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´╗┐Title: History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Volume 3
Author: Smith, Joseph, Jr.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Volume 3" ***

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HISTORY

OF THE

CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST

OF

LATTER-DAY SAINTS

PERIOD I.

History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet.

By Himself.

Volume III.

An Introduction and Notes

By

B. H. Roberts.

Published by the Church.

Deseret News.

Salt Lake City, Utah.

1905.

{III}



Table of Contents.

Volume III.

Introduction.

Enlightenment a Factor in Determining Responsibility for Conduct.

The People of Missouri and the Saints.

The Question of Slavery.

Political Fears.

The Saints and the Indians.

The Unwisdom of the Saints.

The Real Cause of the Missouri Persecutions.

Retribution.

CHAPTER I.

The Prophet Joseph's Departure from Kirtland and Arrival in Missouri.

Flight of the Prophet and Sidney Rigdon from Kirtland.

Brigham Young to the Prophet's Rescue.

The Bitterness of the Prophet's Enemies.

The Prophet's Arrival in Missouri.

Trial of the Far West Presidency of the Church.

Minutes of Proceedings in Other Settlements than Far West.

High Council Meeting at Far West.

The Prophet's Reception in Zion.

The Political Motto of the Church of Latter-day Saints.

The Prophet's Answers to Questions on Scripture.

The Prophet's Letter to the Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints in Kirtland.

CHAPTER II.

Excommunication of Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer--The Work in
England.

Arrival of Sidney Rigdon at Far West.

Minutes of a General Conference of the Church at Far West.

Minutes of the first Quarterly Conference at Far West.

Demand on John Whitmer for the Church Records.

Charges Against Oliver Cowdery.

Trial of Oliver Cowdery.

Elder Cowdery's Letter.

Charges Against David Whitmer.

Charges Against Lyman E. Johnson.

The Work in England-Conference {IV} in Preston.

Farewell Meetings with the Saints.

A Prophecy.

American Slanders Reach England.

CHAPTER III.

Readjustment and Settlement of Affairs at Far West.

Revelation Given at Far West.

Revelation Given to Brigham Young at Far West.

Revelation Given at Far West Making Known the Will of God Concerning
the Building up of that Place, and of the Lord's House.

Minutes of the High Council.

Sundry Employments of the Prophet.

The Prophet's Discourse on the Evils of Hasty Judgment.

Arrival of Elder Parley P. Pratt at Far West.

Death of Jas. G. Marsh.

The Prophet's Answer to Sundry Questions.

Elder Rigdon's Political Address.

Trial of William E. M'Lellin and Dr. McCord.

Remuneration of the Prophet and Sidney Rigdon for Temporal Labors in
the Church.

CHAPTER IV.

Selection of Lands in Caldwell and Daviess Counties for
Settlement-Adam-Ondi-Ahman.

The Prophet Leaves Far West to Locate Settlements.

The Prophet and Party Reach "Tower Hill."

Adam-ondi-Ahman.

Council Called to Determine Location of Settlements.

American Antiquities Discovered.

Varied Movements of the Prophet's Company.

Birth of Alexander Hale Smith.

The Prophet's Return to Adam-ondi-Ahman.

Minutes of the Meeting which Organized the Stake of Zion called
Adam-ondi-Ahman.

Description of Adam-ondi-Ahman.

CHAPTER V.

Independence Day at Far West--Sundry Events and Revelations--Epistle of
David W. Patten.

Celebration of Independence Day at Far West.

The Officers.

The Procession.

The Oration.

A Word from Elders Kimball and Hyde.

Letter of Don C. Smith to the Prophet.

Missing Revelations.

Revelation, Given at Far West, July 8, 1838.

Revelation, Given July 8, 1838, Making Known the {V} Disposition of the
Properties Tithed as Named in the Preceding Revelation.

Revelation Given to William Marks, Newel K. Whitney, Oliver Granger and
Others, at Far West, July 8, 1838.

Revelation given at Far West, July 8, 1838, in Answer to the Question,
Show unto us Thy Will, O Lord, Concerning the Twelve.

Minutes of a Meeting of the Twelve.

The Disposition of Public Church Properties.

Arrival of Saints from Canada.

Publication of the _Elder's Journal_.

The Epistle of Elder David W. Patten.

CHAPTER VI.

The Beginning of Trouble in Caldwell and Daviess Counties.

The Prophet Rests.

Reproof of Canadian Brethren.

A Citizen's Meeting at Far West.

Judge Morin's Friendly Warning.

Peniston's Harangue.

"Dick" Welding's Row.

John L. Butter's Speech.

Gathering of the Mob.

Reports of Gallatin Trouble Reach Far West.

Departure of the Prophet from Gallatin.

The Prophet commends the Brethren for Standing for their Rights.

Interview with Adam Black.

Adam Black's Agreement.

Interview with Citizens of Mill Port.

Treatise of Peace of Little Avail.

Peniston's Affidavit.

Reflections of the Prophet.

Inquiry at Far West Concerning Gallatin Affairs.

Resolutions.

Chased by a Mob.

The Prophet's Interview with the Sheriff of Daviess County.

Organization of Agriculture Companies.

Affidavit of Adam Black.

Comment on Adam Black.

Proclamation of Governor Boggs.

Conduct of John Corrill Reproved.

CHAPTER VII.

Increasing Difficulties Between the Saints and the Mobs of Daviess and
Caldwell Counties.

The Prophet Leaves Far West to Found a City of Zion.

Excitement Among the Missourians.

The Prophet's Review of the Wrongs of the Saints.

Site for City Selected.

Rumors of Mobs Gathering.

An Appeal to Gen. Atchison.

Consultation with General Atchison.

The Prophet and Sidney Rigdon Study Law.

The Prophet and Lyman Wight to Submit to Trial.

The Prophet's Affidavit on the Adam Black Incident.

Judge King at Far West.

{VI} Start for the Place of Trial.

The Trial at Raglin's.

The Prophet and Lyman Wight Bound Over.

A Committee of Inquiry from Chariton County.

Rumors of an Attack upon "Diahman."

Capture of Arms Intended for the Mob.

The Mob Take Prisoners.

Allred's Prisoners.

Advice from Judge King.

Judge King's Apparent Double Dealing.

Petition from Ray County.

The Trial of Allred's Prisoners.

The Citizens of Daviess County to the Governor.

Atchison Orders out the Militia.

CHAPTER VIII.

Mob Movements in Caldwell, Daviess and Carroll Counties--Arrival of
Kirtland Camp at Far West.

Trouble at De Witt Begins.

Dryden's Report to the Governor.

Doniphan's Report to Atchison.

The Prophet's Comment.

Atchison's Report to the Governor.

Marching Orders to the Militia.

Movements of the Militia.

Excerpts of Atchison's Letter of the Governor.

Petition of the Saints of De Witt to Governor Boggs.

General Park's Report to Governor Boggs.

Agreement to Buy Out the Mob.

Extract of a Letter from General Atchison to Governor Boggs.

Mob Activities Shifter to De Witt.

Arrival of Kirtland Camp at Far West.

CHAPTER IX.

The Organization and Journey of Kirtland Camp.

Meeting of the Seventies.

The Report of the Presidents.

To Move in a Body Not Thought Practicable.

The Subject Discussed.

Foster's Vision.

"God Wills It."

Meeting of the 13th of March.

Presidents _pro tem_ appointed.

Power of Nominating Officers Vested in First Council.

The Constitution.

The Movement Commended.

Hyrum Smith on Previous Movements.

Hyrum Smith Commends the Seventies.

Advantage of a Large Company.

Caution as to the Word of Wisdom.

Practical Steps.

Views of Oliver Granger _et al_.

Admonitions.

Sundry Meetings and the Object of Them.

Difficulties Encountered.

Assembling of the Camp.

Solemn Reflections.

The Start.

Number in Camp.

Sorrow at Parting.

First Experiences.

A Renewal of Covenants.

{VII} Incidents of a Day.

Additional Camp Regulations.

The First Deserter.

The First Death.

Nature of the Country Traversed.

Difficulties by the Way.

Descriptions of Country.

Sorrow for the "Deluded" Saints.

Preparations for the Sabbath.

Public Worship.

Some Left by the Way Rejoined the Camp.

Prominent Elders Arrested.

On the Headwaters of the Sciota and Sandusky.

Instructions to Overseers.

Reproofs Administered.

The Council Relieved of Guard Duty.

Threats of Arrest Made.

A Case of Healing.

Scarcity of Food.

A Day of Rest.

Camp at the Farm of the Governor of Ohio.

Camp Labors.

Admonitions.

Through Springfield.

Astonishment Created by the Camp.

Abram Bond Disfellowshiped.

John E. Page's Company.

Prayer for Rain.

Rain.

Some Leave the Camp.

A Reproof.

Elder Page Exhorts the Camp.

Work on the Turnpike.

Renewed Diligence.

An Assistant Council Appointed.

CHAPTER X.

The Journey of Kirtland Camp (Continued).

Preaching of Joseph Young.

An Increase of Interest in the Camp.

Exhortations.

Death of Horses.

A Burial.

More Employment.

Showers.

Charles Thompson Corrected.

Spirit of Union Manifested.

Jonas Putnam Commended.

Expulsion from the Camp.

Further Investigation of Camp Members.

Expulsion from the Camp.

Religious Service.

Births in Camp.

Turnpike Contract Finished.

Arrangements for Renewal of the Journey.

Gathering of the Absent.

Preparation for the Journey.

The Camp Resumes its Journey.

On the Indiana Line.

Camp Enters the State of Indiana.

Course of the Journey.

A Sunday Journey.

Death of Bathsheba Willey.

Warning and Exhortation.

Arrival at Terra Haute.

In Illinois.

Serious Difficulties Considered.

Dissatisfaction in Camp.

Increased Sickness.

Camp Passes Through Springfield.

More Departures from the Camp.

First Tidings from Far West.

A Missouri Storm.

Bad Roads.

Re-organization of the Camp.

Proposition to Disband the Camp.

Proposition Rejected.

Arrival on Grand River.

{VIII}

CHAPTER XI.

Expulsion of the Saints From De Witt, Carroll County, Missouri.

Vexatious Persecution of Willard Richards.

Mob Movements at De Witt.

Scattering Fire Brands.

Letter of General Lucas to Governor Boggs.

The Prophet's Comment.

Conference at Far West.

News of Mob Violence from De Witt.

The Prophet's Hopes of Peace Disappointed.

The Prophet Arrives at De Witt.

Continuance of Far West Conference.

John Taylor Sustained as an Apostle.

England.

De Witt.

Communication of Clark to Atchison on Affairs at De Witt.

The Mobs' Appeal to Howard County for Help.

General Clark's Endorsement of the Mob.

The Governor's Answer to the Saints.

House Burning and Robbing.

Mob Leaders Made Commanders of Militia.

Hardships of the Saints.

Proposals for the Departure of the Saints.

A Sad Journey.

CHAPTER XII.

Movements of the Mob Upon De Witt--Battle of Crooked
River--Exterminating Order of Governor Boggs.

Plan of the Mob to Dispossess of the Saints.

Plans of Doniphan to Protect the Saints.

State of Affairs in England.

Organization for Defense.

Mob Depredations at "Diahman."

Affairs at Millport.

Park's Order to Wight to Disperse the Mob.

Stratagem of the Mob.

Beginning of William Clayton's Ministry.

Vindication of the Prophet's Business course in Kirtland.

A Card.

Crimes of the Mob Charged to the Saints.

Departure of Orson Hyde from Far West.

Return of the Prophet to Far West.

The Saints Flock into Far West.

Inflamatory Letters to the Governor.

The Mail Robbed.

The Course of King and Black.

The Apostasy of Thomas B. Marsh.

Communication of Woods and Dickson to Governor Boggs.

The Prophet's Statement of the Buncombe Affair.

Raid on the Pinkham Residence.

Crooked River Battle.

List of Casualties--Death of Patten and O'Banion.

The Prophet's Reflections on the Death of David W. Patten.

E. M. Ryland's Letter to Messrs. Reese and Williams.

Governor Boggs Order to {IX} General John B. Clark.

Letter of Horace Kingsbury and John W. Howden on the Business Integrity
of the Prophet and his Agents in Kirtland.

Funeral of David W. Patten.

Governor Boggs' Exterminating Order.

Excitement in Upper Missouri.

The Appeal of Atchison and Lucas to Governor Boggs, Asking his Presence
at the "Seat of War."

CHAPTER XIII.

Mob Movements About Far West--Treachery of Colonel Hinkle--Sorrowful
Scenes.

The Prophet's Comments on Governor Boggs.

General Clark.

Doctor Sampson Avard.

Avard's "Danites."

Avard's Manner of Proceeding.

Avard's Instructions to his Captains.

Revolt of Avard's Officers.

Avard's Teachings Rejected.

Avard Excommunicated.

Distinction in Organization Pointed Out.

Gathering of the Mob at Richmond.

Gen. Clark's Movements.

Joseph Young's Narrative of the Massacre at Haun's Mills.

Additional Events of the Massacre.

Atchison Withdraws from "Militia."

Arrival of more Mob Militia.

Preparations for a Battle.

Col. Hinkle's Treachery.

Reinforcement of the Mob.

Betrayal of the Prophet _et al_.

The Prophet and Companions Sentenced to be Shot.

Robbings by the "Militia."

Excerpt from Governor Boggs' Communication to General Lucas.

Citizens of Far West Disarmed.

High-Handed Procedure of the Mob.

Avard's Treachery.

Report of General S. D. Lucas to Governor Boggs.

CHAPTER XIV.

Rivalry Among the Militia Generals for Possession of the
Prisoners--"Trial" at Richmond.

Rival Efforts for Possession of the Prisoners.

The Prophet's Interview with a Lady.

Arrival of the Prisoners in Independence.

Overwhelming Numbers of Mob Militia.

Severity in the Treatment of Prisoners Modified.

Fifty-sex Additional Prisoners.

General Clark's Harangue to the Brethren.

Progress of Affairs at "Diahman."

The Prophet and his Fellow Prisoners sent to Richmond.

Prisoners not Sufficiently Protected by Guard.

Meeting of the Prophet and Gen. Clark.

The Prisoners Chained.

{X} Form of Permit.

General Clark Desires to try the Prophet by Court Martial.

General Clark's Report to Governor Boggs.

Hardships Inflicted on the "Diahman" Saints.

Casualties of the Mobbing.

List of the Prisoners.

The Villainy of Avard.

List of Witnesses Against the Saints.

Permit.

Treatment of Witness for the Defense.

Some Prisoners Discharged.

Misconception of the Church Organization.

Ashby's Report of Haun's Mills Massacre.

Prisoners Discharged and Retained.

Legal Advice to Cease Defense.

Mr. Arthur, Esq., to the Representatives from Clay County.

Attested Copy of Mittimus Under Which Joseph Smith Jun., and Others,
Were Sent from Judge King to the Jailer of Liberty Prison, in Clay
County, Missouri.

In Liberty Prison.

Course of Wm. E. M'Lellin and Burr Riggs.

CHAPTER XV.

The Case of the Saints Presented to the Missouri Legislature--The
Prophet's Communication to the Saints From Liberty Prison.

Report of Governor Boggs to the Legislature.

Memorial of a Committee to the State Legislature of Missouri in Behalf
of the Citizens of Caldwell County.

Minutes of a High Council Held at Far West, Thursday, December 13, 1838.

The Prophet's Letters to the Church.

CHAPTER XVI.

Case of the "Mormons" Before the Missouri Legislature--Close of the
Year 1838.

Varied Reports as to the Intentions of the Saints.

Interview Between David H. Redfield and Governor Boggs.

The Turner Committee Report to the Missouri Legislature.

The Debate on the Petition.

Nature of the Testimony.

Minutes of the High Council at Far West.

Return of Don Carlos Smith and George A. Smith.

Redfield's Report.

Action of Missouri Legislature.

State Appropriation of $2,000.

Course of the Minority in the Legislature.

Course of the State Press.

{XI}

CHAPTER XVII.

Preparations for Leaving Missouri--Action of the State Legislature.

Reflections on the Opening Year.

Anson Call Beaten.

Storm in England.

Missouri State Senate Resolutions on Mormon Difficulties.

Other Provisions of the Bill.

Proposition to Help the Poor.

The Prophet's Petition to the Missouri Legislation.

Postscript to the Petition.

Minutes of a Public Meeting at Far West.

Minutes of the Second Meeting at Far West.

List of Names Subscribed to the Foregoing.

Activity of the Committee on Removal.

Investigation Ordered.

Minutes of a Meeting of the Committee on Removal.

CHAPTER XVIII.

The Exiled Saints at Quincy--Proposition to Settle at Commerce.

Minutes of a Conference of the Church held at Quincy.

Application for Assistance.

Persecution of Brigham Young.

Petition to Help the Smith Family from Missouri.

Arrangements for Paying the Debts of the Saints.

The Governor's Order to Return the Arms Belonging to the Saints.

Labors in the Interests of the Poor.

Committee Resolutions.

Action of the Democratic Committee of Quincy.

Determination of the Prisoners to Escape.

Sidney Rigdon's Departure from Prison.

Importunities for the Release of the Prisoners.

Meeting of Elder Israel Barlow and Isaac Galland.

Minutes of the Meeting of the Democratic Association of Quincy.

Report.

Document "A."

Statement of Sidney Rigdon.

Minutes of the Adjourned Meeting of the Democratic Association of
Quincy.

CHAPTER XIX.

Letters to the Prophet--Affairs in England--Petitions.

Edward Partridge's Letter to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Others Confined in
Liberty Jail, Missouri.

Letter from Don Carlos Smith to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Others Confined
in Liberty Jail, Missouri.

Letter from William Smith to Joseph and Hyrum.

{XII} Minutes of a Meeting of the Committee on Removal.

Minutes of the Adjourned Meeting of the Democratic Association of
Quincy.

Condition of Affairs in England.

Charges of Elder Halsal Against Elder Willard Richards.

The Cause of Elder Richards' Troubles.

The Petition of the Prophet _et al_. to Judge Thompkins _et al_.

CHAPTER XX.

Sundry Movements in the interest of the Exiled Saints--The Prophet's
Letters from Liberty Prison.

Minutes of the Conference at Quincy, Illinois.

Departure of Mrs. Pratt.

Action of the Committee of Removal.

Letter of the Prophet to Mrs. Norman Bull.

The Mission of Kimball and Turley to Governor Boggs.

The Faulty Mittimus.

The Prophet's Epistle to the Church, Written in Liberty Prison.

CHAPTER XXI.

Stirring Scenes About Far West--The Epistle of the Prophet and his
Fellow Prisoners.

Judge King's Anger.

Plot Against the Prophet's Life.

The Truth of a Revelation Questioned.

Turley's Defense of the Prophet.

Colloquy Between Turley and John Whitmer.

Land Sales and the Clothing of Prisoners.

The Prisoners Hurried into Daviess County.

Peremptory Orders Considered.

Action of the Committee.

Arrival of Stephen Markham in Gallatin.

Judge Morin Favors the Prophet's Escape.

The Examination of Prisoners.

Letter of Sidney Rigdon to the Prophet, Rigdon's Plan for the
Impeachment of Missouri.

Letter of Alanson Ripley to the Prophet.

Letter of Don Carlos Smith to His Brother, Hyrum Smith.

Letter of Agnes Smith to Hyrum and Joseph Smith.

Attempt upon the Life of Stephen Markham.

A "True Bill" Found Against the Prisoners.

Meeting of the Committee on Removal.

Sale of Jackson County Lands.

Vision of the Prophet for Markham's Safety.

Escape of Markham.

Jacob Stolling's Communication to the Prophet.

The Prophet's Comments.

Isaac Galland's Communications to the Quincy Argus.

Letters of Robert Lucas, Governor of the Territory of Iowa, Respecting
the Manner in which the Saints Might Hope to be Received and Treated in
Iowa.

{XIII} Activity of the Committee on Removal.

The Prophet and Fellow Prisoners Start for Boone County.

Letter of Elias Higbee to Joseph Smith, Junior, and Fellow Prisoners.

The Prophet's Reason for Escaping from the Officers of the Law.

Elder Kimball's Warning to the Committee.

Attack on Theodore Turley.

The Mob's Assault on Elder Kimball.

The Mob Loots Far West.

The Loss of Records, Accounts, etc.

Flight of the Saints _via_ Missouri River.

Assistance for the Poor.

Narrative of Amanda Smith Respecting the Massacre at Haun's Mills.

CHAPTER XXII.

The Prophet's Account of His Experiences in Missouri--Fulfillment of a
Prophetic Revelation--Complete Exodus of the Saints From Missouri.

The Prophet and Companions Continue their Flight.

The Leading Characters in the Persecution of the Saints.

Part of Governor Boggs in the Persecutions.

Treatment of the Prophet by the Missouri Mob.

Calm Assurance of the Prophet Respecting his own Safety.

Deportment of the Saints.

Sure Reward of the Faithful Saints.

The Saints not to Marvel at Persecution.

The Crime of Missouri to be Viewed in the Light of the Civilized Age in
which it was Committed.

The Appeal of the Prophet to the People of the United States.

Pursuit of Elder Markham.

Letters of Governor Lucas of Iowa to Elder Rigdon.

Letter of Governor Lucas to President Martin Van Buren Respecting the
Latter-day Saints.

Letter of Governor Lucas to the Governor of Ohio Introducing President
Rigdon.

Letter of W. W. Phelps to John P. Greene.

Parley P. Pratt _et al_. Before the Grand Jury at Richmond.

The Twelve _en route_ for Far West.

Minutes of Council Meeting Held at Quincy, Illinois.

Seeking a New Location.

Minutes of the Meeting of the Twelve Apostles at Far West, April 26,
1839.

The Revelation of April 8, 1838, Fulfilled.

CHAPTER XXIII.

Settlement in Commerce, Illinois.

Seeking a New Location.

Elder Taylor's Warning to the People of Quincy Against Impostors.

Land Purchases.

The English Saints Warned Against Isaac Russell.

Isaac Russell's Letter to the {XIV} Saints in England.

Russell's Efforts Counteracted

Minutes of a General Conference of the Church Held near Quincy,
Illinois, May 4th, 5th, and 6th, 1839.

Certificate of Appointment.

Minutes of the 5th.

Minutes of the 6th.

John P. Greene's Letter of Appointment.

Letter of Recommendation to Elder John P. Greene from Certain Citizens
of Quincy.

Sidney Rigdon's Letter of Introduction to the President of the United
States.

The Prophet Settles at Commerce.

Sidney Rigdon's General Letter of Introduction.

Letter of Recommendation to Oliver Granger from the First Presidency.

Letter of R. B. Thompson to the First Presidency Complaining of the
Conduct of Lyman Wight.

Letter of Elder Parley P. Pratt to Judge Austin A. King.

Letter of the First Presidency to the Quincy _Whig_ Disclaiming the
Attitude of Lyman Wight.

CHAPTER XXIV.

Adventures of the Prisoners Remaining in Missouri--The Prophet's
Narrative of Personal Experiences in Missouri.

Rabbi Landau's Letter to His Son.

The Prophet's Letter to W. W. Phelps.

Indictment of Parley P. Pratt _et al_.

An Adventure by the Way.

The Prophet's Letter to E. W. Harris.

Letter of the Prophet and Emma Smith to Judge Cleveland.

The Prophet's Letter to Bishop Whitney, Asking Him to Settle at
Commerce.

The Twelve to go to England.

Cruel Treatment of Parley P. Pratt and Companions.

Answer of the First Presidency to R. B. Thompson on the Lyman Wight
Affair.

Case of William Smith.

Parley P. Pratt and Fellow Prisoners Arrive at Columbia.

The Prophet and Vinson Knight's Letter to Mark Bigler.

The Prophet's Letter to Lyman Wight, on the Matter of R. B. Thompson's
Complaint.

Letter of Appointment to Stephen Markham.

Parley P. Pratt _et al_. Seek a Trial.

The Prophet's Narration of his Personal Experiences in Missouri,
1838-9, which he calls "A Bill of Damages Against the State of Missouri
on Account of the Suffering and Losses Sustained Therein."

Hyrum Smith's Statement of Sufferings and Damages Sustained in
Missouri, and in Being Driven Therefrom.

CHAPTER XXV.

Commerce--The Prophet's History--Doctrinal Development.

First House built by the Saints at Commerce.

{XV} Description of Commerce.

Letter of Edward Partridge to the Prophet.

Excitement at Columbia Prison, Mo.

Visit of the Prophet with William Smith.

Visit with Don Carlos Smith.

Ministry of the Prophet.

Purchase of Lands in Iowa.

Return of the Prophet to Commerce.

The Prophet's Answer to Jacob Stollings.

Restoration of Orson Hyde.

The Prophet's Instructions on Various Doctrines.

CHAPTER XXVI.

The Prophet's Ministry in the Vicinity of Commerce--Address to the
Twelve.

The Prophet Testifies to the Book of Mormon.

The Missouri Prisoners.

Founding of Zarahemla.

The Prophet with the Twelve and Seventy.

The Prophet's Address to the Twelve.

Mercy and Forgiveness.

Humility and Brotherhood of the Twelve.

Avard's Vain Glory.

Be Honest, Sober, Vigilant.

Beware of Treason.

The Sign of Apostasy.

The Prophet on Priesthood.

Adam and the Presidency of the Priesthood.

Eternity of the Priesthood.

Adam's Place in the Order of Worthies.

The Spirit of Man Eternal.

The Nature of the Priesthood.

The Restoration of the Priesthood.

Adam in the Valley of Adam-ondi-Ahman.

Labors of the Patriarchs and Moses.

Angels to have Part in the Work.

The Kingdom of Heaven.

Future Deliverance of the Saints.

Importance of Revelation.

A Vision and Prophecy.

The Mission of Elijah.

Blessings for the Saints in Stakes of Zion.

Haste to Build up Zion.

Peace in Zion and Her Stakes.

The Prophet's Vision of Judgement.

Vision.

Angels.

Powers of the Devil.

The Gift of Tongues.

CHAPTER XXVII.

Baptism of Isaac Galland--Epistle of the Twelve to the Church.

Baptism of Isaac Galland.

Epistle of the Twelve to the Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints, to the Churches Scattered Abroad and to all the
Saints.

{XVI} CHAPTER XXVIII.

The Escape of Parley P. Pratt and his Fellow Prisoners from
Missouri--The Close of an Epoch.

Parley P. Pratt's Account of His Escape from Missouri.

Appendix to Volume III.

Affidavits of Hyrum Smith _et al_. on affairs in Missouri, 1831-39;
Officially subscribed to before the municipal court of Nauvoo the first
day of July, 1843.

Explanatory Note.

The Testimony of Hyrum Smith.

Testimony of Parley P. Pratt.

Testimony of George W. Pitkin.

Testimony of Brigham Young.

Testimony of Lyman Wight.

Testimony of Sidney Rigdon.



{XVII} Introduction to Volume III.

_Enlightenment a Factor in Determining Responsibility for Conduct_.

Volume Three concludes, for the present, the history of the Church in
Missouri. I think it proper, therefore, that here should be considered
the causes of the Missouri persecutions, which resulted in the
expulsion of the entire Church from that state.

There have been, of course, more extensive persecutions than those
inflicted on the Saints in Missouri; but I doubt if there has ever been
a persecution more cruel or terror-laden in its character. Viewed from
the standpoint of its net results there were some fifty people, men,
women, and children, killed outright; about as many more were wounded
or cruelly beaten, and many more perished indirectly because of the
exposure to which they were subjected through the winters of 1833-4 and
1838-9.

In round numbers it is estimated that between twelve and fifteen
thousand people, citizens of the United States, after being
dispossessed of their lands, were forcibly driven from the state.
It is known that they paid to the United States government for land
alone, three hundred and eighteen thousand dollars, which, at the
minimum price of one dollar and a quarter per acre, would give them
land holdings of over two hundred and fifty thousand acres, which
represented for that day very large interests. [1]

To this list of results must be added the more horrible one of several
cases of ravishment at Far West; and also, after barely escaping
from the sentence of death pronounced by a court martial, the cruel
imprisonment through weary months of a number of Church leaders.

In passing judgment upon such matters as these account must be taken of
the age and country in which they occurred; likewise the pretensions
to right views of life, and devotion to freedom on the part of the
perpetrators of the injustice. Undoubtedly a heavier debt is incurred
to history, to humanity and to God, when the parties who resort to such
acts of mob violence and injustice live in an enlightened age, and
where the free institutions of their country guarantee both the freedom
and security of its citizens.

{XVIII} If in the jungle a man meets a tiger and is torn to pieces, no
one thinks of holding the tiger to any moral accountability. Perhaps
the hunt will be formed to destroy the beast, but that is merely to be
rid of a dangerous animal, and prevent the repetition of the deed. If
another meets a cruel death among savages in heathen lands, while some
moral responsibility would hold against them, according to their degree
of enlightenment, yet the fact that it was an act of savages would be
held to reduce the degree of moral turpitude. And likewise even in
civilized states, in localities to which the vicious may gravitate,
when acts of violence are committed there, some allowance may be, and
generally is, made for the ignorance and general brutality of the
particular neighborhood.

By this process of reasoning I think it will appear quite clear that
moral responsibility, both on the part of individuals and communities
or nations, increases in proportion to their enlightenment. If,
therefore, this principle be kept in view, the persecution of the
Latter-day Saints by the people of Missouri was a very heinous offense.

True it may be said that the worst acts of cruelty were perpetrated
by low, brutish men among the mob or in the militia--for these
bodies were convertible from one to the other on shortest possible
notice, and wholly as the exigencies of the enemies of the Saints
demanded--but these were led and abetted by quite a different order
of men: by lawyers, members of the state legislature, by county and
district judges, by physicians, by professed ministers of the gospel,
by merchants, by leading politicians, by captains, majors, colonels,
and generals--of several grades--of the militia, by many other high
officials of the state including the Governor and Lieutenant Governor,
and finally by the action of the state legislature which appropriated
two hundred thousand dollars to defray the expenses incurred by the
mob-militia in carrying out the Governor's order, exterminating the
Saints from the state. These facts are made apparent in the pages of
this and the two preceding volumes of the HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. The
facts cannot be questioned. They are written out most circumstantially
in the Prophet's story. Times, places, and names are given of the
incidents related, and the more important of these may be corroborated
by histories of these events other than our own.

The persecutions then of the Latter-day Saints in Missouri, and their
final expulsion from that state, were crimes against the enlightenment
of the age and of the state where the acts occurred; a crime against
the constitutions and institutions both of the state of Missouri and
of the United States; as also a crime against the Christian religion.
All this we have in mind when speaking of the severity and cruelty of
these compared with other persecutions. The state of Missouri was {XIX}
guilty of a greater crime when it persecuted the Latter-day Saints than
states were which in the barbarous times of the dark ages persecuted
their people; though when estimated in net results there may have been
more murders and robberies, greater destruction of property, and more
wide-spread suffering in the latter than in the former.

It is in the light of the principle here laid down that I propose to
review the causes of the persecutions of the Latter-day Saints in
Missouri.

_The People of Missouri and the Saints_.

The people of the state of Missouri, and especially those living in
western and upper Missouri, in the early decades of the nineteenth
century, were chiefly from the states of the South--from Kentucky,
Tennessee, Virginia, and the Carolinas. This is not stated as a matter
of reproach, for among the American people there have been no better
or nobler citizens of the Republic than the people of the states
enumerated. I merely make the statement in order to present a fact, and
because other facts grow out of it. To say that Missouri was settled by
emigrants from the states of the South carries with it the explanation
why Missouri was one of the slave states, and her people attached
to the social and industrial methods of life attendant upon that
circumstance. That is to say, they looked with contempt upon manual
labor; regarding it as menial and proper only for slaves to perform.
With that idea is closely related another; namely, that white people
who from circumstances were compelled to perform manual labor, or who
followed it from principle, in the eyes of the people of the South were
of an inferior class; contemptuously characterized by some as "white
trash," and by others, inclined to be more polite, as "poor whites."

Freedom from manual labor gave to those of active dispositions in such
communities an opportunity to follow the more desirable vocations
of professional life; the law, medicine, the Christian ministry,
merchandising and general business; or leisure for political or
military activities; or the pursuit of pleasure, fishing, hunting,
horse racing, and social life generally. These conditions naturally
resulted in pride, often in arrogance, and a desperate sort of courage,
which held honor high and weakness and cowardice in contempt; also
something of intolerance for those disposed to set themselves against
such an order of things.

The reader will recognize, of course, that I have so far in mind
only the better element of the population, the least of the evils
and some of the advantages resulting from such industrial and social
conditions. There were, however, quite different and more serious
results than any {XX} yet noted arising from this system of society.
While those disposed to activity and inclined to honorable pursuits
might enjoy certain advantages from the system, on the other hand, it
fostered man's natural inclination to idleness and love of ease that
comes of idleness; and fostered jealousy and bitterness against those
more industrious and successful. In such a class the system led to
ignorance, irreligion, and criminal tendencies; constituting them a
dangerous element in the community. It was doubtless this class the
Prophet Joseph had in mind when he said soon after his first arrival in
western Missouri: "Our reflections were great, coming as we had from
a highly cultivated state of society in the East, and standing now
upon the confines or western limits of the United States, and looking
into the vast wilderness of those that sat in darkness. How natural it
was to observe the degradation, leanness of intellect, ferocity and
jealousy of a people that were nearly a century behind the times, and
to feel for those who roamed about without the benefit of civilization,
refinement, or religion!"

Many of the positions in the higher walks of life, in western Missouri,
were sought by the unworthy, the corruptible and the vicious--men
who sought all the advantages of the southern ideals of life without
possessing the refining virtues which for generations in the older
states of the south made some of the evils of the social system that
obtained there at least tolerable. Such were the Brazeales, the
Wilsons, the Hunters, the Kavanaughs, the Likens, the Loveladys, the
McCartys, the McCoys, the Pixleys, the Simsons, the Silvers, the
Westons, the Gilliams, the Birches, the Blacks, the Bogarts, the
Clarks, the Liveseys, and the Penistons.

Another circumstance which influenced somewhat the character of western
Missouri's population in the early decades of the nineteenth century,
was the fact that these sections of the state constituted part of the
frontiers of the United States, and here had gravitated a more or less
lawless class which sought the security of proximity to the boundary
lines of the United States, from whose confines they could make their
escape in the event of being hard pressed for violations of law in the
older states whence they had come, or in their new habitat. Such were
the Lovels, the Hawkins, the Heatherleys and many others.

The Latter-day Saints who settled in Missouri from 1831 to 1839 had
come for the most part from the New England States and New York.
There were, therefore, marked differences in character between
them and the old settlers of Missouri; differences of ideas as to
industrial and social life; of moral and religious life. The Saints
were descendants chiefly of the Puritans, and both by inheritance
and training had fallen heirs to the Puritan's strict views of
industry, religion and morality. The Puritans taught that all labor
was honorable, and industry a duty. {XXI} Religion occupied a large
share of their attention--entered in fact into all the affairs of
life--though its duties meant largely a regular attendance upon church
service; a strict observance of the proprieties while there; a rigid
observance throughout of the Sabbath day. Neither work nor amusements
were tolerated on that day. In the olden time among some of their
forefathers it had been unlawful to sit in Boston Common on the Sabbath
or to walk in the streets of Boston, except to church. Once a man was
publicly whipped for shooting a fowl on Sunday. A woman was threatened
with banishment for smiling in church. A person absent from church for
more than one Sunday was in danger of being fined, whipped, or set
in the stocks. Swearing was prohibited in nearly all the New England
colonies, and a split stick was sometimes placed on the swearer's
tongue. [2]

Both food and dress were plain, and the latter, in some instances, was
regulated by law. Amusements were few. Dancing and card-playing were
forbidden, and there was little music. The state sought to take entire
charge of the individual, and supposed that tendency toward immorality
could be stemmed by legislation. In early Connecticut no one under
twenty was allowed to use tobacco, and none to use it more than once
a day. The laws were severe and the penalties cruel. The stocks and
whipping-post and pillory were in frequent requisition to correct moral
delinquents. An offender might be made to stand on a stool in church
with the name of his misdemeanor displayed on his breast. Among the
common punishments were cropping or boring the ears and branding with a
hot iron. [3]

Of course in later years there was a general relaxation from these
severities, and many of these customs and laws, by the time our
generation of Saints came on the scene, were obsolete. Still, the moral
and spiritual atmosphere in which the Saints and their fathers had been
reared was austere in its moral character, and stood in marked contrast
to the moral atmosphere of the South, where, in respect of such things
as church attendance, religious observances, personal liberty in
eating, drinking and amusements, there was wider freedom.

In the sparsely settled country of western Missouri, the descendants
of the old cavaliers and their following, who settled the South, and
the descendants of the Puritans, who settled the North, were to meet:
and very naturally one may see in these antagonistic elements--aside
from the cause of antagonism which will be found in the newly revealed
religion of the Latter-day Saints--natural causes of irritation between
them founded in the differences of character, and their respective
conceptions of industrial, moral, and religious duties. That the old
settlers {XXII} in Missouri, even those friendly disposed towards the
Saints, recognized the incompatibility of the two classes is evident
from the public utterances of a mass meeting held at Liberty, in Clay
county, when the Saints were urged to seek anew locality where they
could live by themselves. "They are eastern men," said the address,
"whose manners, habits, customs, and even dialect, are essentially
different from our own. We earnestly urge them to seek some other
abiding place, where the manners, the habits, and customs of the people
will be more consonant with their own." [4]

This difference of character between the Saints and the old settlers I
account one of the causes of the Missouri persecutions.

_The Question of Slavery_.

The question of slavery in Missouri was a delicate one. It will perhaps
be remembered that it was the application of the territory of Missouri
for admission into the Union, 1818-19, that brought the question
of slavery into one of its acute stages before the country; and
inaugurated a long series of debates in the National Congress on the
subject. It was upon the admission of Missouri into the Union in 1821
that the great Compromise which bears the state's name settled, not the
question of slavery itself, but, for the time, the agitation of it.

That Compromise consisted finally in this: that while Missouri herself
was admitted with a clause in her constitution permitting slavery, and
also prohibiting free people of color from immigrating into the state,
slavery was forever to be prohibited in all territory of the United
States north of the line thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north
latitude (the southern boundary line of the state of Missouri); and
Missouri was required "by a solemn, public act" of her legislature,
to declare that the clause in her constitution relating to the
immigration of free negroes into the state, should never be construed
to authorize the passage of any law by which any citizen of either of
the states in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoyment of any
of the privileges and immunities to which he is entitled under the
Constitution of the United States.

These historical facts are referred to here that the reader may be
reminded that slavery was a delicate question in Missouri; that her
people were super-sensitive about it since she was the first territory
upon which the National Congress sought to impose the prohibition of
slavery as a condition precedent to her admission into the Union,
which, up to that time, had been a matter left to the people of the
territory seeking admission to determine for themselves. Of course this
attempt at {XXIII} restriction of slavery was made by northern members
of the national Congress. [5] All the sentiment for the restriction
of slavery was in the North. In 1831 the sentiment for the positive
abolition of slavery had made such progress in Massachusetts, that
William Lloyd Garrison established in Boston "_The Liberator_," a paper
which advocated "the immediate and unconditional emancipation of every
slave in the United States." As a result of this agitation anti-slavery
societies were formed and active measures taken to advocate these
opinions by means of lectures and pamphlets. These extreme measures
against slavery did not meet with the approval of all or even the
majority of the people of New England, much less with the approval
of the people of other northern states. Still this agitation arose
and was chiefly supported in New England. It will not be difficult to
understand, therefore, that any considerable number of people from
that section of the Union immigrating into a slave state would arouse
suspicion; especially when that immigration was into a slave state upon
which, when as a territory she had made application for admission into
the Union, prohibition of slavery was sought to be enforced by the
northern members of the National Congress. Nor will it be sufficient
to dispel this suspicion to aver that these particular immigrants from
New England, and other northern states are not abolitionists; that
they take no part with, and do not share the fanatical sentiments of,
the abolitionists; that their objects and purposes are of an entirely
different and larger character.

The answer to all this was given in a public document drawn up to voice
the sentiment of a great mass meeting of the people of Clay county--a
people, be it remembered, who at the time (1836) were not unfriendly
towards the Saints, but a people who a few years before had received
the Saints into their homes, and given them shelter when they were
exiles from Jackson county, and who, at the time of the utterance I
am about to quote was published, were in a covenant of peace with the
Saints, and the Saints in a covenant of peace with them--I say the
answer to all disclaimers on the part of the Saints respecting their
not being abolitionists was found in this public utterance: "They
are eastern men, whose manners, habits, customs and even dialect are
essentially different from our own. They are non-slaveholders, and
opposed to slavery, which in this peculiar period, when abolitionism
has reared its deformed and haggard visage in our land, is well
calculated to excite deep and abiding prejudices in any community where
slavery is tolerated and protected."

I call attention to these facts that the student of the history of the
Church may appreciate the weight of influence they would have in {XXIV}
creating popular sentiment against the Saints; a matter which hitherto,
if I may be permitted to say so, has not been fully appreciated. One
can readily see what a potent factor this sentiment against New England
and other northern states people would be in the hands of political
demagogues and sectarian priests seeking to exterminate what they
would respectively consider an undesirable element in politics and a
religious rival. That both political demagogues and sectarian priests
made the most of the opportunity which hostile sentiment in Missouri
against abolition and abolitionists afforded, abundantly appears in the
pages of the first volume of the Church History. That sentiment was
appealed to from the first; indeed in the very first manifesto of the
mob--known as "The Secret Constitution," [6]--issued against the Saints
in Missouri, it was a prominent feature. This was at Independence, in
July, 1833. In that "Manifesto" the following passage occurs: "More
than a year since, it was ascertained that they [the Saints] had been
tampering with our slaves, and endeavoring to sow dissensions and raise
seditions amongst them. Of this their Mormon leaders were informed, and
they said they would deal with any of their members who should again in
like case offend. But how specious are appearances. In a late number of
the _Star_, published in Independence by the leaders of the sect, there
is an article inviting free negroes and mulattoes from other states to
become Mormons, and remove and settle among us. This exhibits them in
still more odious colors. It manifests a desire on the part of their
society, to inflict on our society an injury that they know would be to
us entirely insupportable, and one of the surest means of driving us
from the country; for it would require none of the supernatural gifts
that they pretend to, to see that the introduction of such a caste
amongst us would corrupt our blacks, and instigate them to bloodshed."

The article on "Free People of Color" referred to appeared in the
_Evening and Morning Star_ for July. The charge of sowing dissensions
and inspiring seditions among the slaves, and inviting free negroes to
settle in Missouri, had no foundation in truth. Concerning such people
the Missouri laws provided that: If any negro or mulatto came into
the state of Missouri, without a certificate from a court of record
in some one of the United States, evidencing that he was a citizen of
such state, on complaint before any justice of the peace, such negro
or mulatto could be commanded by the justice to leave the state; and
if the colored person so ordered did not leave the state within thirty
days, on complaint of any citizen, such person could be again brought
before the justice who might commit him to the common jail of the
county, until {XXV} the convening of the circuit court, when it became
the duty of the judge of the circuit court to inquire into the cause of
commitment; and if it was found that the negro or mulatto had remained
in the state contrary to the provisions of this statute, the court was
authorized to sentence such person to receive ten lashes on his or her
bare back, and then order him or her to depart from the state; if the
person so treated should still refuse to go, then the same proceedings
were to be repeated and punishment inflicted as often as was necessary
until such person departed.

And further: If any person brought into the state of Missouri a free
negro or mulatto, without the aforesaid certificate of citizenship,
for every such negro or mulatto the person offending was liable to a
forfeit of five hundred dollars; to be recovered by action of debt in
the name of the state.

The editor of the _Star_ commenting upon this law said: "Slaves are
real estate in this and other states, and wisdom would dictate great
care among the branches of the Church of Christ on this subject. So
long as we have no special rule in the Church as to people of color,
let prudence guide; and while they, as well as we, are in the hands of
a merciful God, we say: shun every appearance of evil."

Publishing this law and the above comment was construed by the old
settlers to be an invitation to free people of color to settle in
Jackson county! Whereupon an extra was published to the July number of
the _Star_ on the sixteenth of the month, which said: "The intention in
publishing the article, "Free People of Color," was not only to stop
free people of color from immigrating to Missouri, but to prevent them
from being admitted as members of the Church. * * * * * To be short, we
are opposed to having free people of color admitted into the State." [7]

But in the face of all this the Missourians still claimed that the
article was merely published to give directions and cautions to be
observed by "colored brethren," to enable them upon their arrival
in Missouri, to "claim and exercise the rights of citizenship."
"Contemporaneous with the appearance of this article"--the above
article in the {XXVI} _Star_--continued the charge published in the
_Western Monitor_--"was the expectation among the brethren, that a
considerable number of this degraded caste were only waiting this
information before they should set out on their journey." [8] And
this base falsehood was used to inflame the minds of the old settlers
against the Saints.

I do not refer to this question of slavery in connection with the
persecution of the Saints in Missouri in order to set it down as one
of the causes of that persecution; because, as a matter of fact, the
views of the Saints, and especially of the leading Elders of the Church
on that question were such that they could never be truthfully charged
with being a menace to that institution. The Prophet Joseph himself,
at the time of the Jackson county troubles and subsequently, held very
conservative views on the subject of slavery, surprisingly conservative
views when his own temperament and environment are taken into account,
of which fact any one may convince himself by reading his paper on the
subject of abolition in Volume II of the Church History, pages 436-40.

Finally, it was given by the inspiration of God to the Prophet first to
utter the most statesman-like word upon this vexed question of slavery,
and had the nation and people of the United States but given heed to
his recommendations it would have settled the question in harmony with
the convictions of the people of the North, and without injustice to
the South. Here follows his statesman-like word, published throughout
the United States in 1844--eleven years before Ralph Waldo Emerson made
substantially the same recommendation, and for which the philosopher
received no end of praise:--

"Petition, also, ye goodly inhabitants of the slave states, your
legislators to abolish slavery by the year 1850, or now, and save
the abolitionist from reproach and ruin, and infamy and shame. Pray
Congress to pay every man a reasonable price for his slaves out of the
surplus revenue arising from the sale of the public lands, and from the
deduction of pay from the members of Congress. Break off the shackles
from the poor black man, and hire him to labor like other human beings;
for an hour of virtuous liberty is worth a whole eternity of bondage."
[9]

But now to return to the course of the Missourians in misrepresenting
the views of the Saints on the subject of slavery. Notwithstanding
the explicit denials through the "_Evening and Morning Star_," that
the article on "Free People of Color" was intended to invite such a
class into the state; and the further declaration that the Saints were
opposed to such persons coming into the state; as also the fact that
it is {XXVII} doubtful if there were any free negroes who were members
of the Church--notwithstanding all this, their enemies continued to
misrepresent them, and their views on the subject of slavery. They saw
in the fact that many of them were from New England, where abolition
sentiment was rife, their opportunity to charge them with abolition
sentiments and intention to interfere with slavery, with every prospect
of having it quite generally believed--hence the charge was made and
became a pretext if not a cause of acts of aggression upon the Saints,
and as such is a factor that must be taken account of in these pages.

_Political Fears_.

I know of no circumstances which developed what the political faith of
the Saints really was during their sojourn in the state of Missouri;
and doubt if any data exists from which it could be determined whether
a majority of them were Whigs or Republican-Democrats, as the party now
designated as the Democratic party was then called. In fact, politics,
local or national, concerned the Saints but very little during their
stay in Missouri. Their minds were occupied by quite other, and I may
say, larger and higher things; and their activities were concerned
with other issues than those political. They were concerned about the
redemption of Zion, her establishment, the proclamation of the Gospel,
the salvation of men, the preparation of the earth for the incoming
of that Kingdom whose King is the Lord. Their mission encompassed the
whole world, it was not confined to the state of Missouri and her petty
political affairs; nor even to the political affairs of the United
States, important as they were. "Mormonism" was a world-movement, not
merely a national one. It concerned itself with the deeper and broader
subject of religion, rather than with the principles and methods of
the administration of government, state or national. Still, in common
with other people of the county, state and nation of which they were
citizens, they possessed civil and political rights and privileges,
accompanied as such rights and privileges always are in a republic
with certain duties both to the state and themselves, among which the
exercise of the elective franchise. As this made them a power in the
community, their actual and prospective influence in the affairs of the
counties where they resided, and in the state, was a matter of frequent
discussion among the old settlers in Missouri. I do not know that it
was ever charged that they were Whigs, and that by acting with that
party in Missouri they could wrest the control of the state from the
Republican-Democratic party then in power; though that they were Whigs
might have been inferred from the fact of their being chiefly from New
England and other northern states; yet this was not charged. {XXVIII}
There was repeatedly expressed, however, a fear of their political
power. In the document issued by the mob meeting at Independence on the
20th of July, 1833, it is said: "When we reflect on the extensive field
in which the sect is operating, and that there exists in every country
a leaven of superstition that embraces with avidity, notions the most
extravagant and unheard of, and that whatever can be gleaned by them
from the purlieus of vice and the abodes of ignorance, is to be cast
like a waif into our social circle, it requires no gift of prophecy to
tell that the day is not far distant when the civil government of the
county will be in their hands; when the sheriff, the justices, and the
county judges will be Mormons, or persons wishing to court their favor
from motives of interest or ambition."

It was an effort to prevent members of the Church from voting at an
election at Gallatin, Daviess county, in August, 1838, which led
to the commencement of those acts of hostility against the Saints
which ended ultimately in their expulsion from that state. There was
no political offense even charged against the Saints; only that if
permitted to exercise the franchise they would in time obtain control
of the counties where they resided, so rapidly were they increasing
in numbers; and the old settlers would lose the offices; and as these
old settlers were dear lovers of office, it was political jealousy
born of fear which prompted in part the acts of aggression against the
Saints. When such jealousy is awakened, pretexts for the justification
of its existence are not difficult to find, and in this instance the
old settlers in Missouri relied upon the false charges of ignorance,
superstition, and general unworthiness of the Saints to be considered
good citizens of the state. The charge was not that they were all of
one political faith; or that they voted solidly; or that they were
under the political dictation of their religious leaders; or that
religious influence was dragged into political affairs. None of these
charges were made: it was simply a fear that the old settlers would
lose the offices, and the new settlers, the Saints, being in the
majority, would hold them. How much justification there was for this
"fear" may not be determined, since it was based upon no accomplished
fact, but regarded as the natural outcome of the operation of the
political system obtaining in the United States; namely, the right of
the majority to choose the public officers; and if the Saints happened
to be in the majority it was regarded as likely that they would elect
their friends to office, among whom, at least, would have been some
members of their own faith. How the matter would have terminated in the
event of the Saints having been permitted to remain in Missouri--what
would have been the political alignment of {XXIX} the members of the
Church I mean, no one can say. The only political utterance made by any
Church leader was that given out by the Prophet Joseph soon after his
arrival in Missouri, and called at the time "_The Political Motto of
the Church_." I quote it:

"_The Constitution of our country formed by the Fathers of Liberty;
peace and good order in society; love to God, and good will to man.
All good and wholesome laws; virtue and truth above all things, and
Aristarchy_ [a government by good men] _live for ever: but woe to
tyrants, mobs, aristocracy, anarchy and toryism, and all those who
invent or seek out unrighteous or evasive law suits, under the pretext
and color of law or office, either religious or political. Exalt the
standard of Democracy! Down with that of priestcraft, and let all the
people say Amen! That the blood of the fathers may not cry from the
ground against us. Sacred is the memory of that blood which bought for
us our liberty_."

This surely is sufficiently non-partisan, cosmopolitan and patriotic.
Is it not of the essence of Americanism? And under such sentiments
would not every member of the Church be able to perform his political
duty in either of the great American parties then existing or
afterwards to arise?

It is not necessary to pursue this subject further. It is enough to say
that the political fears of the old settlers of Missouri, though based
upon conjecture as to what could or might happen, were real fears, and
became one of the causes of the Missouri persecutions.

_The Saints and the Indians_.

The interest of the Saints in the American Indians grows out of the
knowledge they have of their forefathers, revealed through the Book
of Mormon. From the historical parts of that book they learned the
origin of these Indians; that they are of the house of Israel: from
the prophetic parts of the book they learn of their future, that it
is to be glorious; that fallen as their fortunes now are, they will
not always remain so; extinction is not their fate, but before many
generations shall pass away they will become a white and a delightsome
people, favored of God, and prominent in bringing to pass His purposes
in the land of Zion--the two Americas. It was a mission to the
Lamanites or Indians which first brought several of the Elders of the
Church of Christ to western Missouri. When the people of Missouri
learned in what esteem the Saints held the forefathers of the Indians,
and also the Indians themselves, both on account of their forefathers
and the promises of God to them, it was but reasonable that they should
conclude there was--as indeed there is--a strong sympathy on the part
of the Saints towards the Indians; and there was great reason to
believe that this sympathy might become mutual.

{XXX} It was in this substratum of truth that the false accusations
against the Saints were founded to the effect that they were seeking
to enter into an alliance with the Indian tribes of the west for the
purpose of driving the old settlers from their possessions in western
Missouri, in order that the Saints with the Indians might possess the
land to the exclusion of the "Gentiles."

To appreciate the seriousness of this charge, it should be remembered
that the Indian tribes formerly residing east of the Mississippi,
about this time--during President Jackson's two presidential terms,
1829-1837--were being transplanted into the country immediately west of
Missouri, so that there were great numbers of these people--amounting
to many thousands--being massed just beyond the boundaries of the
state. Many of the tribes were in no amiable mood either. In some
instances the terms of the treaties by which they accepted lands in
the Indian territory west of Missouri, for lands that constituted
their old homes in the East and South, were forced upon them after--to
them--disastrous wars; so that it might well be suspected that they
would be ready to follow any leader who would hold out promise of
regaining their lost possessions, or who would give them the hope of
revenge upon their despoilers.

Let these facts be considered and given their due weight, and the
reader will not find it difficult to perceive what a potent factor
against the Saints this charge of holding communication with the
Indians for the purpose of dispossessing the people of western Missouri
of their homes would be; and, as in the case of the slavery question,
their enemies were not slow to see the advantage, and made the most
of it. It was not until the agitation for the removal of the Saints
from Clay county began, however, 1836, that this charge of holding
communication with the Indians for the purposes already set forth, was
publicly made. Then in the document adopted at the mass meeting setting
forth the several reasons of the old settlers for asking the Saints to
remove from Clay county, this passage occurs:

"In addition to all this, they are charged, as they have hitherto been,
with keeping up a constant communication with our Indian tribes on
the frontiers; with declaring, even from the pulpit, that the Indians
are a part of God's chosen people, and are destined by heaven to
inherit this land, in common with themselves. We do not vouch for the
correctness of these statements; but whether they are true or false,
their effect has been the same in exciting the community. In times of
greater tranquility, such ridiculous remarks might well be regarded as
the offspring of frenzied fanaticism; but at this time, our defenseless
situation on the frontier, the bloody disasters of our fellow citizens
in Florida and other parts of the South, all tend to make a portion of
our {XXXI} citizens regard such sentiments with horror, if not alarm.
These and many other causes have combined to raise a prejudice against
them, and a feeling of hostility, that the first spark may, and we
deeply fear will, ignite into all the horrors and desolations of a
civil war, the worst evil that can befall any country."

Governor Dunklin, shortly after this, in answer to appeals made to him
by the Saints for protection, by the execution of the law, on this
charge of holding communication with the Indians, said: "Your neighbors
accuse your people with holding illicit communication with the Indians,
and of being opposed to slavery. You deny. Whether the charge or the
denial is true, I cannot tell. The fact exists, and your neighbors seem
to believe it true; and whether true or false, the consequences will be
the same (if your opponents are not merely gasconnading), unless you
can, by your conduct and arguments, convince them of your innocence. If
you cannot do this, all I can say to you is that in this Republic the
_vox populi_ is the _vox Dei_."

Of course this false accusation was emphatically denied by the Saints.
In a public meeting held by the members of the Church to draw up a
reply to the request of the people of Clay county, that the Saints
remove from that county, they said: "We deny holding any communication
with the Indians, and mean to hold ourselves as ready to defend our
country against their barbarous ravages as any other people. We believe
that all men are bound to sustain and uphold the respective governments
in which they reside, while protected in their inherent and inalienable
rights by the laws of such governments; and that sedition and rebellion
are unbecoming every citizen thus protected, and should be punished
accordingly."

In a communication signed by the Prophet Joseph and several other
presiding officers of the Church, and addressed to the leading men of
Clay county, referring to the Indian charge, this was said: "Another
charge of great magnitude is brought against our friends in the west,
that of keeping up a constant communication with the Indian tribes on
the frontier; with declaring, even from the pulpit, that the Indians
are a part of God's chosen people, and are destined by heaven to
inherit this land, in common with themselves. We know of nothing under
the present aspect of our Indian relations calculated to arouse the
fears of the people of the Upper Missouri more than a combination of
influences of this nature; and we cannot look upon it as being other
than one of the most subtle purposes of those whose feelings are
embittered against our friends, to turn the eye of suspicion upon them
from every man who is acquainted with the barbarous cruelty of rude
savages. Since a rumor was afloat that the western Indians were showing
signs of war, we have received frequent private {XXXII} letters from
our friends, who have not only expressed fears for their own safety, in
case the Indians should break out, but a decided determination to be
among the first to repel any invasion and defend the frontier from all
hostilities. We mention the last fact because it was wholly uncalled
for on our part, and came previous to any excitement on the part of the
people of Clay county against our friends, and must definitely show
that this charge is untrue."

But all these denials went for nothing. As remarked by Governor
Dunklin, whether the denial or the charge was true, people at a
distance, at least, might not tell; quite generally, however,
the charge was believed, and helped to swell the volume of
prejudice--already too great--against the Saints. Indeed, so potent
a factor was this charge of holding illicit communication with the
Indians, in arousing prejudice against the Saints, that it was used
against them with great effect after their settlement in Utah. It was
one of the charges made against them at the time the general government
of the United States was induced by their enemies to send out an army
to suppress a rebellion in Utah that had no existence except in the
hate-frenzied minds of the detractors of the Saints.

"It is charged," said Stephen A. Douglas in a speech at Springfield,
Illinois, on the 12th of June, 1857 [10]--"It is charged * * * * that
the Mormon government, with Brigham Young at its head, is now forming
alliances with Indian tribes in Utah and adjoining territories,
stimulating the Indians to acts of hostility, and organizing bands of
his own followers, under the name of Danites or destroying angels, to
prosecute a system of robbery and murders upon American citizens who
support the authority of the United States, and denounce the infamous
and disgusting practices and institutions of the Mormon government."

The army came only to find the foregoing with other charges that had
induced the general government to send it to Utah, untrue. But this is
digression.

Mormon communication with the American Indians for the purpose of
despoiling the Gentiles and taking possession of their lands can never
be set down as one of the causes of the Missouri persecution; for such
communication never took place--the charge of it was untrue. It was,
however, one of a number of pretexts, and became a factor in creating
public prejudice, which alone made possible the expulsion of the Saints
from Missouri.

_The Unwisdom of the Saints_.

I come now to one of the most delicate subdivisions of this {XXXIII}
Introduction; namely, the unwisdom of the Saints. To appreciate this
as a factor in the Missouri persecutions one needs to take into
account not only human nature, but also human nature under the stress
of religious impulse and influence. First, however, as to the facts
involved.

To the Saints of those times had been given a dispensation of the
Gospel--a new revelation of it. They had been blessed with the spirit
of faith to receive it. To them it was made known that God had again
spoken from heaven; He had again conferred divine authority upon men
to act in His name--many of the brethren, the majority of the male
membership of the Church in fact, held that divine authority, the
priesthood of God; the terms of man's salvation were restated; the
spiritual powers and gifts of the Gospel were guaranteed anew and
plenteously enjoyed by the Saints. To them was made known the truth of
a new volume of scripture, the Book of Mormon. The knowledge imparted
by that book was in itself, and especially to them, wonderful. From it
they learned that the ancient inhabitants of the American continents,
the ruins of whose civilization challenged the curiosity of men and
excited their wonder, were of the house of Israel; the American Indians
were their fallen descendants and, of course, also of the house of
Israel and heirs to the general promises made to that people, to say
nothing of special promises made to them as direct descendants of the
house of the patriarch Joseph, son of Jacob. Messiah in his resurrected
and glorified state had visited America and its inhabitants shortly
after His resurrection at Jerusalem, and established the Christian
institution,--a Christian ministry, and a Christian Church, followed
by a veritable golden age of peace, prosperity, and righteousness; and
although the descendants of that ancient God-favored people were now
fallen from the high estate of their fathers, yet were the promises and
prophecies great concerning them. God would again visit them by His
grace, they should be redeemed from their ignorance and barbarism, and
they should yet be important factors in establishing a "New Jerusalem,"
the Zion of God on this land of America, given to the descendants of
the ancient patriarch Joseph, whose descendants principally the Indians
are. The Saints had been even so far favored as to have the place for
the chief city of refuge and safety pointed out to them by revelation;
as also the site of its temple--Independence, Missouri; and they were
required by the commandments of God to bear witness to the world of
these things. In view of all this--the fact that they were made at
once the depository and witnesses of these great revelations, is it
not likely that they would regard themselves as a people peculiarly
favored of God? And is it matter of astonishment if some among them,
not possessed of the soundest judgment, should run into an excess of
zeal and give expression to unwise, as also to unwarranted conclusions?

{XXXIV} Moreover, the Lord had spoken of the future glory of Zion--of
the city, the location of which the Elders were to testify; also of the
glory of the temple, with its future cloud by day and pillar of fire by
night; of the future union of this New-World Zion with the ancient Zion
of Enoch, where the Lord will make His abode, "and for the space of a
thousand years shall the earth rest;" [11] also of his covenant with
them concerning Zion, both as pertaining to time and eternity, wherein
He said: "I have made the earth rich; and behold it is my footstool,
wherefore, again I will stand upon it; and I hold forth, and deign to
give unto you greater riches, even a land of promise, a land flowing
with milk and honey, upon which there shall be no curse when the Lord
cometh: and I will give it unto you for the land of your inheritance,
if you seek it with all your hearts. And this shall be my covenant with
you, you shall have it for the land of your inheritance, and for the
inheritance of your children forever, while the earth shall stand, and
you shall possess it again in eternity, no more to pass away." [12]

The Lord said again concerning Zion: "Wherefore I, the Lord, have said,
gather ye out from the eastern lands, assemble yourselves together ye
elders of my Church; go ye forth into the western countries, call upon
the inhabitants to repent, and inasmuch as they do repent, build up
churches unto me; and with one heart and with one mind, gather up your
riches that ye may purchase an inheritance which shall hereafter be
appointed unto you, and it shall be called the New Jerusalem, a land of
peace, a city of refuge, a place of safety for the Saints of the Most
High God; and the glory of the Lord shall be there, insomuch that the
wicked will not come unto it, and it shall be called Zion. And it shall
come to pass, among the wicked, that every man that will not take his
sword against his neighbor, must needs flee unto Zion for safety. And
there shall be gathered unto it out of every nation under heaven; and
it shall be the only people that shall not be at war one with another.
And it shall be said among the wicked, Let us not go up to battle
against Zion, for the inhabitants of Zion are terrible; wherefore we
cannot stand." [13]

These promises to the Saints respecting Zion; these descriptions given
to them of her future sanctified and glorified state; their connection
with a work so exalted and far-reaching, was apt to fire their minds
with a zeal not always tempered with wisdom. It was in vain that
limitations of time and conditions were placed upon these general
descriptions of the future greatness and glory of the city of God; nor
could they understand that their own relationship to these great things
{XXXV} was merely to lay the foundation of them, to locate the site of
the future city and temple, and then bear witness of it to the world.
Yet that their work in connection with the founding of Zion was chiefly
this, is clearly to be seen in the revelations of God to them.

The immediate and triumphant establishment of Zion, though expected by
many of the Saints, was nowhere contemplated in the revelations of God
to the Church. That hope of immediate establishment and glorification
of Zion was the result of faulty deductions from the revelations of
God; but the Lord was not blind respecting the events about to take
place on the land of Zion, nor did He hold out any false hope to His
people had they but read His revelations aright. A few days before the
first conference held by the Elders on the land of Zion, the Lord said
to them through His Prophet:

"Hearken, O ye elders of my Church, and give ear to my word, and learn
of me what I will concerning you, and also concerning this land unto
which I have sent you: For verily I say unto you, blessed is he that
keepeth my commandments, whether in life or in death; and he that is
faithful in tribulation, the reward of the same is greater in the
kingdom of heaven. Ye cannot behold with your natural eyes, for the
present time, the design of your God concerning those things which
shall come hereafter, and the glory which shall follow _after much
tribulation. For after much tribulation comes the blessings_. Wherefore
the day Cometh that ye shall be crowned with much glory; the hour is
not yet, but is nigh at hand. Remember this, which I tell you before,
that you may lay it to heart, and receive that which shall follow.
Behold, verily I say unto you, for this cause I have sent you that
you might be obedient, and that your hearts might be prepared to bear
testimony of the things which are to come; and also that you might be
honored of laying the foundation, and of bearing record of the land
upon which the Zion of God shall stand; * * * * and that the testimony
might go forth from Zion, yea, from the mouth of the city of the
heritage of God. * * * * And now, verily, I say, concerning the residue
of the elders of my Church, _the time has not yet come, for many
years_, for them to receive their inheritance in this land, except they
desire it through the prayer of faith, only as it shall be appointed
unto them of the Lord. For, behold, they shall push the people together
from the ends of the earth." [14]

These statements, when rightly considered, dispel all notion of
the immediate establishment of Zion. The Lord distinctly warns His
servants against any such supposition. He predicts "tribulation" before
the glory shall come. It is only after "much tribulation" that the
blessings are {XXXVI} promised. He reminds them that He has "told them
before" of this, and asks them "to lay it to heart," and gives them to
understand that it will be "_many years_" before some of the Elders of
His Church will receive their inheritance in the goodly land.

The Lord still further foreshadowed the trouble which afterwards
overtook His people by urging them to make arrangements for the
purchase of the whole region that had been designated as the center
place of Zion. "For, behold, verily I say unto you, the Lord willeth
that the disciples, and the children of men should open their hearts,
even to purchase this whole region of country, as soon as time will
permit. Behold, here is wisdom. Let them do this lest they receive none
inheritance, save it be by the shedding of blood." [15]

In this same month of August the Lord again said: "Behold, the land
of Zion, I, the Lord, hold it in mine own hands; nevertheless, I, the
Lord, render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's: wherefore, I,
the Lord, will that you should purchase the lands that you may have
advantage of the world, that you may have claim on the world, that
they may not be stirred up unto anger; for Satan putteth it into their
hearts to anger against you, and to the shedding of blood; wherefore
the land of Zion shall not be obtained but by purchase or by blood,
otherwise there is none inheritance for you. And if by purchase behold
you are blessed; and if by blood, _as you are forbidden to shed blood,
lo, your enemies are upon you, and ye shall be scourged from city to
city, and from synagogue to synagogue, and but few shall stand to
receive an inheritance_." [16]

About a month after this word, the Lord said: "Behold the Lord
requireth the heart and a willing mind; and the willing and obedient
shall eat the good of the land of Zion in these last days; and the
rebellious shall be cut off out of the land of Zion, and shall be sent
away, and shall not inherit the land; for, verily, I say that the
rebellious are not of the blood of Ephraim, wherefore they shall be
plucked out." [17]

All this makes it very clear that while great things were promised
concerning the establishment of Zion and the glory that is to be hers,
yet all was predicated upon the faithfulness of the Saints in keeping
the commandments of the Lord--in purchasing the lands that constituted
the center place of Zion, and living upon them in all righteousness.

This they failed to do. In a revelation given in November, 1831, a
few months after the land had been dedicated unto the Lord for the
gathering of His people, He thus complained of those who had assembled
in western Missouri:

{XXXVII} "And the inhabitants of Zion shall also observe the Sabbath
day to keep it holy. And the inhabitants of Zion also shall remember
their labors, inasmuch as they are appointed to labor, in all
faithfulness; for the idler shall be had in remembrance before the
Lord. Now, I, the Lord, am not well pleased with the inhabitants of
Zion, for there are idlers among them; and their children are also
growing up in wickedness; they also seek not earnestly the riches of
eternity, but their eyes are full of greediness. These things ought
not to be, and must be done away from among them: wherefore let my
servant, Oliver Cowdery carry these sayings unto the land of Zion. And
a commandment I give unto them, that he that observeth not his prayers
before the Lord in the season thereof, let him be had in remembrance
before the judge of my people. These sayings are true and faithful;
wherefore transgress them not, neither take therefrom." [18]

In addition to these evils there were jealousies and bickerings among
some of the brethren in Zion, and also between some of the Elders in
Zion, and leading Elders in Kirtland. In the spring of 1832 the Prophet
visited the Saints in Jackson county, and there were reconciliations
among the brethren, and forgiveness of sins obtained from the Lord;
[19] but shortly after the Prophet's departure for Kirtland these ill
feelings broke out again with renewed bitterness; carelessness as
to keeping the commandments of God characterized the conduct of the
Saints in Zion, and there arose some confusion also in the government
of the Church there, owing to conflicting claims of authority between
traveling Elders and the standing ministry in the branches of the
Church. This led to the following reproof from the Lord in a revelation
given on the 22nd and 23rd of September, 1832:

"And your minds in times past have been darkened because of unbelief,
and because you have treated lightly the things you have received,
which vanity and unbelief hath brought the whole Church under
condemnation. And this condemnation resteth upon the children of Zion,
even all: and they shall remain under this condemnation until they
repent and remember the new covenant, even the Book of Mormon, and the
former commandments which I have given them, [20] not only to say, but
to do according to that which I have written, that they may bring forth
fruit meet for their Father's kingdom, _otherwise there remaineth a
scourge and a judgment to be poured out upon the children of Zion_: for
shall the children of the kingdom pollute my holy land? Verily, I say
unto you, Nay." [21]

When this revelation, given early in January, 1833, was sent to the
Elders in Zion, it was accompanied also by a letter from the Prophet
sharply reproving the brethren and Saints in Zion, in which the
following passage occurs:

"Let me say unto you, seek to purify yourselves, and also the
inhabitants of Zion, lest the Lord's anger be kindled to fierceness.
_Repent repent, it is the voice of God to Zion_; and strange as it may
appear, yet it is true, mankind will persist in self-justification
until all their iniquity is exposed, and their character past being
redeemed, and that which is treasured up in their hearts be exposed
to the gaze of mankind. I say to you (and what I say to you, I say to
all), hear the warning voice of God, _lest Zion fall, and the Lord
swear in His wrath, 'The inhabitants of Zion shall not enter into my
rest_.'" [22]

Hyrum Smith and Orson Hyde were appointed by a Council of the High
Priests in Kirtland at this time, to write a letter of reproof and
warning to the brethren in Zion. In this communication the conduct of
the Saints in Zion was reviewed in great plainness. The whole spirit of
the communication may be judged by the following paragraph:

"We feel more like weeping over Zion than rejoicing over her, _for we
know that the judgments of God hang over her, and will fall upon her
except she repent_, and purify herself before the Lord, and put away
from her every foul spirit. We now say to Zion, this once, in the
name of the Lord, Repent! repent! awake! awake! put on thy beautiful
garments, before you are made to feel the chastening rod of Him whose
anger is kindled against you. Let not Satan tempt you to think we want
to make you bow to us, to domineer over you, for God knows this is not
the case; our eyes are watered with tears, and our hearts are poured
out to God in prayer for you, that He will spare you, and turn away His
anger from you. * * * Therefore, with the feelings of inexpressible
anxiety for your welfare, we say again Repent, repent, _or Zion must
suffer, for the scourge and judgment must come upon her_." [23]

All this reproof and warning, however, only produced a partial
repentance, and in July following acts of violence began to be
perpetrated upon the Saints by the old settlers of Missouri, and in the
month of November, under circumstances of great cruelty, all the Saints
were driven from Jackson county, and later more than two hundred of
their homes, together with their public improvements, were destroyed.

When the Lord revealed to the Prophet Joseph why this affliction had
befallen the people, He said: "Verily I say unto you concerning your
{XXXIX} brethren who have been afflicted, and persecuted, and cast
out from the land of their inheritance, I, the Lord, have suffered
the affliction to come upon them wherewith they have been afflicted,
in consequence of their transgressions; yet I will own them, and they
shall be mine in that day when I shall come to make up my jewels.
Therefore, they must needs be chastened and tried, even as Abraham,
who was commanded to offer up his only son; for all those who will
not endure chastening, but deny me, cannot be sanctified. Behold, I
say unto you, there were jarrings, and contentions, and envyings,
and strifes and lustful and covetous desires among them; therefore,
by these things they polluted their inheritances. They were slow to
hearken unto the voice of the Lord their God, therefore the Lord their
God is slow to hearken unto their prayers, to answer them in the day
of their trouble. In the day of their peace they esteemed lightly my
counsel; but in the day of their trouble, of necessity they feel after
me. Verily I say unto you, notwithstanding their sins my bowels are
filled with compassion towards them; I will not utterly cast them off;
and in the day of wrath I will remember mercy." [24]

From this it is very clear that the reason why the Saints were
prevailed against by their enemies and driven from the center place of
Zion, was because of their failure to live up to the high requirements
made of them by the Lord. In subsequent efforts to redeem Zion, by
attempting to return the exiles to Jackson county, the Saints in all
parts of the land again failed to respond with sufficient promptness
and fulness to the requirements of the Lord, for He commanded them
again to consecrate money to purchase lands in Jackson county and in
the counties round about, saying to the Church: "There is even now
already in store a sufficient, yea even abundance, to redeem Zion,
and establish her waste places, no more to be thrown down, were the
churches who call themselves after my name willing to hearken to my
voice." [25]

The Lord also commanded them to gather up their forces and to go in
sufficient strength to possess the land, and maintain their inheritance
against their enemies. This, however, they failed to do. Instead of
raising five hundred men, as they were commanded to do, [26] they
started from Kirtland in "Zion's Camp" with a company of only about
one hundred and thirty men, and twenty baggage wagons. This number
was increased by additions _en route_ to one hundred and eighty-two
men, but even this number fell far short of the strength required to
accomplish the purpose for which the camp was organized. In the matter
of {XL} raising money for the purchase of lands the failure was more
conspicuous than in raising men to take possession of them, and hence
this effort to redeem Zion failed.

Here let me pause in pointing out the unwisdom of the Saints, to make
an explanation, lest there should be a misunderstanding of what is thus
far set down respecting their transgressions, by reason of which they
were prevailed against by their enemies. These transgressions, be it
understood, were no violations of the laws of the land, nor did they
consist in any acts of aggression or of trespass upon their Missouri
neighbors. The old settlers of Missouri themselves are our witnesses
here; for in all their procedure in this Jackson county persecution
there is no accusation made against the Saints of violations of the
law. On the contrary, in their public utterances against the Saints and
in justification of their own course, the old settlers declare--after
expressing their determination to rid their society of the Saints,
peacefully if they could, but forcibly if they must--"_that the arm of
the civil law does not afford us a guarantee, or at least a sufficient
one, against the evils which are now inflicted upon us, and seem to
be increasing by the said religious sect_." [27] A more emphatic
acknowledgement that the alleged offenses of the Saints were not
cognizable by the laws, that the Saints had not violated the laws of
the land, could not be made.

In their second manifesto the mob said: "_The evil is one that no one
could have foreseen, and is therefore unprovided for by the laws;
and the delays incident to legislation would put the mischief beyond
remedy_." [28] Another admission that amounts to a declaration, that
the Saints, whatever the nature of the complaints made against them
were, had not violated any of the laws of the state, that their
offending was not cognizable by the laws of the land.

The transgressions and sinfulness referred to in the revelations and
letters of reproof and warning quoted, and for which transgressions
the Saints were left in the hands of their enemies, were sins against
each other and the Lord--unbelief in the word of God, hardness of heart
towards each other, rejection of the servants of God, fault-finding,
bickerings, jealousies, covetousness, pride, idleness, boastfulness,
levity of thought and conduct, disregard of the scriptures, especially
of the Book of Mormon, neglecting to instruct their children in sacred
things and to bring them up in the fear and admonition of the Lord; all
of which were displeasing to the Lord, contrary to His commandments,
and a violation of the conditions upon which He had promised to redeem
Zion and preserve His people from their enemies. "Ye call {XLI} upon my
name for revelations;" said the Lord to the Elders in Zion, "and I give
them unto you; and inasmuch as ye keep not my sayings, which I give
unto you, ye become transgressors, and justice and judgment are the
penalty which is affixed to my law. * * * I, the Lord, am bound when ye
do what I say; but when ye do not what I say, ye have no promise." [29]

This, then, was the nature of their offenses; they sinned against
the Lord in the particulars named; they sinned against each other in
the manner described; they did not trespass against their non-Mormon
neighbors, nor break the laws of the land; but they failed to live
in accordance with the high moral and spiritual law of the Gospel;
they failed to meet the conditions on which God was pledged to their
maintenance upon the land of Zion, and hence were left in the hands of
their enemies.

At the commencement of this subdivision of the Introduction I called
attention to the great things which God had revealed to the Saints, the
greatness of the dispensation committed unto them, accompanied by the
promise to establish Zion and give unto the Saints the land thereof
as an everlasting inheritance. It would be marvelous indeed, and past
all human experience, if these great things did not turn the heads of
some of the weak-minded, and make them vain-glorious and boastful. I
doubt not for a moment that many vain and foolish things were said by
such characters in the presence of, and perhaps directly to, the old
settlers of Jackson county, about the Saints taking possession of the
land, and the wicked being driven away. There was doubtless enough of
this kind of talk to give color to what the Missourians charged on this
head, viz., "They [the Saints] declare openly that their God hath given
them this county of land, and that sooner or later they must and will
take possession of our lands for an inheritance."

The Missourians made much of, and attached a sinister meaning to
the following expression in one of the revelations to the Saints:
"_The land of Zion shall not be obtained but by purchase or by
blood, otherwise there is none inheritance for you_." [30] This the
Missourians pretended to regard as a threat to take possession of
their land by armed conquest. Had they read the context of the passage
they would have known how entirely groundless were their fears, if
indeed they had any fears, for I am convinced that all their expressed
apprehensions on this head were mere pretense. The passage and its
context are: "Wherefore the land of Zion shall not be obtained but by
purchase or by blood, otherwise there is none inheritance for you. _And
if by purchase, behold you {XLII} are blessed; and if by blood, as you
are forbidden to shed blood, lo, your enemies are upon you, and ye
shall be scourged from city to city, and from synagogue to synagogue
and but few shall stand to receive an inheritance_." [31]

Clearly this is a warning to the Saints, not a threat to the
Missourians. If the Saints obtained the land by purchase they were
blessed. If by blood--since the Saints were forbidden to shed blood,
lo their enemies would be upon them and they would be driven from
city to city--not the Missourians, but the Saints. In consequence of
the agitation of this matter by the foolish, the following passage
occurred in _The Evening and Morning Star_ for July, 1833, addressed
to the churches scattered abroad: "To suppose that we can come up here
and take possession of this land by the shedding of blood, would be
setting at nought the law of the glorious Gospel, and also the word
of our great Redeemer. And to suppose that we can take possession of
this country without making regular purchases of the same according to
the laws of our nation, would be reproaching this great Republic, in
which the most of us were born, and under whose auspices we all have
protection." [32]

Of this the Missourians said that whether they were to be dispossessed
of their lands "by the hand of the destroying angel, the judgments of
God, or the arm of power, they [the Saints] are not fully agreed among
themselves. Some recent remarks in the _Evening and Morning Star_,
their organ in this place, by their tendency to moderate such hopes,
and repress such desires, show plainly that many of this deluded and
infatuated people have been taught to believe that our lands were to be
won from us by the sword!" [33]

Thus the very efforts of the Church to correct the misconceptions and
silence the utterances of the over-zealous and foolish members, were
made to contribute as proof that the Saints contemplated the very armed
conquest of the land which they disclaimed. History, however, will do
the Saints justice, and it will say, and now says, that neither their
general principles, nor the special commandments under which they
moved into the land of Zion, nor any act of theirs warranted the least
suspicion that they at any time contemplated taking possession of the
land by force, or in any other manner whatsoever except by purchase
and possession under the laws of the state of Missouri and the United
States. And while history will do them this justice it will at the
same time say that the "fears" of the Missourians on this head were
simulated; that to the foolish boasts of a few ignorant persons they
attached an undue importance because it happened to give a coloring to
their pretended fears in the eyes of those at a distance who had no
{XLIII} opportunity to learn the truth, and tended to prejudice the
public mind against the Saints, and thus served the purpose of their
enemies.

In like manner there may have been some talk among the same class of
people--the ignorant and over-zealous Church members--respecting the
Indians, and their future union with the Saints in redeeming the land
of Zion; a circumstance which led the good people of Clay county and
Governor Dunklin, to refer to the charge of the Saints holding illicit
communication with the Indians, designing to employ them in taking
possession of the land of Zion. Of this charge also history will and
does vindicate the Saints. It will, and does say, that they disclaimed
holding any such communication; that neither their general principles
nor any special commandment from God, and particularly that no action
of theirs warranted any suspicion on the subject, much less justified
the charge of such a diabolical purpose.

After the Saints withdrew from Clay county and at the suggestion
of her citizens--including some of the most influential men in
western Missouri, some of whom afterwards attained national
reputations--located in the sparsely settled counties of Caldwell and
Daviess, the situation became somewhat changed. For two years the work
of purchasing lands, locating settlements, opening farms, establishing
merchantile houses, and preparing for manufacturing and commercial
enterprises went steadily on. In Caldwell and adjoining counties, by
the autumn of 1838, the Saints had opened two thousand farms, and paid
to the general government three hundred and eighteen thousand dollars
for land, which at the minimum price for government land would give
them over two hundred and fifty thousand acres. [34] One hundred and
fifty houses had been erected in Far West; there were four dry goods
stores, three family groceries, half a dozen blacksmith's shops, and
two hotels. [35] The excavation for a temple 120 by 80 feet had been
made, and a large commodious schoolhouse had been erected on the public
square. [36] The town of Adam-Ondi-Ahman was also making rapid progress.

{XLIV} By this time the Prophet Joseph and other leading men of the
Church had left Kirtland and located with the Saints in Missouri,
and everything looked propitious for the permanent establishment of
the Saints in the borders of Zion. The Saints had now been driven
bodily from Jackson county; and their homes, store houses and printing
establishment had been destroyed. The courts of Missouri had proven
powerless to restore to them their homes, their lands and other
property. The executive of the state confessed himself powerless to
return them to their possessions in Jackson county, and maintain
them there against the wishes of the people of that county. Indeed,
Governor Dunklin had weakly given up the vindication of the outraged
laws of the state, as we have seen, saying that whether the charges
of their enemies or the denials by the Saints were true he could not
tell; their neighbors seemed to believe them true, and whether true or
false the consequences would be the same, unless the Saints by their
conduct and argument could convince the Missourians of their innocence.
"If you cannot do this," said the governor, "all I can say to you is
that in this Republic the _vox populi is the vox Dei_!" The Saints
at some considerable sacrifice had withdrawn from Clay county at the
request of her citizens, in the interests of peace, and had settled
in the new counties of Caldwell and Daviess, where settlers were few
and the country less desirable than in Jackson and Clay counties. In
doing these things they had repeatedly sacrificed their rights as
citizens, both of Missouri and of the United States. Smitten on the one
cheek--speaking figuratively--they had turned the other; sued at the
law for their coat, they had given their cloak also; compelled to go
one mile with their enemy, they had gone with him twain. After doing
all this for the sake of peace and the friendship of the Missourians,
when the Saints saw forming again those elements which threatened their
peace; when old enemies appeared upon the new scene of the Saints'
activities, and openly threatened their peace and boasted that they
would again prosper by despoiling them of their new possessions; when
they saw the red right hand of a relentless persecution arming again to
plague them, it is small wonder if righteous anger flushed their cheek,
made bright their eyes with indignation and led them instinctively to
form the resolution that they would submit no more to such acts of
despoliation, injustice and outrage.

It was this sense of outraged justice and humanity which led to the
deliverance of a very noted "Oration" by Sidney Rigdon at Far West, on
the Fourth of July, 1838, in the course of which there was expressed
a strong determination to no more submit quietly to mob violence, and
acts of pillage. At this distance of time from that occasion, and
balancing against the heated utterances of the speaker the subsequent
uses made of them to incite the public mind to that series of acts
which {XLV} culminated in the expulsion of the Saints from the state,
we say those utterances were untimely, extreme, and unwise. So indeed
they were. The speaker seems to have thrown discretion to the winds,
and in the fervor of his rhetoric made threats of retaliation on behalf
of the Saints, if assailed, that went beyond all bounds of reason and
humanity, and proved a very damaging as also a very potent factor
against the Saints in the subsequent movements of their enemies against
them.

But while this oratorical outburst against injustice was unwise, it
was a very natural thing. The marvel is not that it came at the time
it did, but that it did not come earlier, more vehemently, and that
some of the things it threatened were not effectively carried out.
What the Prophet thought, and how he felt respecting the repeated acts
of injustice heaped upon himself and the Saints in Missouri; how he
felt and what he proposed for the future is made clear in his journal
entry for September 1st, 1838; and, fortunately, is more temperately
expressed than in the oration of July the fourth. He said:

"There is great excitement at present among the Missourians, who are
seeking if possible an occasion against us. They are continually
chafing us, and provoking us to anger if possible, one sign of
threatening after another, but we do not fear them, for the Lord God,
the Eternal Father is our God, and Jesus the Mediator is our Savior,
and in the great I Am is our strength and confidence.

"We have been driven time after time, and that without cause; and
smitten again and again, and that without provocation; until we have
proved the world with kindness, and the world has proved us, that we
have no designs against any man or set of men, that we injure no man,
that we are peaceable with all men, minding our own business, and our
business only. We have suffered our rights and our liberties to be
taken from us; we have not avenged ourselves of those wrongs; we have
appealed to magistrates, to sheriffs, to judges, to government and to
the President of the United States, all in vain; yet we have yielded
peaceably to all these things. We have not complained at the great God,
we murmured not, but peaceably left all, and retired into the back
country, in the broad and wild prairies, in the barren and desolate
plains, and there commenced anew; we made the desolate places to bud
and blossom as the rose; and now the fiend-like race is disposed to
give us no rest. Their father the devil, is hourly calling upon them
to be up and doing, and they, like willing and obedient children, need
not the second admonition; but in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son
of the living God, we will endure it no longer, if the great God will
arm us with courage, with strength and with power, to resist them in
their persecutions. We will not act on the offensive, but always on the
defensive; our rights and our liberties shall not be taken from us, and
we {XLVI} peaceably submit to it as we have done heretofore, but we
will avenge ourselves of our enemies, inasmuch as they will not let us
alone."

No one can marvel at the conclusion here arrived at if he will but pay
attention to and give due weight to the enumerated wrongs which precede
it. It would be asking the Saints to be more than human if we say they
ought not to have indulged, much less to have expressed, such feelings
of resentment.

Meantime, however, we may not close our eyes to the fact that there
was unwisdom manifested on the part of a few of the Saints, which gave
advantage to their enemies, by affording pretexts for some of their
accusations. That unwisdom, as we have seen, consisted of boasting
as to what the Lord would do in the immediate future in giving them
possession of western Missouri as an inheritance; perhaps some unwise
allusions to the supposed part the Lamanites would take in the
establishment and redemption of Zion; and the vehement threats of
retaliation in the event of their being further assailed. These unwise
utterances, however, were made, for the most part, by the overzealous
and ignorant. Men who had no grasp of the real genius of the great
work whose foundations were then being laid; men who, in common with
men of like nature in all ages and in all great movements, have been
trouble-breeders; who, in their contemplation of ultimate results
to be achieved, overleaped the intervening space through which the
movement must pass, the difficulties it must encounter and overcome,
the experiences its adherents must gain, the great and varied labors
they must perform. They seem not to understand that great movements
require time for the achievement of their ends; that time with God is
one thing, with man quite another thing; that the thing which is "nigh
at hand" with the Lord may be to men afar off; and overlooking these
important facts leads such men into many errors of thought and action.
It was wholly reprehensible, unwarranted, and cowardly, however, on the
part of the Missourians to take advantage of the unwise utterances of
such characters and charge their sentiments and folly to the whole body
religious, that never entertained such sentiments nor contemplated the
actions such sentiments suggest. And this is to be said even of those
who were unwise enough to give the advantage here noted to the enemies
of the Saints, they at no time or place were ever guilty of attempting
in any manner to carry into effect by any action of their own the
unwise and unwarranted opinions they entertained and expressed. Their
boastings and vain speculations were in relation to what the Lord was
going to do, not what they themselves purposed doing. These utterances
were merely the effervescence of overwrought minds, of overzealous,
foolish, but well meaning and harmless people. Unhappily, however,
what they said gave the enemy an advantage that he was not slow to
avail {XLVII} himself of, and the unwisdom of some of the Saints is a
factor that must be reckoned with in dealing with the causes of the
persecutions of the Saints in Missouri.

_The Real Cause of the Missouri Persecutions_.

Having considered those facts and circumstances which may be regarded
as the minor causes and pretexts of the Missouri persecutions, let
us now come to the heart of the matter, to the real cause of the
persecution of the Saints.

It was against the Saints as a religious sect that the Missourians
first complained. It was "in consequence of a pretended religious
sect of people" that had settled, and was still settling in their
country, "styling themselves Mormons," that led the Missourians of
Jackson county to pretend to believe that an important crisis regarding
their civil society was at hand. "It is more than two years," they
said, "since the first of these fanatics, or knaves (for one or other
they undoubtedly are), made their first appearance amongst us, and
pretended as they did, and do now, to hold personal communication and
converse face to face with the Most High; to receive communications and
revelations direct from heaven; to heal the sick by laying on hands;
and, in short, to perform all the wonder-working miracles wrought by
the inspired apostles and prophets of old. We believed them deluded
fanatics, or weak and designing knaves, and that they and their
pretensions would soon pass away; but in this we were deceived. * * *
They openly blaspheme the Most High God, and cast contempt on His holy
religion, by pretending to receive revelations direct from heaven,
by pretending to speak unknown tongues by direct inspiration, and by
divers pretenses derogatory to God and religion, and to the utter
subversion of human reason." [37]

The foregoing is quoted from the first "Manifesto," or "Secret
Constitution" of the mob. Somewhat later, in a second manifesto issued
to the public in justification of their contemplated acts of violence
against the Saints, they say: "What would be the fate of our lives
and property, in the hands of jurors and witnesses, who do not blush
to declare, and would not upon occasion hesitate to swear, that they
have wrought miracles, and have been the subjects of miraculous and
supernatural cures, have conversed with God and His angels, and possess
and exercise the gifts of divination and of unknown tongues, and fired
with the prospect of obtaining inheritances without money and without
price--may be better imagined than described. * * * Of their pretended
revelations from heaven--their personal intercourse {XLVIII} with God
and His angels--the maladies they pretend to heal by the laying on
of hands--and the contemptible gibberish with which they habitually
profane the Sabbath, and which they dignify with the appellation of
unknown tongues, we have nothing to say: vengeance belongs to God
alone." [38]

Yet it was because the Saints entertained these religious beliefs
that the mob of Jackson county issuing this "manifesto," proceeded
to take "vengeance" into their own hands, and wreak it upon the
Saints. All their other accusations against them,--namely, idleness,
ignorance, inviting "free negroes" into the state, inciting the slaves
to insubordination to their masters, claiming Jackson county as their
inheritance to be obtained by force if not bloodshed, and poverty--all
these charges, except, perhaps the last (for some of the Saints were
very poor, though I have yet to learn that that is a crime), were
absolutely untrue. The Saints, however, did claim the existence of
spiritual power in their religion; that the channel of communication
between God and men by means of revelation, the visitation of angels,
and the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, had been opened anew; that
gifts of the Gospel--tongues, interpretations, visions, inspired
dreams, healings--that all the spiritual powers and graces of the
Gospel, in fact, were manifested in the religion they had accepted. By
this religion, also, they were admonished to righteousness of life;
to the strict observance of the Sabbath; to respect for the name of
Deity; to temperance; to industry; to true speaking and true acting;
to patience--in a word, to godliness; all of which but to live was to
place themselves in marked contrast to those about them, and their
righteous lives were a great rebuke to the general dissolute conduct of
the Missourians. It was this effort at a godly walk and conversation,
and the religion which commanded it, that was offensive in the eyes of
the Missourians, and which led them to form their strong determination
to be rid of a people and a religion which made their own lives a
reproach.

That this was regarded as the chief, if not the sole cause of their
persecution, appears in the subsequent discussion of the Jackson county
difficulties, both _pro et con_. All other questions, all the minor
causes and pretexts were lost sight of in that discussion. Governor
Dunklin, in a communication to Colonel J. Thornton, in answer to a
letter written by that gentleman proposing a compromise between the
Saints and their enemies in Jackson county, recognizes what he calls
"the eccentricity of the religious opinions of the Mormons" as being
the cause of their persecution. "I am fully persuaded," he remarks,
"that the eccentricity of the religious opinions and practices of the
Mormons is at the bottom of the outrages committed against them."

{XLIX} In this important communication he no where considers anything
else as the cause of their persecution, but argues at length in favor
of their right to the entertainment of their religious views, eccentric
howsoever they might be, so long as they did not interfere with the
rights of others. "They have the right constitutionally guaranteed to
them," he remarks, "and it is indefeasible, to worship Joe Smith as a
man, an angel, or even as the only true and living God, and to call
their habitation Zion, the Holy Land, or even heaven itself. Indeed,
there is nothing so absurd or ridiculous that they have not a right to
adopt as their religion, so that in its exercise they do not interfere
with the rights of others." [39]

The people of Clay county when they called upon the Saints to peaceably
remove from their borders and seek a locality where they could form a
community that should be largely, if not exclusively, made up of their
own Church membership, indicated very clearly that it was the religion
of the Saints that was the chief cause of complaint against them. In a
document they published setting forth the reasons why they suggested
such removal, they said; "The religious tenets of this people are so
different from the present churches of the age, that they always have,
and always will, excite deep prejudices against them in any populous
country where they may locate. We, therefore, in a spirit of frank and
friendly kindness, do advise them to seek a home where they may obtain
large and separate bodies of land, and have a community of their own."
[40]

Again, after the surrender at Far West, when the Church leaders had
been betrayed into bondage; after the Saints had delivered up their
arms; after they had signed over their properties to defray the
expenses of the "war;" and when the whole body of the Church was making
hasty preparations to depart from the state, a number of the brethren
were assembled on the temple square at Far West, and in the course of a
long speech, which he read [41] to them, General John B. Clark said:

"I am sorry, gentlemen, to see so great a number of apparently
intelligent men found in the situation you are; and oh! that I could
invoke that Great Spirit, the Unknown God, to rest upon you, and make
you sufficiently intelligent to break that chain of superstition,
and liberate you from those fetters of fanaticism with which you are
bound--that you no longer worship a man! I would advise you to scatter
abroad, and never again organize yourselves with Bishops, Presidents,
{L} etc., lest you excite the jealousies of the people, and subject
yourselves to the same calamities that have now come upon you."

This to a people whose leaders had been betrayed into the hands of
their enemies; who themselves had been disarmed, though acting only
in defense of their homes and families; who had been compelled at
the muzzle of the musket to sign away their property to defray the
expenses of the militia mobs that had brought their calamities upon
them; who were then under an order of expulsion from the state and
making hurried preparations for their enforced departure--this to men
who had sacrificed or had been robbed of the most sacred rights of
American citizenship! And he who thus addressed the brethren impudently
told them in the very speech from which I quote, that he approved of
all that had been done to them! But the foregoing quotation is not
made in order to point out the mockery of the speech; or the mixture
of hypocrisy and blasphemy in it; or the utter contemptibility of him
who delivered it. I quote the passage merely to point out the fact
that it was hatred of their alleged "superstition" and "fanaticism,"
in other words the religion of the Saints that was the cause of their
persecution. The crimes against which the Saints are warned for the
future--under penalty of having their present troubles revisited upon
them--is gathering together in large bodies, and organizing themselves
with Bishops, Presidents, etc. In other words it was the religion of
the people and the organization which was both the depository of its
doctrines, and the instrumentality by which they were promulgated--the
Church--which was the object of the Missourians' animosity, the thing
they were determined to destroy.

Later, when the Prophet Joseph and other leading brethren were under
examination before Judge Austin A. King at Richmond, Ray county,
special inquiry was made as to the belief of the witnesses in the
declaration of the Prophet Daniel: "And in the days of these kings
shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be
destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it
shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall
stand for ever." [42]

The judge on being answered that the Saints believed the prophecy,
turned to the clerk and told him to write the answer down as it was "_a
strong point for treason_!" [43] I call it another evidence that it was
the religious beliefs of the Saints that constituted their offense.
True the Prophet and several other brethren were technically held
for trial on {LI} the charge of "treason, murder, arson, burglary,
robbery, larceny and perjury," but no one in Missouri ever seriously
believed the charges since they were wholly untrue or grew out of
those acts of self defense, and defense of their families against the
aggressions of mob violence--a course which all men have a right to
take in the protection of their own lives and the preservation of their
homes from the hand of the despoiler.

The meeting of discordant elements of society--New England people
and people from the Southern States, descendants of Puritans and
descendants of Cavaliers--may have been a cause of dislike, and, on
the part of the Missourians, a cause of irritation against the Saints;
the suspected existence of anti-slavery sentiments among the Saints
may have been to the Missourians a cause of distrust; the interest of
the Saints in the Indians and the beliefs of the former in the future
rehabilitation of the latter as a people favored of God, may have been,
under all the circumstances, a cause of uneasiness to the Missourians;
and the desire to plunder the Saints and to profit by dispossessing
them of their lands and homes might have been, and doubtless was, an
incentive to many of the mob who participated in the events which
culminated in the expulsion of the Saints from the state; but, at
bottom, I repeat, it was the destruction of the religion of the Saints,
and of the organization that taught its doctrines, and controlled its
membership in ecclesiastical affairs, that were the objectives of all
that agitation, violence and injustice, which make up the persecution
of the Latter-day Saints in Missouri. But how shall the truth of this
be established beyond reasonable doubt? Listen:--

The author of the "_Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_" gives
the following pen-picture of conditions with reference to religious
toleration which obtained in the empire under the reign of the
Antonines, Adrian and Marcus Aurelius, second century, A. D, "The firm
edifice of Roman power was raised and preserved by the wisdom of ages.
The obedient provinces of Trajan and the Antonines were united by laws,
and adorned by arts. They might occasionally suffer from the partial
abuse of delegated authority; but the general principle of government
was wise, simple, and beneficent. They enjoyed the religion of their
ancestors, whilst in civil honors and advantages they were exalted, by
just degrees, to an equality with their conquerors. The policy of the
emperors and the senate, as far as it concerned religion, was happily
seconded by the reflections of the enlightened, and the habits of the
superstitious, part of their subjects. The various modes of worship,
which prevailed in the Roman world, were all considered by the people
as equally true; by the philosopher, as equally false; and by the
magistrate, as equally useful. And thus toleration produced not only
mutual indulgence, but even religious {LII} concord. The superstition
of the people was not embittered by any mixture of theological rancor;
nor was it confined by the chains of any speculative system. The devout
polytheist, though fondly attached to his national rites, admitted with
implicit faith the different religions of the earth. Fear, gratitude,
and curiosity, a dream or an omen, a singular disorder, or a distant
journey, perpetually disposed him to multiply the articles of his
belief, and to enlarge the list of his protectors. The thin texture
of the Pagan mythology was interwoven with various but not discordant
materials. As soon as it was allowed that sages and heroes, who had
lived or who had died for the benefit of their country, were exalted
to a state of power and immortality, it was universally confessed
that they deserved, if not the adoration, at least the reverence, of
all mankind. The deities of a thousand groves and a thousand streams
possessed in peace their local and respective influence: nor could
the Roman who deprecated the wrath of the Tiber, deride the Egyptian
who presented his offering to the beneficent genius of the Nile. The
visible powers of nature, the planets, and the elements, were the same
throughout the universe. The invisible governors of the moral world
were inevitably cast in a similar mould of fiction and allegory. Every
virtue, and even vice, acquired its divine representative; every art
and profession its patron, whose attributes, in the most distant ages
and countries, were uniformly derived from the character of their
peculiar votaries. A republic of gods of such opposite tempers and
interests required, in every system, the moderating hand of a supreme
magistrate, who, by the progress of knowledge and flattery, was
gradually invested with the sublime perfections of an eternal parent,
and an omnipotent monarch. Such was the mild spirit of antiquity,
that the nations were less attentive to the difference, than to the
resemblance, of their religious worship. The Greek, the Roman, and the
Barbarian, as they met before their respective altars, easily persuaded
themselves, that under various names, and with various ceremonies,
they adored the same deities. * * * * Rome, the capital of a great
monarchy, was incessantly filled with subjects and strangers from
every part of the world, who all introduced and enjoyed the favorite
superstitions of their native country. Every city in the empire was
justified in maintaining the purity of its ancient ceremonies; and
the Roman senate, using the common privilege, sometimes interposed to
check this inundation of foreign rites. The Egyptian superstition,
of all the most contemptible and abject, was frequently prohibited;
the temples of Serapis and Isis demolished, and their worshippers
banished from Rome and Italy. But the zeal of fanaticism prevailed
over the cold and feeble efforts of policy. The exiles returned, the
proselytes multiplied, the temples were restored with increasing {LIII}
splendor, and Isis and Serapis at length assumed their place among the
Roman deities. * * * * Rome gradually became the common temple of her
subjects; and the freedom of the city was bestowed on all the gods of
mankind." [44]

Some Christian editors of Gibbon's great work, in their annotations,
hold that the author of the "Decline and Fall" gives in the foregoing
a too favorable view of pagan religious toleration; but after giving
due weight to the instances of intolerance they cite in evidence of
their contention, and viewing them in connection with the extent of
the empire and the period of time covered by Gibbon's description, I
do not regard them as of sufficient importance to warrant any change
in the representation made by our author of conditions as to religious
toleration in the Roman empire at the time of which he writes.
Especially, since Gibbon himself in a foot note admits that "some
obscure traces of an intolerant spirit appears in the conduct of the
Egyptians," the case chiefly relied upon by his critics to disprove his
description of universal religious toleration in the empire; and in
the same note he refers to the Christians and the Jews as forming an
important exception; so important an exception indeed that he promises,
and subsequently gives, a distinct chapter to the discussion of the
subject. [45]

It is to Christianity as the chief exception to the Roman policy of
universal religious toleration that I wish now to direct attention. Let
it be borne in mind that the spirit of universal religious toleration
within the Roman empire claimed for the second century of our era,
largely obtained also in the first century. It was in this reign
of universal religious toleration that the Christian religion was
brought forth and developed. Christ was born in the eighteenth year
of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, in the Roman province of Palestine,
in which, also, His personal labors as religious teacher and reformer
were chiefly confined. In the villages of Galilee, and subsequently in
Samaria and Judea and in the ancient city of Jerusalem, He went about
doing good; speaking words of encouragement to the oppressed and the
poor; healing the sick; opening the eyes of the blind; cleansing the
lepers; teaching, as no one ever taught before, the fatherhood of God,
the brotherhood of men, and proclaiming Himself the Son of God and the
Redeemer of the world. He gathered about Him a few devout followers,
and from their number He established a priesthood and organized a
Church to perpetuate the gentle doctrines He Himself taught. Strangely
enough, notwithstanding the beauty and purity of His moral precepts,
and the gentleness of His own deportment, proclamation of His doctrines
everywhere incited hostility. The people of the village in which He was
reared rejected Him. {LIV} His own people, the Jews, were so hostile
that they at last clamored for His execution; and so deep was their
hatred that they were willing that responsibility for the shedding
of His blood should be upon their heads and upon the heads of their
children after them, if only the Roman authorities would sanction His
execution! He was finally crucified amid the rejoicings of His enemies.

