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Title: Masters in Art, Part 79, Volume 7, July, 1906: Ingres - A Series of Illustrated Monographs
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Language: English
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MASTERS IN ART: INGRES


[Illustration: (cover)]

JULY, 1906----INGRES----PRICE, 15 CENTS

Masters·in·Art
A·Series·of·Illustrated·Monographs

Issued·Monthly

INGRES

PART 79----VOLUME 7

Bates·and·Guild·Company,
Publishers
42·Chauncy·Street
Boston



MASTERS IN ART

A SERIES OF ILLUSTRATED
MONOGRAPHS: ISSUED MONTHLY

PART 79      JULY, 1906      VOLUME 7

Ingres

CONTENTS

Plate I.    Œdipus and the Sphinx                        Louvre, Paris

Plate II.   Portrait of Madame de Senonnes              Museum, Nantes

Plate III.  Monsieur Leblanc (Drawing)              Bonnat Collection,
                                                               Bayonne

Plate IV.   Madame Destouche (Drawing)                   Louvre, Paris

Plate V.    The Stamaty Family (Drawing)            Bonnat Collection,
                                                               Bayonne

Plate VI.   La Source                                    Louvre, Paris

Plate VII.  Portrait of Monsieur Bertin                  Louvre, Paris

Plate VIII. The Vow of Louis XIII                 Cathedral, Montauban

Plate IX.   Portrait of Madame Devauçay                  Condé Museum,
                                                             Chantilly

Plate X.    The Apotheosis of Homer                      Louvre, Paris

Portrait of Ingres by Himself:
    Uffizi Gallery, Florence                                   Page 22

The Life of Ingres                                             Page 23

The Art of Ingres                                              Page 29
    Criticisms by Blanc, Lapauze, Muther

The Works of Ingres: Descriptions of the
    Plates and a List of Paintings                             Page 35

Ingres Bibliography                                            Page 41

_Photo-engravings by C. J. Peters & Son: Boston. Press-work by the
Everett Press: Boston_

_A complete index for previous numbers will be found in the Reader's
Guide to Periodical Literature, which may be consulted in any library_

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Masters in Art

A Series of Illustrated Monographs

Among the artists to be considered during the current, 1906, Volume
may be mentioned, Ghirlandajo, Bouguereau, and Goya. The numbers of
'Masters in Art' which have already appeared in 1906 are:

Part 73, JANUARY         STUART
Part 74, FEBRUARY         DAVID
Part 75, MARCH          BÖCKLIN
Part 76, APRIL           SODOMA
Part 77, MAY          CONSTABLE
Part 78, JUNE             METSU
Part 79, JULY            INGRES

PART 80, THE ISSUE FOR

August

WILL TREAT OF

Wilkie

       *       *       *       *       *

NUMBERS ISSUED IN PREVIOUS VOLUMES OF 'MASTERS IN ART'

VOL. 1.

Part 1, VAN DYCK
Part 2, TITIAN
Part 3, VELASQUEZ
Part 4, HOLBEIN
Part 5, BOTTICELLI
Part 6, REMBRANDT
Part 7, REYNOLDS
Part 8, MILLET
Part 9, GIO. BELLINI
Part 10, MURILLO
Part 11, HALS
Part 12, RAPHAEL


VOL. 2.

Part 13, RUBENS
Part 14, DA VINCI
Part 15, DÜRER
Part 16, MICHELANGELO[A]
Part 17, MICHELANGELO[B]
Part 18, COROT
Part 19, BURNE-JONES
Part 20, TER BORCH
Part 21, DELLA ROBBIA
Part 22, DEL SARTO
Part 23, GAINSBOROUGH
Part 24, CORREGGIO

[Footnote A: _Sculpture_]

[Footnote B: _Painting_]


VOL. 3.

Part 25, PHIDIAS
Part 26, PERUGINO
Part 27, HOLBEIN[C]
Part 28, TINTORETTO
Part 29, P. deHOOCH
Part 30, NATTIER
Part 31, PAUL POTTER
Part 32, GIOTTO
Part 33, PRAXITELES
Part 34, HOGARTH
Part 35, TURNER
Part 36, LUINI

[Footnote C: _Drawings_]


VOL. 4.

Part 37, ROMNEY
Part 38, FRA ANGELICO
Part 39, WATTEAU
Part 40, RAPHAEL[D]
Part 41, DONATELLO
Part 42, GERARD DOU
Part 43, CARPACCIO
Part 44, ROSA BONHEUR
Part 45, GUIDO RENI
Part 46, P. deCHAVANNES
Part 47, GIORGIONE
Part 48, ROSSETTI

[Footnote D: _Frescos_]


VOL. 5.

Part 49, BARTOLOMMEO
Part 50, GREUZE
Part 51, DÜRER[E]
Part 52, LOTTO
Part 53, LANDSEER
Part 54, VERMEER
Part 55, PINTORICCHIO
Part 56, THE VAN EYCKS
Part 57, MEISSONIER
Part 58, BARYE
Part 59, VERONESE
Part 60, COPLEY

[Footnote E: _Engravings_]


VOL. 6.

Part 61, WATTS
Part 62, PALMA VECCHIO
Part 63, VIGÉE LE BRUN
Part 64, MANTEGNA
Part 65, CHARDIN
Part 66, BENOZZO
Part 67, JAN STEEN
Part 68, MEMLING
Part 69, CLAUDE
Part 70, VERROCCHIO
Part 71, RAEBURN
Part 72, FILIPPO LIPPI

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[Illustration]

MASTERS IN ART

Ingres

FRENCH SCHOOL



[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE I

INGRES
ŒDIPUS AND THE SPHINX
LOUVRE, PARIS]

[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE II

INGRES
PORTRAIT OF MADAME DE SENONNES
MUSEUM, NANTES

PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CIE]

[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE III

INGRES
MONSIEUR LEBLANC (DRAWING)
BONNAT COLLECTION, BAYONNE

PHOTOGRAPH BY A. GIRAUDON]

[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE IV

INGRES
MADAME DESTOUCHE (DRAWING)
LOUVRE, PARIS

PHOTOGRAPH BY A. GIRAUDON]

[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE V

INGRES
THE STAMATY FAMILY (DRAWING)
BONNAT COLLECTION, BAYONNE]

[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE VI

INGRES
LA SOURCE
LOUVRE, PARIS

PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CIE]

[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE VII

INGRES
PORTRAIT OF MONSIEUR BERTIN
LOUVRE, PARIS

PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CIE]

[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE VIII

INGRES
THE VOW OF LOUIS XIII
CATHEDRAL, MONTAUBAN

PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CIE]

[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE IX

INGRES
PORTRAIT OF MADAME DEVAUÇAY
CONDÉ MUSEUM, CHANTILLY

PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CIE]

[Illustration: MASTERS IN ART PLATE X

INGRES
THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER
LOUVRE, PARIS

PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CIE]

[Illustration:

PORTRAIT OF INGRES BY HIMSELF
UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE

This portrait was painted when Ingres was seventy-five. He has been
described at that time as strong and vigorous, short of stature,
thick-set, and ill-proportioned. His complexion was sallow, his
cheek-bones prominent, his eyes dark and keen, his eyebrows slight and
contracted in a frown, his nose seemingly short because of the great
length of his upper lip. His hair was short and stiff, and worn parted
like a woman's. His appearance, it was said, suggested a retired man
of business, or a curate in citizen's clothes, rather than an artist
with whom the love of beauty amounted to a passion.]



Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

BORN 1780: DIED 1867

FRENCH SCHOOL


Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (pronounced Ang´gr) was born at
Montauban in the south of France, on August 29, 1780. His father,
Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres, was by profession a house-decorator,
with talents so versatile that he was also to some extent painter,
sculptor, architect, and musician as well. It was he who gave the
first instruction in drawing and in music to his son, who, from the
outset, showed so much ability in both that it was a question which
should be adopted as his life-work.

Apparently the boy received but little schooling, but before he was
twelve years old had acquired such proficiency as a violinist that he
was accepted as a member of the orchestra of the theater of Toulouse,
where on one memorable occasion he played a concerto by Viotti so
skilfully that it called forth hearty applause. Deeming music to be
more remunerative than painting, his parents wished him to devote
himself to it professionally. This did not, however, prevent their
sending him to the painter Vigan, in Toulouse, for instruction in
drawing, and under his guidance Ingres followed the course prescribed
by the Academy of that city, in which Vigan was a professor. Later he
entered the studio of Roques, a painter who had been associated in
Rome with Vien and David, but who, while adhering to their doctrines,
had devoted much time to copying the works of the great Italians
of the Renaissance. The sight of these copies--above all, of one
of Raphael's 'Madonna of the Chair'--revealed to Ingres his true
vocation, and thenceforth no doubt existed in his mind that he would
devote his life to art.

Whatever disappointment his parents may have felt to have the matter
so decided, no opposition was made to his determination, and after a
brief period of study under a landscape-painter--Briant, or, as M.
Momméja says, Bertrand, by name--he started for Paris. There he soon
obtained admission to the studio of Jacques-Louis David, then the
acknowledged leader of the school of painting in France.

