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Title: A Manual of Philippine Birds - Part I: Galliformes to Eurylaemiformes
Author: McGregor, Richard
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                      A MANUAL OF PHILIPPINE BIRDS

                                   BY
                          Richard C. McGregor



                                 Part I
                     GALLIFORMES TO EURYLÆMIFORMES

                                Part II
                             PASSERIFORMES



                                 MANILA
                           BUREAU OF PRINTING
                                  1909



        Department of the Interior, Bureau of Science, Manila.

        Publication No. 2, Part I.

        (Actual date of publication, April 15, 1909.)

        Publication No. 2, Part II.

        (Actual date of publication, January 31, 1910.)



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


    Preface
    Use of the keys
    Class Aves
    Subclass Carinatæ
    Order Galliformes
    Family Megapodiidæ
    Genus Megapodius Gaimard
        1. cumingi Dillwyn
    Suborder Phasiani
    Family Phasianidæ
    Genus Excalfactoria Bonaparte
        2. lineata (Scopoli)
    Genus Gallus Brisson
        3. gallus (Linnæus)
    Genus Polyplectron Temminck
        4. napoleonis Lesson
    Order Hemipodii
    Family Turnicidæ
    Genus Turnix Bonnaterre
        5. fasciata (Temminck)
        6. ocellata (Scopoli)
        7. whiteheadi Grant
        8. suluensis Mearns
        9. celestinoi McGregor
        10. worcesteri McGregor
    Order Columbiformes
    Suborder Columbæ
    Family Treronidæ
    Subfamily Treroninæ
    Genus Treron Vieillot
        11. nipalensis (Hodgson)
    Genus Sphenocercus Gray
        12. australis McGregor
    Genus Osmotreron Bonaparte
        13. axillaris (Bonaparte)
        14. everetti Rothschild
        15. vernans (Linnæus)
    Genus Phapitreron Bonaparte
        16. amethystina Bonaparte
        17. cinereiceps Bourns and Worcester
        18. brunneiceps Bourns and Worcester
        19. frontalis Bourns and Worcester
        20. maculipectus Bourns and Worcester
        21. leucotis (Temminck)
        22. occipitalis Salvadori
        23. nigrorum Sharpe
        24. brevirostis Tweeddale
        25. albifrons McGregor
    Subfamily Ptilopodinæ
    Genus Leucotreron Bonaparte
        26. occipitalis (Bonaparte)
        27. marchei (Oustalet)
        28. leclancheri (Bonaparte)
    Genus Lamprotreron Bonaparte
        29. temmincki (Prevost and Des Murs)
    Genus Spilotreron Salvadori
        30. bangueyensis (A. B. Meyer)
    Subfamily Muscadivorinæ
    Genus Muscadivores Gray
        31. nuchalis (Cabanis)
        32. chalybura (Bonaparte)
        33. palawanensis (Blasius)
        34. ænea (Linnæus)
        35. pickeringi (Cassin)
        36. langhornei (Mearns)
    Genus Ptilocolpa Bonaparte
        37. carola (Bonaparte)
        38. nigrorum Whitehead
        39. mindanensis Grant
    Genus Zonophaps Salvadori
        40. poliocephala (Hartlaub)
        41. mindorensis (Whitehead)
    Genus Myristicivora Reichenbach
        42. bicolor (Scopoli)
    Family Columbidæ
    Subfamily Columbinæ
    Genus Columba Linnæus
        43. griseogularis (Walden and Layard)
    Subfamily Macropyginæ
    Genus Macropygia Swainson
        44. tenuirostris Bonaparte
        45. phæa McGregor
    Family Peristeridæ
    Subfamily Turturinæ
    Genus Streptopelia Bonaparte
        46. dussumieri (Temminck)
    Genus Oenopopelia Blanford
        47. humilis (Temminck)
    Genus Spilopelia Sundevall
        48. tigrina (Temminck and Knip)
    Subfamily Geopeliinæ
    Genus Geopelia Swainson
        49. striata (Linnæus)
    Subfamily Phabinæ
    Genus Chalcophaps Gould
        50. indica (Linnæus)
    Subfamily Geotrygoninæ
    Genus Phlegoenas Reichenbach
        51. luzonica (Scopoli)
        52. criniger (Jacquinot and Pucheran)
        53. keayi Clarke
        54. menagei Bourns and Worcester
        55. platenæ Blasius
    Subfamily Caloenadinæ
    Genus Caloenas Gray
        56. nicobarica (Linnæus)
    Order Ralliformes
    Family Rallidæ
    Subfamily Rallinæ
    Genus Hypotænidia Reichenbach
        57. striata (Linnæus)
        58. philippensis (Linnæus)
        59. torquata (Linnæus)
    Genus Rallina Reichenbach
        60. fasciata (Raffles)
        61. eurizonoides (Lafresnaye)
    Genus Porzana Vieillot
        62. auricularis Reichenbach
        63. plumbea (Gray)
    Genus Poliolimnas Sharpe
        64. cinereus (Vieillot)
    Genus Limnobænus Sundevall
        65. fuscus (Linnæus)
        66. paykulli (Ljungh)
    Genus Amaurornis Reichenbach
        67. olivacea (Meyen)
        68. phoenicura (Pennant)
    Genus Gallinula Brisson
        69. chloropus (Linnæus)
    Genus Gallicrex Blyth
        70. cinerea (Gmelin)
    Genus Porphyrio Brisson
        71. pulverulentus Temminck
    Subfamily Fulicinæ
    Genus Fulica Linnæus
        72. atra Linnæus
    Order Colymbiformes
    Family Colymbidæ
    Genus Tachybaptus Reichenbach
        73. philippensis (Bonnaterre)
    Order Procellariiformes
    Family Procellariidæ
    Subfamily Procellariinæ
    Genus Oceanodroma Reichenbach
        74. species Mcgregor
    Family Puffinidæ
    Subfamily Puffininæ
    Genus Puffinus Brisson
        75. leucomelas Temminck
    Order Lariformes
    Family Laridæ
    Subfamily Sterninæ
    Genus Hydrochelidon Boie
        76. leucoptera  (Meisner And Schinz)
        77. hybrida (Pallas)
    Genus Sterna Linnæus
        78. hirundo Linnæus
        79. longipennis Nordmann
        80. boreotis (Bangs)
        81. anæstheta Scopoli
        82. fuscata Linnæus
        83. sinensis Gmelin
        84. melanauchen Temminck
    Genus Anous Stephens
        85. stolidus (linnæus)
    Subfamily Larinæ
    Genus Larus Linnæus
        86. ridibundus Linnæus
        87. vegæ (Palmen)
    Order Charadriiformes
    Suborder Charadrii
    Family Charadriidæ
    Subfamily Arenariinæ
    Genus Arenaria Brisson
        88. interpres (Linnæus)
    Subfamily Lobivanellinæ
    Genus Microsarcops Sharpe
        89. cinereus (Blyth)
    Subfamily Charadriinæ
    Genus Squatarola Leach
        90. squatarola (Linnæus)
    Genus Charadrius Linnæus
        91. fulvus Gmelin
    Genus Ochthodromus Reichenbach
        92. geoffroyi (Wagler)
        93. mongolus (Pallas)
        94. veredus (Gould)
    Genus Ægialitis Boie
        95. dubia (Scopoli),
        96. peroni (Bonaparte)
        97. alexandrina (Linnæus)
    Subfamily Himantopodinæ
    Genus Himantopus Brisson
        98. leucocephalus Gould
    Subfamily Totaninæ
    Genus Numenius Brisson
        99. arquatus (Linnæus)
        100. cyanopus Vieillot
        101. variegatus (Scopoli)
    Genus Mesoscolopax Sharpe
        102. minutus (Gould)
    Genus Limosa Brisson
        103. baueri Naumann
        104. limosa (Linnæus)
    Genus Totanus Bechstein
        105. eurhinus (Oberholser)
    Genus Helodromas Kaup
        106. ochropus (Linnæus)
    Genus Heteractitis Stejneger
        107. brevipes (Vieillot)
    Genus Actitis Illiger
        108. hypoleucos (Linnæus)
    Genus Terekia Bonaparte
        109. cinerea (Güldenstädt)
    Genus Glottis Koch
        110. nebularius (Gunnerus)
    Genus Rhyacophilus Kaup
        111. glareola (Linnæus)
    Subfamily Scolopacinæ
    Genus Calidris Illiger
        112. leucophæa (Pallas)
    Genus Pisobia Billberg
        113. minuta (Leisler)
        114. ruficollis (Pallas)
        115. damacensis (Horsfield)
        116. temmincki (Leisler)
    Genus Heteropygia Coues
        117. aurita (Latham)
    Genus Erolia Vieillot
        118. ferruginea (Brünnich)
    Genus Tringa Linnæus
        119. crassirostris Temminck and Schlegel
    Genus Limicola Koch
        120. platyrhyncha (Temminck)
    Genus Gallinago Koch
        121. stenura (Bonaparte)
        122. megala Swinhoe
        123. gallinago (Linnæus)
    Genus Rostratula Vieillot
        124. capensis (Linnæus)
    Subfamily Phalaropodinæ
    Genus Lobipes Cuvier
        125. lobatus (Linnæus)
    Suborder Parræ
    Family Parridæ
    Genus Hydrophasianus Wagler
        126. chirurgus (Scopoli)
    Genus Hydralector Wagler
        127. gallinaceus (Temminck)
    Suborder Cursorii
    Family Glareolidæ
    Genus Glareola Brisson
        128. orientalis Leach
    Suborder Oedicnemi
    Family Oedicnemidæ
    Genus Orthorhamphus Salvadori
        129. magnirostris (Vieillot)
    Order Gruiformes
    Suborder Grues
    Family Gruidæ
    Genus Antigone Reichenbach
        130. sharpi Blanford
    Order Ardeiformes
    Suborder Plataleæ
    Family Ibididæ
    Genus Plegadis Kaup
        131. autumnalis (Linnæus)
    Family Plataleidæ
    Genus Platalea Linnæus
        132. minor Temminck and Schlegel
    Suborder Ciconiæ
    Family Ciconiidæ
    Subfamily Ciconiinæ
    Genus Dissöura Cabanis
        133. episcopus (Boddaert)
    Suborder Ardeæ
    Family Ardeidæ
    Genus Pyrrherodia Finsch and Hartlaub
        134. manilensis (Meyen)
    Genus Ardea Linnæus
        135. cinerea Linnæus
        136. sumatrana Raffles
    Genus Mesophoyx Sharpe
        137. intermedia (Wagler)
    Genus Herodias Boie
        138. timoriensis (Lesson)
    Genus Egretta Forster
        139. garzetta (Linnæus)
    Genus Demigretta Blyth
        140. sacra (Gmelin)
    Genus Nycticorax Forster
        141. nycticorax (Linnæus)
        142. manillensis Vigors
    Genus Gorsachius Bonaparte
        143. melanolophus (Raffles)
        144. goisagi (Temminck)
    Genus Butorides Blyth
        145. javanica (Horsfield)
        146. amurensis (Schrenck)
        147. spodiogaster Sharpe
    Genus Bubulcus Bonaparte
        148. coromandus (Boddaert)
    Genus Ixobrychus Billberg
        149. sinensis (Gmelin)
        150. cinnamomeus (Gmelin)
    Genus Nannocnus Stejneger
        151. eurhythmus (Swinhoe)
    Genus Dupetor Heine and Reichenbach
        152. flavicollis (Latham)
    Genus Botaurus Stephens
        153. stellaris (Linnæus)
    Order Anseriformes
    Family Anatidæ
    Subfamily Plectropterinæ
    Genus Nettapus Brandt
        154. coromandelianus (Gmelin)
    Subfamily Anatinæ
    Genus Dendrocygna Swainson
        155. arcuata (Horsfield)
        156. guttulata Wallace
    Genus Anas Linnæus
        157. luzonica Fraser
    Genus Polionetta Oates
        158. zonorhyncha (Swinhoe)
    Genus Mareca Stephens
        159. penelope (Linnæus)
    Genus Nettion Kaup
        160. crecca (Linnæus)
    Genus Dafila Stephens
        161. acuta (Linnæus)
    Genus Querquedula Oken
        162. querquedula (Linnæus)
    Genus Spatula Boie
        163. clypeata (Linnæus)
    Subfamily Marilinæ
    Genus Marila Oken
        164. marila (Linnæus)
        165. fuligula (Linnæus)
    Order Pelecaniformes
    Family Phalacrocoracidæ
    Genus Phalacrocorax Brisson
        166. carbo (Linnæus)
    Family Anhingidæ
    Genus Anhinga Brisson
        167. melanogaster Pennant
    Family Sulidæ
    Genus Sula Brisson
        168. piscator (Linnæus)
        169. leucogastra (Boddaert)
    Family Fregatidæ
    Genus Fregata Lacépède
        170. aquila (Linnæus)
        171. ariel (Gould)
    Family Pelecanidæ
    Genus Pelecanus Linnæus
        172. philippensis Gmelin
    Order Accipitriformes
    Suborder Accipitres
    Family Falconidæ
    Subfamily Accipitrinæ
    Genus Circus Lacépède
        173. spilonotus Kaup
        174. melanoleucos (Pennant)
        175. æruginosus (Linnæus)
    Genus Astur Lacépède
        176. trivirgatus (Temminck)
        177. soloensis (Latham)
        178. cuculoides (Temminck)
    Genus Accipiter Brisson
        179.  gularis  (Temminck and Schlegel)
        180. virgatus (Temminck)
        181. manillensis (Meyen)
    Subfamily Aquilinæ
    Genus Lophotriorchis Sharpe
        182. kieneri (Geoffroy St. Hilaire)
    Genus Spizaëtus Vieillot
        183. philippensis Gurney
        184. limnæëtus (Horsfield)
    Genus Pithecophaga Grant
        185. jefferyi Grant
    Genus Spilornis Gray
        186. bacha (Daudin)
        187. holospilus (Vigors)
        188. panayensis Steere
    Genus Butastur Hodgson
        189. indicus (Gmelin)
    Genus Haliæetus Savigny
        190. leucogaster (Gmelin)
    Genus Haliastur Selby
        191. intermedius Gurney
    Genus Elanus Savigny
        192. hypoleucus Gould
    Genus Pernis Cuvier
        193. ptilorhyncus (Temminck)
    Genus Baza Hodgson
        194. magnirostris Gray
        195. leucopais Sharpe
    Genus Microhierax Sharpe
        196. erythrogenys (Vigors)
        197. meridionalis Grant
    Genus Falco Linnæus
        198. peregrinus Tunstall
        199. melanogenys Gould
        200. ernesti Sharpe
        201. severus Horsfield
    Genus Cerchneis Boie
        202. tinnunculus (Linnæus)
    Suborder Pandiones
    Family Pandionidæ
    Genus Pandion Savigny
        203. haliætus (Linnæus)
        204. leucocephalus Gould
    Genus Polioaëtus Kaup
        205. ichthyætus (Horsfield)
    Order Strigiformes
    Family Strigidæ
    Subfamily Buboninæ
    Genus Pseudoptynx Kaup
        206. philippensis Kaup
        207. gurneyi Tweeddale
        208. mindanensis Grant
    Genus Otus Pennant
        209. megalotis (Gray)
        210. everetti (Tweeddale)
        211. fuliginosus (Sharpe)
        212. sibutuensis (Sharpe)
        213. longicornis (Grant)
        214. mindorensis (Whitehead)
        215. whiteheadi (Grant)
        216. rufescens (Horsfield)
        217. cuyensis McGregor
        218. calayensis McGregor
        219. romblonis McGregor
        220. boholensis McGregor
    Genus Ninox Hodgson
        221. lugubris (Tickell)
        222. scutulata (Raffles)
        223. japonica  (Temminck and Schlegel)
        224. philippensis Bonaparte
        225. everetti Sharpe
        226. spilocephala Tweeddale
        227. spilonota Bourns and Worcester
        228. reyi Oustalet
        229. mindorensis Grant
        230. plateni Blasius
    Subfamily Striginæ
    Genus Strix Linnæus
        231. whiteheadi (Sharpe)
    Family Aluconidæ
    Genus Aluco Fleming
        232. longimembris (Jerdon)
    Order Psittaciformes
    Family Loriidæ
    Genus Trichoglossus Vigors and Horsfield
        233. johnstoniæ Hartert
    Family Cacatuidæ
    Subfamily Cacatuinæ
    Genus Cacatua Vieillot
        234. hæmaturopygia (P. L. S. Müller)
    Family Psittacidæ
    Subfamily Palæornithinæ
    Genus Prioniturus Wagler
        235. verticalis Sharpe
        236. montanus Grant
        237. discurus (Vieillot)
        238. waterstradti Rothschild
        239. mindorensis Steere
        240. cyaneiceps Sharpe
        241. luconensis Steere
    Genus Tanygnathus Wagler
        242. lucionensis (Linnæus)
        243. megalorhynchos (Boddaert)
        244. everetti Tweeddale
        245. burbidgei Sharpe
    Genus Bolbopsittacus Salvadori
        246. lunulatus (Scopoli)
        247. intermedius Salvadori
        248. mindanensis (Steere)
    Genus Loriculus Blyth
        249. chrysonotus Sclater
        250. regulus Souancé
        251. bournsi McGregor
        252. philippensis (P. L. S. Müller)
        253. mindorensis Steere
        254. siquijorensis Steere
        255. apicalis Souancé
        256. dohertyi (Hartert)
        257. worcesteri Steere
        258. galgulus (Linnæus)
        259. bonapartei Souancé
    Order Coraciiformes
    Suborder Podargi
    Family Podargidæ
    Genus Batrachostomus Gould
        260. septimus Tweeddale
        261. microrhynchus Grant
        262. menagei Bourns and Worcester
        263. javensis (Horsfield)
        264. affinis Blyth
    Suborder Coraciæ
    Family Coraciidæ
    Subfamily Coraciinæ
    Genus Eurystomus Vieillot
        265. orientalis (Linnæus)
    Suborder Halcyones
    Family Alcedinidæ
    Genus Pelargopsis Gloger
        266. javana (Boddaert)
        267. gouldi Sharpe
        268. gigantea Walden
    Genus Alcedo Linnæus
        269. bengalensis Gmelin
        270. meninting Horsfield
    Genus Alcyone Swainson
        271. cyanopectus (Lafresnaye)
        272. argentata (Tweeddale)
        273. flumenicola (Steere)
        274. nigrirostris (Bourns and Worcester)
    Genus Ceyx Lacépède
        275. melanura Kaup
        276. mindanensis Steere
        277. samarensis Steere
        278. euerythra Sharpe
        279. bournsi Steere
        280. goodfellowi Grant
    Genus Halcyon Swainson
        281. coromandus (Latham)
        282. gularis (Kuhl)
        283. pileatus (Boddaert)
        284. winchelli Sharpe
        285. chloris (Boddaert)
        286. hombroni (Bonaparte)
        287. lindsayi (Vigors)
        288. moseleyi (Steere)
    Suborder Bucerotes
    Family Bucerotidæ
    Genus Hydrocorax Brisson
        289. hydrocorax (Linnæus)
        290. mindanensis (Tweeddale)
        291. semigaleatus (Tweeddale)
    Genus Anthracoceros Reichenbach
        292. montani (Oustalet)
    Genus Gymnolæmus Grant
        293. lemprieri (Sharpe)
    Genus Penelopides Reichenbach
        294. panini (Boddaert)
        295. manillæ (Boddaert)
        296. talisi Finsch
        297. mindorensis Steere
        298. affinis Tweeddale
        299. basilanica Steere
        300. samarensis Steere
    Genus Craniorrhinus Cabanis and Heine
        301. leucocephalus (Vieillot)
        302. waldeni Sharpe
    Suborder Meropes
    Family Meropidæ
    Genus Merops Linnæus
        303. americanus P. L. S. Müller
        304. philippinus Linnæus
    Suborder Caprimulgi
    Family Caprimulgidæ
    Subfamily Caprimulginæ
    Genus Lyncornis Gould
        305. macrotis (Vigors)
    Genus Caprimulgus Linnæus
        306. griseatus Walden
        307. mindanensis (Mearns)
        308. manillensis Walden
        309. macrurus Horsfield
        310. jotaka Temminck and Schlegel
    Suborder Micropodii
    Family Hemiprocniidæ
    Genus Hemiprocne Nitzsch
        311. major (Hartert)
    Family Micropodidæ
    Subfamily Chæturinæ
    Genus Collocalia Gray
        312. lowi (Sharpe)
        313. whiteheadi Grant
        314. origenis Oberholser
        315. fuciphaga (Thunberg)
        316. germani Oustalet
        317. troglodytes Gray
        318. marginata Salvadori
        319. isonota (Oberholser)
    Genus Chætura Stephens
        320. gigantea (Temminck)
        321. celebensis (Sclater)
        322. dubia McGregor
        323. picina Tweeddale
    Subfamily Micropodinæ
    Genus Tachornis Gosse
        324. pallidior McGregor
    Genus Micropus Meyer and Wolfe
        325. pacificus (Latham)
        326. subfurcatus (Blyth)
    Order Trogones
    Family Trogonidæ
    Genus Pyrotrogon Bonaparte
        327. ardens (Temminck)
    Order Coccyges
    Suborder Cuculi
    Family Cuculidæ
    Subfamily Cuculinæ
    Genus Clamator Kaup
        328. coromandus (Linnæus)
    Genus Surniculus Lesson
        329. lugubris (Horsfield)
        330. velutinus Sharpe
    Genus Hierococcyx S. Müller
        331. sparverioides (Vigors)
        332. fugax (Horsfield)
    Genus Cuculus Linnæus
        333. micropterus Gould
        334. canorus Linnæus
        335. saturatus Hodgson
    Genus Penthoceryx Cabanis
        336. sonnerati (Latham)
    Genus Cacomantis S. Müller
        337. merulinus (Scopoli)
    Genus Chalcococcyx Cabanis
        338. xanthorhynchus (Horsfield)
        339. malayanus (Raffles)
    Genus Eudynamys Vigors and Horsfield
        340. honorata (Linnæus)
        341. mindanensis (Linnæus)
        342. frater McGregor
    Subfamily Centropodinæ
    Genus Centropus Illiger
        343. mindorensis (Steere)
        344. carpenteri Mearns
        345. steeri Bourns and Worcester
        346. sinensis (Stephens)
        347. viridis (Scopoli)
        348. javanicus (Dumont)
        349. melanops Lesson
        350. unirufus (Cabanis and Heine)
    Subfamily Phænicophainæ
    Genus Dryococcyx Sharpe
        351. harringtoni Sharpe
    Genus Dasylophus Swainson
        352. superciliosus (Cuvier)
    Genus Lepidogrammus Reichenbach
        353. cumingi (Fraser)
    Order Scansores
    Suborder Capitones
    Family Capitonidæ
    Genus Xantholæma Bonaparte
        354. hæmacephalum (P. L. S. Müller)
        355. roseum (Dumont)
    Order Piciformes
    Suborder Pici
    Family Picidæ
    Subfamily Picinæ
    Genus Yungipicus Bonaparte
        356. validirostris (Blyth)
        357. maculatus (Scopoli)
        358. menagei Bourns and Worcester
        359. leytensis Steere
        360. fulvifasciatus Hargitt
        361. ramsayi Hargitt
    Genus Tiga Kaup
        362. everetti Tweeddale
    Genus Chrysocolaptes Blyth
        363. erythrocephalus Sharpe
        364. hæmatribon (Wagler)
        365. lucidus (Scopoli)
        366. montanus Grant
        367. rufopunctatus Hargitt
        368. xanthocephalus Walden and Layard
        Genus Lichtensteinipicus Bonaparte
        369. funebris (Valenciennes)
        370. fuliginosus (Tweeddale)
    Genus Mulleripicus Bonaparte
        371. pulverulentus (Temminck)
    Genus Thriponax Cabanis and Heine
        372. javensis (Horsfield)
        373. pectoralis Tweeddale
        374. multilunatus McGregor
        375. mindorensis Steere
        376. hargitti Sharpe
    Order Eurylæmiformes
    Family Eurylæmidæ
    Subfamily Eurylæminæ
    Genus Sarcophanops Sharpe
        377. steeri (Sharpe)
        378. samarensis Steere
    Order Passeriformes
    Suborder Mesomyodi
    Family Pittidæ
    Genus Pitta Vieillot
        379. erythrogastra Temminck
        380. propinqua (Sharpe)
        381. kochi Bruggemann
        382. atricapilla Lesson
        383. mulleri (Bonaparte)
        384. rothschildi (Parrot)
        385. steeri (Sharpe)
        386. moluccensis (P. L. S. Müller)
    Suborder Acromyodi
    Family Hirundinidæ
    Genus Chelidonaria Reichenow
        387. dasypus (Bonaparte)
    Genus Riparia Forster
        388. riparia (Linnæus)
        389. chinensis (Gray)
    Genus Hirundo Linnæus
        390. rustica Linnæus
        391. gutturalis Scopoli
        392. javanica Sparrman
        393. striolata (Boie)
    Family Muscicapidæ
    Genus Hemichelidon Hodgson
        394. sibirica (Gmelin)
        395. griseosticta Swinhoe
        396. ferruginea Hodgson
    Genus Alseonax Cabanis
        397. latirostris (Raffles)
    Genus Cyornis Blyth
        398. herioti Ramsay
        399. banyumas (Horsfield)
        400. philippinensis Sharpe
        401. lemprieri Sharpe
        402. platenæ (Blasius)
    Genus Muscicapula Blyth
        403. westermanni Sharpe
        404. luzoniensis Grant
        405. nigrorum Whitehead
        406. montigena Mearns
        407. basilanica (Sharpe)
        408. samarensis Bourns and Worcester
    Genus Gerygone Gould
        409. simplex Cabanis
        410. rhizophoræ Mearns
    Genus Zanthopygia Blyth
        411. narcissina (Temminck)
    Genus Cyanoptila Blyth
        412. bella (Hay)
    Genus Hypothymis Boie
        413. occipitalis (Vigors)
    Genus Camiguinia McGregor
        414. helenæ (Steere)
    Genus Cyanomyias Sharpe
        415. coelestis (Tweeddale)
    Genus Rhipidura Vigors and Horsfield
        416. superciliaris (Sharpe)
        417. samarensis (Steere)
        418. albiventris (Sharpe)
        419. cyaniceps (Cassin)
        420. sauli Bourns and Worcester
        421. nigrocinnamomea Hartert
        422. hutchinsoni Mearns
        423. nigritorquis Vigors
    Genus Xeocephus Bonaparte
        424. rufus (Gray)
        425. cinnamomeus Sharpe
        426. cyanescens Sharpe
    Genus Callaeops Grant
        427. periopthalmica Grant
    Genus Terpsiphone Gloger
        428. affinis (Blyth)
        429. nigra McGregor
    Genus Rhinomyias Sharpe
        430. albigularis Bourns and Worcester
        431. goodfellowi Grant
        432. ruficauda (Sharpe)
        433. ocularis Bourns and Worcester
        434. insignis Grant
    Genus Culicicapa Swinhoe
        435. ceylonensis (Swainson)
        436. helianthea (Wallace)
    Genus Cryptolopha Swainson
        437. olivacea (Moseley)
        438. cebuensis Dubois
        439. nigrorum Moseley
        440. mindanensis Hartert
        441. xanthopygia Whitehead
    Genus Eumyias Cabanis
        442. panayensis Sharpe
        443. nigrimentalis (Grant)
        444. nigriloris (Hartert)
    Family Campophagidæ
    Genus Artamides Hartlaub
        445. difficilis (Hartert)
        446. guillemardi Salvadori
        447. striatus (Boddaert)
        448. kochi Kutter
        449. panayensis Steere
        450. mindorensis Steere
        451. cebuensis Grant
    Genus Malindangia Mearns
        452. mcgregori Mearns
    Genus Edolisoma Jacquinot and Pucheran
        453. cærulescens (Blyth)
        454. alterum Ramsay
        455. panayense Steere
        456. everetti Sharpe
        457. mindanense (Tweeddale)
        458. elusum McGregor
    Genus Pericrocotus Boie
        459. marchesæ Guillemard
        460. novus McGregor
        461. leytensis Steere
        462. johnstoniæ Grant
        463. igneus Blyth
        464. cinereus Lafresneye
    Genus Lalage Boie
        465. melanoleuca (Blyth)
        466. minor (Steere)
        467. niger (Forster)
    Family Pycnonotidæ
    Genus Ægithina Vieillot
        468. viridis (Bonaparte)
    Genus Chloropsis Jardine and Selby
        469. palawanensis (Sharpe)
        470. flavipennis (Tweeddale)
    Genus Irena Horsfield
        471. cyanogastra Vigors
        472. ellæ Steere
        473. melanochlamys Sharpe
        474. tweeddali Sharpe
    Genus Hypsipetes Vigors,
        475. fugensis Grant
        476. batanensis Mearns
        477. camiguinensis McGregor
    Genus Iole Blyth
        478. striaticeps Sharpe
        479. everetti (Tweeddale)
        480. haynaldi (Blasius)
        481. rufigularis (Sharpe)
        482. gularis (Pucheran)
        483. guimarasensis Steere
        484. mindorensis Steere
        485. siquijorensis Steere
        486. cinereiceps Bourns and Worcester
        487. monticola Bourns and Worcester
    Genus Poliolophus Sharpe
        488. urostictus (Salvadori)
    Genus Microtarsus Eyton
        489. melanocephalos (Gmelin)
    Genus Trichophorus Temminck
        490. frater (Sharpe)
        491. palawanensis (Tweeddale)
    Genus Pycnonotus Boie
        492. goiavier (Scopoli)
        493. cinereifrons (Tweeddale)
    Family Timeliidæ
    Subfamily Timeliinæ
    Genus Pseudotharrhaleus Grant
        494. caudatus Grant
        495. unicolor Hartert
        496. griseipectus Mearns
        497. malindangensis Mearns
    Genus Turdinus Blyth
        498. rufifrons (Tweeddale)
    Genus Ptilocichla Sharpe
        499. falcata Sharpe
        500. basilanica Steere
        501. mindanensis Steere
        502. minuta Bourns and Worcester
    Genus Anuropsis Sharpe
        503. cinereiceps (Tweeddale)
    Genus Dasycrotapha Tweeddale
        504. speciosa Tweeddale
    Genus Zosterornis Grant
        505. striatus Grant
        506. whiteheadi Grant
        507. dennistouni Grant
        508. pygmæus Grant
        509. plateni (Blasius)
        510. capitalis (Tweeddale)
        511. nigrocapitatus (Steere)
        512. affinis McGregor
    Genus Mixornis "Hodgson" Blyth
        513. woodi Sharpe
        514. cagayanensis Guillemard
    Genus Macronous Jardine and Selby
        515. striaticeps Sharpe
        516. mindanensis Steere
        517. montanus (Mearns)
        518. kettlewelli Guillemard
    Genus Leonardina Mearns
        519. woodi Mearns
    Subfamily Brachypteryginæ
    Genus Brachypteryx Horsfield
        520. poliogyna Grant
        521. brunneiceps Grant
        522. mindanensis Mearns
        523. malindangensis Mearns
    Family Turdidæ
    Subfamily Turdinæ
    Genus Planesticus Bonaparte
        524. mindorensis (Grant)
        525. thomassoni (Seebohm)
        526. mayonensis (Mearns)
        527. kelleri (Mearns)
        528. nigrorum (Grant)
        529. malindangensis (Mearns)
    Genus Turdus Linnæus
        530. pallidus Gmelin
        531. chrysolaus Temminck
        532. obscurus Gmelin
    Genus Geokichla "Boie" S. Müller
        533. interpres (Temminck)
        534. cinerea Bourns and Worcester
        535. mindanensis Mearns
    Genus Zoothera Vigors
        536. andromedæ (Temminck)
    Genus Oreocincla Gould
        537. varia (Pallas)
    Genus Petrophila Swainson
        538. manillensis (J. R. Forster)
    Subfamily Ruticillinæ
    Genus Chaimarrornis Hodgson
        539. bicolor Grant
    Genus Calliope Gould
        540. calliope (Pallas)
    Genus Copsychus Wagler
        541. mindanensis (Boddaert)
    Genus Kittacincla Gould
        542. luzoniensis (Kittlitz)
        543. superciliaris Bourns and Worcester
        544. nigra Sharpe
        545. cebuensis Steere
    Subfamily Saxicolinæ
    Genus Pratincola Koch
        546. caprata (Linnæus)
    Genus Saxicola Bechstein
        547. oenanthe (Linnæus),
    Family Sylviidæ
    Genus Locustella Kaup
        548. fasciolata (Gray)
        549. ochotensis (Middendorf)
        550. lanceolata (Temminck)
    Genus Acrocephalus Naumann
        551. sorghophilus (Swinhoe)
        552. orientalis (Temminck and Schlegel)
    Genus Tribura Hodgson
        553. seebohmi (Grant)
    Genus Orthotomus Horsfield
        554. frontalis Sharpe
        555. mearnsi McGregor
        556. castaneiceps Walden
        557. derbianus Moore,
        558. chloronotus Grant
        559. ruficeps (Lesson)
        560. cineraceus Blyth
        561. cinereiceps Sharpe
        562. nigriceps Tweeddale
        563. samarensis Steere
    Genus Cisticola Kaup
        564. cisticola (Temminck)
        565. exilis (Vigors and Horsfield)
    Genus Megalurus Horsfield
        566. palustris Horsfield
        567. tweeddalei McGregor
    Genus Acanthopneuste Blasius
        568. borealis (Blasius)
        569. xanthodryas (Swinhoe)
        570. lugubris (Blyth)
    Genus Horornis Hodgson
        571. canturians (Swinhoe)
        572. minutus (Swinhoe)
        573. seebohmi (Grant)
    Genus Phyllergates Sharpe
        574. philippinus Hartert
        575. heterolæmus Mearns
    Family Artamidæ
    Genus Artamus Vieillot
        576. leucorynchus (Linnæus)
    Family Laniidæ
    Subfamily Laniinæ
    Genus Enneoctonus Boie
        577. tigrinus (Drapiez)
    Genus Cephalophoneus Fitzinger
        578. validirostris (Grant)
        579. nasutus (Scopoli)
        580. suluensis Mearns
    Genus Otomela Bonaparte
        581. lucionensis (Linnæus)
        582. cristata (Linnæus)
        583. superciliosa (Latham)
    Subfamily Pachycephalinæ
    Genus Hyloterpe Cabanis
        584. philippinensis Walden
        585. apoensis Mearns
        586. fallax McGregor
        587. illex McGregor
        588. albiventris Grant
        589. whiteheadi Sharpe
        590. winchelli Bourns and Worcester
        591. homeyeri Blasius
    Family Paridæ
    Genus Pardaliparus Selys-Longchamps
        592. elegans (Lesson)
        593. albescens McGregor
        594. edithæ McGregor
        595. mindanensis (Mearns)
        596. amabilis (Sharpe)
    Genus Penthornis Hellmayr
        597. semilarvatus (Salvadori)
        598. tessacourbe (Scopoli)
    Family Sittidæ
    Genus Callisitta Bonaparte
        599. palawana (Hartert)
        600. oenochlamys (Sharpe)
        601. mesoleuca (Grant)
        602. lilacea (Whitehead)
    Family Certhiidæ
    Genus Rhabdornis Reichenbach
        603. mystacalis (Temminck)
        604. minor Grant
        605. inornatus Grant
    Family Zosteropidæ
    Genus Zosterops Vigors and Horsfield
        606. meyeni Bonaparte
        607. whiteheadi Hartert
        608. vulcani (Hartert)
        609. halconensis Mearns
        610. batanis McGregor
        611. siquijorensis Bourns and Worcester
        612. boholensis McGregor
        613. everetti Tweeddale
        614. basilanica Steere
        615. meyleri McGregor
        616. richmondi McGregor
        617. luzonica Grant
        618. aureiloris Grant
        619. nigrorum Tweeddale
        620. goodfellowi Hartert
        621. malindangensis (Mearns)
    Genus Hypocryptadius Hartert
        622. cinnamomeus Hartert
    Family Dicæidæ
    Genus Dicæum Cuvier
        623. retrocinctum Gould
        624. hæmatostictum Sharpe
        625. papuense (Gmelin)
        626. luzoniense Grant
        627. apo Hartert
        628. bonga Hartert
        629. dorsale Sharpe
        630. pallidius Bourns and Worcester
        631. xanthopygium Tweeddale
        632. intermedium Bourns and Worcester
        633. sibuyanicum Bourns and Worcester
        634. assimile Bourns and Worcester
        635. sibutuense Sharpe
        636. cinereigulare Tweeddale
        637. besti Steere
        638. flaviventer Meyer
        639. pygmæum (Kittlitz)
        640. davao Mearns
        641. hypoleucum Sharpe
        642. mindanense Tweeddale
        643. everetti Tweeddale
        644. obscurum Grant
        645. nigrilore Hartert
    Genus Prionochilus Strickland
        646. johannæ Sharpe
        647. quadricolor Tweeddale
        648. olivaceous Tweeddale
        649. bicolor Bourns and Worcester
        650. inexpectatus Hartert
    Genus Piprisoma Blyth
        651. æruginosum (Bourns and Worcester)
    Family Nectariniidæ
    Subfamily Nectariniinæ
    Genus Chalcostetha Cabanis
        652. calcostetha (Jardine)
    Genus Æthopyga Cabanis
        653. magnifica Sharpe
        654. boltoni Mearns
        655. shelleyi Sharpe
        656. bella Tweeddale
        657. arolasi Bourns and Worcester
        658. bonita Bourns and Worcester
        659. flavipectus Grant
        660. rubrinota McGregor
    Genus Eudrepanis Sharpe
        661. pulcherrima (Sharpe)
        662. jefferyi Grant
        663. decorosa McGregor
    Genus Cinnyris Cuvier
        664. sperata (Linnæus)
        665. henkei Meyer
        666. juliæ (Tweeddale)
        667. flagrans (Oustalet)
        668. guimarasensis Steere
        669. jugularis (Linnæus)
        670. aurora (Tweeddale)
    Genus Anthreptes Swainson
        671. chlorigaster Sharpe
        672. malaccensis (Scopoli)
        673. wiglesworthi (Hartert)
        674. cagayanensis Mearns
        675. rhodolæma Shelley
        676. griseigularis Tweeddale
    Subfamily Arachnotherinæ
    Genus Arachnothera Temminck
        677. flammifera Tweeddale
        678. dilutior Sharpe
        679. philippinensis (Steere)
    Family Motacillidæ
    Genus Motacilla Linnæus
        680. ocularis Swinhoe
        681. melanope Pallas
    Genus Budytes Cuvier
        682. leucostriatus Homeyer
    Genus Dendronanthus Blyth
        683. indicus (Gmelin)
    Genus Anthus Bechstein
        684. hodgsoni Richmond
        685. richardi Vieillot
        686. rufulus Vieillot
        687. gustavi Swinhoe
        688. cervinus (Pallas)
    Family Alaudidæ
    Genus Alauda Linnæus
        689. wattersi Swinhoe
    Genus Mirafra Horsfield
        690. philippinensis Ramsay
    Family Fringillidæ
    Genus Loxia Linnæus
        691. luzoniensis Grant
    Genus Pyrrhula Brisson
        692. leucogenys Grant
        693. steerei Mearns
    Genus Fringilla Linnæus
        694. montifringilla Linnæus
    Genus Passer Brisson
        695. montanus (Linnæus)
    Genus Spinus Koch
        696. spinus (Linnæus)
    Genus Emberiza Linnæus
        697. pusilla Pallas
        698. spodocephala Pallas
        699. sulphurata Temminck and Schlegel
    Family Ploceidæ
    Subfamily Viduinæ
    Genus Padda Reichenbach
        700. oryzivora (Linnæus)
    Genus Munia Hodgson
        701. jagori Martens
        702. formosana Swinhoe
        703. cabanisi Sharpe
    Genus Uroloncha Cabanis
        704. everetti (Tweeddale)
        705. fuscans (Cassin)
    Genus Reichenowia Poche
        706. brunneiventris (Grant)
    Family Oriolidæ
    Genus Oriolus Linnæus
        707. acrorhynchus Vigors
        708. isabellæ Grant
        709. albiloris Grant
        710. samarensis Steere
        711. steeri Sharpe
        712. basilanicus Grant
        713. cinereogenys Bourns and Worcester
        714. assimilis Tweeddale
        715. xanthonotus Horsfield
    Family Dicruridæ
    Genus Dicrurus Vieillot
        716. balicassius (Linnæus)
        717. striatus Tweeddale
        718. suluensis Hartert
        719. mirabilis Walden and Layard
    Genus Chibia Hodgson
        720. palawanensis (Tweeddale)
        721. cuyensis McGregor
        722. worcesteri McGregor
        723. borneensis Sharpe
        724. menagei Bourns and Worcester
    Genus Bhuchanga Hodgson
        725. palawanensis Whitehead
    Family Sturnidæ
    Subfamily Sturninæ
    Genus Sturnia Lesson
        726. sinensis (Gmelin)
        727. philippensis (Forster)
        Genus Spodiopsar Sharpe
        728. sericeus (Gmelin)
        729. cineraceus (Temminck)
    Genus Lamprocorax Bonaparte
        730. panayensis (Scopoli)
        731. todayensis Mearns
    Genus Ætheopsar Sharpe
        732. cristatellus (Linnæus)
    Genus Sarcops Walden
        733. calvus (Linnæus)
        734. melanonotus Grant
    Genus Goodfellowia Hartert
        735. miranda Hartert
    Genus Eulabes Cuvier
        736. palawanensis Sharpe
    Family Corvidæ
    Genus Corone Kaup
        737. philippina (Bonaparte)
    Genus Corvus Linnæus
        738. pusillus Tweeddale
        739. samarensis Steere
    Additions and corrections