After His resurrection He appeared among His disciples and commissioned
them to evangelize the world. As they went about this work they
encountered the same spirit of opposition that had met their Master.
Whippings, imprisonment, and martyrdom confronted them on every hand,
and when they extended their labors beyond the borders of Palestine,
notwithstanding the general religious tolerance that obtained in the
Roman empire, the Christians were everywhere spoken against, and their
ministers everywhere opposed and persecuted.

Passing by the persecutions inflicted upon the Christians by the
Jews--the whipping of Peter and John, under the order of the Jewish
Sanhedrim, the martyrdom of Stephen, the execution of Saint James,
the repeated mobbing and whippings of Paul--I call attention to the
first great pagan persecution under the cruel edict of the Emperor
Nero, in the second half of the first Christian century. The emperor
having set on fire the city of Rome in order that he might view a great
conflagration, and wishing to divert suspicion from himself, he first
accused and then tried to compel the Christians to confess the crime.
At this point I summon Tacitus, the renowned Roman annalist, to tell
the remainder of the story:

"With this view he inflicted the most exquisite tortures on those men
who, under the vulgar appellation of Christians, were already branded
with deserved infamy. They derived their name and origin from Christ,
who, in the reign of Tiberius, had suffered death by the sentence of
the procurator Pontius Pilate. For awhile this dire superstition was
checked, but it again burst forth, and not only spread itself over
Judea, the first seat of this mischievous sect, but was even introduced
into Rome, the common asylum, which receives and protects whatever
is impure, whatever is atrocious. The confessions of those that were
seized discovered a great multitude of their accomplices, and they were
all convicted not so much for the crime of setting fire to the city,
as for their hatred of human kind. They died in torments, and their
torments were embittered by insults and derision. Some were nailed on
crosses; others sewn up in the skins of wild beasts and exposed to the
fury of dogs; others, again, smeared over with combustible materials,
were used as torches to illuminate the darkness of the night. The
gardens of Nero were destined for the melancholy spectacle, which was
accompanied with a horse race, and honored with the {LV} presence of
the emperor, who mingled with the populace in the dress and attitude
of a charioteer. The guilt of the Christians deserved indeed the
most exemplary punishments, but the public abhorrence was changed
into commiseration from the opinion that those unhappy wretches were
sacrificed, not so much to the public welfare as to the cruelty of a
jealous tyrant." [46]

This first great persecution of the Christians under the authority
of the Roman emperor, is sufficiently characteristic to describe the
other persecutions which were intermittingly perpetrated upon the
Christians through the two succeeding centuries. What seems to be the
most incongruous circumstance connected with these persecutions is,
that they occurred not only under such wretches as Nero and Domitian,
but under such virtuous emperors as Trajan, Adrian, Marcus Aurelius and
Diocletian. Intermittingly, then, through three troubled centuries, and
under circumstances of the utmost cruelty, persecution raged against
the Christians. As the highest authority on Roman history remarks: "If
the empire had been afflicted by any recent calamity, by a plague, a
famine, or an unsuccessful war; if the Tiber had, or the Nile had not
risen above its banks; if the earth had shaken, or if the temperate
order of the seasons had been interrupted, the superstitious pagans
were convinced that the crimes and impurities of the Christians, who
were spared by the excessive lenity of the government, had at length
provoked the divine justice." [47] And however virtuous the emperors
were, or however mild and equitable in character the governors of the
provinces, it is certain that they did not hesitate to appease the
rage of the people by sacrificing the obnoxious Christian victims. All
this at a time, too, when religious tolerance and in large measure
even religious freedom were enjoyed by those of all other religions
within the empire, and in fact we may say that the persecution of the
Christians was the only circumstance which broke in upon the religious
concord of the world. From the apologies of the early church fathers,
addressed to some of the emperors of the second and third centuries,
we find them making the most pathetic complaints to the effect, "that
the Christians who obeyed the dictates, and solicited the liberty of
conscience, were alone, among all the subjects of the Roman empire,
excluded from the common benefits of their auspicious government."

Why was this? Surely it did not arise from any vicious principle
inherent in the Christian religion itself. "If we seriously consider
the purity of the Christian religion," remarks Gibbon, in the
opening paragraph of his great treatise on the "_Conduct of the
Roman Government Toward the Christians_," "the sanctity of its moral
precepts, and the {LVI} innocence as well as the austere lives of
the greater number of those who, during the first ages, embraced the
faith of the gospel, we should naturally suppose that so benevolent
a doctrine would have been received with due reverence even by the
unbelieving world; that the learned and polite, however they might
deride the miracles, would have esteemed the virtues of the new sect;
and that the magistrates, instead of persecuting, would have protected
an order of men who yielded the most passive obedience to the laws,
though they declined the active cares of war and government. If, on the
other hand, we recollect the universal tolerance of polytheism, as it
was invariably maintained by the faith of the people, the incredulity
of philosophers, and the policy of the Roman senate and emperors,
we are at a loss to discover what new offense the Christians had
committed, what new provocation could exasperate the mild indifference
of antiquity, and what new motives could urge the Roman princes, who
beheld without concern a thousand forms of religion subsisting in
peace under their gentle sway, to inflict a severe punishment upon any
part of their subjects who had chosen for themselves a singular but an
inoffensive mode of faith and worship." [48]

What, then, I again ask, was the cause of the singular departure from
the enlightened policy of the empire in granting religious toleration
and even large religious freedom to its subjects? I am sure that
modern Christians will scarcely be satisfied with the various causes
assigned for this strange conduct on the part of the Roman emperors
who persecuted the Christians. These causes, or at least the principal
ones, are conceded by both infidel and Christian authorities to be:

First, the Christians were a sect and not a nation, and were open to
the charge that they had deserted the faith of their forefathers, a
thing inexplicable to the Roman mind. It could be claimed on the part
of the Christians, of course, that this was not true; that so far were
they from deserting the faith of their fathers, that their present
Christian faith was but the complement of their fathers' faith, the
fulfillment alike of its prophecies and symbols--in a word, the gospel
was the fulfillment of the law. This, however, was a refinement of
explanation to which the haughty Romans could not be expected to give
attention.

Second, the Christians condemned and abhorred the public religion of
the state, so closely connected with the affairs of the government,
and hence they were judged to be enemies of the state, a circumstance
which made them objects of detestation to those intrusted with the
administration of the laws.

{LVII} Third, the Christians in their worship employed no images, nor
temples, nor incense, nor sacrifices; neither did they represent their
God by any corporeal figure or symbol, therefore they were adjudged to
be atheists, and accordingly detested.

Fourth, the gloom and austere aspect of the Christians, and their
thorough abhorrence of the common business and pleasures of life,
their denunciation of war, together with their frequent predictions of
impending divine judgments, caused them to be regarded as the enemies
of mankind.

Fifth, the secrecy in which they conducted their religious services
(a policy first born of necessity, because of the fear of their
adversaries, and afterwards continued under the false notion that it
would render their sacred institutions more respectable) drew upon them
the suspicion that they only "concealed what they would have blushed to
disclose;" and this left them open to the misrepresentation and calumny
of their enemies, by which the fury of the multitude was aroused
against them.

Sixth, the severe simplicity of the Christian mode of worship,
employing as it did neither sacrifices nor an elaborate
priesthood--excited the animosity of the pagan priests and their
servitors, in exact proportion as the Christians became a menace
to their occupation; for it was painfully apparent to them that if
Christianity was successful there would be no need of the pagan
priesthood--its occupation would be gone.

All these alleged causes for the persecution of the Christians within
the Roman empire may be allowed, though some of them may be more
properly regarded as pretexts for, than causes of the persecution.
But back of all the assigned causes--which are at best but secondary
in their nature--one may see moving a force, the primary cause of the
persecution, of which the apprehensions of magistrates, the hatred of
the pagan priesthood, and the clamor of the multitude were but the
outward manifestations. That primary cause of the persecution of the
Christians is to be found in the bitter hatred of that dark spirit who
in heaven, before he fell from his high estate, was known under the
splendid appellation of "The Light Bearer," "Lucifer," "Son of the
Morning," as high in favor as in station, before his sin of rebellion
against the Father-God. [49]

Beyond the mere fact that he impiously did rebel in heaven against
God, and that he was impelled thereto by a vaulting ambition which
overleaped itself, the Hebrew scriptures give us little information
concerning Lucifer. No cause for the rebellion is assigned, though
evidence {LVIII} of the fact and reality of the rebellion is abundant.
[50] In some ancient scripture revealed to Joseph Smith, however, the
cause of that Lucifer-led rebellion is stated. It was immediately
connected with man's earth-life, and the means and conditions of his
salvation.

In order that the reader may appreciate the force of the truth to
be presented, it is necessary to remind him that the spirit of man
had an existence before he dwelt in his body of flesh and bones--a
self-conscious existence, in which he possessed all the faculties and
attributes that the spirit or mind of man now possesses; that the
time had come when the present earth-life became necessary to his
continued progress; that all that would take place in that earth-life
was known to God--the fall of man, the wickedness of the human race,
the redemption through the atonement of a sinless sacrifice--all was
known, and for all these events ample provisions were to be made; one
chosen to open the series of dispensations that should make up the
history of man's earth-life; one chosen to redeem man from his fallen
state. It was at this point that Lucifer came before the grand council
in heaven saying: Behold--here am I, send me, I will be Thy son, and I
will redeem all mankind, that one soul shall not be lost, and surely
_I will do it_; wherefore give me Thine honor. "But, behold," said
the Lord, "My Beloved Son, which was My Beloved and Chosen from the
beginning, said unto Me--Father, Thy will be done, and the glory be
Thine forever. Wherefore, because that Satan rebelled against Me, and
sought to destroy the agency of man, which I, the Lord God, had given
him; and also that I should give unto him Mine own power; by the power
of Mine Only Begotten, I caused that he should be cast down; and he
became Satan, yea, even the devil, the father of all lies, to deceive
and to blind men, and to lead them captive at his will, even as many as
would not hearken unto My voice." [51]

This discloses the reason of Lucifer's rebellion--opposition to the
plan of man's redemption--a counter plan that involved the destruction
of the agency of man. Then what?

"I beheld Satan," says Jesus, "as lightning fall from heaven." [52]

"And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own
habitation. He hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness,
unto the judgment of the great day." [53]

"And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought {LIX}
against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, and prevailed
not; neither was their place found any more in heaven. And the great
dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the devil, and Satan,
which deceiveth the whole world; he was cast out into the earth, and
his angels were cast out with him. And I heard a loud voice saying
in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of
our God, and the power of His Christ: for the accuser of our brethren
is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night. And
they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their
testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death. Therefore
rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the inhabiters
of the earth, and of the sea! for the devil is come down unto you,
having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time."
[54]

Lucifer, then, becomes a factor to be reckoned with in the persecution
of the Saints. In heaven he opposed the gospel of Jesus Christ; cast
out into the earth will he not oppose it there? Herein lies the real
cause of the persecution of the Christians within the Roman empire.
So long as the inhabitants of the earth were content with the pagan
superstitions, wherein there was no power of God unto salvation; so
long as they were content with conflicting pagan philosophies, wherein
was no power of God unto salvation, it was a matter of indifference
to Lucifer whether they worshiped Jupiter Olympus, or Isis; Apollo,
or Minerva; or bowed at the philosopher's shrine of the Unknown
God--all were equally barren of saving power and left the kingdom of
Lucifer undiminished in its strength and numbers; left all nations
in his thraldom. But when the Christ and His apostles came preaching
repentance and the coming of the kingdom of heaven; making known the
origin of man and his relationship to Deity; making known the purpose
of God to redeem him from his fallen state; establishing His Church as
the depository of divine truth, and the instrumentality for conveying
to man divine instruction--then Lucifer saw cause for alarm, for it
was evident that the days of his dominion were numbered; his kingdom
must decline if Christianity prevailed; his sway over the kingdoms of
the earth must be broken if Christ was preached: and hence in all the
bitterness of hatred, with all the strength of his cunning, with all
the power of his resourcefulness, and using every instrumentality he
could command--corrupted human nature over which he had influence; the
apprehension of magistrates; the jealousy of pagan priesthoods--all
were employed to destroy that institution wrought out in the wisdom
of God to bring to pass the salvation of man; and hence the fire, the
{LX} sword and the rack; the lions, the dungeons,--in a word, the pagan
persecutions of the Saints of God; Lucifer and his hatred of the truth
the primary cause of all, all other causes and pretexts but secondary,
mere instrumentalities used by him to impede the progress of and
destroy, if possible, the truth, the gospel, wherein lies the power of
man's salvation.

It is said that history repeats itself; and this in matters of religion
as in other things. In the introduction to the first volume of the
Church History, the paganization of Christianity was discussed at
some length, and when the Lord would again prepare the way for the
incoming of the last dispensation of the Gospel--the dispensation of
the fullness of times--as part of that preparation, He established a
great republic in the New World, the chief corner stone of whose temple
of liberty was religious freedom. The Congress of the United States,
by express provision of the Constitution, is prohibited from making
any law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the
free exercise thereof. [55] Similar guarantees of religious freedom
are provided for in the constitutions of all the states. The clause in
Missouri's constitution on the subject was as follows:

"All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty
God according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no man
can be compelled to erect, support or attend any place of worship,
or to maintain any minister of the gospel or teacher of religion;
that no human authority can control or interfere with the rights of
conscience; that no person can ever be hurt, molested or restrained in
his religious professions or sentiments, if he do not disturb others in
their religious worship: that no person, on account of his religious
opinions, can be rendered ineligible to any office of trust or profit
under this state; that no preference can ever be given by law to any
sect or mode of worship; and that no religious corporation can ever be
established in this state."

Under these guarantees of religious liberty, in both state and national
constitutions, infidels, Jews, and all sects of the Christian religion
lived in unbroken peace. In the colonial history of the country there
had been some intolerance and acts of violence practiced by the sects
of Christians on one another, but in the main, and especially since
the establishment of the republic of the United States, under its
present Constitution, there had been absolute religious freedom. But
now a strange thing occurred. A youth, yet in his early teens, startled
the neighborhood in which he resided with the announcement that he
had received a revelation from God: a new dispensation of the Gospel
of Christ had been committed to him; he is authorized to found again
the very {LXI} Church of Christ; men are to teach once more by divine
authority; and the world is to be made ready for the incoming of the
glorious kingdom, whose king shall be the resurrected, glorified
Christ; and peace and truth and righteousness are to abound. Strangely
enough, notwithstanding all the guarantees of religious freedom in the
state and national constitutions, this proclamation is resented by the
people, and those who advocate it are persecuted in various ways, until
at the last, as set forth in the three volumes of the Church History
now published, it culminated in the death and misery of many souls, and
the final expulsion of from twelve to fifteen thousand Saints from the
state of Missouri, under all the circumstances of cruelty detailed in
this history.

Why is this violence done to the principle of religious freedom, a
principle that is both the pride and boast of the American people?
Why are constitutions and institutions violated in efforts made
by the authorities of the sovereign state of Missouri to destroy
this religion and this Church of Christ? What is the cause of these
Missouri persecutions? In view of the principles already set forth
in these pages, the primary cause of these persecutions in Missouri
will not be difficult to find. In them, as in the Roman persecutions
of the Christians, the cunning and power of Lucifer will be apparent.
So long as only apostate forms of Christianity obtained; so long as
men adhered to mere forms of godliness and denied the power thereof,
so long Lucifer cared not with what devotion they clung to these
lifeless forms of religion. He laughed; his kingdom was undiminished;
the nations were held in his thraldom. But when the Prophet of the
dispensation of the fulness of times announced his revelation; when
God again stood revealed once more before a witness; when the divine
plan of life and salvation was again communicated to men through an
inspired prophet; when the Church of Christ in all its completeness
and power was restored to the earth, then it behoved Lucifer to look
to his dominions, to strengthen his forces, and to prepare for the
final conflict for possession of this world; for now God had taken
it in hand to complete His work of redeeming the earth, of saving
men, and overthrowing Lucifer and his power so far as this earth is
concerned; and hence when Joseph Smith announced his new revelation,
the incoming of the dispensation of the fulness of times, Lucifer with
all the cunning and power at his command, and setting in motion every
force--the fears and jealousies of men, misrepresentation and calumny,
hatred of righteousness and truth, in a word, every force that he could
summons, every pretext that he could suggest to men of evil disposed
minds was employed to destroy the inauguration of that work which was
to subdue his power, conquer his dominions, and render men free from
his influence. Lucifer's bitterness, then, his hatred, his cunning, his
{LXII} devisements were the cause of the Missouri persecutions. All
else was secondary, pretext, his instrumentalities, nothing more.

_Retribution_.

But what of Missouri? Missouri, who had violated her constitution
which guaranteed religious freedom to all who came within her borders!
Missouri, whose officers from the Governor down entered into a
wicked conspiracy, contrary to all law and righteousness, and drove
the Saints from the state! Missouri, who had violated not only her
own constitution by becoming a party to a religious persecution,
but had also violated the spirit of our times, and outraged the
civilization of the nineteenth century--what of Missouri? Did she
pay any penalty for her wrong-doing? Are states such entities as may
be held to an accounting for breaches of public faith and public
morals--constitutional immoralities? Is there within the state a public
conscience to which an appeal can be made; and in the event of the
public conscience being outraged is there retribution?

I answer these questions in the affirmative; and hold that Missouri
paid dearly for the violations of her guarantees of religious freedom,
and her lawlessness and her cruelties practiced towards the Latter-day
Saints.

I have already referred to the relationship which the state of Missouri
sustained to the great question of slavery. By the political compromise
which bore her name, Missouri became a "cape of slavery thrust into
free territory." Except for the state of Missouri alone, her southern
boundary line was to mark the furthermost point northward beyond which
slavery must not be extended into the territory of the United States.
In 1854, however, the Missouri compromise was practically overthrown by
the introduction into Congress of the "Kansas-Nebraska Act," by Stephen
A. Douglas, United States senator from Illinois. This act provided for
the organization of two new territories from the Louisiana purchase,
west of Missouri and Iowa. The act proposed that the new territories
should be open to slavery, if their inhabitants desired it. This left
the question of slavery in the status it occupied previous to the
Missouri Compromise, and left the people in the prospective states to
determine for themselves whether slavery should or should not prevail
in their state. This opened again the slavery question, and there was
begun that agitation which finally resulted in the great American Civil
War.

As soon as it became apparent that the people of new territories were
to determine for themselves the question of slavery, very naturally
each party began a struggle for possession of the new territory
according as its sentiments or interests dictated. The struggle began
by the {LXIII} abolition party of the north organizing "Emigrant Aid
Societies," and sending emigrants of their own faith into Kansas. The
slave holders of Missouri also sent settlers representing their faith
and interests into the new territory in the hope of bringing it into
the Union as a slave state. This brought on a border warfare in which
the settlements of western Missouri and eastern Kansas alternately
suffered from the raids and counter raids of the respective parties
through some six years before the outbreak of the Civil War. As to
which were the more lawless or cruel, the fanatical abolitionists or
the pro-slavery party, the "jayhawkers," as the organized bands of
ruffians of the former party were called, or the "bushwhackers," as
the similarly organized bands of the pro-slavery men were called, is
not a question necessary for me to discuss here. Both held the laws
in contempt, and vied with each other in committing atrocities. The
western counties of Missouri, where the Latter-day Saints had suffered
so cruelly at the hands of people of those counties some eighteen or
twenty years before, were in this border warfare laid desolate, and all
the hardships the Missourians had inflicted upon the Saints were now
visited upon their heads, only more abundantly.

Speaking of the situation in Missouri in 1861, the out-going Governor,
Robert M. Stewart, in his address to the legislature, and referring to
Missouri and her right to be heard on the slavery question, said:

"Missouri has a right to speak on this subject, because she has
suffered. Bounded on three sides by free territory, her border
counties have been the frequent scenes of kidnapping and violence,
and this state has probably lost as much, in the last two years, in
the abduction of slaves, as all the rest of the Southern States. _At
this moment several of the western counties are desolated, and almost
depopulated, from fear of a bandit horde, who have been committing
depredations--arson, theft, and foul murder--upon the adjacent border_"
[56]

Brigadier-General Daniel M. Frost, who had been employed in repressing
lawlessness in the western counties of Missouri, in reporting
conditions prevailing there in November, 1860, said:

"The deserted and charred remains of once happy homes, combined with
the general terror that prevailed amongst the citizens who still clung
to their possessions, gave but too certain proof of the persecution to
which they had all been subjected, and which they would again have to
endure, with renewed violence, so soon as armed protection should be
withdrawn." [note] "In view of this condition of affairs," continues
the historian of Missouri I am quoting, "and in order to carry out
fully Governor Stewart's order to repel invasions and restore peace to
the border, General Frost determined to leave a considerable force in
{LXIV} the threatened district. Accordingly, a battalion of volunteers,
consisting of three companies of rangers and one of artillery, was
enlisted, and Lieutenant-Colonel John S. Bowen, who afterwards rose to
high rank in the Confederate service, was chosen to the command." [57]

"With the organization of this force, and perhaps owing also, in some
degree, to the inclemency of the season, 'jayhawking,' as such, came to
an end, though the thing itself, during the first two or three years of
the Civil War, and, in fact, as long as there was anything left on the
Missouri side of the border worth taking, flourished more vigorously
than ever. The old jayhawking leaders, however, now came with United
States commissions in their pockets and at the head of regularly
enlisted troops, in which guise they carried on a system of robbery and
murder that left a good portion of the frontier south of the Missouri
river as perfect a waste as Germany was at the end of the Thirty Years'
War." [58]

While this description confines the scenes of violence and rapine to
the border counties south of the Missouri river,--it included Jackson
county, however, which was one of the heaviest sufferers both in
this border warfare and subsequently during the Civil War--still,
the counties north of that stream also suffered from lawlessness and
violence.

At the outbreak of the Civil War Missouri was peculiarly situated. She
was surrounded on three sides by free states. The great majority of
her own people were for the Union, but her government, with Clairborne
Jackson as the state executive, was in sympathy with the South. As
the extreme Southern States one after another seceded from the Union,
Missouri was confronted with the question: What position she ought to
assume in the impending conflict. The question was referred to a state
convention in which appeared no secessionists. Indeed, the people of
Missouri in this election by a majority of eighty thousand decided
against secession. The convention, in setting forth the attitude of the
state on the subject, said that Missouri's position was, "Evidently
that of a state whose interests are bound up in the maintenance of
the Union, and whose kind feelings and strong sympathies are with the
people of the Southern States, with whom we are connected by ties of
friendship and blood. We want the peace and harmony of the country
restored, and we want them with us. To go with them as they are now * *
* * is to ruin ourselves without doing them any good." [59]

While this doubtless voiced the sentiment of a great majority of {LXV}
Missouri's people, the government of the state and many thousands
of its inhabitants sympathized with the South. The general assembly
of the state authorized the raising and equipment of large military
forces held subject, of course, to the orders of the governor, under
the pretense of being prepared to repel invasion from any quarter
whatsoever, and enable the state to maintain a neutral attitude.
The governor refused to raise Missouri's quota of four regiments
under President Lincoln's first call for seventy-five thousand men
to suppress the rebellion, on the ground that these regiments were
intended to form "part of the President's army, to make war upon
the people of the seceded states." This he declared to be illegal,
unconstitutional, and therefore could not be complied with. This
precipitated a conflict between the state and national forces that
resulted in a civil war within the state since some of her citizens
sided with the general government and some with the state.

On the 20th of April, 1861, the state militia under the governor's
orders captured the Federal arsenal at Liberty, Clay county, and in
the nineteen months following that event "over three hundred battles
and skirmishes were fought within the limits of the state," and it is
assumed that in the last two years of the war, there were half as many
more; "and it may be said of them," continues our historian, "that they
were relatively more destructive of life, as by this time the contest
had degenerated into a disgraceful internecine struggle." [60]

In the fall of 1864, General Sterling Price penetrated the state at
the head of twelve thousand men; captured Lexington, in Ray county,
and Independence, in Jackson county, and thence made his escape
into Arkansas. "In the course of this raid he marched 1,434 miles,
fought forty-three battles and skirmishes, and according to his own
calculation destroyed upwards of 'ten million dollars' worth of
property,' a fair share of which belonged to his own friends." [61]

In August, 1863, the celebrated Military Order No. 11 was issued from
Kansas City, by General Thomas Ewing, by which "all persons living
in Cass, Jackson, and Bates counties, Missouri, and in that part of
Vernon included in this district, except those living within one mile
of the limits of Independence, Hickman's Mills, Pleasant Hill, and
Harrisonville, and except those in that part of Kaw township, Jackson
county, north of Brush creek and west of the Big Blue, embracing
Kansas City and Westport, are hereby ordered to remove from their
present places of residence within fifteen days from the date hereof.
{LXVI} Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the
satisfaction of the commanding officer of the military station nearest
their present place of residence, will receive from him certificates
stating the fact of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses
by whom it can be shown. All who receive such certificates will be
permitted to remove to any military station in this district, or to any
part of the state of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern borders
of the state. All others shall remove out of this district. Officers
commanding companies and detachments serving in the counties named will
see that this paragraph is promptly obeyed." [62]

The admonition in the last clause to commanding officers was rigidly
followed; and within the district named scenes of violence and cruelty
were appalling. This order with its cruel execution has been more
severely criticized than any other act during the entire Civil War.
The justification for it has been urged on the ground that Jackson
county afforded a field of operations for Confederates; that here the
bushwhacking marauders recruited their forces, and found the means of
support; that the policy was necessary on the ground of putting an end
to that kind of warfare. On the other hand, it is contended that "tried
by any known standard," the people in that section of Missouri were as
loyal to the Union as were their neighbors in Kansas. "They had voted
against secession; they had not only, thus far, kept their quota in the
Union army full, and that without draft or bounty, but they continued
to do so; and if they did not protect themselves against the outrages
alike of Confederate bushwhackers and Union jayhawkers, it was because
early in the war they had been disarmed by Federal authority and were
consequently without the means of defense." [63]

By the execution of the order, however, the people in the districts
named "were driven from their homes, their dwellings burned, their
farms laid waste, and the great bulk of their movable property handed
over, without let or hindrance, to the Kansas 'jayhawkers.' It was
a brutal order, ruthlessly enforced, but so far from expelling or
exterminating the guerrillas, it simply handed the whole district over
to them." "Indeed," continues Lucien Carr, "we are assured by one who
was on the ground, that from this time until the end of the war, no one
wearing the Federal uniform dared risk his life within the devatasted
region. The only people whom the enforcement of the order did injure
were some thousands of those whom it was Ewing's duty to protect." [64]

{LXVII} Whether justified or not by the attitude of the Jackson county
people in the Civil War, the execution of Order No. 11 certainly was
but a reenactment, though upon a larger scale, of those scenes which
the inhabitants of that section of the country thirty years before had
perpetrated upon the Latter-day Saints in expelling them from Jackson
county. The awful scenes then enacted inspired the now celebrated
painting by G. C. Bingham, bearing the title "Civil War," and dedicated
by the artist "to all who cherish the principles of civil liberty."

Connected with the scenes of civil strife in Missouri, is a prophecy
uttered by Joseph Smith many years before they began, and recently
published in a very able paper by Elder Junius F. Wells, in the
November number of the _Improvement Era_ for 1902. Elder Wells, it
appears, had the pleasure of an interview with the Hon. Leonidas M.
Lawson, of New York city, formerly a resident of Clay county, Missouri,
and a brother-in-law of General Alexander W. Doniphan, whose name so
frequently occurs in our pages, dealing with events in the history of
the Church while in Missouri.

In the course of the interview, which took place at the University
Club, New York city, Mr. Lawson referred to an incident connected
with a visit to General Doniphan in 1863. General Doniphan, it will
be remembered by those acquainted with his history, took no part in
the Civil War beyond that of a sorrowful spectator. On the occasion of
Mr. Lawson's visit to him, just referred to, they rode through Jackson
county together, and in a letter to Elder Wells, under date of February
7, 1902, Mr. Lawson relates the following incident, which is part of a
biographical sketch of General Doniphan, prepared by Mr. Lawson:

"In the year 1863, I visited General A. W. Doniphan at his home in
Liberty, Clay county, Missouri. This was soon after the devastation of
Jackson county, Missouri, under what is known as 'Order No. 11.' This
devastation was complete. Farms were everywhere destroyed, and the
farmhouses were burned. During this visit General Doniphan related the
following historical facts and personal incidents:

"About the year 1831-2, the Mormons settled in Jackson county. Mo.,
under the leadership of Joseph Smith. The people of Jackson county
became dissatisfied with their presence, and forced them to leave;
and they crossed the Missouri river and settled in the counties of De
Kalb, Caldwell and Ray. They founded the town of Far West, and began
to prepare the foundation of a temple. It was here that the troubles
arose which culminated in the expulsion of the Mormons from the state
of Missouri according to the command of Governor Lilburn W. Boggs. This
was known in Missouri annals as the Mormon War. There were many among
those who obeyed the order of the governor, in the state militia, who
believed that the movement against the Mormons {LXVIII} was unjust
and cruel, and that the excitement was kept up by those who coveted
the homes, the barns and the fields of the Mormon people. The latter,
during their residence in the state of Missouri, paid, in entry fees
for the land they claimed, to the United States government land office,
more than $300,000, which, for that period represented a tremendous
interest. During their sojourn in Missouri the Mormons did not practice
or teach polygamy, so that question did not enter into it.

"Following the early excitement, Joseph Smith was indicted for treason
against the state of Missouri, and General Doniphan was one of the
counsel employed to defend him, he having shown a friendly interest in
Smith, whom he considered very badly treated. Joseph Smith was placed
in prison in Liberty, Missouri, to await his trial. This place was the
residence of General Doniphan. His partner in the practice of law was
James H. Baldwin.

"On one occasion General Doniphan caused the sheriff of the county to
bring Joseph Smith from the prison to his law office, for the purpose
of consultation about his defense. During Smith's presence in the
office, a citizen of Jackson county, Missouri, came in for the purpose
of paying a fee which was due by him to the firm of Doniphan and
Baldwin, and offered in payment a tract of land in Jackson county.

"Doniphan told him that his partner, Mr. Baldwin, was absent at the
moment, but as soon as he had an opportunity he would consult him and
decide about the matter. When the Jackson county man retired, Joseph
Smith, who had overheard the conversation, addressed General Doniphan
about as follows:

"'_Doniphan, I advise you not to take that Jackson county land in
payment of the debt, God's wrath hangs over Jackson county. God's
people have been ruthlessly driven from it, and you will live to see
the day when it will be visited by fire and sword. The Lord of Hosts
will sweep it with the besom of destruction. The fields and farms and
houses will be destroyed, and only the chimneys will be left to mark
the desolation_.'"

"General Doniphan said to me that the devastation of Jackson county
forcibly reminded him of this remarkable prediction of the Mormon
prophet." (signed) L. M. Lawson.

"There is a prediction of the Prophet Joseph," remarks Elder Wells, in
commenting upon Mr. Lawson's story, "not before put into print, and
history has recorded its complete fulfillment."

That a just retribution overtook the entire state, as well as the
inhabitants of Jackson county, and other western counties, I think must
be conceded by all who are familiar with the events of her history in
the Civil War. That which she did to an inoffensive people was done
to her inhabitants, especially to those living within the districts
formerly occupied by the Latter-day Saints; only the measure meted out
to {LXIX} the Missourians was heaped up, pressed down, and made to run
over.

The Missourians had complained that the Latter-day Saints were eastern
men, whose manners, habits, customs, and even dialect were different
from their own; [65] but the Missourians lived to see great throngs
of those same eastern men flock into an adjoining territory and
infest their border, so that the settlers of western Missouri became
accustomed to, and learned to endure the strange manners, customs and
dialect so different from their own.

The Missourians complained of the rapidity with which the Saints were
gathering into the state to establish their Zion; but the Missourians
lived to see hordes of the detested easterners gather into their region
of country by continuous streams of emigrant trains, sent there by
"Emigrant Aid Companies" of New England.

The Missourians falsely charged that the coming of "Zion's Camp" into
western Missouri to aid their brethren to repossess their homes in
Jackson county, was an armed invasion of the state; but the Missourians
lived to see formidable hosts of eastern and northern men gather upon
their frontiers and frequently invade the state. "The character of
much of this emigration may be gathered," says one historian, "from
the fact that the Kansas Emigration Societies, Leagues and Committees
* * * _sent out men only_;" and that in some of their bands Sharp's
rifles were more numerous than agricultural implements. [66] Of course
the "Blue Lodges" of Missouri were organized largely on the same
principle as the "Emigrant Aid Companies" of New England, and adopted
practically the same methods, expecting to add Kansas to the list of
slave states. But "certainly," remarks Lucien Carr, "if a company of
so-called northern emigrants, in which there were two hundred and
twenty-five men and only five women, whose wagons contained no visible
furniture, agricultural implements or mechanical tools, but abounded
in all the requisite articles for camping and campaigning purposes,
were considered as _bona fide_ settlers and permitted to vote, there
could not have been a sufficient reason for ruling out any band of
Missourians who ever crossed the border and declared their intention of
remaining, even though they left the next day." [67]

Among the men sent to the borders of Missouri by the "Emigrant Aid
Companies" of New England were some of the most desperate adventurers;
and the Missourians who had pretended to be alarmed at the coming of
"Zion's Camp," and feigned to regard it as an armed invasion {LXX}
of the state, saw their state repeatedly invaded--especially Jackson
county--by the bands of Union "jayhawkers" organized from among these
desperate eastern and northern men, who ruthlessly laid waste their
homes and farms.

The Missourians had falsely charged the Saints with abolition madness,
with tampering with their slaves, with inviting free negroes into the
state to corrupt their blacks, whose very presence would render their
institution of slave labor insecure; but they lived to see their system
of slave labor abolished by the setting free of some one hundred and
fifteen thousand slaves, valued at $40,000,000, eight thousand of whom
were "martialed and disciplined for war" in the Federal armies, and
many of them marched to war against their former masters.

Governor Dunklin and his advisors in the government of Missouri claimed
that there was no warrant of authority under the laws and constitution
of the state for calling out a permanent military force to protect
the Saints in the peaceful possession of their homes until the civil
authority proved itself competent to keep the peace and protect the
citizens in the enjoyment of their guaranteed rights; but the people
in the western part of Missouri saw the time come when they themselves
prayed for the same protection; and Governor Stewart, unlike Governor
Dunklin, approved the appointment of a battalion of volunteers
consisting of three companies of rangers and one of artillery, all
of which were placed under command of Lieutenant-Colonel John L.
Bowen, to do the very thing the Saints had prayed might be done in
their case. [68] But even this provision for their protection did not
avail; for their old jayhawking enemies soon reappeared under new
conditions--which will be stated in the next paragraph--under which
they renewed their incursions of rapine and murder.

The state authorities of Missouri converted the mobs which had
plundered the Saints, burned their homes and laid waste their lands,
into the state militia, which gave the former mob a legal status, under
which guise they plundered the Saints, compelled them to sign away
their property and agree to leave the state. To resist this mob-militia
was to be guilty of treason; but the people of western Missouri lived
to see a like policy pursued towards them. They suffered much in
Jackson and other western counties in the border war, previous to the
opening of the Civil War, from the inroads of abolition "jayhawkers" in
the interest of anti-slavery. For a time this was in part suppressed
by the state militia under General Frost and by the permanent force
stationed on the border under Lieutenant-Colonel Bowen. But later,
and when the Civil War broke out, these old "jayhawking" leaders "now
came with United States commissions in their pockets, and at the head
of regularly enlisted troops, in which guise they carried on a {LXXI}
system of robbery and murder that left a good portion of the frontier
south of the Missouri river as perfect a waste as Germany was at the
end of the Thirty Years' War." [69]

Such wretches as Generals Lane and Jennison, though Union officers,
and denounced alike by Governor Robinson of Kansas--of course a strong
Union man--and General Halleck, [70] commander-in-chief of the western
armies of the Union, were permitted to disgrace alike the Union cause
and our human nature by their unspeakable atrocities. But they were
retained in office, nevertheless. It was the outrages committed by
these men and their commands, and the Kansas "Red Legs" that led to the
equally savage reprisals on the people of Kansas. In revenge for what
western Missouri had suffered, outlawed Missourians sacked Lawrence,
Kansas, a Union city, massacred one hundred and eighty-three of its
inhabitants, and left it in flames. In justification of their act
of savagery, they declared: "Jennison has laid waste our homes, and
the 'Red Legs' have perpetrated unheard of crimes. Houses have been
plundered and burned, defenseless men shot down, and women outraged.
We are here for revenge--and we have got it." [71] How nearly this
language of the Missourians--and there can be no question that it
describes what had been done in Missouri by Lane, Jennison, and their
commands, and the Kansas "Red Legs" [72]--follows the complaint justly
made by the Latter-day Saints years before against the Missourians! But
thank God, there is recorded against the Saints no such horrible deeds
of reprisal.

The Missourians falsely charged that the Saints held illicit
communication with the Indian tribes then assembled near the frontiers
of the state, and pretended to an alarm that their state might be
invaded by the savages, prompted thereto by "Mormon" fanaticism; but
these same Missourians lived to see cause for real fear of such an
invasion when the Governor of an adjoining state--Arkansas--authorize
Brigadier General Albert Pike to raise two mounted regiments of
Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians to actually invade the state. These
regiments of savages were engaged in the battle of Pea Ridge, on the
southwest {LXXII} borders of Missouri. General Pike, who led them in
that battle, dressed himself in gaudy, savage costume, and wore a
large plume on his head--_a la Niel Gilliam_ at Far West--to please
the Indians. It is also charged that before the battle of Pea Ridge,
he maddened his Indians with liquor "that they might allow the savage
nature of their race to have unchecked development. In their fury they
respected none of the usages of civilized warfare, but scalped the
helpless wounded, and committed atrocities too horrible to mention."
[73] The "fear" expressed by the Missourians respecting the alleged
illicit communication of the Saints with the Indians was mere feigning,
but with this example before them, and knowing that there were many
thousands of Indians on their frontiers that might be similarly induced
to take up arms, their former feigned fears became real ones.

The Missourians instead of demanding the execution of the law in
support of the liberties of the Saints, expressed the fear that the
presence of the Saints would give rise to "Civil War," in which none
could be neutrals, since their homes must be the theatre on which
it would be fought, [74] so they drove the Saints away; but the
Missourians lived to see the outbreak of a civil war in their state
that was one of the most appalling men ever witnessed; and Missouri,
when all things are considered, and especially western Missouri,
suffered more than any other state of the Union. In other states the
war lasted at most but four years; but counting her western border
warfare in the struggle for Kansas, the war was waged in western
Missouri from 1855 to 1865, ten years: and for many years after the
close of the Civil War, a guerrilla warfare was intermittently carried
on by bands of outlaws harbored in western Missouri--especially
in Jackson, Ray, Caldwell and Clay counties--that terrorized the
community and shocked the world by the daring and atrocity of their
crimes--including bank robberies in open day, express train wrecking
and robberies, and murders. Not until 1881 was this effectually stopped
by the betrayal and murder of the outlaw chief of these bands.

Missouri sent into the Union Armies one hundred and nine thousand of
her sons, including eight thousand negroes. About thirty thousand
enlisted in the confederate army. According to official reports
the percentage of troops to population in the western states and
territories was 13.6 per cent, and in the New England states 12 per
cent; whilst in Missouri, if there be added to her quota sent to the
northern army the thirty thousand sent to the confederate army, her
percentage was fourteen per cent, _or sixty per cent of those who were
subject to military duty_. Of the deaths among these enlisted men, only
approximate {LXXIII} estimates may be made, since of the mortality
among the Confederates no official records were kept. But of those
who entered the Union service, thirteen thousand eight hundred and
eighty-five deaths are officially reported. The rate of mortality in
the Confederate forces, owing to the greater hardships they endured,
and the lack of medical attendants to care for the wounded, was much
higher, and is generally estimated at twelve thousand, (most of whom
were from western Missouri), which added to the deaths of those in the
Union army would aggregate the loss among the troops from Missouri to
twenty-five thousand eight hundred and eighty-five. "This estimate,"
says Lucien Carr, "does not cover those who were killed in the
skirmishes that took place between the home guards and the guerrillas;
nor does it include those who were not in either army, but who were
shot down by "bushwhackers" and "bushwhacking" Federal soldiers. Of
these latter there is no record, though there were but few sections of
the state in which such scenes were not more or less frequent. Assuming
the deaths from these two sources to have been 1,200, and summing up
the results, it will be found that the number of Missourians who were
killed in the war and died from disease during their term of service
amounted to not less than 27,000 men." [75]

The loss in treasure was in full proportion to the loss in blood. The
state expended $7,000,000 in fitting out and maintaining her Union
troops in the field. [76] She lost $40,000,000 in slave property; and
four years after the close of the war--two of which, 1867-8, were
remarkably prosperous--the taxable wealth of the state was $46,000,000
less than it was in 1860. "In many portions of the state," says the
historian to whom I am indebted for so many of the facts relating
to Missouri in these pages, "especially in the southern and western
borders, whole counties had been devastated. The houses were burned,
the fences destroyed, and the farms laid waste. Much of the live stock
of the state had disappeared; and everywhere, even in those sections
that were comparatively quiet and peaceful, the quantity of land in
cultivation was much less than it had been at the outbreak of the war.
Added to these sources of decline, and in some measure a cause of
them, was the considerable emigration from the state which now took
place, and particularly from those regions that lay in the pathway
of the armies, or from those neighborhoods that were given over to
the "bushwhackers." The amount of loss from these different sources
cannot be accurately gauged, but some idea may be formed of it, and of
the unsettled condition of affairs, from the fact that only 41 out of
the 113 counties in the state {LXXIV} receipted for the tax books for
1861; and in these counties, only $250,000 out of the $600,000 charged
against them were collected." [77]

This only in a general way indicates the losses in property sustained
by the state during the period under consideration, but it assists one
to understand somewhat the enormity of those losses.

It is in no spirit of gloating exultation that these facts in
Missouri's history are referred to here. It gives no gratification to
the writer to recount the woes of Missouri, and his hope is that it
will give none to the reader. These facts of history are set down only
because they are valuable for the lesson they teach. It may be that
visible retribution does not always follow in the wake of state or
national wrong-doing; but it is well that it should sometimes do so,
lest men should come to think that Eternal Justice sleeps, or may be
thwarted, or, what would be worst of all, that she does not exist. I
say it is well, therefore, that sometimes visible retribution should
follow state and national as well as individual transgressions, that
the truth of the great principle that "as men sow, so shall they reap,"
may be vindicated. Missouri in her treatment of the Latter-day Saints
during the years 1833-9, sowed the wind; in the disastrous events which
overtook her during the years 1855-65, she reaped the whirlwind. Let
us hope that in those events Justice was fully vindicated so far as
the state of Missouri is concerned; and that the lessons of her sad
experience may not be lost to the world. May the awful and visible
retribution visited upon Missouri teach all states and nations that
when they feel power they must not forget Justice; may it teach all
peoples that states and nations in their corporate capacity are such
entities as may be held accountable before God and the world for their
actions; that righteousness exalteth a nation, while injustice is
a reproach to any people. May the retribution that was so palpably
visited upon the state of Missouri satisfy and encourage the Latter-day
Saints; not that I would see them rejoice in the suffering of the
wicked; but rejoice rather in the evidence that Justice slumbereth not;
that their wrongs are not hidden from the All-seeing eye of God; that
they are within the circle of His love; that they cannot be unjustly
assailed with impunity, however humble and weak they may be. From all
these considerations may they be established in peace, hope, confidence
and charity; knowing that God is their friend; that His arm is strong
to protect; or, if in the course of God's economy in the management of
the affairs of the world it must needs be that for a time they suffer
at the hands of oppressors, that He will avenge them of their enemies;
and amply reward them for their sufferings in His cause.

Footnotes.

1. See "American Commonwealths," Missouri, (Houghton, Mifflin &
company, 1888), p. 181.

2. "History of the United States," (Morris) p. 132.

3. Ibid, pp. 135-7

4. History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 450.

5. Mr. Tallmadge, a representative from the state of New York, offered
the restricting provision.

6. History of the Church, vol. 1, p. 374, et seq.

7. In making the statement that it was the intention of the _Star_
article not only to stop "free people of color" immigrating to
Missouri, but also to "prevent them from being admitted as members of
the church," the editor of the _Star_, of course went too far; if not
in his second article, explaining the scope and meaning of the first,
then in the first article; for he had no authority to seek to prevent
"free people of color" from being admitted members of the Church. But
as a matter of fact there were very few if any "free people of color"
in the Church at that time. The "fears" of the Missourians on that head
were sheer fabrications of evil disposed minds.

8. _Western Monitor_ for the 2nd of August, 1833.

9. Joseph Smith's "Views of the Powers and Policy of the Government of
the United States," _Mill Star_, Vol. XXII. p. 743.

10. The speech appears in the _Missouri Republican_ of June 18th, 1857.

11. Pearl of Great Price, pp. 44, 45, 1902 edition.

12. Doc. & Cov. Sec. 38.

13. Doc. & Cov. Sec. 45.

14. Doc. & Cov. Sec. 58.

15. Doc. and Cov., Sec. 58, verses 52-3

16. Doc. and Cov., Sec. 63, verses 25-31.

17. Doc. and Cov., Sec. 64, verses 34-36.

18. Doc. and Cov., sec. 68, verses 29-34.

19. See "History of the Church," Vol. I, ch. 19.

20. Including of course, and I may say especially including, the
commandment to purchase the lands of Jackson county.

21. Doc. and Cov., sec. 84, verses 54-59.

22. History of the Church, Vol. I p. 316.

23. _Ibid_, pp. 317-21.

24. Doc. and Cov., sec.101, verses 1-9.

25. Ibid, verse 75.

26. Ibid, sec. 103.

27. First Manifesto of Mob, History of the Church, Vol. 1, p. 374.

28. History of the Church, Vol. I. p. 396.

29. Doc. and Cov., sec. 83.

30. Doc. and Cov., sec. 63.

31. Doc. and Cov., sec. 63: 29-31.

32. Evening and Morning Star, p. 220.

33. "History of the Church," Vol. I, p. 396.

34. These estimates are by the late President George A. Smith, Church
Historian, and hence are entirely reliable. They are quoted by Lucien
Carr in his History of Missouri, "American Commonwealths," p. 181,
and are also to be found in an Historical Address by George A. Smith,
Journal of Discourses, Vol. XIII, pp. 103, _et seq_.

35. "History of Caldwell county" (National Historical Company, 1886) p.
121.

36. "In the fall of 1836, a large and comfortable schoolhouse was
built and here courts were held after the location of the county seat
until its removal to Kingston. The Mormons very early gave attention
to educational matters. There were many teachers among them and
schoolhouses and were among their first buildings. The schoolhouse in
Far West was used as a Church, as a town hall and as a court house,
as well as for a schoolhouse. It first stood in the southwest quarter
of town, but upon the establishment of the county seat it was removed
to the center of the square," ("History of Caldwell County," p.
121.--National Historical Company, 1886).

37. "History of the Church," Vol., I, pp. 375-6.

38. "History of the Church," Vol. I, p. 397.

39. "History of the Church," Vol. II, p. 85.

40. "History of the Church," Vol. II p. 450.

41. "History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties," compiled by the St.
Louis National and Historical Company, 1886, p. 140.

42. Daniel 2:44

43. Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 230, also History of the
Church, Vol. III p. 212.

44. "Decline and Fall o the Roman Empire," Vol. I, Chapter II.

45. This is Chapter XVI of the "Decline and Fall."

46. Tacitus Annal., lib. XV, ch. 44.

47. "Decline and Fall," Vol. I, ch. 15.

48. "History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," ch. 16.

49. Isaiah 14:12-15. Doc. and Cov., sec. 76: 25-9.

50. See Luke 10:17, 18. John 8:44, Rev. 12. In the light of these
references consider also Isaiah 14:12-5, and Doc. and Cov. section
76:25-9.

51. Pearl of Great Price, chapter 4:1-4.

52. Luke 10:18.

53. Jude 1:6.

54. Rev:7-12.

55. First Amendment, Constitution of the United States.

56. "The Fight for Missouri," (Snead) p. 14.

57. "American Commonwealths, Missouri," p. 258.

58. "American Commonwealths, Missouri," p. 259.

59. "American Commonwealths, Missouri," (Carr) p. 288.

60. "American Commonwealths, Missouri," p. 342.

61. History of Missouri, Carr, p. 360. General Price was the Colonel
Sterling Price, who held the Prophet Joseph in custody at Richmond in
1838, who shackled the brethren and whose scurrilous guards were so
severely rebuked by the Prophet.--History of the Church, Vol. III, p.
208, Note.

62. "History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties." p. 51.

63. "American Commonwealths, Missouri." p. 351.

64. Ibid. p. 351.

65. Minutes of Citizen Meeting, Liberty, Clay county, Church History
Vol. III, p. 450.

66. History of Missouri, Carr, p. 343, Note.

67. History of Missouri, Carr, 245.

68. History of Missouri, Carr, p. 158.

69. History of Missouri, Carr, p. 259.

70. General Halleck when he learned that the "jayhawking" leader,
Lane, had been promoted to the command of a bridge, declared that
such an appointment was "offering a premium for rascality and robbing
generally;" and that it would "take twenty thousand men to counteract
its effect in the state." History of Missouri, Carr, p. 348.

71. Spring's Kansas, p. 287.

72. These were bands of Kansas robbers, whose custom it was at
intervals to dash into Missouri, seize horses and cattle--not omitting
other and worse crimes on occasion--then to repair with their booty to
Lawrence, where it was defiantly sold at auction. History of Missouri,
Carr, p. 348.

73. History of the United States, Lossing, p. 592--_note_.

74. History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 450-1.

75. History of Missouri, Carr, p. 358.

76. It is but proper, however, to say that the state was afterwards
reimbursed for this amount by the general government.

77. History of Missouri, Carr, p. 359.

{1}



CHAPTER I.

The Prophet Joseph's Departure From Kirtland And Arrival In Missouri.

[Sidenote: Flight of the Prophet and Sidney Rigdon from Kirtland.]

_January, 1838_.--A new year dawned upon the Church in Kirtland in all
the bitterness of the spirit of apostate mobocracy; which continued to
rage and grow hotter and hotter, until Elder Rigdon and myself were
obliged to flee from its deadly influence, as did the Apostles and
Prophets of old, and as Jesus said, "when they persecute you in one
city, flee to another." On the evening of the 12th of January, about
ten o'clock, we left Kirtland, on horseback, to escape mob violence,
which was about to burst upon us under the color of legal process to
cover the hellish designs of our enemies, and to save themselves from
the just judgment of the law.

{2} We continued our travels during the night, and at eight o'clock on
the morning of the 13th, arrived among the brothren in Norton Township,
Medina county, Ohio, a distance of sixty miles from Kirtland. Here
we tarried about thirty-six hours, when our families arrived; and on
the 16th we pursued our journey with our families, in covered wagons
towards the city of Far West, in Missouri. We passed through Dayton and
Eaton, in Ohio, and Dublin, Indiana; in the latter place we tarried
nine days, and refreshed ourselves.

[Sidenote: Brigham Young to the Prophet's Rescue.]

About January 16, 1838, being destitute of money to pursue my journey,
I said to Brother Brigham Young: "You are one of the Twelve who have
charge of the kingdom in all the world; I believe I shall throw myself
upon you, and look to you for counsel in this case." Brother Young
thought I was not earnest, but I told him I was. Brother Brigham then
said, "If you will take my counsel it will be that you rest yourself,
and be assured you shall have money in plenty to pursue your journey."

There was a brother living in the place who had tried for some time
to sell his farm but could not; he asked counsel of Brother Young
concerning his property; Brother Young told him that if he would do
right, and obey counsel, he should have an opportunity to sell. In
about three days Brother Tomlinson came to Brother Brigham and said
he had an offer for his place; Brother Brigham told him that this was
the manifestation of the hand of the Lord to deliver Brother Joseph
Smith from his present necessities. Brother Brigham's promise was soon
verified, and I got three hundred dollars from Brother Tomlinson, which
enabled me to pursue my journey. [1]

[Sidenote: The Bitterness of the Prophet's Enemies.]

The weather was extremely cold, we were obliged to secrete ourselves
in our wagons, sometimes, to elude the {3} grasp of our pursuers,
who continued their pursuit of us more than two hundred miles from
Kirtland, armed with pistols and guns, seeking our lives. They
frequently crossed our track, twice they were in the houses where
we stopped, once we tarried all night in the same house with them,
with only a partition between us and them; and heard their oaths and
imprecations, and threats concerning us, if they could catch us; and
late in the evening they came in to our room and examined us, but
decided we were not the men. At other times we passed them in the
streets, and gazed upon them, and they on us, but they knew us not. One
Lyons was one of our pursuers.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Arrival in Missouri.]

I parted with Brother Rigdon at Dublin, and traveling different routes
we met at Terre Haute, where, after resting, we separated again, and I
pursued my journey, crossing the Mississippi river at Quincy, Illinois.

    Trial of the Far West Presidency of the Church.

    _Minutes of the Proceedings of the Committee of the whole Church
    in Zion, in General Assembly, at the following places, to-wit:
    At Far West, February 5, 1838; Carter's Settlement on the 6th;
    Durphy's Settlement, on the 7th; Curtis' Dwelling-house on the
    8th; and Haun's Mills on the 9th. Thomas B. Marsh, Moderator, John
    Cleminson, Clerk_.

    After prayer, the Moderator stated the object of the meeting,
    giving a relation of the recent organization of the Church here and
    in Kirtland. He also read a certain revelation given in Kirtland,
    September 3, 1837, which made known that John Whitmer and W. W.
    Phelps, were in transgression, and if they repented not, they
    should be removed out of their places; [2] also read a certain
    clause contained in the appeal published in the old _Star_, on the
    183rd page as follows:

    "And to sell our lands would amount to a denial of our faith, as
    that is the place where the Zion of God shall stand, according to
    our faith and belief in the revelations of God."

    Elder John Murdock then took the stand and showed to the
    congregation, why the High Council proceeded thus was that the
    Church {4} might have a voice in the matter; and that he considered
    it perfectly legal according to the instructions of President
    Joseph Smith, Jun.

    Elder George M. Hinkle then set forth the way in which the
    Presidency of Far West had been labored with, that a committee of
    three, of whom he was one, had labored with them. He then read a
    written document, containing a number of accusations against the
    three presidents. He spoke many things against them, setting forth
    in a plain and energetic manner the iniquity of Elders Phelps and
    Whitmer, in using the monies which were loaned to the Church.
    Also David Whitmer's wrong-doing in persisting in the use of tea,
    coffee, and tobacco.

    Bishop Partridge then arose and endeavored to rectify some mistakes
    of minor importance, made by Elder Hinkle; also the Bishop spoke
    against the proceedings of the meeting, as being hasty and illegal,
    for he thought they ought to be had before the Common Council, and
    said that he could not lift his hand against the Presidency at
    present. He then read a letter from President Joseph Smith, Jun.

    A letter from William Smith was then read by Thomas B. Marsh, who
    made some comments on the same, and also on the letter read by
    Bishop Partridge.

    Elder George Morey, who was one of the committee sent to labor with
    the Missouri Presidency, spoke, setting forth in a very energetic
    manner, the proceedings of that Presidency, as being iniquitous.

    Elder Thomas Grover, also, being one of the committee, spoke
    against the conduct of the Presidency, and of Oliver Cowdery, on
    their visit to labor with them.

    Elder David W. Patten spoke with much zeal against the Presidency,
    and in favor of Joseph Smith, Jun., and that the wolves alluded to,
    in his letter, were the dissenters in Kirtland.

    Elder Lyman Wight stated that he considered all other accusations
    of minor importance compared to Brothers Phelps and Whitmer selling
    their lands in Jackson county; that they had set an example which
    all the Saints were liable to follow. He said that it was a hellish
    principle on which they had acted, and that they had flatly denied
    the faith in so doing.

    Elder Elias Higbee sanctioned what had been done by the Council,
    speaking against the Presidency.

    Elder Murdock stated that sufficient had been said to substantiate
    the accusations against them.

    Elder Solomon Hancock pleaded in favor of the Presidency, stating
    that he could not raise his hand against them.

    Elder John Corrill then spoke against the proceedings of the High
    Council and labored hard to show that the meeting was illegal,
    and that {5} the Presidency ought to be arraigned before a proper
    tribunal, which he considered to be a Bishop and Twelve High
    Priests. He labored in favor of the Presidency, and said that he
    should not raise his hands against them at present, although he did
    not uphold the Presidents in their iniquity.

    Simeon Carter spoke against the meeting as being hasty.

    Elder Groves followed Brother Carter in like observations.

    Elder Patten again took the stand in vindication of the cause of
    the meeting.

    Elder Morley spoke against the Presidency, at the same time
    pleading mercy.

    Titus Billings said he could not vote until they had a hearing in
    the Common Council. [3]

    Elder Marsh said that the meeting was according to the direction of
    Brother Joseph, he therefore considered it legal.

    Elder Moses Martin spoke in favor of the legality of the meeting,
    and against the conduct of the Presidency, with great energy,
    alleging that the present corruptions of the Church here, were
    owing to the wickedness and mismanagement of her leaders.

    The Moderator then called the vote in favor of the Missouri
    Presidency; the negative was then called, and the vote against
    David Whitmer, John Whitmer, and William W. Phelps was unanimous,
    excepting eight or ten, and this minority only wished them to
    continue in office a little longer, or until Joseph Smith, Jun.,
    arrived.

    Thomas B. Marsh, Moderator,

    John Cleminson, Clerk.

    _Minutes of Proceedings in Other Settlements than Far West_.

    In Simeon Carter's settlement the Saints assembled on the 6th
    instant, when they unanimously rejected the three above-named
    Presidents. On {6} the 7th, the Saints assembled at Edmond
    Durphy's, agreeable to appointment, where the above-named
    Presidents were unanimously rejected; also on the 8th at Nahum
    Curtis' dwelling-house, they were unanimously rejected by the
    assembly; also at Haun's Mills, on the 9th, the Saints unanimously
    rejected them.

    At a meeting of the High Council the Bishop and his counsel,
    February 10, 1838, it was moved, seconded, and carried, that Oliver
    Cowdery, William W. Phelps, and John Whitmer, stand no longer as
    chairman and clerks to sign and record licenses.

    Voted that Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten be authorized to
    attend to such business for the time being.

    Also voted that Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten be presidents,
    pro tempore, of the Church of Latter-day Saints in Missouri, until
    Presidents Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, arrive in the
    land of Zion.

    J. Murdock, Moderator,

    T. B. Marsh, Clerk.

    _High Council Meeting at Far West_.

    The High Council of Zion met in Far West, on Saturday, March 10,
    1838, agreeable to adjournment; when after discussion it was
    resolved.

    First--That the High Council recommend by writing to the various
    branches of this Church, that all those who wish to receive
    ordination, procure recommends from the branches to which they
    belong, and have such recommends pass through the hands of the
    different quorums for inspection, previous to the applicants'
    ordination.

    Second--Resolved that the High Council recommend to all those who
    hold licenses, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, and do
    not officiate in their respective offices, be subject to military
    duty. [4]

    A charge was then preferred against William W. Phelps and John
    Whitmer, for persisting in unchristian-like conduct.

    Six councilors were appointed to speak, viz., Simeon Carter, Isaac
    Higbee, and Levi Jackman, on the part of the accuser; and Jared
    Carter, Thomas Grover, and Samuel Bent, on the part of the accused;
    when the following letter, belonging to Thomas B. Marsh, was read
    by {7} Brother Marcellus F. Cowdery, bearer of the same, previous
    to giving it to its rightful owner:

    "Far West, March 10, 1838.

    "Sir--It is contrary to the principles of the revelations of
    Jesus Christ and His gospel, and the laws of the land, to try a
    person for an offense by an illegal tribunal, or by men prejudiced
    against him, or by authority that has given an opinion or decision
    beforehand, or in his absence.

    "Very respectfully we have the honor to be,

    "David Whitmer,

    "William W. Phelps,

    "John Whitmer,

    "Presidents of the Church of Christ in Missouri.

    "To Thomas B. Marsh, one of the [Twelve] Traveling Councilors."

    Attested: Oliver Cowdery,

    Clerk of the High Council of the Church of Christ in Missouri.

    I certify the foregoing to be a true copy from the original.

    Oliver Cowdery,

    Clerk of the High Council.

    All the effect the above letter had upon the Council, was to
    convince them still more of the wickedness of those men, by
    endeavoring to palm themselves off upon the Church, as her
    Presidents, after the Church had by a united voice, removed them
    from their presidential office, for their ungodly conduct; and the
    letter was considered no more nor less than a direct insult or
    contempt cast upon the authorities of God, and the Church of Jesus
    Christ; therefore the Council proceeded to business.

    A number of charges were sustained against these men, the
    principal of which was claiming $2,000 Church funds, which they
    had subscribed for building a house to the Lord in this place,
    when they held in their possession the city plat, and were sitting
    in the presidential chair; which subscription they were intending
    to pay from the avails of the town lots; but when the town plat
    was transferred into the hands of the Bishop for the benefit
    of the Church, it was agreed that the Church should take this
    subscription off the hands of W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer: but in
    the transaction of the business, they bound the Bishop in a heavy
    mortgage, to pay them the above $2,000, in two years from the date
    thereof, a part of which they had already received, and claimed the
    remainder.

    The six councilors made a few appropriate remarks, but none felt to
    {8} plead for mercy, as it had not been asked on the part of the
    accused, and all with one consent declared that justice ought to
    have her demands.

    After some remarks by Presidents Marsh and Patten, setting forth
    the iniquity of those men in claiming the $2,000 spoken of, which
    did not belong to them, any more than to any other person in the
    Church, it was decided that William W. Phelps and John Whitmer be
    no longer members of the Church of Christ of Latter-day Saints,
    and be given over to the buffetings of Satan, until they learn to
    blaspheme no more against the authorities of God, nor fleece the
    flock of Christ.

    The Council was then asked if they concurred with the decision, if
    so, to manifest it by rising; they all arose.

    The vote was then put to the congregation, and was carried
    unanimously.

    The negative was called, but no one voted.

    Brother Marcellus F. Cowdery arose and said he wished to have it
    understood that he did not vote either way, because he did not
    consider it a legal tribunal. He also offered insult to the High
    Council, and to the Church, by reading a letter belonging to Thomas
    B. Marsh, before giving it to him, and in speaking against the
    authorities of the Church.

    A motion was then made by President Patten, that fellowship be
    withdrawn from Marcellus F. Cowdery, until he make satisfaction,
    which was seconded and carried unanimously.

    Thomas B. Marsh,

    David W. Patten,

    Presidents.

    Ebenezer Robinson,

    Clerk of High Council.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Reception in Zion.]

When I had arrived within one hundred and twenty miles of Far West,
the brethren met me with teams and money to help me forward; and when
eight miles from the city, we were met by an escort, viz., Thomas B.
Marsh and others, who received us with open arms; and on the 13th of
March, with my family and some others I put up at Brother Barnard's for
the night. Here we were met by another escort of the brethren from the
town, who came to make us welcome to their little Zion.

On the 14th of March, as we were about entering Far West, many of the
brethren came out to meet us, who {9} also with open arms welcomed us
to their bosoms. We were immediately received under the hospitable roof
of Brother George W. Harris, who treated us with all possible kindness,
and we refreshed ourselves with much satisfaction, after our long and
tedious journey, the brethren bringing in such things as we had need of
for our comfort and convenience.

After being here two or three days, my brother Samuel arrived with his
family.

Shortly after his arrival, while walking with him and certain other
brethren, the following sentiments occurred to my mind:

    _The Political Motto of the Church of Latter-day Saints_.

    The Constitution of our country formed by the Fathers of liberty.
    Peace and good order in society. Love to God, and good will to man.
    All good and wholesome laws, virtue and truth above all things, and
    aristarchy, live for ever! But woe to tyrants, mobs, aristocracy,
    anarchy, and toryism, and all those who invent or seek out
    unrighteous and vexatious law suits, under the pretext and color of
    law, or office, either religious or political. Exalt the standard
    of Democracy! Down with that of priestcraft, and let all the people
    say Amen! that the blood of our fathers may not cry from the ground
    against us. Sacred is the memory of that blood which bought for us
    our liberty.

    Joseph Smith, Jun.,

    Thomas B. Marsh,

    David W. Patten,

    Brigham Young,

    Samuel H. Smith,

    George M. Hinkle,

    John Corrill,

    George W. Robinson.

    _The Prophet's Answers to Questions on Scripture_. [5]

    Who is the Stem of Jesse spoken of in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and
    5th verses of the 11th chapter of Isaiah?

    Verily thus saith the Lord, it is Christ.

    What is the rod spoken of in the first verse of the 11th chapter of
    Isaiah that should come of the Stem of Jesse?

    {10} Behold, thus saith the Lord, it is a servant in the hands of
    Christ, who is partly a descendant of Jesse as well as of Ephraim,
    or of the House of Joseph, on whom there is laid much power.

    What is the root of Jesse spoken of in the 10th verse of the 11th
    chapter?

    Behold, thus saith the Lord, it is a descendant of Jesse, as well
    as of Joseph, unto whom rightly belongs the Priesthood, and the
    keys of the Kingdom, for an ensign, and for the gathering of my
    people in the last days.

    Questions by Elias Higbee:

    "What is meant by the command in Isaiah, 52nd chapter, 1st verse,
    which saith, put on thy strength O Zion? And what people had Isaiah
    reference to?"

    He had reference to those whom God should call in the last days,
    who should hold the power of Priesthood to bring again Zion, and
    the redemption of Israel; and to put on her strength is to put on
    the authority of the Priesthood, which she (Zion) has a right to by
    lineage; also to return to that power which she had lost.

    "What are we to understand by Zion loosing herself from the bands
    of her neck; 2nd verse?"

    We are to understand that the scattered remnants are exhorted to
    return to the Lord from whence they have fallen, which if they do,
    the promise of the Lord is that He will speak to them, or give them
    revelation. See the 6th, 7th and 8th verses. The bands of her neck
    are the curses of God upon her, or the remnants of Israel in their
    scattered condition among the Gentiles.

    _The Prophet's Letter to the Presidency of the Church of Jesus
    Christ of Latter-day Saints in Kirtland_.

    Far West, March 29, 1838.

    _Dear and Well Beloved Brethren_--Through the grace and mercy of
    our God, after a long and tedious journey of two months and one
    day, my family and I arrived safe in the city of Far West, having
    been met at Huntsvills, one hundred and twenty miles from this
    place, by my brethren with teams and money, to forward us on our
    journey. When within eight miles of the city of Far West, we were
    met by an escort of brethren from the city, viz.: Thomas B. Marsh,
    John Corrill, Elias Higbee, and several others of the faithful
    of the West, who received us with open arms and warm hearts, and
    welcomed us to the bosom of their society. On our arrival in the
    city we were greeted on every hand by the Saints, who bid us
    welcome to the land of their inheritance.

    {11} Dear brethren, you may be assured that so friendly a meeting
    and reception paid us well for our long seven years of servitude,
    persecution, and affliction in the midst of our enemies, in the
    land of Kirtland; yea, verily our hearts were full; and we feel
    grateful to Almighty God for His kindness unto us. The particulars
    of our journey, brethren, cannot well be written, but we trust that
    the same God who has protected us will protect you also, and will,
    sooner or later, grant us the privilege of seeing each other face
    to face, and of rehearsing all our sufferings.

    We have heard of the destruction of the printing office, which we
    presume to believe must have been occasioned by the Parrish party,
    or more properly the aristocrats or anarchists.

    The Saints here have provided a room for us, and daily necessaries,
    which are brought in from all parts of the country to make us
    comfortable; so that I have nothing to do but to attend to my
    spiritual concerns, or the spiritual affairs of the Church.

    The difficulties of the Church had been adjusted before my arrival
    here, by a judicious High Council, with Thomas B. Marsh and David
    W. Patten, who acted as presidents _pro tempore_ of the Church
    of Zion, being appointed by the voice of the Council and Church,
    William W. Phelps and John Whitmer having been cut off from the
    Church, David Whitmer remaining as yet. The Saints at this time
    are in union; and peace and love prevail throughout; in a word,
    heaven smiles upon the Saints in Caldwell. Various and many have
    been the falsehoods written from Kirtland to this place, but [they]
    have availed nothing. We have no uneasiness about the power of our
    enemies in this place to do us harm.

    Brother Samuel H. Smith and family arrived here soon after we did,
    in good health. Brothers Brigham Young, Daniel S. Miles, and Levi
    Richards arrived here when we did. They were with us on the last
    part of our journey, which ended much to our satisfaction. They
    also are well. They have provided places for their families, and
    are now about to break the ground for seed.

    Having been under the hands of [men who urged against me] wicked
    and vexatious law suits for seven years past, my business [in
    Kirtland] was so deranged that I was not able to leave it in so
    good a situation as I had anticipated; but if there are any wrongs,
    they shall all be noticed, so far as the Lord gives me ability and
    power to do so.

    Say to all the brethren, that I have not forgotten them, but
    remember them in my prayers. Say to Mother Beaman that I remember
    her, also Brother Daniel Carter, Brother Strong and family, Brother
    Granger and family; finally I cannot enumerate them all for want of
    room, I will just name Brother Knight, the Bishop, etc.; my best
    respects to {12} them all, and I commend them and the Church of
    God in Kirtland to our Heavenly Father, and the word of His grace,
    which is able to make you wise unto salvation.

    I would just say to Brother Marks, that I saw in a vision while on
    the road, that whereas he was closely pursued by an innumerable
    concourse of enemies, and as they pressed upon him hard, as if they
    were about to devour him, and had seemingly obtained some degree
    of advantage over him, but about this time a chariot of fire came,
    and near the place, even the angel of the Lord put forth his hand
    unto Brother Marks and said unto him, "Thou art my son, come here,"
    and immediately he was caught up in the chariot, and rode away
    triumphantly out of their midst. And again the Lord said, "I will
    raise thee up for a blessing unto many people." Now the particulars
    of this whole matter cannot be written at this time, but the vision
    was evidently given to me that I might know that the hand of the
    Lord would be on his behalf.

    I transmit to you the Motto of the Church of Latter-day Saints.

    We left President Rigdon thirty miles this side of Paris, Illinois,
    in consequence of the sickness of Brother George W. Robinson's wife.

    On yesterday Brother Robinson arrived here, who informed us that
    his father-in-law (Sidney Rigdon) was at Huntsville, detained on
    account of the ill health of his wife. They will probably be here
    soon.

    Choice seeds of all kinds of fruit, also choice breeds of cattle,
    would be in much demand; and best blood of horses, garden seeds of
    every description, and hay seeds of all sorts, are much needed in
    this place.

    Very respectfully I subscribe myself your servant in Christ, our
    Lord and Savior.

    Joseph Smith, Jun.,

    President of the Church of Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Footnotes

1. This incident occurred in Dublin, Indiana, where, and after, the
Prophet had sought for a job at cutting and sawing wood to relieve his
necessities.--"Life of Brigham Young," (Tullidge), p. 85.

2. See Vol. II, p. 511.

3. The question raised here several times by the brethren, and
hereafter alluded to by the defendants in the case, concerning the
illegality of the Council attempting then to try David Whitmer, John
Whitmer, and William W. Phelps, constituting the local Presidency of
the Church in Missouri, grew out of a misapprehension of a council
provided for in the revelations of God for the trial of a President
of the High Priesthood, who is also of the Presidency of the whole
Church. The said revelation provides that if a President of the High
Priesthood, shall transgress, he shall be brought before the Presiding
Bishop, or bishopric, of the Church, who are to be assisted by twelve
counselors chosen from the High Priesthood. Here the President's
conduct may be investigated, and the decision of that council upon
his head is to be the end of controversy concerning him. (See Doc.
and Cov., sec. 107:76, 81, 82, 83). But the Presidency of the Church
in Missouri was a local presidency, hence they could not plead the
illegality of a local council of the Church to try them.

4. The law of Missouri excused from military duty all licensed
ministers of the Gospel, and as nearly all the adult members of the
Church who were worthy had received ordination to the Priesthood, it
left the community in Far West, then a frontier country and liable to
be raided by warlike tribes of Indians, without militia companies and
state arms for its protection; hence the recommendation of the Council
that the brethren within the ages specified, and not actively employed
in the ministry, place themselves in a position to accept militia
service.

5. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxiii.

{13}



CHAPTER II.

Excommunication Of Oliver Cowdery And David Whitmer--the Work In
England.

[Sidenote: Arrival of Sidney Rigdon at Far West.]

President Rigdon arrived at Far West with his family, Wednesday, April
4th, having had a tedious journey, and his family having suffered many
afflictions.

    _Minutes of a General Conference of the Church at Far West_.

    Far West, April 6, 1838.

    Agreeable to a resolution passed by the High Council of Zion,
    March 3, 1838, the Saints in Missouri assembled in this place
    to celebrate the anniversary of the Church of Jesus Christ of
    Latter-day Saints, and to transact Church business, Joseph Smith,
    Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, presiding.

    The meeting was opened by singing, and prayer by David W. Patten,
    after which President Joseph Smith, Jun., read the order of the
    day as follows: Doors will be opened at 9 o'clock a. m., and the
    meeting will commence by singing and prayer. A sexton will then
    be appointed as a door keeper, and other services in the House of
    the Lord. Two historians will then be appointed to write and keep
    the Church history; also a general recorder to keep the records of
    the whole Church, and to be the clerk of the First Presidency. And
    a clerk will be appointed for the High Council, and to keep the
    Church records of this Stake. Three presidents will be appointed to
    preside over this Church of Zion, after which an address will be
    delivered by the Presidency. Then an intermission of one hour, when
    the meeting will again convene, and open by singing and prayer. The
    Sacrament will then be administered, and the blessing of infants
    attended to.

    The meeting proceeded to business. George Morey was appointed
    sexton, and Dimick Huntington assistant; John Corrill and Elias
    Higbee, historians; George W. Robinson, general Church recorder and
    {14} clerk to the First Presidency; Ebenezer Robinson, Church clerk
    and recorder for Far West and clerk of the High Council; Thomas B.
    Marsh, President _pro tempore_ of the Church in Zion, and Brigham
    Young and David W. Patten, his assistant Presidents.

    After one hour's adjournment, meeting again opened by David W.
    Patten. The bread and wine were administered, and ninety-five
    infants were blessed.

    Joseph Smith, Jun., President.

    Ebenezer Robinson, Clerk.

    _Minutes of the First Quarterly Conference at Far West_.

    Agreeable to a resolution of the High Council, March 3, 1838,
    the general authorities of the Church met, to hold the Quarterly
    Conference of the Church of Latter-day Saints, at Far West, on the
    7th of April, 1838.

    President Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, Thomas B. Marsh, David
    W. Patten, and Brigham Young, took the stand, after which the
    several quorums, the High Council, the High Priests, the Seventies,
    the Elders, the Bishops, the Priests, Teachers and Deacons, were
    organized by their Presidents.

    President Joseph Smith, Jun., made some remarks and also gave some
    instructions respecting the order of the day. After singing, prayer
    by Brigham Young, and singing again, President Smith then addressed
    the congregation at considerable length, followed by President
    Rigdon.

    Adjourned twenty minutes.

    Opened by David W. Patten, who also made some remarks respecting
    the Twelve Apostles. He spoke of Thomas B. Marsh, Brigham Young,
    Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, and Orson Pratt,
    as being men of God, whom he could recommend with cheerfulness
    and confidence. He spoke somewhat doubtful of William Smith, for
    something he had heard respecting his faith in the work. He also
    spoke of William E. McLellin, Luke S. Johnson, Lyman E. Johnson,
    and John F. Boynton, as being men whom he could not recommend to
    the conference.

    President John Murdock represented the High Council. The report was
    favorable. The seats of Elisha H. Groves, Calvin Bebee, and Lyman
    Wight were vacant in consequence of their having moved so far away
    they could not attend the Council.

    Thomas B. Marsh nominated Jared Carter, to fill the seat of Elisha
    H. Groves; John P. Greene that of Calvin Bebee, and George W.
    Harris that of Lyman Wight; which nominations were severally and
    unanimously sanctioned.

    {15} George W. Harris was ordained a High Priest.

    On motion, conference adjourned to the 8th, 9 o'clock a. m.

    Sunday, April 8th, 9 o'clock a. m., conference convened and opened
    as usual, prayer by Brigham Young.

    President Joseph Smith, Jun., made a few remarks respecting the
    Kirtland Bank. He was followed by Brigham Young, who gave a short
    history of his travels to Massachusetts and New York.

    President Charles C. Rich represented his quorum of High Priests,
    and read their names. The principal part were in good standing.

    President Daniel S. Miles and Levi W. Hancock represented the
    Seventies.

    The quorum of Elders were represented by their President, Harvey
    Green, numbering one hundred and twenty-four in good standing.

    President Joseph Smith, Jun., made a few remarks on the Word of
    Wisdom, giving the reason of its coming forth, saying it should be
    observed.

    Adjourned for one hour.

    Conference convened agreeable to adjournment, and opened as usual,
    after which Bishop Partridge represented his Council and the Lesser
    Priesthood, and made a report of receipts and expenditures of
    Church funds which had passed through his hands.

    It was then moved, seconded and carried, that the First Presidency
    be appointed to sign the licenses of the official members of the
    Church.

    Conference adjourned until the first Friday in July next.

    Joseph Smith, Jun., President.

    Ebenezer Robinson, Clerk.

[Sidenote: Demand on John Whitmer for the Church Records.]

The following letter was sent to John Whitmer, in consequence of his
withholding the records of the Church in the city of Far West when
called for by the clerk.

_Mr. John Whitmer, Sir_: We are desirous of honoring you by giving
publicity to your notes on the history of the Church of Latter-day
Saints, after making such corrections as we thought would be necessary,
knowing your incompetency as a historian, and that writings coming from
your pen, could not be put to press without our correcting them, or
else the Church must suffer reproach. Indeed, sir, we never supposed
you capable of writing a history, but were willing to let it come out
under your name, notwithstanding it would really not be yours but ours.
We are still willing to honor you, if you can be made to know your own
interest, and give up your notes, so that they {16} can be corrected
and made fit for the press: but if not, we have all the materials for
another, which we shall commence this week to write.

Your humble servants,

Joseph Smith, Jun.,

Sidney Rigdon,

Presidents of the whole Church of Latter-day Saints.

Attest: Ebenezer Robinson, Clerk.

[Sidenote: Charges Against Oliver Cowdery.]

_Wednesday, April 11_,--Elder Seymour Brunson preferred the following
charges against Oliver Cowdery, to the High Council at Far West: [1]

    To the Bishop and Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of
    Latter-day Saints, I prefer the following charges against President
    Oliver Cowdery:

    "First--For persecuting the brethren by urging on vexatious law
    suits against them, and thus distressing the innocent.

    "Second--For seeking to destroy the character of President Joseph
    Smith, Jun., by falsely insinuating that he was guilty of adultery.

    "Third--For treating the Church with contempt by not attending
    meetings.

    "Fourth--For virtually denying the faith by declaring that he would
    not be governed by any ecclesiastical authority or revelations
    whatever, in his temporal affairs.

    "Fifth--For selling his lands in Jackson county, contrary to the
    revelations.

    "Sixth--For writing and sending an insulting letter to President
    Thomas B. Marsh, while the latter was on the High Council,
    attending to the duties of his office as President of the Council,
    and by insulting the High Council with the contents of said letter.

    "Seventh--For leaving his calling to which God had appointed him
    by revelation, for the sake of filthy lucre, and turning to the
    practice of law.

    "Eighth--For disgracing the Church by being connected in the bogus
    business, as common report says.

    "Ninth--For dishonestly retaining notes after they had been paid;
    and finally, for leaving and forsaking the cause of God, and
    returning to the beggarly elements of the world, and neglecting his
    high and holy calling, according to his profession."

[Sidenote: Trial of Oliver Cowdery.]

The Bishop and High Council assembled at the Bishop's {17} office,
April 12, 1838. After the organization of the Council, the above
charges of the 11th instant were read, also a letter from Oliver
Cowdery, as will be found recorded in the Church record of the city of
Far West, Book A. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 8th, and 9th charges were
sustained. The 4th and 5th charges were rejected, and the 6th was
withdrawn. Consequently he (Oliver Cowdery) was considered no longer
a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. [2] Also
voted by the High Council that {18} Oliver Cowdery be no longer a
committee to select locations for the gathering of the Saints.

[Sidenote: Charges against David Whitmer.]

_April 13_.--The following charges were preferred against David
Whitmer, before the High Council at Far West, in council assembled.

    "First--For not observing the Word of Wisdom.

    "Second--For unchristian-like conduct in neglecting to attend {19}
    meetings, in uniting with and possessing the same spirit as the
    dissenters.

    "Third--In writing letters to the dissenters in Kirtland
    unfavorable to the cause, and to the character of Joseph Smith, Jun.

    "Fourth--In neglecting the duties of his calling, and separating
    himself from the Church, while he had a name among us.

    "Fifth--For signing himself President of the Church of Christ in an
    insulting letter to the High Council after he had been cut off from
    the Presidency."

After reading the above charges, together with a letter sent to the
President of said Council, [3] the Council held that the charges were
sustained, and consequently considered David Whitmer no longer a member
of the Church of Latter-day Saints.

{20} [Sidenote: Charges against Lyman E. Johnson.]

The same day three charges were preferred against Lyman E. Johnson,
which were read, together with a letter from him, in answer to the one
recorded in Far West Record. [4] The charges were sustained, and he was
cut off from the Church.

[Sidenote: The Word in England--Conference in Preston.]

The work continued to prosper in England, and Elders Richards and
Russell having previously been called to Preston, to prepare for their
return to America, a general conference was held in the Temperance
Hall, (Cock Pit) Preston, on Sunday, April 1st, for the purpose of
setting in order the churches, etc. Brother Joseph Fielding was chosen
President over the whole Church in England, and Willard Richards and
William Clayton [5] were chosen his Counselors, and were ordained to
the High Priesthood and to the Presidency. This was the first notice
given Elder Richards that he would be required to continue in England.
At this conference eight Elders were ordained, among whom was Thomas
Webster, and several Priests, Teachers and Deacons; about forty were
confirmed, who had previously been baptized; about sixty children were
blessed, and twenty baptized that day. Conference continued without
intermission from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. About fifty official members met
in council in the evening.

{21} [Sidenote: Farewell Meetings with the Saints.]

From the 1st to the 8th of April Presidents Kimball and Hyde visited
the churches a short distance from Preston, and on the 8th attended
meeting in the "Cock Pit." After preaching by Elder Richards, they
bore their farewell testimony to the truth of the work. After they had
closed, and while Elder Russell was speaking, the enemy severed the gas
pipes which lighted the house, and threw the assembly into darkness in
an instant. The damage was soon repaired, and the design of breaking up
the meeting frustrated.

On Tuesday, the 10th of April, at 12 o'clock, Elders Kimball and Hyde
left Preston by coach for Liverpool.

While the Elders were in Liverpool they wrote as follows:

    _A Prophecy_.

    Liverpool, Good Friday, April 13, 1838.

    Dear Brothers And Sisters In Preston:--It seemeth good unto us,
    and also to the Holy Spirit, to write you a few words which cause
    pain in our hearts, and will also pain you when they are fulfilled
    before you, yet you shall have joy in the end. Brother Thomas
    Webster will not abide in the Spirit of the Lord, but will reject
    the truth, and become the enemy of the people of God, and expose
    the mysteries that have been committed to him, that a righteous
    judgment may be executed upon him, unless he speedily repent. When
    this sorrowful prediction shall be fulfilled, this letter shall be
    read to the Church, and it shall prove a solemn warning to all to
    beware.

    Farewell in the Lord,

    Heber C. Kimball,

    Orson Hyde.

The foregoing letter was written and sealed in the presence of
Presidents Joseph Fielding and Willard Richards, who had gone to
Liverpool to witness the brethren sail, and, by the writers, committed
to their special charge, that no one should know the contents until the
fulfillment thereof.

[Sidenote: American Slanders Reach England.]

Previous to this period, very few of the foolish and wicked stories
which filled the weekly journals and pamphlets in America concerning
the "Mormons," as the Saints {22} were termed, had found their way into
the English prints; but immediately after Elders Kimball and Hyde left
Preston, on or about the 15th of April, one Livesey (a Methodist Priest
who had previously spent some years in America, and said he heard
nothing about the Saints in America) came out with a pamphlet, made up
of forged letters, apostate lies, and "walk on the water" stories, he
found in old American papers, which he had picked up while in America.
But he stopped the circulation of his own pamphlet by stating to a
public congregation, that he had accidentally found the contents of
his pamphlet in old papers in his trunk, which was quite providential,
to stop such abominable work as the Saints were engaged in; and in the
same lecture said he "wished the people to purchase his pamphlet, as he
had been at a great expense to procure the materials for writing it!"
His hearers retired.

On the 20th of April Elders Kimball and Hyde sailed from Liverpool on
the ship _Garrick_.

Footnotes.

1. The charges were drawn up and dated the 7th of April, and handed to
Bishop Partridge.

2. The following letter from Oliver Cowdery respecting his difficulties
at this time in the Church, is copied from the Far West Record of the
High Council, and is an interesting document for several reasons:
First, it shows the spirit of Oliver Cowdery at that time, also his
misapprehensions of the policy of the authorities in the government of
the Church, for it is to be noted that the two principal points covered
in this letter, numbers four and five of Elder Brunson's charges, were
rejected by the Council as not being proper to be considered, and
the sixth charge also is withdrawn, so that Oliver Cowdery was not
disfellowshiped from the Church on the points raised in his letter
at all, but on the first, second, third, seventh, eighth and ninth
charges in Elder Brunson's formal accusation, and since these charges
were sustained upon testimony of witnesses, as the minutes of the High
Council proceedings in the Far West Record clearly show, it is to be
believed that the Church had sufficient cause for rejecting him.

_Elder Cowdery's Letter_.

Far West, Missouri, April 12, 1838.

Dear Sir:--I received your note of the 9th inst., on the day of its
date, containing a copy of nine charges preferred before yourself and
Council against me, by Elder Seymour Brunson.

I could have wished that those charges might have been deferred until
after my interview with President Smith; but as they are not, I must
waive the anticipated pleasure with which I had flattered myself of an
understanding on those points which are grounds of different opinions
on some Church regulations, and others which personally interest myself.

The fifth charge reads as follows: "For selling his lands in Jackson
County contrary to the revelations." So much of this charge, "for
selling his lands in Jackson County," I acknowledge to be true, and
believe that a large majority of this Church have already spent their
judgment on that act, and pronounced it sufficient to warrant a
disfellowship; and also that you have concurred in its correctness,
consequently, have no good reason for supposing you would give any
decision contrary.

Now, sir, the lands in our country are allodial in the strictest
construction of that term, and have not the least shadow of feudal
tenures attached to them, consequently, they may be disposed of by
deeds of conveyance without the consent or even approbation of a
superior.

The fourth charge is in the following words, "For virtually denying the
faith by declaring that he would not be governed by any ecclesiastical
authority nor revelation whatever in his temporal affairs."

With regard to this, I think I am warranted in saying, the judgment
is also passed as on the matter of the fifth charge, consequently, I
have no disposition to contend with the Council; this charge covers
simply the doctrine of the fifth, and if I were to be controlled by
other than my own judgment, in a compulsory manner, in my temporal
interests, of course, could not buy or sell without the consent of some
real or supposed authority. Whether that clause contains the precise
words, I am not certain--I think however they were these, "I will not
be influenced, governed, or controlled, in my temporal interests by any
ecclesiastical authority or pretended revelation whatever, contrary
to my own judgment." Such being still my opinion shall only remark
that the three great principles of English liberty, as laid down in
the books, are "the right of personal security, the right of personal
liberty, and the right of private property." My venerable ancestor
was among the little band, who landed on the rocks of Plymouth in
1620--with him he brought those maxims, and a body of those laws which
were the result and experience of many centuries, on the basis of which
now stands our great and happy government; and they are so interwoven
in my nature, have so long been inculcated into my mind by a liberal
and intelligent ancestry that I am wholly unwilling to exchange them
for anything less liberal, less benevolent, or less free.

The very principle of which I conceive to be couched in an attempt
to set up a kind of petty government, controlled and dictated by
ecclesiastical influence, in the midst of this national and state
government. You will, no doubt, say this is not correct; but the bare
notice of these charges, over which you assume a right to decide, is,
in my opinion, a direct attempt to make the secular power subservient
to Church direction--to the correctness of which I cannot in conscience
subscribe--I believe that principle never did fail to produce anarchy
and confusion.

This attempt to control me in my temporal interests, I conceive to be a
disposition to take from me a portion of my Constitutional privileges
and inherent right--I only, respectfully, ask leave, therefore, to
withdraw from a society assuming they have such right.

So far as relates to the other seven charges, I shall lay them
carefully away, and take such a course with regard to them, as I may
feel bound by my honor, to answer to my rising posterity.

I beg you, sir, to take no view of the foregoing remarks, other than my
belief in the outward government of this Church. I do not charge you,
or any other person who differs with me on these points, of not being
sincere, but such difference does exist, which I sincerely regret.

With considerations of the highest respect, I am, your obedient servant,

[Signed.] Oliver Cowdery.

Rev. Edward Partridge, Bishop of the Church of Latter-day Saints.

3. The letter referred to is to be found in the Far West Record. It is
as follows

"Far West, Mo., April 13, 1838.

"John Murdock:

"Sir:--I received a line from you bearing date the 9th inst.,
requesting me as a High Priest to appear before the High Council and
answer to five several charges on this day at 12 o'clock.

"You, sir, with a majority of this Church have decided that certain
councils were legal by which it is said I have been deprived of my
office as one of the Presidents of this Church. I have thought, and
still think, they were not agreeable to the revelations of God, which I
believe; and by now attending this Council, and answering to charges,
as a High Priest, would be acknowledging the correctness and legality
of those former assumed councils, which I shall not do.

"Believing as I verily do, that you and the leaders of the councils
have a determination to pursue your unlawful course at all hazards,
and bring others to your standard in violation of the revelations, to
spare you any further trouble I hereby withdraw from your fellowship
and communion--choosing to seek a place among the meek and humble,
where the revelations of heaven will be observed and the rights of men
regarded.

"David Whitmer."

In the minutes of the council in which this letter was read appear also
the following paragraphs:

"After the reading of the above letter it was not considered necessary
to investigate the case, as he [David Whitmer] had offered contempt to
the Council by writing the above letter, but it was decided to let the
councilors speak what they had to say upon the case, and pass decision.

"The councilors then made a few remarks in which they spoke warmly of
the contempt offered to the Council in the above letter, therefore,
thought he [David Whitmer] was not worthy a membership in the Church.

"Whereupon President Marsh made a few remarks, and decided that David
Whitmer be no longer considered a member of the Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints."

The Council sustained the decision of President Marsh and David Whitmer
was excommunicated. The letters of both Oliver Cowdery and David
Whitmer to the High Council, setting forth their position respecting
matters involved, are here presented that I might call attention to
this fact: neither of them deny or even slight the great facts in which
Mormonism had its origin--the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, and
the ministration of the angels of heaven to both Joseph Smith and
themselves. Had there been any fraud or collusion entered into between
Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer, I take it that it
would have been a very natural thing for men smarting under what they
regarded as injustice, to have manifested that fact in one way or
another in these communications. Their silence at this critical time of
their experience, and in the experience of the Church, constitutes very
strong presumptive evidence of the reality of those facts which brought
Mormonism into existence.

4. A copy of which may be found in Far West Record, Book A, p. 128.

5. William Clayton was born in Penworthan, Lancashire, England,
July 17, 1814. He was baptized soon after the arrival of the Mormon
Elders in England in 1837. Soon after his ordination to the Holy
Priesthood and Presidency of the British mission he abandoned all other
business and gave himself to the ministry, in which he was remarkably
successful. {23}



CHAPTER III.

Readjustment And Settlement Of Affairs At Far West.

_April 17_.--I received the following:

    _Revelation Given at Far West_. [1]

    1. Verily thus saith the Lord, it is wisdom in my servant David W.
    Patten, that he settle up all his business as soon as he possibly
    can, and make a disposition of his merchandise, that he may perform
    a mission unto me next spring, in company with others, even twelve,
    including himself, to testify of my name, and bear glad tidings
    unto all the world;

    2. For verily thus saith the Lord, that inasmuch as there are those
    among you who deny my name, others shall be planted in their stead,
    and receive their bishopric. Amen.

I also received the following:

    _Revelation Given to Brigham Young at Far West_.

    Verily thus saith the Lord, let my servant Brigham Young go unto
    the place which he has bought, on Mill Creek, and there provide for
    his family until an effectual door is opened for the support of his
    family, until I shall command him to go hence, and not to leave his
    family until they are amply provided for. Amen.

_April 26_.--I received the following:

    _Revelation Given at Far West making known the will of God
    concerning the building up of that place, and of the Lord's House_.
    [2]

    1. Verily thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph Smith,
    Jun., and also my servant Sidney Rigdon, and also my servant Hyrum
    Smith, and your counselors who are and shall be appointed hereafter;

    2. And also unto you my servant Edward Partridge, and his
    counselors;

    {24} 3. And also unto my faithful servants, who are of the High
    Council of my Church in Zion (for thus it shall be called), and
    unto all the Elders and people of my Church of Jesus Christ of
    Latter-day Saints, scattered abroad in all the world;

    4. For thus shall my Church be called in the last days, even the
    Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

    5. Verily I say unto you all, Arise and shine forth, that thy light
    may be a standard for the nations.

    6. And that the gathering together upon the land of Zion, and upon
    her stakes, may be for a defense, and for a refuge from the storm,
    and from wrath when it shall be poured out without mixture upon the
    whole earth.

    7. Let the city, Far West, be a holy and consecrated land unto me,
    and it shall be called most holy, for the ground upon which thou
    standest is holy;

    8. Therefore I command you to build an house unto me, for the
    gathering together of my Saints, that they may worship me;

    9. And let there be a beginning of this work, and a foundation, and
    a preparatory work, this following summer;

    10. And let the beginning be made on the 4th day of July next, and
    from that time forth let my people labor diligently to build an
    house unto my name.

    11. And in one year from this day let them re-commence laying the
    foundation of my house:

    12. Thus let them from that time forth labor diligently until it
    shall {25} be finished, from the corner stone thereof unto the
    top thereof, until there shall not any thing remain that is not
    finished.

    13. Verily I say unto you, let not my servant Joseph, neither my
    servant Sidney, neither my servant Hyrum, get in debt any more for
    the building of an house unto my name;

    14. But let an house be built unto my name according to the pattern
    which I will show unto them.

    15. And if my people shall build it not according to the pattern
    which I shall show unto their Presidency, I will not accept it at
    their hands.

    16. But if my people do build it according to the pattern which I
    shall show unto their Presidency, even my servant Joseph and his
    counselors, then I will accept it at the hands of my people.

    17. And again, verily I say unto you, it is my will that the city
    of Far West should be built up speedily by the gathering of my
    Saints,

    18. And also that other places should be appointed for stakes in
    the region round about, as they shall be manifested unto my servant
    Joseph, from time to time;

    19. For behold, I will be with him, and I will sanctify him before
    the people, for unto him have I given the keys of this kingdom and
    ministry. Even so. Amen.

The Teachers' quorum voted today [April 26th] not to hold any member
of the quorum in fellowship, who would not settle his own difficulties
in the Church, and show himself approved in all things; and that they
would not hold any member of the quorum in fellowship who would take
unlawful interest.

_April 27_.--This day I chiefly spent in writing a history of the
Church from the earliest period of its existence, up to this date.

    _Minutes of the High Council_.

    Saturday, April 28, 1838. This morning Presidents Joseph Smith,
    Jun., and Sidney Rigdon attended the High Council, by invitation.

    The business before the Council was an appeal case, from the branch
    of the Church near Guymon's Mill. A Brother Jackson was accuser,
    and Aaron Lyon accused. Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten
    presiding.

    It appeared, in calling the Council to order, that some of the
    seats were vacant, which the Council proceeded to fill, but as
    there were not a sufficient number present who were eligible
    for the station, Presidents {26} Smith and Rigdon were strongly
    solicited to act as Councilors, or to preside and let the presiding
    officers act as Councilors.

    They accepted the former proposal, and President Smith was chosen
    to act on the part of the defense, and to speak upon the case,
    together with George W. Harris.

    President Rigdon was chosen to speak on the part of the
    prosecution, together with George M. Hinkle.

    After some discussion as to whether witnesses should be admitted to
    testify against Aaron Lyon, or whether he should have the privilege
    of confessing his own sins, it was decided that witnesses should be
    admitted, and also the written testimony of the wife of a brother
    of the name of Jackson.

    [This trial is written up at great length in the minutes of the
    Far West Record, and also in G. W. Robinson's summary of the
    proceedings heretofore printed. Condensed, the account of the fault
    of Brother Aaron Lyon was this: He claimed to have had a revelation
    that a Sister Jackson, who was a married woman, and whose husband
    was still living, was to become his wife. Lyon claimed that it
    had been revealed to him that the woman's husband was dead. He
    exerted undue influence in persuading her of these things, and she
    consented to be his wife; but before they were married the woman's
    husband appeared on the scene, with the result, of course, that
    the prospective marriage did not take place. The witnesses were
    permitted to testify, although Brother Lyon confessed the facts and
    admitted his error. The conclusion of the matter follows as stated
    by G. W. Robinson, clerk of the Council].

    Council decided that, inasmuch as this man had confessed his sins,
    and asked forgiveness, and promised to make well the paths of his
    feet, and do, as much as lies in his power, what God should require
    at his hands, he should give up his license as High Priest, and
    stand as a member in the Church; and this in consequence of his
    being considered incapable of magnifying that office.

    G. W. Robinson.

[Sidenote: Sundry Employments of the Prophet.]

_Sunday, 29_.--I spent the day chiefly in meeting with the Saints,
ministering the words of life.

_Monday 30_.--The First Presidency were engaged in writing the Church
history and in recitation of grammar lessons, which recitations at this
period were usually attended each morning before writing.

_May 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th_.--The First Presidency were engaged in
writing Church history and administering to the sick. Received a letter
from John E. Page on the 4th.

{27} _Saturday, 5_.--The Presidency wrote for the _Elders' Journal_;
also received intelligence from Canada by Brother Bailey, that two
hundred wagons, with families, would probably be here in three weeks;
also listened to an address on political matters delivered by General
Wilson, Federal candidate for Congress.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Discourse on Evils of Hasty Judgment.]

_Sunday, May 6_.--I preached to the Saints, setting forth the evils
that existed, and that would exist, by reason of hasty judgment, or
decisions upon any subject given by any people, or in judging before
they had heard both sides of a question. I also cautioned the Saints
against men who came amongst them whining and growling about their
money, because they had kept the Saints, and borne some of the burden
with others, and thus thinking that others, who are still poorer,
and have borne greater burdens than they themselves, ought to make
up their losses. I cautioned the Saints to beware of such, for they
were throwing out insinuations here and there, to level a dart at the
best interests of the Church, and if possible destroy the character of
its Presidency. I also gave some instructions in the mysteries of the
kingdom of God; such as the history of the planets, Abraham's writings
upon the planetary systems, etc.

In the afternoon I spoke again on different subjects: the principle of
wisdom, and the Word of Wisdom.

The Teachers' quorum at Far West numbered twenty-four members.

_Monday, 7_.--I spent the day in company with Judge Morain, one of
our neighboring county judges, and Democratic candidate for the state
senate.

[Sidenote: Arrival of Elder Parley P. Pratt at Far West.]

I also visited with Elders Reynolds Cahoon and Parley P. Pratt, who
had this day arrived in Far West, the former from Kirtland, the latter
from New York City, where he had been preaching for some time; and our
hearts were made glad with the pleasing intelligence of the gathering
of the Saints from all parts of the earth to this place, to avoid {28}
the destructions which are coming upon this generation, as spoken by
all the holy prophets since the world began.

[Sidenote: Death of Jas. G. Marsh.]

James G. Marsh, son of Thomas B. Marsh, aged fourteen years, eleven
months, and seven days, died this day, in the full triumph of the
everlasting Gospel.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Answers to Sundry Questions.]

_Tuesday, 8_.--I spent the day with Elder Rigdon in visiting Elder
Cahoon at the place he had selected for his residence, and in attending
to some of our private, personal affairs; also in the afternoon I
answered the questions which were frequently asked me, while on my last
journey but one from Kirtland to Missouri, as printed in the _Elders'
Journal_, vol. I, Number II, pages 28 and 29, as follows:

    First--"Do you believe the Bible?"

    If we do, we are the only people under heaven that does, for there
    are none of the religious sects of the day that do.

    Second--"Wherein do you differ from other sects?"

    In that we believe the Bible, and all other sects profess to
    believe their interpretations of the Bible, and their creeds.

    Third--"Will everybody be damned, but Mormons?"

    Yes, and a great portion of them, unless they repent, and work
    righteousness.

    Fourth--"How and where did you obtain the Book of Mormon?"

    Moroni, who deposited the plates in a hill in Manchester, Ontario
    county, New York, being dead and raised again therefrom, appeared
    unto me, and told me where they were, and gave me directions how to
    obtain them. I obtained them, and the Urim and Thummim with them,
    by the means of which I translated the plates; and thus came the
    Book of Mormon.

    Fifth--"Do you believe Joseph Smith, Jun., to be a Prophet?"

    Yes, and every other man who has the testimony of Jesus. For the
    testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.--Revelation, xix:10th
    verse.

    Sixth--"Do the Mormons believe in having all things in common?"

    No.

    Seventh--"Do the Mormons believe in having more wives than one?"

    "No, not at the same time. But they believe that if their companion
    dies, they have a right to marry again. But we do disapprove of the
    {29} custom, which has gained in the world, and has been practiced
    among us, to our great mortification, in marrying in five or six
    weeks, or even in two or three months, after the death of their
    companion. We believe that due respect ought to be had to the
    memory of the dead, and the feelings of both friends and children."

    Eighth--"Can they [the Mormons] raise the dead?"

    No, nor can any other people that now lives, or ever did live. But
    God can raise the dead, through man as an instrument.

    Ninth--"What signs does Joseph Smith give of his divine mission?"

    The signs which God is pleased to let him give, according as His
    wisdom thinks best, in order that He may judge the world agreeably
    to His own plan.

    Tenth--"Was not Joseph Smith a money digger?"

    Yes, but it was never a very profitable job for him, as he only got
    fourteen dollars a month for it.

    Eleventh--"Did not Joseph Smith steal his wife?"

    Ask her, she was of age, she can answer for herself.

    Twelfth--"Do the people have to give up their money when they join
    his Church?"

    No other requirement than to bear their proportion of the expenses
    of the Church, and support the poor.

    Thirteenth--"Are the Mormons abolitionists?"

    No, unless delivering the people from priestcraft, and the priests
    from the power of Satan, should be considered abolition. But we do
    not believe in setting the negroes free.

    Fourteenth--"Do they not stir up the Indians to war, and to commit
    depredations?"

    No, and they who reported the story knew it was false when they
    put it in circulation. These and similar reports are palmed upon
    the people by the priests, and this is the only reason why we ever
    thought of answering them.

