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Title: A Profitable Instruction of the Perfite Ordering of Bees - With the Maruellous Nature, Propertie, and Gouernemente - of Them: and the Necessarie Vses Both of Their Honie and - Waxe, Seruing Diuersly, as Well in Inward as Outward Causes: - Gathered Out of the Best Writers
Author: Hyll, Thomas
Language: English
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        A profitable instruction of the perfite ordering of Bees


                          Transcriber's note:

    The final four chapters of the second Treatise, "Certaine husbandly
    coniectures of dearth and plentie for euer," are absent. No known
    copy of this edition is complete. Entries in the Table of Contents
    referring to them have been removed.


                        A profitable instruction
                       of the perfite ordering of
                  _Bees, with the maruellous nature_,
                     propertie, and gouernemente of
                     them: and the necessarie vses
                     both of their Honie and waxe,
                      seruing diuersly, as well in
                       inward as outward causes:
                          gathered out of the
                             best writers.

                 To which is annexed a proper Treatise,
               intituled: Certaine husbandly coniectures
                    of dearth and plentie for euer,
                      and other matters also méete
                           for Husbandmen to
                               knowe. &c.

                       By _THOMAS HYLL_ Londoner.

                       _Imprinted at London, by_
                            Henrie Bynneman.

                             _ANNO_. 1579.


                         The Authors out of the
                         which this Treatise is

                        _C. Plinius._
                        _M. Cato._
                        _Iunius Columella._
                        _M. Varro._
                        _Palladius Rutilius._
                        _Guilhelmus de Conchis._
                        _Paule Aegineta._
                        _Cornelius Agrippa._
                        _Hieronimus Cardanus._
                        And sundrie others.


                     To the worshipfull maister M.
                   Gentleman, Thomas Hill wisheth all
                         health and felicitie.

As it hath beene, and is yet (worshipfull Sir) a trade commonly vsed
among most men, to choose out from a greate number, some one, vnder
whose name and title they may publishe their workes: Euen so I
(following the steps of the learned, though in all other poyntes most
inferiour) hauing finished this little treatise of Bees, and casting
with my selfe to whome I mighte presente it, founde my selfe much
bounden vnto your worship, both for your gentlenesse which I haue of
late tasted, and also for youre friendship which I finde alwayes readie
towards me. And therefore hauing none other wayes to recompence the
least parte of youre curtesie and gentlenesse, thought it best to
gratifie youre worship with such a simple gifte as mine abilitie will
suffer me to bestow on such a friend. And although Sir this Treatise is
farre dissonant from youre studyes, yet considering your earnest desire
to knowledge and learning, and agayne pondering the pleasantnesse of
the matter, thoughte this might be made a recreation for your grauer
studyes. For when your mind shall bee searching for profound reasons,
and oppressed with deepe cogitations, then taking and reading this
little Pamphlet, it will bring a forgetfulnesse vnto your former
weerynesse, and cause a newe delighte vnto your mind: For heerein may
you see, first the maruellous gouernement of the Bees, through the
onely instincte of nature, as in theyr obedience to their King, and
other officers, in punishing the ydle loyterers, in cherishing the true
labourers in theyr manner of fighting, with suche like a greate many,
as it is wonderfull to reade, and almost vncredible to beleeue:
secondly, the liuely effectes and commodities that arise of theyr Honie
and Waxe. And lastly, howe profitable they are for common wealth, and
howe necessarie for mans vse, I mighte heerespeake muche in the prayse
of the Bee, which all I will omitte, seeyng onely myne intente is to
shewe my selfe myndfull of your good turnes and benefites, desiring you
to take this in good parte, whyche proceedeth from a well willing
minde. And I am sorie that at this presente I had none other matter
more worthy to haue gratified your worship withall: but that whiche
wanteth in power, aboundeth in good will. Thus troubling your worship
no longer, I commit you to the keeping of the Almightie, praying him to
increase in you all vertue and godlynesse, and to grant you the long
yeares of Nestor.

                                                     _Yours most bounden
                                                     Thomas Hill._



                    The Preface into the instruction
                                of Bees.

Although (gentle Reader) I haue not given thee anye labour of mine
owne, but rather haue collected the sayings and writings of manye
aunciente authours, yet I trust they shall be well accepted of thee
without offence. For as he that setteth forth vnto the view & reading
of all men such knowledge, as by his long study & experience he hath
gotten, is worthy to haue his due reward of commendation: euen so he is
not to be discommended, who painfully reuoluing the bookes and volumes
of many and diuers ancient writers, reduceth them into one little
Treatise, for the commoditie and profyte of the simple and vnlearned
sorte, for whose onely sakes I haue trauelled in the translation of
this worthy matter, touching the right vsage and handling of Bees: a
thing very rare, and seldome seene in the Englishe tongue, and yet
verie profitable for a common wealth, and commonlye vsed among the
poore husbandmen, though not in euery poynt as they ought to be, yet
according to theyr knowledge and experience. But I, to the intente that
a further learning mighte be added to their skill, haue so trauelled
therein, that I trust their knowledge shal be increased, & such as haue
no knowledge at all, may be instructed without any other teaching. I
haue ioyned this little Treatise vnto my booke of Gardening, for that
most men do ioyne them both togither, as when they place their Bees in
their Gardens, whereas they may with lesse paine and easilier, gather
of the sweete smelling flowers, their Honie, and Waxe. And for all
these my paynes gentle Reader, I craue nought else of thee, but to giue
me that which of dutie in a maner I ought to haue, for if thou doest
receyue any commoditie or fruite eyther by this, or by my other
Treatise hereto annexed, whiche hathe to name the Husbandly
coniectures, with sundry rules of Phisicke, then giue me the reward of
thy good report, and friendly accepting of these two Treatises, and if
not, yet accept mine endeuours in good part, which be meant to do thee
good. And thus leauing (gentle reader) to trouble thee farther, I
commit thee to God, who giue thee the furtherance of knowledge, both in
these and all other needefull artes.




                  A necessarie Table setting forth the
                    contents of these two Treatises.

               _These treated of in the first Treatise._

 Why Bees are named to be crested or parted                       Cap.j.
 betweene, or as it were ringed or rather
 pleighted: what worke the swarme new gathered in
 the Hiue firste taketh in hande: and whether they
 may liue after their stings be gone.

 Who first taught the preparation and increasing of              cap.ij.
 Bees, and found out the vse of honie.

 How Bees do naturally ingender.                                cap.iij.

 Of the vnperfit Bees, which men properly name                 cap.iiij.
 drone Bees.

 Whether the Bees draw breath, or haue any bloud in               cap.v.

 Of the great vtilitie and profit of the Bees vnto               cap.vj.
 mans vse.

 Of the care and diligence of the Bees.                         cap.vij.

 Of the maruellous gouernement of the King of honie            cap.viij.
 Bees, and of the obedience which they vse to hym.

 What kind of Bees be best, and rather to be                     cap.ix.

 Where the Hiues of Bees ought especially to be                   cap.x.

 What things Bees do chiefly abhorre, and greatly                cap.xj.

 By what signes men may knowe when the honie Bees               cap.xij.
 are diseased, and how men may cure them.

 What maner of person the keper of the Bees ought              cap.xiij.
 to be.

 By what meanes the swarme come forth, may be                 cap.xiiij.
 preserued from flying away.

 Of the Bees new settled in a swarme togither, and               cap.xv.
 taken and recouered againe.

 Which are the best and fittest hyues for the honie             cap.xvj.

 Of the cleanlinesse and sweetenesse of the keeper             cap.xvij.
 of Bees, and howe hiues ought to be fenced about,
 and prepared within.

 How Bees lacking honie may be fed in that present            cap.xviij.

 How the dead Bees may be restored to life againe.              cap.xix.

 Of the battell that Bees sometime haue within                   cap.xx.

 How Bees lost, may be recouered and found againe.              cap.xxj.

 That the Bees sting no person comming neere to                cap.xxij.
 their hiues.

 When and how the hiues ought to be gelded.                   cap.xxiij.

 What the honie is, and how from the hiues the same          cap.xxiiij.
 may be prepared to vse.

 Which honie is accounted best.                                 cap.xxv.

 Of the venomous honie, and of the wonderful hony              cap.xxvj.
 of Creta.

 Of the miraculous worthinesse of honie.                      cap.xxvij.

 How profitable the vse of honie is in medicine.             cap.xxviij.

 Of the drinke of hony whiche they call the Mulse              cap.xxix.
 water, or sweete water of the Romaines.

 Of the drinke _Oenomel_, which is made of pure                 cap.xxx.
 wine & hony.

 Of the singular water of hony gotten by order of              cap.xxxj.

 Another maner of distilling the hony more at large           cap.xxxij.

 The maner of distilling a water of hony named the           cap.xxxiij.

 The maner of drawing and making waxe of the                cap.xxxiiij.

 What waxe is best allowed, &c.                                cap.xxxv.

 Of the great commoditie and benefite of waxe in              cap.xxxvj.

 Of that whiche is a stay of the combes, and made            cap.xxxvij.
 for a defence of Bees.

 How to make waxe white.                                    cap.xxxviij.

 How to make red waxe.                                        cap.xxxix.

 How to draw a profitable oyle out of waxe for                   cap.xl.
 sundry vses.

 Another way of drawing the oyle of waxe most                   cap.xlj.
 noble, and dothe maruellously help the cold goute,
 the sciaticke, the swelling of the legges, and all
 other griefes of a colde cause.

                _These described in the other Treatise._

 Certaine Husbandly coniectures of dearth & plenty                cap.j.
 for euer.

 An euerlasting Prognostication of the state and                 cap.ij.
 condition of euery yeare, by the only calends of
 Ianuary, written by the ancient & learned _Leopol.
 Aust._ & other for the commodity of the wise

 How to foreknow the state of the yeare by the only             cap.iij.
 rising of the dog starre, out of the husbandrie of

 Other profitabl instructions, right necessary for             cap.iiij.
 husbandmen to know.


               ¶ The firste Treatise setteth foorthe the
             _strange gouernment, propertie, and benifite_
             of the Bees, with the commoditie of their Hony
          and Waxe, whiche serue vnto many good vses, as well
    _in outward as inwarde causes applied, gathered out of_ Plinie,
                 Albertus, Varro, Columella, Palladius,
                   Aristotle, Theophrastus, Cardanus,
                    Guilielmus de Conchis, Agrippa,
                       and diuers other singular

        ¶ Why Bees are named to be creasted or parted betweene,
        or as it were ringed, or rather pleighted. What work the
        swarme newe gathered in the Hiue, first taketh in hande,
        and whether they maye liue after their stings bee gone.

_Plinie_ nameth Bées Cleft beasts, bicause of the diuision or parting
betwéene of the head & shoulders: and _Aristotle_ nameth them plighted
or ringed, in that their bodies are diuided with plightes and rings.
And most men know, that the Bées haue neyther sinews, bones, fleshe,
gristle, backe-bone, nor fat, but are only created of a certaine
mixture, being a meane betwéen these, and hauing a very few intrailes.
And againe, no man néedeth to doubte, but that the Bées be a kinde of
beasts, greatly to be set by for mans vse, & for mans prouision, are
nourished of the aire, passing throughe the diuided places, which they
by great diligence and care preserue from being stopped, for as soone
as they be stopped, they shortly after die, like as the same we may
learne, when anye happeneth to fall or light into Oyle, which straight
way after die, throughe the Oyle stopping then their powers. They haue
and fly with foure wings, that they maye the better carrye in their
bellies the stings of reuengement. For when two of them striue togither
in flight, then do they hold and kéep their stings in their mouths by a
gréedy desire, or for eagernesse sake. Now after the seauen starres
named _Vergiliæ_, be once risen in sight aboue our horizon, then do
they hyde them in their proper holes, so that they go seldome after
abroade, vntill the Beanes doe bud, and if they happen to beginne at
any tyme to flye abroade when as a fayre daye moueth them forwarde,
then slacke they no suche dayes afterwarde, but occupy themselues. And
firste they prepare and make their combes, which they fashion into apt
houses, or rather celles of waxe, after this they haue yong, and then
beginne they to gather hony. They liue also the longer by hauing their
stings, for that once gone, or taken away, they dye forthwith through
the lacke of their intrailes, whiche they lose togither with their

           ¶ Who first taught the preparation and increasing
                  of Bees, and founde oute the vse of
                             Honny. Cap.ij.

The reporte goeth, that one _Aristomachus_ first founde out and taught
the increasing of Bées, whome _Plinie_ writeth to be so earnest in the
same, that setting apart al other affayres, he only studied night & day
how he might best intreate and vse Bées, according to their kinde. But
others ascribe this inuention to one _Thassius_, who (as they saye)
deserued no lesse commendation, both for his diligence and skill among
Bées: but this he specially followed in the fielde, and that farre from
the Towne. And of this the common people (as by a nickname) no more
named him _Thassius_, but _Agrius_, for his wilde or rather straunge
life, whiche he then led in the fielde, Whome _Plinie_ also affyrmeth
to haue written a Booke of the increasing and multiplying of Bées. And
_Columella_ ascribeth this inuention, to the inhabitaunts of the hill
(named _Hymetus_) being in the Countrey of _Attica_, for there (saieth
he,) was one _Ericthonius_, who taught (as men write) the true and
perfect ordering of them. _Plinie_ againe ascribeth the inuention of
Hony to one _Aristeus_ a man of _Athens_. _Diodorus Siculus_ in the
sixte Booke of hys workes, writeth, that _Curetes_, a people of
_Creta_, did firste finde out the Hony, _Macrobius_ ascribeth the same
to one _Saturnus_. Others to the _Thessalians_. And many to _Melissus_,
an auntient King of _Creta_, others to _Nassus Liber Pater_, thus
writing, that _Liber_ hath obtayned the renowne for finding out of

               ¶ How Bees do naturally engender. Cap.iij.

Firste the Bées procéede of Bées, by the actuall doing togyther, after
whiche they lay egges, sitting vppon them, as the Hens do on their egs.
And when they haue sit on them for the space of .xlv. daies, then do
they hatch their yong ones, whiche yong (at the first) come forth, much
like to white Worms, except the King, who onely as he is hatched, hath
wings. At the firste time, one of them hatcheth fiue young togither,
the nexte time fewer, and so fewer & fewer, vntill she commeth to one
at a time, bicause the abundaunce whiche is in them, dothe in the
continuaunce of time weaken. In the time of their sitting they make
muche noise to gette them heate withall. And aboute the sides of the
combes, be sometimes greater Bées bred, which men for their sound &
noise do properly name Trumpeters, and they also haue whole hornes, of
which come the bastarde Bées. There be also other Bées bigger in body,
muche-like to the Kings, but they be ydle, and haue no sting, bicause
of the heauinesse of their body. All which kindes, _Guilielmus de
Conchis_ didde obserue in the Hyues of a certaine Consull of Rome,
whiche properly were made of verye thinne and cleare horne. Some write,
that Bées are also engendred and bredde monstrously, and that contrary
to Nature, without the mutuall coniunction, if that a whole calfe be
buried in the earth, and there lye rotting whiles the wind blow out of
the Weste, for by that meanes, as writeth _Maro_, doth the same bréede
Bées. And not vnlike to this doeth _Cornelius Agrippa_ in his firste
Booke _de Occulta Philosophia_, and _Hiero. Cardanus_ in hys ninth
booke of Subtilties write, that of a rotten horse do waspes procéede:
of an Asse, Humble bées: of a Mule, hornettes: of the haire of a woman
(hauing then hir motherly courses) Serpents: and of Creuisses (the
shelles plucked off,) Scorpions.

            ¶ Of the vnperfect Bees, which men properly name
                         Drone Bees. Cap.iiij.

The Drone Bées (as writeth _Plinie_) are vnperfect Bées, without sting,
and the least weary, yet be they verye heauy of body, and slow in doing
their businesse. They also doe the seruices and trauells of the true
Bées, although the right and perfect Bées doe rule and gouerne them,
yea and put them formost in their laboures, so that if they happen to
be slow in their doings, then doe the right Bées punish them without
pitie. Also these doe helpe the right Bées, so well in their workes as
in their bréeding, for that the multitude of them, cause the more heat
and warmeth togither. And howe muche the greater the multitude of them
shall be, and so muche more will the increase come of the swarme. When
the hony waxeth ripe, then are the Drone Bées driuen forth, and the
kinde also of these are onely séene abroade in the Spring time.

