. NINE PARTNER’S LITTLE RUSSET.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality. It is of an oval shape,
green color covered with russet, in use from January till May.--_H. S.
C._ n. 745.


710. NINE SQUARE.

A Gloucestershire apple. This is a large angular-shaped fruit, of a
fine red towards the sun, and yellow on the other side, with a mixture
of red. Keeps till April.--_Fors. Treat._ 116.


711. NOBLESSE DE GAND.

A large sauce apple, straw-colored, without stripes, nearly globular,
but contracted towards the eye. It is a firm weighty fruit, rich in
flavor, with a due proportion of acid. A very excellent new sort, in
use January and February.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 49, pl. xxv. f. 2.


712. NONSUCH PARK.

A small dessert apple, resembling the Golden Pippin, and of first-rate
quality, it is of a roundish shape, yellow color, and is in use from
November till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 494.


713. NORMAN GLASBURY.

A small, ovate, pale yellow apple, for cider use.--_H. S. C._ n. 270.


714. NORMAN STYRE.

A small cider apple, of a round shape, pale yellow and red color, and
in use from October till December.--_H. S. C._ p. 28.


715. NORMANDY PIPPIN.

A medium sized cider apple, of a roundish shape, the skin is yellow on
the shaded side, and brownish-red next the sun.--_H. S. C._ p. 28.


716. NORTHERN SPY.

A very large, handsome, and excellent new American fruit, of the
Spitzemburgh family, which has lately attracted a good deal of notice.
It keeps remarkably well, and is in eating from December till May, and
commands the highest price. The tree is of a rapid and upright growth,
and bears well. It is of a conical shape, and the skin is nearly
covered with dark red, and streaked with purple.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 120.


717. NOTTINGHAM.

A medium sized kitchen apple of second-rate quality; it is of an ovate
shape, yellow color, and in use from November till January.--_H. S. C._
p. 28.


718. OAK PEG.

 SYNONYME.--Oaken Pin.

This is an oval shaped, middle sized fruit, of a green color, striped
with white. It is very full towards the footstalk, which is small; it
keeps till June.--_Fors. Treat._ 118.


719. OAKS.

A medium sized conical apple, of inferior quality; it is striped with
red, and is in use from November till February.--_H. S. C._ p. 28.


720. OCHILTREE.

A large and handsome Scotch dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it is
roundish, pale green and red color. It is in use from September till
March.--_Laws. Cat._


721. OGNON.

A medium sized apple, of second-rate quality, oblate shape, green and
red color; in use during January.--_H. S. C._ n. 503.


722. OLD PARK PIPPIN.

A small ovate apple, of inferior quality, of a green and red color, in
use from November till January. _H. S. C._ p. 28.


723. OLIVER’S.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, yellow color, covered with russet, and in use from
December till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 504.


724. ORANGE.

A middle sized kitchen apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, yellow color, and in use during October.--_H. S. C._ p.
28.


725. ORACK ELMA.

A Persian apple. It is a large dessert fruit, of second-rate quality,
of an oblate shape, red color, and in use during October.--_H. S. C._
n. 505.


726. ORME.

A middle sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of
an oblate shape, pale green color, and in use from February till
April.--_H. S. C._ n. 508.


727. PACK-HORSE.

A medium sized dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it is of a
roundish shape; skin, yellow on the shaded side, and red next the sun;
in use from November till March.--_H. S. C._ n. 515.


728. PAINTED LADY.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a
roundish shape, striped with red, and in use during October and
November.--_H. S. C._ p. 29.


729. PANSON’S PEARMAIN.

A medium sized apple of second-rate quality; suitable either for
dessert use or for cider. It is of a pearmain shape, green on
the shaded side, red next the sun, and in use from December till
March.--_H. S. C._ n. 553.


730. PARMENTIER.

A medium sized apple, of first-rate quality, suitable either for
dessert use, or culinary purposes. It is of a conical shape, and
the skin is covered with russet, it is in season from November till
April.--_H. S. C._ n. 523.


731. PARSONAGE PIPPIN.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of an oblate
shape, the skin is striped with red, and it is in season during
November.--_H. S. C._ p. 29.


732. PEAR APPLE.

A small cider apple, of inferior quality; it is of an obovate shape;
skin, green, and in use in November.--_H. S. C._ n. 528.


733. PEARMAIN, BLUE.

The Blue Pearmain is a large and very showy fruit, and is therefore
popular in the New-England markets. The numerous large, russety,
yellow dots, which are sprinkled over the skin, and the bloom which
overspreads it, mark this apple.

Fruit, of the largest size, roundish, regularly formed, very slightly
conical. Skin, striped, and blotched with dark purplish-red, over
a dull ground, and appearing bluish from the white bloom. Flesh,
yellowish, mild, rather rich and good. October to February.--_Down. Fr.
Amer._ 122.


734. PECKMAN OR PICKMAN.

A fruit of a globular form, and a straw color; its flavor combined with
a good portion of acidity, is very rich and good. A winter fruit, fine
for the table, or for cooking. A good fruit, and very productive, and
deserving of cultivation.

This is much cultivated by Mr. Ware, at, or near Salem, Massachusetts,
who thinks it a native.--_Ken. Amer. Or._ 50.


735. PENNOCK’S RED WINTER.

 SYNONYMES.--Pennock’s Large Red Winter; Pennock’s Red.

A large kitchen apple, of an oblate shape. Skin, green on the shaded
side, and red next the sun. It is in use from November till March, and
not apt to shrivel.--_H. S. C._ n. 570.

This is a native of Pennsylvania, and is there esteemed an excellent
baking apple.


736. PEPIN STEUCHAL.

A medium sized dessert apple, of first-rate quality. It is of an
ovate shape, the skin striped with red, and in use from November till
January.--_H. S. C._ n. 578.


737. PERMANENT.

A large and excellent variety, roundish and ribbed, yellowish-green,
with dingy red next the sun. A good keeper, in use from January till
June. This was raised from the Keswick Codlin, impregnated with
Dumelow’s Seedling. It is cultivated about Nottingham--_Mid. Flor._


738. PETWORTH SEEDLING.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality. It is of a
roundish shape. Skin, green, covered with brownish-red; in use from
November till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 580.


739. PITMASTON NONPAREIL RUSSET.

 SYNONYME.--Russet Coated Nonpariel.

A small dessert apple of first-rate quality. It is of an oblate shape.
Skin, covered with russet; in use from December till February. Not
handsome, but exceedingly rich, and brisk flavored.--_H. S. C._ p. 39.


740. PITMINSTER CRAB.

A small cider apple, of inferior quality, it is of an ovate shape.
Skin, striped with red, and is in use from November till December.--_H.
S. C._ p. 32.


741. POMME POIRE.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality, but not so good as the
Old Nonpareil, which it resembles. It is of a roundish shape. Skin,
covered with russet, and in use from January till May.--_H. S. C._ n.
589.


742. POOR MAN’S PROFIT.

This is a dingy colored, oval-shaped apple, below the middle size. It
is raised freely from cuttings, and keeps till January.--_Fors. Treat._
121.


743. PORTE TULIPÉE.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, yellow and brown color, and ripe in November.--_H. S. C._
n. 595.


744. PORTER.

A first-rate New England fruit, raised by the Rev. S. Porter, of
Sherburne, Mass. and deservedly a great favorite in the Boston market.
The fruit is remarkably fair, and the tree is very productive. It
is rather large, oblong, narrowing to the eye. Skin, clear, glossy,
bright yellow, and when exposed, with a dull blush next the sun. Flesh,
fine-grained, and abounding with juice, of a sprightly agreeable
flavor. Ripens in September, and deserves general cultivation.--_Down.
Fr. Amer._ 92.


745. POUND.

A very large and showy fruit, but of very indifferent quality; and not
worth cultivation, where better sorts are to be had.

The fruit is roundish-oblong, striped with red, on a dull
greenish-yellow ground. The stalk short, and deeply inserted.
The flesh, yellowish-green, and without much flavor. October to
January.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 127.


746. POUND PIPPIN.

This is a large handsome apple, of a greenish color, and is good for
baking. It is ripe in January.--_Fors. Treat._ 121.


747. POWNAL SPITZEMBERG.

So named from its native place, and its resemblance to the Esopus
Spitzemberg. It is a very superior winter fruit.--_Ken. Amer. Or._ 51.

This is an American variety.--_H._


748. PRIESTLEY.

 SYNONYME.--Priestley’s American.

A large spicy-flavored apple, of second-rate quality, suitable either
for kitchen or dessert use. It is of a roundish-oblong shape, yellow
and red color, and in use from December till April.--_Down. Fr. Amer._
126.


749. PRINCE ROYAL.

A medium sized apple, of inferior quality; oblate shape, and striped
with red, it is in use from December till January--_H. S. C._ p. 32.


750. PRYOR’S RED.

A native of Virginia. The fruit is very large; color, brownish-red; its
flesh at maturity, juicy, and very fine. A winter fruit.--_Ken. Amer.
Or._ 59.


751. QUATFORD AROMATIC.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality, with a rich aromatic
flavor. It is ripe in December.--_Riv. Cat._


752. QUEEN CHARLOTTE.

 SYNONYME.--Queen; Boatswain’s Pippin.

A large sort of Crab, of inferior quality; it is of a conical shape,
green on one side, and red on the other.--_H. S. C._ n. 605.


753. RAMBOUR.

 SYNONYME--Rambour Franc d’Hiver.

A large oblate culinary apple, of second-rate quality. It is of a green
color on the shaded side, and red next the sun; in use from October
till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 614.


754. RANGÉ.

A kitchen apple of medium size, and second-rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, red color, and in use from November till February.--_H.
S. C._ n. 616.


755. RATHER RIPE.

This is a small summer apple, it is roundish, and flattened, of a
yellow color, and second-rate quality as a dessert fruit, and is ripe
in August.--_H. S. C._ n. 620.


756. RAWLE’S JANETT.

A native of Virginia. The form is globular, flattened at the summit
and base; the color red and green; flesh very fragrant, more juicy,
and of superior flavor to the Newtown Pippin, and keeps equally as
well.--_Ken. Amer. Or._ 59.


757. RED AISLE.

A variety cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie; it is a rare sort; an
inferior bearer, but pretty.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


758. RED BAG.

This is a beautiful large Herefordshire apple, of a longish shape,
streaked all over with a dark red; and is in eating about the middle of
October.--_Fors. Treat._ 123.


759. RED COAT.

A variety cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie. It is not a common sort,
and is very pretty.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


760. RED FULWOOD.

A large, spreading, graceful tree, full of leaf and vigor, the giant
of the Carse of Gowrie orchards; bears very great loads of fruit every
second year; fruit beautiful.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


761. RED LANGLAST.

A variety grown in the orchards of the Carse of Gowrie. The tree is a
great bearer, middle sized; good quality of fruit.--_M. C. H. S._ iv.
473.


762. RED NORMAN.

A large and first-rate cider apple, it is of an ovate shape, yellow on
the shaded side, and brownish-red next the sun; in use in November. A
bitter-sweet.--_H. S. C._ n. 496.


763. RED SWEET PIPPIN.

An American apple, of medium size, and second-rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, red color, and in use from November till February.--_H.
S. C._ p. 34.


764. RED WINE.

A Scotch apple. Tree a good bearer, middle sized, becomes much knotted
when old, and rather unhealthy; a very valuable market apple.--_M. C.
H. S._ iv. 471.


765. REDDING’S NONPAREIL.

This is a small dessert apple, of first-rate quality, abounding in a
brisk flavor. It is roundish, the skin green, but very much covered
with russet; and is in use from December till March.--_H. S. C._ n. 479.


766. REINETTE BAUMANN.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality; of an oblate shape, and
red color; it is in use from December till March, and is not apt to
shrivel.--_H. S. C._ p. 34.


767. REINETTE BLANCHE.

A medium sized French dessert apple. It is roundish, inclining to
oblong. The skin very smooth, and when ripe, of a fine clear yellow,
with sometimes a faint blush of red, on the side next the sun. The
flesh is white, tender, and highly perfumed, very juicy and well
flavored. In use from December till March.--_Duh. Arb. Fruit._ i. 295.


768. REINETTE CALVILLÉE.

A middle sized valuable dessert fruit, inclining to oblong. The skin
is smooth, of a fine shining gold color when ripe, and with three or
four broad stripes of dull red, only on the part exposed to the sun.
Flesh, yellowish, tender, very fine, juicy, with a strong perfume, and
a flavor like that of Calville Blanche d’Hiver. It ripens in the end of
November and keeps three or four months.--_Diel Kernobst._ i. 130.


769. REINETTE DE CLAREVAL.

A medium sized, beautiful, and excellent French dessert apple, it is
oblate and roundish. The skin is smooth, tender, and of a fine deep
lemon color, and rarely with a tinge of red on the side next the
sun. Flesh, very fine, white, and yellowish, firm, juicy, and of an
aromatic, vinous, and sugary flavor. Ripens in December, and keeps
throughout the spring.--_Diel Kernobst._ xii. 111.


770. REINETTE DORÉE.

 SYNONYME.--Reinette Jaune Tardive.

A medium sized regularly formed apple, of a roundish and flattened
shape. Skin, smooth, of a beautiful deep golden yellow color, dotted
with grey dots, and with just a sufficient tinge of red next the sun,
as to heighten the color of the yellow. The flesh is white, firm, fine,
and fragrant; very juicy, sugary, and rich. It ripens in December, and
keeps during the spring.--_Duh. Arb. Fruit._ i. 293.


771. REINETTE DE DOUÉ.

A large culinary apple, of first-rate quality; in use from January till
May.--_Riv. Cat._


772. REINETTE GRISE D’ANGLETERRE PETITE.

A small dessert apple of first-rate quality; it is of an oblate
shape, and the skin covered with russet; in season from November till
January.--_H. S. C._ n. 664.


773. REINETTE GRISE DORÉE.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it resembles the Golden
Pippin, but keeps much longer.--_Riv. Cat._


774. REINETTE GRISE DE GRANVILLE.

A dessert apple of second size, and second-rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, skin yellow, and much covered with russet; in use from
December till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 667.


775. REINETTE GRISE DE HOLLANDE.

 SYNONYMES.--Reinette de Havre; Reinette de Hongrie.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a roundish
shape, skin very thickly coated with russet; and in use from November
till March.--_H. S. C._ p. 36.


776. REINETTE GROSSE D’ANGLETERRE.

 SYNONYME.--Pomme Madame.

A very large apple, suitable either for culinary purposes or the
dessert, but of only second-rate quality. It is of a roundish shape,
skin striped with red, and in use from December till February. It is
nearly as large as the Reinette de Canada, but of less merit.--_H. S.
C._ n. 670.


777. REINETTE JAUNE HÂTIVE.

 SYNONYMES.--Drap d’Or, _of some_. Reinette Grise d’Automne, _of some_.
 Reinette Marbrée, _of some_. Citron des Carmes.

A small, and second-rate dessert apple. It is of a roundish shape,
yellow color, covered with russet, and in use during November.--_H. S.
C._ n. 672.


778. REINETTE DE LAAK.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; roundish,
inclining to conical; skin, yellow on the shaded side, and red next the
sun; ripe in September. Tree a good bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 678.


779. REINETTE MICHAUX.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, yellow color, and in use during December.--_H. S. C._ n.
680.


