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Title: A Discovrse of Fire and Salt (A Discourse of Fire and Salt)
 - Discovering Many Secret Mysteries as well Philosophicall,
 - as Theologicall
Author: Vigenère, Blaise de
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A Discovrse of Fire and Salt (A Discourse of Fire and Salt)
 - Discovering Many Secret Mysteries as well Philosophicall,
 - as Theologicall" ***

                            FIRE and SALT,
                        Many secret Mysteries,
                                AS WELL


              _London_, Printed by _Richard Cotes_, 1649.


                     To his worthy friend Captaine
                        _Thomas Falconbridge_.


I Have been informed of your zeal and forwardnesse in advancing
Learning and Truth, two commendable vertues, for a man of your merit
and profession. And meeting with a subject composed by a _French_
Authour, I present the Translation to your favourable acceptance: It
is of forraign birth, though swadled up in an English habit: It hath
done much good abroad, and I am confident it will do the like here,
if supported with your approbation: It had not seen the Presse here,
had I not been assured of the candor and integrity of the Authour. I
repose confidence of acceptation, because the Translator hath been of
your long acquaintance, and was lately sensible of your propensity and
assistance, when he came in your way: If this may find grace with you,
you will engage him to make further inquisition into this most sacred
and secret mystery, and to rest,

                                        _Your most affectionate friend_
                                              /Edvvard Stephens/.


                          EXCELLENT TREATISE
                            FIRE and SALT·

             Composed by the Lord _Blaise_ of _VIGENERE_.

                           _The first part._

_PYTHAGORAS_ who of all Pagans was undoubtedly, by common consent
and approbation, held to have made more profound search, and with
less incertainty penetrated into the secrets as well of Divinity, as
of Nature, having quaffed full draughts from the living source of
Mosaicall Traditions, amid’st his darke sentences, where, according
to the Letter, he touched one thing, and mystically understood
and comprised another; (wherein he imitates the _Ægyptians_ and
_Chaldæans_, or rather, the _Hebrewes_, from whence all theirs
proceeded) he here sets downe these two: Not to speake of God without
Light; and to apply Salt in all his Sacrifices and Offerings; which he
borrowed word for word from _Moses_, as we shall hereafter declare. For
our intention is here to Treat of _Fire_ and of _Salt_.

And that upon the 9. of Saint _Marke, ver. 49. Every man shall be
salted with Fire, and every Sacrifice shall be salted with Salt_.
Wherein foure things come to be specified, Man, and Sacrifice, Fire,
and Salt; which yet are reduced to two, comprehending under them,
the other two; Man and Sacrifice, Fire and Salt; in respect of the
conformitie they beare each to other.

_In the beginning God created Heaven and Earth_; this said _Moses_
on the entrance upon _Genesis_. Whereupon the Jew _Aristobulus_, and
some Ethniques willing to shew that _Pythagoras_ and _Plato_ had read
_Moses_ bookes, and from thence drawne the greatest part of their most
secret Philosophy, alledged that which _Moses_ should have said, that
the heaven and the earth were first created; _Plato_ in his _Timæus_,
after, _Timæus Locrien_ said that God first assembled Fire and Earth,
to build an universe thereof; (we will shew it more sensibly of _Zohar_
in the Weik of a Candle lighted, for all consists of light, being the
first of all Creatures.) These Philosophers presupposing that the World
consisted (as indeed it doth) of the foure Elements, which are as well
in heaven, and yet higher, as in the earth, and lower, but in a diverse

The two highest, Aire and Fire, being comprised under the name of
Heaven and of the Æthereall Region: for the word ἄιθηρ, comes from
the verbe ἄιθω to shine, and to enflame, the two proprieties of these
Elements. And under the word Earth, the two lower, Earth and Water,
incorporated into one Globe. But although _Moses_ set Heaven before
Earth; (and observe here that in all _Genesis_ he toucheth at nothing
but things sensible, but not of intelligible things; which is a point
apart) for concerning this, there is no good agreement between Jewes
and Christians; Saint _Chrysostome_ in his first _Homily_. Observe a
little with what dignity the Divine Nature comes to shine in his manner
of proceeding to the creation of things; For God contrary to Artists
in building his Edifice, stretched out first the heavens round about,
afterwards planted the earth below.

Hee wrought first at the head, and afterwards came to the foundation.
But it is the Hebrewes custome, that when they speake most of a thing,
they ordinarily put the last in order, which they pretend to touch
first: And the same is here practised, where Heaven is alledged before
Earth, which he comes to discry immediately after.

_In the beginning God created Heaven and Earth, and the Earth was
without Forme and void_; Saint _Matthew_ useth the same, upon the
entrance to his Gospell, _The Booke of the Generation of Jesus Christ
the son of David, the son of Abraham, Abraham begat Isaac, &c._ For
it is well knowne, that _Abraham_ was a long time before _David_:
Otherwise it seemes, that _Moses_ would particularly demonstrate,
that the Earth was made before the Heaven, by the Creation of man,
that is, the Image and pourtrait of the great World, for that in the
second of _Genesis_, _God formed man of the slime of the earth_, (that
is to say,) his body which it represents; _and afterwards breathed in
his face the spirit, or breath of life_: that carrieth him backe to
heaven; whereunto suits that which is written in the 1 to the _Cor._
15. _The first man from the earth is earthly, and the second man from
heaven is heavenly: the first man Adam was made a living soule; and the
last Adam, a quickning spirit._ Whereto the Generation of the Creature
relates, who six weeks after the Conception, is nothing but a masse of
informed flesh, till the soule that is infused from above, doth vivifie

Moreover the foure Elements (whereof all is made) consists of foure
qualities, Hot and Drie, Cold and Moist; two of them are bound up in
each of them: _Earth_, that is to say, Cold and Dry, the _Water_, Cold
and Moist; the _Aire_, Moist and Hot; the _Fire_, Hot and Dry: whence
it comes to joine with the earth; for the Elements are circular, as
_Hermes_ would have it; each being engirded with two others, with whom
it agreeth in one of their qualities; which is thereunto appropriate:
as Earth betwixt Fire and Water, participates with the Fire in
drynesse, and with Water in coldnesse; and so of the rest.

Man then which is the Image of the great World, and therefrom is called
the Microcosme, or little World, as the World which is made after the
resemblance of his Archetype, is called the great man; being composed
of foure Elements, shall have also its heaven and its earth: The soule,
and understanding, are its heaven, the body and sensuality, its earth:
So that to know the heaven and earth of man, is to have true and entire
knowledge of all the Universe, and of the Nature of things.

[Sidenote: Act. 17. 28.]

From the knowledge of the sensible World, we come to that of the
Creator, and the Intelligible world; by the Creature, the Creator is
understood, saith Saint _Augustine_. Fire then gives motion to the
body, Aire feeling, Water nourishment, and Earth subsistence. Moreover
heaven designes the intelligible world, the earth the sensible: Each
of them is subdivided into two, (in every case I speake not but after
_Zohar_ and the ancient _Rabbins_.) The intelligible into Paradise
and Hell; and the sensible, to the Celestiall and Elementary world:
Upon this passage _Origen_ makes a faire discourse at the entry on
_Genesis_, that God first made the heaven or the intelligible world,
following that which is spoken in the 66. of _Esay_, _Heaven is my
seat and Earth my footstoole_; Or rather it is God in whom the world
dwelleth, and not the world which is Gods habitation: For in him _we
live, move, and have our beeing_; for the true seat and habitation of
God, is his proper essence: and before the Creation of the World, as
_Rabbi Eliezer_ sets downe, in his Chapters, there was nothing but the
essence of God, and his name, which are but one thing: Then after the
heaven, or the intelligible world, _Origen_ pursues, _God made the
Firmament_, that is to say, this sensible world; for every body hath I
know not what firmnesse and solidity, and all solidity is corporal; and
as that which God proposed to make, consisteth of Body and of Spirit,
for this cause it is written, that God first made the Heaven, that
is to say, all spirituall substance, upon which, as upon a certaine
throne, hee reposeth himselfe. The Firmament for our regard is the
body, which _Zohar_ calleth the Temple, and the Apostle also, _Yee
are Gods Temple_, 1 Cor. 3. 17. And the Heaven, which is spirituall,
is our soule, and the inner man; the Firmament is the externall, that
neither seeth, nor knoweth God but sensibly. So that man is double, an
animall, and spirituall body, the one Internall, Spirituall, Invisible;
that which Saint _Marke_ in this place designeth for man; the other
Externall, Corporall, Animal, which he denotes by the Sacrifice which
comprehendeth not the things that are of the Spirit of God, but the
Spirituall discerneth all; So that the exteriour man is an animal
compared to brute beasts, whereout they tooke their offerings for
Sacrifices: He is compared to foolish Beasts, and is made like them;
for a man hath no more then a Beast: we must understand the Carnall,
and Animall, that consists of this visible body, that dyeth as well
as Beasts, are corrupt and returne to Earth: Whence _Plato_ said very
well, that which is seene of man, is not man properly. And the first
of _Alcibiades_, yet more distinctly, that Man is I know not what else,
then his body, namely his soule, as it followes afterwards. That which
_Cicero_ borrowed out of _Scipio’s_ dreame; But understand it thus,
that thou art not mortall, but this body; thou art not that, which this
forme declares, but every mans minde is himselfe, not that figure which
may be demonstrated by the finger: And the Philosopher _Anaxarchus_
while the Tyrant _Nicocreon_ of _Cyprus_, caused him to be brayed in a
great Marble Morter, cried out with a loud voice, _Stampe hard, bruise
the barke of Anaxarchus, for it is not him that thou stampest_.

But will it be permitted for me here, to bring something of
_Metubales_? All that is, is either Invisible, or Visible;
Intellectuall, or Sensible; Agent, and Patient; Forme, and Matter;
Spirit, and Body; the Interiour and the Exteriour man; Fire, and Water;
that which seeth, and that which is seen.

But that which seeth is much more excellent and more worthy then that
which is seen, and there is nothing that seeth, but the invisible,
where that which is seene, is as a blind thing; therefore Water is
a proper and serviceable subject, over whom the Fire or Spirit may
out-stretch his action.

Also he hath elevated it for his habitation and residence; for by
introducing it, he elevates it on high in the nature of Aire contiguous
unto it: which invisible Spirit (of the Lord was carryed on the waters,
or rather did sit over the waters) did see the visible, moved the
immoveable, for water hath no motion of it selfe; there is none but
Aire, and Fire, that have, and speake by the Organs of one that is
dumb; for as when by our winde and breath, filling a pipe or flute, we
make it sound though never so mute.

[Sidenote: _Pour le nouveau._]

[Sidenote: Joh. 1. 13.]

This Body and Spirit, water and fire, are designed unto us by _Cain_
and _Abel_, the first Creatures of all others engendred of the seed of
man and woman, and by their Sacrifices, whence those of _Cain_ issuing
from the fruits of the earth, were by consequent corporall, dead, and
inanimate, and together destitute of faith, which dependeth of the
Spirit, and are by Fire dissolved into a waterish vapour, so that to
go to finde it in its sphere and habitation, for the newes, we are to
suffer thereunder. But those of _Abel_ were spirituall, animate, full
of life, that resides in the bloud; full of piety and devotion. This
also _Aben Ezra_, and the author of the _Handfull of Myrrh_, call a
fire descending from one above to regather them: which happened not
to those of _Cain_, which a strange fire devoured; and from thence
was declared the exteriour man, sensuall, animall, that must bee
salted with Salt; But _Abel_ the interiour, spirituall, salted with
Fire; which is double, the materiall and essentiall, the actuall and
potentiall, as it is in burnings. All what is sensible, and visible,
is purged by the actuall, and the invisible, and intelligible, by the
spiritual and potentiall. Saint _Ambrose_, on the Treatise of _Isaac_
and of the Soule. What is man, the soule of him, or the flesh, or the
assembly of those two? for the clothing is one thing, and the thing
clothed another. Indeed there are two men (I leave the _Messihe_ apart)
_Adam_ was made and formed of God; in respect of the body, of ashes,
and of earth, but afterwards inspired in him the Spirit of Life; if
he had kept himselfe from misprision, he was like unto Angels, made
participant of eternall beatitude, but his transgression dispossessed
him. The other man is he, which comes successively to be borne of man
and woman, who by his originall offence is made subject to death, to
paines, travails, and diseases, therefore must hee returne from whence
he came. But touching the soule that came from God, it remains in its
free will: if it will adhere to God, it is capable to bee admitted into
the ranke of his children, _who are borne not of blood, nor of the will
of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God_. Such was _Adam_
before his first transgression.

The soule then, which is the inner man, spirit, and the very true man
which liveth properly, for the body hath no life of it selfe, nor
motion; and is nothing else but as it were the barke and clothing of
the inner man, according to _Zohar_, alledging that out of the 10 of
_Job_ 11. _Thou hast clothed me with skinne and flesh_; whereunto that
in the 6. of S. _Matthew_ seemeth to agree, where to shew us how much
the soule ought to bee in greater recommendation then the body, as more
worthy and pretious; our Saviour saith, _Take no care then how to cloth
your body, is not your body better then raiment?_ and by consequent,
the soule more then the body, since the body is but as it were the
vestment of the soule, which is subject to perish, and to use, (_all
shall wax old as doth a garment_.) And the Apostle in the 1 to the
_Corinthians_, _The old man falleth away, but the inner man is renewed
dayly_; for it washeth it selfe (according to _Zohar_) by the fire, as
doth a _Salamander_, and the outward man by water, with Soaps and Lees
that consist of Salts. Of which two manners of repurging, it is thus
said in the 31. of _Numb. v._ 23. _All that which shall support the
fire, shall be purged thereby, and that which cannot beare it, shall be
sanctified by the water of Purification_; which was a figure of that
which the Fore-runner spake in the 3. of _Matthew_, _It is true that I
baptize you with water unto repentance, but he that comes after mee,
shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with Fire_.

But behold how _Zohar_ speakes more particularly. If it bee so, _Adam_
what is he? it is nought but skin, and flesh, and bones, and nerves,
he must not passe so. But to speak truth, man is nothing else, but the
immortall soule that is in him; and the skinne, flesh, bloud, bones,
and nerves, are the vestments wherein it is wrapped, as a little
creature newly borne within the beds and linnen of its Cradle: These
are but the utensils, and instruments allotted to womens children,
not to man or _Adam_; for when this _Adam_ so made, was elevated out
of this world, he is devested of those instruments, wherewith he had
beene clothed and accommodated. This is the skinne wherewith the Son of
man is envelopped with flesh, bones, and nerves; and this consisteth
in the secret mystery of Sapience, according to that which _Moses_
taught in the Curtains or Vails of the Tabernacle, which are the
inward vestment, and the Tabernacle the outward: To this purpose, the
Apostle in the fifth of the 2 to the _Corinthians_, saith, _We know
that if our earthly house of this Tabernacle were dissolved, we have
an Ædifice not built with mans hand, but eternally permanent in the
high Heavens. For in this we groane, earnestly desiring to bee clothed
upon, with our house which is from heaven, if so be, that being clothed
wee shall not bee found naked_. So _Adam_ in respect of his body, is
a representation of the sensible world; where his skinne corresponds
with the Firmament, extending heaven like a Curtaine. For as the heaven
covereth and enveloppeth all things, so doth the skin every man; in
which, are introduced and fastned its starres and signes, that is
to say, the draughts and lineaments in the hands, the forehead, and
visage, in which wise men know and reveale, and makes them discerne the
inclination of its naturall, imprinted in the inward; And he that doth
conjecture from thence, is as he, to whom heaven being covered with
Clouds, cannot perceive the constellations that are there, or otherwise
darkened from his sight. And although the sagest and most expert in
these things can finde out something therein denoted by the draughts
and lineaments of the palme of the hand, and fingers, or within them;
for by the outside, (it is case a part) and shew nothing, but the
nailes which are not a little secret and mystery, because by death
they are obfuscate, but have a shining lustre while they live, in the
haire, eyes, nose, and lips, and all the rest of his person. For as God
hath made the Sunne, Moone, and Stars, thereby to declare to the great
World, not only the day, night, and seasons, but the change of times,
and many signes that must appeare in the earth. So hath he manifested
in the little world Man, certaine draughts and lineaments, holding
place of lights and starres, whereby men may attaine to the knowledge
of very great secrets, not common, nor knowne of all. Hence is it that
the Intelligences of the superiour world do distill and breath as it
were, by some channels their influences, whereby the effects come to
struggle and accomplish their effects here below, as of things drawn
with a rude and strong bow, will plant themselves within a Butt, where
they rest themselves.

But to retake the discourse of this double man, and the vestment of
him, the Apostle in the 1 _Cor._ 15. saith, _That there are bodies
Celestial, and bodies Terrestrial, yet there is a glory both of the
one, and of the other. There is a naturall, or animall body, and
there is a body spirituall: he will raise up the spirituall body
incorruptible_; To this relates the Fire, to the corruptible Salt.

From these vestments furthermore the occasion presents it selfe to
a larger extension, the better to declare who must be seasoned with
Fire, and who with Salt; which is here expressed by the offering, to
whom the exteriour doth correspond, according to the Apostle, _Rom._
12. _I pray you brethren, by the mercy of God, that you offer up your
bodies a living Sacrifice, holy, and acceptable unto him, which is your
reasonable service_: which it could not make it selfe the habitation of
the Holy Ghost, if it were not pure, neat, and incontaminate. _Know you
not that your Body is the Temple of the holy Spirit which is in you?_
which in Scripture is commonly designed by fire, with which wee must be
salted inwardly, that is to say, preserved from corruption; and from
what corruption? from sinne that putrifies our soules. _Origen_ in his
7. book against _Celsus_ speaking of its vestments, sets downe, that
being of its selfe incorporeall and invisible, in what corporall place
soever it findes it selfe, it must have a body convenable to the nature
of the place where it resides. As then when it is in this Elementary
world, it must have also an elementary body, which it takes when it
is incorporated in the belly of a woman, to grow there, and there to
live this base life with the body, that it hath taken to the limited
terme; which expired, it devests it selfe of this corruptible vestment,
although necessary in the earth from whence it came (following that
which God said to _Adam_ in the third of _Genesis_, _Thou art dust,
and shalt returne to dust_,) to be revested with an incorruptible,
whose perpetuall abode is in Heaven. _For this corruptible must put
on incorruption, and this mortall must put on immortality._ And so
the soul putting off its first Terrestriall vestment, takes another
more excellent above in the Æthereall Region, which is of the nature
of Fire: hitherto _Origen_, to which nothing could be found more
conformable, then that which _Pythagoras_ puts towards the end of his
golden verses: Thus forsaking this mortall body, thou passest into the
free Æthereall Aire, you shall become an immortall God, incorruptible,
and no more subject to death: as if he would say, that after this
materiall corruptible body, shall put off the Terrestriall and impure
vestment, the perfect portion of it shall shake off these filthinesses
and impurities, and shall passe aloft to heaven and adhere to God,
which it could not doe, but being pure and neat; nor effect this,
but by fire. _Zohar_ speakes to the same purpose, when the Elements
destroy themselves, an æthereall body succeeds in their place which
doth recloath them; or to speak better, the æthereall body which was
reclad with them, devests it selfe; and this is represented to us in
the 5 of _Esther_, where it is said, that _on the third day_ shee tooke
off her clothes that shee was wont to weare, _and put on her royall
apparell to appeare before the King_; which signifies the holy Spirit,
and _Esther_ the reasonable soule, whose vestments are the garments of
the kingdome of Heaven; of which he that _Daniel_ 3. chap. was said
to be like to the Son of God, that crowns the just, and adornes them
with royall apparell, to bring them into the presence of the King of
Kings, to the Paradise of pleasure, clensed with aire from above,
which the holy Spirit breathed into it. _Origen_ in his second Homily
upon the 36 _Psalme_. It is the manner of holy Scripture to introduce
two sorts of men, that is to say, the interiour and the exteriour, each
of which, hath need as much as concernes him, of apparell, as well
as nourishment; the external corporal man, maintaines himselfe with
meats corruptible, proper and familiar to himselfe, having ever need
of Salt, besides their own connaturall; but there is also meat for the
inward, whereof it is said in the 8 of _Deuteronomy_, _Man doth not
live by bread onely, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth
of God_. And for matter of drinke, the Apostle in the 1 _Cor._ 10.
_Our fathers did eat the same spirituall meat, and did drinke the same
spirituall drinke; for they did drinke of that spirituall rocke that
followed them, and that rocke was Christ_. Who speaking of this drinke
in the 4. of Saint _John_, saith, _that hee is the fountaine of living
water, and who so drinketh of the water that he shall give them, shall
never thirst_. There are also two rayments in regard of the inner man.
If he be a sinner, it is said _Psalme_ 109. _He hath put on malediction
as a garment_, which must _be to him as his apparell, wherewith he is
covered, and as a girdle wherewith he is girt_. And on the contrary
the Apostle _Col._ 3. _Lie not one to another, having cast off the old
man with his deeds, and put on the new, but be clothed with mercy,
benignity, humility, and meeknesse of Spirit_.

These are the vestments which _Zohar_ said were the good works and
the nuptiall accoustrements of the soule, which cannot bee washed or
cleansed but by Fire, _Every mans work shall bee made manifest, for
the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire, and
the fire shall try every mans worke of what sort it is_, 1 _Cor._
3. 13. wherein they shall persist without impaire, or consumption,
but shall be purified when the soule shall therewith be clothed;
from this uncleane scumme, wherein there may remaine some spots that
the fire goes on to purge, consuming and defacing them. But what is
this fire? It is it which is said in the 4 and 9 of _Deuteronomy_,
_our God is a consuming fire_: which as _Irenæus_ interprets, was to
strike feare and terror into the Israelites; and this afterwards in
the 12 to the _Hebrewes_, 28, 29. _Let us serve God acceptably with
feare and reverence, for our God is a consuming fire_. For they had
sufficiently understood that the world once perished by the universall
deluge, and that it may not incurre the like accident, but suffer
its last extermination by fire. Adde that in the 33. of the Mosaicall
Law, it is called _The Law of fire_, which is in the right hand of
the Almighty, because of its austerity and rigour, all filled with
menaces, with feares, with horrors; as much as the Christian is, with
sweetnesse and mercy: in his right hand, there is a fiery Law: which
the _Chaldean_ Paraphrase interpreteth, for that it was given on _Mount
Horeb_, through the middest of fire; according as it is said in the 4
to the purpose touching this feare. _The Lord speake unto me saying,
Assemble the people there below, that they may heare my words, and
learne to feare me: Then came you neare to the foote that burned even
to heaven, and the Lord spake unto you out of the midst of fire._ And
_Exodus_ 3. _the burning bush wherein God appeared unto Moses, and was
not consumed_. Of this consuming fire, further speaketh _Zohar_ thus
in conformity to that received _Maxime_ in naturall Philosophy, that
a great flame doth devoure and quench a lesse: as wee may sensibly
perceive by a lighted Torch, which is extinguished by the Sunbeams,
and by a kettle set neare a great fire that sucks and drawes all out
to it selfe: Hee saith then upon this Text of the 35. of _Exod._ _You
shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the Sabbath_:
To which purpose, said _Rabbi Simeon_, was that ordained? and why was
it not lawfull to kindle a fire on the seventh day? because that when
men kindle fire, it goeth ever upwards according to its naturall, and
moving above every thing, following that of the 7. of Sapience, where
it is compared to fire. In Wisdome is the spirit of understanding,
holy, one only, manifold, subtill, lively, cleare, undefiled, plaine,
moveable above every thing, and overtops all by reason of its purity.
The Fire hath two properties, to be moving, and pure, not participating
of any uncleannesse; and all motion, is a kinde of action and
operation, forbidden expresly on the Sabbath day. Fire then mounting
aloft, caries with it the impurities designed in the 10. of _Leviticus_
by strange fire, which is there devoured by that which proceeds from
the presence of the Lord. And should bee as much, as thereby to draw
from it selfe a judgement of his offences that must not be renewed in
the sanctification of the Sabbath, for feare that the fire of Gods
wrath do not devour and consume that of our iniquities, and us at once,
if this our fire be not first purged by a stronger fire, that consumeth
and devoureth the lesser and more feeble: _Zohar_ runs through all
that, and upon the passage of the foresaid fourth of _Deut. Thy God is
a consuming fire_; he speakes further,

There is a double fire, the one stronger, that devoures the other.
He that will know it, let him contemplate the flame that parteth and
mounteth from a kindled Fire, or from a Lampe or Torch; for it mounteth
not, except it be incorporated to some visible substance, and united
with the aire, whereupon it feedeth. But in the flame that mounteth
there are two lights, the one white, which shineth and illightneth,
having its root somewhat blew; the other red, fastned to the wood, or
to the weik that it burneth. That which is white, mounteth directly
upwards, and underneath the red remaineth firme, and departs not from
the matter, administring wherewith to flame and shine to the other; but
they come upon the point to joine and unite together, the one burning,
the other burned, till they bee converted into that which predominates
and playes the master, namely the white, alwayes the same without
variation and change, as the other doth; which now growes blacke,
after becomes red, yellow, peach colour, sky colour, azure reinforced
above and below, above with a white flame, below with the blacknesse
of the matter, which furnisheth it wherewithall to burne, and at the
last is therewith consumed. For this azure, red, and yellow flame, the
more grosse and materiall it is, endeavours alwayes to exterminate
and destroy that which nourished and maintained it: as sinnes do the
conscience which harbours them, to the end to make them the perdition
and ruine of all that which adheres to it here below, so long, till at
the last it remaines extinct; there where the light annexed thereunto,
is not eternally extinguished but goes freely upward, and returnes to
its proper place of abode, or residence; having accomplished its action
below, without changing its brightnesse into any other colour then
white. In the like case is it of a tree, whose roots are fastned within
the earth, from whence it takes its nourishment, as the weik takes his
from the tallow, waxe, or oyle, which makes it burne.

The branch that drawes its juice or sap, by the root, is the same as
the weik, where the fire is maintained by the liquor which it drawes
unto it, and the white flame, are the branches and boughes, clad with
leaves, the flowers and fruits, whereunto tends the finall end of a
tree, are the white flame when all comes to bee reduced: wherefore
_Moses_ said that _thy God is a consuming fire_, as it is true; for the
fire consumes and devoures all that which is under it, and upon which
it exerciseth its action. And therefore very proper in the Hebrew text
_Elohenu_, thy God, and not _Anonenu_, thy Lord, because the Prophet
was in this superiour white light, which neither devoureth, nor can be
devoured. And the Israelites were the blew lights, who endeavour to
lift up themselves, and unite to him under the law: for the ordinary of
this blew light, inclining rather to blacknesse, then to whitenesse; it
is true that is constituted as in the midst, and to ruine and destroy
all that it layes hold on, and whereunto it adheres.

But if sinners submit thereunto, then the white light shall bee called
_Adonenu_, our Lord, and not _Elohenu_, our God, for that it domineers
and devours it. And it is this blew flame designed by the little and
last ה _He_ of the sacred venerable foure lettered _Jehovah_, which
assembles and unites with the three first והי _Jehu_ the white light,
which shineth in a most cleare simplicity Trin-one, having under it
the blackish, ruddy, & azure colour of the little ה _He_, which is
the humane nature consisting of the four Elements, for that it is
sometimes represented by 4 ד, the fourth letter of the Alphabet, and
which marketh the number of 4. You will say I have brought you here a
prolixe place of _Zohar_, I do avow it, but it must have a more ample
explication, for there are great mysteries covered thereunder. This
_Rabbi_ superlative to all others, endeavouring in his profound and
abstracted meditations which transcend all to elevate our spirits by
the similitude of a light, to the knowledge of spirituall things, which
differs not from our principall purpose, which is fire and its effects.

Of this white light, and of its collaterals; other _Rabbins_ speake, as
_Kamban_, _Gerundensis_; That by the _Caballe_ it appears unto us, that
the Scripture was an obscure and darke fire, upon the backe of white
fire, and marvailously resplendent.

It is the fire (say they) of the holy Spirit, consuming our iniquities,
denoted by the red inflamed ardor, and the blew and azure flame, which
is the strange fire, as Saint _Ambrose_ very well expounds it in his
fourth Epistle to _Simplician_.

Strange fire, is all the ardor of slippery concupiscence, of avarice,
hatred, rancour, and envy; And of this fire no man is purged nor
expiated, but well burned, which if men offer in the presence of the
Lord, celestiall fire will devour, as it did _Nadab_ and _Abihu_; and
therefore, he that will purge his sinne, he must cast off from him
this strange fire, and let him expiate therefrom; whereof it is said
in the 6 of _Esay_ 6. _One of the Seraphims flew to me having a live
coale in his hand, which he had taken with the Tongs from off the
Altar, and touched my lips, saying, Lo this hath touched thy lips,
and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sinne purged._ Having said
a little before, that all the house was filled with smoake, which is
as an excrement and vapour of fire, bee it before it be lighted, or
inflamed, or after it be mortified, and extinct; from whence it comes
to procreate soot, then which, there is nothing more troublesome
and hurtfull to the eies, having carryed away with it a parcell of
adustible corruption; which administred to the fire its nourishment
and food. This may bee seen in the distillation of soote, where there
appeares a notable quantity of inflamable oyle, which causeth it yet to
burne; and of this burning there will arise a smoake, which will againe
be concreted into a burning smoake, as aforesaid, but not so much.

These are the remnants of sinne, whereof remained some staines printed
in the soule, untill at the last, by a successive repurgation of fire,
it be reduced to a point of compleat purity; whereof it is spoken
in the 4. of the _Canticles, Thou art faire my welbeloved, there is
no blemish in thee_; which the white flame notifies, which is the
highest degree of burning. Those also well know it that maintaine a
fire, for when a Fornace begins to bee hot, it waxeth blacke, then
enforcing the fire, it becomes red, and at last it waxeth white when
it is in the supreame and high degree of heat, where it persisteth
in whitenesse more and more. Such are the actions of fire, but there
are great mysteries thereunder, ever to declare further the advantage
and præcellency, that the white colour hath above the red, as to the
Christian faith, designed by white water, _Apoc._ 4, & 6. & 15. 2.
(_In the middle of the Throne there was a Sea of Glasse, like unto
Crystall_,) far above the Judaicall faith, red, heat with rigour,
and severity, designed by a _pillar of fire, that in the night season
conducted the Israelites through the Wildernesse, and the white cloud
by day, Exod._ 13. 21. In the secret Hebrew Theology, the red alwayes
notes _Gheburah_, Austerity; and the white _Ghedulah_, or Mercy;
_Eliah_ was transported, and by force carried into heaven, in a fiery
Chariot, drawne with the like horses. But in the transfiguration of
our Saviour, _Mat._ 17. 2. _His vestments became white as snow_; and
_Apoc._ 3. 6. _The Elect are ever clothed in white_; and in the 6. 11.
speaking of the martyred Saints for the faith of their Redeemer, _there
was given unto every one of them white robes_; Having set down a little
before, _that the Angell which had gotten the victory, and the Crowne,
was mounted on a white horse_, (as in the 19, and 20. _the Throne of
God is dressed with white_) _and hee that was mounted on the red horse,
had a great bloudy sword in his hand, that one might massacre another_.
But yet more expresly in the first of _Isaiah_, _Although your sins
were as red as fine Scarlet, they should be as white as Snow_. And
further, _though they were as red as crimson, they will become as white
as wooll_.

But some may say here are many things, which by little and little do
turne us from our principall aime, and are as it were extravagant
dresses. But not altogether, yet as to mount some sharpe precipice, wee
must turne about to goe at more ease, to shunne cliffes and precipices:
So are wee sometimes to make some small by-courses and digressions to
facilitate our Theame. Rivers that goe turning are more commodious for
Navigation, then those that runne impetuously one way downe.

There shall bee nothing at last (God willing) unprofitable, nor from
the purpose. Then all this red and white, is but Fire and Water, the
pillar of fire by night, and the white cloud by day; into which, as
the Apostle saith, _the people of the Jewes were baptized_; and in
this cloud the divine Wisdome established his Throne; that of the Law
of _Moses_, this of grace; Fire and Salt. _Zohar_ speaking of _Moses_
his two first Tables, broken for the Idolatry of the Golden Calfe,
with two pillars, the one of fire, representing naturall heate, by
which all things are vivified; the other is water, that is radical
moisture, which maintaineth life, (from which, that is not much
different in the 15. of the _Apoc._ where it is said, that _he saw as
it were a sea of glass mingled with fire_,) which radicall moisture
was perverted and changed in the deluge by the universall inundation,
so that it was not since so vigorous as before: but shall at last bee
brought to extermination on all sides, at the end of time by a finall
conflagration. The first mutation shall meet with some mercy, the race
of mankinde being at that time not wholly extinct, but the remainder
was saved with _Noah_, and his in the Arke: but the second, shall have
none, but all shall perish by the extreame rigour of fire: To the
purpose of these two substances, the _Assyrians_ and other people of
the East adored Fire, as that which represented to them naturall heat,
and the Ægyptians with all those on the South of _Nilus_, which is
radicall moisture which goes to render it selfe into a Sea impregned
with salt, to preserve it in the end from corruption: Now for this
effect, all humours of animall bodies, bloud, spittle, urine, and the
rest, are salted, without which, all would corrupt each other, in an
instant: Behold the difference that there is in holy writ, that apply
the meditations of things sensible to Sacramentall mysteries; and
of ratiocinations of blinde Paganisme, who not turning it but above
the barke, penetrate no further, then that which the uncertain and
doubtful sense may make them comprehend, without passing further to the
relation of divine things; where at last al must refer to spiritualty:
resembling therein properly to the _Ostrich_, who beates sufficiently
with the wing as if shee would mount to heaven, but yet her feet for
all that, do not forsake the earth.

The _Phœnician_ Theologie, admitted but of one Element, Fire, which
is the principall and chief of all, the productor, and destroyer of
all things: which doth not much disagree from that in the 118. _Psal._
is the fiery word by which times were formed. _Heraclitus_ also puts
fire, for the first substance that informed all, and from whence
they drew all things from power into action, as well superiour, as
inferiour, celestiall and terrestriall: For hot and cold, moist and
dry, are not substances, but qualities and accidents; from whence
naturall Philosophers forged four Elements, whereas according to verity
there is but one; which according to the vestments that it receives
from the accidentall qualitie, takes divers appellations. If from the
heat, it is from the Aire; from moisture, Water; from drynesse, Earth;
which three are but one fire, but reclothed with divers and different
habits. Even as Fire extending it selfe in all, and through all; so
all things come to render unto it, as to the center. So that it may be
rightly called an infinite and indetermined vigour of nature, or rather
the vivification thereof, for without it nothing could be comprehended,
seen, or obtained, above or below; that which illightens is celestiall,
that which concocts and digests Aereall, and that which burnes, is
terrestriall; which cannot subsist without some grosse matter coming
from the Earth, which he reduceth in the end to it selfe; as we may see
in things burned, converted to ashes, from whence after the extraction
of Salt, rests nothing but pure earth. Salt being a potentiall fire,
and waterish, that is to say, terrestriall water, impregned with fire;
from whence all sorts of mineralls, come to production, for they are
of the nature of Water. The experiment may bee seene in strong Waters,
all composed of minerall Salts, Alums, Saltpeters, which burne as Fire:
which produceth hot and dry exhalations agitated with winds, easie to
take flame, also of flints, of Iron, and of Wood, and of scraped bones,
especially those of a Lion, as saith _Pliny_: whence we may gather that
there is potentiall fire in all.

Not without cause then did _Pythagoras_, after _Moses_, ordaine not
to speake of God, or divine things, without fire: for of all things
sensible, there is nothing that symbolizeth, or more corresponds with
Divinity then Fire: _Aristotle_ writing to _Alexander_ related unto
him, that hee had learned of the _Brachmans_, that there was a fift
Element or Essence, which is fire, wherein the Divinity resides:
because it is the noblest, and purest of all the Elements; and that
which purgeth all things according to _Zoroastes_: _Plutarch_ alledgeth
that this Divinity is a spirit of a certaine intellectuall fire, that
hath no forme, but transformes to it selfe all that it toucheth, and
transmutes it selfe into all, as _Proteus_ the _Genius_ of Ægypt was
wont to say,

    _Omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum_.

And according to _Zoroastes_ all things were engendred of this fire. It
is the light which dwelleth (this saith _Porphyrius_) in an Æthereal
fire, for the elementary dissipates all: But more authentically, Saint
_Denis_, in the 15. of the Celestiall Hierarchy. Fire, forasmuch as
its essence is void of all forme, as well in colour, as in figure,
hath beene found the most proper to represent Divinity to our senses,
forasmuch as they can conceive and apprehend of the nature and divine
Essence. The very Scripture in many places, call God and Angels Fire,
and doth not onely propose unto us Chariots and wheeles of Fire; but
of igneall animals, of burning brookes and rivers, of coales and men
all burned: All these celestial bodies are but flaming lights, and
thrones, and Seraphims all of fire; there is so great affinity and
agreement with Divinity: for the fire that the feeling and smelling
perceiveth, is separated in respect of the substance from all others,
that may bee joined and mingled therewith, except it bee of the
matter, to which it is incorporated to burne. It shines, it spreads
it selfe from side to side, and gathering it selfe to its selfe, with
its light it illustrates all that is neare it, nor can it bee seene
without the matter whereto it adheres, and exerciseth its action no
more then Divinity, but by its effects; nor arrest, nor fasten, nor
mingle with any thing, nor change so long as it liveth, there where it
handleth all things, and draws them to its selfe, and to its nature.
It renewes and rejoyceth all with vitall heat, it illustrates and
illuminates all, tending alwaies upward, with agility and incomparable
speed. It communicates his motion to all, its light, its heat, without
any diminution of its substance, what portion soever it lends, but
ever remaines entire in it selfe. It comes suddenly and returneth as
fast, without mans knowledge whence it comes, or whither it goes: with
many other worthy considerations of this common fire, which brings
us to the knowledge of the divine fire; whereof this materiall, is
but as a garment and coverture; and Salt the coverture of Fire, which
is appeased in Salt, and agreeth with its enemy, Water; as Earth in
Saltpeter doth with its contra-opposite the Aire; by reason of the
water that is betweene them, for Saltpeter participates of the nature
of Brimstone, and of Fire, for that it burnes; and of Salt, for that it
resolves into water. For saith _Heber_, it is the property of Salts,
and Alums, to bee dissolved into water, sith they were made thereof.
But of this more to the purpose hereafter in its place.

[Sidenote: Pag. 29. _Encyclides ab_ ἐγκυκλόω round.]

[Sidenote: Eph. 4. 22, 24.]

The meditations of the Covertures, and revestments are of no small
importance, to mount from things sensible, to things intelligible, for
they are all infolded one in another, as an _Encyclie_ or a spirall
Moone. _Zohar_ makes these revestments double, the one _mounting_ and
devesting its selfe, _Put off the old man, and put on the new_; for no
spirituall thing descending downwards, operates without a vestment;
_Sit yee in Jerusalem till you be clad with power from above_, _Luk._
24. 49. And in this case the body envelopeth and reclotheth the spirit,
the spirit the soule, the soul the intellect, the intellect the Temple,
the Temple the Throne, the Throne the _Sechinah_, or the glory and
presence of God, which shineth in the Tabernacle. In descending, this
glory is shut out from the Throne, and from the Arke of the Covenant,
which is within the Tabernacle, or Intellect, the Tabernacle within the
Temple, which is our Soule; _Yee are the Temple of God_, the Temple is
in _Jerusalem_, our vital spirit, _Jerusalem_ in _Palestine_, our body,
and _Palestine_ in the midst of the earth whence our body is composed.

God then being a pure Spirit, stript of al corporeity and matter,
(for our soule being such, for more reason must hee be so, that made
it to his image and resemblance) hee cannot bee in this simple and
absolute nakednesse comprehended, nor apprehended by his Creatures,
but by certaine attributes which they give him, which are as many
vestments, which the _Caballists_ do particularize to ten _Zephirots_,
or numerations; 3 in the intelligible world; and 7 in the celestiall;
which come to terminate in the Moone, or _Malcut_, the last in
descending, and the first in mounting from the Elementary world
upwards, for it is a passage from here below to heaven. So that the
Pythagoreans call the Moone the Celestial earth; and the heaven
or terrestrial Star, all the nature here below in the elementary
world, being in regard of the celestiall, and the celestiall of the
intelligible; this _Zohar_ called feminine & passible, as from the
Moone towards the Sunne, from whom so much as she absents her selfe
till she comes to its opposition, by so much she increaseth in light
for our regard here below; where on the contrarry in her conjunction,
that shee remaines all darkened, the party upward is all illightned,
to shew us, that the more that our understanding doth abate to things
sensible, so much the more doth he disjoine or sever them from the
intelligible; and contrariwise, this was the cause that _Adam_ was
lodged in an earthly Paradise, to have more leisure to contemplate on
divine things; when he thought to turne after sensible and temporall
things, willing to taste of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of
good and evill, whereby hee departed from that of life, to assubject
himselfe to death, he was banished from thence and put out. To this
very purpose _Zohar_ doth yet adde, that two vestments come from heaven
to this temporall life; The one formall, white, and resplendent;
masculine, fatherly, and agent; for whatsoever is active takes place
from forme, of the male and from the father, and this very thing comes
to us from fire, and from the clearnesse of the stars to illustrate
our understanding. The other is red, maternall, fæminine; for the
soule, coming from the substance of heaven, which is more rare then
that of heavenly bodies. That of the understanding is lodged in the
braine, and the other of the soule, in the heart. The intellect or
understanding, is that part of the reasonable soule made and formed
after the image and semblance of its Creator, and the soule in it, the
animal faculty called _Nephesch_, the life, namely, that which resideth
in the bloud: and as the heaven containes the stars, this contains
the intellect, which to us is for the rest common with brute beasts.
But the intellect, or reasonable soule is proper and particular to
men, that which can merit or demerit; therefore it needs repurgation
and cleansing from the spots that it hath drawne and conceived from
the flesh wherein it was plunged, according to that in the 8. of
_Genesis_ 21. _The thought and imagination of mans heart, were inclined
to evill from his youth._ And sith it is a question, about cleansing
the vestment which is of a fiery nature, it must likewise be, that it
be done by meanes of fire; for wee see by experience, that one fire
chaseth away another, as it hath been said heretofore, so that if a
man bee burnt, there is no readier remedy, then to burne it againe
in the same place; enduring the heat of the fire as much as you can:
which drawes the inflammation to its selfe, out of the party, or else
tempering it with _Aqua vitæ_ wherein _Vitriol_ hath beene calcined,
from whence Chirurgeons have not found a more soveraigne remedy to take
away the fire of a musket shot, to heale inflammations and gangrenes;
and yet there are two fires joined together. But that which during this
life must repurge our soules, is that whereof Saint _Augustine_ in the
29. Sermon speakes thus out of the Apostles words, for there is another
afterwards: Kindle in your selves a sparkle of good and charitable
dilection, blow it, and kindle it, for when it shall grow to a great
flame, that will consume the hay, wood, and chaffe of all your carnall
concupiscences, but the matter wherewith this fire must bee continued,
are prayers, and good workes, which must alwayes burne on your altar,
for it is it whereof our Saviour said, _I am come to put fire in the
earth, and what will I if it bee already kindled?_ _Luke_ 12. 49.
There are further two fires: one on the bad part, to wit, of carnall
concupisence; the other of the good, which is charity, which consumes
all the bad, leaving nothing but good, which exalts it selfe in a fume
of a sweet odour; for the heart of every one, is as an altar, either
of God or of the adversary: and therefore hee that is illuminated with
the torch of charity, which must more and more bee increased by good
works, that it may nourish in it selfe the ardour that our Saviour will
vouchsafe to kindle, whereby that is accomplished, which the Apostle
saith in the 5 to the _Ephes._ _That Jesus Christ hath appropriated
to himselfe a Church, not having spot or wrinckle, holy, and pure,
without blemish._ For that which the Church is in generall, and common
towards God, the conscience of every one of us, is in particular the
same, when it is sincerely prepared, as it is requisite; and that upon
the foundation thereof, men build Gold, Silver, pretious stones; that
is to say, a firme faith, and beleefe, accompanied with good works,
without which faith is dead and buried; all upon the model and pattern
of the heavenly _Jerusalem_ designed in the 21 of the _Apoc._ which is
the type of the Church; as is also the reasonable soule, where it must
burne alwaies with fire upon the Altar, and after the imitation of the
wise and prudent virgins, we may have our lamps ready, well lighted,
and garnished with what is needfull to maintaine light, attending the
Bridegrome: as our Saviour commanded it in Saint _Luke_ 12.