           ¶ Whether the Bees drawe breath, or haue any bloud
                            in them. Cap.v.

Now some affyrme, that the clouen beasts draw no breth, in that they
haue not the fan of the hart, which is the lights or lungs, for as they
write, nothing without them can breath. But _Aristotle_ writeth, that
the same is possible among Bées, hauing the sting (although they haue
no bladder) to breath by their sting. And the Bées haue no bloude,
bicause they haue neither hart nor lungs: yet _Plinie_ affirmeth, that
nothing done by nature may be thought or iudged incredible: for the
same is fully persuaded in wise men, that the Bées haue a certain
liuely moisture, like as the Cuttle in the Sea, which hath a kinde of
ynke in it, and is as the iuyce of it, with the whiche the Diers (at
this day) do make their Purple colour.

          ¶ Of the great vtilitie and profite of the Bees vnto
                           mans vse. Cap.vj.

A great profite ariseth by Bées, if they be set in a conuenient and fit
place, and that both carefully & wisely guided, as _Plinie_ writeth in
his xj. booke, where he willeth, that of al other clouen beastes, the
Bées to bee principallye cherished, bicause to mans vse they gather a
subtile and wholsome iuyce, beyng very swéete, and besides they frame
by a maruelous skill and cunning, theyr cotages of waxe vnto mans vse,
that no workman (be he neuer so ingenious) can do the like. The profite
also comming by them in a short time, if the weather hindereth not, is
so greate, that they increase in a shorte time into manye swarmes,
which swarmes againe increase others, so that the firste swarmes
increased, they especially thrust forth from them in the moneth of May,
or Iune, by whych meanes they cause a great increase of them. As
_Varro_ affirmeth the same of two head Gentlemen in Spaine, which only
by the means of their Bées, gayned yerely ten thousand pound (but I
rather thinke fiue thousand pounde, which also is very muche) yet here
is to be noted, that the swarmes of syxe yeares olde, doe seldome
encrease after other swarmes of themselues, although in waxe they giue
a great yéelde and gayne to the owners.

        ¶ Of the great care and diligence of the Bees. Cap.vij.

First certain Bées as the skilfull practisers do write, stand in the
day time at the mouthes of the Hyues, diligently loking to their
businesse, like warders placed at the gates of a Castel, that they maye
so defend in safegarde whom they will within. In the night time they
setle themselues to rest vnto the morning, vntil one of them by humming
twice or thrice about, doeth so styrre them forward to flye out after
the other. For if they happen to kéepe themselues in the morning within
the Hyues, then doth the same declare a tempest to insue that daye. But
being a cleare and fayre morning, then do they flye forth and returne
againe to their Hiues, laden with the substaunce of the floures on
their legges, for their businesse, and this especiallye doe the yonger
Bées, so that the other Bées besides do eyther carrye the water in
their bils, or on the soft mossinesse of the whole bodie. The elder
Bées remayning still within, do also folow their businesse, as in
diligently laying vp, and aptly dressing the same, as they wold dispose
their kindely foode. Such as be sluggish & not labouring they
diligently note, which for their sluggishnes, they bitterly punish to

And flying abroade in a mightye winde, they maruelouslye stay and guyde
themselues, by waying their bodyes down with little stones, caryed in
their legges. They at the euening comming to rest, do make lesse and
lesse noyse in the hyue, vntill one of them flyeth about, which by a
like order as he moued them forewarde in the morning, euen so by the
same noyse and humming doth he procure them to take their rest, and to
be all silent within the hiue. If the Bées happen to scatter in their
flying abroade, then do they call and gather them togither into a
swarme, by the helpe of making a shrill sounde, eyther with pan or
bason, or other loude cymball. They also followe their king whether
soeuer he taketh his flight, who beyng wearie, and not further able to
flie, they carrye hym betwéene them.

Wherfore that the king may not often attempte forth with the swarme,
for feare of loosing them, the skilful practisers wil, the wings of the
kings be broken off. Whiche féeling himselfe thus depriued of his
wings, will not after attempt to flye forth of his boundes, but
remayning still within, will so cause the other Bées to abide
continually with him, not leauing the Hiue at any time after. They also
haue counsels priuily and rulers among them.

And _Aristotle_ declareth the Bées to be the clenlyest amongst all
other beastes, bycause in flying abroad, they shed then their dung from
them, leaste anye sauour or stincke of their dung be felte in their
cotages or hoales. If these want honny at anye time, then doe they
eyther kill, or driue quite away the drone Bées.

         ¶ Of the maruellous gouernement of the kings of honny
              Bees, and of the obedience which they vse to
                             him. Cap.viij.

Nature hath not onlye committed hir lawes to bookes, the which men may
lerne by, but hath especially set forth conditions and properties, as
for an example of the lyke, by the bées, whose kings for doubt of
reuenging, haue by the prouidence of nature no stings. Whereby is to be
vnderstanded, that the kings ruling in power, thorough the lacke of
their stings maye be by that meanes the slower to hurt, and offer
reuengemente. Yet some affirme the kings to haue stings, but they
suppose them not to vse their stings. And of this _Plinie_ maketh a
doubt whether the king be armed as the other bées, or lacketh a sting.
Which _Columella_ putteth out of doubt, writing of the king that he
hath no sting, vnlesse any perhappes thinketh that big head as it were,
whiche the king carrieth in his belly, to be his sting, with the which
at no time they vse to sting or hurt anye. This king only do Bées
reuerence, and honor him in such sort, that any of them is obedient and
very ready at his bidding, to do whatsoeuer he assigneth them vnto.
Also this obedience and seruice whiche they vse to their king, they do
not the same for feare of punishment, but onely of a loue which they
owe vnto him. Yet they punish one another in such sorte, that after
their stings be lost, they dye forthwith. _Aristotle_ writeth of two
maner of kings, the one as he affirmeth to be red, which he iudgeth the
better, the other king black of colour, which he confesseth to be
lesser of body, yet howsoeuer the kings be, they are notwithstanding
far bigger of body, than the honny bées, & haue a brighter and goodlier
head then the other Bées, yet shorter wings. So that their king created
among them, goeth not any time forth of the hiue, without the whole
swarm folow him. The king flying forth of the hiue at anye time, the
other folow him, in such sort, that eche couet to flie next him, &
ioyeth to be séen of the king in office, and whersoeuer the king
settleth him or resteth, there be other Bées placed like strong holds
or castels about him. About the king also be placed certaine rulers,
which wayte vpon him by a dayly aucthoritie, If anye happeneth, as
writeth _Plinie_, to breake of the kings right wing, then from the king
will not the swarme after departe, as the like was rehearsed afore.
Besides these, the Bées haue a maruelous order among them, if their
king happen to die, for then they shal bitterly mourne for their king
deade, and for the lacke of another, as such whiche cannot be guided
and ruled without a king among them, and of this they be in continuall
mourning. So that for the time, they carry no foode into theyr Hyues,
nor flye not forth, but with a sadde bewailyng and humming, after theyr
King, they heape thicke togyther aboute the deade body, and vnlesse
another King increaseth by little and lyttle among them, they dye for
hunger. Theyr king laboureth not, but as the other flye foorthe, hee in
the meane tyme as an exhorter moueth and encourageth forwarde euerye
one to hys worke, by his flying aboute in the Hiue.

             ¶ What kinde of Bees are beste, and rather to
                           be chosen. Cap.ix.

In this point, & for true knowledge of these, doth _M. Varro_ discribe
those Bées to be best, which be small of body, and diuerse and round,
bycause they be earnest in labour, and make a thinne honny, and better
endure labour, and gather their honny on hilles, but the worser Bées
gather their honny of the garden floures onlye, whiche be somewhat long
of bodye, lyke to waspes. _Virgil_ doth especially commend the small
Bées, beyng somwhat long, light, and clenly in their businesse, and
glistering to golde. So that the greater and rounder Bée, is
discommended of all writers. Although the fierce Bées are very ill, yet
is their yrefulnesse, a note of the better Bées, whiche may easily be
appeased, by the daylye haunting among them, for if the kepers do often
handle the Hyues, then do they become gentle in a short time.

The Bées also endure if they be diligently loked vnto, for the space of
ten yeares, and beyonde this age no swarme can passe, althoughe the
kéepers supplye the Hyues yearelye with yong Bées, in the steade of the
olde deade, for in the tenth yere, in a manner, of the generall death
of them, the vniuersall kinde of the whole Hyue is then consumed. And
therefore, that thys maye not happen throughe all the Hyues in that
place you must alwayes increase your Hyues with yong Bées, which
diligently Hyue in the springtime, or beginning of Sommer, when as the
swarmes be first and newe thrust forth of the Hiues, and so maye the
number of your Hiues be encreased. Agayne some wryte, that in the
Countrey of _Pontus_, the beste Bées bée white, bycause they gyue theyr
yéelde of Honnye twyce in a moneth. And _Gulihelmus de couchis_
affirmeth the beste Bées to be aboute _Thermodoon_ in _Capadocia_,
abyding in the Earthe, for that these doe buylde and make a tryple
yéelde of waxe, and giue also aboundaunce of Honny.

The foresayde _Varro_, affirmeth those Bées to be in healthe, which
often kepe and be in a swarme togither, that be clenly & can do their
businesse and worke alike, and that quicke & light in the same, beyng
neyther hearie nor foule of body, or appearing dustie, such also which
be not ouerleane of body, and that out of any of their cotages no dead
bées be carried thence, & forth of their Hiues. For all these notes do
declare suche like Bées, to be both euill and vnprofytable. _Palladius_
declareth, that the best Bées may be knowen by the fulnesse or
emptinesse of their vessels, for if the Hiues be full, then those Bées
doth he best commende, if the Hiues be nothing so full stuffed, those
Bées doeth he greatly dissalowe. And he also praiseth those Bées,
whiche excelleth or passeth others in the loudnesse of humming, or do
abound in the great haunte of the swarme, not broughte to the Hiues
from farre places, so that there maye be such agrement, that they be
not after feared awaye, with the newnesse of the aire and place.

            ¶ Where the Hiues of Bees ought especially to be
                             placed. Cap.x.

_Aristotle_ willeth the Hiues of Bées in the winter time to be placed
in a warme place, and in the hotte season of Sommer, in a colde place.
_Palladius Rutilius_ in his firste Booke of husbandrie teacheth that
the fittest place for bées, is that, whiche is in a Garden, not farre
or rather neare to the owners house, which by that meanes suffereth not
the windes, nor the accesse of théeues or beastes.

Which also nourisheth Trées growing on the Northside of the place, the
better to defend the cold ayre from them, & cleare springs or faire
riuer water running by. _Columella_ willeth the Hiues to be set open
toward the south, far from noyse, & haunte of people and beastes,
neyther in a hote nor colde place, for eyther of these do molest and
harme the bées. Also that the hyues stande in the bottome of a valley,
or if not so possible, then placed neare to the valley, the better and
easier for the Bées to bring their foode gathered to their hiues, and
in anye case farre from stincking puddels, ditches, dung-heapes, and
such like filthy stinckes, which greatly annoye and endamage the bées
beyng neare hande to their hiues, _M. Varro_ writing in his second
booke vnto a huswife of the countrey, willeth hir also to set the Hiues
close to hir house, and vnder some shed, & that far from the noyse of
formes, whiche is mente from a groue or wood, leaste through the woodde
or groue neare hande, the same may giue a sounding noyse, like to that
whiche men commonlye name the Eccho, whiche sounde in verye déede the
Bées do greatly hate. _Virgil_ willeth bushie trées to be planted and
stand right before their hiues, like as the Peare trée is, the Peach
trée, the Oake trée, many kyndes of Apple trées, the birche trée, Holy
trée, the Iuy trée also, not allowed for his goodnesse, but bycause the
same giueth out muche honny, and al other trées which beare no bitter
floures. And he willeth these plantes and hearbes to grow neare hande,
as the Rosemary, the red and damaske Rose, the white Lillie, the
Violets, the Flouredeluce, the Organye, the Time, the running Time, the
Sauery, swéete Maiorome, the Saffron floure, which coloureth the honny
and maketh it smel swéete, the beane floures, the French beane floures,
the Mellylot floures, the hearbe Baulme, the white Poppie floures, the
Bitonie floures, the Borage and Buglosse floures, and manye other
swéete and wholesome floures, not here named. But the Boxe trée, the
Masticke trée, the dogge or Gatten trée, or as some suppose the long
and high Chéeri trée they greatly hate, for that tasting of the floures
of anye of these, they die forthwyth. _Maro_ wylleth standing waters,
to be neare to their hiues, & so shallow, that smal stones thrown into
them, may appeare aboue the water, & serue in stéede of bridges for
their often recourse to them, & that they may aptly stretch their wings
abroad on the stones, at the heate of the sun. The standings for hiues
ought to be thrée foote distant from the ground, & wittily stopped
about with red clay, least vermine, and Myse créepe into the hiues, and
spoyle the honny combes. The Hiues also oughte to be set a little
asunder the one from the other, least by loking into them, you shake
one another by cleauing togither, and so disquiet the bées nexte to,
which feare al manner of shaking least the same throw not downe their
weake workes of waxe. And the mouthes of the hiues ought to stand
somwhat stiper than the back part, leaste rain beating in, might not
lightly run out again by their entry or hole. For remedy of the which,
some make a couer ouer theyr hole the better to kéepe off the weather &
raine. And no manner of heate so much harmeth them, as doth the bitter
cold, & for this the faces of hiues ought to be toward the winter
rising of the sun, that the Bées may so receiue the warme comfort, in
the morning comming forth, & be the liuelier, for colde doth cause them
to be sluggish, and for that cause their holes ought to be very narrow,
that as little colde as is possible, may enter into them, and so
narrowe made, that the Bées within may receiue the encrease but of one
Bée at once, For by that meanes can neither the Béetil, butterflie, nor
great moath enter, to annoye them. Besides for their often recourse
home, _Maro_ willeth to make two or thrée commings into the hiue,
somewhat distant asunder.

           ¶ What things Bees doe chiefly abhorre, or greatly
                             hate. Cap.xj.

To bées, is that (named the Eccho) vngratefull or much displeasing,
which as _Plinie_ writeth, doth greatly fear them, through the straunge
sounde rebounding againe, and the miste also doth muche molest and
trouble them, besides the spinner through hir web hanging downe before
the Hiue, and the sluggishe butterflie (which _Plinie_ nameth
dishonorable) that is two wayes pestiferous, as the one, when he
spoyleth the waxe, and dungeth within the Hiue, and the other, breading
Magottes or little wormes within the combes. They greatly hate oyle,
like as all the kindes of the other Bées doe, and a stinking sauoure,
which euidently appeareth by that kind of herbe named Mugworte, that
they especially hate, bycause the same is of a strange stincke to them.
The hornettes also of the like sorte creast, but bazer of kynde, they
greatlye feare, for that to the Hornets the Hony Bées are a speciall
foode. Also they be meate to swallows, to sparrowes, and to all other
small byrdes.

The frogs besides, they do greatly feare, which only lye in waite for
them, both in Marishes, running springs, shallowe waters, and little
ditches, and the like doe the Toades lye in wayte for the Bées, whiche
destroye manye of them. And the shéepe doe greately trouble the Honnye
Bées, if so be they happen to fall or lighte into the Wooll of theyr
backes, out of whyche, they cannot easylye wynde or gette themselues

And if any happeneth to boyle or seathe Riuer Creauisses, or sea
Crabbes neare to the Hiues, and that the Bées féele the sauour therof,
they die forthwith.

              ¶ By what signes men may know, when the hony
                Bees are diseased, and how men may cure
                             them. Cap.xij.

This is a speciall argument and note, that the Bées, are diseased, if
that they fly scattering in the swarme, if they kéep not their proper
colour, but be (as it were) of a strange and contrarie colour: if they
also are ouer leane, if they appeare dustie and hairy, and that out of
their cottages bée dead Bées carryed thence. When al these notes and
signes are espied in the Bées, it is then highe time to séeke remedye
for them, leaste helpe (by longer running) be sought too late. Therfore
_Palladius_ willeth to minister the kernels of _Pomegranats_, brused
and mixed with swéete and pleasaunt Wine, and the same powred into the
chanels or gutters of halfe canes, set nere to the mouths of hiues, or
honny, with Rose leaues well beaten togither, and so ministred to them,
or the berries of the Saruice trée brused, and mixed with Honny: for
lacke of these helpes, a man may make a smoake of drie Oxe or Cowe
dung, whiche smoake muche delyghteth and comforteth them, so that the
same be often vsed vnto Haruest.