This was in 1796, and for the next four years Ingres worked diligently
and with such effect that before long he was recognized as one of
David's most promising pupils. A proof of his master's appreciation of
his ability is the fact that when called upon to paint a portrait of
Madame Récamier (see MASTERS IN ART, Part 74, Vol. 7) David
selected his young pupil Ingres to assist him in the work. But harmony
between master and pupil was of short duration, and although to the
end of his life Ingres spoke with admiration of "the great David
and his great school," asserting that his teaching was established
"on the severest and the truest principles," friction arose between
them, so that in the competition for the grand prize of Rome in 1800,
Ingres, unjustly it was said, was awarded but the second prize. In the
following year David's jealousy was aroused by the praise bestowed
by the English sculptor Flaxman upon the composition by Ingres of
'Achilles and the Ambassadors of Agamemnon,' which won for its author
the grand prize of Rome.

Although the young painter was now entitled to a sojourn of five
years in Italy, such was the reduced state of the French national
finances that his departure for Rome was indefinitely postponed. In
the meantime he was accorded a studio in the deserted convent of the
Capuchins in Paris, where with several other artists he pursued his
studies. Poor and without commissions, save a few chance orders,
or a stray job for some bookseller, Ingres worked assiduously at
drawings and studies in color, producing also a number of works
which have since become famous--a portrait of his father, one of
himself at twenty-four (now at Chantilly), portraits of Monsieur and
Madame Rivière (in the Louvre), 'La belle Zélie' (Rouen Museum), two
portraits of Napoleon Bonaparte, and others, in which, as Delaborde
has said, "he showed, as boldly and forcibly as at the end of his
career, all the strong, realistic qualities which form the basis of
his art."

At length, in 1806, he was enabled to go to Italy, where he remained
for eighteen years, during the first five of which he was a pensioner
of the French Academy in Rome, then established in the Villa Medici.
He now found himself able to study at the fountainhead both ancient
and Renaissance art, and was transported by the beauty of the works
of the sixteenth-century Italian painters--especially by those of
Raphael, whom he always regarded as the greatest of all masters.

Ingres' work gained steadily in strength and vigor, and his
individuality developed rapidly. Departing from the cold formalism
of David, he turned to nature for his inspiration and gave a greater
semblance of life to his figures than was in strict accordance with
the code of the classicists. 'Œdipus and the Sphinx,' the first
work sent by him from Rome to Paris, gave evidence that the young
pensioner of the French Academy was already in possession of his
powers, and that however severely he might be criticized for the
singularity of his works, he was undoubtedly some one to be counted
with.

Soon after painting his 'Œdipus' he began the 'Venus Anadyomene'
which was finished many years later. These works were followed by
some of his finest portraits, and, in 1811, he completed 'Jupiter and
Thetis,' a large canvas now in the Museum of Aix. 'Romulus and Acron'
and 'Virgil reading the Æneid' followed; then came 'The Betrothal of
Raphael,' 'Don Pedro kissing the Sword of Henry IV.', 'The
Sistine Chapel,' and 'The Large Odalisque.' 'The Death of Leonardo
da Vinci' and 'Henry IV. and the Spanish Ambassador' were
painted in 1817; 'Roger liberating Angelica' and 'Francesca da
Rimini' were finished two years later. But whatever the subject or the
treatment, none of his works found favor in France. The classicists
looked upon him as a renegade from their ranks, and, strangely
enough, it was only by Delacroix and a few others of the so-called
romanticists (regarded by Ingres with openly expressed abhorrence)
that the merit of his works seems at that time to have been recognized.

As year after year passed by, and neither reputation nor money
rewarded his efforts, the cold indifference and neglect of his country
were keenly felt by him. He was, however, so firmly convinced that
his methods were the true ones--that for an attainment of the highest
style an artist must turn to nature, and that color and effect should
be wholly subordinate to beauty of line--that, even when sore pressed
and in the utmost need, he never deviated from his path in order to
cater to popular prejudice and prevailing taste. "I count on my old
age to avenge me," he used to say.

In 1813, when he was thirty-three, Ingres married a young French
woman, Madeleine Chapelle by name, who, in a rather business-like
way, had gone to Rome from her home in Montauban at the invitation
of some relatives living in Italy with whom Ingres had become well
acquainted, for the express purpose of becoming the artist's wife.
The marriage was a congenial and perfectly happy one. Madame Ingres
seems from the first to have felt firm faith in her husband's genius,
and he owed much to her unfailing courage and devotion. The burden of
his poverty was cheerfully assumed by her; all petty annoyances, as
well as serious anxieties, were kept from his knowledge so far as was
possible, and with no thought but of his well-being and his peace of
mind, his wife shared his trials and lightened his cares.

It was at this period that Ingres, in order to earn money enough for
their daily bread, executed for slight remuneration many of those
marvelous little portraits in lead-pencil (see plates III, IV, and V)
which are so exquisite in touch, so perfect in their purity of line,
that they place him on a level with the most consummate draftsmen of
all times. He himself seems to have regarded these little masterpieces,
for they are nothing less, merely as "pot-boilers," and to have even
experienced a certain sense of humiliation that his art should perforce
be turned into a channel so trivial in his eyes compared with the great
works his brush longed to paint. The story is told of a gentleman who
one day knocked at the door of his modest studio in Rome, and when
Ingres himself appeared, asked timidly, "Does the artist live here who
draws portraits in lead-pencil?" "No, sir," was the angry reply; "he
who lives here is a painter," and the door was slammed in the face
of the astonished visitor. Yet that he did appreciate their artistic
excellence is clear from the fact that when in 1855 it was proposed to
hang a row of these drawings below the paintings in his exhibition of
that year, he objected. "No," he said, "people would look only at them."

In 1820, after painting for one of the churches in Rome a large
picture representing 'Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter' (now in the
Louvre), Ingres left Rome, and, in the hope of better fortune than
had so far attended him in Italy, settled in Florence. His friend
and former fellow-pupil in David's studio, the sculptor Bartolini,
was then living there, and did all in his power to assist him; but
Bartolini's kindness served to only alleviate, not to overcome,
the hardships of this residence in a city where Ingres was all but
unknown, and where he was without even the scanty means of support
afforded by the sale of his pencil portraits, which in Rome had been
in demand by the strangers constantly passing through that city. He
and his wife were indeed so poor that often they had not money enough
to buy the necessary food. And yet at the time of their greatest
distress he bravely rejected the proposition of a wealthy Englishman
to go to England, where a fortune would be assured him by the
execution of portraits in lead-pencil.

The work that chiefly occupied the artist in Florence was completing
a picture entitled 'The Entry of Charles V. into Paris,' and in
filling an order received from the French Administration of the Fine
Arts for a large picture for the Cathedral of Montauban, representing
'The Vow of Louis XIII.' When at work upon this painting he received
a visit one day from Delécluze, another fellow-pupil in the David
studio, who, passing through Florence, had hunted up his old friend.
Delécluze was struck by the imposing character of the picture, and
urged the artist, who was discouraged and disheartened and talked of
abandoning the work altogether, to complete it and send it to Paris.
This was done, and when, a year later, 'The Vow of Louis XIII.' was
exhibited at the famous Salon of 1824 Ingres had the gratification of
knowing that at last recognition had come to him. The picture met with
universal approbation, and Ingres, who now returned to France after
a self-imposed exile of eighteen years, became suddenly famous. At
Montauban he was received with enthusiasm; in Paris he was decorated
with the badge of the Legion of Honor, and in the following year, 1825,
was elected to the Institute of France.

The French government now commissioned him to execute a ceiling
decoration for one of the galleries of the Louvre. The result was
'The Apotheosis of Homer,' the greatest of all his subject-pictures.
This was in 1827, and from then on Ingres was looked upon as a leader
of the French school--a _chef d'école_. His studio was thronged with
pupils as David's once had been--the two Flandrins, Amaury-Duval,
Chassériau, Lehmann, Pichon, and the brothers Balze were among the
number--and with authority only less despotic than that of his former
master, he ruled the band of young artists who regarded him with
such admiration and reverence that they brooked no adverse criticism
of him whom they felt to be the deliverer from the bondage of the
severe classicism of David, and, at the same time, the opponent of
that romantic reaction which was daily growing in power under the
leadership of Eugène Delacroix.

Ingres himself was vehement in his denunciation of this new movement,
which, diametrically opposed to the academic and the classic, rated
freedom of expression and the representation of dramatic and emotional
themes as superior to formal composition and impersonal, statuesque
art, and held that beauty of color was of greater pictorial importance
than purity of line. His animosity to Delacroix, then the leader of
the romanticists, knew no bounds. He regarded him as a follower of
the evil one, and could not hear his name mentioned with equanimity.
Ingres was violent and prejudiced by nature, and holding as he did
that "drawing was the probity of art," and that painting was but a
development of sculpture, he felt that the kind of art practised
by Delacroix and his school was nothing short of blasphemous. This
feeling of hostility was fully reciprocated by the romanticists. Party
feeling ran high and was increased by the intense partisanship shown
to their leaders by the students and younger painters belonging to the
opposing factions.