    Fifteenth--"Do the Mormons baptize in the name of 'Joe' Smith?"

    No, but if they did, it would be as valid as the baptism
    administered by the sectarian priests.

    Sixteenth--"If the Mormon doctrine is true, what has become of all
    those who died since the days of the Apostles?"

    All those who have not had an opportunity of hearing the Gospel,
    and being administered unto by an inspired man in the flesh, must
    have it hereafter, before they can be finally judged.

    Seventeenth--"Does not 'Joe' Smith profess to be Jesus Christ?"

    No, but he professes to be His brother, as all other Saints have
    done and now do: Matt., xii:49, 50, "And He stretched forth His
    hand toward His disciples and said, Behold my mother and my
    brethren; {30} for whosoever shall do the will of my Father, which
    is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother."

    Eighteenth--"Is there anything in the Bible which licenses you to
    believe in revelation now-a-days?"

    Is there anything that does not authorize us to believe so? If
    there is, we have, as yet, not been able to find it.

    Nineteenth--"Is not the canon of the Scriptures full?"

    If it is, there is a great defect in the book, or else it would
    have said so.

    Twentieth--"What are the fundamental principles of your religion?"

    The fundamental principles of our religion are the testimony of the
    Apostles and Prophets, concerning Jesus Christ, that He died, was
    buried, and rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven; and
    all other things which pertain to our religion are only appendages
    to it. But in connection with these, we believe in the gift of the
    Holy Ghost, the power of faith, the enjoyment of the spiritual
    gifts according to the will of God, the restoration of the house of
    Israel, and the final triumph of truth.

I published the foregoing answers to save myself the trouble of
repeating the same a thousand times over and over again.

_Wednesday, 9_.--I attended the funeral of James G. Marsh, and complied
with the request that I should preach on the occasion.

[Sidenote: Elder Rigdon's Political Address.]

_Thursday, 10_.--I listened to an address on the political policy of
our nation, delivered by President Rigdon, at the school house, in
the southwest quarter of the city, to a large concourse of people
from all sections of the county, and from other counties also.
Although President Rigdon was suffering under a severe cold and
great hoarseness, yet being assisted by the Spirit of God, he was
enabled clearly to elucidate the policy of the Federal and Democratic
parties from their rise in our country to the present time, to the
understanding of all present, giving an impartial review to both
sides of the question. This address was delivered in consequence of a
partial electioneering Federal speech of General Wilson at the same
place a short time previously, and the politics of the Church of {31}
Latter-day Saints, generally being Democratic, [3] it seemed desirable
to hear an elucidation of the principles of both parties, with which I
was highly edified.

[Sidenote: Trial of Wm. E. McLellin and Dr. McCord.]

_Friday, 11_.--I attended the trial of William E. McLellin and Dr.
McCord, for transgression, before the Bishop's court.

McCord said he was sorry to trouble the Council on his account, for he
had intended to withdraw from the Church before he left the place; that
he had no confidence in the work of God, or His Prophet, and should go
his way. He gave up his license and departed.

William E. McLellin stated about the same as McCord, and that he had no
confidence in the heads of the Church, believing they had transgressed,
and had got out of the way, consequently he quit praying and keeping
the commandments of God, and indulged himself in his lustful desires,
but when he heard that the First Presidency had made a general
settlement, and acknowledged their sins, he began to pray again. When I
interrogated him, he said he had seen nothing out of the way himself,
but he judged from hearsay. [4]

[Sidenote: Remuneration of the Prophet and Sidney Rigdon for Temporal
Labors in the Church.]

_Saturday, 12_.--President Rigdon and myself attended the High Council
for the purpose of presenting for their consideration some business
relating to our pecuniary concerns.

We stated to the Council our situation, as to maintaining our families,
and the relation we now stand in to the Church, spending as we have
for eight years, our time, talents, and property, in the service of
the Church: and being reduced as it were to beggary, and being still
detained in the business and {32} service of the Church, it appears
necessary that something should be done for the support of our families
by the Church, or else we must do it by our own labors; and if the
Church say to us, "Help yourselves," we will thank them and immediately
do so; but if the Church say, "Serve us," some provision must be made
for our sustenance.

The Council investigated the matter, and instructed the Bishop to
make over to President Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, each
an eighty-acre lot of land from the property of the Church, situated
adjacent to the city corporation; also appointed three of their number,
viz., George W. Harris, Elias Higbee and Simeon Carter, a committee to
confer with said Presidency, and satisfy them for their services the
present year; not for preaching, or for receiving the word of God by
revelation, neither for instructing the Saints in righteousness, but
for services rendered in the printing establishment, in translating the
ancient records, etc., etc. Said committee agreed that Presidents Smith
and Rigdon should receive $1,100 each as a just remuneration for their
services this year.

_Sunday, 13_.--Elder Reynolds Cahoon preached in the forenoon. In the
afternoon President Rigdon preached a {33} funeral sermon on the death
of Swain Williams, son of Frederick G. Williams.

_Monday, 14_.--I spent in plowing my garden, while Elder Rigdon was
preparing and correcting some matter for the press. Elder Harlow
Redfield arrived from Kirtland, Ohio.

Footnotes

1. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxiv.

2. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxv. It will be observed that in
verses three and four of this revelation the Lord gives to the Church
its official name, "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints."
Previous to this the Church had been called "The Church of Christ,"
"The Church of Jesus Christ," "The Church of God," and by a conference
of Elders held at Kirtland in May, 1834, (see Church History, vol. 2,
pp. 62-3), it was given the name "The Church of the Latter-day Saints."
All these names, however, were by this revelation brushed aside,
and since then the official name given in this revelation has been
recognized as the true title of the Church, though often spoken of as
"The Mormon Church," the "Church of Christ," etc. The appropriateness
of this title is self evident, and in it there is a beautiful
recognition of the relationship both of the Lord Jesus Christ and of
the Saints to the organization. It is "The Church of Jesus Christ." It
is the Lord's; He owns it. He organized it. It is the Sacred Depository
of His truth. It is His instrumentality for promulgating all those
spiritual truths with which He would have mankind acquainted. It is
also His instrumentality for the perfecting of the Saints, as well as
for the work of the ministry. It is His in all these respects; but
it is an institution which also belongs to the Saints. It is their
refuge from the confusion and religious doubt of the world. It is their
instructor in principle, doctrine, and righteousness. It is their guide
in matters of faith and morals. They have a conjoint ownership in it
with Jesus Christ, which ownership is beautifully recognized in the
latter part of the title. "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day
Saints," is equivalent to "The Church of Jesus Christ," and "The Church
of the Latter-day Saints."

3. Of course what is meant by this statement is that the individuals
composing the Church were quite generally Democrats, not that the
Church as an organization was democratic or had any politics.

4. It will be observed that the text is silent in relation to what
action was taken respecting William E. McLellin, and the Far West
Record is silent upon the subject also. In fact the minutes of the
trial before the Bishop are not written in that record at all. It is
known, however, from other sources that William E. McLellin was finally
excommunicated from the Church at Far West. Thence forward he took
an active part in the persecution of the Saints in Missouri, and at
one time expressed the desire to do violence to the person of Joseph
Smith, while the latter was confined in Liberty prison. Subsequently
he attempted what he called a reorganization of the Church, and called
upon David Whitmer to take the presidency thereof, claiming that he was
ordained by Joseph Smith on the 8th of July, 1834, as his (the Prophet
Joseph's) successor. The Prophet himself, according to the minutes of
the High Council held in Far West, on the 15th of March, 1838, referred
to his ordaining of David Whitmer in July, 1834, and this is the
account of what he said:

"President Joseph Smith, Jun., gave a history of the ordination of
David Whitmer which took place in July, 1834, to be a leader or a
Prophet to this Church, which (ordination) was on conditions that he
(Joseph Smith, Jun.,) did not live to God himself. President Joseph
Smith, Jun., approved of the proceedings of the High Council after
hearing the minutes of the former councils."--Far West Record, page 108.

The minutes of the councils here referred to, and which the Prophet
approved, gave account of deposing David Whitmer from the local
Presidency of the Church in Missouri.

{34}



CHAPTER IV.

Selection Of Lands In Caldwell And Daviess Counties For
Settlement--Adam-Ondi-Ahman.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Leaves Far West to Locate Settlements.]

_Friday, May 18_.--I left Far West, in company with Sidney Rigdon,
Thomas B. Marsh, David W. Patten, Bishop Partridge, Elias Higbee,
Simeon Carter, Alanson Ripley, and many others, for the purpose of
visiting the north country, and laying off a stake of Zion; making
locations, and laying claim to lands to facilitate the gathering of
the Saints, and for the benefit of the poor, in upholding the Church
of God. We traveled to the mouth of Honey Creek, which is a tributary
of Grand river, where we camped for the night. We passed through a
beautiful country the greater part of which is prairie, and thickly
covered with grass and weeds, among which is plenty of game, such as
deer, turkey, and prairie hen. We discovered a large, black wolf, and
my dog gave him chase, but he outran us. We have nothing to fear in
camping out, except the rattlesnake, which is native to this country,
though not very numerous. We turned our horses loose, and let them feed
on the prairie.

[Sidenote: The Prophet and Party Reach Tower Hill.]

_Saturday, 19_.--This morning we struck our tents and formed a line of
march, crossing Grand River at the mouth of Honey Creek and Nelson's
Ferry. Grand River is a large, beautiful, deep and rapid stream, during
the high waters of Spring, and will undoubtedly admit of navigation
by steamboat and other water craft. At the mouth of Honey Creek is a
good landing. We pursued our course up the river, {35} mostly through
timber, for about eighteen miles, when we arrived at Colonel Lyman
Wight's home. He lives at the foot of Tower Hill (a name I gave the
place in consequence of the remains of an old Nephite altar or tower
that stood there), where we camped for the Sabbath.

[Sidenote: Adam-ondi-Ahman.]

In the afternoon I went up the river about half a mile to Wight's
Ferry, accompanied by President Rigdon, and my clerk, George W.
Robinson, for the purpose of selecting and laying claim to a city plat
near said ferry in Daviess County, township 60, ranges 27 and 28, and
sections 25, 36, 31, and 30, which the brethren called "Spring Hill,"
but by the mouth of the Lord it was named Adam-ondi-Ahman, [1] because,
said He, it is the place where Adam shall come to visit his people, or
the Ancient of Days shall sit, as spoken of by Daniel the Prophet. [2]

{36} _Sunday, 20_.--This day was spent by our company principally at
Adam-ondi-Ahman; but near the close of the day, we struck our tents,
and traveled about six miles north and encamped for the night with
Judge Morin and company, who were also traveling north.

_Monday, 21_.--This morning, after making some locations in this place,
which is in township 61, ranges 27 and 28, we returned to Robinson's
Grove, about two miles, to secure some land near Grand River, which we
passed the day previous; and finding a mistake in the former survey,
I sent the surveyor south five or six miles to obtain a correct line,
while some of us tarried to obtain water for the camp.

[Sidenote: Council called to determine Location of Settlements.]

In the evening, I called a council of the brethren, to know whether it
was wisdom to go immediately into the north country, or tarry here and
here-abouts, to secure land on Grand River, etc. The brethren spoke
their minds freely on the subject, when I stated to the council that I
felt impressed to tarry and secure all the land near by, that is not
secured between this and Far West, especially on Grand River. President
Rigdon concurred, and the council voted unanimously to secure the land
on Grand River, and between this and Far West.

Elders Kimball and Hyde this day (21st May) arrived at Kirtland from
England.

[Sidenote: American Antiquities Discovered.]

_Tuesday, 22_.--President Rigdon went east with a company, and selected
some of the best locations in the county, [3] and returned with a
good report of that vicinity, and with information of {37} valuable
locations which might be secured. Following awhile the course of the
company, I returned to camp in Robinson's Grove, and thence went west
to obtain some game to supply our necessities. We discovered some
antiquities about one mile west of the camp, consisting of stone
mounds, apparently erected in square piles, though somewhat decayed and
obliterated by the weather of many years. These mounds were probably
erected by the aborigines of the land, to secrete treasures. We
returned without game.

[Sidenote: Varied Movements of the Prophet's Company.]

_Wednesday, 23_.--We all traveled east, locating lands, to secure a
claim, on Grove Creek, and near the City of Adam-ondi-Ahman. Towards
evening I accompanied Elder Rigdon to Colonel Wight's, and the
remainder of the company returned to their tents.

_Thursday, 24_.--This morning the company returned to Grove Creek to
finish the survey, accompanied by President Rigdon and Colonel Wight,
and I returned to Far West.

_Friday, 25_.--The company went up Grand River and made some locations.
In the afternoon they struck their tents and removed to Colonel Wight's.

_Saturday, 26_.--The company surveyed lands on the other side of the
river opposite Adam-ondi-Ahman.

_Sunday, 27_.--The company locating lands spent the day at Colonel
Wight's.

_Monday, 28_.--The company started for home (Far West), and I left
Far West the same day in company with Brother Hyrum Smith and fifteen
or twenty others, to seek locations in the north, and about noon we
met President Rigdon and his company going into the city, where they
arrived the same evening.

[Sidenote: Birth of Alexander Hale Smith.]

President Hyrum Smith returned to Far West on the 30th, and I returned
on the 1st of June, on account of my family, for I had a son born unto
me. [4]

{38} [Sidenote: The Prophet's Return to Adam-ondi-Ahman.]

_Monday, June 4_.--I left Far West with President Rigdon, my brother
Hyrum and others for Adam-ondi-Ahman, and stayed at Brother Moses
Dailey's over night; and on the morning of the 5th, went to Colonel
Lyman Wight's in the rain. We continued surveying, building houses, day
after day, for many days, until the surveyor had completed the city
plat.

_Monday, June 11_.--President Joseph Fielding was married to Hannah
Greenwood, Preston, England.

_June 16_.--My uncle, John Smith, and family, with six other families,
arrived in Far West, all in good health and spirits. I counseled them
to settle at Adam-ondi-Ahman.

    _Minutes of the Meeting which Organized the Stake of Zion called
    Adam-ondi-Ahman_.

    Adam-ondi-Ahman, Missouri, Daviess county, June 28, 1838. A
    conference of Elders and members of the Church of Jesus Christ of
    Latter-day Saints was held in this place this day, for the purpose
    of organizing this Stake of Zion, called Adam-ondi-Ahman.

    The meeting convened at 10 o'clock a. m., in the grove near the
    house of Elder Lyman Wight.

    President Joseph Smith, Jun., was called to the chair. He explained
    the object of the meeting, which was to organize a Presidency and
    High Council to preside over this Stake of Zion, and attend to the
    affairs of the Church in Daviess county.

    It was then moved, seconded and carried by the unanimous voice of
    the assembly, that John Smith [5] should act as President of the
    Stake of Adam-ondi-Ahman.

    Reynolds Cahoon was unanimously chosen first counselor, and Lyman
    Wight second counselor.

    After prayer the presidents ordained Elder Wight as second
    counselor.

    Vinson Knight was chosen acting Bishop _pro tempore_ by the
    unanimous voice of the assembly.

    President John Smith then proceeded to organize the High Council.
    The councilors were chosen according to the following order, by a
    unanimous vote: John Lemon, first; Daniel Stanton, second; Mayhew
    Hillman, third; Daniel Carter, fourth; Isaac Perry, fifth; Harrison
    Sagers, sixth; Alanson Brown, seventh; Thomas Gordon, eighth;
    Lorenzo D. {39} Barnes, ninth; George A. Smith, tenth; Harvey
    Olmstead, eleventh; Ezra Thayer, twelfth.

    After the ordination of the councilors who had not previously been
    ordained to the High Priesthood, President Joseph Smith, Jun.,
    made remarks by way of charge to the presidents and counselors,
    instructing them in the duties of their callings, and the
    responsibility of their stations, exhorting them to be cautious
    and deliberate in all their councils, and be careful and act in
    righteousness in all things.

    President John Smith, Reynolds Cahoon, and Lyman Wight then made
    some remarks.

    Lorenzo D. Barnes was unanimously chosen clerk of this Council and
    Stake. After singing the well known hymn, Adam-ondi-Ahman, the
    meeting closed by prayer by President Cahoon, and a benediction by
    President Joseph Smith, Jun.

    Lorenzo D. Barnes,

    Isaac Perry,

    Clerks.

[Sidenote: Description of Adam-ondi-Ahman.]

Adam-ondi-Ahman is located immediately on the north side of Grand
River, in Daviess county, Missouri, about twenty-five miles north
of Far West. It is situated on an elevated spot of ground, which
renders the place as healthful as any part of the United States, and
overlooking the river and the country round about, it is certainly a
beautiful location. [6]

{40} _June 28_.--This day Victoria was crowned queen of England.

Footnotes

1. See Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 116. This is not the first time
that the name or phrase "Adam-ondi-Aham" is used in the revelations
of the Lord. Some six years before this, viz., in the year 1832, it
is used incidentally in one of the revelations where the Lord in
addressing a number of the brethren who had been ordained to the High
Priesthood, said that notwithstanding the tribulations through which
they should pass, He had so ordered events that they might come unto
the crown prepared for them, "and be made rulers over many kingdoms,
saith the Lord God, the Holy One of Zion, who hath established the
foundations of _Adam-ondi-Ahman_." (Doctrine and Covenants, sec.
lxxviii:15). Some years afterwards, viz., in 1835, W. W. Phelps
composed his beautiful hymn bearing the name of Adam-ondi-Ahman, which
was first published in the _Messenger and Advocate_ (No. 9, vol. I);
see also History of the Church, Vol. II, p 365.

This hymn was a great favorite among the early Saints, although they,
perhaps, did not understand at that time the significance of the name,
nor even now do they understand its full significance. All that is
known of its meaning is what the Lord revealed to the Prophet, viz.,
that it is significant of the fact that it designates the place where
the Lord will come and meet with His people as described by Daniel the
Prophet.

2. Daniel's description of the events here referred to is found in the
7th chapter of his prophecies. The description is very imposing, hence
I quote it: "I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient
of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his
head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his
wheels as burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth from
before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand
times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the
books were opened. * * * * * * I saw in the might visions, and, behold,
one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the
Ancient of Days, and they brought him near before Him. And there was
given Him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations,
and languages, should serve Him: His dominion is an everlasting
dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall
not be destroyed."

The prophet Daniel also saw in this connection that earthly powers
would make war upon thy Saints and prevail against them--until the
Ancient of Days should come. "And [then] the kingdom and dominion, and
the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given
to the people of the Saints of the Most High, whose kingdom is an
everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey Him."

3. This most likely was Livingstone county, which borders both Daviess
and Caldwell counties on the east.

4. The birth of the son took place on the 2nd of June. It was Alexander
Hale Smith.

5. The Prophet's uncle, who had but recently arrived at "Diahman."

6. Perhaps the following more detailed description of Adam-ondi-Ahman,
as also the allusion to at least one stirring event which occurred
there in the past, may not be without interest: Adam-ondi-Ahman, or
"Diahman," as it is familiarly known to the Saints, is located on the
north bank of Grand River. It is situated, in fact, in a sharp bend of
that stream. The river comes sweeping down from the northwest and here
makes a sudden turn and runs in a meandering course to the northeast
for some two or three miles, when it as suddenly makes another bend
and flows again to the southeast. Grand River is a stream that has
worn a deep channel for itself, and left its banks precipitous; but
at "Diahman" that is only true of the south bank. The stream as it
rushes from the northwest, strikes the high prairie land which at
this point contains beds of limestone, and not being able to cut its
way through, it veered off to the northeast, and left that height of
land standing like palisades which rise very abruptly from the stream
to a height of from fifty to seventy-five feet. The summit of these
bluffs is the common level of the high rolling prairie, extending off
in the direction of Far West. The bluffs on the north bank recede
some distance from the stream, so that the river bottom at this point
widens out to a small valley. The bluffs on the north bank of the
river are by no means as steep as those on the south, and are covered
with a light growth of timber. A ridge runs out from the main line
of the bluffs into the river bottom some two or three hundred yards,
approaching the stream at the point where the bend of the river is
made. The termination of the bluff is quite abrupt, and overlooks a
considerable portion of the river bottom. On the brow of the bluff
stood the old stone altar, and near the foot of it was built the house
of Lyman Wight. When the altar was first discovered, according to those
who visited it frequently, it was about sixteen feet long, by nine or
ten feet wide, having its greatest extent north and south. The height
of the altar at each end was some two and a half feet, gradually rising
higher to the center, which was between four and five feet high--the
whole surface being crowning. Such was the altar at "Diahman" when
the Prophet's party visited it. Now, however, it is thrown down, and
nothing but a mound of crumbling stones mixed with soil, and a few
reddish boulders mark the spot which is doubtless rich in historic
events. It was at this altar, according to the testimony of Joseph
Smith, that the patriarchs associated with Adam and his company,
assembled to worship their God. Here their evening and morning prayer
ascended to heaven with the smoke of the burning sacrifice, prophetic
and symbolic of the greater sacrifice then yet to be, and here angels
instructed them in heavenly truths.

North of the ridge on which the ruins of the altar were found, and
running parallel with it, is another ridge, separated from the first
by a depression varying in width from fifty to a hundred yards. This
small valley with the larger one through which flows Grand River, is
the valley of Adam-ondi-Ahman. Three years previous to the death of
Adam, declares one of the Prophet Joseph's revelations, the Patriarchs
Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch, and Methuselah, together
with all their righteous posterity, were assembled in this valley we
have described, and their common father, Adam, gave them his last
blessing. And even as he blessed them, the heavens were opened, and the
Lord appeared, and in the presence of God, the children or Adam arose
and blessed him, and called him Michael, the Prince, the Archangel.
The Lord also blessed Adam, saying: "I have set thee to be the head--a
multitude of nations shall come of thee, and thou art a prince over
them for ever." So great was the influence of this double blessing
upon Adam, that, though bowed down with age, under the outpouring of
the Spirit of God, he predicted what should befall his posterity to
their latest generation. (Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cvii). Such is
one of the great events which occurred on this old historic land of
Adam-ondi-Ahman. {41}



CHAPTER V.

Independence Day At Far West--Sundry Events And Revelations--Epistle Of
David W. Patten.

[Sidenote: Celebration of Independence Day at Far West.]

_July 4_.--The day was spent in celebrating the Declaration of
Independence of the United States of America, and also by the Saints
making a "Declaration of Independence" from all mobs and persecutions
which have been inflicted upon them, time after time, until they could
bear it no longer; having been driven by ruthless mobs and enemies of
truth from their homes, and having had their property confiscated,
their lives exposed, and their all jeopardized by such barbarous
conduct. The corner stones of the Houses of the Lord, agreeable to the
commandments of the Lord unto us, given April 26, 1838, were laid.

[Sidenote: The Officers.]

Joseph Smith, Jun., was president of the day; Hyrum Smith,
vice-president; Sidney Rigdon, orator; Reynolds Cahoon, chief marshal;
George M. Hinckle and J. Hunt, assistant marshals; and George W.
Robinson, Clerk.

[Sidenote: The Procession.]

The order of the day was splendid. The procession commenced forming
at 10 o'clock a. m., in the following order: First, the infantry
(militia); second, the Patriarchs of the Church; the president,
vice-president, and orator; the Twelve Apostles, presidents of the
stakes, and High Council; Bishop and counselors; architects, ladies and
gentlemen. The cavalry brought up the rear of the large procession,
which marched to music, and formed a circle, with the ladies in front,
round the excavation. The southeast corner stone of the Lord's House in
Far West, Missouri, was then laid by the {42} presidents of the stake,
assisted by twelve men. The southwest corner, by the presidents of the
Elders, assisted by twelve men. The northwest corner by the Bishop,
assisted by twelve men. The northeast corner by the president of the
Teachers, assisted by twelve men. This house is to be one hundred and
ten feet long, and eighty feet broad.

[Sidenote: The Oration.]

The oration was delivered by President Rigdon, [1] at the close of
which was a shout of Hosanna, and a song, composed for the occasion by
Levi W. Hancock, was sung by Solomon Hancock. The most perfect order
prevailed throughout the day. [2]

{43} [Sidenote: A Word from Elders Kimball and Hyde.]

_July 6_.--This day I received a letter from Heber C. Kimball and Orson
Hyde, dated at Kirtland, Ohio, expressing their good feelings, firmness
in the faith and prosperity.

Also another letter from my brother Don Carlos Smith, as follows:

    Nine Miles From Terre Haute, Indiana.

    _Brother Joseph_:--I sit down to inform you of our situation at
    the present time. I started from Norton, Ohio, the 7th of May, in
    company with father, William, Wilkins Jenkins Salisbury, William
    McClary and Lewis Robbins, and families, also Sister Singly. We
    started with fifteen horses, seven wagons, and two cows. We have
    left two horses by the way sick, and a third horse (our main
    dependence) was taken lame last evening, and is not able to travel,
    and we have stopped to doctor him. We were disappointed on every
    hand before we started in getting money. We got no assistance
    whatever, only as we have taken in Sister Singly, and she has
    assisted us as far as her means extended. We had, when we started,
    $75 in money. We sold the two cows for $13.50 per cow. We have sold
    of your goods to the amount of $45.74, and now we have only $25 to
    carry twenty-eight souls and thirteen horses five hundred miles.

    We have lived very close and camped out at night, notwithstanding
    the rain and cold, and my baby only two weeks old when we started.
    Agnes [3] is very feeble; father and mother are not well and very
    much fatigued; mother has a severe cold, and in fact it is nothing
    but the prayer of faith and the power of God, that will sustain
    them and bring them through. Our courage is good, and I think
    we shall be brought through. I leave it with you and Hyrum to
    devise some way to assist us to some more expense money. We have
    unaccountably bad roads, had our horses down in the mud, and broke
    one wagon tongue and thills, and broke down the carriage twice,
    and yet we are all alive and encamped on a dry place for almost
    the first time. Poverty is a heavy load, but we are all obliged to
    welter under it.

    It is now dark and I close. May the Lord bless you all, and bring
    us together, is my prayer. Amen. All the arrangements that brother
    Hyrum left for getting money failed; they did not gain us one cent.

    Don C. Smith.

{44} [Sidenote: Missing Revelations.]

The three revelations [4] which I received January 12, 1838, the day I
left Kirtland, were read in the public congregation at Far West; and
the same day I inquired of the Lord, "O Lord! Show unto thy servant how
much thou requirest of the properties of thy people for a tithing," and
received the following answer, which was also read in public:

    _Revelation, Given at Far West, July 8, 1838_. [5]

    1. Verily, thus saith the Lord, I require all their surplus
    property to be put into the hands of the Bishop of my Church of
    Zion,

    2. For the building of mine house, and for the laying of the
    foundation of Zion and for the Priesthood, and for the debts of the
    Presidency of my Church;

    3. And this shall be the beginning of the tithing of my people;

    4. And after that, those who have thus been tithed, shall pay
    one-tenth of all their interest annually; and this shall be a
    standing law unto them forever, for my holy Priesthood, saith the
    Lord.

    5. Verily I say unto you, it shall come to pass, that all those
    who gather unto the Land of Zion shall be tithed of their surplus
    properties, and shall observe this law, or they shall not be found
    worthy to abide among you.

    6. And I say unto you, if my people observe not this law, to keep
    it holy, and by this law sanctify the land of Zion unto me, that my
    statutes and my judgments may be kept thereon, that it may be most
    holy, behold, verily I say unto you, it shall not be a land of Zion
    unto you;

    7. And this shall be an ensample unto all the stakes of Zion. Even
    so. Amen.

Also I received the following:

    _Revelation, given July 8, 1838, making known the disposition of
    the properties tithed as named in the preceding revelation_. [6]

    Verily, thus saith the Lord, the time is now come that it shall be
    disposed of by a council composed of the First Presidency of my
    Church, and of the bishop and his council, and by my High Council,
    and by mine own voice unto them, saith the Lord. Even so. Amen.

{45} Also I received the following:

    _Revelation given to William Marks, Newel K. Whitney, Oliver
    Granger and others, at Far West, July 8, 1838_. [7]

    1. Verily thus saith the Lord unto my servant William Marks, and
    also unto my servant N. K. Whitney, let them settle up their
    business speedily and journey from the land of Kirtland, before I,
    the Lord, send again the snows upon the earth;

    2. Let them awake, and arise, and come forth, and not tarry, for I,
    the Lord, command it;

    3. Therefore if they tarry it shall not be well with them.

    4. Let them repent of all their sins, and of all their covetous
    desires, before me, saith the Lord, for what is property unto me,
    saith the Lord?

    5. Let the properties of Kirtland be turned out for debts, saith
    the Lord. Let them go, saith the Lord, and whatsoever remaineth,
    let it remain in your hands, saith the Lord;

    6. For have I not the fowls of heaven, and also the fish of the
    sea, and the beasts of the mountains? Have I not made the earth? Do
    I not hold the destinies of all the armies of the nations of the
    earth?

    7. Therefore will I not make solitary places to bud and to blossom,
    and to bring forth in abundance, saith the Lord?

    8. Is there not room enough upon the mountains of Adam-ondi-Ahman,
    and on the plains of Olaha Shinehah, or the land where Adam dwelt,
    that you should covet that which is but the drop, and neglect the
    more weighty matters?

    9. Therefore come up hither unto the land of my people, even Zion.

    10. Let my servant William Marks be faithful over a few things,
    and he shall be ruler over many. Let him preside in the midst of
    my people in the city of Far West, and let him be blessed with the
    blessings of my people.

    11. Let my servant N. K. Whitney be ashamed of the Nicholatine band
    and of all their secret abominations, and of all his littleness
    of soul before me, saith the Lord, and come up to the land of
    Adam-ondi-Ahman, and be a Bishop unto my people, saith the Lord,
    not in name but in deed, saith the Lord.

    12. And again, I say unto you, I remember my servant Oliver
    Granger, behold, verily I say unto him, that his name shall be had
    in sacred remembrance from generation to generation, for ever and
    ever, saith the Lord.

    13. Therefore let him contend earnestly for the redemption of the
    {46} First Presidency of my Church, saith the Lord, and when he
    falls he shall rise again, for his sacrifice shall be more sacred
    unto me, than his increase, saith the Lord;

    14. Therefore let him come up hither speedily, unto the land of
    Zion, and in the due time he shall be made a merchant unto my name,
    saith the Lord, for the benefit of my people;

    15. Therefore let no man despise my servant Oliver Granger, but let
    the blessings of my people be on him for ever and ever.

    16. And again, verily I say unto you, let all my servants in the
    land of Kirtland remember the Lord their God, and mine house also,
    to keep and preserve it holy, and to overthrow the money changers
    in mine own due time, saith the Lord. Even so. Amen.

Also I received the following:

    _Revelation given at Far West, July 8, 1838, in answer to the
    question, Show unto us thy will O Lord concerning the Twelve_. [8]

    1. Verily, thus saith the Lord, let a conference be held
    immediately, let the Twelve be organized, and let men be appointed
    to supply the place of those who are fallen.

    2. Let my servant Thomas remain for a season in the land of Zion,
    to publish my word.

    3. Let the residue continue to preach from that hour, and if they
    will do this in all lowliness of heart, in meekness and humility,
    and long-suffering, I, the Lord, give unto them a promise that I
    will provide for their families, and an effectual door shall be
    opened for them, from henceforth;

    4. And next spring let them depart to go over the great waters, and
    there promulgate my gospel, the fullness thereof, and bear record
    of my name.

    5. Let them take leave of my Saints in the city Far West, on the
    {47} 26th day of April next, on the building spot of my house,
    saith the Lord.

    6. Let my servant John Taylor, and also my servant John E. Page,
    also my servant Wilford Woodruff, and also my servant Willard
    Richards, be appointed to fill the places of those who have fallen,
    and be officially notified of their appointment.

    _Minutes of a Meeting of the Twelve_.

    Far West, July 9, 1838, a conference of the Twelve Apostles
    assembled at Far West, agreeable to the revelation, given July 8,
    1838. Present, Thomas B. Marsh, David W. Patten, Brigham Young,
    Parley P. Pratt and William Smith. T. B. Marsh, presiding.

    Resolved 1st. That the persons who are to fill the places of those
    who are fallen, be immediately notified to come to Far West; as
    also, those of the Twelve who are not present.

    Resolved 2nd. That Thomas B. Marsh notify Wilford Woodruff, that
    Parley P. Pratt notify Orson Pratt, and that President Rigdon
    notify Willard Richards, who is now in England.

    Voted that President Marsh publish the same in next number of _The
    Elders' Journal_.

    President Rigdon gave some counsel concerning the provisions
    necessary to be made for the families of the Twelve, while laboring
    in the cause of their Redeemer, advising them to instruct their
    converts to move without delay to the places of gathering, and
    there to strictly attend to the law of God.

    T. B. Marsh, President.

    G. W. Robinson, Clerk.

_Tuesday, 10_.--About this time I visited Adam-ondi-Ahman in company
with President Rigdon, Brother Hyrum, and George W. Robinson.

[Sidenote: The Disposition of Public Church Properties.]

_Thursday, 26_.--The First Presidency, High Council, and Bishop's court
assembled at Far West to dispose of the public properties of the Church
in the hands of the Bishop, many of the brethren having consecrated
their surplus property according to the revelations.

It was agreed that the First Presidency should keep all their
properties that they could dispose of to advantage, for their support,
and the remainder be put into the hands of the Bishop or Bishops,
according to the commandments.

{48} Moved, seconded, and carried unanimously:

    "First--That the First Presidency shall have their expenses
    defrayed in going to, and returning from Adam-ondi-Ahman; equally
    by the Bishop of each place.

    "Second--That all the traveling expenses of the First Presidency
    shall be defrayed.

    "Third--That the Bishop be authorized to pay orders coming from the
    east, inasmuch as they will consecrate liberally, but this is to be
    done under the inspection of the First Presidency.

    "Fourth--That the First Presidency shall have the prerogative to
    direct the Bishop as to whose orders shall or may be paid by him in
    this place, or in his jurisdiction.

    "Fifth--That the Bishop of Zion receive all consecrations from
    those living east, west, and south, who are not in the jurisdiction
    of a Bishop of any other stake.

    "Sixth--That we use our influence to put a stop to the selling of
    liquors in the city Far West, or in our midst, that our streets may
    not be filled with drunkenness; and that we use our influence to
    bring down the price of provisions.

    "Seventh--That Brother William W. Phelps be requested to draw up a
    petition to locate the county seat at Far West."

[Sidenote: Arrival of Saints from Canada.]

_Saturday, 28_.--I left Far West for Adam-ondi-Ahman, in company with
President Rigdon, to transact some important business, and to settle
some Canadian brethren in that place, as they are emigrating rapidly to
this land from all parts of the country.

Elder Babbitt, with his company from Canada has arrived, and Brother
Theodore Turley is with him.

_Sunday, 29_.--Elders Kimball and Hyde having just returned from
England, preached in Far West.

_Monday, 30_.--The circuit court sat in Far West, Judge King presiding.

I returned this evening from Adam-ondi-Ahman to Far West, with
President Rigdon.

_Tuesday, 31_.--Attended the circuit court awhile, and received a visit
from Judge King.

[Sidenote: Publication of the _Elders' Journal_.]

Some time in July we succeeded in publishing the third {49} number of
the _Elders' Journal_; Joseph Smith, Jun., editor; Thomas B. Marsh,
printer and publisher. In this number of the _Journal_ was published
the following Epistle of David W. Patten, one of the Twelve Apostles of
the last days:

    _The Epistle of Elder David W. Patten_.

    _To the Saints Scattered Abroad_:

    Dear Brethren:--Whereas many have taken in hand to set forth the
    kingdom of God on earth, and have testified of the grace of God,
    as given unto them to publish unto you, I also feel it my duty
    to write unto you, touching the grace of God given unto me, to
    you-ward, concerning the dispensation we have received, which is
    the greatest of all dispensations, and has been spoken of by the
    mouth of all the holy Prophets since the world began.

    In this my communication to you, I design to notice some of these
    prophecies. Now, the Apostle Paul says on this wise: "For I would
    not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest
    ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is
    happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in.
    And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall
    come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness
    from Jacob." What is it that he says? "For I would not have you
    ignorant." Ignorant of what? Why of this mystery, that blindness
    in part had happened unto Israel. And to what end? Why, that
    salvation might come unto the Gentiles. "Now if the fall of them be
    the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of
    the Gentiles; how much more their fullness!" "For I speak to you
    Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the Apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify
    mine office." (See Rom., xi:12, 13). Now we are to understand the
    Apostle, as speaking of the return of Israel, when he said, "How
    much more their fullness," in their return. "For I would not have
    you ignorant concerning this matter," that blindness will depart
    from them in the day that the fullness of the Gentiles is come in.
    And the reason is very obvious, because it is said, that "Out of
    Sion shall come the deliverer;" and for what cause? Why? That the
    word of God might be fulfilled, that this deliverer might, through
    the grace and mercy of God, "turn away ungodliness from Jacob."
    This work evidently commences at the time God begins to take the
    darkness from the minds of Israel, for this will be the work of God
    by the deliverer, for He shall turn away ungodliness from the whole
    family of Jacob, "for this is my covenant unto them, when I shall
    take away their sins."

    {50} Now, then, we can see that this deliverer is a kind of
    harbinger or forerunner, that is, one that is sent to prepare the
    way for another, and this deliverer is such a one, for he comes to
    turn away ungodliness from Jacob, consequently he must receive a
    dispensation and an authority suitable to his calling, or he could
    not turn away ungodliness from Jacob, nor fulfill the Scriptures.
    But the words of the prophets must be fulfilled, and in order
    to do this, to this messenger must be given the dispensation of
    the fullness of times, according to the prophets. For Paul says
    again, in speaking of the dispensation of the fullness of times,
    "Having made known unto us the mystery of His will, according to
    His good pleasure, which He hath purposed in Himself: that in the
    dispensation of the fullness of times, He might gather together in
    one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are
    on earth; even in Him." (Ephesians, 1:9). And Isaiah says, "And
    it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set His
    hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people."
    (chapter xi:11). Now is the time that the deliverer shall come out
    of Zion and turn away ungodliness from the house of Israel. Now
    the Lord has said that He would set His hand the second time, and
    we ask, for what, but to recover the house of Jacob? For what have
    they fallen? Most assuredly they have broken the covenant that God
    had made with their fathers, and through their fathers with them.
    For Paul says, "Thou wilt say then, The branches were broken off,
    that I might be grafted in. Well; because of unbelief they were
    broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not highminded, but
    fear."--Rom., xi:18, 20.

    Now it is evident that the Jews did forsake the Lord, and by
    that means they broke the covenant, and now we see the need of
    the Lord setting His hand the second time to gather His people
    according to Eph., i:10, "That in the dispensation of the fullness
    of times, he might gather together in one all things in Christ,
    both which are in heaven, and which are on earth." Now, I ask,
    what is a dispensation? I answer, it is power and authority to
    dispense the word of God, and to administer in all the ordinances
    thereof. This is what we are to understand by it, for no man ever
    had the Holy Ghost to deliver the Gospel, or to prophesy of things
    to come, but had liberty to fulfill his mission; consequently
    the argument is clear; for it proves itself; nevertheless I will
    call on the Scriptures to prove the assertion: "If ye have heard
    of the dispensation of the grace of God, which is given me to
    you-ward: how that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery;
    (as I wrote afore in few words)." (Ephesians, iii:2.) And also,
    Colossians, i:25. "Whereof I am made a minister, according to the
    dispensation of God which is given to me for {51} you, to fulfill
    the word of God." It is evident, then, that the dispensation given
    to the Apostle came to him by revelation from God. Then by this we
    may understand, in some degree, the power by which he spake, and
    also the dispensation of the fullness of times.

    Now this, at first thought, would appear very small to some who
    are not acquainted with the order of God from the beginning; but
    when we take under consideration the plan of God for the salvation
    of the world, we can readily see that plan carried out most
    faithfully in all its bearings. Soon after the fall of Adam, the
    plan of salvation was made known to him of God Himself; who in like
    manner, in the meridian of time, revealed the same in sending His
    first begotten Son Jesus Christ, who also revealed the same to the
    Apostles; and God raised him from the dead to perfect the plan,
    and the Apostles were made special witnesses of that plan, and
    testified that in the dispensation of the fullness of times, God
    would gather together in one all things in Christ, whether they be
    things in heaven, or things on the earth.

    Now the thing to be known is, what the fullness of times means,
    or the extent or authority thereof. It means this, that the
    dispensation of the fullness of times is made up of all the
    dispensations that ever have been given since the world began,
    until this time. Unto Adam first was given a dispensation. It is
    well known that God spake to him with His own voice in the garden,
    and gave him the promise of the Messiah. And unto Noah also was
    a dispensation given; for Jesus said, "As it was in the days of
    Noah, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man;" and as
    the righteous were saved then, and the wicked destroyed, so it will
    be now. And from Noah to Abraham, and from Abraham to Moses, and
    from Moses to Elias, and from Elias to John the Baptist, and from
    then to Jesus Christ, and from Jesus Christ to Peter, James, and
    John, the Apostles--all received in their time a dispensation by
    revelation from God, to accomplish the great scheme of restitution,
    spoken of by all the holy prophets since the world began; the end
    of which is the dispensation of the fullness of times, in the which
    all things shall be fulfilled that have been spoken of since the
    earth was made.

    Now the question is, unto whom is this dispensation to be given?
    Or by whom to be revealed? The answer is, to the deliverer that
    is to come out of Zion, and be given to him by the angel of God.
    "And I saw another angel, fly in the midst of heaven, having the
    everlasting Gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and
    to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, saying with
    a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to Him: for the hour of His
    judgment is come: and worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and
    the sea, and the fountains of waters." (Revelation, xiv:6, 7). Now
    observe, this {52} angel delivers the everlasting Gospel to man on
    the earth, and that, too, when the hour of the judgments of God
    had come on the generation in which the Lord should set His hand
    the second time to gather His people, as stated above. Now we have
    learned that this deliverer must be clothed with the power of all
    the other dispensations, or his dispensation could not be called
    the dispensation of the fullness of times, for this it means, that
    all things shall be revealed both in heaven and on earth; for the
    Lord said there is nothing secret that shall not be revealed, or
    hid that shall not come abroad, and be proclaimed upon the house
    top, and this may with propriety be called the fullness of times.

    The authority connected with the ordinances, renders the time very
    desirable to the man of God, and renders him happy amidst all
    his trials and afflictions. To such a one through the grace of
    God we are indebted for this dispensation, as given by the angel
    of the Lord. But to what tribe of Israel was it to be delivered?
    We answer, to Ephraim, because to him were the greater blessings
    given. For the Lord said to his father Joseph, A seer shall the
    Lord thy God raise up of the fruit of thy loins, and he shall be
    a choice seer unto the fruit of thy loins. Yea, he truly said,
    Thus saith the Lord, a choice seer will I raise up out of the
    fruit of thy loins, and he shall be esteemed highly, and unto him
    will I give commandment that he shall do a work for the fruit of
    thy loins, his brethren, which shall be of great worth unto them,
    even to the bringing of them to the knowledge of the covenants
    which I have made with their fathers. And I will give unto him a
    commandment that he shall do none other work save the work which
    I shall command him, and I will make him great in mine eyes, for
    he shall do my work, and he shall be great like unto Moses; and
    out of weakness he shall be made strong, in that day when my work
    shall commence among all people, unto the restoring of the house of
    Israel, saith the Lord.

    And thus prophesied Joseph, saying--Behold, that seer will the
    Lord bless, and they that seek to destroy him shall be confounded.
    Behold, I am sure of the fulfillment of this promise, and his name
    shall be called after the name of his father, and he shall be like
    unto me, for the thing which the Lord shall bring forth by his
    hand, by the power of the Father, shall bring forth my people unto
    salvation.

    And thus prophesied Joseph, "I am sure of this thing, even as I am
    sure of the promise of Moses." (II Nephi, iii; 6-16). And again,
    Jesus says, as recorded in the Book of Mormon, page 526: "Behold
    my servant shall deal very prudently; he shall be exalted and
    extolled, and be very high. As many as were astonished at thee.
    * * * So shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut
    their mouths at him, for that which had been told them shall they
    see; and that which {53} they had not heard shall they consider."
    Upon this servant is bestowed the keys of the dispensation of the
    fullness of times, that from him the Priesthood of God, through our
    Lord Jesus Christ, might be given to many, and the order of this
    dispensation established on the earth. And to the Church He has
    said by commandment, "Wherefore, meaning the Church, thou shalt
    give heed unto all his words and commandments, which he shall give
    unto you as he receiveth them, walking in all holiness before me;
    for his word ye shall receive as if from my own mouth, in all
    patience and faith; for by doing these things, the gates of hell
    shall not prevail against you."--Doctrine and Covenants, sec. xxi.

    Now, my readers, you can see in some degree the grace given to this
    man of God, to us-ward: that we, by the great mercy of God, should
    receive from under his hands, the Gospel of Jesus Christ, having
    the promise of partaking of the fruit of the vine on the earth
    with him, and with the holy Prophets and Patriarchs, our fathers.
    For those holy men are angels now; and these are they who make
    the fullness of times complete with us; and they who sin against
    this authority given to him (the aforementioned man of God), sin
    not against him only, but against Moroni, who holds the keys of
    the stick of Ephraim [Book of Mormon], and also Elias, who holds
    the keys of bringing to pass the restitution of all things, and
    also John, the son of Zacharias, which Zacharias Elias visited,
    and gave promise that he should have a son, and his name should be
    John, and he should be filled with the spirit of Elias, which John
    I have sent unto you, my servants Joseph Smith, Jun., and Oliver
    Cowdery, to ordain you to this first Priesthood, even as Aaron;
    and also Elijah who holds the keys of committing the power to turn
    the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the hearts of the
    children to the fathers, that the whole earth may not be smitten
    with a curse; and also Joseph and Jacob and Isaac and Abraham, your
    fathers, by whom the promises remain; and also Michael, or Adam,
    the Father of all, the Prince of all, the Ancient of Days; and
    also Peter and James and John, whom I have sent unto you, by whom
    I have ordained you, and confirmed you to be Apostles and especial
    witnesses of my name, and bear the keys of your ministry, and of
    the same things I revealed unto them, unto whom I have committed
    the keys of my kingdom, and a dispensation of the Gospel for the
    last times, and for the fullness of times, in the which I will
    gather together in one all things, both which are in heaven, and
    which are on earth. (Doctrine and Covenants, sec. xxvii.)

    Therefore, brethren, beware concerning yourselves, that you sin not
    against the authority of this dispensation, nor think lightly of
    those whom God has counted worthy for so great a calling, and for
    whose {54} sake He hath made them servants unto you, that you might
    be made the heirs of God to inherit so great a blessing, and be
    prepared for the great assembly, and sit there with the Ancient of
    Days, even Adam our father, who shall come to prepare you for the
    coming of Jesus Christ our Lord; for the time is at hand, therefore
    gather up your effects, and gather together upon the land which the
    Lord has appointed for your safety.

    David W. Patten.

Footnotes

1. The oration soon afterwards appeared in _The Far West_, a periodical
published at Liberty, Clay County, Missouri. It was also published
in pamphlet form from the office of the "_Elders' Journal_." (See
statement of Ebenezer Robinson in _The Return_, vol. 1, p. 170).
This oration by Sidney Rigdon has always been severely criticized
as containing passages that were ill-advised and vehemently bitter.
Especially those passages which threatened a war of extermination
upon mobs should they again arise to plague the Saints. But when such
criticism is made, the rank injustice, the destruction of property and
the outrages committed upon the persons of many of the members of the
Church, by the Jackson county mob, should also be remembered. Also the
failure on the part of the officers of the State to protect the Saints
in the enjoyment of their civil and religious liberties or even to
return them to their homes in Jackson county--from which failure to
magnify the law the Saints were still suffering. When, therefore, they
saw mobocracy again threatening them, it is small wonder if they gave
way for a moment to anger, and denounced in strong terms those who were
likely to disturb their peace and repeat the outrages under which they
had so long suffered.

2. Following this account of the 4th of July celebration at Far
West the Prophet in his history, as heretofore published, takes up
the account of the organization of "Kirtland Camp," an organization
effected by the First Seven Presidents of the Seventies, assisted by
Elder Hyrum Smith. The object of the organization was to move the
Saints, who desired to go, in a body, from Kirtland to Missouri. The
Prophet in his history gives an account, as already stated, of the
organization of this camp and its departure from Kirtland. Then from
day to day as more or less important events took place in the camp, he
records such events in his own personal history, with the result that
his narrative is frequently interrupted by brief paragraphs from the
camp's Journal. But as we have the full daily journal of the camp's
progress from Kirtland to Far West, written in a most careful and
commendable style by the camp's Historian, Elias Smith, it has been
decided to publish the history of the camp from the time it met for
organization in Kirtland (March, 1838), until its arrival at Far West,
(on the 2nd day of October 1838), without other interruptions; and then
omit from the narrative of the Prophet those occasional paragraphs
taken from the said journal of the camp. This arrangement will relieve
the Prophet's narrative of so many interruptions, and on the other hand
it will give an unbroken narrative from an original document of one of
the most remarkable organizations and journeys in the early history of
the Church. This promised history will be inserted at the point of the
Prophet's narrative where the camp arrives at Far West.

3. This refers to Don Carlos Smith's wife, who before her marriage to
him in Kirtland, on July 30, 1835, was Agnes Coolbirth.

4. The three revelations here referred to do not appear in the Doctrine
and Covenants nor in any other publication. Diligent search also has
been made for them through the several packages of Church documents in
the Historian's Office, but they have not been found.

5. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxix.

6. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxx.

7. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxvii.

8. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxviii. This date, the 8th of July,
1838, is remarkable for the many revelations given. In addition to
the foregoing which are printed in the Doctrine and Covenants, in the
sections indicated in the foot notes, the following was also received,
which is not published in the Doctrine and Covenants nor elsewhere. It
is found on file in Package XVI at the Historian's Office: Revelation
given July 8, 1838, making known the duty of William W. Phelps and
Frederick G. Williams.

Verily, thus saith the Lord, in consequence of their transgressions
their former standing has been taken away from them, and now, if they
will be saved, let them be ordained as Elders in my Church to preach my
Gospel and travel abroad from land to land and from place to place, to
gather mine elect unto me, saith the Lord, and let this be their labors
from henceforth. Amen.

{55}



CHAPTER VI.

The Beginning Of Trouble In Caldwell And Daviess Counties.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Rests.]

_Wednesday, August 1_.--I tarried at home with my family, also the 2nd
and 3rd, to refresh myself after my many late fatigues and arduous
duties which I had been called upon to perform.

_Sunday, 5_.--I attended meeting. Elder Erastus Snow [1] preached,
after which I addressed the congregation, and particularly the Elders,
on the principle of wisdom, etc. President Rigdon preached in the
afternoon, and several were confirmed, among whom was Frederick G.
Williams, who had recently been re-baptized.

[Sidenote: Reproof of Canadian Brethren.]

_Monday, 6_.--This morning my council met me at my house, to consider
the conduct of certain Canada brethren, who had settled on the forks
of Grand river, contrary to counsel. On investigation, it was resolved
that they must return to Adam-ondi-Ahman, according to counsel, or they
would not be considered one with us.

[Sidenote: A Citizens' Meeting at Far West.]

This day the citizens of Caldwell county assembled at Far West, and
organized by calling Elias Higbee to the chair, and appointing George
W. Robinson secretary. {56} W. W. Phelps having resigned the office of
postmaster, it was voted unanimously that Sidney Rigdon be recommended
to the Postmaster General, as the person of our choice to fill the
place of W. W. Phelps, as postmaster in this city.

In the afternoon, the citizens of Far West assembled in the school
house and organized the meeting by calling Judge Elias Higbee to the
chair, and appointing George W. Robinson, secretary. I stated to the
meeting, that the time had come when it was necessary that we should
have a weekly newspaper, to unite the people, and give the news of the
day. It was unanimously agreed that such a paper be established, and
that President Sidney Rigdon should be the editor. It was also voted
that a petition be circulated to locate the county seat at Far West.
I addressed the meeting on the propriety of the measure, and also on
the duty of the brethren to come into cities to build and live, and
carry on their farms out of the cities, according to the order of God.
President Rigdon and Brother Hyrum Smith spoke upon the same subject.

[Sidenote: Judge Morin's Friendly Warning.]

Some two weeks previous to this, Judge Morin, who lived at Mill Port,
informed John D. Lee [2] and Levi Stewart, that it was determined by
the mob to prevent the "Mormons" from voting at the election on the
sixth day of August, and thereby elect Colonel William P. Peniston, who
led the mob in Clay county. He also advised them to go prepared for an
attack, to stand their ground, and have their rights.

The brethren, hoping better things, gave little heed to Judge Morin's
friendly counsel, and repaired to the polls at Gallatin, the shire town
of Daviess county, without weapons.

[Sidenote: Peniston's Harangue.]

About eleven o'clock a. m., William P. Peniston mounted a barrel, and
harangued the electors for the {57} purpose of exciting them against
the "Mormons" saying "The Mormon leaders are a set of horse thieves,
liars, counterfeiters, and you know they profess to heal the sick, and
cast out devils, and you all know that is a lie." He further said that
the members of the Church were dupes, and not too good to take a false
oath on any common occasion; that they would steal, and he did not
consider property safe where they were; that he was opposed to their
settling in Daviess county; and if they suffered the "Mormons" to vote,
the people would soon lose their suffrage; "and," said he, addressing
the Saints, "I headed a mob to drive you out of Clay county, and would
not prevent your being mobbed now."

[Sidenote: "Dick" Welding's Row.]

Richard (called Dick) Welding, the mob bully, just drunk enough for
the occasion, began a discussion with Brother Samuel Brown, by saying,
"The Mormons were not allowed to vote in Clay county no more than the
negroes," and attempted to strike Brown, who gradually retreated,
parrying the blow with his umbrella, while Welding continued to press
upon him, calling him a liar, etc., and meanwhile trying to repeat
the blow on Brown. Perry Durphy sought to suppress the difficulty by
holding Welding's arm, when five or six of the mobbers seized Durphy
and commenced beating him with clubs, boards, and crying, "_Kill him,
kill him_," when a general scuffle commenced with fists and clubs, the
mobbers being about ten to one of the brethren. Abraham Nelson was
knocked down, and had his clothes torn off, and while trying to get
up was attacked again, when his brother, Hyrum Nelson, ran in amongst
them, and knocked the mobbers down with the butt of his whip. Riley
Stewart struck Welding on the head, which brought him to the ground.
The mob cried out, "Dick Weldin's dead; who killed Dick?" And they fell
upon Riley, knocked him down, kicked him, crying, "Kill him, kill him;
shoot him," and they would have killed him, had not {58} John L. Butler
sprung in amongst them and knocked them down. During about five minutes
it was one succession of knock downs, when the mob dispersed to get
fire arms.

Very few of the brethren voted. Riley, escaping across the river, had
his wounds dressed, and returned home.

[Sidenote: John L. Butler's speech.]

John L. Butler called the brethren together and made a speech, saying,
"We are American citizens; our fathers fought for their liberty, and
we will maintain the same principles." The authorities of the county
finally came to the brethren, and requested them to withdraw, stating
that it was a premeditated thing to prevent the "Mormons" from voting.

[Sidenote: Gathering of the Mob.]

The brethren held a council about one-fourth of a mile out of town,
where they saw mob recruits coming in, in small parties, from five and
ten, to twenty-five in number cursing and swearing, and armed with
clubs, pistols, dirks, and some guns. The brethren not having arms,
thought it wisdom to return to their farms, collect their families, and
hide them in a thicket of hazel bush, which they did, and stood guard
around them through the night, while the women and children lay on the
ground in the rain.

[Sidenote: Reports of Gallatin Trouble Reach Far West.]

_Tuesday, 7_.--A report came to Far West this morning, by way of those
not belonging to the Church, to the effect that at the election at
Gallatin, yesterday, two or three of our brethren were killed by the
Missourians, and left upon the ground, and not suffered to be interred;
that the brethren were prevented from voting, and a majority of the
inhabitants of Daviess county were determined to drive the Saints from
that county.

[Sidenote: The Departure of the Prophet for Gallatin.]

On hearing this report, I started for Gallatin, to assist the brethren,
accompanied by President Rigdon, Brother Hyrum Smith, and fifteen or
twenty others, who were armed for their own protection; and the command
of the company was given to George W. Robinson.

{59} On our way we were joined by the brethren from different parts of
the county, some of whom were attacked by the mob, but we all reached
Colonel Wight's that night in safety, where we found some of the
brethren who had been mobbed at Gallatin, with others, waiting for our
counsel. Here we received the cheering intelligence that none of the
brethren were killed, although several were badly wounded.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Commends the Brethren for Standing for Their
Rights.]

From the best information, about one hundred and fifty Missourians
warred against from six to twelve of our brethren, who fought like
lions. Several Missourians had their skulls cracked. Blessed be
the memory of those few brethren who contended so strenuously for
their constitutional rights and religious freedom, against such an
overwhelming force of desperadoes!

[Sidenote: Interview with Adam Black.]

_Wednesday, 8_.--After spending the night in counsel at Colonel
Wight's, I rode out with some of the brethren to view the situation of
affairs in that region, and among others, called on Adam Black, justice
of the peace, and judge elect for Daviess county, who had some time
previous sold his farm to Brother Vinson Knight, and received part
pay according to agreement, and afterwards united himself with a band
of mobbers to drive the Saints from, and prevent their settling in,
Daviess county. On interrogation, he confessed what he had done, and in
consequence of this violation of his oath as magistrate, we asked him
to give us some satisfaction so that we might know whether he was our
friend or enemy, whether or not he would administer the law in justice;
and politely requested him to sign an agreement of peace, but being
jealous, he would not sign it, but said he would write one himself and
sign it, which he did, as follows--

    _Adam Black's Agreement_.

    I, Adam Black, a justice of the Peace of Daviess county, do hereby
    {60} Sertify to the people, _coled Mormin,_ that he is bound to
    _support_ the Constitution of this State, and of the United State,
    and he is not attached to any mob, nor will not attach himself to
    any such people, and so long as they will not molest me, I will not
    molest them. This the 8th day of August, 1838.

    Adam Black, J. P. [3]

Hoping he would abide his own decision, and support the law, we left
him in peace, and returned to Colonel Wight's at Adam-ondi-Ahman.

[Sidenote: Interview with Citizens of Mill Port.]

In the evening some of the citizens from Mill Port called on us, and we
agreed to meet some of the principal men of the county in council, at
Adam-ondi-Ahman the next day at twelve o'clock, noon.

_Thursday, 9_.--The Committee assembled at Adam-ondi-Ahman at twelve,
according to previous appointment, viz., on the part of Mill Port
citizens, Joseph Morin, senator elect: John Williams, representative
elect; James B. Turner, clerk of the circuit court, and others: on the
part of the Saints, Lyman Wight, Vinson Knight, John Smith, Reynolds
Cahoon, and others. At this meeting both parties entered into a
covenant of peace, to preserve each other's rights, and stand in each
other's defense; that if men did wrong, neither party would uphold them
or endeavor to screen them from justice, but deliver up all offenders
to be dealt with according to law and justice. The assembly dispersed
on these friendly terms, myself and friends returning to Far West,
where we arrived about midnight and found all quiet.

_Friday, 10_.--Being somewhat fatigued I spent the day with my family,
transacting but little business.

[Sidenote: Treaties of Peace of Little Avail.]

The spirit of mobocracy continued to stalk abroad, notwithstanding all
our treaties of peace, as will be seen by the following affidavit--

    {61} _Peniston's Affidavit_.

    State Of Missouri,

    Ray County. ss.

    Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, judge of the
    Fifth Judicial Circuit, William P. Peniston, and makes oath that
    he has good reason to believe, and that he verily does believe,
    that there is now collected and embodied in the County of Daviess,
    a large body of armed men, whose movements and conduct are of a
    highly insurrectionary and unlawful character; that they consist
    of about five hundred men, and that they, or a part of them, to
    the number of one hundred and twenty, have committed violence
    against Adam Black, by surrounding his house, and taking him in a
    violent manner, and subjecting him to great indignities, by forcing
    him, under threats of immediate death, to sign a paper writing of
    a very disgraceful character, and by threatening to do the same
    to all the old settlers and citizens of Daviess county; and that
    they have, as a collected and armed body, threatened to put to
    instant death this affiant on sight; and that he verily believes
    they will accomplish that act without they are prevented; and also
    that they have threatened the same to Wm. Bowman and others; and
    this affiant states that he verily believes all the above facts
    to be true, and that the body of men now assembled do intend to
    commit great violence to many of the citizens of Daviess county,
    and that they have already done so to Adam Black; and this affiant
    verily believes, from information of others, that Joseph Smith,
    Jun., and Lyman Wight are the leaders of this body of armed men,
    and the names of others thus combined are not certainly known to
    this affiant; and he further states the fact to be that it is his
    opinion, and he verily believes, that it is the object of this body
    of armed men, to take vengeance for some injuries, or imaginary
    injuries, done to some of their friends, and to intimidate and
    drive from the county all the old citizens, and possess themselves
    of their lands, or to force such as do not leave, to come into
    their measures and submit to their dictation.

    William P. Peniston.

    Sworn to and subscribed before me the undersigned judge, as
    aforesaid, this 10th day of August, 1838.

    Austin A. King.

[Sidenote: Reflections of the Prophet.]

The above was also sworn to by William Bowman, Wilson McKinney, and
John Netherton. So it is that when men's hearts become hardened and
corrupt, they will more readily swear to lies than speak the truth.

At this time some of the brethren had removed with {62} their families
from the vicinity of Gallatin, to Diahman and Far West, for safety.

_Saturday, 11_.--This morning I left Far West, with my council and
Elder Almon W. Babbitt, to visit the brethren on the Forks of Grand
river, who had come from Canada with Elder Babbitt, and settled at that
place contrary to counsel.

[Sidenote: Inquiry at Far West concerning Gallatin Affair.]

In the afternoon, after my departure, a committee from Ray county
arrived at Far West, to inquire into the proceedings of our society
in going armed into Daviess county, complaint having been entered
in Ray county by Adam Black, William P. Peniston, and others. The
committee from Ray county requested an interview with a committee of
Caldwell, and a general meeting was called at the city hall, at six
in the evening, when it was stated that they were assembled to take
into consideration the doings of the citizens of Ray county, wherein
they have accused the "Mormons" of this place of breaking the peace,
in defending their rights and those of their brethren in the county
of Daviess. The meeting was organized by appointing Bishop Edward
Partridge, chairman; and Geo. W. Robinson, clerk. The meeting adopted
the following--

    _Resolutions_.

    "Resolved 1st. That a committee of seven be appointed to confer
    with the committee from Ray county.

    "Resolved 2nd. That this committee, with their secretary, be
    authorized to answer such questions as may be offered by the
    committee from Ray county, and as are named in the document
    presented to this meeting, purporting to be the preamble and
    resolutions of the citizens of Ray county.

    "Resolved 3rd. That whereas the document referred to has no date or
    signature, our committee judge of the fact, and act accordingly.

    "Resolved 4th. That our committee report their proceedings to this
    meeting as soon as possible.

    "Edward Partridge, Chairman,

    "Geo. W. Robinson, Clerk."

_Sunday, 12_.--I continued with the brethren at the Forks {63} of Grand
river, offering such counsel as their situation required.

[Sidenote: Chased by a Mob.]

_Monday, 13_.--I returned with my council to Far West. We were chased
ten or twelve miles, by some evil designing men, but we eluded their
pursuit. When within about eight miles of home, we met some brethren
who had come to inform us that a writ had been issued by Judge King,
for my arrest, and that of Lyman Wight, for attempting to defend our
rights against the mob. [4]

_Tuesday and Wednesday, 14 and 15_.--I spent principally at home,
engaged in domestic affairs.

_Thursday, 16_.--I spent principally at home.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Interview with the Sheriff of Daviess County.]

The sheriff of Daviess county, accompanied by Judge Morin, called and
notified me, that he had a writ to take me to Daviess county, for
trial, for visiting that county on the seventh instant.

It had been currently reported that I would not be apprehended by legal
process, and that I would not submit to the laws of the land; but I
told the sheriff that I intended always to submit to the laws of our
country, but I wished to be tried in my own county, as the citizens of
Daviess county were highly exasperated at me, and that the laws of the
country gave me this privilege. Upon hearing this, the sheriff declined
serving the writ, and said he would go to Richmond, and see Judge King
on the subject. I told him I would remain at home until his return.

The sheriff returned from Richmond, and found me at home (where I had
remained during his absence), and informed me very gravely, that I was
out of his jurisdiction, and that he could not act in Caldwell county,
and retired.

[Sidenote: Organization of Agriculture Companies.]

_August 20_.--Nothing peculiar transpired at Far West, from the
sixteenth to this day, when the inhabitants of the different parts
of the county met to organize {64} themselves into Agricultural
Companies. I was present and took part in their deliberations. One
company was formed called the "Western Agricultural Company," which
voted to enclose one field for grain containing twelve sections, seven
thousand six hundred and eighty acres of land. Another company was also
organized, called the "Eastern Agricultural Company," the extent of the
field not decided.

_Tuesday, 21_.--Another company was formed, called the "Southern
Agricultural Company," the field to be as large as the first mentioned.

_Wednesday, 22_.--I spent part of the day in counseling with several
brethren upon different subjects.

The brethren continued to gather to Zion daily.

Some time this month the Saints were warned by the mob to leave De
Witt, Carroll county.

_Thursday, 23_.--This day I spent transacting a variety of business
about the city.

_Friday, 24_.--I was at home. Also on the 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th,
and 30th.

    _Affidavit of Adam Black_.

    State Of Missouri,

    County Of Daviess. ss.

    Before me, William Dryden, one of the justices of the peace of said
    county, personally came Adam Black, who being duly sworn according
    to law, deposeth and saith: that on or about the 8th day of
    August, 1838, in the county of Daviess, there came an armed force
    of men, said to be one hundred and fifty-four, to the best of his
    information, and surrounded his house and family, and threatened
    him with instant death if he did not sign a certain instrument
    of writing, binding himself, as a justice of the peace for said
    county of Daviess, not to molest the people called Mormons; and
    threatened the lives of himself and other individuals, and did
    say they intended to make every citizen sign such obligation, and
    further said they intended to have satisfaction for abuse they had
    received on the Monday previous, and that they could not submit to
    the laws: and further saith, that from the best information and his
    own personal knowledge, that Andrew [Alanson] Ripley, George A.
    Smith, Ephraim Owens, Harvey Humstead, Hiram Nelson, A. Brown, John
    L. {65} Butler, Cornelius [P.] Lott, John Wood, H. Redfield, Riley
    Stewart, James Whitaker, Andrew Thor, Amos Tubbs, Dr. Gourze, and
    Abram Nelson was guilty of aiding and abetting in committing and
    perpetrating the above offense.

    Adam Black.

    Sworn to and subscribed this the 28th of August, 1838.

    W. Dryden,

    Justice of the Peace of the County aforesaid.

[Sidenote: Comment on Adam Black.]

This document, with that of the 8th of August, of said Black, shows him
in his true light--a detestable, unprincipled mobocrat and _perjured
man_.

_Thursday, 30_.--This day Governor Boggs issued the following order to
General Atchison--

    _Proclamation of Governor Boggs_.

    Headquarters Of Militia, Adjutant General's Office,

    August 30th, 1838.

    _General David R. Atchison, 3rd Division, Missouri Militia_.

    Sir--Indications of Indian disturbances on our immediate frontier,
    and the recent civil disturbances in the counties of Caldwell,
    Daviess, and Carroll, render it necessary, as a precautionary
    measure, that an effective force of the militia be held in
    readiness to meet either contingency. The Commander-in-Chief
    therefore orders that you cause to be raised immediately, within
    the limits of your division, to be held in readiness, and subject
    to further orders, four hundred mounted men, armed and equipped
    as infantry or riflemen, and formed into companies according to
    law, under officers already in commission. The Commander-in-Chief
    suggests the propriety of your causing the above to be carried into
    effect, in a manner calculated to produce as little excitement as
    possible, and report your proceedings to him through the Adjutant
    General.

    By order of the Commander-in-Chief,

    B. M. Lisle, Adjutant-General.

A similar letter was also addressed to Major Generals John B. Clark,
Samuel D. Lucas, David Willock, Lewis Bolton, Henry W. Crawther, and
Thomas D. Grant.

[Sidenote: Conduct of John Corrill Reproved.]

I spent considerable time to day in conversation with Brother John
Corrill, in consequence of some expressions made by him, in presence
of several brethren who had {66} not been long in the place. Brother
Corrill's conduct for some time had been very unbecoming, especially
in a man in whom so much confidence had been placed. He said he would
not yield his judgment to anything proposed by the Church, or any
individuals of the Church, or even the Great I Am, given through the
appointed organ, as revelation, but would always act upon his own
judgment, let him believe in whatever religion he might. He stated he
would always say what he pleased, for he was a Republican, and as such
would do, say, act, and believe what he pleased.

Mark such republicanism as this! A man to oppose his own judgment to
the judgment of God, and at the same time to profess to believe in that
same God, who has said: "The foolishness of God is wiser than man; and
the weakness of God is stronger, than man."

President Rigdon also made some observations to Brother Corrill, which
he afterwards acknowledged were correct, and that he understood things
different after the interview from what he did before.

Footnotes

1. Erastus Snow was the son of Levi and Lucina Snow. His ancestors
were among the early settlers of the Massachusetts colony. He was
born on the 9th of November, 1818, and converted to the Gospel in the
Spring of 1832, through the ministry of Elders Orson Pratt and Luke
S. Johnson. Though converted to the Gospel by these Elders he was
baptized by his elder brother, William, on the 3rd of February, 1833,
and soon afterwards was ordained a teacher and commenced his work in
the ministry. Previous to his arrival at Far West he had been active in
the ministry for several years, preaching extensively in Ohio, New York
and Pennsylvania. He was a member of the second quorum of Seventies,
and had already given evidence of his sterling integrity and untiring
efforts as a minister of the Lord Jesus Christ which so characterized
all the subsequent years of his long life.

2. John D. Lee was born on the 6th of September, 1812, in the town of
Kaskaskia, Randolph County, Illinois; and was the son of Ralph Lee, of
Virginia, and the daughter of John Doyle, of Nashville, Tennessee.

3. The original orthography and composition of this note are preserved
in the above copy.

4. The warrant was issued on the misrepresentations of what the Prophet
and Lyman Wight did on their visit to Adam Black on the 8th of August.

{67}



CHAPTER VII.

Increasing Difficulties Between The Saints And The Mobs Of Daviess And
Caldwell Counties.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Leaves Far West to Found a City of Zion.]

_Saturday, September 1, 1838_.--The First Presidency, with Judge
Higbee, as surveyor, started this morning for the half-way house, as it
is called, kept by Brother Littlefield, some fourteen or fifteen miles
from Far West, directly north--for the purpose of appointing a city of
Zion, for the gathering of the Saints in that place, for safety, and
from the storm which will soon come upon this generation, and that the
brethren may be together, and that they may receive instructions to
prepare them for that great day which will come upon this generation as
a thief in the night.

[Sidenote: Excitement Among the Missourians.]

There is great excitement at present among the Missourians, who are
seeking if possible an occasion against us. They are continually
chafing us, and provoking us to anger if possible, one sign of
threatening after another, but we do not fear them, for the Lord God,
the Eternal Father is our God, and Jesus the Mediator is our Savior,
and in the great I Am is our strength and confidence.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Review of the Wrongs of the Saints.]

We have been driven time after time, and that without cause; and
smitten again and again, and that without provocation; until we have
proved the world with kindness, and the world has proved us, that we
have no designs against any man or set of men, that we injure no man,
that we are peaceable with all men, minding our own business, and our
business only. We have suffered our rights and our liberties to be
taken from us; we have not avenged ourselves of those wrongs; we have
appealed to magistrates, to sheriffs, to judges, to {68} government
and to the President of the United States, all in vain; yet we have
yielded peaceably to all these things. We have not complained at the
Great God, we murmured not, but peaceably left all, and retired into
the back country, in the broad and wild prairies, in the barren and
desolate plains, and there commenced anew; we made the desolate places
to bud and blossom as the rose; and now the fiend-like race is disposed
to give us no rest. Their father the devil, is hourly calling upon
them to be up and doing, and they, like willing and obedient children,
need not the second admonition; but in the name of Jesus Christ the
Son of the living God, we will endure it no longer, if the great God
will arm us with courage, with strength and with power, to resist them
in their persecutions. We will not act on the offensive, but always on
the defensive; our rights and our liberties shall not be taken from us,
and we peaceably submit to it, as we have done heretofore, but we will
avenge ourselves of our enemies, inasmuch as they will not let us alone.

[Sidenote: Site for a City Selected.]

But to return again to our subject. We found the place for the city,
and the brethren were instructed to gather immediately into it, and
soon they should be organized according to the laws of God. A more
particular history of this city may be expected hereafter, perhaps at
its organization and dedication. We found a new route home, saving, I
should think, three or four miles. We arrived at Far West about the
close of day.

The High Priests met at Brother Pea's at Far West, and received Levi
Richards into their quorum.

[Sidenote: Rumors of Mobs Gathering.]

_Sunday, 2_.--The First Presidency attended meeting as usual in the
morning. I tarried at home in the evening to examine the Church
records, and spent a part of the time in company with a gentleman from
Livingston county, who had become considerably excited, on account of
a large collection of people, as he said, to take Joseph Smith, Jun.,
and Lyman Wight, for going to one Adam Black's in Daviess county; and
as the said {69} President Smith and Colonel Wight had resisted the
officer who had endeavored to take them, accordingly these men are
assembling to take them--as they say. They are collecting from every
part of the country, to Daviess county. Report says that they are
collecting from eleven counties, to help take two men who had never
resisted the law or officer, nor had they thought of doing so, and this
their enemies knew at the same time, or many of them at least knew it.
This looks a little too much like mobocracy, it foretells some evil
intentions. The whole of upper Missouri is in an uproar and confusion.

[Sidenote: An Appeal to Gen. Atchison.]

This evening I sent for General Atchison, of Liberty, Clay county, who
is the major general of this division--to come and counsel with us, and
to see if we could not put a stop to this collection of people, and to
put a stop to hostilities in Daviess county. I also sent a letter to
Judge King containing a petition for him to assist in putting down and
scattering the mob collecting in Daviess county.

_Monday, 3_.--Nothing of importance occurred today. Reports come in
concerning the collection of a mob in Daviess county, which has been
collecting ever since the election in Daviess county, on the sixth of
August last. I was at home most of the day.

This evening General Atchison arrived in Far West.

[Sidenote: Consultation with General Atchison.]

_Tuesday, 4_.--This day I spent in council with General Atchison. He
says he will do all in his power to disperse the mob. We employed him
and Alexander Doniphan (his partner) as our counsel in law. They are
considered the first lawyers in upper Missouri.

[Sidenote: The Prophet and Sidney Rigdon Study Law.]

President Rigdon and myself commenced this day the study of law, under
the instruction of Generals Atchison and Doniphan. They think, by
diligent application, we can be admitted to the bar in twelve months.

[Sidenote: The Prophet and Lyman Wight to submit to Trial.]

The result of our consultation with our lawyers was {70} that myself
and Colonel Wight volunteer to be tried by Judge King in Daviess
county. Colonel Wight was present, having been previously notified to
attend the consultation. Accordingly, Thursday next, was appointed
for the trial, and word to that effect was sent to Judge King (who
had previously agreed to try the case). All are to meet at Brother
Littlefield's, near the county line in the southern part of Daviess
county. I was at home in the evening after six o'clock.

_Wednesday, 5_.--I gave the following affidavit, that the truth might
appear before the public in the matter in controversy:

    _The Prophet's Affidavit on the Adam Black Incident_.

    State Of Missouri,

    Caldwell County. ss.

    Before me, Elias Higbee, one of the justices of the county court,
    within and for the county of Caldwell aforesaid, personally came
    Joseph Smith, Jun., who, being duly sworn according to law,
    deposeth and saith: That on the seventh day of August, one thousand
    eight hundred and thirty-eight, being informed that an affray had
    taken place in Daviess county, at the election, in the town of
    Gallatin, in which two persons were [reported] killed, and one
    person badly wounded, and fled to the woods to save his life; all
    of which were said to be persons belonging to the society of the
    Church of Latter-day Saints; and further, said informant stated
    that those persons who committed the outrage would not suffer the
    bodies of those who had been killed to be taken off the ground and
    buried.

    These reports, with others, one of which was that the Saints
    had not the privilege of voting at the polls as other citizens;
    another was that those opposed to the Saints were determined to
    drive them from Daviess county, and also that they were arming
    and strengthening their forces and preparing for battle; and
    that the Saints were preparing and making ready to stand in self
    defense--these reports having excited the feelings of the citizens
    of Far West and vicinity, I was invited by Dr. Avard and some
    others to go out to Daviess county, to the scene of these outrages;
    they having previously determined to go out and learn the facts
    concerning said reports.

    Accordingly some of the citizens, myself among the number, went
    out, two, three, and four, in companies, as they got ready. The
    {71} reports and excitement continued until several of those
    small companies through the day were induced to follow the first,
    who were all eager to learn the facts concerning this matter. We
    arrived in the evening at the house of Lyman Wight, about three
    miles from Gallatin, the scene of the reported outrages. Here
    we learned the truth concerning the said affray, which had been
    considerably exaggerated, yet there had been a serious outrage
    committed. We there learned that the mob was collected at Millport,
    to a considerable number; that Adam Black was at their head; and
    that they were to attack the Saints the next day, at the place we
    then were in, called Adam-ondi-Ahman. This report we were still
    inclined to believe might be true, as this Adam Black, who was said
    to be their leader, had been, but a few months before, engaged in
    endeavoring to drive those of the society who had settled in that
    vicinity, from the county. This had become notorious, from the fact
    that said Black had personally ordered several of said society to
    leave the county.

    The next morning we dispatched a committee to said Black's,
    to ascertain the truth of these reports, and to know what his
    intentions were; and as we understood he was a peace officer, we
    wished to know what we might expect from him. They reported that
    Mr. Black, instead of giving them any assurance of peace, insulted
    them and gave them no satisfaction. Being desirous of knowing the
    feelings of Mr. Black for myself, and being in want of good water,
    and understanding that there was none nearer than Mr. Black's
    spring, myself with several others mounted our horses and rode up
    to Mr. Black's fence.

    Dr. Avard, with one or two others who had ridden ahead, went into
    Mr. Black's house; myself and some others went to the spring for
    water. I was shortly after sent for by Mr. Black, and invited into
    the house, being introduced to Mr. Black by Dr. Avard. Mr. Black
    wished me to be seated. We then commenced a conversation on the
    subject at the late difficulties, and present excitement. I found
    Mr. Black quite hostile in his feelings toward the Saints; but he
    assured us he did not belong to the mob, neither would he take any
    part with them; but said he was bound by his oath to support the
    Constitution of the United States, and the laws of the State of
    Missouri. Deponent then asked him if he would make said statement
    in writing, so as to refute the statement of those who had affirmed
    that he (Black) was one of the leaders of the mob. Mr. Black
    answered in the affirmative. Accordingly he did so, which writing
    is in possession of the deponent. The deponent further saith,
    that no violence was offered to any individual in his presence,
    or within his knowledge; and that no insulting language was given
    by either party, except on the part of Mrs. Black, who, while Mr.
    Black was engaged in making out the above-named writing, (which
    he made with his own hand), gave to this deponent, and others of
    his {72} society, highly insulting language and false accusations,
    which were calculated in their nature to greatly irritate, if
    possible, the feelings of the bystanders belonging to said society,
    in language like this--being asked by the deponent if she knew
    anything in the "Mormon" people derogatory to the character of
    gentlemen, she answered in the negative, but said she did not know
    but the object of their visit was to steal something from them.
    After Mr. Black had executed the writing, deponent asked Mr. Black
    if he had any unfriendly feelings towards the deponent, and if he
    [the deponent] had not treated him genteelly. He answered in the
    affirmative. Deponent then took leave of said Black and repaired to
    the house of Lyman Wight. The next day he returned to Far West, and
    further this deponent saith not.

    Joseph Smith, Jun.

    Sworn to and subscribed this fifth day of September, A. D. 1838.

    Elias Higbee, J. C. C. C.

[Sidenote: Judge King at Far West.]

Judge King arrived at Far West, on his way to Daviess to meet the
proposed trial. General Atchison had gone before Judge King arrived,
and the judge tarried all night. I was at home after six o'clock in the
evening.

[Sidenote: Start for the Place of Trial.]

_Thursday, 6_.--At half-past seven this morning, I started on
horseback, accompanied by several brethren, among whom were my
brother Hyrum and Judge Elias Higbee, to attend my trial at Brother
Littlefield's. I thought it not wisdom to make my appearance before the
public at the county seat of Daviess county, in consequence of the many
threats made against me, and the high state of excitement. The trial
could not proceed, on account of the absence of the plaintiff, and lack
of testimony, and the court adjourned until tomorrow at ten o'clock in
the morning, at a Mr. Raglin's, some six or eight miles further south,
and within half a mile of the line of Caldwell. Raglin is a regular mob
character. We all returned to Far West, where we arrived before dark.

[Sidenote: The Trial at Raglin's.]

_Friday, 7_.--About sunrise I started with my friends, and arrived at
Mr. Raglin's at the appointed hour. We did not know but there would
be a disturbance among the mob characters today; we {73} accordingly
had a company of men placed at the county line, so as to be ready at a
minute's warning, if there should be any difficulty at the trial.

The trial commenced; William P. Peniston, who was the prosecutor, had
no witnesses but Adam Black, but he contrived to swear to a great many
things that never had an existence, and I presume never entered into
the heart of any other man, and in fine, I think he swore by the job,
and that he was employed so to do by Peniston.

The witnesses on the part of the defense were Dimick B. Huntington,
Gideon Carter, Adam Lightner, and George W. Robinson.

[Sidenote: The Prophet and Lyman Wight Bound Over.]

The judge bound Colonel Wight and myself over to court in a five
hundred dollar bond. There was no proof against us to criminate us, but
it is supposed he did it to pacify, as much as possible, the feelings
of the mobbers. The judge stated afterwards, in the presence of George
W. Robinson, that there was nothing proven against us worthy of bonds,
but we submitted without murmuring a word, gave the bonds, with
sufficient securities, and all returned home the same evening.

[Sidenote: A Committee of Inquiry from Chariton County.]

I found two persons in Daviess county at the trial, who were sent from
Chariton county as a committee, to inquire into all this matter, as
the mobbers had sent to that place for assistance, they said, to take
Smith and Wight; but their real object was to drive the brethren from
the county of Daviess, as had been done in Jackson county. They said
the people in Chariton county did not see proper to send help without
knowing for what purpose they were doing it, and this they said was
their errand. They accompanied us to Far West, to hold a council with
us, in order to learn the facts of this great excitement, which is, as
it were, turning the world upside down. We arrived home in the evening.

The Presidency met in council with the committee from {74} Chariton
county, together with General Atchison, where a relation was given of
our affairs in general, the present state of excitement, and the cause
of all this confusion. The gentlemen from Chariton expressed their
fullest satisfaction upon the subject, and considered they had been
outrageously imposed upon in this matter. They left this afternoon
apparently perfectly satisfied with the interview.

[Sidenote: Rumors of an Attack upon "Diahman."]

News came this evening that the mob were to attack Adam-ondi-Ahman, and
a few of the brethren from Far West started to assist the brethren to
defend themselves.

_Sunday, 9_.--This morning a company in addition to that which went
last evening went to Adam-ondi-Ahman to assist the brethren there in
their defense against the mob.

[Sidenote: Capture of Arms Intended for the Mob.]

Captain William Allred took a company of ten mounted men and went to
intercept a team with guns and ammunition, sent from Richmond to the
mob in Daviess county. They found the wagon broken down, and the boxes
of guns drawn into the high grass near by the wagon; there was no one
present that could be discovered. In a short time two men on horseback
came from towards the camp of the mob, and immediately behind them was
a man with a wagon; they all came up and were taken by virtue of a
writ on the supposition that they were abetting the mob, by carrying
guns and ammunition to them. The men were taken together with the guns
to Far West; the guns were distributed among the brethren, for their
defense, and the prisoners were held in custody. This was a glorious
day indeed, the plans of the mob were frustrated in losing their
guns, and all their efforts appeared to be blasted. Captain Allred
acted under the civil authorities in Caldwell, who issued the writ
for securing the arms and arresting the carriers. The prisoners were
brought to Far West for trial.

[Sidenote: The Mob Take Prisoners.]

The mob continue to take prisoners at their pleasure; some they keep,
and some they let go. They try all in {75} their power to make us
commit the first act of violence. They frequently send in word that
they are torturing the prisoners to death, in the most cruel manner,
but we understand all their ways, and their cunning and wisdom are not
past finding out.

[Sidenote: Allred's Prisoners.]

_Monday, 10_.--This day the prisoners taken by Captain Allred on
Sunday, viz., John B. Comer, William L. McHoney, and Allen Miller, were
brought before Albert Petty, justice of the peace, for examination. The
prisoners asked for bail, to allow time to get counsel. The law allowed
no bail, but the court adjourned till Wednesday to give time to the
prisoners to get counsel.

After the arrest the facts were communicated to Judge King by letter,
under date of Richmond, September 10th, asking his advice how to
dispose of the guns and prisoners.

[Sidenote: Advice from Judge King.]

Judge King advised by letter to turn the prisoners loose, and let them
receive kind treatment; that the guns were government property, in the
care of Captain Pollard of his vicinity, but whether they went by his
authority or permission he could not say, he was at a loss to give any
advice about them; but said that they should not, through any agency of
his, be taken from us to be converted and used for illegal purposes.
The letter was signed by A. A. King (directed to Messrs. Smith and
Rigdon).

[Sidenote: Judge King's Apparent Double Dealing.]

Under the same date Judge King advised General Atchison "to send two
hundred or more men, and dispel the forces in Daviess county and all
the assembled armed forces in Caldwell, and cause those 'Mormons' who
refuse to give up, to surrender, and be recognized, for it will not do
to compromise the law with them." What compromise need there be, Judge
King, for no "Mormons" had refused to surrender to the requisitions of
the law? It is mob violence, alone, that the "Mormons" are contending
against.

{76} [Sidenote: Petition from Ray County.]

A petition was this day made out by the citizens of Ray county,
directed to General Atchison, asking him to call out the militia to
suppress the insurrection in Caldwell and Daviess counties, and save
the effusion of blood, which must speedily take place unless prevented.
Signed by Jesse Coates and twenty-eight others.

[Sidenote: The Trial of Allred's Prisoners.]

_Wednesday, 12_.--This day the prisoners, [Allred's] John B. Comer and
his comrades, were put upon trial. It was proven to the court that the
guns were taken by one of the prisoners and that he with the others
were taking them to Daviess county to arm the mob. It was also proved
that the mob was collecting for the purpose of driving the Saints from
their homes. The prisoners were held to bail for their appearance at
the circuit court, Comer as principal, the others were merely in his
service.

[Sidenote: The Citizens of Daviess County to the Governor.]

This day also a communication was sent to Governor Boggs, dated Daviess
county, containing all the falsehoods and lies that the evil genius of
mobocrats, villains, and murderers could invent, charging the "Mormons"
with every crime they themselves had been guilty of, and calling the
"Mormons" impostors, rebels, Canadian refugees, emissaries of the
prince of darkness, and signed, "The Citizens of Daviess and Livingston
Counties."

[Sidenote: Atchison Orders Out the Militia.]

Under this date, General Atchison informed the Governor, by letter from
headquarters at Richmond, that on the solicitation of the citizens
and the advice of the judge of the circuit, he had ordered out four
companies of fifty men each from the militia of Clay county, and a like
number from Ray; also four hundred men to hold themselves in readiness
if required, all mounted riflemen, except one company of infantry.
The troops were to proceed immediately to the scene of excitement and
insurrection.

{77}



CHAPTER VIII.

Mob Movements In Caldwell, Daviess And Carroll Counties--Arrival Of
Kirtland Camp At Far West.

[Sidenote: Trouble at De Witt Begins.]

About this time [September 12th] sixty or more mobbers entered De Witt
[1] and warned the brethren to leave that place.

_Friday, 14_.--I was at home after three o'clock in the evening.

[Sidenote: Dryden's Report to the Governor.]

William Dryden, Justice of the Peace in Daviess county, stated to the
Governor, in a long communication, that he had issued a writ against
Alanson Ripley, George A. Smith, and others, for assaulting and
threatening Adam Black, on the eighth of August last; and that the
officer, with a guard of ten men, in attempting to serve the writ, was
forcibly driven from the town where the offenders were supposed to be,
and that the "Mormons" were so well armed and so numerous in Caldwell
and Daviess, that the judicial power of those counties was wholly
unable to execute a writ against a "Mormon," and that the "Mormons"
held the "institutions of the country in utter contempt," with many
more such falsehoods of the blackest kind. Upon this representation
Governor Boggs issued an order to General David R. Atchison, of the
third Division of Missouri militia, through the Adjutant General, B. M.
Lisle, to raise a sufficient force of troops under his command, and aid
the civil officers in Daviess county, to execute all writs and other
processes, in their charge, and especially assist the officer {78}
charged with the execution of a writ issued by William Dryden, Justice
of the Peace, on the twenty-ninth of August last, for the arrest of
Alanson Ripley, George A. Smith and others, and bring the offenders to
justice.

The following letter gives a tolerable fair view of the movements of
the militia for a few days past:

    _Doniphan's Report to Atchison_.

    Headquarters, First Brigade, 3rd Division Missouri Militia, Camp At
    Grand River, September 15, 1838.

    _Major General David R. Atchison, Commanding 3rd Division Missouri
    Militia_:

    Sir:--In pursuance of your orders, dated 11th instant, I issued
    orders to Colonel William A. Dunn, commanding the 28th regiment, to
    raise four companies of mounted riflemen, consisting of fifty men
    each; also to Colonel John Boulware, commanding 70th regiment, to
    raise two companies of mounted riflemen, consisting each of like
    number to start forthwith for service in the counties of Caldwell
    and Daviess.

    On the same day, Colonel Dunn obtained the four companies of
    volunteers required from the 28th regiment, and on the morning of
    the 12th I took the command in person, and marched to the line
    of Caldwell, at which point, I ordered the colonels to march the
    regiments to the timber of Crooked river. I then started for Far
    West, the county seat of Caldwell, accompanied by my aid alone.

    On arriving at that place, I found Comer, Miller, and McHoney, the
    prisoners mentioned in your order. I demanded of the guard, who had
    them in confinement, to deliver them over to me, which was promptly
    done. I also found that the guns that had been captured by the
    Sheriff and citizens of Caldwell, had been distributed and placed
    in the hands of the soldiery, and scattered over the country; I
    ordered them to be immediately collected and delivered up to me.
    I then sent an express to Colonel Dunn to march the regiment by
    daylight, for that place, where he arrived about seven a. m.,
    making forty miles since ten o'clock, a. m., on the previous day.

    When my command arrived, the guns were delivered up, amounting to
    forty-two stand, three stand could not be produced, as they had
    probably gone to Daviess county. I sent these guns under a guard to
    your command in Ray county, together with the prisoner Comer, the
    other two being citizens of Daviess I retained, and brought with me
    to this county, and released them on parol of honor, as I conceived
    their detention illegal.

    {79} At eight o'clock a. m., we took up the line of march, and
    proceeded through Millport in Daviess county, thirty-seven miles
    from our former encampment, and arrived at the camp of the citizens
    of Daviess and other adjoining counties, which amounted to between
    two and three hundred, as their commander, Dr. Austin, of Carroll
    county, informed me. Your order requiring them to disperse, which
    had been forwarded in advance of my command, by your aid, James M.
    Hughes, was read to them, and they were required to disperse. They
    professed that their object for arming and collecting was solely
    for defense, but they were marching and counter marching guards
    out; and myself and others who approached the camp were taken to
    task and required to wait the approach of the sergeant of the
    guard. I had an interview with Dr. Austin, and his professions were
    all pacific. But they still continue in arms, marching and counter
    marching.

    I then proceeded with your aid, J. M. Hughes, and my aid, Benjamin
    Holliday, to the Mormon encampment commanded by Colonel Lyman
    Wight. We held a conference with him, and he professed entire
    willingness to disband and surrender up to me every one of the
    Mormons accused of crime, and required in return that the hostile
    forces, collected by the other citizens of the county, should
    also disband. At the camp commanded by Dr. Austin, I demanded the
    prisoner, demanded in your order, who had been released on the
    evening after my arrival in their vicinity.

    I took up my line of march, and encamped in the direct road between
    the two hostile encampments, where I have remained since, within
    about two and a half miles of Wight's encampment, and sometimes
    the other camp is nearer, and sometimes further from me. I intend
    to occupy this position until your arrival, as I deem it best to
    preserve peace, and prevent an engagement between the parties, and
    if kept so for a few days, they will doubtless disband without
    coercion. I have the honor to be, yours with respect,

    A. W. Doniphan,

    Brig-General 1st Brigade, 3rd Division Missouri Militia.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Comment.]

By this it is clearly seen that the officers and troops acting under
the Governor's orders had very little regard for the laws of the land,
otherwise Comer, Miller, and McHoney would not have been discharged by
them.

I was at and about home this day, attending to my business as usual.

_Sunday, 16_.--Held meeting in the afternoon, had {80} preaching and
breaking of bread. I was at home all day with my family.

_Monday, 17_.--I was counseling with the brethren at home and about the
city.

    _Atchison's Report to the Governor_.

    Headquarters 3rd Division, Missouri Militia,

    Grand River, Sep. 17, 1838,

    _To his Excellency the Commander-in-Chief_:

    Sir:--I arrived at the county seat of this county, Daviess, on
    the evening of the 15th instant, with the troops raised from
    the militia of Ray county, when I was joined by the troops from
    Clay county under the command of General Doniphan. In the same
    neighborhood I found from two to three hundred men in arms,
    principally from the counties of Livingston, Carroll and Saline.
    These men were embodied under the pretext of defending the citizens
    of Daviess county, against the Mormons, and were operating under
    the orders of a Dr. Austin from Carroll county. The citizens of
    Daviess, or a large portion of them, residing on each side of
    Grand river, had left their farms, and removed their families
    either to the adjoining counties, or collected them together at a
    place called the Camp Ground. The whole county on the east side of
    Grand river appears to be deserted, with the exception of a few
    who are not so timid as their neighbors. The Mormons of Daviess
    county have also left their farms, and have encamped for safety
    at a place immediately on the east bank of Grand river, called
    Adam-ondi-Ahman. The numbers are supposed to be about two hundred
    and fifty men, citizens of Daviess county, and from fifty to one
    hundred men, citizens of Caldwell county; both parties have been
    scouting through the country, and occasionally taking prisoners,
    and threatening and insulting each other, but as yet no blood has
    been shed. I have ordered all armed men from adjoining counties
    to repair to their homes; and Livingston county men, and others,
    to the amount of one hundred men, have returned, and there remain
    now about one hundred and fifty, who will, I am in hopes, return
    in a few days. I have been informed by the Mormons, that all of
    those who have been charged with a violation of the laws will be
    in today for trial; when that is done, the troops under my command
    will be no longer required in this county, if the citizens of other
    counties will return to their respective homes. I have proposed
    to leave two companies of fifty men each, in this county, and
    discharge the remainder of the troops; said two companies will
    remain for the preservation of order, until peace and confidence
    {81} are restored. I also enclose to your Excellency the report of
    General Doniphan, and refer you for particulars to Major Rogers.

    I have the honor to be your obedient servant,

    D. R. Atchison,

    Major General 3rd Division Missouri Militia.

_Tuesday, 18_.--I have been at home all day, considerably unwell, but
am somewhat better this evening.

[Sidenote: Marching Orders to the Militia.]

This day the Governor ordered Captain Childs to have the Boonville
Guards mounted, with ten days' provisions, and in readiness to march on
his arrival at the end of the week. The Governor also ordered General
S. D. Lucas, of the fourth division to march immediately with four
hundred mounted men to the scene of difficulty, and co-operate with
General Atchison. Similar orders were issued to Major Generals Lewis
Bolton, John B. Clark, and Thomas D. Grant.

_Wednesday, 19_.--I was at and about home.

_Thursday, 20_.--I was at home until about ten o'clock, when I rode
out on horseback. I returned a little before sunset, and was at home
through the evening.

[Sidenote: Movements of the Militia.]

The following extracts from General Atchison's letter of this date,
to the Governor, from Liberty, will give a pretty correct view of the
movements of the militia:

    [Sidenote: Excerpts of Atchison's Letter to the Governor.]

    Sir:--The troops ordered out for the purpose of putting down the
    insurrection supposed to exist in the counties of Daviess and
    Caldwell, were discharged on the 20th instant, with the exception
    of two companies of the Ray militia, now stationed in the county
    of Daviess, under the command of Brigadier General Parks. It was
    deemed necessary in the state of excitement in that county that
    those companies should remain there for a short period longer,
    say some twenty days, until confidence and tranquility should
    be restored. All the offenders against the law in that county,
    against whom process was taken out, were arrested and brought
    before a court of inquiry, and recognized to appear at the Circuit
    Court. Mr. Thomas C. Birch attended to the prosecution on the part
    of the State. The citizens of other counties who came in armed,
    to the assistance of the citizens of Daviess county, have {82}
    dispersed and returned to their respective homes, and the Mormons
    have also returned to their respective homes, so that I consider
    the insurrection, for the present at least, to be at an end.
    From the best information I can get, there are about two hundred
    and fifty Mormon families in Daviess county, nearly one half of
    the population, and the whole of the Mormon forces in Daviess,
    Caldwell, and the adjoining counties, is estimated at from thirteen
    to fifteen hundred men, capable of bearing arms. The Mormons of
    Daviess county, as I stated in a former report, were encamped in a
    town called Adam-ondi-Ahman, and are headed by Lyman Wight, a bold,
    brave, skillful, and I may add, a desperate man; they appeared to
    be acting on the defensive, and I must further add, gave up the
    offenders with a good deal of promptness. The arms taken by the
    Mormons, and prisoners were also given up upon demand, with seeming
    cheerfulness.

The mob this day again threatened De Witt.

_Friday, 21_.--I was about home.

_Saturday, 22_.--I went out early in the morning, returned to breakfast
at half past seven, and took an airing on horseback at nine in the
morning.

    _Petition of the Saints of De Witt to Governor Boggs_.

    De Witt, Carroll County, State Of Missouri,

    September 22, 1838.

    _To his Excellency Lilburn W. Boggs, Governor of the State of
    Missouri_:

    Your Petitioners, citizens of the county of Carroll, do hereby
    petition your Excellency, praying for relief: That whereas, your
    petitioners have on the 20th instant, been sorely aggrieved, by
    being beset by a lawless mob, certain inhabitants of this and
    other counties, to the injury of the good citizens of this and the
    adjacent places; that on the aforesaid day, there came from one
    hundred to one hundred and fifty armed men, and threatened with
    force and violence, to drive certain peaceable citizens from their
    homes, in defiance of all law, and threatened then to drive said
    citizens out of the county, but, on deliberation, concluded to give
    them, said citizens, till the first of October next, to leave said
    county; and threatened, if not gone by that time, to exterminate
    them, without regard to age or sex, and destroy their chattels, by
    throwing them into the river. We therefore pray you to take such
    steps as shall put a stop to all lawless proceeding; and we, your
    Petitioners, will ever pray, &c.

    Benj. Kendrick.

    Dudley Thomas,

    John Tillford,

    H. G. Sherwood,

    {83} William P. Lundow,

    Jno. Kendrick,

    Thos. Dehart,

    Francis Brown,

    Albert Loree,

    Samuel Lake,

    Asa Manchester,

    Wm. Winston,

    John Clark,

    Tho. Hollingshead,

    Asa W. Barnes,

    Elijah T. Rogers,

    John Dougherty,

    Moses Harris,

    Perry Thayer,

    B. B. Bartley,

    Jonathan Harris,

    Wm. J. Hatfield,

    Oliver Olney,

    John Thorp,

    H. T. Chipman,

    David Dixon,

    Benj. Hensley,

    John Murdock,

    G. M. Hinkle,

    James Valance,

    Jabez Lake,

    H. M. Wallace,

    D. Thomas, (non-Mormon),

    Nathan Harrison,

    Elizabeth Smith,

    Henry Root,

    A. L. Caldwell,

    Rufus Allen,

    Ezekiel Barnes,

    D. H. Barnes,

    Wm. S. Smith,

    James Hampton,

    Robert Hampton,

    Jonathan Hampton,

    George Peacock,

    Daniel Clark,

    John Proctor,

    James McGuin,

    Smith Humphrey,

    Franklin N. Thayer.

_Sunday, 23_.--I attended meeting both forenoon and afternoon, and was
at home in the evening.

_Monday, 24_.--I was at home until half-past eight a. m., when I rode
out on horseback, and returned about five in the evening.

The governor, having heard that peace had been restored in Daviess and
Caldwell counties, ordered Generals Clark, Crowther, Lewis, and Bolton
to discharge their troops. The order was dated at Jonesborough.

[Sidenote: General Parks' Report to Governor Boggs.]

_Tuesday, 25_.--General Parks wrote the governor from Mill Port, that
he had been in the upper part of Daviess county to assist the constable
in bringing offenders to justice, and that the major-general, with the
troops from Ray and Clay counties on the 18th instant, (except two
companies from Ray {84} under his command) were disbanded. In this
letter General Parks said:

    Whatever may have been the disposition of the people called
    Mormons, before our arrival here, since we have made our appearance
    they have shown no disposition to resist the laws, or of hostile
    intentions. There has been so much prejudice and exaggeration
    concerned in this matter, that I found things entirely different
    from what I was prepared to expect. When we arrived here, we found
    a large body of men from the counties adjoining, armed and in the
    field, for the purpose, as I learned, of assisting the people of
    this county against the Mormons, without being called out by the
    proper authorities.

    P. S.--Since writing the above, I received information that if the
    committee do not agree, [2] the determination of the Daviess county
    men is to drive the Mormons with powder and lead.

The same day, General Parks wrote General Atchison as follows:

    I am happy to be able to state to you, that the deep excitement
    existing between the parties, has in a great degree ceased; and so
    far I have had no occasion to resort to force, in assisting the
    constables. On tomorrow, a committee from Daviess county meets a
    committee of the Mormons at Adam-ondi-Ahman, to propose to them to
    buy or sell, and I expect to be there.

_Wednesday, 26_.--Fifteen or twenty of the Mormons were cited to trial
at Gallatin where Lyman Wight has pledged himself to me that they will
attend.

I was at home until ten or eleven o'clock in the morning, when I rode
out, and returned home and spent the evening.

[Sidenote: Agreement to Buy Out the Mob.]

The mob committee met a committee of the brethren, and the brethren
entered into an agreement to purchase all the lands and possessions of
those who desired to sell and leave Daviess county. The High Council
of Adam-ondi-Ahman was immediately called and Elders Don C. Smith,
George A. Smith, Lorenzo D. Barnes and Harrison Sagers were appointed
to go immediately to the churches in the south and east and raise men
and means to fulfill the contract. The {85} committee arrived at Far
West late in the evening, and called upon me and gave me the foregoing
information. I approved of the action of the brethren.

_Thursday, 27_.--I was home and about the city.

    _Extract of a Letter from General Atchison to Governor Boggs,
    Dated_--

    Liberty, September 27th, 1838.