PREFACE.


During several years spent in collecting zoölogical specimens in the
Philippine Islands the author has constantly experienced the need of a
book containing descriptions of the Philippine birds. That others have
felt the same want is evident from the many requests for literature
received. Lists of Philippine birds [1] have been published from time
to time but they contain no descriptions and are of use to those only
who have a considerable library at hand.

The Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum contains descriptions of
most of the known species of birds and these include very many of the
Philippine species but the bulk of its 27 volumes would preclude the
use of this work in the field even if its rarity and cost were not
prohibitory. Thus there is an almost total lack of adequate means
for identifying Philippine birds which has been a serious check to
activity and interest in ornithological work throughout the Islands.

To meet this need and to place descriptions of the birds inhabiting
the Philippines in a convenient form for the use of local naturalists
the present work has been prepared. Technical terms and references
to internal structure have been avoided as far as possible although
this method weakens, to some extent, the keys and diagnoses of the
higher groups. The diagnoses of orders, families, and genera being
drawn from Philippine species may or may not define these groups as
represented outside of the Archipelago.

The actual material which has been available for study consists of
about 8,000 specimens of birds collected for the Bureau of Science,
a few skins received in exchange from the Menage Collection, nearly
200 skins received from the United States National Museum, part
in exchange and part as a loan, and a few small lots of skins from
various sources. There are, however, some 150 species inhabiting the
Philippines of which not a single specimen has been examined. Of some
other species the available material is quite inadequate for complete
descriptions; this is particularly true of the shore and water birds,
most of which visit the Philippine Islands as migrants and can not
be obtained here in breeding plumage.

To meet these deficiencies a large number of descriptions have been
taken from previous works, notably the Catalogue of Birds in the
British Museum, Oates's Birds of British Burmah, and the four volumes
on birds in the Fauna of British India, while a few have been taken
from periodicals. All copied descriptions and parts of descriptions
are inclosed in quotation marks followed by the authors' names;
the exact reference in each case will be found in the synonymy of
the species described.

The quotations ending with "Bourns and Worcester MS." are taken from a
manuscript prepared by Messrs. Frank S. Bourns and Dean C. Worcester
and based upon the ornithological specimens collected by the Menage
Expedition. This manuscript was intended for publication by the
Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences, but as that institution was
unable to meet the necessary expense, the right to use the manuscript
reverted to the authors who have permitted the publication of their
notes in this Manual.

The scientific name, an English name, and such native names as seem
to be commonly used with some degree of accuracy are given for each
species.

The synonymy consists of references to original descriptions and
to all works from which quotations are made; also to the following
works when the species is given in them: Catalogue of Birds in
the British Museum, Sharpe's Hand-List of the Genera and Species
of Birds, Oates and Reid's Catalogue of Birds' Eggs in the British
Museum, and McGregor and Worcester's Hand-List of Philippine Birds;
other references are to plates or figures, records of rare species,
important descriptions, notes on habits, or critical remarks. [2]

The distribution of each species is given by islands, arranged
alphabetically, with the names of collectors so far as these have
been worked out from the available literature. Distribution outside
of the Philippine Islands is given in a general way only.

To the descriptions and measurements of the birds are added notes
on habits, nests and eggs, abundance, etc. and in very many cases
manuscript notes by Bourns and Worcester, giving information on habits,
colors of soft parts, measurements, and validity of species.

All measurements are in the metric system. In copied descriptions
inches and hundredths have been carefully reduced to millimeters and
the English measurements omitted, tenths and hundredths of millimeters
being disregarded in most instances.

In accordance with Canon XXXVII of the Code of Nomenclature adopted
by the American Ornithologists' Union, Revised Edition (1908), generic
and specific names, unless evidently misprinted, are spelled as in the
original descriptions. Dr. Charles W. Richmond, Assistant Curator,
Division of Birds, United States National Museum, has most kindly
verified a very large number of these citations.

The last half century has been exceedingly fruitful in systems of
classification, some of them excellent, most of them suggestive and
helpful. The whole subject has been reviewed in a masterly way by
Newton, Dictionary of Birds, London (1896), 45-120 of introduction.

The present author has not the ability to judge of the relative merits
of the schemes of classification proposed by various authors but the
system set forth in Sharpe's Hand-List [3] and copied in McGregor
and Worcester's Hand-List of Philippine Birds is followed as being
both convenient and well known.



USE OF THE KEYS.


A key is a short cut used to approximate identification without
reading a great number of descriptions. The keys given here differ in
no essential particular from those to be found in other systematic
works on ornithology, but for the benefit of the beginner their use
may be briefly explained.

Having in hand an unknown bird begin with the key to the Orders
(p. 7), reading first the line beginning a1; if the specimen has
the characters given after a1 then the bird belongs to the Order
Pelecaniformes and another key is to be used which will be found
under that order, (p. 200). If the characters on the line after
a1 are not found in the specimen, then those given on the line a2
are to be examined and these the specimen must have, if no mistake
has been made. The next choice is between b1 and b2 and so on until
characters are found which agree with those of the specimen and at
the same time lead to a word at the right printed in heavy face type;
this is the name of the order to which the specimen belongs.

Having determined the order turn to the page where the order begins
and use the key there which leads to the suborders or to the families,
then find and use the keys to genera and species.

To illustrate the use of keys with a concrete example, suppose that we
have a specimen of the common spoon-billed duck or shoveler, but know
nothing of its affinities. Beginning with the key to orders we find:

"a1. Hind toe connected by a web to the inner toe." As this does not
agree with our specimen we try:


"a2. Hind toe not connected by a web to the inner toe." Yes.

  "b1. Nostrils tubular." No.
  "b2. Nostrils not tubular." Yes.

    "c1. Cutting edges of bill more or less distinctly fringed or
    serrated, tip of bill rounded ... Anseriformes."


Yes, and our bird belongs in the order Anseriformes. By a similar
procedure we find that our duck belongs in the subfamily Anatinæ
(p. 185) and in the key to genera (p. 187) we find:


"a1. Bill not spatulate."
"a2. Bill flattened, and spatulate ... Spatula."


As our duck has a flattened, spatulate bill we turn to the genus
Spatula (p. 196) and as there is but one Philippine species in this
genus we know that our bird is--


Spatula clypeata (Linnæus).

SHOVELER.



A MANUAL OF PHILIPPINE BIRDS.

By Richard C. McGregor.



Class AVES.

Oviparous, warm-blooded, amniotic vertebrates which have their anterior
extremities transformed into wings. Metacarpus and fingers carrying
feathers or quills. With an intertarsal joint. Not more than four
toes of which the first is the hallux. (Gadow.)



Subclass CARINATÆ.

Sternum with a keel; scapulæ and coracoids fused forming an acute
or a right angle; foramen ischiadicum present; distal six or seven
vertebræ fused to form the pygostyle.



Orders.

a1. Hind toe connected by a web to the inner toe ... Pelecaniformes
(p. 200)
a2. Hind toe not connected by a web to the inner toe.

  b1. Nostrils tubular.

    c1. Bill strong and decidedly hooked at the tip
    ... Procellariiformes (p. 84)
    c2. Bill weak, very small, gape very wide ... Caprimulgi in
    Coraciiformes (p. 295)

  b2. Nostrils not tubular.

    c1. Cutting edges of bill more or less distinctly fringed or
    serrated, tip of bill rounded ... Anseriformes (p. 184)
    c2. Cutting edges of bill not fringed.

      d1. Rectrices rudimentary; or if evident not prominent, being
      short, soft, and hidden by the upper coverts.

        e1. Tarsus flat; toes lobed ... Colymbiformes (p. 82)
        e2. Tarsus normal; toes not lobed.

          f1. Hind toe wanting ... Hemipodii (p. 17)
          f2. Hind toe present. ... Excalfactoria and Megapodius in
          Galliformes (p. 9)

      d2. Rectrices not rudimentary; if short not hidden by upper
      coverts.

        e1. Anterior toes distinctly webbed and tarsus shorter than
        tail. ... Lariformes (p. 85)
        e2. Anterior toes not distinctly webbed; or, if webbed,
        tarsus decidedly longer than tail; or else bill extremely
        small with gape very broad and deeply cleft.

          f1. Lower portion of thighs naked; or, if feathered, the
          bill lengthened and grooved along each side, the outer and
          middle toes separated for their entire length.

            g1. Hind toe well developed and inserted on the level of
            the anterior toes; claws not excessively lengthened; loral
            or orbital region or both naked ... Ardeiformes (p. 157)
            g2. Hind toe if present, small and inserted above the
            level of the rest; or else size of bird small (less than
            1 meter), loral and orbital regions fully feathered and
            middle claw not pectinate.

              h1. If more than 1 meter long the hind toe short and
              elevated; if less than 1 meter long the hind toe not
              elevated.

                i1. Size very large; hind toe small and
                elevated. ... Gruiformes (p. 155)
                i2. Size medium to small; hind toe not
                elevated. ... Ralliformes (p. 65)

              h2. Less than 1 meter long, usually much less; the hind
              toe if present, short and elevated, or if long the claws
              excessively long and wings spurred ... Charadriiformes
              (p. 98)

          f2. Lower portion of thighs feathered; or else middle and
          outer toes united for at least half their length, the bill
          if lengthened not grooved along the side.

            g1. Bill strongly hooked and with a distinct cere at base
            of upper mandible.

              h1. Toes three in front; or else outer toe reversible;
              claws sharp and powerful.

                i1. No facial disk of modified feathers; plumage
                normal, compact; nostrils generally not concealed by
                bristles. ... Accipitriformes (p. 210)
                i2. Eyes surrounded by a disk of modified feathers;
                plumage soft and fluffy; nostrils usually concealed
                by stiff bristles. ... Strigiformes (p. 249)

              h2. Toes two in front and two behind, the outer
              toe permanently reversed; claws small and dull
              ... Psittaciformes (p. 272)

            g2. Bill not strongly hooked and without a cere at base
            of upper mandible.

              h1. Hind toe small and elevated ... Galliformes (p. 9)
              h2. Hind toe or toes well developed and on the same
              level as the anterior toes.

                i1. Upper mandible with a soft swollen
                base. ... Columbiformes (p. 23)
                i2. Bill without a soft swollen base.

                  j1. Toes two in front, two behind; rarely two in
                  front and one behind, then the bill straight and
                  the rectrices stiff and pointed.

                    k1. Two toes in front united for their basal joint.

                      l1. Inner toe reversed, tail graduated
                      ... Trogones (p. 362)
                      l2. Outer toe reversed, tail nearly
                      square. ... Scansores (p. 389)

                    k2. Two toes in front perfectly free.

                      l1. Bill straight, its tip chisel-shaped;
                      rectrices stiff, with stiff, pointed tips
                      ... Piciformes (p. 392)
                      l2. Bill more or less curved; rectrices long and
                      soft, without stiff, pointed tips ... Coccyges
                      (p. 363)

                  j2. Toes three in front, one behind; rarely two in
                  front and one behind, then the tail soft; or rarely
                  four toes turned forward and arranged in pairs.

                    k1. Claw of hind toe shorter than that of third
                    toe; feet weak, or feet strong and two toes united
                    for their basal joint ... Coraciiformes (p. 295)
                    k2. Claw of hind toe equal to or longer than that
                    of middle toe.

                      l1. Outer and middle toes united for their
                      basal joint; bill broad; eye surrounded by a
                      fleshy wattle; tail graduated ... Eurylæmiformes
                      (p. 410)
                      l2. Outer and middle toes not united; toes
                      four in number; rectrices twelve with rare
                      exceptions; bill variable in shape, never
                      extensively membranous, softly tumid, nor cered
                      ... Passeriformes (p. 413)



Order GALLIFORMES.

MEGAPODES, PAINTED QUAIL, AND PHEASANTS.

Bill short and stout, culmen curved; head small; body heavy; wings
short and rounded, curved to the body; tail either very short or
greatly elongated; legs moderate to heavy; claws well developed; toes
four, slightly webbed at base. Members of this order are terrestrial;
their flight is strong and swift but can not be sustained for a long
distance. Their food consists of grain, seeds, and insects. The nest
is usually a slight hollow in the ground, hidden by grass or brush;
the megapodes, however, bury their eggs in mounds.



Suborders.

a1. Hind toe on a level with the other toes; feet and claws very heavy;
colors plain, the sexes similar in color ... Megapodii (p. 9)
a2. Hind toe slightly elevated; feet and claws moderate in size;
sexes very different in color; males much brighter ... Phasiani (p. 11)



Suborder MEGAPODII.



Family MEGAPODIIDÆ.

Nostrils oval, situated near anterior border of surrounding membrane;
bill moderate, culmen curved; orbital area nearly naked; ear-opening
small; chin, throat, and face scantily feathered with short plumes,
the skin usually red or dusky; legs, feet, and claws very large and
powerful; claws slightly curved and usually blunt; anterior face
of tarsus bearing a row of large scutes; rectrices short, exceeding
coverts but little; sexes alike.



Genus MEGAPODIUS Gaimard, 1823.

Characters same as those given for the Family.



1. MEGAPODIUS CUMINGI Dillwyn.

PHILIPPINE MEGAPODE.


    Megapodius cumingii Dillwyn, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1851), 119, pl. 39.
    Megapodius pusillus Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877), 765,
    pl. 78 (juv.).
    Megapodius dillwyni Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877), 766.
    Megapodius cumingi Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 22, 449;
    Meyer and Wiglesworth, Birds of Celebes (1898), 2, 671, pl. 41,
    fig. 1; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 12; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 16; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 7.

    Ou-cong', Calayan, Camiguin N.; ta-bon', Luzon, Mindoro,
    Cagayancillo, and in general.

    Balabac (Steere, Everett); Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Steere,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Cagayancillo (McGregor);
    Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Cebu (Everett, Bourns &
    Worcester); Cresta de Gallo (McGregor); Fuga (Whitehead, McGregor);
    Luzon (Cuming, Heriot, Whitehead); Marinduque (Steere Exp.);
    Mindanao (Steere, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Goodfellow); Mindoro (McGregor, Porter); Palawan (Everett,
    Lempriere, Whitehead, Platen, Bourns & Worcester, White); Romblon
    (Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Bourns & Worcester); Sibutu (Everett);
    Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Sulu (Bourns & Worcester, Platen);
    Tablas (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor). Celebean Islands and islands of northwestern Borneo.


Adult.--Top of head dark blue-gray with a wash of olive-brown; a narrow
gray collar on hind neck; rest of upper parts, including exposed parts
of folded wing, rich olive-brown; lower parts dark blue-gray. Iris
brown; bill yellow, dusky at base and about nostrils; legs and nails
black or dark brown; skin about eye varies from bright red to almost
black. A male from Cagayancillo measures, 340 in length; wing, 230;
tail, 72.4; tarsus, 62; middle toe with claw, 57; bill from nostril,
14. A female from the same island measures, 340 in length; wing, 235;
tail, 70; tarsus, 58; middle toe with claw, 57; bill from nostril, 14.

Young.--A bird measuring but 165 in length, taken in Calayan, October
7, 1903, bears a general resemblance to the adult but the superorbital
space, lores, chin, and throat are closely feathered; forehead, chin,
and area below eye dull yellowish brown; throat, sides of neck, and
breast dull brown; middle of abdomen dark ochraceous brown; feathers
of upper parts dark brown, obscurely edged with olive-brown on back,
scapulars, and wing-coverts; plumage, except remiges and rectrices,
soft and decomposed.

Nest.--The incubation mound built by this species is fully described
below. The eggs are prized by the natives for food; both the eggs and
the birds are quite palatable. When fresh the thin surface layer of the
egg is dark pink, usually smooth, but occasionally roughened by small
lumps; when exposed to air and light for some time the color becomes
dull, dirty brown and in many cases the outer layer crumbles away
exposing the true shell which is dull white and closely pitted. Five
eggs from Calayan taken in December measure: 78 by 52; 82 by 52.5;
82.5 by 47; 80 by 51; 79 by 51.

"This species probably occurs on every island of any size in the
group. It is frequently met with a considerable distance inland,
where it frequents wooded plains and hill. Its nest is usually,
though by no means always, built near the seashore. Several pairs
of birds frequently nest in the same mound, scratching up a little
additional material every time that an egg is deposited, eventually
forming a very large mound of earth, decayed leaves, sticks, etc.,
which in extreme cases comes to measure from 4 to 5 meters in diameter
by 1 1/2 meters high in the middle. The mound is frequently formed
about the roots of some old stump. When ready to lay, the female
tunnels into this mound, sometimes even burrowing into the solid
ground to a depth of half a meter or more, so that the eggs are one
to two meters below the surface of the mound. The egg is deposited at
the bottom of this burrow, which is then filled up. The young birds
dig to the surface as soon as hatched. They can run and fly when
they leave the shell, and seem always to shift for themselves from
the day of their birth. M. cumingi seems to lay all the year round,
the female apparently depositing an egg about once a week. The eggs
are oval in form, of a curious pinkish color when fresh, but rapidly
fading to a light dirty brown if exposed to the light.

"The old birds seem rather reluctant to take wing and when flushed fly
but a short distance, alight on the ground and run with great rapidity.

"There is much individual variation as to size and color even in birds
from one locality. Length, 336 to 380; culmen, 15 to 19; tarsus, 55
to 68; wing, 210 to 233; tail, 63 to 86. Iris dark chocolate-brown;
bill light yellowish at tip, brown at base; legs sometimes dark brown,
but usually strongly tinged with red, especially at back; feet dark
brown to black; nails black." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Suborder PHASIANI.



Family PHASIANIDÆ.

Bill strong and horny, nostrils oblong, never hidden by feathers;
culmen curved but not hooked; tarsi naked and in the male armed with
spurs (Excalfactoria without spurs); toes four, naked, and never
pectinated along sides; sexes differently colored.



Genera.

a1 Much smaller; length less than 150 mm.; head without crest or comb;
spurs absent ... Excalfactoria (p. 12)
a2 Much larger; length more than 350 mm.; head crested or with a comb;
spurs present in the male.

  b1. No crest but with a fleshy comb; tail-coverts without ocelli;
  male with one pair of spurs ... Gallus (p. 13)
  b2. No comb but with an elongated crest; longer tail-coverts
  ocellated; male with two or three pairs of spurs ... Polyplectron
  (p. 16)



Genus EXCALFACTORIA Bonaparte, 1856.

This genus resembles Turnix but is distinguished from it by having
a hind toe; the male is much handsomer than the female; the tail has
but eight short rectrices which are hidden by the long upper coverts.



2. EXCALFACTORIA LINEATA (Scopoli).

ISLAND PAINTED QUAIL.


    Oriolus lineatus Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. (1786),
    2, 87.
    Excalfactoria lineata Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 22, 253;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 32; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901),
    1, 48, pl. 4, fig. 2; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 7.

    Pu-gong bú-quet, ti-co ti-co, Manila; pu-gong pa-rang, Calapan,
    Mindoro.

    Basilan (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Calamianes
    (Bourns & Worcester); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester); Lubang (McGregor);
    Luzon (Heriot, Whitehead, McGregor); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester);
    Mindanao (Koch & Schadenberg, Clemens); Mindoro (McGregor,
    Porter); Negros (Layard, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Palawan
    (Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay (Bourns & Worcester);
    Samar (Whitehead); Sibuyan (McGregor); Siquijor (Celestino); Sulu
    (Guillemard); Ticao (McGregor). Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Australia.


Adult male.--Upper parts dark brown; most of the feathers with light
shaft-lines, large subterminal black blotches, and some black bars; the
black markings heaviest on lower back; forehead, circumorbital area,
sides of neck, breast, and flanks slate-blue; chin, upper throat,
and lower half of face black; throat patch bordered posteriorly by
a wide, crescentic, white patch which is bordered posteriorly by
a narrow black band; a white included patch on side of face from
lower mandible to below ear, the anterior end of which is pointed;
a narrow white line from below nostril to eye; a patch of rich
chestnut covering middle of abdomen and lower breast; wings sandy
brown; coverts and secondaries vermiculated with darker brown; tail
chestnut; upper tail-coverts chestnut mixed with slate-blue. Iris
deep red; bill dark blue, black along upper part; legs dark yellow;
nails brown. Length about 135. Five males measure: Wing, 66 to 70;
tail-coverts, [4] 26 to 28; exposed culmen, 9 to 11; tarsus, 18 to 19.

Adult female.--Upper parts and wings as in the male, but with a light
buff, median line on head; forehead, sides of head, and throat dark
buff; the black and white throat patch of male replaced in female by
an equal area of dark buff in which the white bases of feathers show
through on chin and upper throat; a line of fine black spots from
gape to below ear-coverts; breast and flanks light buff, each feather
crossed by one to three crescentic marks of blackish brown; middle of
abdomen white or with a pale buff wash. Five females measure: Wing,
67 to 71; tail-coverts, 22 to 26; exposed culmen, 10 to 11; tarsus,
17 to 18.5.

Young.--In a very young chick from Sibuyan, sex undetermined, the
upper parts, including wings and coverts, are blackish brown; top of
head marked with three buffy lines extending from forehead to nape
and separated by wide blackish brown bands; wing-coverts and feathers
of back with edges and shafts buff; chin and throat pale yellow;
upper breast, sides, and flanks black with wide white shaft-stripes;
belly dirty yellowish buff. A nearly full grown male in mixed plumage,
from Calapan, has the black chin-spot developed, the white patches
partly developed, and the breast, abdomen, and flanks retain some
of the old striped feathers of the first plumage along with the new
chestnut and slate feathers. The young female of E. chinensis is said
to have the upper breast and sides spotted; as age increases these
spots resolve themselves into transverse bars. The young female of
E. lineata probably undergoes a similar change of plumage.

Both the painted and bustard quails frequent grassy fields and
plains, usually in small companies. When flushed they fly but a
short distance and seldom get up a second time, seeming to place more
reliance on running than on flight. Except Polyplectron the genera
of the Philippine Turnicidæ and Phasianidæ range from the coasts to
the highlands.



Genus GALLUS Brisson, 1760.

Head surmounted by a fleshy comb; a wattle on each side of throat;
tail laterally compressed, the central feathers being higher than the
lateral ones; the former greatly elongated and curved in the males;
feathers of neck and rump long and pointed; each tarsus armed with
a long sharp spur.



3. GALLUS GALLUS (Linnæus).

RED JUNGLE FOWL.


    Phasianus gallus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 158.
    Gallus bankiva Temminck, Pig. et Gall. (1813), 2, 87.
    Gallus gallus Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 22, 344; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 39; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 59;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 8.
    ? Gallus stramineicollis Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1879), 317. [5]

    La-bú-yu, Lubang, Manila, and generally; ma-noc' i-has', Bohol.

    Balabac (Steere); Basilan (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Bohol (McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns &
    Worcester); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Cebu
    (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Fuga
    (Whitehead, McGregor); Guimaras (Meyer, Steere Exp.); Lubang
    (McGregor); Luzon (Meyer, Schmacker, Whitehead, McGregor);
    Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao
    (Everett, Steere Exp., Goodfellow); Mindoro (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor, Porter); Negros (Bourns & Worcester, Keay);
    Palawan (Steere, Whitehead, Platen, Bourns & Worcester, White);
    Panay (Steere, Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester);
    Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Celestino); Sulu
    (Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester);
    Ticao (McGregor). Malay and Indian Peninsulas, Indo-Malayan
    Islands, Indo-Chinese countries.