780. REINETTE NAINE.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a
conical shape, skin, yellowish-green; in use from November till
February. The tree is a dwarf.--_H. S. C._ n. 682.


781. REINETTE DU NORD.

A second-rate dessert apple, of middle size, oval shape, and yellow
color. Will keep two years.--_H. S. C._ n. 683.


782. REINETTE D’ORLÉANS.

A pretty large, and very beautiful dessert fruit, of the first quality;
varying from roundish to oblong. Skin, of a fine deep yellow color,
with sometimes a few stripes of crimson, on the side exposed to the
sun. Flesh, yellowish, very fine, and juicy, marrowy, and of a high
sugary flavor, which is somewhat like that of a mixture of lemon acid.
It ripens in December, and continues in use during the whole of the
winter and spring.--_Diel Kernobst._ iii. 226.


783. REINETTE PICTÉE.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of third-rate quality, roundish shape,
and russety; in use during October.--_H. S. C._ n. 687.


784. REINETTE QUITTEN.

 SYNONYME.--Quince Reinette.

A medium sized apple, shaped like a quince. It is of an obvate shape,
skin yellow; a culinary fruit of second-rate quality; in use from
October till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 690.


785. REINETTE TRUITE.

 SYNONYME.--Reinette Tachetée; Forellen Reinette.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a
roundish shape. Skin, yellow, on the shaded side, with red and shining
crimson next the sun; in use during November and December, sugary, but
not very juicy.--_H. S. C._ n. 695.


786. REINETTE TRÈS TARDIVE.

A large apple of first-rate quality, suitable either for the dessert or
kitchen use; it is in use from January till June.--_Riv. Cat._


787. REINETTE DE VIGAN.

A medium sized apple, of first-rate quality; suitable either for
dessert or kitchen use; it is in use in May.--_Riv. Cat._


788. RIGBY’S PIPPIN.

A medium sized apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a roundish
shape, pale yellow on the shaded side, and red next the sun; and in use
from December till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 709.


789. RIVAL.

A variety grown in the Carse of Gowrie orchards. It is of excellent
quality, keeps well, and the tree is a good bearer.--_M. C. H. S._ iv.
473.


790. ROB ROY.

A medium sized culinary apple, of second-rate quality. It is of a
roundish shape, yellowish-green color, on the shaded side, and red next
the sun; in use from December till February.--_H. S. C._ n. 712.


791. RODMERSHAM PIPPIN.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a
roundish shape; yellow on the shaded side, and red next the sun; in use
from October till December.--_H. S. C._ p. 38.


792. ROMAINE.

A medium sized dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it is of a
roundish shape, yellow color; and in use in September.--_H. S. C._ n.
715.


793. ROMAN STEM.

This is not generally known out of New Jersey. It originated at
Burlington, in that State, and is much esteemed in that neighbourhood.
In flavor it belongs to the class of sprightly, pleasant apples, and
somewhat resembles the Yellow Bellefleur. Tree very productive.--_Down.
Fr. Amer._ 131.

It is a small dessert apple, of second-rate quality in this
country.--_H._


794. ROMRIL.

A medium sized apple of first-rate quality, either for cider or kitchen
use. It is of an oblate shape, pale yellow color, and in use from
November till February. The tree is a great bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 717.


795. ROSALIND.

A very old variety, known to exist in the Carse of Gowrie, but it is
very rare.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


796. ROSE APPLE.

A variety cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie orchards. It is a valuable
variety, and the tree is a good bearer.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


797. ROSTOCKER.

 SYNONYMES.--Stetting Rouge; Rothe Stettiner; Rothe Herrnapfel;
 Annaberger; Berliner Glasapfel; Matapfel; Bödickheimer; Zweibelapfel.

A large and favorite German apple, of first-rate quality, for culinary
purposes, and very much resembling our Norfolk Beefing. It is oblate
in shape, and ribbed; the skin pale green, and yellowish on the shaded
side; but on the side next the sun, it is of a deep blood-red, which
extends even to the shaded side. It is in use from November till May.


798. ROTHE WIENER SOMMERAPFEL.

A beautiful, and excellent autumn apple, suitable either for the
dessert or kitchen use. It is of a medium size, and pearmain shape.
Skin, shining, covered with a fine bloom, greenish-yellow, washed and
striped with red. In use in October.


799. ROUGHAM SEEDLING.

A small table apple, of second-rate quality, it is of oblate shape,
green and red color, and in use in December.--_H. S. C._ p. 38.


800. ROUND CATSHEAD.

 SYNONYME.--Téte du Chat.

A large kitchen apple, of first-rate quality. It is of a roundish
shape, yellow color; and in use from December till March.--_H. S. C._
n. 131.


801. ROUND HEAD.

A medium sized kitchen apple, it is of a roundish shape, green color,
and in use from November till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 724.


802. ROWE’S SEEDLING.

A very valuable Devonshire sauce apple; large, and of rather conical
shape, with small prominences round the eye, of a pea-green color; it
has plenty of juice, and a very pleasant flavor; ripe in August and
September. Is a great bearer, and the tree grows freely.--_Ron. Pyr.
Mal._ 9, pl. v. f. 3.


803. ROYAL COSTARD.

An apple of the largest size, its flesh is not very firm, but being
juicy and melting, it is an excellent sauce apple.--_Hort. Trans._ iii.
p. 327.


804. ROYAL DEVON.

A small cider apple. It is of a roundish shape; pale yellow color,
striped with red, and with a bitter flavor; it is in use during
November and December.--_H. S. C._ p. 38.


805. ROYAL GEORGE.

Fruit, above the middle size, round and flattened at each end. Stalk,
short. Eye, large and prominent. Skin, light yellow, dashed with red.
Flesh, firm, and full of a rich juice, of a peculiar flavor, and may
be used in the dessert, and in the kitchen. The tree resembles the
Ribston Pippin in growth, but of more vigorous habit; it is in use from
November till February.--_Rog. Fr. Cult._ 56.


806. ROYAL JERSEY.

A cider apple, of roundish shape, and striped with red.--_H. S. C._ p.
38.


807. ROYAL NONPAREIL.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality. It is of a
roundish shape, green on the shaded side, and red next the sun; in use
from November till January.--_H. S. C._ p. 27.


808. ROYAL REINETTE.

A large apple, of second-rate quality, and suitable either for kitchen
or dessert use; but more properly the former. It is of a conical shape,
and striped with red; in use from December till April. The tree is a
good bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 692.


809. ROYAL WILDING.

A Herefordshire cider apple, and quite distinct from the apple of the
same name, peculiar to Devonshire. It is small, of a conical shape,
yellow color; and in use in December.--_H. S. C._ n. 728.


810. ROYALE.

A medium sized apple, of first-rate quality, excellent as a dessert
apple, and suitable also for kitchen use. It is of a roundish shape,
skin, covered with russet, and in use from January till March.--_H. S.
C._ n. 729.


811. SAFFRAN REINETTE.

A medium sized cider apple of second-rate quality; it is of conical
shape, yellow color, covered with russet; and in use during August and
September.--_H. S. C._ n. 693.


812. ST. JOHN’S NONPAREIL.

A medium sized apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an ovate shape
yellowish-green, on the shaded side, and brown next the sun; in use
from November till January.--_H. S. C._ n. 481.


813. ST. LAWRENCE.

A small early dessert apple, of second-rate quality, it is of an oblate
shape, yellow color, and is in use during August and September.--_H. S.
C._ n. 765.


814. ST. PATRICK.

A variety grown in the Carse of Gowrie orchards. The tree is a good
bearer, but is not common.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 474.


815. ST. PATRICK’S SWEETING.

A small dessert apple of inferior quality. It is of an oblate shape,
yellow color, and is in use during August and September.--_H. S. C._ p
40.


816. SALOPIAN PIPPIN.

A Shropshire apple, of middle size, introduced to the neighbourhood of
London, by the late Mr. Williams, of Turnham Green. Its shape globular,
a little compressed; a pea-green color, with a slight flush of pale
red, and sprinkled over with brown spots, it has great merit as a sauce
apple, as it dresses well, is juicy, and well flavored; in use from
October till Christmas. The tree grows in a compact form, and is a
constant bearer.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 9, pl. v. f. 4.


817. SANDY’S RUSSET.

A small dessert apple of second-rate quality; it is of an oblate shape,
skin covered with russet; and in use from November till February.--_H.
S. C._ p. 39.


818. SAPLING BARK.

An early yellow apple, of inferior quality, it is of an oval shape, and
ripe in August.--_H. S. C._ p. 40.


819. DE SAUGE.

A cider apple of medium size, and oblate shape, the skin is yellow, and
covered with brownish-red; it is in use from November till February. A
bitter sweet.--_H. S. C._ n. 770.


820. SCARLET GOLDEN PIPPIN.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality; in use from November till
April. A variety from Essex, very good, and very late.--_Riv. Cat._


821. SCARLET KEEPER.

A medium sized dessert apple, of third-rate quality; it is conical,
striped with red; and in use during November and December.--_H. S. C._
p. 40.


822. SCHAFER.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality; resembling the Scarlet
Nonpareil. It is of a roundish shape; skin, green on the shaded side,
and red on the other; in use during December and January.--_H. S. C._
n. 771.


823. SCOTSMAN.

A variety grown in the Carse of Gowrie. Tree, an excellent bearer,
and bears when young; fruit of good quality, keeps well; a rare
variety.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


824. SCOTTISH CHIEF.

A variety grown in the Carse of Gowrie. The tree is an excellent
bearer, healthy, middle sized; branches very pendent; fruit of good
quality.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 471.


825. SEA CLIFF.

A large kitchen apple, of second-rate quality, green color, and oblong
shape; it is in use from October till January.--_H. S. C._ p. 40.


826. SEACLIFFE HAWTHORNDEN.

 SYNONYME.--Seacliffe Apple.

A very large and handsome apple, of a round shape, pale yellow color,
and first-rate quality. The tree is hardy, a good bearer, and highly
deserving of cultivation.--_Laws. Cat._


827. SEDGEFIELD.

A medium sized apple of second-rate quality; it is of a round shape,
striped with red, and in use from December till February.--_H. S. C._
p. 40.


828. SHAGREEN.

A variety grown in the Carse of Gowrie. The tree is an excellent
bearer; fruit keeps well.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


829. SHARP’S RUSSET.

This is below the middle size, of a brownish-red color towards the sun,
and a pale green on the other side. It is shaped like the frustrum of
a cone; it is of a pretty good flavor, and keeps till May.--_Fors.
Treat._ 128.


830. SERJEANT.

A variety grown in the Carse of Gowrie. The tree is beautiful, upright
growing, and large, not common.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


831. SHEPHERD’S NEWINGTON.

A large kitchen apple, of a roundish shape, striped with red, and in
use during October and November. It is very large, but does not keep
well.--_H. S. C._ n. 775.


832. SHUSTOKE.

A medium sized culinary apple, of inferior quality; it is of an oblate
shape, yellow on the shaded side, and red towards the sun; ripe in
December.--_H. S. C._ p. 41.


833. SIBERIAN SUGAR.

A small apple, and of first-rate quality for cider, it is of a roundish
shape, and yellow color; the flesh is orange, and the juice highly
saccharine; in use during December and January.--_H. S. C._ n. 778.


834. SILVERLING.

A large apple for culinary purposes. It is of conical shape, pale green
color; and in use from November till March.--_H. S. C._ n. 779.


835. SILVER PIPPIN.

This is a handsome, middle sized, conical shaped apple, of a fine
yellow color, with a faint blush towards the sun. The flesh is firm,
and very white, and of an excellent flavor. It keeps till the middle of
May.--_Fors. Treat._ 183.


836. SIMPSON’S SEEDLING.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an ovate
shape, and yellow color; and in use from January till April.--_H. S.
C._ p. 41.

This was raised from Ord’s apple, to which it bears some resemblance.


837. SKERM’S KERNEL.

This is a conical shaped, middle sized apple, beautifully streaked with
red, deepest towards the eye, and having a good deal of yellow towards
the footstalk. It is ripe in January, and keeps till March.--_Fors.
Treat._ 127.


838. SLADE’S PIPPIN.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality, of an ovate shape, and
pale brownish-red color.--_H. S. C._ p. 41.


839. SMITH’S BEAUTY OF NEWARK.

A medium sized dessert apple; of ovate shape, yellow color, with red
towards the sun, and in use during September and October.--_H. S. C._
n. 38.


840. SOMERSETSHIRE DEUX ANS.

A small cider apple, of conical shape, and yellow color, with red
towards the sun.--_H. S. C._ n. 203.


841. SONNETTE.

A medium sized cider apple of ovate shape, and greenish-yellow color; a
bitter-sweet.--_H. S. C._ n. 783.


842. SOUTH CAROLINA PIPPIN.

A very large and handsome American apple, of first-rate quality, and
suitable either for culinary or dessert use. It is round, yellow, and
in use in December.--_Laws. Cat._


843. SOVEREIGN.

This is a large sized fruit, measuring from ten to twelve inches in
circumference, nearly round, but with some irregular ridging. The
color is a fine red, suffused nearly all over, only deeper next the
sun; the flesh is breaking; the juice, rich, vinous, and abundant. Most
of the fruit, have a singular mark or patch on one side, of a russet
color, about the size of a Sovereign, whence the name.--_Rog. Fr.
Cult._ 41.


844. SPANIARD.

This is a good sized apple, of a greenish-yellow color. It is said to
have taken this name from the grafts being at first brought from Spain.
it is used for tarts in Cornwall, but is a very indifferent apple to
eat raw, and is a shy bearer, It will keep till April.--_Fors. Treat._
127.


845. SPANISH ONION.

This is a handsome round apple, of a russet color, with a dull red
towards the sun. This apple which is rather below the middle size, is
very good for the dessert, and keeps till March.--_Fors. Treat._ 128.


846. SPANISH PEARMAIN.

This is a middle sized oblong apple, of a carnation color, and dark
red towards the sun. This is a pretty good apple, and keeps till the
beginning of May.--_Fors. Treat._ 127.


847. SPÄTBLÜHENDE.

 SYNONYMES.--Spätblühender Matapfel; Mætapfel à Fleurs Tardives.

A medium sized apple, for culinary purposes; it is of an oblong shape
striped with red; and in use during November and December.--_H. S. C._
n. 784.


848. SPENCER’S PIPPIN.

A medium sized apple, suitable for dessert use, but more properly for
culinary purposes. It is round. Skin, smooth and shining, of a fine
deep yellow color when ripe, with a slight tinge of red on one side. A
good flavored apple; in use from January till May.--_Fors. Treat._ 128.


849. SPICE REINETTE.

This is a handsome apple, below the middle size, red towards the sun,
and yellow on the other side.--_Fors. Treat._ 127.


850. STANDARD.

A variety cultivated in the orchards of the Carse of Gowrie. The tree
is a most excellent bearer, and bears young; fruit, much esteemed,
gets a beautiful golden color, when well ripened; tree, middle sized,
with very black wood, woolly leaves, and extreemly thick bark; a rare
variety.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


851. STIRLING CASTLE.

A large Scotch apple, raised near Stirling; of first-rate quality as a
culinary apple. It is in use from November till December.--_Laws. Cat._


852. STONYROYD PIPPIN.

A Yorkshire apple, raised in the garden of Mrs. Rawson, of Halifax,
from the seed of an imported American variety, and first exhibited at
the London Horticultural Society, in 1822. It is roundish, of medium
size, and yellow color. It is of first-rate quality, either as a
culinary or dessert apple, and in use from January till April.--_H. S.
C._ n. 805.