    The force under General Parks is deemed sufficient to execute
    the laws and keep the peace in Daviess county. Things are not so
    bad in that county as represented by rumor, and, in fact, from
    affidavits I have no doubt your Excellency has been deceived by the
    exaggerated statements of designing or half crazy men. I have found
    there is no cause of alarm on account of the Mormons; they are not
    to be feared; they are very much alarmed.

_Friday, 28_.--I was about home until near sundown, when I rode out.

Elder John E. Page arrived at De Witt with his Canada company sometime
this week.

_Saturday, 29_.--I rode out on horseback, returning about three in the
afternoon and spent the evening at home.

_Sunday, 30_.--I left home about ten o'clock in the morning.

[Sidenote: Mob Activities Shifted to De Witt.]

_Monday, October 1_.--I returned home about five o'clock where I
tarried the remainder of the evening. The mob having left Daviess
county (after they were organized into a militia by Atchison, Doniphan
and Parks and disbanded) went to Carroll county and gathered at De
Witt, threatening vengeance to the Saints without regard to age, sex or
condition; but Daviess county was for a season freed from those peace
disturbers.

_Tuesday, 2_.--The mob pressed harder upon De Witt and fired upon the
Saints.

[Sidenote: Arrival of Kirtland Camp at Far West.]

The Kirtland Camp arrived in Far West from Kirtland. I went in company
with Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith, Isaac Morley and George W. Robinson,
and met them some miles out, and escorted them into the city, where
they encamped on the {86} public square directly south, and close by
the excavation for the Lord's House. Here friends greeted friends in
the name of the Lord. Isaac Morley, Patriarch at Far West, furnished a
beef for the camp. President Rigdon provided a supper for the sick, and
the brethren provided for them like men of God, for they were hungry,
having eaten but little for several days, and having traveled eleven
miles this day; eight hundred and sixty miles from Kirtland, the way
the camp traveled.

Footnotes

1. De Witt is located in the southeast corner of Carroll county, about
fifty miles southeast of Far West, and near the point where Grand river
empties into the Missouri. During the summer of 1838 a number of the
Saints settled there, some of whom, when the above warning was given,
were still encamped in their wagons and tents.

2. This has reference to the committee appointed by the respective
parties to negotiate terms for buying or selling on the part either of
the mob or the Saints.

{87}



CHAPTER IX.

The Organization And Journey Of Kirtland Camp. [1]

[Sidenote: The Meeting of the Seventies.]

At a meeting of the Seventies in the House of the Lord in Kirtland, on
the sixth day of March, 1838, the moving of the Saints from Kirtland
to the land of Missouri, in accordance with the commandments and
revelations of God, was spoken of and also the practicability of the
quorum of the Seventies locating in as compact a body as possible in
some stake of Zion in the west, where they could meet together when
they were not laboring in the vineyard of the Lord; and also could
receive counsel from the Twelve and the First Presidency in matters
pertaining to their mission to the nations with greater facilities than
they would if scattered here and there over all the face of the land.

The subject was discussed at some length, and a resolution was passed
requesting the Councilors to consult together and make a report on
the subject at the next meeting of the quorum. The meeting was then
adjourned to Saturday, the 10th instant, at one o'clock p. m.

[Sidenote: The Report of the Presidents.]

At that time the quorum met again and the Presidents reported that they
had consulted together on the subject referred to them at the last
meeting, and that they were of the opinion that the subject should be
laid before the First Presidency of the Church for their counsel and
advice; and also if it would be thought expedient to appoint the place
for their location in Far West or some other place where it should seem
good unto them.

[Sidenote: To Move in a Body not Thought Practicable.]

The measures proposed by the Councilors were unanimously approved of by
the members of the quorum {88} present. The Presidents further stated
that they had taken into consideration the extreme poverty of the
Seventies in Kirtland and vicinity, and that it seemed to them almost
an impossible thing for the quorum [as such] to move from this place
under existing circumstances; that the measures entered into by the
High Council and High Priests for removing the Saints had failed and
they had given up making any further attempts after their scheme of
going by water had fallen through, and that they had further advised
every individual of the Church wishing to go up unto Zion to look out
for himself individually and make the best of it he could.

[Sidenote: The Subject Discussed.]

Much was said on the subject; and while the subject of going up in
a body--which seemed to be the prevailing desire of the members
present--was under discussion, the Spirit of the Lord came down,
in mighty power, and some of the Elders began to prophesy that if
the quorum would go up in a body together, and go according to the
commandments and revelations of God, pitching their tents by the way,
that they should not want for anything on the journey that would be
necessary for them to have; and further that there should be nothing
wanting towards removing the whole quorum of Seventies that would go
in a body, but that there should be a sufficiency of all things for
carrying such an expedition into effect.

[Sidenote: Foster's Vision.]

President James Foster arose in turn to make some remarks on the the
subject, and in the course of his address he declared that he saw a
vision in which was shown unto him a company (he should think of about
five hundred) starting from Kirtland and going up to Zion. That he saw
them moving in order, encamping in order by the way, and that he knew
thereby that it was the will of God that the quorum should go up in
that manner.

[Sidenote: "God Wills It."]

The Spirit bore record of the truth of his assertions for {89} it
rested down on the assembly in power, insomuch that all present were
satisfied that it was the will of God that the quorum should go up in
a company together to the land of Zion, and that they should proceed
immediately to make preparations for the journey. The Councilors were
requested to devise the best course to be pursued to carry the plan
into effect, and the meeting adjourned to Tuesday, 13th, at one p. m.

[Sidenote: Meeting of the 13th of March.]

In the forenoon of that day the Council of the Seventies met and
invited President Hyrum Smith, and sent for President William Marks,
but he was not at home, and consequently did not attend. Benjamin
S. Wilber, in absence of the clerk, was invited to act as clerk
_pro tem_. After the meeting was opened by President Hyrum Smith by
prayer, they proceeded to draw up under the supervision of President
Smith the outlines of the following Constitution for the organization
and government of the camp, which was adopted at the meeting in the
afternoon. [2]

[Sidenote: Presidents _pro tem._ Appointed.]

At the time appointed in the afternoon the quorum met according to
adjournment. Several of the High Council and High Priests attended the
meeting. The Spirit of God was manifested as before. The subject was
discussed and the Constitution presented, which was approved by the
quorum and by the visiting Elders who testified that the movement was
of God and recommended it to the brethren of the Church; and said that
they should lay the subject immediately before their own quorums. On
motion it was resolved that two of the quorum should be appointed to
act as members of the Council, _pro tem_, in the place of Daniel S.
Miles and Levi Hancock--who were then in the west--till the camp should
arrive at Far West. This to be in accordance with the first article
of the Constitution, which recognized the whole seven [First Seven
Presidents of the Seventy] as councilors of the camp.

{90} [Sidenote: Power of Nominating Officers Vested in First Council.]

On motion it was resolved that the President of Seventies should have
the right of nominating the two assistant councilors and all other
officers of the camp required by the Constitution, or on the journey,
up to the land of Zion. In accordance with the above resolution Elias
Smith, clerk of the Council, and Benjamin S. Wilber, were nominated and
received the unanimous vote of the quorum as Councilors of the camp.
The Constitution was read and explained to the meeting item by item,
that there might be no misunderstanding concerning any part of it or
of the motives and designs of the Seventies in the movement then in
agitation; and those who subscribed to the Constitution were exhorted
to make all preparations in their power to carry into effect the object
of the camp, and the meeting was adjourned to Saturday, 17th, at one p.
m.

    _The Constitution_.

    The council of the Seventies met this day in the attic story of
    the Lord's House and took into consideration the propriety and
    necessity of the body of the Seventies going up to the land of Zion
    in a company together the present season, and adopted the following
    rules and laws, for the organization and government of the camp:

    First--That the Presidents of the Seventies, seven in number, shall
    be the Councilors [i. e. leaders] of the camp; and that there shall
    be one man appointed as treasurer, who shall by the advice of
    the Councilors manage the financial concerns during the journey,
    and keep a just and accurate account of all monies received and
    expended for the use of the camp.

    Second--That there shall be one man appointed to preside over
    each tent, to take charge of it; and that from the time of their
    appointment the tent-men shall make all necessary arrangements for
    the providing of teams and tents for the journey; and they shall
    receive counsel and advice from the Councilors; and furthermore,
    shall see that cleanliness and decency are observed in all cases,
    the commandments kept, and the Word of Wisdom heeded, that is, no
    tobacco, tea, coffee, snuff or ardent spirits of any kind are to be
    taken internally.

    Third--That every man shall be the head of his own family, and
    shall see that they are brought into subjection according to the
    order of the camp.

    {91} Fourth--That all those who shall subscribe to the resolutions,
    rules and regulations, shall make every exertion, and use all
    lawful means to provide for themselves and their families, and for
    the use and benefit of the camp to which they belong; and also to
    hand over to the Seven Councilors all monies appropriated for that
    purpose on or before the day the camp shall start.

    Fifth--That the money shall be retained in the hands of the
    Councilors, being divided proportionately among them for safety and
    to be paid over to the Treasurer as circumstances may require.

    Sixth--That any faithful brethren wishing to journey with us can do
    so by subscribing to, and observing these rules and regulations.

    Seventh--That every individual shall at the end of the
    journey--when a settlement is to be made, or as soon thereafter as
    their circumstances will admit--pay their proportional part of the
    expenses of the journey. By expenses it is understood all that is
    necessarily paid out for the use of a team, wagon or cow, if they
    safely arrive at the place where the camp shall finally break up.

    Eighth--That these rules and laws shall be strictly observed, and
    every person who shall behave disorderly and not conform to them
    shall be disfellowshiped by the camp and left by the wayside.

    Ninth--That this shall be the law of the camp in journeying from
    this place up to the land of Zion, and that it may be added unto
    or amended as circumstances may require by the voice of those who
    shall subscribe unto it.

    [The names of the persons and number in their respective families,
    who subscribed to the foregoing constitution].

    Name.......................No. in family

    James Foster...............6

    Josiah Butterfield.........4

    Zerah Pulsipher............7

    Joseph Young...............5

    Henry Harriman.............2

    Elias Smith................3

    W. S. Wilbur...............2

    Joshua S. Holman...........8

    J. D. Parker...............3

    Duncan McArthur............9

    Stephen Starks.............6

    Anson Call.................3

    Amos B. Fuller.............3

    Jeremiah Willey............4

    Eleazer King, Jun..........3

    Thomas G. Fisher...........4

    Alfred Brown...............2

    Stephen Headlock...........2

    John R. Folger.............4

    Nathan K. Knight...........9

    Joel Judd..................3

    Thomas Nickerson...........4

    Brother Nickerson's Family.5

    David D. Demming...........2

    Nancy Richerson............3

    Joseph McCaseland..........4

    Hiram H. Byington..........4

    David Gray.................8

    {92} Hiram Dayton..........12

    Turman O. Angell...........4

    Dominicus Carter...........6

    Jonathan H. Holmer.........3

    J. B. Noble................7

    Levi B. Wilder.............6

    James S. Holmon............7

    Amos Nickerson.............6

    Lewis Eager................3

    Stephen Shumway............3

    Enoch S. Sanborn...........5

    Jonathan Crosby............2

    Jonathan Hampton...........4

    Otis Shumway...............7

    Frederick M. Vanleuven.....6

    Benjamin Butterfield.......7

    Eleazer King...............7

    John Tanner................10

    Alason Pettingill..........5

    William Perry..............4

    Warren Smith...............7

    Samuel Barnet..............5

    William Carpenter..........5

    John Greabble..............8

    Arnold Healey..............3

    Justin Blood...............5

    Reuben Daniels.............7

    Jonas Putnam...............6

    Daniel Pulsipher...........4

    Charles Thompson...........2

    Nathan B. Baldwin..........2

    Michael Griffith...........6

    Henry Stevens..............3

    Levi Osgood................5

    Cyrus B. Fisher............6

    Elijah Merriam.............2

    Samuel Hale................3

    Martin Hanchet.............5

    Orin Cheney................9

    George Stringham...........6

    Mary Parker................4

    Julia Johnson..............8

    Alexander Wright...........1

    Adonijah Cooley............5

    Elijah Cheney..............2

    Jesse Baker................2

    Elias Pulsipher............8

    Jason Brunett..............7

    E. B. Gayland..............6

    Samuel Fowler..............8

    David K. Dustin............2

    Charles Bird...............7

    Thomas Butterfield.........3

    William Field..............5

    William Shuman.............7

    Cornelius Vanleuven........3

    Benjamin K. Hull...........6

    Oliver Olney...............9

    William Bosley.............2

    Joseph Pine................6

    Noah Packard...............9

    John M. King...............4

    Jonathan Dunham............4

    Joel H. Johnson............6

    Austin W. Cowles...........9

    Jonathan H. Hale...........5

    George W. Brooks...........4

    Abraham Wood...............4

    Shearman A. Gilbert........3

    William B. Pratt...........4

    Samuel Parker..............4

    Daniel Bowen...............7

    Richard Brasier............4

    John Pulsipher.............2

    Alba Whittle...............6

    Joel Drury.................5

    Jonathan Fisher............5

    Benjamin Baker.............6

    Amasa Cheney...............6

    Josiah Miller.............10

    Amos Baldwin..............12

    John Sweat................10

    Daniel Allen, Jun..........4

    Stephen Richardson.........8

    Martin H. Peck.............6

    {93} Zemira Draper.........6

    Isaac Rogers...............4

    Abram Boynton..............7

    Michael McDonald...........5

    James Brown................7

    Alexander Campbell

    Joseph C. Clark............6

    Jared Porter...............3

    William Earl..............11

    Daniel Bliss...............2

    Isaac W. Pierce............5

    Jabez Lake.................5

    Samuel Mulliner............5

    Aaron M. York..............4

    James Strop................6

    Reuben Hedlock.............8

    Andrew Lamereaux...........7

    William Wilson.............3

    John Carter................2

    Samuel Parker..............4

    Isaac Dewitt...............8

    Hiram Griffiths............3

    John Hamond................6

    Arnold Stevens.............6

    Gardner Snow...............3

    George Snow................2

    Thomas Draper

    Abram Bond.................3

    John Lameraux..............6

    Jesse P. Harmon............6

    John Vanleuven, Jun........9

    Aaron Cheney...............6

    Nathan Cheney..............4

    Edwin P. Merriam...........3

    Henry Munroe...............3

    Ira P. Thornton............7

    Oliver Rowe................6

    Stephen Rowe...............6

    John Thorp.................7

    Daniel L. Nuptire..........3

    William Gribble............3

    Charles N. Baldwin.........2

    William Draper, Sen........2

    Laban Morris...............2

    Lucius N. Scovil...........4

    Aaron Johnson..............4

    Joseph Coon................4

    Nathan Staker..............6

    Asa Wright................10

    Zephaniah W. Brewster......9

    Munro Crosier..............2

    Asaph Blanchard............1

    Ethan A. Moore.............8

    William Carey

    James Lethead

    John Rulison...............8

[Sidenote: The Movement Commended.]

_March 17_.--Met again agreeable to adjournment in the attic story of
the Lord's House, at 1 p. m. A general attendance of those belonging
to the camp and many others belonging to the different quorums of
the Church came in. The room was full to overflowing. Elder Josiah
Butterfield, presided. After opening by prayer the object of the
meeting was stated by the chairman, viz., the removing of the Saints
to Zion. Elder James Foster next laid before the meeting the movements
of the Seventies in relation to that desired object and was followed
by Elders Joseph Young, Henry Harriman, Zera Pulsipher, and by others
of the different quorums, who highly {94} approved of the proceedings
of the quorum of Seventies in relation to the order of removing and of
the organization of the camp. The Constitution was read by the clerk,
which was spoken of in terms of commendation by all who spoke. Much of
the Spirit of God was manifested on this occasion and the hearts of all
made glad in anticipation of their deliverance from Kirtland.

[Sidenote: Hyrum Smith on Previous Movements.]

President Hyrum Smith came in and addressed the meeting at some length
on the movements of the Saints in Kirtland in relation to their
emigration to the land of Zion since the commandment had gone forth
for the honest in heart to rise up and go up unto that land. He stated
that what he had said and done in reference to chartering a steamboat,
for the purpose of removing the Church as a body, he had done according
to his own judgment without reference to the testimony of the Spirit
of God; that he had recommended that course and had advised the High
Council and High Priests to adopt that measure, acting solely by his
own wisdom, for it had seemed to him that the whole body of the Church
in Kirtland could be removed with less expense in the way he had
proposed than in any other. He said further that the Saints had to act
often times upon their own responsibility without any reference to the
testimony of the Spirit of God in relation to temporal affairs, that he
has so acted in this matter and has never had any testimony from God
that the plan of going by water was approved of by Him, and that the
failure of the scheme was evidence in his mind that God did not approve
of it.

[Sidenote: Hyrum Smith Commends the Seventies.]

He then declared that he knew by the Spirit of God that the movements
that were making by the quorum of the Seventies for their removal and
the plan of their journeying was according to the will of the Lord. He
advised all who were calculating to go up to Zion at present, whose
circumstances would admit, to join with the Seventies in their plan and
go {95} up with them; and if he were so situated that he could join the
camp himself and go with them, he would do so, and strictly comply with
the rules which had been adopted for the regulation of the camp on the
journey. It would be his delight to go as an individual without having
any concern whatever in the management of affairs, either directly or
indirectly, during the journey.

[Sidenote: Advantage of a Large Company.]

In answer to an inquiry that was made about the difficulties that might
attend the movements of so large a body, he observed that no fears need
be entertained by any on that score, for there would no difficulty
attend the camp, if there should be 5,000 persons in it. The more the
better; and the advantages of their going altogether would be greater
than they could possibly be if they should go in small companies, as
provisions and other necessities could be purchased in large quantities
much cheaper than they could by small squads who would be under the
necessity of buying at great disadvantage.

[Sidenote: Caution as to the Word of Wisdom.]

After advising the camp not to be too particular in regard to the Word
of Wisdom and advised them to have the assistance of the High Council
in carrying the plan into execution, and giving other advice about
organizing the camp, President Hyrum Smith retired.

The Constitution being read again, about forty who did not belong to
the quorum of Seventies came forward and subscribed their names to it,
making in all about eighty. The meeting was then adjourned to Tuesday,
March 20th, at 1 p. m.

[Sidenote: Practical Steps.]

_March 20_.--In the afternoon the Seven Councilors met to consult on
the best measures to be pursued for procuring teams and tents and
other things necessary for the journey. After considering the subject
carefully it was thought that two good teams and one tent, if no more
could be obtained, would suffice {96} for eighteen persons; and that it
would be advisable to appoint the overseers of tents at the meeting
to be held in the afternoon, whose duty according to the Constitution
would be to form their companies of eighteen, or as near that number as
circumstances will admit of, and proceed immediately to procure teams
and a tent for the same, and to make all necessary arrangements for the
journey.

[Sidenote: Views of Oliver Granger _et al_.]

Elders Oliver Granger, Mayhew Hillman and Harvey Redfield and some
others attended who were requested to express their views of the
expedition, as a rumor had gone forth that they considered it an
impracticable undertaking and one that would never be accomplished.
Elder Granger said that he considered it would be the greatest thing
ever accomplished since the organization of the Church or even since
the exodus of Israel from Egypt if the Saints in Kirtland, considering
their poverty, should succeed in going from that place in a body, and
that it would require great wisdom and prudence and the most determined
perseverance to effect such a measure, though he considered it possible
to do it and believed God would bless them in so doing.

Elder Redfield spoke at some length and said that in consequence
of the rumors which were afloat he had thought the Seventies were
taking unwarrantable ground, and had expressed his views freely on
the subject, and rather justified himself on that score, though
he condemned the principle of believing reports which were put in
circulation without first considering their foundation and the source
from which they came. He said he was convinced that the things he had
heard were untrue concerning some movements which he had heard the
Seventies were making, and the declarations and denunciations they gave
some of the other quorums, which had come to his ears, were likewise
without foundation. He said he was heart and hand with the Council
of the Seventies in their endeavors to remove the Saints in Kirtland
to the land of Zion, and the Spirit testified to him that the {97}
movements were in righteousness and according to the will of God.

Elder Hillman spoke in confirmation of what his brethren had said,
approved of the movement and said that the High Priests and High
Council had at a meeting held a day or two previous passed a resolution
to uphold and support the Seventies in their undertaking.

A selection of names for overseers of tents was made and the meeting
adjourned.

[Sidenote: Admonitions.]

At one p. m. the members of the camp and others who attended met in
the upper court of the Lord's House. Elder Henry Harriman presided,
and opened by prayer. He also addressed the meeting, followed by Elder
Foster, both setting forth the greatness of the undertaking in hand, of
the necessity of every individual bestirring himself and making every
exertion to prepare for the journey. The names of those who had signed
the Constitution were read over, that if there were any objection
against their going in the camp in consequence of any difficulty that
might exist or of disobedience to the commandments of the Lord it might
be made manifest by those who might know of the existence of any such
thing.

The names of those selected for overseers of tents were read over one
by one and were voted in by the voice of the camp, and Jonathan H. Hale
was appointed treasurer, and the meeting was then adjourned.

[Sidenote: Sundry Meetings and the Object of Them.]

After the 20th of March the Council met often to counsel on the things
which from time to time pressed themselves upon their attention
relative to the preparation necessary for the journey, things both
spiritual and temporal; and to ask counsel and give their advice that
they might decide in righteousness all things pertaining to their
calling and the affairs of the camp, and to implore their heavenly
Father to provide means to soften the hearts of the enemies of the
Saints, in Kirtland, and in the region round about: {98} that His
people might be delivered from their power, as they have fallen into
the hands of their enemies like Israel of old, in consequence of
disobedience and their slowness of heart to obey the commandments of
the Lord which He had given unto them; and that He would have mercy
upon them and deliver them from bondage in this land, that they might
go up to the land of Zion according to the commandments and revelations
of the Lord by His servant Joseph Smith, Jun., and according to the
pattern given unto them.

In these meetings for counsel and prayer God truly verified His
promises; for when His servants asked they received, and His Spirit was
poured out upon them abundantly, from time to time manifesting the will
of the Lord concerning the movements necessary to be made in order to
carry the arduous undertaking into effect, in removing the quorum of
Seventies, and those that joined with them, from Kirtland to the land
of Zion.

[Sidenote: Difficulties Encountered.]

The extreme poverty of the majority of those belonging to the camp and
the depression of their spirits in consequence thereof and the downfall
of Kirtland; the opposition of those who had dissented from the Church
and of those who from the beginning had opposed the commandments of
God which He had established in the last days among the children of
men, and last of all, though not least, the opposition of many who
called themselves Saints, were obstacles which presented themselves
in formidable aspect against the exertions of the Council to bring
about the order of things to be entered into in order to accomplish
the work, and to unite the feelings of the brethren and to restore
their confidence in each other, which had in a great measure been lost
during the past year, or since the failure of their imaginary means of
speculation, of grandeur and wealth.

[Sidenote: Assembling of the Camp.]

_Thursday, July 5_.--The camp commenced organizing on a piece of land
in the rear of the house formerly occupied by Mayhew Hillman, about
one hundred rods south of the {99} House of the Lord, in Kirtland. The
morning was beautiful. At an early hour the heavens were overspread
with a cloud which continued to hide the scorching rays of the sun
till towards evening, when it moved away. The horizon at every point
that was unobstructed by intervening objects was clear, and everything
seemed to indicate that the God of heaven has His all-searching eye
upon the camp of the Saints, and had prepared the day for the express
purpose of organizing the camp, that the Saints might start on their
journey in the order which had been shown in the beginning. About
twenty tents were pitched in the course of the day and several other
companies came on late who had not time to pitch their tents. Many
spectators from the towns round about came to behold the scene, and,
with few exceptions, they behaved with the greatest decorum. The day
was solemn to all concerned and the greatest solemnity was visible
on the countenances of the Saints who expected to tarry for a season
in Kirtland, and also on the countenances of many of the unbelievers
in the everlasting Gospel of Jesus Christ and of the great work of
the gathering of the Saints of the Most High in these last days of
wickedness before God's judgments shall have been poured out without
measure upon the wicked, to sweep them off from the face of the earth.

[Sidenote: Solemn Reflections.]

Between four and five hundred of the camp tented on the ground during
the night. The spectators retired at a late hour and left the camp in
quietude. The night was clear and the encampment and all around was
solemn as eternity; which scene, together with the remembrance of those
other scenes through which the Saints in Kirtland had passed during
the last two years all presented themselves to the thinking mind;
and, together with the greatness of the undertaking, the length of
the journey, and many other things combined, could not fail to awaken
sensations that could be better felt than described.

[Sidenote: The Start.]

_Friday, July 6_.--At an early hour in the morning the {100} people
began to assemble to witness the exodus of the camp, and several
hundred persons had gathered together before all things could be
arranged in order to move off from the ground without confusion, all of
which consumed most of the forenoon. At twelve o'clock, noon, the camp
began to move, and at half-past twelve the whole company had left the
ground in order, and took up their line of march towards Chester, south
from Kirtland, where they encamped at six o'clock p. m., a distance of
seven miles from Kirtland.

[Sidenote: Number in the Camp.]

After the tents were pitched and all things arranged an enumeration of
the camp was taken, when it was ascertained that there were in the camp
529 souls present--a few necessarily absent--of which 256 were males,
and 273 females. There were 105 families, all on the ground excepting
five, which had not time to get ready in season to start with the
camp, two of which came up in the evening; of the others Elder Martin
H. Peck joined at Petersburgh; the other two, Elders S. Shumway and
Brother Charles Wood, joined the camp at the same place a few hours
after. President William Marks and some other brethren from Kirtland
accompanied the camp to Chester, and on parting with the Councilors
blessed them, in the name of the Lord, and left his blessing with them,
and with the camp, covenanting to uphold them by the prayer of faith
and required the same of the Councilors and of the brethren of the camp.

[Sidenote: Sorrow at Parting.]

The feelings of the brethren on leaving Kirtland and parting with those
who were left behind were somewhat peculiar, notwithstanding the scenes
they had passed through in Kirtland; but the consciousness of doing
the will of their heavenly Father, and obeying His commandments in
journeying to Zion, over balanced every other consideration that could
possibly be presented to their minds, and buoyed up their spirits, and
helped them to overcome the weaknesses and infirmities {101} of human
nature which men are subject to here on the earth.

[Sidenote: First Experiences.]

_Saturday, July 7_.--Started from Chester about half-past six in the
morning, and camped in Aurora, Portage county--thirteen miles from
Chester--at four p. m., on the farm of Mr. Lacey. The road between
Chester and Aurora, through Russell and Bainbridge, in Geauga county,
was bad and somewhat hilly. The weather being extremely warm and the
camp not being sufficiently accustomed to moving and acting in concert,
all contributed to make some confusion in the camp during the latter
part of the day. One wagon, Andrew Lamereaux's, broke down twice and
some other small accidents happened, but nothing very serious. During
the day several children were sick, some dangerously so, and some
adults were attacked by the destroyer.

[Sidenote: A Renewal of Covenants.]

_Sunday, July 8_.--Public worship at eleven o'clock, Elder Joseph
Young preached. Many came in the course of the day to visit the camp.
They generally treated us with great civility, though there were some
exceptions. In the afternoon about half-past five the heads of families
were called together and were instructed by Elders Foster, Pulsipher,
Butterfield and Dunham to keep their families in more strict subjection
to the laws of God, and to adhere strictly to the Constitution of the
camp. They were told that the destroyer was in the camp and some would
fall victims to his power if they did not comply with the requisitions
of the Lord.

A vote was called and the camp covenanted anew strictly to observe
the laws of the camp and the commandments of the Lord. Soon after
night-fall a company of marauders were heard about the camp, but we
were not molested during the night.

[Sidenote: Incidents of a Day.]

_Monday, July 9_.--At seven in the morning the camp began to
move, passed through the village of Aurora, through the corner of
Streetsborough to Hudson, a handsome village, in which is {102}
situated the "Western Reserve College." Stopped at one o'clock near
the south line of that town. David Elliot broke his wagon down near
Streetsborough, and Samuel Hale's wagon tongue was broken a little
south of the village of Hudson. The fourth division of the camp came up
about two o'clock, at which time the first moved on and passed through
Stowe Corners, so called, across the Pittsburgh and Akron canal (which
is yet in an unfinished state at the falls on the Cuyahoga river, which
empties into Lake Erie at Cleveland), and encamped for the night on Mr.
Camp's farm, at Talmadge, at half-past six in the evening. The first,
second and third divisions came on to the grounds together, the fourth,
composed chiefly of ox teams, did not come up till ten o'clock. The
roads were generally good, the country level, with few exceptions, the
weather extremely warm, but nearly all withstood the fatigue of the day
with fortitude and patience, feeling thankful for the blessings which
the Lord bestowed upon the camp of His Saints.

The country through which we passed this day was better adapted to
pasturage than tillage, the grass generally looked well, some fine
fields of wheat were seen which had began to whiten for the harvest.

Joel H. Johnson's oxen failed and were left behind, and some others
were very much fatigued and did not arrive at the encampment until late
at night. Traveled twenty miles, which was three or four more than
we should have done if accommodations for the teams could have been
obtained short of that distance.

[Sidenote: Additional Camp Regulations.]

_Tuesday, July 10_.--Before starting the Council drew up the following
resolutions for the further organization of the camp, which were
unanimously adopted:

    Resolved--First. That the engineer of the camp shall receive advice
    from the Councilors concerning the duties of his office, and that
    he shall call on his assistants to perform those duties which he
    cannot attend to himself, and that he shall be relieved from the
    arduous task {103} of [personally] superintending the movements of
    the camp during the journey.

    Second--That the horn shall be blown for rising at four o'clock,
    and at twenty minutes past four for prayer every morning, at which
    time each overseer shall see that the inmates of his tent are in
    order, that worship may commence throughout the camp at the same
    time, immediately after the blowing of the horn.

    Third--That the head of each division shall keep a roll of all
    able-bodied men, and that he shall call out as many men each night
    as the engineer shall require of his division to stand on guard.
    One-half of which guard shall stand the fore part of the night, and
    the other the latter part, being regularly relieved by the engineer
    or one of his assistants at one o'clock in the morning.

    Fourth--That every company in the camp is entitled to an equal
    proportion of the milk whether the cows are owned by the
    individuals of the several tents or not, and that it shall be so
    distributed, as near as may be, among the several companies in the
    camp.

    Fifth--That Thomas Butterfield shall be appointed herdsman of the
    camp, whose duty it shall be to superintend the driving of the cows
    and other stock, and to see that they are well taken care of on the
    journey, and that he shall call on as many as shall be necessary to
    assist him in performing those duties.

    Sixth--That in no case at present shall the camp move more than
    fifteen miles in one day, unless circumstances shall absolutely
    require it.

Joel H. Johnson sold one of his oxen for ten dollars, the other came up
with the camp.

[Sidenote: The First Deserter.]

The camp began to move at nine o'clock and passed through the village
of Talmadge, one mile, then turned southwest to Middleburg, a fine
village situated on a branch of the Cuyahoga, three miles from
Talmadge, and encamped for the night in the town of Coventry, about one
mile from the village of Akron, which is situated on the Ohio and Erie
canal. At twelve o'clock, for the purpose of lightening our loads, we
left some of our goods on the canal boats to be conveyed by water. The
wind rose high and the roads were dusty which made it hard traveling on
account of the dust. In the afternoon we had a small shower of rain,
the first that had fallen since the camp started. Benjamin Butterfield
{104} left the camp in the morning and started off by himself. Traveled
this day six miles. Brother John Hammond broke his wagon, the only
accident.

[Sidenote: The First Death.]

_Wednesday, July 11_.--After the goods that were to be sent by water
were conveyed to Akron, the camp moved on, all but the first division
which waited to attend to the burial of Brother and Sister Wilbur's
little son, aged six months and twelve days, who died at 11 o'clock
a. m. and was interred in an orchard on the farm of Israel Allen in
Coventry, at 2 p. m. He had been sick two or three days, and some other
children in the camp had also been sick, but all recovered excepting
Brother Wilbur's son. Passed this day through New Portage on the Ohio
canal, which we crossed two or three miles below that place, and
encamped on the farm of Mr. Bockmans, in Chippeway township, county
of Wayne. A heavy shower of rain fell in the afternoon and the whole
company got thoroughly wet for the first time since we started; but
very few complained, however, and all retired to rest wet and weary
after the usual duties of the evening were ended.

The country through which we passed this day was somewhat uneven and
swampy. Near New Portage it is low and to all appearance must be quite
unhealthful. The crops of wheat, corn and grass look well, the wheat
being generally about ripe and ready to harvest. John Hammond broke his
wagon again today and was left behind to repair it, and did not get up
to the encampment at night. Traveled this day eleven miles.

[Sidenote: Nature of the Country Traversed.]

_Thursday, July 12_.--Left the encampment at half-past eight; passed
through the village of Doylestown, situated on a hill in the township
of Chippeway. Crossed Chippeway creek; some of the headwaters of the
Muskingum river came through the township of Milton, where we stopped
at one p. m. to feed. Then passed through the township of Green into
Wayne, and encamped on the farm of Mr.----------------, {105} two miles
from Wooster, at seven in the evening. The road was rough in some
places, in some places stony, and, in consequence of the shower of rain
which fell the day before, in some places muddy.

The country through which we passed today is somewhat hilly, the
soil productive and the crops of wheat, corn and oats look fine and
beautiful. Timber, principally of oak, with some chestnut and some
other kinds of forest trees, is scattered here and there.

[Sidenote: Difficulties by the way.]

John Hammond overtook us in the morning on horseback, his wagon had
broken again, the third time, so it could not be easily mended. The
Council advised him to go back and get the brethren residing near New
Portage to assist him in exchanging it for another, or let him have
one to go up to Zion with, and have it returned to them, as he had
now fallen so far behind that we could not well assist him without
hindering many others.

Nathan B. Baldwin broke one of his wagon tires, and Henry Harriman
one of his axle-trees, and stopped near Chippeway creek to have them
mended. Brother Baldwin came up in the evening and Henry Harriman the
next morning.

It rained a little in the course of the day, the air was cool and the
horses and oxen performed the journey with greater ease than any other
day since the camp started. Traveled in the course of the day about
seventeen miles.

[Sidenote: Descriptions of Country.]

_Friday, July 13_.--The fourth division left the encampment about eight
o'clock, the third and second followed, and the first left at nine.
Passed through Wooster, the county seat of Wayne county, a large and
beautiful village surrounded by a fertile country and is a place of
considerable business. There are eight or ten public houses and several
synagogues for worship, and many other commodious and elegant buildings
in the village which is in Wayne township.

At Wooster we took the road to Mansfield, west from {106} Wooster
thirty-three miles. Passed through the village of Jefferson, a small
place in the township of Plain, thence to Reedsborough in Mohican
township, and encamped a little after five p. m. on the farm of William
Crothers, in Mohican, thirteen miles from Wooster, making this day
sixteen miles.

[Sidenote: Sorrow for the "Deluded" Saints.]

The country west of Wooster is rather hilly, some beautiful flats on
the creeks, though not in so good a state of cultivation as in many
other places. Crossed Apple creek east of Wooster, and Killbuck west
of the town, a branch of the White Woman and Mohican creek, which fall
into the same stream in Coshocton county. The roads were somewhat
better than between New Portage and Wooster, though more hilly. On the
flats of Mohican the road was bad, being muddy and stony. The country
west of Wooster is not so productive as it is north of that place
through which we passed on the twelfth inst., yet some beautiful fields
of grain were seen. Two wagons failed this day, Joseph C. Clark's
and Edwin P. Merriam's. The first was mended at Wooster, the other
broke down just at the entrance of the field in which we pitched our
tents. Bought four barrels of flour, the first provisions we purchased
after the camp started. The people between Kirtland and Wooster were
generally apprised of our coming before we arrived, and were not so
much surprised to see us as they were west of that place. After we left
the main road to Columbus, as we followed along, they seemed astonished
and filled with wonder and amazement at seeing so large a body moving
together, and some did not fail to express their feelings with warmth
to the brethren as they passed along, declaring against the "fallacy",
as they called it, of "Jo Smith's" prophecies, and expressing their
pity for the deluded believers in modern revelation. We saw this day
the first harvesting of grain of any kind, though many of the farmers
in Wayne county had done most of their haying.

[Sidenote: Preparations for the Sabbath.]

_Saturday, July 14_.--Struck our tents at seven a. m. and {107} the
fourth division left the encampment followed by the third and second,
the first left at eight. We passed through Jeromeville, a small village
situated on a branch of the Mohican, thence through the village of
Haysville in Vermillion township, county of Richland, and pitched our
tents on the farm of Mr. Solomon Braden, in the town of Petersborough.
The country we passed through this day is beautifully diversified with
hills and valleys. The timbered lands were covered principally with
oak, the roads good, the weather warm and dry. Brother William Perry
turned over his wagon and his wife and children were hurt, though not
dangerously. A young woman, a daughter of John Vanleuven, Jun., came
very near being killed by having a wagon run over her, these were the
only accidents that occurred during the day. This was the first day
since we left Kirtland that we traveled without breaking down one or
more wagons. Pitched our tents at two p. m. on a hill near the east
line of Petersburg township and washed and prepared for the Sabbath. In
the afternoon a complaint was prepared by N. B. Baldwin against Abram
Bond for murmuring and other unchristian-like conduct. The Council,
after hearing the complaint and the defense, referred the case to the
company in their own tent to settle among themselves. This was the
second complaint made to the Council of any consequence on the way from
Kirtland. Traveled this day ten miles.

[Sidenote: Public Worship.]

_Sunday, July 15_.--The Council met in the morning and made some
arrangements about the order of the day. Elder Josiah Butterfield and
Joseph Young were appointed to preside during the day.

At eleven o'clock public worship commenced. Many of the citizens of the
town attended, most of whom behaved well, and treated us with respect.
Elder Jonathan Dunham delivered a discourse on the first principles of
the Gospel, from Mark, 16th chapter, followed by several others of the
Elders.

{108} [Sidenote: Some left by the Way Rejoin the Camp.]

Martin H. Peck came up and joined the camp about noon, and Stephen
Shumway and Charles Wood came up in the afternoon.

John Hammond, who was left behind at New Portage in consequence of
breaking his wagon, also joined us again. Benjamin Butterfield, who
left the camp at Talmadge, Portage county, found his way into camp
again in the course of the day.

[Sidenote: Prominent Elders Arrested.]

_Monday, July 16_.--Started in our usual order in the morning,
traveling west toward Mansfield, through which we passed in the
afternoon about four o'clock. Passed through the village of Petersburg
two miles from our encampment, then through Mifflic township, three or
four miles east of Mansfield. In Madison township we were met by the
sheriff and a deputy, and a Mr. Stringer, who had taken out a warrant
for several of the brethren for Kirtland Safety Society money, and took
Josiah Butterfield, Jonathan Dunham and Jonathan H. Hale for Joseph
Young, and committed them to jail. As we came to Mansfield we were
_honored_ by the discharge of artillery, but as the Lord would have it
we were not enjoined nor molested more than by insulting language from
some of the numerous crowd of persons that thronged the streets. From
Mansfield we came through Newcastle, in the township of Springfield,
and encamped on the farm of Frederick Cassel over night. Mansfield
is a fine village, the county seat of Richland, situated on a hill
surrounded by a fertile country. Traveled this day sixteen miles.

Benjamin Butterfield left the camp again before night in ill humor and
went off by himself.

[Sidenote: On the Headwaters of the Sciota and Sandusky.]

_Tuesday, July 17_.--Started at eight in the morning; passed through
the village of Ontario in Springfield thence through the town of
Sandusky into Jackson, in Crawford county, and encamped six miles east
of Bucyrus, the county seat of Crawford county. Traveled sixteen miles.

{109} The country we passed through between Mansfield and Bucyrus is
the highest in the State of Ohio, being on the headwaters of the Sciota
which falls into the Ohio, and of the Sandusky that falls into Erie,
the country though high is generally level.

Just at dark the brethren who had been committed to prison came up.
They were discharged by the court at 12 o'clock, noon, after which they
traveled twenty-two miles.

The court for Richland county was in session and would have been
adjourned the evening the brethren, Josiah, Butterfield Jonathan
Dunham and Jonathan H. Hale, were arrested, had it not been for that
occurrence. Their case was called on the same evening and adjourned
till eight o'clock next morning. Dominicus Carter went back from our
camp and staid with them till they were liberated. We were all glad and
thanked the Lord for their deliverance out of the hands of our enemies.

[Sidenote: Instructions to Overseers.]

_Wednesday, July 18_.--The Council met in the morning and called
together the overseers of tents and gave them some instructions
concerning their duty in presiding over their tents, and Dominicus
Carter was appointed commissary of the camp, and Aaron M. York chosen
overseer of tent No. 3, third division, in his place; and the tent
removed to No. 5, first division. About eight the camp started, passed
through Benjamin and took the road to upper Sandusky, and stopped at
one p. m. on the edge of a prairie to rest. For the first time we had
the privilege of encamping without pay. The road in the afternoon in
some places was rather bad in the groves between the openings of the
grand prairie, the edge of which bordered on the right of our road from
our encampment east of Bucyrus till we encamped at night in the town of
Grand Prairie, county of Marion, on the line between that county and
Crawford, ten miles southwest from Bucyrus. Passed through the township
of Antrim, in Crawford county, in the afternoon. Traveled this day
sixteen miles. As we passed through Bucyrus {110} the people seemed
much agitated and made many remarks concerning us. One man said he had
received a liberal education and had prepared himself for the ministry,
but it now availed him nothing. The movements of the "Mormons" were
actions and not words, and looked more like love and like the spirit of
union than anything that had come under his observation.

_Thursday, July 19_.--The second, third and fourth divisions started
about eight o'clock, the first stayed on the ground, some of them
until afternoon, to repair wagons. Traveled through a prairie country
to Little Sandusky, a little north of west from the place of our
encampment on the night of the eighteenth. Then turned west and pitched
our tents on the west side of the prairie, about a mile and a half from
the village of Sandusky. Traveled this day seven and one-half miles. No
particular occurrence through the day worthy of notice. Encamped for
the first time in a straight line, and being on a prairie the tents
and wagons presented a beautiful picture to a distant beholder, and
could not fail to bring to the mind of anyone familiar with the history
of the journeyings of Israel from Egypt, the prophecy of Balaam,
concerning Israel's prosperity, and his pathetic exclamation, when he
beheld them abiding in their tents from the top of Peor: "How goodly
are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy tabernacles, O Israel! As the valleys,
as they spread forth, as gardens by the river side, as the trees of
lignaloes which the Lord hath planted, and as cedar trees beside the
waters."

[Sidenote: Reproofs Administered.]

_Friday, July 20_.--The Council met in the morning to attend to another
complaint preferred by E. B. Gaylord, [3] superintendent of the fourth
division, against Abram Bond for murmuring and complaining, and for
personal abuse. Elder Zera Pulsipher, who presided, gave him a severe
reprimand for his conduct in general on the journey and for abusing
others without {111} any provocation, and he was informed that he would
be left by the wayside if he did not reform, and behave more like a
man of God than he had of late, or for a few days past. Some other
business relative to our circumstances and situation in journeying was
talked over and the Council unanimously decided that the camp should
be called together before we started and some instructions given to
them concerning their duties, and also to reprimand some for indulging
themselves in covetousness and murmuring against the Council, and also
others of the camp who held important stations as captains of divisions
or overseers of tents.

The camp was accordingly called together and such instructions given
them as the Spirit of the Lord dictated, by Elders Pulsipher, Young,
Butterfield, Foster and Harriman, which had the desired effect in
restoring good order and the spirit of union in the camp.

[Sidenote: The Council Relieved of Guard Duty.]

On motion of Samuel Parker it was unanimously resolved that the
Councilors should be excused from standing on guard during the journey,
that they might have more time to counsel together and to attend to
those duties which necessarily devolved upon them as Councilors of the
camp. James A. Clark, Jared Porter and Daniel Bliss were appointed to
assist the herdsman in taking care of the herds, as it was found too
arduous for one. The camp started about nine and traveled westwardly
two miles to Bowsherville, which is one hundred and forty-three miles
from Detroit; thence four miles in the same direction, and then turned
south and came through the village of Burlington, situated on Taymockty
creek, a branch of the Sandusky, and pitched our tents in the highway
near a schoolhouse, about one-half mile from Burlington, in the
township of Grand, Marion county, between three and four o'clock p. m.

A heavy shower of rain fell soon after we encamped and it continued to
rain most of the night. Most of the {112} company got thoroughly wet.
Distance this day nine and one-half miles.

_Saturday, July 21_.--Started about eight a. m.; traveled southwesterly
through the township of Goshen, Hardin county to the Sciota river,
in the township of Dudley, where we stopped to refresh ourselves and
teams, at Judge Wheeler's. From thence we came to Mr. Bosman's, in
township of Jackson, where we encamped in the highway, seven miles from
Sciota, making in all sixteen miles. It was quite cool and comfortable
traveling, but the road was extremely bad, being in some places almost
impassable, but the Lord attended us and His blessings were multiplied
upon us so that no accident of any account happened to us during the
day. Newel K. Knight broke an axle-tree out of his wagon which was
mended in a short time.

_Sunday, July 22_.--On account of forage we were under the necessity
of traveling about five miles through Rush creek, and pitched our
tents on a rise of ground, by the wayside, on the farm of Mr. Partial,
inn-keeper in the town of Rush Creek, Logan county, and held public
meeting at five p. m. Attended to offering our sacraments to the Most
High, breaking bread for the first time on our journey. The first two
Sabbaths after we started on our journey we were so circumstanced and
thronged with visitors that we omitted attending to the ordinance of
the Lord's Supper. At our meeting in the afternoon the Lord blessed us
by the outpouring of His Spirit, our hearts were comforted and most
of the camp felt thankful for the blessings conferred upon us by our
heavenly Father, thus far on the journey to the land of Zion.

As we passed along the road in the morning, molesting no one, some of
the company were saluted in modern style by having eggs thrown at them
by some ruffians from their dwellings near the road, but on seeing
some of our company stop, they desisted from their course fearing the
consequences from appearances, and even showed three {113} or four
bayonets, intimating that they would defend themselves in case of
assault. No one, however, intended doing any harm to them, and only
wished them to understand that we noticed their intrusion upon our
privileges as citizens to travel the high road unmolested. Sometime in
the night a luminous body about the size of a cannon ball came down
from over the encampment near the ground then whirled round some forty
or fifty times and moved off in a horizontal direction, soon passing
out of sight.

[Sidenote: Threats of Arrest Made.]

_Monday, July 23_.--The camp began to move at a quarter past seven
a. m., and came through the village of Rushsylvania, where we were
threatened before our arrival with prosecution for "Kirtland Bank
Money," signed by F. G. Williams, president, and Warren Parrish,
cashier. Some of the company passed on from our encampment in the
morning to find out what was intended against us, but no person
made any attempt to stop any one, and we passed on in safety. From
Rushsylvania we came through the village of Bellefontaine, the county
seat of Logan county; twelve miles thence to McKee's creek, a branch
of the Miami, in the township of Union, and camped at the side of the
creek at seven o'clock. Traveled this day sixteen miles.

[Sidenote: A Case of Healing.]

On the road near Bellefontaine one of the sons of Martin H. Peck, had
a wagon wheel run over his leg, but as the Lord would have it, and
to the astonishment of all--considering the weight of the load on
the wagon--he received no particular injury, although the wheel ran
over the boy's leg on a hard road without any obstruction whatever.
The wheel made a deep cut in the limb, but after hands were laid on
him in the name of the Lord, the boy was able to walk considerable in
the course of the afternoon. This was one, but not the first, of the
wonderful manifestations of God's power unto us on the journey.

[Sidenote: Scarcity of Food.]

After we left Bucyrus hill we came to Bellefontaine, {114} the road
was in many places very bad, especially in the backwoods. In Marion
and Hardin counties provisions were scarce and could not be obtained,
consequently we were obliged to do with what we had; and here was
another manifestation of the power of Jehovah, for seven and a half
bushels of corn sufficed for the whole camp, consisting of six hundred
and twenty souls, for the space of three days, and none lacked for
food, though some complained and murmured because they did not have
that to eat which their souls lusted after.

[Sidenote: A Day of Rest.]

_Tuesday, July 24_.--We lay in our encampment at McKee's creek through
the day to wash our clothes and refresh our teams, as they were very
much fatigued by traveling for several days on a rough and muddy road.
We took two jobs, one of chopping cord wood, and one of shoemaking,
and earned about twenty dollars, besides mending and repairing several
wagons and putting things in order in the camp.

[Sidenote: Camp at the Farm of the Governor of Ohio.]

_Wednesday, July 25_.--Started on our journey and came through West
Liberty, situated on Mad river, thence into the township of Salem,
Champaign county, and encamped about two miles north of Terbana, on the
farm of Joseph Vance, Governor of the state of Ohio. The encampment was
formed near his residence, at six o'clock, having traveled twelve miles
this day. The country in the valley of Mad river is level and beautiful
and very fertile. We saw extensive fields of wheat on each side of the
way, mostly reaped, and crops of all kinds were far better than any we
had seen elsewhere on our journey.

In the evening the camp was called together by the Council, and some of
them severely reprimanded in general terms for their unchristian-like
conduct, and much instruction given concerning our duties to God, and
to one another, in order to move on our journey in righteousness, that
we might obtain the favor of the Lord, {115} and have His blessings
attend us from day to day.

After the assembly was dismissed, the Council returned and listened
to a complaint presented by B. S. Wilbur against Stephen Starks, for
some unchristian-like conduct during the day. The trouble was amicably
settled to the satisfaction of all concerned. The Council adjourned,
after transacting some other business, at eleven o'clock p. m. From
Kirtland to our encampment in Salem, is two hundred and fifteen miles.

[Sidenote: Camp Labors.]

_Thursday, July 26_.--Camp began to move at eight o'clock; the first
division, however, did not leave the grounds until after eleven.
Several of the brethren went out to labor both yesterday and today,
in order to procure means to further us on our journey, and they did
not come up with us at night. We traveled south through the village of
Urbana, the county seat of Champaign county; thence into the township
of Moneyfield, Clark county, and camped on the farm of Mr. A. Breneman,
four and one half miles off the National road at Springfield. Traveled
twelve miles, plus two hundred and fifteen miles from Kirtland, equals
two hundred and twenty-seven miles.

[Sidenote: Admonitions.]

The camp was called together in the evening and a timely lecture was
given by Elder Pulsipher, on our situation, and all were exhorted to be
united in heart and hand in order to join together. The Spirit of the
Lord was manifested and we returned to our tents feeling thankful for
the blessings of the Lord upon us.

[Sidenote: Through Springfield.]

_Friday, July 27_.--Continued our journey to Springfield on the
National road, one hundred and seventy-one miles from Wheeling, in
Virginia. Crossed Buck creek, a branch of Mad river just before
entering the village on the north. Springfield is a large and beautiful
village, the county seat of Clark county, containing about three
thousand inhabitants. There are many elegant buildings of brick, and it
seems to be a place of considerable trade.

{116} [Sidenote: Astonishment Created by the Camp.]

A little west of Springfield we left the National road and took the
road to Dayton, distance from Springfield twenty-five miles, and
passed through the township of Mad river, and a small village called
Washington in the same township, and pitched our tents just at dark
in a grove near Lenox, in Mad river township. The day was excessively
warm and the road dusty, but we all arrived safely at our encampment
in the evening, except some of those who stopped to labor. Many of the
people all along the road seemed quite astonished to see so many in the
company. Some judging there were three hundred teams, and made some
curious remarks concerning us and "Jo Smith;" and one man threatened
to shoot Elder Dunham if he did not immediately leave his premises
when he called to procure forage for our teams at noon. After we
encamped a stage went by and the passengers behaved as they passed us
more like the savages of the west than anything we have seen since the
commencement of our journey. Distance traveled today, fifteen miles. J.
D. Parker, who had left Kirtland some time after we did, overtook us at
our encampment this evening and staid with us till Monday morning.

_Saturday, July 28_.--We removed from Mad river township and came to
Fairfield, three miles, thence to Bath township and encamped about noon
half a mile from the road on the banks of Mad river in Green county,
five and one half miles from Dayton. Distance this day nine miles.
Distance from Kirtland, two hundred and fifty-one miles.

_Sunday, July 29_.--We held a public meeting in a grove on a farm of
Mr. Houghman, about one fourth of a mile from our encampment, at eleven
o'clock, Elder Zera Pulsipher preached.

[Sidenote: The Sacrament Administered.]

In the afternoon we had a sacrament meeting on the camp grounds. Elder
Duncan McArthur, after the administration of the Lord's Supper, bore
testimony of the truth {117} of the revelations of the Lord in these
last days to the numerous spectators who were present, and in a brief
way made known unto them some of those things that the Lord was doing
in the earth; and others that would shortly come to pass among the
inhabitants thereof. The Spirit of God attended his testimony and we
had a joyful meeting.

[Sidenote: Abram Bond Disfellowshiped; John E. Page's Company.]

The Council met in the morning to regulate some things relative to the
duties of the day, and adjourned till five p. m. At that time they
met again and took into consideration the case of Abram Bond, and
unanimously resolved that for his murmuring and not giving heed to the
regulations of the camp, he should be disfellowshiped by the camp and
left to the care of himself, which decision was made known unto him
and approbated by those who were present at the time. He accordingly
left the camp the next day. Warren Smith, who left Kirtland about
the first of June, came into the camp with his family and joined us.
William Gribble--whose wife accompanied us from Kirtland--also joined
the camp this day. We found many of the Saints from Kirtland and other
places, and Elder John E. Page, with a part of his company that started
from Oak Point, in St. Lawrence county, New York, whither they had
fled in the course of the past winter, from the commotions and rumors
of war in Canada. [4] They were scattered along the {118} road from
Springfield to Dayton, some of them laboring for means to prosecute
their journey and some had stopped to recruit their teams as well as
their purses, that they might continue their journey after the warm
season had passed. Many of them came to visit us and were received with
feelings of gratitude for the goodness of our heavenly Father for the
preservation of our lives and for the privilege of meeting each other
in this land of strangers.

[Sidenote: Prayer for Rain.]

The weather has been extremely hot and dry in the land, and in the
southwestern part of the state of Ohio, for many weeks: and rain was
much needed, and supplication was made to the God of Israel for rain on
the land in this region of country, at the meeting in the forenoon, and
at the close of the service in the afterpart of the day. Elder Dunham
and Elder Charles Thompson each held a meeting in the afternoon, about
two miles from camp.

[Sidenote: Rain.]

_Monday, July 30_.--We remained in our encampment during the day and
were visited by several gentlemen, and were solicited to tarry in
this place for a season and take a job on the Springfield and Dayton
turnpike. Some of the brethren went out to make what discoveries
they could relative to labor, and partly engaged some small jobs on
condition that we tarried here for a few days. In the afternoon and
evening it rained on each side of us, that is, to the north and to the
south, and at no great distance from us quite hard, to all appearances;
and we also had a small shower in the afternoon, though not enough
to water the earth sufficiently, yet it cooled the air and greatly
revived both the animal and vegetable kingdoms, for which we thank that
{119}Being that rules the armies of heaven and the inhabitants of the
earth, and sendeth rain both upon the just and upon the unjust.

Elder John E. Page, who preached about one mile from us in the evening,
tarried with us over night and left us in the morning to go to his
family at Fairfield, five miles and one half distant, where they had
resided for a few weeks since the Canada camp (John E. Page's company)
had stopped.

[Sidenote: Some Leave the Camp.]

_Tuesday, July 31_.--A part of our company went off to work on a job
of raising a levee for Mr. Hushman, and some one way and some another
to labor during the day. In the morning all the men in the camp were
called out and were made acquainted with our pecuniary circumstances,
and an inquiry made who, if any, wished to leave the camp and look
out for themselves. One man, Brother Asa Wright, said that his wife
had always been opposed to going in the camp, and that he had told
some of the brethren in the camp that in consequence of that and some
other things it was his choice to leave. Elder Stephen Headlock also
complained of the murmuring of some of the camp, and said that he had
rather leave the camp--though he desired with all his heart to go in
it up to the land of Zion--than to hear so much complaining as he had
for a few days past, and had freely expressed his mind before to that
effect to some of the brethren.

[Sidenote: A Reproof.]

He was reprimanded by Elder Pulsipher for his own neglect of duty
and told to set his own tent in order, and then if he knew of any
infringement on the rules of the camp by others, to try, as the law of
God required, to reclaim the offenders and restore them to order that
the blessings of God might be poured out upon the camp during the long
and tedious journey which still lay before it. A vote was taken to see
how many were desirous of stopping and laboring, if the Council thought
advisable to do so. Some further inquiries were {120} made concerning
the conditions that had been or might be offered to the camp to make
a piece of turn pike road or do any other work that might be obtained
by the Council, and under their superintendency, when all, with a few
exceptions,--and they were persons unable to labor--voted to abide by
the advice of the Council, and would stay or go, as they should advise
or direct.

[Sidenote: Elder Page Exhorts the Camp.]

Elder John E. Page made a short speech, exhorting all to fulfill their
covenants, let what would come, life or death, inasmuch as they were in
righteousness before God; and said that all our deeds would be had in
remembrance; that we would be rewarded for them, whether good or evil,
both in time and in eternity; and further observed that the journeying
of the Saints to Zion in obedience to the commandments of the Lord
afforded an opportunity for them to become what they desired; either to
be as great and as noble as they could or to sink into obscurity in the
eyes of God and His Saints and be the least in this last kingdom which
God has set His hand to build up upon the earth. After making many
appropriate remarks he implored the blessings of heaven upon us, which
was responded to by a hearty amen, and then all dispersed to attend to
the duties of the day.

[Sidenote: Work on the Turnpike.]

In the course of the day we took a job of making half a mile of
turnpike, and removed our encampment into a beautiful grove near the
edge of a prairie about one-fourth of a mile, and about the same
distance from Mad river. Here we began to make preparations to commence
work, but made little progress, for most of the laboring men were
absent, and we did not get our tents pitched till nearly night.

_Wednesday, August 1_.--Began at an early hour to make arrangements
to commence our job. Sent off part of the men to finish the levee and
some to build a fence around our camp, and about twelve o'clock made a
beginning on the road. A few sick in the camp this day, {121} but most
of us were in good health and satisfied with our situation.

_Thursday, August 2_.--Very warm and dry as it had been for many days,
with the exception of the showers on Monday evening.

Progressed with our labors on the road rather slowly, for we were not
in condition to work to good advantage, as we had not tools enough, and
had been on our journey so long that it was rather fatiguing to labor
hard in the commencement. Some sickness in the camp, but no more than
would be expected, owing to our change of climate, and the extreme heat
and drouth in the land.

[Sidenote: Renewed Diligence.]

_Friday, August 3_.--Made great progress in the turnpike, and the
desponding spirits of some began to revive, for laboring had looked to
some to be rather a hard way to procure means to prosecute our journey,
though but few complained. Some new cases of sickness, but many of
those who were unwell the day before were recovering fast. The men and
boys in camp were called together in the evening and instructed by
the Council as the Spirit of the Lord manifested unto them concerning
cleanliness and decency and the importance of being industrious in
laboring with their hands to procure means to go on our way. The
covenant to put our strength, our properties and monies together for
the purpose of going together in the camp to Zion, and of delivering
the poor from their poverty and oppression in the land of Kirtland
was adverted to by Elders Pulsipher and Foster, and all exhorted and
entreated to give heed to it if they wished to enjoy the blessings of
the Lord.

[Sidenote: An Assistant Council Appointed.]

The Council at a meeting held in the afternoon had taken into
consideration the propriety of appointing three men to sit as
councilors or judges [known as an Assistant Council, see p. 128] to
settle matters and difficulties between brethren, that the Council
might be relieved in some measure from the arduous duties of settling
controversies and have more {122} time to devote to other things
that devolved upon them as Presidents of the camp. Duncan McArthur,
Gordon Snow and George Stringham were nominated, and the subject
was laid before the meeting in the evening to receive the unanimous
approbation of all present. The many blessings conferred on us by our
Heavenly Father since He first made known His will unto the Council
of Seventies, that it was His will that the Seventies should go to
Zion in a camp together, were recapitulated and our hearts were made
glad and we rejoiced in the Rock of our salvation whose mercies had
been extended unto us, notwithstanding our murmurings against Him and
slowness of heart to believe His words, and the many promises which
He had made unto us. At the close of the meeting our united prayers
ascended to God in the name of His Son, Jesus Christ, for the recovery
of Elder Jacob Chapman's family who resided near the city of Dayton,
and had sent unto us for some of the Elders to go and lay hands on
them in the name of the Lord, as they were sorely afflicted with
disease, and for the recovery of the sick in our own camp, and that the
destroyer might cease to make inroads among us.

_Saturday, August 4_.--Our circumstances about the same as on the day
previous. A heavy shower towards evening cooled the air and greatly
revived the vegetation which was suffering for want of rain in the
country round about. In the evening the camp was called together again
and the names of those who had absented themselves from labor were
read over and those who had no excuse for their absence were severely
reprimanded, and the overseers of tents instructed by the Council to
withhold the usual rations allotted from such individuals as could
but would not labor, that the idler should not eat the bread of the
laborer, according to the commandments of the Lord.--Doctrine and
Covenants, sec. xlii.

Footnotes

1. This chapter and the one following contain the uninterrupted history
of Kirtland camp promised at p. 42, and is taken from the camp's daily
journal, kept by the late Judge Elias Smith.

2. See page 90.

3. By typographical error this name, in the list of those who signed
the camp's constitution (p 92), is given as E. B. Gayland.

4. The war rumors here mentioned have reference to what is known in
Canadian history as the "Canadian Rebellion." It was the culmination of
agitation begun as early as 1831, on the part of the people of Canada,
under popular leaders, such as Papineau, Brown, Nielson, McKenzie
and others, for enlarged measures of home rule for the Dominion. The
popular leaders marshaled their forces against the government during
the winter of 1837-8, and a number of skirmishes took place. Canadian
independence was much talked of, and the people in the United States
along the Canadian border were much excited, and volunteers began to
flock in considerable numbers to aid the cause of the "patriots," as
the insurgents were called. "But," to quote a Canadian historian, "the
American President, Mr. VanBuren, issued two successive proclamations
warning the people of the penalties to which they would expose
themselves by engaging in hostilities with a friendly power, and also
appointed General Scott to take command of the disturbed frontier
and enforce a strict neutrality." After the arrival of General Scott
on the frontiers, effective measures were taken to prevent further
supplies and recruits from reaching the "patriots," and the militia
ordered out by the Canadian government, after some severe fighting,
dispersed the insurgents, many of whom fled to the United States. The
British parliament subsequently granted some of the legislative reforms
demanded by the people.

{123}



CHAPTER X.

The Journey Of Kirtland Camp. (Continued).

[Sidenote: Preaching of Elder Young.]

_Sunday, August 5_.--One month had passed away since the camp was
organized and we were all present in the camp with few exceptions.
Elder Joseph Young preached from Acts xvi, and 30th verse, on the
principles of salvation through the Gospel of Jesus Christ. A
respectable congregation of strangers assembled with us and gave the
best attention to what was declared unto them. The sacrament of the
Lord's supper was administered in the afternoon by Elders Foster and
Wilbur and the services of the day were closed by singing and imploring
the blessings of God upon us and upon the Saints of the Most High in
every land, and for the triumph of Christ's kingdom on the earth.
The Council met after the public services of the day were ended, to
transact some business of the camp which seemed to be necessary; and
after that was disposed of Elder Zera Pulsipher suggested the propriety
of ordaining George Stringham to the office of an Elder, and said that
the Spirit had borne witness to him for some time that it was the will
of the Lord that he should be ordained to that office. The subject was
taken into consideration and the Council decided that he should be
ordained if it was congenial to his own feelings. On being interrogated
he said that he was willing to be ordained and would do anything the
Lord required of him for the building up of His kingdom on the earth.
Elder James Foster with some others then proceeded to ordain him
according to the rules of the Church of Latter-day Saints, an Elder in
said Church. The Council then adjourned.

{124} [Sidenote: An Increase of Interest in the Camp.]

_Monday, August 6_.--Some complaining in the camp and some sick,
principally children and aged persons. We progressed finely in our
labors on the road, and a greater interest seemed to be manifested for
the welfare of the whole body than had been since the camp stopped.
John Hammond lost one of his horses in the night, the first one that
had died during our journey.

[Sidenote: Exhortations.]

_Tuesday, August 7_.--No occurrence worthy of note during the day. The
destroyer continued to afflict us with sickness as a body, and many of
the men were unable to labor. In the evening the laborers were called
together and some instructions were given to them concerning our labors
and the necessity of diligence impressed upon those who manifested an
indifference to the general interest of the whole camp.

[Sidenote: Death of Horses.]

_Wednesday, August 8_.--This morning found another of our horses dead,
one that had been bought for the benefit of the camp, and before noon
we had to kill another that had his leg broken. It belonged to John
Matthews who had left the camp a few days before without the consent
of the Council. Sickness still prevailed among us though the laboring
men were in better health than usual and the spirit of love and union
was manifested by most of the camp and all that were able labored
cheerfully without a murmur during the day. In the evening a child of
Hiram H. Byington died, which was the second time death had entered our
camp on the road from Kirtland to this place.

[Sidenote: A Burial.]

_Thursday, August 9_.--Brother Byington's child was buried at twelve
o'clock. Some sickness in the camp this day, but not quite so much
as there has been for a few days past. A little shower about noon
cooled the air though enough did not fall to water the earth which was
suffering from want of rain and had been for some time, insomuch that
the shower that fell on the 4th instant did not suffice to water it
enough to restore {125} vegetation to its natural state, and the crops
of corn and other grains were suffering almost beyond description in
the region of country round about.

[Sidenote: More Employment.]

_Friday, August 10_.--The weather continued extremely hot and dry.
Elder James Foster took his tent in company with J. S. Holman, S.
Shumway of the 3rd division and Joel Harvey of the 4th, with the
inmates of their tents and went to work on a job of building a levee
for Mr. Hushman about two miles from the camp, where E. B. Gaylord of
the 4th division had moved his tent a few days before, and was digging
a ditch for the same individual. In the evening a daughter of Thomas
Carico, aged one year and five months, died, and was buried the next
day.

[Sidenote: Showers.]

_Saturday, August 11_.--One or two showers of rain cooled the air and
revived the languid and drooping spirits of those in the camp, and
symptoms of better health were visible on the countenances of the
afflicted. In the fore part of the night Sarah Emily, daughter of
Dominicus Carter, aged about two years and three months, died, being
the fourth one the destroyer took from our midst.

[Sidenote: Charles Thompson Corrected.]

_Sunday, August 12_.--Elder Pulsipher preached in the forenoon to a
large congregation of strangers most of whom gave the best attention.
At two p. m. the funeral of Elder Carter's child was attended, and at
four Elder John E. Page, who had been invited, preached a sermon on the
gathering of Israel and the location of Mount Zion, [1] after which the
Council met {126} to regulate and set in order some things that seemed
to be necessary in the camp, in order to preserve harmony and union
among us. Elder Charles Thompson was called in question for something
he had taught concerning the order of moving of the camp. After being
shown the impropriety of his conduct, and the fallacy of some of his
views and the effect the promulgating of them had and would have in the
camp, he made ample retraction before the Council, and before the camp
which was called together for that purpose in the evening.

Several brethren from Elder Page's camp and others that resided in this
region of country spent the Sabbath with us. Among the number were
Elder Nelson and Brother Ide, who resided near the city of Dayton.
Several of the brethren who had resided in Kirtland, being now on the
way to the land of Zion, had stopped to labor near us and they were
also present, and met with us at communion which was administered by
Elders John E. Page and Jonathan H. Hale at the close of the meeting in
the afternoon.

[Sidenote: Spirit of Union Manifested.]

_Monday, August 13_.--Richard D. Blanchard joined the camp by the
consent of the Council. Somewhat cooler towards evening than it had
been for some time. About twenty sick in the camp, mostly women and
children, but none are dangerously ill. The laborers were called
together again in the evening and some instructions given them
concerning our labors and prospects in relation to means to prosecute
our journey, and a spirit of union was manifested which cheered our
hearts and made us thankful to the God of Israel for that and the many
other blessings we daily received from His liberal hand.

_Tuesday, August 14_.--The day passed away as usual. {127} For some
time past most of the laborers were able to perform the work assigned
them, and but few comparatively were sick in the camp, and these
generally were growing better.

_Wednesday, August 15_.--It rained most of the afternoon which hindered
us from our labors a considerable part of the time.

[Sidenote: Jonas Putnam Commended.]

Brother Jonas Putnam and family by the advice of the Council left the
camp and moved about twelve miles on to a farm belonging to Brother Ide
to take charge of it while he [Brother Ide] went to prepare a place for
himself and the small branch of the Church in this vicinity in some of
the Stakes of Zion in the west. We were not willing that Brother Putnam
should leave the camp upon any other principle than that of mutual
consent of all concerned, for he was esteemed by all as a just man,
and devout, and one that was worthy of the fellowship of the Saints.
Elder Elijah Cheney who had left Kirtland before the camp with his
family came into our encampment in the forenoon having been blessed of
the Lord on his journey and was received with a hearty welcome by the
brethren of the camp.

_Thursday, August 16_.--Elder B. S. Wilbur took about twenty men with
Elder George Stringham and his tent and company and went to the city of
Dayton to do a job of work which had been engaged by the advice of the
Council.

[Sidenote: Expulsion from the Camp.]

In the evening G. W. Brooks and wife were called before the Council
and inquiry made into some things which had been in circulation for
some days respecting them, and in the course of the investigation it
was acknowledged that Brother Brooks' wife had used tea most of the
time on the road, and had used profane language, and she declared she
would still pursue the same course, and it was not in the power of her
husband or the Council to stop it. She further said that she was not a
member of the Church and did not expect to come under the rules of the
camp.

{128} The decision of the Council was that they must leave the camp,
and Brother Brooks was severely reprimanded for not keeping his tent in
order according to the Constitution of the camp, and not keeping his
family in subjection, as a man of God, especially as an Elder of Israel.

[Sidenote: Further Investigation of Camp Members.]

_Friday, August 17_.--Elders J. Foster and Henry Harriman, having
finished the job of embankment [levee], came back in to the encampment
themselves but did not bring back their tents. In the afternoon the
Council met and several of the members of the camp were tried for
breach of the Constitution, and Nathan K. Knight presented an appeal
from a decision of the Assistant Council on a charge preferred against
himself and wife by Amos Jackson, overseer of his tent, for some
misdemeanor in respect to the order of the camp and unchristian-like
conduct on the journey, which decision was that they had violated the
Constitution of the camp and disregarded their covenant to observe
and keep it, and consequently must be left by the wayside. After an
inquiry into the affair the decision made [by the Assistant Council]
was confirmed by the Council of the camp.

Josiah Miller was advised, in consequence of the conduct of his
son-in-law, Aaron Dolph, who was not a member of the Church, and would
not conform to the order of the camp, to take his family and go by
himself.

[Sidenote: Expulsions from Camp.]

Nathan Staker was requested to leave the camp in consequence of the
determination of his wife, to all appearances, not to observe the rules
and regulations of the camp. There had been contentions in the tent
between herself and Andrew Lamereaux, overseer of the tent, and also
contentions with his family several times on the road, and after the
camp stopped in this place. The Council had become weary of trying
to settle these contentions between them. Andrew Lamereaux having
gone to Dayton to labor, taking his family with him, was not present
at the Council, neither was there {129} any new complaint made, but
the impossibility of Brother Staker to keep his family in order was
apparent to all, and it was thought to be the best thing for him to
take his family and leave the camp. Some other things were brought
before the Council and inquiry made into the conduct of several
individuals, and the Council had come to the determination to put
iniquity from the camp wherever it could be found, that God's anger
might be turned away and His blessings rest down upon us.

_Saturday, August 18_.--Josiah Miller, agreeable to the counsel given
him, took his family and left the camp with the best of feelings
existing between him and the Council of the camp; he left it only in
consequence of the disposition of his son-in-law, Aaron Dolph, to set
at naught the Constitution by which the camp were bound by agreement to
put their strength, properties and monies together in order to move the
camp to the land of Zion.

Another child died this day, aged about three years, a daughter of
Martha Higby, who was in company with Z. H. [2] Brewster. Sister
Higby's husband had left her some time before the camp started. The
brethren finished their job at Mr. Harshman's on Friday, and at Dayton
on Saturday. The health of the camp was much better than usual since we
stopped here.

[Sidenote: Religious Service.]

_Sunday, August 19_.--As usual a large congregation met with us and
gave good attention to the services of the day. Elder Joel H. Johnson,
by the request of Elders Young and Harriman, who presided, preached on
the first principles of the Gospel from Galatians 1, in the forenoon.
In the afternoon the sacrament was administered agreeable to the
commandments of the Lord.

_Monday, August 20_.--Nathan K. Knight and George W. Brooks, who had
been excluded from the camp as before stated, left the camp. Daniel
Bliss went with George W. Brooks by the consent of the Council--at his
own {130} request--as he was not well provided for as to a place for
his family to ride on the road.

[Sidenote: Births in Camp.]

_Tuesday, August 21_.--Two boys born in the camp in the morning. One,
the son of Gardner Snow, the other of Frederick M. Vanleuven. The
Council held a consultation in the afternoon and concluded to make
preparations to start on our journey as soon as possible, if the Lord
did not open the way clearly before us to tarry longer in this place.
J. A. Clark was excluded from the camp.

[Sidenote: Turnpike Contract finished.]

_Wednesday, August 22_.--Finished our job of grading in the morning and
the remainder of the day most of us rested ourselves, and made some
preparation to start again on our way. Extremely hot, and the earth
parched with drought to a greater degree than has been known for many
years in this region of country.

Andrew J. Squires called on us on his way to Kirtland on Tuesday
afternoon, and left again after having some consultation with the
Council of the Seventies about his standing in the Church, and went on
his way to Kirtland.

[Sidenote: Arrangements for Renewal of the Journey.]

_Thursday, August 23_.--The Council met to regulate some things and
concluded to start on Monday, the 27th instant, and to labor all the
time we could till that time. Several resolutions were passed among
which was the following: That those of the camp who were absent should
come back to the encampment and that the vacancies in overseers of
tents be filled and then all called together and instructed more
particularly concerning the duties of their office before the camp
shall start again; that the camp shall be reorganized, inasmuch as some
have left since its organization.

John Hammond was expelled by the assistant Council from the camp
for not standing at the head of his family, his wife making much
disturbance in the tent, of which Brother Hammond was the overseer.

[Sidenote: Gathering of the Absent.]

_Friday, August 24_.--Most of the brethren who {131} were absent came
into the camp during the day to make preparations to go on our journey.

Elder Joseph Young went to Dayton to attend the funeral of William
Tenny, late of Kirtland, who died yesterday.

_Saturday, August 25_.--In the afternoon the overseers of the tents
were called together by the Council, and inquiry made into the affairs
of each tent to see if there were any difficulties existing among them
or any other persons in the camp. The inquiry resulted in discovering
much that was not as it should be. Several tents were in disorder,
and the Council proceeded to make inquiry and to set in order the
inmates of those tents that were in a state of confusion. Most of the
difficulties were amicably settled, one exception. John Rulison was
turned out of the camp by the assistant Council. The same Council
were directed to go to Brother Nickerson's tent and set it in order;
breaking the Word of Wisdom and disbelief in some of the revelations
constituted the difficulties in this tent.

_Sunday, August 26_.--As usual a public meeting was held in the
forenoon and a sacrament meeting in the afternoon. The Spirit of the
Lord was poured out on the assembly and some were convinced of the
truth of what was declared unto them.

[Sidenote: Preparations for the Journey.]

_Monday, August 27_.--Having finished our turnpike contract, we made
every possible exertion to continue our journey on the morrow, by
shoeing horses and fixing wagons. We had a blacksmith shop in operation
in the camp for several days, doing the necessary work. In the evening
a heavy shower of rain fell which was greatly needed, and it seemed for
some time past that it would be almost impossible for us to travel in
consequence of the drought, and the dust that flew on the highway; but
as the Lord had been merciful to us before, so He was in this instance,
for which we felt thankful in very deed.

{132} _Tuesday, August 28_.--Made every exertion in our power to start,
but found it impossible about noon, as we had to make provisions for
several families who had been deprived of a team by those who were
turned out of the camp taking their teams with them.

Charles Wood was expelled from the camp by two of the Council, James
Foster and Henry Harriman, on the 27th. Brother Wood was tenting about
two miles from our encampment with two or three other families, who
for some misdemeanor had been expelled from the camp. Brothers Foster
and Harriman, by the consent of all concerned, acted in this matter
without a majority of the Council being present, but this was not the
practice of the Council, as a majority was considered necessary to have
a trial or council concerning any matter relating to the affairs of
the camp; but in this instance no exceptions were made by any. In the
evening the brethren in the camp were called together and our labors
and tribulations were talked over. The Spirit of God rested down upon
the camp with power, and after singing the hymn, "The Spirit of God
like a fire is burning," we concluded by a song, "Hosanna to God and
the Lamb," and retired with joyful hearts to our tents.

[Sidenote: The Camp Resumes its Journey.]

_Wednesday, August 29_.--Early in the morning we began to leave the
ground, having the previous day reorganized as far as possible. Z. H.
Brewster and his father-in-law, J. Higby who was with him, were left
behind for want of a team to carry them with their families.

We passed through the city of Dayton, situated near the junction
of Mad river with the Great Miami, and took the road to Eaton and
traveled through the township of Jefferson and put up in the township
of Jackson, near the village of Johnsville, twelve miles from Dayton,
and pitched our tents in the highway, having traveled eighteen miles.
Having been at work one month we all were thankful for the privilege of
again marching on our way.

{133} Our labors in Bath and its vicinity amounted to about----. [3]

[Sidenote: On the Indiana Line.]

_Thursday, August 30_.--Traveled through Twin township on the north
line, and through Washington township, in Preble county; passed through
the village on of Alexander, in Twin township, and then through the
village of Eaton, twelve miles from Johnsville, and pitched our tents
on the line of Indiana and Ohio, eleven miles from Eaton, having
traveled twenty-four miles, and are now two hundred and ninety-three
miles from Kirtland.

The land from Dayton to the Ohio line is generally bad, and covered
with maple, beach, elm, ash, whitewood and other northern timber; and
the soil after leaving the bottoms of the Miami is not so fertile as
the lands on that [Miami] and Mad river. The road was generally good,
and the weather extremely fine. Our teams stood the journey much better
than when we first started from Kirtland.

On Thursday a daughter of Otis Shumway died, at Eaton, on the road, and
was buried in the woods near where we camped at night, in the township
of Jackson, Preble county, Ohio.

[Sidenote: Camp Enters the State of Indiana.]

_Friday, August 31_.--Started early, crossed the line of Indiana a few
rods from our encampment into the township of Wayne, Wayne County,
Indiana. We came to the village of Richmond, on the east branch of
Whitewater, four miles. Richmond is a flourishing place on the national
road, which we came to soon after we passed the line, or between
there and Richmond. From Richmond we came to Centerville, the county
seat of Wayne county, six miles; and thence we came to the village of
Germantown, eight miles, and encamped for the night near that village,
about sunset. Crossed during the day several tributary streams of the
{134} Whitewater, the principal of which was Nolands Fork, west of
Centerville. Traveled fourteen miles.

[Sidenote: Course of Journey.]

_September 1_.--The camp started at eight a. m. We came through a
small village called Cambridge one mile from Germantown; then through
Dublin three miles; through Louisville, nine miles; then to Flatrock,
in Franklin township, Henry county; thence to Roysville, on the east
side of Blue river, and Knight's Town, on the east side ten miles, and
encamped by the side of the way one mile west of Knight's Town, just at
dark. The air was cool in the evening and after the fires were built,
which was necessary for our comfort and convenience, our encampment
looked beautiful, and we attracted the attention of all who passed by,
and of the citizens of the neighborhood who declared that our company
exceeded any they had before seen in all their lives. Distance from
Kirtland three hundred and thirty-five miles.

[Sidenote: A Sunday Journey.]

_Sunday, September 2_.--Frost seen in the morning. It being quite
cool, we thought it our duty to go on our way, so we started at eight
o'clock, and came through the small villages of Liberty and Portland,
and stopped at noon in Center township, Hancock county, at Mr.
Caldwell's, about nine miles from our encampment. Here the son of E.
P. Merriam died; the body was carried on to our place of encampment
at night. In the afternoon we came through Greenfield, the county
seat of Hancock county. Crossed Sugar creek, nine miles, and encamped
at night on Buck creek on the west line of Hancock county, and east
line of Marion county, having traveled twenty-one miles through a
low, level country of clay soil and hard road. The crops of corn were
small, and all grain scarce. The weather is cool and the roads good,
but from appearances they had been almost impassable. Three hundred and
fifty-six miles from Kirtland.

[Sidenote: Death of Bathsheba Willey.]

_Monday, September 3_.--Cold and frosty in the morning. {135} We arose
at four, as usual, and at half-past five Sister Bathsheba Willey, who
was sick when we started from Kirtland, died and was buried together
with Brother Merriam's child in the northeast corner of T. Ruther's
orchard, Jones township, Hancock county, about one-fourth of a mile
east from Buck creek. The stage broke Lucius N. Scovil's wagon down.
[4] We came this day to Indianapolis, on the east side of White river,
the metropolis of the state of Indiana, and pitched our tents at night
six and one-sixth miles west of the city, in Wayne township, on the
farm of Brother Miller. Distance from Kirtland, three hundred and
seventy-three miles.

[Sidenote: Warning and Exhortation.]

_Tuesday, September 4_.--In the morning B. S. Wilbur, who had been left
behind in Dayton, Ohio, to transact some business, came up in the stage
about four o'clock. The camp was called together in the morning, and
warned by the Council of the displeasure of our heavenly Father with
some for their wickedness, and that His judgments would fall upon them
with greater weight than they had if there was not a speedy repentance.
The Council also entreated all to be humble and pray much, for the
destroyer was in our midst and many were afflicted. Ira Thornton,
overseer of tent No. eight, third division, by leave of the Council,
stayed behind to go up to the land of Zion with his father-in-law, who
resided near our encampment, and was going to start in a few days.
Brother Thornton during the journey had been a faithful brother, and
stopped now merely on his wife's account, and not that he was or had
been disaffected with the movements in the camp or with the management
of the Council.

Josiah Butterfield stopped to get a wagon wheel made, and the camp
started at a late hour. We came through {136} Cumberland village, two
miles; thence through Plainfield, in Guilford township, Hendricks
county, five miles; and stopped at noon in Liberty township, two miles
east of Bellville, five miles from Plainfield, through which we passed
in the afternoon; thence through the village of Bellville eight miles,
and encamped late in the evening about three miles west of Bellville,
having traveled twenty-three miles. David Elliot left the camp this
morning. Distance from Kirtland, three hundred and ninety-six miles.

_Wednesday, September 5_.--Thomas Nickerson's child died in the night,
and was buried where we stopped at noon on the farm of Noal Fouts,
west of the village of Putnamville. Passed this day through Mt.
Meridian, Putnamville, and Manhattan. Crossed Walnut and McCray creek
and encamped by the side of the way just west of Clay county, having
traveled twenty miles. Distance from Kirtland, four hundred and sixteen
miles.

[Sidenote: Arrival at Terre Haute.]

_Thursday, September 6_.--Traveled thirteen miles through a fine
country, good road, and pitched our tents between two and three miles
east of Terre Haute, the county seat of Vigo county, situated on the
west side of the Wabash, on a swell of land in a beautiful prairie
surrounded by a fruitful and fertile country. Distance from Kirtland,
four hundred and thirty-three miles.

_Friday, September 7_.--Sometime in the night a daughter of Otis
Shumway died; and in the morning a child of J. A. Clark died. Both
were buried in the graveyard in Terre Haute through which we passed,
and crossed the Wabash about twelve o'clock at both ferries, and left
the national road and turning to the right, took the North Arm Prairie
road to Paris. Traveled nine miles, and encamped in LaFayette township,
three-fourths of a mile east of the Illinois line. The distance
from Kirtland, the way we came, to Terre Haute is four hundred and
thirty-six miles. E. Cherry did not come up, and was left behind; his
family was sick.

[Sidenote: In Illinois.]

_Saturday, September 8_.--Crossed the Illinois line in the {137}
morning into Edgar county; crossed the North Arm Prairie, so-called;
crossed Sugar creek and came through Paris, the county seat of Edgar
county, and traveled fourteen miles on a prairie, and put up for the
night at a late hour, pitching our tents on the prairie near the house
of Mr. Keller, who appeared friendly and obliging. Traveled today
twenty-five miles. Distance from Kirtland, four hundred and seventy
miles.

_Sunday, September 9_.--Started early, and came to Ambro creek, in a
grove, two miles, and encamped during the day. The fourth division came
up just as we started in the morning; for they were unable to travel as
fast as the other divisions owing to the heat of the day on Saturday.
Distance from Kirtland, four hundred and seventy-two miles.

[Sidenote: Serious Difficulties Considered.]

The Council met after we encamped, and after much consultation
concluded to call the heads of families together and lay before them
our situation with respect to means and the prospects before us and the
apparent impossibility of our obtaining labor for ourselves and for
the support of our families in the city of Far West during the coming
winter; and to advise them, especially those that did not belong to
the Seventies, to commence looking for places for themselves where
they could procure a subsistence during the Winter and procure means
sufficient to remove them to Missouri in the Spring. Accordingly in the
afternoon the camp were called together and those things laid before
them for their consideration, which seemed to meet with the approval of
a large majority of the heads of families in the camp. Distance from
Kirtland, four hundred and seventy-two miles.

[Sidenote: Dissatisfaction in Camp.]

_Monday, September 10_.--Considerable anxiety seemed to be manifested
by some concerning the advice of the Council, and some complained,
like ancient Israel, and said that they did not thank the Council for
bringing them so far, and had rather been left {138} in Kirtland, and
some said one thing and some another. Among the number were Aaron
Cheney, Nathan Cheney, William Draper and Thomas Draper and Henry
Munroe, who were sent for, to come and settle with the clerks and
look out for quarters immediately. Themira Draper, Alfred Draper and
Cornelius Vanleuven left the camp with them. Reuben Daniels, whose
wife was sick and had a son born in the night, together with Ethan A.
Moore and Joel Harvey, also left the camp to stop for a few days and
then pursue their journey by themselves. After the camp started Joseph
Coon stopped because his wife was sick. We traveled five or six miles
west of the little Ambarras, where we encamped. We passed through a
small place called Independence, which is in an oak opening, in which
we had encamped. It was about six miles through it, and then we crossed
through a prairie fifteen miles, and encamped on the west side of
the East Ocha or Kaskaskias, some of the teams not coming up to the
encampment till twelve o'clock. Traveled twenty-two miles. Distance
from Kirtland, four hundred and ninety-four miles.

[Sidenote: Increased Sickness.]

_Tuesday, September 11_.--Crossed another prairie, fourteen miles, and
encamped at four p. m. on the west side of the West Ocha, in Macon
county, having traveled sixteen miles. Distance from Kirtland, five
hundred and ten miles.

Many in the camp at this time were sick and afflicted. Some with fever
and ague, and some with one thing and some with another. The most
dangerous were Elder Josiah Willey and John Wright, son of Asa Wright,
aged about fourteen years.

_Wednesday, September 12_.--Started at eight o'clock and crossed
another prairie twelve miles, then through a piece of timber land on
the headwaters of San Juan river, then over a three-mile prairie, and
stopped to refresh our teams in the edge of the wood a little after
noon, sixteen miles from our encampment of the night before. In the
{139} afternoon crossed over a prairie four miles, then through a piece
of timbered land, then another prairie two miles, and encamped by the
side of a small creek, having traveled this day twenty-two miles.
Distance from Kirtland, five hundred and thirty-nine miles.

_Thursday, September 13_.--In the morning it was ascertained that
George Stringham and Benjamin Baker, with Joseph C. Clark had stopped
behind, or could not come up because of the failure of their teams. Asa
Wright did not come up at night, but came up in the morning by himself
before we started, to settle his accounts. His son being sick was the
reason of his staying behind. Alba Whittle and Joel H. Johnson also
settled their accounts, as they expected to stop at Springfield or
sooner if they could find a place.

Started at a late hour and traveled fourteen miles through a prairie
country down the Sangamon river, which ran on the right of the road in
a westerly course to the Illinois. We encamped about three p. m. on a
piece of land laid out for a village called Boliva or Bolivar. Here
Ira Thornton's child died. Distance from Kirtland, five hundred and
fifty-three miles.

[Sidenote: Camp Passes Through Springfield.]

_Friday, September 14_.--Before the first division left the ground
Elder Stringham and Benjamin Baker came up, but we left them there.
We came this day to Springfield, eighteen miles, crossing several
small creeks and passing through a small place called Rochester. From
Springfield we came four miles, and encamped for the night. We could
not procure anything for our teams to eat and were obliged to fasten
them to our wagons and give them a little corn or turn them onto dry
prairie almost destitute of vegetation. Springfield is destined to be
the seat of government of Illinois and the state house is now in course
of building. It is situated on a beautiful prairie and looks like a
flourishing place though it is yet in its infancy. Elder J. H. Johnson
and his mother and their families, together with {140} Alba Whittle,
Jonathan and Cyrus B. Fisher, Edwin P. Merriam and Samuel Hale--who was
sick--and wife, also stopped at Springfield or near there, and Richard
Brasher went to Huron, three miles west from Springfield to stop with
his friends for a short season. Traveled twenty-two miles. Distance
from Kirtland, five hundred and seventy-five miles.

_Saturday, September 15_.--William Gribble left the camp in the morning
to stop at Springfield during the winter, and Ira Thornton left and
went on with Allen Wait.

We started before breakfast and traveled fourteen miles. Passed through
a small village called Berlin and camped on Spring creek in Island
Grove. Here T. P. Pierce's child died, and was buried on Sunday, near
Elder Keeler's house. Elder Keeler was late from New Portage, Ohio.
Here we tarried till Monday morning. Distance from Kirtland, five
hundred and eighty-nine miles.

_Sunday, September 16_.--We held a meeting in the afternoon and
attended to communion. We had but few spectators in the camp during the
day. A spirit of union rarely manifested was felt at the meeting, and
our souls rejoiced in the Holy One of Israel.

[Sidenote: More Departures from the Camp.]

_Monday, September 17_.--This morning Elias Pulsipher, Daniel
Pulsipher, Steven Starks, Hiram H. Byington and Monro Crosier
settled their accounts and stopped behind. Traveled this day through
Jacksonville, a fine village, the county seat of Morgan county, which
we entered about fourteen miles east of Jacksonville. From thence we
came to Geneva, a small, dusty place, and encamped near David Orton's,
on a prairie, having traveled twenty-five miles. Most of the camp was
late in arriving on the ground, and some did not come up till morning.
Distance from Kirtland, six hundred and fourteen miles.

_Tuesday, September 18_.--Warren Smith, Jonas Putnam, Stephen Shumway
and D. C. Demming and Joseph {141} Young stopped at Geneva, Morgan
county, and in the course of the day, Asaph Blanchard, Stephen Headlock
and B. K. Hall also stopped near Exeter, and James C. Snow, whom we
found near Geneva, joined us. We came through Exeter to Philip's
ferry on the Illinois river, four miles below Naples, which is on the
same river, on the straight road from Jacksonville to Quincy on the
Mississippi, which we left and traveled six miles east of the ferry.
We arrived at the ferry about four p. m., and some of the teams went
over and encamped on the west side of the river in Pike county. In the
night David Elliot, whom we had left in Putnam county, Indiana, came
up on horseback, having arrived with his family within fifteen miles
of us in the evening and left us again to hasten on his team that he
might overtake us at Louisville, Missouri. Distance from Kirtland, six
hundred and twenty-nine miles.

[Sidenote: First Tidings from Far West.]

_Wednesday, September 19_.--We all got over the Illinois at half-past
one p. m. and came to Griggsville, then to Pittsfield, the county seat
of Pike county, twelve miles, and encamped on a small hill one mile
west of the village. While we were crossing the river two brethren
arrived from Far West and brought us the first direct information from
that place or from any of the brethren in the West since we started on
our journey. The country between the Illinois river and Pittsfield is
more rolling than it is on the east of that river, especially east of
Springfield. Distance traveled from Kirtland, six hundred and forty-two
miles.

_Thursday, September 20_.--Started on our journey and came to Atlas,
a small village, the former county seat of Pike county, twelve miles
through a rolling prairie country, then to the Snye, a branch of the
Mississippi, about six miles from the river where we crossed in the
afternoon, all but three wagons, into the town of Louisiana, in the
state of Missouri; and encamped about three-fourths of a mile {142}
west of the town. Traveled twenty miles. Distance from Kirtland, six
hundred and sixty-two miles.

[Sidenote: A Missouri Storm.]

_Friday, September 21_.--Traveled about seventeen miles through a
hot country and encamped in a wood near a prairie in a heavy rain
which fell all the afternoon, and was the first that had fallen on us
since we left Bath, Ohio, and was the most tedious time we had passed
through. In the evening it thundered and rained powerfully, most of
us went to bed without our supper, and tied our horses to our wagons.
We thought it a perilous time, but few complained, nearly all bore it
patiently. Duncan McArthur broke down his wagon in the forenoon and did
not come up at night.

[Sidenote: Bad Roads.]

_Saturday, September 22_.--Traveled this day eighteen miles, eight
miles of which was the worst road we had on the journey. The other
ten miles prairie. Thomas Carico broke down his wagon and stopped and
mended it, and did not overtake the camp at night. Eleaser King and
sons, who left Kirtland before the camp, came up and encamped with us
at night. The air was cool and chilly and towards night uncomfortably
cold. We encamped about one-half mile east of Lick creek, in Monroe
county. Distance from Kirtland, six hundred and ninety-seven miles.

_Sunday, September 23_.--A heavy frost in the morning, but after the
sun arose it was pleasant and warm. We thought it our duty to travel
and accordingly started on our way. The road very rough and bad part of
the way, especially in the timbered land. Duncan McArthur and Thomas
Carico, who had been left behind in consequence of breaking down their
wagons, overtook us in the morning before we all started, some having
to stay behind to find their horses, which went back across the prairie
about nine miles in the night. E. B. Gaylord broke down his wagon and
got badly hurt, and did not overtake us till Monday night. We traveled
to Paris, the county seat of Monroe county, twenty miles, and {143}
encamped one mile west of the town late in the evening near a prairie.
Crossed south fork of Salt river, five miles east of Paris, and several
other tributary streams of the same river, most of which were dry by
reason of the extreme drought which had prevailed in this land during
the summer. Traveled today twenty-one miles. Distance from Kirtland,
seven hundred and eighteen miles.

[Sidenote: Reorganization of the Camp.]

_Monday, September 24_.--Reorganized the camp which had become rather
disorganized by reason of so many stopping by the way. The third
division was put into the first and second, as that division had become
quite small. The Council called the camp together and laid before them
the scanty means in their hands, and wanted the brethren to furnish
such things as they had to dispose of to purchase corn, etc., for
our cattle and horses, that we might continue our journey. Traveled
twenty miles before sunset, most of the way prairie, and encamped on
the Elk fork of Salt river. We found the inhabitants in commotion and
volunteering, under the order of Governor Boggs, as we were repeatedly
told, to go up and fight the "Mormons" in Far West and that region of
country. We were very correctly informed that one hundred and ten men
had left Huntsville in the morning on that expedition; and that the
governor had called on five thousand from the upper counties, and if we
went any farther we should meet with difficulty and even death as they
would as leave kill us as not.

We had been saluted with such reports every day after we came through
Jacksonville, Illinois; but we paid little attention to it, trusting in
that God for protection which had called upon us to gather ourselves
together to the land of Zion, and who had thus far delivered us out
of the hands of all our enemies, on every hand, not only in Kirtland,
but on all our journey. Traveled this day twenty miles. Distance from
Kirtland, seven hundred and thirty-eight miles.

_Tuesday, September 25_.--Thomas Nickerson lost his {144} horses and
could not find them before the camp started, and did not overtake us at
night.

We came through Huntsville, the county seat of Randolph county, eleven
miles, where we were told before we arrived there, that we should be
stopped, but nothing of the kind occurred when we came through the
town, and we even heard no threats whatever, but all appeared friendly.
A mile and a half west of Huntsville we crossed the east branch of
Chariton, and one and a half miles west of the river we found Ira Ames
and some other brethren near the place where the city of Manti is to
be built, and encamped for the night on Dark creek, six miles from
Huntsville. Traveled this day seventeen miles. Distance from Kirtland,
seven hundred and fifty-five miles.

[Sidenote: Proposition to Disband the Camp.]

_Wednesday, September 26_.--In the morning Elder James Foster at a late
hour proposed to disband and break up the camp in consequence of some
rumors he had heard from the west which he said he believed. Elder
Pulsipher being away only five of the Councilors could be present. The
other four objected to this proposal, but so far yielded as to consent
to have the camp stop till an embassy could be sent to Far West to see
the state of things in that region and ascertain whether it would be
wisdom or not for us to go into that or any of the western states this
winter.

The camp was called together and the subject was partially laid before
them by Elder Foster, which produced a sadness of countenance seldom
seen in the course of our journey. While we were talking over the
subject Elder Pulsipher came up, just as a gentleman by the name of
Samuel Bend, of Pike county, Missouri, came along, and without knowing
our intentions or destination, told us of the state of affairs in Far
West, and Adam-ondi-Ahman, and everything we desired to know concerning
some particular things. On being told that our intentions were to stop
for a while, he advised us to go right along. He told us about the
Daviess county mob and that the {145} volunteers called for by the
governor, which had rendezvoused at Keatsville, would be discharged at
twelve o'clock, noon.

[Sidenote: Proposition Rejected.]

On reconsidering the subject a motion was made to go on which was
carried unanimously. Accordingly we moved on and came to Chariton river
in Chariton county, sixteen miles, and encamped about four p. m. on the
west side of the river. In the afternoon before we started from the
place where we stopped to feed on the seven mile prairie, near Brother
Kellog's, the militia volunteers began to go by on their return home,
and we continued to meet them most of the afternoon. Most of them
passed us civilly, but some of them were rather saucy, few replies,
however, were made to them. We met some brethren from Far West during
the day which confirmed what we had been told in the morning by Mr.
Bend. Brother Nickerson overtook us having found his horses, and eight
or ten wagons of brethren from Huron county, Ohio, and other places,
also Ira O. Thompson, who had formerly been with us as a member of
the camp, stayed with us at night. Traveled sixteen miles this day.
Distance from Kirtland, seven hundred and seventy-one miles.

[Sidenote: On Grand River.]

_Thursday, September 27_.--Started in the morning in some confusion,
owing to some misunderstanding, and came to Keatsville on a branch
of the Chariton, two miles, and about half a mile west of the town,
which is the county seat of Chariton county. We left the state road
and took the road to Chillicothe and went up on the east side of Grand
river, crossed a prairie about eighteen miles, beautifully diversified
with valleys and rolling swells which give it a truly picturesque
appearance. It has been surveyed and allotted for military purposes,
and for that reason is still unoccupied. We encamped at night at the
confluence of the forks of Yellow creek, having traveled twenty-two
miles.

Elder James Foster left us at Keatsville to go by the {146} way of De
Witt, to see his son-in-law, Jonathan Thompson. In the evening the
Council met to settle some difficulties and set in order some things
that seemed to require attention to enable us to move in order and in
peace the remainder of the journey. Traveled twenty-two miles today.
Distance from Kirtland, seven hundred and ninety-three miles.

_Friday, September 28_.--Crossed Turkey creek, seven miles; Locus,
four; and pitched our tents on the east side of Parson's creek, in Linn
county, six miles from Locus creek, making seventeen miles. Distance
from Kirtland, eight hundred and ten miles.

_Saturday, September 29_.--Came to Mr. Gregory's on Madison creek, six
miles; thence to Chillicothe, a town lately laid out for the county
seat of Livingston county, eight miles; and encamped about a mile west
toward Grand river.

Thomas Carico's and J. H. Holmes' wagons were turned over in the course
of the day, but no particular injury was done to any person. The road
was new, and in some places rough, especially in the timbered land on
the creeks. Traveled fifteen miles today. Distance from Kirtland, eight
hundred and twenty-five miles.

_Sunday, September 30_.--Came to Grand river, two and one-half miles,
crossed over and came to a small collection of houses, called Utica;
two and one-half miles, here we found Brother Sliter from Kirtland, and
some other brethren. From Utica we came through a rough and rolling
country for ten miles to Brother Walker's, on Shoal creek, crossed the
creek and camped on the west side near the prairie. Richard Blanchard,
who joined the camp at Bath, left the camp and went to join his friends
who lived near Chillicothe. Traveled fifteen miles today. Distance from
Kirtland, eight hundred and forty miles.

_Monday, October 1_.--Came from Elder Walker's across the prairie,
about nineteen miles, and encamped on {147} Brushy creek. Joshua S.
Holman, by permission of one or two of the Council, went on Sunday
evening to visit Elder Jacob Myers, formerly from Richland county,
Ohio, and early in the morning started on his way without waiting for
the camp, disregarding the advice of the Council, and in the evening,
at a meeting of the camp, his proceedings were condemned by a unanimous
vote. Traveled twenty miles and encamped on Brushy fork of Shoal creek,
on the prairie. The entire distance from Kirtland, eight hundred and
sixty miles.

_Tuesday, October 2_.--Crossed Long, Log, and Goose creeks, and
arrived in Far West about five p. m. Here we were received with joyful
salutations by the brethren in that city. Five miles from the city we
were met by the First Presidency of the Church of Latter-day Saints,
Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon and Hyrum Smith, together with Isaac
Morley, Patriarch of Far West, and George W. Robinson, and by several
other brethren between there and the city, who received us with open
arms, and escorted us into the city. We encamped on the public square
round the foundation of the Temple. Traveled this day ten miles. Whole
distance from Kirtland, eight hundred and seventy miles.

    [Here the camp journal's narrative ends. The two following entries
    which complete the history of this remarkable journey are taken
    from the Prophet's account of the proceedings relative to the camp
    on its arrival.]

_Wednesday, October 3_.--The camp continued their journey to Ambrosial
creek, where they pitched their tents. I went with them a mile or two,
to a beautiful spring, on the prairie, accompanied by Elder Rigdon,
brother Hyrum and Brigham Young, with whom I returned to the city,
where I spent the remainder of the day.

_Thursday, October 4_.--This is a day long to be remembered by that
part of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, called
the Camp, or Kirtland Camp No. 1, {148} for they arrived at their
destination and began to pitch their tents about sunset, when one of
the brethren living in the place proclaimed with a loud voice:

"_Brethren, your long and tedious journey is now ended; you are now
on the public square of Adam-ondi-Ahman. This is the place where Adam
blessed his posterity, when they rose up and called him Michael, the
Prince, the Archangel, and he being full of the Holy Ghost predicted
what should befall his posterity to the latest generation."--Doctrine
and Covenants_.

Footnotes

1. In speaking of the services this 12th day of August, and the
discourse of Elder John E. Page, Brother Samuel D. Tyler, who, as well
as Judge Elias Smith, kept a most excellent journal of the camp's
proceedings day by day, says: "Elder John E. Page of the Canada camp
preached at three o'clock to us, and many spectators. Text. Jer. 31:6.
In his discourse he proved that America was the land given to Joseph's
posterity, and that the Indians are the descendants of Joseph, and
that they would be gathered to Zion and the Jews to Jerusalem and that
the watchmen shall lift up their voices on Mount Zion, etc. In short,
he preached the truth with power. At the close he said he had been
preaching in Fairfield and had the confidence and good feeling of the
people, and he advised that none of less talent than himself, should
venture to preach to them, lest they should injure the cause. He said
he did not say this to boast, but I think he had better not [have]
said it, for I think it was not according to scripture and the Spirit
of God; for God has chosen the weak and foolish things of the world to
confound the wisdom of the wise and prudent. Now, if the Lord will send
poor, weak Elders to any people to preach to them, I doubt not that He
will risk them, yea, and risk His cause with them also."