Adult male.--Sides of head, chin, and throat clothed with scattered
hair-like feathers; ear protected by short close-set feathers;
feathers on top of head, neck, and mantle lanceolate, those of
mantle very long; head, neck, and sides of neck dark reddish brown,
becoming lighter and yellowish near ends of longest feathers, and
forming a zone of orange-yellow, the tips again darker, reddish, and
shaft-lines darker; mantle feathers hidden by hackles, and lesser
coverts blackish brown with slight gloss; lower back and median
coverts rich maroon-red forming a wide crescent; lanceolate rump
feathers dark orange-red; below (except a few lanceolate reddish
feathers on throat) blackish brown with a slight green gloss not
always evident; primaries dark brown edged with buff; secondaries
dark brown with exposed outer webs dark cinnamon, mottled near tips;
alula and greater coverts blackish brown, the latter with green and
purple gloss; tail and its upper coverts black, glossed with green;
middle pair of rectrices curved outward and about twice the length
of next pair. Top of head decorated with a deeply emarginated, fleshy
comb, crimson in color; a wattle on each side of throat also crimson;
a round lappet below each ear light bluish; other bare areas of head
and neck pale crimson; bill dark brown above, lighter below; legs gray,
spurs black, nails dark brown. The length varies greatly, of course,
with the development of central rectrices. A male from Mariveles,
Bataan measures, 660 in length; wing, flat on rule, 235; tail, 368;
bill from front of comb, 17; tarsus, 74; middle toe with claw, 59;
spur, 24. A male from Fuga, tail, 508; spur, 28.

"Adult female.--Top of the head rust-red, shading into orange on the
neck and pale yellow on the upper mantle, each feather with a wide
black stripe down the center; rest of upper parts pale reddish brown,
finely mottled with black and with pale shafts; quills blackish brown,
the outer half of the outer webs of secondaries mottled with pale
reddish brown; fore part of neck chestnut; chest and breast pale light
red, shading into pale reddish brown on sides, flanks, and belly,
each feather with a pale shaft; under tail-coverts brownish black;
tail-feathers like the secondaries, the center pair of feathers mottled
on the margins of both webs, and the outer pairs on the outer web,
with pale rufous. Soft parts much the same as those of the male;
comb very much smaller, and wattles absent. Length, 420; wing, 190;
tail, 140; tarsus, 61.

"Immature males have the hackles of the mantle much paler than in
the majority of adult birds and mostly with dark shaft-stripes; the
chestnut part of the outer webs of the secondaries finely mottled
with black nearly to the margins; the feathers underlying the hackles
of the mantle dull, brownish black without any green gloss, and the
comb and wattles rudimentary." (Grant.)

Chick.--Below light yellow-buff, palest on chin; throat, upper breast,
and sides of neck washed with brownish buff; top and sides of head
dark yellow-buff; a band from above angle of mouth backward through
eye to side of neck dark cinnamon, bordered above with blackish brown;
middle of crown and hind neck with a wide, black-bordered cinnamon
patch which becomes diffused on interscapular region, reappears on
middle of back and is continued to the tail; the black bordered on
each side with light buff followed by dark brown; wings and tail light
brown, speckled and vermiculated with darker brown. Iris light brown;
bill, legs, and nails flesh. Small chicks were taken in Mariveles,
Province of Bataan, March 8, 1902, and at Irisan, Province of Benguet,
on April 30, 1903.

Nest.--A slight hollow dug in the earth in the shelter of bushes or
grass is the usual nest. The eggs are much smaller than with domestic
varieties; four from a nest found February 26, 1904, near Mariveles,
Bataan, measure respectively: 47 by 36; 44 by 34; 45 by 35; 46 by
35. In color the eggs are light creamy buff; the shape is similar to
that found in eggs from the domestic varieties.

The jungle fowl is found throughout the Philippines and the males are
frequently domesticated by the natives and used for their national
pastime of cock fighting. In this country at least the wild chickens
afford the gunner no sport whatever as they habitually remain within
thick tangles of brush where wing-shots are impossible, or, if by
chance caught in the open, they scurry to the nearest thicket. There
is no great difficulty, however, in securing specimens, if one cares
to kill them sitting. Their flesh is usually tender and more savory
than that of the domestic birds. The male has a high falsetto voice
resembling very much that of a young domestic cock. Delighting in
small growth mixed with a tangle of bamboo and rattan, especially if
near cultivated fields, this species generally avoids true forest
unless there be near-by clearings. The natives are very successful
in taking the cocks alive by employing a live decoy which they picket
within a small corral of snares.



Genus POLYPLECTRON Temminck, 1807.

Bill similar to that of Gallus; feathers of crown forming a long
crest; wings short and rounded; rectrices twenty-four in number and
greatly graduated; upper tail-coverts lengthened; tarsi covered with
transverse plates and each tarsus armed with two or three sharp spurs;
tarsus longer than middle toe with claw.



4. POLYPLECTRON NAPOLEONIS Lesson.

PALAWAN PEACOCK PHEASANT.


    Polyplectron napoleonis Lesson, Traité d'Orn. (1831), 487,
    650; Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 22, 361; Bourns and
    Worcester, Minnesota Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 43;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 8.
    Polyplectron nehrkornæ Blasius, Mitth. orn. Ver. Wien (1891), 1;
    Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 22, 360.
    Polyplectrum napoleonis Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 39.

    Pavo real, Spanish name.

    Palawan (Everett, Whitehead, Platen, Bourns & Worcester, White).


Adult male.--Black; top of head, crest, and hind neck green, changing
with the light to purple; a large white patch from base of lower
mandible extending over ear-coverts; a narrow superciliary line
of white (this line is absent in some specimens; in others wider
and confluent on nape); mantle, secondaries, and greater and median
wing-coverts green, changing to blue and purple, bases of the feathers
black; remainder of wing brown or blackish; back and rump black,
thickly marked with small, rusty buff spots; longest coverts and
rectrices similar but the spots fewer and lighter and each feather
with two large, round or oval spots of peacock-green, surrounded by
a black ring and an outer gray ring; longest coverts tipped with
a narrow line of pale buff; rectrices tipped with lines of black,
gray, white, and gray, the white line narrow and sharply defined;
under parts all black, except tail-coverts which are speckled with
buff. "Bill black tipped with pale horn-color; eyes chocolate-brown;
legs, feet, and nails brown." (Bourns and Worcester.) A male from
Iwahig, Palawan, measures: Wing, 190; tail, 240; exposed culmen, 28;
bill from nostril, 15; tarsus, 66; middle toe with claw, 56.

Female.--Top of head and a short crest dark brown; sides of face, chin,
and throat white; remainder of the plumage brown, more rusty above
and on wings, finely speckled with dark brown and black; tail with
the large round metallic spots of the male replaced by black spots
having little or no metallic color. A female from Iwahig, Palawan,
measures: Wing, 180; tail, 183; exposed culmen, 22; bill from nostril,
13; tarsus, 54; middle toe with claw, 48.

Young.--"An immature male resembles the female, but has tail and
greater coverts like those of adult male, though the ocelli are much
smaller and absent on inner webs of all the tail-feathers except
three middle pairs; one or two feathers of mantle have a metallic
bluish green patch in the middle and traces are apparent of black
plumage on mantle, wing-coverts, throat, and under parts." (Grant.)

This beautiful peacock pheasant, the "pavo real" of the Spaniards,
is confined to the Island of Palawan. Bourns and Worcester state that
the species is extremely shy, all of their specimens, including 18
adults beside young, being taken by natives in snares. They give the
following average measurements: Eleven males, length, 519; wing, 180;
tail, 222; culmen, 24; tarsus, 61; seven females, length, 420; wing,
166; tail, 150; culmen, 22; tarsus, 55.

Bourns and Worcester have shown that the character upon which
P. nehrkornæ was based--i.e., narrow superciliary stripes not confluent
on nape--is variable to a great degree and not dependent upon age,
so napoleonis is accepted as the correct specific name for the Palawan
bird, although originally applied to a specimen supposed to have come
from Luzon, an island in which the genus certainly does not exist.

Major John R. White has secured a fine series of these birds at the
Iwahig penal colony, and he states that he has seldom seen the birds
until snared by the natives.



Order HEMIPODII.

BUTTON QUAILS.

Culmen curved but not hooked; nostrils opening by a slit beneath a
horny scale; tarsi naked, without spurs; hind toe absent; wings short,
rounded, and curved to the body; rectrices short, soft, and nearly
hidden by the long fluffy coverts.



Family TURNICIDÆ.

Size small, the largest Philippine species under 200 mm. in length,
the others much smaller. Birds of this family resemble Excalfactoria in
general form but may be recognized by their lack of a hind toe. They
are usually found in grassy plains. The flight is rapid but of short
duration; the birds get up at one's feet but seldom flush a second
time. The nest is placed on the ground beneath a tuft of grass; eggs,
three or four, spotted with brown.



Genus TURNIX Bonnaterre, 1790.

Characters same as those given for the Family.



Species.

a1. Breast without chestnut or rusty buff, heavily cross-barred with
black. ... fasciata (p. 18)
a2. Breast chestnut or rusty buff, without black cross-bars.

  b1. Larger; wing more than 80 mm.; breast rich chestnut; chin white
  ([male]), or black ([female]), or white spotted with black (young)
  ... ocellata (p. 20)
  b2. Smaller; wing less than 80 mm.; breast rusty buff; chin whitish,
  never black nor mixed with black.

    c1. Bill more slender, depth at angle of gonys, 4 mm. or less.

      d1. Smaller; wing, 57 to 60; tarsus, 16.5 to 18 mm ... whiteheadi
      (p. 20)
      d2. Larger; wing, 65.5 or more; tarsus, 19 mm. or more.

        e1. Larger; wing, 67 mm.; upper parts lighter ... suluensis
        (p. 21)
        e2. Smaller; wing, 65.5 mm.; upper parts darker ... celestinoi
        (p. 22)

    c2. Bill stouter, depth at angle of gonys, 5.8 mm ... worcesteri
    (p. 23)



5. TURNIX FASCIATA (Temminck).

PHILIPPINE BUTTON QUAIL.


    Hemipodius fasciatus Temminck, Pig. et Gall. (1815), 3, 634, 757.
    Turnix fasciata Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 22, 535;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 48; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901),
    1, 70; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 8.
    Turnix nigrescens Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877), 765.
    Turnix haynaldi Blasius, Ornis (1888), 4, 317.

    Pu-gong daan, Manila; tic-ti'-co, Calapan, Mindoro.

    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Cebu (Everett, Bourns &
    Worcester); Luzon (Everett, Heriot, Whitehead, McGregor, Mearns);
    Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindoro (McGregor, Porter); Negros
    (Steere Exp.); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, White); Panay (Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns
    & Worcester).


Adult male.--Above blackish brown; feathers of back largely black with
white or buff margins; in some specimens the margins largely rufous;
chin and throat white; breast and sides light buff with clear-cut,
subterminal, black cross-bars; abdomen and belly dirty white; flanks
and under tail-coverts washed with buff; quills blackish brown,
first three or four narrowly edged with pale buff or white; first
alula-quill widely edged with pale buff or white; coverts light buff,
more or fewer with strong cross-bars. Bill black, yellow at base;
legs pale greenish yellow. Length, 140. Three males measure: Wing,
68 to 76; tail, 23 to 28; culmen, 12 to 13; tarsus, 21 to 22; middle
toe with claw, 18 to 19.5.

Adult female.--Like the adult male but larger; chin and throat
black; hind neck and sides of neck decorated with a collar of rich
chestnut. Iris white; bill yellow, slightly greenish toward tip; legs
greenish; nails flesh-colored. Length, 160. Three females measure:
Wing, 72 to 81; tail, 29 to 30.5; culmen, 13 to 14; tarsus, 23 to 25;
middle toe with claw, 20 to 23.

Young.--Immature birds of both sexes resemble the adult male but the
bars of breast are reduced to spots or to irregular V-shaped bars;
above more uniform, dull rusty brown and edges of feathers more or
less rusty; wing-coverts blackish brown, notched with white.

There is much variation in the color of the upper parts due to wear;
birds in fresh plumage (February, Manila) are largely chestnut above
and males may have a narrow chestnut collar; the rich color fades and
the feathers become abraded very rapidly. A male (March 17, Tarlac)
shows scarcely any chestnut and that of a faded hue. The species is
easily recognized in any plumage by the black bars (spots in young)
on breast.

Eggs.--"The eggs of the Philippine bustard quail are grayish white,
densely covered with specks and dots of yellowish brown and small
blotches of pale purple. The three examples in the collection
[collected by the Steere Expedition in Negros, November 10], are
very broad ovals and measure respectively: 28.4 by 21.3; 27 by 21.3;
26 by 21.3." (Oates.)

A nest believed to belong to this species was found in Mindoro,
March 23, 1905. It was made of dry grass and placed on the ground
in an old clearing, where it was well hidden by the surrounding
grass. The three eggs were slightly incubated; two of them measure 25
by 20 and the third measures 24.6 by 19.8. The ground-color is white,
closely speckled with dull greenish brown and occasional small spots
of various shades of lilac, the larger end rather thickly marked with
blotches of blackish brown. One specimen from Manila, July 30, 1908,
measures 23.5 by 18.5.

"Common about old paddy-fields and on grassy plains. It flies but a
short distance and then buries itself in the grass, where it runs
rapidly and hides so well that one is seldom able to flush a bird
the second time." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



6. TURNIX OCELLATA (Scopoli).

SPOTTED BUTTON QUAIL.


    Oriolus ocellatus Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. (1786),
    pt. 2, 88.
    Turnix ocellata Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 22, 548;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 49; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 8.

    Pu-gong gu'-bat, Manila.

    Luzon (Everett, Heriot, Whitehead, McGregor, Worcester, Mearns).


Adult male.--Above mottled and spotted; head and sides of face black
with roundish white spots and some rusty edging to feathers; rest of
upper parts with large black centers to feathers whose edges are light
buff and tips rusty; a slight trace of a chestnut nuchal collar; chin
and middle of throat white; breast uniform rufous-chestnut; middle of
belly dirty white; flanks, thighs, and under tail-coverts dirty buff;
primaries brown with pale edges; secondaries mottled and with wider,
buff edges; coverts and tertials buff, each with a larger, roundish,
black spot. "Iris white, upper mandible grayish brown at tip, pale
yellow from nostrils back; lower mandible pale yellow, except tip
light brown, legs and feet light straw-yellow, except joints and
soles light brown; nails gray. Length, 165." (Worcester.) A specimen
from Benguet measures: Wing, 93; tail, 33; culmen, 15; tarsus, 25;
middle toe with claw, 24.

Adult female.--Similar to male but larger; throat and chin black;
chestnut of breast continued above as a wide nuchal collar. Iris
white; bill pale yellow, grayish at tip; legs dull yellow; nails
whitish. Length, 180; wing, 115; tail, 37; culmen, 17; tarsus, 29;
middle toe with claw, 27.5. These measurements are from a specimen
taken near Manila.

Young.--In young males the throat is more or less spotted with
black and many of the breast-feathers are subterminally spotted with
black. In young females the throat is more or less spotted with white.

This is much the largest of the Philippine button quails and appears
to be confined to the Island of Luzon.



7. TURNIX WHITEHEADI Grant.

WHITEHEAD'S BUTTON QUAIL.


    Turnix whiteheadi Grant, Hand-Book Game Bds. (1896), 2, 276;
    Whitehead, Ibis (1899), 5, 493; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1,
    48; McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4, 7, pl. I, fig. 2;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 8.

    Luzon (Whitehead, McGregor).


Adult male.--General color above black, finely vermiculated with gray
and dull reddish brown or with dull chestnut; crown mostly black with
dull chestnut tips to the feathers; a distinct median line of buff
from bill to neck; many feathers on back edged with buff or whitish
buff; forehead and whole side of face pale buff, most of the feathers
black tipped; chin, upper throat, and abdomen white; breast dark buff;
a few black spots on sides of breast; a few feathers on sides, under
wings, dull chestnut; quills brown with light edges; long alula-quill
edged with white; coverts largely ochraceous-buff or dull chestnut
and more or less marked with large black spots; long scapulars
broadly edged with ochraceous-buff or pale yellow-buff. Iris white;
upper mandible dark horn; lower mandible dull blue; legs and nails
flesh-colored. Length, about 120; wing, 56.5 to 61; tail, 16.5 to 28;
culmen, 9 to 10; tarsus, 16.5 to 18.

Adult female.--Differs from the adult male in having median crown-line
and sides of face pale straw or whitish; a narrow collar of dull
chestnut; above generally darker and marked with a greater amount of
dull chestnut. Wing, 60 to 64; tail, 18 to 22; culmen, 9.5 to 11.5;
tarsus, 17 to 18.

Young.--Immature birds are similar to adults but have the breast
white, streaked with dark brown; upper parts more uniformly and less
richly colored.

Eggs.--White with numerous, obscure, lilac markings; around the larger
end a band of dark sienna; larger end covered to middle of egg with a
wash of dark brown; edge of this color-area well-defined and slightly
irregular; smaller end of egg with a few small specks and a faint brown
wash. Two eggs measure respectively 20 by 16 and 20 by 16.5. Another
egg, measuring 20.6 by 16.2, is white, speckled with brown and has
nearly one-half the surface, at the larger end, covered with dark
vandyke-brown. Eggs are deposited in August so far as known.

The only known specimens of Whitehead's button quail were purchased
in the Quinta Market, Manila. It is said that they are trapped in
the vicinity of Parañaque, some 7 kilometers from Manila.



8. TURNIX SULUENSIS Mearns.

SULU BUTTON QUAIL.


    Turnix suluensis Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905), 18, 83;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 8.

    Sulu (Mearns).


"Adult female (type and only specimen).--General color of upper parts
walnut-brown, the feathers finely banded and vermiculated with gray and
black; top of head clove-brown, the feathers almost imperceptibly edged
with gray, divided by a median stripe of isabella-color extending from
the base of the bill to the occiput; sides of head and neck buffy
white speckled with clove-brown; nape walnut-brown, the feathers
edged with gray; mantle walnut-brown, the feathers edged with gray,
and vermiculated with black, gray, and traces of very pale cinnamon;
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts clove-brown, the feathers
narrowly edged with gray on the back and upper rump, more broadly with
cinnamon on the lower rump and upper tail-coverts; tail grayish drab,
the feathers perceptibly cross-banded with wavy lines of dusky, edged
with cinnamon on outer webs, with middle pair of feathers extending 7
mm. beyond the next pair; scapulars and humerals conspicuously edged
externally with golden buff and cinnamon; primaries grayish drab, the
two outer ones edged externally with wood-brown; secondaries darker
drab, edged with cinnamon on the outer web; greater wing-coverts
cinnamon, drab at base, with a subterminal black spot on the outer
web; lesser wing-coverts cinnamon-rufous, edged with buff, with a
subterminal black ocellus; chin, upper throat, and malar region,
whitish, the last speckled with blackish brown; lower neck and upper
breast clay-color, bordered by a chain of oval black spots, the
largest 3 mm. in length; lower breast and middle of belly whitish;
sides of lower neck, and sides of chest and breast, chestnut mixed
with black and clay-color; flanks light clay-color; under tail-coverts
darker clay-color; lining of wings pale clay-color and pale grayish
drab. Length of skin, 120; wing, 68; tail, 31; culmen, 11.5; depth
of bill at angle of gonys, 3.8; tarsus, 19.5." (Mearns.)



9. TURNIX CELESTINOI McGregor.

CELESTINO'S BUTTON QUAIL.


    Turnix celestinoi McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A,
    292, 317.

    Bohol (McGregor).


Adult male (type and only specimen).--Ground-color of upper parts
black; feathers of head narrowly edged with dull buff, paler on
forehead; a narrow median line of pale buff from forehead to nape; hind
neck, mantle, rump, and tail-coverts with wavy, broken, cross-lines
of dark rusty buff, obsolete on neck; lores and side of head light
buff with small black tips to feathers; a patch on each side of neck
pale vinaceous-buff with narrow black cross-lines; chin and throat
white, each feather with narrow buff tips, middle of abdomen white;
rest of lower parts rusty buff or clay-color, a trifle lighter than
in T. worcesteri; each feather on sides of breast marked with a
wide black bar; primaries, secondaries, primary-coverts, and alula
drab-gray; first primary and first feather of alula edged exteriorly
with ocherous-buff; secondary-coverts and inner secondaries with
wide edges of ocherous-buff preceded by large black spots or bars;
wing-lining and axillars drab-gray; tail bluish slate and hidden by
the long coverts. Length, 130; wing, 65.5; tail, 18.1; exposed culmen,
11.5; depth of bill at angle of gonys, 4; tarsus, 20; middle toe with
claw, 18.5.

The only specimen known was taken on a grassy hill near the town
of Guindulman, in Bohol, June 22, 1906. It is closely related to
T. suluensis.



10. TURNIX WORCESTERI McGregor.

WORCESTER'S BUTTON QUAIL.


    Turnix worcesteri McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4, 8,
    pl. 1, fig. 1; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 8.

    Luzon (McGregor).


Adult (sexes nearly alike).--General color above black; forehead
spotted with white; feathers of crown and nape tipped with pale
buff and some edged with white, producing an incomplete white line
on middle of head (this line may be perfect in a well made skin);
feathers on back and rump barred and tipped with pale buff; tertials
and scapulars edged with whitish buff; feathers on sides of face mostly
white with black tips; lores white; feathers on sides of neck black,
each with a wide, subterminal, white bar; a small black spot behind
ear; breast and throat rusty buff or dark clay-color, this color
extending up each side of the white chin-area as rusty-buff tips to
the feathers and bounded above by the black-tipped white feathers of
malar region; flanks, under tail-coverts, and sides of abdomen and
breast also rusty buff, but paler; middle of abdomen whitish; a few
feathers on sides of abdomen barred with blackish brown; primaries,
their coverts, and secondaries drab-gray; four outer primaries narrowly
edged with whitish; secondaries barred with whitish on outer webs;
secondary-coverts blackish, mottled and edged with pale buff; rectrices
blackish, edged with buff. Bill pale bluish; legs flesh-pink, nails
slightly darker; iris very pale yellow. A male measures: Length, 120;
wing, 65; tail, 27; culmen from base, 10; depth of bill at angle of
gonys, 5; tarsus, 17; middle toe with claw, 16. Length of female, 128;
wing, 71; tail, 23.5; culmen, 11.4; depth of bill at angle of gonys,
5.8; tarsus, 16.7; middle toe with claw, 18.

Worcester's quail is known from four specimens which were purchased
in Quinta Market, Manila. It resembles T. whiteheadi but differs from
that species in having the bill much deeper. Major E. A. Mearns informs
me that he is quite sure that he saw a live bird of this species in
Manila, in August, 1907.



Order COLUMBIFORMES.

DOVES AND PIGEONS.


Tip of bill horny and strongly convex forming a "nail" which is often
of a shade or color different from that of the soft, contracted, basal
portion; covering of nostril generally tumid; toes four, three in
front, cleft to the base or with a slight web; hind toe not elevated;
legs and toes never much lengthened; tarsus either slightly longer or
slightly shorter than middle toe without claw; wing flat and rather
long; in several genera the primaries variously cut or attenuated;
tail usually square or slightly rounded; never forked; in Macropygia
and Geopelia the rectrices are greatly graduated. A few genera are
terrestrial, but most of them are more or less arboreal and generally
capable of strong, swift, and sustained flight. Their food is largely
grain and small seeds; the larger species feed on the fruits of trees,
rarely on the leaves. The nest is a slight structure of twigs placed on
the ground, in a shrub, or in a tall tree. Eggs one or two, pure white
or slightly cream-colored; in shape rather long, equal ended, ovals.



Suborder COLUMBÆ.

Characters same as those given for the Order.



Families.


a1. Soles very broad; tarsus stout, more or less feathered, and
generally shorter than middle toe without claw.

  b1. Nostril coverings flat or but slightly swollen ... Treronidæ
  (p. 24)
  b2. Nostril coverings swollen forming a grape-seed shaped prominence
  on each side of culmen ... Columbidæ (p. 51)

a2. Soles not greatly expanded on sides of toes; tarsus more slender,
unfeathered, and longer than middle toe without claw ... Peristeridæ
(p. 54)



Family TRERONIDÆ.

Soles very broad; tarsus stout, more or less feathered; bill stout
or large; gape very wide in some; nostril covering flat or somewhat
swollen; tail moderate in length, nearly square; medium to large
sized species.



Subfamilies.


a1. Under tail-coverts long, their tips reaching well beyond toes;
size generally smaller; length, 340 mm. or less.

  b1. First primary not attenuated; third primary scooped on
  middle of inner web, except in Phapitreron which has mostly brown
  plumage. ... Treroninæ (p. 24)
  b2. First primary abruptly attenuated, except in Spilotreron which
  has mostly green plumage; third primary normal ... Ptilopodinæ
  (p. 36)

a2. Under tail-coverts moderate, their tips reaching little if
any beyond toes; size generally larger; length, 360 mm. or more
... Muscadivorinæ (p. 42)



Subfamily TRERONINÆ.



Genera.


a1. General color green or greenish yellow; rectrices fourteen,
under coverts usually equal to or longer than shortest rectrix;
third primary deeply scooped near middle of inner web.

  b1. Horny nail of bill reaching feathers of forehead ... Treron
  (p. 25)
  b2. Horny nail of bill not reaching feathers of forehead.

    c1. Tail slightly graduated; under tail-coverts broadly streaked,
    the shafts black ... Sphenocercus (p. 26)
    c2. Tail square; under tail-coverts not streaked, the shafts of
    the same color as the webs ... Osmotreron (p. 26)

a2. General color brown; rectrices twelve, under coverts shorter than
shortest rectrix; third primary not scooped ... Phapitreron (p. 29)



Genus TRERON Vieillot, 1816.

This genus differs from the other green pigeons in having the horny
portion of culmen extending back to frontal feathers; a small naked
area around eye; pattern and colors of the plumage very similar to
those of Osmotreron axillaris.



11. TRERON NIPALENSIS (Hodgson).

THICK-BILLED GREEN PIGEON.


    Toria nipalensis Hodgson, As. Research (1836), 19, 164, pl. 9.
    Treron nipalensis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21,
    34; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 53; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 82; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 9.
    Treron nasica Steere, List Birds and Mams. Steere Exp. (1890), 24.

    Mindoro (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Palawan (Steere,
    Everett, Whitehead, Platen, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Celestino, White). Nepal to Burma, Malay Peninsula, Siam, Cochin
    China, Tenasserim, Borneo.


Adult male.--Crown ashy, forehead lighter; face and neck dark gray,
the latter followed by a narrow line of ashy gray; mantle, including
lesser wing-coverts, dark chestnut; lower back, rump, and tail-coverts
dark green; under parts yellowish green, breast more yellowish; thighs
and flanks darker and greener, mixed with white; under tail-coverts
cinnamon; wings black; median and greater wing-coverts and secondaries
edged with yellow; some of the inner secondaries tipped with green;
tail above, ashy gray with a black band some distance from the tip,
but the median rectrices green and the next two partly green. "Legs
and feet vary from lake-pink to coral-red; orbital skin pea-green;
the irides vary from bright orange to yellowish red, with an inner,
deep-blue ring more or less apparent; gape and base of upper mandible
to nostril bright red; rest of bill pale yellowish, or greenish white,
tipped with greenish." (Hume.) Two males from Palawan measure: Length,
250, 260; wing, 132, 136; tail, 89, 87; culmen from base, 20, 21;
tarsus, 19.8, 20.

Adult female.--Differs from the male in having the mantle dark green
like lower back; under tail-coverts buffy white with large pointed
shaft-marks of dark green. A female from Palawan measures: Length,
250; wing, 130; tail, 84; culmen from base, 20; tarsus, 20.

"Two females measure: Length, 210; culmen, 20; wing, 130; tail, 74;
tarsus, 20; middle toe with claw, 29. Iris with outer orange and inner
brown ring; bill yellow, red at base of lower mandible." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



Genus SPHENOCERCUS Gray, 1840.

This genus resembles Osmotreron, but it has a longer and more strongly
graduated tail and the hard portion of the upper mandible is shorter.



12. SPHENOCERCUS AUSTRALIS McGregor.

SOUTHERN WEDGE-TAILED PIGEON.


    Sphenocercus formosæ McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4,
    9; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 9.
    Sphenocercus australis McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2,
    sec. A, 344.

    Pú-nay, Calayan; a-ri-da-uang', Batan.

    Batan (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor).


Adult male.--General color above olive-green, lighter and grayish on
neck and sides of neck; crown ochraceous-buff; lower parts uniform
green from chin to abdomen; middle of abdomen white, washed with pale
yellow; sides blue-gray; flanks and thighs dark olive-green, mixed
with fine lines of pale yellow; under tail-coverts pale yellowish
(the longest buffy), each with a wide, dark olive-green shaft-mark;
shoulders maroon connected by a maroon band across the back; primaries
and secondaries black; secondaries and greater coverts with narrow
margins of pale yellow; inner secondaries and tail dark green like
back; tail black below with a narrow gray tip. Bill light blue,
the tip whitish; skin about eye blue; inner ring of eye clear blue,
outer ring pink, a dusky intermediate ring; legs dull carmine, nails
pale blue. Length, about 355; three specimens measure: Wing, 188 to
197; tail, 125 to 130; exposed culmen, 19 to 20; tarsus, 24 to 27;
middle toe with claw, 38 to 40.

Adult female.--Differs from the male in lacking the ochraceous of
crown and the maroon of shoulders and back, the entire upper parts
being green. Three specimens measure: Wing, 185 to 189; tail, 118
to 125; culmen, 19 to 19.5; tarsus, 24 to 27; middle toe with claw,
35.5 to 37.5.

This species is closely related to Sphenocercus formosæ and specimens
of the two species should be compared. It is not uncommon in Calayan
and Camiguin. We were first led to search for it by hearing its
weird, prolonged cry which is remarkably like that of a child in
pain. Having located the tree in which one of these birds was resting
it was difficult to see the bird as its yellowish green under parts
were in perfect harmony with the color of the leafy branches.



Genus OSMOTRERON Bonaparte, 1854.

Length, 280 to 305 mm.; colors largely yellow or olive-green; primaries
black; secondaries and coverts with conspicuous yellow borders; tail
nearly square, moderate in length; under tail-coverts very long,
equaling or slightly exceeding rectrices; bill short and moderately
stout; feathers covering proximal tarsal joint.



Species.


a1. Tail green above.

  b1. Smaller; green of neck and breast lighter and more tinged with
  yellow. ... axillaris (p. 27)
  b2. Larger; green of neck and breast darker ... everetti (p. 28)

a2. Tail bluish slate above with a subterminal black bar ... vernans
(p. 28)



13. OSMOTRERON AXILLARIS (Bonaparte).

PHILIPPINE GREEN PIGEON.


    Treron axillaris Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. (1854), 39, 875.
    Osmotreron axillaris Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21,
    48, pl. 4; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 54; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 9.

    Pú-nay, in general use.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (Everett, McGregor);
    Dinagat (Everett); Guimaras (Meyer, Murray, Steere Exp.); Lubang
    (McGregor); Luzon (Everett, Meyer, Whitehead, McGregor); Masbate
    (McGregor); Mindanao (Steere, Everett, Koch & Schadenberg, Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow, Celestino); Mindoro (Everett,
    McGregor, Porter); Negros (Meyer, Steere, Everett, Keay); Panay
    (Murray, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (McGregor);
    Samar (Whitehead); Semirara (Worcester); Sibay (Porter); Siquijor
    (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Tablas (Celestino); Tawi Tawi
    (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor); Verde (McGregor).


Adult male.--Top of head and a narrow band in front of mantle
pearl-gray, darker on crown; mantle and lesser coverts rich maroon,
forming a wide band across the back; rest of upper parts (except wings)
and lower parts, except as beyond, yellowish green, duller and greener
on neck and face, darker and richer on rump and tail-coverts, lighter
and yellower on lower parts; flanks and thighs dark olive-green;
under tail-coverts white, their tips light yellow; wings black;
inner secondaries, and median and greater coverts edged with clear
lemon-yellow; outer secondaries edged with pale straw-yellow; tail
black below with a wide, gray terminal band. Iris light glistening
blue; bill dark red at base, bluish beyond nostrils; feet and nails
lead-blue. Length, 280 to 305; three males measure: Wing, 153 to 158;
tail, 98 to 100; culmen from base, 20 to 23; tarsus, 23 to 24.

Adult female.--Somewhat similar to the male but general coloration
darker and greener; edging of wing-coverts paler; maroon of mantle and
wings and gray band in front of mantle wanting; under tail-coverts
with narrow, dark-green shaft-lines. A female from Lubang measures:
Wing, 165; tail, 104; culmen from base, 21; tarsus, 22.

This very showy dove is usually found feeding in fruit trees and
often in company with the smaller, congeneric species, O. vernans,
but the latter is a much rarer bird.



14. OSMOTRERON EVERETTI Rothschild.

EVERETT'S GREEN PIGEON.


    Osmotreron axillaris Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 48 (part).
    Osmotreron everetti Rothschild, Nov. Zool. (1894), 1, 41; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 9.

    Bongao (Everett); Meimbun (Everett?); Sibutu (Everett); Sulu
    (Burbidge, Guillemard, Everett).