_Zohar_ furthermore makes this repurgation of the soule to bee double,
which is not farre disagreeing from our beleefe. One is whilest the
soule is yet in the body, hee cals that according to the mysticall
manner of speaking, the conjunction of the Moon with the Sunne, then,
when in regard of us here below it is not illuminated; for as long
as the soule is annexed within the body, it enjoyes very little of
its owne light, being all darkened thereby, as if it were imprisoned
in some darke obscure prison. And this repurgation doth consist in
repentance of its misdoings, satisfaction for them, and conversion to
a better life; in fastings, almes, prayers, and other such penitences,
which may be exercised in this world. The other is, after the
separation of soul and body, which is made in the purgative fire; which
neither Jewes, Mahometans, or Ethnicks, ever called in doubt.

_But when with supreame light life leaves us, yet all evill from
miserable men, nor yet all corporeall plagues do passe away, and the
punishment of old evils do weigh us, some are exposed to vaine windes;
to others under a vast gulfe their infected wickednesse is washed off,
or burnt with fire._

Where there are set forth three repurgative Elements, Aire, Water,
and Fire; But wee must not understand (saith Saint _Augustine_, on
his third Sermon upon such as are diseased) that by this transitory
fire grievous and mortall offences, and capitall sins are purged, if
they have not beene repented of in this temporall life; or to blot
out the expiation on the other side, where the rest is perfected in
the fire, as man-slayers, adulterers, false witnesses, concussions,
violences, rapines, injustices, infidelitie, erroneous obstinations,
and the like; which are directly opposite to Gods Divine precepts and
commandements: but the smaller faults onely, which they call veniall
sinnes, as eating and drinking to excesse, vaine words, foolish
desires, and depraved concupiscences, not brought to effect: not to
exercise the works of mercy, whither common charity, and commiseration
cals us, and such other frailties: of which if we repent not, in this
world, fire shall repurge us in another, and more sharply. To this
purpose the Hebrewes make a triple distinction of sins, _Chataoth_ are
those that wee mistake against our selves, without hurting any other,
but our selves, gourmandizings, inconstancies, lazines, idlenesse,
anger, spite. The _Avonoth_, are addressed to our neighbour, which
do not blot out and pardon, but by meanes of reparation: and the
_Peschaim_ the transgressions, prævarications, and impieties, directly
addressed against God: They draw this first out of the 34 of _Exodus_
7. pardoning iniquitie, rebellion, and offences; more in the 106
_Psal._ 6. _We have sinned, wee have committed iniquity, wee have done
foolishly_; and in the 9 of _Dan._ _Chatanu, Veavinu, Vehirsannu_;
there are sinnes saith _Zohar_, imprinted above, others below, and
others both in the one and in the other; above, against God; below,
against our neighbour; and in the one, and in the other against our
selves, bodies and goods, as well our neighbours as our owne; noting
that below, the soule; that above, made after the image and semblance
of God. If they bee blotted out below, they are so above. Jesus Christ
after his resurrection _breathed on his Disciples, and said unto them,
Receive the holy Ghost; To whom soever you pardon sinnes, they shall
bee pardoned; and whose sinnes soever yee retaine, they are retained_.
_Joh,_ 20. 23. that which you shall binde on earth shall be bound in

But to returne to the recloathing, and to say something thereof, the
superiour is alwaies clad with the inferiour, the intelligible world,
with the celestiall, which is but as it were a shadow thereof, and the
celestiall with the elementary: and notwithstanding it would seeme
cleane contrary by the figure of _Hypallage_ as in the 18. _Psal._ _God
hath put his Tabernacle in the Sunne_, which is to say, hee hath put
the Sunne in his Tabernacle, which is, heaven; for God doth not reside
in this World, but rather the World in God, who comprehends all, _for
in him wee live, wee move, and have our beeing_. Also the intelligible
world should be clothed with the celestiall, and the celestiall with
the elementary. But this to shew that we cannot well comprehend
heaven, being so remote from us; but by that which is expounded to the
knowledge of our senses here below, nor of the separated Intelligences,
but by the sensible. There was nothing (said the Philosopher) in the
intellect, that was not first in the sense. And the Apostle in the
first to the _Romanes_, that _the invisible things of God, are seene
in the Creation of the world, by those that were made_. This all
conformably unto _Zohar_, In thee (said he; in the prayer of _Elias_
addressing himselfe to God) there is no resemblance, nor any image
interiour, or exteriour; but further, thou hast created heaven and
earth, and produced out of those the Sunne, and the Moon, the Starres
and the Signes of the Zodiack; and in earth Trees, and Herbs, delights
in Gardens, with Beasts, Birds, and Fishes, and at last Men; that
from thence things above might bee knowne. And of the superiours, the
inferiours together, so that the one and the other may bee governed:
_Plutarch_ alledgeth in his Treatise of _Osiris_, that in the City of
_Sais_ in _Ægypt_, there was such an inscription in the Temple of
_Minerva_, _borne out of Jupiters braine, which is nothing else but the
sapience of the Father_.

I am that which was, which is, and which shall bee, and as yet there
is none amongst mortall men, that hath yet discovered my vaile: for
Divinity is so wrapped in darkness, that you cannot see day through
it. I see him not, for hee is darkened with an over dark cloud,
said _Orpheus_: and in the 17 _Psal._ _which made darkenesse his
hiding place_. Further in the 4 of _Deut._ _You came to the foot of
a mountaine that burned, even to heaven, and therein was darkness,
thick clouds, and obscurity_: for in regard of God towards us, light
and darknesse, are but one thing: as is his darknesse, such is his
light: And in the 16 of _Isaiah_, _Make thy shadow as the night, in the
midst of the noone day_. The very same, as well the affirmative, as
the negative; by which, that which is æquippollent unto darknesse, we
may better apprehend something of the Divine Essence, but not by the
affirmative, that relates unto light, as _Rabbi Moses_ doth excellently
well dispute it in his 57. chapter of his first booke of _More_: For
the Divine light, is insupportable above all to all his Creatures, even
to the most perfect, following that which the Apostle sets downe in
the 1 of _Tim._ 6. _God dwels in light inaccessible, that no man can
see_: So that it is to us in stead of darknesse, as the brightnesse of
the Sun is to Moulds, Owles, and other night birds: which darknesses
are the revestments, and as the borders and cloisters of the light;
for represent to your selves some Lanthorne placed on the top of a
mountaine: all round about it as from the Center to the Circumference,
it shall spread its light equally, as farre as it can extend it: so
that at the last darknesse will terminate it, _for darknesse is nothing
else, but the absence and privation of light_: Even the very same,
the exteriour man, carnall, animall, is the coverture; yea darknesse
of the interiour spirituall: after the manner or fashion of some
Lanthorne of wood, or stone, and other darke matter, which keeps that
the light there shut in, could not shew forth its light, the Lanthorne
symbolizing to the body, and the light within to the soule. But if
the body bee subtiliated to an æthereall nature, from thence it comes
to passe, as if the Lanthorne were of some cleare Crystall, or of
transparent horne: for then the soule and its functions, do shine there
about openly without obstacle. Sith then, to the one of these two,
namely to the inner man, is attributed fire, that answers to the soule,
and salt to the outward man, which is the body: as the sacrifice or man
animall is the revestment of the spirituall designed by the Man, and
by Fire: The vestment of this Fire will bee Salt, in which, fire is
potentially shut in; for all Salts are of the nature of fire, as being
thereof begotten. _Geber_ saith, that salt is made of every thing that
is burned, and by consequent, participant of its proprieties, which are
to purge, dry, hinder corruption, and unboile; as wee may see in all
salted things which are as it were halfe boiled, and are kept longer
uncorrupt then raw, also in potentiall burning irons which burne, and
are nothing else but Salt.

Will it bee lawfull for us here to bring one entire passage of _Rhases_
in a book of the _Secret Triplicity_? for it is not common to all, and
wee will strongly insist on this number by reason of the three Fires
and three Salts, whereof wee pretend to Treat. So that there is a
Mystery in this number of 3 that must not bee forgotten, for that it
represents the operation, whereof Fire is the Operator; for 1, 2, 3,
makes 6, the 6 dayes wherein God in the Creation of the world perfected
all his workes, and rested the seventh day.

There are (saith _Rhases_) three natures, the first whereof cannot
bee knowne nor apprehended, but by a deepe elevated Meditation: This
is, that all-good God Almighty, Author, and the first Cause of all
things. The other is neither visible, nor tangible, although men should
_bee all contrary_; that is to say heaven in its rarity. The third
is the Elementary World, comprehending all that which is under the
Æthereall Region, is perceived and known by our senses. Moreover God
which was from all æternity, and with whom before the Creation of the
world, there was nothing but his proper name knowne to himselfe, and
his Sapience; that which hee created on the first day, was the water
wherein hee mingled earth, then came hee to procreate after, that
which had a beeing here below. And in these two Elements, thicke and
grosse, perceptible to our senses, are comprehended the two other, more
subtill and rare, Aire, and Fire. These four bodies being, (if we must
call them bodies) bound together with such a minglement, that they
could not perfectly separate. Two of them are fixed, namely, Earth and
Fire, as being dry and solid; the other two volatile, Water, and Aire,
which are moist and liquid: so that each Element is agreeable to the
other, two wherewith is bounded and enclosed, and by the same meanes,
containes two in it selfe, the one corruptible, the other not, the
which participates of the Divine nature: and therefore there are two
sorts of Waters, the one pure, simple, and elementary; and the other
common, which we use in Lakes, Wels, Springs, and Rivers, raines and
other impressions of the Aire. There is likewise a grosse Earth, filthy
and infected; and a Virgin Earth, crystalline, cleare, and shining,
contained and shut up in the Center of all the composed Elementaries;
where it remaines revested, and covered with many foldings one upon
another. So that it is not easie to arrive there, but by a cautelous
and well graduated preparation by fire. There is also a fire which is
maintained almost of it selfe, and as it were of nothing, so small is
the nourishment that it needeth; whence it comes to bee more cleare and
lucent, and another obscure, darke, and burning, and consuming all that
to which it is fixed, and it selfe at last. And Aire on the other side
pure and cleane, with another corruptible full of legerity, for of all
the Elements, there is none more easie to be corrupted then the aire;
all which substances so contrary and repugnant, mingled with elementary
bodies are the cause of their destruction: wherefore of necessity that
which is pure and incorruptible, must be separated from its contrary,
the corruptible and impure, which cannot be done but by fire, the
separator and purificator. But the three liquid Elements, Water, Aire,
and Fire, are as inseparable one from the other, for if the Aire were
distracted from the fire, the fire which hath therefrom one of its
principall maintainments and food, would suddenly extinguish, and if
the water were separated from the Aire, all would bee in a flame. That
if the Aire should be quite drawne from the water, for as much as by
its legerity, it holds it somewhat suspended, all would be drowned.
Likewise if Fire should be separated from the Water, all would bee
reduced into a deluge. For three Elements neverthelesse may well bee
disjoined from the Earth, but not wholly, there must remaine some
part to give consistence to the Body: and render it tangible, by the
meanes of a most subtill and thinne portion thereof, which they will
elevate with them, out of this gross thickness that remaines below,
as wee may sensibly see in glass, which by an industrious Artifice of
fire, is depured of the darknesse that was in the ashes, to passe from
thence to a transparent clearnesse, which is of the nature of Fire
and indissoluble Salt, accompanied with a firme and solid thicknesse,
having neither transpiration nor pores.

But wherefore should wee not hereto file all in one traine, those
so excellent Meditations of _Zohar_, sith all depends on the same
purpose? _God formed Adam of the slime of the earth_, or according
to the Hebrew, _God formed man dust of the earth_; which word of
forming belongeth properly to Potters, who fashion of earth all that
they thinke good. And touching the dust, this is but to abate our
pride, with which wee may bee swolne, when wee consider the vile and
corruptible matter, whereof wee are made, in respect of our bodies,
which is nothing else but mire and dirt. Consider then three things
(saith _Zohar_) and thou shalt not fall into transgression. Remember
from whence thou art come, of such filthy and foule stuffe, and whither
thou must at last returne, to dust, wormes, and rottennesse; and before
whom thou art to render an account, and reason of all thy actions, and
comportments; who is the soveraigne Judge, the King of all, who leaves
no transgression unpunished, nor good worke irrecompensed. _Adam_ then
and all his posterity were formed of the dust of the earth, which
had before beene moistned with the fountaine or vapour, which was
highly elevated by the Sunnebeams to water and to soften the earth:
For the Earth being of it selfe cold, and dry, is altogether sterill
and fruitlesse, if it be not impregned with moisture and heat, whence
proceed fecundity. So that _Adam_ was composed of Earth and Water
mingled together: These two elements betoken a double faculty in him,
and double formation, the one of the body, in regard of this age; the
other of the soule, in another world. Water shewes the celestiall
Meditation whereto our spirit may exalt it selfe; and the earth of it
selfe immoveable, and that can never budge from below, nor willingly
mingle with the other three volatil elements, by reason of its extreame
drynesse, so that it doth but grow hard by the action of fire, and
makes it selfe more contrary and untractable by the spirit of
contradiction hard and refractory from the flesh, against the spirit,
so that shee should reject the water which men thought to put therein,
if it were not by meanes of the subtill Aire, interposing and mingling
therewith, and penetrating into the smallest parts: which being suckt
within the water, forces the earth to feed on it, to inclose it in
her selfe, as if shee would detaine it prisoner, and by that meanes
remaines great; as the female by a male; for every superiour thing in
order and degree, holds the place of male, to that which is inferiour
and subject thereunto.

[Sidenote: _Argilla._]

[Sidenote: Gen. 4. 7.]

Now if the Aire absent it selfe, which associates and unites them
together, as being suppeditated and banished, which is moist and hot,
from the extreame drynesse and coldnesse of the earth, it will force
it with all its power to reject the water, and so reduce it selfe to
its first drynesse; which we may perceive in Sand, which will never
receive water, except it be quickly separated. Even so the earth is
alwaies rebellious and contumacious of it selfe to bee mollified, be it
by water, by aire, by fire; and after this manner there was a spirit of
contradiction and disobedience introduced into _Adam_, by reason of the
earth, whereof he was formed: as his Companion and himselfe do shew,
when by the suggestion of the Serpent, the most terrestriall animall
of all others, they so easily contradicted that extreame prohibition
which was given them of not tasting the fruit of the knowledge of good
and evill: for the punishment whereof, it was said to the Serpent,
_thou shallt eat earth all the dayes of thy life_: which _Isaiah_
resumes in 65. chap. _Dust is thy bread_: And to _Adam_, that _the
earth should produce nothing but thornes, briars, and thistles_, by
means whereof, if he would live, he must cultivate it with the sweat
of his browes, till returne to that from whence he was drawne, for
being dust hee must returne to dust. But water which notifies Divine
speculations, disirous to mingle, and unite with all things, to whom it
gave beginning, and made them grow and multiply, is as the carriage or
vestment of the spirit, following that which was said in the beginning
of the Creation, that the Spirit of God was stretched over the waters,
or as the Hebrew word _Marachephet_ caries it, hovering over them,
fomenting and vivifying them, as a Henne doth her Chickens, with a
connaturall heat; for this word _Elohim_ imports I know not what,
of heate and fire. By Water then the docill spirit, obedient to the
invitations of the intellect, insinuated it selfe into _Adam_; and by
Earth the refractory, and opiniaster, that spurneth against the pricke;
for as the earth was the most ignoble Element of all others, water
rejecteth it, and disdaineth it, and could agree with it, but as to
a lee and excrement; but if the pure and neat spirit remaines within
the water, where it made choice of its residence; for from the three
natures of earth, water at least never joines with the two, (that is to
say) sand, for its extreame drynesse that causeth a discontinuation of
parts: and the dirt to be fatty and unctuous: there is not any thing
else, but slime only, with which some food and mingling which may bee
thereof made, the water at last lets it reside below, and it swimmes
over: as being of a contrary nature, the one altogether immoveable,
solid, and compact; the other fluent, removing, and gliding as bloud
through the veines, wherein the spirits reside; who can easily bee
elevated to bee of a fiery quality, alwayes soring upward: So that the
water which notifies the interiour spirit, endeavours to devest it
selfe of this externall coagulation; for all coagulation is a kinde
of death and waterishnesse of life; and would never more associate
therewith, nor revest it selfe by reason of its contumacy; were it not
that the soveraigne Master, and Lord _Adonai_ by his providence, for
the propagation of things, (as long as hee shall please to maintaine
in beeing, this faire worke of his hands) constraine these two, Earth
and Water, to agree in a sort together, by its Angell or Minister
that rules in the Aire. Man moreover hath towards himselfe frank and
free will in his full power and disposition: _The appetite of sinne
shall be under thee, and thou shalt have domination over it_, _Gen._
4. But if hee be adheering to the earth, (that is to say) to carnall
desires and concupiscences, whereunto he is most inclinable, he shall
do nothing but evill. And if to the spirit, designed by water, all
that hee doth shall goe well. The River of God is filled with waters.
And in the 44. of _Isaiah_, _I will powre out water upon him that is
thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: I will powre out my Spirit
upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine offspring_. So that as long
as the water doth suffer and remaine united with the earth, the good
Spirit resteth with man, by which wee are admonished by the wise man,
_Prov._ 5.15, _to drinke waters out of our Cisterne, & rivers out
of our own Wel_. But when the earth by its rebellious and repugnant
drought, rejecteth water, there resteth nothing therein but its hard
and refractary obstination, till that by meanes of the aire, the spirit
that joines and unites them together (which are holy inspirations)
it bee newly remoistned and watered: By meanes whereof when wee have
this good spirit of salutary water, whereof it is written in the 15 of
_Ecclesiasticus_, _Thou shalt give him the water of wisdome to drinke_:
wee must take heed of casting it away, and to make our selves all dry
earth and sandy, which is not satisfied with water, and therefore
produceth nothing.

[Sidenote: Psal. 36. 6.]

But all this is more clearly expressed in the Gospell, where by the
meanes of this fructifying water, our Saviour which is a Fountaine
that is never dry, the holy Spirit commeth to put into our hearts that
which moistneth the hardnesse of the earth, watereth it, and dresseth
it, to produce the ripe fruits of good and charitable works. _The water
which I will give you_ (saith he, _Joh._ 4. 14.) _shall be a Fountaine
of living water, springing up into eternall life._ Of this water the
Prophets have clearely spoken, as _David_ in the 36. _Psal._ _For with
thee there is a Fountaine of life, and in thy light wee shall see
light._ See how he joines water with light, which is fire; so that this
digression seemes to bee lesse impertinent; and in the 12. of _Esay_
3. _You shall draw water with joy out of the wels of salvation._ More
_Jerem._ 2. _They have forsaken me, that am the Fountaine of living
water, and have digged to themselves Cisternes, broken Cisternes that
will hold no water._

In this of _Zohar_ (as above) are comprised the principall secrets and
actions of Fire, and of its contrary, the Patient, which is, Water: for
the acts of Actives are in the disposition of the Patient, (said the
Philosopher;) for the effects cannot better be discerned then where
they act. Fire then hath three proprieties: but in this respect, wee
must argue the thing more deeply.

As then, all that which is, are divided into 3, called Worlds, or
Heavens, (it must not be thought strange, if wee repeate the same more
then once; for from thence proceed all the secret sciences,) that is
to say, the elementary here below, subject to perpetuall alteration,
and vicissitude of life, and of death; the Celestiall aloft, above the
Circle of the Moone, incorruptible in respect of it selfe, as well
for its purity, and uniformity of substance, as for its continuall
and equall motion; nothing therein prædominating the one or the
other; which two constitute the Sensible world. There is afterward
the Intelligible, abstracted from all corporeity and matter, which
the Apostle cals the third World, where hee was ravished, this (said
hee) _whether in the body or out of the body, God knowes_, 2 _Cor._
12. 3. for not onely the World and the Heaven, are put one for the
other, but yet the Heaven for Man; _The heavens declare the glory of
God_, according to which, most part of the Fathers interpret it; and
Man reciprocally for Heaven. As _Origen_ sets it forth, upon the 25
Treatise of Saint _Matthew_. Mans heart is properly called Heaven, and
the Throne not already of the Glory of God, as is the Temple, but of
God properly. For the Temple of the glory of God, is that wherein, as
in a Glasse, wee see ourselves by _Ænigma_. But Heaven that is above
the Temple of God, where his Throne is, is to see him wholly as it were
face to face: which hee hath almost transcribed word for word out of
the booke _Abahir_ to _Zohar_, and other ancient _Caballists_, whereof
he consisteth for the most part.

Moreover some say that the Heavens are sometimes put for God himselfe,
as in the 32 of _Deut._ _Heare O Heaven the words I speak_: and in
the 8 chapter of the 1 of _Kings_, according to the Hebrew verity,
in the prayer of King _Solomon_ at the dedication of the Temple;
_Heare O Heaven_. In this third Heaven or World, whereof the Apostle
spake, although God bee every where, yet the seate of his Divinity is
there more especially established, then elsewhere, with his separated
Intelligences that assist him to execute his commands. _Blesse the Lord
yee Angels, mighty in power, doing that which he ordaineth, hearing the
voice of his words_: wherefore _Theologians_ called it the Angelicall
world, without all place and time; which _Plato_ in his _Phæd._ said
that no mortall men ever yet had sufficiently celebrated it, according
to its excellency and dignity, being all of light; who from thence
stretched out her selfe, and derives it so, as out of an inexhaustible
Fountaine, to all sorts of Creatures, even according as the ancient
_Phœnician_ Theologie carryed which the Emperour _Julian Parabates_
alledged in his prayer to the Sunne. That Corporeal Light proceeded
from an Incorporeal Nature. The Celestial world participates of
darkenesse, and of light, whence proceed all the faculties and powers
that it brings it. And the elementary all of darknesse, designed for
the reason of its instability by water. The Intelligible by Fire,
because of its purity and light, and the Celestial by the Aire, where
fire and water come to joine; the Earth by this reckoning, should
remaine for Hell; as in truth this earthly habitation is nothing but a
true Hell: But by Heaven _Moses_ understood the Intelligible World, and
by earth the Sensible, attributing the two higher elevated Elements,
Aire and Fire, to Heaven, because they alwayes tend upwards, and Water
and Earth, which for their gravity tend downward: but all that, by
him was yet more mystically shadowed, as _Zohar_ sheweth it, by the
admirable construction of his Tabernacle, then which, there is nothing
more spirituall. Gold, Silver, and pretious Stones, representing the
Sensible world, and _Bezaleel_, that was the Conductor of the worke,
the Intelligible, and the Workman filled with a Divine Spirit, with
Sapience, Intelligence, Knowledge, and all the most accomplisht
learning, as almost every word carries it, woven with _Bezel_, the
shadow, and _El_ God.

The prophane Poets have divided the Sensible World into 3, for they
never tooke much paines to penetrate into the Intelligible: And
assigned the superiour part thereof, from the circle of the Moone
upward, to _Jupiter_, the low Terrestriall to _Pluto_, and the
middlemost, which is from the Earth to the Moone, to _Neptune_: which
the Platonists call the Generative Vertue, because of the humidity,
impregned with Salt, which provoketh much to generation, according
as the word _Salacitas_ designes it, as _Plutarch_ puts it in the 4
Question of Naturall Causes, and in his Treaty of _Osiris_: wherefore
the said Poets attribute more fecundity to the said _Neptune_, then to
all the other Gods.

[Sidenote: _Cornue._]

Each of these 3 worlds furthermore, hath particularly its science,
which is double; the one common and triviall, the other mysticall
and secret. The Intelligible world to our Theologie, and the Caballe
the Celestial to Astrologie and Magie; and the elementary, to the
Physiologie and Alchymie, which revealeth by the resolutions, and
separations of Fire, all the more hidden, and darke secrets of natures,
in three kindes of the composed: for no man can know the composition
of a thing that is ignorant of its destruction, saith _Geber_. But
these three divine sciences have beene by the depravation of ignorant
and evill spirits turned aside to a crying downe, that men durst
scarcely speak thereof, but must presently incurre the bruite of
being an Atheist, Witch, or a false money-coyner. We say then, after
_Empedocles_ and _Anaxagoras_; All this our reason disputes by a
Journey of composition and resolution, going this way and that way, up
and downe. That all the Elementary science consisteth in the mixtion
and separation of the Elements, which is perfected by fire, to which
Alchymy turnes all: As _Avicen_ declareth very openly in his Treaty
of _l’Almahad_, or Division of Sciences. And _Hermes_ in that of his
7 chapters, Understand yee sonnes of the wise, the Science of the
four Elements, whose secret apparition is no where signified, except
they bee divided and compounded, because out of the Elements nothing
is made profitable without such a Regiment; for where Nature ends her
operations, there Art begins. Take such a composed Elementary, what you
will, herbe, wood, or other the like, upon which, fire may exercise its
action, and put it in an Alembic or Cornue; first let them separate
the water, and afterwards the oyle, if the fire bee moderate, if more
pressed and reinforced, both together: but the oyle will swimme above
the water, which may easily bee separated by a fonnel of Glasse. This
water is called _Mercury_, which of it selfe is pure and cleane; and
oyle, the sulphur, adustible and infect, that corrupts every compounded
thing: In the bottome of the vessel will rest the Ashes, of which by
a forme of lee, with water the Salt will bee extracted, and after you
have withdrawn the water with _Balneum Mariæ_, as men call it: for the
oily unctuosities do not mount by this degree of fire, no more doth
the Salt, but much lesse; and the indissoluble Earths stript of all
their humidities proper to vitrifie: for saith _Geber_, every private
thing by its owne humidity doth performe none but a vitrificatory
fusion. So there are two volatill Elements, namely the liquid, Water
and Aire, which is Oyle, for all liquid substances naturally shunne the
fire, which elevates the one, and burnes the other. But not those two
which are dry and solid; which are Salt, wherein is contained Fire,
and pure Earth, which is Glasse: over whom the fire hath no power
but to melt and refine them. See there the four Elements redoubled,
as _Hermes_ cals them, and _Raymund Lullius_ the great Elements; for
as every Element consists of two qualities, these great Elements
redoubled, _Mercury_, _Sulphur_, _Salt_, and _Glasse_, participate of
the two simple Elements, (to say better) of all four; according to the
more, or the lesse, of the one, or of the other; _Mercury_ holding
more of the _Aire_, to which it is attributed; Oyle or _Sulphur_, of
the Aire; _Salt_, of Fire; and _Glasse_, of the Earth, who findes it
selfe pure and cleane in the Center of all the composed Elementaries,
and is the last to reveale it selfe exempt from others. Of this
sort by the Artifice and operation of Fire, and of its effects, we
depure all infections and filth, even to reduce them to a purity of
incorruptible substance from this time forward; by the separation of
their inflamable, and terrestriall impurities; for (saith _Geber_) the
whole intention of the Operator, is versed in this, that the grosser
parts being cast away, the worke may bee perfected with the lighter;
which is to mount from the corruptions here below, to a purity of the
Celestial world, where the Elements are more pure and essential, fire
there predominating which is the chief of all others. Hitherto touching
_Alchymie_, and wherein shee is versed.

_Magick_ for the Celestial world, was in times past, a holy and
venerable Science, which _Plato_ in his _Charmis_ cals the true
Medicine of the soule; and in the first, _Alcibiades_ puts it, that it
was wont to shew the Elders of the great Kings of _Persia_, to teach
them to reverence God, to forme their temporall domination according
to the patterne of the order and policy of the Universe. But it is
nothing else properly (as _Orpheus_ saith) but a forme of marriage of
the starry heaven with the earth, whither hee darts his influences, by
which shee impregnes comming from the Intelligences who assist therein;
and an application of agent vertues upon the passive, and that without
the cooperation of Dæmons the most part, evill, false, and deceptive,
yet some more then others; with which it is thought that the three wise
Kings, _Magi_, that came so farre to adore Jesus Christ, were willing
to have some acquaintance and commerce.

The third is that which men call _Caballe_, or reception, because men
left it there verbally, and by mouth from hand to hand, from one to
another. It is divided into two, the one of _Beresith_, that is to
say, of the Creation, that consisteth in the Sensible world, where
_Moses_ staid, without speaking of the Intelligible, or of separated
substances. The other is of _Mercavah_, or of the Throne of God, which
_Ezekiel_ principally treats of, whose vision is almost all of fire. So
much is this Element throughout the whole holy Scripture appropriated
to Divinity, as one of the most perfect and neare symboles and markes
in things sensible; by meanes whereof wee are so elevated, that by
_Jacobs_ Ladder, or _Homers_ golden Chaine, we come to the knowledge of
things spirituall and intelligible; _for the invisible things of God
from the Creation of the World, are clearely seene, being understood
by the things that are made, even his eternall power and Godhead_.
For the world with the Creatures being there, they are a portraict
of God; for the Creator is understood by the Creature; saith Saint
_Augustine_; for God hath made two things to his image and resemblance,
according to _Tresmegistus_: the world, therein to rejoice, and please
our selves with the infinite brave pieces of worke; and Man, wherein
hee set his most singular delight and pleasure, which _Moses_ hath
tacitely expressed in _Gen._ 1. & 2. where when there was question
of creating the world, Heaven, Earth, Vegetables, Minerals, Animals,
Sunne, Moone, Starres, and all the rest, hee did no more but command
by his word, for hee said, and they were done; hee commanded and they
were created. But in Mans formation, hee insisted much further therein
then in all the rest, saith he; _Let us make man after our Image and
Similitude, hee created him male and female, and formed him dust of
the earth, afterward breathed in his face the spirit of life, and hee
was made a living soule_. In which are touched 4 or 5 particularities.
So _Cyrill_ observes it. After the same manner then, as the Image of
God is the world, so the image of the world, is man: therein there is
such a relation of God with his creatures, that they cannot bee well
comprehended, but reciprocally one by the other, for all the Sensible
nature, (as _Zohar_ hath it) in regard of the intelligible, is as that
of the Moone, towards the Sunne, who thereinto reverberates its light:
or as the light of a Lampe or torch, which parteth the flame fastned
to the weik, which is therein nourished by a grosse matter, viscous,
adustible, without which this splendor and light could not communicate
it selfe to our sight, nor our sight comprehend it: And likewise the
glory and essence of God, which the Hebrewes call _Sequinah_, could not
appeare but in the matter of this Sensible world, which is an image or
patterne thereof. And it is that, which God said to _Moses_, _Exod._
33. _You shall not see my face, you shall see my hinder parts_. The
face of God is his true Essence in the intelligible world, which no
man ever saw, except the _Messihe_, _I did set the Lord alwayes before
mee_, _Psal._ 16. 8. And his posteriour parts are his effects in the
Sensible world. The soule likewise cannot bee discerned and knowne,
but by the functions it exerciseth in the body whilst it is annexed
thereunto: _By which Plato was moved to thinke that soules could not
consist without bodies, no more then fire without water._ So that after
long revolutions of times, they should come againe to incorporate
themselves here below: whereunto adheres that in the 6 of _Virgils

    All these when they have turned for many yeares,
    God cals them to the floud of Lethe, by great troopes,
    Being forgetfull that they must review the upper convexe,
    And begin againe to bee willing to returne into bodies.

But this savours a little of new-birth, and _Pythagorean_ changings of
soules into bodies, in which _Origen_ was likewise out of the way, as
may be seene in his booke of Princes, and in Saint _Jeromes_ Epistle
to _Avitus_. But more sincerely _Porphyrius_, although in the rest an
impious adversary, a Calumniator of Christianisme; that for the perfect
beatitude of soules, they must shunne and fly all bodies. So that, when
the soule shall bee repurged from all corporal affections, and when it
shall returne to its Creator, in its first simplicity, it hath no great
desire to fall againe into the hands and calamities of this age, when
the option should be left unto it free.

From the Intelligible world then, it runnes downe into the Celestial,
and from thence to the Elementary, all that which the spirit of man can
attaine from the knowledge of the admirable effects of Nature, which
Art intimates, in what shee can, whence by the revelation of these rare
secrets, by the action of fire, the most part is magnified, the glory
and magnificence of him who is the first motor and author thereof;
for mans understanding according to _Hermes_, is as a Glasse where
we come to shave off, and to abate the cleare and luminous rayes of
the Divinity, represented to our senses by the Sunne above, and the
fire his correspondent here below; which inflame the soule with an
ardent desire of the knowledge and veneration of his Creatour, and by
consequent of his love, for men love nothing but what they know.

So each of these three worlds, which have their particular sciences,
hath also its fire, and its salt apart: both which do informe us
namely of _Moses_ his fire in the heaven. And the Salt for its firme
consistence and solidity to the earth. What is this Salt? aske one of
your Chymicall Philosophers; a scorched and burned earth, and congealed
water, by the heat of fire, potentially enclosed therein. Moreover Fire
is the operatour here below, in the workes of Art, as the Sunne and
Celestiall Fire is in them of that nature; and in the intelligible,
the holy Spirit by the Hebrewes called _Binah_, or Intelligence, which
the Scripture designes ordinarily by fire, and this spirituall fire,
or igneal spirit, with the _Chomah_ the verbe, where the Sapience
attributes to the Sonne, Wisdome, the Artist of all things, taught mee,
are the fathers operators. By the word of the Lord were the heavens
firmed, and all their beauty by the spirit of his mouth; from whence
that maxime of the Peripateticks differs not much. Every worke of
Nature is a worke of Intelligence.

Behold the three fires, whereof we pretend to speake, of which there
is none more common amongst us then the elementary here below, grosse,
composed, and materiall; that is to say, alwayes fastned to matter; nor
on the the other part lesse known. That which is of him, from whence
he came, and whither hee goes; reducing in an instant all to nothing:
assoone as his nourishment failes him; without which he cannot consist
a moment, but goes as hee comes, being all in the least of his parts:
So that he can in lesse then nothing, multiply to infinity, and in
lesse then nothing empty it selfe: for one little waxe light will at
pleasure enkindle the greatest fires we can imagine, without any losse
or diminution of its substance:

    _Though they take a thousand, yet nothing perisheth_:

[Sidenote: Auror _de roolle_ p 61, in course, in order one after

And in the third of Saint _James_, _Behold how great a matter a little
fire kindleth_; yea one onely small sparkle of fire, would press in
the twinckling of an eye, all the immense hollow of the Universe,
if it were filled with Gun-powder or Napthe and presently after will
vanish away. So that of all bodies, there is nothing that doth approach
nearer to the soule then fire, said _Plotin_. And _Aristotle_ in his
fourth booke of _Metaphysickes_, sets downe, that even to his time
the most part of Philosophers had not well knowne fire, nor yet Aire
to bee perceivable to our sight and feeling. But men may say the
same, that neither _Aristotle_, nor other Grecians of his time knew
so well the fire and its effects, at least wise not so exactly as did
(so long while after) the _Arabians_, by _Alchymie_, on which all
the knowledge of fire dependeth. The _Ægyptians_ said, that it was a
ravishing and insatiable Animal, that devoures that which taketh birth
and increase, and at last it selfe; after it is therewith well fedde
and gorged: when there is no more to feed or nourish it; for that
having heat and motion, he cannot passe from food and aire to breath
therein; if for want hereof, it remaines at last extinct, with that
wherewith it was fed: All things proper to animate substances, and
which have life, for life is ever accompanied with heat and motion,
which proceeds from heate, rather then heate from motion; although they
be reciprocalls, for one cannot be without the other. But _Suidas_
thereupon formed such a contradiction, that not onely animals, but all
that which take nourishment and encrease, tend to a certaine butt,
whither being come, it stayes without passing any further, where
neither nourishment nor increase of fire are limited nor determined;
for the more is administred, so much the more it would have, and grow
every day greater: for neither the one nor the other can be limited,
as do these animals. Then by consequent it must not be put in their
ranke; So that the motion of fire should rather be called generation,
then nourishment or growth; for there is but that one element, that
nourisheth and increaseth it. In the others, that which superabounds
therein is by apposition, as if you would joine water to water, or
earth to earth; you shall never do the same to fire, to thinke to make
it greater by joining thereunto other fire, but by the apposition of
matter, upon which it may bite and exercise its action, as wood and
other like things, which perforce must turne into its nature, and so
it augments it selfe. The Poeticall fictions relate that _Prometheus_
went into Heaven to steale it to accommodate mortals; for which he was
so grievously punished by the Gods, as to remaine 30. yeares bound to
a Rocke in Mount _Caucasus_, where a Vulter dayly eate up his entrails
which did grow againe in course. But it is to bee beleeved that the
Gods that are so watchfull, and so affectionate towards mankinde,
would not deny this so necessary a portion of Nature, without which
the condition of their life were worse then that of beasts, as well
for the boyling of their meats, as to warme them, and dry them, and
infinite other necessary commodities. Besides of that which soares
alwayes upwards, being of one celestial original, whither he aspires to
returne, it seemes that this belongs properly to man.

    _Sith other things lookes downe unto the earth
    It gave man a face, to looke up, and see the heavens,
    To erect his countenance unto the Stars._

[Sidenote: διάλυσις]

Almost all other animals do shun the fire, whence _Lactantius_ to shew
that man was a divine Animal, alledgeth for one of his most pregnant
reasons, that hee onely amongst others used fire. And _Vitruvius_ in
his second booke, sets downe that the first acquaintances of men, were
contracted by comming to meete, to warme themselves at common fires:
So that the cause why God sent fire downe to men must bee, that by
the meanes thereof, they are come to penetrate into the profound and
hidden secrets of Nature: whereof they could not well discover, & know
the manner of proceeding, for that shee workes so rarely: but by his
counterfoote, which the Greeks call διάλυσις the resolution
and separation of the Elementary parts, which are made by fire; whereof
proceeds the execution almost of all Artifices, that the spirit of
man hath invented; So that if the first had no other instrument, and
toole, then the fire, as we may lately see by the discoveries of the
_West Indies_; _Homer_ in the Song of _Vulcan_ sets downe that hee
assisted with _Minerva_, taught men their Arts and brave Workmanship;
having formerly beene accustomed to dwel in Caves and hollow Rockes,
after the fashion of wilde beasts; willing to inferre by _Minerva_ the
Goddesse of Arts, and Sciences, _the understanding and industry, and by
the fire, Vulcan, that puts them in execution; wherefore the Ægyptians
were accustomed to marry these two Deities together, willing thereby
to declare nothing else but that from the understanding proceeds the
invention of all Arts and Sciences, which fire afterwards effected,
and brought from power to action_; for the Agent in all this world is
nothing else but fire and heat, saith _Johannicius_, and _Homer_,

    _Whom Vulcan and Minerva knew_.

Which was the cause (as may bee seen in _Philostratus_ by the birth of
_Minerva_) that shee forsooke the _Rhodians_, for that they sacrificed
unto her without fire, to goe to the _Athenians_. Moreover _Vulcan_,
according to _Diadorus_, was a man, _who from an accident by a clap
of Lightning, whereby a Tree was set on fire, first revealed to the
Ægyptians the commodity and use of Fire: for being therewithall
overcome, all joyfull of his light and heate; he thereunto added other
matter to keepe it, whilest hee went to seeke the people, who afterward
for this, deified him_. Whereto _Lucretius_ agrees,

    _Do not in these things tacitely and by chance require,
    Lightning brought fire on earth to mortalls
    First: thence all heate of flame was given_.

[Sidenote: 1500 years.]