2. By an error this initial in the list of names is given as W.

3. The amount is not stated in the camp journal.

4. This incident is related by Samuel D. Tyler, under date of Sunday,
September 2nd, as follows: "This afternoon a miserable drunken stage
driver maliciously ran aside out of his course and struck the fore
wheel of one of our wagons and stove it in and dropped it; then drove
off exulting in his mischief. The stage he drove was marked _J. P.
Voorhees_."

{149}



CHAPTER XI.

Expulsion Of The Saints From De Witt, Carroll County, Missouri.

[Sidenote: Vexatious Persecution of Willard Richards.]

_Wednesday, October 3_.--Sister Alice Hodgin died at Preston on the 2nd
of September, 1838. And it was such a wonderful thing for a Latter-day
Saint to die in England, that Elder Willard Richards was arraigned
before the Mayor's Court at Preston, on the 3rd of October, charged
with "killing and slaying" the said Alice with a "black stick," etc.,
but was discharged without being permitted to make his defense, as soon
as it was discovered that the iniquity of his accusers was about to be
made manifest.

The mob continued to fire upon the brethren at De Witt.

[Sidenote: Mob Movements at De Witt.]

The following is an extract from General Parks' express to General
Atchison:

    Dear Sir:--I received this morning an affidavit from Carroll
    county. The following is a copy: "Henry Root, on his oath, states
    that on the night of the first of October, there was collected in
    the vicinity of De Witt, an armed force, consisting of from thirty
    to fifty persons, and on the morning of the second of October they
    came into the town of De Witt and fired on the civil inhabitants of
    that place. Thirteen of said individuals were seen by me in that
    place, and I believe there is actually an insurrection in that
    place.

    "Henry Root.

    "Subscribed and sworn to this 3rd day of October, 1838.

    "William B. Morton, J. P."

    In consequence of which information, and belief of an attack being
    made on said place, I have ordered out the two companies raised by
    your order, to be held in readiness under the commands of Captains
    Bogart and Houston, to march for De Witt, in Carroll county, by
    eight o'clock tomorrow morning, armed and equipped as the law
    directs, with {150} six days' provisions and fifty rounds of powder
    and ball. I will proceed with these troops in person, leaving
    Colonel Thomas in command of Grand river. As soon as I reach De
    Witt, I will advise you of the state of affairs more fully. I
    will use all due precaution in the affair, and deeply regret the
    necessity of this recourse.

    H. G. Parks,

    Brigadier-General 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division.

_Thursday, October 4_.--I spent most of this day with my family.

The mob again fired upon the Saints at De Witt, who were compelled to
return the fire in self-defense.

[Sidenote: Scattering Firebrands.]

To show how firebrands, arrows and death were scattered through the
State, and that too by men high in authority, and who were sworn to
preserve the public peace, I quote the following from a communication
of General Lucas to the governor dated Boonville, Missouri, October 4,
1838:

    _Letter of General Lucas to Governor Boggs_.

    Dear Sir:--As we passed down the Missouri river, on Monday last, we
    saw a large force of Mormons at De Witt, in Carroll county, under
    arms. Their commander, Colonel Hinkle, formerly of Caldwell county,
    informed me that there were two hundred, and that they were hourly
    expecting an attack from the citizens of Carroll county, who he
    said were then encamped only six miles from there, waiting for a
    reinforcement from Saline county. Hinkle said they had determined
    to fight. News had just been received at this place, through Dr.
    Scott of Fayette, that a fight took place on yesterday, and that
    several persons were killed. Dr. Scott informed me that he got his
    information from a gentleman of respectability, who had heard the
    firing of their guns as he passed down. If a fight has actually
    taken place, of which I have no doubt, it will create excitement
    in the whole of upper Missouri, and those base and degraded beings
    will be exterminated from the face of the earth. If one of the
    citizens of Carroll should be killed, before five days I believe
    that there will be from four to five thousand volunteers in the
    field against the Mormons, and nothing but their blood will satisfy
    them. It is an unpleasant state of affairs. The remedy I do not
    pretend to suggest to your Excellency. My troops of the Fourth
    Division were only dismissed subject to further orders, and can be
    called into the field at an hour's warning.

    Samuel D. Lucas.

{151} [Sidenote: The Prophet's Comment.]

"_Base and degraded beings_!" Whoever heard before of high-minded and
honorable men condescending to sacrifice their honor, by stooping to
wage war, without cause or provocation against "base and degraded
beings." But General Lucas is ready with his whole Division, at "an
hour's warning," to enter the field of battle on such degraded terms,
if his own statement is true. But General Lucas knew better. He knew
the Saints were all innocent, unoffending people, and would not fight,
only in self-defense, and why write such a letter to the governor to
influence his mind? Why not keep to truth and justice? Poor Lucas! The
annals of eternity will unfold to you who are the "base beings," and
what it will take to "satisfy" for the shedding of "Mormon blood."

_Friday, October 5_.--Report of the committee of Chariton county:

    The undersigned committee were appointed at a public meeting by
    the citizens of Chariton county, on the 3rd day of October for the
    purpose of repairing to De Witt, in Carroll county, to inquire into
    the nature of the difficulties between the citizens of Carroll and
    the Mormons. We arrived at the place of difficulties on the 4th
    of October, and found a large portion of the citizens of Carroll
    and the adjoining counties assembled near De Witt, well armed.
    We inquired into the nature of the difficulties. They said that
    there was a large portion of the people called Mormons embodied in
    De Witt, from different parts of the world. They were unwilling
    for them to remain there, which is the cause of their waging war
    against them. To use the gentlemen's language, "they were waging
    a war of extermination, or to remove them from the said county."
    We also went into De Witt, to see the situation of the Mormons. We
    found them in the act of defense, begging for peace, and wishing
    for the civil authorities to repair there as early as possible,
    to settle the difficulties between the parties. Hostilities have
    commenced and will continue until they are stopped by the civil
    authorities. This we believe to be a correct statement of both
    parties. This the 5th day of October, 1835.

    John W. Price,

    Wm. H. Logan.

    Subscribed to and sworn before me, the undersigned, one of the
    {152} Justices of the Peace within and for Chariton county, and
    State of Missouri, the 5th day of October, 1838.

    John Morse, J. P.

This day also [October 5] General Atchison wrote the governor from
Boonville, that in Carroll county the citizens were in arms for the
purpose of driving the "Mormons" from that county.

[Sidenote: Conference at Far West.]

The third Quarterly Conference of the Church in Caldwell county was
held at Far West, President Brigham Young presiding. As there was not
a sufficient number of members present to form a quorum for business
after singing and prayer, conference adjourned till 2 p. m., when they
met and opened as usual, Presidents Marsh and Young presiding. There
was not a sufficient number of the members of the High Council or any
other quorum to do business as a quarterly Conference. They voted to
ordain a few Elders, appointed a few missions, and adjourned till
tomorrow at ten o'clock a. m.

[Sidenote: News of Mob Violence from De Witt.]

About this time I took a journey in company with some others, to the
lower part of the county of Caldwell, for the purpose of selecting
a location for a town. While on my journey, I was met by one of the
brethren from De Witt, in Carroll County, who stated that our people
who had settled in that place were and had been some time, surrounded
by a mob, who had threatened their lives, and had shot at them several
times; and that he was on his way to Far West, to inform the brethren
there of the facts.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Hopes of Peace Disappointed.]

I was surprised on receiving this intelligence, although there had,
previous to this time, been some manifestations of mobs, but I had
hoped that the good sense of the majority of the people and their
respect for the Constitution, would have put down any spirit of
persecution which might have been manifested in that neighborhood.

Immediately on receiving this intelligence I made {153} preparations to
go to that place, and endeavor, if possible, to allay the feelings of
the citizens, and save the lives of my brethren who were thus exposed
to their wrath.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Arrives at De Witt.]

_Saturday, October 6_.--I arrived at De Witt, and found that the
accounts of the situation of that place were correct, for it was with
much difficulty, and by traveling unfrequented roads, that I was able
to get there, all the principal roads being strongly guarded by the
mob, who refused all ingress as well as egress. I found my brethren,
who were only a handful in comparison to the mob by which they were
surrounded, in this situation, and their provisions nearly exhausted,
and no prospect of obtaining any more. We thought it necessary to send
immediately to the governor, to inform him of the circumstances, hoping
to receive from the executive the protection which we needed; and which
was guaranteed to us in common with other citizens. Several gentlemen
of standing and respectability, who lived in the immediate vicinity who
were not in any way connected with the Church of Latter-day Saints,
who had witnessed the proceedings of our enemies, came forward and
made affidavits to the treatment we had received, and concerning our
perilous situation; and offered their services to go and present the
case to the governor themselves.

[Sidenote: Continuance of Far West Conference.]

The Quarterly Conference convened at Far West this day [October 6th]
at ten o'clock according to adjournment, Presidents Marsh and Young
presiding. Elder Benjamin L. Clapp [1] said he had just returned from
Kentucky, where he had been laboring, and that many doors were open
there. A call was made for volunteers to go into the vineyard and
preach, when Elders James Carroll, James Galliher, {154} Luman A.
Shurtliff, James Dana, Ahaz Cook, Isaac Decker, Cornelius P. Lott and
Alpheus Gifford offered themselves. President Marsh instructed them not
to go forth boasting of their faith, or of the judgments of the Lord,
but to go in the spirit of meekness, and preach repentance. [2]

[Sidenote: John Taylor Sustained to be an Apostle.]

Elder John Taylor [3] from Canada, by request, gave a statement of his
feelings respecting his having been appointed as one of the Twelve,
saying that he was willing to do anything that God would require of
him; whereupon it was voted that Brother John {155} Taylor fill one of
the vacancies in the quorum of the Twelve. Stephen Chase was ordained
president of the Elders' quorum in Far West. Isaac Laney, Horace
Alexander and Albert Sloan were ordained Elders under the hands of the
presidents. Samuel Bent and Isaac Higbee were appointed to fill the
places of John Murdock and George M. Hinkle in the High Council, the
two last named brethren having removed to De Witt. Conference adjourned
to the first Friday and Saturday in January next, at ten a. m.

Ebenezer Robinson, Clerk.

[Sidenote: England.]

There were seven cut off from the Church in Preston, England, this day.

[Sidenote: De Witt.]

General Parks wrote General Atchison from Brigade Headquarters, five
miles from De Witt, Carroll county:

    _Communication of Clark to Atchison on Affairs at De Witt_.

    Sir:--Immediately after my express to you by Mr. Warder was sent,
    I proceeded to this place, which I reached yesterday with two
    companies of mounted men from Ray county. I ordered Colonel Jones
    to call out three companies from this county, to hold themselves in
    readiness to join me at Carrolton on the fifth instant, which order
    has not been carried into effect. None of Carroll county regiment
    is with me.

    {156} On arriving in the vicinity of De Witt, I found a body of
    armed men under the command of Dr. Austin, encamped near De Witt,
    besieging that place, to the number of two or three hundred, with
    a piece of artillery ready to attack the town of De Witt. On the
    other side, Hinkle has in that place three or four hundred Mormons
    to defend it, and says he will die before he will be driven from
    thence.

    On the 4th instant they had a skirmish--fifteen or thirty guns
    fired on both sides, one man from Saline county wounded in the hip.

    The Mormons are at this time too strong, and no attack is expected
    before Wednesday or Thursday next, at which time Dr. Austin hopes
    his forces will amount to five hundred men, when he will make a
    second attempt on the town of De Witt, with small arms and cannon.
    In this posture of affairs, I can do nothing but negotiate between
    the parties until further aid is sent me.

    I received your friendly letter of the 5th instant, by Mr. Warder,
    authorizing me to call on General Doniphan, which call I have made
    on him for five companies from Platte, Clay and Clinton counties,
    with two companies I ordered from Livingston, of which I doubt
    whether these last will come; if they do, I think I will have a
    force sufficient to manage these belligerents. Should these troops
    arrive here in time, I hope to be able to prevent bloodshed.
    Nothing seems so much in demand here (to hear the Carroll county
    men talk) as Mormon scalps; as yet they are scarce. I believe
    Hinkle, with the present force and position, will beat Austin
    with five hundred of his troops. The Mormons say they will die
    before they will be driven out, etc. As yet they have acted on the
    defensive, as far as I can learn. It is my settled opinion, the
    Mormons will have no rest until they leave; whether they will or
    not, time only can tell.

    H. G. Parks.

[Sidenote: The Mob's Appeal to Howard County for Help.]

Under the same date, [October 6th] from the mob camp near De Witt,
eleven blood-thirsty fellows, viz., Congrave Jackson, Larkin H. Woods,
Thomas Jackson, Rolla M. Daviess, James Jackson, Jun., Johnson Jackson,
John L. Tomlin, Sidney S. Woods, Geo. Crigler, William L. Banks, and
Whitfield Dicken, wrote a most inflammatory, lying and murderous
communication to the citizens of Howard county, calling upon them as
friends and fellow citizens, to come to their immediate rescue, as the
"Mormons" were then firing upon them and they would have to act on the
defensive until they could procure more assistance.

{157} A. C. Woods, a citizen of Howard county, made a certificate to the
same lies, which he gathered in the mob camp; he did not go into De Witt,
or take any trouble to learn the truth of what he certified. While the
people will lie and the authorities will uphold them, what justice can
honest men expect?

[Sidenote: General Clark's Endorsement of the Mob.]

_Tuesday, October 9_.--General Clark wrote the governor from Boonville,
that the names subscribed to the paper named above, are worthy, prudent
and patriotic citizens of Howard county, yet these men would leave
their families and everything dear, and go to a neighboring county to
seek the blood of innocent men, women and children! If this constitutes
"worth, prudence and patriotism," let me be worthless, imprudent and
unpatriotic.

[Sidenote: The Governor's Answer to the Saints.]

The messenger, Mr. Caldwell, who had been dispatched to the governor
for assistance, returned, but instead of receiving any aid or even
sympathy from his Excellency, we were told that "the quarrel was
between the Mormons and the mob," and that "we might fight it out."

[Sidenote: House Burning and Robbing.]

About this time a mob, commanded by Hyrum Standly, took Smith
Humphrey's goods out of his house, and said Standly set fire to
Humphrey's house and burned it before his eyes, and ordered him to
leave the place forthwith, which he did by fleeing from De Witt to
Caldwell county. The mob had sent to Jackson county and got a cannon,
powder and balls, and bodies of armed men had gathered in, to aid them,
from Ray, Saline, Howard, Livingston, Clinton, Clay, Platte counties
and other parts of the state, and a man by the name of Jackson, from
Howard county, was appointed their leader.

The Saints were forbidden to go out of the town under pain of death,
and were shot at when they attempted to go out to get food, of which
they were destitute. As fast as their cattle or horses got where the
mob could get hold {158} of them, they were taken as spoil, as also
other kinds of property. By these outrages the brethren were obliged,
most of them, to live in wagons or tents.

[Sidenote: Mob Leaders Made Commanders of Militia.]

Application had been made to the judge of the Circuit Court for
protection, and he ordered out two companies of militia, one commanded
by Captain Samuel Bogart, a Methodist minister, and one of the worst
of the mobocrats. The whole force was placed under the command of
General Parks, another mobber, if his letter speaks his feelings, and
his actions do not belie him, for he never made the first attempt to
disperse the mob, and when asked the reason of his conduct, he always
replied that Bogart and his company were mutinous and mobocratic, that
he dare not attempt a dispersion of the mob. Two other principal men of
the mob were Major Ashly, member of the Legislature, and Sashiel Woods,
a Presbyterian clergyman.

General Parks informed us that a greater part of his men under Captain
Bogart had mutinied, and that he would be obliged to draw them off from
the place, for fear they would join the mob; consequently he could
offer us no assistance.

[Sidenote: Hardships of the Saints.]

We had now no hopes whatever of successfully resisting the mob, who
kept constantly increasing; our provisions were entirely exhausted, and
we were worn out by continually standing on guard, and watching the
movements of our enemies, who, during the time I was there, fired at
us a great many times. Some of the brethren perished from starvation;
and for once in my life, I had the pain of beholding some of my fellow
creatures fall victims to the spirit of persecution, which did then,
and has since, prevailed to such an extent in Upper Missouri. They were
men, too, who were virtuous and against whom no legal process could
for one moment be sustained, but who, in consequence of their love of
God, attachment to His cause, and their determination to {159} keep the
faith, were thus brought to an untimely grave.

[Sidenote: Proposals for the Departure of the Saints.]

In the meantime Henry Root and David Thomas, who had been the soul
cause of the settlement of our people in De Witt, solicited the Saints
to leave the place. Thomas said he had assurances from the mob, that if
they would leave the place they would not be hurt, and that they would
be paid for all losses which they had sustained, and that they had come
as mediators to accomplish this object, and that persons should be
appointed to set a value on the property which they had to leave, and
that they should be paid for it. The Saints finally, through necessity,
had to comply, and leave the place. Accordingly the committee was
appointed--Judge Erickson was one of the committee, and Major Florey,
of Rutsville, another, the names of others are not remembered. They
appraised the real estate, that was all.

[Sidenote: A Sad Journey.]

When the people came to start, many of their horses, oxen and cows were
gone, and could not be found. It was known at the time, and the mob
boasted of it, that they had killed the oxen and lived on them. Many
houses belonging to my brethren were burned, their cattle driven away,
and a great quantity of their property was destroyed by the mob. The
people of De Witt utterly failed to fulfill their pledge to pay the
Saints for the losses they sustained. The governor having turned a deaf
ear to our entreaties, the militia having mutinied, the greater part of
them being ready to join the mob, the brethren, seeing no prospect of
relief, came to the conclusion to leave that place, and seek a shelter
elsewhere. Gathering up as many wagons as could be got ready, which
was about seventy, with a remnant of the property they had been able
to save from their ruthless foes, they left De Witt and started for
Caldwell county on the afternoon of Thursday, October 11, 1838. They
traveled that day about twelve miles, and encamped in a grove of timber
near the road.

That evening a woman, of the name of Jensen, who {160} had some short
time before given birth to a child, died in consequence of the exposure
occasioned by the operations of the mob, and having to move before
her strength would properly admit of it. She was buried in the grove,
without a coffin.

During our journey we were continually harassed and threatened by the
mob, who shot at us several times, whilst several of our brethren died
from the fatigue and privation which they had to endure, and we had to
inter them by the wayside, without a coffin, and under circumstances
the most distressing. We arrived in Caldwell on the twelfth of October.

Footnotes:

1. Benjamin L. Clapp, who afterwards became one of the First Council
of Seventy, was born in the state of Alabama, August 19, 1814. He had
joined the Church in an early day, and had already performed successful
missions in the South, especially in the state of Kentucky.

2. This missionary movement at a time when it may be said that the
whole country was "up in arms" against the Church, and its fortunes
were apparently desperate, is truly an astonishing thing. And yet such
missionary movements have become quite characteristic of the Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Its fortunes have never been at so
low an ebb but what it could always undertake some great missionary
enterprise. For example, when apostasy was rife in Kirtland, and the
powers of darkness seemed massed for its overthrow, the Prophet, "to
save the Church," organized and sent forth a mission to Great Britain;
and now from upper Missouri, when the whole organization seemed to be
in danger of disintegration, a mission is nevertheless organized to go
into the Southern States to preach the Gospel. In later volumes of this
work we shall also see that in 1850, when the whole body of the Mormon
people had been expatriated from their country and fled into the desert
wilderness of the Rocky mountain region, and when it was generally
supposed that the world had practically seen the last of Mormonism,
and when the Saints still had before them the task of subduing a
wilderness, and many thousands of their people yet to gather from the
East, where they were in a scattered condition, and the very existence
of the people to human eyes seemed precarious, lo! a world-wide mission
was organized and members of the quorum of Apostles were sent from the
Church in the wilderness, into Scandinavia, France, Germany, Italy and
Switzerland. This missionary spirit so characteristic of the Church,
and to which it so staunchly adheres in all its fortunes, proclaims the
genius of the work. The primary purpose of the Church's existence is to
proclaim the truth of which it is the sacred depository, and after that
to perfect the lives of those who receive its message. In proportion to
its devotion to these two grand objects of its existence, has been and
always will be the measure of its success.

3. John Taylor was born November 1st, 1808, in Milnthorp, a small
town near the head of Morecombe bay, and not far from Windemere, the
"Queen of English Lakes," in the country of Westmoreland, England. His
father's name was James Taylor, whose forefathers for many generations
had lived on an estate known as Craig Gate, in Ackenthwaite. John
Taylor's mother's name was Agnes; her maiden name was also Taylor.
Her Grandfather, Christopher Taylor, lived to be ninety-seven years
of age. His son John, father of Agnes, held an office in the excise
under the government from his first setting out in life to the age of
about sixty. The maiden name of Agnes Taylor's mother was Whittington,
a descendant of the family made famous by Richard Whittington, the
younger son of Sir William Whittington.

At the age of seventeen Elder Taylor was made a Methodist exhorter or
local preacher, and was very active and earnest in his ministerial
labors. In 1832 he removed with his family to Toronto, upper Canada,
and here engaged in preaching under the auspices of the Methodist
church. Within a year after his arrival in Canada he married Leonora
Cannon, daughter of Captain George Cannon (grandfather of the late
George Q. Cannon). Leonora Cannon had come to Canada as the companion
of the wife of Mr. Mason, a the private secretary of Lord Aylmer,
Governor-General of Canada. She was a devout Methodist, and through
attendance upon church became acquainted with Mr. Taylor. While living
in Toronto Elder Taylor associated himself with a number of gentlemen
of education and refinement who were not quite satisfied with the
doctrines of their respective churches, as those doctrines did not
agree with the teachings of the Bible. Through this organization,
they were seeking for greater religious light, and it was under these
circumstances that Elder Parley P. Pratt arrived in Toronto with a
letter of introduction to Elder Taylor, and several times addressed
this association of gentlemen who were seeking the truth. The end
of the matter was that John Taylor accepted the Gospel under the
ministration of Elder Pratt; and was soon afterwards ordained an Elder
in the Church, and commenced his missionary labors. Of his journey
to Kirtland and defense of the Prophet against the fulminations of
apostates we have already spoken. (See vol. II, p. 488--Note). Elder
Taylor had come to Missouri in response to the notification he had
received that he was chosen an Apostle of the Lord Jesus Christ by
revelation. (See revelation of 8th of July, 1838, pp. 46, 47).

{161}



CHAPTER XII.

Movements Of The Mob Upon De Witt--Battle Of Crooked
River--Exterminating Order Of Governor Boggs.

[Sidenote: Plan of the Mob to Dispossess the Saints.]

No sooner had the brethren left De Witt than Sashiel Woods called the
mob together, and made a speech to them to the effect that they must
hasten to assist their friends in Daviess County. The land sales, he
said, were coming on, and if they could get the "Mormons" driven out,
they could get all the lands entitled to pre-emptions, and that they
must hasten to Daviess County in order to accomplish their object; that
if they would join and drive out the Saints, the old settlers could
get all the lands back again, as well as all the pay they had received
for them. He assured the mob that they had nothing to fear from the
state authorities in so doing, for they had now full proof that those
authorities would not assist the "Mormons," and that they [the mob]
might as well take their property from them as not. His proposition
was agreed to, and accordingly the whole banditti started for Daviess
County, taking with them their cannon.

In the meantime, Cornelius Gilliam was busily engaged in raising a mob
in Platte and Clinton counties, to aid Woods in his effort to drive
peaceable citizens from their homes and take their property.

[Sidenote: Plans of Doniphan to Protect the Saints.]

On my arrival in Caldwell, I was informed by General Doniphan, of Clay
county, that a company of mobbers, eight hundred strong, were marching
toward a settlement of our people in Daviess county. He ordered out
one of the officers to raise a force and march immediately to what he
called Wight's {162} Town [Adam-ondi-Ahman], and defend our people
from the attacks of the mob, until he should raise the militia in his
[Clay] and the adjoining counties to put them down. A small company of
militia, who were on their way to Daviess county, and who had passed
through Far West, he ordered back again, stating that they were not to
be depended upon, as many of them were disposed to join the mob, and to
use his own expression, were "damned rotten hearted."

_Sunday, October 14_.--I preached to the brethren at Far West from the
saying of the Savior: "Greater love hath no man than this, that he lay
down his life for his brethren." At the close I called upon all that
would stand by me to meet me on the public square the next day.

[Sidenote: State of Affairs in England.]

There were seven cut off from the Church in Preston, England, this day.
It was a general time of pruning in England. The powers of darkness
raged, and it seemed as though Satan was fully determined to make an
end of the work in that kingdom. Elders Joseph Fielding and Willard
Richards had as much as they could do for some time, to see to the
branches already planted, without planting new ones.

[Sidenote: Organization for Defense.]

_Monday, October 15_.--The brethren assembled on the public square of
Far West and formed a company of about one hundred, who took up a line
of march for Adam-ondi-Ahman. Here let it be distinctly understood
that this company were militia of the county of Caldwell, acting under
Lieutenant-Colonel George M. Hinkle, agreeable to the order of General
Doniphan, and the brethren were very careful in all their movements to
act in strict accordance with the constitutional laws of the land.

[Sidenote: Mob Depredations at "Diahman."]

The special object of this march was to protect Adam-ondi-Ahman, and
repel the attacks of the mob in Daviess county. Having some property in
that county, and having a house building there, I went up at the same
time. While I was there a number of houses belonging to our people were
burned by the {163} mob, who committed many other depredations, such as
driving off horses, sheep, cattle, hogs, etc. A number of those whose
houses were burned down, as well as those who lived in scattered and
lonely situations, fled into the town for safety, and for shelter from
the inclemency of the weather, as a considerable snowstorm took place
on the 17th and 18th. Women and children, some in the most delicate
condition, were thus obliged to leave their homes and travel several
miles in order to effect their escape. My feelings were such as I
cannot describe when I saw them flock into the village, almost entirely
destitute of clothes, and only escaping with their lives.

[Sidenote: Affairs at Millport.]

During this state of affairs, General Parks arrived in Daviess county,
and was at the house of Colonel Lyman Wight on the 18th, when the
intelligence was brought that the mob were burning houses; and also
when women and children were fleeing for safety, among whom was Agnes
M. Smith, wife of my brother, Don Carlos Smith, who was absent on a
mission in Tennessee. Her house had been plundered and burned by the
mob, and she had traveled nearly three miles, carrying her two helpless
babes, and had to wade Grand river.

[Sidenote: Parks' Order to Wight to Disperse the Mob.]

Colonel Wight, who held a commission in the 59th regiment under his
(General Parks') command, asked what was to be done. Parks told him
that he must immediately call out his men and go and put the mob down.
Accordingly a force was immediately raised for the purpose of quelling
the mob, and in a short time was on its march, with a determination to
disperse the mob, or die in the attempt; as the people could bear such
treatment as was being inflicted upon them no longer.

[Sidenote: Strategem of the Mob.]

The mob, having learned the orders of General Parks, and likewise being
aware of the determination of the oppressed, broke up their encampment
and fled. The mob seeing that they could not succeed by force, now
resorted to strategem; and after {164} removing their property out of
their houses, which were nothing but log cabins, they fired them, and
then reported to the authorities of the state that the "Mormons" were
burning and destroying all before them. [1]

[Sidenote: Beginning of Wm. Clayton's Ministry.]

_Friday, October 19_.--Elder William Clayton quitted his temporal
business in England, and gave himself wholly to the ministry, and soon
commenced preaching and baptizing in Manchester.

[Sidenote: Vindication of the Prophet's Business Course in Kirtland.]

As I was driven away from Kirtland without the privilege of settling
my business, I had, previous to this, employed Colonel Oliver Granger
as my agent, to close all my affairs in the east, and as I have been
accused of "running away, cheating my creditors, etc.," I will insert
one of the many cards and letters I have received from gentlemen
who have had the best opportunity of knowing my {165} business
transactions, and whose testimony comes unsolicited:

    _A Card_.

    Painsville, October 19, 1838.

    We, the undersigned, being personal acquaintances of Oliver
    Granger, firmly believe that the course which he has pursued in
    settling the claims, accounts, etc., against the former citizens of
    Kirtland township, has done much credit to himself, and all others
    that committed to him the care of adjusting their business with
    this community, which also furnishes evidence that there was no
    intention on their part of defrauding their creditors.

    [Signed]

    Thomas Griffith,

    John S. Seymour.

[Sidenote: Crimes of the Mob Charged to the Saints.]

About this time William Morgan, sheriff of Daviess county, Samuel
Bogart, Colonel William P. Penniston, Doctor Samuel Venable, Jonathan
J. Dryden, James Stone and Thomas J. Martin, made communications or
affidavits of the most inflammatory kind, charging upon the "Mormons"
those depredations which had been committed by the mob, endeavoring
thereby to raise the anger of those in authority, rallying a sufficient
force around their standard, and produce a total overthrow, massacre,
or banishment of the "Mormons" from the state. These and their
associates were the ones who fired their own houses and then fled the
country crying "fire and murder."

[Sidenote: Departure of Orson Hyde from Far West.]

It was reported in Far West today [October 19th] that Orson Hyde had
left that place, the night previous, leaving a letter for one of the
brethren, which would develop the secret.

[Sidenote: Return of the Prophet to Far West.]

_Monday, 22_.--On the retreat of the mob from Daviess county, I
returned to Caldwell, with a company of the brethren, and arrived
at Far West about seven in the evening, where I had hoped to enjoy
some respite from our enemies, at least for a short time; but upon my
arrival there, I was informed that a mob had commenced hostilities on
the borders of {166} Caldwell county, adjoining Ray county, and that
they had taken some of our brethren prisoners, burned some houses, and
had committed depredations on the peaceable inhabitants.

[Sidenote: The Saints Flock into Far West.]

_Tuesday, 23_.--News came to Far West, this morning, that the brethren
had found the cannon, which the mob brought from Independence, buried
in the earth and had secured it by order of General Parks. The word of
the Lord was given several months since, for the Saints to gather into
the cities, but they have been slow to obey until the judgments were
upon them, and now they are gathering by flight and haste, leaving all
their effects, and are glad to get off at that. The city of Far West is
literally crowded, and the brethren are gathering from all quarters.

[Sidenote: Inflammatory Letters to the Governor.]

Fourteen citizens of Ray county, one of whom was a Mr. Hudgins, a
postmaster, wrote the governor an inflammatory epistle. Thomas C.
Burch, of Richmond, wrote a similar communication. Also the citizens of
Ray county, in public meeting, appealed to the governor of the state,
to give the people of Upper Missouri protection from the fearful body
of "thieves and robbers;" while the fact is the Saints were minding
their own business, only as they were driven from it by those who were
crying thieves and robbers.

[Sidenote: The Mail Robbed.]

The mail came in this evening, but not a single letter to anybody, from
which it is evident there is no deposit sacred to those marauders who
are infesting the country and trying to destroy the Saints.

[Sidenote: The Course of King and Black.]

_Wednesday, 24_.--Austin A. King and Adam Black renewed their
inflammatory communications to the governor, as did other citizens of
Richmond, viz., C. R. Morehead, William Thornton, and Jacob Gudgel, who
scrupled at no falsehood or exaggeration, to raise the governor's anger
against us.

[Sidenote: The Apostasy of Thomas B. Marsh.]

Thomas B. Marsh, formerly president of the Twelve, {167} having
apostatized, repaired to Richmond and made affidavit before Henry
Jacobs, justice of the peace, to all the vilest slanders, aspersions,
lies and calumnies towards myself and the Church, that his wicked heart
could invent. He had been lifted up in pride by his exaltation to
office and the revelations of heaven concerning him, until he was ready
to be overthrown by the first adverse wind that should cross his track,
and now he has fallen, lied and sworn falsely, and is ready to take the
lives of his best friends. Let all men take warning by him, and learn
that he who exalteth himself, God will abase. Orson Hyde was also at
Richmond and testified to most of Marsh's statements. [2]

{168} The following letter, being a fair specimen of the "truth and
honesty" of many others which I shall notice, I give it in full:

    _Communication of Woods and Dickson to Governor Boggs_.

    Carrolton, Missouri, October 24, 1838.

    Sir.--We were informed, last night, by an express from Ray county,
    that Captain Bogart and all his company, amounting to between fifty
    and sixty men were massacred by the Mormons at Buncombe, twelve
    miles north of Richmond, except three. This statement you may rely
    on as being true, and last night they expected Richmond to be laid
    in ashes this morning. We could distinctly hear cannon, and we
    know the Mormons had one in their possession. Richmond is about
    twenty-five {169} miles west of this place, on a straight line. We
    know not the hour or minute we will be laid in ashes--our country
    is ruined--for God's sake give us assistance as quick as possible.

    Yours, etc.,

    Sashiel Woods,

    Joseph Dickson.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Statement of the Buncombe Affair.]

These mobbers must have had very accute ears to hear cannon, (a six
pounder) thirty-seven miles! So much for the lies of a priest of this
world. Now for the truth of the case. This day about noon, Captain
Bogart, with some thirty or forty men called on Brother Thoret Parsons,
at the head of the east branch of Log creek, where he was living, and
warned him to be gone before next day at ten in the morning, declaring
also that he would give Far West thunder and lightning before next
day at noon, if he had good luck in meeting Neil Gillum, (Cornelius
Gilliam) who would camp about six miles west of Far West that night,
and that he should camp on Crooked creek. He then departed towards
Crooked creek.

[Sidenote: Raid on the Pinkham Residence.]

Brother Parsons dispatched a messenger with this news to Far West, and
followed after Bogart to watch his movements. Brothers Joseph Holbrook
and David Juda, who went out this morning to watch the movements of the
enemy, saw eight armed mobbers call at the house of Brother Pinkham,
where they took three prisoners, Nathan Pinkham, Brothers William
Seely and Addison Green, and four horses, arms, etc. When departing
they threatened Father Pinkham that if he did not leave the state
immediately they "would have his damned old scalp." Having learned of
Bogart's movements the brethren returned to Far West near midnight, and
reported their proceedings and those of the mob.

[Sidenote: Crooked River Battle.]

On hearing the report, Judge Elias Higbee, the first judge of the
county, ordered Lieutenant Colonel Hinkle, the highest officer in
command in Far West, to send out {170} a company to disperse the mob
and retake their prisoners, whom, it was reported, they intended to
murder that night. The trumpet sounded, and the brethren were assembled
on the public square about midnight, when the facts were stated, and
about seventy-five volunteered to obey the judge's order, under command
of Captain David W. Patten, who immediately commenced their march on
horseback, hoping without the loss of blood to surprise and scatter the
camp, retake the prisoners and prevent the attack threatening Far West.

_Thursday, 25_.--Fifteen of the company were detached from the main
body while sixty continued their march till they arrived near the ford
of Crooked river, (or creek) where they dismounted, tied their horses,
and leaving four or five men to guard them, proceeded towards the ford,
not knowing the location of the encampment. It was just at the dawning
of light in the east, when they were marching quietly along the road,
and near the top of the hill which descends to the river that the
report of a gun was heard, and young Patrick O'Banion reeled out of
the ranks and fell mortally wounded. Thus the work of death commenced,
when Captain Patten ordered a charge and rushed down the hill on a fast
trot, and when within about fifty yards of the camp formed a line. The
mob formed a line under the bank of the river, below their tents. It
was yet so dark that little could be seen by looking at the west, while
the mob looking towards the dawning light, could see Patten and his
men, when they fired a broadside, and three or four of the brethren
fell. Captain Patten ordered the fire returned, which was instantly
obeyed, to great disadvantage in the darkness which yet continued. The
fire was repeated by the mob, and returned by Captain Patten's company,
who gave the watchword "God and Liberty." Captain Patten then ordered
a charge, which was instantly obeyed. The parties immediately came
in contact, with their swords, and the mob were soon put to flight,
crossing the river at {171} the ford and such places as they could
get a chance. In the pursuit, one of the mob fled from behind a tree,
wheeled, and shot Captain Patten, who instantly fell, mortally wounded,
having received a large ball in his bowels.

[Sidenote: List of Casualties. Death of Patten and O'Banion.]

The ground was soon cleared, and the brethren gathered up a wagon
or two, and making beds therein of tents, etc., took their wounded
and retreated towards Far West. Three brethren were wounded in the
bowels, one in the neck, one in the shoulder, one through the hips,
one through both thighs, one in the arms, all by musket shot. One had
his arm broken by a sword. Brother Gideon Carter was shot in the head,
and left dead on the ground so defaced that the brethren did not know
him. Bogart reported that he had lost one man. The three prisoners were
released and returned with the brethren to Far West. Captain Patten was
carried some of the way in a litter, but it caused so much distress
that he begged to be left by the way side. He was carried into Brother
Winchester's, three miles from the city of Far West, where he died that
night. Patrick O'Banion died soon after, and Brother Carter's body was
also brought from Crooked river, when it was discovered who he was.

I went with my brother Hyrum and Lyman Wight to meet the brethren on
their return, near Log creek, where I saw Captain Patten in a most
distressing condition. His wound was incurable.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Reflections on the Death of David W. Patten.]

Brother David Patten was a very worthy man, beloved by all good men who
knew him. He was one of the Twelve Apostles, and died as he had lived,
a man of God, and strong in the faith of a glorious resurrection,
in a world where mobs will have no power or place. One of his last
expressions to his wife was--"Whatever you do else, do not deny the
faith."

How different his fate to that of the apostate, Thomas {172} B. Marsh,
who this day vented all the lying spleen and malice of his heart
towards the work of God, in a letter to Brother and Sister Abbot, to
which was annexed an addenda by Orson Hyde.

The following letter will show the state of public feeling in the
country at this time:

    _E. M. Ryland's Letter to Messrs. Rees and Williams_.

    Lexington, six o'clock p. m.

    October 25, 1838.

    _To Messrs. Amos Rees and Wiley C. Williams_:

    Gentlemen,--This letter is sent on after you on express by Mr.
    Bryant, of Ray county, since you left this morning. Mr. C. R.
    Morehead came here on express for men to assist in repelling a
    threatened attack upon Richmond tonight. He brought news that the
    Mormon armed force had attacked Captain Bogart this morning at
    daylight, and had cut off his whole company of fifty men. Since
    Mr. Morehead left Richmond, one of the company (Bogart's) has come
    in and reported that there were ten of his comrades killed and
    the remainder were taken prisoners, after many of them had been
    severely wounded; he stated further that Richmond would be sacked
    and burned by the Mormon banditti tonight. Nothing can exceed the
    consternation which this news gave rise to. The women and children
    are flying from Richmond in every direction. A number of them have
    repaired to Lexington, amongst whom is Mrs. Rees. We will have
    sent from this county since one o'clock this evening about one
    hundred well-armed and daring men, perhaps the most effective our
    county can boast of. They will certainly give them (the Mormons)
    a warm reception at Richmond tonight. You will see the necessity
    of hurrying on to the City of Jefferson, and also of imparting
    correct information to the public as you go along. My impression
    is, that you had better send one of your number to Howard, Cooper
    and Boone counties, in order that volunteers may be getting ready
    and flocking to the scene of trouble as fast as possible. They
    must make haste and put a stop to the devastation which is menaced
    by these infuriated fanatics, and they must go prepared and with
    the full determination to exterminate or expel them from the state
    _en masse_. Nothing but this can give tranquility to the public
    mind, and re-establish the supremacy of the laws. There must be no
    further delaying with this question any where. The Mormons must
    leave the state, or we will, one and all, and to this complexion
    it must come at last. We have great reliance upon your ability,
    discretion and fitness {173} for the task you have undertaken, and
    we have only time to say, God speed you.

    Yours truly,

    E. M. Ryland, Judge.

The brethren had _not thought_ of going to Richmond--it was a lie out
of whole cloth.

    _Governor Boggs' Order to General John B. Clark_.

    Friday, Headquarters Of The Militia,

    City Of Jefferson October 26, 1838.

    _General John B. Clark, 1st Division Missouri Militia_:

    Sir:--Application has been made to the commander-in-chief, by the
    citizens of Daviess county, in this state, for protection, and to
    be restored to their homes and property, with intelligence that
    the Mormons, with an armed force, have expelled the inhabitants
    of that county from their homes, have pillaged and burnt their
    dwellings, driven off their stock, and were destroying their crops;
    that they (the Mormons) have burnt to ashes the towns of Gallatin
    and Millport in said county; the former being the county seat of
    said county, and including the clerk's office and all the public
    records of the county, and that there is not now a civil officer
    within said county. The commander-in-chief therefore orders that
    there be raised, from the 1st, 4th, 5th, 6th and 12th Divisions of
    the militia of this state, four hundred men each, to be mounted
    and armed as Infantry or Riflemen, each man to furnish himself
    with at least fifty rounds of ammunition, and at least fifteen
    days provisions. The troops from the 1st, 5th, 6th and 12th, will
    rendezvous at Fayette, in Howard county, on Saturday, the 3rd day
    of next month (November) at which point they will receive further
    instructions as to their line of march. You will therefore cause to
    be raised the quota of men required of your division (four hundred
    men) without delay, either by volunteer or drafts, and rendezvous
    at Fayette, in Howard county, on Saturday, the third day of next
    month (November) and there join the troops from the 5th, 6th and
    12th divisions. The troops from the 4th division will join you at
    Richmond in Ray county. You will cause the troops raised in your
    division, to be formed into companies according to law, and placed
    under officers already in commission. If volunteer companies are
    raised, they shall elect their own officers. The preference should
    always be given to volunteer companies already organized and
    commissioned. You will also detail the necessary field and staff
    officers. For the convenience of transporting the camp equipage,
    {174} provisions and hospital stores for the troops under your
    command, you are authorized to employ two or three baggage wagons.

    By order of the Commander-in-Chief,

    B. M. Lisle, Adj.-General.

    _Letters of Horace Kingsbury and John W. Hawden on the Business
    Integrity of the Prophet and his Agents in Kirtland_.

    To all persons that are or may be interested. I, Horace Kingsbury,
    of Painsville township, Geauga county, and state of Ohio, feeling
    the importance of recommending to remembrance every worthy citizen
    who has by his conduct commended himself to personal acquaintance
    by his course of strict integrity, and desire for truth and common
    justice, feel it my duty to state that Oliver Granger's management
    in the arrangement of the unfinished business of people that have
    moved to the Far West, in redeeming their pledges and thereby
    sustaining their integrity, has been truly praiseworthy, and has
    entitled him to my highest esteem, and ever grateful recollection.

    Horace Kingsbury.

    Painesville, October 26, 1838.

    To whom it may concern. This may certify that during the year of
    eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, I had dealings with Messrs.
    Joseph Smith, Junior, and Sidney Rigdon, together with other
    members of the [Mormon] society, to the amount of about three
    thousand dollars, and during the spring of eighteen hundred and
    thirty-eight, I have received my pay in full of Colonel Oliver
    Granger to my satisfaction. And I would here remark that it is
    due Messrs. Smith and Rigdon, and the [Mormon] society generally,
    to say that they have ever dealt honorably and fair with me: and
    I have received as good treatment from them as I have received
    from any other society in this vicinity; and so far as I have
    been correctly informed and made acquainted with their business
    transactions generally, they have, so far as I can judge, been
    honorable and honest, and have made every exertion to arrange and
    settle their affairs. And I would further state, that the closing
    up of my business with said society has been with their agent,
    Colonel Granger, appointed by them for that purpose; and I consider
    it highly due Colonel Granger from me, here to state that he has
    acted truly and honestly in all his business with me, and has
    accomplished more than I could reasonably have expected. And I have
    also been made acquainted with his business in that section; and
    wherever he has been called upon to act, he has done so and with
    good management he has accomplished and effected the close of a
    large amount of business for said society, and as I believe, to the
    entire satisfaction of all concerned.

    John W. Hawden.

    Painesville, Geauga county, Ohio, October 27, 1838.

{175} [Sidenote: Funeral of David W. Patten.]

_Saturday, 27_.--Brother Patten was buried this day at Far West, and
before the funeral, I called at Brother Patten's house, and while
meditating on the scene before me in presence of his friends, I could
not help pointing to his lifeless body and testifying, "There lies a
man that has done just as he said he would--he has laid down his life
for his friends."

    _Governor Boggs' Exterminating Order_.

    Headquarters Militia, City Of Jefferson,

    October 27, 1838.

    Sir:--Since the order of the morning to you, directing you to cause
    four hundred mounted men to be raised within your division, I have
    received by Amos Rees, Esq., and Wiley C. Williams, Esq., one of my
    aids, information of the most appalling character, which changes
    the whole face of things, and places the Mormons in the attitude
    of open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made open
    war upon the people of this state. Your orders are, therefore,
    to hasten your operations and endeavor to reach Richmond, in Ray
    county, with all possible speed. The Mormons must be treated as
    enemies and _must be exterminated_ or driven from the state, if
    necessary for the public good. Their outrages are beyond all
    description. If you can increase your force, you are authorized to
    do so, to any extent you may think necessary. I have just issued
    orders to Major-General Wallock, of Marion county, to raise five
    hundred men, and to march them to the northern part of Daviess and
    there to unite with General Doniphan, of Clay, who has been ordered
    with five hundred men to proceed to the same point for the purpose
    of intercepting the retreat of the Mormons to the north. They have
    been directed to communicate with you by express; and you can also
    communicate with them if you find it necessary. Instead, therefore,
    of proceeding as at first directed, to reinstate the citizens of
    Daviess in their homes, you will proceed immediately to Richmond,
    and there operate against the Mormons. Brigadier-General Parks, of
    Ray, has been ordered to have four hundred men of his brigade in
    readiness to join you at Richmond. The whole force will be placed
    under your command.

    L. W. Boggs,

    Governor and Commander-in-Chief.

    To General Clark.

[Sidenote: Excitement in Upper Missouri.]

Great excitement now prevailed, and mobs were heard {176} of in every
direction, who seemed determined on our destruction. They burned the
houses in the country, and took off all the cattle they could find.
They destroyed corn fields, took many prisoners, and threatened death
to all the Mormons.

    _The Appeal of Atchison and Lucas to Governor Boggs, Asking his
    Presence at the seat of War_.

    Headquarters Of The 3rd And 4th Division, Missouri

    Militia, Richmond, October 28, 1838.

    _To the Commander-in-Chief, Missouri Militia_:

    Sir:--From late outrages committed by the _Mormons, civil war_ is
    inevitable. They have set the laws of the country at defiance, and
    are in open rebellion. We have about two thousand men under arms
    to keep them in check. The presence of the commander-in-chief is
    deemed absolutely necessary, and we most respectfully urge that
    your excellency be at the seat of _war_ as soon as possible.

    Your most obedient servants,

    David R. Atchison, M. G. 3rd Div. [3]

    Samuel D. Lucas, M. G. 4th Div.

Footnotes:

1. It was a cunning piece of diabolism which prompted the mob of
Daviess county to set fire to their own log cabins, destroy some of
their own property and then charge the crime to the Saints. But it was
not without a precedent in Missouri. Two years before that, something
very similar occurred in Mercer county, just northeast of Daviess. In
June of the year 1836, the Iowa Indians, then living near St. Josoph,
made a friendly hunting excursion through the northern part of the
state, and their line of travel led them through what was known as the
"Heatherly settlement," in Mercer county. The Heatherlys, who were
ruffians of the lowest type, took advantage of the excitement produced
by the incursion of the Indians, and circulated a report that they were
robbing and killing the whites. During the excitement these Heatherlys
murdered a man by the name of Dunbar, and another man against whom
they had a grudge, and then fled to the settlements along the Missouri
river, representing that they were fleeing from the Indians for their
lives. This produced great excitement in the settlements in the
surrounding counties; the people not knowing at what hour the Indians
might be upon them. The militia was called out for their protection;
but it was soon ascertained that the alarm was a false one. The
Heatherlys were arrested, tried for murder, and some of them sent to
the penitentiary. This circumstance occurring only two years before the
action of the mob about Millport, and in a county adjacent to Daviess
county, doubtless suggested the course pursued by the mob in burning
their own houses and fleeing to all parts of the state with the report
that the "Mormons" had done it, and were murdering and plundering the
old settlers. These false rumors spread by the mob, were strengthened
in the public ear by such men as Adam Black, Judge King of Richmond,
and other prominent men who were continually writing inflammatory
communications to the governor.--For the Heatherly incident, see
"History of Livingston County, Missouri," written and compiled by the
National Historical Company (1886), chapter 3, pp. 710, 713.

2. The chief points in the affidavit of Thomas B. Marsh, referred to in
the text, are as follows: "They have among them a company, considered
true Mormons, called the Danites, who have taken an oath to support
the heads of the Church in all things that they say or do, _whether
right or wrong_. Many, however, of this band are much dissatisfied
with his oath, as being against moral and religious principles. On
Saturday last, I am informed by the Mormons, that they had a meeting
at Far West, at which they appointed a company of twelve, by the
name of the 'Destruction Company,' for the purpose of burning and
destroying, and that if the people of Buncombe came to do mischief upon
the people of Caldwell, and committed depredations upon the Mormons,
they were to burn Buncombe; and if the people of Clay and Ray made any
movement against them, this destroying company were to burn Liberty
and Richmond. * * * * The Prophet inculcates the notion, and it is
believed by every true Mormon, that Smith's prophecies are superior to
the laws of the land. I have heard the Prophet say that he would yet
tread down his enemies, and walk over their dead bodies; and if he was
not let alone, he would be a second Mohammed to this generation, and
that he would make it one gore of blood from the Rocky mountains to the
Atlantic ocean; that like Mohammed, whose motto in treating for peace
was, 'the Alcoran or the Sword.' So should it be eventually with us,
'Joseph Smith or the Sword.' These last statements were made during the
last summer. The number of armed men at Adam-ondi-Ahman was between
three and four hundred.

"Thomas B. Marsh.

"Sworn to and subscribed before me, the day herein written.

"Henry Jacobs,

"J. P. Ray county, Missouri.

"Richmond, Missouri, October 24, 1838."

"Affidavit Of Orson Hyde.

"The most of the statements in the foregoing disclosure I know to be
true; the remainder I believe to be true.

"Orson Hyde.

"Richmond, October 24, 1838.

"Sworn to and subscribed before me, on the day above written.

"Henry Jacobs, J. P."

Of this testimony and the action of Marsh and Hyde the late President
Taylor in his discourse on Succession in the Presidency, makes these
pertinent remarks: "Testimonies from these sources are not always
reliable, and it is to be hoped, for the sake of the two brethren, that
some things were added by our enemies that they did not assert, but
enough was said to make this default and apostasy very terrible. I will
here state that I was in Far West at the time these affidavits were
made, and was mixed up with all prominent Church affairs. I was there
when Thomas B. Marsh and Orson Hyde left there; and there are others
present who were there at the same time. And I know that these things,
referred to in the affidavits, are not true. I have heard a good deal
about Danites, but I never heard of them among the Latter-day Saints.
If there was such an organization, I never was made acquainted with it
* * * * * * Thomas B. Marsh was unquestionably instigated by the devil
when he made this statement, which has been read in your hearing [the
foregoing affidavit]. The consequence was, he was cut off from the
Church. * * * * * * It would be here proper to state, however, that
Orson Hyde had been sick with a violent fever for some time, and had
not yet fully recovered therefrom, which, with the circumstances with
which we were surrounded, and the influence of Thomas B. Marsh, may be
offered as a slight palliation for his default. * * * * * * It may be
proper here again to say a few words with regard to Brother Orson Hyde,
whose endorsement of the terrible charges made by Thomas B. Marsh in
his affidavit, has already been read. Suffice it to say, in addition to
what has previously been stated, he was cut off from the Church, and
of course lost his apostleship; and when he subsequently returned, and
made all the satisfaction that was within his power, he was forgiven by
the authorities and the people and was again re-instated in the quorum."

Schuyler Colfax, vice-president of the United States, in his discussion
with the late President John Taylor on the "Mormon Question," quoted
this Marsh-Hyde affidavit, and Elder Taylor in reply said: "I am sorry
to say that Thomas B. Marsh did make that affidavit, and that Orson
Hyde stated that he knew part of it and believed the other; and it
would be disingenuous in me to deny it; but it is not true that these
things existed, for I was there and knew to the contrary; and so did
the people of Missouri, and so did the governor of Missouri. How do you
account for their acts? Only on the score of the weakness of our common
humanity. We were living in troublous times, and all men's nerves are
not proof against such shocks as we then had to endure."

3. It is to be regretted that General David R. Atchison joined with
General Lucas in signing the above communication. Up to this time Major
General Atchison had apparently exercised his influence counseling
moderation in dealing with the "Mormons." He was a resident of Clay
county when the Saints were driven into that county from Jackson. He,
with General Doniphan and Amos Rees, had acted as counsel for the
exiles, and had seen the doors of the temple of justice closed in their
faces by mob violence, and all redress denied them. He was acquainted
with the circumstances which led to their removal from Clay county, to
the unsettled prairies of what afterwards became Caldwell county. He
knew how deep and unreasonable the prejudices were against the Saints.
Can it be possible that he did not know how utterly unjustifiable the
present movement against them was? Whether he was blinded by the false
reports about Millport and Gallatin and Crooked river, or whether
his courage faltered, and he became afraid longer to defend a people
against whom every man's hand was raised, I cannot now determine, but
one or the other must have been the case. General Atchison, however,
was afterwards "dismounted," to use a word of General Doniphan's in
relating the incident, and sent back to Liberty in Clay county by
special order of Governor Boggs, on the ground that he was inclined
to be too merciful to the "Mormons," so that he was not active in the
operations about Far West. But how he could consent to join with Lucas
in sending such an untruthful and infamous report to the governor
about the situation in Upper Missouri, is difficult to determine.
The Saints had not set the laws at defiance, nor were they in open
rebellion. But when all the officers of the law refused to hear their
complaints, and both civil and military authority delivered them into
the hands of merciless mobs to be plundered and outraged at their
brutal pleasure, and all petitions for protection at the hands of the
governor had been answered with: "It is a quarrel between the Mormons
and the mob, and they must fight it out," what was left for them to do
but to arm themselves and stand in defense of their homes and families?
The movement on Gallatin by Captain Patten and that on Millport by
Colonel Wight was ordered by General Parks, who called upon Colonel
Wight to take command of his company of men, when the militia under
Parks' command mutinied, and dispersed all mobs wherever he found them.
Gallatin was not burned, nor were the records of the county court, if
they were destroyed at all, destroyed by the Saints. What houses were
burned in Millport had been set on fire by the mob. The expedition to
Crooked river was ordered by Judge Higbee, the first judge in Caldwell
county and the highest civil authority in Far West, and was undertaken
for the purpose of dispersing a mob which had entered the house of a
peaceable citizen--one Pinkham--and carried off three people prisoners,
four horses and other property, and who had threatened to "give Far
West hell before noon the next day." So that in their operations the
acts of the Saints had been strictly within the law, and only in self
defense.

{177}

{178}



CHAPTER XIII.

Mob Movements On Far West--Treachery Of Colonel Hinkle--Sorrowful
Scenes.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Comment on Governor Boggs.]

Lilburn W. Boggs had become so hardened by mobbing the Saints in
Jackson county, and his conscience so "seared as with a hot iron," that
he was considered a fit subject for the gubernatorial chair; and it was
probably his hatred to truth and the "Mormons," and his blood-thirsty,
murderous disposition, that raised him to the station he occupied. His
_exterminating order_ of the twenty-seventh aroused every spirit in the
state, of the like stamp of his own; and the Missouri mobocrats were
flocking to the standard of General Clark from almost every quarter.

[Sidenote: General Clark]

Clark, although not the ranking officer, was selected by Governor
Boggs as the most fit instrument to carry out his murderous designs;
for bad as they were in Missouri, very few commanding officers were
yet sufficiently hardened to go all lengths with Boggs in this
contemplated inhuman butchery, and expulsion from one of the should-be
free and independent states of the Republic of North America, where the
Constitution declares, that "_every man shall have the privilege of
worshiping God according to the dictates of his own conscience_;" and
this was all the offense the Saints had been guilty of.

[Sidenote: Doctor Sampson Avard.]

And here I would state, that while the evil spirits were raging up and
down in the state to raise mobs against the "Mormons," Satan himself
was no less busy in striving to stir up mischief in the camp of the
Saints: and among the most conspicuous of his willing devotees was one
Doctor Sampson Avard, who had {179} been in the Church but a short
time, and who, although he had generally behaved with a tolerable
degree of external decorum, was secretly aspiring to be the greatest
of the great, and become the leader of the people. This was his pride
and his folly, but as he had no hopes of accomplishing it by gaining
the hearts of the people openly he watched his opportunity with the
brethren--at a time when mobs oppressed, robbed, whipped, burned,
plundered and slew, till forbearance seemed no longer a virtue, and
nothing but the grace of God without measure could support men under
such trials--to form a secret combination by which he might rise a
mighty conqueror, at the _expense and the overthrow of the Church_.
This he tried to accomplish by his smooth, flattering, and winning
speeches, which he frequently made to his associates, while his room
was well guarded by some of his followers, ready to give him the signal
on the approach of anyone who would not approve of his measures.

[Sidenote: Avard's Danites.]

In these proceedings he stated that he had the sanction of the heads
of the Church for what he was about to do; and by his smiles and
flattery, persuaded them to believe it, and proceeded to administer to
the few under his control, an oath, binding them to everlasting secrecy
to everything which should be communicated to them by himself. Thus
Avard initiated members into his band, firmly binding them, by all
that was sacred, in the protecting of each other in all things that
were lawful; and was careful to picture out a great glory that was
then hovering over the Church, and would soon burst upon the Saints as
a cloud by day, and a pillar of fire by night, and would soon unveil
the slumbering mysteries of heaven, which would gladden the hearts and
arouse the stupid spirits of the Saints of the latter-day, and fill
their hearts with that love which is unspeakable and full of glory, and
arm them with power, that the gates of hell could not prevail against
them; and would often affirm to his company that the principal men of
the Church had put him {180} forward as a spokesman, and a leader of
this band, which _he_ named _Danites_.

[Sidenote: Avard's Manner of Proceeding.]

Thus he duped many, which gave him the opportunity of figuring as a
person of importance. He held his meetings daily, and carried on his
crafty work in great haste, to prevent mature reflection upon the
matter by his followers, until he had them bound under the penalties
of death to keep the secrets and certain signs of the organization by
which they were to know each other by day or night.

After those performances, he held meetings to organize his men into
companies of tens and fifties, appointing a captain over each company.
After completing this organization, he went on to teach the members of
it their duty under the orders of their captains; he then called his
captains together and taught them in a secluded place, as follows:

    _Avard's Instructions to His Captains_.

    My brethren, as you have been chosen to be our leading men, our
    captains to rule over this last kingdom of Jesus Christ--and you
    have been organized after the ancient order--I have called upon
    you here today to teach you, and instruct you in the things that
    pertain to your duty, and to show you what your privileges are, and
    what they soon will be. Know ye not, brethren, that it soon will
    be your privilege to take your respective companies and go out on
    a scout on the borders of the settlements, and take to yourselves
    spoils of the goods of the ungodly Gentiles? for it is written, the
    riches of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to my people, the house
    of Israel; and thus you will waste away the Gentiles by robbing and
    plundering them of their property; and in this way we will build
    up the kingdom of God, and roll forth the little stone that Daniel
    saw cut out of the mountain without hands, and roll forth until it
    filled the whole earth. For this is the very way that God destines
    to build up His kingdom in the last days. If any of us should be
    recognized, who can harm us? for we will stand by each other and
    defend one another in all things. If our enemies swear against
    us, we can swear also. [The captains were confounded at this, but
    Avard continued]. Why do you startle at this, brethren? As the
    Lord liveth, I would swear to a lie to clear any of you; and if
    this would not do, I would put them or him under the sand as Moses
    did the Egyptian; and in this way we will consecrate much unto the
    Lord, and {181} build up His Kingdom; and who can stand against
    us? And if any of us transgress, we will deal with him amongst
    ourselves. And if any one of this Danite society reveals any of
    these things, I will put him where the dogs _cannot bite him_.

[Sidenote: Revolt of Avard's Officers.]

At this lecture all of the officers revolted, and said it would not
do, they would not go into any such measures, and it would not do to
name any such thing; "such proceedings would be in open violation of
the laws of our country, would be robbing our fellow citizens of their
rights, and are not according to the language and doctrine of Christ,
or of the Church of Latter-day Saints."

Avard replied, and said there was no laws that were executed
in justice, and he cared not for them, this being a different
dispensation, a dispensation of the fullness of times; in this
dispensation he learned from the Scriptures that the kingdom of God was
to put down all other kingdoms, and the Lord Himself was to reign, and
His laws alone were the laws that would exist.

[Sidenote: Avard's Teachings Rejected.]

Avard's teachings were still manfully rejected by all. Avard then said
that they had better drop the subject, although he had received his
authority from Sidney Rigdon the evening before. The meeting then broke
up; the eyes of those present were opened, Avard's craft was no longer
in the dark, and but very little confidence was placed in him, even by
the warmest of the members of his Danite scheme.

[Sidenote: Avard Excommunicated.]

When a knowledge of Avard's rascality came to the Presidency of the
Church, he was cut off from the Church, and every means proper used to
destroy his influence, at which he was highly incensed and went about
whispering his evil insinuations, but finding every effort unavailing,
he again turned conspirator, and sought to make friends with the mob.

[Sidenote: Distinction in Organization Pointed Out.]

And here let it be distinctly understood, that these companies of
tens and fifties got up by Avard, were {182} altogether separate and
distinct from those companies of tens and fifties organized by the
brethren for self defense, in case of an attack from the mob. This
latter organization was called into existence more particularly that in
this time of alarm no family or person might be neglected; therefore,
one company would be engaged in drawing wood, another in cutting it,
another in gathering corn, another in grinding, another in butchering,
another in distributing meat, etc., etc., so that all should be
employed in turn, and no one lack the necessaries of life. Therefore,
let no one hereafter, by mistake or design, confound this organization
of the Church for good and righteous purposes, with the organization of
the "Danites," of the apostate Avard, which died almost before it had
existed.

[Sidenote: Gathering of the Mob at Richmond.]

The mob began to encamp at Richmond on the twenty-sixth, and by this
time amounted to about two thousand men, all ready to fulfill the
exterminating order, and join the standard of the governor. They took
up a line of march for Far West, traveling but part way, where they
encamped for the night.

_Tuesday, October 30_.--The advance guard of the mob were patrolling
the country and taking many prisoners, among whom were Brother Stephen
Winchester, and Brother Carey, whose skull they laid open by a blow
from a rifle barrel. In this mangled condition, the mob laid him in
their wagon and went on their way, denying him every comfort, and thus
he remained that afternoon and night.

[Sidenote: Gen. Clark's Movements.]

General Clark was in camp at Chariton under a forced march to Richmond,
with about a thousand men, and the governor's exterminating order.

For the history of this day at Haun's Mills, on Shoal creek, I quote
the following affidavit of Elder Joseph Young, First President of the
Seventies:

    {183} _Joseph Young's Narrative of the Massacre at Haun's Mills_.

    On the sixth day of July last, I started with my family from
    Kirtland, Ohio, for the state of Missouri, the county of Caldwell,
    in the upper part of the state, being the place of my destination.

    On the thirteenth day of October I crossed the Mississippi at
    Louisiana, at which place I heard vague reports of the disturbances
    in the upper country, but nothing that could be relied upon. I
    continued my course westward till I crossed Grand river, at a place
    called Compton's Ferry, at which place I heard, for the first
    time, that if I proceeded any farther on my journey, I would be in
    danger of being stopped by a body of armed men. I was not willing,
    however, while treading my native soil, and breathing republican
    air, to abandon my object, which was to locate myself and family in
    a fine, healthy country, where we could enjoy the society of our
    friends and connections. Consequently, I prosecuted my journey till
    I came to Whitney's Mills, situated on Shoal creek, in the eastern
    part of Caldwell county.

    After crossing the creek and going about three miles, we met a
    party of the mob, about forty in number, armed with rifles, and
    mounted on horses, who informed us that we could go no farther
    west, threatening us with instant death if we proceeded any
    farther. I asked them the reason of this prohibition; to which
    they replied, that we were "Mormons;" that everyone who adhered to
    our religious faith, would have to leave the state in ten days, or
    _renounce_ their religion. Accordingly they drove us back to the
    mills above mentioned.

    Here we tarried three days; and, on Friday, the twenty-sixth, we
    re-crossed the creek, and following up its banks, we succeeded in
    eluding the mob for the time being, and gained the residence of a
    friend in Myer's settlement.

    On Sunday, twenty-eighth October, we arrived about twelve o'clock,
    at Haun's Mills, where we found a number of our friends collected
    together, who were holding a council, and deliberating on the
    best course for them to pursue, to defend themselves against the
    mob, who were collecting in the neighborhood under the command
    of Colonel Jennings of Livingston county, and threatening them
    with house burning and killing. The decision of the council was,
    that our friends there should place themselves in an attitude of
    self defense. Accordingly about twenty-eight of our men armed
    themselves, and were in constant readiness for an attack of any
    small body of men that might come down upon them.

    The same evening, for some reason best known to themselves, the mob
    sent one of their number to enter into a treaty with our friends,
    which was accepted, on the condition of mutual forbearance on both
    sides, and that each party, as far as their influence extended,
    should exert themselves to prevent any further hostilities upon
    either party.

    {184} At this time, however, there was another mob collecting
    on Grand river, at William Mann's, who were threatening us,
    consequently we remained under arms.

    Monday passed away without molestation from any quarter.

    On Tuesday, the 30th, that bloody tragedy was acted, the scene of
    which I shall never forget. More than three-fourths of the day had
    passed in tranquility, as smiling as the preceding one. I think
    there was no individual of our company that was apprised of the
    sudden and awful fate that hung over our heads like an overwhelming
    torrent, which was to change the prospects, the feelings and the
    circumstances of about thirty families. The banks of Shoal creek
    on either side teemed with children sporting and playing, while
    their mothers were engaged in domestic employments, and their
    fathers employed in guarding the mills and other property, while
    others were engaged in gathering in their crops for their winter
    consumption. The weather was very pleasant, the sun shone clear,
    all was tranquil, and no one expressed any apprehension of the
    awful crisis that was near us--even at our doors.

    It was about four o'clock, while sitting in my cabin with my babe
    in my arms, and my wife standing by my side, the door being open,
    I cast my eyes on the opposite bank of Shoal creek and saw a large
    company of armed men, on horses, directing their course towards
    the mills with all possible speed. As they advanced through the
    scattering trees that stood on the edge of the prairie they seemed
    to form themselves into a three square position, forming a vanguard
    in front.

    At this moment, David Evans, seeing the superiority of their
    numbers, (there being two hundred and forty of them, according to
    their own account), swung his hat, and cried for peace. This not
    being heeded, they continued to advance, and their leader, Mr.
    Nehemiah Comstock, fired a gun, which was followed by a solemn
    pause of ten or twelve seconds, when, all at once, they discharged
    about one hundred rifles, aiming at a blacksmith shop into which
    our friends had fled for safety; and charged up to the shop, the
    cracks of which between the logs were sufficiently large to enable
    them to aim directly at the bodies of those who had there fled
    for refuge from the fire of their murderers. There were several
    families tented in the rear of the shop, whose lives were exposed,
    and amidst a shower of bullets fled to the woods in different
    directions.

    After standing and gazing on this bloody scene for a few minutes,
    and finding myself in the uttermost danger, the bullets having
    reached the house where I was living, I committed my family to
    the protection of heaven, and leaving the house on the opposite
    side, I took a path which led up the hill, following in the trail
    of three of my brethren {185} that had fled from the shop. While
    ascending the hill we were discovered by the mob, who immediately
    fired at us, and continued so to do till we reached the summit.
    In descending the hill, I secreted myself in a thicket of bushes,
    where I lay till eight o'clock in the evening, at which time I
    heard a female voice calling my name in an under tone, telling me
    that the mob had gone and there was no danger. I immediately left
    the thicket, and went to the house of Benjamin Lewis, where I found
    my family (who had fled there) in safety, and two of my friends
    mortally wounded, one of whom died before morning. Here we passed
    the painful night in deep and awful reflections on the scenes of
    the preceding evening.

    After daylight appeared, some four or five men, who with myself,
    had escaped with our lives from the horrid massacre, and who
    repaired as soon as possible to the mills, to learn the condition
    of our friends, whose fate we had but too truly anticipated. When
    we arrived at the house of Mr. Haun, we found Mr. Merrick's body
    lying in the rear of the house, Mr. McBride's in front, literally
    mangled from head to foot. We were informed by Miss Rebecca Judd,
    who was an eye witness, that he was shot with his own gun, after
    he had given it up, and then cut to pieces with a corn cutter by a
    Mr. Rogers of Daviess county, who keeps a ferry on Grand river, and
    who has since repeatedly boasted of this act of savage barbarity.
    Mr. York's body we found in the house, and after viewing these
    corpses, we immediately went to the blacksmith's shop, where we
    found nine of our friends, eight of whom were already dead; the
    other, Mr. Cox, of Indiana, struggling in the agonies of death and
    soon expired. We immediately prepared and carried them to the place
    of interment. The last office of kindness due to the remains of
    departed friends, was not attended with the customary ceremonies
    or decency, for we were in jeopardy, every moment expecting to be
    fired upon by the mob, who, we supposed, were lying in ambush,
    waiting for the first opportunity to despatch the remaining few who
    were providentially preserved from the slaughter of the preceding
    day. However, we accomplished without molestation this painful
    task. The place of burying was a vault in the ground, formerly
    intended for a well, into which we threw the bodies of our friends
    promiscuously. Among those slain I will mention Sardius Smith,
    son of Warren Smith, about nine years old, who, through fear, had
    crawled under the bellows in the shop, where he remained till
    the massacre was over, when he was discovered by a Mr. Glaze, of
    Carroll county, who presented his rifle near the boy's head, and
    literally blowed off the upper part of it. Mr. Stanley, of Carroll,
    told me afterwards that Glaze boasted of this fiend-like murder and
    heroic deed all over the country.

    {186} The number killed and mortally wounded in this wanton
    slaughter was eighteen or nineteen, whose names as far as I
    recollect were as follows: Thomas McBride, Levi N. Merrick, Elias
    Benner, Josiah Fuller, Benjamin Lewis, Alexander Campbell, Warren
    Smith, Sardius Smith, George S. Richards, Mr. William Napier,
    Augustine Harmer, Simon Cox, Mr. [Hiram] Abbott, John York, Charles
    Merrick, (a boy eight or nine years old), [John Lee, John Byers],
    and three or four others, whose names I do not recollect, as they
    were strangers, to me. Among the wounded who recovered were Isaac
    Laney, Nathan K. Knight, Mr. [William] Yokum, two brothers by
    the name of [Jacob and George] Myers, Tarlton Lewis, Mr. [Jacob]
    Haun, and several others, [Jacob Foutz, Jacob Potts, Charles
    Jimison, John Walker, Alma Smith, aged about nine years]. Miss Mary
    Stedwell, while fleeing, was shot through the hand, and, fainting,
    fell over a log, into which they shot upwards of twenty balls.

    To finish their work of destruction, this band of murderers,
    composed of men from Daviess, Livingston, Ray, Carroll, and
    Chariton counties, led by some of the principal men of that section
    of the upper country, (among whom I am informed were Mr. Ashby, of
    Chariton, member of the state legislature; Colonel Jennings, of
    Livingston county, Thomas O. Bryon, clerk of Livingston county;
    Mr. Whitney, Dr. Randall, and many others), proceeded to rob the
    houses, wagons, and tents, of bedding and clothing; drove off
    horses and wagons, leaving widows and orphans destitute of the
    necessaries of life; and even stripped the clothing from the bodies
    of the slain. According to their own account, they _fired seven_
    rounds in this awful butchery, making upwards of sixteen hundred
    shots at a little company of men, about thirty in number. I hereby
    certify the above to be a true statement of facts, according to the
    best of my knowledge.

    Joseph Young.

    State Of Illinois, ss.

    County Of Adams.

    I hereby certify that Joseph Young this day came before me, and
    made oath in due form of law, that the statements contained in the
    foregoing sheet are true, according to the best of his knowledge
    and belief. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and
    affixed the seal of the Circuit Court at Quincy, this fourth day
    of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
    thirty-nine.

    C. M. Woods,

    Clerk Circuit Court, Adams Co., Ill.

[Sidenote: Additional Events of the Massacre.]

A younger brother of the boy here killed, aged eight, was shot through
the hip. The little fellow himself states {187} that seeing his father
and brother both killed, he thought they would shoot him again if he
stirred, and so feigned himself dead, and lay perfectly still, till he
heard his mother call him after dark.

Nathan K. Knight saw a Missourian cut down Father McBride with a
corn-cutter, and also saw them stripping the dying, and heard the boys
crying for mercy. Brother Knight made his escape across the mill-dam,
after receiving wounds through his lungs and finger. After the massacre
was over, he was led to a house by a woman, and whilst lying there
wounded he heard Mr. Jesse Maupin say that he blew one of the boys'
brains out. Some time later whilst walking the streets of Far West
Brother Knight was met by three Missourians who threatened to butcher
him, and one of them by the name of Rogers drew a butcher knife, and
said that he had not got his corn-cutter with him, that he cut down
McBride with, "but by----I have got something that will do as well:"
but by a great chance Brother Knight made his escape from the ruffian.

[Sidenote: Atchison Withdraws from "Militia."]

General Atchison withdrew from the army at Richmond as soon as the
governor's extermination order was received. Up to this time we were
ignorant at Far West of the movements of the mob at Richmond, and the
governor's order of extermination.

[Sidenote: Arrival of more Mob-Militia.]

On the 30th of October a large company of armed soldiers were seen
approaching Far West. They came up near to the town, and then drew back
about a mile, and encamped for the night. We were informed that they
were militia, ordered out by the governor for the purpose of stopping
our proceedings, it having been represented to his excellency, by
wicked and designing men from Daviess that we were the aggressors, and
had committed outrages in Daviess county. They had not yet got the
governor's order of {188} extermination, which I believe did not arrive
till the next day.

[Sidenote: Preparations for a Battle.]

_Wednesday, October 31_.--The militia of Far West guarded the city
the past night, and arranged a temporary fortification of wagons,
timber, etc., on the south. The sisters, many of them, were engaged in
gathering up their most valuable effects, fearing a terrible battle in
the morning, and that the houses might be fired and they obliged to
flee. The enemy was five to one against us.

[Sidenote: Col. Hinkle's Treachery.]

About eight o'clock a flag of truce was sent from the enemy, which was
met by several of our people, and it was hoped that matters would be
satisfactorily arranged after the officers had heard a true statement
of all the circumstances. Colonel Hinkle went to meet the flag, and
secretly made the following engagement: First, to give up their
[the Church's] leaders to be tried and punished; second, to make an
appropriation of the property of all who had taken up arms, for the
payment of their debts, and indemnify for the damage done by them;
third, that the remainder of the Saints should leave the state, and be
protected while doing so by the militia; but they were to be permitted
to remain under protection until further orders were received from the
commander-in-chief; fourth, to give up their arms of every description,
which would be receipted for.

[Sidenote: Reinforcement of the Mob.]

The enemy was reinforced by about one thousand five hundred men today,
and news of the destruction of property by the mob reached us from
every quarter.

[Sidenote: Betrayal of the Prophet _et al_.]

Towards evening I was waited upon by Colonel Hinkle, who stated that
the officers of the militia desired to have an interview with me and
some others, hoping that the difficulties might be settled without
having occasion to carry into effect the exterminating orders which
they had received from the governor. I immediately complied with the
request, and in {189} company with Elders Sidney Rigdon and Parley P.
Pratt, Colonel Wight and George W. Robinson, went into the camp of
the militia. But judge of my surprise, when, instead of being treated
with that respect which is due from one citizen to another, we were
taken as prisoners of war, and treated with the utmost contempt. [1]
The officers would not converse with us, and the soldiers, almost to a
man, insulted us as much as they felt disposed, breathing out threats
against me and my companions. I {190} cannot begin to tell the scene
which I there witnessed. The loud cries and yells of more than one
thousand voices, which rent the air and could be heard for miles,
and the horrid and blasphemous threats and curses which were poured
upon us in torrents, were enough to appall the stoutest heart. In the
evening we had to lie down on the cold ground, surrounded by a strong
guard, who were only kept back by the power of God from depriving us
of life. We petitioned the officers to know why we were thus treated,
but they utterly refused to give us any answer, or to converse with us.
After we arrived in the camp, Brother Stephen Winchester and eleven
other brethren who were prisoners, volunteered, with permission of the
officers, to carry Brother Carey into the city to his family, he having
lain exposed to the weather for a show to the inhuman wretches, without
having his wound dressed or being nourished in any manner. He died soon
after he reached home.

[Sidenote: The Prophet and Companions Condemned to be Shot.]

_Thursday, November 1_.--Brothers Hyrum Smith and Amasa Lyman were
brought prisoners into camp. The officers of the militia held a court
martial, and sentenced us to be shot, on Friday morning, on the
public square of Far West as a warning to the "Mormons." [2] However,
notwithstanding their sentence and determination, they were {191} not
permitted to carry their murderous sentence into execution. Having an
opportunity of speaking to General Wilson, I inquired of him why I
was thus treated. I told him I was not aware of having done anything
worthy of such treatment; that I had always been a supporter of the
Constitution and of democracy. His answer was, "I know it, and that is
the reason why I want to kill you, or have you killed."

[Sidenote: Robbings of the Militia.]

The militia went into the town, and without any restraint whatever,
plundered the houses, and abused the innocent and unoffending
inhabitants and left many destitute. They went to my house, drove my
family out of doors, carried away most of my property. General Doniphan
declared he would have nothing to do with such cold-blooded murder, and
that he would withdraw his brigade in the morning.

Governor Boggs wrote General Clark from Jefferson City, that he
considered full and ample powers were {192} vested in him [Clark] to
carry into effect the former orders; says Boggs:

    _Excerpt from Governor Boggs' Communication to General Lucas_.

    The case is now a very plain one--the "Mormons" must be subdued;
    and peace restored to the community; you will therefore proceed
    without delay to execute the former orders. Full confidence
    is reposed in your ability to do so; your force will be amply
    sufficient to accomplish the object. Should you need the aid of
    artillery, I would suggest that an application be made to the
    commanding officer of Fort Leavenworth, for such as you may need.
    You are authorized to request the loan of it in the name of the
    state of Missouri. The ringleaders of this rebellion should be made
    an example of; and if it should become necessary for the public
    peace, the "Mormons" should be exterminated, or expelled from the
    state.

[Sidenote: Citizens of Far West Disarmed.]

This morning General Lucas ordered the Caldwell militia to give up
their arms. Hinkle, having made a treaty with the mob on his own
responsibility, to carry out his treachery, marched the troops out of
the city, and the brethren gave up their arms, their own property,
which no government on earth had a right to require.

[Sidenote: High Handed Procedure of the Mob.]

The mob (called Governor's troops) then marched into town, and under
pretense of searching for arms, tore up floors, upset haystacks,
plundered the most valuable effects they could lay their hands on,
wantonly wasted and destroyed a great amount of property, compelled
the brethren at the point of the bayonet to sign deeds of trust to
pay the expenses of the mob, even while the place was desecrated by
the chastity of women being violated. About eighty men were taken
prisoners, the remainder were ordered to leave the state, and were
forbidden, under threat of being shot by the mob to assemble more than
three in a place.

[Sidenote: Avard's Treachery.]

_Friday, November 2_.--About this time Sampson Avard was found by the
mob secreted in the hazel brush some miles from Far West, and brought
into camp, where he and they were "hail fellows well {193} met;" for
Avard told them that Daniteism was an order of the Church, and by his
lying tried to make the Church a scape-goat for his sins.

Myself and fellow prisoners were taken to the town, into the public
square, and before our departure we, after much entreaty, were suffered
to see our families, being attended all the while by a strong guard.
I found my wife and children in tears, who feared we had been shot
by those who had sworn to take our lives, and that they would see me
no more. When I entered my house, they clung to my garments, their
eyes streaming with tears, while mingled emotions of joy and sorrow
were manifested in their countenances. I requested to have a private
interview with them a few minutes, but this privilege was denied me by
the guard. I was then obliged to take my departure. Who can realize
the feelings which I experienced at that time, to be thus torn from my
companion, and leave her surrounded with monsters in the shape of men,
and my children, too, not knowing how their wants would be supplied;
while I was to be taken far from them in order that my enemies might
destroy me when they thought proper to do so. My partner wept, my
children clung to me, until they were thrust from me by the swords of
the guards. I felt overwhelmed while I witnessed the scene, and could
only recommend them to the care of that God whose kindness had followed
me to the present time, and who alone could protect them, and deliver
me from the hands of my enemies, and restore me to my family. [3]

{194} After this painful scene I was taken back to the camp, and with
the rest of my brethren, namely, Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith, Parley
P. Pratt, Lyman Wight, Amasa Lyman, and George W. Robinson, started
off for {195} Independence, Jackson county, and encamped at night on
Crooked river, under a strong guard commanded by Generals Lucas and
Wilson.

The following letter gives the particulars relating to the movements of
the governor's troops in conjunction with the mob:

    _Report of General S. D. Lucas to Governor Boggs_.

    Headquarters, Camp Near Far West,

    November 2, 1838.

    _To His Excellency, L. W. Boggs, Commander-in-Chief, Missouri
    Militia_:

    Sir:--On Monday, October 29th, the troops ordered out by
    Major-General Atchison and myself (as per our report to you of said
    date), took up their line of march from camp near Richmond, for
    Far West. We encamped on the night of the 29th at Linville's creek
    (a short distance from the road), about sixteen miles from Far
    West, at which point we received an express from Brigadier-General
    Doniphan, informing us that he was then encamped on Log creek with
    a force of five hundred men, and that he would join us at the
    crossing of said creek, on the road from Richmond to Far West, by
    ten o'clock the next morning.

    {196} On the 30th of October, the troops got together at the last
    named point, when we mustered about eighteen hundred men. Whilst
    at this place we received your orders of the 26th ultimo, and I
    received an order of the 27th ultimo, and a letter from you of
    the same date. At this point Major-General Atchison left me for
    Liberty, when I was left in sole command. I then took up my line of
    march for Goose creek, one mile south of Far West, which point we
    reached about one hour by sun in the evening. Just as the troops
    were encamping, I received intelligence from General Doniphan,
    from his position on the right, that he had discovered a party of
    mounted Mormons approaching Far West from the east, and requested
    permission to intercept them, if possible. Leave was granted, and
    his brigade started off at nearly full speed to accomplish the
    order, but the Mormons succeeded in reaching the fort. General
    Doniphan approached within two hundred yards of their fortress,
    when they displayed a force of about eight hundred [150] men. At
    this juncture, I ordered General Graham's brigade (holding General
    Parks' and part of General Wilson's mounted in reserve) to march
    full speed to the relief of the First Brigade, Third Division,
    but from the inequality of the force of the first detachment,
    (being only two hundred and fifty strong at that time, and the
    Mormons eight hundred [150]) it was considered prudent to withdraw
    the troops, and march against them in the morning, which was
    accordingly done, and they all returned, as dark set in, to camp.
    At this place I established my headquarters, and continued there
    during the expedition against the Mormons. The detachment under
    General Wilson returned about nine o'clock p. m.

    The next morning, 31st of October, I received a message from
    Colonel Hinkle, the commander of the Mormon forces [Caldwell
    militia], requesting an interview with me on an eminence near Far
    West, which he would designate by hoisting a white flag. I sent him
    word I would meet him at two o'clock p. m., being so much engaged
    in receiving and encamping fresh troops, who were hourly coming in,
    that I could not attend before. Accordingly at that time, I started
    with my staff officers and Brigadier-Generals Wilson, Doniphan and
    Graham, General Parks being left in command. We met him and some
    other Mormons at the point before mentioned. He stated that his
    object in asking me to meet him there, was to know if there could
    not be some compromise or settlement of the difficulty without a
    resort to arms.

    After giving him to understand the nature of your orders, I made
    him the following propositions, which I furnished him a copy of,
    also a copy of your order, viz.:

    "First--To give up their [the Church's] leaders to be tried and
    punished.

    {197} "Second--To make an appropriation of their property, all who
    have taken up arms, to the payment of their debts, and indemnify
    for damages done by them.

    "Third--That the balance should leave the state, and be protected
    out by the militia, but to be permitted to remain under protection
    until further orders were received from the commander-in-chief.

    "Fourth--To give up the arms of every description, to be receipted
    for."

    Colonel Hinkle agreed to the proposition readily, but wished to
    postpone the matter until morning. I then told him that I would
    require Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Parley
    P. Pratt, and George W. Robinson, as hostage for his faithful
    compliance with the terms, and would pledge myself and each
    one of the officers present, that in case he, after reflecting
    and consulting upon the proposition during the night, declined
    acceding to them, that the hostages should be returned to him in
    the morning, at the same point they were received, but it was
    understood in case they did comply, they were to be held for trial
    as part of the leaders called for by the first stipulation; I
    then gave him until one hour by sun in the evening to produce and
    deliver them. We then returned to camp, and I directed the troops
    to make preparations to march to Far West by an hour and a half
    by the sun, with a determination in case the hostages were not
    produced to make an attack upon the town forthwith.

    I directed General Parks' brigade to be mounted, and to form on
    the right of the division, to act as flankers if necessary, and if
    required to pass entirely around the town, and form on the north
    side, with instructions to make the attack at the report of the
    cannon, which was to be the signal for the general attack. General
    Graham's brigade was mounted, and formed on the extreme left to act
    as flankers, and if required to form the line on the west side,
    with similar instructions as to the commencement of the attack.

    General Doniphan's brigade was ordered to parade on foot, and to
    form on the left of General Parks, with instructions to form the
    line of battle on the south side, with the same instructions as to
    commencement of attack.

    The artillery company, with one piece of ordnance, was placed at
    the head of General Doniphan's and General Wilson's brigade, with
    instructions to occupy an eminence within three hundred yards of
    the town.

    The army being disposed of in this manner, at the appointed time I
    took up the line of march in direction of Far West. When the troops
    got within about six hundred yards, I discovered the flag and the
    hostages advancing. I immediately halted the army, and rode out
    and {198} met them, received the hostages, and placed a guard over
    them for their safety and protection, and ordered the forces back
    to our encampment. I cannot forbear, at this point, expressing
    my gratification and approbation of the good conduct and gallant
    bravery [4] evinced by all the officers and men under my command.
    They marched up with as much determination and deliberation as
    old veterans--not knowing but that the charge would be sounded
    every moment for surrounding the town. [5] There was no noise or
    confusion, nothing but an eager anxiety upon the countenance of
    every man to get at the work.

    When the hostages were received, the troops, with some slight
    exceptions, marched back [6] in profound silence.

    November 1st. I ordered the whole forces, amounting to two thousand
    five hundred men, to parade at nine o'clock a. m., and to take
    up the line of march for Far West at half-past nine o'clock, to
    receive the prisoners and their arms.

    The troops marched out and formed in the prairie about two hundred
    yards southeast of the town. General Wilson's brigade formed the
    west line, General Doniphan's the east line, General Graham and
    General Parks the south line, with the artillery company and the
    cannon in the center of the two latter, leaving one side of the
    square open.

    The "Mormon" army, reduced to about six hundred men by desertion
    and otherwise, under their commander, Colonel Hinkle marched out
    of their town through the space into our square, formed a hollow
    square, and grounded their arms. Colonel Hinkle then rode forward
    and delivered up to me his sword and pistols.

    I then directed a company from the respective brigades to form
    a front, rear, right and left flank guards, and to march the
    prisoners back to Far West, and protect and take charge of them
    until the next morning. I then detailed a company from General
    Doniphan's command to take charge of the arms. Then, in order to
    gratify the army and to let the "Mormons" see our forces, marched
    around the town, and through the principal streets and back to
    headquarters.

    {199} Considering the war at an end in this place I issued orders
    for General Doniphan's brigade, with the exception of one company,
    and General Graham's brigade, to take up their line of march for
    their respective headquarters and dismiss their men, and directed
    General Wilson to take charge of the prisoners (demanded for trial)
    and arms, and to march them to my headquarters at Independence, to
    await further orders, and to dismiss all except a guard for the
    prisoners and arms.

    November 2nd. I relieved the guard placed over the prisoners at
    Far West by four companies of General Parks' brigade, and placed
    them under the command of Colonel Thompson, Second brigade, Third
    division, with instructions to report to General Clark. The balance
    of General Parks' brigade, with Captain Gillium's company of
    General Doniphan's brigade, under the command of General Parks, I
    ordered to Adam-ondi-Ahman, a Mormon town in Daviess county, with
    instructions to disarm the Mormon forces at that place and to leave
    a guard of fifty men for the protection of prisoners, and to report
    to General Clark.

    In order to carry the treaty and stipulations into effect I have
    required your aid-de-camp, Colonel Williams, together with Colonel
    Burch, and Major A. Rees, of Ray, to attend to drawing up the
    papers legally, and directed Colonel Thompson to wait on them
    with a portion of his command, and to cause all their orders and
    requirements, consistent with the stipulations, to be carried into
    effect.

    This day, about twelve o'clock, there was a battalion of one
    hundred men from Platte arrived at Far West, which I ordered back,
    having understood that Major-General Clark would be on in a day or
    two with sufficient force to operate in Daviess and Livingston, and
    for any service that may be required.

    Samuel D. Lucas,

    Major-General, Commanding.

Footnotes.

1. Elder Parley P. Pratt in his Autobiography referring to this
betrayal of the brethren on the part of Hinkle and their reception and
treatment by the mob, says: "Colonel George M. Hinkle, who was at that
time the highest officer of the militia assembled for the defense of
Far West, waited on Messrs. Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith,
Lyman Wight, George W. Robinson and myself, with a request from General
Lucas that we would repair to his camp, with the assurance that as
soon as peaceable arrangements could be entered into we should be
released. We had no confidence in the word of a murderer and robber,
but there was no alternative but to put ourselves into the hands
of such monsters, or to have the city attacked, and men, women and
children massacred. We, therefore, commended ourselves to the Lord,
and voluntarily surrendered as sheep into the hands of wolves. As we
approached the camp of the enemy General Lucas rode out to meet us
with a guard of several hundred men. The haughty general rode up, and,
without speaking to us, instantly ordered his guards to surround us.
They did so very abruptly, and we were marched into camp surrounded
by thousands of savage looking beings, many of whom were dressed and
painted like Indian warriors. These all set up a constant yell, like
so many bloodhounds let loose upon their prey, as if they had achieved
one of the most miraculous victories that ever graced the annals of the
world. If the vision of the infernal regions could suddenly open to
the mind, with thousands of malicious fiends, all clamoring, exulting,
deriding, blaspheming, mocking, railing, raging and foaming like a
troubled sea, then could some idea be formed of the hell which we had
entered.

In camp we were placed under a strong guard, and were without shelter
during the night, lying on the ground in the open air, in the midst
of a great rain. The guards during the whole night kept up a constant
tirade of mockery, and the most obscene blackguardism and abuse. They
blasphemed God; mocked Jesus Christ; swore the most dreadful oaths;
taunted Brother Joseph and others; demanded miracles; wanted signs,
such as 'Come, Mr. Smith, show us an angel.' 'Give us one of your
Revelations.' 'Show us a miracle.' 'Come, there is one of your brethren
here in camp whom we took prisoner yesterday in his own house, and
knocked his brains out with his own rifle, which we found hanging over
his fireplace; he lays speechless and dying; speak the word and heal
him, and then we will all believe.' 'Or, if you are Apostles or men of
God, deliver yourselves, and then we will be Mormons." Next would be
a volley of oaths and blasphemies; then a tumultuous tirade of lewd
boastings of having defiled virgins and wives by force, etc., much of
which I dare not write; and, indeed, language would fail me to attempt
more than a faint description. Thus passed this dreadful night, and
before morning several other captives were added to our number, among
whom was Brother Amasa Lyman."--Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp.
203-205.

2. This incident of sentencing the Prophet and his companion prisoners
to be shot on the public square at Far West is also referred to in
the History of Caldwell county, compiled by the St. Louis National
Historical Company, and the formal orders of General Lucas to
Brigadier-General Doniphan and also Doniphan's reply are given. I quote
the following: "Yielding to the pressure upon him, it is alleged that
General Lucas, at about midnight, issued the following order to General
Doniphan, in whose keeping the hostages were:

"'_Brigadier-General Doniphan_:

"'Sir:--You will take Joseph Smith and the other prisoners into the
public square of Far West, and shoot them at 9 o'clock to-morrow
morning.

"'Samuel D. Lucas,'

"'Major-General Commanding.'

But General Doniphan, in great righteous indignation, promptly returned
the following reply to his superior:

"'It is cold-blooded murder. I will not obey your order. My brigade
shall march for Liberty tomorrow morning, at 8 o'clock; and if you
execute these men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly
tribunal, so help me God.

"'A. W. Doniphan,

"'Brigadier-General.'

"The prisoners somehow heard of the order, and kneeled in prayer,
and prayed fervently that it might not be executed. And it was not.
Flagrantly insubordinate as was General Doniphan's refusal, he was
never called to account for it. The 'Mormons' have always remembered
General Doniphan's humanity on this occasion, as well as on others, and
when, in 1873, he went to Salt Lake City, he was received with much
feeling, and shown every regard and attention by Brigham Young and the
other authorities of the Church and city, and by even the masses of the
people."--(History of Caldwell County, p. 137).

Parley P. Pratt, referring to this incident, says: "We were informed
that the general officers held a secret council during most of the
night, which was dignified by the name of court martial; in which,
without a hearing, or, without even being brought before it, we were
all sentenced to be shot. The day and hour was also appointed for
the execution of this sentence, viz., next morning at 8 o'clock,
in the public square at Far West. Of this we were informed by
Brigadier-General Doniphan, who was one of the council, but who was
so violently opposed to this cold-blooded murder that he assured the
council that he would revolt and withdraw his whole brigade, and march
them back to Clay county as soon as it was light, if they persisted in
so dreadful an undertaking. Said he, 'It is cold-blooded murder, and I
wash my hands of it.' His firm remonstrance, and that of a few others,
so alarmed the haughty murderer and his accomplices that they dare not
put the decree in execution."

3. Of these scenes connected with the separation of the prisoners from
their families, Parley P. Pratt writes as follows: "We were now marched
to Far West, under the conduct of the whole army; and while they halted
in the public square, we were permitted to go with a guard for a change
of linen, and to take final leave of our families, in order to depart
as prisoners to Jackson county, a distance of sixty miles.

"This was the most trying scene of all. I went to my house, being
guarded by two or three soldiers, the cold rain was pouring down
without, and on entering my little cottage, there lay my wife sick of
a fever, with which she had been for sometime confined. At her breast
was our son Nathan, an infant of three months, and by her side a
little girl of five years. On the foot of the same bed lay a woman in
travail, who had been driven from her house in the night, and had taken
momentary shelter in my hut of ten feet square--my larger house having
been torn down. I stepped to the bed; my wife burst into tears; I spoke
a few words of comfort, telling her to try to live for my sake and the
children's; and expressing a hope that we should meet again though
years might separate us. She promised to try to live. I then embraced
and kissed the little babies and departed. Till now I had refrained
from weeping; but, to be forced from so helpless a family, who were
destitute of provisions and fuel, and deprived almost of shelter in a
bleak prairie, with none to assist them, exposed to a lawless banditti
who were utter strangers to humanity, and this at the approach of
winter, was more than nature could well endure. I went to General Moses
Wilson in tears, and stated the circumstances of my sick, heart-broken
and destitute family in tears which would have moved any heart that
had a latent spark of humanity yet remaining. But I was only answered
with an exultant laugh, and a taunt of reproach by this hardened
murderer. As I returned from my house towards the troops in the square,
I halted with the guard at the door of Hyrum Smith, and heard the
sobs and groans of his wife, at his parting words. She was then near
confinement; and needed more than ever the comfort and consolation of
a husband's presence. As we returned to the wagon we saw Sidney Rigdon
taking leave of his wife and daughters, who stood at a little distance,
in tears of anguish indescribable. In the wagon sat Joseph Smith, while
his aged father and venerable mother come up overwhelmed with tears,
and took each of the prisoners by the hand with a silence of grief too
great for utterance. In the meantime hundreds of the brethren crowded
around us, anxious to take a parting look, or a silent shake of the
hand; for feelings were too intense to allow of speech. In the midst
of these scenes orders were given and we moved slowly away, under the
conduct of General Wilson and his whole brigade."--Autobiography of
Parley P. Pratt, pp. 207, 208.

The Prophet's mother describes these scenes of sorrow and parting in
the following vivid manner:

"At the time when Joseph went into the enemy's camp, Mr. Smith and
myself stood in the door of the house in which we were then living, and
could distinctly hear their horrid yellings. Not knowing the cause, we
supposed they were murdering him. Soon after the screaming commenced,
five or six guns were discharged. At this, Mr. Smith, folding his arms
tight across his heart, cried out, 'Oh, my God! my God! they have
killed my son! they have murdered him! and I must die, for I cannot
live without him?'

"I had no word of consolation to give him, for my heart was broken
within me--my agony was unutterable. I assisted him to the bed and
he fell back upon it helpless as a child, for he had not strength to
stand upon his feet. The shrieking continued; no tongue can describe
the sound which was conveyed to our ears; no heart can imagine the
sensation of our breasts, as we listened to those awful screams. Had
the army been composed of so many bloodhounds, wolves, and panthers,
they could not have made a sound more terrible. * * * *

"When they [the division of the mob in charge of the prisoners] were
about starting from Far West, a messenger came and told us that if we
ever saw our sons alive, we must go immediately to them, for they were
in a wagon that would start in a few minutes for Independence, and in
all probability they would start in a few minutes for Independence,
and in all probability they would never return alive. Receiving this
intimation, Lucy and myself set out directly for the place. On coming
within about a hundred yards of the wagon, we were compelled to stop,
for we could press no further through the crowd. I therefore appealed
to those around me, exclaiming, 'I am the mother of the Prophet--is
there not a gentleman here who will assist me to that wagon, that I may
take a last look at my children, and speak to them once more before I
die?' Upon this, one individual volunteered to make a pathway through
the army, and we passed on, threatened with death at every step, till
at length we arrived at the wagon. The man who led us through the
crowd spoke to Hyrum, who was sitting in front, and, telling him that
his mother had come to see him, requested that he should reach his
hand to me. He did so, but I was not allowed to see him; the cover
was of strong cloth, and nailed down so close that he could hardly
get his hand through. We had merely shaken hands with him, when we
were ordered away by the mob, who forbade any conversation between us,
and, threatening to shoot us, they ordered the teamster to drive over
us. Our friend then conducted us to the back part of the wagon, where
Joseph sat, and said, 'Mr. Smith, your mother and sister are here, and
wish to shake hands with you.' Joseph crowded his hand through between
the cover and wagon, and we caught hold of it; but he spoke not to
either of us, until I said, 'Joseph, do speak to your poor mother once
more--I cannot bear to go till I hear your voice.' 'God bless you,
mother!' he sobbed out. Then a cry was raised, and the wagon dashed
off, tearing him from us just as Lucy pressed his hand to her lips, to
bestow upon it a sister's last kiss--for he was then sentenced to be
shot."--History of the Prophet Joseph by his Mother, Lucy Smith, pp.
249, 250.

4. On this passage the prophet makes the following comments:

"Gallant bravery," that some thousands of men should be so anxious to
wash their hands in the blood of five hundred poor Saints? I claim not
the honor of commanding such a brave army.

5. Again the Prophet comments:

"The wicked flee when no man pursueth" This saying was truly verified
in the first retreat of this army--they fled precipitately through
fear and a great proportion of the men were anxious to get back to the
creek, where they could dispense with some of their clothing and wash
themselves in the water.

6. "Profound silence." It might have been silence to the general for
aught I know; for the shoutings, bellowings and yells of this army of
mobocrats was sufficient to deafen anyone, not guarded by some higher
spirit, and could only be equalled in the savage war whoop, and the
yells of the damned.

{200}



CHAPTER XIV.

Rivalry Among The Militia Generals For Possession Of The
Prisoners--"Trial" At Richmond.

[Sidenote: Rival Efforts for Possession of the Prisoners.]

_Saturday, 3_.--We continued our march and arrived at the Missouri
river, which separated us from Jackson county, where we were hurried
across the ferry when but few troops had passed. [1] The truth was,
General Clark had sent an express from Richmond to General Lucas, to
have the prisoners sent to him, and thus prevent our going to Jackson
county, both armies being competitors for the honor of possessing "the
royal prisoners." Clark wanted the privilege of putting us to death
himself, and Lucas and his troops were desirous of exhibiting us in the
streets of Independence. [2]

[Sidenote: Prophet's Interview with a Lady.]

_Sunday, 4_.--We were visited by some ladies and gentlemen. One of the
women came up, and very candidly inquired of the troops which of the
prisoners was the Lord {201} whom the "Mormons" worshiped? One of the
guard pointed to me with a significant smile, and said, "This is he."
The woman then turning to me inquired whether I professed to be the
Lord and Savior? I replied, that I professed to be nothing but a man,
and a minister of salvation, sent by Jesus Christ to preach the Gospel.

This answer so surprised the woman that she began to inquire into our
doctrine, and I preached a discourse, both to her and her companions,
and to the wondering soldiers, who listened with almost breathless
attention while I set forth the doctrine of faith in Jesus Christ, and
repentance, and baptism for remission of sins, with the promise of
the Holy Ghost, as recorded in the second chapter of the Acts of the
Apostles.

The woman was satisfied, and praised God in the hearing of the
soldiers, and went away, praying that God would protect and deliver us.
Thus was fulfilled a prophecy which had been spoken publicly by me, a
few months previous--that a sermon should be preached in Jackson county
by one of our Elders, before the close of 1838.

[Sidenote: Arrival of the Prisoners in Independence.]

The troops having crossed the river about ten o'clock, we proceeded on
and arrived at Independence, past noon, in the midst of a great rain,
and a multitude of spectators who had assembled to see us, and hear the
bugles sound a blast of triumphant joy, which echoed through the camp.
We were ushered into a vacant house prepared for our reception, with a
floor for our beds and blocks of wood for our pillows.

General Clark arrived at Far West with one thousand six hundred men,
and five hundred more were within eight miles of the city.

[Sidenote: Overwhelming Numbers of Mob Militia.]

Thus, Far West has been visited by six thousand men in one week, when
the militia of the city (before any were taken prisoners) amounted
only to about five {202} hundred. After depriving these of their arms
the mob continued to hunt the brethren like wild beasts, and shot
several, ravished the women, and killed one near the city. No Saint was
permitted to go in or out of the city; and meantime the Saints lived on
parched corn.

General Clark ordered General Lucas, who had previously gone to
Adam-ondi-Ahman with his troops, "to take the whole of the men of the
'Mormons' prisoners, and place such a guard around them and the town as
will protect the prisoners and secure them until they can be dealt with
properly," and secure all their property, till the best means could be
adopted for paying the damages the citizens had sustained.

[Sidenote: Severity in the Treatment of Prisoners Modified.]

_Monday, 5_.--We were kept under a small guard, and were treated
with some degree of hospitality and politeness, while many flocked
to see us. We spent most of our time in preaching and conversation,
explanatory of our doctrines and practice, which removed mountains of
prejudice, and enlisted the populace in our favor, notwithstanding
their old hatred and wickedness towards our society.