"Osmotreron everetti resembles O. axillaris from the Philippines, but
is altogether a larger bird; the purplish chestnut mantle is bordered
above by a very conspicuous interscapulary band of lavender-gray, of
the same color as the crown; this color is of a lighter shade than in
O. axillaris and the interscapulary band is much less distinct and not
so pure gray in the latter. In O. everetti the green of the neck and
breast is a shade lighter and more tinged with yellow, the abdomen
paler and more grayish along the middle. Length, about 279; wing,
161 to 165 ([female] 162 to 165); tail, 91 to 92; bill, 19; tarsus,
23. 'Iris greenish silvery' (Everett); 'iris pearly green; bill red at
base, blue at tip; feet pale slate.' (Guillemard.) I have no female
of true O. axillaris to compare, but the female of O. everetti seems
to be the larger, and the mantle much darker olive." (Rothschild.)

I have seen no specimens of Everett's green pigeon.



15. OSMOTRERON VERNANS (Linnæus).

PINK-NECKED GREEN PIGEON.


    Columba vernans Linnæus, Mantissa Plantarum (1771), 526.
    Osmotreron vernans Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21,
    60; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 54; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 83; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 9.

    Pú-nay. in general use.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Everett, Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Bohol (Everett, McGregor); Calamianes (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Cebu (Everett, McGregor); Guimaras (Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Luzon (Meyer, Heriot, Steere Exp.,
    McGregor); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Everett,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow); Mindoro (McGregor,
    Porter); Negros (Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Palawan (Everett,
    Platen, Whitehead, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay
    (Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Siasi (Guillemard);
    Sibay (Porter); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Celestino). Celebes, Malay Peninsula, Indo-Malay Islands,
    Indo-Chinese provinces.


Adult male.--Head, chin, and upper throat blue-gray, darkest on crown;
forehead, sides of face, chin, and throat faintly greenish; neck all
round and sides of head behind eye lavender-gray, forming a narrow
band on hind neck and a wide patch on lower throat, followed by a
patch of deep orange on breast; lower breast and abdomen yellowish
green, clear lemon-yellow on middle of belly; sides and lining of wing
blue-gray; flanks and thighs dark olive-green, the latter streaked
with light lemon-yellow; under tail-coverts chestnut; back, rump,
mantle, and secondary-coverts dull gray-green, richer green on the
coverts; upper tail-coverts like rump but with a faint chestnut wash;
primaries, alula, primary-coverts, and outer secondaries black;
some of the primaries and secondaries edged with yellow; greater
coverts broadly margined with pale yellow, forming a conspicuous band;
rectrices slate-gray above, each with a black subterminal band and
washed with green near the base; rectrices blackish below with narrow
slate-gray tips. Base of bill black, tip pale blue; iris light yellow;
legs and feet coral-pink. Salvadori quotes the following iris colors
from Davidson: "Irides with three rings, the outer one rose-pink,
the next prussian-blue, the innermost ultramarine-blue." Length, 280;
wing, 147; tail, 92; culmen from base, 19; tarsus, 23.

Adult female.--Nearly all green; somewhat similar to the male but
darker green above; the lavender wanting on head and neck, and orange
wanting on breast, these parts being dark green; under tail-coverts
pale yellow, more or less washed with cinnamon on inner webs. One
female from Mariveles, Bataan Province, measures: Length, 280; wing,
148; tail, 93; culmen from base, 19; tarsus, 22.

"Young male.--Resembles the female, but with some trace of the
vinaceous purple color on the neck, and of the brown-orange on
the breast.

"Young female.--Has the rufescent color of the upper tail-coverts
scarcely visible, and the central tail-feathers more or less tinged
with green.

"Some specimens have the forehead and throat more or less
tinged with greenish, but they are not confined to a particular
locality. I have seen in the Museum of Paris a variety entirely of
a canary-yellow." (Salvadori.)

"Its nest is a mere platform of twigs, grass-stems, tendrils, and
leaves, measuring about 180 mm. in breadth. The eggs are nearly oval
in form, pure white in color, and measure 31 by 24." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



Genus PHAPITRERON Bonaparte, 1854.

Length, 230 to 280 mm.; sexes alike in color; colors nearly uniform
brown of various shades; a wide iridescent band on neck; primaries
neither scooped nor cut; rectrices graduated and rounded and with
gray tips; under tail-coverts gray or dark buff. Birds of this genus
are closely related inter se, maculipectus alone showing a slight
departure from the type in its mottled breast. The species fall
naturally into two groups which might take the rank of subgenera
were anything to be gained thereby. The first five species (see key
to species), the amethystina group are rare deep-woods birds; their
colors are generally darker brown than those of the leucotis group
and the bill is noticeably longer and heavier, being longer than
tarsus. The five species of the leucotis group are fairly common in
their respective ranges; they are to be found in more open country or
even on the borders of rice-fields; in this group the tarsus equals,
or is slightly greater than, the culmen.



Species.


a1. Culmen more than 19 mm.; longer than tarsus.

  b1. Breast not mottled.

    c1. Under tail-coverts cinnamon or ocherous-brown.

      d1. Breast brown; wing longer ... amethystina (p. 30)
      d2. Breast pearly ash; wing shorter ... brunneiceps (p. 32)

    c2. Under tail-coverts ashy gray.

      d1. Under tail-coverts not tipped with fulvous ... cinereiceps
      (p. 31)
      d2. Under tail-coverts slightly tipped with fulvous ... frontalis
      (p. 32)

  b2. Breast distinctly mottled ... maculipectus (p. 33)

a2. Culmen less than 17 mm.; equal to or less than tarsus.

  b1. Forehead gray or fulvous, not white.

    c1. Throat and cheeks deep ruddy fulvous.

      d1. Throat darker; occiput dull amethystine-rufous ... leucotis
      (p. 33)
      d2. Throat lighter; occiput bright coppery amethystine
      ... occipitalis (p. 34)

    c2. Throat and cheeks pale fulvous.

      d1. Forehead grayish; light streak under eye fulvous ... nigrorum
      (p. 35)
      d2. Forehead pale fulvous; light streak under eye white
      ... brevirostris (p. 35)

  b3. Forehead and chin pure white ... albifrons (p. 36)



16. PHAPITRERON AMETHYSTINA Bonaparte.

AMETHYSTINE BROWN PIGEON.


    Phapitreron amethystina Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Avium (1854),
    2, 28; Compt. Rend. (1855), 40, 214; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 10.
    Phabotreron amethystina Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9, 214,
    pl. 34, fig. 2; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 66;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 55.

    Bohol (McGregor); Dinagat (Everett); Leyte (Steere Exp.); Luzon
    (Meyer, McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Goodfellow, Celestino);
    Panaon (Everett); Samar (Steere Exp., Whitehead).


Adult.--A black line below eye from gape to neck; below this a line
of white mixed with reddish brown; general color above dark brown,
lighter on forehead and fore crown; bird held toward the light,
neck and its sides, beautiful, iridescent purple and violet-blue;
wing-coverts, back, rump, and tail-coverts, dark glossy green;
bird held away from the light, neck and sides of neck blue or deep
violet; wings, back, tail, and its coverts washed with purple;
below uniform light brown except middle of abdomen and tail-coverts
which are dark buff; tail dark brown with a broad, apical, gray band,
the middle pair of rectrices do not show this band from above. Iris
light brown; bare skin about eyes dark, dirty red; bill black; legs
and feet bright carmine; nails horn-colored. Length, about 255. In a
male from Bataan Province, Luzon, the wing is 140; tail, 99; culmen,
23; tarsus, 20.5. Salvadori gives the following measurements: Wing,
146; tail, 78; bill, 22; tarsus, 22.

"A rare bird in the few islands where it is found. Legs dull pink;
iris dark brown; feet dark pink; nails brown; bill black. Length, 292;
wing, 145; tail, 97; culmen, 25; tarsus, 21; middle toe with claw,
30." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



17. PHAPITRERON CINEREICEPS Bourns and Worcester.

GRAY-HEADED PIGEON.


    Phabotreron cinereiceps Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 8; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 55.
    Phapitreron cinereiceps McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 10.

    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult.--Top of head, nape, and sides of neck clear ashy gray,
slightly washed with rufous on forehead; hind neck amethystine as in
P. amethystina; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts brown with bronze
reflections, the tail-coverts slightly more ruddy than back; four outer
pairs of tail-feathers dark brown, lighter at base; two central pairs
ruddy brown with bronze reflections; all the tail-feathers with ashy
tips which form a distinct terminal band 6 mm. in width; shafts of
tail-feathers black; wing-coverts and secondaries uniform with back;
primaries dark brown, the first five sharply edged with rusty brown on
outer web; a narrow black stripe under eye; sides of face, ear-coverts,
fore neck, and breast rich ruddy brown, the breast with a slight
metallic gloss; chin and throat lighter; abdomen and thighs fulvous
brown; flanks darker with slight metallic wash; under tail-coverts
clear ashy gray; shafts of tail-feathers with basal half black, apical
half white; under surface of tail nearly black, the terminal gray band
distinct and wider than on upper surface, measuring 15 mm. on outer
pair of feathers; under wing-coverts and axillars like the flanks;
under surface of quills uniform dark brown. Bill black; legs and
feet dirty purplish; nails black; iris in one specimen bright yellow,
in another orange-red. Length, 260; wing, 134; tail, 99; culmen, 20;
tarsus, 18. Sexes alike." (Bourns and Worcester.)

This species is known from the types only.



18. PHAPITRERON BRUNNEICEPS Bourns and Worcester.

BROWN-HEADED PIGEON.


    Phabotreron brunneiceps Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 9; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 55.
    Phapitreron brunneiceps McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906),
    10; McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 281.

    Basilan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor).


"Adult.--Above dark brown with greenish reflections; amethystine spot
on hind neck less blue than in P. amethystina; top of head brown,
forehead slightly lighter and nape slightly darker than crown; sides
of face and ear-coverts brown, paler than crown; a narrow, dark brown
streak under eye; chin and throat grayish fulvous; breast pearly ash;
abdomen, flanks, thighs, and under tail-coverts ochraceous-brown;
under surface of tail brownish black with a broad, gray, terminal
band; under wing-coverts and axillars fulvous-brown; primaries with
sharply defined light edges on upper web; below slightly more ashy;
tail-feathers brown above with distinct terminal bands of gray,
central pair with slight metallic gloss; shafts of quills black above
and below except the terminal 15 mm. which are white. Bill black;
feet dark pink; nails brown; iris orange-red. Length, 255; wing, 132;
tail, 89; culmen, 24; tarsus, 18. A well-defined species distinguished
from P. amethystina by its smaller size and the entirely different
color of its under surface." (Bourns and Worcester.)

This species is very distinct from P. amethystina being smaller and
differently colored. A male measures: Length, 267; wing, 135; tail,
100; culmen from base, 25.



19. PHAPITRERON FRONTALIS Bourns and Worcester.

CEBU AMETHYSTINE PIGEON.


    Phabotreron frontalis Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 10; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 55.
    Phapitreron frontalis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 10.

    Cebu (Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult.--General color of upper surface as in P. brunneiceps but
forehead and crown lighter, nape washed with ashy gray, and lacking
metallic gloss; tail glossed with dull bronze instead of amethystine
and the terminal band less strongly marked than in brunneiceps;
under surface much as in brunneiceps but everywhere darker; under
tail-coverts ashy gray, slightly tipped with fulvous; tail much as in
brunneiceps, the outer web of outer pair of feathers being, however,
light brown; basal half of shafts dirty whitish; apical fourth white,
rest brown. Iris pale orange; bill black; legs and feet purple;
nails light brown. Sexes alike. Length, 260; wing, 140; tail, 100;
culmen, 51; tarsus, 21." (Bourns and Worcester.)

The length of culmen given above (2 inches in original description)
is undoubtedly an error.



20. PHAPITRERON MACULIPECTUS Bourns and Worcester.

MOTTLED AMETHYSTINE PIGEON.


    Phabotreron maculipectus Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 10; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 55; Grant, Ibis (1896), 563.
    Phapitreron maculipectus McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 10.

    Negros (Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead).


"Adult male.--Upper surface exactly as in P. amethystina except
that the primaries are slightly darker; dark brown stripe under eye
extending from gape through ear-coverts to hind neck; below this
a white stripe and a second shorter dark stripe below the latter;
cheeks fulvous brown; chin and throat more ruddy brown; breast clear
ashy gray, each feather having an edging distinctly lighter than
its center, producing a beautiful mottled appearance; feathers on
center of fore breast washed with brown and forming a distinct patch;
feathers of abdomen lack the dark centers, and their edges washed
with light brown; thighs and under tail-coverts cinnamon-brown, much
lighter than in P. amethystina; under surface of tail-feathers dark
brown, nearly black, with faint metallic gloss and a broad, gray,
terminal band; shafts of feathers black changing to white at tips;
under surface of wing and axillars uniform fulvous brown. Bill
black; feet dark pink; nails dark brown, nearly black. Wing, 145;
tail, 115; culmen, 26; tarsus, 20. Length not taken from birds in
flesh. This beautiful species was obtained in the Island of Negros
on the mountains of the interior, where it is by no means common. It
is distinguished from all the other species of the genus by its fine
mottled breast." (Bourns and Worcester.)



21. PHAPITRERON LEUCOTIS (Temminck).

NORTHERN WHITE-EARED PIGEON.


    Columba leucotis Temminck, Pl. Col. (1823), 189.
    Phabotreron leucotis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 67; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 55; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 83.
    Phapitreron leucotis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906),
    10; McGregor, Bur. Govt. Labs. Manila (1905), 34, 6, pl. 3 (nest).
    Geopelia striata Grant and Whitehead, Ibis (1898), 246
    (eggs)! error.

    Ba-to ba-to tu-loc, Manila; cu-lu-cu-luc, Lubang.

    Catanduanes (Whitehead); Luzon (Meyer, Heriot, Everett, Steere
    Exp., Whitehead, McGregor); Mindoro (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Everett, McGregor, Porter).


Adult.--A black line from gape to nape below eye; below this a
white line from opposite the posterior border of eye to nape; above,
general color brown; forehead and crown dark gray; below brown; chin,
upper throat, and cheeks ruddy fulvous; lower breast and abdomen
slightly ochraceous, much paler posteriorly; under tail-coverts dark
pearl-gray; wings brown; primaries with pale edges; rectrices brown,
each with a wide, terminal, gray band. Metallic reflections; specimen
held toward the light, occiput, neck, sides of neck, throat, breast,
sides of body, and flanks bronze-green; a blue collar on hind neck and
a blue band across interscapulars; back, rump, and wing-coverts touched
with purple; when specimen is held away from the light the blue bands
change to green; the green of neck and lower parts becomes purple;
the back, wing-coverts, tail-coverts, and rectrices are touched with
violet and dark purple. Iris varies, usually mottled pinkish surrounded
by a narrow white ring or a pale blue ring; bill black; legs carmine;
nails horn-brown. Length, about 235. Three males average: Wing, 134;
tail, 81; culmen from base, 18; tarsus, 20.

Four eggs taken by Whitehead at Cape Engaño in May, 1895, are "glossy
and measure from 26.5 to 28.5 in length, and from 19.5 to 20 in
breadth." (Oates.)

"Fairly common in deep woods. Breeds in April. Legs and feet deep
pink; nails brown. Length, 260; wing, 127; tail, 95; tarsus, 19;
middle toe with claw, 29." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

This species is fairly abundant in the islands where it occurs. Several
nests were found in Mindoro; they were constructed of twisted plant
tendrils which material gave the nests the appearance of being made
of spiral springs. The nest was invariably placed in a small tree
and rested on a horizontal branch at from 2 to 6 meters from the
ground. Eggs and nestlings were found from April 8 to May 6.



22. PHAPITRERON OCCIPITALIS Salvadori.

BASILAN WHITE-EARED PIGEON.


    Phabotreron occipitalis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 68; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 55.
    Phapitreron occipitalis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 10.

    Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor).


Adult (sexes similar).--"Similar to P. leucotis, but the rufous
throat more vinous, and the occiput of a coppery amethystine, very
conspicuous; the back and wings of a more greenish hue. 'Iris light
warm brown; bill black; feet carmine.' (Everett.) Length, about 230;
wing, 127; tail, 91; bill, 15; tarsus, 20." (Salvadori.)

"Iris purple; legs and feet dark pink; nails brown; bill black. Length,
250; wing, 126; tail, 86; culmen, 18; tarsus, 18.5; middle toe
with claw, 28. Abundant in Basilan. A deep woods bird." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



23. PHAPITRERON NIGRORUM Sharpe.

NEGROS WHITE-EARED PIGEON.


    Phabotreron nigrorum Sharpe, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. (1877),
    1, 346, 353; Hand-List (1899), 1, 55; Salvadori, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 68.
    Phapitreron nigrorum McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 10.

    Tuc-mó, Masbate, Ticao, and in general use.

    Cebu (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Guimaras
    (Meyer, Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Negros (Layard, Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Keay);
    Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor).

Adult.--Very similar to Phapitreron leucotis but smaller; chin, sides
of face, and upper throat much paler; the white line on auricular
region replaced by a wider line of pale fulvous from bill to nape. Bill
black; iris gray; legs dark scarlet; nails brown. Four specimens,
two of each sex, measure: Wing, 119 to 124 (122); tail, 90 to 96.5
(94); culmen from base, 17 to 18 (17.5); tarsus, 16.5 to 18 (17.5).

"Very common in the forests of the central Philippines. Iris dark
brown; legs and feet dark pink; nails leaden; bill black. Length,
229 to 250; wing, 119 to 127; tail, 84 to 96; culmen, 17 to 19;
middle toe with claw, 26 to 29." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



24. PHAPITRERON BREVIROSTRIS Tweeddale.

SHORT-BILLED PIGEON.


    Phabotreron brevirostris Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877),
    549; Challenger Report (1881), 2, Zool. pt. 8, pl. 6; Salvadori,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 69; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899),
    1, 55.
    Phapitreron brevirostris McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 10.

    Dinagat (Everett); Leyte (Everett, Steere Exp., Whitehead);
    Mindanao (Murray, Everett, Koch & Schadenberg, Goodfellow, Clemens,
    Celestino); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead);
    Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester); Sulu (Guillemard).


"Similar to P. leucotis, from which it differs in having the forehead
and throat grayish fulvous, the occiput constantly amethystine, and
the rectrices with a decided amethystine tinge; it resembles also
P. nigrorum, especially as regards the coloring of the forehead and
throat, but it differs in having the subocular streak white and the
occiput more amethystine. Length, about 240; wing, 124; tail, 99;
bill, 13; tarsus, 19." (Salvadori.)

"It seems to us that there must be something wrong about the Sulu
record of P. brevirostris. We obtained no pigeons of the P. leucotis
type in Sulu, and the single specimen obtained by us in Tawi Tawi
has been lost or destroyed, so that we are unable to identify it,
but it would be indeed remarkable if P. brevirostris should give way
to P. occipitalis in Basilan only to reappear in Sulu. In the face of
Count Salvadori's identification of Guillemard's specimen, however,
we have nothing to say.

"Iris purple; legs and feet deep purple; nails brown. Five birds from
Samar and Siquijor average: Length, 235; wing, 122; tail, 83; culmen,
19; tarsus, 19; middle toe with claw, 26. A female from Mindanao
is larger, measuring: Length, 250; wing, 127; tail, 94; culmen, 17;
tarsus, 19; middle toe with claw, 28." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



25. PHAPITRERON ALBIFRONS McGregor.

BOHOL WHITE-EARED PIGEON.


    Phabotreron brevirostris Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 69 (part).
    Phapitreron albifrons McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2,
    sec. A, 317.

    Li-mú-con, Bohol.

    Bohol (Steere Exp., McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester,
    Celestino).


Adult male (type).--General color brown, much darker above, with
iridescent reflections most pronounced on nape, mantle, and breast;
merging rather abruptly into dark gray of crown; occiput, nape, and
sides of head ruddy brown; from gape a narrow brown line passing
below eye with a wider white line underneath, both lines reaching
beyond ear-coverts; chin white, gradually changing to gray on throat
and ochraceous on breast and abdomen; under tail-coverts and a wide
band at end of tail pale french-gray; wings uniform with the back;
primaries with a narrow light brown edge on outer webs; with the bird
held toward the light the occiput and nape are glossed with green,
followed by a patch of metallic blue, this followed on interscapulars
by a wide band of metallic green extending to sides of neck and
narrowly bordered behind by blue; the wings and remaining upper parts
have a dull green gloss; with the bird held away from the light the
green changes to purple and this metallic color shows also on throat,
breast, and sides of neck. Length, 234; wing, 122; tail, 81; culmen
from base, 16; tarsus, 17.

Female.--Similar to the male. In this species the terminal half of
bill is black; basal half of bill, skin around eyes, and feet dull
crimson; iris brown; nails gray.

Egg.--A hard-shelled egg was taken from a female killed on June 7,
1906; another egg, obtained in the same manner four days later,
measures 27 by 21 and is pure white in color.

This species is most closely related to P. brevirostris but it differs
in having a white forehead and brown subocular line.



Subfamily PTILOPODINÆ.


Forest inhabiting pigeons of medium size; upper surface rich green;
no band across lower back.



Genera.


a1. First primary abruptly attenuated.

  b1. Tail rather long; pectoral feathers not
  bifurcated. ... Leucotreron (p. 37)
  b2. Tail moderate; pectoral feathers bifurcated. ... Lamprotreron
  (p. 40)

a2. First primary not so abruptly attenuated; slightly narrowed at
tip. ... Spilotreron (p. 41)



Genus LEUCOTRERON Bonaparte, 1854.

First primary with both webs greatly reduced in width near the tip;
tail square; tarsus feathered for more than half its length. Forest
inhabiting pigeons of medium size.



Species.


a1. Larger, length, 330 mm. or more; under tail-coverts green or gray,
broadly edged with buff.

  b1. Secondaries uniform green. ... occipitalis (p. 37)
  b2. Secondaries with a conspicuous red patch. ... marchei (p. 38)

a2. Smaller, length, 300 mm. or less; under tail-coverts uniform,
dark cinnamon. ... leclancheri (p. 39)



26. LEUCOTRERON OCCIPITALIS (Bonaparte).

YELLOW-BREASTED FRUIT PIGEON.


    Ramphiculus occipitalis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Avium (1854), 2, 17.
    Xenotreron incognita Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877), 832.
    Ptilopus occipitalis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 72.
    Leucotreron occipitalis Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 55; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1907), 10.

    Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., McGregor); Cebu (Everett, Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Leyte (Steere Exp.); Luzon (Meyer, Steere
    Exp., Whitehead, McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp.,
    Goodfellow); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Negros
    (Whitehead); Samar (Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (McGregor).


Adult (sexes alike).--Forehead pale gray with a yellow wash, blending
into light slate-gray mixed with green on center of crown; on back
of head a wide band of dark purple or deep cherry-red, extending
over ear-coverts and sides of face below the eyes; remainder of
upper parts, including wings and tail, nearly uniform, rich green;
rectrices and quills partly blue when held toward the light; whole
upper parts slightly bronze away from the light; feathers of chin and
upper throat white with a yellow wash on tips; lower throat and sides
of neck and breast light gray; breast covered by a large oval patch
of old-gold-yellow, just behind this a broad band of deep purple;
middle of abdomen pearl-gray and white; sides and flanks green;
under tail-coverts light buff, the inner webs largely green; rectrices
gray below with light gray tips, above very narrowly edged with light
ocherous; some of the primaries and secondaries narrowly edged with
buff; tips of the green tarsal feathers reaching toes. A male from
Sibuyan measures: Length, 340; wing, 160; tail, 115; culmen from base,
18; middle toe with claw, 35. A male from Basilan: Wing, 148; tail,
115; culmen from base, 18; middle toe with claw, 33. A female from
Mindoro: Length, 320; wing, 153; tail, 113; culmen from base, 19;
middle toe with claw, 34.

Young.--The immature bird differs from the adult in having top of head,
neck, and sides of face uniform green (or with a few purple feathers)
and the yellow and purple areas of breast indicated by a few scattered
feathers of these colors. The first primary is attenuated but not so
abruptly cut on inner web as it is in the adult. In a young female
from Sibuyan the bill was dull red at base; tip brown; feet pink;
nails black.



27. LEUCOTRERON MARCHEI (Oustalet).

MARCHE'S FRUIT PIGEON.


    Ptilopus (Rhamphiculus) marchei Oustalet, Le Naturaliste (1880),
    324.
    Ptilopus marchei Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21,
    75; Grant, Ibis (1895), 1, 468; Whitehead, Ibis (1899), 486.
    Leucotreron marchii Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 55.
    Leucotreron marchei McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 10.

    Luzon (Marche, Whitehead, Worcester).


"Adult male.--Entire top of head dull crimson-red, the same color
being continued down the sides of the cheeks, on either side of
the throat; feathers surrounding the eye light red; hind cheek and
ear-coverts dusky black; back and sides of the neck and upper part of
the breast pearl-gray, forming a collar which completely separates the
dull crimson crown from the dusky black mantle and back; wings like
the back, but with green reflections; lower back, rump, and upper
tail-coverts bronze-brown with green reflections; primary quills
black, finely edged with pale yellow; the two outer secondaries are
similarly margined, the remainder edged with crimson along the middle
of the outer web, the crimson barbs being loose and free and forming a
large patch on the wing; tail bronze-brown, broadly edged with brownish
gray, beneath dark gray tipped with whitish; chin and middle of throat
brownish buff; in the center of the gray breast a large patch of bright
orange-vermilion washed with lake, shading into deep red-lake below;
this is followed by a patch of creamy white; rest of under parts dull
pearly gray, most of the feathers finely edged with creamy yellow;
under tail-coverts buff, with brownish gray centers. 'Eye: inner ring
yellow, outer lake-red; bill at base brick-red, tipped with yellow;
feet deep coral-red.' (Whitehead.) Length, 400; wing, 180; tail, 129;
tarsus, 32.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but crown of a less crimson tinge;
lower part of the back, rump, and tail bronze-green, distinctly greener
than in the male; upper part of the breast-patch orange-red without
the crimson wash. Length, 373; wing, 173; tail, 114; tarsus, 29.

"Young male.--The whole of the upper parts is brownish bronze shot
with green; the dull crimson of the top of the head and the free
crimson webs of the secondaries are just beginning to make their
appearance; the whole of the feathers of the chest and upper breast
are gray, widely tipped with bronze-green, the only patches of pure
gray feathers being visible on each side of the neck. The orange-red
breast-patch is represented by a deep orange feather in the middle
of the chest and some dark carmine feathers. Otherwise the rest of
the plumage is much like that of the adult." (Grant.)

Marche's fruit pigeon was described in 1880 from a single specimen
which remained unique for fifteen years when Whitehead rediscovered
the species in Lepanto. So far as we at present know, this species
is confined to this subprovince and the neighboring subprovince of
Bontoc. The Igorots say that at certain seasons of the year these birds
become very fat and heavy and that they are then taken by pursuing
them until they are exhausted. This account is probably correct as
the specimens seen in the possession of the Igorots are not injured,
while birds taken in snares or with bird-lime are seldom fit for
specimens. This species may be recognized at once by the large red
patch on the secondaries. In 1903 a pigeon, probably of this species,
was killed in Bontoc by the Hon. Dean C. Worcester but the skin
was lost.



28. LEUCOTRERON LECLANCHERI (Bonaparte).

BLACK-CHINNED FRUIT PIGEON.


    Treroloema leclancheri Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. (1855), 41, 247.
    Leucotreron gironieri Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9, 213,
    pl. 34, fig. 1.
    Ptilopus leclancheri Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 79.
    Leucotreron leclancheri Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 56; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 10.

    Ca-pil'-la, Manila.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Bohol (McGregor);
    Cagayancillo (McGregor); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Calayan
    (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu
    (Burger); Guimaras (Meyer); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Meyer,
    Steere Exp., Whitehead, McGregor); Mindoro (McGregor, Porter);
    Negros (Everett, Steere Exp.); Palawan (Everett, Platen, White);
    Panay (Meyer); Romblon (McGregor); Samar (Whitehead); Semirara
    (Worcester); Sibuyan (McGregor); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester).


Adult male.--Chin black; head, neck, throat, and breast pearl-gray,
washed with dull green on occiput and hind neck, washed with ocherous
yellow on throat and crop; remainder of upper parts green, brightest on
wings and tail, the latter tipped with dull yellowish brown; primaries
edged with white near their tips; some of the secondaries edged with
ocherous-yellow; behind the gray of breast a dark chestnut band,
blackish on its anterior border; middle of abdomen white, washed with
cinnamon or in some specimens with yellowish buff; under tail-coverts
cinnamon; rectrices below, brown with gray tips; remainder of under
parts dull green. Iris bright red; bill bright yellow; base of lower
mandible, and feet dark crimson; nails dark brown. Length, 280 to
305; measurements of three specimens give: Wing, 144 to 145; tail,
104 to 105; culmen from base, 19 to 20; tarsus, 18 to 20.

Adult female.--Forehead blue-gray; chin black; throat and breast green;
dark chestnut pectoral-band, and other parts, as in the male. A female
from Sibuyan has the wing, 145, and tail, 104; a female from Calayan
is larger; wing, 157; tail, 114.

Young.--Green, chin cinnamon; pectoral-band wanting or indicated by
a few chestnut feathers; abdomen white or washed with buff; under
tail-coverts slightly paler than in the adult.

Leclancher's pigeon is generally found in forest and, although
widely distributed, it does not occur in great numbers, except
when feeding in fruit trees; it appears to be strictly arboreal in
habits. Specimens from Camiguin, Calayan, and Batan are considerably
larger than specimens from more southern islands. The nest as observed
in Camiguin, north of Luzon, was a slight platform of twigs placed on
a horizontal branch at from 1.5 to 4.5 meters from the ground. Four
nests contained but one egg each. Three eggs are white in color and
measure, respectively: 35 by 23, 35 by 25, and 31 by 24.



Genus LAMPROTRERON Bonaparte, 1854.

Lamprotreron is distinguished from all other Philippine genera by
having the breast-feathers bifurcated, as if the tip of the shaft
had been cut off of each feather.



29. LAMPROTRERON TEMMINCKI (Prevost and Des Murs).

TEMMINCK'S FRUIT PIGEON.


    Kurukuru temminckii Prevost and Des Murs, Voy. Venus, Zool. (1849),
    234.
    Ptilopus temmincki Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21,
    115; Meyer and Wiglesworth, Bds. Celebes (1898), 2, 613.
    Lamprotreron temmincki Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 58; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 11.
    Ptilopus formosus Guillemard, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1885), 269.

    Sulu (Guillemard). Celebes.


"Adult male.--General color above parrot-green, the inner
wing-coverts, scapulars, and inner quills with an oval black spot
near the ends; entire head above aster-purple; hind neck and sides
of neck dragon's-blood-red, shading off into the green of the mantle;
sides of occiput and ear-coverts green, becoming gray on malar region,
chin, throat, and jugulum; the upper breast rose-purple, the feathers
on chest and jugulum forked at the tip (as if the middle part of
the web had been cut out with scissors); passing on lower breast
into a broad band of blackish plum-purple; on and near the carpal
edge a large spot of this color; sides, thighs, and flanks green,
thighs grayer, flanks tipped with naples-yellow; abdomen and under
tail-coverts yellowish white, the inner webs of the latter partly
green; center tail-feathers above green, grayish at tip, all the
lateral tail-feathers blackish, tipped with gray, washed with green;
tail below dusky grayish, terminal bar whitish; quills above black,
washed externally with green, finely edged with yellowish; wings below
slaty, the first primary much attenuated for about 2 cm. and incurved.

"Adult female.--Above all parrot-green, except for a patch of
aster-purple on crown and occiput, and purplish black spots on the
scapulars and inner-coverts; breast green, without rose-purple and
the dark plum-purple band of the male.

"Immature male.--Closely resembling the female; forehead green with
the purple feathers of the crown intermingled; dark purple breast-band
commencing to form; breast grayer than in the female.

"Young in first plumage.--Bright parrot-green, the wing-coverts and
secondaries broadly margined with light yellow, the back, rump, and
scapulars, and breast more finely margined with yellow; remaining
under parts much as in the female; tail tipped with yellowish white;
no purple on head or elsewhere.

"Wing, 128 to 140; tail, 95; tarsus, 22; culmen from cranium suture,
17 to 19." (Meyer and Wiglesworth.)

Male.--"Iris sea-green; bill green, reddish at base; tarsus greenish
olive. Length, 295; wing, 144." (Salvadori.)



Genus SPILOTRERON Salvadori, 1882.

First primary slightly attenuated on its distal third; tail square;
tarsus feathered nearly to the toes.