But if throughe the Maggots or little wormes of the Butter-flyes the
Bées be diseased, _Rutilius_ then iudgeth it beste, to set a brasen
Candlesticke, or suche like vessell, with lighte burning in it at
Euening, within the hyue, that to the same light (the Butter-flyes
gathering, and flying about) may so fall down into it, and be destroyed.

_Aristomachus_ writeth, that the diseased Bées maye bée couered in this
maner, if that all the corrupt combe within the hiue be taken forth,
and freshe foode anewe put in of the whole, and the hiue after smoaked
within. Also he affyrmeth, that Rosemarie sodden with water and honny
togither, and beyng colde, poured into halfe canes or Elder stickes,
made hollow like gutters, and the same set by the mouthes of the hiues,
for the Bées to drinke on, doth recouer the Bées again. _Hyginius_
affirmeth that eyther the Oxe or mans vrine set in like manner (as
aboue saide) by the mouths of the hyues, doth also recouer the diseased
Bées. Nowe all these, and suche like muste the kéeper of the Bées doe,
whiche is bothe sober and chaste, and féedeth not vppon sowre or tarte
meates, nor filthy or strong of sauour, nor any salt meates.

              ¶ What manner of person, the keeper of Bees
                         ought to be. Cap.xiij.

The Bées for that they muche abhorre all filthye stinkes and smells,
_Palladius_ willeth the kéeper of them to eschewe dilligently al strong
and yll smelling sauoures, one also that delighteth to be chaste of
body, and frée from filthinesse, among these not breathing sowrely, or
of a stinking breath, not sweating, nor sauouring of sweat, not one
besides of wicked conditions, or suche a person as standing among the
flight of the Bées, doth not earnestly moue and procure them to fly to
him, or as one stinged endeuoreth to defend himselfe from them, but
rather as a flatterer among his acquaintance, and children, hath
learned to entreate, and please the Bées by a more gentle manner. He
also whiche mindeth to haue also in a readinesse the hiues vnto his
vse, in which he may receiue forthwith the rude youth of the swarmes
put forth, which if they be not diligently preserued, they flye quite
awaye at the full heate of Sunne. But how these hiues ought aptly to be
prepared, shall hereafter bée taught in the sixtéenth Chapiter.

If the Dorre Bées, or Bées without sting, be ouer manye in the Hiue,
and that you woulde gladly ridde them forth, then do on this manner:
first take and plucke off the wings of one of those Dorre Bées, which
lay or put within the Hiue, and incontinent the Honny Bées espying the
same, will fal vppon the other Dorre Bées, and both kill and driue them
quite away.

          ¶ By what subtil meanes, the swarmes come forth, may
                 be preserued from flying quite awaye.

_Palladivs_ in his second Booke writeth, that the swarms of the honny
Bées fly awaye especiallye in the moneth of Iune. But with vs the same
oftner happeneth in the moneth of May, as hathe bin noted by sundrye,
diuerse times, especially if the yong Bées be sounde and hartie within
the Hyues. Therefore the kéeper muste diligently looke to the Hyues,
and at no time be absent, especially when the young Bées increase and
abound in the Hyues, for if they be not then carefully looked vnto, and
stayed by the diligence of the kéeper, they al fly quite away. For such
is the nature and propertie of the Bées, that as soone as the swarms of
the yong Bées, are bred with the Kings, and that they be strong & able
to flye away, then as disdayning the swarms of the olde Bées, they
séeke the more gouernment. For that they be suche liuing things, that
delight to rule alone, not séeking ayde and counsell of the elder Bées:
and therefore do the newe kings flye forth, with the young swarmes
following them, which for a day or two before their flying away,
remaine heaping togither before the mouths of the Hyues, & right vnder
the Hiues, so that by their comming forth, and heaping in suche order,
they properly shewe the desire of a newe place, and be as yet contented
to remaine thereabout, if so be the kéeper prouide for them a place and
an apt Hiue. But if they haue no kéeper to looke diligently to them,
then as it were by an iniurie repulsed, they after séeke a newe place.
That this may not happen, let then the warye and diligent kéeper, looke
circumspectlye to the Hyues in the Spring time, aboute the eight houre
of the daye, (when as the swarmes are not yet flowen away,) that he
maye the diligenter marke and sée the flying oute and comming in of the
yong Bées.

Now the readinesse of the Bées in flying away, is known two waies, as
the first is, when for certaine daies before, in a maner at the setting
of the Sun, they plentifully or abundantly gather on a heape righte
before the mouthe of the Hyue, like vnto greate clusters of Grapes, and
doe hang togither on heapes one vpon another.

The other note is, that when they be minded within thrée daies after to
flye awaye, they make as meruellous noise and sturring too and fro
within the hiues at euening, as Souldiours at the Alarme within a
Castell, whiche you maye easilye knowe, (this readinesse of them) if
that you lay your eare to ech hiue. And when some of the Bées are
flowen awaye, then doe those waite for the others, vntill the whole
swarme be come togither. That the Bées fly not awaye, _Plinie_ teacheth
in the .xj. Booke of his Naturall Historie, that the hiues ought to be
annointed about with the iuyce of the herb named Balme. Also other
affyrme, that the swarme to settle and stay againe through the onely
throwing of fine duste on them, if so be the same be throwen on light,
and that ouer the bées. Some beside affirme, that the Bées will not
flye awaye, if that the dung of the first calfe of any Cowe, be smeared
about the mouths of the hiues. _Plinie_ writeth, that by the only
binding of the fresh white Vine (running in hedges) rounde about the
bodies of the Hyues, it stayeth the swarme from flying away.

            ¶ Of the Bees newe settled in a swarme togyther,
                     and taken or recouered agayne.

When the Bées are nowe in a tumulte in the ayre, by throwing fine earth
on high ouer the Bées, or ringing a basen or kettle, they be with the
shrill sound made astonied, that they maye the sooner settle downe
neare to the kéeper, whiche if the same happen to be on the branch of a
trée, or on a graft or yong set, then with a very sharpe sawe, gently
sawe that off, and laye it on the grounde, and spéedily set a Hiue on
the same prepared for the purpose. For by that meanes (without doubte)
will the whole swarme flye vp to the toppe and head of the Hiue. Yet it
often happeneth, that they doe not wholy cleaue on a heape to the
braunch of a trée, but to the stocke or body of the trée, whych by that
meanes muste néedes be cutte by a greater force, so that not able to be
recouered by this meanes, the swarme muste be quickly swéepte off,
either with the hand, or with a Gose wing, that they may so fall
togither into the hiue. If the swarme happen to be clustred togither on
the top of a trée, so high, that they cannot be climed vnto, to take
them downe, then after the shaking of them into the Hiue (turned vppe)
either with a pole or high forke, the hiue must spéedily be turned down
to the earth. And if they be not thus taken or recouered, yet if the
King shal be still in the Hiue, then doth the swarme fly in againe, if
he remayneth not, then wil none of the swarme abide in the hiue, but
flye forthwith vnto the former place. Wherfore, that they may be moued
to abide, you muste then sprinckle the hiue with water and hony
togither, and couer the same within with the gréene Nettle, or rather
the gréene Fennell, or some such swéete herbe, annointed a little with
Hony, and after set at the Euening in their proper place. For the hiue
in the day time, after the recouering thus of the Bées, may not be
stirred vntil the Euening, that the Bées so quietly resting all that
night, may in the morning leisurely go forth. But for thrée daies
togither in a manner, muste the kéeper dayly looke, whether the swarme
kéepeth belowe in the Hiue, for if it doth, then are the Bées purposed
to flye awaye. And if none of al these remedies, may yet moue the Bées
to stay and tarry in the hiue, then be-smoke the hiue with flaxe, and
they will after enter in and abide in the hiue. Which so staying in the
hiues, set at the Euening in his proper place. Here learne a farther
instruction, that if the swarme of Bées cannot be gathered and
recouered togither all at one time then may you gather the swarme at
two or more times togither, and alwaies put eche part gathered vnder
the hiue. If it happeneth that you haue gotten the King, with a part of
the swarme, then will all the others soone come to hiue (without
further trauaile) of their owne accorde. If the Bées also be entred
into the hollowe of a trée, then to the hole, whiche they vse to go in
and out at, as their proper doore, sette a prepared hiue, and beneath
their hole, neare to the roote and bottome of the hollow (as you can
gesse) boare another bigge hole, that ye may wel put in a smoke of
Brimstone to them, whiche may so cause all the Bées to fly out at their
hole into the Hiue, set ouer the mouth of it. For no better deuise or
inuention can be had in this matter, than by such a smoake made. If the
same hollowe trée be so thinne, that it may easily be sawed asunder,
then with a sharpe sawe lette that hollowe parte be cutte asunder,
bothe aboue and beneath, and after couering it with a cleane shéete,
carrie the swarme home, which at euening couer with a newe Hiue
sprinckled with water and honny mixed togither. For so they will tarrye
the willinglier, being all shaken forth of the body of the trée, and
couered with the Hiue. Besides the hearbe Mugworte (whiche the Bées by
a naturall hatred do abhorre) doth chase them with the onely smell from
place to place.

             ¶ Which are the best and fittest Hiues for the
                          Honny Bees. Cap.xvj.

_Palladivs_ writeth, that the best Hiues be those, which are made of
the barkes and light corke of trées, bicause they be neither too colde
in the Winter time, nor too hote in the Sommer. And of this, those
Hiues whiche be wroughte and made of the small Osier or Willow trée, or
of the Vine stickes knit togither, or Canes cleft in the middes (whiche
be of like condition to the barke) wroughte close togither, and stopped
close aboute wyth flockes and clay, tempered togither with water and
salte, may aptly serue, if you will. But if neither of those fashioned
Hiues like you, then may you make the Hiues of the woodde of a hollowe
trée, or of light bourdes made square, and stowpyng somewhat afore. The
worste Hiues be those, which be made of turfes or earth, bycause they
be ouer hote in the Sommer, and ouer colde in the Winter. There be
other two kinds of hiues, as the one made of drie hard Cow dung, and
the other of tiles. Of whiche the one doth _Celsus_ rightly condemne,
bycause the same is so lightly burned, and the other he alloweth,
althoughe he dissembleth the speciall commoditie of it, bycause the
same, if néede requireth, cannot easily be remoued and carried into an
other place. And among these, I suppose oure forme of Hiues here in
Englande, are not altogither to be disallowed, although they be in like
daunger, to be easily burned, as the other Hiues aboue taughte, in that
they be made with strawe. But to be briefe, for a greate swarme you
ought to haue in a readinesse a greate hiue, and for a small swarme a
little Hiue. And the Hiue also oughte to be a foote and a halfe, or two
foote high, and in breadth aboue two foote and a halfe, or somewhat
larger. Hauing besides two very small and narrowe holes, somewhat
asunder, and so little ought the mouths to be, that neyther Béetle,
Butterflie, gret Moth, Humble Bées, Euet nor Mouse may enter in, to
spoile the Honny combes. Some suppose, or rather affyrme of experience,
that the Bées are delighted with this closenesse, in that they more ioy
to do their works and businesse in the darke, than otherwise.

      ¶ Of the clenlinesse and sweetenesse of the keeper of Bees,
             and howe Hiues ought to be fenced aboute, and
                       prepared within. Cap.xvij.

The kéeper of Bées which mindeth to handle and looke into hiues, ought
the day before to refraine the veneriall acte, not a person fearefull,
nor comming to the hiue with vnwashed handes and face. And one that
oughte to refraine in a manner from all smelling meates, poudered
meates, fryed meates, and all other meats that doe stinke, like as the
Léekes, the Onions, the Garlike, and suche like, whiche the Bées
greatlye abhorre. Besides, to be then swéete of body, and clenly in
apparell, minding to come to their hiues, for in all clenlinesse and
swéetnesse the Bées are muche delighted. Nowe thus prepared & in a
readinesse, open the hiues first of the Bées, about the .viij. or .x.
day of Aprill, being then a cleare & warme day, & purge the hiues of
all such filth which be gathered in them all the winter before, like as
Spiders webs, which oughte especially to be wiped awaye, bicause they
corrupt the combes, not with hands, but with a goose wing, the same
ought to be done. After that, the Hiue oughte to be smoaked with Oxe or
Cowe dung, for in that (as it were, by an affinitie of the kinde) do
the Bées greatly delight. The little wormes also, whiche some name
Maggots, that bréede in the combes, throughe the blowing of the
Butterflies, and also the Butter-flyes ought to be killed and purged
oute of the hiue. If the combes happen to fall throughe infection or
corruption in them, then make a smoake with the drie dung and marowe of
an Oxe or Cowe mixed togither, that the sauour may go vppe to them,
whiche for that time will cure the weake combes, strengthen the Bées, &
cause them to worke the lustier afterward. And from the beginning of
May, vnto the last of Iune, the hiues ought then to be diligently
looked vnto, that the yong swarmes flye not away. Also from the tenth
of Iune, vnto the tenth of August, the hiues ought to be opened now &
then, & to be smoked with such like as afore is taught. Whiche
althoughe it be grieuous for the time to Bées, yet the same is very
profitable, and strengthneth them. And from the beginyng of the Dog
dayes, vnto the eightéenth of September, ought the Bées to be carefully
looked vnto and defended, from the violence of the Hornet Bées, which
often awaite before the mouthes of the Hiues, to set vppon and eate the
Honny Bées. Nowe the kéeper in a fayre sunny daye, ought to clense the
Hiues of al maner annoyances as before is taught, and diligently to
stop the chincks, or clefts about, sauing the mouthes of the Hiues,
with Oxe dung & clay mixed togither. And this ought to be done, for two
or thrée daies before the change of the Moone, the better to defend the
Butter flye and others, from créeping in. The Hyues besides ought to
haue two bigge stickes cleane scraped, and running a crosse from side
to side, and sprinckled rounde about within, and swéete and pleasant
wine, or else the stickes to be harde rubbed ouer, with the gréene
braunches of the Fennell or other swéete smelling herbs, or with a
little hony & leaues of the Pere-trée, togither, or with the branches
of the herb Time flouring, or Sanerie, or Maiorame, or the hearbe
Balme, and Honny togither. Some annoint the stickes and hiue within,
with the swéete creame of the newe Cowe milke, or with Water and Honnye
sodden togither, and that sprinckled aboute within the Hyue, that the
Bées maye be the rather and sooner moued to tarrie and dwell stil in
the Hiues.

         ¶ How Bees lacking honnie may be fedde in that present
                           neede. Cap.xviij.