[Sidenote: Fifty-six Additional Prisoners.]

The brethren at Far West were ordered by General Clark to form a line,
when the names of fifty-six present were called and made prisoners to
await their trial for something they knew not what. They were kept
under a close guard.

_Tuesday, 6_.--General Clark paraded the brethren at Far West, and then
addressed them as follows.

    _General Clark's Harrangue to the Brethren_.

    Gentlemen, you whose names are not attached to this list of names,
    will now have the privilege of going to your fields and providing
    corn, wood, etc., for your families. Those who are now taken will
    go from this to prison, be tried, and receive the due demerit of
    their crimes. But you (except such as charges may hereafter be
    preferred against) are now at liberty, as soon as the troops are
    removed that now guard the place, which I shall cause to be done
    immediately. It now devolves {203} upon you to fulfill the treaty
    that you have entered into, the leading items of which I shall now
    lay before you:

    The first requires that your leading men be given up to be tried
    according to law; this you have already complied with.

    The second is, that you deliver up your arms; this has been
    attended to.

    The third stipulation is, that you sign over your properties to
    defray the expenses of the war; this you have also done.

    Another article yet remains for you to comply with, and that is,
    that you leave the state forthwith; and whatever may be your
    feelings concerning this, or whatever your innocence, it is nothing
    to me; General Lucas, who is equal in authority with me, has made
    this treaty with you--I approve of it--I should have done the same
    had I been here--I am therefore determined to see it fulfilled. The
    character of this state has suffered almost beyond redemption, from
    the character, conduct and influence that you have exerted, and we
    deem it an act of justice to restore her character to its former
    standing among the states, by every proper means.

    The orders of the governor to me were, that you should be
    exterminated, and not allowed to remain in the state, and had your
    leaders not been given up, and the terms of the treaty complied
    with, before this, you and your families would have been destroyed
    and your houses in ashes.

    There is a discretionary power vested in my hands which I shall
    exercise in your favor for a season; for _this_ lenity you are
    indebted to _my_ clemency. I do not say that you shall go now, but
    you must not think of staying here another season, or of putting in
    crops, for the moment you do this the citizens will be upon you.
    If I am called here again, in case of a non-compliance of a treaty
    made, do not think that I shall act any more as I have done--you
    need not expect any mercy, but extermination, for I am determined
    the governor's order shall be executed. As for your leaders, do not
    once think--do not imagine for a moment--do not let it enter your
    mind that they will be delivered, or that you will see their faces
    again, for their fate _is fixed--their die is cast--their doom is
    sealed_.

    I am sorry, gentlemen, to see so great a number of apparently
    intelligent men found in the situation that you are; and oh! that
    I could invoke that _Great Spirit, the unknown God_, to rest upon
    you, and make you sufficiently intelligent to break that chain of
    superstition, and liberate you from those fetters of fanaticism
    with which you are bound--that you no longer worship a man.

    I would advise you to scatter abroad, and never again organize
    yourselves with Bishops, Presidents, etc., lest you excite the
    jealousies of {204} the people, and subject yourselves to the same
    calamities that have now come upon you.

    You have always been the aggressors--you have brought upon
    yourselves these difficulties by being disaffected and not being
    subject to rule--and my advice is, that you become as other
    citizens, lest by a recurrence of these events you bring upon
    yourselves irretrievable ruin. [3]

The governor wrote General Clark as follows:

    It will also be necessary that you hold a military court of inquiry
    in Daviess county, and arrest the Mormons who have been guilty
    of the late outrages, committed towards the inhabitants of said
    county. My instructions to you are to settle this whole matter
    completely, if possible, before you disband your forces; if the
    Mormons are disposed voluntarily to leave the state, of course it
    would be advisable in you to promote that object, in any way deemed
    proper. The _ringleaders of this rebellion, though, ought by no
    means to be permitted to escape the punishment they merit_.

The prisoners at Far West were started off for Richmond, under a strong
guard.

_Wednesday, 7_.--The following order was issued at Far West by General
Clark:

    Brigadier-General Robert Wilson will take up the line of march with
    his brigade on this morning for Adam-ondi-Ahman, in Daviess county,
    and take possession of the prisoners at that place, and proceed to
    ascertain those who committed crimes, and when done, to put them
    under close guard, and when he moves, take them to Keytesville,
    after having them recognized by the proper authority.

[Sidenote: Progress of Affairs at Diahman.]

_Thursday, 8_.--There was a severe snowstorm yesterday and today.
General Wilson arrived at Adam-ondi-Ahman; he placed guards around the
town so that no persons {205} might pass out or in without permission.
All the men in town were then taken and put under guard, and a court
of inquiry was instituted with Adam Black on the bench; the said Adam
Black belonged to the mob, and was one of the leaders of it from the
time mobbing first commenced in Daviess county. The attorney belonged
to General Clark's army.

[Sidenote: The Prophet and his Fellow Prisoners Sent to Richmond.]

Shortly after our arrival in Jackson county, Colonel Sterling Price,
from the army of General Clark, came with orders from General Clark,
who was commander-in-chief of the expedition, to have us forwarded
forthwith to Richmond. Accordingly, on Thursday morning, we started
with three guards only, and they had been obtained with great
difficulty, after laboring all the previous day to get them. Between
Independence and Roy's Ferry, on the Missouri river, they all got
drunk, and we got possession of their arms and horses.

It was late in the afternoon, near the setting of the sun. We traveled
about half a mile after we crossed the river, and put up for the night.

[Sidenote: Prisoners not Sufficiently Protected by Guards.]

_Friday, 9_.--This morning there came a number of men, some of them
armed. Their threatenings and savage appearance were such as to make
us afraid to proceed without more guards. A messenger was therefore
dispatched to Richmond to obtain them. We started before their arrival,
but had not gone far before we met Colonel Price with a guard of about
seventy-four men, and were conducted by them to Richmond, and put into
an old vacant house, and a guard set.

[Sidenote: Meeting of the Prophet and Gen. Clark.]

Some time through the course of that day General Clark came in, and we
were introduced to him. We inquired of him the reason why we had been
thus carried from our homes, and what were the charges against us. He
said that he was not then able to determine, but would be in a short
time; and with very little more conversation withdrew.

{206} [Sidenote: The Prisoners Chained.]

Some short time after he had withdrawn Colonel Price came in with
two chains in his hands, and a number of padlocks. The two chains he
fastened together. He had with him ten men, armed, who stood at the
time of these operations with a thumb upon the cock of their guns. They
first nailed down the windows, then came and ordered a man by the name
of John Fulkerson, whom he had with him, to chain us together with
chains and padlocks, being seven in number. After that he searched us,
examining our pockets to see if we had any arms. He found nothing but
pocket knives, but these he took away with him.

_Saturday, November 10_.--The following is a true specimen of Missouri
liberty.

    _Form of Permit_.

    I permit David Holman to remove from Daviess to Caldwell county,
    there to remain during the winter, or to pass out of the state.

    R. Wilson, Brigadier-General.

    By F. G. Cocknu, Aid.

    November 10, 1838.

[Sidenote: General Clark Desires to Try the Prophet by Court Martial.]

General Clark had spent his time since our arrival at Richmond in
searching the laws to find authority for trying us by court martial.
Had he not been a lawyer of eminence, I should have supposed it no very
difficult task to decide that quiet, peaceful unoffending, and private
citizens too, except as ministers of the Gospel, were not amenable to a
_military tribunal_, in a country governed by _civil laws_. But be this
as it may, General Clark wrote the governor that he had--

    _General Clark's Report to Governor Boggs_.

    Detained General White and his field offices here a day or two for
    the purpose of holding a court martial, if necessary. I this day
    made out charges against the prisoners, and called on Judge King
    to try them as a committing court; and I am now busily engaged in
    procuring witnesses and submitting facts. There being no civil
    officers in Caldwell, {207} I have to use the military to get
    witnesses from there, which I do without reserve. The most of
    the prisoners here I consider guilty of _treason_; and I believe
    will be convicted; and the only difficulty in law is, can they be
    tried in any county but Caldwell? If not, they cannot be there
    indicted, until a change of population. In the event the latter
    view is taken by the civil courts, I suggest the propriety of
    trying Jo Smith and those leaders taken by General Lucas, by a
    court martial, for mutiny. This I am in favor of only as _dernier
    resort_. I would have taken this course with Smith at any rate;
    but it being doubtful whether a court martial has jurisdiction or
    not in the present case--that is, whether these people are to be
    treated as in time of war, and the mutineers as having mutinied
    in time of war--and I would here ask you to forward to me the
    attorney-general's opinion on this point. It will not do to allow
    these leaders to return to their treasonable work again, on account
    of their not being indicted in Caldwell. They have committed
    _treason, murder, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny, and perjury_.

The three days' investigation having closed at Adam-ondi-Ahman, every
man was honorably acquitted, Adam Black being judge.

[Sidenote: Hardships Inflicted on the "Diahman" Saints.]

General Wilson then ordered every family to be out of Diahman in ten
days, with permission to go to Caldwell, and there tarry until spring,
and then leave the state under pain of extermination. The weather is
very cold, more so than usual for this season of the year.

In keeping the order of General Wilson the Saints had to leave their
crops and houses, and to live in tents and wagons, in this inclement
season of the year. As for their flocks and herds, the mob had relieved
them from the trouble of taking care of them, or from the pain of
seeing them starve to death--by stealing them.

An arrangement was made in which it was stipulated that a committee of
twelve, which had been previously appointed, should have the privilege
of going from Far West to Daviess county, for the term of four weeks,
for the purpose of conveying their crops from Daviess to Caldwell. The
committee were to wear white badges on their hats for protection.

{208} [Sidenote: Casualties of the Mobbing.]

About thirty of the brethren have been killed, many wounded, about
a hundred are missing, and about sixty at Richmond awaiting their
trial--for what they know not.

_Sunday, 11_.--While in Richmond we were under the charge of Colonel
Price from Chariton county, who allowed all manner of abuses to be
heaped upon us. During this time my afflictions were great, and our
situation was truly painful. [4]

{209} [Sidenote: List of the Prisoners.]

General Clark informed us that he would turn us over to the civil
authorities for trial. Joseph Smith, Jun., Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon,
Parley Pratt, Lyman Wight, Amasa Lyman, George W. Robinson, Caleb
Baldwin, Alanson Ripley, Washington Voorhees, Sidney Turner, John
Buchanan, Jacob Gates, Chandler Holbrook, George W. Harris, Jesse D.
Hunter, Andrew Whitlock, Martin C. Allred, William Allred, George D.
Grant, Darwin Chase, Elijah Newman, Alvin G. Tippets, Zedekiah Owens,
Isaac Morley, Thomas Beck, Moses Clawson, John J. Tanner, Daniel
Shearer, Daniel S. Thomas, Alexander McRae, Elisha Edwards, John S.
Higbee, Ebenezer Page, Benjamin Covey, Ebenezer Robinson, Luman Gibbs,
James M. Henderson, David Pettegrew, Edward Partridge, Francis Higbee,
David Frampton, George Kimball, Joseph W. Younger, Henry Zobriskie,
Allen J. Stout, Sheffield Daniels, Silas Maynard, Anthony Head,
Benjamin Jones, Daniel Garn, John T. Earl, and Norman Shearer, were
brought before Austin A. King, at Richmond, for trial, charged with the
several crimes of high treason against the state, murder, burglary,
arson, robbery, and larceny.

_Monday, 12_.--The first act of the court was to send out a body of
armed men, without a civil process, to obtain witnesses.

_Tuesday, 13_.--We were placed at the bar, Austin A. King presiding,
and Thomas C. Burch, the state's attorney. Witnesses were called and
sworn at the point of the bayonet.

[Sidenote: The Villainy of Avard.]

Dr. Sampson Avard was the first brought before the court. He had
previously told Mr. Oliver Olney that if he [Olney] wished to save
himself, he must swear hard against the heads of the Church, as they
were the ones the court wanted to criminate; and if he could swear hard
against them, they would not (that is, neither court nor mob) disturb
him. "I intend to do {210} it," said he, "in order to escape, for if I
do not, they will take my life."

This introduction is sufficient to show the character of his testimony,
and he swore just according to the statement he had made, doubtless
thinking it a wise course to ingratiate himself into the good graces of
the mob.

[Sidenote: List of Witnesses against the Saints.]

The following witnesses were examined in behalf of the state, many
of whom, if we may judge from their testimony, swore upon the same
principle as Avard, they were: Wyatt Cravens, Nehemiah Odle, Captain
Samuel Bogart, Morris Phelps, John Corrill, Robert Snodgrass, George
Walton, George M. Hinkle, James C. Owens, Nathaniel Carr, Abner
Scovil, John Cleminson, Reed Peck, James C. Owens (re-examined),
William Splawn, Thomas M. Odle, John Raglin, Allen Rathbun, Jeremiah
Myers, Andrew J. Job, Freeburn H. Gardner, Burr Riggs, Elisha Camron,
Charles Bleckley, James Cobb, Jesse Kelly, Addison Price, Samuel
Kimball, William W. Phelps, John Whitmer, James B. Turner, George W.
Worthington, Joseph H. McGee, John Lockhart, Porter Yale, Benjamin
Slade, Ezra Williams, Addison Green, John Taylor, Timothy Lewis, and
Patrich Lynch.

_Sunday, 18_.--While our suit was going forward General Wilson gave the
following permit, in Daviess county:

    _Permit_.

    I permit the following persons, as a committee on the part of
    the Mormons, to pass and re-pass in and through the county of
    Daviess during the winter, to-wit.: William Huntington, John Reed,
    Benjamin S. Wilbur, Mayhew Hillman, Z. Wilson, E. B. Gaylord, Henry
    Herriman, Daniel Stanton, Oliver Snow, William Earl, Jonathan H.
    Hale, Henry Humphrey--upon all lawful business.

    R. Wilson, Brig.-Gen. Commanding.

    By F. G. Cocknu, Aid.

    November 18, 1838.

[Sidenote: Treatment of Witnesses for the Defense.]

We were called upon for our witnesses, and we gave the names of some
forty or fifty. Captain Bogart was {211} despatched with a company of
militia to procure them. He arrested all he could find, thrust them
into prison, and we were not allowed to see them.

During the week we were again called upon most tauntingly for
witnesses; we gave the names of some others, and they were thrust into
prison, so many as were to be found.

In the meantime Malinda Porter, Delia F. Pine, Nancy Rigdon, Jonathan
W. Barlow, Thoret Parsons, Ezra Chipman, and Arza Judd, Jun.,
volunteered, and were sworn, on the defense, but were prevented as much
as possible by threats from telling the truth. We saw a man at the
window by the name of Allen, and beckoned him to come in, and had him
sworn, but when he did not testify to please the court, several rushed
upon him with their bayonets, and he fled the place; three men took
after him with loaded guns, and he barely escaped with his life. It was
of no use to get any more witnesses, even if we could have done so.

[Sidenote: Some Prisoners Discharged.]

Thus this mock investigation continued from day to day, till Saturday,
when several of the brethren were discharged by Judge King as follows--

    Defendants against whom nothing is proven, viz., Amasa Lyman, John
    Buchanan, Andrew Whitlock, Alvah L. Tippets, Jedediah Owens, Isaac
    Morley, John J. Tanner, Daniel S. Thomas, Elisha Edwards, Benjamin
    Covey, David Frampton, Henry Zobriskie, Allen J. Stout, Sheffield
    Daniels, Silas Maynard, Anthony Head, John T. Earl, Ebenezer Brown,
    James Newberry, Sylvester Hulett, Chandler Holbrook, Martin C.
    Allred, William Allred. The above defendants have been discharged
    by me, there being no evidence against them.

    Austin A. King, Judge, etc.

    November 24, 1838.

[Sidenote: Misconception of the Church Organization.]

Our Church organization was converted, by the testimony of the
apostates, into a temporal kingdom, which was to fill the whole earth
and subdue all other kingdoms.

{212} The judge, who by the by was a Methodist, asked much concerning
our views of the prophecy of Daniel: "In the days of these kings shall
the God of heaven set up a kingdom which shall break in pieces all
other kingdoms, and stand forever," * * * * "and the kingdom and the
greatness of the kingdom, under the whole heaven, shall be given to the
Saints of the Most High." As if it were treason to believe the Bible.
[5]

[Sidenote: Ashby's Report of Haun's Mills Massacre.]

_Wednesday, 28_.--Daniel Ashby, a member of the state senate, wrote
General Clark that he was in the battle [massacre] at Haun's Mills,
that thirty-one "Mormons" were killed, and seven of his party wounded.

[Sidenote: Prisoners Discharged and Retained.]

The remaining prisoners were all released or admitted to bail, except
Lyman Wight, Caleb Baldwin, Hyrum Smith, Alexander McRae, Sidney
Rigdon, and myself, who were sent to Liberty, Clay county, to jail,
to stand our trial for treason and murder. Our treason consisted of
having whipped the mob out of Daviess county, and taking their cannon
from them; the murder, of killing the man in the Bogart battle; also
Parley P. Pratt, Morris Phelps, Luman Gibbs, Darwin Chase, and Norman
Shearer, who were put into Richmond jail to stand their trial for the
same "crimes."

[Sidenote: Legal Advice to Cease Defense.]

During the investigation we were confined in chains and received much
abuse. The matter of driving away witnesses or casting them into
prison, or chasing them out of the county, was carried to such length
that our lawyers, General Doniphan and Amos Rees, told us not to bring
our witnesses {213} there at all; for if we did, there would not be one
of them left for final trial; for no sooner would Bogart and his men
know who they were, than they would put them out of the country.

As to making any impression on King, Doniphan said, if a cohort of
angels were to come down, and declare we were innocent, it would all be
the same; for he (King) had determined from the beginning to cast us
into prison. We never got the privilege of introducing our witnesses at
all; if we had, we could have disproved all the evidence of our enemies.

    _M. Arthur, Esq., to the Representatives from Clay County_.

    Liberty, November 29, 1838.

    Respected Friends:--Humanity to an injured people prompts me at
    present to address you thus: You were aware of the treatment (to
    some extent before you left home) received by that unfortunate race
    of beings called the Mormons, from Daviess, in the form of human
    beings inhabiting Daviess, Livingston, and part of Ray counties;
    not being satisfied with the relinquishment of all their rights
    as citizens and human beings, in the treaty forced upon them by
    General Lucas, by giving up their arms, and throwing themselves
    upon the mercy of the state, and their fellow citizens generally,
    hoping thereby protection of their lives and property, they are now
    receiving treatment from those demons, that makes humanity shudder,
    and the cold chills run over any man, not entirely destitute of the
    feelings of humanity. These demons are now constantly strolling
    up and down Caldwell county, in small companies armed, insulting
    the women in any way and every way, and plundering the poor devils
    of all the means of subsistence (scanty as it was) left them, and
    driving off their horses, cattle, hogs, etc., and rifling their
    houses and farms of everything therein, taking beds, bedding,
    wardrobes, robes, and such things as they see they want, leaving
    the poor Mormons in a starving and naked condition.

    These are facts I have from authority that cannot be questioned,
    and can be maintained and substantiated at any time. There is
    now a petition afloat in our town, signed by the citizens of all
    parties and grades, which will be sent you in a few days, praying
    the legislature to make some speedy enactment applicable to their
    case. They are entirely willing to leave our state, so soon as this
    inclement season is over; and a number have already left, and are
    leaving daily, scattering themselves to the four winds of the earth.

    {214} Now, sirs, I do not want by any means to dictate to you the
    course to be pursued, but one fact I will merely suggest. I this
    day was conversing with Mr. George M. Pryer, who is just from Far
    West, relating the outrages there committed daily. I suggested to
    him the propriety of the legislature's placing a guard to patrol
    on the lines of Caldwell county, say, of about twenty-five men,
    and give them, say, about one dollar or one and a half per day,
    each man, and find their provisions, etc., until, say, the first
    day of June next; these men rendering that protection necessary
    to the Mormons, and allowing them to follow and bring to justice
    any individuals who have heretofore or will hereafter be guilty
    of plundering or any violation of the laws. I would suggest that
    George M. Pryer be appointed captain of said guard, and that he be
    allowed to raise his own men, if he is willing thus to act. He is a
    man of correct habits, and will do justice to all sides, and render
    due satisfaction.

    Should this course not be approved of, I would recommend the
    restoration of their [the Mormons'] arms for their own protection.
    One or the other of these suggestions is certainly due the Mormons
    from the state. She has now their leaders prisoners, to the number
    of fifty or sixty, and I apprehend no danger from the remainder in
    any way until they will leave the state.

    M. Arthur.

Mr. Arthur is not a "Mormon," but a friend of man.

    _Attested Copy of the Mittimus under which Joseph Smith, Jun., and
    Others, were sent from Judge King to the Jailer of Liberty Prison,
    in Clay County, Missouri_.

    State Of Missouri,

    Clay County.

    _To the Keeper of the Jail of Clay County_:

    Greeting:--Whereas, Joseph Smith, Jun., Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight,
    Alexander McRae, and Caleb Baldwin, as also Sidney Rigdon, have
    been brought before me, Austin A. King, judge of the fifth judicial
    circuit in the state of Missouri, and charged with the offense of
    treason against the state of Missouri, and the said defendants, on
    their examination before me, being held to answer further to said
    charge, the said Joseph Smith, Jun., Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight,
    Alexander McRae, and Caleb Baldwin, to answer in the county of
    Daviess, and the said Sidney Rigdon to answer further in the county
    of Caldwell, for said charge of treason, and there being no jail
    in said counties; these are therefore to command that you receive
    the said Joseph Smith, Jun., Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight, Alexander
    {215} McRae, Caleb Baldwin, and Sidney Rigdon into your custody in
    the jail of the said county of Clay, there to remain until they be
    delivered therefrom by due course of law.

    Given under my hand and seal the 29th day of November, 1838.

    Austin A. King.

    State of Missouri, County of Clay.

    I, Samuel Hadley, sheriff of Clay county, do hereby certify that
    the above is a true copy of the mittimus to me, directed in the
    cases therein named.

    Samuel Hadley, Jailer.

    By Samuel Tillery, Deputy Jailer.

    Clay County, Missouri.

[Sidenote: In Liberty Prison.]

_Friday, 30_.--About this time those of us who had been sentenced
thereto, were conveyed to Liberty jail, put in close confinement, and
all communication with our friends cut off.

[Sidenote: Course of Wm. E. McLellin and Burr Riggs.]

During our trial William E. McLellin, accompanied by Burr Riggs and
others, at times were busy in plundering and robbing the houses of
Sidney Rigdon, George Morey, the widow Phebe Ann Patten, and others,
under pretense or color of law, on an order from General Clark, as
testified to by the members of the different families robbed. [6]

_Saturday, December 1, 1838_.--A committee on the part {216} of the
"Mormons" and a like committee on the part of the citizens of Daviess
county, met at Adam-ondi-Ahman, on the first of December, 1838, the
following propositions by the "Mormon" committee were made and agreed
to by the Daviess county committee:

    First--That the Mormon committee be allowed to employ, say twenty
    teamsters for the purpose of hauling off their property.

    Second--That the Mormon committee collect whatever stock they may
    have in Daviess county at some point, and some two or three of the
    Daviess county committee be notified to attend for the purpose of
    examining said stock, and convey or attend the Mormon committee out
    of the limits of the county; and it is further understood, that
    the Mormon committee is not to drive or take from this county any
    stock of any description, at any other time, nor under any other
    circumstances, than these mentioned.

    As witness our hands,

    William P. Peniston,

    Dr. K. Kerr,

    Adam Black,

    Committee.

    The above propositions were made and agreed to by the undersigned
    committee on the part of the Mormons.

    William Huntington,

    B. S. Wilbur,

    J. H. Hale,

    Henry Herriman,

    Z. Wilson.

Footnotes:

1. It was during this march between Crooked river and the Missouri
that the Prophet predicted that none of the prisoners would lose their
lives during their captivity. The incident is thus related by Parley
P. Pratt: "As we arose and commenced our march on the morning of the
3rd of November, Joseph Smith spoke to me and the other prisoners,
in a low, but cheerful and confidential tone; said he: '_Be of good
cheer, brethren; the word of the Lord came to me last night that our
lives should be given us, and that whatever we may suffer during this
captivity, not one of our lives shall be taken_.' Of this prophecy I
testify in the name of the Lord, and, though spoken in secret, its
public fulfillment and the miraculous escape of each one of us is too
notorious to need my testimony."--Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p.
210.

2. On this matter of competition for possession of the prisoners Parley
P. Pratt, one of the prisoners, repeats a statement made by General
Wilson as follows: "It was repeatedly insinuated, by the other officers
and troops that we should hang you prisoners on the first tree we came
to on the way to Independence. But I'll be d----d if anybody shall hurt
you. We just intend to exhibit you in Independence, let the people
look at you, and see what a d----d set of fine fellows you are. And,
more particularly, to keep you from that old bigot of a General Clark
and his troops, from down country who are so stuffed with lies and
prejudice that they would shoot you down in a moment."--Autobiography
of Parley P. Pratt, p. 209.

3. This speech of General Clark's is to be found in the "History of
Caldwell and Livingston counties, Missouri, written and compiled by
the St. Louis National Historical Company," 1886, and is introduced as
follows: "A few day after his arrival General Clark removed a portion
of the restraint he had imposed upon the Mormons' allowing them to
go out for wood, provisions, etc. He assembled the multitude on the
temple square and delivered to them a written speech, a copy of which
is here given. It goes far to prove that General Clark was ordered to
'exterminate' the Mormons, not excepting the women and children, and
burn their houses and otherwise destroy their property."--History of
Caldwell and Livington Counties, p. 140.

4. It was during this time that the very remarkable circumstance of
the Prophet rebuking the prison guards occurred. The matter is related
by Elder Parley P. Pratt in his Autobiography. It appears that during
the imprisonment at Richmond Elder Rigdon was taken very ill from the
hardships and exposure he had to endure. He was chained next to his
son-in-law, George W. Robinson, and compelled to sleep on the hard
floor notwithstanding his delirium, the result of fever. Mrs. Robinson,
the daughter of Elder Rigdon, had accompanied her husband and father
into the prison for the purpose of caring for the latter during his
illness. She is represented as being a very delicate woman with an
infant at the breast. She continued by the side of her father until
he recovered form his illness notwithstanding the loathsomeness of
the prison and the vileness of the guards. And now the story of the
rebuke as related by Elder Pratt: "In one of those tedious nights we
had lain as if in sleep till the hour of midnight had passed, and our
ears and hearts had been pained, while we had listened for hours to the
obscene jests, the horrid oaths, the dreadful blasphemies and filthy
language of our guards, Colonel Price at their head, as they recounted
to each other their deeds of rapine, murder, robbery, etc., which they
had committed among the "Mormons" while at Far West and vicinity.
They even boasted of defiling by force wives, daughters and virgins,
and of shooting or dashing out the brains of men, women and children.
I had listened till I became so disgusted, shocked, horrified, and
so filled with the spirit of indignant justice that I could scarcely
refrain from rising upon my feet and rebuking the guards; but had said
nothing to Joseph, or anyone else, although I lay next to him and
knew he was awake. On a sudden he arose to his feet, and spoke in a
voice of thunder, or as the roaring lion, uttering, as nearly as I can
recollect, the following words:

"'_Silence_, ye fiends of the infernal pit! In the name of Jesus Christ
I rebuke you, and command you to be still; I will not live another
minute and hear such language. Cease such talk, or you or I die _this
instant_!'

He ceased to speak. He stood erect in terrible majesty. Chained, and
without a weapon; calm, unruffled and dignified as an angel, he looked
upon the quailing guards, whose weapons were lowered or dropped to the
ground; whose knees smote together, and who, shrinking into a corner,
or crouching at his feet, begged his pardon, and remained quiet till a
change of guards.

"I have seen the ministers of justice, clothed in magisterial robes,
and criminals arraigned before them, while life was suspended on a
breath, in the courts of England; I have witnessed a Congress in solemn
session to give laws to nations; I have tried to conceive of kings,
of royal courts, of thrones and crowns; and of emperors assembled to
decide the fate of kingdoms; but dignity and majesty have I seen but
once, as it stood in chains, at midnight in a dungeon, in an obscure
village in Missouri."--Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 228-230.

5. Respecting this inquiry concerning the passage in Daniel's prophecy,
Elder Parley P. Pratt writes: "This court of inquisition inquired
diligently into our belief of the seventh chapter of Daniel concerning
the kingdom of God, which should subdue all other kingdoms and stand
forever. And when told that we believed in that prophecy, the court
turned to the clerk and said: 'Write that down; it is a strong point
for treason.' Our lawyer observed as follows: 'Judge, you had better
make the Bible treason.' The court made no reply."--Autobiography of
Parley P. Pratt, p. 230.

6. Further concerning the apostasy and conduct of William E. McLellin,
soon after the Prophet and his associates were taken prisoners at Far
West, Parley P. Pratt says: "While thus confined, William E. McLellin,
once my fellow laborer in the Gospel, but now a Judas, with hostile
weapon in hand to destroy the Saints, came to me and observed: 'Well,
Parley, you have now got where you are certain never to escape; how do
you feel as to the course you have taken in religion?' I answered, that
I had taken the course which I should take if I had my life to live
over again. He seemed thoughtful for a moment, and then replied: 'Well,
I think, if I were you, I should die as I had lived; at any rate, I see
no possibility of escape for you and your friends.'"--Autobiography of
Parley P. Pratt, p. 206.

While the brethren were imprisoned at Richmond it is said the
"McLellin, who was a large and active man, went to the sheriff and
asked for the privilege of flogging the Prophet. Permission was granted
on condition that Joseph would fight. The sheriff made known to Joseph
McLellin's earnest request, to which Joseph consented, if his irons
were taken off. McLellin then refused to fight unless he could have
a club, to which Joseph was perfectly willing; but the sheriff would
not allow them to fight on such unequal terms. McLellin was a man
of superficial education, though he had a good flow of language. He
adopted the profession of medicine."--Mill. Star, vol., xxxvi: pp. 808,
809.

{217}



CHAPTER XV.

The Case Of The Saints Presented To The Missouri Legislature--The
Prophet's Communication To The Saints From Liberty Prison.

[Sidenote: Report of Governor Boggs to the Legislature.]

_Wednesday, December 5_.--The Missouri Legislature having assembled,
Governor Boggs laid before the House of Representatives all the
information in his possession relative to the difficulties between the
mob and the "Mormons."

_Monday, December 10_.--

    _Memorial of a Committee to the State Legislature of Missouri in
    Behalf of the Citizens of Caldwell County_.

    _To the Honorable Legislature of the State of Missouri in Senate
    and House of Representatives convened_:

    We, the undersigned petitioners and inhabitants of Caldwell county,
    Missouri, in consequence of the late calamity that has come upon us
    taken in connection with former afflictions, feel it a duty we owe
    to ourselves and our country to lay our case before your honorable
    body for consideration. It is a well known fact, that a society of
    our people commenced settling in Jackson county, Missouri, in the
    summer of 1831, where they, according to their ability, purchased
    lands, and settled upon them, with the intention and expectation of
    becoming permanent citizens in common with others.

    Soon after the settlement began, persecution commenced; and as the
    society increased, persecution also increased, until the society
    at last was compelled to leave the county; and although an account
    of these persecutions has been published to the world, yet we feel
    that it will not be improper to notice a few of the most prominent
    items in this memorial.

    On the 20th of July, 1833, a mob convened at Independence--a
    committee of which called upon a few of the men of our Church
    there, and {218} stated to them that the store, printing office,
    and indeed all other mechanic shops must be closed forthwith, and
    the society leave the county immediately.

    These propositions were so unexpected, that a certain time was
    asked for to consider on the subject, before an answer should
    be returned, which was refused, and our men being individually
    interrogated, each one answered that he could not consent to comply
    with their propositions. One of the mob replied that he was sorry,
    for the work of destruction would commence immediately.

    In a short time the printing-office, which was a two story brick
    building, was assailed by the mob and soon thrown down, and with
    it much valuable property destroyed. Next they went to the store
    for the same purpose; but Mr. Gilbert, one of the owners, agreeing
    to close it, they abandoned their design. Their next move was
    the dragging of Bishop Partridge from his house and family to
    the public square, where, surrounded by hundreds, they partially
    stripped him of his clothes, and tarred and feathered him from head
    to foot. A man by the name of Allen was also tarred at the same
    time. This was Saturday, and the mob agreed to meet the following
    Tuesday, to accomplish their purpose of driving or massacring the
    society.

    Tuesday came, and the mob came also, bearing with them a red
    flag in token of blood. Some two or three of the principal men
    of the society offered their lives, if that would appease the
    wrath of the mob, so that the rest of the society might dwell in
    peace upon their lands. The answer was, that unless the society
    would leave _en masse_, every man should die for himself. Being
    in a defenseless situation, to save a general massacre, it was
    agreed that one half of the society should leave the county by the
    first of the next January, and the remainder by the first of the
    following April. A treaty was entered into and ratified, and all
    things went on smoothly for awhile. But sometime in October, the
    wrath of the mob began again to be kindled, insomuch that they
    shot at some of our people, whipped others, and threw down their
    houses, and committed many other depredations; indeed the society
    of Saints were harassed for some time both day and night; their
    houses were brick-batted and broken open and women and children
    insulted. The store-house of A. S. Gilbert and Company was broken
    open, ransacked, and some of the goods strewed in the streets.

    These abuses, with many others of a very aggravated nature, so
    stirred up the indignant feelings of our people, that when a party
    of them, say about thirty, met a company of the mob of about double
    their number, a skirmish took place, in which some two or three of
    the mob, and one of our people, were killed. This raised, as it
    were, the whole county in arms, and nothing would satisfy the mob
    but an {219} immediate surrender of the arms of our people, who
    forthwith were to leave the county. Fifty-one guns were given up,
    which have never been returned, or paid for, to this day. The next
    day, parties of the mob, from fifty to seventy, headed by priests,
    went from house to house, threatening women and children with death
    if they were not gone before they returned. This so alarmed our
    people that they fled in different directions; some took shelter in
    the woods, while others wandered in the prairies till their feet
    bled; and the weather being very cold, their sufferings in other
    respects were great.

    The society made their escape to Clay county as fast as they
    possibly could, where the people received them kindly, and
    administered to their wants. After the society had left Jackson
    county, their buildings, amounting to about two hundred, were
    either burned or otherwise destroyed, and much of their crops, as
    well as furniture and stock; which if properly estimated would make
    a large sum, for the loss of which they have not as yet received
    any remuneration.

    The society remained in Clay county nearly three years; when, at
    the suggestion of the people there, they removed to that section of
    the state known as Caldwell county. Here the people bought out most
    of the former inhabitants, and also entered much of the wild land.
    Many soon owned a number of eighties [eighty acres] while there
    was scarcely a man who did not secure to himself at least a forty
    [forty acres]. Here we were permitted to enjoy peace for a season;
    but as our society increased in numbers, and settlements were made
    in Daviess and Carroll counties, the mob spirit spread itself
    again. For months previous to our giving up our arms to General
    Lucas' army, we heard little else than rumors of mobs collecting in
    different places and threatening our people. It is well known that
    the people of our Church, who had located themselves at De Witt,
    had to give up to a mob, and leave the place, notwithstanding the
    militia were called out for their protection.

    From De Witt the mob went towards Daviess county, and while on
    their way there they took two of our men prisoners, and made them
    ride upon the cannon, and told them that they would drive the
    "Mormons" from Daviess to Caldwell, and from Caldwell to hell;
    and that they would give them no quarter, only at the cannon's
    mouth. The threats of the mob induced some of our people to go
    to Daviess to help to protect their brethren who had settled at
    Adam-ondi-Ahman, on Grand river. The mob soon fled from Daviess
    county; and after they were dispersed and the cannon taken, during
    which time no blood was shed, the people of Caldwell returned to
    their homes, in hopes of enjoying peace and quiet; but in this they
    were disappointed; for a large mob was soon found to be collecting
    on the Grindstone fork of Grand {220} river from ten to fifteen
    miles off, under the command of Cornelius Gillium, a scouting party
    of which came within four miles of Far West, in open daylight, and
    drove off stock belonging to our people.

    About this time, word came to Far West that a party of the mob
    had come into Caldwell county to the south of Far West; that they
    were taking horses and cattle, burning houses and ordering the
    inhabitants to leave their homes immediately; and that they had
    then actually in their possession three men prisoners. This report
    reached Far West in the evening, and was confirmed about midnight.
    A company of about sixty men went forth under the command of David
    W. Patten to disperse the mob, as they supposed. A battle was the
    result, in which Captain Patten and three of his men were killed,
    and others wounded. Bogart, it appears, had but one killed and
    others wounded. Notwithstanding the unlawful acts committed by
    Captain Bogart's men previous to the battle, it is now asserted and
    claimed that he was regularly ordered out as a militia captain, to
    preserve the peace along the line of Ray and Caldwell counties.
    The battle was fought four or five days previous to the arrival
    of General Lucas and his army. About the time of the battle with
    Captain Bogart, a number of our people who were living near
    Haun's mill, on Shoal creek, about twenty miles below Far West,
    together with a number of emigrants who had been stopped there in
    consequence of the excitement, made an agreement with the mob in
    that vicinity that neither party should molest the other, but dwell
    in peace. Shortly after this agreement was made, a mob party of
    from two to three hundred, many of whom are supposed to be from
    Chariton county, some from Daviess, and also those who had agreed
    to dwell in peace, came upon our people there, whose number in men
    was about forty, at a time they little expected any such thing, and
    without any ceremony, notwithstanding they begged for quarter, shot
    them down as they would tigers or panthers. Some few made their
    escape by fleeing. Eighteen were killed and a number more were
    severely wounded.

    This tragedy was conducted in the most brutal and savage manner. An
    old man [Father Thomas McBride] after the massacre was partially
    over, threw himself into their hands and begged for quarter, when
    he was instantly shot down; that not killing him, they took an old
    corn cutter and literally mangled him to pieces. [1] A lad of ten
    years of age, after being shot down, also begged to be spared, when
    one of the mob placed the muzzle of his gun to the boy's head and
    blew out his brains. {221} The slaughter of these not satisfying
    the mob, they then proceeded to rob and plunder. The scene that
    presented itself after the massacre, to the widows and orphans of
    the killed, is beyond description. It was truly a time of weeping,
    mourning and lamentation.

    As yet we have not heard of any one being arrested for these
    murders, notwithstanding there are men boasting about the country
    that they did kill on that occasion more than one "Mormon;" whereas
    all our people who were in the battle with Captain Patten against
    Bogart, that can be found, have been arrested, and are now confined
    in jail to await their trial for murder.

    When General Lucas arrived near Far West, and presented the
    Governor's order, we were greatly surprised; yet we felt willing to
    submit to the authorities of the state. We gave up our arms without
    reluctance. We were then made prisoners, and confined to the limits
    of the town for about a week, during which time the men from the
    country were not permitted to go to their families, many of whom
    were in a suffering condition for want of food and firewood, the
    weather being very cold and stormy.

    Much property was destroyed by the troops in town during their stay
    there, such as burning house logs, rails, corn-cribs, boards; the
    using of corn and hay, the plundering of houses, the killing of
    cattle, sheep and hogs, and also the taking of horses not their
    own; and all this without regard to owners, or asking leave of any
    one. In the meantime men were abused, women insulted and abused by
    the troops; and all this while we were kept prisoners.

    Whilst the town was guarded, we were called together by the order
    of General Lucas, and a guard placed close around us, and in that
    situation we were compelled to sign a deed of trust for the purpose
    of making our individual property, all holden, as they said, to
    pay all the debts of every individual belonging to the Church, and
    also to pay for all damages the old inhabitants of Daviess may have
    sustained in consequence of the late difficulties in that county.

    General Clark had now arrived, and the first important move made
    by him was the collecting of our men together on the square and
    selecting about fifty of them, whom he immediately marched into
    a house, and placed in close confinement. This was done without
    the aid of the {222} sheriff, or any legal process. The next day
    forty-six of those taken, were driven off to Richmond, like a
    parcel of menial slaves, not knowing why they were taken, or what
    they were taken for. After being confined in Richmond more than
    two weeks, about one half were liberated; the rest, after another
    week's confinement, were required to appear at court, and have
    since been let to bail. Since General Clark withdrew his troops
    from Far West, parties of armed men have gone through the country,
    driving off horses, sheep and cattle, and also plundering houses;
    the barbarity of General Lucas' troops ought not to be passed over
    in silence. They shot our cattle and hogs merely for the sake of
    destroying them, leaving them for the ravens to eat. They took
    prisoner an aged man by the name of John Tanner, and without any
    reason for it, he was struck over the head with a gun, which laid
    his skull bare. Another man by the name of Carey was also taken
    prisoner by them, and without any provocation had his brains dashed
    out by a gun. He was laid in a wagon and there permitted to remain
    for the space of twenty-four hours; during which time no one was
    permitted to administer to him comfort or consolation; and after he
    was removed from that situation, he lived but a few hours.

    The destruction of property at and about Far West is very great.
    Many are stripped bare, as it were, and others partially so; indeed
    take us as a body at this time, we are a poor and afflicted people;
    and if we are compelled to leave the state in the Spring, many,
    yes a large portion of our society, will have to be removed at the
    expense of the state; as those who might have helped them are now
    debarred that privilege in consequence of the deed of trust we were
    compelled to sign; which deed so operated upon our real estate,
    that it will sell for but little or nothing at this time.

    We have now made a brief statement of some of the most prominent
    features of the troubles that have befallen our people since
    our first settlement in this state; and we believe that these
    persecutions have come in consequence of our religious faith, and
    not for any immorality on our part. That instances have been, of
    late, where individuals have trespassed upon the rights of others,
    and thereby broken the laws of the land, we will not pretend to
    deny; but yet we do believe that no crime can be substantiated
    against any of the people who have a standing in our Church of an
    earlier date than the difficulties in Daviess county. And when it
    is considered that the rights of this people have been trampled
    upon from time to time with impunity, and abuses almost innumerable
    heaped upon them it ought in some degree to palliate for any
    infraction of the law which may have been made on the part of our
    people.

    The late order of Governor Boggs to drive us from the state, or
    {223} exterminate us, is a thing so novel, unlawful, tyrannical,
    and oppressive, that we have been induced to draw up this memorial,
    and present this statement of our case to your honorable body,
    praying that a law may be passed, rescinding the order of the
    governor to drive us from the state, and also giving us the
    sanction of the legislature to possess our lands in peace. We ask
    an expression of the legislature, disapproving the conduct of those
    who compelled us to sign a deed of trust, and also disapproving
    of any man or set of men taking our property in consequence of
    that deed of trust, and appropriating it to the payment of debts
    not contracted by us or for the payment of damages sustained in
    consequence of trespasses committed by others.

    We have no common stock; our property is individual property, and
    we feel willing to pay our debts as other individuals do; but we
    are not willing to be bound for other people's debts. The arms
    which were taken from us here, which we understand to be about
    six hundred and thirty, besides swords and pistols, we care not
    so much about, as we do the pay for them; only we are bound to do
    military duty, which we are willing to do, and which we think was
    sufficiently manifested by the raising of a volunteer company last
    fall at Far West when called upon by General Parks to raise troops
    for the frontier.

    The arms given up by us, we consider were worth between twelve and
    fifteen thousand dollars; but we understand they have been greatly
    damaged since taken, and at this time probably would not bring near
    their former value. And as they were, both here and in Jackson
    county, taken by the militia, and consequently by the authority
    of the state, we therefore ask your honorable body to cause an
    appropriation to be made by law, whereby we may be paid for them,
    or otherwise have them returned to us, and the damages made good.

    The losses sustained by our people in leaving Jackson county are
    such that it is impossible to obtain any compensation for them by
    law, because those who have sustained them are unable to prove
    those trespasses upon individuals. That the facts do exist that
    the buildings, crops, stock, furniture, rails, timber, etc., of
    the society have been destroyed in Jackson county, is not doubted
    by those who are acquainted in this upper country [the part of the
    state north of the Missouri river was so called]; and since these
    trespasses cannot be proven upon individuals, we ask your honorable
    body to consider this case; and if in your liberality and wisdom
    you can conceive it to be proper to make an appropriation by law to
    these sufferers, many of whom are still pressed down with poverty
    in consequence of their losses, they would be able to pay their
    debts, and also in some degree be relieved from poverty and woe;
    whilst the widow's heart would be made to rejoice, and the orphan's
    tear measurably dried up, and the prayers of a {224} grateful
    people ascend on high, with thanksgiving and praise to the Author
    of our existence for such beneficent act.

    In laying our ease before your honorable body, we say that we are
    willing, and ever have been, to conform to the Constitution and
    laws of the United States, and of this state. We ask, in common
    with others, the protection of the laws. We ask for the privilege
    guaranteed to all free citizens of the United States, and of this
    state, to be extended to us that we may be permitted to settle and
    live where we please, and worship God according to the dictates of
    our conscience without molestation. And while we ask for ourselves
    this privilege, we are willing all others should enjoy the same.

    We now lay our case at the feet of you legislators, and ask
    your honorable body to consider it, and do for us, after mature
    deliberation, that which your wisdom, patriotism and philanthropy
    may dictate. And we, as in duty bound, will ever pray.

    Edward Partridge,

    Heber C. Kimball,

    John Taylor,

    Theodore Turley,

    Brigham Young,

    Isaac Morley,

    George W. Harris,

    John Murdock,

    John M. Burk.

    A committee appointed by the citizens of Caldwell county, to draft
    the memorial and sign it in their behalf.

    Far West, Caldwell county, Missouri, December 10, 1838.

    _Minutes of a high Council Held at Far West, Thursday, December 13,
    1838_.

    Agreeable to appointment, the standing High Council met, when it
    was found that several were absent, who, (some of them) have had
    to flee for their lives; therefore it being necessary that those
    vacancies be filled, the meeting was called for that purpose, and
    also to express each other's feelings respecting the word of the
    Lord; President Brigham Young presiding.

    The council was opened by prayer by Elder Kimball. After prayer,
    President Young made a few remarks, saying he thought it all
    important to have the Council reorganized, and prepared to do
    business. He advised the councilors to be wise and judicious in
    all their movements, and not hasty in their transactions. As for
    his faith, it was the same as ever; and he fellowshiped all such
    as loved the Gospel of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, in act as
    well as word.

    {225} Elder Kimball arose and said he felt as formerly, for he had
    endeavored to keep a straightforward course; but wherein he had
    been out of the way in any manner, he meant to mend in that thing;
    and he was determined, as far as possible, to do as he would be
    done by; and his faith was as good as ever; he was in fellowship
    with all who wanted to do right.

    Simeon Carter said, as to his faith in the work it was the same
    as ever; he did not think that Joseph was a fallen Prophet,
    but he believed in every revelation that had come through him;
    still he thought that perhaps Joseph had not acted in all things
    according to the best wisdom; yet how far he had been unwise he
    could not say. He did not think that Joseph would be removed and
    another planted in his stead; but he believed that he would still
    perform his work. He was still determined to persevere and act in
    righteousness in all things, so that he might at last gain a crown
    of glory, and reign in the kingdom of God.

    Jared Carter, responded to President Brigham Young's feelings, and
    wished all to walk with the brethren.

    Thomas Grover said he was firm in the faith, and he believed the
    time would come when Joseph would stand before kings, and speak
    marvelous words.

    David Dort expressed his feelings in a similar manner.

    Levi Jackman says his faith is the same as ever, and he has
    confidence in Brother Joseph, as ever.

    Solomon Hancock says he is a firm believer in the Book of Mormon
    and Doctrine and Covenants, and that Brother Joseph is not a fallen
    prophet, but will yet be exalted and become very high.

    John Badger says his confidence in the work is the same as ever,
    and his faith, if possible, is stronger than ever. He believes that
    it was necessary that these scourges should come.

    George W. Harris says that, as it respects the scourges which have
    come upon us, the hand of God was in it.

    Samuel Bent says that his faith is as it ever was, and that
    he feels to praise God in prisons and in dungeons, and in all
    circumstances.

    After some consultation it was thought expedient to nominate High
    Priests to fill the vacancies.

    The Council was organized as follows: Simeon Carter. No. 1; Jared
    Carter, 2; Thomas Grover 3; David Dort, 4; Levi Jackman, 5; Solomon
    Hancock, 6; John Badger, 7; John Murdock, 8; John E. Page, 9;
    George W. Harris, 10; John Taylor, 11; Samuel Bent, 12.

    Voted that John Murdock fill the vacancy of John P. Greene, No. 4,
    and David Dort the place of Elias Higbee, No. 11, and John Badger
    the place of George Morey, No. 7, and Lyman Sherman the place of
    Newel Knight, until he returns.

    {226} Council adjourned until Friday evening, six o'clock. Closed
    by prayer by President Brigham Young.

    E. Robinson, Clerk

Isaac Russell, who had become connected with a small camp of the
Saints, of about thirty families, going west, turned from his course
at Louisiana, and led them north ten miles on the Spanish claims,
where they built huts or lived in tents through the winter in great
suffering. Russell turned prophet (apostate). He said Joseph had fallen
and he was appointed to lead the people.

Chandler Rogers, who was moving west, was met by a mob at Huntsville,
and compelled to turn back, and fell in with Russell's camp. Russell
said he was "the chosen of the Lord;" and when they left the place,
they would have to go on foot, and take nothing with them, and they
must sell their teams. Some would not sell and he cursed them.

_Sunday, December 16_.--I wrote the following letter:

    _The Prophet's Letter to the Church_.

    Liberty Jail, Missouri,

    December 16, 1838.

    To the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Caldwell
    county, and all the Saints who are scattered abroad, who are
    persecuted, and made desolate, and who are afflicted in divers
    manners for Christ's sake and the Gospel's, by the hands of a cruel
    mob and the tyrannical disposition of the authorities of this
    state; and whose perils are greatly augmented by the wickedness and
    corruption of false brethren, greeting:

    May grace, mercy, and the peace of God be and abide with you; and
    notwithstanding all your sufferings, we assure you that you have
    our prayers and fervent desires for your welfare, day and night.
    We believe that that God who seeth us in this solitary place, will
    hear our prayers, and reward you openly.

    Know assuredly, dear brethren, that it is for the testimony of
    Jesus that we are in bonds and in prison. But we say unto you,
    that we consider that our condition is better (notwithstanding our
    sufferings) than that of those who have persecuted us, and smitten
    us, and borne false witness against us; and we most assuredly
    believe that those who do bear false witness against us, do seem
    to have a great triumph over us {227} for the present. But we want
    you to remember Haman and Mordecai: you know that Haman could not
    be satisfied so long as he saw Mordecai at the king's gate, and he
    sought the life of Mordecai and the destruction of the people of
    the Jews. But the Lord so ordered it, that Haman was hanged upon
    his own gallows.

    So shall it come to pass with poor Haman in the last days, and
    those who have sought by unbelief and wickedness and by the
    principle of mobocracy to destroy us and the people of God, by
    killing and scattering them abroad, and wilfully and maliciously
    delivering us into the hands of murderers, desiring us to be put
    to death, thereby having us dragged about in chains and cast into
    prison. And for what cause? It is because we were honest men, and
    were determined to defend the lives of the Saints at the expense of
    our own. I say unto you, that those who have thus vilely treated
    us, like Haman, shall be hanged upon their own gallows; or, in
    other words, shall fall into their own gin, and snare, and ditch,
    and trap, which they have prepared for us, and shall go backwards
    and stumble and fall, and their name shall be blotted out, and God
    shall reward them according to all their abominations.

    Dear brethren, do not think that our hearts faint, as though some
    strange thing had happened unto us, for we have seen and been
    assured of all these things beforehand, and have an assurance of a
    better hope than that of our persecutors. Therefore God hath made
    broad our shoulders for the burden. We glory in our tribulation,
    because we know that God is with us, that He is our friend, and
    that He will save our souls. We do not care for them that can kill
    the body; they cannot harm our souls. We ask no favors at the hands
    of mobs, nor of the world, nor of the devil, nor of his emissaries
    the dissenters, and those who love, and make, and swear falsehoods,
    to take away our lives. We have never dissembled, nor will we for
    the sake of our lives.

    Forasmuch, then, as we know that we have been endeavoring with
    all our mind, might, and strength, to do the will of God, and
    all things whatsoever He has commanded us; and as to our light
    speeches, which may have escaped our lips from time to time, they
    have nothing to do with the fixed purposes of our hearts; therefore
    it sufficeth us to say, that our souls were vexed from day to day.
    We refer you to Isaiah, who considers those who make a man an
    offender for a word, and lay a snare for him that reproveth in the
    gate. We believe that the old Prophet verily told the truth: and
    we have no retraction to make. We have reproved in the gate, and
    men have laid snares for us. We have spoken words, and men have
    made us offenders. And notwithstanding all this, our minds are not
    yet darkened, but feel strong in the {228} Lord. But behold the
    words of the Savior: "If the light which is in you become darkness,
    behold how great is that darkness." Look at the dissenters. Again,
    "If you were of the world the world would love its own." Look at
    Mr. Hinkle--a wolf in sheep's clothing. Look at his brother John
    Corrill. Look at the beloved brother Reed Peck, who aided him in
    leading us, as the Savior was led, into the camp of His enemies,
    as a lamb prepared for the slaughter, as a sheep dumb before his
    shearers; so we opened not our mouths.

    But these men, like Balaam, being greedy for reward, sold us into
    the hands of those who loved them, for the world loves his own.
    I would remember William E. McLellin, who comes up to us as one
    of Job's comforters. God suffered such kind of beings to afflict
    Job--but it never entered into their hearts that Job would get out
    of it all. This poor man who professes to be much of a prophet,
    has no other dumb ass to ride but David Whitmer, [2] to forbid his
    madness when he goes up to curse Israel; and this ass not being of
    the same kind as Balaam's, therefore, the angel notwithstanding
    appeared unto him, yet he could not penetrate his understanding
    sufficiently, but that he prays out cursings instead of blessings.
    Poor ass! Whoever lives to see it, will see him and his rider
    perish like those who perished in the gain-saying of Korah, or
    after the same condemnation. Now as for these and the rest of their
    company, we will not presume to say that the world loves them; but
    we presume to say they love the world, and we classify them in the
    error of Balaam, and in the gain-sayings of Korah, and with the
    company of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram.

    Perhaps our brethren will say, because we thus write, that we are
    offended at these characters. If we are, it is not for a word,
    neither because they reproved in the gate--but because they have
    been the means of shedding innocent blood. Are they not murderers
    then at heart? Are not their consciences seared as with a hot iron?
    We confess that we are offended; but the Savior said, "It must
    needs be that offenses come, but woe unto them by whom they come."
    And again, "Blessed are ye when men shall revile you, and persecute
    you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely for my
    sake; rejoice and be exceeding glad, for great is your reward in
    heaven, for so persecuted they the Prophets which were before you."

    Now, dear brethren, if any men ever had reason to claim this
    promise, we are the men; for we know that the world not only hate
    as, {229} but they speak all manner of evil of us falsely, for
    no other reason than that we have been endeavoring to teach the
    fullness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

    After we were bartered away by Hinkle, and were taken into the
    militia camp, we had all the evidence we could have asked for that
    the world hated us. If there were priests among them of all the
    different sects, they hated us, and that most cordially too. If
    there were generals, they hated us; if there were colonels, they
    hated us; and the soldiers, and officers of every kind, hated us;
    and the most profane, blasphemous, and drunkards; and whoremongers,
    hated us--they all hated us, most cordially. And now what did they
    hate us for? Purely because of the testimony of Jesus Christ. Was
    it because we were liars? We know that it has been so reported
    by some, but it has been reported falsely. Was it because we
    have committed treason against the government in Daviess County,
    or burglary, or larceny, or arson, or any other unlawful act in
    Daviess County? We know that we have been so reported by priests,
    and certain lawyers, and certain judges, who are the instigators,
    aiders, and abettors of a certain gang of murderers and robbers,
    who have been carrying on a scheme of mobocracy to uphold their
    priestcraft, against the Saints of the last days; and for a number
    of years have tried, by a well contemplated and premeditated
    scheme, to put down by physical power a system of religion that
    all the world, by their mutual attainments, and by any fair means
    whatever, were not able to resist.

    Hence mobbers were encouraged by priests and Levites, by the
    Pharisees, by the Sadducees, and Essenes, and Herodians, and the
    most worthless, abandoned, and debauched, lawless, and inhuman,
    and the most beastly set of men that the earth can boast of--and
    indeed a parallel cannot be found anywhere else--to gather together
    to steal, to plunder, to starve, and to exterminate, and burn the
    houses of the "Mormons."

    These are characters that, by their treasonable and overt acts,
    have desolated and laid waste Daviess county. These are the
    characters that would fain make all the world believe that we are
    guilty of the above named acts. But they represent us falsely; we
    stood in our own defense, and we believe that no man of us acted
    only in a just, a lawful, and a righteous retaliation against such
    marauders.

    We say unto you, that we have not committed treason, nor any other
    unlawful act in Daviess county. Was it for murder in Ray county,
    against mob-militia; who was as a wolf in the first instance, hide
    and hair, teeth, legs and tail, who afterwards put on a militia
    sheep skin with the wool on; who could sally fort, in the day time,
    into the flock, and snarl, and show his teeth, and scatter and
    devour the flock, and {230} satiate himself upon his prey, and then
    sneak back into the bramble in order that he might conceal himself
    in his well tried skin with the wool on?

    We are well aware that there is a certain set of priests and
    satellites, and mobbers that would fain make all the world believe
    that we were guilty of the doings of this howling wolf that made
    such havoc among the sheep, who, when he retreated, howled and
    bleated at such a desperate rate, that if one could have been
    there, he would have thought that all the wolves, whether wrapped
    up in sheep skins or in goat skins or in some other skins, and
    in fine all the beasts of the forest, were awfully alarmed, and
    catching the scent of innocent blood, they sallied forth with one
    tremendous howl and crying of all sorts; and such a howling, and
    such a tremendous havoc never was known before; such inhumanity,
    and relentless cruelty and barbarity as were practiced against the
    Saints in Missouri can scarcely be found in the annals of history.

    Now those characters if allowed to would make the world believe
    that we had committed murder, by making an attack upon this howling
    wolf, while the fact is we were at home and in our bed, and asleep,
    and knew nothing of that transaction any more than we know what is
    going on in China while we are within these walls. Therefore we
    say again unto you, we are innocent of these things, and they have
    represented us falsely.

    Was it for committing adultery that we were assailed? We are aware
    that that false slander has gone abroad, for it has been reiterated
    in our ears. These are falsehoods also. Renegade "Mormon"
    dissenters are running through the world and spreading various
    foul and libelous reports against us, thinking thereby to gain the
    friendship of the world, because they know that we are not of the
    world, and that the world hates us; therefore they [the world] make
    a tool of these fellows [the dissenters]; and by them try to do all
    the injury they can, and after that they hate them worse than they
    do us, because they find them to be base traitors and sycophants.

    Such characters God hates; we cannot love them. The world hates
    them, and we sometimes think that the devil ought to be ashamed of
    them.

    We have heard that it is reported by some, that some of us should
    have said, that we not only dedicated our property, but our
    families also to the Lord; and Satan, taking advantage of this, has
    perverted it into licentiousness, such as a community of wives,
    which is an abomination in the sight of God.

    When we consecrate our property to the Lord it is to administer to
    the wants of the poor and needy, for this is the law of God; it is
    not {231} for the benefit of the rich, those who have no need; and
    when a man consecrates or dedicates his wife and children, he does
    not give them to his brother, or to his neighbor, for there is no
    such law: for the law of God is, Thou shalt not commit adultery.
    Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife. He that looketh upon a
    woman to lust after her, has committed adultery already in his
    heart. Now for a man to consecrate his property, wife and children,
    to the Lord, is nothing more nor less than to feed the hungry,
    clothe the naked, visit the widow and fatherless, the sick and
    afflicted, and do all he can to administer to their relief in their
    afflictions, and for him and his house to serve the Lord. In order
    to do this, he and all his house must be virtuous, and must shun
    the very appearance of evil.

    Now if any person has represented anything otherwise than what we
    now write, he or she is a liar, and has represented us falsely--and
    this is another manner of evil which is spoken against us falsely.

    We have learned also since we have been prisoners, that many false
    and pernicious things, which were calculated to lead the Saints far
    astray and to do great injury, have been taught by Dr. Avard as
    coming from the Presidency, and we have reason to fear that many
    other designing and corrupt characters like unto himself, have
    been teaching many things which the Presidency never knew were
    being taught in the Church by anybody until after they were made
    prisoners. Had they known of such things they would have spurned
    them and their authors as they would the gates of hell. Thus we
    find that there have been frauds and secret abominations and evil
    works of darkness going on, leading the minds of the weak and
    unwary into confusion and distraction, and all the time palming
    it off upon the Presidency, while the Presidency were ignorant
    as well as innocent of those things which those persons were
    practicing in the Church in their name. Meantime the Presidency
    were attending to their own secular and family concerns, weighed
    down with sorrow, in debt, in poverty, in hunger, essaying to be
    fed, yet finding [_i. e_. supporting] themselves. They occasionally
    received deeds of charity, it is true; but these were inadequate to
    their subsistence; and because they received those deeds, they were
    envied and hated by those who professed to be their friends.

    But notwithstanding we thus speak, we honor the Church, when we
    speak of the Church as a Church, for their liberality, kindness,
    patience, and long suffering, and their continual kindness towards
    us.

    And now, brethren, we say unto you--what more can we enumerate?
    Is not all manner of evil of every description spoken of us
    falsely, yea, we say unto you falsely. We have been misrepresented
    and misunderstood, and belied, and the purity and integrity and
    uprightness of our hearts have not been known--and it is through
    ignorance--yea, the {232} very depths of ignorance is the cause
    of it; and not only ignorance, but on the part of some, gross
    wickedness and hypocrisy also; for some, by a long face and
    sanctimonious prayers, and very pious sermons, had power to lead
    the minds of the ignorant and unwary, and thereby obtain such
    influence that when we approached their iniquities the devil gained
    great advantage--would bring great trouble and sorrow upon our
    heads; and, in fine, we have waded through an ocean of tribulation
    and mean abuse, practiced upon us by the ill bred and the ignorant,
    such as Hinkle, Corrill, Phelps, Avard, Reed Peck, Cleminson, and
    various others, who are so very ignorant that they cannot appear
    respectable in any decent and civilized society, and whose eyes are
    full of adultery, and cannot cease from sin. Such characters as
    McLellin, John Whitmer, David Whitmer, Oliver Cowdery, and Martin
    Harris, are too mean to mention; and we had liked to have forgotten
    them. Marsh and "another," whose hearts are full of corruption,
    whose cloak of hypocrisy was not sufficient to shield them or to
    hold them up in the hour of trouble, who after having escaped the
    pollution of the world through the knowledge of their Lord and
    Savior Jesus Christ, became again entangled and overcome--their
    latter end is worse than the first. But it has happened unto them
    according to the word of the Scripture: "The dog has returned to
    his vomit, and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the
    mire."

    Again, if men sin wilfully after they have received the knowledge
    of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sin, but a
    certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation to
    come, which shall devour these adversaries. For he who despised
    Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses. Of how
    much more severe punishment suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy,
    who hath sold his brother, and denied the new and everlasting
    covenant by which he was sanctified, calling it an unholy thing,
    and doing despite to the Spirit of grace.

    And again we say unto you, that inasmuch as there is virtue in us,
    and the Holy Priesthood has been conferred upon us--and the keys
    of the kingdom have not been taken from us, for verily thus saith
    the Lord, "Be of good cheer, for the keys that I gave unto you are
    yet with you"--therefore we say unto you, dear brethren, in the
    name of the Lord Jesus Christ, we deliver these characters unto
    the buffetings of Satan until the day of redemption, that they may
    be dealt with according to their works; and from henceforth their
    works shall be made manifest.

    And now dear and well beloved brethren--and when we say brethren,
    we mean those who have continued faithful in Christ, men, women and
    children--we feel to exhort you in the name of the Lord Jesus, to
    be {233} strong in the faith in the new and everlasting covenant,
    and nothing frightened at your enemies. For what has happened
    unto us is an evident token to them of damnation; but unto us, of
    salvation, and that of God. Therefore hold on even unto death; for
    "he that seeks to save his life shall lose it; and he that loses
    his life for my sake, and the Gospel's, shall find it," saith Jesus
    Christ.

    Brethren, from henceforth, let truth and righteousness prevail
    and abound in you; and in all things be temperate; abstain from
    drunkenness, and from swearing, and from all profane language,
    and from everything which is unrighteous or unholy; also from
    enmity, and hatred, and covetousness, and from every unholy desire.
    Be honest one with another, for it seems that some have come
    short of these things, and some have been uncharitable, and have
    manifested greediness because of their debts towards those who have
    been persecuted and dragged about with chains without cause, and
    imprisoned. Such characters God hates--and they shall have their
    turn of sorrow in the rolling of the great wheel, for it rolleth
    and none can hinder. Zion shall yet live, though she seem to be
    dead.

    Remember that whatsoever measure you mete out to others, it shall
    be measured to you again. We say unto you, brethren, be not afraid
    of your adversaries; contend earnestly against mobs, and the
    unlawful works of dissenters and of darkness.

    And the very God of peace shall be with you, and make a way for
    your escape from the adversary of your souls. We commend you to
    God and the word of His grace, which is able to make us wise unto
    salvation. Amen.

    Joseph Smith, Jun.

Footnotes.

1. This barbarous deed is vividly described by President John Taylor in
his controversy with Mr. Schuyler Colfax, Vice-President of the United
States, 1870: "My mind wanders back upwards of thirty years ago, when,
in the state of Missouri, Mr. McBride, an old, grey-haired, venerable
veteran of the Revolution, with feeble frame and tottering steps, cried
to a Missouri patriot: 'Spare my life, I am a Revolutionary soldier,
I fought for liberty. Would you murder me? What is my offense, I
believe in God and revelation?' This frenzied disciple of misplaced
faith said: 'Take that, you ---- ---- Mormon,' and with the butt of
his gun he dashed his brains out, and he lay quivering there,--his
white locks clotted with his own brains and gore, on that soil that he
had heretofore shed his blood to redeem--a sacrifice at the shrine of
liberty! Shades of Franklin, Jefferson and Washington, were you there?
Did you gaze on this deed of blood? Did you see your companion in arms
thus massacred?"

2. In order to appreciate the allusions here made to David Whitmer it
will be necessary to remember that William E. M'Lellin claimed that
President Joseph Smith was a fallen prophet and himself sought to
bring into existence a re-organized church with David Whitmer as the
president thereof. See foot note in this volume at pages 31, 32.

{234}



CHAPTER XVI.

Case Of The "Mormons" Before The Missouri Legislature--Close Of The
Year 1838.

[Sidenote: Varied Reports as to the Intentions of the Saints.]

This day [16th December] Elder David H. Redfield arrived in Jefferson
City, and on Monday, 17th, presented the petition of the brethren to
General David R. Atchison and others, who were very anxious to hear
from Caldwell, as there were many reports in circulation, such as "the
Mormons kept up the Danite system," "were going to build the Lord's
house," and "more blood would be spilled before they left the state,"
which created a hardness in the minds of the people.

[Sidenote: Interview Between David H. Redfield and Governor Boggs.]

In the afternoon Brother Redfield had an interview with Governor Boggs,
who inquired about our people and property with as much apparent
interest as though his whole soul was engaged for our welfare; and said
that he had heard that "the citizens were committing depredations on
the 'Mormons,' and driving off their stock."

Brother Redfield informed him that armed forces came in the place and
abused men, women and children, stole horses, drove off cattle, and
plundered houses of everything that pleased their fancy.

Governor Boggs said that he would write Judge King and Colonel Price,
to go to Far West, and put down every hostile appearance. He also
stated that "the stipulations entered into by the 'Mormons' to leave
the state, and to sign the deed of trust, were unconstitutional, and
not valid."

Brother Redfield replied, "We want the legislature to pass a law to
that effect, showing that the stipulations {235} and deeds of trust
are not valid and are unconstitutional; and unless you do pass such a
law, we shall not consider ourselves safe in the state. You say there
has been a stain upon the character of the state, and now is the time
to pass some law to that effect; and unless you do, farewell to the
virtue of the state; farewell to her honor and good name; farewell to
her Christian virtue, until she shall be peopled by a different race of
men; farewell to every name that binds man to man; farewell to a fine
soil and a glorious home; they are gone, they are rent from us by a
lawless banditti."

_Tuesday, December 18_.--Mr. Turner, from the joint committee on the
"Mormon" investigation, submitted a report, preamble and resolutions,
as follows:

    _The Turner Committee Report to the Missouri Legislature_, [1]

    In Senate, Tuesday, December 18, 1838.

    Mr. Turner, from the joint committee on the Mormon investigation,
    submitted the following report, preamble and resolutions:

    The joint committee to whom was referred so much of the governor's
    message as relates to the recent difficulties between the people
    called Mormons, and a part of the people of this state, with
    instructions to inquire into the causes of said disturbances, and
    the conduct of the military operations in suppressing them, have
    taken the same under consideration, and would respectfully submit
    the following report and resolutions:

    They have thought it unwise and injudicious under all the existing
    circumstances of this case, to predicate a report upon the papers,
    documents, etc., purporting to be copies of the evidence taken
    before an examining court, held in Richmond, in Ray county, for the
    purpose of inquiring into the charges alleged against the people
    called Mormons, growing out of the late difficulties between that
    people and other citizens of this state.

    They consider the evidence adduced in the examination there held,
    in a great degree, _exparte_, and not of the character which should
    be desired for the basis of a fair and candid investigation.
    Moreover, the papers, documents, etc., have not been certified in
    such manner as to satisfy the committee of their authenticity.

    {236} It has been represented to them that the examining court has
    sent on for further trial, many of that class of citizens called
    Mormons, charged with various crimes and offenses; under the charge
    of treason, six: for murder and as accessories thereto, before
    and after the fact, eight; and for other felonies, twenty-seven.
    Special terms of the circuit court are expected to be held in
    the several counties, in which the above mentioned crimes are
    represented to have been committed. Grand juries will then have
    these charges against said people before them, and must act upon
    the same documentary evidence which the committee would necessarily
    be compelled to examine, by which circumstance two co-ordinate
    branches of this government may be brought into collision--a
    contingency that should be studiously avoided and cautiously
    guarded against.

    Another insuperable objection that has presented itself to the
    mind of the committee, and which would induce them to suspend an
    investigation, under present and existing circumstances, would
    be the consequences likely to result from a publication of their
    report. Those persons who have been sent on for further trial,
    have guaranteed to them the sacred and constitutional right of "a
    speedy trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage," and if the
    guilt of the accused should be confirmed by the report of the
    committee, it would so prejudice public sentiment against them, as
    to deprive them of that right, which should not be taken away by
    any consideration involved in this inquiry.

    If the committee were to find it necessary in the prosecution
    of their object, to have access to the papers, documents, etc.,
    connected with this difficulty, the probable interference of the
    several courts being in session, might seriously interrupt their
    views. It might reasonably be expected that all the evidence of
    every description, would be in the possession of the courts, to be
    used on the final trial, and by that means the investigation would
    be protracted to a much greater length than would be necessary
    under different circumstances. They would therefore recommend,
    in order to avoid all the difficulties that have been presented,
    that a committee, after the adjournment of the general assembly,
    go into the vicinity of the scene of difficulties, and make their
    investigation, and report at such time, and in such manner, as
    the legislature may direct. If this course should be adopted,
    the committee believe that the session would be much shortened,
    and heavy expenses saved to the state, which otherwise would
    necessarily be incurred in sending for witnesses, and bringing
    them from so great a distance. By a resolution of both houses,
    the special message of the governor in relation to the subject
    of inquiry, with the accompanying documents, was referred to the
    committee, with instructions to select such documents as in their
    opinion ought to be published with the {237} message, and report to
    their respective houses. The committee after a full consideration
    of the subject, with due regard to its importance, are of opinion
    that it is inexpedient at this time, to publish any of the
    documents, under the authority of the general assembly, and submit
    to the two houses the leading reasons for that opinion.

    The documents may be divided into several classes:

    First--The affidavits and correspondence preceding each series of
    authorized military operations.

    Second--The orders issued upon such evidence.

    Third--The military operations and correspondence consequent
    thereon; and

    Fourth--The evidence taken before a court of inquiry, held for the
    investigation of criminal charges against individuals.

    It was found by the joint committee, at an early period after
    their organization, that, in order to a full and satisfactory
    investigation of the subjects referred to them, a mass of
    additional testimony, oral and written, would be required. This
    becomes apparent to the committee, from the contents of the
    documents referred to them. These documents, although they are
    serviceable in giving direction to the courts of inquiry, are none
    of them, except the official orders and correspondence, such as
    ought to be received as conclusive evidence of the facts stated;
    nor are their contents such as would, without the aid of further
    evidence, enable the committee to form a satisfactory opinion in
    relation to the material points of the inquiry.

    The copy of the examination taken before the criminal court of
    inquiry, is manifestly not such evidence as ought to be received by
    the committee.

    First--Because it is not authenticated; and

    Second--it is confined chiefly to the object of that inquiry;
    namely: the investigation of criminal charges against individuals
    under arrest; for these reasons, but above all, for the reason
    that it would be a direct interference with the administration of
    justice, this document ought not to be published, with the sanction
    of the legislature.

    The committee conclude, that it would not be proper to publish the
    official orders and correspondence between the officers in command,
    and the executive, without the evidence on which they were founded;
    and that evidence is not sufficiently full and satisfactory to
    authorize its publication. To publish the whole together might
    tend to give a direction to the public mind, prejudicial to an
    impartial administration of justice in pending cases, while it will
    not afford the means of forming any satisfactory conclusion as to
    the cause of the late disturbances, or the conduct of the military
    operations in suppressing them.

    {238} The committee therefore recommend to each house to adopt the
    following resolutions.

    Resolved, That it is inexpedient at this time, to prosecute further
    the inquiry into the causes of the late disturbances and the
    conduct of the military operations in suppressing them.

    Resolved, That it is inexpedient to publish at this time, any of
    the documents accompanying the governor's message in relation to
    the late disturbances.

    Resolved, That it is expedient to appoint a joint committee,
    composed of ---- senators, and ---- representatives, to investigate
    the cause of said disturbances, and the conduct of the military
    operations in suppressing them, to meet at such time, and to be
    invested with such powers as may be prescribed by law. [2]

_Wednesday, December 19_.--Mr. John Corrill presented the petition [3]
to the house. While it was reading the members were silent as the house
of death; after which the debate commenced, and excitement increased
till the house was in an uproar; their faces turned red; their eyes
flashed fire, and their countenances spoke volumes.

[Sidenote: The Debate on the Petition.]

Mr. Childs, of Jackson county, said, there was not one word of truth
in it, so far as he had heard, and that it ought never to have been
presented to that body. Not long ago we appropriated two thousand
dollars to their relief, and now they have petitioned for the pay for
their lands, which we took away from them. We got rid of a great evil
when we drove them from Jackson county, and we have had peace there
ever since; and the state will always be in difficulty so long as they
suffer them to live in the state; and the {239} quicker they get that
petition from before this body the better.

Mr. Ashley, from Livingston, said the petition was false from beginning
to end, and that himself and the "Mormons" could not live together, for
he would always be found fighting against them, and one or the other
must leave the state. He gave a history of the Haun's Mill massacre,
and said he saw Jack Rogers cut up McBride with a corn-cutter.

Mr. Corrill corrected Mr. Childs, and stated facts in the petition
which he was acquainted with, and that Mr. Childs ought to know that
there could not be the first crime established against the "Mormons"
while in Jackson county.

One member hoped the matter would not be looked over in silence,
for his constituents required of him to know the cause of the late
disturbances.

Mr. Young, of Lafayette, spoke very bitterly against the petition and
the "Mormons."

An aged member from St. Charles moved a reference of the bill to a
select committee; and, continued he, "as the gentleman that just spoke,
and other gentlemen, want the petition ruled out of the house for fear
their evil doings will be brought to light; this goes to prove to me
and others, that the petition is true."

Mr. Redman, of Howard county, made a long speech in favor of a speedy
investigation of the whole matter; said he, "The governor's order has
gone forth, and the Mormons are leaving; hundreds are waiting to cross
the Mississippi river, and by and by they are gone, and our state is
blasted; her character is gone; we gave them no chance for a fair
investigation. The state demands of us that we give them a speedy
investigation."

[Sidenote: Nature of the Testimony.]

Mr. Gyer, from St. Louis, agreed with the gentleman from Howard county,
that the committee should have power to call witnesses from any part
of the state, and defend them; and unless {240} the governor's order
was rescinded, he for one would leave the state. Other gentlemen made
similar remarks.

The testimony presented the committee of investigation, before referred
to, was the governor's orders, General Clark's reports, the report of
the _ex parte_ trial at Richmond, and a lot of papers signed by nobody,
given to nobody, and directed to nobody, containing anything our
enemies were disposed to write.

    _Minutes of the High Council at Far West_.

    The High council of Zion met in Far West, Wednesday, December 19,
    1838.

    The Council was organized as follows: Ebenezer Robinson, No. 1;
    Jared Carter, No. 2; Thomas Grover, 3; Reynolds Cahoon, 4; Theodore
    Turley, 5; Solomon Hancock, 6; John Badger, 7; John Murdock, 8;
    Harlow Redfield, 9; George W. Harris, 10; David Dort, 11; Samuel
    Bent 12. The Council was opened by prayer by President Brigham
    Young, who presided.

    Harlow Redfield gave a statement of his feelings. He said his faith
    was as good as it ever was, notwithstanding he did not feel to
    fellowship all the proceedings of his brethren in Daviess county;
    he thought they did not act as wisely as they might have done.

    Voted by the Council that John E. Page and John Taylor [4] be {241}
    ordained to the Apostleship, to fill vacancies in the quorum of the
    Twelve. They came forward and received their ordination under the
    hands of Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball.

    Voted that we send a petition to the general government, and send
    it by mail.

    Voted that Edward Partridge and John Taylor be a committee to draft
    the above-mentioned petition; also it is their privilege to choose
    another person to assist them.

    Council adjourned until next Wednesday at one o'clock, at same
    place.

    E. Robinson, Clerk.

[Sidenote: Return of Don Carlos Smith and George A. Smith.]

_Tuesday, December 25_.--My brother, Don Carlos, and my cousin George
A. Smith returned, [from missions through Kentucky and Tennessee],
having traveled fifteen hundred miles--nine hundred on foot, and the
remainder by steamboat and otherwise. They visited several branches,
and would have accomplished the object of their mission, had it not
been for the troubles at Far West.

When nearly home they were known and pursued by the mob, which
compelled them to travel one hundred miles in two days and nights.
The ground at the time was slippery, and a severe northwest wind was
blowing in their faces; they had but little to eat, and narrowly
escaped freezing both nights.

{242} [Sidenote: Redfield's Report.]

_Wednesday, December 26_.--David H. Redfield having returned to Far
West, made his report, and the High Council voted that they were
satisfied with his proceedings. [5]

[Sidenote: Experience of Anson Call.]

_Thursday, December 27_.--Anson Call went to Ray county, near Elk Horn,
to sell some property, and was taken by ten of the mob and one old
negro. Some of the mob were two of Judge Dickey's sons, a Mr. Adams,
and a constable. They ordered him to disarm himself. He told them he
had no arms about his person. They ordered him to turn his pockets
wrong side out. They then said they would peel off his naked back
before morning, with a hickory gad. They beat him with their naked
hands times without number; they struck him in the face with a bowie
knife, and severely hurt him a number of times.

After abusing him about four hours, saying he was a ---- "Mormon," and
they would serve him as they had others, tie him with a hickory withe
and gad him, and keep him till morning, they then started off and came
to a hazel grove; while consulting together what course to pursue with
him, he leaped into the bush, when they pursued him, but he made his
escape and returned to Far West.

[Sidenote: Action of Missouri Legislature.]

After much controversy and angry disputation, as the papers of
Missouri, published at the time, abundantly testify, our petition
and memorial was laid on the table until the 4th of July following;
thus utterly refusing to grant the request of the memorialists to
investigate the subject. [6]

After we were cast into prison, we heard nothing but {243}
threatenings, that, if any judge or jury, or court of any kind, should
clear any of us, we should never get out of the state alive.

[Sidenote: State Appropriation of $2,000.]

The state appropriated two thousand dollars to be distributed among
the people of Daviess and Caldwell counties the "Mormons" of Caldwell
not excepted. The people of Daviess thought they could live on
"Mormon" property, and did not want their thousand, consequently it
was pretended to be given to those of Caldwell. Judge Cameron, Mr.
McHenry, and others attended to the distribution. Judge Cameron would
drive in the brethren's hogs (many of which were identified) and shoot
them down in the streets; and without further bleeding, and half
dressing, they were cut up and distributed by McHenry to the poor, at
a charge of four and five cents per pound; which, together with a few
pieces of refuse goods, such as calicoes at double and treble prices
soon consumed the two thousand dollars; doing the brethren very little
good, or in reality none, as the property destroyed by them, [i. e. the
distributing commission] was equal to what they gave the Saints. [7]

[Sidenote: Course of the Minority in the Legislature.]

The proceedings of the legislature were warmly opposed by a minority
of the house--among whom were David R. Atchison, of Clay County, and
all the members from St. Louis and Messrs. Rollins and Gordon, from
Boone county, and by various other members from other counties; but
the mob majority carried the day, for the guilty wretches feared
an investigation--knowing that it would endanger their lives and
liberties. Some time during this {244} session the legislature
appropriated two hundred thousand dollars to pay the troops for driving
the Saints out of the state.

[Sidenote: Course of the State Press.]

Many of the state journals tried to hide the iniquity of the state by
throwing a covering of lies over her atrocious deeds. But can they
hide the governor's cruel order for banishment or extermination? Can
they conceal the facts of the disgraceful treaty of the generals with
their own officers and men at the city of Far West? Can they conceal
the fact that twelve or fifteen thousand men, women and children, have
been banished from the state without trial or condemnation? And this at
an expense of two hundred thousand dollars--and this sum appropriated
by the state legislature, in order to pay the troops for this act of
lawless outrage? Can they conceal the fact that we have been imprisoned
for many months, while our families, friends and witnesses have been
driven away? Can they conceal the blood of the murdered husbands and
fathers, or stifle the cries of the widows and the fatherless? Nay! The
rocks and mountains may cover them in unknown depths, the awful abyss
of the fathomless deep may swallow them up, and still their horrid
deeds will stand forth in the broad light of day, for the wondering
gaze of angels and of men! They cannot be hid.

Some time in December Heber C. Kimball and Alanson Ripley were
appointed, by the brethren in Far West, to visit us at Liberty jail as
often as circumstances would permit, or occasion required, which duty
they faithfully performed. We were sometimes visited by our friends,
whose kindness and attention I shall ever remember with feelings of
lively gratitude; but frequently we were not suffered to have that
privilege. Our food was of the coarsest kind, and served up in a manner
which was disgusting.

Thus, in a land of liberty, in the town of Liberty, Clay county,
Missouri, my fellow prisoners and I in chains, and dungeons, saw the
close of 1838.

Footnotes:

1. In the previous publication of this history only part of this report
is given, but here the whole document is inserted.

2. The above report is taken from a book containing the documents,
the correspondence, orders, etc., in relation to the disturbances
with the "Mormons;" and the evidence given before the Hon. Austin A.
King, judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the state of Missouri,
at the courthouse in Richmond, in a criminal court of inquiry, begun
November 12, 1838, on the trial of Joseph Smith, Jun., and others, for
high treason and other crimes against the state, pp. 1-4. The book is
published by order of the general assembly.

3. This was the petition of the 10th of December, signed by Edward
Partridge, Heber C. Kimball, John Taylor _et al_. in behalf of the
citizens of Caldwell county, which petition appears in chapter xv. of
this volume. Subsequently, viz., in 1841, when the Missouri legislature
published, by order of the general assembly, what is alleged to be the
documents in relation to the disturbances with the "Mormons," etc.,
neither this document nor any account of the debate which followed its
introduction, as here referred to appears.

4. Of John Taylor a biographical note has already been given. See page
154. The following facts concerning John E. Page are given by himself:

The subscriber was born of Ebenezer and Rachael Page, their first
child, February 25th, A. D. 1799. My father was of pure English
extraction; my mother of English, Irish, and Welsh extraction. My place
of birth was Trenton Township, Oneida county, State of New York. I
embraced the faith of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,
and was baptized August the 18th, 1833, by the hands of Elder Emer
Harris (own brother to Martin Harris, one of the Three Witnesses to
the divinity of the Book of Mormon). I was ordained an Elder under the
hands of Elders Nelson Higgins, Ebenezer Page, Jun., and others. My
baptism took place in Brownhelm, Lorain county, Ohio; my ordination in
Florence, Huron county, of the same state, on the 12th of September,
1833.

I moved to Kirtland, Geauga county Ohio, in the fall of 1835.

On the 31st day of May, 1836, I started on a mission to Canada West,
Leeds county. I was gone from my family seven months and twenty days.

On the 16th day of February, 1837, I again left Kirtland with my
family, a wife and two small children, taking with me all the earthly
goods I possessed, which consisted of one bed and our wearing apparel
of the plainest kind, to continue my mission in the same region of
country as before.

In July following the commandment came forth for me to occupy a place
in the quorum of the Twelve.

On the 14th day of May, 1838, I started with a company of Saints, made
up of men, women and their children, for the state of Missouri, where
we landed with a company occupying thirty wagons, in the first week of
October, at a place called De Witt, some six miles above the outlet of
Grand river, on the north side of the Missouri river, where we were
attacked by an armed mob, and by them barbarously treated for nearly
two weeks. We then went to Far West, Caldwell county, where we united
with the general body of the Church, and with them participated in all
the grievous persecutions practiced on the Church by means of a furious
mob, by which means I buried one wife and two children as martyrs to
our holy religion, since they died through extreme suffering for the
want of the common comforts of life--which I was not allowed to provide
even with my money.

On the 19th of December, 1838, at Far West, Elder John Taylor and
myself were ordained as Apostles under the hands of Elders Brigham
Young and Heber C. Kimball, in the quorum of the Twelve, to fill some
vacancies in the quorum, which had occurred by apostasies. In two
year's time I had baptized upwards of six hundred persons, and traveled
more than five thousand miles, principally on foot and under the most
extreme poverty, relative to earthly means, being sustained alone by
the power of God and not of man, or the wisdom of the world.--John E.
Page.

5. David H. Redfield, it will be remembered, was the messenger from the
citizens of Caldwell county to the Missouri state legislature, bearing
with him the petition of the 10th of December, and it is, of course,
from his report of the manner in which the petition was received and
the report of the debate thereon that the Prophet makes up his account
of that affair.

6. The bill providing for an investigation of the "Mormon" difficulties
was finally laid upon the table until the 4th of July in the house by
a vote of 48 in favor of such action and 37 against such procedure.
Seven members were absent. The matter was not again taken up until the
legislature of 1840, of which more later.

7. Of this matter of distributing the legislature's appropriation the
late President John Taylor in his discussion with Schuyler Colfax,
Vice-President of the United States, 1870, says: "The legislature of
Missouri, to cover their infamy, appropriated the munificent (?) sum
of $2,000 to help the suffering 'Mormons.' Their agent took a few
miserable traps, the sweepings of an old store; for the balance of
the patrimony he sent into Daviess county and killed our hogs, which
we were then prevented from doing, and brought them to feed the poor
'Mormons' as part of the legislative appropriation. This I saw."

{245}



CHAPTER XVII.

Preparations For Leaving Missouri--Action Of The State Legislature.

[Sidenote: Reflections on the Opening Year.]

_Tuesday, January 1, 1839_.--The day dawned upon us as prisoners of
hope, but not as sons of liberty. O Columbia, Columbia! How thou art
fallen! "The land of the free, the home of the brave!" "The asylum of
the oppressed"--oppressing thy noblest sons, in a loathsome dungeon,
without any provocation, only that they have claimed to worship the
God of their fathers according to His own word, and the dictates of
their own consciences. Elder Parley P. Pratt and his companions in
tribulation were still held in bondage in their doleful prison in
Richmond.

[Sidenote: Anson Call Beaten.]

_Monday, January 7_.--Anson Call returned to his farm on the three
forks of Grand river, to see if he could secure any of the property he
had left in his flight to Adam-ondi-Ahman, and was there met by the
mob, and beaten with a hoop pole about his limbs, body and head; the
man that used the pole about his person was George W. O'Neal. With much
difficulty Brother Call returned to Far West, with his person much
bruised, and from that time gave up all hopes of securing any of his
property.

[Sidenote: Storm in England.]

_Tuesday, January 8_.--About this time England and Ireland were visited
by a tremendous storm of wind from the northwest, which unroofed and
blew down many houses in the cities and in the country, doing much
damage to the shipping; many hundreds of persons were turned out of
doors, many lives lost on the land and sea, and an immense amount of
property was destroyed. {246} Such a wind had not been witnessed by any
one living; and some began to think that the judgments were about to
follow the Elders' preaching.

_Thursday, January 10_.--

    _Missouri State Senate Resolutions on Mormon Difficulties_.

    Resolved by the Senate, the House of Representatives concurring
    therein, that the three resolutions of the 18th of December be
    referred to a joint committee of the two Houses, heretofore raised,
    on the subject of the Mormon difficulties, with the instructions
    to report a bill in conformity thereto, as soon as they can
    conveniently prepare the same; which was agreed to. [1]

_Wednesday, January 16_.--Mr. Turner, from the joint select committee,
introduced to the Senate, "_A Bill to provide for the investigation
of the late disturbances in this state_." This bill consists of
twenty-three sections, of which the following is the first:

    1st. A joint committee shall be appointed to investigate the causes
    of the late disturbances between the people called Mormons and
    other inhabitants of this state, and the conduct of the military
    operations in repressing them; which committee shall consist of two
    senators, to be elected by the Senate and three representatives, to
    be elected by the House of Representatives.

[Sidenote: Other Provisions of the Bill.]

The bill further provided that the committee should meet at Richmond,
Ray county, on the first Monday in May, and thereafter at such times
and places as they should appoint; that they should choose a chairman,
clerk, sergeant-at-arms and assistants; issue subpoenas and other
processes; {247} administer oaths; keep a record; furnish rooms; pay
witnesses one dollar and fifty cents per day out of the treasury;
receive their pay as members of the legislature; clerk four dollars
per day, and one dollar and fifty cents for each arrest. In short, all
parties concerned were to be paid the highest price--and this committee
were to be clothed with all the powers of the highest courts of record.
This bill did not concern the "Mormons," as the exterminating order
of Governor Boggs, and the action of General Clark thereon, would
compel all the Saints to be out of the state before the court would
sit, so that they would have no testimony but from mobbers and worse,
apostates; and this was evidently their object in postponing the time
so long.

[Sidenote: Proposition to Help the Poor.]

About this time President Brigham Young proposed to Bishop Partridge to
help the poor out of the state. The Bishop replied, "The poor may take
care of themselves, and I will take care of myself." President Brigham
Young replied, "If you will not help them out, I will."

_Thursday, January 24_.--I wrote as follows from Liberty jail:

    _The Prophet's Petition to the Missouri Legislature_.

    _To the Honorable Legislature of Missouri_:

    Your memorialists, having a few days since solicited your attention
    to the same subject, [2] would now respectfully submit to your
    honorable body a few additional facts in support of their prayer.

    They are now imprisoned under a charge of treason against the state
    of Missouri, and their lives, and fortunes, and characters, are
    suspended upon the result of the trial on the criminal charges
    preferred against them. Therefore your honorable body will excuse
    them for manifesting the deep concern they feel in relation to
    their trial for a crime so enormous as that of treason.

    It is not our object to complain--to asperse any one. All we ask
    is a fair and impartial trial. We ask the sympathies of no one.
    We ask sheer justice; 'tis all we expect, and all we merit, but
    we merit that. We know the people of no county in this state to
    which we would ask our final trial to be sent, who are prejudiced
    in our favor. But we {248} believe that the state of excitement
    existing in most of the upper counties is such that a jury would be
    improperly influenced by it. But that excitement, and the prejudice
    against us in the counties comprising the fifth Judicial Circuit,
    are not the only obstacles we are compelled to meet. We know that
    much of that prejudice against us is not so much to be attributed
    to a want of honest motives amongst the citizens as it is to
    misrepresentation.

    It is a difficult task to change opinions once formed. The other
    obstacle which we candidly consider one of the most weighty, is
    the feeling which we believe is entertained by Hon. Austin A.
    King against us, and his consequent inability to do us impartial
    justice. It is from no disposition to speak disrespectfully of that
    high officer, that we lay before your honorable body the facts we
    do; but simply that the legislature may be apprised of our real
    condition. We look upon Judge King as like all other mere men,
    liable to be influenced by his feelings, his prejudices, and his
    previously formed opinions. From his reputation we consider him
    as being partially, if not entirely, committed against us. He has
    written much upon the subject of our late difficulties, in which
    he has placed us in the wrong. These letters have been published
    to the world. He has also presided at an excited public meeting as
    chairman, and no doubt sanctioned all the proceedings. We do not
    complain of the citizens who held that meeting, they were entitled
    to that privilege. But for the judge before whom the very men were
    to be tried for a capital offense to participate in an expression
    of condemnation of these same individuals, is to us, at least,
    apparently wrong; and we cannot think that we should, after such a
    course on the part of the judge, have the same chance of a fair and
    impartial trial as all admit we ought to have.

    We believe that the foundation of the feeling against us, which
    we have reason to think Judge King entertains, may be traced to
    the unfortunate troubles which occurred in Jackson county some
    few years ago; in a battle between the "Mormons" and a portion of
    the citizens of that county, Mr. Brazeale, the brother-in-law of
    Judge King, was killed. It is natural that the judge should have
    some feelings against us, whether we were right or wrong in that
    controversy.

    We mention these facts, not to disparage Judge King; we believe
    that from the relation he bears to us, he would himself prefer
    that our trials should be had in a different circuit, and before a
    different court. Many other reasons and facts we might mention, but
    we forebear.

[Sidenote: Prostscript to the Petition.]

This letter was directed to James M. Hughes, Esq., member of the House
of Representatives, Jefferson City, with the following request:

    {249} Will you be so kind as to present this to the House. The
    community here would, I believe, have no objection for the trial of
    these men being transferred to St. Louis.

    P. H. B. [3]

_Saturday, 26_.--

    _Minutes of a Public Meeting at Far West_.

    A meeting of a respectable number of the citizens of Caldwell
    county, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,
    was held in Far West, according to previous notice, to devise and
    take into consideration such measures as might be thought necessary
    in order to comply with the orders of the Executive to remove from
    the state of Missouri immediately, as made known by General Clark
    to the citizens of said county, in the month of November last.

    The meeting was called to order by Don C. Smith; and on motion,
    John Smith was unanimously called to the chair, and Elias Smith
    appointed secretary.

    The object of the meeting was then stated by the chairman, who
    briefly adverted to the causes which had brought about the present
    state of affairs, and called for an expression of sentiment on the
    best course to be pursued in the present emergency.

    Several gentlemen addressed the meeting on the subject of our
    removal from the state and the seeming impossibility of complying
    with the orders of the governor of Missouri, in consequence of the
    extreme poverty of many, which had come upon them by being driven
    from place to place, deprived of their constitutional rights and
    privileges, as citizens of this, and the United States, and were
    of the opinion that an appeal to the citizens of Upper Missouri
    ought to be made, setting forth our condition, and claiming their
    assistance towards furnishing means for the removal of the poor of
    this county out of the state, as being our right and our due in the
    present case.

    On motion, resolved: That a committee of seven be appointed to
    make a draft of a preamble and resolutions in accordance with the
    foregoing sentiments to be presented to a future meeting for their
    consideration.

    The following were then appointed, viz.,--John Taylor, Alanson
    Ripley, Brigham Young, Theodore Turley, Heber C. Kimball, John
    Smith and Don C. Smith.

    Resolved: That the committee be further instructed to ascertain the
    {250} number of families who are actually destitute of means for
    their removal, and report at the next meeting.

    Resolved: That it is the opinion of this meeting that an exertion
    should be made to ascertain how much can be obtained from
    individuals of the society [the Church], and that it is the duty
    of those who have, to assist those who have not, that thereby we
    may, as far as possible, within and of ourselves, comply with the
    demands of the Executive.

    Adjourned to meet again on Tuesday, the 29th instant, at twelve
    o'clock, m.

    John Smith, Chairman.

    Elias Smith, Secretary.

_Tuesday, 29_.--

    _Minutes of the Second Meeting at Far West_.

    The brethren met again according to adjournment. John Smith was
    again called to the chair, and Elias Smith appointed secretary.

    The committee appointed to draw up a preamble and resolutions to
    be presented to the meeting for consideration, presented by their
    chairman, John Taylor, a memorial of the transactions of the people
    of Missouri towards us since our first settlement in this state,
    in which was contained some of our sentiments and feelings on the
    subject of our persecutions by the authority of the state, and our
    deprivation of the rights of citizenship guaranteed to us by the
    Constitution. The document under preparation by the committee was
    yet in an unfinished state, owing to causes which were stated by
    the committee; and they further apologized for not drawing it up
    in the form of resolutions, agreeable to the vote of the former
    meeting.

    The report was accepted as far as completed, and by a vote of
    the meeting, the same committee were directed to finish it, and
    prepare it for and send it to the press for publication, and they
    were instructed to dwell minutely on the subject relating to our
    arms, and the fiend-like conduct of the officers of the militia
    in sequestering all the best of them after their surrender on
    condition of being returned to us again, or suffering them to be
    exchanged for others, not worth half their value, in violation of
    their bond, and of the honor of the commander of the forces sent
    against us by the state.

    On motion of President Brigham Young, it was resolved that we this
    day enter into a covenant to stand by and assist each other to the
    utmost of our abilities in removing from this state, and that we
    will never desert the poor who are worthy, till they shall be out
    of the reach of the exterminating order of General Clark, acting
    for and in the name of the state.

    After an expression of sentiments by several who addressed the
    meeting on the propriety of taking efficient measures to remove
    the poor {251} from the state, it was resolved, that a committee
    of seven be appointed to superintend the business of our removal,
    and to provide for those who have not the means of moving, till the
    work shall be completed.

    The following were then appointed, viz., William Huntington,
    Charles Bird, Alanson Ripley, Theodore Turley, Daniel Shearer,
    Shadrach Roundy, and Jonathan H. Hale.

    Resolved: That the secretary draft an instrument expressive of the
    sense of the covenant entered into this day, by those present, and
    that those who were willing to subscribe to the covenant should
    do it, that their names might be known, which would enable the
    committee more expeditiously to carry their business into effect.

    The instrument was accordingly drawn, and by vote of the meeting
    the secretary attached the names of those who were willing to
    subscribe to it.

    Adjourned to meet again on Friday, the 1st of February next, at
    twelve o'clock, m.

    John Smith, Chairman.

    Elias Smith, Secretary.

The following is the covenant referred to in the preceding minutes,
with the names which were then and afterwards attached to it, as far as
they have been preserved:

    We, whose names are hereunder written, do for ourselves
    individually hereby covenant to stand by and assist one another,
    to the utmost of our abilities, in removing from this state in
    compliance with the authority of the state; and we do hereby
    acknowledge ourselves firmly bound to the extent of all our
    available property, to be disposed of by a committee who shall
    be appointed for the purpose of providing means for the removing
    from this state of the poor and destitute who shall be considered
    worthy, till there shall not be one left who desires to remove from
    the state: with this proviso, that no individual shall be deprived
    of the right of the disposal of his own property for the above
    purpose, or of having the control of it, or so much of it as shall
    be necessary for the removing of his own family, and to be entitled
    to the over-plus, after the work is effected; and furthermore, said
    committee shall give receipts for all property, and an account of
    the expenditure of the same.

    Far West, Missouri, January 29, 1839.

    _List of Names Subscribed to the Foregoing_.

    John Smith,

    Wm. Huntington,

    James Mcmillan,

    Chandler Holbrook,

    {252} Charles Bird,

    Alanson Ripley,

    Theodore Turley,

    Daniel Shearer,

    Shadrach Roundy,

    Jonathan H. Hale,

    Elias Smith,

    Brigham Young,

    James Burnham,

    Leicester Gaylord,

    Samuel Williams,

    John Miller,

    Aaron M. York,

    George A. Smith,

    Daniel Howe,

    James Bradin,

    Jonathan Beckelshimer,

    David Jones,

    Wm. M. Fossett,

    Charles N. Baldwin,

    Jesse N. Reed,

    Benjamin Johnson,

    Jonathan Hampton,

    Anson Call,

    Peter Dopp,

    Samuel Rolph,

    Abel Lamb,

    Daniel McArthur,

    William Gregory,

    Zenas Curtis,

    John Reed,

    William R. Orton,

    Samuel D. Tyler,

    John H. Goff,

    Thomas Butterfield,

    Dwight Hardin,

    Norvil M. Head,

    Stephen V. Foot,

    Jacob G. Bigler,

    Eli Bagley,

    William Milam,

    Lorenzo Clark,

    William Allred,

    Alexander Wright,

    William Taylor,

    John Taylor,

    Reuben P. Hartwell,

    John Lowry,

    Welcome Chapman,

    Solomon Hancock,

    Arza Adams,

    Henry Jacobs,

    James Carroll,

    David Lyons,

    John Taylor,

    Don Carlos Smith,

    William J. Stewart,

    Isaac B. Chapman,

    Roswell Stephens,

    Reuben Headlock,

    David Holman,

    Joel Goddard,

    Phineas R. Bird,

    Duncan McArthur,

    Allen Talley,

    James Hampton,

    Sherman A. Gilbert,

    James S. Holman,

    Andrew Lytle,

    Aaron Johnson,

    Heber C. Kimball,

    George W. Harris,

    George W. Davidson,

    Harvey Strong,

    Elizabeth Mackley,

    Sarah Mackley,

    Andrew More,

    Harvey Downey,

    John Maba,

    Lucy Wheeler,

    John Turpin,

    William Earl,

    Zenos H. Gurley,

    Joseph W. Coolidge,

    Anthony Head,

    S. A. P. Kelsey,

    {253} Wm. Van Ausdall,

    Nathan K. Knight,

    John Thorp,

    Andrew Rose,

    John S. Martin,

    Albert Sloan,

    John D. Lee,

    Eliphas Marsh,

    Joseph Wright,

    John Badger,

    Levi Richards,

    Erastus Bingham,

    Elisha Everett,

    John Lytle,

    Levi Jackman,

    Thomas Guyman,

    Nahum Curtis,

    Lyman Curtis,

    Philip Ballard,

    William Gould,

    Reuben Middleton,

    William Harper,

    Seba Joes,

    Charles Butler,

    Richard Walton,

    Isaac Kerron,

    Joseph Rose,

    David Foot,

    L. S. Nickerson,

    Moses Daley,

    David Sessions,

    Perrigrine Sessions,

    Alford P. Childs,

    James Daley,

    Noah T. Guyman,

    David Winters,

    John Pack,

    Sylvanus Hicks,

    Horatio N. Kent,

    Joseph W. Pierce,

    Thomas Gates,

    Squire Bozarth,

    Nathan Lewis,

    Moses Evord,

    Ophelia Harris,

    Zuba McDonald,

    Mary Goff,

    Harvey J. Moore,

    Francis Chase,

    Stephen Markham,

    John Outhouse,

    Wm. F. Leavens,

    Daniel Tyler,

    Noah Rogers,

    Stephen N. St. John,

    Francis Lee,

    Eli Lee,

    Benjamin Covey,

    Michel Borkdull,

    Miles Randall,

    Horace Evans,

    David Dort,

    Levi Hancock,

    Edwin Whiting,

    William Barton,

    Elisha Smith,

    James Gallaher,

    Robert Jackson,

    Lemuel Merrick,

    James Dunn,

    Orin Hartshorn,

    Nathan Hawke,

    Pierce Hawley,

    Thomas J. Fisher,

    James Leithead,

    Alfred Lee,

    Stephen Jones,

    Eleazer Harris,

    Elijah B. Gaylord,

    Thomas Grover,

    Alexander Badlam,

    Phebe Kellog,

    Albert Miner,

    William Woodland,

    Martin C. Allred,

    Jedediah Owen,

    {254} Philander Avery,

    Benjamin F. Bird,

    Charles Squire,

    Jacob Curtis,

    Rachel Medfo,

    Lyman Stevens,

    Roswell Evans,

    Leonard Clark,

    Nehemiah Harmon,

    Daniel Cathcart,

    Gershom Stokes,

    Rachel Page,

    Barnet Cole,

    William Thompson,

    Nathan Cheney,

    James Sherry,

    David Frampton,

    Elizabeth Pettigrew,

    Charles Thompson,

    Orin P. Rockwell,

    Nathan B. Baldwin,

    Truman Brace,

    Sarah Wixom,

    Lewis Zobriski,

    Henry Zobriski,

    Morris Harris,

    Absolom Tidwell,

    Alvin Winegar,

    Samuel T. Winegar,

    John E. Page,

    Levi Gifford,

    Edmund Durfee,

    Josiah Butterfield,

    John Killion,

    John Patten,

    John Wilkins,

    Abram Allen,

    William Felshaw.