30. SPILOTRERON BANGUEYENSIS (A. B. Meyer).

MEYER'S FRUIT PIGEON.


    Ptilopus bangueyensis Meyer, Jour. für Orn. (1891), 70; Salvadori,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 143.
    Spilotreron bangueyensis Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 61; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 11.
    Ptilopus purpureinucha Meyer, Jour. für Orn. (1891), 71.

    Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Bongao (Everett); Cagayan Sulu (Mearns); Mindanao (Everett, Steere
    Exp.); Palawan (Lempriere, Whitehead); Sibutu (Everett); Sulu
    (Burbidge, Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns &
    Worcester). Banguey.


Adult male.--Bright leaf-green, mantle slightly yellowish; head, neck,
and throat pearly gray; chin and upper throat yellow; a large patch
on occiput and hind neck black; lower abdomen and short tail-coverts
bright yellow; longer tail-coverts bright carmine, narrowly tipped
with yellow; secondaries and greater coverts very narrowly edged with
yellow. Eyelids, iris, and bill greenish yellow; feet rose-pink;
nails brown. Length, 240. Two males from Basilan, wing, 123, 116;
tail, 85; exposed culmen, 16, 15; middle toe with claw, 26.

Adult female.--Entirely green, except the under tail-coverts which
are green, washed with carmine, and narrowly tipped with yellow. Two
females from Basilan measure: Wing, 121, 118; tail, 79, 80; exposed
culmen, 16, 14; middle toe with claw, 26, 25.

Young.--Similar to the adult female but with little or no carmine on
under tail-coverts.

"This, the most northern form of the Spilotreron group, is very
nearly related to the most southern one, from which it is not easily
distinguished. The slight purple tinge of the black occipital spot,
on which Dr. Meyer relies to separate the Basilan bird, appears only
in certain individuals, but is absent in the majority of specimens. As
to the collar of the bird from Banguey, which is described as whitish
gray, I do not find that it is different from that of the specimens
from other localities." (Salvadori.)

"The blue spot on the nape on which Meyer relies to separate the
Basilan birds is a minus quantity in our five specimens from that
island, though they are in breeding plumage. This species is quite
common in Sulu and Tawi Tawi, and is sometimes found feeding in
isolated trees in open fields.

"Iris yellow; legs dark pink; feet same color; nails nearly black; bill
and eye-wattle light greenish yellow. Length, 230; wing, 121; tail,
81; culmen, 33; middle toe with claw, 29." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Subfamily MUSCADIVORINÆ.

This group includes the largest species of forest pigeons.



Genera.


a1. Colors above, except head, metallic blue, green, purple, or bronze;
or the tail at least metallic green above.

  b1. First primary not scooped on inner web; lower parts uniform in
  color. ... Muscadivores (p. 42)
  b2. First primary deeply scooped on inner web.

    c1. No light band on tail. ... Ptilocolpa (p. 45)
    c2. Tail crossed by a conspicuous gray band. ... Zonophaps (p. 48)

a2. Colors cream and slate; no metallic colors on any part of
plumage. ... Myristicivora (p. 50)



Genus MUSCADIVORES Gray, 1855.

Inner web of first primary very slightly attenuated; gape deeply cleft;
tarsus stout and feathered in front for half its length. Upper parts,
except head and neck, metallic blue or green; tail nearly uniform
with the back and wings, without a light band; head and lower parts
pearl-gray or pale vinaceous-gray.



Species.


a1. Larger; back and scapulars glossy green or coppery bronze.

  b1. Nape with a coppery chestnut patch. ... nuchalis (p. 43)
  b2. Nape without a coppery chestnut patch.

    c1. Gray of mantle lighter and more sharply defined from the
    green back.

      d1. Upper surface of tail lighter and greener. ... chalybura
      (p. 43)
      d2. Upper surface of tail darker and bluer. ... palawanensis
      (p. 44)

    c2. Gray of mantle darker and less sharply defined. ... ænea
    (p. 44)

a2. Smaller; back and scapulars glossy brown with but little metallic
color.

  b1. Under parts lighter. ... pickeringi (p. 44)
  b2. Under parts darker. ... langhornei (p. 45)



31. MUSCADIVORES NUCHALIS (Cabanis).

CHESTNUT-NAPED IMPERIAL PIGEON.


    Carpophaga nuchalis Cabanis, Jour. für Orn. (1882), 126; Salvadori,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 190; Grant, Ibis (1895), 116;
    Whitehead, Ibis (1899), 487; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 64.
    Muscadivora nuchalis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 11.

    Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Fuga (Whitehead);
    Luzon (Whitehead); Mindoro (teste Hartert).


This species has been established on the character of a cupreous
chestnut nape; otherwise it differs but slightly from M. chalybura
with which it appears to intergrade. Its status is somewhat doubtful.



32. MUSCADIVORES CHALYBURA (Bonaparte).

BONAPARTE'S IMPERIAL PIGEON.


    Carpophaga chalybura Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Avium (1854), 2, 32.
    Carpophaga ænea Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 190,
    193 (part).
    Muscadivora ænea McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 11
    (part).

    Baud, Bohol; bá-lud, Ticao, Manila, and in general use.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead);
    Cebu (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Dinagat (Everett);
    Guimaras (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Leyte (Everett);
    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Meyer, Steere Exp., Whitehead, McGregor);
    Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow, Celestino); Mindoro (Steere
    Exp., Schmacker, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor, Porter); Negros
    (Meyer, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Panay (Bourns &
    Worcester); Samar (Bourns & Worcester); Semirara (Worcester);
    Sibuyan (McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino);
    Tablas (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor); Verde (McGregor).


Very closely related to M. ænea but gray of hind neck and upper mantle
lighter and more sharply defined from the metallic green of the back;
tail with less blue tinge. Iris bright red; bill gray; legs and feet
dull red.

A male from Mindoro measures: Length, 420; wing, 240; tail, 156;
exposed culmen, 25; tarsus, 28.

A female from Ticao: Length, 420; wing, 232; tail, 147; exposed culmen,
24; tarsus, 25.

This is the common balud, or fruit pigeon, inhabiting the Philippines.



33. MUSCADIVORES PALAWANENSIS (Blasius).

PALAWAN IMPERIAL PIGEON.


    Carpophaga ænea palawanensis Blasius, Ornis (1888), 4, 316.
    Carpophaga ænea Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 190,
    193 (part).
    Muscadivora ænea McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 11
    (part).

    Balabac (Steere); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Palawan (Steere, Everett, Lempriere, Whitehead, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Celestino, White).


Very much like M. chalybura but tail darker and generally bluer on
its upper surface. Male: Length, 455; wing, 250; tail, 163. Female:
Length, 445; wing, 250; tail, 163.

This bird is a very slightly differentiated race of the green imperial
pigeon.



34. MUSCADIVORES ÆNEA (Linnæus).

GREEN IMPERIAL PIGEON.


    Columba ænea Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 283.
    Carpophaga ænea Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 190,
    193 (part); Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 64; Oates, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1901), 1, 85.
    Muscadivora ænea McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 11
    (part).

    Bongao (Everett); Sulu (Burbidge, Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester). Indian Peninsula, Ceylon,
    Indo-Chinese countries, Malay Peninsula, Sunda Islands.


Adult (sexes alike).--Head, neck, and abdomen gray, tinged
with vinaceous; breast gray; forehead and chin whitish; under
tail-coverts dark chestnut; back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and
wings metallic green, mixed with metallic copper-color; primaries
and secondaries blackish with mealy edges. "Iris red; bill gray;
region of nostrils dull red; edges of eyelids, legs, and feet purplish
red." (Oates.) Length, about 450; wing, 240; tail, 150; exposed culmen,
23; tarsus, 27. Female slightly smaller than male.



35. MUSCADIVORES PICKERINGI (Cassin).

PICKERING'S IMPERIAL PIGEON.


    Carpophaga pickeringii Cassin,
    Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1854), 7, 228; Ornith. Wilkes
    Exped. (1858), 267, pl. 27.
    Carpophaga pickeringi Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 201; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 65.
    Muscadivora pickeringi McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906),
    11.

    A-bu-un, Cagayancillo.

    Cagayancillo [6] (McGregor); Cagayan Sulu (Guillemard); Sibutu
    (Everett); Sulu (Guillemard). Mantanani Islands, Lawas River,
    northwest Borneo.


"Adult male.--Head and under parts grayish vinous, changing into
pure gray on lower hind neck and upper mantle; frontal edge, a ring
of feathers round eyes, and chin whitish; back, rump, and wings
grayish green (in some specimens with a slight brown tinge), with a
metallic luster in some lights; longer upper tail-coverts and tail
above metallic bottle-green; primaries mealy green, especially on
outer webs; under surface of wings and tail gray; under tail-coverts
gray with a reddish tinge. 'Iris crimson; bill light lead-gray; feet
dull crimson.' (Everett.) Length, about 400; wing, 240; tail, 173;
bill, 20; tarsus, 28.

"Female.--Similar to the male." (Salvadori.)

This species was very abundant on Cagayancillo where it fed entirely
on young leaves of trees.



36. MUSCADIVORES LANGHORNEI (Mearns).

LANGHORNE'S IMPERIAL PIGEON.


    Muscadivora langhornei Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905),
    18, 84; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 11.

    East Bolod (Mearns); West Bolod (Mearns).


"This large fruit pigeon is closely related to Muscadivora pickeringi
(Cassin) from Mangsee Island north of Borneo, on the west side of
the Sulu Sea, of which the type (No. 15732) is in United States
National Museum. The size is practically the same; but the colors
differ as follows: General coloration paler; the vinous-gray of the
head and under parts is darker, the gray of lower hind neck extends
farther down on the mantle, the white around the base of the bill and
surrounding the eye is more extensive, the back and rump are paler and
less brownish gray, the wings are paler, grayer and less greenish,
and the under tail-coverts less reddish. Iris purplish red; region
of the nostrils dark plumbeous; bill light plumbeous; naked eyelid
deep vinaceous; bare space around eye plumbeous; feet vinaceous,
flesh-color on under side of toes; claws plumbeous. Three adult males:
Length, 456, 456, 460; alar expanse, 770, 760, 770; wing, 242, 242,
243; tail, 180, 180, 178; culmen, 19, 21, 19; tarsus, 30, 31, 32;
middle toe with claw, 48, 49, 45." (Mearns.)



Genus PTILOCOLPA Bonaparte, 1854.

Sexes unlike in plumage; bill and gape rather small compared with
Muscadivores; nostril opening elongate; first primary attenuated
and scooped on inner web; second primary slightly scooped; inner
primaries obliquely cut at tip; the outline sinuous and outer web
extending beyond shaft and inner web; tarsus partly feathered.



Species.


a1. Chin, throat, and upper part of chest gray or black.

  b1. Band on fore breast light slate-gray. ... carola (p. 46)
  b2. Band on fore breast black. ... nigrorum (p. 47)

a2. Chin, throat, and upper part of chest nearly pure
white. ... mindanensis (p. 47)



37. PTILOCOLPA CAROLA (Bonaparte).

GRAY-BREASTED FRUIT PIGEON.


    Carpophaga carola Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Avium (1854), 2, 34;
    Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 206.
    Ptilocolpa carola Grant, Ibis (1895), 117; Whitehead, Ibis (1899),
    489; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 65; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 12.
    Ptilocolpa griseipectus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Avium (1854), 2, 34.

    Luzon (Gevers, Heriot, Whitehead, McGregor); Mindoro (Steere
    Exp., Whitehead, McGregor, Porter); Mindanao (Everett, Koch &
    Schadenberg); [7] Sibuyan (McGregor).


Adult male.--All of head, neck all around, back and interscapulars
light gray; chin white; lower throat delicate light gray, bordered
behind by a narrow white band and this followed by a wide, dark gray
band on fore breast; lower breast, abdomen, and flanks dark chestnut,
darker and slightly purplish on breast; sides gray; alula, primaries,
and their coverts, dark, glossy blue-green; secondaries blue-green,
mealy along outer edges; wing-coverts and inner secondaries canescent,
the smaller feathers each with a dark spot at tip; rump-feathers
canescent with glossy green centers and light purple edges; rectrices
and upper coverts glossy blue-green, shafts black; rectrices black
below, except outermost pair which are brown with white shafts. Iris
white mottled with pink; bill rose-pink, the "nail" white; legs
rose-pink, nails brown. Two males from Benguet, Luzon, average:
Length, 356; wing, 216; tail, 131; culmen from base, 22; tarsus, 22.

Adult female.--Somewhat similar to the male but without a white band
across the crop; fore breast light purple dulled by its slightly mealy
look; held toward the light, it becomes green and away from the light,
slightly metallic copper-red washed with vinous; rest of under parts
much lighter chestnut than in male; wing-coverts glossy green, lesser
and median coverts with blue spots at tips; interscapulars vinous
and slightly mealy; lower back and rump green with touches of deep
blue. The following notes are from an adult female taken in Benguet,
Luzon: Iris with an inner white ring and outer pinkish ring; eyelids
dirty white; bare skin about eyes blue-gray; bill deep rose-red,
tip white; legs and feet rose-red, soles yellowish; nails brown.

Young.--Immature birds have the fore breast chestnut, uniform with
the abdomen, thus not resembling the adult plumage of either sex;
wings rich metallic green, or copper-red, without canescence and the
primaries neither scooped nor cut as are those of the adult.

The plumage of the male and female in the gray-breasted fruit pigeon is
so different that the sexes were long considered to represent distinct
species. Grant, working on the material gathered by Whitehead, has
shown that these differences are sexual and not specific and more
recently collected material sustains his conclusions.

In habits these birds are quite similar to the slightly larger imperial
pigeons or baluds. They feed on large seeds or nuts and are often
found in considerable numbers in fruiting trees.



38. PTILOCOLPA NIGRORUM Whitehead.

BLACK-BREASTED FRUIT PIGEON.


    Ptilocolpa nigrorum Whitehead, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. (1897), 6,
    34; Ibis (1899), 490; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 12.

    Negros (Whitehead).


Adult male.--Similar to P. carola but band on fore breast black
not ash-gray. Total length, 330; wing, 211; tail, 122; tarsus,
22. [8] "Base of bill coral-pink, tipped with dull white; iris pale
straw-yellow; feet coral-pink." (Whitehead.)

Adult female.--Said to be similar to the female of griseipectus.

This species is known from Whitehead's specimens only, taken "when
camped just below the bare cone of Canloon."



39. PTILOCOLPA MINDANENSIS Grant.

MINDANAO FRUIT PIGEON.


    Ptilocolpa mindanensis Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. (1905), 16,
    16; Ibis (1906), 503.

    Mindanao (Goodfellow, Celestino).


Adult male.--"Very similar to the male of P. nigrorum Whitehead, but
with the chin, throat, and upper part of the chest nearly pure white,
instead of gray, and the breast deep grayish black. 'Iris creamy white;
eyelids pale gray; bill scarlet at base, pinkish white toward the tip;
feet dull purple.' (Goodfellow.) Length, about 330; wing, 205; tail,
114." (Grant.)

Collected on Mount Apo, Mindanao, at 2,440 meters.



Genus ZONOPHAPS Salvadori, 1893.

Very large; a conspicuous bare area about eye; first primary slender,
scooped near middle of inner web; second primary attenuated by a
double cut; tail crossed by a gray band some distance from tip.



Species.


a1. Breast green; abdomen pale vinous. ... poliocephala (p. 48)
a2. Breast and abdomen uniform blue-gray. ... mindorensis (p. 49)



40. ZONOPHAPS POLIOCEPHALA (Hartlaub).

PHILIPPINE ZONE-TAILED PIGEON.


    Carpophaga poliocephala Hartlaub, Jour. für Orn. (1855), 97;
    Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 209; Whitehead, Ibis
    (1899), 487.
    Zonophaps poliocephala Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 65; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 12.

    Basilan (Steere Exp., McGregor); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester); Dinagat
    (Everett); Leyte (Whitehead); Luzon (Gevers, Whitehead); Masbate
    (Steere Exp.); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp., Goodfellow); Mindoro
    (McGregor); Negros (Steere, Keay); Panay (Bourns & Worcester);
    Samar (Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (McGregor); Tawi Tawi (Bourns
    & Worcester).


Adult (sexes alike).--Head and a narrow band across throat pale gray,
vinous on crown and occiput; a large patch of light chestnut on chin;
lower breast and abdomen pale vinous; abdomen freckled with chestnut,
the color becoming rich chestnut-brown on flanks, thighs, and under
tail-coverts; tail black below, crossed at about 40 mm. from tip by a
pale gray band which shows both above and below; when the specimen
is held toward the light, the crop, breast, sides of neck, and
upper parts, except head, are rich green; held away from the light,
tail and its coverts, rump, distal wing-coverts, secondaries, and
breast become largely coppery or bronze-color; hind neck vinaceous
gray, proximal wing-coverts, tertials, and interscapular region
deep vinous-purple. Bill black; "iris indian-yellow, passing into
red on outer ring;" legs, feet, and skin about eye crimson; nails
gray. Length, 400 to 430; a male from Sibuyan measures: Wing, 235;
tail, 156; culmen from base, 24; tarsus, 32; a female from Sibuyan,
wing, 235; tail, 154; culmen from base, 24; tarsus, 27.

"Comparatively rare and usually frequents the loftiest trees. For
a long time we mistook its deep booming note for the hoot of some
great owl. Occasionally it comes down into low second-growth where
it is easily shot, being very stupid about making its escape.

"Iris with outer red and inner yellow or brown ring; legs and feet
red; nails dark brown; bill black; eyelids red. Length 400." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



41. ZONOPHAPS MINDORENSIS (Whitehead).

MINDORO ZONE-TAILED PIGEON.


    Carpophaga mindorensis Whitehead, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1896),
    ser. 6, 18, 189; Ibis (1899), 488; Grant, Ibis (1896), 476, pl. 11.
    Zonophaps mindorensis Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 65; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 12.

    Mindoro (Whitehead).


"Adult male.--Most nearly allied to Carpophaga radiata (Quoy and
Gaimard) but much larger. Top of head, neck, breast, and rest of under
parts bluish slate-gray, darkest on belly and under tail-coverts, the
latter indistinctly edged with rufous; forehead, cheeks, and throat
pale whitish pink; feathers surrounding eye and forming a patch above
ear-coverts, blackish gray; hind neck gradually shading into sooty
black on the mantle and interscapulary region; scapulars and inner
wing-coverts bronze-lake, changing to bronze-green on the rest of the
wings, rump, and upper tail-coverts; primary quills blackish gray,
the inner ones glossed on the outer web and toward the extremity with
metallic green; tail-feathers black, glossed with purple and green,
and with a wide gray band across the middle; under wing-coverts and
axillars slightly glossed with bronze. Length, 482; exposed culmen,
23; wing, 234; tail, 178; tarsus, 35; middle toe with claw, 51.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male but rather smaller, and the under
tail-coverts distinctly margined with chestnut. Length, 445; exposed
culmen, 23; wing, 223; tail, 159; tarsus, 33; middle toe with claw,
46." (Whitehead.)

This species is much larger than Zonophaps poliocephala from which
it differs also in the following points: A large black patch on
ear-coverts and surrounding eye; forehead, cheeks, and chin fawn-color;
occiput, neck, crop, breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts gray.

"Male.--Iris bright yellow, with an outer ring of red; orbital skin
lake-red, with a grayish yellow space between the rings; bill black;
feet coral-pink. Female: Iris straw-yellow, with an outer ring of
golden brown; orbital skin orange-yellow, bill olive-brown, black at
tip; feet salmon-red; nails black.

"This species is more often met with singly or in pairs, but sometimes
as many as four birds were seen together; they were feeding on some
large purple colored fruits as big as a pigeon's egg. C. mindorensis,
like the last species (Zonophaps poliocephala), has a conspicuous
fleshy ring outside the eyelid. * * * During dull misty weather,
especially just after daybreak, the penetrating booming note is more
often heard than on clear days." (Whitehead.)

So far as known the species is confined to the highlands of Mindoro
at an elevation of between 1,200 and 1,800 meters.



Genus MYRISTICIVORA Reichenbach, 1852.

Inner webs of first and second primaries very slightly attenuated;
tarsus feathered in front for half its length. This genus is remarkable
for its coloration; parts of the wings and tail, slate or black,
the rest of the plumage pale creamy white.



42. MYRISTICIVORA BICOLOR (Scopoli).

NUTMEG PIGEON.


    Columba bicolor Scopoli, Del Flor. et Faun. Insubr. (1786), 2, 94.
    Carpophaga bicolor Cassin, Ornith. Wilkes Exped. (1858), 265,
    pl. 28.
    Myristicivora bicolor Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 227; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 67; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 86; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 12.

    Ca-má-su, bá-lud blan'-co, in general use.

    Balabac (Steere, Everett); Bantayan (McGregor); Bongao (Everett);
    Cresta de Gallo (McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Malanipa
    (Murray); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester);
    Mindanao (Everett, Koch & Schadenberg); Mindoro (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor, Porter); Negros (Meyer, Steere Exp.); Nipa
    (Everett); Palawan (Bourns & Worcester, White); Sakuijok (Everett);
    Sibay (McGregor & Worcester); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Celestino); Sulu (Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor); West Bolod
    (Mearns). Siam, Cochin-China, Malay Peninsula, Tenimber and
    Indo-Malayan Islands, Andamans, Nicobars, and Moluccas.


Adult (sexes alike).--General color pale creamy white; head and sides
of head more or less ochraceous-yellow; wing-coverts and edge of wing
white; alula, primary-coverts, primaries, and most of the secondaries
black; outer web of longer primaries mealy; basal half, or more,
of rectrices and under tail-coverts light yellow, the coverts in
some specimens spotted with black; end of tail marked with a wide
black band which is widest on middle rectrices. Iris dark brown;
bill dull blue with a black tip; eyelids, legs, and feet dark blue;
nails black. Length, about 380; a male from Ticao measures: Wing, 229;
tail, 127; culmen from base, 25; tarsus, 27; a female from Cresta de
Gallo, wing, 229; tail, 127; culmen from base, 24; tarsus, 29.

The camaso, or balud blanco, being a very conspicuous bird, is well
known to both natives and Spaniards and can not be mistaken for
any other species of Philippine pigeon. The species is irregular
in distribution; it is often abundant on a small island and rare,
or entirely wanting, on a larger neighboring island. Worcester and
Bourns found it especially abundant in Siquijor. No specimens were
taken by Whitehead and it is unrecorded from Luzon, although there
seems to be no reason why it should be absent from that island.



Family COLUMBIDÆ.

Tarsus slender, feathered at base; bill slender, gape small, and
nostril covering conspicuously swollen; tail nearly square or greatly
graduated; colors blackish or reddish brown.



Subfamilies.


a1. Tail moderate, nearly square; plumage mostly blackish with purple
and green metallic reflections. ... Columbinæ (p. 51)
a2. Tail greatly elongated and graduated; plumage mostly chestnut or
rufous-brown with little metallic color. ... Macropyginæ (p. 52)



Subfamily COLUMBINÆ.

Genus COLUMBA Linnæus, 1758.

Bill comparatively slender; membrane behind nostril greatly swollen
and bulging out on the side; first primary very slightly scooped on
inner web; tarsus feathered at the base. The only Philippine species
is almost entirely black, glossed with green and purple.



43. COLUMBA GRISEOGULARIS (Walden and Layard).

GRAY-THROATED PIGEON.


    Ianthoenas griseogularis Walden and Layard, Ibis (1872), 104,
    pl. 6.
    Columba griseigularis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 313; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 72; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 13.

    Bá-lud mai-tim, Manila; bá-duc, Batan.

    Basilan (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Batan (McGregor); Cagayan
    Sulu (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Guimaras (Layard, Meyer);
    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Gevers, Whitehead); Mindanao (Steere
    Exp., Platen, Goodfellow); Mindoro (McGregor); Negros (Everett,
    Whitehead); Romblon (McGregor); Sibutu (Everett); Sibuyan
    (McGregor); Sulu (Burbidge); West Bolod (Mearns). Northern Borneo.


Adult (sexes alike).--General color slate-black with metallic purple
or green tips to the feathers; chin, upper throat, and sides of
face below eyes pale gray; head, neck, back, breast, abdomen, and
tips of wing-coverts, and upper and under tail-coverts glossed with
metallic purple changing to green; remiges and rectrices black without
metallic reflections, their coverts largely black with only the tips
metallic; colors change greatly with the angle at which the specimen
is held. Iris bright yellow; base of bill dark red, tip light yellow;
feet and bare space about eye red. Length, 380 to 430; two males,
wing, 248; tail, 161; exposed culmen, 22; tarsus, 28.

Young.--Differs from the adult in having metallic edges of feathers
narrower on body, and wanting on wing-coverts; throat and breast
blackish brown, each feather tipped with cinnamon.

Although of wide distribution, this species does not occur in great
numbers except on the Island of Batan in the Batanes group where many
individuals are caught with bird-lime and sold to visiting ships.



Subfamily MACROPYGINÆ.

Genus MACROPYGIA Swainson, 1837.

Bill small and rather slender; upper part of tarsus slightly feathered;
tail long and greatly graduated; longest and shortest rectrices
differing in length by about half the wing.



Species.


a1. Smaller and lighter, without a vinous wash on breast and abdomen;
dark rufous-brown above. ... tenuirostris (p. 52)
a2. Larger and darker, a faint vinous wash on breast and abdomen;
blackish brown above. ... phæa (p. 53)



44. MACROPYGIA TENUIROSTRIS Bonaparte.

SLENDER-BILLED CUCKOO DOVE.


    Macropygia tenuirostris Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Avium (1854), 2,
    57; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 346; Whitehead,
    Ibis (1899), 491; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 74; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 13.
    Macropygia eurycerca Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1878), 288
    (young).

    Ba-tic'-la-uin', Manila; i-bu-oo, Benguet Igorot.

    Balabac (Everett); Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Leyte
    (Whitehead); Luzon (Meyer, Heriot, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead, McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns &
    Worcester); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor, Porter); Negros (Meyer,
    Steere, Everett, Keay); Palawan (Lempriere, Whitehead, Platen,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (McGregor); Sibutu
    (Everett); Sibuyan (McGregor); Sulu (Burbidge); Tawi Tawi (Bourns
    & Worcester).


Adult male.--Head, sides of neck and breast, and lower parts bright
cinnamon-rufous, much lighter on throat and chin, darker on flanks,
under tail-coverts, and rectrices; above including wings and tail
dark brown; most of the feathers except remiges and rectrices,
edged with fine rufous dots; feathers of neck covered with irregular
vermiculations of rufous and blackish brown; sides of neck and of
body and crop marked with a few black cross-lines; neck and its sides
glossed with amethystine changing to green; metallic colors extending
faintly onto back and rump; rectrices from above dark brown, except
two outermost pairs which are cinnamon-rufous, each crossed by a
diagonal black bar; next pair similar but more obscurely colored;
inner webs of primaries edged with cinnamon. Iris of three rings,
outermost reddish or crimson, middle ring black, innermost pale
straw; skin around eye dirty brown; eyelids and basal half of bill
crimson; distal end of bill brown; legs and feet bright crimson;
nails brown. Length, about 394; three males average, wing, 189; tail,
200; exposed culmen, 16; tarsus, 23.

Adult female.--Nearly like the male but with very little if any
metallic gloss; neck and its sides black, barred with light cinnamon;
crop and lower throat more or less barred and vermiculated with black.

Young.--A young bird from Sibuyan with tail less than half grown
differs from the adult female in the throat- and breast-feathers being
blackish brown, edged with rufous, and in having bars of upper parts
more sharply cut, being produced by solid colors rather than by dots;
the rectrices seen from above have narrow rufous tips and from below,
each is crossed by a narrow, subterminal gray line.

The adult plumage is here described from a pair of birds taken at
Irisan, Benguet Province, on May 1, 1903. That these were breeding
birds was shown by dissection and was noted on the tags. If the
rusty edges are absent from the wing-coverts of fully adult birds
then it must require two or possibly three years for them to attain
that plumage.

"Exceedingly common in some localities. Frequents open ground
surrounded by patches of second growth. When flushed it frequently
alights in trees. Eyes yellow; legs and feet red. Length, 370;
culmen, 19; wing, 165; tail, 184; tarsus, 22; middle toe with claw,
33." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

"Common among the mountains of north Luzon, and found nesting on
the summit of Monte Data, where the large tracts of dead bracken
ferns afford it good protection. I saw a young one nearly ready
to fly on 28th of January on this mountain. This dove is also
plentiful in the lowland forests, and is distributed throughout the
Archipelago." (Whitehead.)



45. MACROPYGIA PHÆA McGregor.

DARK CUCKOO DOVE.


    Macropygia phæa McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4, 9;
    Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 338; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 13.

    A-la-gá-dang, Calayan.

    Batan (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor).


Adult.--Similar to Macropygia tenuirostris but larger and darker;
cinnamon edgings on inner primary webs and rufous edging of
wing-coverts narrower or obsolete. The sexes differ as in the
preceding species.

Male (type).--Bill brown with reddish base; legs dark reddish brown;
nails brown; iris of three rings, outer crimson, middle black,
inner straw. Length, 413; wing, 198; tail, 198; exposed culmen, 18;
tarsus, 24.

Female (type).--Colors of bill, legs, and eyes as in the male. Length,
406; wing, 196; tail, 195; exposed culmen, 18; tarsus, 22.

This species is rather abundant in Calayan; in habits it does not
differ from Macropygia tenuirostris. The species is rare in Batan,
Batanes, where a nest containing one egg was taken, June 12. The egg
is pure white and measures 37 by 27.



Family PERISTERIDÆ.

Tarsus slender and unfeathered; bill slender and weak, gape small,
nostril covering swollen; tail slightly graduated; colors plain or
brilliant; size moderate.



Subfamilies.


a1. Plumage mostly brown, gray, and vinous; very little if any
metallic color.

  b1. First primary not greatly attenuated; no narrow cross-bars on
  neck and back; tail square or slightly graduated. ... Turturinæ
  (p. 54)
  b2. First primary abruptly attenuated; neck and back barred with
  narrow lines; tail graduated, longest rectrix exceeding shortest
  by more than twice the tarsus. ... Geopeliinæ (p. 57)

a2. Plumage largely metallic green or purple.

  b1. Feathers of hind neck not elongated; tail not white.

    c1. A gray band across rump and another across back; breast
    uniform. ... Phabinæ (p. 58)
    c2. No band across back nor rump; a large smear of orange or
    blood-red on middle of breast. ... Geotrygoninæ (p. 60)

  b2. Feathers of neck long, narrow, and soft; tail pure
  white. ... Caloenadinæ (p. 64)



Subfamily TURTURINÆ.

Genera.


a1. Feathers of neck normal, not bifurcated; wing-coverts without
shaft-stripes.

  b1. Larger, length, 300 mm. or more; outermost rectrices with narrow
  white tips. ... Streptopelia (p. 54)
  b2. Smaller, length, 240 mm. or less; outermost rectrices with wide
  white ends. ... Oenopopelia (p. 56)

a2. Feathers of neck bifurcated; wing-coverts with dark shaft-stripes;
edge of wing pale pearl-gray. ... Spilopelia (p. 56)



Genus STREPTOPELIA Bonaparte, 1854.

This genus is characterized by having a long, nearly square tail,
but the outermost rectrix on each side is about 10 mm. shorter than
the next feather.



46. STREPTOPELIA DUSSUMIERI (Temminck).

DUSSUMIER'S TURTLE DOVE.


    Columba dussumieri Temminck, Pl. Col. (1823), 188.
    Turtur dussumieri Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 423.
    Streptopelia dussumieri Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 79; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 96; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 13.

    Bá-to ba-tó de col-lar, Manila; pa-gao, Calayan; tuc-mó, Ticao,
    Bohol, Cagayancillo.

    Agutaya (McGregor); Bantayan (McGregor); Banton (Celestino);
    Basilan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Bohol (Everett, Steere
    Exp., McGregor); Cagayancillo (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor);
    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Caluya (Porter);
    Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (Everett, Steere Exp., McGregor);
    Cuyo (McGregor); Fuga (McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Leyte
    (Everett); Libagao (Porter); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Meyer,
    Everett, Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor); Maestre de Campo
    (McGregor & Worcester); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Everett, Koch & Schadenberg,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow); Mindoro (Steere
    Exp., Schmacker, Whitehead, McGregor, Porter); Negros (Meyer,
    Everett, Steere Exp., Keay); Palawan (Platen, White); Panay
    (Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Samar (Whitehead); Semirara (Worcester); Siasi (Guillemard);
    Sibay (McGregor & Worcester); Sibutu (Everett); Sibuyan (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Celestino); Sulu (Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns
    & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor);
    Verde (McGregor). North Borneo, Marianne Islands.