In 1834 Ingres' great canvas 'The Martyrdom of St. Symphorien' was
exhibited at the Salon. The reception accorded it was far from what
its author, who regarded it as one of his finest achievements,
had counted on. Filled with anger and resentment that the same
cold indifference that had greeted his early efforts was shown
this picture, Ingres, in disgust, resolved to work no more for
the unappreciative public, and gladly accepted the offer of the
directorship of the French Academy in Rome.

During his second sojourn in Italy he produced but few works. 'The
Virgin of the Host,' a portrait of Cherubini, a small version of
the 'Odalisque,' and a picture of 'Stratonice' are the principal
pictures of this period. His duties as Director of the Academy were
conscientiously fulfilled, and in the congenial atmosphere of Rome,
surrounded by his pupils, seven years passed.

In 1841, his picture of 'Stratonice,' painted for the Duke of Orleans,
and now at Chantilly, was sent from Rome to Paris and exhibited at
the Palais Royal. The reception it met with was highly favorable, and
decided its author to return once more to his own country. Arrived
in Paris, Ingres was received with all due deference; a banquet was
given in his honor, at which painters, sculptors, and musicians united
in showing him their admiration and respect. Delacroix alone was
conspicuous by his absence.

A portrait of the Duke of Orleans was one of the first works executed
by Ingres after his return, and before long he received the flattering
commission from the Duke of Luynes to decorate with two great mural
paintings the large hall of that nobleman's château at Dampierre. For
many years this work continued, Ingres and his wife spending several
weeks each spring as guests of the Duke of Luynes in order that the
painter might pursue his labors under the most favorable conditions.
The subjects to be portrayed were 'The Iron Age' and 'The Golden
Age,' but an unfortunate combination of circumstances prevented the
completion of either one. At first Ingres worked with enthusiasm, but
as time went on his ardor cooled. Misunderstandings arose between the
duke and the painter, and when, in 1849, the wife, who for nearly
forty years had been his faithful and devoted companion, died, Ingres
lost all heart to go on with the task, and the contract with the Duke
of Luynes was canceled.

His wife's death left him desolate. He worked as diligently as ever,
but his loneliness preyed upon him, and, embittered as he was by the
struggles and privations of his early life, he could ill bear the loss
of one on whom he had learned to depend for comfort and counsel. His
friends all urged him to marry again, and accordingly, in 1852, he
married Mademoiselle Delphine Ramel, some thirty years younger than
he and the niece of one of his closest friends, and found in her a
devoted companion who cheered his closing years.

In 1853 his most important work was 'The Apotheosis of Napoleon
I.,' painted for the ceiling of a hall in the Hôtel de Ville,
Paris, a work that was destroyed by the communards in 1871.

At the Universal Exposition held in Paris in 1855, the master, then
seventy-five years of age, consented to exhibit a collection of his
works. A room was reserved for them exclusively, and the impression
they produced was such that Prince Napoleon, president of the jury,
proposed an exceptional reward for the painter, who was named by the
emperor Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor.

In the following year Ingres completed one of his most beautiful
and most famous works, known as 'La Source.' Begun many years
before, this picture is the culmination, so to speak, of his genius,
the crowning-point of his task, his final word. After years of
disappointed hopes, of struggle and of neglect, the artist now in his
old age rested secure in the glory which was his at last.

After the completion of 'La Source' Ingres occupied himself chiefly
in finishing many of the studies made in his younger days, and in
painting replicas of several of his pictures. In 1862, when over
eighty, he completed a large canvas, commissioned many years before by
Queen Marie Amélie, wife of Louis Philippe. This work, representing
'Christ among the Doctors,' is now in the Museum of Montauban, to
which the artist bequeathed it at his death, together with his
painting of 'Ossian's Dream,' a collection of his drawings and
studies, as well as marbles, bronzes, medals, vases, pictures, books
and engravings, his favorite pieces of furniture, his easel, palette,
brushes, and his famous violin on which almost to the last he played
with unusual skill.

In the same year that saw the completion of his 'Jesus among the
Doctors' an exposition was held in his honor at Montauban, when
Ingres, who was present on the occasion, was greeted with an ovation
by his fellow-townsmen, who presented him with a crown of gold. Not
long afterwards he received news of his appointment as a senator of
France--a flattering testimony to his genius and the highest dignity
which had ever been accorded an artist in that country.

Ingres' last years passed peacefully. His great delight was in his
work and in music. Early in January, 1867, he became absorbed in a
plan of hearing in his own home before he died some of the music of
the composers he most deeply cared for--Gluck, Haydn, Beethoven, and
Mozart. A chamber concert was accordingly arranged, and a number of
his special friends were invited to the festival, which opened with a
grand dinner. Ingres--"Father Ingres," as he was called--was in the
best of spirits, and, notwithstanding his advanced age, seemingly in
the best of health. Although too old to himself play on his violin,
he had lost none of his keen enjoyment of music, and on this occasion
his enthusiasm was that of youth. He listened enraptured to the works
of his favorite composers played by some of the most skilled musicians
of Paris, and finally begged that before the evening was over he might
hear the concerto by Viotti which, as a boy of twelve, he had played
in the theater at Toulouse.

During the night following this memorable little concert Ingres was
awakened by the fall of a burning log from the fireplace to the floor
of his chamber. Instead of ringing for a servant, he himself restored
the log to its place and opened the window to free the room from
smoke. In the few moments this occupied he took a severe cold. A cough
developed, and one week later, on January 14, 1867, he died, in the
eighty-seventh year of his age.

His funeral was held three days afterwards. An immense crowd followed
the hearse which conveyed his remains from his home on the Quai
Voltaire, Paris, to the Church of St. Thomas Aquinas, where the
services were held, and thence to the cemetery of Père-Lachaise, where
he was laid to rest.

In addition to the honors which had been conferred upon Ingres by
his own country, he had been elected a member of the Academies of
Florence, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Berlin, and Vienna; had been made a
Chevalier of the Order of Civil Merit of Prussia; a Commander of the
Order of Leopold of Belgium; a Chevalier of the Order of St. Joseph of
Tuscany; and had received the grand cross of the Order of Guadaloupe.



The Art of Ingres


CHARLES BLANC      'GAZETTE DES BEAUX-ARTS' 1868

We have heard eminent artists, who in other respects admired Ingres,
deplore the influence he exercised upon the French school of painting
by reason of the despotic nature of his teaching and the fact that his
eccentric sayings, regarded as they were as oracular, unfortunately
carried with them in the eyes of his prejudiced followers all the
weight of serious opinions. Such criticism has given us food for
thought, and it is not without having duly considered it that we now
express our views regarding Ingres and the rôle he played as leader of
the French school....

The violent reaction of the romanticists against the too-sculptural
tendencies of David led, as all reactions do lead, to another extreme.
Arriving in France, as he did after his sojourn in Italy, in the
midst of the fray, Ingres saw with astonishing clearness in what
respects the school of David had erred, and also what justice there
was at bottom in the revolt of the romanticists. He saw that in a
generalization of form, in an adoption of the type of statues, of the
Greek profile, and of sculpturesque draperies, a cold and conventional
quality had been imparted to the painting of his former co-disciples.
Struck by what was natural, interesting, and essentially naïve in the
work of the Italian artists of the fifteenth century, he felt that
true style was only to be obtained from a profound study of nature,
which alone produces an endless variety of forms; that any general
type of beauty must be modified by a reference to the individual--if
need be, even by characteristic ugliness--and that, finally, universal
truth could be attained only by a treatment of individual truth. In
this he was more of a painter than David; he reformed the reform of
his master.

Ingres, then, was the first to have a conception of actual truth; the
first to know that in art the ideal is the quintessence of the real;
that style should be derived not from erudition, but from life; that
it may be acquired from the most commonplace models; that it must be
_human_....

In leading the French school back to a study of nature, he purged
it from two evils, called in the language of the studios _chic_ and
_poncif_. The first signifies the fashion of painting from memory,
from practice, without consulting nature. The second signifies the
habit of repeating forms learned by heart. From these two banes of
art Ingres delivered painting in France, thereby rendering it an
inestimable service. While giving satisfaction to the romanticists
in recognizing that their reaction was to some extent justifiable,
he perceived at the same time, and just as clearly, that romanticism
was a return to the decadence. Indeed, since it had burst into
being, only those painters were admired who, essentially imitators,
were called in Italy _naturalisti_. Caravaggio, Ribera, Guercino,
Zurbaran, Manfredi, Solimena--all were lauded. Nothing was talked
of but "solid painting," "solidity of technique," "painting with a
full brush." The sublime beauties of fresco were forgotten, as were
the men who had found expression in the grand, the universal art of
design. It seemed, forsooth, as if art had begun in the seventeenth
century, for in the estimation of these innovators the first of all
masters, after Veronese, was Rubens, and according to them Rubens had
but one equal--Rembrandt. What they admired in Rembrandt, however,
was not exactly his genius, his poetic invention, and the delicacy of
his marvelously expressive drawing; but the freedom, the boldness,
of his style, the so-called secrets of his etchings, the intensity
of his famous lights, contrasting with the transparency of his
underpainting--all the alchemy of his mysterious methods.