Bycause the boysterousnesse of the ayre doth sometimes constraine the
Bées to abyde in their hiues, and that they may not only féede of
Honny, but at the rysing of the constellation (named _Vergiliæ_) they
maye be fed and cherished, and the same done in this manner without
greate cost. As firste, if you take the number of ten figges, séething
them in sixe pintes of fayre conduite or spring water, vnto a pynte
wasted, whych after set the one side of the hiue within, laying many
smal stickes a crosse ouer the Lycour, that those may serue in stead of
bridgs, the apter for them to drinke of the Licour, without drowning in
the same. Others wyll to séeth Honny and water togither, & the same to
be poured into dishes set at the one side of the Hiue, in the whiche
they will to put fine carded wooll, that the Bées maye the better
drincke now and then, and be not cloyed with too much drinking of the
licour, by lighting into it. Others take figs & raisons beating them
togither, and after boyling them in the swéete lycour named Cuyte, they
poure into dishes, couering the same with Oaten strawes a crosse.
Others also will to take a little Hony, putting into the same a fewe
Oate cornes, that the Bées lighting on them, maye so kepe their wings
from wetting in the licour. Now all these meanes may well suffise to
cherish and féed the bées in the Winter time, lacking then foode, beyng
set neare to the mouthes of the Hiues. So that if a longer hunger
oppresseth them, then with the hiues fast by the entring in, set little
gutters made of halfe canes, or greate elder stickes cleft, into which
poure of the swéete licours aboue taught, for by that meanes may they
be wel recouered and strengthned in the déepe of Winter, when their
foode fayleth them. Some wil to put fresh birdes cleane drawne, or the
fleshe of a Henne finely shred into hiues, for the Bées to féede and
sucke vpon in the déepe of Winter, & the fine feathers also they will
put into the Hiue, that they may giue then a warmth to the Bées lying
in them. And others also will to put the meate of rosted Chickens into
their Hiues, to féede and sucke vppon, and not the boanes withall,
least the sauour of the bones after the meate eaten off, might annoy
the bées by lying still in the hiues, in that they so greatly abhorre
all sowre and stinking sauors. Also these kinds of flesh ordered (as
aboue sayde) may well serue the Bées in another drie Sommer, when as
the most floures are then faded or quite gone away. Here note, that in
the Spring and Sommer time, the bée-hiues ought to be loked vnto thrice
in the moneth, gently smoking the Bées, to clense the Hiues of al maner
filth, and to swéepe forth the wormes. Also _Menecrates_ willeth the
kéeper of Bées, to kill the king blacke of colour, whiche by hys malice
disquieteth the other king, and corrupteth the Hiue, in that he flieth
out alone, or with a company of the bées folowing. So by that meanes
(as _Virgil_ writeth) shall the battel of Bées be stayed. _Palladius_
writeth, that the swarmes be increased in the moneth of May, and that
in the outmost sides of the combes be the drone Bées bred, which ought
to be killed, in that those do muche disquiet the rest of the swarme.
The Butterflies also do abounde, which he willeth diligently to kill,
for their greate annoyaunce to the honny Bées.

About the beginning of Nouember ought the Hyues then to be cleared of
their filth, so that al the Winter following they may neyther be
remoued nor opened. And this may not be done but in a warme sunny daye,
the combes maye not be touched with hands, but with the feathers of a
stiffe goose wing, or such bigge foule. After that to stoppe the
chinkes round about wyth Oxe dung and clay finely laboured togither,
and to lay strawe thicke ouer the toppes of the Hiues, the better to
defende the Bées from the cold and tempestes.

              ¶ How the dead Bees may be restored to life
                            againe. Cap.xix.

The kéeper of bées ought to foresée and take héede, that the Bées
perysh not through ouer great heate, or ouer mighty cold. If at any
time by a sodaine showre in the séeking for foode, Bées happen to be
beaten downe, or nipped wyth a sodaine colde (which seldome so commeth
to passe that the Honny bées are so deceyued,) that harmed with the
droppes, they lye grouelyng and flatte on the earth, as dead in a
manner, then gather the Bées togyther, putting them into some vessel
for the nonce, which after set in a warm chamber or Parloure, & couer
warm ymbers, being somewhat more than hote, on the Bées, whiche gently
shake with the ashes, but in suche sorte that you touche them not wyth
your hande. And setting the Bées in the sunne, and neare to their
hiues, they will after recouer, and flie again into their cotages.

             ¶ Of the battel that Bees sometime haue among
                          themselues. Cap.xx.

_Vergill_ writeth, that the Bées sometimes minding to fighte, do
hastily brust out of the Hiues, and as it were in ciuill battels among
themselues, do fight lyke strangers one against the other, & smite
eagerly in their fight one at an other. If so be one hyue hath
especially two kings bred vp in the same, whych very well may be
knowne, when as the bées clustered and heaped togither, doe represente
or represse as it were the forme of two beardes hangyng downe. Now
theyr readinesse to fight is knowen, when in the ayre is heard a greate
sounde and noyse among the Bées lyke to the manner of Trumpets, whiles
they fiercely and cruelly fighte togither among themselues, & in this
battell they glitter with the wings, sharpen the stings with their
beakes, beare forth their breastes, and about the king they gather and
swarme. So that they shoute wyth great noyse, flying and dashing
togither, and that in heapes and rounde companies mixed or ioyned
togither, and greate is the noyse made among them. And to be shorte, in
this strong and eager battell, many of them fal headlong downe, and
that thicker then haile stones to the ground.

The kings themselues in the meane time flying in the middel frontes,
doe fight with a fierce courage within themselues, and they also are
séene to flie hither and thither among thicke heapes and swarmes of the
Bées, (like as valiaunte Capytaines are wont to do in the time of a
battell) with their glistering wings and beakes, beating downe of the
swarmes, here & there and on eche side of them, of both partes. So that
of themselues not giuyng ouer this eager battell, untill the one part
be forced to turne the backe to the other, and flye away with
expedition. Therfore that this doubtful battel in the meane time may be
ceased and quieted betwene them, the wise practisers wyll that the
kéeper of Bées, do staye and appease this broyle of them, by the
casting of fine earth ouer the Bées, whiles they be thus fighting,
which (as the wise affirme) of experience doth forthewith pacifie the
great stomackes and courages of both partes. But if this auayleth not,
then with honny and water sodden togither, or raysons in like order, or
with any other swéete licour sprinckled on them, is their furie
appeased, whiche doth as it were with the pleasaunt swéetenesse, quiet
the irefulnesse of the warriours, and wyth the same in this
controuersie they are maruelously appeased. If neyther of these
remedies do yet preuaile, then let the keper marke diligentlye those
Bées whyche fyghte in the fronte, and bee moste eager Capytaines, that
hee maye kill them with expedition, for by that meanes, and with the
other remedies aboue taughte, maye the battels and fight of the
wariours be throughly ceased.

Now after the Bées are thus quieted, and the swarme setled rounde on
some gréene bowe nexte hande, then marke whether the whole swarme
hangeth downe like a cluster of grapes, whiche so séeing, declareth
there to bee eyther one king or two, by good agréement reconciled,
whiche let alone on such wise, vntil they flye backe vnto their proper
home. But if the swarme shal be deuided into two or many round
clusters, then iudge that there be yet manye Captaynes lefte, and that
their yre is not ceased: and in those partes, where you especially sée
the bées to cluster moste thicke and rounde togyther, there diligently
séeke out the Captaynes. Yet annoynt your hand before with the iuyce of
the hearbe Baulme, that touching or handling the Bées, they flye not
hither and thither, after which put in your fingers gently, and
seuering the Bées asunder, seke diligently among them, vntil you finde
out the author and procurer of the battell, whiche you oughte likewise
to kill. _Vergill_ writeth, that the kings sometimes fly forth for a
vaine delight, to sport them flying in the aire, which you may easily
stay and let, if that you pluck of the kings wings, that he cannot
afterward flye.

            ¶ How Bees, may be recouered and founde againe.

If it so happeneth that bées are flowen away, & that you be in doubte
whether they be lodged neare hande, or farre off, _Palladius_ doth
instructe and teache many goodly wayes to finde them againe. First he
teacheth to take red leade, or red Oker infused in water, or any other
colour, stayning, and to carry the same wyth you in a little shallow
dishe. Vnto suche a spring or running water as the honny bées haunte,
especially in the moneth of Aprill. And there sitting downe, awayte the
comming of the Bées to drinke, which after they be come, and there
drinkyng, stayne in the meane whiles such bées, with your rush coloured
redde at the ende, as you may well retche with the same, sitting yet
stil, and watching the comming againe of those Bées marked to drinke,
whiche if they shortlye returne, then is it an euidente note and token,
that their lodging and cottages be neare hande, but if those Bées are
long before they returne and come againe to the place, then maye you
suppose and iudge them to be farre off, and the distaunce you may
gesse, according to their long tarrying and soone comming againe. That
you maye easily finde the place where the Bées lodge, whether the same
bee farre or neare hand, _Palladius_ teacheth the same wittily in this

Firste he willeth to take one whole ioynt of a bigge cane or Elder
sticke stopped at the one end, and the other end left open, to annoynt
within, with a little honny, whiche laye neare to that spring or
running water, that the Bées daylye haunte vnto.

When Bées resort to the same, and that certayne be entred within the
quil through the sauor thereof, then stop the hole with your thumb,
letting one of the Bées afterward to flye forth, whiche dylygently
marke, and follow that way it flyeth, for it wyll shewe you part of the
way to their home. And after you can sée the same no further, then
quicklye set forth another bée, whose flight in like manner marke, and
followe after, for that it maye also shewe parte of the way vnto their
home. And so let flie the bées by one and one, vntil they bring you
vnto the place of the swarme. Nowe if the same place be déepe in the
earthe, then with a smoake made eyther of drye flaxe or Brimstone,
driue the Bées out, and when the swarme is come forthe, then ring on a
bason or shrill panne, for being by and by feared with the shryll
sounde of the same, the swarme eyther lighteth on a yong trée, or on
the opener bowe of a bigge trée, which so founde out, couer ouer with a
hiue prepared for the nonce. But if the swarm be placed in the hollowe
of a trée, and hauing bowes, or in the stocke of the same trée, then
with a verye sharpe sawe (if the meanes of the same will giue leaue)
cutte it asunder. And in such sort, that the parte emptie aboue the
bées be first cut, and the parte beneath it which it séemeth the Bées
to be lodged, to be like cut asunder, and the stocke thus cut asunder,
at both the endes, couer with a faire shéete, leaste any large cliftes
appeare after the cutting, whiche also annoynt with honnye, for the
better staying in of the bées, and after carrye the same home, which
place by your other hiues making smal holes in the same, for theyr
flying in and out (as afore was taught) in the ordering of the other
hiues. But it behoueth the diligent sercher, to chose the morning times
for the finding out of Bées, wherby you may haue the space & libertie
of the day before you, to finde out the resort of Bées. For by loking
late after them, it falleth out so, that although the Bées are neare
hande, yet bycause they haue then done their busie and careful laboure,
they flye no longer abrode to séeke foode, nor yet resorte to drinke.

Throughe whiche it so commeth to passe, that the searcher after Bées
knoweth not then howe neare, or far off, the swarm is from the spring
or running water. Some take the iuyce of the hearb Baulme in the Spring
time, and annoint the same round about the hiue, whereby the sauour of
the iuyce maye cleaue and abide on the vessell, whiche afterwarde being
fayre within, sprinckle aboute with a little honny, setting the same
hiue downe neare to the woodde or groue of trées fast by that spring or
water running by it, and after the same be filled with a swarme, carry
it gently home. Yet doeth not this like, but in such places where the
swarmes of Bées do abounde, for that oftentimes it so hapneth, that
vnlesse the hiues be dailye watched, that the goers by do take them
away. But to lose sundrie hiues, gretly hindreth not, so that you may
in the mean whiles enioy one or two of them full.

Nowe hitherto hathe béene sufficientlye taughte, suche remedies and
helpes, as necessarily serue, to the taking, and recouering of Bées
loste, and otherwise to finde oute straunge swarmes.

                ¶ That the Bees sting no person, comming
                      neare their Hiues. Cap.xxij.

_Plinie_ in his twentith book writeth, that the hearb Sperage, brused
and mixed with oyle, and annoynted with the same, doth defende the
person from being stinged, by comming nygh to their hiues. And in his
.xxviij. booke he also wryteth, that if any happeneth to be stinged by
a Scorpion, that he shall neuer after be stinged of any Bée, but yet
being stinged, he teacheth to drinke the iuyce of Hearbe-grace and Rue
mixed with wine, and to lay the leaues also in plaister forme on the
stinged places. In the 21. booke he writeth the like, that bées stings
are by nature venomous, against the which he teacheth to take & vse the
iuyce of Mallowes, or the iuyce of Iuie leaues, and to annoint eyther
of the two, on the stinged places, as a souerain remedy. And in the 23.
booke, he teacheth wyne for a remedy, as boyled with bay leaues, and
after drunke. In the 24. booke he teacheth to take a drop of that
molten, whiche the honny Bées make at the entrye of the Hiue, to be a
like remedy, as of the water _Bezoar_ to be vsed against venemous
bittes. _Auicen_ in his seconde rule teacheth, that the decoction of
the March Mallowes wyth vineger or wine, and the same anoynted on the
stinged places, to be a perfit remedie.

Whiche also in his fourth rule affirmeth, that the Honnye Bée hath like
dispositions to the waspe, sauing that they leaue their stings behinde
them: wherfore for remedie of the wasps, you may vse those which we
haue afore taught againste the stings of Bées.

                 ¶ When and howe, the Hiues ought to be
                           gelded. Cap.xxiij.

_Palladius Rutilius_ in his first booke teacheth, that the hiues of
Bées ought not to be gelded, before you consider and sée whether they
be rype, vnto the comming of the true Honny, whyche in a manner (as hee
teacheth) commeth to vse in the moneth of Iune, or as others affirme,
in the ende of Auguste, vnto the midle of September.

Now there be certaine notes and tokens, by whyche we trye and fynde out
the ripenesse of them, whiche be these, firste if the hiues be ful,
then do the Honny Bées drive forth the ydle drone Bées out of the
Hiues, and there is also hearde within a small or shrill humming of the
Bées for that the emptie cottages of the combs, as they were hollow
buildings, do receiue a sound & noise, procured then bigger, so that
when there is hearde a big & hoarse sound of the humming of them, then
is it not yet méet to geld the combs. _Varro_ writeth, that it is then
time to geld hiues, when as you see within, that the Bées hang
clustring round, & that the holes of the hony combes be couered ouer,
as it were with thin caules, for then be they full of honny. Now the
day of gelding the hiues ought to be done timely in the morning, when
as the Bées are astonied throughe the colde aire, and not done in the
heate of the day, when they be procured to fly forth of the hiues, and
being then very angry, to sting those persons which come to the hiues.
The maner of gelding the hiues is on this wise, first stop the holes of
the hiues, that the Bées passe not forth, with grasse or some other
hearbe, after that putte vnder fine linnen ragges, or strawe, making a
little smoake with the same, whiche smoake so flying vppe, causeth the
Bées after to breake & leaue their clustering togither.

After these, with two instruments or tooles of yron, made for the only
purpose, of a foote and a halfe long, or rather somewhat longer made,
of whiche the one ought to be a long knife, and broade of either side
the edge, with a hafte, and hauing a crooked file on the one end. The
other at the beginning plaine, and very sharpe, whereby with this the
combes may the readier and quicklier be cutte downe, with that other
instrument scraped cleane, and whatsouer filth falleth off, drawne
awaye, and throwne aside. But where the hiue of the hinder parte, or
parte behinde, shall haue no voide place emptie, then make a smoake (as
_Varro_ commaundeth) with _Galbanum_ and drie Oxe dung, which ought to
be made in a earthen fuming pan, filled with quicke coles, or a pan of
earth with a narrow mouth, and a handle like to it. So that the one
part oughte to be sharper or narrower vpwarde, by whiche the smoake may
passe by the little holes, and the other parte where the coles are,
broader, and with a large mouth of the one side of it, by which the
person may blowe the coles: Nowe suche a pot when it is set within the
hiue, and the smoake stirred vp to the Bées, whiche by and by not
quieted with the sauour, flie vnto the foreparte of the hiue, &
sometimes flie quite oute of the hiue, wherby any may looke into the
Hiue without harme, in a maner, to the person. If there happen to be
two swarmes in one hiue, then are there also two kindes or formes of
honny combes. For euerye company of Bées in agréement togither, doth
fashion & frame the waxe, as liketh them best. But all the honny combes
being hollowe wrought, and a little cleauing to the sides of the hiue,
do hang, whereby they may not touch the floure or bourde, for that
otherwise it causeth the swarmes to flye quite away. Yet the forme of
their waxe is such, as the condition of their cottages is. For that
some Bées doe make both square and rounde spaces, and some long, so
that eche frameth, as it were certain formes in the combes, according
to his kinde. So that the hony combs, are not founde alwaies alike in
fashion, but these combes of what forme soeuer they be, are not to be
taken all out of the hiues. For in the beginning of Haruest, whiles the
fieldes yet flourishe, take a fift parte of the combes, but after, when
Winter is at hande, then leaue a thirde parte behinde.