[Sidenote: 500]

The Greekes attribute it to _Phoroneus_, and put it, that it was neare
to _Argos_. That fire being fallen from heaven there-about, it was
afterward there kept within the Temple of _Apollo_; which if by chance
it came to extinguish, they lighted it againe anew by the Sunnebeames;
as also they did at _Rome_ that of the Vestals. And in _Persia_ their
sacred fire which they carried ordinarily where the King marcht in
person singularly reverencing it, for their respect to the Sunne,
which they adored above all other Deities; for they esteemed it here
below, their Image. They caryed it (I say) in great pompe and solemnity
on a magnificent Chariot drawne by four great Couriers, and followed
by 365 young Ministers, for as much as there are so many dayes in
the yeare, which describe the Sunne by its course, clad with yellow
guilded, the colour conformable to the Sunne, and fire, singing hymnes
to their praise. And there was amongst them, no crime more capitall
and irremissible, then to cast any dead carkasse or other uncleannesse
therein, or to blow it with your breath, for feare to infect it, but
they did it to give it aire, for in all this they hazzarded no lesse
then life; as to quench it otherwise in water: So that if any one had
perpetrated any grievous forfeit, to obtaine grace and pardon therein;
the best expedient then was, as _Plutarch_ puts in his first Treatise
of the first cold, to put himselfe in running water with fire in the
hand, threatning to quench it in the water if they did not grant his
request; but after hee had obtained it hee was not left unpunished for
his offence, but for the impiety that hee had forethought to commit.
And from thence it became a common proverbe mentioned in _Suidas_: I am
a _Persian_, borne of _Persian_ parents; what a strange _Persian_? yea
Sir, for us to pollute fire, it is sharper then cruel death. But all
this which may bee said of fire, and by the meanes thereof, hath not
yet been revealed, nor knowne by men: Is there any thing more admirable
then Gunpowder, so easy to make, and consisting of so few ingredients;
and so common Sulphur, Saltpeter and coale? which seeme to have been
mystically designed by the Ægyptians, by the three Celestial powers,
whence they alledge Thunder, Lightning, Tempests, to be conducted and
governed, _Jupiter_, _Vesta_, and _Vulcan_. By _Vulcan_, Sulphur; by
_Jupiter_, Saltpeter, full of aire and winde, as _Raymund Lullius_ puts
it, who well knew it, and its nature, and its effects if he would have
discovered them; and by _Vesta_ Coale; as well for the Terrestreity
that is in it, as for that it is incorruptible, being able to keepe
it many thousands of yeares within the ground, without alteration or
spoiling, which was the cause that they made a place and stage for it,
in the foundation of the Temple of _Diana_ at _Ephesus_: Saltpeter
is appropriated to the Aire; because it is as of a meane disposition
of nature, betwixt Sea water, and the Fire, or Sulphur, whereof it
participates, for that it is so inflamable, and saltish, on the other
side, resolving it selfe into moisture, and water, as the Salts do;
from whence it hath bitternesse and acuity; and as the inclosed and
retained aire, within the clouds, doth breake and lighten by the
impetuosity of Thunder, the same doth Saltpeter: But this will come to
better purpose hereafter in Salts. Moreover hee that can make powder
composed of certaine proportions of Sulphur and Saltpeter, and in
stead of Coale, with the Terrestrial scurf of Antimony, which must be
separated by frequent and reiterated ablutions of lukewarme water; may
come to an artificiall fire, not to bee disdained; of a powder, that
will give a small report; ’tis true that it is not so impetuous and
full of force, as the common. In regard of the invention of Gunpowder,
the relations of _China_ do cary, that by their ancient Chronicles it
is found out, that they have had the use of it more then 1500 yeares;
as also of printing. _Roger Bacon_, the famous English Philosopher,
who writ above 300 yeares agoe, in his booke of the admirable power of
Nature and Art, sets downe, that with a certaine composition imitating
lightning and thunder, _Gideon_ was wont to feare his Enemies with.
And yet that it is not formally as it is written in the 7 of _Judges_,
yet it is said neverthelesse more then sixscore yeares before the
divulgation of Gun-powder; see his word: furthermore there may bee made
perpetuall lights and bathes, burning without end, for we have knowne
many things that are not burned, but purified; but besides these,
there are other stupendious things of Nature and Art; for sounds may
be made in the aire, like thunders, and of greater horror then such
as are made by nature. And a little matter adapted to the quantity of
a thumb, makes a horrible sound, and shewes a vehement coruscation;
and this may bee done many wayes, by which every City and Army may bee
destroyed; after the manner of _Gideons_ Artifice, who with broken
pitchers and lamps, fire breaking out with ineffable fragor, destroyed
the _Midianitish_ Army, with only 300 men. These may be Granadoes and
fire pots. And to be short, nothing could better agree on all points
to Gun-powder; but these good men foreseeing the ruine that such
things might bring, made too great conscience to reveale it. To the
purpose of perpetuall fires, by meanes of most long durance; _Hermolaus
Barbarus_ in his notes upon _Pliny_, relates that in his time there
was an old Sepulchre opened in the Territory of _Padoua_, and therein
found a little Coffer, where there was a Lampe yet burning, although
that according to the inscription it must have beene more then 500
yeares since it was lighted. So that by this reckoning, it should not
bee altogether impossible to make fires, that will not be put out; for
wee see the same in many sorts of that which men call Grec; whereof
_Aristotle_ as it is reported heretofore composed a Treatise, which
could not bee quenched with water, chiefly Sea water, by reason of the
fatty and unctuous Salt mingled therewith, but they grow worser, and
waxe more fiery. But what hurt were there to stay thereon a little,
since likewise it is a question of Fire: Of Acornes steeped in wine,
afterward dryed and put in a mill so long till the liquor come forth,
which afterwards accompanied with other oyles besmeared upon quicke
chalc, Pumice stone, spectacle glasse, and Alum calcined together with
Soap, and other the like things, that hold their adustible impurities
in the bottome of a vessel, whilest that the oile by distillation
mounts cleare, neat, and purified, and lesse inflamable; but this
requireth a sufficient good fire; for the matches corresponding
thereto, make them of cotten yearne besmeared within the Lee: then bath
them in the oile, or liquor of Tartar, Saltpetring them over _Alum
plumed_, intermingled with _pitch_, _rozin finely bruised and beaten_,
or of _Colophon_. These fires of so long duration would seeme to us
a thing fabulous, if wee were not ascertained by authentique Authors
of that so famous a Lampe hung in a certaine Temple of _Venus_, where
there burned without ceasing the Stone called _Asbestus_, which being
once set on fire, never goes out. But some will say that that is also
a fable; I will leave others to decide it, and I will tell you what
befell mee, seeking nothing lesse then that, to meet with a substance,
conducted thereunto, by graduall artifices of fire: which being bound
fast within a Viall of glasse and sealed with _Hermes_ his Seale, that
no aire could any way enter in, might be kept 1000 yeares (after the
manner of speech) in the bottome of the Sea: and opening it at the
termination of so long a season, or when you shall please, you shall
therein finde a suddaine fire, (which when it sents the aire) will
light matches. We reade in the second booke of the _Maccabees_, chap.
1. vers. 20. that at the transmigration of _Babylon_, the _Levites_
having hid their sacred fire in the bottome of a well or pit, 70
yeares, after they found there a thicke water and whitish, who assoone
as ever the Sunbeames gave thereon, tooke fire.

These two Deities aforesaid, _Pallas_ and _Vesta_, one and the other,
chaste Virgins, as is also Fire; represent unto us the two fires of the
Sensible world; that is to say, _Pallas_, the Celestiall; and _Vesta_,
the Elementary here below, the which notwithstanding it bee more grosse
and materiall, then that above, tends neverthelesse alwayes upward, as
if it endeavoured to unmingle it selfe from a corruptible substance,
where it remaineth fixed; to returne free and exempt from all these
hinderances to its first Original from whence it came, as an imprisoned

    _There is in them fiery vigor and celestiall Origin,
    In seeds as much as our harmelesse bodies stay them,
    And our terrene joints dull them, and our dying members_.

The other on the contrary, though more subtill and essential rusheth
out here below toward the earth, as if these two aspired incessantly
to encounter each other, and to face each other, in the fashion of two
Pyramides; whereof that above should have its basis planted in the
_Zodiack_, where the Sunne perfects his annuall course through the 12
Signs: from the point of which _Pyramis_, comes to cast here below
all that which is here procreated, and hath being, according to the
Astrologers of Ægypt; that there is nothing produced in the earth, and
in the water, which was not first sowed in heaven, which is there, as
a labourer to cultivate it, and by his heate, impregned here below,
with the efficacy of his influences, conducts the whole to its compleat
perfection and maturity, which _Aristotle_ also confirmes in his bookes
of Beginning and Ending. But the fire here below on the contrary at
the basis of his _Pyramis_, fastned to the earth, making one of six
faces of the Cube, whereof the _Pythagoreans_ give him the forme and
figure, because of its forme, and invariable stability; and from the
point of this _Pyramis_ the subtill vapours mount upwards, which serve
as nourishment to the Sun, and to all the rest of the Celestiall
bodies, according as _Phurnutus_ writeth after others. Men attribute
(saith hee) inextinguished fire unto _Vesta_, peradventure for that the
power of fire that is in the world, takes it nourishment from thence,
and that from thence the Sunne is maintained and consisteth. This is
that also, that _Hermes_ would inferre in his Table of _Emeraudes_:
That which is below, is as that which is above, and contrarywise, to
perpetrate miracles of one thing. And _Rabbi Joseph_ the sonne of
_Carnitol_ in his ports of Justice, the foundation of all the inferior
ædifices is placed above, and their heap or top here below as a Tree
inverted. So that a man is but as a spirituall tree planted in the
Paradise of delights, which is the earth of the living, by the roots of
his haires; following that which is written in the _Canticles 7. The
haire of thy head like purple, the King is bound in the Galleries._

These two fires then, the high and the low, who do know themselves,
and so one another, have beene no lesse unknowne to the Poets, for
_Homer_ in the 18 of his Iliads, having placed _Vulcans_ forge in the
eighth starry heaven, where he is accompanied with his Artisans endowed
with singular prudence, and who know two sorts of workes, which were
taught them by the immortall Gods, wherein they labour in his presence;
_Virgill_ in his 8 of the Æneads hath suffered him to set his shop here
below in the earth, in an Island called _Vulcanian_.

    _Vulcans house, and by name, Vulcans earth._

To shew that there is fire in the one, and the other Region, the
Celestial, and Elementary; but diversly: Men make moreover four sorts
of fire; that of the intelligible world, which is all light; the
Celestiall participates of heate and light; the Elementary of light,
heate, and ardour; And the infernall opposite to the intelligible, with
ardor and burning without light; we see Lanthornes upon Mountaines
that burne on the inside, and other like called _Vulcans_. And it is a
thing very admirable, as one of the _Rabbins_ quoteth, that Sulphur &
Pitch that are so ready and easy to take fire, and continue so little
in their combustion being exposed to the aire, restrained neverthelesse
within the Earths intrails, it seemes they there renew themselves, and
multiply by their owne consumption, although their heat and burning
bee there much more violent without comparison, then here above.
According as wee may see in Mountaines that burn for so many continued
ages, and hot Bathes. This seemes to emancipate from the common order
of Nature by a secret disposition of Divine providence, who will have
them continue so; till the scurf and impurity of this inferiour world
be exterminate, with this infected stinking and corruptible odor; and
to banish it from hence and send it backe to hell for the punishment
and torment of the damned; whereof it is written in _Psal. 11. 6. Upon
the wicked hee shall raine snares, fire and brimstone, and an horrible
tempest, this shall bee the portion of their Cup._ This fire there,
which is blacke, obscure, thicke, and dark, the more devouring and
burning it is, resembles that of some great coales of stone, which
conceive a most strong ignition, whereof it is spoken in the 20 of
_Job_ 26. _A fire shall devour them which is not kindled._ And more
particularly in the 4 of _Baruch_ 26. _Fire shall come upon them from
the everlasting to continue many dayes, and Devils shall a long time
dwell there._

[Sidenote: P. 72. Lamp.]

There where the Celestial fire is all clear and shining as a lamp,
whose flame should bee nourished with water of Life, mingled with a
certaine composition of _Camphire_, _Salnitre_, and other inflamative
matters. So that these combustible substances, whereof there are
infinite varieties, may endure very long, but it is true that it will
bee but a gentle and weak flame. And of the like, but more subtill
without comparison, the Celestiall bodies are nourished and fed, that
need but little nourishment, as approaching from spirituality. I can
tell you, being at any other time brought, to make the fashion of a
shining Sunne, in the darke, (it was a fire of a Lampe) so glittering,
that a whole great Hall might bee therewith rather dazled, then
lightened; _for this did more effect then two or three dozen of great
Torches, and yet in 24 houres used no more oile then I gave it, with
matches corresponding thereunto, which held no more then a nut shell,
for this was a Lampe of Glasse, plunged or dipped within a Globe of
Crystall as great as a head filled with vinegar, distilled three or
foure times; for there is nothing more transparent, nor more splendent.
Sea water is also good thereto, and much better then fresh water, how
pure soever it may bee; It it the Salt mingled among that gives it this
luminous brightnesse._

[Sidenote: ἰχὼρ]

[Sidenote: P. 75.]

[Sidenote: Tuffe p. 76. a kind of white Sand, or soft and brittle

But to returne to our discourse, some have thought that sith the
Starres receive nourishment, they should also vanish in certaine
periods of time, and others come in their stead; which were no other
thing then a separation of their clearnesse and light, with their Globe
of substance more grosse and materiall, by which they come to dissipate
themselves, and to vanish within the heaven; as vitall spirits within
the aire: whilest they are absented from some animated body, and
leave it void of life. So that by this meanes, their Globe from this
time forward would remaine darke as a Lampe, whereby light, which
before gave it light, should bee quenched for lacke of nourishment, or
other accident. This light or luminous fire is in the Starres, as the
bloud is in animals, or juice in vegetables, whereto _Homer_ seemes
willing to grant in the 5. of his Iliads, where he puts, that for as
much as the Gods do not live by bread and wine, as mortalls, but by
_Ambrosia_ and _Nectar_, so they have no bloud, but in lieu thereof,
a substance which they call ἰχὼρ which is as it were a
subtill saltish waterishnesse: hindering corruption in animals, and
all other composed Elements; but wee must here a little better cleare
this, for the great affinity that the Sunne and Fire have together:
Wee must then understand, that the Sunne arising by its attraction
elevates the spirits of the earth, which are of two natures, (a moist
vapour including, and a dry vapour included) are together exalted,
(saith the Philosopher in the 5. of his Meteors) the one hot and
moist, as is the Aire and Water, potentially; this which is properly
called Vapour; the other hot and dry, of the nature and power of fire,
called Exhalation. The first resolves into water, as raines, snowes,
hailes, mists, fogges, and other such moist impressions as are formed
of this vapour, in the middle Region of the Aire, for being grosse
and heavy, they cannot mount higher, but afterwards being thickned,
and congealed by the cold that resides there, they fall backe here
below, more materiall then those which were not mounted from thence,
and at last, all do resolve into water. The second, called Exhalation,
is subdivided into three kindes; the first, more viscous, grosse,
and heavy, is that whereof your fires are formed, which are called
_Castor_ and _Pollux_, otherwise _Saint Herme_; the _foole fires_, and
the like, which cannot mount higher then the low Region of the Aire:
the second is a little lighter, more subtill, and depured, penetrating
even to the middle Region, where thunders and lightnings are formed,
the wandring starres, _barres_ of fire, _cheurons_, and other such
inflamations. The third, is yet more dry and light, and more free from
unctuosity, almost of the nature of that Quintessence, which we observe
in _Aqua vitæ_ soveraignly depured: therefore it may mount not onely
to the highest Region of the Aire, and that of Fire contiguous; but
escape yet whole and safe higher then the Heaven, with which, for its
greatest subtilty and depuration which it hath gotten in this long
way, it hath a great conformity: For being come to the Globe of the
Sun, it is there perfected to concoct and to digest into a pure and
cleare light; for the nourishment, as well of it selfe, as of other
starres; the same that _Pliny_ toucheth in the 8 and 9 chapters of
his second booke: So that the Starres receive all their light and
nourishment from the Sunne, after that it hath been there concocted and
fitted, and not by the forme of reflexion, as from its raies, which
would lessen themselves either in water, or in a looking Glasse; for
all that which participates of fire, hath need of nourishment. This
is done as in the Animall, where the most pure bloud, comes from the
Liver to empty it selfe through the Arteries into the heart which
conducts it to its last perfection for the nourishment of Spirits.
But this must be understood, if these Exhalations and vapours finde
issue atwhart the pores and spongiosities of the Earth, to evaporate
upwards. But if peradventure it meet with Tuffe, or Sand, or the like
lets, and hindrances, which do contradict them, or let them, they stay
there and wax thicke, for procreation of minerals: that is to say,
a hot and a dry exhalation, in the nature of Brimstone, and a moist
vapour in the nature of Quicksilver; not vulgar, but a substance yet
spirituall and full of fume, from the assembling of which two, in a
subtill vapour, they come to procreate in themselves afterwards by a
long continuance of time, metals, and meane minerals, according to the
purity or impurity of their coagulated substances; and the temperature,
defect, or excesse of the heat that recocts them in the entrails of the
earth. Without going from my intention of the foresaid exhalations, I
thought fit to touch a little upon an experiment whereunto I arrived
by my industry, which I thinke will not be disagreeable. Take good old
Wine, and put therein a certaine quantity of Salnitre, and Camphire,
in a Platter upon a fire pan, within a Closet well firmed, that aire
cannot enter, and make it evaporate therein, and that there be no more
covering then the thicknesse of the backe of a knife, to give it so
much aire as it must have, to make it burne. This being done, shut
well your little window, that nothing may vapour out after you have
withdrawne the dish, or platter, from thence to 10. 20. or 30. yeares;
provided that the aire do not enter, and that the winde blow not in;
bringing in thither a lighted waxe candle, you shall see infinite
little fires capring as lightnings in the great heats of Summer, which
are not accompanied with thunders and lightnings, nor with stormes,
windes, and raines, having nothing but an inflamation of Aire, by
reason of Saltpeter, and Sulphur, which are elevated from the Earth.

Before wee passe from our intention of vapours and exhalations,
that no man doubts but do proceed from heat introduced within the
earth by the continuall motion of the heaven round about, and of the
Celestial bodies, whence light is accompanied with some heat that
it darts thereinto: Let us come to the experiments next approaching
to our sensible knowledge; wee see, that the fire leaves two sorts
of excrements, the one grosser, namely, Ashes; remaining in the
bottome of its adustion, that containeth Salt and Glasse; and the two
fixed and solid Elements, Fire and Earth: The other more light, and
subtill, which the fume carries upwards; that is, the Soote, wherein
are contained the two volatill and liquid Elements, called by the
_Chymists_, Mercury and Sulphur, and by the _Naturalists_, Vapour,
and Exhalation. By _Mercury_, is designed Water, or Vapour, and by
_Sulphur_, Oile, and Exhalation; Of Salt and of Earths therein, there
are found a very small quantity, yet sufficient, thereby to perceive
how the four Elements are found out in the resolution of all the
composed Elementaries: Take then the Soote of Chimney, but of that
which shall mount highest in a very long Chimney pipe, and in the very
top, where it must bee most subtill, thereof fill a great Cornue, or
an Alembic two parts of three, then apply thereunto a great recipient,
which you wrap about with linnen wet with fresh water. Give fire by
small quantities, the water and the oil will distill together, although
the water ought in order to issue out first. After that, all these two
liquors shall passe through the Recipient, and when nothing else shall
arise, increase your fire with faggot stickes well dryed, or other
like, continuing it for 8 or 10 houres, so long that the earths which
shall rest in the bottome bee well calcined: but for that they are in
small quantity put to more Soote, and continue it as aforesaid, untill
you have earth enough which you shall take out of the Alembic, which
you shall put into a little earthen pot, of _Parris_, not smoothed,
or in a little hollow pot. The water and oile, which you shall have
distilled may be easily separated by a glasse fonnell, where the water
will swimme above the oile: This done you shall rectify your water by
_Balneum Mariæ_, by redistilling of it two or three times; for oile
doth not mount by this degree of fire but by Sand; keepe them asunder
upon the earths, that shall be calcined within the said pot or cruset,
put their water thereon a little warme stirring it with a spit, so long
till the Salt which shall therein bee revealed by the fires action, do
totally dissolve it selfe into this Water; withdraw it by distillation,
and the Salt shall bee left you in the bottome, of the nature of
_Salarmoniac_, so that by pressing it, it will elevate it selfe. But of
this more plainely hereafter in its owne place, when we shall speake
of Salt. Of Earthes wee need not take much care, for wee must seeke for
the best in the Ashes, as also fixed Salt. So by the meanes of Water,
extracted out of ashes (we will here a little passe from Soote, a
little better to declare the subject of Earthes.)

In this Element the more grosse and materiall of all, which wee call
Earth, we must consider three substances; the Hebrewes also have
better distinguished them then we, by giving them 3 names, _Erehs_,
_Adamah_, and _Jabassah_. _Erehs_ is properly durt or mud, _Jabassah_
sand, and _Adamah_ clay, wash of the common earth with water, and
powre it suddainly into another vessell, with the slime that it hath
gathered; reiterate it so long, that there remaine no more in the
bottome but Sand, in the Scripture called _Arida_: _And his hands laid
the foundation of the earth, Psal. 94._ where he properly useth the
word of laying a foundation, because that Sand is the subsistence and
retention of the earth, where it is mingled with slime by a certaine
providence of nature to strengthen it against the moisture of water,
as wee see in Morter, where wee adjoine sand with chalke, for feare
lest it melt, and dissolve into moisture. It serves also, to give it
counterpoise, for that Sand is very heavy, _A stone is heavy, and
sand burdensome, or weighty, Prov. 27._ But the slime is lighter,
wherein minerals, vegetables, animals, are procreated, as wee see by
experience, by putting pure slime to the _Erthree_; for in lesse then
three weekes, you will finde therein small stones, herbs, wormes,
and snailes, and other little beasts, producted therefrom. Of the
nourishment remaining that these individuals shall bee, as that of
Sand, deprived of all humidity; according to what wee see in Earths,
which having beene too much cultivated, and sowed, without bettering of
them, are reduced from being fertill, as formerly they were, and become
sandy and sterill; for Sand produceth nothing, as wee see in Deserts
and Sea coasts: whence comes this proverbe, (_You plough the Sands_)
for a vaine and unprofitable labour: for of the two qualities, whereof
each Element participates, there is one that is more proper to it, and
the other appropriated: Drynesse, is the proper quality of the Earth,
for that cold is more proper to Water: wherefore is it that the Earth,
as aforesaid, is called in Hebrew _Jabassah_, and in Greeke ξηρός dry
land; _and God called the earth dry land_. Slime is more waterish;
for of the grosseness of the water, earth was made, saith _Hermes_; as
wee may see in snow, in hail, in raine, or with water so condensed,
there is much slime mingled, of which (as aforesaid) every thing here
in the earth below is produced. Man himselfe according to his body,
was formed of this slime; and from thence it followeth that all the
fertility of the earth comes from Water. _God created all the buddes of
the earth before they grew, and all the herbes of the field before they
brought forth seed; for the Lord God had not yet made it to raine upon
the earth, but a mist went up therefrom, that watered the whole face
thereof._ Or as the _Chaldaick_ Paraphrast turneth it, _Onkelos_, in
stead of source and fountaine, vapour and clouds, which are engendred
from the vapours that the Sunne elevates here below to the height in
the middle Region of the Aire, from thence to water the earth. But
neither the slime, nor the sand, nor the clay on the other side, are
not each by it selfe, nor reduced together, are this virgin and pure
earth, that is shut up in the Center of all the composed Elements, that
is to say, in the bottome of them, for that produceth nothing, because
it is incorruptible: and that which cannot corrupt, cannot produce any
thing that should be subject to corruption; as we see in Fire, Salt,
and Sand, which are of the nature of Glasse, all substances not onely
incorruptible for their respect, but which preserves from corruption,
that wherewith they are mingled; witnesse herbs, fruits, flesh, fish,
and other the like, which being salted or buried in Sand are thereby
kept the longer. And in _Mummies_, of those that remaine choked and
buried in the Sands passing the Deserts, which are preserved whole
many suits of yeares, even as well, nay better then if they had been
enbalmed. So that this earth is formed of two incorruptible substances,
Salt, and Sand, by meanes of the water which is thereupon congealed; as
wee see in this faire Crystalline Glasse, made of Salt, of glasse wort,
amongst which they mingle sand to retaine it; otherwise, in the great
sharpnesse of fire that it must indure, to worke therewith, it would
all vanish into smoake; wee depure and refine it afterwards in cleare
Crystalline, joining thereunto _perigort_, or _sinople_ made of Lead.

Their are some that carry their Sand with them, as _Foulgere_,
_Charme_, or _Fouteau_, firebrakes, charme, or beech, and some others.

But this comes better to our discourse, of Gold and Glasse, and some
others upon the 28. of _Iob_, where speaking of Sapience, hee saith,
that nothing can compare with it, nor Gold it self, nor Glasse. This
Earth then, so excellent, and incorruptible, is not this vile and
grosse Element, that we trample on, and cultivate to draw there hence
our nurtriture and sustentation, but that whereof it is spoken in the
21. of the _Revel._ clear and transparent: _I saw a new Heaven and a
new Earth, and the holy City was of pure Gold, like unto pure Glasse,
and the streets thereof were of shining and resplendent Gold_: See how
hee doth liken more then once Gold and Glasse, which is produced by
the depurations of Fire: for that is the last action thereof, having
therein no power but to refine and depure, as he doth Gold. Which the
Sun produceth in long millions of years: To the imitation of that, the
speculative understandings are forced by means of fire, to extract
out of the corruption of these inferior elements, and their compounds
and incorruptible substance, which was to them a modell and pattern
of that, whereto the whole universe should at last bee reduced: from
hence we here draw from Soot a representation and image of the works
of nature, upon vapours and exhalations, whence Meteors are formed,
and impressions from the middle Region of the Air, Water holding place
of the waterish, and oil of the fiery, and inflamable, which oil is
altogether impure, to bee adustible and unprofitable to the procreation
of this Virgin Earth: called by some the Philosophers Stone, which
so many ignorant avaricious men have sought for, but could not find
because they sought it with blind eyes, darkened with a sordid desire
of unlawfull gain: to make themselves on a sodain richer then another
_Midas_, who at last got nought, but the ears of an Asse, and did not
cherish it to praise and admire God in his admirable workes following
that which is said in the 37. of _Job_, consider the wondrous works
of God, for we cannot doe a greater pleasure to a workman, then to
mark attentively, to admire and magnifie his works; nor a greater
reproch then to scorn and slight them: And of such the Apostle in the
4. to the _Ephes._ speaketh thus, _They have their thoughts obscured
with darknesse, being alienated from the life of God, because of the
ignorance that is in them, in respect of blindnesse of their heart_:
Take then this Oil so extracted from Soot, and repasse it three or
four times upon Sand; for it is one of those, that lasteth very long.
And after the extraction of the Water and Oil, and the Calcination
of the earths, that shall remain in the bottome of the vessell, cast
your water thereon, and put the matter to putrifie ten or twelve dayes
in dung: then draw back the water by distillation calcining at the
end thereof the Earths seven or eight houres by the fires flame. Put
again the water upon the Earths, putrified, distilled, and calcined,
reiterating as abovesaid. For by means of water and fire, the Earths
will be calcined, untill they have drunk up and retained all their
water: or the greatest part: which will be done at the six or seventh
reiteration. This done, give it the fire of sublimation, and it will
elevate it self a pure earth, clear and Crystalline fastened in the
Center. The water hath great proprieties and vertues, but this Earth
hath yet more, whereof I will endeavour to speak more at large. There
may be also Salt extracted by the dissolutions of its water and
glasse, of the Earths that shall remain after the elevation of the
said Virgin Earth. For every private thing by its proper humidity doth
perform nothing but vitrificatory fusion, saith _Geber_. And there are
here three: two volatiles, water, and oil, and the third fix’d and
permanent; which is congealed, namely Salt: which beyond all other
moistures expects the conflict of fire, saith the said _Geber_. For
there is nothing more moist, and more unctuous then Salt, nor that
better endures fire: Also all metals are nought else but fusible salts;
whereunto they are easily resolved: common Salt melteth also, after it
hath been recalcined, and dissolved, three or foure times, whereof wee
will speake more plainly in its place.

[Sidenote: _Coupelles._ pag. 86. The little ashen pot, wherein
goldsmiths melt and fine their metals.]

I have here a little extended my self upon Soot, as upon a Subject,
where rare secrets appear remarkable; & the same upon charcole, made of
stone, and of that vitrification of sky colour, that remains of Iron
whereof wee see great heaps in furnaces and forges, and being so dry,
yet there may be water, and oil drawn therefrom: wee will yet say the
same concerning Soot: Fire burning wood, or other adustible matter,
chaseth away the waterish humidity, therein contained, and feeds it
selfe with oil, or aereall substance. The terrestriall part, which are
the ashes, remaining in the bottom calcined, where the Salt resides,
which thereby being separated by the washings, and dissolutions of
the water, the remainder is nought but slime, which is drawn away
by frequent ablutions, and the Sand remains at the last proper to
be vitrified; observe in respect of one of the excrements of fire,
which is not contented therewith, but by its impetuosity, and heat
tending naturally upwards, carries on high with violence a part of the
subtiliated substances. Let us adapt this to the _Coupelles_.

Wee see that part of the lead, from thence goes away in smoak as in the
fire, whence Soot is procreated, a part thereof is burned, namely its
sulphurous part, and part grows tough within the _coupelles_ almost in
the manner of Glasse or varnish. Of the two first volatils, there is
no account to be made thereof, for they goe and disperse themselves.
But bray the _Coupelles_ where this vitrification is as it were baked,
wash them well with warm water, to depure them from their grosnesse and
uncleannesse, then put them into a descensory with a strong expression
of a bellows fire with the Salt of _Tartar_ and _Salnitre_, and there
will fall down through a _Metalline_: which being _recoupled_ with
new lead you will find more fine, without comparison then at first,
and ever from that time forward, more and more, by reiteration as
abovesaid. So that hee, that would take the patience to boil the lead
on a regulated and continuall fire, that should not exceed its fusion,
that is to say, that the lead should therein remain alwayes melted and
no more, putting thereto a small portion of quicksilver or sublimate to
keepe it from Calcination, and to reduce it to powder: at the end of a
certain time, you shall find that _Lamwell_ hath not spoken frivolously
to say that the six grain is contained in power with lead, (that is to
say) gold and silver, would multiply and increase themselves as the
fruit upon a tree doth.

[Sidenote: _Coups a ruer._ pag. 87.]

But to return to these oils of long durance, whereof he might make a
large volume that would run through not all but a part: Let him draw
from the Tartar of wine, of which the best comes from _Mompellier_,
even that which adheres unto the Tun. One which is very important,
Tartar is one of the subjects, where those who practise in the fire,
do find so _many blows to cast_. Take of this Tartar beaten into small
powder and put it in a leaded earthen pot with clear fountain water,
upon a Trevet or furnace, making it boil easily and scum the villainies
and filthinesse off with a feather: the silver _Crusts_ that shall
afterwards arise, gather them with a head of Glasse, where these grosse
_moules destang_, of _mudd_, so long till they rise no more, renewing
the water by measure when it comes to diminish. Turn it by Inclination,
and put a part, that which rests in the bottom in the shape of Sand.
Put again the Crusts in new water, make them boil gently as before, and
gather together the Crusts that shall rise up more clear and lucent
then the first, separating their dregs and impurities, if there be any
presented, and reiterate this six or seven times, till your Crusts be
clear and shining as silver or pearls. Dry them in the Sun, or before
the fire upon a linnen, and put them in a cornue with an open breech,
and a graduate fire reinforcing it by smalls: and through the beak
of the Cornue, there will issue as a smal rivolet of milk, that will
resolve into oil with the Recipient. Passe it once again, or twice upon
Sand, or salt of Tartar: which is done by calcining of Tartar, within
a pot of Earth of _Paris_, not leaded in a fire of reverberation,
or in Charcoles: afterwards dissolve it, with hot water and filter,
and congeal it, and there will remain white Salt which will resolve
it self into a liquor called the oil of Tartar; _or after it is well
calcined let it resolve_ to it self in moisture. _This Liquor is of
great efficacy to quench and root out all sorts of wildfires. But of
the sands that remain in the bottom, without being unwilling to rise in
Crusts: there will be extracted another more exquisite oil and lesse

Tartar may be governed after another fashion. Wee insist therein in
this respect, because it shews to have I know not what agreement with
Soot: for as Soot is an excrement of fire, so are Tartar and lees, the
same of wine, that have great affinity with fire. Take then of Tartar
in Powder within a leaded earthen vessell, and cast hot water there on
stirring it strongly with a stick; and letting it rest a little, put
out the water; with that which it hath gotten from the Tartar: which
is after the form of slime within another dish: and put new luke warm
water upon the Tartar: reiterating as aforesaid so many times that
the water may come forth neat & clear; which will be perfected at the
fifth or sixth time. And in the bottom there will remain the foresaid
sand, which being dryed disolves it self within the distilled vinegar,
and not into common water. _Aqua vitæ_ likewise dissolves in a little
space, when the one and the other would take no more. Wash that which
remaines, with common water, then dry it slowly, and having put it
into a Cornue with a sufficient good expression of fire graduating it
by small pieces, there will be extracted an odoriferous oil, as of
_aspic._ one of _Raimond Lullius_ his secrets: which is one of his
principall keyes, and entries into Metallick dissolutions. Take the
foresaid evacuations, and elevate the Crusts as aforesaid. There are
too many things to speak of Tartar, and that which wee have now set
down is not vulgar, but the rarest of our experiments; Of vinegar,
after that the clear shall bee distilled, and that the white fumes
shall begin to appear, which is his adustible oilynesse, put the dregs
that shall remain (for you must have a great quantity) in a cellar or
other fresh place, and in five or six dayes there will be procreated
small Crystalline little stones; separate them from their residences,
by ablutions of common water, and dry them; and you shall draw thereout
an oil of no small importance, so great certainly and admirable are the
substances, which the art of Fire extracts from Wine.

[Sidenote: _Lignum vitæ._]

The most part of the oils that wee have touched on, heretofore, being
adustible, are by consequent of a strong and troublesome odour, as
smelling the burnt, when they burn, you must therefore set them in
the Sun certain dayes, that is to say, to dry them in the Sun, and in
the Air, to take away from them this fiery smell: for recompence we
will here treat of some rare ones and of good agreeable odour. And
in the first that of Been, which prefumers use, hath neither colour,
odour, nor savour: and therefore it is susceptible of all those which
you shall apply thereunto. Being repassed upon Sand to take away the
fatnesse, it would bee of long durance, and without an ill sent, but it
is too dear. As for oils of Olive, rapes or long turneps, _chenevy_,
sesamum, but is rare in these quarters: and other the like which
are drawn by the press, by means of the heat of fire: what repasses
soever there may bee, yet they never desist to be of a good odour,
but so much lesse, according as they shall bee depured and by the
same means of longer durance: Oils of Sage, Thyme, Pepper and other
the like, drawn by an instrument proper thereunto, such artifices,
are so divulged even unto Chamber maids, that I should bee ashamed to
speak of: That of Benzoine is more rare, and lesse known, and more
laborious to make. Take Benzoin thoroughly beaten to grosse powder, and
put it into a Cornue with fine _Aqua vitæ_, which swimmeth thereover
three or four fingers, and leave them so for two or three daies upon
a moderate fire of ashes, that the _Aqua vitæ_ may not distill,
removing them every houre; this done, accommodate the _Cornue_ upon
the furnace with an earthen vessell full of Sand. Distill the _Aqua
vitæ_, with a gentle fire, afterwards increasing it by degrees, there
will appear infinite little _aiguilles_ and filaments, such as in the
dissolutions of lead and quicksilver. The which sheweth sufficiently
that Benzoin participates thereof: It whitens Copper, quickens Gold,
and put in decoction of _gayac_, doth admirable effects, as also
Tartar, which containeth much quick-silver. When then these veins or
little _aiguilles_ shall shew themselves, continue this degree of fire,
and let them play within the Cornue a certain space, so long that all
vanish away. In the interim have in a readinesse a little stick which
may enter within the neck of the _Cornue_ for these _aiguilles_ will
come thither to bring again as in an _mouelle_, and if you take them
not away speedily the vessell will break when this Gumme or Mouelle
shall bee all past, with a certain form of butter, which will cast it
self afterwards within the Recipient, the oil will begin to distill
fair and clear, of an hyacinth colour, and fragrant odour: after which
reinforcing the fire, there will issue out another more thick and dark,
which you must receive apart. This Gumme or white marrow, which you
shall have drawn out of the neck of the Cornue, wash it with the _Aqua
vitæ_ which you distilled therefrom, in the beginning, which shall
extract therefrom a tincture or Citrine colour, as Saffron, and shall
leave the Gumme very white, and of a most agreeable smell, fit to make
_Pater Nosters_ of sents, of such a colour as you will please to give
it: withdraw your _Aqua vitæ_ by a bath, and in the bottome there will
remain a yellow Tincture of a good sent likewise, which hath great
proprieties and vertues. The black oil is, a soveraign balm against all
hurts: and of the remaining earths a Salt of great efficacy. Thus you
have of Benzoin five or six substances, a white Gomme, with its yellow
Tincture, the two oils and Salt.

_Aqua vitæ_ which is its principall manifestation, and without which
nothing would bee done therein, there is also Storax, Calamint,
Ladanum, Myrrh, and the like Gums, out of which oil is extracted by
the means of the carriage of _Aqua vitæ_, and therein you must proceed
as in Benzoin: But there are not so many things to mingle together:
Out of Myrrh there is likewise extracted a liquor, very proper to take
away all spots and marks remaining of scabs, or pox and other like
accidents. Take hard Egs, and cleave them in the middle, take away
the yellow, then fill the hollows with grains of Myrrh, and cover
them again with the other half: Leave them three or four dayes in the
clear and in the air, where the Sun comes not: and they will resolve
themselves into a liquor like unto hony, or thick dew, frankincense
likewise doth the same.

Out of Sulphure also there may bee drawn an adustible oil by opening
it, with _Aqua vitæ_, and also by other wayes. For Sulphur hath in it
two substances, the one inflammative, the other not, but aluminous
and vitriolique: whence proceeds this liquor which is called oil of
Sulphur: which hath yet greater properties and vertues then the oil
of vitriol, which is more caustick and burning: as well against evill
inward affections, as in Cankers and ulcers of the mouth, tooth ach,
cankers, and other the like, where it works more moderately.

Take then first a match of Cotten yarn of the bignesse of your little
finger and two els long, which you shall besmear with molten wax and
with Turpentine, as to make waxe Lights.

Take on the other side a pot of _Paris_ earth leaded, wherein you
shall put a bed of sulphur enough grossely beaten, and thereupon lay
a round of your foresaid matches, untill the pot be full, on the top
whereof, you shall leave a little end of your Match to light it: (fine
musket match is very good also). Put your pot under a chimney and hang
thereupon an Alembic Cap, whose mouth should relate to that of the pot.
But you must first besmear and crust over the clay to the thicknesse
of a thumb: you must not join it just to the pot, but that there may
be an inch opening betwixt them. Light the Match, and make the Sulphur
burn, which will cast from it a small white fume, which will adhere
within the Cap and from thence it will resolve into a liquor of peach
color, that will fall into the Recipient, when you have to such an end,
applyed it to the beak of the Cap: But this will do better in soft
weather with south winds and _d’aval_, and not in dry weather.

Wee have long insisted on these oils, as well for that they are
produced for the most part out of the action of fire, of which there
is here a question as for that nothing is nearer of kin to fire, then
fatty oils, unctuosities, pitch rozin, and black Turpentines, Gums,
and other like Inflammative substances, that are the true food, and
nourishment thereof: And for that we are so far embarked therein,
there will be no hurt, here in one train to prosecute something of the
Artifices which are commonly called Grecian fires, whereof there are
many sorts, that cannot bee quenched with water.

The foundation of them are Sulphur and Bitumen, black pitch, and rosin,
Turpentine, Colophone, Sarcocoll, oils of Lin, petroll, and Laurell,
Salt-Peter, Camphere, Tallow, Grease and other unctuosities facil
to conceive flame: Of these Greek fires _Plutarch_ speaketh in his
Treatise of not lending upon usury: & more lately by _Zonaras_, in his
3. Tome in the life of _Constantine_ the _Pogonate_ where it is said
that in the year of our Lord 678. the _Saracens_ being come to besiege
_Constantinople_, an Ingenier by name _Callinicus_ brought an Artifice
of certain fire, by means whereof the _Saracens_ Fleet was defeated:
But Gunpowder, and the artifices that may bee made thereby, hath
slubbered them all; whence consisteth the most part of our artificiall
fires, pots, and fire pikes, circles, granadoes, sauciges, petards,
fuses, and infinite other the like, which we pretend not here to
specifie in particular.

Take then a pound of Salt-Peter, 8. ounces of Sulphur, 6. ounces of
Gunpowder, incorporate them together for Granadoes, and fire-pots,
which make great noise in the breaking. But to tye fire to wood, and
other inflammative matters, mingle a pound of pitch, rosin, a quartern
of black pitch, 3. ounces of Colophon, and 5. of Sulphur, bruise the
Gums, and cast into the melted Sulphurs, when it is cold beat them
again, and moisten them with oil of Bayes, or linnen. There is another
composition much more violent, but more dangerous.

Melt a pound of Sulphur within a leaded earthen pot, and put therein
by little and little, but discreetly, a quartern of powder grosse
grained, with as much salt Peter, stirring them often with a rod of
Iron. Take them off the fire and let them dry. This mingled with the
aforesaid Artifices wil work wondrous effects. Some mingle also a
little beaten glasse, which coming to be warmed, rewarms consequently
the matter, when it comes to flame: whose heat makes it stronger, and
of longer durance. Camphere serves to make it burn in the water, as
likewise all other greases do, and above all oil of brimstone, drawn
by a bath, then which there is nothing more subtible or inflameable.
But it would bee too tedious to penetrate into the ruins of mankind, of
which there would bee no end, if a man should runne through them all.

Therefore let us return to our left purpose, of two fires. That above,
designed by _Pallas_ and _Minerva_, and that below by _Vesta_. Which
although they be so far distant, yet fail not to have such an affinity
together, that they easily transmute one into the other: for the Sun
beams are illightned by fire, by reason of a viall filled with water,
as _Plutarch_ relate in the life of _Numa_. Where from a burning
looking glasse, of which I remember that I saw one so puissant, in
the States of _Orleans_, that in lesse then nothing, and yet in the
moneth of _Ianuary_, it set a fire the staffe of a torch, and the fire
contrariwise by many conveyances and contrivings from the top to the
bottom, and through the sides in many circular revolutions, as in those
of a Labyrinth, and in furnaces which they call a Tower, its heat comes
to be so moderated, that it passeth into a naturall heat, vivifying,
and nourishing in stead of burning, baking or consuming: And with such
a fire I can say that there were hatched at _Rome_, at one time more
then 100. or 120. Chickens, the Egs being therein couved and setled as
under a Hen.

[Sidenote: Coals kept in Juniper for the space of a year.]

The _Persians_ and _Vestalls_ fire at _Rome_ reverenced as well by the
one, as by the other, as very holy, was very carefully entertained.
Touching the _Persian_, _Strabo_ in his 15. Book writeth that the
_Magi_ had a custome to conserve it under ashes, before which they went
every day to make their prayers and devotions, which is not without
some mystery. The ashes denoting the sensible world and the body of man
which it represents: being nothing else but ashes: and the fire therein
inclosed and covered, the sparkle of life, wherewith it is animated and
vivified. These ashes furthermore, must be of some gummy trees, to
make it of longer durance: namely, of _Juniper_, wherein I heretofore
have kept living coals, more than a year, heaping up bed upon bed
within the ashes, being all lock’t fast within a little barrell that
no air may enter; and this is that which is meant in the 120. _Psalm._
4. _ver._ with _Juniper_ coals, according to the Hebrew, in place of
uncomfortable. With these burning coals the _Persians_ came to light
the luminaries of their Temples when they came to be extinguished.
But the Vestals in case their fire should extinguish, as it sometimes
happened, it was not lawfull for them to light it again, but must draw
it from the Sun beams: And did not only attend that it should quench of
it selfe, or by some casuall accident, but they renewed it yearly, the
first day of _March_ from that of heaven, as _Ovidius_ observes _tertio

    _Adde that new fire was made in the secret house
    and the renewed fire took force._

Which _Macrobius_ also toucheth in his second of _Saturnals_, 12.
chap. The first day of _March_ the Vestals lighted a new fire on the
Altar of the Goddesse; that by the renewing of the year, they should
renew in themselves their care of keeping it from going out. Saint
_Augustine_ in his third Book of _the City of God_, 18 ch. In what
reputation (saith he) this sacred fire was at _Rome_, men may know by
this, that when the City was a fire, the grand Pontifex _Metellus_,
for fear that this strange fire should not mingle with the other, put
himselfe in danger to be consumed by the flames, to make it retire. So
that there is nothing more conformable to the tenth of _Leviticus_.
That if these poor blind people, which took the Symbols and Mysteries
of Religion but superficially, and from the bark, as do also the Jewes,
from whom they borrowed all their important Traditions, had known that
which was covered and prefigured thereunder, what accompt is there
to beleeve that they made thereof? Some do alledge that this sacred
fire of the Vestals, was illuminated by means of _fusil_, bruising two
pieces of wood one against another, or in piercing them with a borrier
as _Festus_ would have it, and _Simplicius_ upon the third Book _of
Heaven_, according to _Aristotle_. _Plinie_ in the 16. Book, 4. chap.
Men rub two woods one against another, from whence fire is forced;
which is received in by a bait made of dryed leaves and put in powder,
or in the match of the touchwood of a tree. But there is nothing, which
doth better conduce thereunto, then Ivy beaten or bruised with Laurell;
the same is of late more practiced by the Savages of the West Indies,
as _Gonzale d’Ovidiedo_ in his natural History of those quarters,
_lib._ 6. _cap._ 5. binding (saith he) two dry slicks hard one against
another, and putting betwixt their juncture the point of a rod well
rounded, which they rub thick and thin betwixt the hands, so long till
the fire by rubbing, and the rarefaction of the air that followes them
may lighten them. Of this new relightning, to shew us, that we must
renew and be borne again to a better and more praisable life, not
farre different from the Ceremonies of the Christian Church, when on
the Eves of Easter, and Whitsontide, at the Benediction of Springs and
Fountains, they make a new great wax Taper, wherewith all the other
luminaries are set on fire.