From these departures from the established methods of the French
school Ingres in his turn reacted, and as he was convinced that he
was right and was by nature violent, he reacted with conviction and
with violence. He loved nature but not naturalism. He was willing that
his pupils should salute Rubens, but they must not pause before him
in the Louvre, but pass on to Perugino, Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci,
Fra Bartolommeo, Andrea del Sarto. All beautiful variations of color
were to his mind inferior to the eloquence of form. The affectation of
searching for effect seemed to him a means of degrading painting to
the level of the theatrical. To the decorators of Venice he preferred
the draftsmen of Florence; to Delacroix, he preferred Ingres.

Thus the painter of 'The Vow of Louis XIII.' and of
'St. Symphorien' stood half way between the cold idealism of the
classicists and the brutal realism of the romanticists. It is but just
to say, however, that in his _teaching_ Ingres was wholly one-sided,
thinking no doubt that to gain a little, much must be demanded. In
teaching that "drawing is everything, that all may be expressed by
line, even smoke," he tended towards painting without relief, devoid
of all planes. By dint of preaching austerity of tone and training his
pupils to beware of colorists, he veiled his whole school in gray. The
logical outcome of this was to drive painting into an extreme directly
opposed to that which he wished to avoid; that is to say, into the
dryness of sharply defined contours and a contempt for methods purely
picturesque.

Such was unquestionably the harmful side of Ingres' influence. But,
on the other hand, it was he who taught, by his works even more
than by his words, that nature is idealized by freeing her from all
unimportant details, by selecting only her significant traits; that
in order not to petrify forms by generalizing them, we must simplify
types by individual characteristics taken directly from life; that
drawing, which appeals to the heart, is superior to color, which
pleases the eye; that nude figures are more beautiful than clothed;
that drapery is more artistic than costume; that the portrayal
of human passions, in that they are eternal, is superior to any
ethnographical representation of changing manners. In a word, that
there is a higher and a lower order of art....

So powerful was the influence of this great artist as leader of the
French school that it extended to all branches of art. Painting,
sculpture, engraving, even architecture and music, were affected by
his love of the great, his feeling for the beautiful. He cared for and
he advocated what is everywhere purest and finest: Greek art of the
most perfect periods, the marbles of Phidias, the frescos of Raphael,
the engravings of Marcantonio, the music of Gluck and of Mozart, the
poetry of Homer.

As a painter Ingres was no doubt unequal, but he was always admirable
in some respect and always a master, even in his faults. Vast
compositions were beyond the powers of his imagination, whose fire
burned but briefly. It was only with difficulty and after many changes
and hesitations that he was able to compose his pictures, but the
composition was achieved with a severe taste and a sure touch, and was
founded on some tradition carefully chosen and faithfully carried out.
His short-breathed genius excelled above all in compositions of only
one or two figures, such as 'Œdipus,' 'The Bather,' 'La Source,'
'Venus Anadyomene.'...

Drawing was the strongest point of Ingres' genius, and in it the most
diverse qualities are manifested: sometimes it is exquisitely delicate
and naïve, sometimes keen and incisive, as in his sketches which are
incomparable in what might be called their flavor; sometimes bold,
magistral, and striking, sometimes violent and fierce, sometimes
suave, tender, and voluptuous.

Color and chiaroscuro were his vulnerable points. His pictures often
lack atmosphere, depth, and picturesque quality. The tendency,
however, to impart a gray tone to his canvas, the monotony of his
palette, was not a mistake of which he was guilty throughout his
career. If he did not possess that orchestration of color which was
the supreme gift of Eugène Delacroix, he nevertheless shows some
charming subtleties and happy variations in his local tones.

Finally, as regards Ingres' touch, it is supple and light, delicate
without being thin, expressive and unlabored in his painting of the
nude, and exceedingly skilful in the rendering of accessories and of
all that calls for elegance in execution. His portraits, notably those
of women, are striking proofs of this.

Ingres will live forever because he frequently approaches Raphael
in the beauty of his drawing, because, if inferior to Poussin in
expression through ordonnance, he is sometimes his superior in
expression through gesture, as also in his search for and attainment
of beauty. And he will live because he has rivaled Holbein in
portraiture, surpassed David in style, equaled Prud'hon in grace, and
created certain forms which in their grandeur seem to be descended
from the frescos of Michelangelo. Yes, whatever may be the inconstancy
of fame, whatever may be the ideas which are to govern future
generations, it may be affirmed that Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
will never be deposed from the place which he won by a hard struggle,
by the force of his genius--a place that is not only on a plane with
the painters who have given luster to the French school, but near
those who have been the glory of the Renaissance.--ABRIDGED FROM THE
FRENCH


HENRY LAPAUZE      'MÉLANGES SUR L'ART FRANÇAIS'

The term "realist," as applied to Ingres, requires explanation, for
since his day times have changed, and we now rank him among the
idealists, or, to speak more correctly, among the classicists. Certain
Philistines would even go so far as to accuse him of being bound down
to a formula; that is to say, of being conventional in his manner of
painting, although this was the very thing against which he rebelled
so vehemently in David.

Now, it is not simply by contrast with that pompous, declamatory,
formal, and frigid painter against whom he revolted, that Ingres is
a realist, but because he actually did draw his inspiration from
reality, because he infused into his work the breath of life. His
seeming coldness arises from the fact that it was through line alone
that he sought for expression, reducing color to a subordinate rôle.
The uniformity of which he is accused, as if he had made use of some
one established mold, springs from the loftiness of his style. But his
drawing, like his style, even in attaining the very acme of natural
beauty, never deviates from the domain of truth, and invariably
derives its inspiration from life itself. This is the case even with
those celebrated canvases from which he seems to have voluntarily
excluded all soul, in order that its everlasting restlessness, its
turmoil, and its passion should not disarrange the grand harmony
of the composition, those canvases in which his brush-work has the
sharp precision of a chisel, and in which his art resembles sculpture
almost more than painting. Even in these works, notwithstanding the
superficial aspect of rigidity and immobility which strikes the eye,
there is perceptible a conscientious submission to nature, and to
truth.

It was voluntarily and for a definite esthetic end that Ingres
eliminated movement and color, so that line and attitude--in other
words, all that which in human beauty least stirs the emotions and
appeals most directly to the mind--might reign supreme. "Serenity,"
he used to say, "is to the body what wisdom is to the soul." Color
possesses in itself resources which he despised as if they had been
shams. To compose a picture for effect, to select some ingenious or
powerful motive and offset it by a symphony of tones, seemed to him
beneath the dignity of art. That is why he denounced Delacroix.

To make use of light in a similar way, to dazzle the eye by
astonishing effects of chiaroscuro, to bewilder the sight as an
orchestra stuns the ear with the clangor of its brass, by breaking
black shadows with vivid lights, was in his opinion artistic
disloyalty. That is why he placed but a low estimate upon Rembrandt.

To use color as if it were something plastic, to paint with what is
called a "full brush," with exaggerated high lights, loaded paint,
glazings, and visible brush-strokes, was to him blasphemous. That is
why he did not assign a high rank to the Venetians--with the exception
of Titian.

To animate painting by qualities purely sensual, to make a lavish
display of the gorgeous splendor of brilliant stuffs, rich brocades
and velvets, and gold and silver plate, to paint in glowing rosy hues
and amid voluptuous surroundings the plumpness of naked flesh, aroused
his indignation and his repugnance as if such art were a desecration.
That is why he held Rubens in abhorrence. "There is something of the
butcher in that painter," he used to say; "his flesh is like fresh
meat, and his setting like a butcher's stall."

Such was the force of Ingres' convictions, such the rigorous decrees
of his conscience in regard to what he considered the good and the
evil in painting, that his violent antipathies were not confined to a
man's work, but extended to the man himself, even were he no longer
living. "You are my pupils," he would say to the young artists working
under him, "therefore you are my friends, and as such you would not
bow to one of my enemies were he to pass along the street. Turn away,
then, from Rubens whenever you meet him in the galleries, for if you
approach him he will be sure to speak evil to you of my teaching and
of me."

Going one day before the opening of the Exposition of 1855 into the
room especially reserved for his works, and to which the public had
not yet been admitted, he suspected that the keeper, in disobedience
to orders, had just allowed Delacroix to enter. "Some one has been in
here," he cried; "the room smells of brimstone!"