_Palladius_ willeth the hiues to be gelded in the moneth of October,
and that a third part be left behind. Yet consider, that if there be
store, to take the more: if but a meane, then the halfe part of that
leave for the winter time: if the cottages appeare but halfe full then
take nothing away. But _Varro_ teacheth, that a third part of the
combes maye be taken away, & the other parte left for the winter,
although the combes be ful of honny. If you fear (saith he) a sharp
winter to follow, then take nothing at al: & of the same mind is the
learned _Vergil_ in this. But the expert practisers of our time in such
matters, do affirme, that the honny ought to be taken awaye but once in
the yeare, & this in the end of the moneth of August, vnto the middle
of September. But the waxe being corrupt, then, both before and at any
time maye be taken forth of the hiues. Also as touching the honny which
the Bées giue, whether you maye take awaye either little or much, must
be considered according to the finalnesse or plentifulnesse of the hony
being in the hiue. And according to the smalnesse or greatnesse also of
the swarm to be nourished, so that aboue the fourth part of the combes
may not be taken from any hiue. Yet this order may not be vsed alike in
countries, bicause a man must consider the dealing with the hiues,
according to the multitude of floures, & plentifulnesse of foode for
the Bées. If the waxie combes hanging down do run into a length, then
with the same yron toole which is made like to a knife, being
oftentimes dipped in water, that the waxe cleaue not to it, nor that
the combs remaining may be harmed, & the hiue holden on the one side
cut the combs away. After this, put both your armes into the hiue,
gathering togither, and taking forth the combs. But if the combes hang
ouerthwart in the hiue, then must you vse your scraping yron, that the
combes of the further side thruste togither, may so be cut away. Also
the old & corrupt combs are to be taken forth, the whole and full of
hony to be especially left. And if there be any yong Bées in them,
those kéepe or preserue to increase the swarm in that hiue. After that,
carry al the store of the hony combes into one place, whereas you mind
to make the hony, & stop diligently the sides and edges of the hiues
round about, that none of the Bées may enter in, which for the hony and
waxe taken away, do eagerly séeke after, and finding the same, do
vtterly consume the same if they may.

Therfore, of the former matters must a smoake be made, & that (at the
entry) or mouth of the hiues, that the Bées assaying to fly in, may
through the smoke be driuen to flye backe again. Now after the hiues be
gelded, and that anye shall haue ouerthwart or crossed combes at the
entrance of the hiue, those then shall be so conuerted, that the parts
behind maye be emptied & left void for another time. So that when they
shal be next gelded the old combs rather than the new are to be taken
forth, & the waxe renewed, for that the older the waxie combes are, so
muche the worser they be.

If it happeneth, that the hiue be so made, that the same may not be
remoued out of the place then ought you to geld first the hinder parte,
and after the foreparte: and this especiallye ought to be done afore
fiue a clocke in the morning, and after nine of the clocke at night, or
in the nexte morrowe. Nowe the Bées when they knowe this, all come to
fill the emptie place, so that after they haue repaired and filled the
same, and fulfilled all the reste aboute it, then flye they to the
forepart, and do worke in like order. By whiche we may euidently
learne, that they haue filled the same empty place also, by their
abiding stil there. Besides these, as the great plentie of honny, doeth
cause sluggishnesse in the Bées, euen so doeth the much abatement, and
excéeding taking awaye of their honny, bothe dull the quickenesse and
diligence of them, and cause them also to bée sluggishe.

              ¶ What the honny is, and howe from the hiues
                   the same maye be prepared to vse.

As we firste gather the honny from the combes, so do we the waxe for
the comforte of the light, and other commoditie besides. Nowe what the
honny is, and howe the same taken from hiues, maye be prepared to vse,
shall hereafter bée taughte.

Firste the learned _Isidore_ writeth, the honny to be of the deawe of
some lyquide matter, and affyrmeth also the same to be founde sometimes
in the leaues of the greate Canes. To whiche in a manner doth _Publius
Maro_ agrée in this verse, writing, that hitherto the heauenlye giftes
are of the Aereall honny. Others teach the honny in _India_ and
_Arabia_, to be like to salte gathered there on the leaues of trées.
Others do doubt whether the honny be a sweat from heauen, or a certaine
spittle of the starres, or a iuyce of the aire purging it selfe. But
whatsoeuer substance the same is, yet is it a moste swéete, subtill,
and healthfull iuyce, _Plinie_ witnesseth, which at the first gathering
of it, is as a cleare water, but after the boyling a while, and purging
of it selfe, as the newe wine (after the pressing forth) is wonte to
do, doth by the twenty day after come to a perfect thickenesse of
honny, throughe the often repeating and working of it in the hote
dayes, from the beginning of May and vnto the middle of Iune.

Nowe the honny is gathered in this maner: first, before the honny be
pressed out of the combes, must those corrupt combes hauing red filth,
and hauing yong in them (if any such be there) be pressed oute, bicause
they bothe procure an euill taste, and with that iuyce corrupt the
hony. The combs brused togither, ought to be put into a cleane presse,
being yet warme, and new gathered out of the Hyues the same day, whiche
lette lye there, vntil the hony by little and little be run forth, or
rather for the more expedition, pressed forthe with a heauy waighte,
and the same which is then come forth, is very faire rawe hony. After
that the honny with the waxe muste be boyled togither, as hereafter
shall be taught.

Nowe when the combes be thus brused togither, and the yong Bées killed
and cast forth, then must you make youre hony in this maner. As first
in the Moneth of September or October, take the heauier and older
hiues, which are of two or thrée yeares olde, and not hauing bred
swarmes in the Sommer before: and that ouer smoke and flame of strawe,
drie flaxe, or yellowe Brimstone, the hiue a little whiles be holden,
that the Bées may so flie vppe to the toppe of the hiue, or else suche
remaining below burne their wings.

After that, turne downe the head of the hiue on the ground, and with a
sharpe knife cutte the crossed stickes asunder in the Hiue, or plucke
them forth with your hand. For by that meanes are the combes wel brused
togither, and the Bées either killed with the fall of them, or else
flye away. After this putte all the combes on a heape, being gathered
oute of the hiues here and there into a presse, leaning somewhat on the
one side, but some put the combs into a wine basket made of smal willow
or Osier stickes finely knitte and wroughte togither, that hanged vppe
in a darke place, the Honny maye runne thoroughe by little and little
from it. After that the honny hathe thus runne forthe into a cleane
earthen panne or boll standing vnder it, then the same after poure into
an earthen potte, or pottes, being as yet rawe honny, but clearer and
better than the other licour of the hony. Which for certaine daies let
stand open, that the swéete licor may throughly coole, and the same in
the mean whiles often skimme or purge with a spoone. Nowe after this,
the fine péeces or crummes of the combes, which yet remaine in the
bagge of wicker, or wine basket, or presse, putte into an earthen
potte, panne, or kettle, ouer a verye softe fire, that the same may
heate without boyling, and alwayes kéepe youre hande in the vessell, to
stirre still aboute hither and thither the honny and waxe, and to open
also the waxe by péece meale vntill the honny and not the waxe, shall
be throughlye molten. When the honny through the heate, beginneth a
little to pricke the hande, then poure all the whole Masse or
substaunce into a strayner, and putting the same in a presse made for
the onelye purpose, wring it harde about, yet it maketh no great
matter, if that same be not so earnestly wringed or pressed out, that
none of the Honny remaine yet with the Waxe, séeing that the Honny and
Waxe haue effects in some causes alike. Now this Honny whiche is thus
runne forth, is named the Sodden Honny, whyche oughte in like manner to
be poured into earthen pots, and to stande open for certaine dayes,
skimming it dayly with a spoone, vntill it be throughe colde. The
nobler or worthier Honny is that which runneth oute in a manner of the
owne accorde, before the second pressing out of the combs. And mixe not
of this seconde Honny with the firste, but kéepe them diligentlye
aparte, leaste by mixing the firste to the seconde, you make the beste
(being the firste) the worser. After all this thus handled, the same
whiche yet remaineth in the strainer, wash diligently with Conduit or
faire Spring water, that you may so haue the Mulse or hony water, of
which being sodden and diligently skimmed (as of this hereafter shall
be further taught) is the Mulse made, that serueth to manye good vses.

               ¶ Which Honny is accompted best. Cap.xxv.

Certaine Countries doe excell in the perfecte goodnesse of Honny, like
as the famous _Attica_ of Gréece, which for the excellencie of the
Honny is hadde in great reputation throughout the world. _Hybla_ also &
_Hymetus_ being hilles of the same Countrie, which the deceiuers applie
to Honny, that the same maye both be named _Hymetus_ and _Hybleus_
Honny. _Creta_, _Cyprus_ and _Affrica_, as in goodnesse they are
notable or worthy, so the abundant or maruellous plentie of the Honny
is there commended. Also the newnesse of Honny is likewise commended,
as the auntientnesse of wines, but the Spring and Sommer Honny,
especially if the vessell or hiue stande in a valley or bottome, and
doeth excell in the waight of hande. But the honny gathered of bitter
hearbes is counted vnprofitable, as the same Honny which the Bées
gather in the country of _Pontus_, where the Bées onely gather their
honny of the Wormewoode. The white in all Countries is better estéemed
than the blacke, but the beste honny is that whiche is very cleare, of
a golden colour, of a moste pleasaunt and swéete taste, cleauyng
somewhat to the fingers in the handlyng, and but little stiffening or
waxing hard togither. And that the honny in the pouring forth, doth
straightway breake here and there, and squirteth or sprinckleth
(sodainely as it were) sundrie droppes abroad, which being on thys
wise, _Plinie_ teacheth to be the triall and sure note of a good and
profitable honny.

          ¶ Of the venomous Honie, and of the wonderfull Honye
                          of Creta. Cap.xxvj.

It so much forceth to vnderstande and know, what maner of foode the
same is, with the which the Bées do liue, as the poysoned hony also,
that may be gathered by them, whether it be euill or venomous. For the
Honny of _Heraclea_ in the Countrey of _Pontus_, hath bin for certaine
yeares, very dangerous, especially throughe a certaine hearbe growing
white, whiche also vexeth their cattell by eating thereof, named of the
dwellers there, _Aegellothron_. But by these notes is that Honnye
founde out and tried to be venomous, as firste, that the same is not
thicke at all, the colour brighter or more glistering, and hath a
strong sauour, mouing forthwith often snéesing, and is also waightier.
Also such persons, as taste somewhat thereof, doe couet to lie or fall
hastily on the earth, séeking for coldenesse, and be all on a sweate,
so that in sodaine daungers, muste some spéedy helpes or remedies be
ministred, like as the olde Mulse of the best hony, and herb Grace, or
other like confections, be often ministred to suche persons. There is
also another kind of venomous hony, in the border of the country of
_Pontus_, that for the madnesse which it engendereth, is named of the
people _Neonomenon_: the same hony is supposed to be gathered of the
floure _Rhododendros_, whiche groweth plentie there in the wooddes.
_Plinie_ writeth of a maruellous honny to be in _Creta_, for that in
_Carina_ being a hill of that Countrey, he affirmeth a honny to be
gathered, whiche the flies will not touch, and supposed also to be a
singular Honny, for the composition of euery medicine.

                ¶ Of the miraculous worthiness of Honny.

Most men in Italy prepare and make their medicines which they purpose
to kéepe long, with honny, so that honny preserueth euery thing from
putrifying, which you would haue in safety, and to continue for a
season, through his clamminesse. And of this, auntient men did enbalme
bodyes of the deade, which they would haue preserued, and to continue
sound without corrupting many yeres, with hony only, and the same they
also smeared within the tombes or sepulchres of the deade, for the
longer kéeping of bodyes. The self same writeth the learned _Papinius_
of the body of _Alexander_, which was likewise embaulmed with Hony. And
not vnlike to this writeth _Plinie_, in the xxij. booke, and xxiiij.
Chapter of his Histories, of sundrye dead bodyes also embaulmed with
hony. Which in another place also of his Histories writeth by _Claudius
Cæsar_, that brought a monster out of _Egipt_ into his countrey, whiche
was also embaulmed with Honny. _Ahanæus_ also writeth, that bodies
subiect to sickenesses, maye both be kept frée from sicknesses, and
from corrupting a long time, through the often smearing and annoynting
of Honny ouer all the bodie. As the like wryters report, that the Isle
of _Corsica_, or _Corse_ do, whiche liue a long time.

The _Macrobians_ being a people in _Affricke_, named also _Mœrein_, doe
liue a long time, as certaine authours write, bycause with the meate of
Honny, whyche is plentie with them, they dayly be fed, and vse
continually. Some affirme that _Democritus_ which recreated by Honny,
with the only breath and sauour of the Honnye made hote, liued (as they
write) vnto a hundred nine yeares. _Aristoxenus_ writeth, that the
table of _Pythagoras_ was dayly furnished with only breade and honny,
and yet liued vnto the fourescore and ten yeres of the Philosopher
_Heraclides_. The Honnye also is founde to auayle against surfettes,
and of this accompted amongst the medicines putting awaye drunkennesse.
And of this it is no maruel, that suche throughlye skilfull in
Phisicke, when anye be ouercloyed or filled with Wine, do counsell
firste to emptie their stomackes by vomityng, and after against the
force of the fume euaporating of the remnaunt of the Wine yet
remayning, they giue to them Honny spreade on breade, as it were by
putting backe the euill, that is maye so remedie and putte awaye the
grosse fume.

           ¶ How profitable the vse of Honny is in medicines.

Firste the white Honye is to be vsed in cooling Medicines, but the
yealowe in heating medicines: also the nature and propertie of honny,
is to clense and open, and to expel humors. Therefore it is profitably
applyed in filthy vlcers, being boyled and annoynted vpon. It closeth
also loose and gaping fleshe, through his wholenesse. Also with Liquid
Alume & honny sodden togither, are Ringwormes, and cornes or swelling
of the féete healed, by annoynting therewith. Against the vncertaine
soundings and noyse of the eares, and grieuous pains of them, the hony
grounded with that salte digged out of the earth, and dropped warme
into the eares: the selfe same killeth both nits and lyce, by only
annointing the heade therwith. Also the hony purgeth the eyes dimme of
sight, healeth the swellings, and other defaultes and griefes of the
iawes, the swellings and kernels vnder the iawes, neare to the throte,
after the preparing to vse, the same be gargelled in the throate, and
the mouth washed therewith. The honie eaten causeth vryne, helpeth the
cough (being cleane skimmed before) and the byte of a Snake or Adder.
The hony also helpeth those which haue drunke vnwares the iuyce of
blacke Poppie, so that againste the same euill and daunger they drinke
rosed honny warme. Also the same drunke helpeth the malice and daunger
of Mushromes eaten, and the byte of a madde dogge, or otherwise melting
in the mouth, after the forme of an _Eclegma_. Yet all the sortes of
rawe Honny be windie and swell the bodie, mouing a rumbling or noyse in
the belly, procuring the cough, easily conuerted into euil humors,
stopping the liuer and the milt through the clamminesse, and hurtfull
to chollericke bodies, if so be the honny before (as _Dioscorides_
writeth) be not throughly skimmed and clensed as the same ought to be.
The honny also boyled both better nourishe than the rawe, yet lesse
mouing the belly to solublenesse, and to the stoole. And the honny of
it selfe, or mixed with others, helpeth the sore in the lungs, and all
other diseases of the lungs. The honny is rightly ministered to such as
haue the impostume in the lungs and the pluresie. And the hony in which
dead Bées are, is applyed to the venemous honny. The hony drunke with
wine helpeth the corruptions which are engendered of the meate fishes.
But to colde and moyste bodies the honny is more profitable, therfore
verie fitte for olde persons, as _Galen_ affirmeth. And to persons
being twentie yeares of age, and of an vntemperate hotenesse, or others
hote of qualitie, the honny to them is hurtefull, bycause it is soone
conuerted into choller in them. _Democritus_ was on a time asked, by
what meanes men might both continue in perfite health, and liue vnto
very old yeares, to which he thus answered: if so be men annoint their
bodies outwarde with Oyle, and apply their bodies inwarde with honny.
Further honny profiteth weake persons, being applyed as the Mulse
water, of which shal after be taught in the next chapter. To persons
cold of nature, the honie may aptly be ministred in hote broth, but to
hote persons ministred in warme brothe, the honie is not rightly giuen.
The honny mixed with _Camphora_, & lying to settle thrée dayes before,
with the which annointing the face, doth spéedily clense the spots in
the face: the self same doth the honie, mixed with the gall of an Oxe.
The pure white honie clenseth the breast, softneth Impostumes, being as
well without, as within the bodie. The hony also mundifyeth, openeth
the stoppings of the Liuer and Mylte, helpeth dropsie bodies, and
strengthneth weake members. The Aromaticke honny much auayleth in
sundrie diseases, being thus prepared, as the pure redde Rose leaues
finely clipped, and after boyled in pure white honnie, being often and
diligentlye skymmed. For such a Honnye doeth comforte and mundifye,
dissolueth in the clensing the clammy swellings, digesteth the
fleumaticke and grosse humors, and drunke also with colde water, it
bindeth the bellie, but ministred with warm water it looseth the bellie.