853. STOUP LEADINGTON.

A large Scotch culinary apple, of good quality; it is of an oblong
shape, skin yellowish-green, and in use from September till November.
_H. S. C._ p. 23.


854. STRAAT.

This is an autumn fruit. It is stated to be tender, juicy, well
flavored, and according to Mr. Buel, in excellence, it is not surpassed
by any fruit in its season; a native of America.--_Ken. Amer. Or._ 39.


855. STRIPED NONPAREIL. RUSSET.

This is a handsome apple, of a greenish-russet color, with a little
brownish-red towards the sun. It is about the size of a large
Nonpareil, is ripe in January, and keeps till March.--_Fors. Treat._
127.


856. STRODE-HOUSE PIPPIN.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; of a roundish
shape, yellow color, and ripe in November.--_H. S. C._ n. 806.


857. STUBTON NONPAREIL.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality. It is of a
roundish-shape, and greenish-yellow color; rich and sugary flavor, and
ripe from January till March.--_H. S. C._ n. 483.


858. SUDBURY BEAUTY.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality, it is of a roundish
shape; skin, a yellow color; in use from October till January.--_H. S.
C._ n. 809.


859. SUMMER GILLIFLOWER.

 SYNONYMES.--Summer July Flower; Russian.

A large dessert apple, of second-rate quality. It is of a roundish
shape, striped with red, and comes into use in September. The tree is a
great bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 268.


860. SUMMER HEDGING.

A small cider apple, of roundish shape, and red color.--_H. S. C._ n.
812.


861. SUMMER MARIGOLD.

It is a handsome fruit, and a great favorite in the West of England,
particularly in South Devon. Rather larger than the Golden Pippin, it
is of a fine light red, with deeper streaks of the same color, on the
sun side. The flesh is breaking, and the juice pleasant, and abundant.
It is a prolific bearer, and makes a fine orchard standard tree of
the third class, but will bear well in any way. Ripens in the end of
August. _Rog. Fr. Cult._ 31.


862. SUMMER QUEEN.

A medium sized American apple, of second-rate quality; suitable for
culinary purposes. It is of a roundish shape; skin, pale yellow on the
shaded side, and red striped towards the sun; ripe during August and
September.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 77.


863. SUMMER ROSE.

 SYNONYME.--Woolman’s Harvest.

A small apple, of second-rate quality, properly speaking a culinary
apple, but suitable also for dessert use; it is of an oblate shape,
yellow color, and ripe in August.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 77.

An American variety.


864. SUMMER STIBBERT.

 SYNONYMES.--Summer Queening, _of some_. Avant Tout Hâtive.

A large kitchen apple, of second-rate quality; of a conical shape,
yellow color, and ripe in August. The tree is a good bearer.--_H. S.
C._ p. 42.


865. SUMMER SWEET PARADISE.

A Pennsylvania fruit, sent to us by J. B. Garber, Esq., a zealous fruit
grower of Columbia, in that state. It is a large, fair, sweet apple,
and is certainly one of the finest of its class, for the dessert. The
tree is an abundant bearer, begins to bear while young, and is highly
deserving general cultivation. It has no affinity to the paradise apple
used for stocks.

Fruit, quite large, round and regular in its form, a little flattened
at both ends. Skin, rather thick, pale green, sometimes faintly tinged
with yellow in the sun, and very distinctly marked with numerous,
large, dark grey dots. Stalk, strong, set in an even and moderately
deep cavity. Flesh, tender, crisp, very juicy, with a sweet, rich,
aromatic flavor. Ripe in August and September.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 96.


866. SUSSEX.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; of an oblate
shape, pale green color, with red towards the sun, and ripe in
November.--_H. S. C._ p. 42.


867. SUSSEX SCARLET PEARMAIN.

A medium sized dessert apple; of pearmain shape, red color; and in use
from December till March.--_H. S. C._ n. 560.


868. SWAAR.

This is a truly noble American fruit, produced by the Dutch settlers on
the Hudson, near Esopus, and so termed from its unusual weight, this
word in low Dutch, meaning heavy. It requires a deep, rich sandy loam,
to bring it to perfection, and in its native soils, we have seen it
twelve inches in circumference, and of a deep golden yellow color. It
is one of the finest flavored apples in America, and deserves extensive
cultivation in all favorable positions, though it does not succeed well
in damp cold soils.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 134.


869. SWEDISH EARLY SAUCE.

A medium sized kitchen apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a
conical shape, striped with red, and ripe in August.--_H. S. C._ n. 817.


870. SWEET LADING.

A Sussex cider apple, of medium size and good quality; it is of an
oblate shape, striped with red; and is in use in November.--_H. S. C._
p. 43.


871. SWEET LITTLE WILDING.

A small cider apple.--_H. S. C._ p. 43.


872. SWEET PINTSTOUP.

A variety found in the Carse of Gowrie orchards. The tree is a good
bearer, but not common--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


873. SWEET PIPPIN.

A small cider apple, of ovate shape, yellow color, and in use during
October and November.--_H. S. C._ n. 818.


874. SWEET RUSSET.

A variety grown in the Carse of Gowrie.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


875. SWEETING RUSSET.

A medium sized apple for kitchen use; it is of a roundish shape, russet
color, and in use from January till March.--_H. S. C._ n. 751.


876. SYMONDS’S BRAINTON.

A medium sized cider apple, of roundish shape, and yellow color.--_H.
S. C._ n. 81.


877. SYMONDS’S NONPAREIL.

A medium sized dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it is of an oblate
shape; skin, green, covered with russet, and in use in December.--H. S.
C. n. 485.


878. TANKERTON.

A conical-shaped yellow apple, with sometimes a little blush towards
the sun. This is an excellent sauce apple, and bakes well. It is of
an agreeable taste, but too large for the table. It will keep till
February.--_Fors. Treat._ 128.


879. TANKERVILLE.

A small apple of inferior quality; it is of a roundish shape, striped
with red, and is ripe in September.--_H. S. C._ p. 43.


880. TETOFSKY.

A handsome medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it
is of an oblong figure; skin, striped with red, ripe in August and
September.--_H. S. C._ n. 828.


881. TEWKESBURY WINTER BUSH.

An American apple, described by Coxe. He says it was brought from
Tewksbury, Hunterdon County, N. J. It is a handsome fair fruit, with
more flavor and juiceness than is usual in long keeping apples. They
may be kept till August without particular care, quite plump and sound.
The size is small, rather flat. The skin, smooth, yellow, with a red
cheek. Flesh, yellow. The tree grows rapidly and straight, and the
fruit hangs till late in the autumn. January to July.--_Down Fr. Amer._
140.


882. THICKSET.

A variety cultivated in the Carse of Gowrie. The tree is an uncommonly
great bearer, and the fruit of good quality.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 474.


883. THORESBY SEEDLING.

A medium sized dessert apple, of first-rate quality; it is of a
pearmain shape, red color, and in use from January till April.--_H. S.
C._ n. 831.


884. TOM POTTER.

A much esteemed Devonshire apple, of middle size, contracted about
the eye, which is in a small cavity, and surrounded by wrinkles; the
ground color yellow, richly striped and blotched with bright red. It
is a juicy, high flavored table apple, ripe in September and October.
A healthy growing tree, but rather uncertain in bearing.--_Ron. Pyr.
Mal._ 37, pl. xix. f. 2.


885. TOTTENHAM PARK CODLIN.

The fruit is tall, generally square, with a large eye, in a deep
cavity, and flattened at the base. Its color, is dull green. The flesh
firm, and juicy, and when dressed, is very soft and high flavored. The
tree is healthy, and a great bearer.--_Hort. Trans._ iii. 328.


886. TRANSPARENT DE ZURICH.

A medium sized cider apple, of conical shape, pale yellow color, and in
use during September and October. The tree is a good bearer.--_H. S.
C._ n. 836.


887. TRAVELLER.

A medium sized dessert apple, of inferior quality; it is of an
oblate shape; skin, striped with red, and in use from November till
February.--_H. S. C._ p. 44.


888. TRAVELLING QUEEN.

A medium sized apple, of inferior quality; roundish shape; skin,
striped with red; and in use from November till January.--_H. S. C._ p.
44.


889. TREVOIDER REINETTE.

This is a small, handsome, russet-colored apple, of an excellent
flavor; and will keep till May.--_Fors. Treat._ 128.


890. TULIP WINE.

A Carse of Gowrie apple; inferior in quality to the Green Wine.--_M. C.
H. S._ iv. 474.


891. TURPIN.

A medium sized apple, for kitchen use, it is of an ovate shape, yellow
color; and in use from November till May.--_H. S. C._ n. 842.


892. TWICKENHAM.

A large kitchen apple; of broad conical shape, striped with red, and in
use from September till October.--_H. S. C._ n. 843.


893. TWIN WINE.

A variety grown in the orchards of the Carse of Gowrie. The tree
is a good bearer, the fruit very beautiful, and sometimes twined
together.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 474.


894. TWO YEARLING.

A small dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a roundish
shape, yellow color, and keeps from May till July.--_H. S. C._ p. 44.


895. UNDERLEAF.

A medium sized cider apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an oblate
shape, yellow on the shaded side, and red towards the sun; and in use
in December.--_H. S. C._ p. 44.


896. VALLEYFIELD PIPPIN.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; it is of an
oblate shape, green on the shaded side, red, towards the sun; and ripe
in September. The tree is a good bearer.--_H. S. C._ n. 844.


897. VAN PIPPIN.

This is a small, round apple, finely colored with red and yellow; the
pulp is sweet, juicy, and agreeable. The wood of the tree is weak, but
it is hardy, and bears well.--_Fors. Treat._ 200.


898. VANDERVERE.

 SYNONYME.--Stalcubs.

The Vandervere, when in perfection, is one of the most beautiful and
finest apples. But it requires a rich, light, sandy soil, as in a damp
heavy soil, it is almost always liable to be spotted, unfair, and
destitute of flavor. It is a native of Wilmington, Delaware, and took
its name from a family there. It is a fine old variety, and is highly
worthy of extensive cultivation, where the soil is favorable.

Fruit, of medium size, flat. Skin, in its ground color, yellow,
streaked and stained with clouded red, but on the sunny side, deepening
into rich red, dotted with light grey specks. Stalk, short, inserted in
a smooth, rather wide cavity. Calyx, small, closed, set in a regular,
well formed, basin, of moderate depth. Flesh, yellow, crisp, and
tender, with a rich and sprightly juice. October to January.--_Down.
Fr. Amer._ 142.

Such is the character of this apple in its native country; but on this
side of the Atlantic, it ranks only as a second-rate fruit. If however,
it were grown in a favorable situation as indicated above, it might be
brought to a greater degree of perfection.--_H._


899. WACKS APFEL.

A medium sized cider apple, of oblong shape, pale yellow color, and in
use from October till December.--_H. S. C._ n. 851.

This cannot be the Wacksapfel of Diel, which is _flat_.


900. WALLACE WIGHT.

A variety found in the Carse of Gowrie; but rare, the fruit is of good
quality, and keeps well.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


901. WARD APPLE.

This is a beautiful flat shaped apple, rather below the middle size,
of a fine red towards the eye, and of a yellowish-green towards the
footstalk. It is a sharp flavored fruit, and keeps till June.--_Fors.
Treat._ 129.


902. WEISSE ANTILLISCHE WINTER REINETTE.

A large, beautiful, and excellent German dessert apple. It is of a
calville shape; the skin is tender, of a fine lemon color when at
maturity, and with a slight blush of red on one side; the flesh is
yellowish, fine, firm, and juicy, with a rich, sugary, and vinous
flavor. It ripens in December, and keeps till March.--_Diel._


903. WEISSE ITALIANISCHE ROSMARINAPFEL.

An Italian dessert apple, much cultivated in Southern Germany. It is
pearmain shaped; the skin is smooth, shining, and of a fine waxen
yellow color, with pale red, and a few stripes on one side; the flesh
is white, tender, and juicy, and of a rich, sugary, and vinous flavor.
It ripens in December.--_Diel._


904. WEISSE WACKS REINETTE.

 SYNONYMES.--Weisse Sommer Reinette; Reinette d’Eté Blanche.

One of the most beautiful, and really splendid September apples, very
refreshing for dessert use, and as a cider fruit must be considered of
the greatest value. Its form is frequently somewhat oblong, and also
roundish and flattened. It is three inches and a quarter broad, and
about a quarter of an inch less in height. The skin, is fine, somewhat
unctuous when handled, at first of a pale clear yellow, which changes
by keeping to a very beautiful pure waxen, and shining lemon-yellow,
faintly washed with a clear, delightful red, on the exposed side only.
Eye, half open, set in a wide and deep basin. Stalk, very short,
sometimes only a small fleshy knob, inserted in a wide, deep, and
funnel-shaped cavity, lined with russet. Flesh, beautiful white, fine,
marrowy, and juicy, with a sweet, vinous, very agreeable, refreshing,
somewhat aromatic flavor. Ripens in September, and is in greatest
perfection in October.--_Diel Kernobst._ vii. 137.


905. WELLBANK’S CONSTANT BEARER.

A medium sized culinary apple, of second-rate quality; its shape is
roundish-ovate, skin, yellow on the shaded side, and red towards the
sun, in use from November till January.--_H. S. C._ p. 44.


906. WETHERELL’S WHITE SWEETING.

A medium sized sweet cider apple; of roundish shape, yellow color; and
in use in September.--_H. S. C._ p. 45.


907. WHERNEL’S PIPPIN.

A medium sized culinary apple, of second-rate quality; it is of a
pearmain shape, yellow color, and in use from December till March.--_H.
S. C._ n. 859.


908. WHITE BOGMILN.

A Scotch apple, grown in the Carse of Gowrie. It is a rare sort, large,
and of fair quality.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


909. WHITE COURT-PENDU.

This is a middle sized long shaped apple, of a yellowish color. It is a
good eating apple, and ripens in January.--_Fors. Treat._ 129.


910. WHITE CROFTON.

This apple which ripens about the end of August, or beginning of
September, was one of a large collection brought from Ireland, by the
late Sir Evan Nepean, and was worked with others in the Fulham nursery.
The fruit is rather under the middle size, the color light green,
flesh, melting, juice, abundant, but not very rich. It may be called
a good second-rate fruit; it is an excellent bearer, and well worth
the attention of market-gardeners. Its stiff upright growth renders it
eligible for the grass orchard, where it would rank as a second-rate
tree.--_Rog. Fr. Cult._ 35.


911. WHITE EASTER.

A medium sized culinary apple, of pearmain shape, pale yellow color,
and in use from January till April.--_H. S. C._ n. 860.


912. WHITE FULWOOD.

A Scotch apple, cultivated in the orchards of the Carse of Gowrie. The
fruit is of a most excellent quality, especially the colored variety;
keeps well; tree middle sized, with a large leaf; sometimes the
points of the branches die; bears steadily fair crops, but not heavy
loads.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 471.


913. WHITE LEAF.

A large kitchen apple, round, and very much flattened, yellow on the
shaded side, and red towards the sun.--_H. S. C._ p. 45.