In sacrificing color to line, the charm of light to the eloquence
of form, the pleasure of the eye to the enjoyment of the mind, the
sensual delight of the palette to the intellectual enjoyment of
style, Ingres realized a great ideal, founded as much, perhaps, upon
the absence of certain qualities as upon the triumphant presence
of certain others. His temperament, so restrained in his color, is
revealed in his nervous, vigorous drawing. It is evident from the
valuable studies preserved in the Museum of Montauban what tremendous
struggles he underwent when he took his pencil in hand. What efforts,
what will-power! What frankness and boldness of execution, and what
scrupulous conscientiousness in his repeated attempts! There were
times when he would weep in utter despair. "I can no longer draw!" he
would lament, even at the time when he was at the head of the French
school. Color never caused him such agony. He never worried his head
about that; it was sure to come, sober and subdued, following the
drawing like a docile slave whose duty it is to escort his master, to
keep step with him, but at a respectful distance. No great draftsman,
he declared, could ever fail to find the color that would best suit
the character of his drawing. And again, he said, "I shall write
over the door of my studio, 'School of Drawing,' and I shall make
painters."...

It has been said of Ingres that he was a Greek who had strayed from
antiquity into our own times. We know, however, that nature does
not produce geniuses at haphazard, but that every great creator
expresses the thoughts, ideas, and aspirations of his time. Ingres
was no exception to this law. Not only was he the child of his
century, but he was its representative, both in the classic reaction
and the romantic impulse; and as in his well-balanced mind the two
tendencies were modified one by the other, the result was this great
and harmonious genius which is on a plane superior to the feelings and
passions of his epoch, into which, nevertheless, his intrepid spirit
boldly plunged.--FROM THE FRENCH


RICHARD MUTHER      'THE HISTORY OF MODERN PAINTING'

I doubt whether up to the present time any one has rightly understood
the mysterious figure of Ingres, of the man who in his youth was
enraptured by "the spirit, the grace, the originality of Watteau
and the delicious color of his pictures," and who, at a later
time, not because of incapacity, but out of deliberate intention,
introduced discords of color into his paintings; of this classicist
_par excellence_, who is counted among the greatest artists, in the
familiar and graceful style, who are recorded in the history of art.

Like David, Ingres has survived as a portrait-painter only. Like
him, when he found himself face to face with nature, he relented,
and forgot the strict system which he had elaborated for his great
pictures. He has painted portraits which imprint themselves on
the memory like medals, struck in metallic sharpness. Here too he
is unequal, often cold and commonplace, but more frequently quite
admirable. In these paintings, cast as it were in bronze, there is
something that comes from the fresh original source of all art; they
have that vein of realism by which the vigorous idealism of Raphael
is distinguished from the conventional idealism of a professor of
historical painting. Here one finds real treasures, creations of
remarkable vital power, and in admirable taste. They show that
Ingres, apparently so systematic, had a profound love for living
nature, and they insure the immortality of his name. His historical
pictures are works which compel our esteem, but his portraits are
splendid creations which can truly stand comparison with the great old
masters....

In Holbein's portraits the whole German community of his time has been
handed down to us; in those of Van Dyck, the aristocracy of England
under Charles I. So also Ingres has depicted for us, with
all its failings and all its virtues, the middle-class hierarchy of
Louis Philippe's reign, which felt itself to be the first estate, the
summit of the nation, felt sure of the morrow, was proud of itself, of
its intelligence and energy, which pursued with correctness its moral
course of life, revered order and hated all excess--including that of
the colorists. It is this same spirit which animated Ingres himself,
that splendid "_bourgeois_" of art. His portrait of Bertin is justly
his most celebrated work; not merely the painted petrifaction of a
newspaper potentate, but also one of those portraits which bring a
whole epoch home to one's mind....

But however highly one must estimate the importance of such a
work, Ingres is nevertheless at his highest, not in his _painted_
likenesses, but in his portrait-drawings. In the former the raw
colors are still, at times, offensive. The faces sometimes have the
conventional, uniform coloring of his historical pictures, the
historical tone. Almost always the flesh looks like wood, the dress
like metal, blue robes like steel. His drawings, however, are to be
admired without criticism. Ingres lived in his youth, at Rome, as a
drawer of portraits. For eight _scudi_ he did the bust, for twelve the
whole figure, raging inwardly the while at being kept from "great art"
by such journeyman-work.

In these pieces an artistic eye which was now inexorable, now
tender and full of fancy, has looked on nature, and, in flowing
pencil-strokes, has caught with spirit and with the certain touch of
direct feeling the real fulness of life in what he saw. These drawings
show that "Father Ingres" possessed not only a highly cultivated
intelligence and iron strength of will, not only the genius of
industry, but also a heart, a genuine, warm, and fine-feeling heart;
that he was in his innermost being by no means the cold academician,
the stiff doctrinaire, which he appears to be in his large pictures,
and which his opposition to the romantic school made of him. Here we
have a charmer such as the Primitives were, a charmer such as the
Impressionists are, like Massys and Manet, like Dürer and Degas, like
all who have looked nature in the face. And while these drawings, at
once occasional and austere, place him as a draftsman on a level with
the greatest masters in the history of art, they also show him, the
reactionary, as at the same time a man of progress, as the connecting
link between the great art of the first half and the familiar art
which rules over the second half of the nineteenth century.



The Works of Ingres

DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PLATES

'ŒDIPUS AND THE SPHINX'      PLATE I


During the second year of his sojourn in Rome, Ingres produced his
famous picture of 'Œdipus and the Sphinx,' in which his individual
manner of conception and execution was first affirmed. The mythical
hero is here represented, not as David would have represented him,
cold and lifeless as a statue, but as a man endowed with the beauty
of a Greek athlete rather than a god, and although his body is drawn
and modeled with such academic exactitude that its very perfection is
in itself somewhat wearisome, yet when compared with the creations of
the painter of the Horatii and the Sabines, it can readily be seen why
Ingres, pure classicist though he be, should have been regarded in his
own day as a revolutionary.

The old Greek legend is here portrayed of Œdipus explaining the
riddle of the Sphinx, whereby he delivered Thebes from the cruelties
of that monster who had mercilessly destroyed every man who had
failed to solve her riddle. Œdipus has entered the cave in which
the Sphinx is seated. With one foot placed upon a rock and his elbow
resting on his knee, he gazes intently in her face as he explains that
a being with four feet, two feet, and three feet is man, who, in
infancy, crawls upon all fours, in manhood stands erect upon two feet,
and in old age supports his tottering legs with a staff.

A red mantle is thrown over the young Greek's shoulder, against which
rest two spears, weapons with which to defend himself if need be
against the attack of the dreaded Sphinx. The bones and portions of
the bodies of the creature's victims lie scattered about, and in the
distance a man is seen flying in terror.

The canvas is now in the Louvre. It measures about six feet high by
four feet ten inches wide.


'PORTRAIT OF MADAME DE SENONNES'      PLATE II

"In the portrait of Madame de Senonnes, now in the Museum of Nantes,"
writes M. Louis Gonse, "Ingres stands unrivaled. Look carefully at
the illusive serenity of this strange face where no brush-stroke is
visible, at the vague, fleeting smile of the parted lips, the smooth,
lustrous hair, the throat modeled like an alabaster column, the
sinuous lines of the body, the beautiful, large, plump hands loaded
with rings; observe the perfect nonchalance of the pose, and then
see the reflection of the back of the head in the mirror--a favorite
device of the Primitives; note the wonderful values of the garnet red
of the dress against the silky yellow cushions with their reddish
brown tones, the marvelous way in which the cashmere shawl and lace
ruff are painted, the strong and harmonious color-scheme based on the
play of complementary tones, all the sharp precision of the drawing,
carried as it is to the utmost limits, and then say whether in all
modern painting there is another work which combines such a variety
of perfections. This portrait of Madame de Senonnes is to Ingres'
portraits of women what the one of Monsieur Bertin is to his portraits
of men.

"A visiting-card stuck into the frame of the mirror, with the
inscription '_Ing. Roma_,' tells us that the picture was painted in
the eternal city--apparently between 1806 and 1810. According to
report, Ingres had a tender feeling for this fair Roman model, who,
child of the people as she was, had lately become the wife of the
Vicomte de Senonnes. And in truth, he has put into this portrait all
the ardor, all the conviction, of his genius.

"Madame de Senonnes died young; and the vicomte, returning from Italy
to his home in Angers, married again, on which occasion he presented
this portrait to his brother, who promptly relegated it to the attic.
At the brother's death his heirs sold it for one hundred and twenty
francs ($24.00) to a dealer who afterwards offered it to the Museum of
Nantes, which unhesitatingly gave him the sum of four thousand francs
($800.00) for it. To-day it would bring, at the lowest estimate, one
hundred thousand francs, and the time will undoubtedly come when it
will be valued at a million."


'MONSIEUR LEBLANC' (DRAWING)     PLATE III

"Ingres' portraits in lead-pencil," writes M. Henry Lapauze, "are the
most remarkable, if indeed they might not be called the greatest,
productions of his genius.... In them we find unquestionably that
quality of realism, over-conscientious, perhaps, but devoid of all
coarseness, and that power of imparting life which in his large
paintings is more or less concealed beneath the formality of his
style."