[Sidenote: Activity of the Committee on Removal.]

The committee who had been appointed for removing the poor from the
state of Missouri, viz.: William Huntington, Charles Bird, Alanson
Ripley, Theodore Turley, Daniel Shearer, Shadrach Roundy, and Jonathan
H. Hale, met in the evening of that day [January 29, 1839], at
the house of Theodore Turley, and organized by appointing William
Huntington chairman, Daniel Shearer treasurer, and Alanson Ripley
clerk, and made some arrangements for carrying into operation the
business of removing the poor. President Brigham Young got eighty
subscribers to the covenant the first day, and three hundred the second
day.

[Sidenote: Investigation Ordered.]

_Thursday, 31_.--Mr. Turner's bill of the 16th instant passed the
senate. I sent the poor brethren a hundred dollar bill from jail, to
assist them in their distressed situation.

_Friday, February 1_:

    _Minutes of a Meeting of the Committee on Removal_.

    The committee met according to adjournment, at the house of {255}
    Theodore Turley; John Smith was present and acted as chairman, and
    Elias Smith as secretary. The meeting was called to order by the
    chairman.

    On motion, Resolved: That the covenant entered into at the last
    meeting be read by the Secretary, which was done accordingly.

    The chairman then called for the expression of sentiments on the
    subject of the covenant.

    Resolved, That the committee be increased to eleven.

    The following were then appointed: Elias Smith, Erastus Bingham,
    Stephen Markham, and James Newberry.

    Several of the committee addressed the meeting on the arduous task
    before them, and exhorted all to exert themselves to relieve and
    assist them in the discharge of the duties of their office, to the
    utmost of their abilities.

    Elders Taylor and Young, in the most forcible manner addressed
    the assembly on the propriety of union in order to carry our
    resolutions into effect, and exhorted the brethren to use wisdom in
    the sale of their property.

    John Smith, Chairman,

    Elias Smith, Secretary.

The committee met again in the evening at Theodore Turley's. Alanson
Ripley declined acting as clerk, and Elias Smith was appointed in his
stead.

    Resolved, That exertions be made to remove the families of the
    Presidency and the other prisoners first.

    Several of the committee made report of what had been done by them
    towards carrying the business of the committee into operation.
    Elder John Taylor had also been appointed to visit the branches of
    the Church on Log and Upper Goose creeks, and made a report of his
    proceedings.

    Resolved, That Charles Bird be appointed to go down towards the
    Mississippi river and establish deposits of corn for the brethren
    on the road, and make contracts for ferriage, etc.

_Monday, February 4_.--Mr. Turner's bill of 16th January came up for
the first reading, "when Mr. Wright moved that the bill be laid on the
table until the 4th day of July next; and upon this question Mr. Primm
desired the yeas and nays, which were ordered, and the decision was in
the affirmative" by eleven majority, which by many was {256} considered
an approval of all the wrongs the Saints had sustained in the state. [4]

_6th and 7th_. [5] The committee on the removal of the Saints from
Missouri were in session. Stephen Markham started for Illinois, with my
wife and children, and Jonathan Holmes and wife.

Footnotes:

1. The above resolution was offered by Mr. William M. Campbell in the
Senate, and the three resolutions of the 18th of December were in Mr.
Turner's report to the Senate of that date, and are as follows:

Resolved. That it is inexpedient at this time, to prosecute further the
inquiry into the causes of the late disturbances and the conduct of the
military operations in suppressing them.

Resolved, That it is inexpedient to publish at this time, any of the
documents accompanying the governor's message in relation to the late
disturbances.

Resolved, That it is expedient to appoint a joint committee composed
of ---- Senators, and ---- Representatives to investigate the cause
of said disturbances, and the conduct of the military operations in
suppressing them, to meet at such time, and to be invested with such
powers as may be prescribed by law. See the whole report of Mr.
Turner's, at pp. 235-8.

2. The previous document here referred to, does not appear in this
history as heretofore published, nor is it to be found in any of the
manuscripts in the historian's office.

3. Whom these initials represent cannot be ascertained, or whether they
represent one person or three. They evidently represent secret friends
or a friend of the Prophet at Liberty, Clay county, willing to urge
this matter upon the attention of Mr. Hughes and also upon the House.

4. At any rate Mr. Turner's bill providing for an elaborate
investigation was never taken from the table. In the legislature,
however, which convened in 1840-41, the subject of the "Mormon"
difficulties was again taken up on recommendation of Governor Boggs,
who concludes what he had to say in his message in this language.
"To explain the attitude which we have been made to assume I would
recommend the publication of all the events relating to the occurrence,
and distributing the same to the chief authorities of each state." In
pursuance of this recommendation the joint committee appointed from
the senate and house made a collection of documents on the subject
covering 162 pages. In the collection, however, there are none of the
statements, petitions, or representations made to the public or the
legislature by the Saints. The documents consist in part of the action
of the respective houses in the appointment of committees and reports
of those committees recommending investigations, etc.; of the reports
and military orders of the militia generals; while the remainder of the
pamphlet is made up of the _ex parte_ testimony taken before Judge King
at Richmond, concerning which testimony the Turner senate committee in
reporting to the senate, under date of December 18, 1838, said: It "is
manifestly not such evidence as ought to be received by the committee:

"First, _because it is not authenticated_; and,

"Second, it is confined chiefly to the object of the inquiry, namely,
the investigation of criminal charges against individuals under arrest."

The action of the legislature in the matter was a "white-washing
affair," to use a phrase common in such cases. It was an attempt to
vindicate the state of Missouri in her treatment of the Latter-day
Saints. The effort, however, was in vain. The truths in relation to
those transactions, in spite of all the efforts of the legislature,
were known, and the state's attempt to deny them by a publication of
documents giving a hearing to but one side of the case, only emphasized
the crime.

5. February 7th. An event occurred on this date which ought not to be
omitted from history, as it throws great light upon the prison life
of the Prophet and his associates, upon the character of the Prophet
himself, and the great faith his associates had in his prophetic
powers. This event, and some others of equal interest were related by
Alexander McRae, one of the fellow prisoners of the Prophet, in two
communications to the _Deseret News_, under the dates of October 9th,
and November 1st, respectively, of the year 1854. At that time "The
History of Joseph Smith" was being published in current numbers of the
_News_, and Brother McRae, then Bishop of the Eleventh Ward of Salt
Lake City, being surprised at the omission in the narrative of the
Prophet of many items of interest concerning their prison life, wrote
the two following letters to the _News_:

_Letter of Alexander McRae to the Deseret News_.

Salt Lake City, Utah, Oct. 9, 1854.

_ Mr. Editor_:--In reading the History of Joseph Smith as published in
the _News_ last winter, and especially that part of it which relates
to his imprisonment in {257} Liberty jail, Missouri, I see there are
many interesting facts which are omitted; and as I had the honor of
being a fellow prisoner with him, I thought I would write some of those
incidents for the satisfaction of any of your readers who may feel
interested in them.

During our imprisonment, we had many visitors, both friends and
enemies. Among the latter, many were angry with Brother Joseph, and
accused him of killing a son, a brother, or some relative of theirs, at
what was called the Crooked River Battle. This looked rather strange to
me, that so many should claim a son, or a brother killed there, _when
they reported only one man killed_.

Among our friends who visited us, were Presidents Brigham Young and
Heber C. Kimball [now--i. e. at the time this letter was written,
1854], of the First Presidency--the latter several times; George A.
Smith, of the quorum of the Twelve; Don C. Smith, brother of Joseph,
came several times, and brought some of our families to see us.
Benjamin Covey, Bishop of the Twelfth Ward of this city, brought
each of us a new pair of boots, and made us a present of them. James
Sloan, his wife and daughter, came several times. Alanson Ripley also
visited us, and many others, whom to name would be too tedious. Orin P.
Rockwell brought us refreshments many times; and Jane Bleven and her
daughter brought cakes, pies, etc., and handed them in at the window.
These things helped us much, as our food was very coarse, and so filthy
that we could not eat it until we were driven to it by hunger.

After we had been there some time, and had tried every means we could
to obtain our liberty by the law, without effect (except Sidney Rigdon
who was bailed out), and also having heard, from a reliable source,
that it had been stated in the public street, by the most influential
men in that part of the country, that "the Mormon prisoners would have
to be condemned or the character of the state would have to go down,"
we came to the conclusion that we would try other means to effect it.

Accordingly, on the 7th day of February, 1839, after counseling
together on the subject, we concluded to try to go that evening when
the jailer came with our supper; but Brother Hyrum, before deciding
fully, and to make it more sure, asked Brother Joseph to inquire of the
Lord as to the propriety of the move. He did so, and received answer
to this effect--that if we were all agreed, we could go clear that
evening; and if we would ask, we should have a testimony for ourselves.
I immediately asked, and had not no more than asked, until I received
as clear a testimony as ever I did of anything in my life, that it was
true. Brother Hyrum Smith and Caleb Baldwin bore testimony to the same:
but Lyman Wight said we might go if we chose, but he would not. After
talking with him for some time, he said, "if we would wait until the
next day, he would go with us." Without thinking we had no promise of
success on any other day than the one above stated, we agreed to wait.

When night came, the jailer came alone with our supper, threw the door
wide open, put our supper on the table, and went to the back part
of the room, where a pile of books lay, took up a book, and went to
reading, leaving us between him and the door, thereby giving us every
chance to go if we had been ready. As the next day was agreed upon, we
made no attempt to go that evening.

When the next evening came, the case was very different; the jailer
brought a double guard with him and with them six of our brethren,
to-wit.: Erastus Snow, William D. Huntington, Cyrus Daniels, David
Holeman, Alanson Ripley and Watson Barlow. I was afterwards informed
that they were sent by the Church. The jailer seemed to be badly
scared; he had the door locked and everything made secure. It looked
like a bad chance to get away, but we were determined to try it; so
when the jailer started out, we started too. Brother Hyrum took hold
of the {258} door, and the rest followed; but before we were able to
render him the assistance he needed, the jailer and guard succeeded
in closing the door, shutting the brethren in with us, except Cyrus
Daniels, who was on the outside.

As soon as the attempt was made inside, he took two of the guards, one
under each arm, and ran down the stairs that led to the door, it being
in the second story. When he reached the ground they got away from him;
and seeing we had failed to get out, he started to run, but put his
foot in a hole and fell, a bullet from one of the guards passed very
close to his head, and he thinks the fall saved his life.

The scene that followed this defies description. I should judge, from
the number, that all the town, and many from the country, gathered
around the jail, and every mode of torture and death that their
imagination could fancy, was proposed for us, such as blowing up the
jai, taking us out and whipping us to death, shooting us, burning us to
death, tearing us to pieces with horses, etc. But they were so divided
among themselves that they could not carry out any of their plans, and
we escaped unhurt.

During this time, some of our brethren spoke of our being in great
danger; and I confess I felt that we were. But Brother Joseph told them
"not to fear, that not a hair of their heads should be hurt, and that
they should not lose any of their things, even to a bridle, saddle, or
blanket; that everything should be restored to them; they had offered
their lives for us and the Gospel; that it was necessary the Church
should offer a sacrifice, and the Lord accepted the offering."

The brethren had next to undergo a trial, but the excitement was so
great that they [the officers] dare not take them out until it abated a
little. While they were waiting for their trial, some of the brethren
employed lawyers to defend them. Brother [Erastus] Snow asked Brother
Joseph whether he had better employ a lawyer or not. Brother Joseph
told him to plead his own case. "But," said Brother Snow, "I do not
understand the law." Brother Joseph asked him if he did not understand
justice; he thought he did. "Well," said Brother Joseph, "go and plead
for justice as hard as you can, and quote Blackstone and other authors
now and then, and they will take it all for law."

He did as he was told, and the result was as Joseph had said it would
be; for when he got through his plea, the lawyers flocked around him,
and asked him where he had studied law, and said they had never heard
a better plea. When the trial was over Brother Snow was discharged,
and all the rest were held to bail, and were allowed to bail each
other, by Brother Snow going bail with them; and they said they got
everything that was taken from them, and nothing was lost, although no
two articles were in one place. More anon.

Yours respectfully,

Alexander McRae.

_Second Letter of Alexander McRae to the Deseret News_.

Salt Lake City, Utah, Nov. 1, 1854.

_Mr. Editor_:--Sometime during our stay in Liberty jail an attempt was
made to destroy us by poison. I supposed it was administered in either
tea or coffee, but as I did not use either, I escaped unhurt, while all
who did were sorely afflicted, some being blind two or three days, and
it was only by much faith and prayer that the effect was overcome.

We never suffered ourselves to go into any important measure without
asking Brother Joseph to inquire of the Lord in relation to it. Such
was our confidence in him as a Prophet, that when he said "Thus saith
the Lord," we were confident it would be as he said; and the more we
tried it, the more confidence we had, for we never found his word fail
in a single instance.

A short time before we were to go to Daviess county for trial, word
came to us {259} that either General Atchison or Doniphan, would raise
a military force, and go with us to protect us from the wrath of that
people. The matter was discussed by the brethren (except Brother
Joseph), and they naturally enough concluded it would be best; and
although I had nothing to say, I concurred with them in my feelings.
Brother Hyrum asked Brother Joseph what he thought of it. Brother
Joseph hung his head a few moments, and seemed in a deep study, and
then raised up and said, "Brother Hyrum, it will not do; we must trust
in the Lord; if we take a guard with us we shall be destroyed."

This was very unexpected to us, but Brother Hyrum remarked, "If you say
it in the name of the Lord, we will rely on it." Said Brother Joseph,
"In the name of the Lord, if we take a guard with us, we will be
destroyed; but if we put our trust in the Lord, we shall be safe, and
no harm shall befall us, and we shall be better treated than we have
ever been since we have been prisoners."

This settled the question, and all seemed satisfied, and it was decided
that we should have no extra guard, and they had only such a guard as
they chose for our safe keeping. When we arrived at the place where
the court was held, I began to think he was mistaken for once, for the
people rushed upon us _en masse_, crying, "Kill them: ---- ---- them,
kill them." I could see no chance for escape, unless we could fight our
way through, and we had nothing to do it with. At this, Brother Joseph,
at whom all seemed to rush, rose up and said, "We are in your hands;
if we are guilty, we refuse not to be punished by the law." Hearing
these words, two of the most bitter mobocrats in the country--one by
the name of William Peniston and the other Kinney, or McKinney, I do
not remember which--got up on benches and began to speak to the people,
saying, "Yes, gentlemen, these men are in our hands; let us not use
violence, but let the law have its course; the law will condemn them,
and they will be punished by it. We do not want the disgrace of taking
the law into our own hands."

In a very few minutes they were quieted, and they seemed now as
friendly as they had a few minutes before been enraged. Liquor was
procured, and we all had to drink in token of friendship. This took
place in the court-room (a small log cabin about twelve feet square),
during the adjournment of the court; and from that time until we
got away, they could not put a guard over us who would not become
so friendly that they dare not trust them, and the guard was very
frequently changed. We were seated at the first table with the judge,
lawyers, etc., and had the best the country afforded, with feather
beds to sleep on--a privilege we had not before enjoyed in all our
imprisonment.

On one occasion, while we were there, the above-named William
Peniston, partly in joke and partly in earnest, threw out a rather
hard insinuation against some of the brethren. This touched Joseph's
feelings, and he retorted a good deal in the same way, only with such
power that the earth seemed to tremble under his feet, and said, "Your
heart is as black as your whiskers," which were as black as any crow.
He seemed to quake under it and left the room.

The guards, who had become friendly, were alarmed for our safety, and
exclaimed, "O, Mr. Smith, do not talk so; you will bring trouble upon
yourself and companions." Brother Joseph replied, "Do not be alarmed;
I know what I am about." He always took up for the brethren, when
their characters were assailed, sooner than for himself, no matter how
unpopular it was to speak in their favor.

Yours as ever,

Alexander McRae.

{260}



CHAPTER XVIII.

The Exiled Saints Gather At Quincy, Illinois--Proposition To Settle At
Commerce.

Some time this month there was a conference of the Church at Quincy, a
report of which is as follows:

    _Minutes of a Conference of the Church Held at Quincy_.

    At a meeting of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,
    held in the town of Quincy, February--, 1839, to take into
    consideration the expediency of locating the Church in some place,
    Brother William Marks was chosen president and Robert B. Thompson,
    clerk.

    Elder John P. Greene, by request, then stated the object of
    the meeting, and stated that a liberal offer had been made by
    a gentleman, of about twenty thousand acres, lying between the
    Mississippi and Des Moines rivers, at two dollars per acre, to
    be paid in twenty annual installments, without interest; that
    a committee had examined the land and reported very favorably
    respecting it, and thought it every way suited for a location for
    the Church.

    Brother Rogers then made some statements, and gave information
    respecting the land, being one of the committee appointed to
    examine it.

    President William Marks observed that he was altogether in favor
    of making the purchase, providing that it was the will of the Lord
    that we should again gather together; but from the circumstances
    of being driven from the other places, he almost was led to the
    conclusion that it was not wisdom that we should do so, but
    hoped that the brethren would speak their minds; the Lord would
    undoubtedly manifest His will by His Spirit.

    Brother Israel Barlow thought that it might be in consequence
    of not building according to the pattern, that we had thus been
    scattered.

    Brother Mace spoke in favor of an immediate gathering.

    Bishop Partridge then spoke on the subject, and thought it was not
    expedient under the present circumstances to collect together, but
    thought it was better to scatter into different parts and provide
    for the poor, which would be acceptable to God.

    Judge Higbee said that he had been very favorable to the {261}
    proposition of purchasing the land and gathering upon it, but since
    the Bishop had expressed his opinion he was willing to give up the
    idea.

    Several of the brethren then spoke on the subject, after which it
    was moved and seconded, and unanimously agreed upon, that it would
    not be deemed advisable to locate on the lands for the present.

    A committee was appointed to draft a petition to the General
    government, stating our grievances, and one likewise to be
    presented to the citizens [of the United States] for the same
    object.

[Sidenote: Applications for Assistance.]

_Tuesday, February 12_.--The committee [on removal] sent a delegation
to Sister Murie to ascertain her necessities. Daniel Shearer and
Erastus Bingham went. Applications for assistance were made from Sister
Morgan L. Gardner, Jeremiah Mackley's family, Brother Forbush, Echoed
Cheney, T. D. Tyler, D. McArthur and others.

_Wednesday, February 13_.--Voted that Theodore Turley be appointed to
superintend the management of the teams provided for removing the poor,
and see that they are furnished for the journey.

[Sidenote: Persecution of Brigham Young.]

_Thursday, February 14_.--The persecution was so bitter against Elder
Brigham Young (on whom devolved the presidency of the Twelve by age,
[1] Thomas B. Marsh having apostatized) and his life was so diligently
sought for, that he was compelled to flee; and he left Far West on this
day for Illinois.

[Sidenote: Petition to Help the Smith Family From Mo.]

My brother Don Carlos Smith had carried a petition to the mob, to get
assistance to help our father's family out of Missouri. I know not how
much he obtained, but my father and mother started this day for Quincy,
with an ox team.

[Sidenote: Arrangements for paying the Debts of the Saints.]

The committee on removal discussed the propriety of paying the debts of
the Saints in Clay County. Alanson {262} Ripley was requested to call
on lawyer Barnet, who was in town, and make arrangements concerning the
matter. A letter of attorney was drawn up for the brethren to sign, who
felt willing to dispose of their real estate to discharge their debts,
appointing Alanson Ripley their attorney for that purpose. This was not
exactly according to the minds of the committee, for they only directed
Brother Ripley to confer with the person above named, for the purpose
of obtaining information without reference to his being appointed an
attorney for that purpose, independent of any other person or persons.

_Friday, February 15_.--My family arrived at the Mississippi, opposite
Quincy, after a journey of almost insupportable hardships, and Elder
Markham returned immediately to Far West.

_Monday, 18_.--

    _The Governor's Order to Return the Arms Belonging to the Saints_.

    Executive Department, City Of Jefferson,

    February 18, 1839.

    _To Colonel Wiley C. Williams, Aid to the Commander-in-Chief_:

    Sir:--You will take the measures as soon as practicable, to cause
    the arms surrendered by the Mormons, to be delivered to the proper
    owners upon their producing satisfactory evidence of their claims.
    If in any case you think an improper use would be made of them,
    you can retain such, using a sound discretion in the matter. You
    will call upon Captain Pollard or any other person who may have
    arms in possession, and take charge of them; and this will be your
    authority for so doing.

    I am respectfully,

    Your obedient servant,

    Lilburn W. Boggs.

Little benefit would have resulted from this order, even if it had
been promptly executed, as many of the brethren who owned the arms had
left the state and it would be very difficult to decide what would be
satisfactory evidence of claims.

[Sidenote: Labors in the Interests of the Poor.]

_Tuesday, February 19_.--The committee on removal appointed Charles
Bird to visit the several parts of Caldwell {263} county, and William
Huntington the town of Far West, to ascertain the number of families
that would have to be assisted in removing, and solicit means from
those who are able to give for the assistance of the needy, and make
report as soon as possible.

_Thursday, February 21_--Elder Markham arrived at Far West, and in
the evening the committee on removal were in council. Elders Bingham,
Turley, and Shearer, were appointed to sell the house of Joseph Smith,
Sen., to a gentleman from Clay county.

Charles Bird was sent to Liberty relative to a power of attorney.

    _Committee Resolutions_.

    Resolved: To send Stephen Markham to Illinois, to visit the
    brethren there and obtain a power of attorney from such as had
    left their lands without selling them. A report of the committee
    appointed to visit the different parts of the country to ascertain
    the number of families who were destitute of teams for their
    removal, was made. William Huntington reported thirty-two families,
    and Charles Bird seven, as far as they had prosecuted their labors.

    Resolved: To send Erastus Bingham to visit the north-west part
    of Caldwell county for the same purpose, and then adjourned till
    Monday next.

[Sidenote: Action of the Democratic Committee of Quincy.]

_Saturday, February 25_.--At a meeting of the Democratic Association,
held this evening at Quincy, Adams County, Illinois, Mr. Lindsay
introduced a resolution setting forth that the people called
"Latter-day Saints" were many of them in a situation requiring the aid
of the citizens of Quincy, and recommending that measures be adopted
for their relief, which resolution was adopted, and a committee
consisting of eight persons appointed by the chair; of which committee
J. W. Whitney was chairman. The association then adjourned to meet on
Wednesday evening next after instructing the committee to procure the
Congregational church as a place of meeting, and to invite as many of
{264} our people to attend as should choose to do so; for it was in
their behalf that the meeting was to be held. Also all other citizens
of the town who felt to do so were invited to attend. The committee not
being able to obtain the meeting house, procured the Court House for
that purpose.

[Sidenote: Determination of the Prisoners to Escape.]

After we were cast into prison, we heard nothing but threatenings, that
if any judge or jury, or court of any kind, should clear any of us, we
should never get out of the state alive.

This soon determined our course, and that was to escape out of their
hands as soon as we could, and by any means we could. After we had
been some length of time in prison, we demanded a habeas corpus of
Judge Turnham, one of the county judges, which with some considerable
reluctance, was granted. Great threatenings were made at this time, by
the mob, that if any of us were liberated, we should never get out of
the county alive.

[Sidenote: Sidney Rigdon's Departure from Prison.]

After the investigation, Sidney Rigdon was released from prison by
the decision of the judge; the remainder were committed to jail; he,
however, returned with us until a favorable opportunity offered for his
departure. Through the friendship of the sheriff, Mr. Samuel Hadley,
and the jailor, Mr. Samuel Tillery, he was let out of the jail secretly
in the night, after having declared in prison, that the sufferings of
Jesus Christ were a fool to his; and being solemnly warned by them
to be out of the state with as little delay as possible, he made his
escape. Being pursued by a body of armed men, it was through the
direction of a kind Providence that he escaped out of their hands, and
safely arrived in Quincy, Illinois.

[Sidenote: Importunities for the Release of the Prisoners.]

About this time, Elders Heber C. Kimball and Alanson Ripley were at
Liberty, where they had been almost weekly importuning at the feet
of the judges; and while performing this duty on a certain occasion,
Judge Hughes stared them full in the face, and observed to one of his
associates, that "by {265} the look of these men's eyes, they are
whipped, but not conquered; and let us beware how we treat these men;
for their looks bespeak innocence;" and at that time he entreated his
associates to admit of bail for all the prisoners; but the hardness of
their hearts would not admit of so charitable a deed. But the brethren
continued to importune at the feet of the judges, and also to visit
the prisoners. No one of the ruling part of the community disputed the
innocence of the prisoners, but said, in consequence of the fury of the
mob, that even-handed justice could not be administered; Elders Kimball
and Ripley were therefore compelled to abandon the idea of importuning
at the feet of the judges, and leave the prisoners in the hands of God.

[Sidenote: Meeting of Elder Israel Barlow and Isaac Galland.]

When Elder Israel Barlow left Missouri in the fall of 1838, either by
missing his way, or some other cause, he struck the Des Moines river
some distance above its mouth. He was in a destitute situation; and
making his wants known, found friends who assisted him, and gave him
introductions to several gentlemen, among whom was Dr. Isaac Galland,
to whom he communicated the situation of the Saints; the relation of
which enlisted Mr. Galland's sympathies, or interest, or both united,
and hence a providential introduction of the Church to Commerce [the
place of residence of Mr. Galland] and its vicinity; for Brother Barlow
went direct to Quincy, the place of his destination, and made known his
interview with Dr. Galland to the Church.

    _Communication of Isaac Galland_.

    Commerce, Illinois, February 26, 1839.

    _Mr. D. W. Rogers_:

    Dear Sir:--Yours of the 11th instant was received yesterday. I
    perceive that it had been written before your brethren visited my
    house. I had also written to Mr. Barlow before I received yours,
    and which is herewith also sent. I wish here to remark that about
    ten or fifteen houses or cabins can be had in this neighborhood,
    and several farms may be rented here, on the half breed lands. I
    think that more than {266} fifty families can be accommodated with
    places to dwell in, but not a great quantity of cultivated land,
    as the improvements on that tract are generally new; there are,
    however, several farms which can also be rented.

    Since writing to Mr. Barlow, I have conversed with a friend
    of mine, who has also conversed with Governor Lucas, of Iowa
    territory, in relation to your Church and people. Governor Lucas
    says that the people called Mormons were good citizens in the
    state of Ohio, and that he respects them now as good and virtuous
    citizens, and feels disposed to treat them as such.

    I wish also to say, through you, to your people, that Isaac Van
    Allen, Esq., the attorney-general of Iowa territory, is a personal
    and tried friend of mine; and I feel fully authorized, from a
    conversation which I have had with him on the subject, to say that
    I can assure you of his utmost endeavors to protect you from insult
    or violence.

    I will here repeat what I have written to Mr. Barlow, that I
    do believe that under a territorial form of government which
    is directly connected with the general government of the
    United States, your Church will be better secured against the
    capriciousness of public opinion, than under a state government,
    where murder, rapine and robbery are admirable (!) traits in the
    character of a demagogue; and where the greatest villains often
    reach the highest offices. I have written to Governor Lucas on the
    subject; and when I receive his answer, I will communicate it to
    your Church.

    I desire very much to know how your captive brethren in Missouri
    are faring. I should like to know if Joseph Smith, Jun., is at
    liberty or not, and what his prospects are. I shall be at Carthage,
    our county seat, during the fore part of next week, and soon
    after that, (perhaps the next week following) I expect to go to
    Burlington, Iowa territory, when I expect to see the governor and
    converse with him on the subject. I will probably be at home from
    the 6th until the 12th of March. I shall be pleased to see you or
    any of your people at my house at any time when you can make it
    convenient. It is now necessary that something definite should be
    done in relation to renting farms, as the season for commencing
    such operations is fast approaching us. A Mr. Whitney, a merchant
    in Quincy, is owner and proprietor of several farms in this
    vicinity, and it might be well to see him on the subject.

    I wish to serve your cause in any matter which Providence may
    afford me the opportunity of doing, and I therefore request that
    you feel no hesitancy or reluctance in communicating to me your
    wishes, at all times and on any subject. I should be much gratified
    if it could be convenient for Mr. Rigdon, or some one or more of
    the leading members of your Church to spend some time with me in
    traveling through the {267} tract, and in hearing and learning
    the state of the public mind, and feelings of the community, in
    relation to the location of the Church.

    I feel that I am assuming a very great responsibility in this
    undertaking, and I wish to be governed by the dictates of wisdom
    and discretion, while at the same time I am aware that we are often
    disposed to view things as we would wish to have them, rather than
    as they really are; and our great anxiety to accomplish an object
    may sometimes diminish the obstacles below their real measure.

    The little knowledge which I have as yet of the doctrine, order or
    practice of the Church, leaves me under the necessity of acting in
    all this matter as a stranger, though, as I sincerely hope, as a
    friend, for such, I assure you I feel myself to be, both towards
    you collectively, as a people, and individually as sufferers. If it
    should not be convenient for any one to come up about the 7th or
    8th of March, please write me by the mail. Say to Mr. Rigdon, that
    I regret that I was absent when he was at my house. I cannot visit
    Quincy until after my return from Burlington, when, I think if it
    is thought necessary, I can.

    Accept, dear sir, for yourself and in behalf of the Church and
    people, assurance of my sincere sympathy in your sufferings and
    wrongs, and deep solicitude for your immediate relief from present
    distress, and future triumphant conquest over every enemy.

    Yours truly,

    Isaac Galland.

    _Minutes of the Meeting of the Democratic Association of Quincy_.

    Wednesday, February 27, 1839, six o'clock p. m.

    The members of the Democratic Association and the citizens of
    Quincy generally, assembled in the court house, to take into
    consideration the state and condition of the people called the
    "Latter-day Saints," and organized the meeting by appointing
    General Leach chairman, and James D. Morgan secretary. Mr. Whitney,
    from the committee appointed at a former meeting, submitted the
    following:

    The select committee to whom the subject was referred of inquiring
    into and reporting the situation of the persons who have recently
    arrived here from Missouri, and whether their circumstances are
    such as that they would need the aid of the citizens of Quincy and
    its vicinity, to be guided by what they might deem the principles
    of an expanded benevolence, have attended to the duties assigned
    them, and have concluded on the following:

    Report.

    "The first idea that occurred to your committee was, to obtain
    correctly the facts of the case, for without them the committee
    could come {268} to no conclusion as to what it might be proper for
    us to do. Without the facts they could form no basis upon which
    the committee might recommend to this association what would be
    proper for us to do, or what measures to adopt. The committee,
    soon after their appointment, sent invitations to Mr. Rigdon and
    several others to meet the committee and give them a statement
    of the facts, and to disclose their situation. Those individuals
    accordingly met the committee and entered into a free conversation
    and disclosure of the facts of their situation; and after some time
    spent therein, the committee concluded to adjourn and report to
    this meeting, but not without first requesting those individuals to
    draw up and send us in writing, a condensed statement of the facts
    relative to the subject in charge of your committee, which those
    individuals engaged to do, and which the committee request may be
    taken as part of their report.

    "That statement is herewith lettered A.

    "The committee believe that our duties at this time, and on this
    occasion, are all included within the limits of an expanded
    benevolence and humanity, and which are guided and directed by that
    charity which never faileth.

    "From the facts already disclosed, independent of the statement
    furnished to the committee, we feel it our duty to recommend to
    this association that they adopt the following resolutions:

    "Resolved, That the strangers recently arrived here from the state
    of Missouri, known by the name of the 'Latter-day Saints,' are
    entitled to our sympathy and kindest regard, and that we recommend
    to the citizens of Quincy to extend all the kindness in their power
    to bestow on the persons who are in affliction.

    "Resolved, That a numerous committee be raised, composed of some
    individuals in every quarter of the town and its vicinity, whose
    duty it shall be to explain to our misguided fellow citizens,
    if any such there be, who are disposed to excite prejudices and
    circulate unfounded rumors; and particularly to explain to them
    that these people have no design to lower the wages of the laboring
    class, but to procure something to save them from starving.

    "Resolved, That a standing committee be raised and be composed of
    individuals who shall immediately inform Mr. Rigdon and others, as
    many as they may think proper, of their appointment, and who shall
    be authorized to obtain information from time to time; and should
    they [the committee] be of opinion that any individuals, either
    from destitution or sickness, or if they find them houseless, that
    they appeal directly and promptly to the citizens of Quincy to
    furnish them with the means to relieve all such cases.

    "Resolved, That the committee last aforesaid be instructed to use
    {269} their utmost endeavors to obtain employment for all these
    people, who are able and willing to labor; and also to afford them
    all needful, suitable and proper encouragement.

    "Resolved, That we recommend to all the citizens of Quincy, that
    in all their intercourse with the strangers, they use and observe
    a becoming decorum and delicacy, and be particularly careful not
    to indulge in any conversation or expressions calculated to wound
    their feelings, or in any way to reflect upon those, who by every
    law of humanity, are entitled to our sympathy and commiseration.

    "All which is submitted,"

    J. W. Whitney, Chairman.

    "Quincy, February 27, 1839."

    _Document A_.

    "This, gentlemen, is a brief outline of the difficulties that we
    have labored under, in consequence of the repeated persecutions
    that have been heaped upon us; and as the governor's exterminating
    order has not been rescinded, we as a people were obliged to leave
    the state of Missouri, and with it our lands, corn, wheat, pork,
    etc., that we had provided for ourselves and families, together
    with our fodder, which we have collected for our cattle, horses,
    etc., those of them that we have been able to preserve from the
    wreck of that desolation which has spread itself over Daviess and
    Caldwell counties. In consequence of our brethren being obliged to
    leave the state, and as a sympathy and friendly spirit has been
    manifested by the citizens of Quincy, numbers of our brethren, glad
    to obtain an asylum from the hand of persecution, have come to this
    place.

    "We cannot but express our feelings of gratitude to the inhabitants
    of this place, for the friendly feelings which have been
    manifested, and the benevolent hand which has been stretched out
    to a poor, oppressed, injured, and persecuted people. And as you,
    gentlemen of the Democratic Association, have felt interested
    in our welfare, and have desired to be put in possession of a
    knowledge of our situation, our present wants, and what would be
    most conducive to our present good, together with what led to those
    difficulties, we thought that those documents [Memorial, Order of
    Extermination, and General Clark's Address] would furnish you with
    as correct information of our difficulties, and what led to them,
    as anything we are in possession of.

    "If we should say what our present wants are, it would be beyond
    all calculation; as we have been robbed of our corn, wheat, horses,
    cattle, cows, hogs, wearing apparel, houses and homes, and, indeed,
    of all that renders life tolerable. We do not, we cannot expect to
    be placed in the situation that we once were in; nor are we capable
    of {270} ourselves of supplying the many wants of those of our poor
    brethren, who are daily crowding here and looking to us for relief,
    in consequence of our property, as well as theirs, being in the
    hands of a ruthless and desolating mob.

    "It is impossible to give an exact account of the widows, and those
    that are entirely destitute, as there are so many coming here
    daily; but from inquiry, the probable amount will be something
    near twenty; besides numbers of others who are able bodied men,
    both able and willing to work, to obtain a subsistence, yet owing
    to their peculiar situation, are destitute of means to supply the
    immediate wants that the necessities of their families call for.

    "We would not propose, gentlemen, what you shall do; but after
    making these statements, shall leave it to your own judgment and
    generosity. As to what we think would be the best means to promote
    our permanent good, we think that to give us employment, rent
    us farms, and allow us the protection and privileges of other
    citizens, would raise us from a state of dependence, liberate
    us from the iron grasp of poverty, put us in possession of a
    competency, and deliver us from the ruinous effects of persecution,
    despotism, and tyranny.

    "Written in behalf of a committee of the Latter-day Saints.

    "Elias Higbee, President,

    "John P. Greene, Clerk.

    "To the Quincy Democratic Association."

    _Statement of Sidney Rigdon_.

    Mr. Rigdon then made a statement of the wrongs received by the
    Mormons, from a portion of the people of Missouri, and of their
    present suffering condition.

    On motion of Mr. Bushnell, the report and resolutions were laid
    upon the table until tomorrow evening.

    On motion of Mr. Bushnell, the meeting adjourned to meet at this
    place tomorrow evening at seven o'clock.

Stephen Markham left Far West [on the 27th of February] for Illinois,
to fulfill his appointment of the 21st instant.

    _Minutes of the Adjourned Meeting of the Democratic Association of
    Quincy_.

    Thursday evening, February 28th. Met pursuant to adjournment. The
    meeting was called to order by the chairman.

    On motion of Mr. Morris, a committee of three was appointed to
    {271} take up a collection; Messrs. J. T. Holmes, Whitney and
    Morris were appointed. The committee subsequently reported that
    $48.25 had been collected. On motion the amount was paid over to
    the committee on behalf of the Mormons. On motion of Mr. Holmes, a
    committee of three, consisting of S. Holmes, Bushnell and Morris,
    was appointed to draw up subscription papers and circulate them
    among the citizens, for the purpose of receiving contributions in
    clothing and provisions. On motion six were added to that committee.

    On motion of J. T. Holmes, J. D. Morgan was appointed a committee
    to wait upon the Quincy Grays [militia company] for the purpose
    of receiving subscriptions. Mr. Morgan subsequently reported that
    twenty dollars had been subscribed by that company.

    The following resolutions were then offered by Mr. J. T. Holmes:

    Resolved, That we regard the rights of conscience as natural and
    inalienable, and the most sacred guaranteed by the Constitution of
    our free government.

    Resolved, That we regard the acts of all mobs as flagrant
    violations of law; and those who compose them, individually
    responsible, both to the laws of God and man, for every depredation
    committed upon the property, rights, or life of any citizen.

    Resolved, that the inhabitants upon the western frontier of the
    state of Missouri, in their late persecutions of the class of
    people denominated Mormons, have violated the sacred rights of
    conscience, and every law of justice and humanity.

    Resolved, That the governor of Missouri, in refusing protection
    to this class of people, when pressed upon by a heartless mob,
    and turning upon them a band of unprincipled militia, with orders
    encouraging their extermination, has brought a lasting disgrace
    upon the state over which he presides.

    The resolutions were supported in a spirited manner by Messrs.
    Holmes, Morris and Whitney.

    On motion, the resolutions were adopted.

    On motion the meeting then adjourned.

    Samuel Leach, Chairman,

    J. D. Morgan, Secretary.

Footnotes:

1. It will be remembered that when the first quorum of the Twelve
was organized the Prophet arranged the members in the order of their
standing according to their age. Thereafter and now they hold their
places in the quorum according to seniority of ordination. A full
explanation of this matter is given in the HISTORY OF THE CHURCH,
volume II, pp. 219-20. See foot notes.

{272}



CHAPTER XIX.

Letters To The Prophet--Affairs In England--Petitions.

_Tuesday, March 5_.--

    _Edward Partridge's Letter to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Others,
    Confined in Liberty Jail, Missouri_.

    Quincy, Illinois.

    Beloved Brethren:--Having an opportunity to send direct to you by
    Brother Rogers, I feel to write a few lines to you.

    President Rigdon, Judge Higbee, Israel Barlow, and myself went to
    see Dr. Isaac Galland week before last. Brothers Rigdon, Higbee and
    myself are of the opinion that it is not wisdom to make a trade
    with the Doctor at present; possibly it may be wisdom to effect a
    trade hereafter.

    The people here receive us kindly; they have contributed near $100
    cash, besides other property, for the relief of the suffering among
    our people. Brother Joseph's wife lives at Judge Cleveland's; I
    have not seen her, but I sent her word of this opportunity to
    send to you. Brother Hyrum's wife lives not far from me. I have
    been to see her a number of times; her health was very poor when
    she arrived, but she has been getting better; she knows of this
    opportunity to send. I saw Sister Wight soon after her arrival
    here; all were well; I understand she has moved about two miles
    with father and John Higbee, who are fishing this spring. Sister
    McRae is here, living with Brother Henderson, and is well; I
    believe she knows of this opportunity to send. Brother Baldwin's
    family I have not seen, and do not know that she has got here as
    yet. She, however, may be upon the other side of the river; the ice
    has run these three days past, so that there has been no crossing;
    the weather is now moderating, and the crossing will soon commence
    again.

    This place is full of our people, yet they are scattering off
    nearly all the while. I expect to start tomorrow for Pittsfield,
    Pike county, Illinois, about forty-five miles southeast from this
    place. Brother George W. Robinson told me this morning that he
    expected that his father-in-law, Judge Higbee, and himself would go
    on a farm about twenty miles northeast from this place. Some of the
    leading men have given us {273} [that is the Saints] an invitation
    to settle in and about this place. Many no doubt will stay here.

    Brethren, I hope that you will bear patiently the privations that
    you are called to endure; the Lord will deliver you in His own due
    time.

    Your letter respecting the trade with Galland was not received
    here until after our return from his residence, at the head of the
    shoals or rapids. If Brother Rigdon were not here, we might, after
    receiving your letter, come to a different conclusion respecting
    that trade. There are some here that are sanguine that we ought to
    trade with the Doctor. Bishops Whitney and Knight are not here,
    and have not been, as I know of. Brothers Morley and Billings have
    settled some twenty or twenty-five miles north of this place, for
    the present. A Brother Lee, who lived near Haun's Mill, died on
    the opposite side of the river a few days since. Brother Rigdon
    preached his funeral sermon in the court-house. It is a general
    time of health here.

    We greatly desire to see you and to have you enjoy your freedom.
    The citizens here are willing that we should enjoy the privileges
    guaranteed to all civil people without molestation.

    I remain your brother in the Lord,

    Edward Partridge.

    _Don Carlos Smith to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Others Confined in
    Liberty Jail, Missouri_.

    Quincy, Illinois, March 6, 1839.

    Brothers Hyrum And Joseph:--Having an opportunity to send a line
    to you, I do not feel disposed to let it slip unnoticed. Father's
    family have all arrived in this state except you two; and could
    I but see your faces this side of the Mississippi, and know and
    realize that you had been delivered from your enemies, it would
    certainly light up a new gleam of hope in our bosoms; nothing could
    be more satisfactory, nothing could give us more joy.

    Emma and the children are well; they live three miles from here,
    and have a tolerably good place. Hyrum's children and mother
    Grinold's are living at present with father; they are all well.
    Mary [wife of Hyrum Smith] has not got her health yet, but I think
    it increases slowly. She lives in the house with old Father Dixon;
    likewise Brother Robert T. Thompson and family; they are probably a
    half mile from father's. We are trying to get a house, and to get
    the family together; we shall do the best we can for them, and that
    which we consider to be most in accordance with Hyrum's feelings.

    Father and mother stood their journey remarkably well. They are
    in tolerable health. Samuel's wife has been sick ever since they
    arrived. William has removed forty miles from here, but is here
    now, {274} and says he is anxious to have you liberated, and see
    you enjoy liberty once more. My family is well; my health has
    not been good for about two weeks; and for two or three days the
    toothache has been my tormentor. It all originated with a severe
    cold.

    Dear brethren, we just heard that the governor says that he is
    going to set you all at liberty; I hope it is true; other letters
    that you will probably receive will give you information concerning
    the warm feeling of the people here towards us.

    After writing these hurried lines in misery, I close by leaving the
    blessings of God with you, and praying for your health, prosperity
    and restitution to liberty.

    This from a true friend and brother,

    Don C. Smith.

    _William Smith to Joseph and Hyrum Smith_.

    Brothers Hyrum And Joseph:--I should have called down to Liberty
    to have seen you had it not been for the multiplicity of business
    that was on my hands; and again, I thought that perhaps the people
    might think that the "Mormons" would rise up to liberate you;
    consequently too many going to see you might make it worse for you;
    but we all long to see you and have you come out of that lonesome
    place. I hope you will be permitted to come to your families before
    long. Do not worry about them, for they will be taken care of. All
    we can do will be done; further than this, we can only wish, hope,
    desire, and pray for your deliverance.

    William Smith.

    To Joseph Smith, Jun., and Hyrum Smith.

_Friday, March 8_.--

    _Minutes of a Meeting of the Committee on Removal_.

    The committee met at Theodore Turley's, William Huntingon in the
    chair.

    Alanson Ripley made a report of his journey to Liberty, and said
    that President Joseph Smith, Jun., counseled to sell all the land
    in Jackson county, and all other lands in the state whatsoever.

    Resolved, That the names of those of the brethren who have
    subscribed to our covenant and have done nothing, be sought for,
    and a record made of them, that they may be had in remembrance.

    Resolved, That an extra exertion be made to procure money for
    removing the poor, by visiting those who have money, and laying the
    necessities of the committee, in their business of removing the
    poor out of the state, before them, and solicit their assistance.

    Voted that the clerk write a letter to Bishop Partridge, laying
    before {275} him the advice of President Joseph Smith, Jun.,
    concerning selling the Jackson county lands, and requesting a power
    of attorney to sell them.

_Saturday, 9_.--

    _Minutes of the Adjourned Meeting of the Democratic Association of
    Quincy_.

    At a meeting held at the committee room in the city of Quincy,
    Illinois, at two o'clock, p. m., on the 9th March, 1839, pursuant
    to previous appointment, it was moved by President Rigdon, and
    seconded, that Judge Elias Higbee be called to the chair, and he
    was unanimously appointed. James Sloan was then appointed clerk by
    vote.

    President Rigdon spoke as to the members of the committee being
    absent who had called the meeting, and proposed that other business
    be proceeded with in the meantime, and left it to the chair
    to decide on the propriety thereof. The chair assented to the
    suggestion of President Rigdon.

    President Rigdon then applied for a paper which had been prepared,
    and signed by several of the citizens of Quincy, describing our
    situation as a people and calling upon the humane in St. Louis and
    elsewhere to assist them in affording us relief. The paper, being
    presented by Brother Ephraim Owen, was then read, and President
    Rigdon spoke at length upon the subject, and proposed that a
    committee of two of the brethren be appointed by the voice of the
    meeting to go to St. Louis on such business. The motion was then
    put and carried, and Brother Mace was appointed as one of said
    committee, and Brother Ephraim Owen the other. It was proposed
    that Brother Orson Pratt (who is now in St. Louis) be appointed an
    assistant.

    After the motion was made, and before it was seconded, President
    Rigdon spoke of its inconsistency, and stated, as a better mode,
    that all the Saints in St. Louis, or such of them as the committee
    may think proper, be called upon to assist them. The motion was
    withdrawn, and this business closed.

    Some of the committee who called this meeting, being now present,
    President Rigdon spoke of two letters which had been received here
    by the brethren, from Iowa Territory, respecting lands in said
    place, and containing sentiments of sympathy on account of our
    grievances and distressed situation. One of these letters has been
    mislaid, and the other, from Isaac Galland to Brother Rogers, was
    read. It was then proposed that a committee be appointed to visit
    the lands, and confer with the gentlemen who had so written, and
    declared themselves interested for our welfare.

    Elder John P. Greene moved that a committee be appointed for that
    purpose, which was seconded, and adopted unanimously. President
    {276} Rigdon moved that the committee shall select the land, if it
    can be safely occupied. Seconded by Elder Greene, and carried that
    the committee be composed of five, viz.: President Rigdon, Elder
    Greene, Judge Higbee, Brother Benson and Brother Israel Barlow.

    It was moved, seconded and adopted, that if any one or more of the
    committee be unable to go, the remainder of the committee are to
    appoint others in their stead.

    The chairman now produced a power of attorney, sent here from the
    committee at Far West, to be executed by such of the brethren here
    who had lands in Caldwell county, and were willing to have them
    sold, to enable the families who are in distress at that place to
    get here, say about one hundred families.

    Power of attorney was read. Moved, seconded and adopted, that the
    clerk of this meeting do make out a copy of the minutes of this
    meeting, to be sent to the committee at Far West.

    James Sloan, Clerk.

[Sidenote: Condition of Affairs in England.]

While the persecutions were progressing against us in Missouri, the
enemy of all righteousness was no less busy with the Saints in England,
according to the length of time the Gospel had been preached in that
kingdom. Temptation followed temptation, and being young in the cause,
the Saints suffered themselves to be buffeted by their adversary. From
the time that Elder Willard Richards was called to the apostleship,
in July, 1838, the devil seemed to take a great dislike to him, and
strove to stir up the minds of many against him. Elder Richards was
afflicted with sickness, and several times was brought to the borders
of the grave, and many were tempted to believe that he was under
transgression, or he would not be thus afflicted. Some were tried and
tempted because Elder Richards took to himself a wife; they thought
he should have given himself wholly to the ministry, and followed
Paul's advice to the letter. Some were tried because his wife wore a
veil, and others because she carried a muff to keep herself warm when
she walked out in cold weather; and even the President of the Church
[Joseph Fielding] there, thought "she had better done without it;" she
had nothing ever purchased by the Church; and to gratify their {277}
feelings, wore the poorest clothes she had, and they were too good, so
hard was it to buffet the storm of feeling that arose from such foolish
causes. Sister Richards was very sick for some time, and some were
dissatisfied because her husband did not neglect her entirely and go
out preaching; and others, that she did not go to meeting when she was
not able to go so far.

[Sidenote: Charges of Elder Halsal Against Elder Willard Richards.]

From such little things arose a spirit of jealousy, tattling, evil
speaking, surmising, covetousness, and rebellion, until the Church
but too generally harbored more or less of those unpleasant feelings:
and this evening [March 9th] Elder Halsal came out openly in council
against Elder Richards, and preferred some heavy charges, none of which
he was able to substantiate. Most of the Elders in Preston were against
Elder Richards for a season, except James Whitehead, who proved himself
true in the hour of trial.

[Sidenote: The Cause of Elder Richards' Troubles.]

_Sunday, 10_.--When Elder Richards made proclamation from the pulpit,
that if anyone had aught against him, or his wife Jennetta, he wished
they would come to him and state their grievances, and if he had erred
in anything, he would acknowledge his fault, one only of the brethren
came to him, and that to acknowledge his own fault to Elder Richards in
harboring unpleasant feelings without a cause.

Sister Richards bore all these trials and persecutions with patience.
Elder Richards knew the cause of these unpleasantries, his call [to the
apostolate] having been made known to him by revelation; but he told
no one of it. The work continued to spread in Manchester and vicinity,
among the Staffordshire potteries, and other places in England.

_Friday, 15_.--I made the following petition:

    _The Petition of the Prophet et al. to Judge Tompkins et al_.

    _To the honorable Judge Tompkins, or either of the Judges of the
    Supreme Court of the State of Missouri_:

    Your petitioners, Alanson Ripley, Heber C. Kimball, Joseph B.
    Noble, {278} William Huntington, and Joseph Smith, Jun., beg
    leave respectfully to represent to your honor, that Joseph Smith,
    Jun., is now unlawfully confined and restrained of his liberty in
    Liberty jail, Clay county, Missouri; that he has been restrained
    of his liberty nearly five months. Your petitioners claim that the
    whole transaction which has been the cause of his confinement,
    is unlawful from the first to the last. He was taken from his
    house by a fraud being practiced upon him by a man of the name of
    George M. Hinkle, and one or two others; thereby your petitioners
    respectfully show, that he was forced, contrary to his wishes, and
    without knowing the cause, into the camp, which was commanded by
    General Lucas of Jackson county, and thence sent to Ray county,
    sleeping on the ground, and suffering many insults and injuries and
    deprivations, which were calculated in their nature to break down
    the spirit and constitution of the most robust and hardy of mankind.

    He was put in chains immediately on his being landed at Richmond,
    and there underwent a long and tedious _ex parte_ examination.

    Your petitioners show that the said Joseph Smith, Jun., was
    deprived of the privileges of being examined before the court
    as the law directs; that the witnesses on the part of the state
    were taken by force of arms, threatened with extermination or
    immediate death, and were brought without subpoena or warrant,
    under the awful and glaring anticipation of being exterminated if
    they did not swear something against him to please the mob or his
    persecutors; and those witnesses were compelled to swear at the
    muzzle of the gun, and some of them have acknowledged since, which
    your petitioners do testify, and are able to prove, that they did
    swear falsely, and that they did it in order to save their lives.

    And your petitioners testify that all the testimony that had any
    tendency or bearing of criminality against said Joseph Smith, Jun.,
    is false. We are personally acquainted with the circumstances, and
    being with him most of the time, and being present at the time
    spoken of by them, therefore we know that their testimony was
    false; and if he could have had a fair trial, and impartial, and
    lawful examination before the court, and could have been allowed
    the privilege of introducing his witnesses, he could have disproved
    everything that was against him; but the court suffered them to be
    intimidated, some of them in the presence of the court, and they
    were driven also and hunted, and some of them driven entirely out
    of the state.

    And thus he was not able to have a fair trial; that the spirit of
    the court was tyrannical and overbearing, and the whole transaction
    of his treatment during the examination was calculated to convince
    your petitioners that it was a religious persecution, proscribing
    him in the liberty of conscience which is guaranteed to him by
    the Constitution of the {279} United States, and the state of
    Missouri; that a long catalogue of garbled testimony was permitted
    by the court, purporting to be the religious sentiment of the said
    Joseph Smith, Jun., which testimony was false, and your petitioners
    know that it was false, and can prove that it was false; because
    the witnesses testified that those sentiments were promulgated
    on certain days, and in the presence of large congregations;
    and your petitioners can prove, by those congregations, that
    the said Joseph Smith, Jun., did not promulgate such ridiculous
    and absurd sentiments for his religion as were testified of and
    admitted before the Honorable Austin A. King; and at the same time
    those things had no bearing on the offenses that the said Joseph
    Smith, Jun., was charged with; and after the examination the said
    prisoner was committed to the jail for treason against the state
    of Missouri; whereas the said Joseph Smith, Jun., did not levy war
    against the state of Missouri; neither did he commit any overt
    acts; neither did he aid or abet an enemy against the state of
    Missouri during the time he is charged with having done so.

    And further, your petitioners have yet to learn that the state has
    an enemy; neither is the proof evident, nor the presumption great,
    in its most malignant form, upon the testimony on the part of the
    state, exparte as it is in its nature, that the said prisoner has
    committed the slightest degree of treason, or any other act of
    transgression against the laws of the state of Missouri; and yet
    said prisoner has been committed to Liberty jail, Clay County,
    Missouri, for treason. He has continually offered bail to any
    amount that could be required, notwithstanding your petitioners
    allege that he ought to have been acquitted.

    Your petitioners also allege, that the commitment was an illegal
    commitment, for the law requires that a copy of the testimony
    should be put in the hands of the jailer, which was not done.

    Your petitioners allege, that the prisoner has been denied the
    privilege of the law in a writ of habeas corpus, by the judge of
    this county. Whether they have prejudged the case of the prisoner,
    or whether they are not willing to administer law and justice to
    the prisoner, or that they are intimidated by the high office
    of Judge King, who only acted in the case of the prisoner as a
    committing magistrate, a conservator of the peace, or by the
    threats of a lawless mob, your petitioners are not able to say; but
    it is a fact that they do not come forward boldly and administer
    the law to the relief of the prisoner.

    And further, your petitioners allege that immediately after the
    prisoner was taken, his family were frightened and driven out of
    their house, and that too, by the witnesses on the part of the
    state, and plundered of their goods; that the prisoner was robbed
    of a very fine horse, saddle and bridle, and other property of
    considerable amount; {280} that they (the witnesses) in connection
    with the mob, have finally succeeded, by vile threatening and
    foul abuse, in driving the family of the prisoner out of the
    state, with little or no means; and without a protector, and
    their very subsistence depends upon the liberty of the prisoner.
    And your petitioners allege, that he is not guilty of any crime,
    whereby he should be restrained of his liberty, from a personal
    knowledge, having been with him, and being personally acquainted
    with the whole of the difficulties between the "Mormons" and
    their persecutors; and that he has never acted at any time, only
    in his own defense, and that too on his own ground, property and
    possessions. That the prisoner has never commanded any military
    company, nor held any military authority, neither any other office,
    real or pretended in the state of Missouri, except that of a
    religious instructor; that he never has borne arms in the military
    rank; and in all such cases has acted as a private character and as
    an individual.

    How, then, your petitioners would ask, can it be possible that the
    prisoner has committed treason? The prisoner has had nothing to do
    in Daviess county, only on his own business as an individual.

    The testimony of Dr. Avard concerning a council held at James
    Sloan's was false. Your petitioners do solemnly declare, that there
    was no such council; that your petitioners were with the prisoner,
    and there was no such vote or conversation as Dr. Avard swore to.
    That Dr. Avard also swore falsely concerning a constitution, as
    he said was introduced among the Danites; that the prisoner had
    nothing to do with burning in Daviess county; that the prisoner
    made public proclamation against such things; that the prisoner did
    oppose Dr. Avard and George M. Hinkle against vile measures with
    the mob, but was threatened by them if he did not let them alone.
    That the prisoner did not have anything to do with what is called
    Bogart's battle, for he knew nothing of it until it was over; that
    he was at home, in the bosom of his own family, during the time of
    that whole transaction.

    And, in fine, your petitioners allege, that he is held in
    confinement without cause, and under an unlawful and tyrannical
    oppression, and that his health, and constitution, and life depend
    on being liberated from his confinement.

    Your petitioners aver that they can disprove every item of
    testimony that has any tendency of criminality against the
    prisoner; for they know the facts themselves, and can bring many
    others also to prove the same.

    Therefore your petitioners pray your honor to grant to him the
    state's writ of habeas corpus, directed to the jailer of Clay
    county, Missouri, commanding him forthwith to bring before you the
    body of the prisoner, so that his case may be heard before your
    honor, and the situation {281} of the prisoner be considered and
    adjusted according to law and justice, as it shall be presented
    before your honor, and, as in duty bound, your petitioners will
    ever pray.

    And further, your petitioners testify that the said Joseph Smith,
    Jun., did make a public proclamation in Far West, in favor of the
    militia of the state of Missouri, and of its laws and also of the
    Constitution of the United States; and that he has ever been a warm
    friend to his country, and did use all his influence for peace;
    that he is a peaceable and quiet citizen, and is not worthy of
    death, of stripes, bond, or imprisonment.

    The above mentioned speech was delivered on the day before the
    surrender of Far West,

    Alanson Ripley,

    Heber C. Kimball,

    William Huntington,

    Joseph B. Noble,

    Joseph Smith, Jun.

    State Of Missouri, ss.

    County Of Clay.

    This day personally appeared before me, Abraham Shafer, a justice
    of the peace within and for the aforesaid county, Alanson Ripley,
    Heber C. Kimball, William Huntington, Joseph B. Noble and Joseph
    Smith, Jun., who being duly sworn, do depose and say that the
    matters and things set forth in the foregoing petition, upon their
    own knowledge, are true in substance and in fact; and so far as set
    forth upon the information of others, they believe to be true.

    Alanson Ripley,

    Heber C. Kimball,

    William Huntington,

    Joseph B. Noble,

    Joseph Smith, Jun.

    Sworn and subscribed to before me, this 15th day of March, 1839.

    Abrham Shafer, J. P.

    We, the undersigned, being many of us personally acquainted with
    the said Joseph Smith, Jun., and the circumstances connected with
    his imprisonment, do concur in the petition and testimony of the
    above-named individuals, as most of the transactions therein
    mentioned we know from personal knowledge to be correctly set
    forth; and from information of others, believe the remainder to be
    true.

    Amasa Lyman,

    H. G. Sherwood,

    James Newberry,

    Cyrus Daniels,

    Erastus Snow,

    Elias Smith.

{282} The same day Caleb Baldwin, Lyman Wight, Alexander McRae, and
Hyrum Smith, my fellow prisoners, made each a similar petition.

{283}



CHAPTER XX.

Sundry Movements In The Interest Of The Exiled Saints--Prophet's
Letters From Liberty Prison.

_Sunday, 17_.--I here give an extract from the minutes of a conference
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, held this day in
Quincy; Brigham Young by a unanimous vote was called to the chair, and
Robert B. Thompson chosen clerk.

    _Minutes of the Conference at Quincy, Illinois_.

    Elder Young arose and gave a statement of the circumstances of the
    Church at Far West, and his feelings in regard to the scattering
    of the brethren, believing it to be wisdom to unite together as
    much as possible in extending the hand of charity for the relief of
    the poor, who were suffering for the Gospel's sake, under the hand
    of persecution in Missouri, and to pursue that course which would
    prove for the general good of the whole Church. He would advise the
    Saints to settle (if possible) in companies, or in a situation so
    as to be organized into branches of the Church, that they might be
    nourished and fed by the shepherds; for without, the sheep would be
    scattered; and he also impressed it upon the minds of the Saints to
    give heed to the revelations of God; the Elders especially should
    be careful to depart from all iniquity, and to remember the counsel
    given by those whom God hath placed as counselors in His Church;
    that they may become as wise stewards in the vineyard of the Lord,
    that every man may know and act in his own place; for there is
    order in the kingdom of God, and we must regard that order if we
    expect to be blessed.

    Elder Young also stated that Elder Jonathan Dunham had received
    previous instructions not to call any conferences in this state,
    or elsewhere; but to go forth and preach repentance, this was his
    calling; but contrary to those instructions, he called a conference
    in Springfield, Illinois, and presided there, and brought forth
    the business which he had to transact; and his proceeding in many
    respects during the conference was contrary to the feelings of
    Elder Wilford Woodruff and other {284} official members who were
    present. They considered his proceedings contrary to the will and
    order of God.

    The conference then voted that Elder Dunham be reproved for his
    improper course, and that he be advised to adhere to the counsel
    given him.

    After the conference had transacted various other business, Elder
    George W. Harris made some remarks relative to those who had left
    us in the time of our perils, persecutions and dangers, and were
    acting against the interests of the Church; he said that the Church
    could no longer hold them in fellowship unless they repented of
    their sins, and turned unto God.

    After the conference had fully expressed their feelings upon
    the subject it was unanimously voted that the following persons
    be excommunicated from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
    Saints, viz.: George M. Hinkle, Sampson Avard, John Corrill, Reed
    Peck, William W. Phelps, Frederick G. Williams, Thomas B. Marsh,
    Burr Riggs, and several others. After which the conference closed
    by prayer.

    Brigham Young, President.

    Robert B. Thompson, Clerk.

[Sidenote: Departure of Mrs. Pratt.]

This day, 17th of March, Parley P. Pratt's wife left the prison house,
where she had voluntarily been with her husband most of the winter,
and returned to Far West, to get passage with some of the brethren for
Illinois.

    _Action of the Committee of Removal_.

    The committee met at the house of Daniel Shearer, Far West, William
    Huntington in the chair.

    Present--Brother Daniel W. Rogers, from Quincy, Illinois. Brother
    Rogers made known the proceedings of the brethren in Quincy, in
    relation to locating in the Iowa territory, and read a private
    letter from Dr. Isaac Galland to him on the same subject, and
    presented a power of attorney from Bishop Partridge to dispose of
    the lands of the Church in Jackson county, and also some lots in
    Far West. He then presented a copy of the proceedings of a council
    held in Quincy on the 9th instant, which was read; after which
    Brother Rogers explained some things relative to said meeting, and
    the proceedings thereof.

    A bill of articles wanted by the prisoners in Liberty jail, was
    presented by Elder Heber C. Kimball, and accepted. Charles Bird was
    appointed to accompany Brother Rogers to Jackson county to assist
    him in the sale of the Jackson county lands.

    {285} On motion, resolved: That we will not patronize Brother Lamb
    in his market shaving [extortion] shop, or any other of the kind in
    this place.

    A petition of Alanson Ripley and others to the Honorable Judge
    Thompkins, of the Supreme Court of the State of Missouri, praying
    for a writ of habeas corpus for Joseph, Smith, Jun., was read by
    Elder Ripley.

_Monday, 18_.--The committee met in the course of the day, and
appointed Theodore Turley to go to Jefferson City with Elder Heber C.
Kimball to carry the petitions of the prisoners in Liberty and Richmond
jails.

    _Letter of the Prophet to Mrs. Norman Bull_. [1]

    Liberty Jail, March 15, 1839.

    _Dear Sister_:

    My heart rejoices at the friendship you manifest in requesting
    to have a conversation with us, but the jailer is a very jealous
    man, fearing some one will leave tools for us to get out with. He
    is under the eye of the mob continually, and his life is at stake
    if he grants us any privileges. He will not let us converse with
    any one alone. Oh, what joy it would be to us to see our friends!
    It would have gladdened my heart to have had the privilege of
    conversing with you, but the hand of tyranny in upon us; thanks be
    to God, it cannot last always; and He that sitteth in the heaven
    will laugh at their calamity, and mock when their fear cometh. We
    feel, dear sister, that our bondage is not of long duration. I
    trust that I shall have the chance to give such instructions as are
    communicated to us before long. I suppose you want some instruction
    for yourself, and also to give us some information and administer
    consolation to us, and to find out what is best for you to do. I
    think that many of the brethren, if they will be pretty still, can
    stay in this country until the indignation is over and past; but
    I think it would be better for Brother Bull to leave and go with
    the rest of the brethren, if he keep the faith, and at any rate,
    thus speaketh the Spirit concerning him. I want him and you to
    know that I am your true friend. I was glad to see you. No tongue
    can tell what inexpressible {286} joy it gives a man, after having
    been enclosed in the walls of a prison for five months, to see the
    face of one who has been a friend. It seems to me that my heart
    will always be more tender after this than ever it was before. My
    heart bleeds continually when I contemplate the distress of the
    Church. O, that I could be with them! I would not shrink at toil
    and hardship to render them comfort and consolation. I want the
    blessing once more of lifting my voice in the midst of the Saints.
    I would pour out my soul to God for their instruction. It has
    been the plan of the devil to hamper me and distress me from the
    beginning, to keep me from explaining myself to them; and I never
    have had opportunity to give them the plan that God has revealed
    to me; for many have run without being sent, crying "Tidings, my
    Lord," and have done much injury to the Church, giving the devil
    more power over those that walk by sight and not by faith. But
    trials will only give us the knowledge necessary to understand the
    minds of the ancients. For my part, I think I never could have felt
    as I now do if I had not suffered the wrongs that I have suffered.
    All things shall work together for good to them that love God.
    Beloved sister, we see that perilous times have truly come, and the
    things which we have so long expected have at last began to usher
    in; but when you see the fig tree begin to put forth its leaves,
    you may know that the summer is nigh at hand. There will be a short
    work on the earth. It has now commenced. I suppose there will soon
    be perplexity all over the earth. Do not let our hearts faint when
    these things come upon us, for they must come, or the word cannot
    be fulfilled. I know that something will soon take place to stir
    up this generation to see what they have been doing, and that
    their fathers have inherited lies and they have been led captive
    by the devil, to no profit; but they know not what they do. Do not
    have any feelings of enmity towards any son or daughter of Adam. I
    believe I shall be let out of their hands some way or another, and
    shall see good days. We cannot do anything only stand still and see
    the salvation of God. He must do His own work, or it must fall to
    the ground. We must not take it in our hands to avenge our wrongs.
    Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, and I will repay. I have no
    fears. I shall stand unto death, God being my helper. I wanted to
    communicate something, and I wrote this.

    Write to us if you can. (Signed)

    Joseph Smith, Jun.

    To Mrs. Norman Bull, Clay Co., Mo.

While I was in jail, the following statements were made by the
witnesses, and sent to Colonel Price, namely:

    William E. McLellin is guilty of entering the house of Joseph
    Smith, {287} Jun., in the city of Far West, and plundering it of
    the following articles, viz.--one roll of linen cloth, a quantity
    of valuable buttons, one piece of cashmere, a number of very
    valuable books of great variety, a number of vestings, with various
    other articles of value.

    Said McLellin was aided and assisted in the above transactions by
    Harvey Green, Burr Riggs and Harlow Redfield. [2]

    The above mentioned William E. McLellin also came to and took away
    from the stable of the said above mentioned Joseph Smith Jun.,
    {288} one gig and harness, with some other articles which cannot
    now be called to mind, aided and assisted by Burr Riggs--which can
    be proven by the following witnesses--

    Caroline Clark,

    James Mulholland,

    Mrs. Sally Hinkle,

    Joanna Carter.

    J. Stollins is guilty of entering the house of Joseph Smith, Jun.,
    in the city of Far West, in company with Sashiel Woods and another
    man not known, and taking from a trunk, the property of James
    Mulholland an inmate of said house, one gold ring, which they
    carried away; also of breaking open a sealed letter, which was
    in said trunk inside a pocket book, in which was the ring above
    mentioned; besides tossing and abusing the rest of the contents of
    said trunk; which can be proven by the following persons--

    Mrs. Emma Smith,

    Mrs. Sally Hinkle,

    Caroline Clark,

    James Mulholland.

[Sidenote: The Mission of Kimball and Turley to Governor Boggs.]

_Monday, March 25_.--About this time, Elders Kimball and Turley started
on their mission to see the governor. They called on the sheriff of
Ray county and the jailer for a copy of the mittimus, by which the
prisoners were held in custody, but they confessed they had none. They
went to Judge King, and he made out a kind of mittimus. At this time we
had been in prison several months without even a mittimus; and that too
for crimes said to have been committed in another county.

Elders Kimball and Turley took all the papers by which we were held,
or which were then made out for them, with our petition to the supreme
judges, and went to Jefferson City.

The governor was absent. The secretary of state treated them very
kindly; and when he saw the papers, could hardly believe those were all
the documents by which the prisoners were held in custody, for they
were illegal.

[Sidenote: The Faulty Mittimus.]

Lawyer Doniphan had also deceived them in his papers and sent them off
with such documents, that a change of {289} venue could not be effected
in time. The secretary was astonished at Judge King acting as he did,
but said he could do nothing in the premises, and if the governor were
present, he could do nothing. But the secretary wrote a letter to Judge
King.

The brethren then started to find the supreme judges, and get writs
of habeas corpus; and after riding hundreds of miles to effect this
object, returned to Liberty on the 30th of March, having seen Matthias
McGirk, George Thompkins and John C. Edwards, the supreme judges, but
did not obtain the writ of habeas corpus in consequence of a lack in
the order of commitment, although the judges seemed to be friendly.

We were informed that Judge King said, that there was nothing against
my brother Hyrum, only that he was a friend to the Prophet. He also
said there was nothing against Caleb Baldwin, and Alexander McRae.

Brother Horace Cowan was put into Liberty jail today for debt, in
consequence of the persecution of the mob.

    _The Prophet's Epistle to the Church, Written in Liberty Prison_.
    [3]

    Liberty Jail, Clay County, Missouri,

    March 25, 1839.

    _To the Church of Latter-day Saints at Quincy, Illinois, and
    Scattered Abroad, and to Bishop Partridge in Particular_:

    Your humble servant, Joseph Smith, Jun., prisoner for the Lord
    Jesus Christ's sake, and for the Saints, taken and held by
    the power of mobocracy, under the exterminating reign of his
    excellency, the governor, Lilburn W. Boggs, in company with his
    fellow prisoners and {290} beloved brethren, Caleb Baldwin,
    Lyman Wight, Hyrum Smith, and Alexander McRae, send unto you all
    greeting. May the grace of God the Father, and of our Lord and
    Savior Jesus Christ, rest upon you all, and abide with you forever.
    May knowledge be multiplied unto you by the mercy of God. And may
    faith and virtue, and knowledge and temperance, and patience and
    godliness, and brotherly kindness and charity be in you and abound,
    that you may not be barren in anything, nor unfruitful.

    For inasmuch as we know that the most of you are well acquainted
    with the wrongs and the high-handed injustice and cruelty that are
    practiced upon us; whereas we have been taken prisoners charged
    falsely with every kind of evil, and thrown into prison, enclosed
    with strong walls, surrounded with a strong guard, who continually
    watch day and night as indefatigable as the devil does in tempting
    and laying snares for the people of God:

    Therefore, dearly beloved brethren, we are the more ready and
    willing to lay claim to your fellowship and love. For our
    circumstances are calculated to awaken our spirits to a sacred
    remembrance of everything, and we think that yours are also, and
    that nothing therefore can separate us from the love of God and
    fellowship one with another; and that every species of wickedness
    and cruelty practiced upon us will only tend to bind our hearts
    together and seal them together in love. We have no need to say to
    you that we are held in bonds without cause, neither is it needful
    that you say unto us. We are driven from our homes and smitten
    without cause. We mutually understand that if the inhabitants of
    the state of Missouri had let the Saints alone, and had been as
    desirable of peace as they were, there would have been nothing
    but peace and quietude in the state unto this day; we should not
    have been in this hell, surrounded with demons (if not those who
    are damned, they are those who shall be damned) and where we are
    compelled to hear nothing but blasphemous oaths, and witness a
    scene of blasphemy, and drunkenness and hypocrisy, and debaucheries
    of every description.

    And again, the cries of orphans and widows would not have ascended
    up to God against them. Nor would innocent blood have stained the
    soil of Missouri. But oh! the unrelenting hand! The inhumanity
    and murderous disposition of this people! It shocks all nature;
    it beggars and defies all description; it is a tale of woe; a
    lamentable tale; yea a sorrowful tale; too much to tell; too much
    for contemplation; too much for human beings; it cannot be found
    among the heathens; it cannot be found among the nations where
    kings and tyrants are enthroned; it cannot be found among the
    savages of the wilderness; yea, and I think it cannot be found
    among the wild and ferocious beasts of the {291} forest--that a
    man should be mangled for sport! women be robbed of all that they
    have--their last morsel for subsistence, and then be violated to
    gratify the hellish desires of the mob, and finally left to perish
    with their helpless offspring clinging around their necks.

    But this is not all. After a man is dead, he must be dug up from
    his grave and mangled to pieces, for no other purpose than to
    gratify their spleen against the religion of God.

    They practice these things upon the Saints, who have done them no
    wrong, who are innocent and virtuous; who loved the Lord their God,
    and were willing to forsake all things for Christ's sake. These
    things are awful to relate, but they are verily true. It must needs
    be that offenses come, but woe unto them by whom they come.

    [Oh God! where art Thou? And where is the pavilion that covereth
    Thy hiding place? How long shall Thy hand be stayed, and Thine eye,
    yea Thy pure eye, behold from the eternal heavens, the wrongs of
    Thy people, and of Thy servants, and Thy ear be penetrated with
    their cries? Yea, O Lord, how long shall they suffer these wrongs
    and unlawful oppressions, before Thine heart shall be softened
    towards them, and Thy bowels be moved with compassion towards them?

    O Lord God Almighty, Maker of Heaven, Earth and Seas, and of all
    things that in them are, and who controllest and subjectest the
    devil, and the dark and benighted dominion of Sheol! Stretch forth
    Thy hand, let Thine eye pierce; let Thy pavilion be taken up; let
    Thy hiding place no longer be covered; let Thine ear be inclined;
    let Thine heart be softened, and Thy bowels moved with compassion
    towards us, Let Thine anger be kindled against our enemies; and in
    the fury of Thine heart, with Thy sword avenge us of our wrongs;
    remember Thy suffering Saints, O our God! and Thy servants will
    rejoice in Thy name forever.]

    Dearly and beloved brethren, we see that perilous times have
    come, as was testified of. We may look, then, with most perfect
    assurance, for the fulfillment of all those things that have been
    written, and with more confidence than ever before, lift up our
    eyes to the luminary of day, and say in our hearts, Soon thou wilt
    veil thy blushing face. He that said "Let there be light," and
    there was light, hath spoken this word. And again, Thou moon, thou
    dimmer light, thou luminary of night, shalt turn to blood.

    We see that everything is being fulfilled; and that the time
    shall soon come when the Son of Man shall descend in the clouds
    of heaven. Our hearts do not shrink, neither are our spirits
    altogether broken by {292} the grievous yoke which is put upon us.
    We know that God will have our oppressors in derision; that He will
    laugh at their calamity, and mock when their fear cometh.

    O that we could be with you, brethren, and unbosom our feelings to
    you! We would tell, that we should have been liberated at the time
    Elder Rigdon was, on the writ of habeas corpus, had not our own
    lawyers interpreted the law, contrary to what it reads, against us;
    which prevented us from introducing our evidence before the mock
    court.

    They have done us much harm from the beginning. They have of late
    acknowledged that the law was misconstrued, and tantalized our
    feelings with it, and have entirely forsaken us, and have forfeited
    their oaths and their bonds; and we have a come-back on them, for
    they are co-workers with the mob.

    As nigh as we can learn, the public mind has been for a long time
    turning in our favor, and the majority is now friendly; and the
    lawyers can no longer browbeat us by saying that this or that is
    a matter of public opinion, for public opinion is not willing to
    brook it; for it is beginning to look with feelings of indignation
    against our oppressors, and to say that the "Mormons" were not in
    the fault in the least. We think that truth, honor, virtue and
    innocence will eventually come out triumphant. We should have taken
    a habeas corpus before the high judge and escaped the mob in a
    summary way; but unfortunately for us, the timber of the wall being
    very hard, our auger handles gave out, and hindered us longer than
    we expected; we applied to a friend, and a very slight incautious
    act gave rise to some suspicions, and before we could fully
    succeed, our plan was discovered; we had everything in readiness,
    but the last stone, and we could have made our escape in one
    minute, and should have succeeded admirably, had it not been for a
    little imprudence or over-anxiety on the part of our friend. [4]

    The sheriff and jailer did not blame us for our attempt; it was a
    fine breach, and cost the county a round sum; but public opinion
    says that we ought to have been permitted to have made our escape;
    that then the disgrace would have been on us, but now it must come
    on the state; that there cannot be any charge sustained against
    us; and that the conduct of the mob, the murders committed at
    Haun's Mills, and the exterminating order of the governor, and the
    one-sided, rascally proceedings of the legislature, have damned
    the state of Missouri to all eternity. I would just name also that
    General Atchison has proved himself as contemptible as any of them.

    We have tried for a long time to get our lawyers to draw us some
    {293} petitions to the supreme judges of this state, but they
    utterly refused. We have examined the law, and drawn the petitions
    ourselves, and have obtained abundance of proof to counteract
    all the testimony that was against us, so that if the supreme
    judge does not grant us our liberty, he has to act without cause,
    contrary to honor, evidence, law or justice, sheerly to please the
    devil, but we hope better things and trust before many days God
    will so order our case, that we shall be set at liberty and take up
    our habitation with the Saints.

    We received some letters last evening--one from Emma, one from Don
    C. Smith, and one from Bishop Partridge--all breathing a kind and
    consoling spirit. We were much gratified with their contents. We
    had been a long time without information; and when we read those
    letters they were to our souls as the gentle air is refreshing,
    but our joy was mingled with grief, because of the sufferings
    of the poor and much injured Saints. And we need not say to you
    that the floodgates of our hearts were lifted and our eyes were
    a fountain of tears, but those who have not been enclosed in the
    walls of prison without cause or provocation, can have but little
    idea how sweet the voice of a friend is; one token of friendship
    from any source whatever awakens and calls into action every
    sympathetic feeling; it brings up in an instant everything that
    is passed; it seizes the present with the avidity of lightning;
    it grasps after the future with the fierceness of a tiger; it
    moves the mind backward and forward, from one thing to another,
    until finally all enmity, malice and hatred, and past differences,
    misunderstandings and mismanagements are slain victorious at the
    feet of hope; and when the heart is sufficiently contrite, then the
    voice of inspiration steals along and whispers, [My son, peace be
    unto thy soul; thine adversity and thine afflictions shall be but
    a small moment; and then if thou endure it well, God shall exalt
    thee on high; thou shalt triumph over all thy foes; thy friends do
    stand by thee, and they shall hail thee again, with warm hearts
    and friendly hands; thou art not yet as Job; thy friends do not
    contend against thee, neither charge thee with transgression, as
    they did Job; and they who do charge thee with transgression, their
    hope shall be blasted and their prospects shall melt away as the
    hoar frost melteth before the burning rays of the rising sun; and
    also that God hath set His hand and seal to change the times and
    seasons, and to blind their minds, that they may not understand His
    marvelous workings, that He may prove them also and take them in
    their own craftiness; also because their hearts are corrupted, and
    the things which they are willing to bring upon others, and love
    to have others suffer, may come upon {294} themselves to the very
    uttermost; that they may be disappointed also, and their hopes may
    be cut off; and not many years hence, that they and their posterity
    shall be swept from under heaven, saith God, that not one of them
    is left to stand by the wall. Cursed are all those that shall
    lift up the heel against mine anointed, saith the Lord, and cry
    they have sinned when they have not sinned before me, saith the
    Lord, but have done that which was meet in mine eyes, and which
    I commanded them; but those who cry transgression do it because
    they are the servants of sin and are the children of disobedience
    themselves; and those who swear falsely against my servants, that
    they might bring them into bondage and death; wo unto them; because
    they have offended my little ones; they shall be severed from the
    ordinances of mine house; their basket shall not be full, and their
    houses and their barns shall perish, and they themselves shall be
    despised by those that flattered them; they shall not have right to
    the Priesthood, nor their posterity after them, from generation to
    generation; it had been better for them that a millstone had been
    hanged about their necks, and they drowned in the depth of the sea.

    Wo unto all those that discomfort my people, and drive and murder,
    and testify against them, saith the Lord of Hosts; a generation of
    vipers shall not escape the damnation of hell. Behold mine eyes see
    and know all their works, and I have in reserve a swift judgment in
    the season thereof, for them all; for there is a time appointed for
    every man according as his work shall be.]

    And now, beloved brethren, we say unto you, that inasmuch as God
    hath said that He would have a tried people, that He would purge
    them as gold, now we think that this time He has chosen His own
    crucible, wherein we have been tried; and we think if we get
    through with any degree of safety, and shall have kept the faith,
    that it will be a sign to this generation, altogether sufficient
    to leave them without excuse; and we think also, it will be a
    trial of our faith equal to that of Abraham, and that the ancients
    will not have whereof to boast over us in the day of judgment, as
    being called to pass through heavier afflictions; that we may hold
    an even weight in the balance with them; but now, after having
    suffered so great sacrifice and having passed through so great a
    season of sorrow, we trust that a ram may be caught in the thicket
    speedily, to relieve the sons and daughters of Abraham from their
    great anxiety, and to light up the lamp of salvation upon their
    {295} countenances, that they may hold on now, after having gone so
    far unto everlasting life.

    Now, brethren, concerning the places for the location of the
    Saints, we cannot counsel you as we could if we were present with
    you; and as to the things that were written heretofore, we did not
    consider them anything very binding, therefore we now say once for
    all, that we think it most proper that the general affairs of the
    Church, which are necessary to be considered, while your humble
    servant remains in bondage, should be transacted by a general
    conference of the most faithful and the most respectable of the
    authorities of the Church, and a minute of those transactions may
    be kept, and forwarded from time to time, to your humble servant;
    and if there should be any corrections by the word of the Lord,
    they shall be freely transmitted, and your humble servant will
    approve all things whatsoever is acceptable unto God. If anything
    should have been suggested by us, or any names mentioned, except by
    commandment, or thus saith the Lord, we do not consider it binding;
    therefore our hearts shall not be grieved if different arrangements
    should be entered into. Nevertheless we would suggest the propriety
    of being aware of an aspiring spirit, which spirit has often times
    urged men forward to make foul speeches, and influence the Church
    to reject milder counsels, and has eventually been the means of
    bringing much death and sorrow upon the Church.

    We would say, beware of pride also; for well and truly hath the
    wise man said, that pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty
    spirit before a fall. And again, outward appearance is not always a
    criterion by which to judge our fellow man; but the lips betray the
    haughty and overbearing imaginations of the heart; by his words and
    his deeds let him be judged. Flattery also is a deadly poison. A
    frank and open rebuke provoketh a good man to emulation; and in the
    hour of trouble he will be your best friend; but on the other hand,
    it will draw out all the corruptions of corrupt hearts, and lying
    and the poison of asps is under their tongues; and they do cause
    the pure in heart to be cast into prison, because they want them
    out of their way.

    A fanciful and flowery and heated imagination beware of; because
    the things of God are of deep import; and time, and experience,
    and careful and ponderous and solemn thoughts can only find them
    out. Thy mind, O man! if thou wilt lead a soul unto salvation,
    must stretch as high as the utmost heavens, and search into
    and contemplate the darkest abyss, and the broad expanse of
    eternity--thou must commune with God. How much more dignified and
    noble are the thoughts of God, than the vain imaginations of the
    human heart! None but fools will trifle with the souls of men.

    How vain and trifling have been our spirits, our conferences,
    our {296} councils, our meetings, our private as well as public
    conversations--too low, too mean, too vulgar, too condescending for
    the dignified characters of the called and chosen of God, according
    to the purposes of His will, from before the foundation of the
    world! We are called to hold the keys of the mysteries of those
    things that have been kept hid from the foundation of the world
    until now. Some have tasted a little of these things, many of which
    are to be poured down from heaven upon the heads of babes; yea,
    upon the weak, obscure and despised ones of the earth. Therefore we
    beseech of you, brethren, that you bear with those who do not feel
    themselves more worthy than yourselves, while we exhort one another
    to a reformation with one and all, both old and young, teachers and
    taught, both high and low, rich and poor, bond and free, male and
    female; let honesty, and sobriety, and candor, and solemnity, and
    virtue, and pureness, and meekness, and simplicity crown our heads
    in every place; and in fine, become as little children, without
    malice, guile or hypocrisy.

    And now, brethren, after your tribulations, if you do these things,
    and exercise fervent prayer and faith in the sight of God always,
    [He shall give unto you knowledge by His Holy Spirit, yea by the
    unspeakable gift of the Holy Ghost, that has not been revealed
    since the world was until now; which our forefathers have waited
    with anxious expectation to be revealed in the last times, which
    their minds were pointed to by the angels, as held in reserve for
    the fullness of their glory; a time to come in the which nothing
    shall be withheld, whether there be one God or many Gods, they
    shall be manifest; all thrones and dominions, principalities and
    powers, shall be revealed and set forth upon all who have endured
    valiantly for the Gospel of Jesus Christ; and also if there be
    bounds set to the heavens, or to the seas; or to the dry land, or
    to the sun, moon or stars; all the times of their revolutions; all
    the appointed days, months and years, and all the days of their
    days, months and years, and all their glories, laws, and set times,
    shall be revealed, in the days of the dispensation of the fullness
    of times, according to that which was ordained in the midst of
    the Council of the Eternal God of all other Gods, before this
    world was, that should be reserved unto the finishing and the end
    thereof, when every man shall enter into His eternal presence, and
    into His immortal rest].

    But I beg leave to say unto you, brethren, that ignorance,
    superstition and bigotry placing itself where it ought not, is
    oftentimes in the way of the prosperity of this Church; like the
    torrent of rain from the mountains, that floods the most pure and
    crystal stream with mire, and {297} dirt, and filthiness, and
    obscures everything that was clear before, and all rushes along in
    one general deluge; but time weathers tide; and notwithstanding we
    are rolled in the mire of the flood for the time being, the next
    surge peradventure, as time rolls on, may bring to us the fountain
    as clear as crystal, and as pure as snow; while the filthiness,
    floodwood and rubbish is left and purged out by the way.

    [How long can rolling water remain impure? What power shall stay
    the heavens? As well might man stretch forth his puny arm to stop
    the Missouri river in its decreed course, or to turn it up stream,
    as to hinder the Almighty from pouring down knowledge from heaven,
    upon the heads of the Latter-day Saints].

    What is Boggs or his murderous party, but wimbling willows upon the
    shore to catch the flood-wood? As well might we argue that water is
    not water, because the mountain torrents send down mire and roil
    the crystal stream, although afterwards render it more pure than
    before; or that fire is not fire, because it is of a quenchable
    nature, by pouring on the flood; as to say that our cause is down
    because renegades, liars, priests, thieves and murderers, who are
    all alike tenacious of their crafts and creeds, have poured down,
    from their spiritual wickedness in high places, and from their
    strongholds of the devil, a flood of dirt and mire and filthiness
    and vomit upon our heads.

    No! God forbid. Hell may pour forth its rage like the burning lava
    of mount Vesuvius, or of Etna, or of the most terrible of the
    burning mountains; and yet shall "Mormonism" stand. Water, fire,
    truth and God are all realities. Truth is "Mormonism." God is the
    author of it. He is our shield. It is by Him we received our birth.
    It was by His voice that we were called to a dispensation of His
    Gospel in the beginning of the fullness of times. It was by Him we
    received the Book of Mormon; and it is by Him that we remain unto
    this day; and by Him we shall remain, if it shall be for our glory;
    and in His Almighty name we are determined to endure tribulation as
    good soldiers unto the end.

    But, brethren, we shall continue to offer further reflections in
    our next epistle. You will learn by the time you have read this,
    and if you do not learn it, you may learn it, that walls and irons,
    doors and creaking hinges, and half-scared-to-death guards and
    jailers, grinning like some damned spirits, lest an innocent man
    should make his escape to bring to light the damnable deeds of a
    murderous mob, are calculated in their very nature to make the soul
    of an honest man feel stronger than the powers of hell.

    But we must bring our epistle to a close. We send our respects to
    {298} fathers, mothers, wives and children, brothers and sisters;
    we hold them in the most sacred remembrance.

    We feel to inquire after Elder Rigdon; if he has not forgotten us,
    it has not been signified to us by his writing. Brother George W.
    Robinson also; and Elder Cahoon, we remember him, but would like
    to jog his memory a little on the fable of the bear and the two
    friends who mutually agreed to stand by each other. And perhaps
    it would not be amiss to mention uncle John [Smith], and various
    others. A word of consolation and a blessing would not come amiss
    from anybody, while we are being so closely whispered by the bear.
    But we feel to excuse everybody and everything, yea the more
    readily when we contemplate that we are in the hands of persons
    worse that a bear, for the bear would not prey upon a dead carcass.

    Our respects and love and fellowship to all the virtuous Saints.
    We are your brethren and fellow-sufferers, and prisoners of Jesus
    Christ for the Gospel's sake, and for the hope of glory which is in
    us. Amen.

    We continue to offer further reflections to Bishop Partridge, and
    to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, whom we love
    with a fervent love, and do always bear them in mind in all our
    prayers to the throne of God.

    It still seems to bear heavily on our minds that the Church would
    do well to secure to themselves the contract of the land which
    is proposed to them by Mr. Isaac Galland, and to cultivate the
    friendly feelings of that gentleman, inasmuch as he shall prove
    himself to be a man of honor and a friend to humanity; also Isaac
    Van Allen, Esq., the attorney-general of Iowa Territory, and
    Governor Lucas, that peradventure such men may be wrought upon by
    the providence of God, to do good unto His people. We really think
    that Mr. Galland's letter breathes that kind of a spirit, if we
    may judge correctly. Governor Lucas also. We suggest the idea of
    praying fervently for all men who manifest any degree of sympathy
    for the suffering children of God.

    We think that the United States Surveyor of the Iowa Territory may
    be of great benefit to the Church, if it be the will of God to this
    end; and righteousness should be manifested as the girdle of our
    loins.

    It seems to be deeply impressed upon our minds that the Saints
    ought to lay hold of every door that shall seem to be opened unto
    them, to obtain foothold on the earth, and be making all the
    preparation that is within their power for the terrible storms
    that are now gathering in the heavens, "a day of clouds, with
    darkness and gloominess, and of thick darkness," as spoken of by
    the Prophets, which cannot be now of a long time lingering, for
    there seems to be a whispering that the angels of heaven who have
    been entrusted with the counsel of these {299} matters for the
    last days, have taken counsel together; and among the rest of the
    general affairs that have to be transacted in their honorable
    council, they have taken cognizance of the testimony of those who
    were murdered at Haun's Mills, and also those who were martyred
    with David W. Patten, and elsewhere, and have passed some decisions
    peradventure in favor of the Saints, and those who were called to
    suffer without cause.

    These decisions will be made known in their time; and the council
    will take into consideration all those things that offend.

    We have a fervent desire that in your general conferences
    everything should be discussed with a great deal of care and
    propriety, lest you grieve the Holy Spirit, which shall be poured
    out at all times upon your heads, when you are exercised with those
    principles of righteousness that are agreeable to the mind of God,
    and are properly affected one toward another, and are careful by
    all means to remember, those who are in bondage, and in heaviness,
    and in deep affliction far your sakes. And if there are any among
    you who aspire after their own aggrandizement, and seek their own
    opulence, while their brethren are groaning in poverty, and are
    under sore trials and temptations, they cannot be benefited by the
    intercession of the Holy Spirit, which maketh intercession for us
    day and night with groanings that cannot be uttered.

    We ought at all times to be very careful that such high-mindedness
    shall never have place in our hearts; but condescend to men of low
    estate, and with all long-suffering bear the infirmities of the
    weak.

    [Behold, there are many called, but few are chosen. And why are
    they not chosen? Because their hearts are set so much upon the
    things of this world, and aspire to the honors of men, that they
    do not learn this one lesson--that the rights of the Priesthood
    are inseparably connected with the powers of heaven, and that the
    powers of heaven cannot be controlled nor handed only upon the
    principles of righteousness. That they may be conferred upon us,
    it is true; but when we undertake to cover our sins, or to gratify
    our pride, our vain ambition, or to exercise control, or dominion,
    or compulsion, upon the souls of the children of men, in any degree
    of unrighteousness, behold, the heavens withdraw themselves; the
    Spirit of the Lord is grieved; and when it is withdrawn, _Amen to
    the Priesthood_, or the authority of that man. Behold! ere he is
    aware, he is left unto himself, to kick against the pricks; to
    persecute the Saints, and to fight against God.

    We have learned by sad experience that it is the nature and {300}
    disposition of almost all men, as soon as they get a little
    authority, as they suppose, they will immediately begin to exercise
    unrighteous dominion. Hence many are called, but few are chosen.

    No power or influence can or ought to be maintained by virtue
    of the Priesthood, only by persuasion, by long-suffering, by
    gentleness, and meekness, and by love unfeigned; by kindness,
    and pure knowledge, which shall greatly enlarge the soul without
    hypocrisy, and without guile, reproving betimes with sharpness,
    when moved upon by the Holy Ghost, and then showing forth
    afterwards an increase of love toward him whom thou hast reproved,
    lest he esteem thee to be his enemy; that he may know that thy
    faithfulness is stronger than the cords of death; let thy bowels
    also be full of charity towards all men, and to the household of
    faith, and virtue garnish thy thoughts unceasingly, then shall thy
    confidence wax strong in the presence of God, and the doctrine of
    the Priesthood shall distill upon thy soul as the dews from heaven.
    The Holy Ghost shall be thy constant companion, and thy sceptre an
    unchanging sceptre of righteousness and truth, and thy dominion
    shall be an everlasting dominion, and without compulsory means it
    shall flow unto thee forever and ever].

    [The ends of the earth shall inquire after thy name, and fools
    shall have thee in derision, and hell shall rage against thee,
    while the pure in heart, and the wise, and the noble, and the
    virtuous, shall seek counsel, and authority and blessings
    constantly from under thy hand, and thy people shall never be
    turned against thee by the testimony of traitors; and although
    their influence shall cast thee into trouble, and into bars and
    walls, thou shalt be had in honor, and but for a small moment and
    thy voice shall be more terrible in the midst of thine enemies,
    than the fierce lion, because of thy righteousness; and thy God
    shall stand by thee forever and ever.

    If thou art called to pass through tribulations; if thou art in
    perils among false brethren; if thou art in perils among robbers;
    if thou art in perils by land or by sea; if thou art accused with
    all manner of false accusations; if thine enemies fall upon thee;
    if they tear thee from the society of thy father and mother and
    brethren and sisters, and if with a drawn sword thine enemies
    tear thee from the bosom of thy wife, and of thine offspring, and
    thine elder son, although but six years of age, shall cling to thy
    garment, and shall say, My father, {301} my father, why can't you
    stay with us? O, my father, what are the men going to do with you?
    and if then he shall be thrust from thee by the sword, and thou be
    dragged to prison, and thine enemies prowl around thee like wolves
    for the blood of the lamb; and if thou shouldst be cast into the
    pit, or into the hands of murderers, and the sentence of death
    passed upon thee; if thou be cast into the deep; if the billowing
    surge conspire against thee; if fierce winds become thine enemy; if
    the heavens gather blackness, and all the elements combine to hedge
    up the way; and above all, if the very jaws of hell shall gape open
    the mouth wide after thee, know thou, my son, that all these things
    shall give thee experience, and shall be for thy good. The Son of
    Man hath descended below them all; art thou greater than he?

    Therefore, hold on thy way, and the Priesthood shall remain with
    thee, for their bounds are set, they cannot pass. Thy days are
    known, and thy years shall not be numbered less; therefore, fear
    not what man can do, for God shall be with you forever and ever].

    Now, brethren, I would suggest for the consideration of the
    conference, its being carefully and wisely understood by the
    council or conferences that our brethren scattered abroad, who
    understand the spirit of the gathering, that they fall into the
    places and refuge of safety that God shall open unto them, between
    Kirtland and Far West. Those from the east and from the west, and
    from far countries, let them fall in somewhere between those two
    boundaries, in the most safe and quiet places they can find; and
    let this be the present understanding, until God shall open a more
    effectual door for us for further considerations.

    And again, we further suggest for the considerations of the
    Council, that there be no organization of large bodies upon common
    stock principles, in property, or of large companies of firms,
    until the Lord shall signify it in a proper manner, as it opens
    such a dreadful field for the avaricious, the indolent, and the
    corrupt hearted to prey upon the innocent and virtuous, and honest.

    We have reason to believe that many things were introduced among
    the Saints before God had signified the times; and notwithstanding
    the principles and plans may have been good, yet aspiring men, or
    in other words, men who had not the substance of godliness about
    them, perhaps undertook to handle edged tools. Children, you know,
    are fond of tools, while they are not yet able to use them.

    Time and experience, however, are the only safe remedies against
    such evils. There are many teachers, but, perhaps, not many
    fathers. There are times coming when God will signify many things
    which are {302} expedient for the well-being of the Saints; but the
    times have not yet come, but will come, as fast as there can be
    found place and reception for them.

    [And again, we would suggest for your consideration the propriety
    of all the Saints gathering up a knowledge of all the facts and
    sufferings and abuses put upon them by the people of this state;
    and also of all the property and amount of damages which they have
    sustained, both of character and personal injuries, as well as
    real property; and also the names of all persons that have had a
    hand in their oppressions, as far as they can get hold of them and
    find them out; and perhaps a committee can be appointed to find
    out these things, and to take statements, and affidavits, and also
    to gather up the libelous publications that are afloat, and all
    that are in the magazines, and in the encyclopaedias, and all the
    libelous histories that are published, and are writing, and by
    whom, and present the whole concatenation of diabolical rascality,
    and nefarious and murderous impositions that have been practiced
    upon this people, that we may not only publish to all the world,
    but present them to the heads of government in all their dark and
    hellish hue, as the last effort which is enjoined on us by our
    Heavenly Father, before we can fully and completely claim that
    promise which shall call Him forth from His hiding place, and also
    that the whole nation may be left without excuse before He can send
    forth the power of His mighty arm.

    It is an imperative duty that we owe to God, to angels, with whom
    we shall be brought to stand, and also to ourselves, to our wives
    and children, who have been made to bow down with grief, sorrow,
    and care, under the most damning hand of murder, tyranny, and
    oppression, supported and urged on and upheld by the influence
    of that spirit which hath so strongly riveted the creeds of the
    fathers, who have inherited lies, upon the hearts of the children,
    and filled the world with confusion, and has been growing stronger
    and stronger, and is now the very main-spring of all corruption,
    and the whole earth groans under the weight of its iniquity.

    It is an iron yoke, it is a strong band; they are the very
    hand-cuffs, and chains, and shackles, and fetters of hell.

    Therefore it is an imperative duty that we owe, not only to our
    own wives and children, but to the widows and fatherless, whose
    husbands {303} and fathers have been murdered under its iron hand;
    which dark and blackening deeds are enough to make hell itself
    shudder, and to stand aghast and pale, and the hands of the very
    devil to tremble and palsy. And also it is an imperative duty that
    we owe to all the rising generation, and to all the pure in heart,
    (for there are many yet on the earth among all sects, parties,
    denominations, who are blinded by the subtle craftiness of men,
    whereby they lie in wait to deceive, and who are only kept from the
    truth because they know not where to find it); therefore, that we
    should waste and wear out our lives in bringing to light all the
    hidden things of darkness, wherein we know them; and they are truly
    manifest from heaven.

    These should then be attended to with great earnestness. Let no
    man count them as small things; for there is much which lieth
    in futurity, pertaining to the Saints, which depends upon these
    things. You know, brethren, that a very large ship is benefited
    very much by a very small helm in the time of a storm, by being
    kept workways with the wind and the waves.

    Therefore, dearly beloved brethren, let us cheerfully do all things
    that lie in our power, and then may we stand still with the utmost
    assurance, to see the salvation of God, and for His arm to be
    revealed].

    And again, I would further suggest the impropriety of the
    organization of bands or companies, by covenant or oaths, by
    penalties or secrecies; but let the time past of our experience and
    sufferings by the wickedness of Doctor Avard suffice and let our
    covenant be that of the Everlasting Covenant, as is contained in
    the Holy Writ and the things that God hath revealed unto us. Pure
    friendship always becomes weakened the very moment you undertake to
    make it stronger by penal oaths and secrecy.

    Your humble servant or servants, intend from henceforth to
    disapprobate everything that is not in accordance with the fullness
    of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and is not of a bold, and frank,
    and upright nature. They will not hold their peace--as in times
    past when they see iniquity beginning to rear its head--for fear of
    traitors, or the consequences that shall follow by reproving those
    who creep in unawares, that they may get something with which to
    destroy the flock. We believe that the experience of the Saints
    in times past has been sufficient, that they will from henceforth
    be always ready to obey the truth without having men's persons in
    admiration because of advantage. It is expedient that we should
    be aware of such things; and we ought {304} always to be aware of
    those prejudices which sometimes so strangely present themselves,
    and are so congenial to human nature, against our friends,
    neighbors, and brethren of the world, who choose to differ from us
    in opinion and in matters of faith. Our religion is between us and
    our God. Their religion is between them and their God.

    There is a love from God that should be exercised toward those of
    our faith, who walk uprightly, which is peculiar to itself, but
    it is without prejudice; it also gives scope to the mind, which
    enables us to conduct ourselves with greater liberality towards
    all that are not of our faith, than what they exercise towards one
    another. These principles approximate nearer to the mind of God,
    because it is like God, or Godlike.