Adult (sexes alike).--Forehead and face pearl-gray; top and sides
of head and nape darker, washed with vinous, nuchal collar blackish,
each feather touched with gray, the tips faint metallic green; behind
collar a band of light rusty brown; rest of upper parts, including
tail-coverts, tertiaries, and proximal wing-coverts, earthy brown;
chin white shading into light vinous on throat, breast, and sides
of neck and abdomen; sides and flanks gray; middle of abdomen, vent,
and under tail-coverts white; alula, primary-coverts, and primaries
blackish brown, the last with narrow whitish edges, secondaries
similar to primaries; distal coverts in each series slate-gray;
rectrices blackish brown below; outer webs of shortest pair white;
three outer pairs with wide gray ends and narrow white tips; three
middle pairs with brown ends. Iris light orange or reddish brown; bill
dark horn-blue; angle of mouth dull red; legs light carmine; nails
brown. Length, 300 to 330; three males average: Wing, 161; tail, 134;
exposed culmen, 15; tarsus, 25; middle toe with claw, 31. Two females:
Wing, 158; tail, 129; culmen, 18; tarsus, 24; middle toe with claw, 31.

"Enormously abundant in many localities, especially about the
rice-fields after harvest. Everywhere common in open country. It is
a favorite cage bird with the natives, who call it took-moo from its
note. The nest, which is a mere platform of sticks and twigs, is placed
on the branch of some low tree or bush. The eggs are pure white in
color, and oval in form, with both ends rather sharply pointed. They
measure 28.4 to 30.5 in length by 20.8 to 21.3 in breadth.

"Eyes golden brown; feet purple; length, 305; wing 155; tail, 123;
culmen, 20; tarsus, 24; middle toe with claw, 32." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)

Dussumier's dove occurs in nearly every island of the group; it
is partial to open, lowland country. After harvest it feeds in the
rice-fields, being found in pairs or small companies.



Genus OENOPOPELIA Blanford, 1898.

Tail short and square, its feathers subequal; first primary nearly
or quite as long as the second.



47. OENOPOPELIA HUMILIS (Temminck).

RED TURTLE DOVE.


    Columba humilis Temminck, Pl. Col. (1824), 259.
    Turtur humilis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 434.
    Onopopelia humilis Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 79.
    Onopopelia humulis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 14
    (error).

    Bá-to ba-tó de col-lar, Manila.

    Calayan (McGregor); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Cuming, Möllendorff,
    Meyer, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor);
    Mindoro (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester). China, Japan,
    Indo-Chinese countries, eastern Bengal, Andamans.


Adult male.--Back, wings, and under parts nearly uniform vinaceous-red;
upper parts darker, more reddish brown; head and sides of face
light slate-gray sharply separated from color of back by a narrow,
black, nuchal band; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts blackish
slate; chin white or nearly so; vent and under tail-coverts white;
alula, primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries blackish brown;
rectrices black below; three outer pairs with the terminal third white;
three inner pairs with terminal third pearl-gray; outermost pair with
outer web all white; middle pair brown above. Iris dark; bill, legs,
and nails black. Length, 215 to 240. Three males average: Wing, 138;
tail, 90; exposed culmen, 14; tarsus, 19; middle toe with claw, 25.

Adult female.--Color pattern as in the male but the vinaceous-red
replaced by earthy brown; under parts paler with a faint vinaceous
wash; head brown like the back. Three females average: Wing, 128;
tail, 77; exposed culmen, 14; tarsus, 18; middle toe with claw, 24.

Young.--The young male is like the adult female but lacks the nuchal
band and under parts have no vinaceous wash; wing-coverts and feathers
of breast tipped with yellowish brown.

The eastern ruddy dove is one of the common doves in Luzon; it is very
abundant in open lowland country where it feeds upon the ground. Like
the barred and Dussumier's doves this species is common in the vicinity
of Manila; many are sold in the markets throughout the year. In the
other islands it is very scarce.



Genus SPILOPELIA Sundevall, 1873.

Tail graduated; its outermost feather 40 mm. shorter than the central
pair; a wide band of feathers on neck with bifurcated tips.



48. SPILOPELIA TIGRINA (Temminck and Knip).

MALAY SPOTTED DOVE.


    Columba tigrina Temminck and Knip, Hist. Nat. des Pig. (1808-11),
    1, pl. 43.
    Turtur tigrinus Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 440.
    Spilopelia tigrina Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 80; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 98; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 14.

    Balabac (Everett); Palawan (Whitehead, McGregor, Celestino,
    White). Burma, Malay Peninsula, Greater and Lesser Sunda Islands,
    Celebes, Moluccas.


Adult (sexes alike).--Head dark gray with a vinaceous wash;
forehead and face lighter; lores with a small black spot; bifurcated
feathers of neck black with white tips; feathers of upper parts
brown with paler, dull, rusty edges and dark shaft-stripes, the
stripes widest on tertials and wing-coverts; distal coverts in each
series pearl-gray, outer webs white; quills brown with narrow pale
edges; lower parts vinous; paler, nearly white on chin; abdomen
white washed with buff; under tail-coverts white; three outer
tail-feathers black broadly tipped with white; next pair black,
tipped with gray; two central feathers uniform brown, next pair black
with a broad, terminal, brown band. "Iris reddish pearl; bill black;
feet pinkish." (Wallace.) Length, about 300; wing, 145; tail, 150;
exposed culmen, 17; tarsus, 22.

Young.--"More rufescent above and beneath; feathers of the hind neck
of a pale brown with grayish edges." (Salvadori.)

The Malay spotted dove occurs in small numbers as a winter visitant
to Balabac and Palawan. Whitehead says it is "scarce and very local"
in Palawan; Celestino took several specimens at Puerto Princesa.



Subfamily GEOPELIINÆ.

Genus GEOPELIA Swainson, 1837.

Tip of first primary very slender; tail long and greatly graduated,
and its feathers very slender. This genus contains the smallest
Philippine doves.



49. GEOPELIA STRIATA (Linnæus).

BARRED GROUND DOVE.


    Columba striata Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed 12 (1766), 1, 282.
    Geopelia striata Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21,
    458; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 80; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 101; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 14.

    Ba-to ba-tó ca-tic'-bi, Manila.

    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor); Mindoro (Everett, McGregor);
    Verde (McGregor). Siam, Southern Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula,
    Greater and Lesser Sunda Islands, Celebes, Amboina.


Adult male.--Anterior half of head, sides of face, chin, and upper
throat pearl-gray; a little lighter on chin and forehead; hind crown
and nape uniform dull reddish brown; rest of upper parts, including
wing-coverts, earthy brown; neck and sides of neck decorated
with sharply cut black and white bars (on hind neck washed with
brown); above, the bars become obliterated posteriorly leaving the
feathers uniform brown with black tips which persist to longest upper
tail-coverts; below, along sides and flanks the black bars are reduced
in width; middle of breast vinaceous-pink; middle of abdomen, vent,
and under tail-coverts white and unbarred, primaries and secondaries
brown, narrowly edged with brown or gray; lining of wing cinnamon
with narrow black bars; rectrices brown, all but middle pair with
wide white tips. Iris pale blue; bill and bare skin about eyes blue;
legs and feet dull red; nails light horn. Length, 216 to 229. Five
males yield the following measurements: Wing, 94 to 100 (98); tail,
91 to 104 (96); exposed culmen, 14 to 15 (14.5); tarsus, 19 to 20
(19.5); middle toe with claw, 22 to 24 (23).

Adult female.--Like the male; said to be less reddish on the occiput
but this difference is not very obvious except where fully adult
birds are compared.

Young.--Above like the adult but bars continued from nape onto
top of head; wing-coverts barred with brown, buff, and rusty brown;
secondaries edged with rusty buff; inner webs of primary-coverts rusty
brown; no vinaceous-pink on breast which is barred like the sides.

In the full-plumaged bird the bars encroach upon the pink area of
breast and are more strongly developed on sides and flanks than in
less mature individuals. In most specimens the primary-coverts are
tipped with cinnamon but in fine plumage these coverts are uniform
brown and the primaries from third to eighth inclusive, are narrowly
edged with red near their bases.

The nest of this species is a frail mass of twigs with scarcely
any hollow; it is placed on the branch of a bush, in a small tree,
or according to Whitehead, among hanging creepers. Near Mariveles,
Bataan, a nest with fresh eggs was found February 27, 1902. The two
oval eggs are pure white.

The barred dove, while one of the commonest species in Luzon, occurs
but rarely in other islands of the Archipelago. It is often found
feeding in rice-fields after the grain has been harvested and is
brought into the Manila markets from neighboring towns.



Subfamily PHABINÆ.

Genus CHALCOPHAPS Gould, 1843.

Bill slender; wing short; tail short and slightly rounded, its feathers
wide; tarsal envelope entire, with no division into plates or scales;
wings and mantle largely bronze-green.



50. CHALCOPHAPS INDICA (Linnæus).

INDIAN BRONZE-WINGED DOVE.


    Columba indica Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 164.
    Chalcophaps indica Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 514; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 84; Oates, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1901), 1, 103, pl. 8 figs. 2 & 3; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 14.

    Ba-to ba-tó si-li, Manila; ma-ná-tad, Bohol; ac-bá-on, Ticao;
    ba-na-tá, Cagayancillo; li-mú-kin, Calayan.

    Banton (Celestino); Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Bohol (McGregor);
    Cagayancillo (McGregor); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester);
    Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Cebu (Everett,
    Steere Exp., McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor); Fuga (McGregor); Guimaras
    (Steere Exp.); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Everett, Meyer, Bourns &
    Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate
    (Steere Exp., McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Koch & Schadenberg,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow, Celestino); Mindoro
    (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor, Porter); Negros (Meyer, Everett,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Palawan (Steere, Whitehead,
    Platen, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay (Steere,
    Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Samar
    (Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Sulu (Platen); Tablas
    (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor); Verde (McGregor). Indian and Malay Peninsulas,
    Indo-Chinese countries, Sunda Islands, Nicobars, Andamans,
    Moluccas, Ceylon, Celebes, New Guinea.


Adult male.--Forehead and superciliary stripe white, shading into
slate-blue on crown and nape; upper back and neck washed with
slate-blue; primaries, primary-coverts, and alula dull brown; small
lesser coverts on shoulder tipped with white; rest of wings and back
rich metallic green, changing to rich bronze when specimen is held
away from the light; back metallic copper-color crossed near middle
by a band of blue-gray; another blue-gray band between back and rump;
upper tail-coverts dark slate with black tips; sides of neck and
face and lower parts vinaceous-purple, paler on chin and on abdomen,
the former sometimes washed with brown; basal under tail-coverts
blue-gray, the longest ones blackish; rectrices mostly blackish,
outermost pair mostly pearl-gray above, clearest on outer web, with
a subterminal black band; next two pairs similar but variable. Iris
brown; bill coral-red, dark at base; legs dark carmine; feet bluish;
nails horn. A specimen from Mindoro measures: Length, 255; wing, 152;
tail, 92; culmen from base, 23; tarsus, 27; middle toe with claw, 30.

Adult female.--In color pattern like the male from which it differs
chiefly in having the vinaceous-purple replaced by brown, more or
less faintly glossed with purple; whole head brown, superciliary
stripe much reduced; small lesser wing-coverts brown; rump and upper
tail-coverts cinnamon-brown with blackish tips and slight purple
gloss; rectrices much as in male but second, third, and fourth outer
pairs more or less rufous basally. A specimen from Masbate measures:
Length, 241; wing, 139; tail, 85; culmen from base, 20; tarsus, 26;
middle toe with claw, 28.

Young.--A young male has top and sides of head brown, the tips of
many feathers cinnamon or rusty, especially those about the eyes;
metallic colors of back and wings largely replaced by dusky brown and
many of the wing-coverts, as well as some primaries and secondaries,
tipped and mottled with rusty cinnamon; sides of neck, breast, and
abdomen barred with cinnamon and blackish brown. Iris dark brown;
bill dull reddish brown; legs dull pink; nails slate.

"Exceedingly common throughout the group. Invariably found on the
ground and usually in deep woods. Usually alights on the ground again
when flushed. Eyes dark brown; bill dark red; legs and feet light to
dark red; nails light brown. Seven specimens average, 243 in length;
wing, 141; tail, 88; culmen, 22; tarsus, 24; middle toe and claw,
29." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

The bronze-winged dove, because of its wide distribution, is a species
little valued by the collector but its solitary and unobtrusive
habits usually lead the novice to mistake it for a rarity. In no place
abundant, the species may be found in nearly every island where forest,
or even a small growth of trees, exists to afford protected feeding
grounds. Oates records two eggs of this species which were collected
in Mindoro by the Steere Expedition.



Subfamily GEOTRYGONINÆ.

Genus PHLEGOENAS Reichenbach, 1852.

Terrestrial and solitary; wings moderate; first primary normal;
tail moderate and rounded; tarsi unfeathered; wing-coverts banded;
chin and throat white; a conspicuous spot, or patch, of orange or
red on crop region, where the feathers are decomposed and harsh.



Species.


a1. Breast-spot blood-red.

  b1. Forehead gray; lower breast pink. ... luzonica (p. 60)
  b2. Forehead green like crown; lower breast buff or fawn.

    c1. A broad chestnut band on wing-coverts. ... criniger (p. 61)
    c2. A broad white band on lesser wing-coverts. ... keayi (p. 62)

a2. Breast-spot orange.

  b1. Hind breast and upper abdomen pearly ash. ... menagei (p. 63)
  b2. Chest and abdomen white. ... platenæ (p. 64)



51. PHLEGOENAS LUZONICA (Scopoli).

LUZON PUÑALADA.


    Columba luzonica Scopoli, Del Flor. et Faun. Insubr. (1786), 94.
    Phlogoenas luzonica Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21,
    585; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 88; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 15.

    Pu-ña-lá-da, Manila and generally.

    Luzon (Meyer, Everett, Heriot, Steere Exp., Whitehead, McGregor,
    Celestino).


Adult (sexes similar).--Top of head, from base of bill to hind border
of eye, gray; rest of upper parts dark brown, each feather, except
rectrices and their coverts, edged with metallic green or purple,
according to the light; the edging wider on interscapulars; sides
of neck similar to back; chin, throat, and sides of face below eyes
pure white; a patch of blood-red on the stiffish feathers of crop,
shading into pale salmon on lower breast and abdomen; sides gray;
flanks, thighs, and under tail-coverts light buff; primaries and
secondaries brown, edges reddish brown, basal half of inner web
of primaries cinnamon; greater and median coverts reddish brown
with wide gray tips forming two gray bands across each wing; lesser
coverts gray; two middle pairs of rectrices brown on upper surface;
the other rectrices gray, each with a subterminal black bar.

Length, about 280. A male from Bataan Province, Luzon, measures: Wing,
148; tail, 112; culmen from base, 21; tarsus, 35. A female from the
same province measures: Wing, 145; tail, 102; culmen from base, 20;
tarsus, 32.

This beautiful dove is often found in the Manila markets; it is a
well-known favorite of the Spaniards. The species is commonly known
as puñalada which means "stabbed with a dagger." The Calamianes record
of this species is doubtless an error.



52. PHLEGOENAS CRINIGER (Jacquinot and Pucheran).

HAIR-BREASTED PUÑALADA.


    Pampusana criniger Jacquinot and Pucheran, Voy. Pôle Sud. (1853),
    3, 118.
    Phlogoenas bartletti Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1863), 377, pl. 34.
    Phlogoenas crinigera Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 587; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 88; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 15.

    Basilan (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Leyte
    (Whitehead); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp.); Samar (Bourns &
    Worcester).


Adult male and female.--Head, cheeks, neck, and mantle dark metallic
green changing to metallic purple; back, rump, and tail-coverts
chestnut, some of the feathers with amethystine edges; white of
chin and throat extending backward on each side of a large dark
red crop-patch; rest of under parts rich buffy brown, lighter
on tail-coverts, nearly white on abdomen; alula, primaries, and
primary-coverts dark brown; secondaries chestnut; upper lesser
coverts brown, edged with metallic green changing to amethystine;
remainder of lesser coverts broadly tipped with gray; median and
greater coverts chestnut, tipped with gray forming wing-bands; middle
tail-feathers chestnut, the others blackish with wide gray tips. A
male from Basilan: Length, 280; wing, 153; tail, 110; exposed culmen,
19; tarsus, 36. A female from Basilan: Wing, 145; tail, 95; exposed
culmen, 19; tarsus, 34.

"Eyes lilac; legs light pink; feet dark pink; nails nearly white;
upper mandible black, lower gray. Seven specimens average as follows:
Length, 355; culmen, 21; wing, 146; tail, 95; tarsus, 32; middle toe
with claw, 9.

"We consider the Sulu record of this species extremely doubtful. We
saw a Phlegoenas there which we failed to obtain. It seems to us more
probable, however, from the close relationship of the known birds of
Sulu to those of Tawi Tawi that the species in question is P. menagei.

"The habits of the Philippine representatives of this genus are the
same. The birds are invariably found on the ground in the forest. They
run very rapidly, and in close cover frequently escape in this way
without taking wing. When flushed they invariably alight on the
ground again, and run rapidly after alighting, so that they are
very difficult to kill. P. criniger is fairly abundant in Basilan,
but much rarer in Samar." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



53. PHLEGOENAS KEAYI Clarke.

NEGROS PUÑALADA.


    Phlogoenas keayi Clarke, Ibis (1900), 359, pl. 8; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 15.

    Pe-nes, Negros.

    Negros (Keay).


Adult.--"Feathers of the head, upper part of cheeks, hind neck, sides
of breast, mantle, and lesser wing-coverts (except the distal series)
gray, broadly edged with dark metallic green, changing to amethystine;
back and rump purplish chestnut with amethystine margins to feathers;
upper tail-coverts purplish chestnut; primaries dusky, with margins
of outer webs and basal two-thirds of inner webs chestnut; secondaries
chestnut, dusky toward tips of inner webs; greater and median coverts
purplish chestnut; lesser coverts with two or three of their distal
rows subterminally gray, broadly margined with white, the latter
color forming a conspicuous band across wing; lining of wing and under
wing-coverts chestnut; central pair of tail-feathers dark chestnut,
the remainder gray with a broad subapical band of black; lower part
of cheeks, throat, fore neck, breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts
white (abdomen washed with fawn in some specimens); flanks and thighs
fawn, almost white in some examples; patch on crop-region small and
blood-red; pectoral band narrow and incomplete, formed by the metallic
green margins to some of the breast feathers. Feet red. Wing, 159;
tail, 104; culmen, 18; tarsus, 37." (Clarke.)

Keay's blood-breasted pigeon is easily recognized by the conspicuous
white band across the wing.



54. PHLEGOENAS MENAGEI Bourns and Worcester.

TAWI TAWI PUÑALADA.


    Phlogoenas menagei Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 10; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 88; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 15.

    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult male.--Entire upper surface of head, nape, hind neck,
upper back, sides of neck, and sides of breast rich metallic green;
scapulars and interscapulars dark brown, broadly edged with elegant
violet when specimen is held between observer and the light, this color
changing to deep green when specimen is held away from source of light;
rump and upper tail-coverts ruddy brown narrowly edged with metallic
colors of back; a few of the longest coverts nearly black, washed with
rufous-brown at tips; basal portion of tail-feathers dark ashy gray,
the two central feathers darkest; a distinct subterminal band of black
on all but central pair of feathers; all the feathers with a terminal
gray band, least distinct on central pair; wing-coverts dark brown,
broadly tipped with metallic green except outer series, which are
broadly tipped with ashy gray; primary- and secondary-coverts and
secondaries fulvous-brown, the outer half of outer webs of feathers
rich rufous-brown, the inner secondaries having the entire outer web,
and tip of inner web, of this color; primaries fulvous-brown faintly
washed with rufous-brown on basal half of outer webs; lores, a narrow
line under eye, and ear-coverts nearly black with a faint wash of
metallic green; metallic green of back and sides of neck continued
in a distinct band across the breast, only slightly interrupted at
center of breast and inclosing a beautiful orange plastron formed by
the bristle-like tips of the feathers of the fore breast; basal portion
of these feathers as well as chin, throat, sides of face, and sides of
throat pure white; an indistinct white band behind the green pectoral
band; hind breast and upper abdomen pearly ash, a few of the feathers
tipped with creamy white; belly creamy white; flanks, thighs, and
under tail-coverts buff; under surface of tail like upper, the terminal
band being rather more pronounced; under wing-coverts, axillars, and
basal portion of inner webs of all the quills chestnut-brown; rest of
quills dark brown. Iris light silver-gray; bill slaty gray at tip,
black at base; legs and feet light red; nails light brown. Length,
286; wing, 153; tail, 103; culmen, 21; tarsus, 36.

"Extremely rare and difficult to obtain. We secured two fine males
but failed to get a female." (Bourns and Worcester.)



55. PHLEGOENAS PLATENÆ Blasius.

MINDORO PUÑALADA.


    Phlogoenas platenæ "Blasius," Hartert, Jour. für Ornith. (1891)
    302; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893), 21, 588; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 88; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 15.

    Mindoro (Platen, Schmacker, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor).


Adult (sexes similar).--Head and neck dark metallic green changing
to amethystine; scapulars, back, and rump chestnut, many of the
feathers edged with metallic green; below white becoming faint buff or
ochraceous on abdomen, flanks, and tail-coverts; finely speckled with
gray on sides of breast; red crop-patch very small; alula, primaries,
and primary-coverts brown; secondaries and coverts chestnut, except
some of the lesser series which are blackish with broad light gray
tips forming a conspicuous patch; upper tail-coverts and middle
pair of tail-feathers gray, remainder of rectrices blackish with
gray tips. Iris purple; bill black; legs dark rose-color; nails
gray. Length, 275 to 285. A male measures: Wing, 150; tail, 106;
exposed culmen, 20; tarsus, 34. A female: Wing, 141; tail, 100;
exposed culmen, 20; tarsus, 34.

Two nests with eggs were collected on the Baco River in 1905. The
first was taken April 28, and was placed 1.5 meters from the ground
on a horizontal limb of a small tree. The two eggs were advanced in
incubation. They measure 30 by 22 and 29 by 22. The second nest was
similarly placed in a shrub. The nest measures 200 by 280 mm. across
the top and is very shallow, the outside depth being about 50 mm. On
the bottom are a number of rather large leaves and sticks, topped by
fine rootlets and spiral plant-tendrils. The materials were poorly put
together so that a large part of the bottom fell off when the nest
was removed from its site. The two eggs were well incubated. They
measure 29 by 22 and 30 by 21. Their color is light cream.

"Common in the old forests in the interior of Mindoro, but very
difficult to shoot. We found its nest in a tangle of vines about two
meters above the ground. The female flew from the nest to the ground
and pretended to be lame. The nest, which contained two young birds,
was found in the month of May." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Subfamily CALOENADINÆ.

Genus CALOENAS Gray, 1840.

The genus Caloenas is distinguished by having the feathers of the
neck long, narrow, and pointed; bill deep, with a knob on the base
of culmen; legs and feet large, covered with large transverse plates;
tail short and square.



56. CALOENAS NICOBARICA (Linnæus).

NICOBAR PIGEON.


    Columba nicobarica Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 164.
    Caloenas nicobarica Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1893),
    21, 615; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 24, fig. 5
    (head); Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 91; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 106; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 15.

    Dun-dú-nai, native name.

    Mindoro (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Negros (Bourns &
    Worcester); Palawan (Platen); Sibutu (Everett); Siquijor
    (Celestino); Sulu (Bourns & Worcester); Talaran, off Basilan
    (Freer); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester). Nicobar and Greater Sunda
    Islands, Mergui and Bismark Archipelagos, Moluccas to New Guinea.


Adult male.--Head, neck, throat, and breast dark slate or blue-black;
long neck-plumes, mantle, back, wing-coverts, and some of the inner
secondaries bright metallic green, blue, or bronze-red changing
with the light; primaries and outer secondaries black, more or less
edged with blue; tail and its coverts pure white; abdomen, flanks,
and thighs blue-black with more or less metallic green. Wing, 250;
tail, 82; culmen from base, 24; tarsus, 40.

"Female.--Similar to the male but smaller, narrow feathers of the
neck shorter, and also frontal knob smaller.

"Young.--Like the female, but the tail greenish black." (Salvadori.)

"Rare in all the islands visited by us except Tawi Tawi, where it is
very common. Invariably found on the ground in deep woods. It rises
very heavily and with much noise, always alighting in low trees,
and then flying from tree to tree if disturbed. Iris dark brown; legs
dark purple; upper surface of feet dark purple; lower surface yellow;
nails yellow; bill black. Seven specimens average as follows: Length,
346; culmen, 23; wing, 241; tail, 86; tarsus, 38; middle toe and claw,
48." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Order RALLIFORMES.

RAILS, GALLINULES, AND COOTS.

Size medium to small; body compressed; thighs very muscular; legs
rather long; toes long; wing short and rounded; tail short and soft,
composed of ten or twelve feathers; bill strong but variable in form;
long and slightly curved in typical rails, short and thick in the
crakes, subconical and heavy in Porphyrio; nostrils pervious and
variable in shape; wing usually bearing a short spine or a flattened
knob. Most of the species inhabit marsh-land, rice-fields, or thick
beds of reeds bordering ponds and streams; Rallina, Amaurornis, and
Gallicrex are often found in dry fields or underbrush at considerable
distances from water. The nest is placed on the ground and well
concealed among reeds or bunches of grass; usually situated near water
or marshy ground. The eggs vary in number from four to ten, and are
usually much spotted and streaked. The downy young are coal-black.



Family RALLIDÆ.

Characters same as those given for the Order.



Subfamilies.


a1. Toes without webs or lobes. ... Rallinæ (p. 66)
a2. Toes lobate. ... Fulicinæ (p. 81)



Subfamily RALLINÆ.

Genera.


a1. No frontal shield.

  b1. Bill more slender; exposed culmen equal to middle toe without
  claw. ... Hypotænidia (p. 66)
  b2. Bill stouter; exposed culmen much less than middle toe without
  claw.

    c1. Culmen not swollen at base; wing less than 140 mm.

      d1. Tarsus longer than middle toe with claw. ... Rallina (p. 69)
      d2. Tarsus about equal to middle toe with claw or shorter.

        e1. Culmen decidedly longer than hind toe with claw; under
        tail-coverts banded with white.

          f1. Smaller; wing, 90 mm. or less; forehead, throat, and
          breast slate-gray. ... Porzana (p. 71)
          f2. Larger; wing, 100 mm. or more; forehead, throat, and
          breast chestnut. ... Limnobænus (p. 73)

        e2. Culmen but little longer than hind toe with claw; under
        tail-coverts unbanded. ... Poliolimnas (p. 73)

    c2. Culmen slightly swollen at base but not forming a frontal
    shield; wing more than 150 mm. ... Amaurornis (p. 75)

a2. Frontal shield present; legs and feet long and heavy.

  b1. Nostrils elongate; frontal shield narrower; terminal half of
  bill green or yellowish green.

    c1. Under tail-coverts pure white; tarsus less than 65
    mm. ... Gallinula (p. 77)
    c2. Under tail-coverts not white; tarsus more than 75
    mm. ... Gallicrex (p. 78)

  b2. Nostrils small and circular; frontal shield wider; bill all
  red. ... Porphyrio (p. 80)



Genus HYPOTÆNIDIA Reichenbach, 1852.

Bill slender; abdomen and flanks black or brown, banded with white.



Species.


a1. Chin white; upper parts more or less spotted with white.

  b1. Smaller; wing less than 125 mm.; breast uniform; no white
  eyebrow. ... striata (p. 67)
  b2. Larger; wing more than 140 mm.; breast barred with black and
  white; a white eyebrow. ... philippensis (p. 67)

a2. Chin black; upper parts uniform. ... torquata (p. 68)



57. HYPOTÆNIDIA STRIATA (Linnæus).

BLUE-BREASTED RAIL.


    Rallus striatus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 262.
    Hypotænidia striata Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 33;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 95; Oates, Cat. Bird's Eggs (1901), 1, 111;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 15.

    Tic-líng, general name for rails.

    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Cebu (Everett); Guimaras (Steere
    Exp.); Leyte (Everett); Luzon (Cuming, McGregor, Gevers); Mindanao
    (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow); Mindoro
    (McGregor, Porter); Negros (Steere Exp., Keay); Palawan (Celestino,
    White); Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Steere
    Exp.); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester);
    Sulu (Guillemard). Burmese countries to China, Malay Peninsula,
    Indo-Malay Islands, Southern India, Ceylon, Formosa, Celebes.


Adult male.--Above olive-brown, feathers centered with black and
barred with broken white lines; crown, neck, and sides of neck dull
chestnut, brighter on the last; center of crown blackish; chin and
upper throat; lores, sides of face, and ear-coverts, lower throat,
fore neck, and breast slate-gray; posterior lower part of body,
under wing-coverts, and axillars blackish barred with white; alula
blackish brown; primary-coverts and primaries blackish brown spotted
and barred with white; tail and its coverts similar to the back. "Basal
half of bill rose-pink, the anterior half horn-color; legs and toes
deep olive-brown; claws pale brown; iris red." (Oates.) Length, 246;
culmen, 38; wing, 120; tail, 47; tarsus, 37.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but paler and decidedly more
olive, head not so bright chestnut; white bars on lower parts much
tinged with fulvous. Length, 240; culmen, 35; wing, 110; tail, 41;
tarsus, 35.

"In winter the plumage is entirely overshaded with olive-brown and
there is a distinct fulvescent tinge on abdomen and under tail-coverts,
almost hiding the black bars on the latter.

"Young.--Differs from the adults in having the bill black, and the
upper surface much darker and without any white spots and bars on
the back; head blackish, and back darker olive-brown with broad black
centers to the feathers; no rufous on the head or sides of crown and
sides of neck." (Sharpe.)



58. HYPOTÆNIDIA PHILIPPENSIS (Linnæus).

PECTORAL RAIL.


    Rallus philippensis Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 263.
    Hypotænidia philippinensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894),
    23, 39; Hand-List (1899), 1, 96; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901),
    1, 113; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 16.

    Batan (Edmonds); Luzon (Everett, Whitehead, McGregor). Pacific
    Islands, Malay Archipelago, Australia, New Zealand.


"Adult male.--General color above ochraceous-brown, all the feathers
black, with ochraceous edgings, and spangled with white spots on the
mantle and back; lower back and rump ochraceous-brown, with white
centers to the feathers, but no white spots; wing-coverts like the
back, but more uniform, and with scarcely any spots on the lesser
and median series, the greater series, however, having large white
spots and intermediate bars of black; alula black, checkered with
white spots and bars; primary-coverts rufous, olive-brown at tip and
banded with black; quills rufous, banded with black, and black at
tips, the first two primaries checkered on the outer web and barred
on the inner web with white; secondaries blackish, externally and
at the tips ochraceous-brown, with numerous ovate spots or bars,
the innermost secondaries ochraceous-brown, with broad black centers
resembling the back; tail-feathers ochraceous-brown centered with
black; crown of head olive-brown, with black longitudinal spots to the
feathers; hinder neck ferrugineous, mottled with blackish centers to
the feathers, which are edged with olive-brown, obscuring the rufous;
lores and broad band through the eye dusky brown, becoming rufous on
the ear-coverts and extending to the sides of the neck, where it is a
little brighter rufous; over the lores a white band extending above
the eye, and continued in a broad band of light ashy gray above the
ear-coverts, and extending to the sides of the nape; cheeks light ashy
gray, extending over the fore neck, which is washed with brown; fore
part of the cheeks and throat white, remainder of under surface white,
with black bars, very distinct, but narrow on the sides of fore neck,
broader and more regular on the sides of body, where the feathers have
olive-brown tips; flank feathers distinctly barred with black and
white, the black bands being the broader; feathers at the sides of
the vent tawny-buff, black at the base, and barred with white; long
under tail-coverts black, with white bars, tawny-buff at the ends,
the lower coverts tawny-buff, with black bases; thighs tawny-buff,
dusky brown behind, under wing-coverts black, broadly edged with
white; axillars black, barred with white. 'Bill warm brown; feet and
claws light grayish brown; iris indian-red.' (Everett.) Length, 292;
culmen, 32; wing, 145; tail, 67; tarsus, 39; middle toe with claw,
47." (Sharpe.)

Female.--An immature female agrees with the description of the male
but the lower throat and fore breast are obscured with slate-gray and
a slight olive wash. Bill dull brick-red, the terminal third brown;
iris red; legs and nails light brown. Length, 305; wing, 136; tail,
73; culmen, 30; tarsus, 39; middle toe with claw, 43. This species
is rare in Luzon.



59. HYPOTÆNIDIA TORQUATA (Linnæus).

PHILIPPINE RAIL.