Touching _Moses_ fire, it was first sent from Heaven, and lasted to
the construction of _Solomons_ Temple, which was again renewed from
Heaven; and maintained to King _Manasses_ his time, when the Jewes were
carryed captives into _Babylon_, which the Levites kept in the bottome
of a Well, where it was found again at their return 70 years after, in
the form of a gluish and white water, as hath been said heretofore.
_Pausanias_ to the _Corinthians_, sets down, that in the dayes of
_Antigonus_ son of _Demetrius_, there appeared a fountain of warm water
near to the City of _Mathana_, but from the beginning it appeared not
in water, but in great flames of Fire which were resolved into hot
and salt water. Saint _Ambrose_ yet discoursing upon this water of
the Levites, in the third of his offices, sets down, that this doth
sufficiently demonstrate, that this was a perpetual fire which could
not be taken from another place, to shew that they must not acknowledge
any other God, or other religion, and ceremonies then those that were
established by the inspiration of the holy Spirit designed by fire; for
we may see what the children of _Aaron_, _Nadab_ and _Abihu_, found in
the 10 of _Leviticus_, being willing to take upon them to offer strange
fire unto God. Then all false doctrine, idolatry, heresie, and impiety,
may be called strange fire, that devours the soul as a feaver doth the
body, with the life that maintains it; there where this true fire sent
from Heaven, is that of the holy Spirit, which salteth our hearts and
consciences, that is to say, preserves them from corruption, according
whereunto the Prophet _Jeremie_ spake in his 20. chapter when he had
received it. Then it was made _as a burning fire in my heart, and shut
up in my bones, and I was weary in forbearing and could not stay_. That
the Holy Spirit should not be only light, but very fire, _Esay_ doth
manifest chap. 10. 17. _And the light of Israel shall be for a fire,
and his holy one for a flame._ For even so as the burnings, which are
a potentiall fire, composed of igneal and burning salts, work not upon
a dead part, insensible, and deprived of Natures heat; so the holy
Spirit doth not exercise its actions upon cold languishing hearts, that
make no account of its ticklings, and invitations, but shew themselves
contumacious and refractary; just so as the heat of the Sun, and of the
fire, but more and more hardens earth, and clay, in stead of softening
it, and melts it as they do wax, butter, and grease. For the acts of
Actives are in the disposition of the Patient, where we see fire does
divers effects in disagreeable subjects, but not wholly contrary, and
directly opposite; as when it blacks a coal, and white chalk where
its vertue is imprinted, but all to the contrary; for fire by custome
is extinguished by water, it is it, that in this respect inflames and
renewes that which was imprinted and hidden in the chalk: whence a fair
meditation is presented; that as fire is the symboll of life; water
(that is its contrary) and extinguisheth it, must be of consequence the
symboll of death; water naturally tending downwards, and fire upwards,
wherein consisteth life.

_Strabo_ to this purpose in his 15. Book, speaking of the _Brachmans_,
sets down, that which we call death, to be renewing of life, and that
this temporall is but a conception as it were, and a _carriage_ which
comes about the end of its term, to bring forth to death, to passe from
thence to eternall life. Which _Seneca_ imitates in the 103 Epistle.
The day that we fear so much, as the last of our life, is a renascence
of an eternall day; let us then chearfully leave behind that which
serves for nothing but a tedious charge. Why do we so much turn our
backs, as if we had not been before this first frail body, in which
we remain included and hid? we struggle and temporize therein, to the
best of our power, and not without cause, for we have been forced out
by a endeavour of our mother in bearing us; and we weep and lament
when we arrive to this, which we think to be the last day, but to
complaine, cry, and weep, are they not marks and tokens of one that
is to be borne? And a little more Christian-like, although a little
before; I will lay down this body where I have found it, and clothed
it, and will render my self above to the immortall Gods, although I
am not without them at this present, but whilest I am detained here
within this grievous masse of earth, in the low abode of mortality, my
sensuality will fight and combat against this other better and longer
life. Now as we have been for nine or ten months, shut up within our
mothers belly, not to prepare therein for it selfe, but at last, to
come to this place, whither we ought to be sent, when we should be
perfectly accomplished and made fit to breath, and remain openly out of
this closet, where we were formed. In like manner during the space that
we have run through from our infancy to old age, we dye to go whither
another originall attends us, and a new state of things. All this doth
in nothing derogate from the Traditions of our Church, who celebrated
for the nativity of Martyrs the day of their death and martyrdom.

To conclude then, that which was heretofore said of fire, and of
the four worlds; that of the Intelligible is all luminous; of the
Celestiall, shining, and hot, by reason of its motion; of the
Elementary here below, shining, hot, and burning; and of Hell nothing
but burning. So these three proprieties of fire, to light, to warm, and
to burn, though the effects be divers and strange, and the operations
almost infinite, only of the elementary to begin with that which is
nearest to our senses. _Rabbi Elchana_ greatly honoured amongst the
Hebrewes, sets forth, that out of the 10 fingers of the hand, being
addressed and conducted, by the understanding, may proceed more
different sorts of works then there are stars in Heaven, the most part
whereof come from the action of fire, on which almost all labouring
instruments do depend. Fire principally served the first men, who had
nothing but it for all working instruments. In regard of its motion, we
may sufficiently see, that there is nothing more glistring and moving
then the fire, which is the very cause of all motion. Take away heat,
there will be no motion, saith the Chymicall Philosopher _Alphidius_,
and this motion is accompanied with depuration, for fire will have
none but pure things, according to _Raymond Lullius_. For it is not
only the pure substance of all others, but it purgeth, mundifieth, and
cleaneth all that, upon which it can have Action, of that which therein
may be corruptible. _The Lord will wash away the filth of the children
of Israel, by the spirit of burning_, _Esay._ 4.4. wherefore the Greeks
call ἁγνισικὸς, Purging. So that the Καθαρμὸς or Κάθαρσις purifying,
was not made but by fire, as the solemn annuall feast of Candlemasse
witnesseth. And in all the Eastern Churches, when they would say the
Evangel they burn great Tapers, as we do upon the day of Purification,
and that for token of joy and rejoicing, whereof fire is a symbole;
and according to that, we make two fires upon the feast of Saint _John
Baptist_, conformable to that, in the first of _Luk._ 14. _Many shall
rejoyce at his birth_; and fires of joy, in some happy successes of
victories, at the birth of Kings children, and the like occasions of

We have alledged heretofore, out of the 31. of _Numbers_ 23 that which
is said of fire and water, the two purifying Elements, whereby in
our baptisms we are accustomed to put a little piece of wax light or
match, which they make the Creature to hold when they hold it over
the font, the Church being thereby regulated by the pillar of fire
which garded the Israelites, and the cloud (baptismall water) by day,
whereunto sutes that of Saint _John_, in the 3. of _Matthew_, That in
respect of himselfe he baptized with _Water_ unto repentance, but he
that commeth after, shall baptize you with the _Holy Ghost_, and with
_Fire_, to the remission of sinnes; for fire is a mark of the Holy
Spirit, by which grace is conferred, and descended upon the Apostles
on the day of Pentecost, in the form of fiery tongues, _Act._ 2.3.
The Stoicks, although too superstitious therein, made great account
of this Element, which they said, was I know not what living thing,
the most wise Fabricator of the whole universe, and of all that which
is contained therein; to which purpose, as I alledged before out of
the 7. of _Wisdome_ 24. that Wisdome the Artist of all things taught
me, that it is more moving then motion, for she passeth through all
things by her purenesse. Wherein two properties of fire are attributed
to Wisdome, Motion, and Purity: And in summe esteemed it to be a
God, according to which Saint _Augustine_ in his 8. Book of the City
of God, 5. chapter sets down _Zohar_ according to his high elevated
contemplations alledging upon _Exodus_ this passage of the 7. of
_Daniel_ 9. The Throne of the ancient of dayes, was flames of fire,
and a River of fire running lightly issued from his face, his vestment
white as snow; saith, that within this shining river of fire, were
washed the vestments of the souls that mounted on high, and repurged
themselves there from the old scum of the Serpent without consuming it
selfe, which did but clear it self from the old filth that it had there
gathered. And this is very properly said because we see by experience,
that greases are not cleansed, but by other grease, which carries
one the other, as doth Soap and Lees, which consists all of grosse
and unctuous salts; for if those were not, they would not bite upon
unctuosity and fatnesse; witnesse simple water, which doth nothing, by
reason of the contrarieties of their natures, which do not suffer them
to be able to joine and unite. And where there is no mixtion, there is
also no alteration, because that which doth not enter, doth not change
(saith _Geber_:) So that Salts being in the nature of Fires, have from
them their proprieties and effects, that is to say, to purifie and
cleanse all ordures and uncleanness. For as Salt (the same _Zohar_
pursues it) hinders putrefaction, to which every corruptible thing is
subject; so the Fire of Gods love, and of Gods knowledge, which is
illightned in the soul, repurging it from all corporall coinquinations,
causeth, that after it hath been duly purged and cleansed, it remaines
for ever in its purity, for as much as fire devours and consumes the
filthy scumme thereunto fastned, cloathing it selfe with a new and pure
fire, which it could not otherwise do. For if it were not so assisted
with this pure fire, the Cherubin which is committed to the keeping of
the Gate of the City of _Delices_, with a fiery sword, to forbid the
approach to the tree of Life, would not permit it to enter therein;
from whence the curiosity of tasting of the knowledg of good and evill
excluded our forefathers, and us with them hereditarily.

Hitherto _Zohar_, then which nothing could seem more conformable, nor
which carryed it selfe better to our subject. _Every man shall be
salted with Fire, and every Sacrifice with Salt._ For to salt, in this
regard, to cleanse, and purifie, are but one thing, as also to salt,
and to burn, because of their consemblable effects. _Burne my reines
and my heart_; where burning, is put for repurging and cleansing,
according to the Hebrew, and the Chaldee; and in the 13 of _Zachary_
9. _I will burn them, as silver is burned._ To which sutes also that
which the Apostle writ in the 1 _Cor._ 3.12. _If any man build upon
this foundation, gold, silver, pretious stones, or wood, hay, stubble;
Every mans work shall be made manifest, for the day shall declare it,
because it shall be revealed by fire, and the fire shall try every mans
work of what sort it is. If any mans work abide, which he hath built
thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If any mans work shall be burnt,
he shall suffer losse, but he himself shall be saved, yet so, as by
fire._ Saint _Augustine_, citing this place throughout the whole scope
of his works interpreteth it in the 21. of the _City of God_, 26. chap.
for the vanities which men have too narrowly embraced in this age,
which we shall not enjoy in another, but they must be abolished and
defaced by the repurgation of fire; for that which he had not without
provoking love, he shall not lose without burning grief. And at length
shall be saved as by fire, because nothing shall be able to remove it
from this foundation upon which it shall be built. S. _Ambrose_ to the
same purpose, in his third Sermon upon the 118. _Psal._ As good gold,
even the very Church when it is burnt, receives not detriment, but its
lustre and resplendency encrease more and more. The _Persians_ esteemed
that when they voluntarily burned themselves, the soul remained thereby
repurged from all iniquities & misdoings, which consumed by the flames
as touching the body, which had power to move the Indian _Calanus_ and
some others to come from thence, (for God would not that we should
advance our dayes by one moment) who, at the time they receive him, he
washeth us, and cleanseth us from all preceding faults. Whereby some
abusing themselves thereby, attended to receive it as slowly as they
could; and others baptized themselves for those which were already
deceased. In _Æthiopia_ one who had conspired against the proper person
of their _Neguz_, or Emperour, by baptizing himself thereupon, before
he was imprisoned, remained quit.

So the proprieties of fire, are in the first place to shine and
lighten, and that is, by it, common to the Sunne, but it is thereby
much surmounted. And afterwards to warm, digest and bake, which this
luminary doth also primitively, as we may see in that the Earth
produceth, but for that the naturall heat doth not bring them wholly
for our use, to the last and perfect degree of maturity, fire for the
most part supplyes its wants, and defaults; for the regard of the
concocting of what we eat, for we hardly thereby make our profit
being raw, there where it is baked in the fire, it becomes of more
facil digestion, and lesse corruptible, as having lesse of crudities;
afterwards the fire separates strange things, and not alike, and after,
having taken away the corrupting superfluities, namely the waterish
humidity, which it driveth out, and the oily unctuosity, which it
burns and consumes with the terrestrieties that remain, at last it
doth gather together in a new composure, the pure homogenealities;
which composure, then consisteth of soul, body, and spirit, from now
forwards inseparable, and incorruptible, which relates to the three
worlds, the soul to the intelligible, the spirit to the celestiall,
and the body to the elementary; but this is not a reasonable soul, or
sensitive, nor a vitall spirit, such as is in animals; but substances
equipollent unto them: which may be seen in glass, which is an image
of the Philosophicall Stone. Whereupon _Raymond Lullius_ enquiring of
the confection of the said Stone, and how men may attain thereunto,
made answer, hee that knoweth to make glasse, because their manner
of proceeding are alike; and such ought that pretious substance to
be, which _Hermolaus Barbarus_ in his Annotations upon _Plinie_, and
_Appian_, in his disquisition of antiquities, alledgeth to have been
found in an old Sepulchre, in the Territory of _Padua_, not above a
hundred years since, having this Distique with two others.

    _For he shut in with great labour, the digested Elements
      under this small vessel; greatest_ Olybius.

The Roman _Morienes_ to _Calid_ King of _Ægypt_ on his Treatise of
Metallick transmutation. Whosoever shall know well how to neatify, and
whiten the soul, and make it mount on high, and can well preserve its
body, and take therefrom all obscurity and blacknesse, with the evill
smell, she may then replace it in its body and in the hour of their
rejunction great marvels will appear: yet _Rhases_ in his Epistle.
So every soul doth reconjoin to its first body: which in any other
manner cannot be reunited to another, and from thence forwards shall
never separate; for then the body shall be glorified, and reduced to
incorruption, and to a subtilty and brightnesse unspeakable. So that it
will penetrate all solid things what soever they be; because its nature
shall be such, as of a Spirit: that which he borrowed out of _Hermes_,
it shall penetrate every subtill thing. An admirable thing that these
Chymicall Philosophers under the vaile and curtain of this Art,
treating wholly about things so materiall as are metals, and that which
depends thereon, with their transmutations by fire, have comprized
the most high secrets of Intelligibles and even of the resurrection,
whereunto it seems this would seem to strike, wherein bodyes shall be
glorified and reduced as into a spirituall Nature, against which no
spirituall obstacle can contradict, nor hinder its actions; from this
the Apostle in the 15. of the 1. to the _Corinthians_ doth not much
vary, _It is sown a naturall body, it is raised a spirituall body.
There is a naturall body, and there is a spirituall body: howbeit,
that was not first which is spirituall, but that which is naturall,
and afterwards that which is spirituall._ I know moreover, an Artifice
whereunto I have obtained in divers subjects, that burning an herb,
the salt extracted from these ashes and sowed in the earth, a like
herb will grow therefrom. But this burning must be made in a very
close vessel, wherein we shall say more hereafter about Salt, and yet
we will yet bring further another of our experiments which ought not
bee disregarded. Of three liquors swimming one above another without
either mingling or confounding together, what mingling soever they
be; that they may not return into their residence and separated: to
represent the four Elements in a little vessel of glass, or a little
black enammill grossly beaten will hold place of earth in the bottom,
water will do thus, Take calcined Tartar, or gravelled ashes, which is
almost the very same thing, and let them go to the moist air taking
the dissolution that shall be made thereof, the clearest that you
can, and mingle therewith a little blew stone, to give it the colour
of Sea water. Note here a maxim, and let this be said by the by, for
those that exercise themselves in the Spagirique, that in one of these
resolutions into moisture, which are made by themselves, all salts and
alums, do depure and subtiliate, more then 12, or 15. dissolutions made
with vineger and other like dissolvants.

Every thing that dissolveth it selfe, is of the nature of Salt and
Alum, as _Geber_ saith, For air, take fine _aqua vitæ_ which you shall
turn into a Celestiall blew, with a little turnsol; and for fire, the
oil of Been, but for that it is more rare, take of Turpentine oil,
which is made thus, Distill common Turpentine in _Balneo Marie_, there
will mount up together both water and oil, so white and transparent,
the one as the other: but the oil will swim above the water; separate
them by a glasse fonnell, and dye this oil, into a fire colour, with
_Orchanet_ and with Saffern. The three liquors will never mingle,
what ever trouble you use to them; but will separate themselves
distinctly, into lesse then nothing, by swimming one above another:
Of the Turpentine, that remains in the Alembique, you shall extract
it by Sand, in a _Cornue_ with a stronger fire, then by the bath, a
thick red oil, which is most excellent balm: water and oil extracted
by the bath are very serviceable also, in many accidents of Medicine
and Chirurgery; only the white oil will make scars quickly fall away
without pain, or evill impression. But if with the water of the said
Turpentine, you dissolve salt of lead, you shall have yet a more
Soveraign balm. But we must a little better clear this: for sith we
treat here of fire, and of its effects, what hinders but that we may
extend our selves at length upon many things which our long labour
and experience have acquired? This oil of lead, was one of _Raymond
Lullius_, his great secrets: & of many other excellent personages, who
have as it were made conscience to remember it: for this hath been to
them an entry of more admirable works. Some, as _Riply_, & others,
have taken the _minium_ of lead, but it is too easie, & of an uneasie
resolution, as also ceruse & calcined lead. For my part I have found
litharge, which is nothing else but lead, for a pound of litharge,
you shall extract 14. or 15. ounces of lead: put them into powder,
and poure thereon distilled boiling vinegar, stirring it strongly
with a staffe, and sodainly the vinegar will charge it self, with the
dissolution of litharge: Evacuate the clear, and reiterate with new
vinegar, so long till all the litharge be dissolved: Evaporate the
vinegar, which shall be unsavory as the water, untill the salt shall
remain congealed in the bottom. Take thereof a good quantity, and put
thereof within your _Cornue_, as much as it will hold half full: and
put it on the furnace with an open breech: in the beginning with an
easie fire chasing away that which therein may appear a remainder of
strange humidity: And when the white fumes shall begin to appear apply
thereunto a Recipient big enough, and lute it well in the Jointures;
after reinforcing your fire by little and little untill it become a
very great one, and the _Cornue_ buried in the ashes, you shal see
issue as a little continued torrent after the fashion of a filet of
oil, but white as milk, and could as ice, which will come within the
Recipient to resolve into an oil of the colour of an _Hyacinth_, and
odoriferous, as that of _Aspic_. Continue the fire till there comes no
more out of the _Cornue_, and leave it there to settle, al the night
long. So now this secret oil, whereof that which _Raimond Lullius_
never more expresly said was towards the end of his short Epistle, in
these very terms. Out of black lead is extracted the Philosophers oil,
of a golden color, or as it were: and know that there is nothing in
the world more secret then it. That which remains in the _Cornue_, put
burning charcoals upon it, and that will take fire as the match of a
fusee: whence you may draw a fair secret: for as long as it feels not
the air, it will not flame, and it may dissolve againe with vinegar, to
doe as before. But salt of lead dissolved in water, and yet better then
Turpentine, oil will resolve to a greater quantity of oil; and thereof
may see more ample marvailes. Take this oil, which _Raimond Lullius_
calleth his wine, and put it into a small Alembic of glasse; in _Balneo
Mariæ_, and distill therein _aqua vitæ_, which will come in vains even
as that of wine. Draw all out so long till the drops and tears come
to appear in the Chap, which is a signe that there is no more flegm:
which being out in the bottome, there will remain a pretious oil that
dissolves gold and is admirable against wounds, and great accidents,
from within, for it holds the same place with potable gold: Lead having
great affinity with gold, as _Geber_ saith, with which it agrees in
Surdity, in weight, and in that it cannot rust: And _George Riplay_ the
most learned _English_ Philosopher, in his book of the 12. portes.

    _There is extracted oil of golden colour,
    Or like it, out of our subtill red lead:
    When Raimond said, when he was old,
    Was much more pretious then gold.
    For when through age he was near death,
    He thereof made, his potable Gold,
    Which revived him; as may bee seen.
    This is that oil and vegetable Menstruum, &c._

In regard of the burning water therout extracted, more inflameable then
the most fine powder of a harguebuze, it dissolves silver into subtill
Crystalline flakes, which melt at the fire of a lampe, as easily as
butter, and are fix as silver in the same proofs of fire: further see
that which the said _Riplay_ sets down in his marrow of _Alchymie_:
The body being prepared, put upon this water to the thickness of your
thumb which wil straight boil above chalks of the body, without other
external fire, by dissolving the body, and by elevating it, in the
shape of ice, with the drying of the said water: and so let it bee
reiterated, by removing that which was elevated. But to abbridge (for
this _Aqua vitæ_ is in very small quantity and very uneasy to make) if
you passe two parties of water of the departure, that dissolves the
silver upon one party of the salt of lead, this will do the same effect
for the transmutation of metals, but not within a mans body, where it
must not in any case bee applyed, except after great sweetning, that is
to say, a _demi sextier_ of the dissolution of strong water, to make
evaporate three or four pails of water, running down within by a filter
to the measure that elevates the strong water with the spirits and
malignity of this fire against Nature. Think not that I would stay my
self here so precisely, nor restrain to the Text of Saint _Mark_, nor
upon that, which dependeth upon the religion in this regard, although
our principall aim tends thitherward, that wee would not enlarge by
the same means to the works and progresse of nature, whose principall
key is _Alchymie_, to mount from thence to the _Architype_ the Creator
by means of the _Caballe_. But we would not likewise here so reveal
occasions to abuse this divine Art, to the ill turnings of perverse
ignorants, who to gain a piece of silver would make no difficulty
to deceive the world one way or other, as wee could do in revealing
unto the means of blanching copper, to the likenesse of silver,
with Iscicles accompanied with a Metalline of Orpiment, the which,
as yellow gilded as it is, and its red elevations as rubies, being
notwithstanding bruised in a copper morter, and sublimed upon burned
brasse, passeth within the head of the _Cornue_, white as silver; But
if it be well governed, with the foresaid Isicles would make indeed
great alterations upon the Copper which men may wel misuse, wherefore
we will forbear to speak thereof any further. We may too well say,
that the preparation of this body, that _Riplay_ intends silver, is
to calcine and reduce it into salt, which is done after this manner.
But if in the dissolving there be _aqua fortis_, it sufficeth to
calcine it. Take then silver plates of the bignesse and thicknesse of
a riall and put them in a Cruset, or a little pot of _Paris_ earth, not
leaded, bed upon bed, with prepared Salt, that is to say, dissolved
in common water, afterwards filtred, congealed, and decrepited, and
leave it 10. or 12. houres with burning coals, (it would be better in
an oven of reverberation) draw it from the fire and cast it yet all
hot into an earthen vessell, leaded, full of water, salt will dissolve
it self therein, and that of the silver which shall be calcined will
goe to the bottome: Let them reside well; and separate them warily,
by inclination: after put again the plates to bee recalcined with new
salt, and reiterated as before, evaporate the water, or the salt if
it be dissolved, and that which remains shall be as good as new, to
the third or fourth reiteration, all your plates will find themselves
reduced into chalk: which you shall easily dissolve in distilled
vinegar, for silver, lead, and iron, are not of hard resolution, nor
also Copper to take it in _Roche_ of _azur_: Tin much more, and Gold
more then all the rest, for that its calcination, is very uneasie.
Which _Geber_ knew very well: the compleat calcination of Sol, is most
difficult: He renders the causes thereof. But it would be too long to
dilace upon all these things: wee will content our selves, to trace
some shadows of that which our perquisition and labour hath enabled us
to acquire, by the space of 50. years of one side, and another, and
proved more then once, not to speake unadvisedly: All which secrets
are revealed as is said; by the Fire. And not by mervails, since it
analogically discovers the spirituall: _Thou hast tried me with fire,
and in mee, there is found no iniquity_; said the Prophet, _Psal._
16. There where you see, how hee couples fire with iniquities, as
if it were it, that revealed them as well as hee did the impurities
of mettalls, where it doth the same operation, and effect, as salt
doth, in corruptible things; for although metalls, bee the permanent
substance of all others, by reason of their most strong composition
which doth not permit them easily to cast away out of their radicall
form any alteration which men may make them indure in powder, chalk,
salt, water, oil, glasse, Isicles, and infinite others: which happeneth
not to one of the other elementaries, Minerals, Vegetables, Animals;
the which being once changed from their primitive form, they cannot
again reintegrate or be put together. By means whereof, to speak of
fire without metals, which are its true subject, it would bee as to
propose to an Artist furnished with necessaries and instruments, but
had no stuffes proper to imploy them, so that would remain to him
unprofitable. In metalls then there may be revealed and considered
the fairest secrets of nature, by the help of fires action. Which if
in some more particularly then in others, she hath shewed a will to
recreat, yea to put in evidence her greater knowledge. It seems this
was in stones and metals, then which nothing could be presented more
fair or agreeable to the sight, nor more profitable and necessary, at
least in regard of Iron without which mans life would irksomely passe
away, shee receiving so many commodities thereby. But pretious stones
beyond the simple contentment and pleasure of the eye, have nothing
wherewith men may know to draw out profit or succours in any one of
our businesses. And if they be once deprived of their naturall shining
form, they never return thereto again, as mettals doe, so puissant
and indissoluble is the assembling of their elementarie parties, and
their mixtion one with another. Wherefore wee must not marvail if so
many good spirits have travelled all their time to meditate upon this
subject, and their divers transmutations, having been there unto drawn
rather out of those fair considerations which they found therein for
their spirits contentation, then for any sordid and greedy desire of
gain, which hath made the ignorant so obstinate, who have so cried down
this divine Art, sister germane to the _Caballe_: for that which the
_Caballe_ is divine and intelligible things, into the profound secrets
whereof, shee penetrates, _Alchymie_ is in naturall and elementary,
which shee reveals unto us. _Geber_ saith some man cannot know the
composition of a thing, that is ignorant of its destruction; which
destruction is perfected by the separations caused by fire.

Nature then taketh great pains, care, and pleasure, to labour in
metals; and puts in them a very great length of Time, to bring them to
the last degree of perfection, which settles in Gold, the most perfect
and incorruptible substance of all others, and the homogeneall and
equall in all his parties: whence it is taken for distributive justice,
for mingle a party of Gold with 3. or 4. hundreds of silver, or Copper,
leaving them melted together to sport never so little within a little
Cruset, every portion how small soever it may be, of silver or copper,
will suck up its equall part and portion of gold. It is moreover so
exactly depured, that it cannot be altered or corrupted by any thing,
that is either in the earth, water, air, or fire, nor by any corrosive
or poyson that you can apply thereunto. It is not corrupted by clay,
nor burnt with any burning thing: nor mortified or devoured, by any
green colouring, or dividing water, there is nothing in it superfluous
or defective: There are (saith _Hermes_) seven Metallick bodies, of
which the most worthy and principall is gold, attributed unto the
Sun: from whence it hath its name, for the same that the Sun is to
the stars, gold is toward the elementary bodies, what thing soever
burning it can bee, cannot burne it, the earth cannot corrupt it, nor
the water destroy nor alter, because its complexion is tempered in
heat, moisture, coldnesse and drinesse, and there is nothing in it
superfluous or deficient. By reason whereof, I finde that those are
farre wide of their accompt, which to keep themselves from poysoning,
would serve themselves with vessells of gold to eat and drink in; for
gold respects no more poisons nor venomes, then it would doe of capon
broth: So do silver, pewter, copper, lead & iron, which would therewith
change immediately. Even as a fearful man, and of small resolution,
who at the encounter of a Serpent or other venemous beast, would grow
suddainly pale, and come to change colour: The care, curiosity, and
assiduous travell of infinite, rare, and meditating spirits, by the
space of 4 or 5000 years, have found in metals secrets without number,
and yet knew not to do so well, but that they have left much more to
enquire into, and to search after: although there be but seven in all,
comprehending therein running quick-silver.

Wherein it is wonderfull, that Nature so copious and abundant in all
her procreations, which are divers, is pleased in this respect with
so small a number. Metals then, being such whose regiment depends on
fire; which is one of the proper visible symboles to represent the most
hidden secrets, and mysteries of Divinity; invisible, and imperceptible
to our senses.

The Prophets also, were willing to serve themselves for the most
part of their parables, and similitudes, ænigmaes, allegories and
figures; where they have covered and hid that which they would not
so openly declare, for they have very seldome expressed themselves,
as did _Esay_ in his 5 Chapter, where he interprets that the vision
of the Lord of Hosts, whereof he there brought a parable, was the
people of _Israel_, and the men of _Judah_ his delectable plant. And
in another passage many waters, are many nations. Moreover _Ezekiel_,
23. having spoken of the two sisters _Aholah_ and _Aholibah_, he set
downe that this was _Samaria_ and that _Jerusalem_. God by the mouth of
_Moses_, in the 28. of _Leviticus_, and in the 28. of _Deuteronomy_,
threatned the Israelites, said, if they come to mis-know him, and do
not keep well his commandements, that he would make the heaven over
their head brasse, and the earth under them iron, which are the two
most terrestriall metals, and most hard and rebellious to melt and to
handle, opposing them to the durity of this people, as it is there
said. _I will bruise the pride of your hardnesse, and will make heaven
over you as iron, and earth as brasse, your labour shall consume
unprofitably, your earth shall not bring forth its seed, nor the tree
yeeld any fruit._ For metals produce nothing, but are barren; the Poets
of their side have used many sorts of Metaphores, and figures, as in
the 6. of the _Æneid._ an iron voice, for a strong and resounding
voice, and _Hesiod_ calleth the infernall dog _Cerberus_, χαλκεόφωνος,
a voice of brasse, because it is the most sounding metall; _His voice
shall sound as brasse_, _Jer._ 16. and _Origen_ upon the 25. of _Exod._
Brasse is taken for a strong and thundering voice, because of its
resounding. Although I should speake with the tongue of Angels, and
have not charity in me, I am as sounding brasse, and as a tinkling
cymball. _Pindarus_ hath appropriated to Heaven the Epithet of χάλκεοσ
οὐρανὸς Heaven of brasse, in the 10. of the _Pythians_; because of the
firme solidity of the firmament, as the word importeth. _Homer_ doth
the same in the 3. of his _Odes_, calleth it πολύχαλκος, most brasse,
as _Euripedes_ and _Anaxagoras_, make the Sunne a fired iron; for the
Greek Poets ordinarily doe put fire and brasse one for another; the
same doth _Homer_ in many places, as in the 4. of the _Iliads_, where
_Apollo_ to encourage the _Trojans_, remonstrates unto them, that the
Greeks have not impenetrable bodies, of stone, or of iron, that they
should be able to resist blowes of cutting brasse, without hurting
them. These are manners of speech, which are not very strange amongst
the Prophets, who have thereby figured out the most part of their
solutions, under which some mysteries were shadowed; which if men would
take altogether raw according to the letter, without allegorizing
thereupon, they would find themselves farre from their reckoning, as
the Martyr _Pamphilus_ said well in the defence of _Origen_, speaking
of those who to shunne allegories were constrained to stumble at gross
impertinencies. They think it of this sort, said he, for that they
would not admit of allegories in the holy writ, by reason whereof, as
subjecting themselves to the literall sense, they imagine and invent
to themselves fine fables, and fictions. And indeed how could a man
take according to the letter that of the 33. of _Deut._ speaking of
_Aser_? _Thy shoes shall be iron and brasse_, for he would not say
that _Aser_ was shod with iron and brasse, but he would understand
thereby his force and power, denoted as well by the two metals, as
by the shoe; I _will extend my shoe against Idumæa, strangers are my
subjects_; These are all allegories and figures, as also in the 60.
of _Esay_, _For brass I bring thee gold, and silver in stead of Iron,
brasse for wood, and fire for stones_. Marke well how the Prophet
observes the relations opposing brasse to gold, and iron to silver;
and againe, brasse to wood, and iron to stones; for as gold excelleth
silver, and trees stones, it is the same in the metallique order,
brasse is more pretious then iron. But all tends to denote that the
heavenly mysticall _Jerusalem_, which is the Church triumphant, so
much more excellent then the Jewish Synagogue, which was but a figure
thereof. And certainely hee that would looke more narrowly thereinto,
the Prophets never spake any thing improperly, even to the least trade
or mechanick arts; for in their ravishments they saw things in their
reall being, within the _Zipheret_ or supercelestiall Sunne, which
is a clear shining looking-glasse, a living source of all Idea’s, as
Idea’s are of formes. This is furthermore well to be observed, for the
regard of metals, which they associate commonly iron and copper for
their affinity; will iron make a covenant with iron from the North? and
brasse? for iron is easily changed into copper, by means of vitrioll,
by putting them bed upon bed in a descensory with a strong fire of
bellowes, so long till the iron grow liquid and melt into copper,
having first moistned them with a little vineger, wherein there should
be dissolved sal niter, or salt peter, sal alcali, and salt of tartar,
with verdigrease. Otherwise put of vitriol in powder, and distill the
water in a cornue, that which shall remaine calcined in the bottome,
impost it with its water, and therein quench the glowing gads of
iron, or filings of iron, you shall find them by little and little
reduced into copper: Otherwise yet, dissolve vitrioll in common water,
evaporate the water, and calcine the congelation that shall rest in the
bottome; dissolve that in the like water, and it will become green,
evaporate a part thereof and put the rest in a cave for a night, and
you shall see greene flakes. Make them red in the fire, after dissolve
them three or four times with distilled vinegar, drying them every
time, and the flakes will become red, dissolve them againe in the same
vinegar, and therein quench the gads or other iron work, as above said.
In briefe, that by the means of vitriol, iron is converted into copper,
as we may see in penknifes steeped in inke made of copperas or vitriol.

These flakes here are an entry to a higher work, and of more things for
Chirurgery and Medicine. But all these practises (you may say) are long
and troublesome and rather chargeable then gainfull, and profitable.
Also our intention here, is not to stretch to gaine, this booke is
not to get bread, but to penetrate into the secrets of nature: from
thence to mount and elevate his spirit to spirituall things, whereto
sensible do serve as a stair or as _Jacobs_ ladder; and there are no
rarer considerations and observances, then in fire, and metallique
transmutations: Copper on the other side, is changed into steele; if it
bee true that some _Rabbines_ quote, upon that passage lately alledged
out of the 15. of _Jeremiah_ 12. Iron and Brass, the Prophet (say they)
calleth Iron mixed with Brasse, Steel, which sheweth (for we must
disdain nothing of theirs) that Damake Steel was composed of Iron and
Copper, that is to say, of Iron halfe covered in Copper, and softned
to restrengthen it the more by means of lead. Whereupon make what
_Abuhali_ sets downe in a Book of the nature of things.

Make a little long trench within a barre of iron, and cast thereinto
melted lead, then make it evaporate with a strong fire as of a
coupelle. Put againe therein new lead four or five times, and the iron
will grow soft, which you may afterwards make hard againe quenching it
in forge water, to make lancets, and other subtill cutting irons, yea
that shall cut other iron, without splinters or gapping. And indeed we
have found by experience, that to temper well a harnesse against the
shot of harquebuse, we first sweeten it with oils and gums, with wax
and the like incerative things; and after we harden them by frequent
extinctions, in waters that make it fast againe. _John_ the Grammarian
expounding this place of _Hesiod_, they wrought in brasse, for iron
was not yet knowne, was forced to relate the word χάλκος to the people
_Chalybs_ in _Scythia_, who (saith he) first found out the use of iron
and steel: the Poet _Lucretius_ in his 5. booke imitates _Hesiod_ in
this kinde,

    _Antient arms were hands and nails,
    Stones and fragments of tree boughes,
    And flames and fires, were first knowne,
    Afterwards the force of Iron and Brasse,
    But the use of Brasse, before Iron._

Steel furthermore is made of the most pure and subtiliate iron; for
that it participates lesse of the earthinesse, then iron. The artifice
of it, is sufficiently knowne, and is common in forges. But to come to
that of _Damas_, you must first resweeten it of its too much bitter
tartnesse, and after it is reduced into filings to make it red in
a cruset, and quench it many times with oil of Olives, where there
hath often times been quenched molten lead, suddenly covering the
vessell, for fear lest the oil take flame. There are yet other secret
observations, which our intention is not to reveal all; it is enough to
have attained to the maxims.

Now for that there is such an affinity between iron, and copper,
that they may easily be converted one into the other; the same may
likewise be done with lead, and tinne, by means of Sal Armonaick, and
of certaine incerative powders of Borax, Salt peter, salt of Tartar,
Salalchali, and other the like, which are called Atincars. _Panthee_
in his _Voarchadumie_, oil of glasse. Quicksilver also, is changed
into lead or tinne, according as it is congealed to an imperceptible
vapour, either of the one, or of the other, in this manner. Melt lead
or tinne in a cruset, then let them a little cool, so long that they
may be taken, but yet hot, or with a staffe of a torch, or the like,
make a trench therein, wherein you shall put quicksilver which will be
suddainly congealed, but bruiseable into powder. Reiterate that two or
three times, and make it afterwards boil in the juice of _Mercuriale_,
and will convert it selfe into metall according to the odour of that
it was congealed; there is losse therein and that not a little; but
yet at least, we may thereby see a possibility of transmutations
of metals: In this respect, furthermore of lead, and tinne, there
presents a very fair consideration, very uneasie to comprehend, and
doth merit, that the cause thereof should bee sought after. We see by
experience, that these two metals, each apart, are very soft, and of
a tender fusion, yet being mingled they grow hard, and become firm
and solid, touching which see what _Averroes_ sets downe in his Book
of Vapours. That which doth consolide, and strengthen tinne, is lead;
and reciprocally, lead tinne; for the glewish viscosity, which binds
their parties, must consist of moisture and drynesse, this being
done, there is no conglutination of tinne with tinne, therefore lead
is mingled therewith, which is more moist, and with lead, tinne,
which is more dry: so that those two mingled together, strengthen one
another, better then being separated, and of their mingling, comes to
procreate a glewing viscosity, which causeth in them a greater durity
then they had, and binds them more firmly, just as sand, and chalke
in the composition of Morter, which _Albertus_ also confirmes in his
fourth and fifth chapters of Minerals. But wee will put off all these
metallique particularities, and their divers transmutations, to our
Treatise of Gold and Glasse, upon the 28. of _Job_, where under gold
we wil comprehend all that shal depend on metals: and under glasse,
stones, as well naturall, as artificiall; and all vitrifications, and
enamels. Here we will take but that which will conduce to our subject,
which is to treat of things intelligible, by the sensible: after the
imitation of the Prophets, and chiefly metals and fire, whose operation
is better known in metals, then in the other composed elements. The
Prophets then have set down iron and brasse for a firme resistance. _My
strength is not the strength of stones, nor is my flesh brasse, Job
6._ and in the 18. _Psal. Thou hast made my arms as a bow of brasse_.
Furthermore in the 4. of _Micah, I will make thy horne iron, and will
make thy hoofs brasse_.

As touching iron, for a hard and rigorous oppression, according as
it is hard and inflexible of its nature, and which doth suppeditate
almost all; I will rule them with a rod of iron in the 2. _Psalm._
and in the 4. of _Deut._ _I have brought thee out of the iron fornace
of Ægypt_; there where iron denotes servitude, wherein they were, for
the oppression of their persons, and the fornace of fire, was that of
their souls and consciences constituted amidst so many Idolatries and
impieties, which must be unto them a servitude, more intolerable then
all travails and afflictions; and the most cruell and pitilesse usages
of their bodies, for as much as the soul excels it, for the zeal which
they carry to their God, with the same locution the Ecclesiasticke
served himself in his 28. speaking of a wicked tongue; happy is he
that can save himself from a wicked tongue, for the yoke thereof is
as iron, and his band as the band of brasse. But for affliction and
anguish, all openly in the 105. _Psal. v. 18. Iron pierced his soul_,
speaking of _Joseph_ a prisoner in _Ægypt_, until his word came. To
be short, there is not a point of locution figurative, more frequent
in the Prophets, then those that are drawn from metals and from fire,
which for the reason of its proprieties and effects, as it is one of
the most commodious and necessary things of all others, according as it
is said before, for it bakes our viands, it warms us, and doth revigour
us against the colds; it clears and lightens in the darkness, in lieu
of the suns brightnesse, and other infinite usages, and chiefly for the
execution of arts and trades: Otherwise we may say that without iron,
fire it selfe would as it were be almost unprofitable for this respect.
And _Plato_ doth not exempt one onely art from fire, but the pottery
of clay, in the 3. of his Lawes, where he treats very excellently of
the life of the first men; and although iron and copper had brought
them commodities to civilize themselves and to polish them to a more
humane life. So that not without cause, these poor beastly Savages
of the _West Indies_, did wonder in their grosse understanding, how
people in these parts, so well advised and industrious, for a little
piece of gold or silver, unprofitable to all uses, should offer
them so liberally hatchets, sithes, reaphooks, and other iron work,
commodious for all usages, and which they could so shorten that which
they had with so great pain perfected but to the halfe with fire, which
was to them for all instruments and tools, with some base pointed
flints. But we may here likewise alledge to the contrary the hurts and
incommodities that iron bringeth, for of it, are forged all offensive
arms, wherewith men shorten their dayes by their reciprocall Massacres:
for that, it is _Mars_ his true Minister, and exterminator and ruine of
mankinde, as _Jupiter_ qualifies it in the 5. of the Iliads,

    _Mars, Mars, the plague and ruine of men, contaminated
    with murders, overthrower of wals._

Which he could not do, at the least very uneasily without the means
and aid of fire. Also they give it the name of _Mars_. But let us here
a little consider a pleasant allegory covered under the fiction of
_Venus_, _Vulcan_, and _Mars_. _Venus_ without doubt is mankind, which
is continued by venereall propagation of linage. Its lawfull spouse
is _Vulcan_, which by conjugall love, brings him all or the greatest
part of his necessary commodities, by reason of _Mars_, which is iron.
But for that he is his adulterer, he also destroyes the greatest part
of what shee procreates; and the husband maintains iron for a double
use, good, and bad; for we must not measure the works of the Creator
by their apparent incommodities or commodities. For God saw all that
he had made, and they were very good; for this goes according as the
Creatures apply it. Is there any thing more fair, more pleasant or more
delectable to the sight, then a cleare shining flame? any thing that
doth more rejoice then light? And on the other side, there is nothing
more hurtfull, fuller of damage, nor more dangerous then fire, which
burneth and consumeth all that comes neare it. A Satyre the first time
he saw it, he rejoiced strangely to see it so fair, so clear, but
thinking to approach nearer, to embrace, and to caresse it, when he
perceived it so offended, with extreame griefe, hee was never after
able to come near it. We may also say the same of iron, as _Plinie_
cals it the best and the worst instrument of life; for therewith (saith
he) we til the earth, graffe trees, prune vines, with other infinite
commodities and usages, as chiefly to build houses for our covert and
safety. But on the other side, we imploy it no lesse, if not more, in
our mutuall assassinates and massacres to shorten our life; as if it
were troublesome to continue so long. Yet it is so short without the
inconveniencies that shorten it and make of iron the most pernicious
minister and instrument of all others. To which purpose _Istodorus_
said very well,

    _From whence a long while agone earth was drawn
    from thence now bloud shed,_

Which proceeds rather from our malice and depravation, then from the
fault of this inanimate insensible substance, which neither moves to
good or to bad, but by our selves.