    Here is a principle also, which we are bound to be exercised with,
    that is, in common with all men, such as governments, and laws,
    and regulations in the civil concerns of life. This principle
    guarantees to all parties, sects, and denominations, and classes of
    religion, equal, coherent, and indefeasible rights; they are things
    that pertain to this life; therefore all are alike interested;
    they make our responsibilities one towards another in matters of
    corruptible things, while the former principles do not destroy the
    latter, but bind us stronger, and make our responsibilities not
    only one to another, but unto God also. Hence we say, that the
    Constitution of the United States is a glorious standard; it is
    founded in the wisdom of God. It is a heavenly banner; it is to all
    those who are privileged with the sweets of its liberty, like the
    cooling shades and refreshing waters of a great rock in a thirsty
    and weary land. It is like a great tree under whose branches men
    from every clime can be shielded from the burning rays of the sun.

    We, brethren, are deprived of the protection of its glorious
    principles, by the cruelty of the cruel, by those who only look
    for the time being, for pasturage like the beasts of the field,
    only to fill themselves; and forget that the "Mormons," as well as
    the Presbyterians, and those of every other class and description,
    have equal rights to partake of the fruits of the great tree of
    our national liberty. But notwithstanding we see what we see, and
    feel what we feel, and know what we know, yet that fruit is no less
    precious and delicious to our taste; we cannot be weaned from the
    milk, neither can we be driven from the breast; neither will we
    deny our religion because of the hand of oppression; but we will
    hold on until death.

    We say that God is true; that the Constitution of the United States
    is true; that the Bible is true; that the Book of Mormon is true;
    that the Book of Covenants is true; that Christ is true; that the
    ministering angels sent forth from God are true, and that we know
    that we have an house not made with hands eternal in the heavens,
    whose builder and maker is God; a consolation which our oppressors
    cannot {305} feel, when fortune, or fate, shall lay its iron hand
    on them as it has on us. Now, we ask, what is man? Remember,
    brethren, that time and chance happen to all men.

    We shall continue our reflections in our next.

    We subscribe ourselves, your sincere friends and brethren in the
    bonds of the everlasting Gospel, prisoners of Jesus Christ, for the
    sake of the Gospel and the Saints.

    We pronounce the blessings of heaven upon the heads of the Saints
    who seek to serve God with undivided hearts, in the name of Jesus
    Christ. Amen.

    Joseph Smith, Jun.,

    Hyrum Smith,

    Lyman Wight,

    Caleb Baldwin,

    Alexander McRae.

Footnotes:

1. Among others who called to see the Prophet in prison about this time
was Mrs. Norman Bull; but apparently she was not allowed to have the
coveted interview, and hence the prophet wrote to her. The letter here
inserted appears in the manuscript history of the Church, but not until
now has it been published. It is important as showing the frame of mind
the Prophet was in, and his anxiety to administer comfort, and give
helpful counsel to the Saints.

2. When the History of Joseph Smith was being published in the _Deseret
News_, and the above part of the History was reached, Harlow Redfield
sent the following communications to the Editors vindicating himself
from the charge of aiding McLellin in his robberies. It appears in the
_News_ of March 16, 1854.

_To the Editor of The Deseret News_:

Sir--In the History of Joseph Smith, published February 2, _News_
No. 5, I find my name associated with others, as aiding McLellin and
others in plundering the house of Joseph Smith while in prison. This is
incorrect. The excitement of those times was sufficient reason for the
rumor going abroad incorrectly:

I was at Hyrum Smith's house, rather by accident than design, in
company with McLellin and Burr Riggs, at time when they took some
books, etc., but was not with them when they went to Joseph's. Soon
after the rumor got afloat; I explained the matter before the Council
in Missouri satisfactorily, as I supposed, but some time after, an
enemy, in my absence, again agitated the subject before the Conference
in Nauvoo, which led to an inquiry before the High Council in presence
of Joseph and Hyrum, and the subject appearing in its true light,
Joseph instructed the Council to give me a certificate of acquittal,
that would close every man's mouth.

The following is the certificate, viz:--

"The High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
met at Nauvoo, 20th October, 1840, to consider the case of Harlow
Redfield, against whom certain accusations were brought at our last
conference, in consequence of which, he was suspended, and his case
referred to the High Council for decision. We being organized to
investigate his case, when no charge was brought against him, nor
did an implication appear, nor do we believe that a charge could be
sustained against Elder Redfield. He volunteered confessions of certain
inadvertent, imprudent, [but] no evil meaning acts, that he greatly
sorrowed for, and asked forgiveness for his folly in such acts. This
Council voted that Elder Redfield be forgiven, and restored to his
former official state and standing, and to be in full fellowship, the
same as if no evil insinuation had ever been brought against him; and
that he take a transcript of these proceedings, to be signed by the
Clerk of this meeting.

"I hereby certify that the above is a true transcript of the
proceedings and decision of the aforesaid case.

"H. G. Sherwood."

I will only add that I had before heard how that "poor Tray" got
whipped for being in bad company, and it ought to have been a
sufficient warning for me, and I trust it will be for the future.

I remain your humble servant,

Harlow Redfield.

Provo, Feb. 7, 1854.

3. The following important communication of the Prophet and his fellow
prisoners to the Church at large, and to Bishop Edward Partridge in
particular, was written between the 20th and 25th of March. In the
Prophet's history as published many years ago in current issues of
the _Deseret News_ and _Millennial Star_ the communication is divided
near the middle of it by reciting the few incidents happening between
the 20th and 25th of March--the former being the date on which the
letter was begun, the latter the date on which it was completed; but
in this publication it is thought desirable that the letter be given
without this division, and hence it appears under the date on which
it was completed, _viz_, the 25th of March, 1839. The parts of the
communication enclosed in brackets and double leaded were regarded of
such special value that they were taken from this communication and
placed in the Doctrine and Covenants and comprise sections cxxi, cxxi,
cxxiii of that work.

4. This alludes to another effort to escape from prison besides the one
related by Alexander McRae at pp. 257-8.

{306}



CHAPTER XXI.

Stirring Scenes About Far West--The Escape Of The Prophet And His
Fellow Prisoners.

[Sidenote: Judge King's Anger.]

_Thursday, April 4_.--Brothers Kimball and Turley called on Judge King,
who was angry at their having reported the case to the governor, and,
said he, "I could have done all the business for you properly, if you
had come to me; and I would have signed the petition for all except
Joe, and he is not fit to live." I bid Brothers Kimball and Turley to
be of good cheer, "for we shall be delivered; but no arm but God's
can deliver us now. Tell the brethren to be of good cheer and get the
Saints away as fast as possible."

Brothers Kimball and Turley were not permitted to enter the prison, and
all the communication we had with them was through the grate of the
dungeon. The brethren left Liberty on their return to Far West.

_Friday, April 5_.--Brothers Kimball and Turley arrived at Far West.

[Sidenote: Plot Against the Prophet's Life.]

This day a company of about fifty men in Daviess county swore that they
would never eat or drink, until they had murdered "Joe Smith." Their
captain, William Bowman, swore, in the presence of Theodore Turley,
that he would "never eat or drink, after he had seen Joe Smith, until
he had murdered him."

[Sidenote: The Truth of a Revelation Questioned.]

Also eight men--Captain Bogart, who was the county judge, Dr. Laffity,
John Whitmer, and five others--came into the committee's room [i.
e. the room or office of the committee on removal] and presented to
Theodore Turley the paper containing the revelation of July 8, 1838,
[1] to Joseph Smith, directing the Twelve to take their leave of the
Saints in {307} Far West on the building site of the Lords House on the
26th of April, to go to the isles of the sea, and then asked him to
read it. Turley said, "Gentlemen, I am well acquainted with it." They
said, "Then you, as a rational man, will give up Joseph Smith's being
a prophet and an inspired man? He and the Twelve are now scattered all
over creation; let them come here if they dare; if they do, they will
be murdered. As that revelation cannot be fulfilled, you will now give
up your faith."

[Sidenote: Turley's Defense of the Prophet.]

Turley jumped up and said, "In the name of God that revelation will be
fulfilled." They laughed him to scorn. John Whitmer hung down his head.
They said, "If they (the Twelve) come, they will get murdered; they
dare not come to take their leave here; that is like all the rest of
Joe Smith's d----n prophecies." They commenced on Turley and said, he
had better do as John Corrill had done; "he is going to publish a book
called 'Mormonism Fairly Delineated;' he is a sensible man, and you had
better assist him."

[Sidenote: Colloquy between Turley and John Whitmer.]

Turley said, "Gentlemen, I presume there are men here who have heard
Corrill say, that 'Mormonism' was true, that Joseph Smith was a
prophet, and inspired of God. I now call upon you, John Whitmer: you
say Corrill is a moral and a good man; do you believe him when he says
the Book of Mormon is true, or when he says it is not true? There are
many things published that they say are true, and again turn around
and say they are false?" Whitmer asked, "Do you hint at me?" Turley
replied, "If the cap fits you, wear it; all I know is that you have
published to the world that an angel did present those plates to Joseph
Smith." Whitmer replied: "I now say, I handled those plates; there were
fine engravings on both sides. I handled them;" and he described how
they were hung, and "they were shown to me by a supernatural power;" he
acknowledged all.

Turley asked him, "Why is not the translation now {308} true?" He said,
"I could not read it [in the original] and I do not know whether it [i.
e., the translation] is true or not." Whitmer testified all this in the
presence of eight men.

The committee [on removal of the Saints from Missouri] met, and Brother
William Huntington made report of his journey to Liberty on business of
the committee.

[Sidenote: Land Sales and the Clothing of Prisoners.]

The subject of providing some clothing for the prisoners at Richmond
was discussed, and the propriety of sending two brethren to Liberty, to
make sales of some lands, was taken up, and Elders H. G. Sherwood and
Theodore Turley were appointed.

A bill of clothing for the Richmond prisoners having been made up, was
presented and given to those appointed to go to Liberty, that they
might procure the goods on the sales of land.

[Sidenote: The Prisoners Hurried into Daviess County.]

_Saturday, April 6_.--Judge King evidently fearing a change of venue,
or some movement on our part to escape his unhallowed persecution (and
most probably expecting that we would be murdered on the way) hurried
myself and fellow prisoners off to Daviess county, under a guard of
about ten men, commanded by Samuel Tillery, deputy jailer of Clay
county. We were promised that we should go through Far West, which
was directly on our route, which our friends at that place knew, and
expected us; but instead of fulfilling their promise, they took us
around the city, and out of the direct course some eighteen miles;
far from habitations, where every opportunity presented for a general
massacre.

[Sidenote: Peremptory Orders Considered.]

This evening the committee (i. e. on removal) met in council. Prayer
by Elder Kimball. The business of the council was the consideration of
the order of the leaders of the Daviess mob, delivered this day to the
Saints in Caldwell county, to leave before Friday next.

    {309} Resolved: To hire all teams that can be hired, to move the
    families of the Saints out of the county, to Tenny's Grove.

    Resolved: To send Henry G. Sherwood immediately to Illinois for
    assistance, in teams from the Saints there.

The mission of Elders Sherwood and Turley to Liberty was deferred for
the present.

[Sidenote: Actions of the Committee.]

_Sunday, April 7_.--The committee met in council at Brother Turley's.
Brother Erastus Snow made a report of his visit to the judges at
Jefferson city. A letter from the prisoners at Liberty was read and
Daniel Shearer and Heber C. Kimball were appointed to see Mr. Hughes
and get him to go to Daviess county and attend the sitting of the court
there.

We continued our travels across the prairie, while the brethren at Far
West, anxious for our welfare, gave a man thirty dollars to convey a
letter to us in Daviess county, and return an answer.

[Sidenote: Arrival of the Prisoners in Daviess County.]

_Monday, April 8_.--After a tedious journey--for our long confinement
had enfeebled our bodily powers--we arrived in Daviess county, about a
mile from Gallatin, where we were delivered into the hands of William
Morgan, sheriff of Daviess county, with his guard, William Bowman, John
Brassfield and John Pogue. The Liberty guard returned immediately, but
became divided, or got lost on their way; a part of them arrived in Far
West after dark, and got caught in the fence; and calling for help,
Elder Markham went to their assistance and took them to the tavern.
From them he got a letter I had written to the committee, informing
them of our arrival in Daviess county.

[Sidenote: Arrival of Stephen Markham in Gallatin.]

_Tuesday, April 9_.--Our trial commenced before a drunken grand jury,
Austin A. King, presiding judge, as drunk as the jury; for they were
all drunk together. Elder Stephen Markham had been dispatched by the
committee to visit us, and bring a hundred dollars that was sent by
Elder Kimball, as we were destitute of means at that time. He left Far
{310} West this morning, and swimming several streams he arrived among
us in the afternoon, and spent the evening in our company. Brother
Markham brought us a written copy of a statute which had passed the
legislature, giving us the privilege of a change of venue on our own
affidavit.

[Sidenote: Judge Morin Favors the Prophet's Escape.]

Judge Morin arrived from Mill Port, and was favorable to our escape
from the persecution we were enduring, and spent the evening with us
in prison, and we had as pleasant a time as such circumstances would
permit, for we were as happy as the happiest; the Spirit buoyed us
above our trials, and we rejoiced in each other's society.

[Sidenote: The Examination of Witnesses.]

_Wednesday, April 10_.--The day was spent in the examination of
witnesses before the grand jury. Dr. Sampson Avard was one of the
witnesses. Brother Markham was not permitted to give his testimony.

Our guard went home, and Colonel William P. Peniston, Blakely, and
others took their place.

    _Letter of Sidney Rigdon to the Prophet. Rigdon's Plans for the
    Impeachment of Missouri_.

    Quincy, Illinois, April 10, 1839.

    _To the Saints in Prison, Greeting_:

    In the midst of a crowd of business, I haste to send a few lines by
    the hand of Brother Mace, our messenger. We wish you to know that
    our friendship is unabating, and our exertions for your delivery,
    and that of the Church unceasing. For this purpose we have labored
    to secure the friendship of the governor of this state, with
    all the principal men in this place. In this we have succeeded
    beyond our highest anticipations. Governor Carlin assured us last
    evening, that he would lay our case before the legislature of this
    state, and have the action of that body upon it; and he would use
    all his influence to have an action which should be favorable to
    our people. He is also getting papers prepared signed by all the
    noted men in this part of the country, to give us a favorable
    reception at Washington, whither we shall repair forthwith, after
    having visited the Governor of Iowa, of whose friendship we have
    the strongest testimonies. We leave Quincy this day to visit him.
    Our plan of operation is to impeach the state of Missouri on an
    item of {311} the Constitution of the United States; that the
    general government shall give to each state a Republican form of
    government. Such a form of government does not exist in Missouri,
    and we can prove it.

    Governor Carlin and his lady enter with all the enthusiasm of their
    natures into this work, having no doubt but that we can accomplish
    this object.

    Our plan of operation in this work is, to get all the governors,
    in their next messages, to have the subject brought before the
    legislatures; and we will have a man at the capital of each state
    to furnish them with the testimony on the subject; and we design to
    be at Washington to wait upon Congress, and have the action of that
    body on it also; all this going on at the same time, and have the
    action of the whole during one session.

    Brother George W. Robinson will be engaged all the time between
    this and the next sitting of the legislatures, in taking
    affidavits, and preparing for the tug of war; while we will be
    going from state to state, visiting the respective governors,
    to get the case mentioned in their respective messages to
    legislatures, so as to have the whole going on at once. You will
    see by this that our time is engrossed to overflowing.

    The Bishops of the Church are required to ride and visit all
    scattered abroad, and to collect money to carry on this great work.

    Be assured, brethren, that operations of an all-important character
    are under motion, and will come to an issue as soon as possible. Be
    assured that our friendship is unabated for you, and our desires
    for your deliverance intense. May God hasten it speedily, is our
    prayer day and night.

    Yours in the bonds of affliction,

    Sidney Rigdon.

    To Joseph Smith, Jun., Hyrum Smith, Caleb Baldwin, Lyman Wight,
    Alexander McRae

    _Letter of Alanson Ripley to the Prophet_. [2]

    Quincy, Illinois, April 10, 1839.

    _Dear Brethren in Christ Jesus_:

    It is with feelings of no small moment that I take pen in hand to
    address you, the prisoners of Jesus Christ, and in the same faith
    of the {312} Gospel with myself--who are holden by the cords of
    malice and of hellish plottings against the just, and through the
    lifting up the heel against the Lord's anointed; but they shall
    soon fall and not rise again, for their destruction is sure; and no
    power beneath the heavens can save them.

    President Rigdon is wielding a mighty shaft against the whole host
    of foul calumniators and mobocrats of Missouri. Yesterday he spent
    part of the day with Governor Carlin of this state. President
    Rigdon told him that he was informed that Governor Boggs was
    calculating to take out a bench warrant for himself and others,
    and then make a demand of his excellency for them to be given up,
    to be taken back to Missouri for trial; and he was assured by that
    noble-minded hero, that if Mr. Boggs undertook the thing, he would
    get himself insulted. He also assured him that the people called
    "Mormons" should find a permanent protection in this state. He also
    solicited our people, one and all, to settle in this state, and if
    there could be a tract of country that would suit our convenience,
    he would use his influence for Congress to make a grant of it to
    us, to redress our wrongs, and make up our losses.

    We met last night in council of the whole, and passed some
    resolutions with respect to sending to the city of Washington.
    We are making every exertion possible that lies in our power,
    to accomplish that grand object upon which hangs our temporal
    salvation; and interwoven with this, our eternal salvation; and so
    closely allied to each other are they, that I want to see the head
    connected with the body again; and while we are enjoying one, let
    us be ripening for the other. But my heart says, Where is he whose
    lips used to whisper the words of life to us? Alas! he is in the
    hands of Zion's enemies. O Lord! crieth my heart, will not heaven
    hear our prayers, and witness our tears! Yes, saith the Spirit, thy
    tears are all remembered, and shall speedily be rewarded with the
    deliverance of thy dearly beloved brethren.

    But when I see the fearful apprehensions of some of our brethren,
    it causes me to mourn. One instance I will mention. When I arrived
    at Far West I made my mind known to some of the community, and told
    them that I wanted they should send a messenger to the jail to
    communicate with you; but my request was denied. They said that the
    Presidency was so anxious to be free once more, that they would not
    consider the danger the Church was in.

    They met in council and passed resolutions that myself, Amasa
    Lyman, and Watson Barlow, should leave Far West for Quincy
    forthwith. My spirit has been grieved ever since, so that I can
    hardly hold my peace; but there is a God in Israel that can blast
    the hellish desires and designs of that infernal banditti, whose
    hands have been imbrued in the blood of the martyrs and Saints.
    They wish to destroy the Church of {313} God; but their chain is
    short; there is just enough left to bind their own hands with.

    Dear brethren, I am at your service, and I await your counsel at
    Quincy, and shall be happy to grant you the desire of your hearts.
    I am ready to act. Please to give me all the intelligence that is
    in your power. If you take a change of venue, let me know what
    county you will come to, and when, as near as possible, and what
    road you will come; for I shall be an adder in the path.

    Yes, my dear brethren, God Almighty will deliver you. Fear not, for
    your redemption draweth near; the day of pour deliverance is at
    hand.

    Dear brethren, I have it in my heart to lay my body in the sand, or
    deliver you from your bonds; and my mind is intensely fixed on the
    latter.

    Dear brethren, you will be able to judge of the spirit that
    actuates my breast; for when I realize your sufferings, my heart
    is like wax before the fire; but when I reflect upon the cause of
    your afflictions, it is like fire in my bones, and burns against
    your enemies, and I never can be satisfied, while there is one of
    them to stand against a wall, or draw a sword, or pull a trigger.
    My sword has never been sheathed in peace, for the blood of David
    W. Patten and those who were butchered at Haun's Mill, crieth for
    vengeance from the ground.

    Therefore, hear O ye heavens! and write it, O ye recording angels!
    bear the tidings ye flaming seraphs! that I from this day declare
    myself the avenger of the blood of those innocent men, and of the
    innocent cause of Zion, and of her prisoners; and I will not rest
    until they are as free, who are in prison, as I am.

    Your families are all well and in good spirits. May the Lord bless
    you all. Amen.

    Brother Amasa Lyman and Watson Barlow join in saying, Our hearts
    are as thy heart. Brother Joseph, if my spirit is wrong, for God's
    sake correct it. Brethren, be of good cheer, for we are determined,
    as God liveth, to rescue you from that hellish crowd, or die in the
    furrow. We shall come face foremost.

    Alanson Ripley.

    N. B.--S. B. Crockett says he has been once driven but not whipped;
    Brother Brigham Young sends his best respects to you all.

    A. R.

_Thursday April 11_.--

    _Letter of Don Carlos Smith to His Brother, Hyrum Smith_.

    _Brother Hyrum_:

    After reading a line from you to myself, and one to father,
    which {314} awakens all the feelings of tenderness and brotherly
    affection that one heart is capable of containing, I sit down in
    haste to answer it. My health and that of my family is good; mother
    and Lucy have been very sick, but are getting better. Your families
    are in better health now than at any other period since your
    confinement.

    Brother Hyrum, I am in hopes that my letter did not increase your
    trouble, for I know that your affliction is too great for human
    nature to bear; and if I did not know that there was a God in
    heaven, and that His promises are sure and faithful, and that He
    is your friend in the midst of all your trouble, I would fly to
    your relief, and either be with you in prison, or see you breathe
    free air--air too that had not been inhaled and corrupted by a pack
    of ruffians, who trample upon virtue and innocence with impunity;
    and are not even satisfied with the property and blood of the
    Saints, but must exult over the dead. You both have my prayers, my
    influence and warmest feelings, with a _fixed determination_, if it
    should so be that you should be destroyed, to _avenge_ your blood
    four fold.

    Joseph must excuse me for not writing to him at this time. Give my
    love to all the prisoners. Write to me as often as you can, and do
    not be worried about your families. Yours in affliction as well as
    in peace.

    Don C. Smith.

    _Letter of Agnes Smith to Hyrum and Joseph Smith_.

    _Beloved Brothers, Hyrum and Joseph_:

    By the permit of my companion, I write a line to show that I have
    not forgotten you; neither do I forget you; for my prayer is to my
    Heavenly Father for your deliverance. It seems as though the Lord
    is slow to hear the prayers of the Saints. But the Lord's ways are
    not like our ways; therefore He can do better than we ourselves.
    You must be comforted, Brothers Hyrum and Joseph, and look forward
    for better days. Your little ones are as playful as little lambs;
    be comforted concerning them, for they are not cast down and
    sorrowful as we are; their sorrows are only momentary but ours
    continual.

    May the Lord bless, protect, and deliver you from all your enemies
    and restore you to the bosom of your families, is the prayer of

    Agnes M. Smith.

    To Hyrum and Joseph Smith, Liberty, Missouri.

[Sidenote: Attempt upon the Life of Stephen Markham.]

The examination of witnesses was continued, and Elder Markham was
permitted to give his testimony. After he had closed, Blakely, one of
the guard, came in and said to Markham, that he wanted to speak to him.
Brother {315} Markham walked out with him, and around the end of the
house when Blakely called out, "---- you ---- old Mormon; I'll kill
you;" and struck at Markham with his fist and then with a club. Markham
took the club from him and threw it over the fence.

There were ten of the mob who immediately rushed upon Markham to kill
him, Colonel William P. Peniston, captain of the guard, being one of
the number. But Markham told them he could kill the whole of them at
one blow apiece, and drove them off. The court and grand jury stood and
saw the affray, and heard the mob threaten Markham's life, by all the
oaths they could invent, but they took no cognizance of it.

[Sidenote: A "True Bill" Found against the Prisoners.]

The ten mobbers went home after their guns to shoot Markham, and the
grand jury brought in a bill for "murder, treason, burglary, arson,
larceny, theft, and stealing," against Lyman Wight, Alexander McRae,
Caleb Baldwin, Hyrum Smith and myself.

[Sidenote: Meeting of the Committee on Removal.]

This evening the committee [on removal] assembled at Daniel Shearer's.
After prayer by Brother James Newberry, he was ordained an Elder on
the recommendation of Elder Heber C. Kimball, under the hands of Hiram
Clark and William Huntington.

Elder Kimball reported that Jessie P. Maupin, the thirty-dollar
messenger they had sent to us, had returned; that the prisoners were
well and in good spirits.

[Sidenote: Sale of Jackson County Lands.]

Brother Rogers who had returned from Jackson county, reported that
he had sold all the lands in Jackson. Elder Kimball was requested to
attend a meeting of the Daviess county officials tomorrow, and as
an individual, mention the case of the committee [on removal] and
the brethren generally, and learn their feelings, whether they would
protect the brethren from the abuse of the mob, in case they came {316}
immediately to drive them out, as they had recently threatened.

[Sidenote: Vision of the Prophet for Markham's safety.]

During this night the visions of the future were opened to my
understanding; when I saw the ways and means and near approach of
my escape from imprisonment, and the danger that my beloved Brother
Markham was in. I awoke Brother Markham, and told him if he would
rise very early and not wait for the judge and lawyers, as he had
contemplated doing, but rise briskly, he would get safe home, almost
before he was aware of it; and if he did not the mob would shoot him on
the way; and I told him to tell the brethren to be of good cheer, but
lose no time in removing from the country.

[Sidenote: Escape of Markham.]

_Friday, April 12_.--This morning Brother Markham arose at dawn of day,
and rode rapidly towards Far West where he arrived before nine a. m.
The mobbers pursued to shoot him, but did not overtake him.

This day I received the following letter:

    _Jacob Stolling's Communication to the Prophet_.

    Dear Sir:--Enclosed I send you the receipt which I promised; and if
    you will pay the necessary attention to it, it will be a benefit to
    the Church and to me; and I think with a little attention on your
    part, they can be produced; and any person who will deliver them
    at any point in the state, so I can get them, I will compensate
    them well, as I know you feel deeply interested in the welfare of
    the Church; and when you consider it will add to their character,
    and look upon it in a proper light, you will spare no pains in
    assisting me in the recovery of those books.

    Yours, etc., in haste,

    Jacob Stollings.

    To Joseph Smith, Jun., Diahman.

    Gallatin, Daviess County, Missouri,

    April 12, 1839.

    Know all men by these presents--That I, Jacob Stollings, have
    this day agreed with Joseph Smith, Jun., to release all members
    of the Mormon Church, from any and all debts due to me from them
    for goods sold to them by me at Gallatin during the year 1838,
    on the following condition, viz.: That said Joseph Smith, Jun.,
    return or cause to be {317} returned to me the following books--one
    ledger, three day books, and one day book of groceries, which was
    taken from my store in Gallatin when said store was burned. And if
    said books are returned to me within four months, this shall be
    a receipt in full, to all intents and purposes, against any debt
    or debts due from said Mormons to me on said books; but if not
    returned, this is to be null and void.

    Given under my hand this day and date before written.

    Jacob Stollings.

    Attest, J. Lynch.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Comments.]

A curious idea, that I who had been a prisoner many months should be
called upon to hunt up lost property, or property most likely destroyed
by the mob; but it is no more curious than a thousand other things that
have happened; and I feel to do all I can to oblige any of my fellow
creatures.

    _Isaac Galland's Communication to the Quincy Argus_.

    Commerce, Illinois, April 12, 1839.

    Messrs. Editors:--Enclosed I send you a communication from Governor
    Lucas of Iowa territory. If you think the publication thereof
    will in any way promote the cause of justice, by vindicating the
    slandered reputation of the people called "Mormons," from the
    ridiculous falsehoods which the malice, cupidity and envy of
    their murderers in Missouri have endeavored to heap upon them,
    you are respectfully solicited to publish it in the _Argus_. The
    testimony of Governor Lucas as to the good moral character of
    these people, I think will have its deserved influence upon the
    people of Illinois, in encouraging our citizens in their humane and
    benevolent exertions to relieve this distressed people, who are now
    wandering in our neighborhoods without comfortable food, raiment,
    or a shelter from the pelting storm.

    I am, gentlemen, very respectfully,

    Your obedient servant,

    Isaac Galland.

    _Letter of Robert Lucas, Governor of the Territory of Iowa,
    Respecting the Manner in Which the Saints Might Hope to be Received
    and Treated in Iowa_.

    Executive Office, Iowa, Burlington,

    March, 1839.

    Dear Sir:--On my return to this city, after a few weeks' absence
    in the interior of the territory, I received your letter of the
    25th ultimo, in which you give a short account of the sufferings of
    the people called Mormons and ask "whether they could be permitted
    to purchase lands {318} and settle upon them, in the territory of
    Iowa, and there worship Almighty God according to the dictates of
    their own consciences, secure from oppression," etc.

    In answer to your inquiry, I would say that I know of no authority
    that can constitutionally deprive them of this right. They are
    citizens of the United States, and are entitled to all the rights
    and privileges of other citizens. The 2nd section of the 4th
    Article of the Constitution of the United States (which all are
    solemnly bound to support) declares that "the citizens of each
    state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of
    citizens of the several states." This privilege extends in full
    force to the territories of the United States. The first amendment
    to the Constitution of the United States, declares that "Congress
    shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
    prohibiting the free exercise thereof."

    The ordinance of Congress of the 13th July, 1787, for the
    government of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, secures
    to the citizens of said territory, and the citizens of the states
    thereafter to be formed therein, certain privileges which were by
    the late Act of Congress organizing the territory of Iowa, extended
    to the citizens of this territory.

    The first fundamental Article in the Ordinance, which is declared
    to be forever unalterable, except by common consent, reads as
    follows, to wit: "No person demeaning himself in a peaceable and
    orderly manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of
    worship or religious sentiment in said territory."

    These principles I trust will ever be adhered to in the territory
    of Iowa. They make no distinction between religious sects. They
    extend equal privileges and protection to all; each must rest upon
    its own merits, and will prosper in proportion to the purity of its
    principles, and the fruit of holiness and piety produced thereby.

    With regard to the peculiar people mentioned in your letter, I know
    but little. They had a community in the northern part of Ohio for
    several years; and I have no recollection of ever having heard in
    that state of any complaints against them for violating the laws of
    the country. Their religious opinions I consider have nothing to do
    with our political transactions. They are citizens of the United
    States, and are entitled to the same political rights and legal
    protection that other citizens are entitled to.

    The foregoing are briefly my views on the subject of your inquiries.

    With sincere respect,

    I am your obedient servant,

    Robert Lucas.

    To Isaac Galland, Esq., Commerce, Illinois.

{319} _Saturday, April 13_.--Elder Markham went to Independence to
close the business of the Church in that region.

[Sidenote: Activity of the Committee on Removal.]

_Sunday, April 14_.--The committee [on removal] in council resolved to
send Sisters Fosdick and Meeks, and Brother William Monjar and another
family, with Brothers Jones, Burton, and Barlow's teams, which had
recently arrived at Quincy.

The committee moved thirty-six families into Tenney's Grove, about
twenty-five miles from Far West; and a few men were appointed to chop
wood for them, while Brother Turley was to furnish them with meal and
meat, until they could be removed to Quincy. The corn was ground at
the committee's horse mill, in Far West. Elder Kimball was obliged to
secrete himself in the cornfields during the day, and was in at night
counseling the committee and brethren.

[Sidenote: The Prophet and Fellow Prisoners Start for Boone county.]

_Monday, April 15_.--Having procured a change of venue we started for
Boone county, and were conducted to that place by a strong guard.

This evening the committee [on removal] met to make arrangements
concerning teams and the moving of the few families who yet remained at
Far West.

    _Letter of Elias Higbee to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Fellow
    Prisoners_.

    Tuesday, Quincy, April 16, 1839.

    _To Joseph Smith, Jun., and others, Prisoners in Liberty or
    Elsewhere, Greeting_:

    Dear Brethren In Affliction:--Through the mercy and providence of
    God, I am here alive, and in tolerable health, as also are all of
    your families, as far as I know, having heard from them lately, and
    having seen Sister Emma yesterday.

    Brethren, I have sorrow of heart when I think of your great
    sufferings by that ungodly mob which has spread such desolation
    and caused so much suffering among us. I often reflect on the
    scenes which we passed through together; the course we pursued;
    the counselings we had; the results which followed, when harassed,
    pressed on every side {320} insulted and abused by that lawless
    banditti; and I am decidedly of opinion that the hand of the Great
    God hath controlled the whole business for purposes of His own,
    which will eventually work out good for the Saints (I mean those
    who are worthy of the name). I know that your intentions, and the
    intentions of all the worthy Saints, have been pure, and tending
    to do good to all men, and to injure no man in person or property,
    except we were forced to it in defense of our lives.

    Brethren, I am aware that I cannot wholly realize your sufferings;
    neither can any other person who has not experienced the like
    afflictions; but I doubt not for a moment, neither have I ever
    doubted for a moment, that the same God which delivered me from
    their grasp (though narrowly) will deliver you. I staid near Far
    West for about three weeks, being hunted by them almost every day;
    and as I learned, they did not intend to give me the chance of a
    trial, but put an end to me forthwith, I went for my horse and
    left the wicked clan and came off. Francis [3] is with his uncle
    in Ohio. I received a letter lately from him; he is strong in the
    faith. I now live in the Big-Neck-Prairie, on the same farm with
    President Rigdon, who is here with me and waiting for me with his
    riding dress on, to go home. So I must necessarily close, praying
    God to speedily deliver you, and bless you.

    From yours in the bonds of the everlasting love,

    Elias Higbee.

[Sidenote: The Prophet's Reasons for Escaping from the Officers of the
Law.]

This evening our guard got intoxicated. We thought it a favorable
opportunity to make our escape; knowing that the only object of our
enemies was our destruction; and likewise knowing that a number of
our brethren had been massacred by them on Shoal Creek, amongst whom
were two children; and that they sought every opportunity to abuse
others who were left in that state; and that they were never brought
to an account for their barbarous proceedings, which were winked at
and encouraged by those in authority. We thought that it was necessary
for us, inasmuch as we loved our lives, and did not wish to die by the
hand of murderers and assassins; and inasmuch as we loved our families
and friends, to deliver ourselves from our enemies, and from that land
of tyranny and oppression, and again take our stand among a people
{321} in whose bosoms dwell those feelings of republicanism and liberty
which gave rise to our nation: feelings which the inhabitants of the
State of Missouri were strangers to. Accordingly, we took advantage of
the situation of our guard and departed, and that night we traveled a
considerable distance. [4]

{322} _Wednesday, April 17_.--We prosecuted our journey towards
Illinois, keeping off from the main road as much as possible, which
impeded our progress.

[Sidenote: Elder Kimball's Warning to the Committee.]

_Thursday, April 18_.--This morning Elder Kimball went into the
committee room and told the committee [on removal] to wind up their
affairs and be off, or their lives would be taken. Stephen Markham had
gone over the Missouri river on business. Elders Turley and Shearer
were at Far West.

[Sidenote: Attack on Theodore Turley.]

Twelve men went to Elder Turley's with loaded rifles to shoot him. They
broke seventeen clocks into match wood. They broke tables, smashed in
the windows; while Bogart (the county judge) looked on and laughed.
One Whitaker threw iron pots at Turley, one of which hit him on the
shoulder, at which Whitaker jumped and laughed like a madman. The mob
shot down cows while the girls were milking them. The mob threatened to
send the committee "to hell jumping," and "put daylight through them."

[Sidenote: The Mob's Assault on Elder Kimball.]

The same day, previous to the breaking of the clocks, some of the same
company met Elder Kimball on the public square in Far West, and asked
him if he was a "---- Mormon;" he replied, "I am a Mormon." "Well, ----
---- you, we'll blow your brains out, you ---- ---- Mormon," and tried
to ride over him with their horses. This was in the presence of Elias
Smith, Theodore Turley, and others of the committee.

[Sidenote: The Mob Loots Far West.]

The brethren gathered up what they could and left Far West in one
hour; and the mob staid until they left, then plundered thousands of
dollars' worth of property which had been left by the exiled brethren
and sisters to help the poor to remove.

One mobber rode up, and finding no convenient place {323} to fasten his
horse, shot a cow that was standing near, and while the poor animal was
yet struggling in death, he cut a strip of her hide from her nose to
the tip of her tail, this he tied round a stump, to which he fastened
his halter.

[Sidenote: The Loss of Records, Accounts, etc.]

During the commotion this day, a great portion of the records of the
committee, accounts, history, etc., were destroyed or lost, so that but
few definite items can be registered in their place.

[Sidenote: Flight of the Saints _via_ Missouri River.]

When the Saints commenced removing from Far West they shipped as many
families and goods as possible at Richmond to go down the Missouri
river to Quincy, Illinois. This mission was in charge of Elder Levi
Richards and Reuben Hedlock, who were appointed by the committee.

I continued on my journey with my brethren towards Quincy.

[Sidenote: Assistance for the Poor.]

Elder David W. Rogers made a donation of money to remove the poor from
Missouri.

The brethren and sisters who had arrived in Illinois were beginning
to write of their sufferings and losses in Missouri. The statement of
Sister Amanda Smith, written by her own hand, I will here insert:

    _Narrative of Amanda Smith Respecting the Massacre at Haun's Mills_.

    _To whom this may come_:

    I do hereby certify that my husband, Warren Smith, in company with
    several other families, was moving [in 1838] from Ohio to Missouri.
    We came to Caldwell county. Whilst we were traveling, minding our
    own business, we were stopped by a mob; they told us that if we
    went another step, they would kill us all. They took our guns from
    us (as we were going into a new country, we took guns along with
    us); they took us back five miles, placed a guard around us, kept
    us three days, and then let us go.

    I thought--is this our boasted land of liberty? for some said we
    must deny our faith, or they would kill us; others said, we should
    die at any rate.

    The names of this mob, or the heads, were Thomas O'Brien, county
    {324} clerk; Jefferson Brien, William Ewell, Esq., and James
    Austin, all of Livingston county. After they let us go we traveled
    ten miles, came to a small town composed of one grist mill, one saw
    mill, and eight or ten houses belonging to our brethren; there we
    stopped for the night.

    A little before sunset a mob of three hundred came upon us. The men
    hallooed for the women and children to run for the woods; and they
    ran into an old blacksmith's shop, for they feared, if we all ran
    together, they would rush upon us and kill the women and children.
    The mob fired before we had time to start from our camp. Our men
    took off their hats and swung them, and cried "quarters" until they
    were shot. The mob paid no attention to their cries nor entreaties,
    but fired alternately.

    I took my little girls, my boy I could not find, and started for
    the woods. The mob encircled us on all sides but the brook. I ran
    down the bank, across the mill-pond on a plank, up the hill into
    the bushes. The bullets whistled around me all the way like hail,
    and cut down the bushes on all sides of us. One girl was wounded by
    my side, and fell over a log, and her clothes hung across the log;
    and they shot at them, expecting they were hitting her; and our
    people afterwards cut out of that log twenty bullets.

    I sat down and witnessed the dreadful scene. When they had done
    firing, they began to howl, and one would have thought that all
    the infernals had come from the lower regions. They plundered the
    principal part of our goods, took our horses and wagons, and ran
    off howling like demons.

    I came down to view the awful sight. Oh horrible! My husband, and
    one son ten years old, lay lifeless upon the ground, and one son
    seven years old, wounded very badly. The ground was covered with
    the dead. These little boys crept under the bellows in the shop;
    one little boy of ten years had three wounds in him; he lived five
    weeks and died; he was not mine.

    Realize for a moment the scene! It was sunset; nothing but horror
    and distress; the dogs filled with rage, howling over their dead
    masters; the cattle caught the scent of the innocent blood, and
    bellowed; a dozen helpless widows, thirty or forty fatherless
    children, crying and moaning for the loss of their fathers and
    husbands; the groans of the wounded and dying were enough to have
    melted the heart of anything but a Missouri mob.

    There were fifteen dead, and ten wounded: two died the next day.
    There were no men, or not enough to bury the dead; so they were
    thrown into a dry well and covered with dirt. The next day the mob
    came back. They told us we must leave the state forthwith, or be
    killed. It was cold weather, and they had our teams and clothes,
    our husbands {325} were dead or wounded. I told them they might
    kill me and my children, and welcome. They sent word to us from
    time to time that if we did not leave the state, they would come
    and kill us. We had little prayer meetings. They said if we did
    not stop them they would kill every man, woman and child. We had
    spelling schools for our little children; they said if we did not
    stop them they would kill every man, woman and child. We did our
    own milking, got our own wood; no man to help us.

    I started the first of February for Illinois, without money, (mob
    all the way), drove my own team, slept out of doors. I had five
    small children; we suffered hunger, fatigue and cold; for what? For
    our religion, where, in a boasted land of liberty, "Deny your faith
    or die," was the cry.

    I will mention some of the names of the heads of the mob: two
    brothers by the name of Comstock, William Mann, Benjamin Ashley,
    Robert White, one by the name of Rogers, who took an old scythe and
    cut an old white-headed man all to pieces. [Thomas McBride.]

    I wish further also to state, that when the mob came upon us (as I
    was told by one of them afterwards), their intention was to kill
    everything belonging to us, that had life; and that after our men
    were shot down by them, they went around and shot all the dead men
    over again, to make sure of their death.

    I now leave it with this Honorable Government [the United States]
    to say what my damages may be, or what they would be willing to
    see their wives and children slaughtered for, as I have seen my
    husband, son and others.

    I lost in property by the mob--to goods stolen, fifty dollars; one
    pocketbook, and fifty dollars cash notes; damage of horses and
    time, one hundred dollars; one gun, ten dollars; in short, my all.
    Whole damages are more than the State of Missouri is worth.

    Written by my own hand, this 18th day of April, 1839.

    Amanda Smith.

    Quincy, Adams County, Illinois.

Thus are the cries of the widows and the fatherless ascending to
heaven. How long, O Lord, wilt thou not avenge the blood of the Saints?
[5]

_Friday, April 19_.--Elders Turley and Clark had traveled but a few
miles from Far West when an axle-tree broke, {326} and Brother Clark
had to go to Richmond after some boxes, which delayed them some days.

_Saturday, April 20_.--The last of the Saints left Far West.

_Sunday, April 21_.--I had still continued my journey.

Footnotes:

1. See Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxviii.

2. It must be remembered that this letter was written under very
great stress of feeling, and that accounts for its general harshness.
It should also be remembered that as Edmund Burke said a long while
ago--and it is now accepted as a trucism--"It is not fair to judge of
the temper or disposition of any man, or any set of men when they are
composed and at rest, from their conduct or their expressions in a
state of disturbance and irritation."

3. This refers to Francis M. Higbee, son of Elias Higbee.

4. Undoubtedly the guards, and for matter of that Judge Birch himself,
and also the ex-sheriff of Daviess county, William Bowman, connived at
the escape of the prisoners. The story of the escape was afterwards
told in detail by Hyrum Smith, as follows: "They got us a change of
venue form Daviess to Boone county, and a mittimus was made out by the
pretended Judge Birch, without date, name, or place. They [the court
officials at Gallatin] fitted us out with a two horse wagon, a horse
and four men, besides the sheriff, to be our guard. There were five
of us that started from Gallatin, the sun about two hours high, and
went as far as Diahman that evening, and stayed till morning. There
we bought two horses of the guard, and paid for one of them in our
clothing which we had with us, and for the other we gave our note. We
went down that day as far as Judge Morin's, a distance of some four or
five miles. There we stayed until the next morning, when we started
on our journey to Boone county, and traveled on the road about twenty
miles distance. There we bought a jug of whisky, with which we treated
the company, and while there the sheriff showed us the mittimus before
referred to, without date or signature, and said that Judge Birch told
him never to carry us to Boone county, and never to show the mittimus;
and, said he, I shall take good drink of grog, and go to bed, and you
may do as you have a mind to. Three others of the guards drank pretty
freely of the whisky, sweetened with honey. They also went to bed, and
were soon asleep and the other guard went along with us, and helped
to saddle the horses. Two of us mounted the horses, and the other
three started on foot, and we took our change of venue for the State
of Illinois; and in the course of nine or ten days arrived safely
at Quincy, Adams county, where we found our families in a state of
poverty, although in good health." (From the affidavit of Hyrum Smith
before the municipal court of Nauvoo, given July 1, 1843.)

The name of the sheriff in charge of the prisoners was William Morgan,
and upon his return to Gallatin both he and the ex-sheriff, William
Bowman, who was suspected of complicity in the escape of the prisoners,
received harsh treatment at the hands of the citizens of that place.
The story is told in the "History of Daviess County," published by
Birdsall & Dean, 1882, as follows: "The prisoners took change of venue
to Boone county, and the Daviess county officers started with the
prisoners to their destination in Boone county. Some of the prisoners
having no horses, William Bowman, the first sheriff of Daviess county,
[and now ex-sheriff], furnished the prisoners three horses, and they
left in charge of William Morgan, the sheriff of the county. The
sheriff alone returned on horseback, the guard who accompanied him
returning on foot, or riding and tying by turns. The sheriff reported
that the prisoners had all escaped in the night, taking the horses with
them, and that a search made for them proved unavailing. The people
of Gallatin were greatly exercised, and they disgraced themselves by
very ruffianly conduct. They rode the sheriff on a rail, and Bowman
was dragged over the square by the hair of the head. The men guilty of
these dastardly acts, accused sheriff Morgan and ex-Sheriff Bowman of
complicity in the escape of the Mormon leaders; that Bowman furnished
the horses, and that Morgan allowed them to escape, and both got well
paid for their treachery. The truth of history compels us to state that
the charges were never sustained by any evidence adduced by the persons
who committee this flagrant act of mob law."--See above named history,
page 206.

5. The number of killed and wounded in the tragedy at Haun's Mills,
[according to information supplied by the late Church Historian,
Franklin D. Richards, to the "National Historical Company," St. Louis,
Missouri, which issued a history of Caldwell and Livingston counties,
in 1886], are seventeen of the former and thirteen of the latter; and
their names are given as follows:

Killed.

Thomas McBride,

Levi N. Merrick,

Elias Benner,

Josiah Fuller,

Benjamin Lewis,

Alexander Campbell,

George S. Richards,

William Napier,

Augustine Harner,

Simon Cox,

Hiram Abbott,

John York,

John Lee,

John Myers,

Warren Smith,

Sardius Smith, aged 10,

Charles Merrick, aged 9.

Wounded.

Isaac Laney,

Nathan K. Knight,

Jacob Myers,

George Myers,

William Yokum,

Tarlton Lewis,

Jacob Haun, (founder of the Mills),

Jacob Foutz,

Jacob Potts,

Charles Jimison,

John Walker,

Alma Smith, Aged 7 years.

A young Mormon woman, Miss Mary Stedwell, was shot through the hand, as
she was running to the woods.

Following this statement concerning the killed and wounded among
the Saints, the history above referred to, also says: "The militia,
or Jennings' men, had but three men wounded, and none killed. John
Renfrow, now [1886] living in Ray County, had a thumb shot off. Allen
England, a Daviess county man, was severely wounded in the thigh, and
the other wounded man was named Hart.

"_Dies irae_! What a woeful day this had been to Haun's Mills! What a
pitiful scene was there when the militia rode away upon the conclusion
of their bloody work! The wounded men had been given no attention,
and the bodies of the slain were left to fester and putrify in the
Indian summer temperature, warm and mellowing. The widows and orphans
of the dead came timidly and warily forth from their hiding places
as soon as the troops left, and as they recognized one a husband,
another a father, another a son, another a brother among the bloody
corpses, the wailings of grief and terror that went up were pitiful and
agonizing. All that night they were alone with their dead. A return
visit of Jennings' men to complete the work of 'extermination' had
been threatened and was expected. Verily, the experience of the poor
survivors of the Haun's Mills affair was terrible; no wonder that
they long remember it."--History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties,
Missouri. National Historical Company, 1886.

{327}



CHAPTER XXII.

The Prophet's Account Of His Experiences In Missouri--Fulfillment Of A
Prophetic Revelation--Complete Exodus Of The Saints From Missouri.

[Sidenote: The Prophet and Companions Continue their Flight.]

_Monday, April 22_.--We continued on our journey, both by night and by
day; and after suffering much fatigue and hunger, I arrived in Quincy,
Illinois, amidst the congratulations of my friends, and the embraces of
my family, whom I found as well as could be expected, considering what
they had been called to endure. Before leaving Missouri I had paid the
lawyers at Richmond thirty-four thousand dollars in cash, lands, etc.;
one lot which I let them have, in Jackson county, for seven thousand
dollars, they were soon offered ten thousand dollars for it, but would
not accept it. For other vexatious suits which I had to contend against
the few months I was in this state, I paid lawyers' fees to the amount
of about sixteen thousand dollars, making in all about fifty thousand
dollars, for which I received very little in return; for sometimes
they were afraid to act on account of the mob, and sometimes they were
so drunk as to incapacitate them for business. But there were a few
honorable exceptions.

[Sidenote: The Leading Characters in the Persecutions of the Saints.]

Among those who have been the chief instruments and leading characters
in the cruel persecutions against the Church of Latter-day Saints, the
following stand conspicuous, viz.: Generals Clark, Wilson and Lucas,
Colonel Price, and Cornelius Gillium; Captain Bogart also, whose zeal
in the cause of oppression and injustice was unequalled, and whose
delight has been to rob, murder, and {328} spread devastation among the
Saints. He stole a valuable horse, saddle, and bridle from me, which
cost two hundred dollars, and then sold the same to General Wilson.
On understanding this, I applied to General Wilson for the horse, who
assured me, upon the honor of a gentleman and an officer, that I should
have the horse returned to me; but this promise has not been fulfilled.

[Sidenote: Part of Governor Boggs in the Persecutions.]

All the threats, murders, and robberies, which these officers have been
guilty of, are entirely overlooked by the executive of the state; who,
to hide his own iniquity, must of course shield and protect those whom
he employed to carry into effect his murderous purposes.

[Sidenote: Treatment of the Prophet by the Mob.]

I was in their hands, as a prisoner, about six months; but
notwithstanding their determination to destroy me, with the rest of my
brethren who were with me, and although at three different times (as I
was informed) we were sentenced to be shot, without the least shadow of
law (as we were not military men), and had the time and place appointed
for that purpose, yet through the mercy of God, in answer to the
prayers of the Saints, I have been preserved and delivered out of their
hands, and can again enjoy the society of my friends and brethren,
whom I love, and to whom I feel united in bonds that are stronger than
death; and in a state where I believe the laws are respected, and whose
citizens are humane and charitable.

[Sidenote: Calm Assurance of the Prophet Respecting his own Safety.]

During the time I was in the hands of my enemies, I must say, that
although I felt great anxiety respecting my family and friends, who
were so inhumanly treated and abused, and who had to mourn the loss
of their husbands and children who had been slain, and, after having
been robbed of nearly all that they possessed, were driven from their
homes, and forced to wander as strangers in a strange country, in
order that they might save themselves and their little ones from the
destruction they were threatened {329} with in Missouri, yet as far as
I was concerned, I felt perfectly calm, and resigned to the will of my
Heavenly Father. I knew my innocence as well as that of the Saints,
and that we had done nothing to deserve such treatment from the hands
of our oppressors. Consequently, I could look to that God who has the
lives of all men in His hands, and who had saved me frequently from
the gates of death, for deliverance; and notwithstanding that every
avenue of escape seemed to be entirely closed, and death stared me
in the face, and that my destruction was determined upon, as far as
man was concerned, yet, from my first entrance into the camp, I felt
an assurance that I, with my brethren and our families, should be
delivered. Yes, that still small voice, which has so often whispered
consolation to my soul, in the depths of sorrow and distress, bade
me be of good cheer, and promised deliverance, which gave me great
comfort. [1] And although the heathen raged, and the people imagined
vain things, yet the Lord of Hosts, the God of Jacob was my refuge;
and when I cried unto Him in the day of trouble, He delivered me; for
which I call upon my soul, and all that is within me, to bless and
praise His holy name. For although I was "troubled on every side, yet
not distressed; perplexed, but not in despair; persecuted, but not
forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed."

[Sidenote: Deportment of the Saints.]

The conduct of the Saints, under their accumulated wrongs and
sufferings, has been praiseworthy; their courage in defending their
brethren from the ravages of the mobs; their attachment to the cause
of truth, under circumstances the most trying and distressing which
humanity can possibly endure; their love to each other; their readiness
to afford assistance to me and my brethren who were confined in a
dungeon; their sacrifices in leaving Missouri, and assisting the poor
widows and orphans, and securing them houses in a more hospitable
{330} land; all conspire to raise them in the estimation of all good
and virtuous men, and has secured them the favor and approbation of
Jehovah, and a name as imperishable as eternity. And their virtuous
deeds and heroic actions, while in defense of truth and their brethren,
will be fresh and blooming when the names of their oppressors shall be
either entirely forgotten, or only remembered for their barbarity and
cruelty.

Their attention and affection to me, while in prison, will ever be
remembered by me; and when I have seen them thrust away and abused
by the jailer and guard, when they came to do any kind offices, and
to cheer our minds while we were in the gloomy prison-house, gave me
feelings which I cannot describe; while those who wished to insult and
abuse us by their threats and blasphemous language, were applauded, and
had every encouragement given them.

[Sidenote: Sure Reward of the Faithful Saints.]

However, thank God, we have been delivered. And although some of our
beloved brethren have had to seal their testimony with their blood, and
have died martyrs to the cause of truth--

  Short though bitter was their pain,
  Everlasting is their joy.

Let us not sorrow as "those without hope;" the time is fast approaching
when we shall see them again and rejoice together, without being afraid
of wicked men. Yes, those who have slept in Christ, shall He bring with
Him, when He shall come to be glorified in His Saints, and admired by
all those who believe, but to take vengeance upon His enemies and all
those who obey not the Gospel.

At that time the hearts of the widows and fatherless shall be
comforted, and every tear shall be wiped from their faces. The trials
they have had to pass through shall work together for their good, and
prepare them for the society of those who have come up out of great
{331} tribulation, and have washed their robes and made them white in
the blood of the Lamb.

[Sidenote: The Saints not to Marvel at Persecution.]

Marvel not, then, if you are persecuted; but remember the words of the
Savior: "The servant is not above his Lord; if they have persecuted me,
they will persecute you also;" and that all the afflictions through
which the Saints have to pass, are the fulfillment of the words of the
Prophets which have spoken since the world began.

We shall therefore do well to discern the signs of the times as we pass
along, that the day of the Lord may not "overtake us as a thief in the
night." Afflictions, persecutions, imprisonments, and death, we must
expect, according to the scriptures, which tell us that the blood of
those whose souls were under the altar could not be avenged on them
that dwell on the earth, until their brethren should be slain as they
were.

[Sidenote: The Crime of Missouri to be Viewed in the Light of the
Civilized Age in which it was Committed.]

If these transactions had taken place among barbarians, under the
authority of a despot, or in a nation where a certain religion is
established according to law, and all others proscribed, then there
might have been some shadow of defense offered. But can we realize that
in a land which is the cradle of liberty and equal rights, and where
the voice of the conquerors who had vanquished our foes had scarcely
died away upon our ears, where we frequently mingled with those who
had stood amidst "the battle and the breeze," and whose arms have been
nerved in the defense of their country and liberty, whose institutions
are the theme of philosophers and poets, and held up to the admiration
of the whole civilized world--in the midst of all these scenes, with
which we were surrounded, a persecution the most unwarrantable was
commenced, and a tragedy the most dreadful was enacted, by a large
portion of the inhabitants of one of those free and sovereign states
which comprise this vast Republic; and a deadly blow was struck at
the institutions for {332} which our fathers had fought many a hard
battle, and for which many a patriot had shed his blood. Suddenly was
heard, amidst the voice of joy and gratitude for our national liberty,
the voice of mourning, lamentation and woe. Yes! in this land, a mob,
regardless of those laws for which so much blood had been spilled, dead
to every feeling of virtue and patriotism which animated the bosom
of freemen, fell upon a people whose religious faith was different
from their own, and not only destroyed their homes, drove them away,
and carried off their property but murdered many a free-born son of
America--a tragedy which has no parallel in modern, and hardly in
ancient, times; even the face of the red man would be ready to turn
pale at the recital of it. It would have been some consolation, if the
authorities of the state had been innocent in this affair; but they
are involved in the guilt thereof, and the blood of innocence, even of
children, cry for vengeance upon them.

[Sidenote: The Appeal of the Prophet to the People of the United
States.]

I ask the citizens of this Republic whether such a state of things is
to be suffered to pass unnoticed, and the hearts of widows, orphans,
and patriots to be broken, and their wrongs left without redress? No!
I invoke the genius of our Constitution. I appeal to the patriotism of
Americans to stop this unlawful and unholy procedure; and pray that God
may defend this nation from the dreadful effects of such outrages.

Is there no virtue in the body politic? Will not the people rise up
in their majesty, and with that promptitude and zeal which are so
characteristic of them, discountenance such proceedings, by bringing
the offenders to that punishment which they so richly deserve, and save
the nation from that disgrace and ultimate ruin, which otherwise must
inevitably fall upon it?

[Sidenote: Pursuit of Elder Markham.]

Elder Markham had closed his business in Jackson county and returned to
Far West, having been chased as far as the river by the mob {333} on
horses at full speed, for the purpose of shooting him. Brother Markham
tarried in and near Far West until the 24th of April.

On my arrival at Quincy I found the brethren had been diligent in
preparing for an investigation of their wrongs in Missouri, as the
following letters will show.

    _Letter of Governor Lucas of Iowa to Elder Rigdon_.

    Burlington, Iowa Territory,

    April 22, 1839.

    Dear Sir:--I herewith enclose two letters, one addressed to the
    President of the United States, and one to Governor Shannon, of
    Ohio. As the object sought by you is an investigation into the
    facts connected with your misfortunes, I have thought it the most
    prudent course to refrain from an expression of an individual
    opinion in the matter, relative to the merits or demerits of the
    controversy. I sincerely hope that you may succeed in obtaining a
    general investigation into the cause and extent of your sufferings,
    and that you may obtain from the government that attention which is
    your due as citizens of the United States.

    Very respectfully your obedient servant,

    Robert Lucas.

    Doctor Sidney Rigdon.

    _Letter of Governor Lucas to President Martin Van Buren, Respecting
    the Latter-day Saints_.

    Burlington, Iowa Territory,

    April 22, 1839.

    _To His Excellency, Martin Van Buren, President of the United
    States_:

    Sir:--I have the honor to introduce to your acquaintance, the
    bearer, Doctor Sidney Rigdon, who was for many years a citizen of
    the State of Ohio, and a firm supporter of the administration of
    the General Government.

    Doctor Rigdon visits Washington (as I am informed) as the
    representative of a community of people called Mormons, to solicit
    from the Government of the United States, an investigation into
    the cause that led to their expulsion from the State of Missouri:
    together with the various circumstances connected with that
    extraordinary affair.

    I think it due to that people to state, that they had for a number
    of years a community established in Ohio, and that while in that
    state {334} they were (as far as I ever heard) believed to be an
    industrious, inoffensive people; and I have no recollection of
    having ever heard of any of them being charged in that state as
    violators of the laws.

    With sincere respect, I am your obedient servant,

    Robert Lucas.

    _Letter of Governor Lucas to the Governor of Ohio Introducing
    President Rigdon_.

    Burlington, Iowa Territory,

    April 22, 1839.

    _To His Excellency Wilson Shannon, Governor of the State of Ohio_:

    Sir:--I have the honor to introduce to your acquaintance, Doctor
    Sidney Rigdon, who was for many years a citizen of Ohio. Doctor
    Rigdon wishes to obtain from the General Government of the United
    States, an investigation into the causes that led to the expulsion
    of the people called Mormons from the State of Missouri; together
    with all the facts connected with that extraordinary affair. This
    investigation, it appears to me, is due them as citizens of the
    United States, as well as to the nation at large.

    Any assistance that you can render the Doctor, towards
    accomplishing that desirable object, will be gratefully received
    and duly appreciated by your sincere friend and humble servant,

    Robert Lucas.

    _Letter of W. W. Phelps to John P. Greene_.

    Far West, Missouri, April 23, 1839.

    Sir:--The summit end of Mr. Benson's mill-dam was carried away by
    the late freshet, and, unless repaired, it will all go the next.

    The committee have gone, and if Father Smith would send me a power
    of attorney, in connection with Mr. Benson's and Corrill's, I have
    a chance to sell it before it is all lost. Maybe I might save the
    old gentleman something, which I promised Hyrum I would do if
    possible, because they have now need. Will you have them do so?

    W. W. Phelps.

    To John P. Greene, Quincy, Illinois.

All this day I spent in greeting and receiving visits from my brethren
and friends, and truly it was a joyful time.

[Sidenote: Parley P. Pratt _et al_. Before the Grand Jury at Richmond.]

_Wednesday, April 24_.--Elder Parley P. Pratt and his fellow prisoners
were brought before the grand jury of Ray county at Richmond, and
Darwin Chase and Norman {335} Shearer were dismissed, after being
imprisoned about six months. Mrs. Morris Phelps, who had been with her
husband in prison some days, hoping he would be released, now parted
from him, and, with her little infant, started for Illinois. The
number of prisoners at Richmond was now reduced to four. King Follett
having been added about the middle of April: he was dragged from his
distressed family just as they were leaving the state. Thus of all
the prisoners which were taken at an expense of two hundred thousand
dollars, only two of the original ones who belonged to the Church, now
remained (Luman Gibbs having denied the faith to try to save his life);
these were Morris Phelps and Parley P. Pratt. All who were let to bail
were banished from the state, together with those who bailed them.

Thus none are like to have a trial by law but Brothers Pratt and
Phelps, and they are without friends or witnesses in the state.

[Sidenote: The Twelve en route for Far West.]

Elders Clark and Turley met Alpheus Cutler, Brigham Young, Orson Pratt,
George A. Smith, John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, John E. Page, Daniel
Shearer, and others, going up from Quincy to Far West, to fulfill the
revelation on the 26th of April, and Clark and Turley turned and went
back with them.

Elder Markham visited at Tenney's Grove.

This evening I met the Church in council.

    _Minutes of a Council Meeting held at Quincy, Illinois_.

    Minutes of a council held in Quincy on the 24th day of April, A. D.
    1839, when President Joseph Smith, Jun., was called to the chair,
    and Brother Alanson Ripley chosen Clerk.

    After prayer by the chairman, Elder John P. Greene arose and
    explained the object of the meeting. A document intended for
    publication was handed in, touching certain things relative
    to disorderly persons, who have represented or may represent
    themselves as belonging to our Church; which document was approved
    by the council. After which it was

    {336} Resolved first: That President Joseph Smith, Jun., Bishop
    Knight, and Brother Alanson Ripley, visit Iowa Territory
    immediately, for the purpose of making a location for the Church.

    Resolved second: That the advice of the conference to the brethren
    in general is, that as many of them as are able, move north to
    Commerce, as soon as they possibly can.

    Resolved third: That all the prisoners be received into fellowship.

    Resolved fourth: That Brother Mulholland be appointed clerk _pro
    tem_.

    Resolved fifth: That Father Smith's case relative to his
    circumstances, be referred to the Bishops.

    Resolved sixth: That Brother Rogers receive some money to
    remunerate him for his services in transacting business for the
    Church in Missouri.

    Alanson Ripley, Clerk.

[Sidenote: Seeking a New Location.]

_Thursday, April 25_.--I accompanied the committee to Iowa to select a
location for the Saints. Elder Markham returned from Tenney's Grove to
Far West, waiting the arrival of the brethren from Quincy.

[Sidenote: Arrival of the Twelve at Far West.]

_Friday, April 26_.--Early this morning, soon after midnight, the
brethren arrived at Far West, and proceeded to transact the business of
their mission according to the following minutes:

    _Minutes of the Meeting of the Twelve Apostles at Far West, April
    26, 1839_.

    At a conference held at Far West by the Twelve, High Priests,
    Elders, and Priests, on the 26th day of April, 1839, the following
    resolution was adopted.

    Resolved: That the following persons be no more fellowshiped in the
    Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, but excommunicated
    from the same, viz.; Isaac Russell, Mary Russell, John Goodson and
    wife, Jacob Scott, Sen., and wife, Isaac Scott, Jacob Scott, Jun.,
    Ann Scott, Sister Walton, Robert Walton, Sister Cavanaugh, Ann
    Wanlass, William Dawson, Jun., and wife, William Dawson, Sen., and
    wife, George Nelson, Joseph Nelson and wife and mother, William
    Warnock and wife, Jonathan Maynard, Nelson Maynard, George Miller,
    John Grigg and wife, Luman Gibbs, Simeon Gardner, and Freeborn
    Gardner.

    The council then proceeded to the building spot of the Lord's
    House; when the following business was transacted: Part of a hymn
    was sung, on the mission of the Twelve.

    {337} Elder Alpheus Cutler, the master workman of the house, then
    recommenced laying the foundation of the Lord's House, agreeably to
    revelation, by rolling up a large stone near the southeast corner.

    The following of the Twelve were present: Brigham Young, Heber C.
    Kimball, Orson Pratt, John E. Page, and John Taylor, who proceeded
    to ordain Wilford Woodruff, [2] and George A. Smith, (who had {338}
    been previously nominated by the First Presidency, accepted by the
    Twelve, and acknowledged by the Church), to the office of Apostles
    and members of the quorum of the Twelve, to fill the places of
    those who are fallen. Darwin Chase and Norman Shearer (who had
    just been liberated from the Richmond prison, where they had been
    confined for the cause of Jesus Christ) were then ordained to the
    office of the Seventies.

    The Twelve then offered up vocal prayer in the following order;
    Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, John E. Page, John
    Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, and George A. Smith. [3] After which we
    {339} sung Adam-ondi-Ahman, and then the Twelve took their leave of
    the following Saints, agreeable to the revelation, viz.: Alpheus
    Cutler, Elias Smith, Norman Shearer, William Burton, Stephen
    Markham, Shadrach Roundy, William O. Clark, John W. Clark, Hezekiah
    Peck, Darwin Chase, Richard Howard, Mary Ann Peck, Artimesa
    Grainger, Martha Peck, Sarah Grainger, Theodore Turley, Hyrum
    Clark, and Daniel Shearer.

    Elder Alpheus Cutler then placed the stone before alluded to in
    its regular position, after which, in consequence of the peculiar
    situation of the Saints, he thought it wisdom to adjourn until
    some future time, when the Lord shall open the way; expressing his
    determination then to proceed with the building; whereupon the
    conference adjourned.

    Brigham Young, President.

    John Taylor, Clerk.

[Sidenote: The Revelation of April 8, 1838, Fulfilled.]

Thus was fulfilled a revelation of July 8, 1838, which our enemies had
said could not be fulfilled, as no "Mormon" would be permitted to be in
the state.

As the Saints were passing away from the meeting, Brother Turley said
to Elders Page and Woodruff, "Stop a bit, while I bid Isaac Russell
good bye;" and knocking at the door, called Brother Russell. His wife
answered, "Come in, it is Brother Turley." Russell replied, "It is not;
he left here two weeks ago;" and appeared quite alarmed; but on finding
it was Brother Turley, asked him to sit down; but the latter replied,
"I cannot, I shall lose my company." "Who is your company?" enquired
Russell. "The Twelve." "_The Twelve_!" "Yes, don't you know that this
is the twenty-sixth, and {340} the day the Twelve were to take leave
of their friends on the foundation of the Lord's House, to go to the
islands of the sea? The revelation is now fulfilled, and I am going
with them." Russell was speechless, and Turley bid him farewell.

The brethren immediately returned to Quincy, taking with them the
families from Tenney's Grove.

Footnotes:

1. See the prediction of the Prophet on the safety of himself and
fellow prisoners, this volume, p. 200, note.

2. Wilford Woodruff was born March 1, 1807, at Farmington (now called
Avon), Hartford County, Connecticut. He was the son of Aphek and Beulah
Thompson Woodruff. His father, his grandfather, Eldad Woodruff, and his
great-grandfather, Josiah Woodruff, were men of strong constitutions,
and were noted for their arduous manual labors. His great-grandfather
was nearly one hundred years old when he died, and was able to work
until shortly before his decease. At an early age Wilfor assisted
his father on the Farmington mills, and when 20 years of age, took
charge of a flouring mill belonging to his aunt, Helen Wheeler,
holding the position of manager for three years, when he was placed
in charge of the Collins flouring mills at South Canton, Connecticut,
and subsequently of the flouring mill owned by Richard B. Cowles, of
New Hartford, Connecticut. In the spring of 1832 in company with his
brother Azmon Woodruff, he went to Richland, Oswego county, New York,
purchased a farm and sawmill, and settled down to business on his own
account. On December 29, 1833, he and his brother Azmon heard the
Gospel preached by Elders Zera Pulsipher and Elijah Cheney, and they
both believed at once, entertained the Elders, offered themselves for
baptism, read the Book of Mormon, and received the divine testimony
of its truth. He was baptized and confirmed by Elder Zera Pulsipher,
December 31, 1833. At a very early age Wilford Woodruff was imbued
with religious sentiments, but never allied himself with any of the
various sects. He received much information from Robert Mason, who
resided at Simsbury, Connecticut, and was called "the old Prophet
Mason." He taught that no man had authority to administer in the
things of God without revelation from God; that the modern religious
societies were without that authority; that the time would come when
the true Church would be established with all its gifts and graces
and manifestations, and that the same blessings enjoyed in the early
Christian Church could be obtained in this age through faith. This led
the youthful Wilford to hold aloof from the churches of the day, and
to desire and pray for the coming of an Apostle or other inspired man
to show the way of life. For three years previous to receiving the
everlasting Gospel, he was impressed with the conviction that God was
about to set up His Church and kingdom on the earth in the last days,
and for the last time, hence, he was prepared to receive the truth
when it was presented to him by the Elders. On January 2, 1834, he
was ordained a Teacher, and on February 1st, being visited by Elder
Parley P. Pratt, he was instructed to prepare himself to join the body
of the Church at Kirtland. He immediately commenced to settle up his
business, and started with wagon and horses, and arrived in Kirtland
April 25, 1834. There he met with the Prophet Joseph Smith, and many
leading Elders, and received much light and knowledge. A week later
he went to New Portage, where he joined the company of volunteers
which was organized by the Prophet Joseph Smith, and known as "Zion's
Camp," to go into Missouri for the relief of the suffering Saints in
that state. He remained with the camp through all its travels and
trials, until it was dispersed in Clay county, Missouri. * * * At a
meeting of the High Council in Lyman Wight's house, November 5, 1834,
Brother Woodruff was ordained a Priest by Elder Simeon Carter, and was
shortly afterwards sent on a mission to the Southern States. * * * On
April 13, 1837, he married Phebe W. Carter. * * * In July of the same
year, when enroute for a mission to the Fox Islands, he preached at
Farmington, Connecticut, and converted several members of his father's
house. In August he arrived in Fox Islands. (For an account of his
success in that mission see volume 2, page 507, and note). In July,
1838, he again visited Farmington, Connecticut, and resumed his labors
in the ministry, succeeding in converting his father and step-mother;
his sister Eunice, and several other relatives. Meantime, he had been
called by revelation (see Doctrine and Covenants, section cxviii) to
fill a vacancy in the quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and was ordained
under the circumstances given in the minutes of the meeting of the
Twelve Apostles at Far West, April 26, 1839. (The foregoing account
of Wilford Woodruff's life is taken mainly from a sketch written by
Franklin D. Richards, historian of the Church, at the request of
Wilford Woodruff.)

3. Following is the prophet's account of George A. Smith:--

"George A. Smith, son of John and Clarissa Smith, was born June 26,
1817, in Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, New York. When nine years old
he received a blow on the head which deprived him of his senses about
three weeks. Five noted physicians decided that he must be trepanned,
or he would not recover. His father dismissed them on this decision,
believing that God would heal his son; and he firmly believes that He
did heal him in answer to the prayer of faith. He was early trained
by his parents, who were Presbyterians, to religious habits, and to
a regular attendance in the Sabbath school. Hence he had early and
anxious desires to know the way of life; but was not satisfied with the
sects.

"In the summer of 1830, when my father and my brother Don Carlos
visited relatives in St. Lawrence county, George A. became convinced of
the truth of the Book of Mormon, and from that time defended the cause
against those who opposed it.

"His mother was baptized in August, 1831. His father was baptized on
the ninth of January, 1832, and ordained and Elder. He had been given
up by the doctors to die of consumption. The weather was extremely
cold, and the ice had to be cut. From that time he gained health and
strength. George A. was baptized on the 10th of September, 1832, and
on the 1st of May, 1833, his father and family took leave of their
old home and removed to Kirtland, Ohio. George A. spent the season in
laboring on the Temple, although much afflicted with inflammation of
the eyes.

"On the 5th of May, 1834, he started for Zion, in the camp, and acted
his part well as my armor-bearer although still much afflicted with
sore eyes. On the twenty-eighth he was attacked by the cholera, but
was delivered by faith. He was ordained into the first Seventy under
my hands on the 1st of March, 1835, being seventeen years old. He left
on the 5th of June, in company with Lyman Smith, for the State of
New York, to preach the Gospel without purse or scrip. Traveled two
thousand miles, baptized eight, held eighty meetings, and returned on
the 2nd of November. Spent the winter in school, much afflicted with
the rheumatism. In the spring, summer, and fall of 1836, he preached
in different parts of Ohio with good success. Returned and went to
school in the winter. On the 6th of June, 1837, he took leave of me
and started with my blessing for the South. After a successful mission
of ten months, mostly in Virginia, he returned and assisted his father
in moving to Far West, Missouri. He was ordained a High Councilor at
Adam-ondi-Ahman, and sent on a mission to the South in company with Don
Carlos Smith; returned about the 25th of December.

"He visited me while in Liberty jail, when I made known to him that he
was appointed to fill the place of Thomas B. Marsh in the quorum of
the Twelve Apostles. He assisted in moving the Saints out of Far West,
and returned with the twelve to fulfill the revelation concerning the
Twelve taking their leave of the Saints on the building site of the
Temple at Far West."

{341}



CHAPTER XXIII.

Settlement At Commerce, Illinois.

[Sidenote: Seeking a New Location.]

The committee continued to look at the different locations which were
presented in Lee county, Iowa, and about Commerce, in Hancock county,
Illinois.

_Wednesday, May 1_.--The following letter was communicated to the
_Quincy Argus_, a weekly newspaper, published at Quincy:

    _Elder Taylor's Warning to the People of Quincy Against Impostors_.

    _To the Editor of the Argus_:

    Sir:--In consequence of so great an influx of strangers arriving
    in this place daily, owing to their late expulsion from the State
    of Missouri, there must of necessity be, and we wish to state to
    the citizens of Quincy and the vicinity, through the medium of your
    columns, that there are many individuals amongst the number who
    have already arrived, as well as among those who are now on their
    way here, who never did belong to our Church, and others who once
    did, but who, for various reasons, have been expelled from our
    fellowship. Amongst these there are some who have contracted habits
    which are at variance with the principles of moral rectitude, (such
    as swearing, dram-drinking, etc.,) which immoralities the Church
    of Latter-day Saints is liable to be charged with, owing to our
    amalgamation [with them] under our late existing circumstances. And
    as we as a people do not wish to lie under any such imputation, we
    would also state, that such individuals do not hold a name nor a
    place amongst us; that we altogether discountenance everything of
    the kind; that every person belonging to our community, contracting
    or persisting in such immoral habits, has hitherto been expelled
    from our society; and that we will hold no communion with all
    such as we may hereafter be informed of, but will withdraw our
    fellowship from them.

    We wish further to state, that we feel ourselves laid under
    peculiar obligations to the citizens of this place, for the
    patriotic feeling which {342} has been manifested, and for the hand
    of liberality and friendship which has been extended to us in our
    late difficulties; and should feel sorry to see that philanthropy
    and benevolence abused by wicked and designing people, who under
    pretense of poverty and distress, would try to work upon the
    feelings of the charitable and humane, get into their debt without
    any prospect or intention of paying, and finally, perhaps, we as a
    people be charged with dishonesty.

    We say that we altogether disapprove of such practices, and we warn
    the citizens of Quincy against such individuals, who may pretend to
    belong to our community.

    By inserting this in your columns, you, sir, will confer upon us a
    very peculiar favor.

    Written and signed in behalf of the Church of Latter-day Saints, by
    your very humble servant,

    John Taylor.

[Sidenote: Land Purchases.]

I this day purchased, in connection with others of the committee, a
farm of Hugh White, consisting of one hundred and thirty-five acres,
for the sum of five thousand dollars; also a farm of Dr. Isaac Galland,
lying west of the White purchase, for the sum of nine thousand dollars;
both of which were to be deeded to Alanson Ripley, according to the
counsel of the committee; but Sidney Rigdon declared that "no committee
should control any property which he had anything to do with;"
consequently the Galland purchase was deeded to George W. Robinson,
Rigdon's son-in-law, with the express understanding that he should deed
it to the Church, when the Church had paid for it according to their
obligation in the contract.

[Sidenote: The English Saints Warned against Isaac Russell.]

A letter was received by the Presidency of the Church in England, then
at Preston, from President Heber C. Kimball, stating that Isaac Russell
had apostatized, any styled himself the Prophet; and that Joseph had
fallen. Elder Kimball said the Spirit signified to him that Russell was
secretly trying to lead away the Church at Alston, England, and wished
the Elders to see to it. The Spirit had manifested the same thing to
Elder Richards, and he was {343} deputed by a council of the Presidency
to visit the Alston branch.

_Friday, 3_.--I returned to Quincy.

Elder Richards left Preston for Alston.

_Saturday, 4_.--Elder Richards arrived at Alston and discovered by
stratagem that a letter had been received from Isaac Russell, as
follows:

    _Isaac Russell's Letter to the Saints in England_.

    Far West, January 30, 1839.

    _To the Faithful Brethren and Sisters of the Church of Latter-day
    Saints in Alston_:

    Dear Brethren:--Inasmuch as wisdom is only to be spoken amongst
    those who are wise, I charge you to read this letter to none but
    those who enter into a covenant with you to keep those things that
    are revealed in this letter from all the world, and from all the
    churches, except the churches to whom I myself have ministered,
    viz.--the church in Alston and the branches round about, to whom I
    ministered, and to none else; and to none but the faithful amongst
    you; and wo be to the man or woman that breaketh this covenant.

    Now the Indians, who are the children of the Nephites and the
    Lamanites, who are spoken of in the Book of Mormon, have all been
    driven to the western boundaries of the States of America, by the
    Gentiles, as I told you; they have now to be visited by the gospel,
    for the day of their redemption is come, and the Gentiles have now
    well nigh filled up the measure of their wickedness, and will soon
    be cut off, for they have slain many of the people of the Lord, and
    scattered the rest; and for the sins of God's people, the Gentiles
    will now be suffered to scourge them from city to city, and from
    place to place, and few of all the thousands of the Church of
    Latter-day Saints will stand to receive an inheritance in the land
    of promise, which is now in the hands of our enemies. But a few
    will remain and be purified as gold seven times refined; and they
    will return to Zion with songs of everlasting joy, to build up the
    old waste places that are now left desolate.

    Now the thing that I have to reveal to you is sacred, and must
    be kept with care; for I am not suffered to reveal it at all
    to the churches in this land, because of their wickedness and
    unbelief--for they have almost cast me out from amongst them,
    because I have testified of their sins to them, and warned them
    of the judgments that have yet to come upon them; and this thing
    that I now tell you, will not come to the knowledge of the churches
    until they are purified.

    Now the thing is as follows--The Lord has directed me, with a few
    {344} others, whose hearts the Lord has touched, to go into the
    wilderness, where we shall be fed and directed by the hand of
    the Lord until we are purified and prepared to minister to the
    Lamanites, and with us the Lord will send those three who are
    spoken of in the Book of Mormon, who were with Jesus after His
    resurrection, and have tarried on the earth to minister to their
    brethren in the last days.

    Thus God is sending us before to prepare a place for you and for
    the remnant who will survive the judgments which are now coming on
    the Church of Latter-day Saints, to purify them, for we are sent to
    prepare a Zion, (as Joseph was before sent into Egypt), a city of
    Peace, a place of Refuge, that you may hide yourselves with us and
    all the Saints in the due time of the Lord, before His indignation
    shall sweep away the nations.

    These things are marvelous in our eyes, for great is the work of
    the Lord that He is going to accomplish. All this land will be
    redeemed by the hands of the Lamanites, and room made for you,
    when you hear again from me. Abide where you are, and be subject
    to the powers that be amongst you in the church. Keep diligently
    the things I taught you, and when you read this, be comforted
    concerning me, for though you may not see me for some few years,
    yet as many of you as continue faithful, will see me again, and it
    will be in the day of your deliverance. Pray for me always, and be
    assured that I will not forget you. To the grace of God I commend
    you in Christ. Amen.

    Isaac Russell.

    P. S.--We have not yet gone in the wilderness, but we shall go
    when the Lord appoints the time. If you should hear that I have
    apostatized, believe it not, for I am doing the work of the Lord.

    I. R.

[Sidenote: Russell's Efforts Counteracted.]

Elder Richards being led by the Spirit of God, soon unfolded the
sophistry and falsehood of this letter to the convincing of the Saints
at Alston and Brampton, so as to entirely destroy their confidence in
the apostate Russell, although they had loved him as a father.

    _Minutes of a General Conference of the Church Held near Quincy,
    Illinois, May 4th, 5th and 6th, 1839_.

    Minutes of a general conference held by the Church of Latter-day
    Saints at the Presbyterian camp ground, near Quincy, Adams county,
    Illinois, on Saturday, the 4th of May, 1839.

    At a quarter past eleven o'clock meeting was called to order and
    President Joseph Smith, Jun., appointed chairman.

    {345} A hymn was then sung, when President Smith made a few
    observations on the state of his peculiar feelings, after having
    been separated from the brethren so long, etc., and then proceeded
    to open the meeting by prayer.

    After some preliminary observations by Elder J. P. Greene and
    President Rigdon, concerning a certain purchase of land in the Iowa
    Territory, made for the Church by the Presidency, the following
    resolutions were unanimously adopted:

    Resolved 1st: That Almon W. Babbitt, Erastus Snow and Robert B.
    Thompson be appointed a traveling committee to gather up and
    obtain all the libelous reports and publications which have been
    circulated against our Church, as well as other historical matter
    connected with said Church, that they possibly can obtain.

    Resolved 2nd: That Bishop Vinson Knight be appointed, or received
    into the Church in full bishopric.

    Resolved 3rd: That this conference do entirely sanction the
    purchase lately made for the Church in the Iowa Territory, and also
    the agency thereof.

    Resolved 4th: That Elder Grainger be appointed to go to Kirtland
    and take the charge and oversight of the House of the Lord, and
    preside over the general affairs of the Church in that place.

    Resolved 5th: That the advice of this conference to the brethren
    living in the Eastern States is, for them to move to Kirtland and
    the vicinity thereof, and again settle that place as a Stake of
    Zion; provided they feel so inclined, in preference to their moving
    farther west.

    Resolved 6th: That George A. Smith be acknowledged one of the
    Twelve Apostles.

    Resolved 7th: That this conference are entirely satisfied with,
    and give their sanction to the proceedings of the conference of
    the Twelve and their friends, held on the Temple site at Far West,
    Missouri, on Friday, the 26th of April last.

    Resolved 8th: That they also sanction the act of the council held
    the same date and same place, in cutting off from the communion of
    said Church, certain persons mentioned in the minutes thereof.

    Resolved 9th: That Elders Orson Hyde and William Smith be allowed
    the privilege of appearing personally before the next general
    conference of the Church, to give an account of their conduct; and
    that in the meantime they be both suspended from exercising the
    functions of their office.

    Resolved 10th: That the conference do sanction the mission intended
    for the Twelve to Europe, and that they will do all in their power
    to enable them to go.

    {346} Resolved 11th: That the subject of Elder Rigdon's going to
    Washington be adjourned until tomorrow.

    Resolved 12th: That the next general conference be held on the
    first Saturday in October next, at Commerce, at the house of Elder
    Rigdon.

    Resolved 13th: That we now adjourn until tomorrow at ten o'clock a.
    m.

    Joseph Smith, Jun., President.

    J. Mulholland, Clerk.

    _Certificate of Appointment_.

    This is to certify that at a general conference held at Quincy,
    Adams county, Illinois, by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
    Saints, on Saturday, the 4th day of May, 1839, President Joseph
    Smith, Jun., presiding, it was resolved: That Almon W. Babbitt,
    Erastus Snow, and Robert B. Thompson be appointed a traveling
    committee to gather up and obtain all the libelous reports and
    publications which have been circulated against the Church of Jesus
    Christ of Latter-day Saints, as well as other historical matter
    connected with said Church, which they can possibly obtain.

    Joseph Smith, Jun., President.

    James Mulholland, Clerk.

    _Minutes of the 5th_.

    Sunday, 5th, 10 a. m.--Conference opened pursuant to adjournment
    as usual, by prayer and singing; when it was unanimously resolved:
    That this conference send a delegate to the City of Washington,
    to lay our case before the General Government; and that President
    Rigdon be the delegate.

    Resolved 2nd: That Almon W. Babbitt be sent to Springfield,
    Illinois, clothed with authority, and required to set to rights
    the Church in that place in every way which may become necessary
    according to the order of the Church of Jesus Christ.

    Resolved 3rd: That Colonel Lyman Wight be appointed to receive the
    affidavits which are to be sent to the City of Washington; after
    which the afternoon was spent in receiving instructions from the
    Presidency and those of the Twelve who were present.

    At 5 o'clock p. m. conference adjourned.

    Joseph Smith, Jun., President.

    James Mulholland, Clerk.

    _Minutes of the 6th_.

    Monday, 6th.--At a conference held at Quincy, Illinois, on the 6th
    of {347} May, 1839, President Joseph Smith, Jun., presiding, the
    following resolutions were unanimously agreed to:

    Resolved 1st: That the families of Elder Marks, Elder Grainger, and
    Bishop N. K. Whitney, be kept here amongst us for the time being.

    Resolved 2nd: That Elder Marks be hereby appointed to preside over
    the Church at Commerce, Illinois.

    Resolved 3rd: That Bishop Whitney also go to Commerce, and there
    act in unison with the other Bishops of the Church.

    Resolved 4th: That Brother Turley's gunsmith tools shall remain for
    the general use of the Church, until his return from Europe.

    Resolved 5th: That the following of the Seventies have the sanction
    of this council that they accompany the Twelve to Europe, namely.
    Theodore Turley, George Pitkin, Joseph Bates Noble, Charles
    Hubbard, John Scott, Lorenzo D. Young, Samuel Mulliner, Willard
    Snow, John Snider, William Burton, Lorenzo D. Barnes, Milton
    Holmes, Abram O. Smoot, Elias Smith; also the following High
    Priests: Henry G. Sherwood, John Murdock, Winslow Farr, William
    Snow, Hiram Clark.

    Resolved 6th: That it be observed as a general rule, that those of
    the Seventies who have not yet preached, shall not for the future
    be sent on foreign missions.

    Resolved 7th: That Elder John P. Greene be appointed to go to the
    City of New York and preside over the churches there and in the
    regions round about.

I also gave the following letter to John P. Greene:

    _John P. Greene's Letter of Appointment_.

    At a conference meeting held by the Church of Jesus Christ of
    Latter-day Saints, in the town of Quincy, Adams county, Illinois,
    on Monday, the 6th day of May, 1839, Joseph Smith, Jun., presiding,
    it was unanimously resolved: That Elder John P. Greene be appointed
    to go to the City of New York, and preside over the Saints in that
    place and in the regions round about, and regulate the affairs of
    the Church according to the laws and doctrines of said Church; and
    he is fully authorized to receive donations by the liberality of
    the Saints for the assistance of the poor among us, who have been
    persecuted and driven from their homes in the State of Missouri;
    and from our long acquaintance with Elder Greene, and with his
    experience and knowledge of the laws of the Kingdom of God, we do
    not hesitate to recommend him to the Saints as one in whom they may
    place the fullest confidence, both as to their spiritual welfare,
    as well as to the strictest integrity in all temporal concerns
    with which he may be entrusted. {348} And we beseech the brethren,
    in the name of the Lord Jesus, to receive this brother in behalf
    of the poor with readiness, and to abound unto him in a liberal
    manner; for "inasmuch as ye have done it unto the least of these,
    ye have done it unto me."

    Yours in the bonds of the everlasting Gospel, though no longer a
    prisoner in the hands of the Missourians, and still faithful with
    the Saints.

    Joseph Smith, Jun., Chairman.

_Tuesday, 7_.--I was in council with the Twelve and others at Quincy.

_Wednesday, 8_.--I was preparing to remove to Commerce, and engaged in
counseling the brethren, etc.

    _Letter of Recommendation to Elder John P. Greene from Certain
    Citizens of Quincy_.

    Quincy, Illinois, May 8, 1839.

    _To All Whom it May Concern_:

    The undersigned citizens of Quincy, Illinois, take great pleasure
    in recommending to the favorable notice of the public, the bearer
    of this, John P. Greene. Mr. Greene is connected with the Church
    of "Mormons" or "Latter-day Saints," and makes a tour to the east
    for the purpose of raising means to relieve the sufferings of this
    unfortunate people, stripped as they have been of their all, and
    now scattered throughout this part of the state.

    We say to the charitable and benevolent, you need have no fear but
    your contributions in aid of humanity will be properly applied
    if entrusted to the hands of Mr. Greene. He is authorized by his
    Church to act in the premises; and we most cordially bear testimony
    to his piety and worth as a citizen.

    Very respectfully yours,

    Samuel Holmes, Merchant.

    I. N. Morris, Attorney at Law, and Editor of _Argus_.

    Thomas Carlin, Governor State of Illinois.

    Richard M. Young, U. S. Senator.

    L. V. Ralston, M. D.

    Samuel Leach, Receiver of Public Moneys.

    Hiram Rogers, M. D.

    J. T. Holmes. Merchant.

    Nicholas Wren, County Clerk.

    C. M. Woods, Clerk of Circuit Court, Adams Co., Ill.

    {349} _Sidney Rigdon's Letter of Introduction to the President of
    the United States, et al_.

    Quincy, Illinois, May 8, 1839.

    _To his Excellency the President of the United States, the Heads of
    Departments, and all to whom this may be shown_:

    The undersigned citizens of Quincy, Illinois, beg leave to
    introduce to you the bearer, Rev. Sidney Rigdon. Mr. Rigdon is a
    divine, connected with the Church of Latter-day Saints, and having
    enjoyed his acquaintance for some time past, we take great pleasure
    in recommending him to your favorable notice as a man of piety and
    a valuable citizen.

    Any representation he may make, touching the object of his mission
    to your city, may be implicitly relied on.

    Very respectfully yours,

    Samuel Holmes,

    Thomas Carlin,

    Richard M. Young,

    I. N. Morris,

    Hiram Rogers,

    J. T. Holmes,

    Nicholas Wren,

    C. M. Woods.

[Sidenote: The Prophet Settles at Commerce.]

_Thursday, 9_.--I started with my family for Commerce, Hancock county,
and stayed this night at Uncle John Smith's, at Green Plains, where we
were most cordially received.

_Friday, 10_.--I arrived with my family at the White purchase and took
up my residence in a small log house on the bank of the river, about
one mile south of Commerce City, hoping that I and my friends may here
find a resting place for a little season at least.

    _Sidney Rigdon's General Letter of Introduction_.

    Quincy, Illinois, 10th May, 1839.

    The bearer, Rev. Sidney Rigdon, is a member of a society of people
    called "Mormons," or "Latter-day Saints," who have been driven from
    the State of Missouri, by order of the executive of that state, and
    who have taken up their residence in and about this place in large
    numbers. I have no hesitation in saying that this people have been
    most shamefully persecuted and cruelly treated by the people of
    Missouri.

    {350} Mr. Rigdon has resided in and near this place for three or
    four months, during which time his conduct has been that of a
    gentleman and a moral and worthy citizen.

    Samuel Leech.

_Monday, May 13_.--I was engaged in general business at home and in
transacting a variety of business with Brother Oliver Granger, and gave
him the following letter:

    _A Letter of Recommendation to Oliver Granger from the First
    Presidency_.

    Commerce, Illinois, 13th May, 1839.

    Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, and Hyrum Smith, presiding
    Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, do
    hereby certify and solemnly declare unto all the Saints scattered
    abroad, and send unto them greeting. That we have always found
    President Oliver Granger to be a man of the most strict integrity
    and moral virtue; and in fine, to be a man of God.

    We have had long experience and acquaintance with Brother Granger.
    We have entrusted vast business concerns to him, which have been
    managed skillfully to the support of our characters and interest as
    well as that of the Church; and he is now authorized by a general
    conference to go forth and engage in vast and important concerns as
    an agent for the Church, that he may fill a station of usefulness
    in obedience to the commandment of God, which was given unto him
    July 8, 1838, which says, "Let him (meaning Brother Granger)
    contend earnestly for the redemption of the First Presidency of my
    Church, saith the Lord."

    We earnestly solicit the Saints scattered abroad to strengthen his
    hands with all their might, and to put such means into his hands
    as shall enable him to accomplish his lawful designs and purposes,
    according to the commandments, and according to the instructions
    which he shall give unto them. And that they entrust him with
    moneys, lands, chattels, and goods, to assist him in this work;
    and it shall redound greatly to the interest and welfare, peace
    and satisfaction of my Saints, saith the Lord God, for this is an
    honorable agency which I have appointed unto him, saith the Lord.
    And again, verily, thus saith the Lord, I will lift up my servant
    Oliver, and beget for him a great name on the earth, and among my
    people, because of the integrity of his soul: therefore, let all my
    Saints abound unto him, with all liberality and long suffering, and
    it shall be a blessing on their heads.

    We would say unto the saints abroad, let our hearts abound with
    grateful acknowledgements unto God our Heavenly Father, who hath
    {351} called us unto His holy calling by the revelation of Jesus
    Christ, in these last days, and has so mercifully stood by us, and
    delivered us out of the seventh trouble, which happened unto us
    in the State of Missouri. May God reward our enemies according to
    their works. We request the prayers of all the Saints, subscribing
    ourselves their humble brethren in tribulations, in the bonds of
    the everlasting Gospel.

    Joseph Smith, Jun.,

    Sidney Rigdon,

    Hyrum Smith.

    _Letter of R. B. Thompson to the First Presidency Complaining of
    the Conduct of Lyman Wight_.

    _To the Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
    Saints, Greeting_:

    I beg leave to call your attention to a subject of considerable
    importance to our Church, and which if not attended to is
    calculated (in my humble opinion) to raise a prejudice in a
    considerable portion of the community, and destroy those benevolent
    and philanthropic feelings which have been manifested towards us
    as a people by a large portion of this community: I have reference
    to the letters of Brother Lyman Wight, which have been inserted in
    the _Quincy Whig_. I am aware that upon a cursory view of these,
    nothing very objectionable may appear; yet, if they are attentively
    considered, there will be found very great objections to them
    indeed; for instance, in condemning the Democracy of Missouri,
    why condemn that of the whole Union? and why use such epithets as
    "Demagogue" to Thomas H. Benton, for not answering his letter, when
    it is very probable that he had not received it?

    Yesterday I was waited on by Mr. Morris, who asked me what was
    intended by such publications, and why we should come out against
    the Democracy of the nation, when they were doing all in their
    power to assist us; it was something which he could not understand,
    and wished to know if we as a people countenanced such proceedings.
    I told him for my part I was sorry that these letters had ever made
    their appearance, and believed that such a course was at variance
    with the sentiments of the greater part of our people.

    Yesterday I brought the subject before the authorities of the
    Church who are here, where it was manifest that his conduct was not
    fellowshiped, and the brethren wished to disavow all connection
    with such proceedings, and appointed a committee to wait on Brother
    Wight, to beg of him not to persist in the course, which, if not
    nipped in the bud, will probably bring persecution with all its
    horrors upon an innocent people, by the folly and imprudence of one
    individual.

    From information I understand that the feelings of the governor are
    {352} very much hurt by the course which is pursued. I think he
    ought to correct the public mind on this subject, and, as a Church;
    disavow all connection with politics. By such a procedure we may
    in some measure counteract the baneful influence which his letters
    have occasioned. But if such a course which he (Brother Wight) has
    adopted, be continued, (as I understand that he intends to do),
    it will block up our way, and we can have no reasonable prospect
    of obtaining justice from the authorities of the Union, whom we
    wantonly condemn before we have made application. The same feelings
    are beginning to be manifested in Springfield by those who have
    been our friends there.

    The Whigs are glad of such weapons, and make the most of them.
    You will probably think I am a little too officious, but I feel
    impressed with the subject; I feel for my brethren. The tears of
    widows, the cries of orphans, and the moans of the distressed, are
    continually present in my mind; and I want to adopt and continue
    a course which shall be beneficial to us; but if through the
    imprudence and conduct of isolated individuals, three, four, or
    five years hence, our altars should be thrown down, our houses
    destroyed, our brethren slain, our wives widowed, and our children
    made orphans, your unworthy brother wishes to lift up his hands
    before God and appeal to Him and say, Thou who knowest all things,
    knowest that I am innocent in this matter.

    I am with great respect, gentlemen, yours in the bonds of Christ,

    R. B. Thompson.

    P. S.--If you do not intend to be in Quincy this week, would you
    favor us with your opinion on this subject?

    R. B. Thompson.

    Quincy, Monday morning, 13th May, 1839.

    _Letter of Elder Parley P. Pratt to Judge Austin A. King_.

    State Of Missouri, Richmond,

    Ray County, May 13, 1839.

    _To the Honorable Austin A. King, Judge of the Court of this and
    the adjoining counties_:

    Honorable Sir:--Having been confined in prison near seven months,
    and the time having now arrived when a change of venue can be taken
    in order for the further prosecution of our trials, and the time
    having come when I can speak my mind freely, without endangering
    the lives of any but myself, I now take the liberty of seriously
    objecting to trial anywhere within the bounds of the state, and of
    earnestly praying to your honor and to all the authorities, civil
    and military, that my case may come within the law of banishment,
    which has been so rigorously enforced upon near ten thousand of our
    society, including my wife and little ones, with all my witnesses
    and friends.

    {353} My reasons are obvious, and founded upon notorious facts,
    which are known to you, sir, and to the people in general of this
    Republic, and therefore need no proof. They are as follows: First,
    I have never received any protection by law, either of my person,
    property, or family, while residing in this state, to which I first
    emigrated in 1831. Secondly, I was driven by force of arms from
    Jackson county, wounded and bleeding, in 1833, while my house was
    burned, my crops and provision, robbed from me or destroyed, and my
    land kept from me until now, while my family was driven out without
    shelter, at the approach of winter. Thirdly, these crimes still
    go unpunished, notwithstanding I made oath before the Honorable
    Judge Ryland, then Circuit Judge of that district, to the foregoing
    outrages; and I also applied in person to His Excellency Daniel
    Dunklin, then Governor of the state, for redress and protection,
    and a restoration of myself and about 1,200 of my fellow-sufferers,
    to our rights--but all in vain.

    Fourthly, my wife and children have now been driven from our home
    and improvements in Caldwell county, and banished from the state
    on pain of death, together with about ten thousand of our society,
    including all my friends and witnesses; and this by the express
    orders of His Excellency Lilburn W. Boggs, Governor of the state of
    Missouri, and by the vigorous execution of his order, by Generals
    Lucas and Clark, and followed up by murders, rapes, plunderings,
    thefts and robberies of the most inhuman character by a lawless
    mob, who have from time to time for more than five years past,
    trampled upon all law and authority, and upon all the rights of man.

    Fifthly, all these inhuman outrages and crimes go unpunished, and
    are unnoticed by you, sir, and by all the authorities of the state.

    Sixthly, the legislature of the state has approved of and
    sanctioned this act of banishment, with all the crimes connected
    with it, by voting same two hundred thousand dollars for the
    payment of troops engaged in this unlawful, unconstitutional, and
    treasonable enterprise. In monarchial governments the banishment
    of criminals after their trial and legal condemnation, has been
    frequently resorted to--but the banishment of innocent women and
    children from house and home and country, to wander in a land of
    strangers, unprotected and unprovided for, while their husbands and
    fathers are retained in dungeons, to be tried by some other law,
    is an act unknown in the annals of history, except in this single
    instance in the nineteenth century, when it has actually transpired
    in a republican state, where the Constitution guarantees to every
    man the protection of life and property, and the rights of trial
    by jury. These are outrages which would put monarchy to the blush,
    and from which the most despotic tyrants of the dark ages would
    turn away with shame and disgust. In these proceedings, Missouri
    has {354} enrolled her name on the list of immortal fame--her
    transactions will be handed down the stream of time to the latest
    posterity, who will read with wonder and astonishment the history
    of proceedings which are without a parallel in the annals of
    time. Why should the authorities of the state strain at a gnat
    and swallow a camel? Why be so strictly legal as to compel me to
    go through all the forms of a slow and legal prosecution previous
    to my enlargement, [being set free] out of a pretense of respect
    to laws of the state, which have been openly trampled upon and
    disregarded towards us from the first to the last? Why not include
    me in the general wholesale banishment of our society, that I may
    support my family which are now reduced to beggary, in a land of
    strangers? But when the authorities of the state shall redress all
    these wrongs; shall punish the guilty according to law; and shall
    restore my family and friends to all the rights of which we have
    been unlawfully deprived, both in Jackson and all other counties;
    and shall pay all the damages which we as a people have sustained;
    then I shall believe them sincere in their professed zeal for law
    and justice; then shall I be convinced that I can have a fair
    trial in the state. But until then, I hereby solemnly protest
    against being tried in this state, with the full and conscientious
    conviction that I have no just grounds to expect a fair and
    impartial trial.

    I therefore most sincerely pray your honor, and all the authorities
    of the state, to either banish me without further prosecution; or I
    freely consent to a trial before a judiciary of the United States.

    With sentiments of high consideration and due respect, I have the
    honor to subscribe myself, your honor's most humble and obedient;
    etc.

    Parley P. Pratt.

    To Austin A. King.

_Tuesday, May 14_.--I returned to Quincy.

Wednesday and Thursday, 15th and 16th. Was engaged in a variety of
business relating to the general welfare of the Church.

    _Letter of the First Presidency to the Quincy Whig, Disclaiming the
    Attitude of Lyman Wight_.

    Commerce, May 17, 1839.

    _To the Editors of the Quincy Whig_:

    Gentlemen:--Some letters in your paper have appeared over the
    signature of Lyman Wight in relation to our affairs with Missouri.
    We consider it is Mr. Wight's privilege to express his opinion
    in relation to political or religious matters, and we profess no
    authority in {355} the case whatever, but we have thought, and
    do still think, that it is not doing our cause justice to make a
    political question of it in any manner whatever.

    We have not at any time thought there was any political party,
    as such, chargeable with the Missouri barbarities, neither any
    religious society, as such. They were committed by a mob composed
    of all parties, regardless of all differences of opinion either
    political or religious.

    The determined stand in this state, and by the people of Quincy
    in particular, made against the lawless outrages of the Missouri
    mobbers by all parties in politics and religion, have entitled
    them equally to our thanks and our profoundest regards, and such,
    gentlemen, we hope they will always receive from us. Favors of this
    kind ought to be engraven on the rock, to last forever.

    We wish to say to the public, through your paper, that we disclaim
    any intention of making a political question of our difficulties
    with Missouri, believing that we are not justified in so doing.

    We ask the aid of all parties, both in politics and religion, to
    have justice done us and obtain redress. We think, gentlemen, in
    so saying, we have the feelings of [i. e. represent] our people
    generally, however, individuals may differ; and we wish you to
    consider the letters of Lyman Wight as the feelings and views of
    an individual