    Rallus torquatus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 262.
    Hypotænidia torquata Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23,
    43; Hand-List (1899), 1, 96; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 16.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Cagayancillo (McGregor);
    Camiguin N. (McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (Everett,
    Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Dinagat (Everett); Leyte (Everett);
    Luzon (Cuming, Meyer, Everett, Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead,
    McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Mindanao (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow);
    Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Negros (Everett, Keay);
    Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Sibuyan (McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino);
    Ticao (McGregor); Verde (McGregor).


Adult (sexes alike).--Above olive-brown with a few, obscure, black
lines on forehead; lores and circumocular area black, continued as a
wide black band behind eye to side of nape; below this a wide white
band from gape to neck, slightly washed with chestnut at its end;
chin gray; throat and lower part of face black; lower throat and
rest of lower parts black profusely banded with white; vent and under
tail-coverts washed with clay-brown; a wide band of chestnut across
breast; under wing-coverts and axillars barred with black and white
like the breast. Iris red; bill, legs, and nails brown. Three males:
Length, 317 to 330; wing, 151 to 155; tail, 54 to 65; exposed culmen,
41 to 43; tarsus, 52 to 53; middle toe with claw, 52 to 55. Two
females: Length, 305, 317; wing, 142, 144; tail, 51, 60; exposed
culmen, 39, 41; tarsus, 51, 52; middle toe with claw, 51, 52.

Young.--Resembles the adult but has more white on the chin; band
across breast wider and olive-brown; vent and under tail-coverts
barred with reddish brown.

"H. torquata usually deposits four eggs, more rarely three. The
ground-color of the egg is creamy white, sparingly marked with spots
and a few blotches of brown varying from dark chocolate to reddish,
and with more numerous spots and blotches of pale lilac; all the
markings more numerous at the larger end. Ten eggs average 38 by
28.4." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

The Philippine rail is the most abundant species of its family with
the possible exception of Poliolimnas cinereus; both species are
often taken in snares.



Genus RALLINA Reichenbach, 1849.

The species of this genus are of small size with short stout bills;
middle toe with claw shorter than tarsus; head, neck, and chest
chestnut; sides and abdomen barred with white.



Species.


a1. Wing-coverts broadly barred with white or buffy-white. ... fasciata
(p. 70)
a2. Wing-coverts uniform or with few irregular white
bars. ... eurizonoides (p. 70)



60. RALLINA FASCIATA (Raffles).

MALAY BANDED CRAKE.


    Rallus fasciatus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1822), 13, pt. 2, 328.
    Rallina fasciata Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23,
    75; Hand-List (1899), 1, 99; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 16.

    Balabac (Everett); Mindoro (Porter); Palawan (Whitehead,
    Platen). Burmese provinces, Malay Peninsula, Indo-Malayan Islands,
    Halmhéra, Pelew Islands.


"Adult male.--General color above ruddy brown, scapulars like the back;
rump a little more olive-brown; upper tail-coverts and tail-feathers
reddish brown; lesser and median coverts ruddy brown, with buffy
white bars, each of which is margined with black; greater coverts
black, rather broadly barred with white, as well as the alula and
primary-coverts; quills blackish brown, checkered with white spots on
outer web, and barred with white on the inner one; secondaries broadly
barred and tipped with white, these white markings obsolete on the
innermost, rufous-brown secondaries; crown, neck, sides of face,
ear-coverts, cheeks, throat, and chest chestnut, a little lighter
on the throat; breast and sides white, broadly banded with black,
the abdomen white; thighs white externally, ashy brown internally;
under tail-coverts barred with black and white or rufous-white;
under wing-coverts and axillars white, barred with black like the
inner lining of quills. 'Bill dark horny; orbital skin and gape
vermilion; feet and exposed portion of tibia bright coral-red; iris
dull cinnabar-red.' (Davidson.) Length, 216; culmen, 24; wing, 132;
tail, 48; tarsus, 46.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male in color, but a little browner,
and with narrower black bars on the under surface, the abdomen being,
therefore, whiter. 'Bill plumbeous; feet coral-red; iris reddish
brown.' (Davidson.) Length, 230; culmen, 23; wing, 124; tail, 48;
tarsus, 38.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in being browner, the bands on the wing
being buffy white; sides of face, fore neck, and chest ashy brown, with
a rufous tinge; throat whitish, as also the breast and abdomen, which
have a few bars of dusky blackish on the sides of the body." (Sharpe.)



61. RALLINA EURIZONOIDES (Lafresnaye).

PHILIPPINE BANDED CRAKE.


    Gallinula eurizonoides Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool. (1845), 368.
    Rallina euryzonoides Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 78,
    pl. 8, fig. 1; Hand-List (1899), 1, 100; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 16.

    Basilan (McGregor); Cagayancillo (McGregor); Cebu (Everett);
    Leyte (Everett); Luzon (Cuming, Dussumier, Möllendorff, Bourns &
    Worcester); Mindanao (Bourns & Worcester); Mindoro (McGregor,
    Porter); Negros (Everett); Panay (Bourns & Worcester); Sulu
    (Guillemard).


Adult male.--Back, wings, rump, tail, and tail-coverts dark brown with
a slight olive tinge; head, neck, throat, and breast bright chestnut;
posterior half of breast, abdomen, flanks, under tail-coverts,
under wing-coverts and axillars black with wide white cross-bars,
most conspicuous on the breast; thighs brown with but little white;
primaries and secondaries blackish with wide white bars on inner
webs. "Bill blackish, the base tinged light green, tip grayish; legs
dull greenish leaden; feet dark lead-gray; nails gray; iris brilliant
red." (Everett.) Length of a male from Basilan, 254; wing, 128; tail,
65; exposed culmen, 23; tarsus, 46; middle toe with claw, 37.

Adult female.--Differs little if any from the male. A specimen from
Cagayancillo had upper mandible black; lower mandible pea-green, tip
bluish; legs very dark green; nails dark brown. Length, 215; wing, 128;
tail, 69; exposed culmen, 23; tarsus, 40; middle toe with claw, 35.

"So far as our observation goes R. eurizonoides is a woods form,
all of our specimens having been killed in deep forest. Eyes
orange-red; legs and feet dark olive; upper mandible nearly black;
lower olive-green." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus PORZANA Vieillot, 1816.

Smallest of the Philippine rails; bill slender; middle toe with claw
longer than tarsus.



Species.


a1. Upper surface freckled with white. ... auricularis (p. 71)
a2. Upper surface uniform. ... plumbea (p. 72)



62. PORZANA AURICULARIS Reichenbach.

PALLAS'S CRAKE.


    Porzana auricularis Reichenbach, Jour. für Orn. (1898), 139;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 102; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901),
    1, 118.
    Porzana pusilla (not of Pallas) Sharpe, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 106; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 16.

    Luzon (Heriot). Eastern Siberia, Japan, China, Burmah, India,
    Ceylon, Borneo.


Adult male.--General color above dark ochraceous-brown with black
centers to nearly all the feathers which are marked with white
spots freckled with black; lower back black, freckled with white
but only slightly washed with ochraceous-brown; upper tail-coverts
ochraceous-brown with black centers; center of crown and hind neck
dark ochraceous or reddish brown, only faintly streaked with black
centers to the feathers; forehead and broad eyebrow as well as entire
side of face, throat, and breast clear slaty gray; a distinct band of
reddish brown along ear-coverts to sides of neck; abdomen, flanks,
and thighs blackish, mottled with white bars; under tail-coverts
deep black, barred with white; lesser and median wing-coverts uniform
ochraceous-brown like the back, greater series with blackish centers
and white frecklings; innermost secondaries like the back with
broad black centers, the inner webs paler ochraceous-brown thereby
forming a broad longitudinal band on each side of the back; alula,
primary-coverts, and quills sepia-brown; edges of alula and first
primary white; under wing-coverts and axillars dusky brown with a
few white spots and bars; tail-feathers blackish, edged with dark
ochraceous-brown. (Compiled from Sharpe, Catalogue of Birds). "Bill
green, dusky on the culmen and at the tips; legs and feet green, with
a yellowish tinge, sometimes brownish olive, sometimes pale green
or pale olive-green; claws pale brown; iris normally red, sometimes
briar-red, crimson, or carmine." (Hume.) Length, 178; culmen, 19;
wing, 89; tail, 42; tarsus, 28; middle toe and claw, 38.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male in color. Length, 178; culmen,
16; wing, 94; tail, 43; tarsus, 28.

"Young.--Is like the adult on the upper surface and is similarly marked
with black and white, but the general tone of the plumage is rather
more rufous; the head like the back; sides of face rufous-brown, as
also eyebrow; lores whitish; throat, breast, and abdomen dull white;
fore neck and chest rufescent, barred across with dusky; lower flanks,
vent, and under tail-coverts black, barred with white. 'Iris orange-red
or reddish brown.' (Hume.)" (Sharpe.)



63. PORZANA PLUMBEA (Gray).

LEAD-COLORED CRAKE.


    Crex plumbea Gray, in Griffith ed. Cuvier (1829), 3, 410.
    Porzana tabuensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 111
    (part).
    Porzana plumbea Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 102; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 16.

    Luzon (Meyer, McGregor). New Hebrides, Australia, New Caledonia,
    New Zealand, Chatham, Samoa, and Fiji Islands.


Adult (sexes alike).--Above including wings reddish chocolate-brown;
rump slightly darker; head and neck blackish; sides of face and under
parts dark slate-gray; chin and throat more or less whitish; under
tail-coverts black with white bars; edge of wing, first alula quill,
and first primary white; under wing-coverts mottled with ashy brown
and white. Bill black; iris and eyelids brick-red; legs and feet light
salmon; nails dark brown. Ten specimens from the vicinity of Manila
measure: Length, 165 to 178; wing, 69 to 78 (average 75); tail, 36
to 44 (average 40); exposed culmen, 15 to 19 (average 16); tarsus,
23 to 26 (average 25); middle toe with claw, 29 to 32 (average 31).

"Young.--Differs from the adult in having the throat white and the
center of chest and abdomen for the most part white." (Sharpe.)

At times great numbers of this little rail are sold in the Manila
markets, but I have never taken a specimen in the field.



Genus POLIOLIMNAS Sharpe, 1893.

Tarsus less than middle toe with claw and less than twice the culmen;
plumage of under parts mostly white.



64. POLIOLIMNAS CINEREUS (Vieillot).

ASHY CRAKE.


    Porphyrio cinereus Vieillot, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat. (1819),
    28, 29.
    Poliolimnas cinereus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23,
    130; Hand-List (1899), 1, 104; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 17.

    Basilan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Calayan
    (McGregor); Cebu (Steere, Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Dinagat
    (Everett); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Leyte (Everett, Steere Exp.);
    Luzon (Bourns & Worcester, Cuming, Whitehead, McGregor); Marinduque
    (Steere Exp.); Mindanao (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Mindoro
    (Bourns & Worcester, Porter); Negros (Bourns & Worcester); Panay
    (Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (McGregor); Siquijor (Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor). Oceania, Malayan Peninsula,
    Greater and Lesser Sunda Islands, Buru, Australia.


Adult (sexes alike).--General color above wood-brown; scapulars, inner
secondaries, lower back, rump, and tail seal-brown; scapulars and inner
secondaries with wide sandy brown edges; top of head black or dark
slate-gray; a white line from bill over eye; a large loral space black,
below this a white band separating black post-ocular space from ashy
ear-coverts; lower throat, sides of neck, and sides of body ashy gray;
chin, upper throat, thighs, and middle of breast and abdomen white;
flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts sandy buff or clay-color; wings
and tail dark brown; first primary edged with white. Iris bright red;
bill yellowish brown; legs brown with greenish and yellowish tints;
nails brown. Length, 190 to 203. Three males from Bohol measure: Wing,
91 to 98 (average 95); tail, 45 to 51 (average 48); exposed culmen,
23; tarsus, 36 to 39 (average 37.8); middle toe with claw, 46 to 52
(average 46).

Young.--The fully feathered young resembles the adult in color pattern
but top of head and blackish loral band are brown and the ashy gray
of ear-coverts, lower throat, and sides is replaced by yellowish
buff. The downy young is coal-black.

A downy young bird was collected in Calayan, October 8, 1903, and a
half-grown bird was collected in Ticao, April 22, 1902.

"Very common about lakes and fresh-water pools. Breeds
abundantly in the tall grass and rushes. Called by the natives
'y-a-gut-yút.'" (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus LIMNOBÆNUS Sundevall, 1873.

In colors this genus resembles Rallina but has the middle toe with
claw longer than the tarsus.



Species.


a1. Flanks olive-brown with narrow whitish bars, the bars sometimes
wanting. ... fuscus (p. 74)
a2. Flanks white, barred with dusky blackish. ... paykulli (p. 74)



65. LIMNOBÆNUS FUSCUS (Linnæus).

RUDDY CRAKE.


    Rallus fuscus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 262.
    Limnobænus fuscus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 146;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 105; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 120;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 17.

    Cagayancillo (McGregor); Leyte (Everett); Luzon (Cuming, Heriot,
    Steere Exp., Whitehead); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp.); Mindoro
    (McGregor); Negros (Keay). Ceylon, Indian and Malay Peninsulas,
    Burmese countries to China and Japan, Christmas Island, Java,
    Borneo.


Adult male.--Above including wing-coverts dark olive; forehead,
sides of head, chin, throat, and breast vinous-chestnut, chin more or
less whitish; abdomen and flanks olive-brown with narrow white bars;
vent and under tail-coverts blackish with wider white bars; wings and
tail brown; axillars and under wing-coverts fringed with white. Iris
brick-red, a narrow inner circle brown; bill dark brown, lighter at
tips; legs red; nails brown. A male from Manila market, September 2,
1904, measures: Length, 190; wing, 93; tail, 42; exposed culmen, 20;
tarsus, 30; middle toe with claw, 35.

Adult female.--Similar to the male. A female from Cagayancillo,
February 23, 1903, measures: Length, 210; wing, 96; tail, 47; exposed
culmen, 18.5; tarsus, 32; middle toe with claw, 37. A breeding female
from Manila market, August 20, 1902, measures: Length, 210; wing,
98; tail, 47; exposed culmen, 20; tarsus, 32; middle toe with claw, 37.

Young.--Manila market, August 14, 1902. Above olive and blackish
brown, chin and throat white; remainder of under parts sooty brown
mixed with white. Iris light green; upper mandible black; lower dark
flesh; legs brown; nails black. Length, 200.

This little crake is either very shy or very scarce as few specimens
are seen. It is usually found in dry brush-land or on forest paths
and is extremely quick in making its escape.



66. LIMNOBÆNUS PAYKULLI (Ljungh).

PAYKULL'S CRAKE.


    Rallus paykulli Ljungh, Sver. Vet. Akad. Handl. (1813), 258.
    Porzana paykulli Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere Exped. (1890),
    82.
    Limnobænus paykulli Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23,
    149; Hand-List (1899), 1, 105; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 17.

    Basilan (Steere Exp.). China, Eastern Siberia, Malay Peninsula,
    Java, Borneo.


"Adult male.--Similar to L. fuscus, and having red legs like the
latter species; upper surface ashy brown, as also the wings and tail;
head ashy brown, with a rufous tinge on the forehead; lores, sides of
face, throat, and breast pale vinous-chestnut; chin whitish; sides of
breast ashy brown; flanks and thighs white, barred with dusky blackish;
under tail-coverts black, barred and tipped with white; axillars and
under wing-coverts white, with dusky blackish bars. 'Bill bluish gray,
blackish on the culmen and about the tip, pea-green about the base;
inside of mouth flesh-color; iris crimson; eyelid red; legs and toes
salmon-color, brownish on the under surface of the tarsi, on the toes,
and on their soles.' (Swinhoe.) Length, 215; culmen, 28; wing, 119;
tail, 55; tarsus, 38.

"Young (type of Rallina rufigenis).--Similar to the adult, but
duller above, paler rufous below, the abdomen white with a vinous
tinge; throat white; wing-coverts much more numerously banded with
white." (Sharpe.)

Steere is the only author who has recorded this species from the
Philippines.



Genus AMAURORNIS Reichenbach, 1852.

Bill rather stout; base of upper mandible slightly swollen; legs and
feet large; middle toe with claw longer than tarsus; plumage with
neither spots nor bars.



Species.


a1. Chin, throat, and breast slate-gray. ... olivacea (p. 75)
a2. Chin, throat, and breast pure white. ... phoenicura (p. 76)



67. AMAURORNIS OLIVACEA (Meyen).

PHILIPPINE WATERHEN.


    Gallinula olivacea Meyen, Nova Acta C. L-C. Acad. Nat. Cur. (1834),
    16, Suppl. 1, 109, pl. 20.
    Amaurornis olivacea Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9, 231,
    pl. 33, fig. 1; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 153;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 106; Grant and Whitehead, Ibis (1898), 247
    (eggs); Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 120.
    Amauronis olivacea McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1907), 17
    (error).

    Tin-gaó, Ticao; ba-na-tí-ran, Calayan; ba-hu-goc', Batan.

    Batan (McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Cebu
    (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Leyte (Everett); Luzon
    (Meyen, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead);
    Masbate (McGregor); Mindanao (Platen, Goodfellow); Mindoro
    (McGregor); Negros (Keay); Panay (Bourns & Worcester); Samar
    (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor).


Adult (sexes alike).--Above olive-brown; below bluish slate-gray,
most intense on breast, lighter on chin, throat, and middle of
abdomen; flanks and thighs dull olive-brown; under tail-coverts ruddy
brown. Iris red; bill sea-green; legs dirty yellow; nails brown. Length
of a male from Bohol, 330; wing, 175; tail, 63; culmen from base, 37;
tarsus, 65; middle toe with claw, 70. Length of a male from Calayan,
305; wing, 178; tail, 57; culmen from base, 41; tarsus, 69; middle
toe with claw, 73. A female from Mindoro, May 6, 1905, measures:
Length, 290; wing, 165; tail, 53; culmen from base, 37; tarsus, 57;
middle toe with claw, 64.

"A common bird, snared in abundance by the natives. Two sets of eggs
were obtained by us in Siquijor. The nest was in each case placed on a
slight elevation, and was a mere heap of dried leaves and grasses. The
ground-color of the eggs is rather a rich creamy buff. They are
heavily blotched and spotted with a rich light chocolate-brown, the
blotches being more numerous at the larger end, where they are often
confluent. A few inconspicuous lilac markings are also present. The
eggs measure from 40.6 to 43 in length, and from 29 to 32 in greatest
breadth." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

Oates describes two eggs collected in Siquijor in February by the
Steere Expedition. "The eggs of the Philippine crake are of a broad
oval form, and they have but little gloss. The ground is creamy white,
and this is spotted, streaked, and blotched, more thickly at the
larger end than elsewhere, with reddish brown and underlying pale
purple. Two examples measure respectively 41.9 by 30.9; 39.3 by 28.7."

A nest of this species found at Balete, Mindoro, was well hidden
in a clump of saw-grass. It was very weakly made of dry grass and
had a deep cup. The single egg was heavily incubated when taken on
May 20. It measures 41.6 by 30.9 mm. The ground-color is pale creamy
white. Small spots and fine dots of reddish brown are scattered over
the whole shell, but more numerously on the larger end where there
are also two large blotches of lavender. A few small lavender dots
are scattered over the entire surface.



68. AMAURORNIS PHOENICURA (Pennant).

WHITE-BREASTED WATERHEN.


    Gallinula phoenicurus Pennant, Ind. Zool. (1769), 10, pl. 9.
    Amaurornis phoenicura Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23,
    156; Hand-List (1899), 1, 106; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901),
    1, 121, pl. 9, fig. 5.
    Amaurornis phoenicura Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Birds (1898),
    4, 173, fig. 36 (head).
    Amauronis phoenicura McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906),
    18 (error).

    Sally-quawk, in general use.

    Basilan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Bohol (McGregor);
    Bongao (Everett); Cagayan Sulu (McGregor); Calamianes (Bourns &
    Worcester); Cebu (McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Mindanao
    (Everett, Martens, Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Palawan
    (Platen, White); Panay (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Bourns &
    Worcester, Celestino); Sulu (Guillemard); Tawi Tawi (Bourns &
    Worcester). Indian and Malay Peninsulas, Ceylon, Indo-Burmese
    Provinces, China, Greater and Lesser Sunda Islands, Celebes.


Adult (sexes alike).--Above including wings dark slate-gray; middle of
neck, back, and inner secondaries washed with olive; lower back, rump,
and upper tail-coverts dull brown; forehead, eyebrow, face, sides of
neck, chin, throat, and breast white; from behind eye a black streak
separating the gray above from the white below, abdomen and thighs
washed with light chestnut; flanks and under tail-coverts chestnut;
some of the upper tail-coverts slightly chestnut; alula and primaries
blackish, first feather of each edged with white; edge of wing white;
under wing-coverts blackish, fringed with white; tail blackish. Iris
dark brown; upper mandible red behind nostril, remainder dark green;
lower mandible pea-green; legs yellowish brown or light brown.

Length, 292 to 305. A male from Danao, Cebu, August 2, 1906, measures:
Wing, 147; tail, 63; culmen from base, 38; tarsus, 56; middle toe with
claw, 65. A male from Palawan, January 17, 1906, measures: Wing, 156;
tail, 69; culmen from base, 37; tarsus, 56; middle toe with claw,
64. A female from Basilan, December 21, 1906, measures: Wing, 147;
tail, 58; culmen from base, 35; tarsus, 53; middle toe with claw, 63.

"A very common bird in marshy regions and along fresh-water
streams. Called 'sally-quawk' by the natives from its notes." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



Genus GALLINULA Brisson, 1760.

Bill moderate, the culmen extending backward on the forehead to
opposite center of eye and forming a tumid shield with rounded
posterior margin; toes with a narrow fold on each side; middle toe
without claw longer than tarsus; plumage black with white on flanks
and under tail-coverts.



69. GALLINULA CHLOROPUS (Linnæus).

MOORHEN.


    Fulica chloropus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 152.
    Gallinula chloropus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 169;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 107; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898),
    4, 175, fig. 37 (head); Grant and Whitehead, Ibis (1898), 246
    (eggs); Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 123; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 18.

    Ca-rab' i-tu-mon', Bohol.

    Basilan (McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Cebu
    (Everett); Guimaras (Bourns & Worcester); Leyte (Everett); Luzon
    (Meyer, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead,
    McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Mindoro (Bourns
    & Worcester); Negros (Keay); Panay (Bourns & Worcester); Samar
    (Whitehead). Europe, Asia, Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius.


Adult male.--General color dark slaty gray; head, neck, chin, and
throat black shaded into slate-gray posteriorly; back, rump, upper
tail-coverts, and inner wing-feathers dark olive-brown; feathers on
middle of abdomen more or less fringed with white; several long flank
feathers with long white stripes on outer webs; crissum black; under
tail-coverts pure white; wings blackish; edge of wing and of first
primary white; under wing-coverts and axillars blackish with white
tips; tail blackish. "Frontal shield and two-thirds of the bill deep
lake-red, and tip of the latter greenish yellow for about one-third;
legs olive-green, the broad scaling on the fore part of the tarsus,
and the scales of the upper part of the toes, lemon-yellow; joint
of heel dusky olive-green, with a shade of lemon-yellow immediately
below the garter, which is dark lake-red; iris reddish." (Sharpe.) Two
males from Bohol measure: Wing, 157, 162; tail, 70, 73; bill from
posterior margin of frontal shield, 43, 45; bill from nostril, 15,
16; tarsus, 52; middle toe with claw, 76, 77.

Adult female.--Similar to the male but smaller. A female from Basilan
measures: 292 in length; wing, 138; tail, 63; culmen from posterior
margin of frontal shield, 37; bill from nostril, 14; bill from gape,
27; tarsus, 49; middle toe with claw, 74.

Young.--Above richer brown, top of head washed with brown; below
lighter than adult; chin, upper throat, and sides of face white mixed
more or less with brown and dark gray; feathers on rest of under
parts more or less fringed with brown and white; middle of abdomen
pure white.

"The eggs of the moorhen are normally of a broad oval form and have
a small amount of gloss. The ground-color varies much, being creamy
white, pale greenish white, pale buff or pinkish buff. The markings
consist of specks, spots, and bold blotches of deep reddish brown, and
a few underlying pale purple spots. The combinations in which these
markings occur are numerous. In some, the markings are all small and
densely set over the shell; in others, spots are combined with huge
blotches which are often confluent. As a rule the larger end of the
egg is more thickly marked than the other parts. A few specimens are
devoid of all markings except some pale purple blotches. Examples vary
from 39.3 to 55 in length and from 27.9 to 36 in breadth." (Oates.)

Four eggs collected by Whitehead in Samar, August 25, 1896, are
thus described: "The eggs are perfectly similar to those laid by
European moorhens, but the number of eggs in the clutch, as well
as their relatively smaller size, is noteworthy. Measurements 42 by
39." (Grant and Whitehead.)



Genus GALLICREX Blyth, 1849.

Bill stout and of moderate length; frontal shield pointed behind, much
larger in males than in females, and in the breeding season terminating
in a free horn-like process; legs and toes very long and heavy.



70. GALLICREX CINEREA (Gmelin).

WATERCOCK.


    Fulica cinerea Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, pt. 2, 702.
    Gallicrex cinerea Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 183;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 108; Grant, Ibis (1895), 265; Blanford,
    Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 176, fig. 38 (head); Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 125; pl. 10, fig. 6; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 18.

    Can-nu-toc', Manila; tub-tub, Ticao; tu-yud', Bohol; tug-tug,
    Masbate.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead);
    Cebu (Bourns & Worcester); Luzon (Dussumier, Cuming, Heriot,
    McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns &
    Worcester); Mindanao (Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow); Mindoro
    (Bourns & Worcester); Negros (Keay); Panay (Bourns & Worcester);
    Sibuyan (McGregor); Sulu (Guillemard); Tablas (Celestino); Ticao
    (McGregor). Ceylon, Burmese provinces to China and Japan, Malay
    and Indian Peninsulas, Greater Sunda Islands.


"Adult male.--General color above black, with a few remains of ashy
gray margins to the feathers, or with brown edgings to the scapulars,
lower back, and rump; upper wing-coverts blackish, broadly edged
with ashy gray; bend of wing white; alula, primary-coverts, and
quills blackish brown, slightly shaded with gray externally, first
primary externally white; inner secondaries edged with light brown;
tail-feathers blackish, edged with brown; head and neck all round
and under surface of body deep black; a few whitish feathers on
lower abdomen; under tail-coverts buffy white, with black bars;
under wing-coverts black, barred and edged with white; axillars
black like the sides of the breast. 'Frontal shield and base of
upper mandible deep red; remainder of bill yellow, a spot on each
side of lower mandible red; frontal process or horn pinkish; legs
plumbeous green; claws horn-color; iris reddish brown; eyelids
plumbeous.' (Oates.) Length, 419; culmen with frontal shield, 69;
wing, 218; tail, 74; tarsus, 79.

"According to Oates, the male in winter has the fleshy process on
the head reduced in size or nearly obsolete.

"Adult female.--General color above dark brown with a slight ashy
shade, the feathers with sandy buff margins, so that the upper
surface appears streaked; lower back and rump rather more uniform;
wing-coverts ashy gray, the greater series browner, with fulvous
margins like the inner secondaries, which have dusky frecklings also
on the outer web; alula ashy brown, the outer feathers edged with
white; primary-coverts and quills brown, externally shaded with ashy;
first primary white along the outer web; tail-feathers dark brown,
edged with lighter brown; crown uniform dark brown, forming a cap;
hind neck like the back; lores, eyebrow, sides of face, and sides of
neck dark sandy buff; throat and center of the abdomen white; remainder
of under surface from the lower throat downwards pale isabelline buff,
crossed with narrow wavy bars of dusky brown; lower flanks rather more
uniform ashy brown; under tail-coverts more tawny, with dusky brown
cross-bars; under wing-coverts and axillars uniform ashy brown, the
edge of the wing white; quills uniform ashy brown below. Length, 305;
culmen, 38; wing, 173; tail, 66; tarsus, 68; middle toe with claw, 91.

"Young.--Resembles the old female, but much more tawny everywhere,
especially on the sides of face, neck, and under parts, the latter
being much more narrowly and indistinctly barred with dusky brown
than in the adult birds." (Sharpe.)

"A male and female adult from Catanduanes in the brownish buff plumage
of autumn and winter. Neither Dr. Sharpe, in his Catalogue, nor any
other author, so far as I am aware, makes the slightest reference
to the autumn change of plumage which is so marked in the male,
only the breeding dress being described, in which the whole of the
hind neck and under parts, as well as the general color of the upper
parts, are black. In the fully adult male before me the whole of the
under parts from the throat downward are pale buff with rather fine,
somewhat wavy, brownish black bars, except on the middle of the belly,
which is paler and nearly devoid of markings; the under tail-coverts
have the ground-color more rufous-buff; the rest of the plumage also
resembles that of the female. The latter does not appear to have any
different breeding plumage, or, if she changes, the feathers are very
similar to those of the autumn dress." (Grant.)

"Abundant about paddy-fields in some localities. It nests on the ground
in these fields, and the natives found a number of nests for us while
cutting rice. They call the bird tug-túg from its note." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)

In an adult male from Sibuyan, June 7, 1904, the head and mantle are
light slate-gray with dark centers to the feathers and the lower parts
are pale slate-gray with numerous light colored cross-lines. Frontal
shield and bill to proximal edge of nostril scarlet; base of lower
mandible scarlet; rest of bill pea-green; legs dull green; nails
dark gray. Length, 432; wing, 241; tail, 86; bill from gape, 37;
bill from nostril, 21; tarsus, 81; middle toe with claw, 94.

In an adult male from Guindulman, Bohol, June 3, 1906, the head,
face, and lower parts are largely black and except on top of head,
the greater number of the feathers are fringed with pale buff or
white. Length, 419; wing, 235; tail, 87; bill from gape, 36; bill
from nostril, 19; tarsus, 77; middle toe with claw, 94.



Genus PORPHYRIO Brisson, 1760.

Bill stout and very deep; nostrils circular; frontal shield broad,
covering the entire forehead, its posterior border square; legs and
toes very long and heavy.



71. PORPHYRIO PULVERULENTUS Temminck.

PHILIPPINE BLUE GALLINULE.


    Porphyrio pulverulentus Temminck, Pl. Col. (1826), 5, pl. 405;
    Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 207; Hand-List (1899),
    1, 109; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 18.

    Ac-bag', Manila; ca-rab' a-bu-hon', Bohol.

    Bohol (McGregor); Luzon (Steere Exp., McGregor); Mindanao (Mearns);
    Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester).


Adult male.--General color hoary blue, lighter on head, neck,
and fore breast; much darker, nearly navy blue on abdomen; crissum
white; scapulars and upper back rich olive-brown or russet-brown,
the feathers edged more or less with blue; lower back, rump, and
upper tail-coverts duller brown; primaries black, their outer webs
verditer-blue; short under wing-coverts blue, the longer ones black;
tail blackish edged with verditer-blue.

In a male from the Manila market, March 24, 1903, the bill and
shield were dusky cardinal; a space back of nostril and at base of
lower mandible whitish; iris reddish brown; legs and feet reddish
brown, joints dusky; nails brown. Length, 432; tail, 88; culmen from
posterior margin of shield, 74; bill from gape, 41; bill from nostril,
32; tarsus, 93; middle toe with claw, 108.

Adult female.--Similar to the male. A female from Guindulman, Bohol,
June 20, 1906, measures: Length, 394; wing, 236; tail, 88; culmen from
posterior margin of shield, 67; bill from gape, 35; bill from nostril,
28; tarsus, 83; middle toe with claw, 99.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in being slightly duller in color,
in having the quills externally washed with olive, and the breast and
abdomen obscured by hoary whitish edgings to the feathers." (Sharpe.)

"Enormously abundant in the reeds about Lake Naujan in Mindoro, but
a shy bird, and one not easily obtained except by snaring." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



Subfamily FULICINÆ.

Genus FULICA Linnæus, 1758.

Anterior toes with a number of rounded lobes on each side; frontal
shield rounded.



72. FULICA ATRA Linnæus.

BLACK COOT.


    Fulica atra Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 152; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 210; Hand-List (1899), 1, 109;
    Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 129; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 19.

    U-luc' di-á-blo, Manila.

    Luzon (Heriot, McGregor). Europe, Indian Peninsula, Mediterranean
    countries, northern and central Asia, China, Java, Sumatra,
    Celebes.


Adult male.--General color above slate-gray, lower back, rump, upper
tail-coverts, and tail blackish; head, neck, chin, and throat black;
under side of body pale slate or smoke-gray; crissum black; edge
of wing and of first primary white; under wing-coverts and axillars
smoke-gray. "'Bill very pale lavender, with a pinkish tinge; frontal
shield ivory-white; tarsi and feet pearly gray, with a greenish tinge
on the sides of the tarsus; garter orange-yellow; iris dark brown'
(R. B. S., MS). Length, 368; culmen from base of shield, 34; wing,
218; tail, 56; tarsus, 33; middle toe and claw, 78." (Sharpe.)