The drawing reproduced in plate III, and now in the Bonnat
Collection at Bayonne, was made in Florence in 1822, as a preparatory
study for a portrait in oil, executed in the following year. Drawn
with a sureness of touch, a breadth, simplicity, and freedom, and
at the same time a scrupulous precision, every line is significant.
Monsieur Leblanc himself, dressed according to the fashion of the
day in high silk hat and ample cloak, seems to stand before us in
miniature.


'MADAME DESTOUCHE' (DRAWING)      PLATE IV

"The drawing in the Louvre of Madame Destouche," writes M. Momméja,
"is perhaps the most beautiful, the most worthy of being placed first
in the series of those incomparable portraits which Ingres' pencil has
rendered as immortal on their frail sheets of paper as are those that
have been cut into indestructible bronze by the Italian medalists.

"Count Delaborde was, I believe, the first to remark upon this
exquisite work. Writing of Ingres' drawings exhibited at the Salon des
Arts-Unis in 1861, he says: 'The pencil portrait of Madame Destouche
should especially be noticed--a drawing so masterly in its freedom,
so fine in its picturesque quality, and in the originality of its
costume.' And ten years later he wrote: 'This portrait is one of the
most beautiful that Ingres ever drew.'

"Who then was this young woman who smiles so sweetly and takes such
evident delight in her life and in her beauty? Possibly she was the
wife of the artist Destouche, whose name figures on the list of
David's pupils. Born in 1794, he must have married very young for
Ingres to have drawn in Rome in 1816 a portrait of his wife, and yet
the age of the lady here represented is quite suitable to that of a
husband of twenty-two. Whoever she was, let us be grateful to her for
having furnished Ingres with the subject for a masterpiece.

"She is truly elegant--Madame Destouche; her long gown, with its
girdle just beneath the bust, is profusely trimmed with lace at the
wrists and about the low-cut neck. A bit of delicate muslin, also
edged with lace, covers her shoulders, and around her throat is a sort
of ruff of plaited gauze, open in front to show the throat, around
which is wound in a triple coil a chain with cross attached. As to
her hat--it is a poem; a little peculiar, it may be, but charmingly
becoming with its brim coquettishly turned up and with its high crown
rounded like a cap beneath a cluster of nodding plumes....

"Never, perhaps, was the artist's delicate pencil more seductive,
never did it more perfectly realize that physical charm of modeling
which is like a caress, characteristic--as M. Roger Marx has truly
said--of the creations of Ingres."


'THE STAMATY FAMILY' (DRAWING) PLATE V

The family group reproduced in plate V, and now in the Bonnat
Collection at Bayonne, is one of the finest examples of Ingres' work
in pencil. It was drawn in Rome in 1818, and represents Monsieur
Stamaty, consul at Cività Vecchia, with his wife and children. "The
characterization," writes M. Galichon, "is delicately and accurately
given. Each person bears the stamp of his or her own individuality
and is strikingly true to life. In short, Ingres has here produced a
masterpiece."

"A marvelous group," writes M. Lapauze, "in which the depth and
intimacy of the feeling expressed is in no way marred by the
wonderfully minute rendering of the accessories. Each little
detail of costume, each fold of material, all the differences in
texture--everything is given its own special character; everything
is perceptible, tangible, so to speak. Science of draftsmanship,
eloquence of line, could not possibly be carried farther."


'LA SOURCE'      PLATE VI

'La Source'--The Spring--considered by Charles Blanc the most
beautiful figure ever produced by the French school--was not painted
until Ingres was seventy-six, though the study for it had been made
many years before. In the admirable purity of its line, in its grace
of form and its masterly modeling in light, this work has the beauty
of a Greek statue.

Standing against a dark wall of rock, her little feet reflected in
the pool of water at its base, is the nude figure of a young girl.
One rounded arm is thrown above her head to help support against her
shoulder a Grecian urn from which a stream of water falls into the
pool beneath. With her blond hair, her smooth brow and clear blue
eyes, her lips parted in a slight smile, her childish form, and her
expression of unconsciousness and innocence, she is a figure of almost
ideal loveliness.

Upon its completion 'La Source' was exhibited in Paris, and later in
London. Everywhere it aroused feelings of enthusiastic admiration. The
hypercritical, to be sure, found fault with the drawing of the legs,
which, repainted by the artist when the picture was finished and the
model no longer before him, are not carried so far as is the upper
part of the body. But on the whole even those who most strenuously
opposed Ingres' methods acknowledged its beauty and excellence.

"It is difficult to imagine," writes Mr. George Moore, "what further
beauty he may have introduced into a face, or what further word he
might have had to say on the beauty of a virgin body."

The picture was bought by Count Duchâtel, whose widow bequeathed it to
the Louvre, where it now hangs. It is on canvas and measures five and
a half feet high by two feet eight inches wide.


'PORTRAIT OF MONSIEUR BERTIN'      PLATE VII

This celebrated portrait of Bertin, manager of the _Journal des
Débats_, one of the leading papers of Paris, is generally regarded
as the artist's masterpiece in portraiture. It was painted in 1832.
Ingres has himself related how he made repeated studies for this
work, frequently changing his original plan, and as frequently
beginning over again; how anxious and discouraged he became; how he
finally confessed to Monsieur Bertin that all the sittings had been
in vain, that nothing had been accomplished, and how grateful he was
when the busy man of affairs begged him not to be so distressed but
to try once more, for that he, Bertin, was in no way weary, but
would gladly give him as many sittings as he wished. Reassured by
such consideration, Ingres took heart and resolved to make another
attempt. The pose, however, perplexed him. While still undecided on
this point it happened that he spent an evening in Bertin's house,
and while there the conversation turned upon some political question
of the day in which opposite views were held by Bertin and his sons.
Each side vehemently maintained its ground, but no argument could
convince the elder Bertin that the young men had reason on their
side. While listening to their argument he leaned slightly forward in
his armchair, and planting his hands squarely upon his knees turned
toward the speaker with an expression on his strong face indicative
of interest, lack of conviction, and consciousness of power to refute
the argument advanced. The pose and expression--both so characteristic
and unstudied--at once struck Ingres, and when he bade his host good
night, "Monsieur Bertin," he said, "your portrait is done. I have you
this time and shall not let you go."

The result, attained quickly and without effort, was the superb
portrait here reproduced, so forceful and expressive, so true to life,
that as we stand before it in the Louvre, where it now hangs, we seem
to be in the presence of the man himself.


'THE VOW OF LOUIS XIII'      PLATE VIII

This great canvas, ordered by the Administration of the Fine Arts
for the Cathedral of Montauban, where it is now to be seen in the
sacristy, was begun in Florence in 1821, and finished three years
later. The subject represents Louis XIII., King of France,
consecrating to the Virgin his person, his crown, and his state, in
recognition of the great mercy about to be vouchsafed by heaven in
granting him an heir to his kingdom.

It would seem from his letters written at this period that Ingres
was not altogether pleased with the "double subject" prescribed for
him, and that, preferring one in which the interest should be more
centered, he expressed his desire to paint instead 'The Assumption.'
The Administration, however, was firm, and the artist was forced to
yield. In his rendering of the scene, in which the historic and the
mystical are combined, he has closely followed Raphael, taking his
motives from that painter's famous pictures of 'The Transfiguration,'
'The Sistine Madonna,' 'The Madonna of Foligno,' and 'The Mass of
Bolsena' (see MASTERS IN ART, Vols. 1 and 4, Parts 12 and 40).

"Notwithstanding its manifest faults," writes M. Momméja, "this work
is truly grand. It marks a turning-point in the history of painting
as well as in the career of the artist whose fame it established. At
the same time it was the beginning of his adherence to the academic
method, which until then he had combated with such bitter violence.

"Exhibited at the Salon of 1824, 'The Vow of Louis XIII.' was
received with unanimous approval. The romanticists, with Delacroix
at their head, recognized in this new master the successful opponent
of the teachings of David; while the classicists discovered in his
conscientious drawing, sober and restrained coloring, an intentional
protest against the innovators."

'PORTRAIT OF MADAME DEVAUÇAY'      PLATE IX

In 1807, the year after his arrival in Rome, Ingres painted this
portrait of Madame Devauçay, now in the Condé Museum, Chantilly,
which for its purity of line, delicate subtlety of expression, and
for its quality of distinction, ranks as one of his best and most
characteristic works. The colors, too, partly owing, no doubt, to the
mellowing effect of time, are richer and there is more atmosphere than
in many of his paintings.

Madame Devauçay is seated in an armchair of red damask against a
dark background. She wears a black velvet dress and a yellowish
coffee-colored shawl. Around her throat is a necklace of brownish-red
beads, and in one hand she holds a small tortoise-shell fan. Her
smooth black hair is ornamented with a gold comb just visible at
the back of her well-shaped head. Her eyes are dark, her complexion
sallow, her features delicate, and although her face is in repose,
about her mouth there lurks an inscrutable smile.