914. WHITE MUST.

This is a middle sized handsome apple, of a greenish-yellow color, with
a little red towards the sun; the flavor is rather tart but agreeable.
It is ripe in January.--_Fors. Treat._ 129.


915. WHITE NONPAREIL. A medium sized dessert apple, of first-rate
quality; it is of a roundish shape; the skin pale green, covered with
russet. In use in December. _H. S. C._ n. 488.


916. WHITE RUSSET.

Fruit, large, about two inches and three quarters from the eye to the
stalk, and three inches in its transverse diameter near the stalk;
sides angular; color, a yellowish-green, intermixed with white, marked
with light red to the sun, and russeted from it; stalk, short; eye,
wrinkled; richly flavored, but apt to grow mealy when too ripe. In use
during October and November.--_Hort. Trans._ iii. 454.


917. WHITE SEAL.

A large apple for culinary purposes; of an oblong shape; pale yellow
color; of little value and ripe in September.--_H. S. C._ p. 45.


918. WHITE STYRE.

A small cider apple, of first-rate quality; it is of a roundish-shape;
and pale yellow color.--_H. S. C._ n. 801.


919. WHITE WINE.

A Scotch apple; the tree a good bearer.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 473.


920. WICKHAM’S DEUX ANS.

A medium sized dessert apple, of second-rate quality; the shape is
roundish; the skin greenish-yellow, on the shaded side, and red towards
the sun; it is in use from January till May.--_H. S. C._ p. 12.


921. WILLIAM.

A medium sized apple of second-rate quality as a dessert apple, and
suitable also for cider; the shape is oblate; skin, yellow; in use from
November till January.--_H. S. C._ p. 45.


922. WILLIAMS’S FAVORITE.

A large and handsome dessert apple, worthy of a place in every garden.
It originated at Roxbury, near Boston, U.S., bears abundantly, and
ripens from the last of July to the first of September.

Fruit, of medium size, oblong, and a little one-sided. Stalk, an inch
long, slender, slightly sunk. Calyx, closed, in a narrow angular basin.
Skin, very smooth, of a light red ground, but nearly covered with a
fine dark red. Flesh, yellowish-white, and of a very mild and agreeable
flavor.--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 79.


923. WILLIAMS’S PIPPIN.

This is a conical-shaped apple, with a hollow eye, and short stalk, of
a pale yellow color, with a little red next the sun; the flesh, is pale
yellow, soft and tender. It bakes and roasts well, and will keep till
Christmas.--_Fors. Treat._ 130.


924. WILTSHIRE CATSHEAD.

This is a large handsome apple, red towards the sun, and green on the
other side. It is a very fine baking apple, and of a good flavor. It is
ripe in January.--_Fors. Treat._ 130.


925. WINDHAM’S SEEDLING.

A medium sized apple of second-rate quality, suitable for kitchen use;
it is of an oblate shape, yellow color, and in use from November till
December.--_H. S. C._ n. 867.


926. WINE.

A medium sized cider apple, of an oblate shape, yellow color, and in
use in December.--_H. S. C._ n. 868.


927. WINE RUSSET.

This is a middle sized, conical shaped apple, of a dark russet color,
and sharp flavor, it keeps till the latter end of April.--_Fors.
Treat._ 130.


928. WINTER COURT-PENDU.

A Scotch apple. Fruit, of good quality, and very handsome; tree bears
well, and is of middle size.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


929. WINTER POMEROY.

This is a pretty large, conical-shaped apple, of a dark green color, a
little streaked with red, towards the sun. The coat is rather rough. It
is a good baking apple, and keeps till January.--_Fors. Treat._ 130.


930. WINTER RUBY.

A Scotch apple. The tree bears well, but is not common--_M. C. H. S._
iv. 474.


931. WINTER SCARLET.

A Scotch apple; tree a good bearer; fruit keeps well; not common.--_M.
C. H. S._ iv. 473.


932. WINTER STRAWBERRY.

This variety is above the middle size, of a globular shape, plaited
about the eye, which, as well as the stalk, is very little depressed;
straw color, richly striped with scarlet. It is a good winter apple, of
a pleasant sub-acid flavor.--_Ron. Pyr. Mal._ 59, pl. xxx. f. 3.


933. WINTER WARDEN.

A medium sized apple, of second-rate quality; suitable for culinary
purposes. It is of a roundish shape; skin, striped with red, and
russety; in use from December till February.--_H. S. C._ p. 45.


934. WITTE WYN.

A medium sized cider apple, of roundish shape, pale green color, and in
use from October till November.--_H. S. C._ n. 881.


935. WOOD NYMPH.

A very large Scotch apple.--_M. C. H. S._ iv. 472.


936. WOOD’S GREENING.

A medium sized apple, of second-rate quality, suitable for kitchen use,
and also for the dessert; it is of a conical shape, yellow color, and
in use from January till May.--_H. S. C._ n. 883.


937. WRIGHT’S NONPAREIL.

This is a Salopian apple, great bearer, of a good size, and a little
flatted. It is a good kitchen apple, and keeps till June. The tree is
smaller in size than most other apple trees.--_Fors. Treat._ 131.


938. YELLOW BUCKLAND.

A medium sized culinary apple, of inferior quality, it is of oblate
shape, yellow color, and in use from December till March.--_H. S. C._
p. 8.


939. YELLOW BELLE-FLEUR.

 SYNONYME.--Bell Flower; Yellow Bellflower.

The Yellow Belle-Fleur, is a large, handsome, and excellent winter
apple, every where esteemed in the United States. It is most abundantly
seen in the markets of Philadelphia, as it thrives well in the sandy
soils of New Jersey. Coxe first described this fruit; the original tree
of which grew in Burlington, New Jersey. We follow Thompson in calling
it _Belle-Fleur_, from the beauty of the blossoms, with the class of
French apples, to which it belongs.

Fruit, very large, oblong, a little irregular, tapering to the eye.
Skin, smooth, pale lemon-yellow, often with a blush next the sun.
Stalk, long, and slender, in a deep cavity. Calyx, closed, and set in a
rather narrow, plaited basin. Seeds, in a large hollow capsule or core.
Flesh, tender, juicy, crisp, with a sprightly sub-acid flavor; before
fully ripe, it is considerably acid. November to March.

Wood, yellowish, and tree vigorous, with spreading, drooping branches.
A regular and excellent bearer, and worthy of a place in every
orchard--_Down. Fr. Amer._ 100.


940. YOUNG’S SEEDLING.

A medium sized apple, of second-rate quality, suitable for kitchen
purposes, and useful also in the dessert; the shape is roundish; skin,
green on the shaded side, and red on the other; in use from January
till June.--_H. S. C._ n. 888.


941. ZIMMT REINETTE.

 SYNONYMES.--Zimmtfarbige Reinette; Kaneel Renet.

A medium sized dessert apple, of good quality; round, handsome, and
regularly shaped, the skin is greenish yellow, very much covered with
cinnamon-colored russet, the flesh is yellowish-white, fine, juicy,
rich, sugary, vinous, and aromatic; ripe in December, and continues
till May.


942. ZOETE PETER LELY.

A small dessert apple, of first-rate quality; the shape is oblate,
and the skin is covered with russet; it is in use from November till
February. It is small, but good, with a Russet Nonpareil flavor.--_H.
S. C._ n. 892.



LISTS OF SELECT APPLES.


These lists are adapted to various latitudes of Great Britain, and are
intended as a guide to the formation of large, or small collections of
the most choice and useful varieties.


I. SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF ENGLAND.

And not extending farther north than the range of Derby.


1. SUMMER APPLES.

A. DESSERT.

 Borovitsky
 Devonshire Quarrenden
 Early Harvest
 Irish Peach
 Joanneting
 Kerry Pippin
 King of the Pippins
 Margaret
 Summer Golden Pippin

B. KITCHEN.

 Carlisle Codlin
 Cole
 Duchess of Oldenburgh
 Dutch Codlin
 Keswick Codlin
 Manks Codlin
 Springrove Codlin


2. AUTUMN APPLES.

A. DESSERT.

 Augustus Pearmain
 Borsdorffer
 Bowyer’s Russet
 Breedon Pippin
 Brookes’s
 Broughton
 Colonel Vaughan’s
 Cornish Aromatic
 Downton Pippin
 Early Nonpareil
 Golden Winter Pearmain
 Moore’s Seedling
 Proliferous Reinette
 Ribston Pippin
 Red Ingestrie
 Yellow Ingestrie

B. KITCHEN.

 Biggs’s Nonesuch
 Catshead
 Cellini
 Emperor Alexander
 Flower of Kent
 Gravenstein
 Golden Noble
 Gooseberry Apple
 Harvey Apple
 Harvey’s Wiltshire Defiance
 Hawthornden
 Kentish Fill-basket
 Mère de Ménage
 Waltham Abbey Seedling
 Wormsley Pippin


3. WINTER APPLES.

A. DESSERT.

 Adams’s Pearmain
 Ashmead’s Kernel
 Baddow Pippin
 Barcelona Pearmain
 Barton’s Incomparable
 Boston Russet
 Braddick’s Nonpareil
 Bringewood
 Claygate Pearmain
 Cockle Pippin
 Coe’s Golden Drop
 Cornish Gilliflower
 Court of Wick
 Court-pendu Plat
 Dutch Mignonne
 Golden Harvey
 Golden Pippin
 Golden Reinette
 Hughes’s Golden Pippin
 Hubbard’s Pearmain
 Lamb Abbey Pearmain
 Maclean’s Favorite
 Mannington’s Pearmain
 Margil
 Morris’s Nonpareil Russet
 Morris’s Russet
 Nonpareil
 Ord’s Apple
 Pearson’s Plate
 Pinner Seedling
 Pitmaston Nonpareil
 Ross Nonpareil
 Russet Table Pearmain
 Sam Young
 Sturmer Pippin
 Sykehouse Russet
 Wyken Pippin

B. KITCHEN

 Alfriston
 Baxter’s Pearmain
 Beauty of Kent
 Bedfordshire Foundling
 Blenheim Pippin
 Devonshire Buckland
 Dumelow’s Seedling
 Grange’s Pearmain
 Hambledon Deux Ans
 Hanwell Souring
 Mitchelson’s Seedling
 Norfolk Beefing
 Norfolk Stone Pippin
 Northern Greening
 Reinette Blanche d’Espagne
 Rhode Island Greening
 Round Winter Nonesuch
 Royal Pearmain
 Royal Russet
 Striped Beefing
 Winter Majetin
 Winter Pearmain


II. NORTHERN DISTRICTS OF ENGLAND.


1. SUMMER APPLES.

A. DESSERT.

 Devonshire Quarrenden
 Early Harvest
 Irish Peach
 Joanneting
 Kerry Pippin
 Margaret
 Oslin
 Whorle

B. KITCHEN.

 Carlisle Codlin
 Dutch Codlin
 Keswick Codlin
 Manks Codlin
 Nonesuch
 Springrove Codlin


2. AUTUMN APPLES.

A. DESSERT.

 Borsdorffer
 Downton
 Early Nonpareil
 Franklin’s Golden Pippin
 Golden Monday
 Golden Winter Pearmain
 Red Ingestrie
 Ribston Pippin
 Summer Pearmain
 Wormsley Pippin
 Yellow Ingestrie

B. KITCHEN.

 Cellini
 Emperor Alexander
 Greenup’s Pippin
 Hawthornden
 Melrose
 Mère de Ménage
 Nelson Codlin


3. WINTER APPLES.

A. DESSERT.

 Acklam’s Russet
 Adams’s Pearmain
 Barcelona Pearmain
 Bess Pool
 Braddick’s Nonpareil
 Baxter’s Pearmain
 Claygate Pearmain
 Cockle Pippin
 Court of Wick
 Court-pendu Plat
 Golden Pippin
 Golden Reinette
 Margil
 Nonpareil
 Pitmaston Nonpareil
 Royal Pearmain
 Scarlet Nonpareil
 Sturmer Pippin
 Sykehouse Russet.

B. KITCHEN.

 Alfriston
 Bedfordshire Foundling
 Blenheim Pippin
 Dumelow’s Seedling
 Holland Pippin
 Hutton Square
 Mère de Ménage
 Northern Greening
 Round Winter Nonesuch
 Sleeping Beauty
 Yorkshire Greening


III. BORDER COUNTIES OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.

And the warm, and sheltered situations in other parts of Scotland.


1. SUMMER AND AUTUMN APPLES.

A. DESSERT.

 Blenheim Pippin
 Cambusnethan Pippin
 Devonshire Quarrenden
 Greenup’s Pippin
 Grey Leadington
 Irish Peach
 Kerry Pippin
 Margaret
 Oslin
 Ravelston Pippin
 Red Ingestrie
 Summer Pearmain
 Summer Strawberry
 Tam Montgomery
 White Paradise
 Whorle
 Wormsley Pippin
 Yellow Ingestrie

B. KITCHEN.

 Carlisle Codlin
 Dutch Codlin
 Early Julian
 Hawthornden
 Hill’s Seedling
 Keswick Codlin
 Manks Codlin
 Melrose
 Springrove Codlin
 Tarvey Codlin.


2. WINTER APPLES.

These marked * require a Wall.

A. DESSERT

 Balmanno Pippin
 * Barcelona Pearmain
 * Braddick’s Nonpareil
 Baxter’s Pearmain
 Bogmiln Favorite
 Contin Reinette
 * Court of Wick
 Doonside
 Gogar Pippin
 * Golden Pippin
 Green Langlast
 * Margil
 * Nonpareil
 * Pearson’s Plate
 Pitmaston Nonpareil
 Pew Captain
 * Ribston Pippin
 * Scarlet Nonpareil
 * Sturmer Pippin

B. KITCHEN.

 Bedfordshire Foundling
 Brabant Bellefleur
 Dumelow’s Seedling
 Green Virgin
 Pile’s Russet
 Red Fulwood
 Royal Russet
 Rymer
 Sir Walter Blackett’s Favorite
 Tower of Glammis
 Waltham Abbey Seedling
 Winter Strawberry
 White Fulwood


IV. NORTHERN PARTS OF SCOTLAND.

And other exposed situations.


1. SUMMER AND AUTUMN APPLES.

A. DESSERT.

 Devonshire Quarrenden
 Kerry Pippin
 Nonesuch
 Summer Leadington
 Summer Queening
 Summer Strawberry
 Sweet Topaz

B. KITCHEN.

 Carlisle Codlin
 Hawthornden
 Keswick Codlin
 Manks Codlin
 Tarvey Codlin


2. WINTER APPLES.

A. DESSERT.

 Contin Reinette
 Coul Blush
 Fulwood
 Grey Leadington
 Gogar Pippin
 Kerkan
 Pow Captain
 Winter Strawberry

B. KITCHEN.

 Carlisle Codlin
 Kinellan
 Tower of Glammis
 Yorkshire Greening
 Winter Greening


V. FOR ESPALIERS OR DWARFS.

These succeed well when grafted on the paradise or doucin stock.