And yet, saith the same _Plinie_, it seems that nature was not willing
wholly to excuse it, but to punish it onely, rendring it subject so to
rust, more then any other of the brother hood, and principally by mans
bloud, which it is so apt to spill.

The same natures benignity, exacting punishment from very iron by
rust, from whence humane bloud revengeth it selfe; for being touched
therewith it more speedily draweth rust therefrom. And indeed there
is nothing which sooner rusteth iron then mans bloud. But this
rust because we are purposely falne upon it, it is not altogether
unprofitable, though most wholsome to many good effects, as well within
as without the body, beyond that which it doth in tinctures. Wherefore
it will do no hurt to touch some thing therein in this place, and
therein to reveal that which experience hath manifested unto us to be
most rare, and most important, but this is handled divers wayes. Take
then filings of iron very clean, and besprinkle them with a little
distilled vineger, leaving it so in a cave for two or three dayes or
other fresh and moist place; and that will all convert into rust, which
you shall bruise very subtilly in an iron or a stone morter. Put it
in a little pot, and put thereon boiling distilled vineger, stirring
it lustily with a staffe or rod of iron, and the vineger will charge
it selfe with the dissolution of the rust: turne it by inclination,
and put therein other vineger, reiterating that so long, that all the
aluminosity and tincture of the iron be dissolved, and that nothing
remaines but blacke and dead earths which you must cast away: cause the
vineger to evaporate very sweetly, and there will remain a powder of
Canneale colour, which the chymists call saffron of iron; which is made
also by putting of small pieces of iron to calcine in Glasse makers
Ovens for the space of three weeks or a month; and they will reduce
themselves to a small and impalpable powder, as dough, red as blood,
but it doth not dissolve it selfe in strong waters. There is neither
Bole-armonaic, or _Terra Sigillata_, which can compare to them, who
know well to practise their proprieties and consemblable effects.

In regard of the former, take of the phlegme of _Aqua vitæ_, and do
upon all the same just that which you did with the distilled vineger
upon the rust, it will dissolve more then the halfe: withdraw your
phlegm by a light distillation, and upon the gum that shall rest
congealed, cast fine _Aqua vitæ_, stirring it strongly with a baston
upon warme ashes, but you must not warme it so much as the vineger and
the phlegme, and when the _aqua vitæ_ shall be well charged of its
dissolution, retire it by a slow distillation in _Balneo Marie_, in a
limbeck; for it will serve you againe as before: and if that be very
proper for the dysenteries, and fluxes of the belly, with exulcerations
and gangrens with small shot; as also is the second Crocum drawne
by the phlegme, of very great efficacy: and the third yet of more,
drawne by _Aqua vitæ_, which will remain in yellow powder the true
essence of iron, which we have searched even to the Center. But in all
dissolutions take heed to leave them well in repose, and not to receive
but the clear, pure, and neat, without any feces or residences; rather
put them for an hour in a warm bath to clarifie them. The vineger that
remains, and the phlegm, you may filter, but not the _aqua vitæ_,
because of its unctuosity: which makes it difficult to separate it,
from its residences; we must therefore attend till it be cleare.

Behold these three earths, and the three dissolvants proceeding one and
the other from the vegetable, that is to say, wine, the most excellent
substance of all the vegetables which the Philosopher _Calisthenes_
called the blood of the earth. Now for the affinity that is betwixt
iron and copper, we will here pursue in one traine some experiments
proceeding from the said copper. Take (to shorten as much as may be) of
the stone of _Azur_, which is a minerall of copper, which will render
you more then twelve ounces neat and liquid for a pound.

But here we shall be constrained to make a little digression to serve
for advertisement. In metallick dissolutions, (and let this be a
maxim) we must rather take raw minerals, coming from the earth, and
not the accomplished metals, and that for three reasons. The first,
for that excuseth you of labour, and length of time, to calcine them,
and make them dissoluble. The second, that in the dissolution of the
minerall you shall find more of the salt, and shall extract it more
easily, then in six of one of their chalx. And the third, for that
the spirits of metall, are not yet at first so imprisoned in their
corporall masse, as in the superficies within this minerall and in much
greater aboundance: there when it hath passed the asperity and rigour
of the fire, to separate the metal, most part of the spirits disperse
themselves and the rest are drowned and barred fast in the bottome of
the body: whence it is a difficulty to draw them; so that afterwards
the oil is worse easie to extract from salt, in the dissolution of
chalks, then of that which shall be drawn from the minerals. Take then
of this _Azure_ stone for the shorter, or if you have it not of _es
asium_ burned Brasse, which we make _conpellans_ of brasse, in three
parts of lead, (verdigrease is too gummy and unfit) or making meal of
the filings of copper, even as we said heretofore of iron, putting
thereunto a little _aqua fortis_, make it clear, which will be green,
as an _Emeraud_, and pursue it, in and through all as you did iron:
till the salt or gum remain in the bottome congealed, proper for hollow
ulcers, and many other effects of chirurgery; you may yet governe this
gum with phlegme and _aqua vitæ_, as you did iron. And of the first
very gumme extracted by the vineger, may thence draw an oil, as it was
said of lead. In regard of the earths that remain of the dissolutions
of the _aqua vitæ_, without any further dissolving of it, nor leaving
any tincture therein, nor to disjoin them which is hard to do, nor to
clarifie the _aqua vitæ_, but will remain impasted together as milk
with dough, for they will be white, after you have dryed them well in
the Sunne, or before a gentle fire. Put them upon a plate of iron, or
of warmed copper: and if they fume not, it is a signe they are all
deprived of their spirits. Yet put them in a cornue, with a naked
bottome among coals, and perfect the drying of them; then at last give
a fire of calcination. Cast _aqua vitæ_ thereon to dissolve that which
you can; and evacuating the dissolution, perfect to dry the moisture
which may thereof remain giving againe fire of calcination in the end:
and againe putting _aqua vitæ_ thereon to perfect the extraction of
all the salt therein remaining, which will be perfected in the third
or fourth reiteration. I have put you to an addresse of great effects,
where I do not pretend to lead you by the hand any further, not to
injure good and curious spirits, that by long labours and perquisitions
have travelled to obtaine that which others had better cheap, and also
to that which we reserve for our discourse of Gold and Glasse, where
we will declare that which shall here be left imperfect, not having
attained, but by the _end of the lip_: wherefore we will take but that
which is necessary to clear what the Prophets have thereupon touched in
their parables and similitudes. In the first place of the two perfect
gold & silver, on which they have most insisted on the good part, for
the imperfect tinne, copper, and iron, they have ordinarily applyed to
the worst part for vices and depravations, contumacies and durities;
and lead for vexations and molestations. Gold for true beliefe, faith,
piety, and religion, and in sum, all that which concernes the honour
and service of God; Silver, for good and charitable works of mercy;
due in respect of our neighbour. So that these two metals represent
the two tables of the Decalogue. And it would not be farre from the
purpose to make a trimming of the Altar. The first of gold, containing
four precepts, in four azure letters, which signifieth heaven, and the
other of silver in green letters, signifying the earth. _Origen_ in the
2. _Homil._ upon this text of the first of _Canticles_ (_We will make
thee borders of gold, with studs of silver_,) triumpheth to allegorize
the shape of gold, this (saith he) holds the figure of the invisible
and incorporeall nature, (and this for that it is of a substance so
homogeneall and subtill, that nothing can extend it selfe more fine)
and silver, represents the vertue of the _Verb_, following that which
the Lord said in the 2. of _Hosea_, _I have given you gold and silver,
and you have therewith made Idols to Baal_. But we make the Holy
Scripture Idols of gold and silver, when we turne the sense thereof
to some perverted interpretation: or that we would Pindarize it by
elegances, as if vertue consisted on the vaine flowers of Rhetoricke,
for in doing this we open our mouth, as if we would swallow and suck
in heaven, whilst our tongue licketh the earth, like as if the Prophet
should say, _I have given you sense and reason, whereby you ought to
acknowledge me for your God, and reverence me; but you have turned
them aside, and therewith have made Idols_: By sense are understood
the internall cogitations which represents them; and by Reason, which
is λόγος the word, for it signifies the one and the other, as silver
denotes, _Psal. 12. 6. the words of the Lord are pure words, as silver
proved in the fire, when they say, or hold, that silver tryed in
the fire, is the tongue of the just, are not my words as fire?_ But
Cherubins are said to be gold, because they interpret them for the
plenitude of divine Science. And the Tabernacle of the alliance is of
Gold also, because it carries the type and image of the law of nature,
where consisted the gold of science; so that Gold is referred to the
conception and thought, and silver to the word, according to which the
wise man alludeth in the 25. of the _Proverbs_, _As Golden apples with
silver nets, so is he that speaks words in a fit season_. Hitherto
_Origen_. But will we hear what _Zohar_ sets down, from whence _Origen_
hath fished out the greatest part of his rare and profound meditations
and allegories, and to the purpose of those apples of gold, enchased
within the nets of silver. The gold from above is the gold _sagur_,
inclosed or folded up; that from below is more exposed to our senses,
(nothing should better agree to the _Messihe_ which is the true pure
gold of _Evihah_, mentioned _Gen. 2._ hee which is reinclosed within
silver,) namely his divinity, and reshut up with the humanity. _Zohar_
pursues it; In the Tabernacle there were mingled gold, and silver, to
assemble the divine mystery above in one subject, where soveraigne
perfection was found. But the Cherubims were all of gold, shewing their
Angelicall nature which doth not participate of any corporeity, without
any silver or copper mingled therewith. Gold within silver expresseth
mercy, by which the whole universe was built, (the world was built in
mercy,) upon which Gods Throne is established, _His Royall seat shall
be prepared in mercy_. But the rigour of judgement is designed by
copper, which approacheth to the colour of bloud, without the effusion
whereof, also there is no remission.

And therefore it was ordained, that _Moses_ should erect a Serpent in
the Wildernesse to heale those who were bitten by the vermine and cast
their eyes upon it. Then gold, silver, and copper, are the three metals
that go together, the _Chasma’l_, or the _electrum_ of _Ezechiel_. And
there is a faire meditation upon the 3 colours, which are these, white,
of silver, that represents water, is mercy, manifested by the particle
_Jah_, assigned to the Father, which the Apostle cals the _father of
mercies, 1 Cor. 1. 3_. Copper that in rednesse imitates fire, is the
rigour and the severity of justice, which the Ægyptians call _Din_,
attributed to the Holy Spirit, against which if any blaspheme, hee
shall neither be pardoned in this world here, nor in the other. The
third, in the middle of two, is the citrinity of the gold, composed of
white and red, as we may see in saffron, bloud, vermillion, and other
the like, tempered with water, which is white, for from thence is
procreated a golden yellow; for Citrinity, saith _Geber_, is nothing
else, but a determinate proportion of white and red. And this guilded
citrinity is attributed to the Sonne, who participates of Mercy and
Justice: in pursuance of that spoken in the 16. of _Eccl._ 11. because
_mercy and wrath are with him_. But latten or copper, which in its
exteriour hath some resemblance with gold, but within all impure and
corrupt, denoting hypocrisie, which under a masque of pious zeale,
and religion hatcheth its wicked desires, and detestable ambitions,
impieties, erroneous opinions, lusts, animosities, revenges, and other
unjust and perverse intentions. The whitenesse of the silver, on the
one side, of which this letton participates, for it is but at 16 Carats
being pallied by the rednesse of copper, that causeth it citrinity.
But this rednesse is but cruelty, and malice, which corrupteth gentle
sincerity. _If your sinnes were as red as scarlet, or vermillion, they
shall bee as white as snow, Esay 1. 16._

[Sidenote: Prov. 10.26. Esa. 6.4.]

In regard of lead, it is put for vexations and molestations, wherewith
God doth visit us; by means whereof, hee bringeth us unto repentance;
for as lead burneth, and exterminateth all the imperfections of metall,
which _Boetius_ the _Arabian_, calleth water of Sulphur; so tribulation
divesteth us here below, from many spots, which wee thereby have
contracted, so that, St. _Ambrose_ calleth it, Heavens Key, following
that which is written, _Act._ 14. 22. _Through many temptations we
must enter into the Kingdom of Heaven._ The Apostle _Rom._ 5. 3. and
4. &c. useth a very fine gradation, _Tribulation begets patience,
patience experience, and experience hope, and hope maketh not ashamed,
because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the holy
spirit, that is given unto us_. Fire denotes tribulation, whereupon
the said Saint _Ambrose_ upon the first psalm, Fire saith he, burneth
waxe, which melts it self to bee purged, and wee are proved by fire,
for God desiring to convert a sinner chastiseth him, and burneth him,
to purge him: for fire is light to Beleevers, and punishment, to the
incredulous. Said Saint _Jerome_ very well upon _Ezechiel_. That fire
illuminates Beleevers, and blinds Infidels, serving for nothing but
smoak which makes them weep, and darknesse, as smoak which is noxious
to the eyes. With which fume the house of _Israel_ was all filled and
darkened. Let the just then rejoyce, when they shall find themselves
upon this text of the 50. _Psal._ 3. A fire shall burn in his sight,
for they shall be thereby illuminated, and obstinate sinners burnt by
the same, having the two properties to illuminate, and burn: for that
it illuminates, it must bee the holy Spirit, which is the true fire,
that is kindled in our hearts, and not foolish and perverse opinions,
vain and erroneous, which would quickly draw us to that which the
Prophet _Esay_ saith, Chap. 50. 11. _Behold all yee that kindle a
fire, and that compasse your selves about with sparks, walk in the
light of your fire, and in the sparks that ye have kindled, and you
shall sleep in sorrow._ From thence saith _Origen_, it seems that
sinners kindle themselves a fire, wherewith they must be crucified.
_O Israel thou hast destroyed thy self, Hos. 13._ And in the 28. of
_Ezek._ 18. _I will bring forth a fire, from the midst of thee, it
shall devoure thee, and I will bring thee to ashes upon Earth._ The
matter then which entertains it, are our iniquities, and our offences,
_their iniquity shall burn as fire_. And in the 7. of _Eccles._ 17.
_The vengeance of the ungodly is fire, and wormes_, which toucheth upon
that in the 9. of St. _Mark._ 44. alledged out of the 66. of _Esaiah_
24. _Whose worm shall not dye, nor their fire bee quenched_: for the
one and the other are endlesse, namely the fire that burns them, and
the worm that gnawes their consciences in this world, and in the other,
torments them for ever. There where on the contrary, if God set it
on fire, wee may say with one of our ancient fathers, O happy flame,
but not burning, illuminating, but not consuming: Thou dost transform
whom thou dost touch, so that they, even merit to bee called Gods.
Thou hast warmed thy Apostles, who forsaking all things but thee,
have been made Gods children: Thou hast warmed the Martyrs, who have
spilt their bloud: Thou hast warmed the Virgins, who by the fire of
Divine Love, have quenched the heat of concupiscence. The Confessors
likewise, that have separated themselves from the world, to join and
to unite unto thee. So that every creature, by the beneficence of
this fire, repurgeth it self, from its coinquinations, and ordures,
and there is nothing exempted from its heat, if it would come to
injoy the fellowship of God; for it is this fire, that kindleth in us
by the illuminations of the holy Spirit, by means of our corporall
tribulations, which brings us sooner to God, then any other thing, of
which Lead is one of their symboles, working the same operations in
metals, as afflictions do in us. There is so gallant a passage in the
6. of _Jer._ under the figure of a Coupelle, which I think, that there
is not a Goldsmith, Refiner, or a Mettleman, which hath spoken more
properly: _They are all corrupters_, speaking of the _Jewish_ people,
then _iron or copper_. _The bellows are burnt, the Lead is consumed in
the fire, the Founder melteth in vain, for their wickednesses are not
plucked away, Reprobate silver shall men cal them, for the Lord hath
rejected them._ Whereupon _Rab. Sol._ is a little interveared for that
hee doth not well understand the _Coupelles_, being willing to adjoin
one of his own. The prophet speaketh here (saith hee) of God as of a
Goldsmith, who desirous to purge gold puts thereunto lead or tin, that
the fire should not consume the gold: for after the lead is consumed,
the fire hurts the gold by consuming it. Mark what it is to speak
unadvisedly of things wee doe not understand, for so doing we suffer
our selves to fall easily into grosse absurdities: There are here two
faults so apparent, that even apprentices would mock at them: the one
to mixe Tin at the _Coupelle_ or ashes in stead of lead: for it would
not bee fit: also the Prophet takes heed therein. See what _Geber_ sets
down, in the Chap. of _Ashes_, Metalls that participate least of the
substance of quick-silver, and more of Sulphur, separate themselves
sooner and more easily from their mixtions. So that lead, because it
hath more of the Sulphureall terrestreity, and lesse quick-silver, it
is of more tender and light fusion, then any other: hardens lesse in
the the coupple and separates soonest: therefore it is more proper to
this examination, for that it carries away with lesse time and pains,
the impurities of imperfect metals, mingled with gold and silver.
Upon which there is no action, and by consequent brings lesse domage
thereunto: there where because the substance of tin participates of
much quick-silver, and of little sulphurous earthinesse, so that being
more pure and subtil, the more profoundly it mingles it self, and
adheres more strongly to gold and silver, from which it is separated
more slowly and more unwillingly, with so much of their losse and
falling off: the other error is to think, that when the lead in the
_Coupelle_ hath exterminated the imperfect metals, and it self is
partly gone away in smoak, partly burned, and partly inglued, within
the _Coupelle_ as in vitrified litarge, fire cannot in any thing hurt
gold, for being fine and pure, it would remain there a thousand years
without the losse of one grain: to which nothing of things is wanting,
it is even safe in burnings, and great fires; the matter remaining said
_Pliny_ well, speaking of gold in his 33. Book, chap. 3. as wee may see
by experience. The prophet said then, and that so properly as nothing
more, that even as when there are more impurities mingled with gold and
silver, to repurge them we must put thereunto more lead at once. So the
Jews iniquities were so great that it was needfull to visit them with
more afflictions one upon another to make them know their offences and
to forsake them: as Physitians who redouble oftentimes their purgations
and medicaments in those bodies, where the malady is contumacious and
rebellious: for tribulations and adversities, are in us as fire, and
as lead, in impure metalls: As gold and silver are tryed by the fire,
so the Lord tries our hearts, _Prov._ 2. and in the 2. of _Eccles._
5. _Whatsoever is brought upon thee take patiently, for gold and
silver, are tried by fire, and men by the furnace of tribulation, and
anguish_; Saint _Gregorie_ in his Pastoralls upon this passage of the
11. of _Ezekiel_, who dilateth and insisteth hard upon this metaphor
and similitude. _The house of Israel is to me become drosse, all they
are brasse and tin, and iron in the midst of the furnace, and they
are the drosse of silver, and therefore saith the Lord, I wil gather
you in the midst of Ierusalem, as a masse of silver, brasse, tin, and
iron, and of lead, into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire
upon them to melt them. So I will gather them in mine anger, and in
my fury, yea I will gather them and blow upon them, in the fire of my
wrath, and they shall be melted, in the midst thereof. As silver is
melted in the midst of the furnace, so shall they be melted in the
midst thereof, and they shall know, that I the Lord have poured my
fury upon them._ Saint _Gregory_, interprets this for the _Jews_, who
in their strong adversities would not leave to go out of the way of
their vices, and depravations, and would receive no correction but made
themselves worse: _Malachy_ 3. 3. useth the same form of speech. _The
Lord shall sit to melt and purge silver, hee shall purifie the Sonnes
of_ Levi, _and purge them as gold, and silver, and they shall offer to
the Lord an offering of righteousnesse_. See how hee there resembleth
very well, Gold to Faith, and Religion and Silver to works, for if
the one and not the other be not very clean, in vain would we present
them unto God. And all this must bee perfected by fire: according to
which the Psalmist speaketh, _Thou hast proved my heart, and hast
visited me in the night, thou hast examined mee by fire, and there is
no iniquity found in mee_, _Psal._ 17. 3. for (as St. _Chrysostome_
saith) fire according to the will of God, doth divers operations. It
did not burn the three children in the furnace, yet burned those that
were without: and as the Sea gave way to the _Israelites_, to passe
on dry foot, and drowned _Pharaoh_, and all his that pursued them.
There is a fire, saith St. _Ambrose_, upon the 39. _Psal._ _vers._ 3.
_which with its Ardor devoureth the transgression, and blotteth out
the sin_: But wee most not understand it materiall fire here below,
for there is nothing common here, with spirituality, but by way of
analogy, and correspondence; there being a very great disproportion
betwixt intelligible and sensible things, as in _Jer._ 20. 9. _And
there was a burning fire in my bones._ In sum that the holy Scripture
is stuffed with these manner of speeches drawn from fire and metals. As
in _Hag._ 2. 8. _The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, saith the
Lord of Hosts._ Gold, silver, and all metals, yea generally, all things
whatsoever, although they may bee said to bee of God; as St. _Jerome_
said very well, forasmuch as he created them, and gave them being,
subsistance, and maintenance. _The earth is the Lord and the fulnesse
thereof_: notwithstanding this gold and silver, which God alleadgeth
here more particularly to bee his, must bee understood mystically. By
silver, interpret the law of the mouth, _The words of the Lord are pure
words, as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times_.
And by Gold (saith _Zohar_) the written Law, where there are many brave
meditations to be considered; for there is not a form of a letter,
point nor accent, but importeth some mystery, as it is particularly
specified in _Ghinah Egoz_, in the garden of drowning of _Rabbi Joseph
Castiglian_. On the other side silver is applyed to the old Testament,
gold to the New. _Origen_ confronts Faith to Gold, and the confession
and preaching thereof to silver. That there, to the conceptions of
the thought, and this here, to the word and enuntiation made by mouth
which expresseth it, and puts it out. The tongue of the just is chosen
silver. Of which two metals, namely of right Faith and purity of
conscience, and of verball confession, the Temple, and Church of God in
Christianism, and the glory of him was greater then the _Jewish_ Law,
which was but a dark shadow thereof. So that gold, designs the heart,
that corresponds to the Sun, and to fire: and silver words, with Salt
wherewith they must be seasoned; _The word is near unto thee even in
thy mouth, and in thy heart that thou maist doe it_: which the Apostle
appropriating, _If thou confesse the Lord Iesus with thy mouth, and
dost beleeve in thy heart, that God hath raised him from the dead,
thou shalt be saved: for wee beleeve with the heart to Iustification,
and confesse with the mouth to have Salvation_. It is gold and silver
which hee would that wee should build on his foundation: the gold of
_Havilah_, that groweth within the terrestriall Paradise, with the
Carbuncle and the Emrauld which the Psalmist in the 67. _Psalm_ calleth
the Greens of Gold.

Behold here the depurements that fire operates where it passeth:
and chiefly upon metals, which are of a most strong and persisting
composition, as any other Elementary substance, therefore wee have
therein a little insisted, because that the Prophets have therein
founded the greatest part of their Allegories: where wee must note,
that they have commonly put the imperfect, lead, tin, iron, and
copper, in the bad part, and sometimes gold also: as in _Jer._ 51.
7. Babylon is a golden Cup: and in the 2. of _Dan._ 32. speaking of
_Nebuchadnezar_, Thou art the Golden head, more in the 31. of _Eccles._
there are many chances in gold: _Zohar_ calls it Satans dung, following
the Text of the 37. of _Job_: Gold comes from the North: for the North
is alwayes taken by the _Cabalists_ in the evill part, because Sun
never passeth thereby, and it relates to midnight, where the hurtfull
powers are in their great reputation and vigour: as on the contrary,
Noon in good part; Wee must not then understand, that _Job_ would say
that gold came from the Northern parts, for it grows not there by
reason of their continuall colds: but in some certain place, where it
procreates; this is more ordinarily towards the North: against which
the Sun, as against a But, darts its beams, being to the Meridion all
part, as likewise all good wines. And to this purpose _Franciscus
Oviedus_ in his 16. Book, Chap. 1. of his generall historie of the
_Indies_, speaking of the Isle of _Borichen_, puts this, _Borichen_,
otherwise called St. _Johns_ Island, is very rich in gold, and men draw
it, in great quantity, even on the Northern side, as in the opposite
part towards the South, it is very fruitfull of victualls: the same
also is found even in _Spain_ it self. Gold then is sometimes taken in
the worser part, as in the golden Calf which the _Israelites_ melted
in _Moses_ his absence, from whence one of their _Rabbins_ said, there
had never befallen them any calamity and misery, but there was an ounce
of that Idol mingled therewith: Silver because of its whitenesse,
denotes Mercy, is alwayes in the good part, and first in esteem before
gold, as it is _Hag._ the 2. _Mine is the silver, and mine is the
gold._ The _Onorocrites_ also hold, that to dream of gold presageth
some near affliction, because it agreeth in colour with gall, and the
pain in the ears, two subsistences extreamly bitter: and bitternesse
signifies, trouble, anguish, and grief; as Pearls doe tears for their
resemblance: But silver expresseth joy and merriment. And therefore
saith the same _Zohar_, Gold is attributed to _Gabriel_, and Silver to
_Michael_, which in order is his superior, Brasse to _Uriel_, because
it represents him in colour of fire, faith to _Ur_ of the _Caldees_,
Gold, saith he, and fire march together, and copper with them, where
was built the little Altar without, where the bloud of the Sacrifices
was spilt, and that within was of gold, _Exod._ 38. and 39. Silver
is the primary light of the day, and _Jacob_. And gold, that of the
night, and _Esau_ or _Edom_ red: Silver represents milk; and gold wine,
alluding to craft and subtilty, where it is said, in the 2. _Eccles._
_I thought to draw my flesh with Wine, to give myself unto Wisedome._

But to return to our principall purpose, fire amongst other its
properties and effects, is very purging, and also in flesh, and other
corruptible substances, Salt consumes the greatest part of their
corrupting humors: fire also doth the same, and analogically spiritual
fire, which is nothing but the charitable ardor of the Holy Spirit,
that inflames us with Faith, Charity, Hope. Shakes off the impurities
of our souls, as it is _Esa._ 1. 25. _I will purely purge away thy
drosse, and take away all thy tin_, for this place here in the 10. of
the same Prophet, vers. 17. _And the light of Israel, shall be for a
fire, and his holy one for a flame_, sheweth sufficiently that the
Holy Spirit is not only light, but fire and flame, which salteth and
repurgeth our consciences from corruption, vices, and iniquities.

The Sun also, which is a visible Image of the invisible Divinity, as
for light, so for its vivifying heat, wherewith all sensible things
are maintained, as the intelligible by the supercelestial Sun, works
the same effect in case of purification, as fire. As we may see by
experience, as the places where the Sun-beams come not, are ever musty
and mouldy, and to purifie them wee open windowes to admit light into
them: and there make great fires, which is very proper in the time
of the Plague, for it chaseth away ill air, as light doth darknesse.
Also evill spirits, who have more reputation in the dark, from plague
walking in darknesse, the _Hebrews_ call this Divell ravaging by night
_Deber_, and from his violence and Meridian Divell, that of the day
_Keteb_; the Greeks Ἐμπουσα. There is in the fire, saith _Pliny_, a
certain faculty and medicinall vertue against the Plague. Who for
the absence and hiding of the Sun, comes to form it self: wherein
wee find by lightning it here and there may bring great comfort and
succour in many kinds. As _Empedocles_ and _Hippocrates_ doe elsewhere
sufficiently demonstrate. There was also a Physitian at _Athens_ that
got much reputation, by causing them to kindle many fires during the
Plague time. So that, the true Plague of the soul being iniquities
and offences, which poison it, its _theriac_ or counter-poyson,
cannot bee better found then in the fire of contrition that the Holy
Spirit kindles therein: _My heart was hot within mee, while I was
musing, the fire burned_, _Psal._ 39. 3. There is also a fire of
Tribulation which was spoken of before, that consumes our vanities,
and unruly concupiscences; and makes us return to God, whereupon one
of the ancient Fathers said, it was a happy tribulation that forceth
to repentance. And St. _Gregory_, the evils that presse us here, doe
compell us the sooner to come to God. And that for our greater good,
that God doth thus burn us by the fire of tribulation: that which
was said by the _Psalmist_ 26. 3. _Prove me O Lord, and examine mee,
try my reins, and my heart_: And in the 13. of _Zach._ _vers._ 9. _I
will bring the third part through the fire, and I will refine them as
silver is refined, and I will try them as Gold is tried_: For fire
hath a double property, as hath been said; the one to separate the
pure from the impure, and the other to perfect that which remains of
the pure. Take away rust from silver, and it will go forth a most pure
vessell: But the propriety of these significations is better kept in
the Hebrew, then in any other tongue. Where the verb _Szaraph_ is
joined and attributed unto silver, which signifies, to melt, and to
refine, and to Gold _Bahan_ to prove. The one denotes Gods in Elect an
holy purity of conscience by silver, the other by gold a perfection of
constancy, which wee cannot know better then by proof: and from thence
comes dignity and eternall glory, the one and the other acquired by the
fire of Examination and of probation; for, as saith St. _Chrysostome_,
that which fire is towards gold and silver, the same is tribulation in
our soules from which fire cleanseth the impurities and uncleannesse,
and makes them neat shining: following that which is said in the 17.
of _Prov._ _As silver is tried by fire, in the furnace, so God proveth
the hearts of his Creatures_, and in the 27. of _Eccles._ _ver._ 5.
_The furnace tryeth the Potters vessell, and tentation of tribulation,
trieth good men._ There are many, saith one of the Fathers, who whilest
they are red in the fire of adversity, make themselves flexible, and
malleable, but departing therefrom, they harden themselves again as
before, making themselves unfit for conversion or amendment; _Origen_
in his 5. _Homilie_ upon the 3. Chap. of _Jesiu Nave_, they that draw
near unto me, draw near unto fire: If you bee (saith hee there) Gold
or silver, the nearer you come to the fire, the more you will become
resplendant: but if you build with wood, straw, or chaffe, upon the
foundation of Faith, and come near the fire, you shall be consumed:
very happy then are those that drawing near the fire, are therewith
lightned and not burnt. According as it is written in the 3. of _Mal._
_The Lord will sanctifie thee in burning fire._ St. _Augustine_, upon
a verse of the 45. _Psalm_. _Wee have passed through water, and fire_:
Fire burneth (saith hee) and water corrupteth: When adversity comes
upon us, it is as it were fire unto us: and worldly prosperities on
the contrary are as water. The earthen vessell that is well hardened
in the fire, fears neither water nor fire. Let us then study to amend
our selves by the fire of tribulation, by bearing it patiently; for if
the pottery be not firmly strengthened by fire, the water of temporall
vanity will soften it and mingle it as durt. And therefore wee must
passe through the fire, to come to the water of Mercy, and Grace,
whereof St. _John_ speaketh in the 3. of S. _Mat._ _I Baptize you with
water unto repentance, but hee that comes after mee is stronger then I,
and he will Baptize you with the holy Spirit, and with fire._ Of which
fire we may see in the 16. of _Wisdome_, 17. for it is wonderfull, that
in the water that quencheth all things, fire should be most powerfull.
That which made St. _Augustine_ himself say, that in the Sacrament
of Baptism, which they exercise and Catechise, they first came to
fire, and after to the Baptism of water: where the same comes to the
temptations of this age, where in the anguish which oppresseth us,
the fire first presents it self, but when the fear therein is out, it
is to bee feared that a wind of vain glory proceeding from temporall
felicity, dissolve it not into rain, which will come to quench the fire
of heat and Charity, which affliction hath taken within our Souls. To
this purpose, from fire to baptismall water, designed by the aforesaid
passage, wee have passed through water and fire, this beats upon the
31. of _Numb._ of clensing by fire, and by water, according as the
thinge may suffer: for visible baptism, is made by visible water,
and wherein the water consists in parts which is nothing else but
congealed water, by the acuity of fire thrust thereinto: with which
salt every Sacrifice must bee salted, that is to say, the externall
man, and the invisible baptism of the internall spirituall man is
wrought by the Grace of the holy Spirit represented by fire which of
it self is invisible, and unperceivable, except it bee attached to
some matter, as the soul is in the body: This fire there burneth in us
mortall sins, and the water washeth away Veniall and Originall.

But some wil demand, What is that fire, from whence comes it, that so
purifies our souls, and warms them in the Love of God, and illightens
them with his knowledge? for wee love nothing but what wee know: and
wee cannot know God, nor see his light, but by his light (_In thy
light wee shall see light_:) that is to say, by his word and parol
who hath vouchsafed to revest us with our flesh. Thy word is a fiery
word, and thy servant loveth it. It _this fire_ then which our Saviour
saith, _hee was come to send into the earth: and what will I, if it bee
already kindled_? For as _Prometheus_ brought fire here below, which
hee had lighted, in one of the wheels of the Suns Chariot: The word
hath rendred, lightened in the _Mercavah_ Chariot or throne of God,
which is all of fire; as also in the 17. of _Dan._ vers. 9. _Origen_
in his 13. _Homil._ upon the 25. of _Exodus_. Jacinth, Purple, double
Scarlet, and Silk: sets down, that these four represented the four
Elements, Silk or Linnen, the Earth from whence it came; Purple, Water,
because extracted from bloud with the shell or cockle of the sea;
Jacinth in Hebrew _Techeleh_, the Air, for it is without heavenly blew;
and Scarlet, fire, by reason of its red enflamed colour. But wherefore
is it there said, that _Moses_ redoubled the fire; and not one of the
rest? Because that fire hath a double propriety, the one to shine, and
to bee bright, and the other to burn: wee must understand corruptible
things, for upon the incorruptible, wee must look upon for this regard,
to refine them and amend more and more. _Did not our hearts burn within
us, while he talked with us by the way, and while hee opened to us the
Scriptures?_ _Luke_ 24. 32. said the Pilgrims of _Emaus_. And this is
it wherefore it is commanded in the Law to offer double Scarlet, to
adorn the Tabernacle. But how can this bee? Aske _Origen_, a Doctor
instructing people in the Church of God, designed by the Tabernacle,
if hee did but cry after the vices, blasphem, and reprove them; without
bringing instruction and consolation to the people, explaining to
them the Scriptures, and the obscure sense therein concealed, wherein
consisteth the internall Doctrin, and the mysticall understanding: hee
well offers Scarlet, but simple and not double, because that this fire
doth not but burn and not lighten. But on the other side, if they doe
but clear and interpret Scripture without reprehension of vice and
sin, and to shew requisite severity to a declarer of the Word of God,
wee offer as it were simple Scarlet: for this fire there, doth not but
illuminate & doth not enflame persons to repentance of their misdoings,
correction and amendment of life: whereunto cooperates the Grace of
the Holy Spirit, which is domestique fire, with which wee must salt
our souls to preserve them from corruption: for there is nothing that
doth more symbolize to the nature of the soul then fire: because it is
that of al things sensible, which approacheth more to spirituality, as
well for its continuall and light motion which soars alwayes upwards,
as for its light, which _Plotin_ saith must properly be attributed to
the intelligible world, heat to the Celestiall, and burning, to the
Elementary. And for as much as it participates more of light then any
of the other Elements: that likewise acquires unto it a precellency
above the rest: for the Earth being a body wholly without motion, dark
and duskish; is by consequent lesse in dignity, as the settlement and
lees of all others. Water because it is clearer, is more worthy, and
the Air yet more: But fire is that which surpasseth all, therefore it
is lodged in a higher place, and nearer to the Region of the air: It is
that, which _Vincent_ no despicable Author, was pleased to say in his
Philosophicall Mirror, 2. Book, 33. chap. Every thing for as much as
it participates more of light, so much the more it approacheth nearer
to the Divine Essence, which is perfect light, by which God began the
Creation of the Universe, or the first thing that hee ordained to bee
made, was light: and to shew us, that wee must alwayes walk in light
and not in darknesse. And on the contrary, how much more the Elements
are distant from light, by so much they approach to their dissemblance
and deformity, which is a token of corruption. For as much as the
parties of the composed Elements are homogeneall and homomaternall, or
like one to another, so much lesse are they corruptible and separable,
as wee may see in gold, the most proportionate substance of all, and
which approacheth nearest to fire: that which moved _Pindarus_ from the
beginning of his first Olympian, to join these three, water, fire and
gold together, water is best, gold, and shining fire, &c.

Doe wee not see that at every end of a field almost that the Earth
doth change nature and quality, and that there are infinite sorts of
them? Not so many of Water, Air is most like unto it self: but if
there bee any changes or alteration therein it is by accident, as if
some maladies should fall thereupon: which doe more readily adhere
thereunto, because of its rarity of substance then to any others.
Fire is altogether exempt therefrom, being alwayes one, and in its al
like to his parts, which are like to themselves, except the matter to
which it doth adhere makes it vary. And this it is in which it comes
nearest to the Celestiall nature which is all Uniform in it self, and
so well regulated, that it hath nothing unlike: which maketh that the
fire is repurgative above the rest of his fellow Elements, to clear
them and put in evidence. In the 12. of St. _Luke_ our Saviour warneth
his Disciples to have their _Lampes burning in their hands, that their
light might come to shine amongst men, that their good workes may bee
seen, to glorifie their Father which is in heaven, for hee that doth
ill hates the light_, which _Job_ saith is worse to Malefactors, then
_the shadow of death_. It is the same also that _Moses_ would secretly
infer in the 3. of _Gen._ where hee makes God to walk _at noon_, which
is the clearest light of the day. And the Apostle in the 1. of _Tim._
6. 16. saith that _he dwells in light in accessible_, without which
all would be confusedly folded up in hideous darknesse. Let us then
take heed, that the light which hee hath pleased to put into our soul,
be not obfuscate and converted into black obscurity: and that on this
solid foundation which hee hath granted us of his knowledge, wee build
not hay, wood, and chaffe, all things of themselves obscure and dark:
in lieu of gold, silver, pretious stones, so clear, shining and bright.
Let us hear again that which _Zohar_ divinely discourseth of, about
fire and light, upon the Text of the 4. of _Levit._ _Thy Lord God is a
consuming fire._ That there is one fire which devoures another being
the stronger, as wee may see in some burning firebrand, or torch, that
which proceeds therefrom is of two sorts: the one blew, attached to a
black match, which retaineth it self there nourishing it self from
corruption. The other flame proceeding from the red inflamed Match is
white, and the blew is white in the highest, as to return to the first
originall: this _Homer_ was not ignorant of, when in the 6. of his
_Odysses_ hee attributed to the _Olympus_ a pure and bright splendor.