"Something in this canvas holds one captive," writes M. Lapauze, "even
before one has had time to fully take in the perfection of the lines,
the beauty of the arrangement, the velvety quality of the color. She
is sister to Leonardo's 'Mona Lisa,' this woman of whom we cannot tell
whether or not she is fair to look upon, so strongly does she appeal
to our emotions.... She is as mysterious as the enigmatic creations
of a Leonardo, or a Holbein, or as some of those beings portrayed
by certain of the Primitives who have fixed upon their canvases
the inexpressible emotions of the soul. Ingres, worshiper of form,
consummate master of line, has here attained this rare power of magic."


'THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER'      PLATE X

In 1826, after his return from his first sojourn in Italy, Ingres was
commissioned by the French government to decorate the ceiling of one
of the galleries of the Louvre. For his subject the artist took 'The
Apotheosis of Homer,' and in his treatment of the theme achieved what
is regarded as his finest work in composition of the grand style.

Before the entrance to an Ionic temple, Homer, the blind Greek poet,
is seated, like Jupiter, scepter in hand, upon a gilded throne. A
winged figure of Victory, clad in rose-color, crowns him with a
wreath of laurel, and on either side are grouped the most illustrious
artists, poets, and musicians of all time. Here is Apelles leading
Raphael by the hand; Æschylus presenting a scroll on which his
tragedies are written; Phidias with his mallet; Pindar holding his
lyre; Plato, Socrates, Horace, Virgil, and Dante, and, farther down,
Shakespeare, Tasso, Corneille, Poussin, Gluck, Mozart, Racine,
Molière, Fénelon, and others, while on the steps at Homer's feet,
personified as the poet's daughters, are seated the 'Iliad' and the
'Odyssey.' The first is at the left, clad in red, and with Achilles'
sword beside her; the other, enveloped in a sea-green mantle, is shown
in profile, holding across her knee the oar of Ulysses.

In the loftiness of its style and the purity of its lines, 'The
Apotheosis of Homer' is one of the noblest examples of the classic
school of painting. Although it cannot be called in any way a copy
of Raphael, it is evident that in painting it Ingres had in mind the
'Parnassus' and the 'School of Athens' (see MASTERS IN ART,
Vol. 4, Part 40), those grand creations of the painter whom he
regarded as superior to all others.

A copy by his pupils now occupies the place of Ingres' great ceiling
decoration. The original picture is exhibited in one of the rooms of
the Louvre, where it is seen to better advantage. The figures are
life-sized, and the canvas measures more than twelve feet high by
nearly seventeen feet wide.


A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL PAINTINGS BY INGRES WITH THEIR PRESENT
LOCATIONS

BELGIUM. BRUSSELS, MUSEUM: Virgil reading the Æneid (study)--LIÈGE,
MUSEUM: Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul--ENGLAND. LONDON, SOUTH
KENSINGTON MUSEUM, IONIDES COLLECTION: Henry IV. and the Spanish
Ambassador; Sleeping Odalisque--FRANCE. AIX, MUSEUM: Jupiter and
Thetis; Portrait of the Painter Granet--ANGERS, MUSEUM: Francesca da
Rimini--AUTUN, CATHEDRAL: The Martyrdom of St. Symphorien--CHANTILLY,
CONDÉ MUSEUM: Portrait of Madame Devauçay (Plate IX); Portrait of
Ingres; Stratonice; Francesca da Rimini; Venus Anadyomene--DAMPIERRE,
CHÂTEAU OF THE DUKE OF LUYNES: The Iron Age and The Golden Age (two
unfinished mural paintings)--MONTAUBAN, MUSEUM: Jesus among the
Doctors; Ossian's Dream; Portrait of Ingres' Father; Portrait of
Belvèze; Portrait of a Man--MONTAUBAN, CATHEDRAL: The Vow of Louis
XIII. (Plate VIII)--MONTPELLIER, MUSEUM: Portrait of Desdebans;
Stratonice; Oil Studies for 'Jesus among the Doctors; and 'The
Apotheosis of Homer'--NANTES, MUSEUM: Portrait of Madame de Senonnes
(Plate II)--PARIS, LOUVRE: Christ giving the Keys of Heaven to St.
Peter; The Apotheosis of Homer (Plate X); Œdipus and the Sphinx (Plate
I); 'La Source' (Plate VI); The Virgin of the Host; Jeanne d'Arc at
the Coronation of Charles VII.; Roger liberating Angelica; The Large
Odalisque; The Bather; Portrait of M. Bertin (Plate VII); Portrait of
Cherubini; Portrait of M. Cordier; Portraits of M. and Mme. Rivière;
Portrait of Mlle. Rivière; Portrait of M. Bochet--PARIS, ÉCOLE DES
BEAUX-ARTS: Romulus victorious over Acron, King of the Sabines; The
Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the Tent of Achilles--PARIS, HÔTEL DES
INVALIDES: Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte--PARIS, THÉATRE FRANÇAIS:
Louis XIV. and Molière--PARIS, COLLECTION OF M. DEGAS: Portraits of M.
and Mme. Leblanc--PERPIGNAN, MUSEUM: Portrait of the Duke of Orleans
(repetition of the one at Versailles)--ROUEN, MUSEUM: 'La belle
Zélie'--TOULOUSE, MUSEUM: Virgil reading the Æneid--VERSAILLES, PALACE:
Portrait of the Duke of Orleans--ITALY, FLORENCE, UFFIZI GALLERY:
Portrait of Ingres (see page 274)--ROME, QUIRINAL PALACE: Ossian's
Dream--ROME, VILLA MIOLLIS: Virgil reading the Æneid--RUSSIA, ST.
PETERSBURG, IMPERIAL COLLECTIONS: The Virgin of the Host--SWITZERLAND.
COPPET, CHÂTEAU: Portrait of the Comtesse d'Haussonville.



Ingres Bibliography

A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL BOOKS AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES DEALING WITH INGRES


ALEXANDRE, A. Jean-Dominique Ingres, Master of Pure Draughtsmanship.
London, 1905--ALEXANDRE, A. Histoire populaire de la peinture; école
française. Paris [1893]--AMAURY-DUVAL. L'Atelier d'Ingres. Paris,
1878--BALZE, R. Ingres: son école, son enseignement du dessin. Paris,
1880--BEULÉ, C. E. Éloge de M. Ingres. Paris, 1867--BLANC, C.
Ingres, sa vie et ses ouvrages. Paris, 1870--BROWNELL, W. C. French
Art. New York, 1901--CHENNEVIÈRES, H. DE. Les dessins du Louvre.
Paris, 1882-83--CHESNEAU, E. La peinture française au XIXᵉ siècle.
Paris, 1862--CHESNEAU, E. Peintres et statuaires romantiques. Paris,
1880--COOK, C. Art and Artists of Our Time. New York, 1888--DELABORDE,
H. Ingres, sa vie, ses travaux, sa doctrine. Paris, 1870--DELÉCLUZE,
E. J. David, son école et son temps. Paris, 1855--DUPLESSIS, G. Les
portraits dessinés par Ingres. Paris, 1896--FORESTIÉ, E. Notice sur
le monument d'Ingres érigé à Montauban. Montauban, 1871--GAUTIER, T.
Portraits contemporains. Paris, 1881--GIGOUX, J. Causeries sur les
artistes de mon temps. Paris, 1885--GONSE, L. Les chefs-d'œuvre des
Musées de France. Paris, 1900--GRANDMOUGIN, C. Ingres (in La Grande
Encyclopédie). Paris, 1886-1902--GRUYÈRE, F.-A. La peinture au château
de Chantilly. Paris, 1898--HAACK, DR. F. Die Kunst XIX Jahrhunderts.
Stuttgart, 1905--HAMERTON, P. G. Contemporary French Painters. London,
1868--KINGSLEY, R. G. A History of French Art. London, 1899--LAPAUZE,
H. Mélanges sur l'art français. Paris, 1905--LARROUMET, G. Portrait
de Bertin l'ainé (in Jouin's Chefs-d'œuvre). Paris, 1899--LOMÉNIE,
L. Galerie des contemporains illustres. Paris, 1842--MACCOLL, D.
S. Nineteenth Century Art. Glasgow, 1902--MARCEL, H. La peinture
française au XIXᵉ siècle. Paris [1906]--MAUCLAIR, C. The Great French
Painters. London, 1903--MERSON, O. Ingres, sa vie et ses œuvres.
Paris, 1867--MICHEL, A. Notes sur l'art moderne. Paris, 1896--MOMMÉJA,
J. Ingres. Paris [1903]--MONTROSIER, E. Peintres modernes. Paris,
1882--MOORE G. Modern Painting. New York, 1893--MUTHER, R. The
History of Modern Painting. London, 1895--MUTHER, R. Ein Jahrhundert
französischer Malerei. Berlin, 1901--PATTISON, E. F. S. Ingres (in
Encyclopædia Britannica). Edinburgh, 1883--PERRIER, C. Études sur les
beaux-arts en France et à l'étranger. Paris, 1863--PINSET, R., and
D'AURIAC, J. Histoire du portrait en France. Paris, 1884--PLANCHE, J.
B. G. Portraits d'artistes. Paris, 1853--PLANCHE, J. B. G. Études sur
les arts. Paris, 1855--SCHMARSOW, A. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
(in Dohme's Kunst und Künstler, etc.) Leipsic, 1886--SILVESTRE, T.
Histoire des artistes vivants. Paris, 1856--SILVESTRE, T. Les artistes
français. Paris, 1878--SILVESTRE, T. L'apothéose de M. Ingres. Paris,
1862--STRANAHAN, C. H. A History of French Painting. New York,
1888--WYZEWA, T. DE, and PERREAU, X. Les grands peintres de la France.
Paris, 1890.