 Adams’s Pearmain
 Ashmead’s Kernel
 Barcelona Pearmain
 Braddick’s Nonpareil
 Boston Russet
 Breedon Pippin
 Bringewood Pippin
 Christie’s Pippin
 Claygate Pearmain
 Coe’s Golden Drop
 Cornish Gilliflower
 Court of Wick
 Court-pendu Plat
 Downton Pippin
 Dutch Mignonne
 Early Harvest
 Early Nonpareil
 Franklin’s Golden Pippin
 Golden Harvey
 Golden Pippin
 Golden Reinette
 Hawthornden
 Hubbard’s Pearmain
 Joanneting
 Kerry Pippin
 Keswick Codlin
 Manks Codlin
 Margaret
 Margil
 Nonpareil
 Oslin
 Padley’s Pippin
 Pearson’s Plate
 Robinson’s Pippin
 Scarlet Pearmain
 Sturmer Pippin
 Summer Golden Pippin
 Summer Pearmain
 Taunton Golden Pippin
 Wyken Pippin


VI. FOR ORCHARD PLANTING, AS STANDARDS.

These are generally strong-growing and productive varieties, the fruit
of which being mostly of a large size, and attractive appearance, they
are on that account, well calculated for market supplies.

 Adams’s Pearmain
 Alfriston
 Barcelona Pearmain
 Beauty of Kent
 Bedfordshire Foundling
 Bess Pool
 Blenheim Pippin
 Brabant Belle-Fleur
 Broadend
 Catshead
 Cellini
 Cobham
 Devonshire Quarrenden
 Duchess of Oldenburgh
 Dumelow’s Seedling
 Emperor Alexander
 Flower of Kent
 Gloria Mundi
 Golden Noble
 Golden Winter Pearmain
 Gooseberry
 Grange’s Pearmain
 Gravenstein
 Hanwell Souring
 Harvey Apple
 Harvey’s Wiltshire Defiance
 Hawthornden
 Hollandbury
 Holland Pippin
 Kentish Fill-basket
 Keswick Codlin
 Lemon Pippin
 London Pippin
 Margaret
 Manks Codlin
 Melrose
 Mére de Mènage
 Mitchelson’s Seedling
 Nelson Codlin
 Northern Greening
 Reinette de Canada
 Round Winter Nonesuch
 Royal Pearmain
 Royal Russet
 Rymer
 Selwood’s Reinette
 Striped Beefing
 Toker’s Incomparable
 Tower of Glammis
 Waltham Abbey Seedling
 Winter Pearmain
 Wormsley Pippin
 Yorkshire Greening


VII. CIDER APPLES.

 Alban
 Bennet Apple
 Best Bache
 Brainton Seedling
 Brierly’s Seedling
 Bringewood
 Bovey Red Streak
 Cadbury
 Coccagee
 Cowarne Red
 Devonshire Red Streak
 Devonshire Wilding
 Downton Pippin
 Dymmock Red
 Forge
 Forest Styre
 Foxley
 Fox-Whelp
 Friar
 Garter
 Golden Harvey
 Golden Pippin
 Golden Worcester
 Grange
 Hagloe Crab
 Hogshead
 Isle of Wight Pippin
 Kingston Black
 Minchall Crab
 Monkton
 Pawsan
 Red Ingestrie
 Red-Must
 Red-Streak
 Royal Wilding
 Siberian Bitter Sweet
 Siberian Harvey
 Sops in Wine
 Stead’s Kernel
 Sweet Lading
 Winter Lading
 Winter Pearmain
 Woodcock
 Yellow Elliot
 Yellow Ingestrie



INDEX TO BRITISH POMOLOGY.

THE APPLE.


THE NAMES PRINTED IN ITALICS ARE SYNONYMES.

                                            Page.
  Achmore                                     214
  Adam’s Apple                                214
  _Admirable, Kirke’s Scarlet_                110
  Alban                                       215
  _Alexander_                                  77
  Alfriston                                    21
  _American, Priestley’s_                     260
  _D’Angloise_                                169
  _Anis_                                       82
  _Anisapfel_                                  82
  Anis-Seed                                   215
  _Annaberger_                                266
  Api                                          23
      _Apfel, Kleine_                          23
      _Doppelter_                              23
      _Der Einfache_                           23
      Etoillé                                  25
      _Gelber Sternförmiger_                   25
      _Grand_                                  25
      Gros                                     25
      _Grosser_                                25
      Noir                                     26
      Panachée                                215
      _Petit_                                  23
      _Roesje_                                 23
      _Rose_                                   23
      _Rouge_                                  23
      _Rouge, Petit_                           23
      _Schwazer_                               26
      _Der Welsche_                            23
  _L’Api_                                      23
  _Aporta_                                     77
           _Naliva_                            77
  _Appiana_                                    24
  _Appius Claudius_                            23
  _Arabian Apple_                             155
  _Arley_                                     211
  Aromatic, Cornish                            60
            Quatford                          260
  Ashby Seedling                              215
  D’Astems                                    215
  Astrachan Red                               163
            White                             202
  Atkin’s Seedling                            214
  _August Apfel_                              153
  Aunt’s Apple                                216
  _Aurore_                                     98
  Autumn, Kenrick’s                           244
          _Kenrick’s Red_                     244
  _Avant Tout Hâtive_                         274

  Bains’s                                     216
  Balderstone Seedling                        216
  Baldwin                                      29
          _Red_                                29
  _Baltimore_                                  22
  _Baltimore_                                  91
  Bank Apple                                   29
  _Bardin_                                     83
  _Barrossa_                                  219
  Bath                                        216
  Baudrons                                    216
  _Bay Apple_                                  69
  _Bayford_                                    95
  _Bayfordbury_                                95
  Beachamwell                                  32
              _Seedling_                       32
  _Beau Rouge_                                110
  _Beaufin, Catshead_                         146
            _Norfolk_                         146
            _Striped_                         188
  Beaufinette                                 217
  Beauty of Kent                               32
  Beauty of Newark, Smith’s                   271
  _Beauty of Wilts, Dredge’s_                 107
  Bedfordshire Foundling                       34
  _Beefin Norfolk_                            146
  Beefing Norfolk                             146
          Striped                             188
  Belle Anglaise                              217
  Belle Bonne                                  34
        _Boon, Winter_                         34
        _and Bonne, Winter_                    34
        _and Bon, Winter_                      34
        _Dubois_                               91
        _Fille_                               169
        Grideline                              35
        _Grisdeline_                           35
        Hervy                                 217
        _Joséphine_                            91
  Bellefleur, Brabant                          42
              _Brabansche_                     42
              _Kleine Brabansche_              42
              Yellow                          283
  Belledge                                     34
  _Bell’s Scarlet_                            179
  Benlomond                                   217
  Bennet Apple                                 35
  Benwell’s Large                             217
  Benzler                                     217
  Bess Pool                                    36
  Best Bache                                   36
  _Best Pool_                                  36
  Betsey                                       37
  Bitter-Sweet, Siberian                      183
  Black American                              218
        Annette                               218
        _Apple_                               199
        Bess                                  218
  _Blanc d’Espagne_                           166
  _Blanche de Leipsic_                         40
  Bland’s Jubilee                              38
          _Jubilee Rose Pip_                   38
  _Blandilalie_                               108
  _Blenheim_                                   38
  _Blenheim Orange_                            38
  Blood Royal                                 218
  _Bödickheimer_                              266
  Bogmiln Favorite                            218
          White                               280
  Bohnapfel, Grosse Rheinischer               238
  _Bollenapfel_                                23
  _Bonne Rouge_                               110
         _de Mai_                              69
  Bonner                                      218
  _Bonnet Carré_                               48
  Bonnie Bride                                219
  Boomrey                                     219
  Borovitsky                                   40
  _Borsdoff_                                   40
  _Borsdorfer, Edel Winter_                    40
  Borsdorffer                                  40
              Black                           218
              _Grand Bohemian_                 40
              _Red_                            40
              _Winter_                         40
  _Borstorf_                                   40
  _Borstorff Hâtive_                           40
               _à longue queue_                40
  _Borstorffer, Edler Winter_                  40
  Bossom                                       41
  Bough, _Early_                              125
         _Large Early Yellow_                 125
         Large Yellow                         125
         _Sweet_                              125
         _Tart_                                75
  Bourassa                                    219
  Brainge                                     219
  Brainton, Symonds’s                         276
  _Brandy Apple_                               92
  Braune Mal                                  219
  Braunschweiger Milch                        219
  _Bread and Cheese Apple_                    162
  Brickley Seedling                            44
  Bridget, Scotch                             180
  Broad-End                                    45
            Summer                            191
  _Broading_                                   45
             _Kentish_                         45
             _Winter_                          45
  Brookes’s                                    46
  Broughton                                    46
  Brown Kenting                                46
  Brownite                                    220
  Buckland, Devonshire                         66
            Yellow                            283
  Bucks County                                220
  Buffcoat                                    220
  _Bur-Knot_                                  149
  Burn’s Seedling                              47
  _Burr Apple_                                220
  Burr Knot                                   220
  Burrell’s Red                               220
  _Bursdoff_                                   40
  Burton Seedling                             220
  Busham                                      221
  _Butter’s_                                   29

  Caas                                        224
  Cadbury                                     221
          _Pound_                             221
  Calander                                    221
  _Caldwell_                                  177
  _Calleville d’Automne_                       50
               _Blanc_                         48
               _d’Eté_                         50
               _d’Esté_                        50
               _Rouge_                         51
  _Calville_                                   50
  Calville _Acoute_                            48
           _Aechter Rother Winter_             51
           _d’Angleterre_                      61
           _d’Angleterre_                     209
           _d’Automne_                         50
           _Autumn_                            50
           _Autumn Red_                        50
           _Blanc_                             48
           _Blanc_                             48
           _Blanche_                           48
           _Blanche à Côtes_                   48
           _Blanche d’Eté_                     48
           _Blanche d’Hiver_                   48
           Eggermont’s                        231
           _d’Eté_                             50
           _Rouge d’Hiver_                     51
           Malingre                            49
           _Musquée_                           51
           _Normande_                          49
           _Normännische Rothe Winter_         49
           _Plané Rouge d’Eté_                 50
           _Red_                               50
           _Red_                               51
           _Red_                              199
           _Red Autumn_                        50
           _Rode Herfst_                       50
           _Rode Somer_                        50
           _Rode Winter_                       51
           _Rothe Herbst_                      50
           _Rothe Winter_                      51
           _Rother Sommer_                     50
           _Rouge_                             51
           Rouge d’Automne                     50
           _Rouge Couronné_                    51
           _Rouge dedans et dehors_            51
           Rouge d’Eté                         50
           Rouge d’Hiver                       51
           _Rouge longue d’Hiver_              51
           Rouge de Micoud                     51
           _Rouge de la Normandie_             49
           _Royale d’Eté_                      50
           _Royale d’Hiver_                    51
           _Sanguinole_                        51
           _dit Sanguinole_                    51
           _Tardive_                           48
           _Wahrer Weisser Sommer_             48
           _Weisser Winter_                    48
           _White_                             48
           _White_                             48
           _White Autumn_                      48
           _White Winter_                      48
           _Winter Red_                        51
           _Winter White_                      48
  _Caillot Rosat_                              51
  _Cambour_                                   162
  Campfield                                   221
  _Camuesar_                                  166
  _De Canada_                                 167
  _La Canelle_                                234
  _Caracter Apfel_,                            83
  _Carel’s Seedling_                          157
  Carnation                                   221
  Caroline                                     52
  _Carpendy_                                   83
  _Carpentin_                                 167
  _Carse of Gowrie_                           196
                    _Late_                    196
  _Carthouse_                                 235
  Catline                                     222
          _of Maryland_                       222
  _Cat’s Head_                                 53
  Catshead                                     53
           Round                              266
           Wiltshire                          282
  Cellini                                      53
  _Chalmers’s Large_                           73
  _Chance_                                    169
  _Charles’s Apple_                           135
  _Charmant Blanc_                            162
  Chataignier                                 222
  Chaudière                                   222
  Cherry Apple                                 54
  _Chucket Egg_                               195
  Cierge d’Hiver                              222
  _Citron_                                    169
  _Citron des Carmes_                         263
  Claret                                      223
  _Claudiana_                                  24
  Clepington                                  223
  Clouded Scarlet                             223
  _Cluster Apple_                              56
  _Coates’s_                                  213
  Cobham                                       56
  Coccagee                                     57
  _Cockagee_                                   57
  Cockpit                                     223
  _Codlin_                                     79
  Codlin, Betley                              217
          Carlisle                             52
          Clarke’s                            223
          _Common_                             79
          Dutch                                73
          English                              79
          French                              234
          _Green_                             252
          _Irish_                             131
          Kentish                             243
          Keswick                             122
          Kilkenny                            244
          _Knight’s_                          210
          Manks                               131
          Nelson                              141
          _Nelson’s_                          141
          _Old English_                        79
          Springrove                          187
          Tarvey                              194
          Tottenham Park                      277
          Transparent                         197
          _White_                              73
          Winter                              206
  _Cœur de Pigeon_                            155
                   _Gros_                     155
  Cole                                         59
  Collin’s Keeper                             223
  Colman, _Norfolk_                           206
          _Summer_                            191
          Winter                              206
  Colonel Vaughan’s                            59
  _Compôte_                                   151
  _Concombre Ancien_                          166
             _des Chartreux_                  177
  Conquest de Wigers                          223
  Constant Bearer, Wellbank’s                 280
  _Cordwall_                                  177
  _Corianda Rose_                              64
  Corse’s Favorite                            224
  Corstorphine                                224
  Cos                                         224
  Costard                                      61
          Royal                               267
  Coul Blush                                   62
  _Coulthard_                                  61
  _Court-pendû_                                64
  _Court-pendû_                                83
                _Gris_                         83
                _Petit Gris_                   83
                _Rosaar_                       64
                _Rouge_                        64
  Court-pendu _musquée_                        64
              Dorée                            98
              Noir                            224
              Plat                             64
              _Plat Rougeatre_                 64
              _Rond Gros_                      64
              _Rond Rougeatre_                 64
              _Rond Très Gros_                 64
              _Rosat_                          64
              _Rouge_                          64
              _Rouge Musqué_                   64
              _Vermeil_                        64
              White                           280
              Winter                          282
  _Court de Wick_                              63
  Court of Wick                                63
                Morris’s                      139
  _Cousinotte_                                 50
  Cow’s Snout                                 224
  Cowarne Red                                  65
  Crab Black                                  218
       _Brentford_                            118
       _Dumelow’s_                             72
       _French_                               206
       Hagloe                                 105
       Isleworth                              118
       _Lancashire_                           137
       _Lancaster_                            137
       Minchall                               137
       _Mincham’s_                            137
       _Minshul_                              137
       Pitminster                             259
       _Sams’s_                               129
       _Scudamore’s_                          164
  Creeper                                      66
  Crofton _Early_                             116
          _Early White_                       280
          _Red_                               178
          Scarlet                             178
          White                               280
          _White Summer_                      280
  _Curtipendula Minora_                        83
  Curtis                                      225
  Cyder Sop                                   225