Nothing should better represent unto us the four worlds namely the
white which is supercelestial, the blew celestiall, the match fired,
the Elementary, and the burning darknesse, Hell: which abundantly shews
us the body. Rednes, the vitall spirits, resident in the bloud; the
blew, the soul; the white, the intellect, and the divine character
imprinted in the soul: and as the blew light doth quickly change into
yellow, quickly into white, the soul also can doe the same according as
it shall incline it self to good or to evill: or whether thee follows
the provocations of the flesh or the invitations and exhortations of
the intellect, following that which is written in the 4. _Gen._ 7. _If
thou doe well, shalt thou not bee accepted? and if thou dost not well,
sin lieth at the dore. And unto thee shall bee his desire, and thou
shalt rule over him._ The white flame is alwayes the same, without
variation or change, as doth the blew: So the fire in this respect is
fourfold. Black in the lower part of its weik, where the flame that
is fastened to it, is blew. Red in the top of the weik, and the flame
white. This which relates also, to the four Elements, black, materiall,
to the Earth: Blew more spirituall to the air, Red to fire, and white
to water. For heaven is composed of fire and water, which is above the
heavens. _Let the waters that are above the heavens praise the Lord._
Yet neverthelesse all this is but fire, as _Moses_ the son of _Maynon_
declares very well in the second Book of his _Mor._ chap. 31. where he
saith that under the name of Earth are comprised the four Elements,
and by darknesse was understood the first fire: for it is said in the
4. of _Deut._ _You have heard his words out of the midst of fire_, and
then he adds of a sodain, _You have heard his voice out of darknesse_:
This fire moreover, was called the first fire, because that is not
it which is shining and clear, but it is only, so transparent to the
sight, as is the Air: and could not comprehend it self therewith,
for if it were shining wee should in the night see all the air shine
as fire. And for that the darknesse, which was first named, denoted
fire, namely that whereof it is said, that _darknesse was upon the
face of the Abysse_: because the fire was under the three Elements;
comprised under this word _Abyssus_. There are other darknesses which
follow after: then when the separation of things was made, and the
Darknesses he called Night. All this, the foresaid _Rabbin_ put out.
To which that would touch, which the _Alcoran_ carries in _Azoare._
65. _I will send you a clear and beautifull fire._ All this which
adheres then to the low black part, is therwith consumed & destroyed,
and holdeth place of death: after which, cometh true life: the blue
flame likewise if it therein degenerate, and lets it predominate;
but the white doth not endeavor but to uncover it self here below to
transport it self upwards: and not suffer it self to bee over mastered
by others. And doth not devoure nor destroy, nor is not thereby
devoured, nor his clear shining splendor altered, as are those of the
others: By reason whereof wee must adhere and let our selves be salted
with this white fire, and bee illuminated with this fair white light
that never varies, following that which is said in the 4. of _Deu._
_You which adhere to the Lord your God, you are all living also, as
at this day._ But if our blew light the soul, adhere to the black,
and to the red, which are our sensualities and concupiscences, the
strange fire will force it selfe into us, and will devoure and consume
us. This knowledge of the Elements, and of their colours, doth not
insist only in composed bodies, here below, but thereby wee may mount
as by _Jacobs_ Ladder, the height of this celestiall world, where the
Elements are also, yet of another sort, more simple and depured: and
from thence to passe beyond into the intelligible world, where they
are in their true essence; for all consists in the four Elements. Sons
of wisdome understand (saith _Hermes_ in his Tract of 7. chapters)
not only corporally, but also spiritually, the science of the four
Elements, whose secret apparition is in no wise signified, except
they bee first compounded, because of the Elements; there is nothing
made without their composition and Regiment. Will we dive more deeply
into the secrets of this Caball? This Composition and Regiment of
the Elements, is no other thing then the _Sacrosanct_ four-lettered
ineffable _Jehovah_: which comprehends all that which is, was, and
shall bee: where the little and finall ה notes the body and matter, or
other the like, where the Fire cleaveth or fasteneth unto: The ו _vou_
or cloud copulative which assembles the two ה the intelligible and the
sensible, are the spirits that join the Soul with the Body: the red
inflammation of the coal or weik, with the azure flame, doe signifie
the soul: and the Jod is the white unchangeable and permanent flame of
the intellect, where all at length comes to terminate, which whitenesse
is the seat of the true spirituall hidden light, which is not seen nor
known, but by it self: for indeed our nature to take it in it self,
is but a dark substance; right resembling the Moon, which hath no
light but what it receives from the Sun, which she is apt to receive,
as our soul is that of the intellectuall light: And there is not a
creature whatsoever, which is of it self a substantiall light; but
only a participation of the only true light, which shineth in all, and
through all, plainly and sensibly. It is the _Chasmall_ of _Ezechiel_
according to _Zohar_, whence proceeds fire or light assembled of two,
which are yet but one thing: the white light, namely which mounteth
and cleareth that, which no mortall eye could suffer, that of which is
written in 46. _Psal._ _Light is risen to the just, and gladnesse to
the upright in heart_: which corresponds to the intelligible world,
and the inward man. The other is a twinckling and flaming light, of a
red fiery colour, joined and united to a coal, or a weik, signifying
the sensible world, and the ontward corporall man. The soul is placed
in the middle, namely the blew light, part whereof, is fastened to the
weik, and part to the white flame; quickly adhering to one, and quickly
to another, whence according as shee applies it self it comes to bee
either burned or illuminated, following that which _Origen_ sets down
upon the 14. of _Jer._ _That God is a red burning fire, consuming and
destroying, as concerning sinners, and to holy and just persons, a
white rejoycing and vivifying light_: _Jamblicus_, that doth not soar
so high as _Zohar_, being not assisted but by the light and instinct of
nature, said very well, but afterwards the _Phœnician_ Theologie, that
al which we can perceive of goodnesse and contentment, in this sensible
world, comes from the light which is imparted to us from the Sun, and
Stars illustrated with it. And as the Sun imparts his light to the
Moon, to the Stars, and to the Heavens: so God (communicates his to the
intelligible world:) the lively Fountain of all others, to his blessed
Intelligences: So that, all what our souls can have of good, of joy, of
beatitude, be it whilest they are annexed to the bodies, or separated
therefrom, comes from this primordiall light, which shineth in them
by reflexion, as the Sun beams in a basin, a concave looking glasse,
or in water, or twhart a looking glass, according as St. _Denys_ sets
it down, in his 4 chapter of divine names: which proceeding from the
Soveraign good, carries therewith the same appellation. And _Rabbi
Eliezer_ in his chapters sets down, that the heavens were created
with the light of the Creators vestment, grounding himself upon the
Psalmist, 204. 2. _Clad with light as with a vestment, and the Earth
with snow, which was under the throne of his glory._ All Rabinique
Allegories, may men say, but where doe the great mysteries consist,
from which St. _Denys_ doth not straddle far in the place alledged? for
even as this fair great and clear shining Sun, that hath in it self
such a manifest representation and image of Soveraign good, extends
its light throughout the Univers, and doth communicate it to all
that are capable to receive it. So that there is nothing, which doth
not participate of his light, and vivifying heat: there is nothing,
that can hide it self from the heat thereof. In the same manner this
Eternall supercelestiall light, illustrates, vivifies, and perfects
all that which hath being, and banisheth darknesses and all softning
hoarinesse, that may bee brought thereinto, lightning our souls with a
desire alwayes to participate more and more of this light: for when she
comes to prove it by little and little, and by degrees that helps it
and conducts to the joy and fruition of a Soveraign good, which is the
light of the Soul, namely the Intellect that clears it, to be able to
apprehend the living spring from whence it came; for light is not seen,
but by her self: the most worthy and excellent property of fire, with
which it hath this in particular and proper, that shee makes her self
to see, as it doth, and by her means manifesteth all that which our
sight may apprehend. Yet there is nothing harder to comprehend, then
that which is either of the one or of the other, for in shewing us, and
revealing us all it is then, when shee hides her self most from us,
even to blinde us and to reduce our brightnesse into darknesse; As is
his darknesse, so is his light.

Wee must then not speak of God without light, because he is the true
light because, O Lord, thou art my Lantern: which doth enlighten us,
by thy word, _Thy word is a Lantern to my feet_, the splendor of the
Father, and the living fountain of life: as holy St. _Augustine_ after
St. _John_. _In him was life, and the life was the light of men, and
light shined in darknesse, and the darknesse comprehended it not._ So
that from this light, wee have double commodity: the one, that life,
by which wee live, the other the light by which wee see, that which
enlightens us. The spirituall man, the true man enjoyes the one and
the other: the Carnall man, life onely: for touching the rest, _hee is
in darknesse, because they have been rebells to light_, saith _Job_,
_because they have not her wayes_. Even as if one should inclose a
torch within a Lantern of cut-stone, or the like obscure and dark
matter, where its light would remain as quenched and buried, without
ability to extend it self abroad for the obstacle that hinders it.
And if we want light (saith St. _Ambrose_) there would bee no more
comelinesse, beauty, or pleasure in our house: for it is it which
makes all seem agreeable: which he borrowed from _Homer_ according
to what was attributed in _Suidas_, who through an unseasonable time
of cold, and rain having been received into an Inne, where they made
him a fire, hee sodainly made verses containing in substance, that
children were the ornament and Crown of the Father; Towers, of walls;
horses, of the fields; ships, of the Sea; Magistrates, of the places
of the Assembly, where they administred justice to the people; and a
fair burning and lighted fire, the comelinesse and rejoicing of an
house, which renders it so much the more honorable. To see a burning
fire in an old house. Some attribute them to, _Hesiod_: _Trismegistus_
amongst the rest cals light the father of all, who hath procreated man
like unto it, participant of light, and of life depending thereon: and
life was the light of men. The Father is as the Sun in his Essence:
from whence comes splendor and heat, which three are not separated one
from another, but remain united together, although they are distinct:
in this fire then our souls are warmed in the Love and fear of God,
and lightened in his knowledge. Whereupon Pope _Innocent_ the 3. in
a Sermon upon the Holy Spirit sets down, that hee was sent to the
Disciples in shape of fire, to make them shine by wisdome, and to warm
them by charity, that which regulates and forms life, and wisdom forms
doctrine, and as this fire hath life, and heat by which it purifieth
and cleanseth: so the Holy Ghost by its light illuminates the spirit
of man by wisdome, and repurgeth it by its ardent charity. This is the
fire with which the inner man, should be salted, for to salt, bake, and
burn, doe communicate their appellations and significations, by their
consemblable proprieties and effects: because that Salt boils in the
tastes by reason of its acrimony, and fire the sense when it burnes,
and a thing salted is half boiled, as is before said: as well to make
it of more easie digestion, as to conserve it longer, which are the
proprieties and effects of fire.

But to mount from fire here below to the Celestiall, which is the
Sunne, the eye and heart of the sensible world, and the visible Image
of the invisible God. Saint _Denis_ cals it an all-apparent and cleare
Statue of God; and _Iamblichus_ the Image of Divine intelligence, the
father of life, the Image and portraict of the Prince, and Soveraigne
Dominator of all the universe, the light of the one, and the other
world, the Celestiall and Elementary. But may we not here alledge at
once this brave authority of _Plutarch_ on the interpretation of the
word _El_, where after he had turned it, and returned it about a pot
by many discourses, which at last concluding nothing, vanished away
in smoak: he concludes that this word, as indeed it is, would say
nothing else, but thou art? which hath been drawn from the two first
letters of the holy four lettered word _JEHOVAH_, transposed the one
before the other, in the Greek _E.L._ which sheweth that they have
all drunke of this Caballine or Mosaicall fountaine. And at last come
to say, We worship God in his essence, by our thoughts, and reverence
the Sun, which is its Image, for the vertue which it hath given it, to
produce things here below: only representing by its splendor, which he
communicates to all, I know not what appearance, or rather shadow of
beatitude and mercy, so much as it is possible for a visible Nature to
represent an Intelligible, and a moving to that which is immoveable
and stable. We see the Sunne, as wel as fire, but not so neare, to
be able so exactly to marke it, we shall very well conjecture in our
spirit of that which we may well apprehend by sight, that this must
be the most admirable peece of worke of all visible Creatures. For
although it appears unto us little bigger then a dish or platter, in
regard of the great distance betwixt us and it, so that I tremble to
conceive it, after the very demonstrations Mathematicall, which are
certaine and infallible, yet it is many times greater then the Globe
of the Earth and Water joined together, which containeth more then
6000 miles about, an apparent witnesse of the wisdome and greatnesse
of its Architect. Of which _Ecclesiasticus_ in the 43. chapter makes
this fine Epiphonema, Who is he that can ever satisfie himself to
contemplate the glory of the Creator? the Firmament in its height which
comprehends all things under it, so pure and cleare? and the forme of
this vast and immense hollow of Heaven so faire and admirable to the
sight? Is not this an apparent vision of his glorious and triumphant
Majesty? The Sunne at his rising shewing the light of the day (an
admirable vessell) arrived in the middle of his dayly Carreer, it
burns and rosteth the earth, and who is it that can subsist before
its extreame heat? It burneth thrice double the mountains, more then
the fiery furnaces the pottery which they put to scum off, exhaling
from it selfe flaming vapors, and a splendor which darkens the most
strong assured sight. Surely the Lord which hath made and formed it
of nothing so fair, so great, and admirable, may well say it to be
greater then his owne worke, and which hasteth it so speedily, as to
measure this incomprehensible space in 24 hours. With the surplus of
this discourse, which refers it selfe, and is as a Paraphrase upon the
19. _Psal._ where in few termes, there are touched three principall
points of the Sunne: Its beauty compared to a spouse comming out of his
bed chamber, and he as a Bridegroome comming out of his chamber, his
force and impetuosity as a Giant to runne his course: nor is there any
thing that can hide himselfe from the heat thereof. And its extream
celerity, his going forth is from the end of the Heaven, and his
circuit to the ends of it. So that as Saint _Augustine_ in his third
Sermon upon Advent, there are three things in the Sunne, its course,
its splendor, and its heat; the heat dries, the splendor illuminates,
and its course runs through the universe. And as in man, which is the
little world, the heart is the chiefe seat of life, first living, and
last dying: So the Sunne in the great man, which is the World, is the
spring, the light and heat which vivifieth all things which imparteth
to the Starres and to the Moone the light by which they shine; even
as Christ, which is the Sunne of Righteousnesse, and the light of our
Souls, which without it, would remaine buryed in a blinde obscurity.
He that followes me shall not walke in darknesse, but shall have the
light of life, which conserves it self for the good, and extinguisheth
it selfe against the wicked witnesse, _Job_ 18. _The light of the
wicked shall be put out_. Where light is such, that sometimes the
evill Angels transform themselves to deceive us; for in as little as
we can blow it backe behinde us, it growes dead and dissipates. But
the true and right light doth illighten us without variation as well
in the knowledge of God, in this which dependeth on our Salvation, as
of things sensible and naturall; whereunto the clearnesse of the Sunne
and of Fire, and their effects do guide us more then any other thing,
to apprehend some sparkle of this soveraigne Wisdome, wherewith God
built this great All by his Word. For every science to which we may
attaine by our ratiocination and discourse, proceeds from the knowledge
of sensible things, (for there is nothing in the intellect, but was
first in the sense) but incertaine and variable, to be in continuall
variation and vicissitude. So that the knowledge that comes from the
light of Nature, is very weake, and full of doubts, and incertitudes,
if it bee not illustrated by Divine Revelation, which makes us see all
as it is in its true and reall essence, as the light of the Sunne doth
all things corporall. So that the most part of heathen Philosophers,
after they have alembeck’t their spirit to the perquisition of naturall
causes, they finde themselves so confounded, that they are forced
to avow that by the only way of ratiocination you cannot draw truth
therefrom. As _Aristotle_ discourseth thereupon well at large, in the
4. of the _Metaphysicks_. _Ptolomie_ also, that we must not ground and
rule our conceptions for regard of corporall things above spirituall;
for they are farre distant each from other, and there is much disparity
and disproportion between them. But yet lesse between intelligible
above sensible; although they serve us herein as a ladder, following
that which the Apostle saith, That the invisible things of God are
seen by the Creation of the world, by things made, also his eternall
power and divinity. We must therefore run back to this spiritual light,
which holdeth the highest & soveraign place in the knowledge of the
understanding; So that light is more properly of things spiritual,
then corporal, and more certain and true are the invisible then the
visible; for as much as God only is a true light in his essence from
whence he derives into our spirit all the knowledg wherewith it can be
illustrated, as the potentiall light of our eye is from the brightness
of the Sun, or of something artificial, traversing the transparence of
the air, the place of which eye the soul holds in spiritualty, as the
divine Intelligence maketh that of the Sun, which is a representation
and image thereof.

By reason whereof, so long as our understanding shall leave it selfe to
be cleansed by the fire of Divine love, he will ever keep its living
and luminous brightnesse. But if it suffer it selfe foolishly to go
after exterior light, it shall be also obscured and extinguished with
the interiour which domineers over it, even as a small candle or wax
taper with the twinckling beames of a cleare shining Summer Sunne. Sith
then this sensible light, saith Saint _Thomas_ upon the 36. of _Job_,
by the absolute Omnipotency of God, who disposeth it as he pleaseth, it
is sometimes hid to mortals, sometimes communicated; from whence we may
gather that there is another light more perfect and excellent, namely
the spiritual, which God reserves for a recompence of good works,
following that which _Job_ sets downe, God covereth the light in his
hands, and ordaineth it that it should returne againe and manifest it
self. He sheweth it to those he loveth, that they may well mount unto
it. Whereto that of _Zoroastres_ word for word was conformable. You
must mount up to the true light and to the bright beams of your father,
from whom the soul was sent you, revested with much intellect. Behold
the relations of these Sunnes the sensible and intelligible, and of the
two lights that proceed therefrom. For as that of the Sunne obtains the
first place in corporall things, saith Saint _Augustine_ in his book of
freewill, and that by means thereof, the interiour communicate with the
superiour, the same doth the light of the spirituall Sun in regard of

There are also things that have heat, and no light, as that of Animals
of quick chalk besprinkled with water, horse and pigeon dung, which
_Galen_ writes, he hath seen to wax a fire of it selfe, heapes of
oats, and other graines, except Barly, new wines which boil, the lees
in the vintage, heaps of Olives, Apples, and Peares, which is a kind
of putrefaction, whence also there is engendred some strange heat, as
we see in Apostemaes, and in flesh which begins to bee corrupted; and
on the contrary wee see others that have light and no heat; as worms
that glister in the night, and of little flies that fly in the dark in
summer time; of shels and scales of fish, in rotten wood, in stones,
and in the eyes of ravenous beasts. _Suidas_ speaking of the visible
and invisible, this said he, cannot wel be expressed in words; it is
as little flyes which flye in the summer, which by displaying their
wings, fly into the eyes with small sparkling fires; the worms also
that shine in the night, the shels and scales of some fishes, and
other the like, which cannot be perceived in the light, but very well
in the darke, for the fire which so shineth from them in the dark, is
not a colour, whose property is to make it seene at the brightnesse of
the Sunne, or other light, because that the air being transparent and
deprived of all colours, the sight might very easily pierce it, and
passe through to apprehend them.

But there are four differences of visible things, some cannot see but
by day, the others, on the contrary, but by night, others by day and
night, and others that have no place in darknesse. Colours are not
seen but by day, not by night; Of things called resplendent, some by
day, others by night, others by day and night; for there are some
that are illustrious and cleare, others darke and heavy, and others
betwixt both; others that have lustre and splendor, dark and waterish,
and are not seene but by night, as the foresaid flyes, worms, fish
scales, rotten wood, and the like, for in the day time their splendor
is surmounted by another more powerfull which defaceth it; as also
there are more stars, so that the darker the night is, the clearer
they shine. Those betwixt both, as the Moon and some Stars, by day and
by night, as the morning and the evening Stars, called by the Greeks
_Phosphor_, by the Latines _Lucifer_, this is _Venus_ Starre. Fire
also which pierceth the air more then it may, and illustrates it to
demonstrate the colours that are therein; for the rest it is content
to make it see, without bringing into action the transparence that is
in the air, as we may see in the darke, where wee see fire a great way
off, but not by the colours that are betwixt them. By day it shines
also, but not act against the air, for that it is suffocated and
extinguished by a stronger light. The clearnesse of the Moone likewise,
for that shee is not very dark, shee is seen in the day time, but
better in the night. _Suidas_ runs through all this; But to the purpose
of lights without heat, I have read of nothing more admirable and
strange, then that which _Gonzalo de Oviedo_ in the 15. Book 8. chap.
of his _Naturall History of the Indies_, alledgeth of a certain little
flying animal, of the bignesse of an Hanneton, very frequent in the
Isle of _Spaine_, and in other Islands thereabouts, having two wings
above, strong and hard, and two below them, two others more thinne and
fine. The little beast called _Cocuye_, hath shining eyes as lighted
candles, so that wheresoever he passes he illuminates the air, and
gives it such a brightnesse that a man may see him a great way off, and
in a chamber as dark as it may be, even at midnight, men may read and
write by the light that comes from them; So that if a man binde two
or three together, this would give more light then a Lanthorne or a
Torch, in the field: and amidst the Woods in the night, as darke as may
bee, they make themselves to be seen more then a mile. This clearnesse
consists not onely in the eyes but also in their flanks, when they
open their wings. They are accustomed to serve themselves with them,
as we do with a Lamp or other light, to sup at night, and to do the
affairs of the house. But when he comes to determine and dye, its light
extinguisheth also. The Indians had a custome to make a post of them to
strike feare in seeing them by night, for that it seemed that they had
a visage, being rub’d therewith, as if it were all fire. _Plinie_ in
his 21. Book, chap. 11. speaketh of a shining herb in the night, called
_Nyctegretes_ or _Nyctilops_ for that we may see it shine a farre off,
but he alledgeth many things by heare-say, as not having seen them.

But to returne to the Suns light which is therein more perfect, then
in any other thing sensible with heat, for it is the true heavenly
fire, as _Speusippus_ said, which describeth all that appertaines to
the nourishment of this great man, the Universe; as the Elementary
doth the viands of the animal man. And as the heart in animals is
the principall soul of life, the same is the Sunne in the heart of
the world; and the primordiall spring of all light therein, which he
departs to the Stars, as doth Jesus Christ to our souls. And no more
nor lesse then the Sunne and the Moon (said _Origen_ upon _Genesis_)
illightens our bodies; likewise our consciences and thoughts are from
this splendour of the Father if wee be not blinde, and that this
proceeds not by our faults: Now if we be not all equally illuminated,
no more then the Stars are by the Sunne, which differ in brightnesse
one from the other but according to our capacity and carriage, and as
more or lesse, we lift up the eyes of our contemplation to receive this
light. Returne you towards me, and I will returne towards you, for he
is a God at hand, and not a God a farre off. That which we can have of
intelligence (saith _Zohar_) by our naturall ratiocination, is as if
our spirit were lightned by the Moone: but the Divine relation holds
place of the Sunne, whence the light chaseth away and banisheth the
Princes of Darknesse, where their greatest force and vigour raignes.
The Sunne is risen, they shall be placed in their chambers, sayes the
104 _Psalme_ speaking of Devils and wicked Spirits, under the name of
savage and revenous Beasts. For (as _Zohar_ puts it) these tenebrions
are stronger and more gallant in the darke, so the good Angels that
assist and favour us, receive great reinforcement from the light, not
onely from the Divine, but from the Celestiall and solar, by which the
Divine and Supreame shining brightnesse, imparts her vertue to the
heavens, and by them communicates it to all that is under the sphere
of the Moone within the elementary world. Wherefore, not without
cause, about dead bodies till they bee put in the grave, they imploy
lights to drive farre off this ancient Serpent _Zamael_, to whom for
malediction it is said, thou shalt eat earth all the dayes of thy life;
for our Bodies being deprived thereof, are no more but dust and earth.
So that fire is a great aid and comfort to us, not onely during our
life, but yet after our death against these wicked dark powers which
gnaw in obscurity, as these night birds and savage beasts which dare
not appeare in the day, fearing the light of the Sunne; how much more
then that of good spirits their adversaries, which receive it from the
divine resplendence? for the same, as is the Sunne towards it, the
fire is in regard of the Sunne, who serves us, amongst other things to
make us see this so great accomplished work of the universe built by
the Soveraigne Creator of so excellent Artifice, and that which his
light doth manifest unto us, in this sensible world, it is nothing for
this regard, for the true being doth consist of things intellectuall,
stript of all corporeity and matter, the Sunne it selfe, the rarest
master-piece of all others, could not see it selfe, but by its proper
light, which is presently accompanied with a heat vivifying all things;
for there is a double propriety, one to shine and clarifie, the other
to warme, yea to burne the subjacent matters which illuminates the
whitenesse, and waxeth blacke with the Sunnes heat. The _Sunne hath
coloured mee, Cant. 1._ Whereupon _Origen_ notes, that there where
there is no sinne, nor matter of sinne, there is scorching or burning
following, the 121 _Psalm_. _The Sun shall not burne thee by day, nor
the Moon by night_; for the Sunne illuminates good men, but it burnes
up sinners; who hating light for the evill they have done; for in
many places of Scripture you shall finde that the Sunne and the Fire,
whereof it speaks, they are not those that wee see, but the spirituall.
The spirituall Sunne saith Saint _Augustine_, doth not rise, but upon
holy persons, following that which is spoken of the perverse, in the
5. of _Wisdome, The light of Justice is not risen upon us, nor the
Sunne of Intelligence is not come to illighten us_. As for its heat,
it must rather be kept for witnesse of Holy Scripture, there is no man
can hide him from the heat thereof; not to frivolous imaginations and
subtilities of those that maintaine it to be neither hot nor cold,
grounding themselves upon this argument, All heat in long continuance
although that it remaine alwayes in the same estate and degree, doth
notwithstanding augment it selfe, so that it would bee intolerable.

If then the Sunne be so hot, as it seems, after five or six thousand
years since when it was first created, it would follow that there
would come a conflagration under the torrid _Zone_, from whence he
stirs not; who from thence was extended to all the rest of the earth;
there where we see the contrary, for the whole is alwayes in the same
estate. And afterwards for that the sunne is many times greater then
the globe of the Sea, and the Earth, and its Sphere, so farre esloigned
from it, that it hath no proportion with it, it should follow, that
it was as hot in one time and place, as in another. With semblable
deductions, against which it is easie to contradict, but this would
turne us aside too farre from our principall Subject. _Anaxagoras_
also said, that it was a grosse enflamed stone, or a plate of burning
fire. _Anaximander_, a wheel full of fire, 25 times greater then all
the earth. _Xenophanes_, an heap of little fires. The Stoicks, an
inflamed body, proceeding from the Sea, wherein they have shewed the
affinity of fire and salt together. _Plato_ a body of much fire; and
thus, one after one fashion, one after another, but all tending to
make it of the nature of fire. Moreover, it is a thing too admirable,
of its greatnesse, so immense, whereupon the spirit of man hath fair
Galleries to walke, in pursuit of the high fetched meditations of Gods
mervails; for (as _Chrysostome_ said well upon _Genesis_) we must from
the contemplation of the creatures, ascend and come to the Creatour.
So that those then, are very ignorant and void of understanding, who
cannot from the Creatures, attain to the knowledge of the Creator.
Those that dwell in the extremities of the West, where it goes as it
were to bed, in the waters of the Ocean, see it at his rising of the
same grandeur, as those of _Catai_, where it riseth; which sheweth
the smallnesse and disproportion of the earth in comparison thereof.
That if the Moone, which is farre inferior in greatnesse thereunto,
sheweth it selfe almost equall, it is by reason of the great distance
from the one and the other, for by so much as things are at a distance,
by so much the more they lessen themselves to our sight, and this is
sufficiently verified by the rules of perspective. Surely these are
two chiefe Masterworks, that of these two great luminaries, which are
not of small ornament and commodity, for the life of man, as Saint
_Chrysostome_ puts it, upon the 135. _Psalme_, but it doth contribute
much thereto, yea almost all, in regard of that which concernes the
body; for besides the light wherewith they enlighten us by day and by
night, they distinguish times and seasons, help us to make voyages, as
well by Sea, as Land, they ripen fruits, without which our corporall
life could not be maintained, with other infinite usages which proceed
from them. The Sunne is put for the whole Heaven, for that it is the
greater part thereof, and for fire; and Heaven is the seat and vessell
of incorruptible and unalterable bodies. The Moone president of
moisture, represents water and earth, and salt composed thereof; for
there is nothing wherein moisture is more permanent, nor which is more
moist then salt, whereof the Sea for the most part doth consist; and
there is nothing where the Moone doth more distinctly make her motions
to appeare, then in the Sea, as we perceive in the ebbing and flowing
thereof, and in the braines and marrows of Animals, so that for good
cause she is called the Regent of the waters, and of phlegmatick and
waterish moisture; which although it seem to be dead and inanimate,
(in respect of fire which is living) she is permanent chiefly in salt,
which hath an inexterminable humidity; and is that which keepeth the
Sea from drying up, for without Salt it had been long agone drawn out
and dryed up, there where the fire lives not in it, but in another;
for in that it is a materiall Element, it hath no place proper to
it. Of these two, namely, the heat of the Sun, and moisture of the
Moone, in which consisteth the life of all things; and without which
nothing would grow, increase, nor be maintained, not fire it selfe,
which cannot subsist without air, which is double, one participating
of the heat of fire, ascending from the water (out of the bowels of
moist nature, a sincere and light fire forthwith flying out, seeks
things aloft, saith _Trismegistus_.) And the other as water descending
from fire, so long till it come to congeal. For so there is one moist
water which tends upwards, to rarifie it selfe in the aire, and another
cold comming downe to thicken it selfe in the nature of Earth, untill
at last it comes to terminate in red fire, which is in gold, for gold
is the last substance of all. And Aire is the mediating conciliator
betwixt the moisture of passable water, that constitutes matter and
the fires heat, on which the Agent and form doth depend. Earth is as
the matrix where fire, by the means of air and fire introducing its
action, excites, and thrusts out, which is thereby engendred to its
determined end. The other five Planets, and the fixed starres come
in but collaterally, as assistants and coadjutors of the effects of
the two luminaries, where all their influxions are reduced, as do the
rivers of the Sea, and from the earth reciprocally comes back their
norriture; so that heaven and fire, are as the male, the agent, and
water and earth, as the female, patient; but under heaven, the air is
comprized. And as mans seed, inclosed and lapped within the matrix, is
nourished, fomented, and entertained with corrupt bloud by the help of
naturall heat, so fire, by the means of air and water, is maintained
in the earth for the production of things which engender thereof.
So the Heaven, Sunne, Fire, and Air, march together, and the earth
under, which are comprised in the Elements below, water and dry land,
on their side. It is _Moses_ Heaven and Earth, and _Hermes_ his high
and low, which relate one to the other; that which is above, is as
that which is below; and on the contrary, to perpetuate the miracles
of one thing, as he saith in his Table of _Esmeraulds_. _Zohar_ the
intelligible and sensible World, by the contemplation whereof, we come
to the contemplation of spirituall things, which the Apostle before
him had touched in the first to the _Romanes_. _The invisible things
of him from the creation of the World, are made knowne by those things
which are seene_; for all that is here below in the earth, is of the
same manner as in heaven above; for God the Creator made all things
annexed one to another, which _Homer_ was not ignorant of, by his
golden chaine to bind together this inferiour and superiour world, and
that they adhere one to the other, that his glory may stretch through
all, above and below. And in imitation thereof, man the image of the
great world, and the measure of every thing was thereof made and formed
of things low and high. _And God took dust and thereof formed Adam, and
breathed into him the breath of life_; the very light that shineth in
the sensible world, depends upon this superiour light that is hid from
us; from whence proceed all faculties and vertues, which from thence
are expressed to our knowledge, for there is nothing here below that
doth not depend from that above, by a particular power, committed unto
it, to govern and excite it to all its appetites, and motions, so that
all is bound together.

We hold well for the remainder, that all we have from light in the
sensible world, comes from the Sun, for that of the Moon, and of the
Stars although inumerable, is a very small thing; yet it proceeds from
the Sun; and that of fire, is but artificiall to give us light for
default of the Sunne. But how shall it square with that to be willing
to attribute the primitive source of light, and chiefly that of the
producing and vivifying to the sunne, for that we see in the beginning
of _Genesis_, that the first thing that was made, was the light on
the first day, and the Sunne not till the fourth, vegetables being
produc’t from the former? This was (say the _Rabbins_ thereto) most
wisely advised by _Moses_, as all his other writings proceeding from
divine inspiration, to take away from men all occasion to Idolize this
luminary, when we see that light was procreated before it. But in this
respect there presents a very rare mystery, and worthy of observation,
that the complete perfection of things fals out alwaies on the fourth
day, as of the light. The Sunne and Moone were made the fourth day,
waters on the second day, produced nought but fishes; the fifth, which
is the fourth after, and al animals; the sixth with man, for whom the
fruits of the earth were made the third. Which sheweth us that the 4
number so much celebrated by _Pythagoras_, denoteth the perfection that
resides in ten, resulting from the four first numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, make

So _Plato_ was willing to informe his _Timeus_, where he treats of
the procreation of things by these words, one, two, three, but where
is the fourth? _Zohar_ upon this particle of the 14. of _Leviticus,
you shall keepe my Sabbaths_. See saith _Rabbi Eliezer_, what is the
mystery here contained. In six dayes was the world created, in each
of those is manifested the worke that was made therein, and God gave
it his particular vertue after he had finished it; but on the fourth
be attributed one more expresse, for those of the third preceding,
being secret and hidden, came not in evidence, except that the fourth
day happened their faculties would reveal themselves; for water, air,
and fire, the three superiour elements remained as suspended, and the
workmanship of them did not appeare till the fourth day manifested
them, and then appeared all that was made on each. But if you will
alledge that this was the third day, that then God said, _Let the earth
sprout and produce the green herb, producing seed; and the fruit trees
bearing fruit after his kinde, which hath his seed in it selfe upon the
earth, and it was so_; yet this, notwithstanding that this happened on
the third day, he suffered not to be annexed with the fourth, without
any separation; the which fourth comes to meet with the Sabbath, which
is the fourth day, the fourth, and is by it selfe the perfect fourth,
where there appeared all the works of the six preceding dayes: and it
is the fourth foot of the _Merchavah_, of the divine throne, whereon
God sate for his repose all the six dayes, Thus discourseth _Zohar_.

We must not here passe over another mystery, which these two luminaries
have, each three names, the Sunne is called _Chomah_ wisdome,
_Scemesch_ heat, and _Cheres_ drynesse. _Plato_ in _Timæus_, All
moisture that the celerity of fire raised, and that which remained arid
and dry, wee call κεραμὸν potters earth. That of _Maor_ Luminary, is
common to the one, and to the other. The Moone is called _Malchut_,
reigne, or kingdome, _Jareha_, which the Greek call μήνη for that she
perfects her course in a month, and _lebenab_ white, for as the Sun
representeth Jesus Christ, the Moon denotes the Church which is all
fair without any blemish, following that which is written in the 6.
of _Canticles_ 10. _Who is she that looketh forth, as the morning,
fair as the Moone, clear as the Sun?_ Of this light of the Sunne of
Righteousnesse, whereof it is said in the fourth of _Malachy_, _But
unto you that do feare my name, the Sunne of Justice shall arise_,
4. 2. Where the Moone the Church is illustrated on a perpetuall day
without darknesse, according to _Esay 60. v. 20._ _The Lord shall be
thine everlasting light, who hath planted his Tabernacle, or Church,
within the fair clear shining Sunne, that illuminates every man that
comes into the world_; no more nor lesse then the starres, which are
innumerable, and the least as big as the whole earth, receive all their
light from the visible sunne. Of whom shall it not here bee lawfull to
relate something of his praises of the Song that _Orpheus_ made unto it.

    _Hear mee most blessed
    Sunne, Worlds heart and eie,
    Heavenly brightnesse shining,
    Living mens pleasing aspect,
    Begetting Aurera in thy right hand,
    And the night on thy left.
    Thou governest the four seasons,
    Who dance in a round,
    At the sound of thy golden harpe
    Thou runnest through this great vault,
    Upon thy shining Chariot
    Drawn with thy Coursers
    That respire heat and life.
    Ardent, unpolluted measurer
    Of times, that shewes thy selfe to all.
    A Soveraigne aid to each,
    Keeping faith, eye of Justice.
    Brightnesse of shining light._

Behold that which we here thought to runne through concerning these
three fires, (as for the three salts which relate thereunto, we will
speak thereof hereafter) namely, the Terrestriall and Elementary, the
Heavenly and Solary, and the Intelligible, that of the Divine Essence
denoting the Father, from whence proceeds the light which is the Sunne,
and these two the heat of the Holy Spirit, which kindles our hearts
with the love and knowledge of God, and with charitable love to our

The same in heaven, the light of the Sunne expands it selfe to
illighten all the starres, and here below to the production and
vivification of all that which is there begotten, and maintained. And
in the Elementary world, fire doth clear us, warm us, and boil our
viands, and lends us all other commodities, and usages.

As for fire in the 66. of _Esay_ 15, 16. which the Evangelist cites
here, whose fire shall not extinguish, and whose worme dieth not. It is
without doubt destinated to the punishment of reprobates, which shall
never be quenched, nor the worme that stingeth the conscience shall
never dye; To keep that this worm that is engendred of corruption may
not procreate, we must salt it with discretion and prudence, that it
may do nothing which may offend and scandalize his neighbour, according
as the Evangelist specifies it, _Hee that shall scandalize one of these
little ones that beleeve in mee_. And as for banishing and chasing away
strange fire, that devours our soul, as a burning feaver doth vitall
heat, this must be done by the mediating intervention of divine fire,
which is much more puissant then any other. Let us heare that which
to this purpose Saint _Ambrose_ alledgeth in the 3. _chap._ of his
Offices, Saint _John_ baptized Jesus Christ with the Holy Ghost and
with fire, which is the type and image of the Holy Ghost, who after his
ascension, must descend for the remission of sinnes, so enflaming as a
fire doth the soul and heart of the faithfull, according as _Jeremie_
saith in 20. & 9. after he had received the Holy Ghost, _and it was as
a burning fire in my heart, shut up in my bones_. What is the meaning
then of that in the _Maccabees_, that the fire was become water, and
this water excites the fire, but that the spirituall grace burneth by
the fire, and by the water it doth purifie and cleanse our sinnes? for
sinne washeth and burneth, according to which the Apostle saith, fire
will prove what each mans works shall bee; for it must necessarily be,
that this examination should bee perfected in all those that desire to
returne into Paradise. It was not without cause, nor idlely set downe
in the 3. of _Genesis_, that after _Adam_ and _Eve_ were banished from
thence, he placed at its entrance a brandishing sword of fire, to keep
the passage to the tree of life. With this fire then we must all be
salted that are in the way of salvation; following that which _Origen_
set downe in his 3. _Homil._ upon the 36. _Psalme_, Wee must all goe to
the fire of Purgatory, and _Peter_ and _Paul_, but all shall not passe
thereby, after the same sort as they did, whereof it is said in the
43. of _Esay_ 2. _When thou shalt passe through the waters, the waves
shall not cover thee, for I will be with thee, when thou shalt march
through the fire, thou shalt not bee burnt._ The Israelites passed
through the red Sea dry-shod, and the Ægyptians were drowned therein:
The three children in _Nebuchadnezzars_ furnace, had no detriment, and
those that heated the fire without, were therewith consumed. And in the
19. _Hom._ upon the 16. of _Leviticus_, All are not purged by this fire
that parts from the Altar, it is the fire of the Lord; for hee that is
from the Altar, is not of God, but a strange fire, dedicated for the
cruciating of sinners, which shall never be quenched, nor the worm that
gnaweth shall never dye: for after that the soul by a multitude of its
wicked comportments hath heaped up within him abundance of sinnes, this
congregation of evils in succession of times, comes to boil and enflame
us with a paine and punishment internall, as the body doth of a feaver
proceeding from the excesse of the mouth, or other superfluities, when
she shall come to thinke and relate a history of its delinquencies,
which will bee a perpetuall prickle, wherewith it will bee tormented,
so that shee will make her selfe as an accuser and witnesse against her
selfe, according as the Apostle said, _Rom._ 2. 15. _Their conscience
also bearing witnesse, and their thoughts either accusing or excusing
one another, in the day when God shall judge the secrets of all men._
But _Jeremie_ on the other side, speaking of a drinke of the wrath of
God, which shall be poured out upon all manner of Nations, whereof
whosoever will not drinke, shall not be purified; and from that we
learne, that the fury of Gods vengeance, profiteth for the purgation
of souls, as well in generall as in particular, and there is nothing
more purgative then fire, of which the Prophet _Malachy_ should say in
his 3. _chap._ 3. _The Lord will sanctifie them in a burning fire_,
and such is the fire of tribulations and adversity, with which we must
be salted and purged; for salt is purgative above any other thing, as
wee may sufficiently perceive in those that drink Sea water, who all
dye of a flux. Of the other fire which is exterminative and strange,
of which it is also in the 10. of _Leviticus_ 2. _And a fire went out
from the Lord, and devoured Nadab and Abihu_: God said in the 32. of
_Deut._ _v._ 22. _They shall burne unto the lowest hell, and shall
consume the earth with her encrease, and set on fire the foundations
of the Mountaines_. For the justice of the Almighty, said one of the
good Fathers foreseeing that which must come, from the beginning of the
world, created this fire of eternall hell, that whereof _Esay_ intends
to speak, whose fire is not quenched, to beginne to be the punishment
of the wicked, without that burning and heat should cease, now for that
it is neither wood nor charcoale, nor other matter to maintain it, but
shall be eternally tormented therewith in body and soul, because they
have offended with the one and the other; for sins are the bait and
nourishment of this fire, which by a gathering together of misdeeds,
and superabundance of iniquity heaped one upon another, enflame the
soul to a perdurable punishment, even as a burning feaver, the repleat
body, and render it a joice of ill digestion, by a superfluity of
viands, and other disorders, and excesse from whence there was drawne
a wicked habitude; for the soul then comming to remember her delights,
agitated with the living and most rigorous pricks which gall it, she
comes to be her owne accuser, by certaine remorse of conscience that
can profit them no more, (because in hell there is no redemption) and
to be his witnesse and judge, as the Apostle sets it downe in the 2. of
the _Romanes_, _Their conscience bearing witnesse, and their thoughts
accusing them, in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men_.
But there is also a fire in this world, by which we must be salted and
purified, for as much deduction of it as we must endure from thence,
namely, tribulations, which are to us as a Minorative in Physick, of
the compleat purgation that wee must receive thereby.

The two foresaid fires furthermore, that of the Altar, and the strange,
may be very properly compared, that there to _aqua vitæ_, the other to
_aqua fortis_, which ends and destroyes all, where _aqua vitæ_ serves
for nourishment, for all that wee eat or drinke participates thereof,
and is that which passeth and converts into nutriment. It is true that
it is revealed more nearly in some subjects then in other. Wine is
that where it manifests it self soonest, and with lesse preparation
and paine, afterwards wheat, and so of the rest; for there is nothing
wherein nature doth so soone make his profit, as of these two. _Aqua
vitæ_ is also called burning, because it conceives so easily the flame
and burneth, for that it is necessary, that whatsoever doth nourish
must suffer under the fires action. Otherwise how is it that naturall
heat could work thereupon, which is much weaker then that of fire?
wee know by experience that we could not draw any nourishment from
stones, metals, earth, and other substances, whereupon fire cannot
bite: and if wolves doe sometimes eat clay, wild-ducks, and other
birds, small flints, and gravell, it is either to avoid vacuity, or for
some medicament to them knowne by a secret instinct of nature, but not
that this doth digest or serve them for maintenance, no more then Iron
doth _Ostriches_; which yet they corrupt by a strong and great heat of
their stomach. But you will say, that this assimilation contraries the
text of the 10. of _Leviticus_ where _Aarons_ sonnes are so burned for
offering strange fire.

That which _Rabbi Simeon_ to _Zohar_ relates in part, that they served
at the Altar, being drunk, and overcome with wine, for that which
followes after demonstrates it; that God said unto _Aaron_, Thou nor
thy sonnes shall not drink wine when you enter into the Tabernacle:
whereto may be answered, that similitudes cannot in all, or through
all agree, otherwise it would be the same thing they represent. _Aqua
vitæ_ doth not make drunke if men take not so much at a time, that it
may alienate people from their spirit. And yet being separate from
wine, the remainder should be nothing but phlegme, and residences,
which cannot in any sort make drunke, nor being therewith mingled and
adjoined by nature, as to stoppe again the acuity of the _aqua vitæ_.
Yet we see by experience, in Germany and other cold Regions, where
_aqua vitæ_ is in good esteem, as well for the quantity which they
take; it doth not for that make men drunke, as wine would do in such
a quantity, as that, wherewith it should be quenched; and putting a
little Salt in very strong wine, it will make men drunk sooner then to
drinke it pure. I have often made tryall, that often joyning together
_aqua vitæ_ to that which men had drawne, this mingling could not
cause drunkennesse any more, because the parts once separated of the
compounded elements, and then reconjoined, take another nature then it
had at the first. Certes it is a great support and comfort that _aqua
vitæ_ hath for a weak stomach, either through age or other accident,
although men thinke that it burnes and offends the noble parts; for
though it be inflamable, it is not therefore burning. He that would
see the great vertues thereof, let him read the _Quintessences_
of _Raimund Lullius_, _Rupescissa_, _Ulstadius_ his heaven of
Philosophers, for wee will not stay here as on a thing too triviall
and beaten. They call it the quintessence for the conformity it hath
with the celestiall nature, because that as the heaven, which is as
another Air, but more subtill then the Elementary, contains the Stars,
whence it receives divers impressions and effects that it doth infuse
and communicate unto us, here below, the same _Aqua vitæ_ doth easily
impregn it self, with the qualities and specificall vertues which are
therein put to infusion. To this proposition of heaven and Stars, and
of their different impressions, wee will not here passe over a fine
dispute which here presents it self. The Earl _Pica de Mirandula_,
truly a prodigious spirit accompanied with great Literature, in his 3.
Book against Judiciall Astrology, 25. chap. transported with too hot a
curiosity to impugn this Art, Will we (saith he) prove that the vertue
of all the Stars is but even one? Let us suppose this Maxime. That
the nature of heaven cannot more openly and sucinctly, expresse, then
by saying heaven to be a unity of all bodies, for there is nothing in
all the universe that doth not depend upon this certain one, as from
his primitive course, with many other premises wherewith hee would
conclude that of the propriety and vertue of each Star indifferently,
depends the facultie and vertue of all the composed Elements, without
having there other difference between them, if peradventure, this was
not in greatnesse; as it is apparently seen: nor can men say, that one
presides more particularly to one thing here below, then to another:
for every Star presides to all; so that if all were joined and united
together in one onely body, this should be as if infinite flames and
fires should come to assemble, to make but one, which would be stronger
then true, but not of diverse propriety and nature, which doth not
change it self into homogeneall, and homomaternall substances, by a
coacervation, nor which comes to produce other effects then it did,
being separated, as one may see in water, and a great torch in respect
of a little waxe light, which will light infinite others as well as the
torch, though more powerfull, to heat, boil, and burn, as being in a
greater volume.