MAGAZINE ARTICLES

CONTEMPORARY REVIEW, 1867: T. F. Wedmore; Ingres--GAZETTE DES
BEAUX-ARTS, 1861: É. Galichon; Dessins de M. Ingres. 1861: H.
Delaborde; Les dessins de M. Ingres. 1861: É. Galichon; Description
des dessins de M. Ingres exposés au Salon des Arts-Unis. 1862: H.
Delaborde; La collection de tableaux de M. le comte Duchâtel. 1862:
H. Delaborde; De quelques traditions de l'art français. 1863: C.
Blanc; Du style et de M. Ingres. 1867: É. Galichon; La mort de M.
Ingres. 1867-68: C. Blanc; Ingres, sa vie et ses ouvrages. 1870: H.
Delaborde; Notes et pensées de J.-A.-D. Ingres. 1870: G. Duplessis;
Le cabinet de M. Gatteaux. 1870: J. B.; Deux historiens d'Ingres.
1889: P. Mantz; La peinture française. 1894: L. Mabilleau; Les dessins
d'Ingres au Musée de Montauban. 1898: G. Babin; Madame de Senonnes
par Ingres. 1898: La jeunesse d'Ingres. 1900: A. Michel; La peinture
française à l'exposition centennale. 1901: E. Hébert; La Villa
Medicis en 1840: Souvenirs d'un pensionnaire. 1905: J. Momméja; Le
portrait de Madame Destouches--DIE KUNST, 1901: H. von Tschudi; Die
Jahrhundert-Ausstellung der französischen Kunst--MCCLURE'S MAGAZINE,
1896: W. H. Low; A Century of Painting--MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE, 1871:
F. Wedmore; Ingres--REVUE DE PARIS, 1896: L. Mabilleau; Les cahiers
d'Ingres au Musée de Montauban--ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR BILDENDE KUNST, 1867:
J. Meyer; Ingres.



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MASTERS IN ART

BACK NUMBERS AND BOUND VOLUMES

_MASTERS IN ART_ was established in January, 1900. As will be seen
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[Illustration: Cloth Binding]

     =Volume I (1900)= treats of Van Dyck, Titian,
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showing, by 325 photographic illustrations and plans, the exteriors
and interiors of the best country houses of moderate cost built in
this country during the last few years by architects of the highest
standing. With full descriptive text. Price, bound, $3.00 postpaid.

STABLES

A work of similar character to the above, showing by over 550
illustrations the exteriors, plans, and interiors of stables of every
size and arrangement, with articles by experts on stable planning,
construction, hygiene, farm buildings, etc. Price, bound, $3.00,
postpaid.

AMERICAN GARDENS

The only volume existing which shows what is possible in garden making
under American conditions of climate and environment. Illustrates, by
237 superb photographs, sixty-one of the loveliest American gardens,
old and new. Plans are given, and the preface treats of the principles
of garden design. Price, $7.50, express paid.

_Special illustrated and descriptive circulars concerning each of the
above books on application._

BATES & GUILD COMPANY
PUBLISHERS
42 Chauncy St., Boston, Mass.



NEW YORK
SCHOOL OF ART

_Summer Announcements for 1906_


CLASS IN EUROPE

     June to October--Spain, France, Belgium, and Holland.

_Instructors_: ROBERT HENRI
               LOUIS GASPARD MONTE

BAYPORT, LONG ISLAND

     June to October--Out-of-door work from Costume Model and
     Landscape; also Studio Work in Portraiture and Still Life.

_Instructor_: DOUGLAS JOHN CONNAH

NEW YORK CITY
78 West 55th Street
June 1st to September 4th

     Classes in Life, Portrait, Still Life, Composition, and
     illustration under Kenneth Hayes Miller

     Design and Normal Art, under the direction of Frank Alvah
     Parsons

For particulars apply to
SUSAN F. BISSELL, Secretary
57 W. 57th Street, New York City



ERIC PAPE SCHOOL OF ART


Eighth Year. Oct. 2, 1905, to Oct. 3, 1906.

Head Instructor and Director, ERIC PAPE

Manager, CHARLES A. LAWRENCE

No examinations for admission to any of the classes. Students begin
by drawing from the nude and costume models, as is done in the Paris
academies, upon which the school is modelled. Fine large studios.

Drawing, Painting, Composition, Illustration, Decorative Design, and
Pyrogravure

Drawing and Painting from "life." Separate classes for men and women.
Portraiture, Still-life, Flower-painting, Water-color, Pastel,
Composition, Decorative Design and Painting, Practical Design for
Textiles, Illustration, Pen, Wash, Gouache, Poster, and Book-cover
designing.

Morning, Afternoon, and Evening Classes. Scholarships, Medals, and
Prizes.

For illustrated circulars address the Secretary.

Cor. Massachusetts Avenue and Boylston Street
BOSTON, MASS.



Art Academy of Cincinnati

Endowed for Higher Education in Art. Money Scholarships. Year's
Tuition $25.00

FRANK DUVENECK} _Drawing, Painting_
V. NOWOTTNY   } _Composition, Artistic_
L. H. MEAKIN  } _Anatomy, Etc._
C. J. BARNHORN, _Modeling_
WILLIAM H. FRY, _Wood-Carving_
ANNA RIIS, _Design and China Painting_
HENRIETTA WILSON }
KATE R. MILLER   } _Preparatory Drawing, Etc._

39TH YEAR: SEPT. 24, 1906, TO MAY 25, 1907

J. H. GEST, Director, Cincinnati, Ohio



ART STUDENTS' LEAGUE
OF NEW YORK


SUMMER SCHOOLS

New York City

GEORGE B. BRIDGMAN and H. DANIEL WEBSTER, Instructors June 4
to September 22

Woodstock, Ulster Co., New York

BIRGE HARRISON, Instructor June 15 to October 1

Circulars of information concerning these classes will be mailed on
request. Address

Art Students' League of New York 215 West 57th Street, New York, N.Y.


In answering advertisements, please mention MASTERS IN ART



"_THE ARISTOCRAT OF MUSICAL PUBLICATIONS_"

Masters in Music

A SERIES OF THIRTY-SIX MONOGRAPHS OF THE GREAT COMPOSERS

Edited by DANIEL GREGORY MASON

Author of "From Grieg to Brahms" and "Beethoven and His Forerunners"


Each number of _Masters in Music_, complete in itself, presents
a comprehensive summary of the life and achievement of one of
the great musicians of the world, with 32 pages of music, those
compositions being selected which, in the opinion of competent
judges, best manifest the composer's genius. They are arranged for
the piano or piano and voice, as the case may be. These compositions
are accompanied by notes pointing out the characteristics of each
selection and suggesting its best interpretation. A beautiful
portrait frontispiece, quotations from the most eminent critics, and
a bibliography and a list of works complete the number, forming a
concise yet complete handbook for the study of the composer to whom it
is devoted.

Contents

     Volume I. Mozart, Chopin, Gounod, Mendelssohn, Grieg, and
     Raff.

     Volume II. Verdi, Haydn, Biset, Beethoven (two numbers),
     and Handel.

     Volume III. Weber, Frans, Liszt, Purcell, Strauss, The
     Scarlattis.

     Volume IV. Rossini, Dvořák, Schubert (two numbers),
     Tschaïkowsky, and Bach.

     Volume V. Schumann (two numbers), César Franck, Meyerbeer,
     Brahms (two numbers).

     Volume VI. Rubinstein, Bellini and Donizetti, Gluck,
     Saint-Saëns, Wagner (two numbers).

Price, per volume of six numbers, $1.25, postpaid.
     Single numbers, 25 cents each.

$7.50 secures 36 parts, comprising 1,152 pages of classical music,
carefully engraved and printed, and 576 pages of instructive
and interesting reading-matter, with 36 frontispiece portrait
plates--1,800 pages--a musical library in itself.

We will send the complete set, express prepaid, on receipt of $2.50
and your promise to complete the purchase by five monthly payments of
$1.00 each.


BATES & GUILD COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
42 CHAUNCY STREET, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS

In answering advertisements, please mention MASTERS IN ART





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