           ¶ Of the drinke of Honny which they cal the Mulse
                water, or sweete water of the Romaines.

By the aunswere of _Pollio_ the Romaine vnto _Augustus_ Emperour, we
may euidently learn, that the Mulse made of hony, is healthfull drinke
in strengthning the bodie. For _Augustus_ on a time demaunded of him by
what meanes a man might liue to great yeares, and all that season frée
from sickenesses, to whome he thus aunswered, that applying the Mulse
water within, and annoynting Oyle without the bodye, doeth worke the
like. The Mulse truly is a drinke made of water and hony mixed
togither, which the Gréeks properly name _Melicrate_, & some
_Hydromel_, as the drinke made with wine vnlayde, or without water, and
hony, they aptly name _Oenomel_. Now the Mulse water drunke, doeth ease
the passage of winde or breath, softneth the belly, and the long time
of oldenesse changeth it into the kinde of Wine, moste agréeable and
profyting the Stomacke: but the same contrary to the Synowes, yet it
recouereth the appetite lost, and is a defence against the dangerous
drinke of Henbane, if it be ministred with Asses milke. Thys drinke
truely (_Aegineta_ wryting therof) is thus made: let eight times so
muche water be mixed vnto your Honnye prepared, whyche boyle or séeth
so long, vntill no more fome aryseth to be skymmed off, then taking it
from the fyre, preserue it to youre vse. But the same _Paule Aegineta_
affyrmeth, that the Mulse profyteth nothing in manner the collericke,
bycause the same in them is lightly conuerted into choller.

          ¶ Of the drinke Oenomel, which is made of pure wyne
                           and Hony. Cap.xxx.

The _Oenomel_, which is a swéete wine made with Honny, _Aegineta_
teacheth the same, not only for the preseruation of helth, but also to
expel the torment of sicknesses, through this most wholesome drinke, as
that whiche giueth, not onely strength of body and courage, but the
long race of yeares. Also it expelleth an olde griefe of the Reines,
being often drunke with Parcely séedes. But the beste _Oenomell_ is
that which is made of olde and tarte wine, and the beste purified hony,
for the same doth lesse swell. The same also harmeth drunke after
meales, but before taken, doeth procure an appetite. _Dioscorides_
teacheth that maner of making the _Oenomell_ in this order: first he
willeth to take one gallon and a quarte of Wine, and mixing it with
halfe a gallon, and a pinte of the beste hony, to prepare the same
orderly. But some prepare or make the drinke spéedilier to vse after
this manner, as the hony they boyle with Wine, and after poure foorth
the same into other vesselles.

           ¶ Of the singular water of Hony gotten by order of
                        distillation. Cap.xxxj.

The Hony of Bées méete to distillation, ought especially to be white of
coloure, which before the distilling muste bee mixed with pure and
white and well washed sande, but not drie in any case, after that,
putte the same either into a common Rose Limbecke of Tinne, setting a
hearie siue close vppon it, that it may touch the Hony in the
distilling, or else into a body of Glasse, sette into a potte of fine
sifted ashes or sande, making at the firste a softe fire vnder it,
vntill the first water bée come, whiche is white, and after the yelow
water appeareth, then put vnder another receiuer, setting aside the
white, and so long distill vntill the redde beginneth to shewe: at the
appearaunce of whiche, put vnder another receiuer, letting that remaine
vntill no more will come. Which red water being the last, serueth for
sundrie vses, as to die womens haire yellow, by often wetting the haire
with a Spunge, and drying the same in the hote Sunne. Also it causeth
fayre and long haire, and stayeth the sheading of haire: besides (this
thirde water) doeth clense the foule corruption and matter being in
filthye woundes, and olde vlcers, if they be washed twice a daye with
the same, causing also newe flesh to grow in those places, if you dayly
washe them with the sayd water, or otherwise dip linnen clouts in it,
laying them aptly on the sores. The selfe-same healeth places
grieuously burned, without appearaunce of anye scarre afterwarde, by
often applying lynnen cloutes dropped in it. And the seconde water
being of a golden coloure dipped into the eyes, doeth not onely helpe
swollen and bleared eyes, but the pinne and webbe in them, by the dayly
and often dropping of the same into the eyes. But as touching the white
and firste water, there is no worthy matter mentioned in thys place by
any of the old Practisers.

        ¶ Another manner of distilling the Honie, more at large
                           taught. Cap.xxxij.

Take a pinte, or as much as you wil, of the pure rosed hony, which put
it into a bodie of glasse close couered & luted about, setting the same
after into hote horse dung with a square stone on the head, & couering
it ouer with the horse dung for 14. dayes, after which time, take the
body forth, setting it into a fornace of fine sifted ashes, well a
finger bredth or more aboue the hony, presupposing on your part, that
little péeces of flint stones be put into the hony, & then distilled
with a soft fire into a receiuer well luted at the mouth, for doubt of
the ayre breathing forth. When the same beginneth to distil, then draw
forth part of the fire (vnlesse you can otherwise gouerne your fire by
the help of the fornace) whiche comming forthe white, let so long
distill, vntill there appeare yealow droppes like to gold. Vpon the
sight of this, set vnder another receyuer, kéeping diligently this
firste water by it selfe, and increasing the fire, let that long
distil, vntill certain white smoakes appeare, running into the
receiuer: that spéedily take away, putting to another receiuer, which
let so long distill, vntil no more will droppe forth, and this laste,
is of a rubie colour in rednesse, so that if a woman often wetteth the
heares of hyr head with this thirde water, setting then in the hote
Sunne, both to drie and wette them againe, wearing in the meane whiles
a large strawne hatte with an open crowne, to spreade the heares vpon,
for the spéedier drying of them, whiche so ordering, doeth not onely
cause the heares to grow long and very fayre, but dyeth them in time so
yealowe as gold. Also to diuerse other vses, doth this red water serue,
as afore is taught in the other Chapter. The white water (which commeth
firste) by washing the face orderlye with it, doeth cause it to become
cleare and fayre, and keepeth the skinne from loking olde, for a long
time, as the same hath ben experienced often by the worthy dames of
_Rome_, _Naples_, and _Venice_. And the yealow lyke golde being the
second water, doth especially serue to this vse, that if any person
happeneth to be infected with the plague or Pestilence, then to take
two ounces of this yealow water, of _Aloes_ Epaticke, of redde Myrre,
and of the east saffron, of each ten graines, and a leafe of the best
gold, all which grinde into fine pouder, mixing the same with this
water: after that giue it vnto the sicke to drinke, whiche no doubt wil
both helpe this & many other diseases.

            ¶ The manner of distilling a water of Hony named
                     the Quintessence. Cap.xxxiij.

To make this singular and precious water, you must take two poundes of
the purest white honie, being both cleare and pleasaunt in taste,
whiche put into a body of glasse, being so bigge, that foure of the
fiue partes of it maye remayne emptie, the same lute stronglye aboute,
letting the heade after on it, and a receyuer aptelye to the nose of
the Still.

When you haue thus done, then make a gentle fyre at the firste vnder
it, but after increase the fire or heate more and more, vntill certaine
white smoakes appeare in the head of the glasse bodye, which do you
workemanlye coole and turne into water, by the wettyng of lynnen
clothes in colde water, and layed on the heade and nose, towarde the
receiuer, for that turneth into a water so red as bloud: and being all
come, putte it into another glasse, stopping the mouth close, whiche
let stande so long, vntil the water become verye cleare, and in coloure
to the Rubie.

Now being on this wise, distill the same againe in _Balneo Mariæ_, and
so often repeate this, vntill you haue distilled it sixe or seauen
times ouer, that the coloure be chaunged, and in the ende, to the
coloure of golde. Whiche then is moste pleasaunt of sauoure, and so
swéete, that nothing maye be compared like to it, in flagrantnesse of
smell. The Quintessence doeth dissolue golde, prepareth it apte to be
drunke, and any Iewell put into the water, it doth also dissolue the
same. Also this is named the Blessed Water, in that giuing to any two
or thrée drams to drinke, being at the point of death, doth so
sodainely recouer the person againe, as doeth the Quintessence of wine.
And washing any grieuous wounde or stripe with the water, doeth in
shorte time heale the same. Also this pretious water doth maruellously
help the cough, the Rheume, the disease of the Splen, and many other
diseases, whiche woulde scarcely be beléeued. The water also ministred
daily vnto a person sicke of the Palsey, for the space of .xlvj. daies,
he was by the mightie helpe of God, & this miraculous water, throughly
healed of the disease. Also this Quintessence doth helpe the falling
sicknesse, and preserueth the bodye from putrifying, so that by al
those we maye learne, that thys is rather a diuine water from Heauen
(and sente from God) to serue vnto all ages.

               ¶ The manner of drawing and making Waxe of
                     the Honny combes. Cap.xxxiiij.

The Honny being drawen from the combes, although some Bées hang on them
deade, yet putte all togither into a fayre panne or cauldron, into
whiche poure so muche water or more, as the quantitie of the combes be.
This set ouer a softe fire, vntill the same what it be, is throughly
heated and molten in the panne, and in the melting continually sturre
the same aboute, with a bigge splatter or some staffe, leaste the Waxe
cleaue to the panne sides, throughe the flame or heate of fire, and
appeare burned: after poure the whole substaunce into a course hairen
bagge, pressing it forth into a troughe or other like vessell, made for
the only purpose, on which poure twoo or thrée kettles full of hote
water, that no dregs hang after on the Waxe, and by that means shall
you haue the Waxe both pure and cleane. But if you wil haue it caste
into faire round cakes, and to be cleaner and purer, then melte the
Waxe againe, and being molten, poure it into a cleane vessell, which
washed likewise with warme water (as aboue was taught) set after in the
Sunne, by which meanes, the cake will continue verye long faire of

              ¶ What Waxe is beste allowed and commended.

Waxe being the foode of lighte, and seruing vnto innumerable vses of
men, of all the kindes, the same is beste allowed and commended, whiche
is bothe newe made, meanelye redde of coloure, somewhat fattie,
smelling swéete, hauyng some sauoure in it of the Honny, and cleare. Of
the Waxe also in sundrie Counties, that in the countrie of _Pontus_ is
well commended, and the same in the Isle of _Creta_: nexte to these is
the Waxe in the Isle of _Corsica_, which is made of the Boxe trée, and
supposed to haue some good effectes in it for Medicine.

           ¶ Of the great commoditie and benefite of Waxe in
                         Medicines. Cap.xxxvj.

Waxe hath a meane among heating things, both in the cooling, drying,
and moistning, as writeth _Galen_ in the seauenth booke of Simples, and
.22. Chapiter, whiche properly helpeth the roughnesse of the breaste,
when it is ioyned or mixed with the oyle of Violets, for that bothe
mollifyeth or softneth the sinewes, ripeneth and resolueth vlcers. The
quantitie of a pease in waxe swallowed downe of Nurses, or such women
as giue sucke, both dissolue the milke courded in the pappes. And tenne
little péeces of pure newe waxe, vnto the biggenesse of a hempséede,
drunke downe at one time, doeth cause the milke not to courde in the
womans stomacke and breastes. If the priuie place or thereabout, of
either man or woman, happeneth to swell, then by applying an ointment
made of white waxe, it shortly assuageth and healeth the same. If anye
also happeneth to be diseased with the bloudy flixe, by stuffing a yong
Pigeon with newe waxe, after rosting the same, and eating the fleshe
thereof, doeth in shorte time after staye the same. Also, if a Quince
made hollowe and filled with pure newe waxe, be after rosted vnder hote
embers, vntill the same be tender, and eaten fasting without drinking
after it, doth in like sorte staye and helpe the perillous flixe, and
scouring of bloude. The waxe besides serueth to all maner of plaisters,
ointments, suppositories, and such like.

           ¶ Of that whych is a stay of the combes, and made
             for a defence of Bees from colde. Cap.xxxvij.

The same made of Bées at the entrie of the mouth of hiues, oughte to be
yelowe of coloure, and swéete smelling, like to _Storax_, and drawne
into a length, like to _Mastike_. Yet that is rather chosen, bycause in
heating and drawing it is principallest. For of itselfe, this draweth
forth thornes or splents of wood run déepe into the flesh by applying
it plaisterwise on the grief, it helpeth an olde coughe by making a
smoake thereof, and holding the mouth ouer it, and applyed in the forme
of an ointment on ringwormes, doeth spéedily heale them. Nowe this
matter (as aboue was taught) is the stay of the hony combes, by whiche
Bées stoppe and kéepe forth al manner of colde and other annoyances
which might endamage them, the same also being of so strong a sauor,
that some vse it in the stéede of _Galbanum_. _M. Varro_ nameth it a
refuge of Bées, withoute their cottages, bicause Bées make the same at
the entry of the hiue.

                ¶ Howe to make Waxe white. Cap.xxxviij.

Waxe is made white in this manner, firste that kinde of waxe (fit for
this purpose) ought to be whiter and purer, and broken into little
péeces, putte after into a newe earthen panne, pouring vppon it
sufficient salt or sea water, and a lyttle Nitre brused, which séeth
altogither. When the same bath boiled twice or thrice vp, remoue the
panne from the fire: the waxe being throughly colde, take forth of the
panne, and scraping off the filth, if any suche hang on, putte againe
into newe salte water, séething it againe. And when the waxe hathe so
often boyled (as aboue was taughte) then take off the panne from the
fire, and taking the bottome of a newe earthen panne, melt it with
colde water, whiche dippe by little and little into the waxe, drowning
it a little, and that the water be aboue the waxe, whereby the waxe
maye become verye thinne, and be the sooner cooled it selfe. And taking
by and by oute the moulde or bottome, drawe firste the rounde cake off,
and wetting againe the bottome in colde water, dip it into the waxe,
and the same so long doe, vntill you haue drawne off all that waxe into
cakes of like sorte, whiche after stitche throughe with thréede,
hanging the cakes on a rope one from another, and that in the daye time
often wetting them in the Sunne, but in the nighte time, in the Moone
light: and so long doe this, vntill the waxe be white. And if anye
desireth to haue waxe whiter than this, then let him do the like, as
abouesaide, but boyle the waxe oftner. Some in stéede of the salte
seawater, take strong Brine water, in whiche they boyle the waxe in the
same manner twice or thrice, as aboue was taughte. And _Paulus Euerdus_
in his booke of Confections, teacheth the making of waxe white two
manner of wayes.

               ¶ Howe you may make redde Waxe. Cap.xxxix.

That you maye colour and make Waxe redde, take to one pounde of waxe,
thrée ounces of verye cleare Turpentine, if it be in sommer, but if it
be in winter, then take foure ounces. Now these disolue and melt
togither ouer a soft fire, and taking it from the fire, let it coole a
little, after which put in your Vermillian finely ground on a Marble
stone, and of swéete Salet Oyle, of eache one ounce, mixing these well,
stirre al togither, diligently. But some in stéede of Vermilion, doe
take the reede leade, which is little commended, except there be thrée
times so muche of the redde leade, as of the Vermilion putte in. And in
the like sorte may you make the gréene Waxe, if instéede of the
Vermillian, you take so much of the gréene Coporas finely ground, as
you did of the Vermilian.

                ¶ Howe to drawe a profitable Oyle out of
                        Waxe, for sundrie vses.