But it is a very hard thing to overthrow an opinion already received
of long durance, chiefly if it bee supported with authority of holy
Scripture; which must bee to us as a touchstone, by it to verifie
our ratiocinations, for the most part uncertain and erroneous, if
they bee not conducted by divine inspiration: It is written in the
147. _Psal._ 5. _He knoweth all the Stars, and calleth them all by
their names._ That if they have all different and particular names,
wherefore should it serve but to distinguish them in their effects,
proprieties, qualities and vertues? for the name of things, imports the
same. Follow that which is said in the 2. of _Gen._ as _Adam_ named
every thing, such was its true and proper name: which _Plato_ in his
_Cratylus_ saith is not onely the type and representation of things,
but their Essence. And in this case there is a fair consideration to
bee marked, that God left to _Adam_ the nomination of terrestriall
things: but reserved to himselfe that of Celestiall: as hee expresseth
in the 115. _Psal._ 16. _The Heaven of Heavens are the Lords, but
the Earth hath he given to the children of men_: which is as much
to say, according to _Rabbi_ the _Ægyptian_ in the 2. Book of his
_More_, or director, 25. Cha. That the Creator knoweth himself alone
the certain verity of the heavens, what is their form, substance, and
their motions; but upon that under heaven he hath given power to man
to know, for Earth is properly mans world, where hee produceth, and
the place of his conversation, as long as hee liveth: as fire and
light attached to matter: there where the causes upon which we might
found our demonstrations concerning heaven, are out of our knowledge,
being so far remote from us. And in this case _the Heaven of Heavens,
are the Lords_, there may be a double exposition, according to the
punctuation and reading. _That Heaven belongs to the Lord of Heaven_,
and so the _Hebrewes_ take it, but who doubts, but that the Earth also
belongs to him, as well as the Heaven? _The Earth is the Lords, and
the fulnesse thereof_, and in the 23. of _Jer._ _Doe not I fill the
Heaven and the Earth? And the Heaven of Heavens is reserved for God,
and the Earth is left to the children of men_, which is a manner of
speech usuall in the holy Scripture. _For if the Heaven and the Heaven
of Heavens cannot comprehend thee_, saith _Solomon_ to God; for the
_Hebrewes_ metaphorically call Heaven, things that are far distant from
our sight: and we also after their imitation, as when wee speak of a
Kite, Heron or Gerfalcon, when they fly so high, that wee can hardly
discern them, that they goe to loose themselves in Heaven: so that all
which is here under the sphere of the Moon, and generally all that is
above us, they call it Heaven: and the Heaven of Heavens, the Æthereall
Region from the Moon to the Firmament, as well the Firmament it self,
or the _Empyrean_ Heaven. But farther that the Stars should bee all of
one nature, propriety and effect, to see them so like, besides their
greatnesse and clearnesse, it follows not that the same appears of the
same sort as of fire, yet wee commonly call them fires and celestiall
lights: It is as if the seeds of trees and plants, whereof there are
infinite, should all mixe together, and the first buds also, that they
cast, which differ as nothing, but to the measure whereunto they grow,
their differences doe manifest them. The _Hebrewes_ hold that there
is not so little, and poor a herb on the Earth, nor any other thing
of the three kinds of the composed Mineralls, Vegetables, or animals,
that hath not above its correspondent Star, that assists it, and from
which it receives its maintenance and conservation. But how can that
agree? will some say to the contrary; because it seems to derogate
and contradict that which in expresse terms is set down in the 1. of
_Gen._ where it is written, that in the third day, _the Earth of her
self brought forth herbs, and trees, containing in them their seeds:
according to their kinds_: neverthelesse the Sun, nor the Moon, nor the
Stars, were created till the day after, the fourth by which is designed
its effect and function: _Let there bee lights made, in the firmament
of the heaven, namely the Sun, the Moon, and the Stars, to separate the
night from the day: and let them bee for signes, and seasons, for dayes
and years_: without attributing any thing of their assistance, upon
trees and plants, and other elementary things.

[Sidenote: An inflamation arising from pure choler in the skin
exulcerating it with pain.]

But to return to the particulars of _Aqua vitæ_, there will be no hurt
here to touch upon this experiment thereof made, very gentile and rare,
leaving others that are more common, _Aqua vitæ_ hath this particular,
that it dissolves not sugar, nor joines not with it, as doth its flegm
and common water, vinegar, and other liquors: but by artifice it self,
of two it makes a thrice sweet liquor, very proper against the fluxes
of Catarrhs, and salt rheumes, that molest the stomach, and throat,
and is thereunto very good and comfortable. Lay in steep a day or two
Cinnamon grossely beaten; and take off the infusion very neat: take
fine sugar within a pottage dish that hath ears, brought into fine
small powder, and so perfume it, mingle it with a small portion of
Sugar roset. Poure thereon this _Aqua vitæ_ and make them a little
warm upon ashes, then put fire thereto with a lighted paper, stirring
all well with a little spit of clean wood, so long untill the _Aqua
vitæ_ burn no more, & there will remain a liquor most agreeable to the
taste, and mervailously comfortable: you may add thereto liquor of
pearls, Coral and other the like, which dissolve easily in the juice of
Citron or distilled vinegar, which makes it sweet to stream out upon
it a quantity of common water or the phlegm of _Aqua vitæ_: and not by
calcining it as _Paracelsus_ and his followers do, with Salt-Peter,
which is manifest poyson: so that things are done in vain by more,
that may be done by fewer, so that it bee justly done. Further, every
one sufficiently knowes how to draw _Aqua vitæ_, filling two parts
of the Alimbeck with Glasse, or _Beuvois_ Earth, with good old wine,
and distilling it with an easie fire through a Bath in a Caldron full
of water, with chaffe. Continue the distillation untill you see long
veines and sprouts appear, in the Chappe and in the Recipient. For
it is _Aqua vitæ_, which mounts first, and the phlegm comes after in
grosse drops, as tears; which is a token that there is no more _Aqua
vitæ_. Men may refine it, passing again another time: But I should
not bee of an opinion, that to take it into the body, it should bee
more then once. And it is a strange thing that by its own subtilty,
for it will mount through five or six doubles of paper _brovillas_
without wetting it. I have seen them cast a full glasse thereof in
the air, and not one drop to fall to the earth: It is of soveraign
force against all burnings and chiefly that of small shot, with which
shee hinders (as was said before) the _Estiomenes_ and Gangreenes:
which sheweth sufficiently the purity of its fire which may by good
right be called Celestiall. See here that which _Raimund Lullius_ sets
down of his proprieties and vertues. Wee must not understand (saith
he) that neither quintessence nor any other thing here below, can
render us immortall. It is ordained for all men once to die: nor can
we prolong our dayes beyond and above the prefixed time, for that is
reserved to God. _Mans daies are short, and the number of his moneths
are with thee: thou hast appointed his limits which hee cannot
passe_, there where on the contrary they may well bee accidentally
shortned: _Aqua vitæ_ then, nor all other sorts of quintessences and
restoratives, cannot prolong our life for one minute of an hower;
yet they may conserve and maintain it to the last but, preserving it
from putrefaction, which is it, that shortens it most: But to defend
putrefaction by corruptible things, that cannot bee; we must therefore
find out some incorruptible substance, proper and familiar to our
nature, which conserves and maintains the radicall heat, as oil doth
the light of a Lampe. Such is the _aqua vitæ_ drawn from wine, the most
comfortable and connaturall substance of all others, provided it be
not abused with excesse. _Plutarch_ in the 3. Book, the 8. question of
his Symposiaques, compares wine to fire, and our body to clay. If you
give fire (he sets it down there) which is of a mediocrity to the clay,
and earth to the Potter, he will consolidate it in the pots, bricks,
tiles, and other the like works, but if it be excessive, hee resolves
it, and makes it melt and run. Moreover _Aqua vitæ_, preserves strongly
from their corruption, as wee may see by things vegetable and Animall,
which men put there to mingle, which by this means conserves them in
their entire length. It comforts and maintains a man in vigor of youth:
which it restoreth from day to day, it rejoyceth and strengtheneth the
vitall spirits: it digests crudities taken fasting, and reduceth the
equality, the excessive superfluities, and the defaults which may bee
in our bodies; causing divers effects according to the disposition of
the subject where shee applies her selfe, as doth the Sunnes heat,
which melts wax and hardens durt, and fire doth the same. And there
is that celestiall spirit residing in _Aqua vitæ_, so susceptible of
all qualities, proprieties, and vertues, that she can make her hot,
empregning it with hot things, cold with cold things, and so of the
rest; being shee is naturall, conformably to our soule, inclinable to
good and evill, for although it consists of the foure Elements, they
are therein so proportioned, that the one doth not domineer over the
other. Wherefore they call it Heaven, whereto wee apply such starres
as wee will, namely of the simple Elements, of which she conceives the
proprieties and the effects: herein we may compare celestiall fire to
the Altar.

But strong waters, which dissipate and ruine all, are this strange
fire, and so Alchymists call them, and fire against nature externall
fire, and other the like exterminatives. Certes if the effects of
Cannon Powder be so admirable, consisting of so few species, and
ingredients, which may be well called the true infernall fire, the
devourer of mankind. The action of strong waters is no lesse which
burne all, being compounded onely of two or three substances, that
which wee commonly call the _Separator_, _Salt-peter_, _Vitriol_, or
Allum Ice, and this dissolves Silver, Copper, Quicksilver, and Iron in
part. _La Regalle_ which is no other thing then the preceding rectified
upon _Salarmoniac_, or common Salt, dissolved partly with Iron, Lead,
Tinne, and intameable Gold, with all sorts of fire. It is true, that
strong waters doe not destroy metals, that they returne not to their
first forme and nature, but drawes them to water, and a melting liquor.
This was certainly a good Artificiall industry in mans spirit, to
excogitate so short a way to separate Gold and Silver melted together,
and so uniformedly mixed, that an ounce of Gold melted with an hundred
markes of Silver, each part thereof will equally attract his portion,
as wee may see by the refiners practise, which to prove that which it
holds of Gold & of Silver, a confused masse of divers metals will take
but 30. grains to make their essay in the Coupelle, and from thence
will judge that the same proportion that you shall finde in this small
volume, shall bee also in the whole masse; all that which may bee
therein of impure imperfect metall goes away partly in smoake, and is
partly consumed by fire, and partly sticks like Birdlime within the
Coupelle, nothing remaining above it but what is fine, namely Silver
and Gold, which is there inclosed, with which they separate strong
waters called on the occasion the _divider_, which dissolves Silver
into water, and Gold falls to the bottome as sand; the water afterwards
evaporated, the Silver retires it selfe. But here it would be too
much to speake of the effects of strong waters, one of the principall
and short instruments of Alchymie, and the Art of fire and Salt, with
infinite fine allegories, which thereby may be appropriated upon Holy

Yet these two fires may be compared, namely the strange fire to
Leaven, to the Sea water which is salt, and to Vinegar, a corrupted
Wine, and other sorts of Leavens Fires against nature. And the
Celestiall to the Altar to pure and unleavened Past, to sweet water
fit to drinke, to _Aqua vitæ_, without Vinegar, representing the state
of innocence in our first fathers, before their transgression, and the
simplicitie of their knowledge, infused into them by the Creator. But
when they were once tempted afterwards with ambition, to know more
then they should, they would by humane discourse become more subtill
and sage, in tasting the fruit of knowledge of good and evill; their
Past without Leaven began to swell, to bee proud with the Leaven
themselves introduced, which perverted and spoyled it, appropriating
it to corporall and sensible things, for the bread which wee eate is
leavened, but that which wee use in the Church must not be so, and
not without cause, for unleavened bread will bee kept six moneths
without molding or corrupting; that leavened bread will not keep so
many weekes. It is therefore that the Apostle said, a little Leaven
corrupts the whole Masse: Because that one propriety of the Leaven
is to convert into their corruption all that is adjoyning of their
nature, as Vinegar doth Wine, and Leaven pure Past, also Rennet which
is in the number of Leavens. And when they have no Leaven, they make
some, corrupting the Past with Vinegar, Lees of Beere, Egges, and
like substances, who by their corruption acquire to themselves the
propertie of strange fire which is able to convert into its nature,
that where it can bite, as wee may see in a Feaver against naturall
heate, so that hee turnes it selfe into all things, and all into it
selfe, according to _Heraclitus_, who set it downe for the Principall,
yet after _Zoroastres_, who thought all things were begotten of Fire
after it was extinguished, for being living it begets nothing, no more
doth Salt, nor the Sea which _Homer_ calls ἀτρὺγετος unfruitfull, which
doth nothing but consume and destroy: An immense and wicked portion of
things (saith _Pliny_) and wherein it is doubtfull whether it consume
or bring forth more things. Leaven then is a strange fire, and is
indeed caustique or burning, for applyed to naked flesh, it engenders
therein little _cloches_, which shewes its fierynesse, (also it doth
not so without Salt) called for this reason in Latine _fermentum_,
Leaven which increaseth by bring warme: and in Greek ζύμη Leaven from
ζέω to boile. The Chymicks call it the interior fire, fire within the
vessell, for wee see by experience, that bread, if the Past be not
leavened, what boyling soever you give it, shall never be but of a hard
and uneasy digestion, greatly oppressing the stomach, if the Leaven
which they joyne thereunto make it boyle within; whence then it comes
that _Moses_ so knowing a man, and so illustrated with the Divine
Spirit, so rejecteth a thing so profitable and necessary, and banisheth
so expresly the Leaven of the Sacrifices, which is so great an aide and
succor in our principall aliment, Bread. _You shall burne no Leaven nor
Honey in the Lords Sacrifice_, _Levit._ 2.11. And _Exod._ 12.15, hee
condemneth to death those who in the dayes of unleavened bread should
eate leavened bread, or should have ever so little in his house. Is it
not because Idolaters use Leaven? but hee doth not forbid it in all and
throughout all; for in the 23 of _Levit._ 17. he commands them to offer
two leaven loaves. Moreover Idolaters imploy also in their Sacrifices
Salt and Incense, and many other things that are not forbidden. It
must then bee that some mystery lies hidden hereunder. _Origen_ in his
5. _Homil._ upon _Levit._ interpreteth Leaven for arrogance, that wee
conceive of a vaine worldly doctrine, which blowes us up as leaven doth
Past, and makes us proud, thinking that wee know more then wee doe.
So that wee quit the expresse and direct Word of God, to retaine our
selves within our phantastique traditions, as our Saviour reproacheth
it to the Pharisees, _Mark._ 7. Truely _Esay_ prophecied very well of
you Hypocrites, when hee saith, _This people honoreth me with their
lips, but their heart is farre from me, howbeit in vaine doe they
worship me, teaching for Doctrines the Commandements of men_, _Mark._
7.6,7. And therefore admonisheth us to beware of this Leaven. And upon
_Numbers_, it is not to beleeve said the said _Origen_, that God would
punish with death those who during the solennitie of unleavened bread
had eaten leavened bread, or that had leaven found in their houses,
but by leaven is understood malignitie, envie, rancor, concupiscence,
and the like vices that inflame our soules, and make them boile with
wicked and pernicious desires, corrupting, altering, and perverting all
that which might bee good, following what the Apostle said, _a little
Leaven corrupts the whole masse_. Therefore wee may not undervalue any
little sinne, for after the manner of Leaven it will very soone produce
others; undervalue not, saith St. _Augustine_, the machinations and
ambushes of a few men; for as a sparkle of fire is a small thing, and
which can hardly bee discerned if it meet with food and nourishment, it
will in a short time set on fire great Townes and Cities, Forrests, and
whole Countries. Leaven is the same, for how little soever you put in
your Past or Dough, it will alter it in short space and convert it to
its owne nature. Perverse Doctrine is of the very same, which gaineth
Countries by little and little, as a Canker doth in the whole body.

And in his third Book against _Parmenian_ to glorifie himselfe, not in
his sinnes, but in those of others, as the _Pharisee_ said, _Luk._ 18.
11. _I give thee thanks O Lord God, that I am not as other men are,
Extortioners, Unjust, Adulterers, &c. I fast twice in the weeke &c._
comparing his owne innocence to the defaults of others, this is but a
little leaven, but to boast himself in iniquities, and trespasses, is
a great one; Furthermore, Leaven is taken in good part, as well as in
bad part, in holy Writ; which relates to the two fires. The first hath
been touched heretofore for pride, and naughtinesse, that corrupts
the soule. Touching the good, in the 7. of _Levit._ 12, 13. there are
loaves of leavened bread, which they offer for peace offerings, with
oblation of thanksgiving, and in the 23. 17. of every family two loaves
of the first eares of wheat at Pentecost; and in St. _Matthew_, and the
23 of St. _Luke_ Jesus Christ compared the Kingdome of God to leaven
that a woman had put into three measures of dough, till it was all
leavened; for there it is taken for the fervent zeale of ardent faith;
and it is the fire wherewith we must be salted: for as the fire boyles
our meats, and the salt seasons them, also leaven is the cause that the
past bakes the better, and prepares thereby to make more wholesome,
and of lighter digestion, more savoury, and of better tast: In which
case leaven relates to the Evangelicall Law, as Saint _Augustine_
saith, and old leaven to the Mosaicall, which the Jewes tooke by the
barke, and by the hairs. By reason whereof the Apostle admonisheth
us, to cast it farre from us: that is to say, all superstition, and
malice; _Cast off the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, as ye
are unleavened, for even Christ our Passeover is sacrificed for you_.
Therefore let us keep the Feast not with old leaven, neither with the
_leaven of malice and wickednesse_, but with the _unleavened bread
of sincerity and truth_, which leaven is without doubt this strange
fire, that devoures and consumes us within; that is to say, our soul,
to swallow us up, and make us goe downe living into Hell. And the
Fire of the Altar, the celestiall fire of charity, faith, hope, it
is that which we must desire of God to kindle in our hearts, and to
season our thoughts and our desires, that no corruption be begotten
there; as it doth here below in things corruptible and corporall; the
prompt Minister, and executor of that, which the divine goodnesse will
please to give of comforts and commodities in this temporall life. What
obligations then do wee owe thee, thou excellent portion of Nature,
without which we should live in so great misery? thou doest lighten in
darknesse, thou dost make us rejoyce in obscurity, bringing us another
day. Thou doest chase away from about us, hurtfull powers, feares,
and nocturnall illusions; thou doest warm us being cold, thou doest
redry us being wet; thou bakest our viands; thou art the soveraigne
Artizan of all arts and manufactures which have been revealed unto
us, to serve as a rampard against our naturall Imbecillities, that
make us in regard of our bodies the feeble and infirm animall of all
others. All this by reason of thy Divine beneficence, thou doest
communicate to all mortals. And thou, O cleare luminous Sunne, the
visible image of the invisible God, the light whereof, doth rebate it
selfe in thee, as within a fair manifold multiplying glasse, rendring
thy selfe overflowing with all sorts of happinesses, which afterwards
thou communicatest to all thy sensible Creatures, being so fair and so
desireable a liberall benefactor, thou arisest most resplendent, with
luminous beams, which thou doest spread abroad into all parts of the
world, and by the vertue of thy spirit, and breath, by thy vivifying
vigour, thou governest and maintainest this little All. Thou the
illustrious Torch of Heaven, thou the light of all things; cause and
secondary Author of all that groweth here below, which by the faculty
and power, which the Soveraigne dispensator of all goodnesse hath
given thee, obligeth all nature to thy selfe; which with an unwearied
course, doest dayly run through the foure corners of the Universe. Thy
beauty, thy light, thou doest lend unto our senses by thy unknowne
and imperceptible Divinity, and impartest it with a liberall largess;
without any vaile or covverture that come to enterpose betwixt them
to the Church, thy deare spouse, to break open to us here below,
the effects illightning by the same meane of thy inextinguible and
inexhaustible Torch, all the celestiall fires. Looke upon us then with
a benigne and favourable eye, and by the excellent beauty which shewes
it selfe in thee, elevate our understanding to the contemplation of
this other more great, that no mortall eie can behold, nor spirit
apprehend, but by a profound and pious thought, for as much as it will
please him to gratifie it.

But thou Soveraigne Father of this intellectual fire and light, what
can wee bring thee here, but devout supplications and prayers? that
it will please thee to burne with the fire of thy Holy Spirit, the
wills and courages of us thy most humble Creatures, that wee may serve
thee with a chast body, and to agree with thee by a pure and neat
conscience: to the honour and glory of thy holy name, and salvation of
our soules: through our Lord Jesus Christ, thy deare Sonne, who liveth
and raigneth with thee, God coeternall, forever and ever, AMEN.


                     _The second Part of the Lord_
                         BLAISE _his Treatise
                         touching_ FIRE _and_

_Every man shall be salted with Fire and every Sacrifice shall be
salted with Salt_, _Mark._ 9. 49. Wee have already spoken of Fire,
Salt remaineth, of which there is no lesse to say. But it is strange
that the Ceremonies of _Paganisme_, should be found in this respect,
and many other in Mosaicall Traditions; Fire shall alwayes burne on
the Altar; _Lev._ 6. 12, 13, _The Priest shall burne wood thereon
every morning, &c._ And in the 2. 13. _Thou shalt season with salt
all the Oblations of thy Sacrifices; and thou shalt not forget to put
the salt of Gods Covenant under them; with all thy Offerings thou
shalt offer Salt_, which Salt _Numb._ 18 19. called the everlasting
Covenant before God to _Aaron_ and his sonnes. And _Pythagoras_ in his
Symboles, ordaines not to speak of God without light, and to apply Salt
in all Sacrifices and Oblations. And not onely _Pythagoras_, but also
_Numa_, which most part of men, hold to have been 100 years before
_Pythagoras_, instituted the same according to the Doctrine of the
Hetrurians. It is not beleeveable that _Moses_ so deare and welbeloved
of God, and so illustrated with his inspirations, whence proceeded all
the documents that he left, and so hot a persecutor of Idolatries and
Ethnique superstitions, that hee would borrow any thing from them. But
more likely that the Devils instigations who makes himselfe alwayes
as his Creators ape, to make himselfe to idolize, was willing to
divert those sacred mysteries to their abusive impieties, according
to which _Josephus_ against _Appion_, and Saint _Jerome_ against
_Vigilantius_, doe very well sute: so that as in the Judaicall Law
they used no Sacrifices and oblations in Paganisme, but they used Salt
as _Pliny_ witnesseth in 31. Book 7. Chap. Especially in holy things
the authoritie of Salt is understood, when none were made without a
Salt Mill. _Plato_ to _Timæus_, when in the medly and commixtion of
the elements, the composed is destitute of much water, and of the more
subtill parts of the earth, water resting therein comes to bee halfe
congealed, saltnesse is there brought in which hardens it the more, and
so there is procreated a body of Salt, communicated to the use of our
life, for as much toucheth the body and senses, accommodated by the
same meanes according to the tenor of the Law; on that which depends
the service of God, as being sacred and agreeable to God, wherefrom hee
called it a body beloved of God, for which _Homer_ called it Divine,
whereof _Plutarque_ in his 5. Booke of his _Symposiaques_ 10. question
renders many reasons, and among others, for that it symbolizeth with
the soule that is of Divine nature, and as long as it resides in the
body, keepes it from putrefaction, as Salt doth dead flesh, where it
is brought in in stead of a soule that keepeth it from corruption,
whence some of the Stoicks would say, that Hogs flesh of it selfe was
dead, and that a soule which was sowed therein in a manner of salt to
conserve it longer exempt from putrefaction, to which a soule was given
for Salt. Our _Theologians_ say that the ceremony of putting Salt into
water when they hallow it, came from that which _Elisha_ did, 2 _Kings_
2. 22, 23. to sweeten the waters of _Jericho_, by casting Salt upon
the Spring. And that notes the people which is designed by water (many
waters are many Nations) were sanctified, must teach us by the Word
of God, what Salt signifies, with the bitternesse and repentance that
men should have for offending God, as water also doth the confession
as well of faith as of sinnes. Of the commixtion of these two, salt
and water, proceeds a double fruit to separate from ill doing, and
convert to good workes. And for that repentance for sinne ought to
precede auricular confession, which repentance is denoted by the
bitternesse of salt, they blesse it also before water: It is also taken
for wisedome, _You are the salt of the earth, and have salt in your
selves_. And because that in all their ancient Sacrifices they used
salt, from thence it came that in Baptisme they put salt in the mouth
of the Creature before it is baptized with water, for that it cannot
yet actually have the mystery of salt applyed for the present.

On fire then and on salt depend great and secret mysteries, comprized
under two principal colours, red and white, for (as _Zohar_ hath it)
all things are white, and red, but there is a great space betwixt
the one and the other. God dieth our sinnes which are red, for
concupiscence comes from the blood, and from the sensualitie of the
flesh besprinkled with blood, and we doe die his whitenesse in red or
rigour of Justice, by the fire which inflameth our carnall desires, and
purchaseth their judgement, which is throughout where there is fire,
if it bee not mortified with saving water. And when the perverse doe
prevaile in the world, as ordinarily they doe, rednesse and judgement
extend themselves therein, and all whitenesse covers it self, which is
rather changed into rednesse then rednesse into whitenesse; which if it
have domination, all on the contrary growes resplendent therewith. To
these two colours also the ancient and the Evangelicall Law, the rigour
of justice and mercy; the pillar of fire in the nights darkenesse, and
the white cloud by day, wine and bread, blood and fat, which were not
lawfull to eate. _You shall not eate flesh with the blood_, _Gen._ 9.
4. And in _Levit._ 3. 16, 17. _All the fat is the Lords, it shall bee a
perpetuall Statute for your generations throughout all your dwellings,
that yee eate neither fat nor blood_; where it is yet more particularly
repeated in the 17. and 14. where the reason is rendred, for that _the
soule_, that is to say, the life of the flesh, is in _the blood_, which
mystically represents that of Messiah, wherein consisted eternall
life; so that it was not lawfull to use any other before his comming.
Of the same fat was reserved for God as well that which the Hebrewes
call _cheleb_, that covereth the inwards, and is separated from the
flesh, as the other called _schumen_, which is thereunto annexed; but
metaphorically the fat is taken for the most exquisite substance,
as in _Numb._ 18. the tenths the best of the fruits are called the
fat of them, which manner of speech wee also use when wee say, make
the portion to be very fat of any thing that there is. And in the 81.
_Psal._ 16. _Hee fed them with the fat of Wheate._ It may bee also that
_Moses_ well knowing that these two substances, blood and fat, are of
ill tast and nourishment, and quickly corrupted out of their vessells,
hee forebad them the use thereof. Or if wee would enter into a certaine
mystery, for that the vitall spirits consist in the blood, which are of
a fiery nature, and that fat is very susceptible of flame, and proper
to make lights, which are a representation of the soule. But Oile is
also for Lamps, which was not forbidden to bee eaten, and wee doe not
see that in Divine service wee use Tallow Candles; yet these two, fire
and salt, doe signifie Wine and Milke, _I have drunke Wine with my
Milke_, _Cant._ 5. 1. By Wine is designed the tree of knowledge of good
and evill, namely vaine curiosities of worldly things, and by Milke,
that of life, whereof _Adam_ was deprived, being desirous to tast of
that other, which was humane prudence. Before _Adam_ had transgressed
(said _Zohar_) hee was made participant of the sapience of superiour
light, being not yet separated from the tree of life, but when hee
would distract himselfe after the knowledge of base things, this
curiositie ceased not till hee had wholly cast off life to incorporate
himselfe to death. _Jacob_ and _Esau_, the two principall Potentates on
earth which are descended therefrom, Item the Rose and the Lilly, whose
water extracted mounts by the fires heat that elevates it and becomes
white, although the Roses bee red, as is the fume exhaled from blood
and fat which they burne to God, to send it on high as a vapour, to
imply (saith the same _Zohar_) that wee must offer him nothing but what
is cleane and candid; for rednesse represents sinne, and punishment
that followes it, and the white, sinceritie, with mercy and the finall
recompence that doth accompany it. What is it (saith _Zohar_) which is
designed by the red Roses, and the white Lillies? It is the odour of
the oblation proceeding from red blood, and from fat which is white,
which God reserveth for his owne portion, which fatnesse relates to
the sacrifice, or animall mar, who is nourished with this fat, as
the vitall spirits with blood; wherefore it is said, when we fast to
extenuate and macerate the pricks of the flesh and concupiscence,
that we offer unto God fatnesse, who will have from his Creature the
soul, which is fire and bloud; and the body, namely fat, wherewith it
is nourished, but the one and the other incontaminate, pure and neat,
without corruption, as if they were to passe through the fire and
salted; Therefore he would that they should be burned to him, that they
may ascend in a white fume and an odour of suavity before him; for fume
is more spiritual then matter, which the fire by subtiliation raiseth
it, after the manner of Incense. And indeed all this world here, is but
an odour that mounts unto God, sometimes good and agreeable, sometimes
wicked and hurtfull. The forme of the thing which consisteth in its
colour, and figure, remains incorporeall in the matter, where the eye
goes to apprehend it, and associates with it. The tast also, remains
attached to it, as the spittle moistens it, and communicates it to the
tast: But odor or smell, separates them, and comes from farre by an
unperceivable vapor, to the sense of the nose and braine. Wherefore the
Scripture doth particularize in the rose and in the lillies, the Red
and White; whose smell doth not vanish. And yet though the roses be
red, yet the water of them distilled, and the fume if you burne them,
are white, as those of incense, whereof it is spoken in _Psal._ 41.
2. _Let my prayer be directed as incense, in thy sight_: by prayers
are understood not only prayers, but all our desires, thoughts and
comportmens, and thereupon _Rabbi Eliezer_, sonne of _Rabbi Simeon_,
the author of _Zohar_, making his prayer, doth thus paraphrase. _This
is well knowne, and manifest before thee O Lord my God, God of our
prayers, that I have offered unto thee my fat, and my blood: I have
offered them in an odor of Suavity, with firme faith and beleefe,
macerating, chastising the sensuality of my flesh: That it will please
thee then Lord, that the odor of my prayer, proceeding from my mouth,
may be presently addressed before thy face, as an odor of a burnt
offering, which they burne unto thee, upon the altar of propitiation,
and that thou wilt accept it as agreeable._ He said that because that
after the comming of our Saviour, & the destruction of the second
Temple by the _Romans_, the _Jewish_ sacrifices were converted into
prayers, the bloudy sacrifices signified by the red roses, and colour
of bloud, and those without bloud, as the minchad & other the like, of
meal, by the white lillies, following that which was said _Cant. Chap._
5. & 6. _My beloved is white and ruddy, he feedeth among the lillies._

Under these four colours furthermore, which signifie the four Elements,
Black the Earth, White the Water, Blew the Air, and Red the fire, are
comprised the greatest secrets & mysteries. Otherwise reading in ch.
10. of 35 book _Plinie_, that _Apelles_ had painted _Alexander_ holding
lightning in his hand; fingers seemed to hang out, and lightning to be
without the Table; but reading they remembred that all those consisted
of four colours. I cannot well specifie what those four colours were,
which must be principall in nature, till I had learned out of _Zohar_,
to consider them in the light: where, that is to be noted, that there
are two fastned to the week, namely black, noting the Earth, and red
proceeding there from fire, and two to the flame, Blew in the root,
over against the black, and white on the top, opposite to red. But
let us see how this doth well suit with Chymicall Theorie, which
constitutes of these four Elements, two solid and fix’d, which prepare
themselves together, the earth, and the fire, which adhere to the week,
and the other two liquid volatills and flitting, water, and air, white
and blew, as is the flame which is liquid, and in perpetuall motion:
And we must not think it strange, that the air, the blew, should be
lower then the water, or the white flame which is aloft, because the
aereall party which is the oil and fat, separate more hardly, and more
difficultly from the composed, then doth the water more opposite to
fire. But let us look more mystically thereinto, which the _Zohar_
hath more abundantly run through. The red light, as well in earth as
in heaven, is that which destroyes all, dissipates all; for it is
the bark of the tree of death, as we may see in a lamp, candle, and
other light, whose root is in the earth, namely, this corruptible and
corrupting blacknesse which watereth the week; the branches and the
boughes are the flames, blew and white. The week with its blacknesse
and rednesse is the Elementary world, and the flame the Celestiall.
The red colour commands all that is under it, and devoureth it. And
if you say that it domineers also in heaven, not as in the inferiour
world, wee may answer. And although there be vertues and powers above
that are destructive, and dissipate all base subjacent things. All
these superiors are anchored in this red light, and not the inferiors,
for they are thick, grosse, and obscure; and this red light which
is contiguous to that above, gnawes, and devours them; and there is
nothing in the low world which shall not be destroyed. It penetrates
and enters into stones, it pierceth them, and hollowes them, that
waters may passe over them, and drowns all in the depths and hollowes
of the earth, where they divide themselves, of the one side, and on
the other, till they come to resemble anew in their _Abyssus_, passing
crosse the darknesses that are confounded with them; which is the cause
that waters rise and fall, (they mount when they come from the sea
under earth to their sources, to glide anew above the earth downwards,
returning to the place from which they parted.) So that the waters
darknesse and light mingling themselves pellmell, there is made within
another _Chaos_, which nature comes to unmingle (the heat namely which
is therein inclosed) by Ordinance of the Soveraign Dispensator that
commands it. And there make lights which men cannot see, because they
are dark. Every channell (to be brief) mounts upwards with his voices,
whence _Abyssus_ are shaken, and cry to their companion, One depth
calleth to another, in the voice of their Catarracts. And who is it
that cries? Open thee with thy waters, and I will enter into thee.
These are all mysteries uneasy to comprehend, which intend nothing,
but to demonstrate the affinity and connexion of the sensible with
the intelligible world, and of the Elementary with the Celestiall;
for, as it is said in another case, the Universall firmament, called
the firmament of heaven, containeth things superiour and inferiour;
although after divers manners. This is wel seen in a torch, where
blacknesse, that is, the Earth, is the ground of three elements and
colours, the red being but an inflammation and heat joined to the
blacknesse, without any flame or light; as are the blew and white,
which proceed from one very root, all tend a going to unite with the
white flame that is above, and more highly elevated then others. Yet
it is not therefore so pure and quit of all filthinesse, but that
it procreates soot, with black and infected fume, whereof it must
be depured by fire, till it hath perfected the consumption of its
corruption, and made it a perfect whitenesse, which from that time
forwards never alters. And this is that which we said before, that
fire leaves two sorts of excrements, not sufficiently depured for the
first proof. Ashes below, whence by the same fire is extracted as
incorruptible substance of salt; and of glasse at the last, which the
_Zohar_ was not ignorant of, when he said upon _Exod._ of the lees of
any confected ashes, salt and glasse is drawn. But now for that it was
not so said, it is a thing sufficiently common and manifest to those
that deal with fire, which Cinerall excrement comes from the adustion
and burning of coals, but the soot which is more spirituall, for that
mounts and elevates higher, is born of the flame which hath no leasure
or power to perfect its mundification, so that the pure and impure
mount together. And assuredly nothing can better agree with our souls
after their separation from the body, which carries away with them the
imapurities which they have attracted from it, during their residence
here below, which they must repass by fire, & be perfected by white
throughout. _Every man shal be salted with fire, and every sacrifice
shall be salted with salt._ The weik and ashes representing man, the
exterior animal, and his body, and the two flames, blew, and white; the
blew the Celestiall and Ethereall body, and the white, souls stript of
all Corporeity: which in good men shall be burnt with fire that burns
alwaies upon the altar, and salted with salt from the Covenant, the
promises namely of his Messiah, into which the Prince of this world,
hath but seen, as it hath done in the posterity of _Adam_, which is
al filled with ashes whereof it was first built, & with the soot of
originall sin, whereunto he fastned by his disobedience, prevarication;
So that we are the night where _Moses_ began to reckon the day, for
that we are according to the flesh, before the _Messiah_, who being
come after, is the enlightned day of this clear sun of Justice, which
the Cabballists say is the representation of _Jehovah_, whose sheath
(as they call it) is _Adonei_, from whence God must be drawn out: for
it is hee, that mundifies the righteous, and burneth the wicked with
dark and obscure fire. To which that also beateth, which is said of
the Thrones Animalls, there shall descend a Lion enflamed, that shall
devour the oblations. There are Angells committed upon every member
that sinneth, of whom they constitute themselves the bringers on: for
every man that commits any offence, he suddainly delegates to himself
an accuser, which will be no more favourable to him then he must be,
but will lend him a fire from above, to burn that member that shall
have trespassed. But _Jehovah_ intervenes from above, who with his
water of mercy, quencheth this fire, after the party Delinquent shall
have his spots purged away. And there is but he alone, that is the
angel of peace, that make the souls reconcilation with God, to whom she
comes by the intercession of this sacred name: there is no other name;
all that the _Zohar_ sets down, which is as Christian-like spoken by a
Rabbin which was never baptized.

That premised for a ground work of what we shall say hereafter, St.
_Marks_ Greek text carries it, πᾶσα θυσία ἁλὶ ἁλιθήσεται, every
sacrifice shall be seasoned with salt; where the _Latin_ version which
the Church holdeth, for θυσία a sacrifice, as in truth this Greek
word signifies, all sorts of sacrifices, _hostia’s_, _victima’s_, and
_ceremonies_: But _Porphyrius_ in his second book of sacrifices, doth
particularize it to herbs that men offered to the Gods, for from the
beginning they did not present them: this he spake of Incense, Myrrhe,
Benjamin, Storax, Aloes, Labdanum and other the like odoriferous gums;
but only certain green herbs; as certain first fruits of seeds that
the earth produced; and trees were procreated from the Earth before
Animalls, and the earth was clothed with herbs, before it produced
trees. By reason whereof, the gathering certain _pieds_ of herbs all
entire with their leaves and rootes, and seeds, they burned them, and
sacrificed the odour and fume that proceeded therefrom to the Immortall
Gods: and of this exhalation they cast, which the Greeks call θυμίασις
_suffitus_, perfumed, whence comes the word θυσία _victima_ sacrifice.
Therefore they do not refer them properly to bloody sacrifices, for the
_Romans_ for more then 800 years since, by _Numaes_ Ordinance, had no
Images of Gods, nor other sacrifices, then dough with salt, which were
from thence called ἀνὰιμακτα, that is to say, without blood. Hitherto

It hath been said heretofore that there was nothing more common, nor
lesse well known then fire. And as much we may say of salt: wherefore
it is that _Moses_ made so great account of it, as to apply it to
all sacrifices. Calling it the perpetual Covenant that God made with
his people; of which alliance by the _Hebrews_ called _Berith_, they
found three or four marks in the Scripture; The bow of heaven, _Gen._
9. 9. _Gen._ 17. 2. Circumcision to _Abraham_, and the universall
paction, _Numb._ 18. 19. Further yet the Paction of the Law received
in _Horeb, Deut._ 5. 2, & 3. The Lord our God made a Covenant with us
in _Horeb_; which hath been time out of mind in singular and venerable
recommendation towards all sorts of people; you bless your tables by
putting on of saltsellers (saith _Arnobius_ to the _Gentiles_.) But
_Titus Livius_ in his 26. that they may have a saltseller & a dish or
platter for Gods cause. And _Fabricius_, that thrice valiant _Roman_
Captain, had never gold nor silver but a little drinking cup, whose
foot was of horn, to make his offerings to the Gods, & saltseller to
serve for sacrifices forbidding, as _Plinie_ hath it, in his 33. book,
12. ch. to have other Silvery then those two. It was furthermore a
marke and symbole of Amity, as was salt: Wherefore the first thing
that they served strangers, comming to them, was Salt, to note a
firmity of their contracted Amity. And the great Duke of _Muscovie_, as
_Sigismund_ puts it down in his Treatise of the affairs of _Muscovie_,
he could not do greater honour to those that he favoured then to
send them of his salt. _Archilocus_ as _Origen_ alledgeth against
_Celsus_, among other things, reproacheth _Lycambas_ to have violated
a very holy and sacred Mystery, of the amity conceived betwixt them
by the salt & the common table. And upon Saint _Matthew_ speaking of
_Judas_, he had not (saith he) any respect either to the remembrance
of their common table, or to salt or bread which we did eat together.
And _Lycophron_ in a poem of _Alexander_ called salt ἁγνίτης purifying
and cleansing; alluding to that of _Euripides_, that the sea washeth
away all faults from men, for that the sea which the _Pythagoreans_
because of its bitternesse and saltnesse, call it _Saturnes_ tears, and
a fift Element, and is nothing but salt dissolved in water. And certes
it is a thing very admirable, the great quantity that there is of
salt; sith that we hold it for an infallible maxime, that God & Nature
made nothing in vain. For besides that there is found thereof in the
earth, part in liquor which they scum off, part in yce, as at _Halle_
in _Saxony_, and at _Barre_ in _Provence_, part in hard rocks, as in
_Teplaga_ a land of Negroes, where they carry it more then two hundred
miles off upon their heads, and transport from hand to hand by relayes,
even to the Kingdome of _Tombur_, serving for money that passeth for
currant in all those quarters, as it doth also in the Province of
_Caindu_ in East Tartarie. According to _Marc. Pole_ in his 2 book,
38 chap. and also that if they have it not for all purposes in their
mouths, their gums rot, because of the extream heats that raign there,
accompanied with corrupting Moorish moistures; for which reason they
must hold thereof continually moistening it with a thing that doth
hinder putrefaction.