  _Dainty Apple_                              110
  Daisy                                       225
  Darling                                      66
  Decibus                                     226
  _Delaware_                                  197
  Deptford Inn                                226
  Derbyshire                                  226
  Detroit                                     226
          _Black_                             226
          _Red_                               226
  Deux Ans, Hambledon                         105
            Hunt’s                            114
            Somersetshire                     271
            Wickham’s                         281
  Devon, Royal                                267
  _Diepe Kopjis_                              248
  Docker’s Seedling                           228
  Doctor                                      228
  _Dolgoi Squoznoi_                           190
  Domine                                      208
  Dominiska                                   229
  Doonside                                    229
  Douce de Bolwiller                          229
  Doyenné                                     229
  _Downy_                                     110
  Drap d’Or                                    69
  _Drap d’Or_                                  83
  _Drap d’Or_                                 263
              _Vrai_                           69
  _Duc d’Arsel_                               145
  Duchess of Oldenburgh                        71
             York’s Favorite                  229
  _Duck’s Bill_                               208
                _New_                         221
  _Duif Apfel_                                155
  Duke of Gloucester, Hunt’s                  115
          _Wellington_                         72
          _York, Newbold’s_                   177
  Dumelow’s Seedling                           72
  Dumpling, Lord Bateman’s                    248
            Minier’s                          137
            Watson’s                          201
  Duncan                                       73
  _Dundee_                                     98
  Dutch Mignonne                               74
        _Minion_                               74
  Dymmock Red                                 230

  Early Harvest                                75
                _Prince’s_                     75
        Joe                                   230
        Marrow                                230
        New York                              230
        Red                                   230
        Sauce, Swedish                        275
  _East Grinstead_                            201
  Easter, White                               280
  _Eckapfel_                                   48
  Edel König                                  231
  Edinburgh Cluster                           231
  _Egg_                                       203
  _Ekapfel Rother_                             51
  _Ekkling_                                    48
  _Eleot_                                     212
  _Eliot_                                     212
  _Elizabeth_                                  98
  Elliot, Yellow                              212
  Embroidered Apple                           232
  Emperor Alexander                            77
  _Epse’s Sweet_                              226
  _Erdbeer-apfel, Rothe Sommer_                50
                  _Rother Strich_              50
  _Erdbeerenapfel Sommer_                      50
                  _Weisser_                    48
  _D’Espagne_                                 166
  _Eve_                                       131
  _Eve_                                       131
  _Eve_                                       203
  Everlasting                                 232
              Green                           237
              _Striped_                       232
  Extreme, Wheeler’s                          202
  Eyelet, Green                               237
          _Yellow_                            212

  Fair Maid of France                         232
               Taunton                         80
               Wishford, Dredge’s              70
  Fallawater                                  232
  Famagusta                                    81
  Fame                                        233
       Dredge’s                                70
       Shepherd’s                             182
  _Fameuse_                                   141
  _La Fameuse_                                141
  _Faros_                                     104
          Gros                                104
  _Fenchelapfel Graue_                         82
                 _Grauer_                      82
                 _Rothe_                       83
  _Fenellet_                                   82
  _Fenouillet_                                 82
  Fenouillet Gris                              82
             _Gros_                            82
             Jaune                             83
             _D’Or Gros_                       82
             _Petit_                           82
             Rouge                             83
  Fillbasket                                   84
             Kentish                          120
  Flat Anderson,                              233
  Flat-Cap, Surrey                            193
  Fleur de Prairéal                           233
  _Fleur de Prairial_                         247
  Flower of Kent                               84
            the Town                          233
  _Flowery Town_                              233
  Forge                                        86
  Forman’s Crew                                87
  Foxley                                       88
  Fox-Whelp                                    88
  _Frank Rambour_                             162
  Friar                                        89
  Fulwood                                      90
          Dutch                               230
          _Green_                              90
          _Late_                              230
          Red                                 261
          White                               280

  Ganges                                       90
  _Garnon’s_                                   64
  Garter                                       90
  _Gelders Present_                            50
  _Général_                                   152
  General Wolfe                               234
  Gennet, May                                 250
  _Genneting_                                 118
  _George de Pigeon_                           82
  Gilliflower                                 235
              Cornish                          61
              Summer                          273
  Gilpin                                      235
  _Ginnetting_                                118
  _Glace Rouge_                                30
                _de Zélande_                  202
  _Glammis Castle_                            196
  _Glasapfel, Berliner_                       266
  Glasbury, Norman                            255
  Gloria Mundi                                 91
               _American_                      91
               _Glazenwood_                    91
               _New York_                      91
  Glory, Bachelor’s                            28
         Miller’s                             251
  Glory of Boughton                           236
           England                             91
           _Flanders_                          42
           _The West_                          92
           _The West_                          73
           _York_                             171
  _Golden Apple_                              149
  Golden Ball                                 236
         _Beauty, Owen’s_                     118
         Devonshire                           226
         _Drop_                                63
         Drop, Coe’s                           58
         Gloucester                           236
         Harvey                                92
         Knob                                  93
              _Kentish_                        93
         Monday                                94
         Noble                                 94
         Pippin                                95
                Autumn                        216
                _Balgone_                      95
                _Bowyer’s_                     42
                _Cluster_                      56
                _Dredge’s_                    244
                _Elton_                        68
                _English_                      95
                Franklin’s                     89
                _Hampshire Yellow_             99
                _Herefordshire_                95
                Hughes’s                      114
                _Hughes’s New_                114
                Kirke’s                       244
                _Knight’s_                     68
                _London_                       95
                _Milton_                       95
                _New Cluster_                 244
                _New Golden_                  244
                _Old_                          95
                _Rival_                        63
                _Rival_                       215
                _Russet_                       95
                Scarlet                       269
                Screveton                     180
                Summer                        191
                Taunton                       194
                _Warter’s_                     95
         _Vining_                             113
         Worcester                            236
         Wreath, Pitmaston                    157
  _Goldzaugapfel_                              69
  Gooseberry                                  100
  _Goose-Sauce, Yorkshire_                    213
  _Götterapfel_                               229
  _Gowrie, The_                               196
  _Grafensteiner_                             102
  Grand Shachem                               236
  Grange                                      110
  Grauch Douce                                237
  Gravenstein                                 102
  _Graven Slije_                              102
  _Gray Apple_                                158
  Green                                       237
        Balsam                                237
        _Cossings_                            177
        Dragon                                237
  Greening, _Burlington_                      170
            Dickson’s                         227
            _Jersey_                          170
            Northern                          148
            New Northern                      254
            Rhode Island                      170
            Squire’s                          187
            Winter                            206
            Wood’s                            283
            Yorkshire                         213
  Green-Sweet, Hargreave’s                    106
  Gregson                                     222
  _Grise_                                     158
  _Grosse d’Angleterre_                       167
            _Pomme Noire d’Amerique_          199
            _Rouge de Septembre_               50
  _Guolden Pippings_                           95

  Hall Door                                   105
  _Hampshire Yellow_                           99
  Harrison                                    239
  _Harvest, Prince’s_                          75
            _Woolman’s_                       274
  Harvey Apple                                106
         _Doctor_                             106
         Golden                                92
         _Round Russet_                        92
         _Siberian_                           183
  _Hausmütterchen_                             91
  Haute Bonte                                 108
  Hawthornden                                 109
              New                             254
              Seacliffe                       270
              _Winter_                         72
  _Hawthorndean_                              109
                 _Red_                        109
                 _White_                      109
  Hay’s Early                                 240
  Hedge Apple                                 240
  Hedging, Summer                             274
  _Heidelocher_                               113
  _Herbststrichapfel_                         152
                      _Rother_                152
  _Herfst-Present_                             50
  _Hermannsapfel, Grosser Gestreifter_        109
  _Herrnapfel_                                229
               _Rothe_                        266
  _Hicks’s Fancy_                              76
  Hill’s Seedling                             240
  _Himbeerapfel, Langer Rother_               209
                 _Weisser_                     48
  Hoare’s Seedling                            240
  Hoary Morning                               110
  Hogshead                                    240
  Hollandbury                                 110
  _Hollingbury_                               110
  Hollow Core                                 111
  Hollow Crown, Little                        248
  Home’s Large                                240
  Hood’s Seedling                             112
  Horselin                                    241
  Hoskreiger                                  113
  House                                       241
        _Grey_                                241
  _Hubbard’s_                                 113
  Hunthouse                                   115
  Huntingford                                 241
  _Hutchings’s Seedling_                      190
  Hutchinson’s Spotted                        242

  _Ice Apple, Russian_                        202
  Incomparable                                242
               Barton’s                        31
               Lewis’s                        127
               Moss’s                         252
               Toker’s                        196
  Ingestrie, Red                              164
             Yellow                           212
  _Irish Pitcher_                             131
  _Iron Apple_                                 42
  Iron Apple                                  242
  Ive’s Seedling                              242

  Jack Cade                                   242
  Janett, Rawle’s                             261
  _Janurea_                                   167
  Jeffreys’s Seedling                         242
  _Jeniting_                                  118
  _Jenneting_                                 118
  _Jenneting, Early_                          118
  Jenny Sinclair                              242
  Jersey                                      242
  _Jerusalem_                                 155
  Joanneting                                  118
  _Joannina_                                  118
  _John_                                      148
  John Apple                                  243
  Jonathan                                    243
  Jordbaeraeble                               243
                Kantet                        244
  _Juliansapfel, Heilige_                     177
  Julien, Early                                75
  _July-flower_                                61
  _July-flower, Cornish_                       61
                _Summer_                      273
  _June-eating_                               118
                _American Red_                230
                _Early Red_                   132
                _Early Striped_               132
                _Large White_                  75
                _Red_                         132
                _Striped_                     132
                _White_                       118
  _Juneting_                                  118
  _Jungfernapfel_                              23
  _Juniting_                                  118

  _Kaiser Alexander Von Russland_              77
  _Kaiserheimer_                              247
  _Kalwil, Rother Herbst_                      50
           _Rother Winter_                     51
           _Weisser Sommer_                    48
           _Weisser Winter_                    48
  Kernel, Ashmead’s                            26
          _Bache’s_                            36
          Dobbs’s                             228
          _Dr. Ashmead’s_                      26
          Dollar’s                            228
          Fletcher’s                          233
          Knotted                             245
          Longville’s                         129
          Skerm’s                             271
          Stead’s                             187
  King _George_                                40
       _George the Third_                      40
       Harry                                  244
       Robert                                 244
       William                                244
  King, Newark                                254
        Warner’s                              201
  King of the Pippins                         123
  _King of the Pippins_                        99
  Kingston Black                              123
  _Kirschapfel_                                54
  Knight’s Large                              245
  _Korpendu, Rode_                             64
  Krappe Kruin                                245
  Krizapfel                                   246
  _Kurzstiel, Rosenfarbiger_                   64
              _Rothe_                          64

  Lading, Sweet                               275
          Winter                              207
  _Lady Apple_                                 23
  Lady _de Grey’s_                            120
       Lennox                                 246
       of the Wemyss                          246
  Lady’s Delight                              124
  Lady’s Finger                               124
  _Lady’s Finger_                             203
  _Lammas_                                    132
  Lancashire Gap                              246
  De Lande                                    247
  Langlast, Green                             237
            Red                               261
  _Large Black_                               226
          _Early_                              75
  Lasting, Somerset                           185
  Lawman’s                                    247
  Leadington, Grey                            104
              Green                           237
              Large                           247
              Monstrous                       252
              Scarlet                         178
              Stoup                           273
  _Leather Coat_                              175
  Lemon Apple                                 247
  _Lily Buckland_                              66
  Little Beauty                               248
         Herbert                              248
  Lock’s Seedling                             248
  _Long Bois_                                  23
  Long Keeper, Buchanan’s                     220
               Mogg’s                         251
       Laster                                 248
       _May_                                  203
       Nose                                   128
       Seam                                   248
  Longstart                                   128
  Lord Cheney’s Green                         249
       Nelson, _Backhouse’s_                  141
               Kirke’s                        123
  _Lothinger_                                 162
  Lucombe’s Seedling                          130

  Macbeth                                     249
  Maclean                                     249
  Maclean’s Favorite                          249
  Madeleine                                   130
  _Madeleine_                                  50
  _Mætapfel à Fleurs Tardives_                272
  _Magdalene_                                 132
  _Mage’s Johnny_                             102
  Maggie Duncan                               249
  Maiden                                      249
  Maiden’s Blush                              130
  Majetin, Winter                             207
  _Mala Janurea_                              167
  _Malacarle_                                 135
  _Malcarle_                                  135
  _Male Carle_                                135
  _Malengre d’Angleterre_                      49
  Maltster                                    249
  _Malus Aegra_                                49
        _Apiosa_                               23
  _Mammoth_                                    91
           _American_                          91
  Margaret                                    132
           _Early_                            132
           _Early Red_                        132
           _of Miller_                        130
  _Marget-Apple_                              132
  Margil                                      133
  _Marguerite_                                132
  Marigold, Creed’s                            65
            Summer                            274
  _Maschanzker_                                40
  Masters’s Seedling                          250
  _Mason’s Early_                             250
           White                              250
  Massavis                                    250
  _Matapfel_                                  266
            _Spätblühender_                   272
  _Matchless_                                 144
  _Maudlin_                                   132
  _Megginch Favorite_                          98
  Mela Carla                                  135
  _Mela di Carlo_                             135
  _Melo Rosa_                                  24
  Melrose                                     136
          _White_                             136
  _Menagère_                                   91
  Mère de Ménage                              137
  Mermaid                                     251
  Merveille de Portland                       251
  De Miche                                    251
  Mignonne, Siely’s                           184
  _Milch Apfel_                               219
  Mitchelson’s Seedling                       138
  Monkton                                     139
  Monster, Herefordshire                      240
  Moore’s Seedling                            139
  Morden Bloom                                252
         Round                                252
         Striped                              252
  Mother Apple                                252
  _Mother Apple_                              149
  _Motteux’s Seedling_                         32
  Mount Stewart                               253
  Moulin à Vent                               253
  Mouse Apple                                 253
  Murphy                                      253
  Museau de Lièvre                            156
  Must, Red                                   164
        White                                 281
  My Jo Janet                                 254

  Nanny                                       140
  De Neige                                    141
  _Nelson_                                    141
  _Never Fail_                                133
  Newark, Harrison’s                          239
  Newington, Shepherd’s                       270
  Newtown Pippin                              143
  _Newtown Pippin_                             22
                   _Lord Gwydyr’s_             21
                   _American_                 143
                   _Green_                    143
                   _Green_                    170
                   _Large_                    143
                   _Large Yellow_             143
                   _Large Yellow_             212
                   Yellow                     212
  Nine Square                                 255
  Noblesse de Gand                            255
  _Nonpareil_                                 145
  _Nonsuch_                                   144
            _Langton_                         144
  Nonesuch                                    144
           Biggs’s                             37
           Bowes’s                            219
           _Clifton_                           82
           Hampshire                          239
           Hubbardston                        241
           Round Winter                       174
           _Watson’s New_                     205
           Park                               255
  Nonpareil                                   145
            American                          215
            _d’Angleterre_                    145
            Antrim                            215
            Black                             218
            Braddick’s                         43
            Cornish                           224
            _Ditton_                           43
            Downton                           229
            Early                              76
            _English_                         145
            Fair’s                             81
            Flat                              233
            Formosa                           233
            _Green_                           155
            Golden                            236
            _Hunt’s_                          145
            Hunt’s Royal                      141
            _Lacy’s_                           76
            Margate                           250
            Martin                            135
            _New_                              76
            _New Scarlet_                     179
            _Old_                             145
            _Original_                        145
            Petworth                          155
            Pitmaston                         157
            _Pitmaston Russet_                157
            Redding’s                         262
            Ross                              173
            Royal                             267
            _Russet-Coated_                   259
            _St. John’s_                      157
            Scarlet                           179
            _Stagg’s_                          76
            Stubton                           273
            _Summer_                           76
            Sweeny                            193
            Symonds’s                         276
            White                             281
            Wright’s                          283
  _Norfolk Pippin_                             20
  Norman, Knotted                             245
          Red                                 261
  _Normanton Wonder_                           72
  Northern Spy                                256
  Nottingham                                  256