The Oile of Waxe, is myraculous and diuine in workyng, bycause it
serueth in a manner vnto all griefes. _Reymond Lully_ greatly
commendeth this Oyle, approuing it rather as a celestiall and diuine
remedie, and that this in woundes, doeth worke moste miraculously,
which for his maruellous commoditie, not so well to be allowed of the
common Chirurgions, bycause this pretious Oyle healeth a wounde, be the
same neuer so wide and bigge, being before wide stitched vppe, in the
space of tenne or twelue dayes at the moste. But those whiche are
small, this Oyle healeth in thrée dayes, by annoynting onely on the
cuttes or woundes, and laying after linnen cloutes, wette in the saide
Oyle, vpon the woundes. For inward diseases the saide Oyle worketh
myraculouslye (if that you minister or gyue a dramme at a time in white
Wine to drinke) and stayeth also the sheading of haire, either on the
head or beard, by annointing the places with this Oyle. Besides these,
it is miraculous in the procuring of vrine, being mightily stopped, and
helpeth also stitches and paine in the loynes, by drinking the like
quantitie of the Oyle aboue taughte in white wine.

Now the making and drawing of this oyle, is on this wise: firste take a
body of glasse, named a Retort, which stronglye lute aboute with clay
and flocks, diligently tempered togither with salte water: after the
body is thus fenced and thoroughe drie, putte in a pounde or more of
pure newe waxe, so that the saide waxe filleth not aboue halfe youre
body, and to euerye pounde of Waxe, poure in foure ounces, of the
pouder of redde bricke, finely brused, whiche after set into an earthen
potte, filling it rounde aboute with fine sifted ashes or sande. After
this, set the potte with the bodye in it, on a fornace, making a softe
fire at the firste vnder it, and after encreasing a little more your
fire, distil them so long, vntill all youre Oyle be come, whiche after
a while wyll congeale in the receiuer: but it maketh no greate matter,
although the oyle so doe, for it is neuerthelesse in his perfection.
Bycause that if you shoulde distill it so often ouer, vntil it will
congeale or stiffen no more in the receiuer, then shall you make it
ouer hotte, and so quicke in the mouth, that it is not possible by anye
meanes to drinke it downe. But being once distilled, you maye either
giue it in Wine to drinke, or annoint with the Oyle on any place of the
bodye where you will, whiche will always doe good, and hurte in no

And in consideration of these aboue taught, you maye evidently learne
and perceiue, that this myraculous Oyle oughte to be hadde in greate
veneration of the common sorte.

            ¶ Another waye of drawing the Oyle of Waxe moste
            noble, and doth maruelously help the cold Goute,
            the Sciaticke, the swelling of the legs, and al
                  other griefes proceeding of a colde
                            cause. Cap.xlj.

Take of pure newe waxe so muche as you please, which put into a panne
ouer the fire to melte, and being molten, haue by you in a readinesse
another panne well glased, and cleane within, filled with verie good
and perfecte wine, into whiche poure youre molten waxe, letting it
soake and drinke in well, and washe often in the saide wine. After this
take the waxe forth, melting it againe ouer the fire, and molten, washe
the same againe in the beste wine, so that euerie time melting the
waxe, poure it into freshe new wine, washing and soaking it in the same
diligently, after wringing it very wet with the hands. And vsed on this
wise, both melt and washe againe in the abouesaide manner, and this
also do for eighte times togither. Then set the same forth, being a
cleare season and ayre, all the nighte throughe, after which put the
waxe into a Retorte with a little of _Mumia_, and oyle of _Ypericon_ or
Saint Iohns wort, and a little olde Oyle: and although without these it
maye doe good, yet mixed with these it worketh farre better, than vsed

Nowe to retourne to the former matter this crooked bodye or Retorte set
in fine sifted ashes, and a gentle fire made vnder it, vntill all the
oyle do runne forth, and in this comming forth of the oile, shall
appeare all the foure Elements, as Ayre, Water, Earth and Fyre, whiche
will orderly appeare in the receiuer, right maruellous to sée. And the
Oyle being thus fullye drawne, worketh miraculouslye in all diseases
which procéed of a colde cause, like as we haue aboue taught.


                    ¶ The conclusion to the Reader.

Thus (gentle Reader) I haue (I truste) fullye satisfied thy desire in
as manye things as are needefull to be knowen. And I committe this my
little Booke to thy gentle iudgement: if thou mayste receiue any
profite or commoditie thereby, I shal be gladde of it, and if not, yet
fauourably let it passe from thee to others, whose knowledge and
experience is lesse than thine herein, that they may gather suche
things as to them are strange, though to thee wel known before. And
thus brieflye I committe thee to God.




                    ¶ Certaine Husbandly Coniectures
                    of Dearth and Plentie for euer.

                           The first Chapter.

And first consider and marke, that howe the weather is a daye before
the day presente, and the daye after the Sunnes entraunce into the
signe Aries, and suche like shall the weather be (for the moste parte)
in these thrée moneths, as in September, October, and Nouember.

And looke howe the weather shal be at the Sunnes entrance into the
signe of Leo, as at the day of the entrance the daye before, and the
daye after, and such commonlye shall be in the moneths of December,
Ianuarie, and Februarie, for if the winde shall then blowe oute of the
North, or Easte, and those daies drie, then shall followe a verye colde
season in those thrée moneths: but if the winde blowe out of the South
or Weast, and that it raineth in those thrée dayes, then yse to followe
in those thrée moneths. And if the weather in these thrée daies shal be
neither wholy drie, nor wholy moiste, then shall folowe an vnstedfaste

And like as the weather shall be at the Sunnes entraunce into the signe
Libra, as at the daye of the entraunce, the daye before, and the daye
after, suche for the more parte shall be the Spring, as in the moneth
of Marche, Aprill, and May.

And looke howe the weather shal be at the Sunnes entrance into the
signe Aquarius, at the daye of the entraunce, the daye before, and the
daye after, (suche for the more parte) shall the weather be in the
moneths of Iune, Iuly, and August.

And manye auntient men affyrme, that like as the weather shall be
whiles the Sunne is running by the signe Libra, and vnto the .20.
degrée of Scorpio, which time is from the daye named (the Exaltation of
the crosse) vnto the day of al Saints, such for the more parte shall
the yeare following be, as in diuiding that foresaide time into twelue
moneths, and that foure daies doe aunswere to eche moneth, of the
whiche foure dayes, that eache one of the foure, doeth declare the
condition of the quarter following, and beginning also to recken
November as the first moneth of the yeare.

And the generall signes of the dearth and plentie after the minds of
the auncient husband men be these, as the ouermuch coldenesse drying,
the ouermuch moysture softning, the ouermuche heate greatly burning,
and the ouermuch drinesse putrifying and working into dust.

For when any of these qualities shall excéede in the proper time, but
especially in that time, which to the corne and fruites do not agrée,
then shall dearth and scarcitie both of fruites and corne ensue.

As for example, when the moneth of March shal be ouer moyst and wet,
which rather ought to be drie, and that the moneth of April shal be
drie, which then ought to be moyst, doth after pronounce the penurie of
the fruites of the earth.

And if that part also of sommer shal be weat, in which the corne doth
then fall vnto ripenesse, that rather ought to be drie, doth after
signifie the scarcitie both of corne and other fruites of the earth.

And the like may be saide of the other constitutions, which when the
Elementall qualities shal be in such a condition as do best agrée, then
doe they promise both fruitfulnesse and plentifulnesse.

And if in the Spring be signes of colde and drought, and that in the
ende of the spring neare the full moone be frostes, then shall follow
very small yéelde of the fruites of the earth, and little wine that
yere following.

And if the spring be drie, then fewe shall the fruites of the trées be,
yet good, and the scarcitie of corne shal be that yeare.

And if the Spring shall be colde, the fruites of the Earthe shall be
late ripe.

And if the Spring and Sommer shall be ouer wette, or mistie, or colde,
with cloudie weather for manye daies together, whiles all the trées
haue borne their blossoms, and the fieldes their floures, and beginne
to shedde their floure, then shall follow the scarcitie of fruites of
the earth in that yeare, or else a verie greate rot of them, and many
sicknesses in that yeare.

And if the sommer be drier than customably, then shal follow the
scarcitie of corne, yet the Sommer fruites shall that yeare be sound,
the fishes then die, and most sharpe sicknesses shall raine that yeare.

And if the Sommer shal be hotter than customably, then shal followe
many sicknesses or diseases, yet great plentie of the Sommer fruites
that yeare.

And if the Sommer shal be colder than customably, then shall follow a
healthfull yere, but the fruites of the earth shal late ripe that yeare.

And here further note of the spring, that if in the same season of the
spring, there shal be a more plentie of all floures and fruits toward
than customably, doth after signifie a scarcitie of corne that yere,
vnlesse the heate of sommer doth otherwise reforme the same.

And the wise and auncient husbandmen haue obserued, that when the
winter shal send downe store of raine on the earth, so that the same
excéede not or bée too much, and that the March following be drie, and
the Aprill wette by often shoures, and that the same part also of
Sommer bée drie in which the corne falleth to ripenesse, then doth the
same promise a plentifull yeare.

And when that part of the Haruest shal be faire and drie, in which the
wheat is sowen, and the parte of sommer in which corne falleth too
ripenesse shal be faire and drie, the spring also meanely warme, doth
then not only promise fruitefulnesse, but a plentifull yeare of corne.

And nowe the Haruest moyster than customably doth putrifie the Grapes,
and causeth a small yéelde of wines that yeare, with the scarcitie of
other fruites.

And if in the latter part of Haruest it be moyster, then in the yere
following shal ensue the scarcitie of corne.

And if the Haruest bée drier in the first part, then in the yeare
following shal Rie, and that smal graine named Mill, and suchlyke, be

And if the haruest be hoter than customably, then shall followe a
diseased yeare and that dangerus.

And if the Haruest be colder than customably, then shall follow the
losse of the Haruest fruites both in the store and tast of them.

And the Winter colde and drie, is of all husbandmen commended, but
extréeme colde, doeth then flea the trées, especially those which ioy
in a warme aire, as the Pomegranade trée, the Oliue trée, the Lemmon
trée, the Figge trée, the Peach trée, and such like.

And if the Winter excéede in the extremitie of coldnesse, then doth it
signifie harme both vnto the Vine and the Oliue trée, the Cherie trée,
and the yellow Quince trée.

And if the Winter be hote and moyst, then the same doth pronounce an
vnhealthfull yeare, and daunger to séedes and fruites of the earth.

And the excesse qualitie, and distemperature of any of the foure
quarters, is euill and daungerous to the fruites of the earth.

And the plentie of snowe falling in the due season of the yeare, doth
batten the earth, (and if the others do helpe) then doth it signifie
the plentie of corne and other fruites of the earth.

And if any washeth the handes with snowe, it doth then make them
stedie, in that the snowe is ingendered of a vapour somewhat drie and

And the snowe nourisheth shéepe & other beasts in that the snow is
ingendered of the moyst aire, in which life consisteth.

And the snowe increaseth the corne and other growing things on earth,
in that by his coldnesse it so doth shut the poures of the earth, that
the heate with the whiche the séedes of the earth be cherished, cannot
then breath forth.

And the snow heateth and cherisheth the earth, by the thicke couering
of it, and defendeth the gréene wheat and other séedes sowen, from the
sharpe and vehement colde then of the ayre.

And the snowe may be kept all the yeare under the earth, couered with
strawe, and profitable it is to mixe with the wine in hote sommer, and
necessarie also to coole the ayre about sick persons.

And the vnprofitable falling of the deawe, mistes, or fogges
(especially when all crescent thinges doe bud foorth, and shewe theyr
floure) as in the Moneth of Aprill and May, as well on the trées, corne
and grasse, which beastes then feding on be greatly harmed, through the
deaw fallen, and all other thinges also much harmed by the same, as
hath bene often obserued by the ancient and wise husbandmen.

And the ouermuch falling of raine, frostes or haile, especially in the
spring time, and in the winter time, whilst the corne is yet as grasse,
the excesse of raine also doth then threaten the scarcitie of vittailes
to ensue that yeare.

And the great plentie of beanes, after the opinion of the common
husbandmen, through the much raine fallen, doth fore shewe the
scarcitie of corne, and especially of wheate that yeare.

And a like iudgement may be giuen of the Oke and Holly trée, which if
they beare plentifully, then a fruitfull yeare followeth, and
contrariwise bearing but few, then a deare yeare of corne to ensue.

And the great plentie of Grashoppers, wormes and Catterpillers
appearing in their proper time more than customably, doe not only
declare harme to vines and séedes sowen, but to all fruites that yeare.

And the great store of windes, not only cause little fruites, but
scarcitie of corne to ensue that yeare.

And a stilnesse in a manner throughout the yeare, doth declare a
likelyhode of the plague to ensue shortly after.

And the auncient _Hipocrates_ writeth, that when in the Sommer the
North winde long continueth, and in the Harvest, the South winde with
store then of raine, it doeth after threaten in the Winter the
headache, hoarsenesse of voice, the coughe, consumptions or impostumes
to ensue.

And if after a drie Sommer (as write the auntient Phisitions) the North
winde doeth long continue in the Harueste, then the bodies of women,
and suche diseased with a moiste sicknesse, doe then in that season the
rather recouer health, in that the drinesse of the seasons and windes
is contrarie to the excesse, and to the rottennesse of the humors, by
whiche the sicknesses were caused.

And if the Winter shall be hote and moiste, and the Spring colde and
drie, then doth the same threaten sicknesse to men in the Sommer, and
that women with childe shall haue vntimely birthes of a light occasion.

And _Hypocrates_ writeth, that when in the Winter be longer Northerly
windes, and in the Spring longer Southerlye windes, and that raynie and
wette in the Sommer following, then doeth followe Agues, and the
Diseases of the eies.

And when after a colde Winter, and that South windes and raynie in the
Spring, and that the Sommer be drie then in the Haruest following doe
agues ensue, paines also of the bowels thoroughe the greate scouring of
the bodie, and Sicknesses, with the whiche olde men, diseased persons,
and children be then more pained.

And when the Southwest winde doth long blowe aboute the end of Haruest,
then those persons diseased with a long sicknesse, do shortly after die.

And a further knowlege of dearth and plentie of victualles, and of
sickenesse may be had on this wise.

Firste in the end of Haruest, cutte open two or thrée Oke apples,
looking whether there be in them either Flyes, Worms, or Spiders.

For if in the Oke apple be founde Wormes, or Magots, then they signifie
(after the opinion of auncient husbandmen) to the dearth and scarcitie
in that yeare.

And if the Oke apple cut open be founde like to flies, it doth after
threaten battel to ensue in that yeare.

And if in the Oke apple be founde like to Spiders, then doe they
foreshewe the plague or pestilence to ensue in that yeare.

And to conclude, the onely proofe of the former taught, shal moue the
Reader better to credite these.

               ¶ _An euerlasting Prognostication of the_
              state and condition of euerye yeare, by the
           only Kalends of Ianuarie: written by that antient
              _learned_ Leopoldus Austriacus, _and others,
              for the commoditie of the wise Husbandmen_.

And nowe, when the first day of Ianuary shal happen on the Sunday, then
the Winter shall be temperate and good, yet windie, the Spring wet, the
sommer drie, and the Haruest hurtfull throughe windes. So that
victualles shall be reasonable good cheape, plentie of Wines, the good
health & encrease of shéepe and other cattell, and the indifferent
plentie of hony, and the like plentie also of Peason, Beanes, Vetches,
and the herbes and fruites of the Gardens. Also yong men shal die that
yeare, and a discorde to be feared betwéene Kings, or else some
manifest perils to happen to Kings and greate Prelates in aucthoritie,
and that diuers robberies shall be attempted that yeare. And if
controuersies happen betwéen Princes, then a conclusion of peace to be
looked for in that yeare.

And if the firste day of Ianuarie shall happen on the Monday, then
shall the Winter be warme, the Spring very colde, with Snow and Frostes
that season, the Sommer boisterous through winds, and haile oftentimes,
and lande floudes shall be somewhere, and the Haruest very drie. So
that sicknesses shall ensue, throughe which many of the simple sorte
shal then die, and diuers also shall die, throughe the sodaine plague
then happening. Also the likelihoode of greate alteration to ensue, &
that auntient women to mourne, Kings to die, and a greate slaughter to
be feared by the sword. Also small store of wines, the death of Bées,
and little hony that yeare.