I have many times made triall very exactly, that of Sea-water, men
make or draw more then halfe of salt, causing the fresh water that
is therein, sweetly to evaporate away; what an enormous quantity
then would there remaine of salt, if the fresh substance of the Sea
were there from extracted? There are no sands or deserts, of what
long extenditure soever, that can compare therewith, not by the 2.
thousand part; for many men would equall, yea preferre the Sea in
quantity and greatness unto the earth. We must not here dwell long on
particularities that concerne salt. _Plinie_ in his 35. Book _Chap._
7. The greatest part depending upon nothing but hearesay, for all tend
to no other thing, but in the first place to shew that there are two
sorts of salt (as tis true) Naturall, and Artificiall. The Naturall
growes in flakes, or in a rock by it selfe, within the earth, as is
aforesaid: the Artificiall is made with sea-water, or with liquor, as
a pickle drawne out of salt pits, as they doe in _Lorrain_, and the
_French_ County of _Burgundie_: which they boyle and congeale upon the
fire. He there sheweth many examples, and indeed those which are more
difficult to beleeve: let the faith be on the sayers part, and among
others of a certaine lake of _Tarentin_ in _Poville_, not deeper then
the height of knees where water in summer time by the Suns heat is all
converted into salt. And in the Province of _Babylon_, there growes
a liquid _Bitumen_, a little thick, which they use in Lamps in stead
of oile. This inflamable substance being stripped therefrom, there
remaines salt, there under hidden: as indeed wee see it by experience
that out of every thing that burns there may be salt extracted,
but there doth not appear any thing therein but waterishnesse and
inflamable unctuosity which must be taken away by fire, this done salt
remains in the ashes. And this salt (saith _Geber_) in his testament
retaines alwayes the nature and property of the thing from which it is
extracted, if this be done in a close vessell that the spirits may not
vapor away, for there would remaine that which the Gospell cals _sal
infatuatum_, as we shall say hereafter.

[Sidenote: (_a_) The first receptacle or bond of salt water whereof
salt is made.

(_b_)A trunck or pipe of wood through which sea-water passes, one of
the last receptacles whereof salt is made.]

[Sidenote: High grounds or little hils raised by mens hands.]

The best salt then that may be, and the wholesomest, is that which is
made with sea-water in _Brouage_. And after the example thereof, that
the trough throughout, where the salt water is made of clay or glue,
as potters earth: and that whereof tiles is made; furthermore you must
_courry_ this trough by Artifice that it drink not, nor suck up the
water which men draw therefrom, which is done by beating it with a
great number of Horses, Asses, and Mullets, tied one to another that
they may trample thereon, so long that it be firme and solid, as a
certain barns flore to thresh wheate. This done, and having hollowed
the channels, to put in the water, then we must have a care that the
salt-pans be something lower then the Sea (_Plinie_ in his 2. Book
_Chap._ 106. sets downe that salt cannot be made without fresh water)
they set in the first place a great receptacle where they draw the
water which is called the (_a_) _Jard_: and at the end thereof a
sluce by which having applyed thereunto below a hanch with a stopple
called the (_b_) _Amezau_, they make the water run from the Jard into
_Parquets_, which they cal _Couches_, & of these _Couches_ giving
thereto a requisite hanging, by other stopples, 2. in number, called
the gate of the _Poelles_, which are therein enchased within other
Parquets called soldering or planching with boord, windings and means
to make the water turne, by divers windings and channels almost after
the manner of a Labyrinth, which it doth for a great way before it come
to render it self at last, within the _Parquets_ and hollowes where the
salt must be congealed: alwayes diminishing the quantity of water, that
the Sun-beames have therein more action, and that it be better warmed
before it enter the floores, where it makes its finall congelation.
But to come thereunto by certaine degrees, and proportionate measures,
there are throughout the _Palles_ which they lift up and downe as
those of a mill. All the earth that remaineth, which men draw by the
_Parquets_ and the flores they _Arrange_ about them as a _Trench_ or
rampart, which is called _Bassis_ of the convenient breadth, to passe
two horses a front; which serves as well to retaine the water, as to
put upon the heaps of salt, made and congealed, called _Vaches_, and
to come and goe as upon a dike, or causway from one marish to another,
to lade and carry upon the beasts of carriage of the vessels which
attend there neer to the shore: In the winter they content themselves
with bulrushes which they sell afterwards very well for the profit they
draw from them: and that for fear of rains and snows, and other aereall
moistures, that moisten then anew. And all the risings are so oblique,
and turning, that for a mile travers of right way, wee must make 7. or
8. so that being therein once cast a little on, one may lose himselfe,
which knew not the addresses, or had not a good guide, by reason of
the turnings and bridge-ponts, that men must goe to make choice of,
to passe from one place to another. And it would be very hard to make
thereof a Chart or description, principally in winter, where all is
well-nigh covered with water, & yet more to enter in by a strong hand,
for conservation of these salt pits every year, after the heats are
over, the Sun not being able to make it, but in the Months of _May_,
_June_, _July_, and _August_, the salt makers doe use to open certaine
_Bonds_, to suffer the sea-water to enter till all the formes and
_Parquets_ be covered, otherwise the frosts would destroy them: that if
while the salt freezeth or creameth there come any rain, it is so great
a retardment (and for fifteen dayes at the least) we must empty al the
water out of the _Parquets_, that the rain had altered, and therefore
in rainy and cold years, they can very hardly make it.

In this regard, I come to remember an experiment that I have tried
more then once, which gave me to think whether it were _Aristotle_,
I tooke eight or ten pound of common grosse salt, which I made to
dissolve in hot water, scumming the froth which may be there, and
being left to settle, I put the clear by inclination in a caldron
over the fire, where I made all the water evaporate, so that the salt
remained in the bottome, white as snow: then I endeavoured to dry it
in a pot, giving it at last a good estret of fire for four or five
houres, when it was cold I parted it into four platters of _Beuvais_
to shorten and gain time, in fair weather at a window where the Sunne
came not, and did choose a moist time to facilitate the dissolution,
recollecting every morning that which was resolved in water, so long,
that at the end of seven or eight dayes the salts dissolution was
perfected, nothing remaining but I know not what thicknesse or slime,
in a small quantity which I set apart, I put all my dissolutions into
_Cornues_ & distilled all the water which could mount, being very
fresh, for the saltnesse did not ascend, but remained fixt in the
bottome of the vessell, and gave at last a good estret of fire, with
staves of _Cotteret_, having broken the Cornues: I put the salt that
therein remained congealed to dissolve in moisture as before, till
there remained nothing but grossenesse and slime as in the former I
distilled that which ascended from the water, and reiterated all those
Regiments till all my salt was resolved and distilled into salt water,
that which came the seven or eight time. The slime I washed well with
water, to extract what might bee the Remainder of saltnesse; and so
recalcined and washt them till there rested nothing but slime or pure
earth without tast. Of this little salt that I had extracted, I did
as I had done with others, so that all my salt, without losing any
of its substance, went away in sweet water, and in this insensible
slime, which came at last to one or two ounces. What then became of
the saltnesse of this salt? Certes herein I have lost all my _Latine_,
and know not what to say thereof, only it is gone in verity as I say:
If any one would untie this knot, would indeed do me a great pleasure:
I will leave it to mix with others, to come to the particular praises
of salt, without which, saith _Plinie_, we could not live civilly. All
the grace, gentility, ornament, pleasures and delights of humane life,
cannot bee better expressed then by this word; which extends also to
the pleasures of the soul, the sweetnesse and tranquillity of life,
and to a Soveraign rejoycing and repose of all troubles and sorrows.
It renews the pricks and amorous desires to beget its like, and hath
obtained this honorable quality of Souldiers, and of pleasant and
witty words, and joyous meetings, without hurt to any; from whence it
should be called the Graces. According to which St. _Paul_ saith in the
4 to the _Col._ 6. _Let your speech be alwaies with grace, seasoned
with salt._ And in the end it is the seasoning of all our viands,
which without it would remain unsavoury and without tast. So that it
is said to right sense in the common proverb, there is nothing more
profitable then the sun and salt. So _Plinie_ discourseth thereof, in
the place alledged, and _Plutarch_ in his book and 4 question of his
Symposiacques, without salt we can eat nothing agreeable to the tast,
for bread it self is more savoury if it be mingled therewith: therefore
ordinarily in Churches and covering of tables, they couple _Neptune_
with _Ceres_, for salt things are as if it were an allurement and a
spur to excite appetite: So that before any other nouriture wee take
that which is sharp and salt, whereas, if they begin with others they
would incontinently prostrate themselves. That which hath no tast
can it be eaten without Salt? _Job._ 6. 6. Salt also renders drink
more delicious, and it is of infinite other uses and commodities of
life, that holds more of man; whereas the privation thereof, makes it
brutall. It is furthermore a mark and symbole of Justice, because it
guards and conserves that to which it is introduced and fastened. Of
Amity also, and Gratitude, sutable to that in the first of _Esdras_
chap. 4. where the Lieutenants of King _Artaxerxes_ writ to him in
this manner. _We remember the salt thou gavest us in thy Palace, we
would not fail to advertise thee faithfully of what shall come to our
knowledg concerning the service of thy highness._

Salt being there put for one of the greatest obligations that can be
had, because it is a thing pure, neat, holy and sacred, which men
first set on the table. So that _Æschines_ in his prayer of the ill
administred Ambassie, makes great account of salt, and a publick table,
of one City confederate with another. And indeed there is nothing
more permanent nor more fixt in the fire, nor more approaching to
its nature, because it is mordicant, sharp, tart, cutting, subtill,
penetrative, pure and neat, fragrant, incombustible and incorruptible.
Yea, that which preserves all things from corruption, & by its
preparations makes it self clear, crystalline, and transparent as Air;
for glasse is nothing else then a most fixt salt that may be extracted
from all sorts of ashes, and of some nearer then of others; but it
is not so dissoluble into moisture as common salt; nor that which
is extracted out of ashes by way of lee, which is liquid with it by
strong expressions of fire, which are notwithstanding two contrary
resolutions, and resisting one the other: chiefly afterward from all
liquid humidity, unctuous but inconsumptible. It is moreover the first
originall as well of mineralls as of stones, and pretious stones,
yea of all other mineralls. Likewise of vegetables and of Animalls,
whose blood and urinall humour, and all other substance is salted,
to preserve it from putrefaction: and in generall, from all mixed
and composed Elements; which is herein verified that they resolve
themselves into it, so that it is as the other life of all things; and
without it saith the Philosopher _Morien_, nature can no wayes work,
nor can any other thing be ingendred, according to _Raimund Lullus_ in
his testament. Whereunto all chymicall Philosophers doe adhere; that
nothing hath been created here below, in the Elementary part better,
nor more pretious then salt.

There is salt then, in every thing, and nothing can subsist but for
the salt which is therein mixed; which ties the parts together as a
chain, otherwise they would all go into small powder, and give them
nourishment; for there are two substances in salt, the one viscous,
gluish, and unctuous, of the nature of air, which is sweet; and indeed
there is nothing that nourisheth but what is sweet; the bitter and the
salt do not. The other is a dust, sharp pricking and biting, of the
nature of fire, which is laxative. For all salts are laxative, and
nothing doth loose the body, that participates not of the nature of
salt: Mark then, wherefore is it that those that drink salt water die
speedily of dysenteries? the salt which is mingled therewith causing a
gnawing in the bowels; for there is nothing corrosive but salt, or of
the nature of salt, fiery of it self, saith _Plinie_, _lib._ 31. _ch._
9. and yet enemy of actuall fire, for it leaps up and down, it danceth
to and fro, and crackles, corroding also all to which it is fastened;
and drying it, although it be the strongest and most permanent humidity
of all others, and it is a moisture (saith _Geber_) that above all
other moistures expects an encounter with fire.

So wee see in metals, which are nothing else but congealed and baked
salts, by a long and successive decoction, within the earths entralls,
where their humidity is abundantly fixt by the temperate air it
meets withall there. And these salts do participate of sulphur and
quicksilver, which joined together make a third name Metalline salt,
which hath the same fashion and resolution as common salt; which is
taken for a symbole of equity and justice; as also are metals, but for
another consideration. For melt Gold, Silver, Copper, and other metals
together, they wil all mingle equally: So that if upon a hundred parts
of silver, yea two hundred you melt one of gold, the least part of
this silver, in what regard soever you will take it from the totall
masse, shall in respect of it self, take its just and equall portion of
gold and no more nor lesse, wherefore they are taken for distributive
justice. But salt is for that throughout, where it attacheth flesh,
fish, vegetables, it keeps them from corruption, and conserves them
in their entire, and makes them durable for many ages. Fire on the
contrary, is an evill host, for it stealeth and destroyeth all that
lodgeth near it, never ceasing till it hath converted all into ashes,
whence salt was extracted, that was before therein contained: So
that these two, fire & salt, accord and convene together and also
with the ferments in this, that they convert all that whereupon they
can exercise their action. _Plutarch_ in his book and 4 question of
Symposiaques, extolling salt, sets down, that all flesh and fish that
was eat is a dead thing, and proceeds from a dead body; but when the
faculty of salt comes to be introduced, it is as a soul that revivifies
and gives them grace and favor. And in the 5 book 10. quest. renders
a reason why _Homer_ calls salt divine; he puts that salt is as a
temperament and fortification of the viands within the body: and that
it gives it an agreement with the appetite. But it is rather for the
vertue that it hath to preserve dead bodies from putrefaction; which
is as to resist death, that which appertains to Divinity. _Thou shalt_
(_not suffer thy holy one to see corruption_,) not permitting that
what is deprived of life should perish so suddenly in all kinds: but
as the soul, that divine part within us, keeps the body alive (a soul
is given to hogs for their safety,) this _Plinie_ sets down after the
Stoicks. So salt also takes into its safeguard dead flesh to keep it
from putrefaction; whence the fire of lightning is reputed for divine,
because those that have been touched therewith remain a great while
without corruption; as salt doth on its part, which hath this property
and vertue; which sheweth the great affinity and agreement which they
have together. Wherefore _Evinus_ was wont to say, that fire was the
best sauce in the world, and the very same is also attributed to
salt. All which things here above do confirme the occasion for which
_Moses_, and after him _Pythagoras_ made so great esteem of salt, to
cover under his Allegorie that which they would give to understand by
it; that our souls and confidences signified by man in St. _Mark_,
namely, the internall man, and our body for the sacrifice ought to be
offered up unto God, pure and not soiled with corruption; _That you
offer up your bodies a living sacrifice, holy pleasing unto God, &c._
Therein was there (it may be) another reason, that moved _Moses_ to
exalt salt so much, that according as _Rabbi Moses_ the _Ægyptian_
discourseth at large in his third book of his _More_, 47 ch. where he
renders a particular reason for the most part of Mosaical ceremonies,
his principall aim was to overthrow all Idolatries, even those of the
_Ægyptians_, where they had a greater vogue then in any other part. He
seeing that their Priests so greatly detested salt, that they would
not use it in any sort, for that of the sea from whence it proceeded;
in the bitternesse whereof, the sweet substance of _Nilus_ went to
lose and salt it self; which they held to be for the radicall moisture
from whence all things here below do sprout and nourish themselves in
despite of them, and contrary to their traditions; he would thereof
make a form of alliance & paction from God with the Jewish people,
that all their oblations should be accompanied with salt: And in the
2 of _Paralip._ 13. 5 chap. It is said, that God gave to _David_ and
his children the Kingdom of _Israel_ by a Covenant of Salt; that is
to say, most firm and indissoluble; for that salt hinders corruption.
And therefore the Saviour chose his Apostles to be as the salt of men;
that is to say, to deliver the pure and incorruptible doctrine of the
Gospel; and to confirm them firm persistent faith, as wel by words as
deeds. The _Caballists_ penetrating further into the mysteries inclosed
therewithin, meditate certain subtilties by a rule of Ghematrie, called
_Ghilcal_, which consisteth in equivalencies of Numbers, which the
_Hebrewes_ assigne unto Letters. Those of this word _Malach_ which
signifieth salt, mounts in their supputation to 78. for _Mem_ valued
40. _Lamed_ 30. and _heth_ 8. or divided in any sort that you will,
alwaies there will result a certain number, representing a mystery of
Divine names; the half which makes 39. mount to as much as the letters
of _Chuzu_, the scabbard or covering of this great Name for _caph.
val._ 20. _vau_ 6. _Z._ 7. and the other _vau_ 6. if in 3 parts, each
wil mount to 26. which is the number _tetragrammaton Jehovah_, _vau_
making 10. _he_ 5. _vau_ 6. & _he_ 5. In six parts this will be 13. for
each, which are equipollent to the number of Piety. In 13. there are 6.
which _vau_ is valued at, a letter representing eternall life; besides
that six is the first perfect number, because his parts do constitute
it, his sixt namely 1. his third 2. and its halfe 3. which perfection
hath not any one of the other numbers, and in six dayes the structure
of the Universe was perfected.

There are other mysteries in the Scripture; in 26. will be the number
of the most holy & sacred Trinitie, for three times 26. makes 78. In
39. twice, which _Beth_ stands for a symbole of a word, where the
second person, and the house of _Idea’s_ of the _Archetype_, which
_Plato_ hath well acknowledged, _Aristotle_ not. And finally 87.
denotes as many unities, whereof each represents the unity of the
essence of one God alone. The same is in the _Lechem_ bread, which is
an anagram of the former, and consisteth of the same letters. It was
therefore some cause of the Proverb, _To eat salt with thy bread_.
_Rabbi Solomon_ upon the places aforesaid, of Gods alliance with
his people, designed by salt, by which is understood the Eternall
paction of the great Priesthood of the Messiah, brings us a form of
an Allegory, very strange and phantastick. That the waters here below
do mutiny, that they are separated from the supercelestiall, having
the firmament set betwixt them; by means whereof, God to appease
them, promised that they should be perpetually in his service, in all
offerings, sacrifices, as he did afterwards in the Law, which hee gave
to the _Jewes_; _Whatsoever thou shalt offer to the Lord, thou shalt
season it with salt._

Yet there are divers sorts of salt, that have different properties
and vertues, according to the things from which they are extracted;
for salt retains a propriety of the thing from whence it came, saith
_Geber_ in his Testament, yea as many odors, and sapors as there are,
they all do depend upon salt; for where there is no salt, there is
no smell nor tast; and yet of all the tasts which _Plutarch_ in his
Naturall causes doth limit to eight, _Plinie lib._ 15. _cap._ 27.
extends them to 13. there is not one, that is not salt, because tast
(as _Plato_ will have it) comes from water, which creep athwart the
stalk of every plant, and keeps the saltness that it cannot passe as
it is more grosse and terrestriall, as wee see in sea-water when it
is distilled; where when they passe it through sand, where it leaves
its saltnesse. But it may be said to _Plato_, that the tast doth not
only ly in plants, but also in Animalls and mineralls, and all other
compounded Elements. It is that which he and _Aristotle_ and other
rationall Philosophers, are only satisfied with, that which their
arguments and discourse do imprint in their phantasies: esteeming that
it cannot be otherwise, then that which their reasons do demonstrate
unto them, for the most part false and erroneous; there were if they
would penetrate empirickly by the experiments, they might have been
shewed by the finger of the eye, the truth of the thing, they might
have been better ascertained therein, as the _Arabians_ have since
done; and the Chymicall Philosophers, who will assure themselves of
nothing, but what they have oftentimes tried without variation to the
sense. It is a maxime of all Naturalists, received for Infallible, that
the transparence comes from this, when the water in the composition and
mixtion superabounds, over the earth, and darkenesse on the contrary,
when Terrestreity predominates the water, and it would be accounted an
irremissible crime _Læsæ Majestatis_ to doubt thereof, for who is there
that doubteth it, will they say, that it is not so? I will reply that
it is I, to whom experience shewes the contrary, at least for that the
cause of transparence, and opacity, doth not proceed from that which
they alledge. Take Crystall and passe it never so little through hot
ashes, so long as one would rost a chestnut you wil find it all dark,
without any more transparence within or without in the superficies, and
that without any losse of its substance, or diminution of its weight.
And on the contrary in a strong expression of fire blowing upon the
lead, then which nothing can be darker, it will convert into a forme
of a hyacinth so transparent, that one may read a small letter through
it; though it were an inch thick, and this hyacinth by the same fire
returne into lead, and lead into an hyacinth.

If then these profound Contemplators of nature, and her effects, had
been willing to accompany their Imaginary discourses, with experience
that reveales infinite secrets by fire, they could never have fallen
into such absurdities: and had manifestly seen without any vail or
obstacle all full of things whereof they remaine in irresolution and
doubt not having spoken therein but as blind men and by guesse, for
we cannot discover the secrets of things to proceed therein directly,
nor come to it by entring on it, after the manner of speech, by the
foregate: for nature goeth in her workes rarely and in secret, as
by the posterne gate: or by setting ladders against the windowes:
The _Greeks_ call that διάλυσις, solution; No man can know the
composition of a thing, said _Geber_ very well, that was ignorant of
its destruction. And this is done by fire, which separates the parts,
as hath been said before. There are then two divers substances of
salt, therefore it causeth divers effects, the one is sweet, glutinous
and inflamable, of the nature of aire, nourishing, binding. The other
sharp, mordicant and separative that begets nothing. The Poets in their
mythologies have called this the _Ocean_, and the sweet wherewith the
pickle of the Sea is moistened and made liquid _Tethys_ as _Plutarch_
hath it in his _Osiris_ which giveth milk to and nourisheth all things.
But simple water of it selfe alone would not be sufficient to nourish,
if it were not assisted with things fastened to the earth, the salt
therein inclosed and therewith mingled, having a sweet and glutinous
unctuosity, for as in the Sea-water there are two substances, sweet
and salt, there are subalternately two in salt: But we cannot say that
they doe nourish or produce any thing. Therefore is it, that they use
to raze Traiters-houses, and sow them with salt as reputed unworthy
to produce anymore. Salt indeed produceth nothing as it is, where its
sweet substance is so drowned with the salt, that it cannot expresse
it selfe in action, so as it is, except it be freed out of prison, for
the saltnesse predominates over it, and covers it. But for replication
thereunto which was said before, that fresh water alone, doth neither
nourish nor produce any thing: which we see to the contrary, by
experience in many waterish herbs that grow in the midst of waters,
and in flints that it engenders shells, and fishes, and wormes: to be
short, that its procreation doth extend to the three composed kinds
of Minerals, Vegetables, & Animals: And indeed put little pebbles in
a phial, and water thereon, every day, renewing it daily, at the end
of certaine time, you will find them so great, and so bigge, that they
cannot come out at the neck by which they were put in. But indeed all
this proceeds from the slime, which is mingled with the water, as
frogs, and other things, which are procreated in the middle Region of
the aire of the slime which the Sun beams hath thence raised with the
water, for al rains, snowes, and other such impressions participate
much of the slime; from thence it comes that the snow doth smoak and
fatten the earth, and the water of raine, is more connaturall to trees,
herbes, and seeds, chiefly those which fall by stormes and thunders,
then those of wels and rivers: whereof _Plutarch_ forceth himselfe
to bring forth many reasons in naturall causes, which have no great
apparence: There is yet more to say, for that they are better baked
and accompanied with more subtle and hot slime, and are of lighter
concoction and nourishment then plants; as of meate in the stomach
of _Animals_, some more then others, where the waters here below are
more raw and indigested: we insist a little in water, because salt is
nothing else, but water mingled and setled with dry and burned earth,
of the nature of fire which makes it bitter and salt. So that before
we passe from this subject of fresh water, we will here touch upon an
experiment of more rare things from whence come many fair & secret
considerations. Sweet water is a body so homogeneal, that it would seem
to the sight so cleare, transparent, and liquid, in all its parts,
resembling to it selfe, that there is in it but one only substance:
since that by distillations shee passeth all. But yet there is another
sound substance, solid, and compact, in the forme of earth, mingled
with its liquid homogeneity, which it separates by Artifice, and it is
that which _Aristotle_ saith in the swarme of Philosophers. The earth
is concreat by the grossenesse of the water. And this may be seene with
water agitated and beaten and after redistilled many times, alwayes
separating the fift or sixth part which shall passe the first. You must
then take a good quantity of wel water, or the same of fountaine, river
or rain water, and let it settle twenty or thirty houres untill there
be some ordure or slime, it separates it selfe.

[Sidenote: Abundance of fluxes of blood.]

Take of this water as you may say forty pintes, and cause the halfe to
vapour away by very easie fire, that it boile not, put these twenty
pintes apart, and take new water as above, of which you shall evaporate
the moity; and so long continue it, that you may have well a hundred
pintes halfe evaporated; from this one hundred, make to evaporate
thirty pintes, and of sixty, ten, twenty, of fifty, that shall remain
twenty of thirty, ten, and of twenty, ten; and cast away all these
slimes that shall reside, for they are nothing worth, and are but
immundicity and ordure, unto the seaventh or eighth evaporation or
distillation, after which there will appeare in your water infinite
little atomes and little bodies; which at last by little and little
will be congealed into one solid substance, of a grisly colour,
soft as dough: _Of which I have seen such admirable effects that
men would hardly beleeve it; in Cankers, Gangrenes, Hemorrhagies,
bloody flux, Women newly laid in bed; and at nose, diseases in the
stomach, and infinite other such accidents that no_ terra sigillata
_nor_ Bolarmoniac _could compare with_. You may make your round pills
impasting them with the last waters that were extracted, which are
also of great vertue, _to wash wounds, inveterate Maladies of the
stomach, and other the like; wherefore you must keepe them well_. You
may also calcine it for six or seven houres in a small pot well luted,
and casting thereon vinegar distilled, boiling, dissolving one part,
nourishing the rest; calcine it againe, and dissolve it till you have
all the salt which will be white and of sweet tast, make it dissolve
to oile, you may draw from thence great effects even upon Gold. But
sea-water is yet of more efficacy then that of wels and rivers, sweet
water (I say) which shall be separated from salt by distillation: which
would be easie to do near the Sea, having to that end foure or five
alembics of leaden earth, and yet more of sweet water which is drawne
by distillation of salt resolved in liquor to humidity.

But there is yet another manner of proceeding, in the separation of the
substances of common water: and more spirituall then the precedent.
Take very clean water out of a well, river or fountain, let it settle
twenty foure houres, and take the pure and the cleare, which you shall
put in vessels of _Beauvois_ earth: well stopped to putrifie in hot
dung fourty dayes, renewing it two or three times every week, filter
the water, and give only five or six boylings, scumming off the scurfes
that arise thereon with a feather, then put it in _Cornues_ of glasse,
not putting therein but the third part, or the moity at most, of that
which they may containe and distill of two parts three; then change
the Recipient, and accomplish to distill all the water, but with an
easie fire. Then strengthen the fire, by little and little, till you
see small fumes ascend, continue this degree of fire, with increasing
untill it mount no more. Let the fire quench of it selfe and recoole
the vessell: then gather the salt which shall be so elevated towards
the beck of the _Cornue_, and within the recipient, and keep it in a
vessel of earth, very close and sealed in a warm and dry place that
it melt not, nor dissolve. Put the _Cornue_ to againe with that which
remains in the bottome, and strengthen the fire untill you see a
reddish oile; end your distillation, after cease the fire. Take the
black feces, that remain in the bottome, stampe them, and put them in
a sublimatory of good earth, of an inch thick, and no more, for six
houres, first a little fire, then reinforce it for twelve others, till
the sublimatory be red, the fire being alwaies in the same degree:
let it coole and gather the salt which will be mounted, and keep it
as the former. This is the second _sal Armoniac volatill_, which is
extracted from the water: and the one, and the other, have great power
to the dissolution of gold, carrying no danger with then as your common
_sal Armoniac_ may doe; which hath bad qualities in it, there, where
this is extracted from a substance so familiar to mans body, which,
is sweet water. Now take all the feces & residences, which remain in
the bottome of the vessell, bruise them, and make them dissolve in the
first water, which you shall have distilled, after you have warmed it
a little, that it may dissolve the salt that may be there. Let them
repose, then evacuate, and put them to distill with halfe the water:
Then change the Recipient, and with a little stronger fire, distill the
Surplufage of the water, and keep them each a part, in a cold place.
But doe not perfect to congeal all the salt in the bottome of the
vessell, but leave therein a little moisture, to create flakes of ice.
If it be not white enough, let it calcine for three or foure houres
in a pot of earth not leaded, after dissolve it in the second water,
filter and congeale it, and keep it in a dry place, for this is salt
fix and fusible. If in drawing the first _Salarmoniac_, _volatill_, the
foule oile that is nothing worth mounts with it, you must put salt and
oile in new water, and depure and putrifie it as before, which was to
begin againe, therefore we must goe wisely to worke. There is another
manner of proceeding therein, which is shorter, for there are more ways
to one intent, and to one end, saith _Geber_. Take raine or fountain
water, put it in a _Cornue_, upon the sand with a slow fire; and
distill thereof a fourth part, which is more rare and subtill. Continue
afterwards the distillation even to the feces, which you cast away. And
see that you have good store of this meane substance, with which, you
shall reiterate the distillation seaven times, being alwayes the fourth
part that will first issue out, which is the phlegme, and the feces
are the slime. In the fourth, you shall begin to see the sulphurities
of all colours in the forme of _huskes and pieces of gold_. The seaven
distillations being perfected put your meane substance in an alembec,
to the fire with a soft bath; and draw that which may ascend, which
shall be yet of phlegme, then you shall see created little stones,
and pieces of all colours which will goe to the bottome; stay your
distillation, and let them settle, then evacuate that which remains
sweetly with water: and doe so, with all your mean substance, and
make there little stones to multiply in the bath. When you shall have
enough dry them in the Sun, or before an easie fire, and put them in a
glasse-bottle well sealed, with the fire of a lampe or the like, for
three or foure months and your matter will be congealed and fixed
except a certaine small portion thereof, which will arise along the
sides of the vessell: This here is the mean substance, of the first
matter of all things, which is water. But that we be not deceived or
abused, all these practises, which are but an image and portrait halfe
rudely hewen out of the manner which we must hold in the extraction
of liquors. From whence they resolve of themselves into moisture, all
sorts of salt, as well common, as _Salalkali_, _tartar_, and other the
like; the sweet oleaginous substance swimming above the water with
the salt and bitter, which there remaineth dissolved, and after the
extraction of the water, remaineth a congealed salt in the bottome;
that is to say, to separate the oile from salts: which cannot be done
without great artifice: But it is not reasonable to discover it, and
divulge all openly; but to reserve something therein, for fear of doing
wrong to the curious endeavours of some learned men who have taken so
much paines and travail, to come to the knowledge of these fine secrets.

It hath pleased me in some sort to runne through the foresaid
experiments of water as well for the importance and rarity which
they have, as for that it depends upon salt whereof water makes the
principall part: and likewise of the sea, from whence separating the
sweet substance the salt remains solid congealed; and of this salt
resolved by it selfe, to moisture, they extract by distillation the
greatest part of sweet water; by meanes whereof, without departure from
this subject of salt, it will not be amisse, to touch here something of
the Sea, whose water is as a body, the salt enclosed not perceiveable
to the sight, but well to the tast, are the vitall spirits, and the
oleaginous inflamable substance envelopped within the salt; the soule
and the life of the nature of aire, or of wind; remember because wind
is my life. There are then two substances in the Sea, and by consequent
in salt; the one liquid, and volatile, which ascends upward, and is
double, water namely and oile; the one and the other sweet and fresh:
And the other fix, and solid, which is bitter and salt; wherefore
it was that _Homer_ called the _Ocean_ the father of Gods and of
men, for by stretching out of all side crossewise, the Conduits and
spongiosities of the earth which hee holds encompassed round about;
as a dry hanging on to some rock there within by a providence of
nature is made a separation of substances of the fresh, namely, and of
the salt: for the Marine water, passeth through these Conduits, they
unsalt it, even as they should distill it by an _Alembic_ or _Cornue_,
or as one should passe it through sand many times, part whereof
should remaine baked in the earth for the production and nouriture of
vegetables: part passeth through springs, wells, and fountaines, whence
all flouds and rivers are formed, _Eccles._ 1.7. _All rivers runne into
the Sea, yet the Sea is not full, unto the place from whence the rivers
come, thither they returne againe._ And part elevates it selfe aloft,
by meanes of the Sun and starres, which draw and suck them, as well for
their nouriture, as for the formation of raines, snowes, hailes, and
other aqueous expressions in the aire. The salt which is more grosse,
heavy and terrestriall remains invisqued in the veines, and conduits of
the earth, where heat inclosed bakes it, digests, alters, and changes
it into another nature for the production of all sorts of Minerals,
by meanes of the portion of fresh water mingled therewith, which
dissolves and washeth off these salts, so that finally, having been
brought to their last perfection according to natures intention, shee
enformes that which shee hath determined. The Sea then is not so barren
and unfruitfull as some poets and Philosophers have made it; _Plato_
himselfe, in his _Phedon_, where he saith, that nothing could be there
procreated worthy of _Jupiter_: because all the Animals procreated
therein are wild, untameable and indocill, and in which there is
neither amity nor sweetnesse. But what shall we say of the _Dolphin_
that saved _Arion_, and of many others, alledged by _Plutarch_ in his
treaty: What animalls are the wisest, those on land, or those in the
water? of fishes likewise wherewith the _Indians_ are served, as with
a chained Grayhound? But it is very smal, to take fish, never letting
go what he hath once fastned on. Truely a Brach nor couching spaniell,
cannot bee more spirituall, or docible than this fish, at least if it
be true what is related to have often times been seen by the eye, in
the thirteenth booke of _Gonzalo d’Ovidiedo_ of his naturall history
of the _Indies_. _Chap_ 10. _And of Peter Martyr, of another sort of
fish called Manati, which being taken at Sea very little, and from
thence put into a standing lake, became tame, and privately would
come, and take bread from mens hands: and would not faile to come a
good way off, when hee was called, leaving himselfe to be handled at
their pleasure, and carried them upon his back, as on a bridge crosse
the lake, from one side to the other_: But fresh water fishes, are
they more docile then those of the Sea? The _Ægyptian_ Preists, above
all others abhorred the Sea, calling it the finall end, the death,
and destruction of all things: because the water thereof, killeth all
Animalls that drink thereof: and is as the sepulcher of all rivers,
that goe lose themselves and die therein; and the earth is the same for
all bodies, from whence none are spewed out. To this purpose _Chiia_
in the _Zohar_ deploring ‘the death of _Rabbi Simeon_ author thereof,
after he had cast himselfe on the earth and embraced him, used such a
language, _O earth, earth, dust, dust_, how hard and unpitifull art
thou? For whatsoever is most desireable to the sight, thou makest
old and deformed, thou breakest in peices the shining Columnes of
the world. How doest thou quench the cleare resplendent lights which
received theirs from the eternall living spring, wherewith the whole
world was illustrated! The Princes and Potentates given to the people
to governe them, and to administer Justice unto them, by which they are
maintained, and subsist, waxe old and end in thee: and thou remainest
alwayes persistent in thy selfe, not being able to satisfie or satiate
thy selfe with so many bodyes, that returne thither: so that the world
is therein confounded and lost, and afterwards renewes it self of a
suddaine.’ But for the regard of the Sea, the _Ægyptian_ Priests had
it in such detestation, that they could not endure to see the very
Mariners, nor the Islanders as people which on all parts were cut off
from humane commerce. And the _Britains_, (separated from the world
by an element which they say is the fifth,) so austere, outrageous,
and unpittiable: and for that cause they abstained from salt, because
that among other things it provoked to lasciviousnesse. The occasion
also for which they so much rejected the Sea, was something mysticall
and allegoricall: because it doth not wash spots or uncleannesse. So
that _Homer_ made, and not without reason, that _Nausicaa Alcinous_
daughter, washed her linnen and clothes in a fountaine of fresh water
on the Sea shore, for the truth is that Sea-water doth not wash.
That which _Aristotle_, (as _Plutarch_ puts it) in the first of the
_Symposiaques_ 9. question, referre to the pickle wherewith the
Sea-water is alwayes filled, so that there being nothing empty therein
it could receive no filthiness. And lee, is it not the same; yea more
full of salt; yea more unctuous and fat then that of the sea? so
that according to _Aristotles_ testimony, men put sea-water in their
lamps, to make them shine clearer, and cast upon the flame, it becomes
lighted; in which there may be also mystery contained, concerning fire
and salt, and their affinity together.

Join hereunto that wee may see that salt is an enemy to all filthinesse
and uncleannesse; and will not thereto adjoin or associate; no more
then fire, which will nothing but pure things, said good _Raimund
Lullius_. Yet to the aforesaid purpose, _Plutarch_ in his naturall
causes, sets down that the sea-water, doth neither nourish nor feed,
trees, or plants; because being grosse and heavy it cannot mount into
their stalks, which thicknesse and grosness is seen, for that carryeth
greater burthens then the fresh water: and this comes from the salt
therein dissolved, and it is earthly and consequently more uneasy to
sinke. Moreover trees being (according to the opinion of _Plato_,
_Democritus_, _Anaxagoras_, and others,) a terrestriall Animall, it
cannot give it nourishment; for bitter doth not nourish, but sweet
only. But what shall wee say of so many fishes that are procreated
and nourished in the sea, of herbs also, and of trees? _Francisco de
Oviedo_ _lib._ 2. _ch._ 5. sets down that in the first discoverie of
_Christopher Columbus_, they found as of great green and yellow medowes
in the main sea, more then two hundred leagues from land, of certain
herbes called _Salgazzi_, which go floting on the top of the waters,
as the winds carry them from one side to another. In the relation of
_Francis Vlloa_, he sets down that the root of the herbs, whereof he
gives the description and figure, do not sink more then 12 or 15 fadome
in the water, yellow yet, as wax.

But wee sufficiently see trees and bushes growing along the sea-shore,
and even in the very sea: yet _Plutarch_ insisteth that those that grow
along the shore of the Red-sea, are there procreated & nourished with
the slime which the flouds carry thither, and fall therein; which he
might have spoken more properly of the greater sea, otherwise called
_Pontus Euxinus_. And _Plinie_ _lib._ 18. _cha._ 22. that the herbs
which grow within the water are nourished with rains: but it would
follow, that if so, they should procreate in all other places where it
rains indifferently.

_Aristotle_ with better reason refers it to the grosse and unctuous
saltnesse which is therewith mingled. Salt being fat and unctuous,
which is the cause that salt water doth not so easily quench fire,
as fresh water. But this saltnesse is equall throughout all the sea.
_Plinie_ himself _lib._ 19. _ch._ 11. specifies, Certain herbes which
salt waters do much profit. These are secrets of Nature to which mans
discourse can hardly arrive. For herbs by a providence thereof may well
suck and draw from salt water, a fresh or sweet substance wherewith
they are procreated and nourished as the fishes.

But this is not our principall drift: we have here endeavoured to shew
that Salt is not unfruitfull, but the cause of fertility provoking
venereall appetite, whence _Venus_ is said to be begotten of the sea;
if men give salt unto animalls to heat them the more, and make them eat
salt as _Plutarch_ puts it in his 3. queston of Naturall causes. And
wee see by experience, that in ships laden with salt, rats and mice,
are sooner engendred then in others; this which must so much the more
cry down salt in regard of holy things, from whence all mutability
and lubricity must be bannished; but salt is in the number of things
that are applyed to the good, and to the bad part. Of the good we
have heretofore alledged many places. Of the bad for the sterility,
_Gen._ 14. 3. All shall assemble themselves in the wild valley which
is now the sea of salt. And in the 19. chap. 26. as also in the 10. of
_Wisdome_, v. 7. of _Lots_ wife, who for her incredulity and disobeying
the Angels voice, she was turned into a pillar of salt: And _Judges_ 9.
45. the habitations of Rebells and Traitors were razed and sowed with
salt. And in the 2 of _Zephaniah_ v. 9. _Moab_ shall be as _Sodome_, a
desolation of nettles, and thistles and heaps of salt.

But we see upon the ebbing and flowing of the salt pits in the Marshes
of _Zaintonge_, where they empty the durt, which are as salt as the sea
it self, where it produceth the best wheat, that possibly can be, and
in great quantity, and very excellent wines also: But there is another
consideration in that, as in Marle, and in the dry places of _Ardonne_,
where they burne the cuttings of trees, of 7 or 8 years, as also quick
chalk which supplies the place of dung in their grounds: for those
ashes would produce nothing of themselves, no more then Marle or salt,
but they are the cause of production because they warm and fatten the
land. There is yet another reason, that _Plutarch_ alledgeth, That
throughout where there is Salt nothing can grow thick, or be close
together; which constipation would hinder herbs to thrust out: Moreover
many medicaments and remedies do come from salt: whereupon I will not
here lose time, on that which _Plinie_, _Dioscorides_ and others, have
set down and treated of cursorily and in hast, with closed eyes one
after another, not having made proof thereof; add to this, it is so
triviall and beaten as nothing more, but will touch here, in passing
the Countrey, an experiment, whereof I have seen very admirable effects
in burning feavers and unquietnesse, where they could not take rest. It
is a frontall made in this manner.

Take the yolk of a fresh Eg, and as much gross salt, beat them together
in shape of an ointment, which you shall apply to your forehead,
between two folded linnen clothes: It doth not coole the brain, nor
cause such accidents; as conserve of Roses do, _Oxyrhodinon_ likewise,
and brings much more comfort.


                          Transcriber’s Note:

This e-text is based on the 1649 edition. Obvious punctuation errors
and doubled words have been tacitly removed. Obsolete, inconsistent,
and alternative spellings have been left unchanged unless the sense of
the respective phrase would be incomprehensible.

Infrequently, the original print image is faded; therefore, single
letters had to be restored to match the meaning of the respective
words. The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    #p. 5: ‘dreame; But’ → ‘dreame. But’
    #p. 10: ‘But what it this fire?’ → ‘But what is this fire?’
    #p. 12: ‘it takes it nourishment’ → ‘it takes its nourishment’
    #p. 23: ‘earth, aud produced’ → ‘earth, and produced’
    #p. 35: ‘things that are’: letter ‘e’ had been printed upside down
    #p. 39: ‘Sith other thingt’ → ‘Sith other things’
    #p. 44: ‘Astologers’ → ‘Astrologers’
    #p. 46 (sidenote): ‘P. 73’ → ‘P. 72’
    #p. 50: ‘accordng’ → ‘according’
    #p. 51: ‘the water whch is thereupon’ → ‘the water which is
    #p. 52: ‘Heavnn’ → ‘Heaven’
    #p. 55: ‘afterwatds’ → ‘afterwards’
    #p. 57: ‘throughly’ → ‘thoroughly’
    #p. 59: ‘enbarked’ → ‘embarked’; ‘besige’ → ‘besiege’
    #p. 60: ‘violl’ → ‘viall’
    #p. 71: ‘tkerein’ → ‘therein’
    #p. 60: ‘violl’ → ‘viall’
    #p. 82: ‘adultererer’ → ‘adulterer’
    #p. 88: ‘patience tpatience experience’ → ‘patience, patience
        experience’ ‘preverse opinions’ should possibly read: ‘perverse
    #p. 95: ‘retun to God’ → ‘return to God’
    #p. 96: ‘St. Auguistine’ → ‘St. Augustine’
    #p. 100: ‘it is said in the of Deut.’: missing chapter number (4)
        has been inserted
    #p. 103: ‘extends it light’ → ‘extends its light’
    #p. 123: ‘Is is written’ → ‘It is written’
    #p. 142: ‘forbiddding’ → ‘forbidding’
    #p. 146: ‘are as it it were’ → ‘are as if it were’
    #p. 154: ‘& scret considerations’ → ‘& secret considerations’

Italic passages have been symbolised by underscores (_italic_); forward
slashes represent small caps (/small caps/).

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