  Oak Peg                                     256
  _Oaken Pin_                                 256
  Oaks                                        256
  Ochiltree                                   256
  Ognon                                       256
  _Oldaker’s New_                              21
  _Old Maid’s_                                124
  Oliver’s                                    257
  Onion, Spanish                              272
  Orack Elma                                  257
  Orange                                      257
         _Blenheim_                            38
         _Isle of Wight_                      117
  _Oranje Appel, Engelse_                     117
  Ord’s Apple                                 148
  _Orgeline_                                  149
  _Orglon_                                    149
  _Orjeline_                                  149
  Orme                                        257
  _Ortley_                                    210
  Oslin                                       149
        _Scotch_                              149
        _Summer_                              149
        _White_                               149
  _Osterley Apple_                            150
  _Ox Apple_                                   91

  Pack-Horse                                  257
  Painted Lady                                257
  Paradise, Norfolk                           147
            Summer Sweet                      274
            White                             203
  _Paris-apfel_                                48
  _Parmäne, Englische Königs_                 174
            _Scharlachrothe_                  179
  _Parmain d’Hiver_                           208
  Parmentier                                  257
  _Pass-pomm, Rothe Sommer_                   153
  _Passe-pomme_                               155
  _Passe-pomme_                                50
                d’Automne                     152
                _de Canada_                   175
                _Cotellée_                    152
                _Panachée_                    156
                Rouge                         153
                _Rouge d’Automne_             152
  _Passe-rose_                                 25
  _Paternoster_                                91
  _Paternoster Apfel_                          74
  Pawsan                                      153
  Peach, American                             215
         _American_                           156
         _Irish_                              116
         _Oxford_                             179
  Pear Apple                                  258
  _Pearemaine_                                208
  _Pearmaine, Great_                          208
  _Pearmain_                                  208
  Pearmain, Adams’s                            20
            _American_                        192
            American Summer                    23
            _Arundel_                         112
            Augustus                           27
            _Autumn_                          192
            Barcelona                          30
            Baxter’s                           32
            _Bell’s Scarlet_                  179
            Benwell’s                          35
            Blue                              258
            Bristol                            45
            Capper’s                          221
            Chester                            55
            Claygate                           55
            _Double_                          174
            _Drue Summer_                     192
            _Earl of Yarmouth’s_              151
            _Early Summer_                     23
            Federal                            82
            Foulden                            87
            _Gestreifter Sommer_              192
            Gilliflower                       235
            Golden                             94
            Golden Winter                      99
            Grange’s                          101
            _Hammon’s_                        113
            _Herefordshire_                   174
            _Hertfordshire_                   174
            Hormead                           112
            _Horrex’s_                         87
            Hubbard’s                         113
            Kernel                            243
            Kilkenny                          122
            Lamb Abbey                        125
            _Laneb Abbey_                     125
            Loan’s                            127
            Mannington’s                      131
            _Merveille_                       174
            _Old_                             208
            Oxnead                            151
            Panson’s                          257
            Parry’s                           152
            _Polinia_                          30
            Royal                             174
            _Royal de longue durée_           174
            _Ruckman’s_                        94
            Rushock                           176
            _Russet_                          113
            Russet Table                      176
            Scarlet                           179
            Spanish                           272
            _Speckled_                         30
            Summer                            192
            Sussex Scarlet                    275
            Vale Mascal                       199
            _Wick_                            205
            Wickham’s                         205
            Winter                            208
  Peckman                                     258
  Pennington’s Seedling                       154
  _Pepin d’Or_                                 95
  _Peppeling, Kœnings_                         95
  _Pepping Downton’s_                          68
           _Engelsche Goud_                    95
           _Engelsche Konings, of Kings_      174
           _Englischer Kleiner Stein_         147
           _Gold_                              95
           _Goud_                              95
           _Goudelings_,                       95
           _Grauwe, of Blanke Van der Laan_   208
           _Litle_                             95
           Marmorirter Sommer                 250
           _Rother Kentischer_                121
           _Zeeuwsche_                        208
  _Peppins, Guolden_                           95
  Permanent                                   258
  _Permein Druë d’Angleterre_                 208
  _Permenes_                                  208
  Peter Lely Zoete                            284
  Petit Jean                                  154
  Petworth Seedling                           258
  _Phœnix Apple_                               77
  Pickman                                     258
  Pigeon                                      155
         _Bigarré_                            156
         _Rouge_                              155
  Pigeonnet                                   156
         _Blanc_                              156
         _Blanc d’Eté_                        156
         _Gros de Rouen_                      156
  _Pine-Apple_                                129
              Lucombe’s                       129
  Pinner Seedling                             157
  Pintstoup, Sweet                            275
  _Pipe, Englische Gelbe_                      95
  Pippin, Alderston                           215
         _Althorpe_                           134
         _American Newtown_                   143
         _Arbroath_                           149
         _Aromatic_                            60
         Autumn Golden                        216
         Baddow                                28
         _Balgone_                             95
         _Balgone Golden_                      95
         _Balgown_                             95
         Balmanno                             216
         _Bayford_                             95
         Beat’s                               217
         Belledge                              34
         Bere Court                            36
         Birmingham                            37
         Bland’s Orange                       218
         _Blenheim_                            38
         _Boatswain’s_                        260
         _Bowyer’s Golden_                     42
         Breedon                               43
         Bridgewater                           44
         Bringewood                            45
         Broad-eyed                            46
         _Brown Cockle_                        57
         _Brummage_                            37
         _Bullock’s_                          182
         _Cambridge_                           34
         Cambusnethan                         221
         Carberry                             221
         Christie’s                            55
         Clara                                 56
         _Claremont_                          206
         Cley                                 223
         Clove                                223
         _Cluster_                             56
         Cluster Golden                        56
         _Cobbett’s Fall_                     166
         _Cockle_                              57
         _Cockle’s_                            57
         Colonel Harbord’s                     59
         _Court of Wick_                       63
         _Cracked_                            245
         Cray                                  65
         _Crimson_                            226
         Croom                                225
         Cumberland                           225
         Dalmahoy                             225
         Darling                               66
         Darlington                           226
         Dr. Helsham’s                         68
         Dowell’s                              68
         Downton                               68
         _Dredge’s Golden_                    244
         Duke of Beaufort’s                    72
         Easter                               206
         _Edmonton’s Aromatic_                121
         Eldon                                231
         Elford                                77
         _Elton_                               68
         _Elton Golden_                        68
         Embroidered                          232
         _Embroidered_                         83
         _Englise_                             98
         _English Golden_                      95
         Essex                                 80
         _Fall_                                22
         _Fall_                               166
         Farleigh                              81
         _Farley_                              81
         Farthing’s                           233
         Fearn’s                               82
         _Ferris_                              82
         Flanders                              84
         _Five-Crowned_                       128
         _Florence_                            82
         Forfar                               233
         _Formosa_                            171
         Franklin’s Golden                     89
         _French_                             234
         _French_                             254
         _Frith_                              131
         _Fry’s_                               63
         _Gargey_                             234
         _Garret_                              40
         _Girkin_                             211
         Gogar                                 92
         Golden                                95
         _Grange’s_                           101
         _Grey Leadington_                    104
         Greaves’s                            237
         _Green Newton_                       143
         _Green Newtown_                      170
         _Green Winter_                       143
         Greenup’s                            103
         _Greenus’s_                          103
         _Griddleton_                         238
         _Grummage_                            37
         _Grumas’s_                            37
         Haggerston                           239
         _Hampshire Yellow Golden_             99
         Harvey’s                             107
         _Hawberry_                           110
         Henry’s Weeping                      240
         _Hertfordshire Golden_                95
         Hermann’s                            109
         Holland                              110
         Hollow-crowned                       112
         Hollow-eyed                          112
         _Hormead_                            112
         _Horsley_                            110
         _How’s_                              241
         _Howberry_                           110
         Hughes’s Golden                      114
         _Hughes’s New Golden_                114
         _Ironstone_                          206
         Isle of Wight                        117
         _Jackson’s_                          242
         _Jones’s Southampton_                 99
         _Jubilee_                             38
         _July_                                75
         _July, Early_                         75
         Keddleston                           243
         _Kempster’s_                          38
         _Kentish_                             32
         _Kentish_                            120
         Kentish                              121
         Kerry                                121
         Keston                               244
         _Kingswick_                           63
         _Kirke’s Golden_                     244
         _Kirke’s Lemon_                      126
         _Kirton_                              46
         _Kirton_                             111
         Kirton                               245
         _Knight’s_                            68
         _Knight’s Golden_                     68
         Knight’s Lemon                       245
         Lady Louisa                          246
         _Large Fall_                         166
         _Large Newtown_                      143
         _Large Yellow Newtown_               143
         _Large Yellow Newtown_               212
         Lawrence’s New White                 247
         Lemon                                126
         Leyden                               247
         Lincolnshire Holland                 127
         London                               128
         _London Golden_                       95
         _Lovedon’s_                          145
         Lucas’s                              249
         Marygold                             250
         Marmalade                            134
         Michael Henry                        251
         _Middleton_                          242
         _Milton Golden_                       95
         Mollet’s Guernsey                    251
         Monkland                             138
         _Monstow’s_                           94
         _Monstrous_                           91
         Moorhen                              252
         Moxhay                               253
         _Munches_                            133
         Munster                              253
         Newark                               254
         _New Cluster Golden_                 244
         New England                          254
         _New Golden_                         244
         _New London_                         128
         New Rock                             142
         _Newton_                             143
         Newtown                              143
         _Newtown_                             22
         New-York                             144
         _Norfolk_                             20
         Norfolk Stone                        147
         Normandy                             256
         _Northwick_                           38
         Nottingham                           148
         _Nutmeg_                              57
         _Nutmeg Cockle_                       57
         _Old Golden_                          95
         Old Park                             256
         _Orange_                             117
         _Original_                           149
         Osterley                             150
         Padley’s                             151
         _Padley’s Royal George_              151
         _Paradise_                           203
         Parsonage                            257
         _Petersburgh_                        143
         _Pie_                                110
         _Pine-Apple_                         129
         _Pomegranate_                        186
         Ponto                                159
         Pound                                260
         _Prussian_                            61
         Ravelston                            163
         _Red Kentish_                        121
         Red Sweet                            262
         Ribston                              171
         Rigby’s                              265
         _Rival Golden_                        63
         _Rival Golden_                       215
         Robinson’s                           172
         Rodmersham                           265
         _Russet Golden_                       95
         _St. Mary’s_                          68
         Salopian                             268
         Scarlet Golden                       269
         Screveton Golden                     180
         _Shepherd’s_                          21
         Silver                               271
         _Simpson’s_                          148
         Slade’s                              271
         _Small Golding_                       95
         South Carolina                       271
         Spencer’s                            272
         _Stettin_                             74
         _Stone_                               37
         _Stone_                               92
         _Stone_                              147
         Stonyroyd                            273
         _Striped Holland_                    127
         Strode-House                         273
         Sturmer                              187
         _Sudlow’s Fall_                       89
         Sugar Loaf                           190
         _Summer_                             191
         _Summer_                             130
         _Summer_                             110
         Summer Golden                        191
         Sweet                                275
         Taunton Golden                       194
         _Thoral_                             205
         _Thorle_                             205
         Travers’s                            171
         _Twin Cluster_                        56
         Valleyfield                          278
         Van                                  278
         _Vaun’s_                             121
         Veiny                                199
         Wadhurst                             200
         _Warter’s Golden_                     95
         _Warwickshire_                       211
         _Welsch_                             134
         West Grinstead                       201
         Whernel’s                            280
         _White_                              147
         _White Cockle_                        57
         _White Stone_                        147
         _White Summer_                       191
         Whitmore                             205
         Whorle                               205
         Wick’s                                63
         Williams’s                           282
         _Woodstock_                           38
         _Woolaton_                            64
         Wormsley                             210
         Wyken                                211
         _Yellow_                             254
         _Yellow Newtown_                     212
  Pippins, King of the                        123
          _King of the_                        99
  _Pipping, Gulden_                            95
            _Leadington’s Grauer_             104
            _Wyker_                            98
  _Plate, American_                            95
          Pearson’s                           154
  _Pome de Fraise_                             48
           _Rembures_                         162
  Pomeroy                                     158
          Early                               230
          New                                 255
          Winter                              282
  Pomewater                                   159
  _Pomme d’Anis_                               82
         _d’Api_                               23
         _d’Api Gros_                          25
         _d’Apict_                             23
         _d’Apis_                              23
         _Appease_                             25
         _d’Astrachan_                        202
         _de Bardin_                           83
         _de Berlin_                           64
         _Caractère_                           83
         _Carl_                               135
         _de Cerise_                           54
         _de Charles_                         135
         _de Coin_                             48
         _de Concombre_                        49
         _Dieu_                                23
         _d’Eté_                               75
         _d’Etoille_                           25
         _Etoillée_                            25
         _de Framboise_                        48
         _Finale_                             135
         _Glace_                               48
         _Glace_                               49
         _de Glace_                           202
         _Granate_                            232
         _Grelot_                              50
         Grise                                158
         _d’Italie_                           250
         _Joséphine_                           91
         _de Laak_                             74
         _Madame_                              98
         _Madame_                             263
         _Madaleine Grosse_                    50
         _Malecarle_                          135
         _de Malingre_                         49
         _Melon_                               91
         _de Notre Dame_                      162
         _d’Or_                                95
         _d’Orange_                           117
         _d’Outre-passe_                      152
         _Poire_                              145
         Poire                                259
         _de Prochain_                         40
         _Regelans_                            61
         _Rose_                                23
         _Rose_                                25
         _Sonnette_                            50
  Poor Man’s Profit                           259
  Pope’s Apple                                160
  Porte Tulipée                               259
  Porter                                      259
  _Portugal_                                  167
  _Porstorffer_                                40
  _Postophe d’Hiver_                           40
  Pound                                       259
  _Prager_                                    169
  _Pride of the Ditches_                      184
  Priestley                                   260
  _Primiting_                                 118
  Prince Royal                                260
  Princess Royal, Hulbert’s                   241
  _Princesse Noble_                            98
  _Princesse Noble_                           238
  _Princesse Noble Zoete_                      64
  Prinzessinapfel, Grosser Edler              238
  _Pyrus Astracanica_                         202

  _Quarenden, Red_                             67
  Quarrenden, Devonshire                       67
              _Striped_                       132
  _Quarentine_                                 67
               _Red_                           67
  _Quarrington_                                67
                _Devonshire_                   67
  _Queen_                                     260
  Queen Charlotte                             260
        Charlotte, Dredge’s                   229
        Devonshire                            227
        Of Sauce                              161
        Summer                                274
  Queening, _Cowarne_                         148
            Cowarne                           224
            Crimson                           225
            Grey                              238
            _Summer_                          274
            _Winter_                          209
  _Queen’s_                                    40
  _Quince_                                    126
  _Quining, Winter_                           209
  _Quittenapfel, Französischer_                48
                 _Englischer Winter_          126
                 _Rothe Winter_                51
  _Quodling_                                   79
  Quoining, Winter                            209