And if the firste beginning of the moneth of Ianuarie shal be on
Tuisday, then that Winter shal be long, and much snow in that season,
and the likelihoode of land floudes, throughe the muche raine then
falling, the Spring windie, the Sommer verye wette, and the Haruest
abounding in grosse and rotten humors (so that a moste gréeuous plague
is to be feared, and especially of women, and the likelihoode of many
shipwrackes, and very greate cares and troubles to happen vnto Princes,
with the scarcitie of fruites of the trées: and corne shall be deare,
with the sodaine death of cattel to be feared that yeare. Also wood
shal that yeare be deare, and the likelihoode of fearefull fyres, and
that the plague to be grieuous that yeare. And yet shal there be store
of Peason, Beanes, and Vetches, & plentie of hearbes and floures. Also
there shall be plentie of Hony, Oyle, and wines that yeare.

And when the firste of Ianuarie beginneth on the Wednesday, then shall
the Winter be warme and calme, the Spring wette, and disposed to
sicknesses, the Sommer hote, and the Haruest vnprofitable, so that long
sicknesses are to be feared, & the Quarten Ague with them. Also yong
men shall then be sick, and in ieopardie of death, and women the like,
& in sundrie places shall happen a famine, with a greate brute of
straunge newes. And there is also to be feared the grieuous passions of
the hearte, the ydlenesse of minde, or rather distraught, and the
diseases of the matrice in women. And yet the plentie of Oyle and
Wines, but the scarcitie of corne to be doubted that yeare.

And if the beginning of Ianuarie be on Thursedaye, then shall the
Winter be calme, & temperate, the Spring windie, the Sommer
vnseasonable, and the Haruest drie, so that corne and victualles shall
then be deare, yet store of Oile and Wines that yeare. And there is a
likelihoode of lighte sickenesses to happen vnto the common people, but
more dangerous sicknesses vnto the richer sorte. And the blearednesse
of eies also is to be feared, and that yong children shall then die,
battels procured, and the sedition of souldiours, and an earthquake to
be doubted that yeare. Also great talke of newes shal be in Kings and
Princes houses, and greate perills also be doubted to happen vnto
Princes in that yeare.

And if the firste daye of Ianuarie happen on Fridaye, then shall the
Winter be verie cold and drie, the Spring boysterous and wette, the
Sommer temperate, the Haruest more wette than drie. So that the
blearednesse, and other diseases with the filthinesse of matter running
in the eies is to be feared, and the pinne or web is likewise to be
doubted to happen in that yeare. And yong children shall ther die, and
a likelihoode that young women shall be allured vnto a wanton loue,
throughe the flatterie and great perswasions of men. Also a suspition
of battels to ensue in that yeare, and the plague and robberies then to
happen. Also the plentie of fruites is then promised, althoughe muche
haile fall that yeare.

And if the beginning of Ianuarie happen on Saterdaye, then the Winter
shall be windie and vnstable, the Spring windie, and vnconstant of
weather, the sommer vnstable with manye tempestes, and the Haruest
drie: So that victualls shall be deare, small store of corne, and
little fruite that yeare. Also shéepe shall not well prosper that
yeare, and a likelihoode then of the death of swine, and that woode
shall be deare.

Also there shall be manye tertian agues, and diuers other diseases
rayning among men, so that olde men shall then die, and a likelyhoode
of the death of many men, by the plague. Also many fires shall be
hearde of, little store of Wines, Oyle, and Hony, yet plentie of hay
that yeare.

And if Neweyeares night (being the first night of Ianuarie) shall be
calme and cleare, as withoute winde and raine, then doeth the same
promise a prosperous yeare following.

And if in the same night the winde happen to blowe oute of the East,
then doth the same signifie the death of cattell to ensue that yeare.

And if the same night the winde happen to blowe out of the West, then a
likelyhood of the death of Kinges or Princes to ensue that yeare.

And if in the same night the wind happen to blow out of the South, then
doth the same signifie the death of manye persons to ensue that yeare.

And if in the same night the wind happen to blow out of the North, then
doth the same signifie the small yéelde of all fruites of the earth
that yeare.

        ¶ Howe to foreknowe the state of the yeare, by the only
           rising of the dogge starre, out of the husbandrie
                         of Diophanes. Cap.iij.

And about the knowledge of this, there is to be considered and noted,
in what signe the Moone shall then be, at the first appearance of the
dogge starre aboue the Earth in our Realme of England, which generally
to be reckened is about the seauenth day of Iuly.

And nowe if the Moone runne then in the signe Aries, at the first
appearance of the Dog starre, it doth after declare the death of
Cattell and much raine. So that small yéelde of corne yet plentie of
Oyle shal be that yeare.

And if the Moone runne then in the signe Taurus, at the first
appearance of the dog starre, then doth it signifie much raine, fogges
and mistes that shal harme much that yeare.

And if the Moone runne then in the signe Gemini, at the first
appearance of the dogge starre, it doth after promise the plentie of
corne and wine and all other fruites of the earth, a yet diseased
yeare, and to be doubted that a King shal then die, and that rebellion
also shall be moued that yeare.

And if the Moone run then in the signe Cancer at the first appearance
of the dog starre, aboue the earth, it doth after threaten drought,
with the great scarcitie of corne to ensue in that yere:

And if the Moone runne then in the signe Leo at the firste sight of the
dogge starre, it after promiseth the plentie both of wines and Oyle,
and the good cheape of corne and other victuals that yeare. And yet to
bée feared the commotions of the common people, and slaughter of the
same to ensue, with an erthquake, and land floudes to happen in that

And if the Moone runne then in the signe Virgo, at the first appearance
of the dogge star, it after signifieth the plentie of showers, and the
greate store of fruites of the earth, and the cheapenesse also of
cattell. And yet to be feared, that women shal be deliuered before
their time in that yeare.

And if the Moone runne then in the signe Libra, at the first appearance
of the dogge starre, it after declareth the stirring vp of a king, and
a commotion of the common people. And yet the plentie of fruites of the
trées, although there be a likelyhood of the scarcitie of corne and
oyle in that yeare.

And if the Moone runne then the signe Scorpio, at the first appearance
of the dogge starre, it after declareth the commotion of priests, the
destruction of Bées, and an infectiue aire to ensue that yeare.

And if the Moone runne then in the signe Sagitarius, at the first sight
of the dogge starre aboue the earth, it after signifieth a raynie
yeare, yet fruitefull, and the plentie of corne, and ioy among men. And
yet is to be feared the death of cattell, & the multitude of foules in
that yeare.

And if the Moone runne then in the signe Capricornus at the first
appearance of the dogge star aboue the earth, it after declareth the
commotion of souldiours, and greate store of raine, and yet the plentie
of corne, wines and Oyle, and al other thinges good cheape in that

And if the Moone run then in the signe Aquarius, at the first
appearance of the dog star aboue the earth, it after signifieth of a
most likelyhood, the death of a king or Prince, the scarcitie of corne,
and the plentie of such flyes with the long hinder legges, that burne
corne by the touching of it. And yet little raine, with the plague to
ensue in that yeare.

And if the Moone runne then in the signe Pisces, at the first
appearaunce of the dogge starre aboue the earth, it after declareth
much raine, and the death of byrdes. And yet doth it promise a
sufficient store, & laudable plentifulnesse, both of Wines, Oyle, and
corne, but manye persons shall be diseased in that yeare.

    ¶ Other profitable instructions, right necessarie for husbandmen
                           to know. Cap.iiij.

And first if the horne of the Ramme (nere his eare) be boxed, the same
doeth tame his fiercenesse. And if his right genitour be trussed vp
before he goeth to couer the Ewe, then doeth he beget an Ewe lambe. And
if the left be thus straite trussed vp, and the righte hanging downe,
then doeth he begette a hée lambe.

And if in the time of the South wind blowing, the Ram doth then couer
the Ewe, he doth after beget a shée lambe.

And if when the North wind bloweth the Ram doth then couer the Ewe,
doth after beget a hée lambe. And of what colour also the vaines shal
be vnder the tongue of the Ewe, suche shal the colour of the skinne of
the lambe be, for if she hath black vaines vnder the tong, then the
Lambe shall be blacke of skin, and if white vaines vnder the tong, then
shall she haue a white lambe: and if of diuerse colours, then the lambe
shal be of diuerse colours on the skin. And that antient Isaac writeth,
that Rams in their yong yeares be of lesser moysture and clammynesse,
than be the sucking lambs, and this is, through their age and qualitie
then ruling.

And therefore the fleshe of yong weathers be better, and ingender
better bloud than the sucking lambes.

And this is héere spoken of such Rammes as be gelded, in that their
moysture and hotenesse is then temperate.

And the wethers ouer old are to be refused in eating, in that they be
then cold and drie without moysture, and they smallye nourish and
hardly disgest.

Also béefe and other fleshe of beastes being olde, be euill to eate,
through the coldenesse and drynesse, and through the lacke of the
moysture and hotnesse. And when the olde Rams in their time to couer
the Ewe, be sooner moued thereto, than the yong Rammes, it doeth then
signifie a good and profitable season to ensue in that yeare, and a
good season and prosperous also for shéepe. But if in the proper time
to couer the Ewe, the yong Rammes be sooner prouoked thereto than the
olde Rams, then doeth followe the greate rotte or murreyne of shéepe in
that yeare.

Also Ewes by drinking of water conceiue the sooner wyth Lambe and of
this the shéepeheardes giue them salte to eate, wherby the more
drinking of water, they may so conceiue with yong, and they are also by
that meanes preserued the healthfuller. And in the Haruest also some
sheapheardes giue them to eate Gourdes seasoned with salt to encrease
their milke, for by that meanes both the milke more plentifully issue
forth of their teates, and the Ewes do sooner conceiue. Also in Sommer
is the colde Northerly water good for them, and in the Haruest the
warme Southerly water good for them.

Also to let shéepe féede in the ende of the day, is greatelye
commended: and if they also stirre but little abrode, the same is
thought very profitable, in that the muche iourneying, and labouring of
them hither and thither, doth so cause them to become leane. Also the
skilful shéepeheards knowe, whiche shéepe will well endure the sharp
winter, and which not, in that vpon some of the shéepes backes (as they
affirme) Ise maye be founde, and vpon othersome none at al. So that by
this may be learned, that such shéepe which be weake, a man can hardely
plucke off the Ise from their backes. And further learne, that those
shéepe whiche haue long tayles, maye hardlier abide the sharpe colde
winter, than those hauing broade tayles: and the shéepe also curled of
haire (do in like sorte) hardlier endure the bitter winter.

And besides these, the number greatly harmeth shéepe, especially if
anye Ewe being with yong happeneth to be alone at that instant, for
that she then with lambe, doeth of the fearefull noyse of the thunder,
deliuer hir yong one before the time. And for a speciall remedie to
saue that vntimely casting of Lambes at such times, the skilfull
shéepeheardes haue found out, that the only driuing of many Ewes
togither, is a sure safegard to them to auoyde this occasion. Besides,
if you will remoue the rot of shéepe, that they die no more, then take
the belly of a Ram, and séeth the same in wine and water togither,
which after mixe with water, and giue the same generallye to all the
shéepe to drinke, for by that meanes shall they againe be recouered of
their disease. And here learne, that the fleshe of shéepe, and other
foure footed beastes, which commonly féede in moyste ground, is euill
to féede vpon, for the harde digestion of the same. Also learne, that
the good shéepe are knowen by their age, as being neyther to olde, nor
yet as Lambes: and by the forme also they are knowen, if so be you
finde them large of body.

And they besides haue much and soft wool, and both thicke & long heare,
especially on the nape, and about the necke, and the like haire on the
belly. And both the health & sicknesse of shéepe may be knowen, if so
be any openeth their eyes, and findeth the vaines within to be redde
and small, which vndoubtedly declareth them to be sound and good: but
it those vaines that appeare white, or redde, and bigge, then those
shéepe are diseased and weake.

And if the shéepe go lustily and boldely by the waye, it is a sure
token that they be sound, but sadly and hanging down the heade, then be
they diseased. These hitherto of the yearely coniectures, and other
rules, only méete for husbandmen to vnderstand and know.



                          Transcriber's note:

    Scribal abbreviations have been expanded.

    Variations in spelling, accenting, and hyphenation have been

    All instances of 'VV' standing in for 'W' have been changed to 'W.'

    Table of Contents entries have been regularised to the format

    cap.first., comma inserted after 'Aristotle,' "Palladius,
    Aristotle, Theophrastus"

    cap.first., 'aud' changed to 'and,' "diuided with plightes and

    cap.vij., 'diligeuce' changed to 'diligence,' "care and diligence
    of the Bees."

    cap.viij., full stop inserted after 'sting,' "or lacketh a sting."

    cap.viij., second 'the' struck, "whiche the king carrieth"

    cap.viij., comma changed to full stop, "owe vnto him. Yet they

    cap.viij., comma inserted, "lesser of body, yet howsoeuer"

    cap.viij., catchwords 'be placed' inserted, "be placed certaine

    cap.ix., second 'in' struck, "become gentle in a short time."

    cap.ix., 'iu' changed to 'in,' "in the steade of"

    cap.ix., 'hoth' changed to 'both,' "to be both euill and"

    cap.ix., 'dest' changed to 'best,' "doth he best commende"

    cap.x., comma inserted after 'ditches,' "puddels, ditches,

    cap.x., 'chéeritrée' changed to 'Chéeri trée,' "Chéeri trée they
    greatly hate"

    cap.x., 'hat' changed to 'that,' "for that tasting of"

    cap.x., 'flonres' changed to 'floures,' "tasting of the floures"

    cap.xj., comma inserted after 'swallows,' "to swallows, to
    sparrowes, and"

    cap.xij., 'spetiall' changed to 'speciall,' "This is a speciall

    cap.xv., full stop inserted after 'agayne,' "or recouered agayne."

    cap.xvj., full stop inserted after 'Bees,' "for the Honny Bees."

    cap.xvj., 'dwo' changed to 'two,' "two very small and narrowe holes"

    cap.xvj., full stop inserted after 'otherwise,' "darke, than

    cap.xvij., hyphen changed to full stop, "and face. And one that"

    cap.xvij., comma changed to full stop, "greatlye abhorre. Besides,
    to be"

    cap.xvij., full stop inserted before 'x.,' "the .viij. or .x. day

    cap.xvij., 'profftable' changed to 'profitable,' "is very
    profitable, and"

    cap.xvij., 'beinying' changed to 'beginyng,' "And from the beginyng"

    cap.xx., 'controueesie' changed to 'controuersie,' "in this

    cap.xxj., 'be' changed to 'bée,' "set forth another bée"

    cap.xxj., 'a sunder' changed to 'asunder,' "cutte it asunder."

    cap.xxj., 'a sunder' changed to 'asunder,' "be like cut asunder,"

    cap.xxij., 'Beees' changed to 'Bees,' "That the Bees sting"

    cap.xxij., 'Cap.xxi' changed to 'Cap.xxij.'

    cap.xxij., 'placed' changed to 'places,' "on the stinged places."

    cap.xxij., 'fouth' changed to 'fourth,' "in his fourth rule"

    cap.xxxij., comma inserted after 'water,' "of this yealow water, of

    cap.xl., 'ef' changed to 'of,' "Oyle out of Waxe"

    conclusion, '(I trust)efullye' changed to '(I truste) fullye,' "I
    haue (I truste) fullye satisfied"

    conclusion, 'recciue' changed to 'receiue,' "thou mayste receiue

    Coniectures cap.j., 'fruietes' changed to 'fruites,' "of fruites
    and corne"

    Coniectures cap.j., 'yeelde' changed to 'yéelde,' "small yéelde of
    the fruites"

    Coniectures cap.j., 'trees' changed to 'trées,' "fruites of the
    trées be"

    Coniectures cap.j., 'than' changed to 'then,' "then in the yere"

    Coniectures cap.j., 'tree' changed to 'trée,' "the Lemmon trée"

    Coniectures cap.j., 'threa-' changed to 'threaten,' "it doeth after
    threaten in the Winter"

    Coniectures cap.ij., 'tearefull' changed to 'fearefull,'
    "likelihoode of fearefull fyres"

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Profitable Instruction of the Perfite Ordering of Bees - With the Maruellous Nature, Propertie, and Gouernemente - of Them: and the Necessarie Vses Both of Their Honie and - Waxe, Seruing Diuersly, as Well in Inward as Outward Causes: - Gathered Out of the Best Writers" ***

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