  Rabine                                      162
  Rambo                                       162
  _Rambour_                                   162
  Rambour                                     260
          _Blanc_                             162
          _à Côtes Gros_                       48
          _d’Eté_                             162
          Franc                               162
          _d’Hiver_                           260
          _Gros_                              162
          _Kirke’s Schöner_                   110
          _Lothinger_                         162
          _Summer_                            162
          _Weisse Sommer_                     162
  _Rambourg_                                  162
  _Rambourge_                                 162
  _Rambourger Früher_                         162
  Range                                       261
  _De Rateau_                                 166
  Rather Ripe                                 261
  Rawling, Red Streaked                       165
  Red Aisle                                   261
      Bag                                     261
      Coat                                    261
  _Red, Pennock’s_                            258
  Red, Pryor’s                                260
  Red Winter, Pennock’s                       258
              _Pennock’s Large_               258
  _Red-Streak_                                233
  Red-Streak                                  164
             Bovey                            219
             Carse                            222
             Devonshire                       227
             Dorsetshire                      229
             _Herefordshire_                  164
             Keeping                          120
             Kernel                           244
             _Rawling’s Fine_                 166
             _Winter_                         221
  _Reed’s Baker_                              146
  Reinette, _Aechte Graue Franzosische_       169
            _d’Aix_                            98
            _d’Allemagne_                      40
            _d’Angleterre_                     95
            Autumn                            216
            _Batarde_                          40
            Baumann                           262
            Bischoff’s                        217
            _Blanche_                         168
            _Blanche_                         262
            _Blanche or Franche_              168
                     _dite Prime_             168
                     _d’Espagne_              166
            _Bordeauer Gold_                  236
            De Breda                          166
            _De Caen_                         167
            Calvillée                         262
            _Canada_                          167
            _De Canada_                       167
                        _Blanche_             167
                        _à Côtes_             167
                        _Grise_               175
                        _Platte_              175
            _Du Canada_                       167
            _Canadian_                        167
            _Des Carmes_                       30
            Carpentin                         167
            _Cassel_                           30
            Christ’s Gold                     222
                     _Golden_                  74
                     _Deutsche Gold_          222
            Citronen                          222
            _De Citron_                       222
            De Clareval                       262
            Contin                             60
            _Courtpendû_                       83
                          _Rouge_              64
            Crede’s Quitten                   225
            _Credos Gütten_                   225
            Diel                              168
            Dietzer Rothe Mandel              227
            _Dorée_                            74
            Dorée                             263
                  _Royale_                    245
            De Doué                           263
            _Drap d’Or_                        83
            _Early French_                     75
            _Englische Büschel_                56
            _Englische Spitals_               193
            Englische Granat                  232
            _English_                          95
            _D’Espagne_                       166
            _Forellen_                        265
            Franche                           168
            _Franz_                           168
            _Französische Edel_               168
            _French_                          168
            _French_                          234
            Gaesdonker Gold                   234
            _Gelbe Zucker_                    169
            _Gielen_                           98
            Glanz                             235
            Gold Von Bordeaux                 236
            Golden                             98
            _De Goslinga_                      83
            Grise                             169
                  D’Angleterre Petit          263
                  _D’Automne_                 263
                  _De Champagne_               83
                  Dorée                       263
                  _Extra_                     169
                  _Française_                 169
                  De Granville                263
                  _Haute Bonté_               108
                  _D’Hiver_                   169
                  De Hollande                 263
                  New                         255
            Grosse d’Angleterre               263
                   _d’Angleterre_             167
                   _de Canada_                167
                   _Englische_                167
                   _Oder Doppelte Casseler_    74
            _Grüne_                           170
            De Havre                          263
            _Hollandische Gold_                74
            Hollow-eyed                       240
            De Hongrie                        263
            Irish                             117
            Jaune Hâtive                      263
                  Sucrée                      169
                  Tardive                     263
            _Kirke’s Golden_                   98
            _Kleine Casseler_                  30
                    _Graue_                   167
            Königs                            245
            Kräuter                           245
            De Laak                           264
            _Marbrée_                         263
            Menonisten                        251
            Michaux                           264
            _De Misnie_                        40
            Muscat                            253
            _Musquée_                         253
            Naine                             264
            _Nonpareil_                       145
            Du Nord                           264
            De Normandie                      168
            D’Orléans                         264
            _Phillips’s_                       63
            Pictée                            264
            Proliferous                       161
            _Quince_                          264
            Quitten                           264
            _Rousse_                           30
            Royal                             175
            Saffran                           268
            Selwood’s                         181
            _Speckled Golden_                  30
            Spice                             272
            Striped Monstrous                 189
            _Tachetée_                        265
            _Tendre_                          166
            Trés Tardive                      265
            Trevoider                         277
            Truite                            265
            _Tyroler Glanz_                   235
            Uellner’s Gold                    198
            Van Mons                          169
            De Vigan                          265
            Verte                             170
            _Wahre_                           167
            _Weisse_                          168
            Weisse Antillische Winter         279
                   Wacks                      279
            _Wellington’s_                     72
            _White Spanish_                   166
            _Winter Anis_                      82
            _Yellow German_                    98
            Zimmet                            284
  _Renet, Golden_                              98
  _Renett, Grauwe Franse_                     169
  _Renette, Groene_                           170
            _Groene Franse_                   170
  _Rennet, Golden_                             98
             Monstrous                        252
             Mother                           253
  _Rhode Island_                               91
  _Ribston, Small_                            133
            _Spring_                           28
  Rival                                       265
  Rob Roy                                     265
  _Roi Trés Noble_                            231
  _Rolland_                                    34
  Romaine                                     265
  _Romanite_                                  162
  Roman Stem                                  265
  Romril                                      266
  Rosalind                                    266
  Rose Apple                                  266
  _Rose de China_                             172
  Rose, Summer                                274
  _Rosenapi_                                   25
  Rosmarinapfel _Rother_                       50
                Weisse Italienische           279
  Rostocker                                   266
  _Rouge de Chartreux_                         49
  Rougham Seedling                            266
  Round Head                                  267
  Rowe’s Seedling                             267
  Royal George                                267
        Jersey                                267
        Shepherd                              176
        _Somerset_                            128
  Royale                                      268
  _Rubenapfel_                                 25
  Ruby, Winter                                283
  Russet, Acklam’s                             20
          _Aclemy_                             20
          Aromatic                             26
          Boston                               42
          Bowyer’s                             42
          Byson Wood                           47
          Dredge’s                            229
          French                              234
          Golden                               99
          _Hardingham’s_                      156
          Harvey’s                            239
          Horsham                             112
          _Irish_                             178
          Keeping                             120
          Knobbed                             124
          _Knobby_                            124
          Morris’s                            140
                   Nonpareil                  140
          _Newjorker_                         143
          Nine Partner’s Little               255
          Nonpareil                           140
          Patch’s                             152
          Pile’s                              156
          Pine-Apple                          156
          Pitmaston Nonpareil                 259
          Powell’s                            161
          _Pyle’s_                            156
          Putman’s                             42
          Rosemary                            173
          Royal                               175
          _St. Helena_                        167
          Sandy’s                             269
          Sharp’s                             270
          _Shippen’s_                          42
          Striped Nonpareil                   273
          Sweet                               276
          Sweeting                            276
          Sykehouse                           193
          Wheeler’s                           201
          White                               281
          Wine                                282
  _Russetting, Aromatic or Golding_            99
               _Roxbury_                       42
  _Russian_                                   273
  _Russian Emperor_                            77
  Rymer                                       177

  Sabine                                      102
  _Sack Apple_                                 67
  Sack and Sugar                              177
  St. Patrick                                 268
  _Sam Rawlings_                              110
  Sam Young                                   178
  _Sanguineus_                                141
  _Sanguinole_                                 51
  Sapling Bark                                269
  _Sapson_                                    186
  _Sapsonvine_                                186
  De Sauge                                    269
  St. Lawrence                                268
  St Julien                                   177
  Scarlet Keeper                              269
          _Perfume_                            59
  Schafer                                     269
  Scotsman                                    269
  Scottish Chief                              269
  Sea Cliff                                   269
  Seal, White                                 281
  Sedgefield                                  270
  Seek-no-farther                             181
  _Seek-no-farther_                           213
                    _American_                162
  _Seigneur d’Orsay_                          177
  Sergeant                                    270
  Shagreen                                    270
  Shakespere                                  182
  Sheep’s Nose                                182
  _Shepherd’s Seedling_                        21
  _Shireling_                                 246
  Shustoke                                    270
  _Siberian Crab_                              54
  Siberian Sugar                              270
  Silverling                                  270
  Simpson’s Seedling                          271
  _Sir Walter Blacket’s Favorite_             231
  Sir William Gibbon’s                        184
  Sleeping Beauty                             185
                  _Winter_                    185
  Small Stalk                                 185
  _Solebury Cider_                            220
  _Sommerapfel, Astracanischer_               202
                Rothe Wiener                  266
  Sonnette                                    271
  Sops in Wine                                186
  _Sops of Wine_                              186
  Souring, Hanwell                            106
  Sovereign                                   271
  Spaniard                                    272
           French                             234
  Spätblühende                                272
  Spice Apple                                 186
        Early                                  76
  Spitzemberg                                 186
              _English_                       144
              Pownal                          260
  Spitzenberg _Æsopus_                         80
              _Burlington_                    144
              Newtown                         144
  Spitzenburgh _Æsopus_                        80
               Esopus                          80
               Flushing                        85
               _True_                          80
  Square, Hutton                              115
          Stirzaker’s Early                   188
  Standard                                    272
  _Sternapfel_                                 25
  Stibbert, Summer                             25
  _Stetting Rouge_                            266
  _Stettiner Rothe_                           266
  _Stire_                                      86
  Stirling Castle                             273
  _Storing, Norfolk_                          206
  Straat                                      273
  Strawberry, Early                           230
              Summer                          192
              Winter                          283
  Streak, Golden                               99
  _Striefling d’Hiver_                        215
                Leitheimer                    247
  Styre, Forest                                86
         Norman                               255
         White                                281
  Sugar and Brandy                            190
  Sudbury Beauty                              273
  _Summer Traveller_                          132
  Sussex                                      275
  Swaar                                       275
  _Sweet Harvest_                             125
  Sweeting, Hampstead                         239
            Ladies’                           246
            St. Patrick’s                     268
            Wetherel’s White                  280
  _Sykehouse_                                 193

  Tankerton                                   276
  Tankerville                                 276
  Tart, Mansfield                             249
  _Taubenapfel, Rothe_                        155
  _Taubenartige Apfel_                        156
  _Taubenfarbige Apfel_                       156
  Ten Shillings                               195
  Tenterden Park                              195
  Tetofsky                                    276
  Tète du Chat                                266
  Teuchat’s Egg                               195
                _Summer_                      195
  _Thickset_                                   56
  Thickset                                    276
  Thoresby Seedling                           277
  _Thorle, Summer_                            205
  Tiffing, Green                              102
           Scarlet                            180
  Tom Potter                                  277
  Tower of Glammis                            196
  _Transparent Apple_                         202
               _Muscovite_                    202
               _Russian_                      202
               _Wood’s_                        63
  Transparent de Zurich                       277
  Traubenapfel                                 23
  Traveller                                   277
  Travelling Queen                            277
  _Treadle-Hole_                              197
  Trumpeter                                   197
  Trumpington                                 197
  Tulip                                       198
  _Tulip, Dutch_                              198
  _Tulp_                                      198
  _Tulpen_                                    198
  Turk’s Cap                                  198
  Turpin                                      277
  Twickenham                                  278
  Two Yearling                                278

  Underleaf                                   278

  Vandervere                                  278
  _Van Dyne_                                  210
  Victoria, Hulbert’s                         241
  _Violet_                                    199
  Violette                                    199
         _De Quatres Goûts_                   199
  Virgin, Green                               238
          _Scotch_                            204
          White                               204

  Wacks Apfel                                 279
  Wallace Wight                               279
  _Walmer Court_                              148
  Waltham Abbey Seedling                      200
  Wanstall                                    200
  Ward Apple                                  279
  Warden, Winter                              283
  Watch Apple                                 221
  Wax, Early                                   77
  Weeper, Scarlet                             269
  _Weiner Maschanzkerl_                        40
  _Wellington_                                 72
  Westling, White                             204
  _White Apple_                               109
  White Leaf                                  281
  _White Lily_                                 66
               _Dredge’s_                      66
  White Sour, Devonshire                      227
  Wilding, Devonshire                         227
           Royal                              268
           Sweet Little                       275
  William                                     281
  Williams’s Favorite                         282
  Wiltshire Defiance, Harvey’s                107
  Wine                                        282
       Green                                  238
       Red                                    262
       Tulip                                  277
       Twin                                   278
       White                                  204
  Windham’s Seedling                          282
  _Winter Apple_                              124
  Winter Bush, Tewkesbury                     276
               Scarlet                        283
  Winter Sweet                                226
  Witch, Lancashire                           247
  _Wise Apple_                                 64
  _Witte Leipziger_                            40
  Woodcock                                    210
           Green                              103
           New                                255
  Wood Nymph                                  283
  _Wood’s Huntingdon_                          63
  _Woodpecker_                                 29
  Woolman’s Long                              210
  _Wyger’s_                                    98
  Wyn, Witte                                  283

  _Yellow Harvest_                             75
                   _Prince’s_                  75
  _Young’s Long Keeping_                      206
           Seedling                           284

  Zimmetapfel, Gestreifter Sommer             234
  _Zweibelapfel_                              266



Transcriber’s Note


  Missing and extra quotation marks are corrected.
  Some sentences, which, in the original, finish at the end of a line
  or are followed by the length of space normally following a full
  stop, are terminated by a comma or no punctuation. These are
  changed to end with a full stop.
  These changes are not listed individually.

  Other changes are:

    Page xiii in ‘Laws. New. Or.’ from ‘Lond on 597’
                                    to ‘London 1597’

    Page 3  from ‘It is more probable that is has existed...’
              to ‘It is more probable that it has existed...’

    Page 12 from ‘OROUP 1. CAPSULIS AMPLIS.’
              to ‘GROUP 1. CAPSULIS AMPLIS.’

    Page 12 from ‘ORDER 1. APIANA.’
              to ‘ORDER I. APIANA.’

    Page 117 (no. 189) from ‘varities’
                         to ‘varieties’

    Page 119 (no. 191) from ‘...mention it any of the editions’
                         to ‘...mention it in any of the editions’

    Page 119 (no. 191) from ‘...in which it as been written.’
                         to ‘...in which it has been written.’

    Page 126 (no. 206) from ‘Ripe in the begining of August.’
                         to ‘Ripe in the beginning of August.’

    Page 127 (no. 209) from ‘...roundish,, inclining to ovate,...’
                         to ‘...roundish, inclining to ovate,...’

    Page 131 (no. 218) from ‘Eye. pretty large...’
                         to ‘Eye, pretty large...’

    Page 142 (no. 239) from ‘cultivated to a large exent.’
                        to ‘cultivated to a large extent.’

    Page 212 (no. 398) from ‘of the seventeeth century.’
                        to ‘of the seventeenth century.’

    Page 282 from ‘628. WINTER COURT-PENDU.’
               to ‘928. WINTER COURT-PENDU.’





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