Adult female.--Similar to the male. In a specimen from Laguna de Bay,
Luzon, December 29, 1901, the following colors were noted: Iris dull
red; frontal shield and bill white, tip pale horn-brown; feet slate;
legs slate with a wash of pale green on middle of tarsi; garter-ring
next to feathers dull orange. Wing, 209; tail, 61; culmen including
frontal shield, 47; bill from nostril, 15; bill from gape, 32; tarsus,
59; middle toe with claw, 87.

"Young.--Much browner than the adult, feathers of head dusky blackish
edged with white; lores, eyebrows, and sides of face white; under
surface of body ashy whitish, browner on the flanks." (Sharpe.)

The black coot is fairly abundant on the Laguna de Bay, Luzon, and
doubtless occurs in Mindanao. This bird frequents lakes and ponds
and is seldom seen on land.



Order COLYMBIFORMES.

GREBES.

Water birds with tarsus extremely flattened and legs set far back on
body; neck long; plumage dense; tail-feathers very short and soft;
toes lobed; toes and nails very broad and flat; hind toe small and
elevated. Eggs with a white chalky surface; nest a mass of reeds near
the water often floating on the water.



Family COLYMBIDÆ.

Characters same as those given for the Order.



Genus TACHYBAPTUS Reichenbach, 1849. [9]

Characters same as those given for the Family.



73. TACHYBAPTUS PHILIPPENSIS (Bonnaterre).

PHILIPPINE GREBE.


    Colymbus philippensis Bonnaterre, Tabl. Encycl. Meth. (1790), 1,
    58, pl. 46, fig. 3.
    Podicipes philippensis Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898),
    26, 511.
    Podicipes philippinensis Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 113; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 133; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 19.

    Su-li-a'-sit, Manila; ga-mao', Bohol.

    Bohol (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp.);
    Luzon (Jagor, Heriot, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead,
    McGregor, Stafford); Mindanao (Mearns); Panay (Clarke). [10]
    Borneo, southern China, Burmese provinces, Formosa, Hainan.


Adult in breeding plumage.--Above dark, glossy seal-brown; chin, fore
throat, and cheeks blackish; throat, sides of neck, and ear-coverts
chestnut; breast and abdomen silvery white, mixed with a little
blackish brown and gradually shading into blackish brown on fore
breast, sides, flanks, and lower belly; thighs blackish mixed with
a little light chestnut; wings black; under wing-coverts, axillars,
and tips of short secondaries white. "Iris straw-yellow; bill black,
whitish at the tip; naked skin at base of bill and between rami of
the mandible pale greenish yellow; legs blackish gray, with a slight
tinge of green." (Swinhoe.) A male from Calayan, November 15, 1903,
measures: Length, 280; wing, 107; culmen broken; tarsus, 33; middle
toe with claw, 48.

The following data are from a female taken at Jala Jala, Laguna de Bay,
Luzon, January 5, 1902. Feet bluish black; angle of mouth and base of
lower mandible clear, pale pea-green; bill black with a light spot
at tip. Wing, 100; exposed culmen, 23; tarsus, 33; middle toe with
claw, 49. A female from Sevilla, Bohol, March 24, 1906, measures:
Length, 254; wing, 102; exposed culmen, 23; tarsus, 33; middle toe
with claw, 49.

The non-breeding bird has the chin and throat white and the chestnut
reduced in extent and lighter in shade.

Young.--A half-grown downy young was obtained at Laguna de Bay,
August 24, 1904. Above seal-brown with white tips to much of the
down; middle of crown mottled with chestnut; a white line over eye;
two diagonal white lines on each side of occiput, the anterior line
continued along side of neck; chin, throat, and face mottled with
white, black, and dark gray; fore breast, sides, and lower belly
gray; middle of breast and belly white. Bill pale yellow mottled with
blackish brown, tip gray; legs black. Length, 203.

A full-grown young bird has upper parts light brown; sides of head
and neck buffy brown, mottled and streaked with white; chin and upper
throat white; a wide dull buffy brown band around neck; breast and
abdomen pure white; thighs buff-brown.

"Comparatively rare. Several specimens were secured by the Steere
Expedition in a little pond in Guimaras. Fairly common in the Laguna
de Bay, Luzon, but we failed entirely to find it in the Laguna de
Naujan, Mindoro." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Order PROCELLARIIFORMES.

PETRELS AND SHEARWATERS.

Bill strong and moderately long, terminating in a strong, sharp,
overhanging hook or nail; nostrils impervious and tubular, opening
forward or upward; feet moderate; toes webbed; hind toe small and
elevated, rarely absent. Oceanic birds of strong flight and wandering
habits; colors black, brown, and white. Eggs white, deposited in
burrows or among piles of loose stone; young covered with down and
fed for some time before leaving the nest.



Families.


a1. Smaller; wing less than 150 mm. ... Procellariidæ (p. 84)
a2. Larger; wing more than 300 mm. ... Puffinidæ (p. 84)



Family PROCELLARIIDÆ.

Nasal tube prominent, vertically truncated and with a thin partition.



Subfamily PROCELLARIINÆ.



Genus Oceanodroma Reichenbach, 1852.

Wing less than 180 mm.; tarsus not longer than middle toe with claw;
tail emarginate or slightly forked; tarsus less than twice as long
as culmen.



74. OCEANODROMA species McGregor.

PETREL.


    Oceanodroma sp. McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4, 12;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 19.

    Luzon (McGregor).


The only specimen representing this genus and known to have been
taken in the Philippines is in very poor condition and can not be
determined specifically. It came aboard ship near Mariveles, Luzon,
during a storm on July 28, 1903.



Family Puffinidæ.

Nasal case low and broad; end of lower mandible hooked like the upper.



Subfamily PUFFININÆ.

Genus PUFFINUS Brisson, 1760.

Nasal tube obliquely truncate, its partition thick.



75. PUFFINUS LEUCOMELAS Temminck.

SIEBOLD'S SHEARWATER.


    Puffinus leucomelas Temminck, Pl. Col. (1836), pl. 587;
    Ridgway, Man. North Am. Bds. (1887), 62; Salvin, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1896), 25, 370; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 123;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 19.

    Luzon (Cuming). Japan and Korea south to Australia.


"Adult male.--Upper surface brown, feathers of body and wings with
paler dusky edges; anterior portion of crown, forehead, sides of head,
and neck white, each feather with a dark disk, which is narrow on the
forehead and sides of the head and neck, giving a streaked appearance;
entire under surface white; under wing-coverts white, interior ones
with dark shafts, those near the edge of wing with dark disks; axillars
pure white; tail brown, the inner webs of the lateral rectrices
near the base white; primaries black throughout. Bill horn-color;
feet flesh-color, the outer toe a little darker. Length, about 480;
wing, 330; outer rectrices, 102; central rectrices, 142.

"Female.--Similar to the male." (Salvin.)

"Lower parts white; top and sides of head white, spotted and streaked
with blackish. Wing, 286 to 318; tail, 149 (graduated for about 46);
culmen, 47; tarsus, 47; middle toe with claw, 33." (Ridgway.)

The only record of this species for the Philippine Islands is based
on the specimen collected by Cuming.



Order LARIFORMES.

TERNS AND GULLS.

Nostrils pervious, the opening linear or oval; wings long, strong,
and pointed; first primary longest; legs and feet moderate; hind toe
small and elevated; anterior toes fully webbed. Plumage of the adult
simple in color, being white, black, and pearl-gray, rarely brown,
usually in large areas. Young gray or mottled, very different in color
from the adult. Usually found in flocks and never far from water. Eggs
two to four, highly colored; nests usually on the ground or on cliffs;
young downy at birth and fed in the nest for some time. [11]



Family LARIDÆ.

Characters same as those given for the Order.



Subfamilies.


a1. Tail more or less forked (except in Anous); bill slender; terminal
portion of culmen straight or but slightly curved; angle of lower
mandible not prominent. ... Sterninæ (p. 86)
a2. Tail even; bill stouter; terminal portion of culmen decidedly
curved; angle of lower mandible distinct. ... Larinæ (p. 95)



Subfamily STERNINÆ.

The members of this subfamily afford no very tangible characters
to distinguish them from the gulls other than those already
mentioned. However, the terns are, as a rule, of more slender form
and more airy and graceful flight. The wings, bill, and tail are
proportionately longer and the body smaller than these parts in
the gulls.



Genera.


a1. Tail more or less forked.

  b1. Tail but little more than one-third of wing, its outer feathers
  broad and rounded. ... Hydrochelidon (p. 86)
  b2. Tail much more than one-third of wing, its outer feathers narrow
  and pointed. ... Sterna (p. 88)

a2. Tail graduated; plumage sooty brown. ... Anous (p. 94)



Genus HYDROCHELIDON Boie, 1822.

Bill short and slender; legs and feet small; webs between the toes
deeply emarginate; wings long, when closed, exceeding the tail;
tail short, nearly square.



Species.


a1. Black or dark gray below (adults in summer).

  b1. Upper tail-coverts and tail white; under wing-coverts
  black. ... leucoptera (p. 86)
  b2. Upper tail-coverts and tail gray; under wing-coverts
  white. ... hybrida (p. 87)

a2. White below (adults in winter and young).

  b1. Tail white. ... leucoptera (p. 86)
  b2. Tail gray.

    c1. Rump gray like back. ... hybrida (p. 87)
    c2. Rump white (young). ... leucoptera (p. 86)



76. HYDROCHELIDON LEUCOPTERA (Meisner and Schinz.)

WHITE-WINGED BLACK TERN.


    Sterna leucoptera Meisner and Schinz, Vog. Schweiz (1815), 264.
    Hydrochelidon leucoptera Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896),
    25, 6; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 133; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 174; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 20.

    Mindanao (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester). Central and southern
    Europe to central Asia and China; Australia, New Zealand, Africa
    in winter.


"Adult in breeding plumage.--Head, neck, and upper back dark, glossy
black; coverts on the carpal joint pure white; greater wing-coverts
pearl-gray; secondaries darker, passing into slate-gray; primaries
frosted with pearl-gray, which soon wears off the outer quills,
leaving the webs sooty black, with a well-defined narrow whitish
streak down the middle of the inner webs of the four outer primaries;
shafts white; back and rump grayish black; upper tail-coverts and
tail pure white; under parts deep black; vent white; flanks, under
wing-coverts, and axillars black. Bill livid red; feet orange-red;
webs of toes much indented. Length, 236; culmen, 28; wing, 208; tail,
79; tarsus, 19; middle toe with claw, 25.

"Adult in autumn and winter plumage.--In the latter part of July,
when the molt begins (in Europe), the bird is curiously parti-colored,
the new feathers of the head, neck, and under parts being white and
those of the back gray (paler than in Hydrochelidon nigra). Later,
the under parts, including the under wing-coverts and axillars,
become white, the crown and nape being merely mottled with black;
but by the following April the black color has reappeared to a
considerable extent, especially in the axillars.

"Immature.--In birds which are not mature, though capable of breeding,
the black of the under parts has a brownish tinge and the tail-feathers
are pearl-gray, especially toward the tips. In winter like the adult.

"Young.--Similar to the winter plumage of the somewhat immature
bird, but much mottled with dark brown on the upper parts, and the
tail-feathers slightly darker gray with a brownish tinge toward the
tips; upper tail-coverts always white.

"Nestling.--Ruddy fawn-color, mottled with black above, unspotted
pale cinnamon-brown below." (Saunders.)

"Observed and shot by us in Mindanao, where it was flying over the
rice-fields." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



77. HYDROCHELIDON HYBRIDA (Pallas).

WHISKERED TERN.


    Sterna hybrida Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. (1811), 2, 338.
    Hydrochelidon hybrida Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896),
    25, 10; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 307, fig. 70
    (head); Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 33; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 175; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 20.

    Luzon (Meyer, Murray, Whitehead, McGregor); Mindanao (Bourns &
    Worcester, Mearns); Palawan (Whitehead, Steere Exp.); Negros
    (Whitehead). Southwestern, central, and southern Europe to China,
    Malay Archipelago, Australia, Africa.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Forehead, crown, and nape deep black;
from the gape to the nape a conspicuous white streak; upper parts
slate-gray, darker on the primaries, except when these are new and
frosted; shafts white; inner webs of outer pairs of primaries white
on the upper and greater part of the inner webs; upper tail-coverts
gray; tail-feathers gray, with white outer webs to the outside pair;
chin white or very pale gray; throat gray, darkening on the lower part;
breast dark slate-gray, which deepens into black on abdomen and flanks;
vent and under tail-coverts white; under wing-coverts white; axillars
white with a faint tinge of gray. Bill blood-red; feet vermilion,
drying to orange-color; webs deeply indented, but less so than in
H. leucoptera. Length, 280; culmen, 35; wing, 235 to 241; tail, 96;
tarsus, 23; middle toe with claw, 29.

"Indian birds, which are probably almost sedentary, are slightly
smaller in size. Some of the birds resident in South Africa are of
a distinctly darker hue both above and below than northern examples;
Australian specimens, on the other hand, are inclined to be paler.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, or a trifle paler in general tint.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Upper parts of a paler gray than in the
breeding season; forehead white; crown and nape streaked and mottled
with black; under parts entirely white; bill and feet reddish brown.

"Young in first plumage.--Crown and nape blackish brown, mantle mottled
with brown and with warm cinnamon-brown edges to inner secondaries;
tail slightly mottled and edged with ash-brown; the rest like the adult
in winter. By December the brown markings are considerably diminished.

"Nestling.--Down at the base of bill black, forehead ruddy fawn-color;
upper parts paler fawn, mottled and streaked with black; under
parts white, except the throat, which is sooty black for a few
days." (Saunders.)

"Common about the Pasig River and Laguna de Bay. Several flocks were
observed in Mindanao feeding over the paddy-fields." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



Genus STERNA Linnæus, 1758.

Bill much as in Hydrochelidon but somewhat longer; toes completely
webbed; tail always distinctly forked; outer rectrices usually much
longer than the others.



Species.


a1. Crown black.

  b1. Larger; wing, 240 mm. or more.

    c1. Forehead black to base of culmen.

      d1. Larger; tarsus yellow or red; bill red in summer. ... hirundo
      (p. 89)
      d2. Smaller; tarsus blackish, bill black at all
      seasons. ... longipennis (p. 89)

    c2. Forehead white.

      d1. Lores white. ... boreotis (p. 90)
      d2. Lores black.

        e1. Wing, 265 mm.; mantle umber-brown. ... anæstheta (p. 91)
        e2. Wing, 300 mm.; mantle deep black. ... fuscata (p. 92)

  b2. Smaller; wing less than 200 mm. ... sinensis (p. 92)

a2. Crown white. ... melanauchen (p. 93)



78. STERNA HIRUNDO Linnæus.

COMMON TERN.


    Sterna hirundo Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 137.
    Sterna fluviatilis Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25,
    54; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 135; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 182; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 20.

    Calayan (McGregor). Countries on both sides of Atlantic Ocean,
    Indian and African coasts in winter, Brazilian coasts in winter.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Forehead, upper lores, crown,
and nape black; mantle rather dark pearl-gray; secondaries narrowly
margined with white; outer primary with a black outer web, and a broad
streak (10 mm.) of very dark gray next the white shaft on inner web,
rest of inner web white, except toward tip, where it is dark ash-gray;
inner primaries paler gray, with white 'wedges' and dark gray margins
to inner webs; rump whitish; tail-feathers white, with gray outer
webs, those of the streamers darkest; chin and cheeks white; breast
and belly pale, vinaceous-gray; under wing- and under tail-coverts
white. Bill coral-red, the extreme tip horn-color; iris dark brown;
tarsi and toes coral-red. Length, 362; culmen, 43; wing, 267; tail,
165; depth of fork, 82; tarsus, 22; middle toe with claw, 24.

"Female.--Similar to the male.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Like the above, but forehead and crown
streaked and mottled with white; colors of bill and feet much duller
from September onwards, under parts paler.

"Immature.--Like the above, but the forehead white; a dark gray band
along upper wing-coverts; under parts distinctly white.

"Young (in August).--Mantle barred and mottled with ash-brown; outer
webs of tail-feathers dark gray; band on wing-coverts more extended
than in the immature bird; otherwise similar. In fledglings the upper
parts are much marked with warm buff.

"Up to about the end of September the colors of bill and feet become
lighter, but afterwards they rapidly go back and become more or
less horn-colored.

"Nestling.--Forehead and throat brown; upper parts stone-buff, spotted
and streaked with black; under parts white; feet yellow." (Saunders.)



79. STERNA LONGIPENNIS Nordmann.

NORDMANN'S TERN.


    Sterna longipennis Nordmann, in Erman's Reise (1835), 17;
    Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25, 67; Blanford, Fauna
    Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 319; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 135;
    Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 185, pl. 14, fig. 4.

    Basilan Straits (Mearns). Eastern Siberia, Kamtchatka, and Japan;
    in winter China to New Guinea.


"Coloration.--Similar to that of S. fluviatilis [= hirundo], except
that the bill is always black and the feet are blackish. Adults are
darker in color, both above and below, but the difference is not
great. All the measurements appear identical, or nearly so, except
those of the bill, which is altogether smaller, and measures about
45 mm. from the gape." (Blanford.)

"Adult in winter.--Forehead flecked with white otherwise similar.

"Immature.--Like that of fluviatilis [= hirundo] from which it
can hardly be distinguished except by the color of the bill and
feet and the somewhat smaller size and more delicate shape of the
latter." (Saunders.)



80. STERNA BOREOTIS (Bangs).

NORTHERN BERGIUS TERN.


    Sterna bergii Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25, 89
    (part); Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 136 (part).
    Sterna bergii boreotis Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. (1901),
    36, 256.
    Sterna boreotis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 20.

    Ga-bi-o'-ta, general name for gulls and terns.

    Agutaya (McGregor); Balabac (Steere); Bantayan (McGregor); Bohol
    (Everett, McGregor); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Caluya
    (Porter); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor);
    Guimaras (Bourns & Worcester); Leyte (Everett); Luzon (Bourns &
    Worcester); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Murray, Koch &
    Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Mindoro (Porter);
    Negros (Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen,
    Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay (Bourns & Worcester); Pata
    (Mearns); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Samar (Bourns
    & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Bourns &
    Worcester, Celestino); Sulu (Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns &
    Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester). Liu Kiu Islands and
    Northern China Sea.


"Adult male in full breeding plumage (type).--Forehead, cheeks,
lores, ear-coverts, neck all round, and whole under parts, including
lining of wing and bend of wing, pure white; crown and long occipital
crest glossy black; mantle, wings, rump, upper tail-coverts, and
upper surface of middle rectrices dark smoke-gray, darkest on wings
and middle of back, where the color is almost mouse-gray; primary
quills white; first primary with outer web, a band along quill on
inner web and tip blackish, with a silvery suffusion which is most
marked toward center of feather; broad outer margin of inner web,
below the black tip, white; second primary similar but black tip
deeper in color and extending a short distance down outer margin of
inner web, thus inclosing the white of inner web for a short distance;
third, fourth, and fifth primaries like second, but black tip gradually
growing deeper in color; outer rectrices above pale smoke-gray at tips
and along shafts, pale grayish white toward base; second and third
rectrices darker on the outer webs and at tip and whitish toward base
of inner webs. Bill in dried specimen, dull yellow clouded with olive
toward base; feet and tarsi blackish. Wing, 344; tail, 178; tarsus,
28; culmen, 62." (Bangs.)

"Very common throughout the group, especially abundant about the
native fish-pens." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

This is much the largest tern found in the Philippines. Rather local
in its distribution but usually found not far from fish-corrals or
where schools of small fishes appear near the surface of the water.

Philippine records of this species are usually recorded under Sterna
bergii, but the specimens probably belong to the variety S. bergii
boreotis. The question can not be cleared up at present.



81. STERNA ANÆSTHETA Scopoli.

PANAYAN TERN.


    Sterna anæstheta Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. (1786),
    1, 92; Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25, 101; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 136; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1,
    190; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 20. Worcester,
    Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 275, pl. 1 (nesting place).

    Didicas Rocks (Worcester); Panay (Sonnerat). African and Indian
    seas to China, Japan, Moluccas, northern Australian, Pacific
    Islands; Gulf of Mexico, Western Indies.


"Adult in breeding plumage.--Loral stripe black; upper forehead,
crown, and nape black; shoulders slate-gray, passing into dark
grayish brown on mantle; no visible white on secondaries; primaries
umber-brown, shafts black, the 'wedges' on inner webs very narrow and
not sharply defined; rump and principal tail-feathers grayish brown
like the mantle, but the streamers white on outer and upper portions
of inner webs, and the next pair of rectrices whitish at their bases;
abdomen and breast grayish white; under wing-coverts and throat pure
white. Bill, tarsi, and toes black, the inner webs of the latter
considerably excised. Length, 355 to 380; culmen, 45; wing, 262;
tail, 190; depth of fork, 102; tarsus, 20; middle toe with claw,
30. The sexes are alike in plumage.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Similar to the above, but the lores and
crown mottled with white for a short time.

"Immature.--Generally similar, but with more white on the head;
whitish tips to the feathers of the back, which, when fresh, are
somewhat gray; a dark line along upper wing-coverts, and less white
on outer rectrices. Full plumage is not attained until the bird is
at least two years old.

"Young.--Head streaked and mottled with brownish black; feathers of
upper parts dark brown with rufous tips, which subsequently become
paler, approaching white, and finally wear away; under parts grayish
white. Bill and toes brownish." (Saunders.)



82. STERNA FUSCATA Linnæus.

SOOTY TERN.


    Sterna fuscata Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 228. [12]
    Sterna fuliginosa Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25,
    106; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 136; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1901), 1, 191; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 21.

    Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester). Tropical and juxtatropical seas
    of the world.


"Adult in breeding plumage.--Similar to S. anæstheta; but larger,
white frontal-band and superciliary stripe broader, the latter oblique
and not reaching beyond eye, from which it is separated by a narrow
continuation of the black loral stripe; upper surface sooty black,
the wedges on inner webs of primaries a trifle paler than the rest;
streamers dull white on the outer webs, remaining tail-feathers sooty
black; under tail-coverts, abdomen, and flanks grayish white; breast
and throat white. Bill and feet black with a slightly reddish tinge,
the web between middle and inner toe nearly full, and far less excised
than in S. anæstheta. Length, about 430; culmen, 53; wing, 298; tail,
about 190; depth of fork, 102; tarsus, 23; middle toe with claw, 28.

"Adult in winter.--Like the above, with white flecks on the lores
and crown.

"Immature.--Brownish black above, darker on the upper wing-coverts;
outer tail-feathers nearly as sooty black as the rest of the rectrices,
except toward the tips; tarsi and toes reddish brown.

"Nestling and young.--The chick when about three days old is streaked
with grayish brown and dull white on the upper surface, darkest on
the forehead, and chiefly stone-white below; when half fledged, the
feathers of the mantle are blackish, with broad white tips, which
gradually wear down. When the bird is fully fledged these white tips
are much narrower, the feathers of the upper parts are sooty brown,
and the under parts are also somewhat paler brown, becoming lighter
toward the vent. (In S. anæstheta the under parts are whitish). Bill
and feet reddish brown." (Saunders.)



83. STERNA SINENSIS Gmelin.

WHITE-SHAFTED TERN.


    Sterna sinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, pt. 2, 608. Saunders,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25, 113; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899),
    1, 136; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 192; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 21.

    Luzon (Whitehead); Mindanao (Steere Exp.); Mindoro (Bourns &
    Worcester); Palawan (Whitehead). Chinese and Indian seas to
    Australia.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Lores black from base of bill to eye;
forehead as far as a little beyond the top of eye white; crown and nape
black; mandible pearl-gray; secondaries bordered with grayish white;
shafts of primaries pure white in the outer, and pale gray in the
upper ones; outer web of the outer primary and a broad line next the
shaft on its inner web dark gray; on the succeeding primaries paler
gray; upper portions and edges of inner webs white; rump pearl-gray;
tail and under parts white. Bill gamboge-yellow, tipped with black;
tarsi and feet orange-yellow. Length, 280 when the streamers are
fully developed; culmen, 35; wing, 188; tail, 145; depth of fork,
86; tarsus, 16; middle toe with claw, 20.

"Adult female.--Slightly smaller than the male and with less developed
tail-streamers.

"Adult in autumn.--Similar, with more white on the forehead, and
shorter tail-streamers; primaries darker on their terminal portions,
owing to the disappearance of the frosting, until the new quills
appear.

"Immature.--Like the above, but dull white on crown and the front
of the lores; primaries still darker, the outer shafts always white,
the other shafts dusky; upper wing-coverts dark gray; tail-feathers
grayish, and the streamers not much prolonged; bill dark brown,
tarsi and toes ochraceous.

"Young.--Forehead buffish white, crown with black streaks which
become confluent on nape; upper parts mottled and barred with buffish
brown on a dull gray ground. Bill horn-color; feet ocher-yellow. When
the bird is barely fledged the buff-color predominates on the upper
surface." (Saunders.)

"Found by us in great abundance near the center of Mindoro, where it
was flying about over the dried beds of streams and alighting among
the pebbles, its color assimilating so closely with that of the sand
and small stones that it was well nigh impossible to see it on the
ground." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



84. STERNA MELANAUCHEN Temminck.

BLACK-NAPED TERN.


    Sterna melanauchen Temminck, Pl. Col. (1827), pl. 427; Saunders,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25, 126; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899),
    1, 137; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 195; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 21.

    Palawan (Platen); Cresta de Gallo (McGregor). Tenasserim, Malay
    Peninsula, Nicobars, Andamans, northern Mascarene Islands,
    Pacific Islands, Liu Kiu Islands, northern Australia.


"Adult in breeding plumage.--Forehead and crown pure white; in front
of the eye a black triangular patch, the apex of which does not
reach base of bill; behind the eye on each side and inclosing the
nape a band of black, broad and prolonged in the center; neck white;
mantle and rump delicate pearl-gray; shafts of all primaries white;
outer primary with the outer web blackish, and the streak next shaft
on inner web pale gray; the succeeding primaries palest gray next
the shafts on the outer and the inner webs, the inner margins of all
being pure white; tail long and forked, the middle tail-feathers pale
pearl-gray, the rest white; under parts glossy white, with a beautiful
roseate tint. Bill black; tarsi and toes dark brown to black. Length,
343; culmen, 41; wing, 216; tail, 152; depth of fork, 76; tarsus, 18;
foot with middle toe, 23. The male appears to have somewhat longer
streamers than the female; otherwise the sexes are alike externally.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Differs only in having less black in front
of the eye and on the nape.

"Immature.--Similar to the above, but there is a brownish tinge
to the black on the nape; wing-coverts ash-gray; a dark line along
the carpal joint; webs of the four outer primaries on both sides of
the white shafts dark ash-gray (outermost black), outer webs of the
tail-streamers also ash-colored.

"Young.--Forehead and crown buffish white, with black streaks which
become confluent on nape; feathers of mantle and tail gray, barred with
ash-brown and tipped with buff; primaries with a good deal of gray,
which throws into strong relief their broad, white, inner margins. Bill
ocher-yellow, horn-colored near the tip; toes yellowish brown.

"Nestling.--Above pale buff, spotted and streaked with black and
umber-brown; beneath dull drab." (Saunders.)



Genus ANOUS Stephens, 1826.

This genus is distinguished by its brown plumage and graduated
tail-feathers.



85. ANOUS STOLIDUS (Linnæus).

NODDY TERN.


    Sterna stolida Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 137.
    Anous stolidus Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25, 136;
    Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 325, fig. 73; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 137; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 197;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 21.

    Cagayan Sulu (McGregor); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen,
    McGregor). Tropical and juxtatropical seas of the world.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Forehead nearly white at base
of bill, passing on the crown into lavender-gray, which deepens
on neck into lead-color; lores and orbital region black, with a
faint whitish superciliary streak; upper parts chiefly dark brown;
primaries, tail-feathers, and their shafts nearly black; under parts
dark brown on abdomen and breast, passing into deep lead-color on the
throat. Bill blackish; tarsi and toes reddish brown, fully webbed,
webs ochraceous. Length, about 406; culmen, 53; wing, 260 to 280;
tail, 152 to 178, the fourth feather from the outside the longest;
tarsus, 25; middle toe with claw, 39.

"Adult female.--Very similar but, as a rule, somewhat browner on the
shoulders and with less lead-color on the throat, slightly smaller,
and with a weaker bill.

"Immature.--Similar, but with even less lead-color, and a dark line
along the upper wing-coverts.

"Young.--Browner generally and paler; forehead and crown grayish brown;
below the forehead a narrow white superciliary line conspicuous by
contrast against the blackish lores.

"Fledgling (Ascension I.).--Umber-brown above and below; the whitish
streak above the lores very marked, and continuous round base of bill;
a slight grayish tint on forehead.

"Downy nestling.--One about five days old (British Honduras: May
12, 1862) has the forehead and crown dull white, lores blackish,
upper surface mouse-brown, nape and throat darkest, lower parts
paler. Another, only just hatched, is nearly uniform, sooty
brown." (Saunders.)



Subfamily LARINÆ.

Of larger size than the terns; body and bill heavier; tail square or
nearly so.



Genus LARUS Linnæus, 1758.

Characters same as those given for the Subfamily.



Species.


a1. Smaller; length, 400 mm.; wing, 300. ... ridibundus (p. 95)
a2. Larger; length, 600 mm.; wing, 450. ... vegæ (p. 97)



86. LARUS RIDIBUNDUS Linnæus.

LAUGHING GULL.


    Larus ridibundus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 225;
    Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25, 207; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 140; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1901), 1, 208; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 21.

    Luzon (Jagor, Murray, McGregor); Mindanao (Murray,
    Goodfellow). Europe, northern Asia, Africa, and Indian Ocean;
    China to Malay Archipelago in winter.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Hood coffee-brown; gray mantle,
white tail, and white under surface tinged with evanescent roseate;
pattern of outer primaries chiefly white, with black tips, and black
margins to inner webs; shafts of three outer quills white; outermost
quill white, with a narrow black line along the greater part of outer
web (touching the shaft in all except very old birds), a black tip,
and a blackish edge to the inner margin; second quill similar, but with
merely a short hairline of black on the outer web; third quill with
a trifle more black running upward from the black tip along the outer
web; fourth quill similar, but with a gray center to inner web; fifth
quill white on both webs, and with a minute white tip; sixth similar,
but the tip gray and broader, so that the black becomes a subterminal
bar; seventh similar, but with less and fainter black; upper primaries
gray; secondaries paler gray, without conspicuous margins. Bill,
tarsi, and toes lake-red; iris hazel. Length, 394 to 406; culmen,
46; wing, 298 to 305; tail, 127; tarsus, 43; middle toe with claw, 39.

"The female is undoubtedly smaller as a rule, though there are
exceptions.

"Adult in winter.--Similar, but without a hood; merely a little
grayish on the occiput, and blackish on the auriculars. In vigorous
birds the indications of a hood reappear in autumn, soon after the
completion of the molt, which is in August; but cold weather, combined
with a scarcity of nutritive food, arrests the development, and it
is not usual to see birds with fully complete hoods till February,
though there are many exceptions. A female (by dissection) obtained
in the shore-nets at Wells, Norfolk, on November 10, has the under
parts, and even the shafts and webs of the primaries, suffused with
a beautiful salmon-pink, but this also must be considered unusual.

"Nestling.--Buffish to brown, darkest on the upper parts, spotted
and streaked with umber and black on the back, head, and throat.

"Young.--Forehead white, rest of head chiefly grayish brown; upper
surface warmer brown, with gray lower wing-coverts; secondaries with
blackish centers and white borders; the three outer primaries black
on outer webs and at the tips and margins of inner webs, but the
centers white, except the outermost, in which there is for a time
a dark line inside the shaft; in the succeeding primaries the dark
color increases ascendingly on the inner webs, while from the fifth
the outer webs are pale gray to brownish, with a little white at tips;
tail-feathers white, with a band of blackish brown; under surface dull
white. Bill dull yellow, passing into black at the angles; tarsi and
toes dull reddish yellow. The brown color is soon lost on the back,
which has become gray by December.

"Immature.--Like the adult, with a few brown markings left on the upper
wing-coverts, and more black on the outer webs of the primaries. More
or less of a brown hood is assumed when the bird is barely a year old,
and the band on the tail is lost by the following autumn, when the new
primaries appear, with, as has been said, a larger proportion of black
than in the adult; in fact the duration of the immature phase is very
short. The bird does not breed until the following, or second spring.

"Occasionally the black from the margins of the inner webs of the
three outer quills runs in and reaches the shafts, much encroaching
upon the usual white centers, though not to the same extent on both
wings of the same bird. This is noticeable in two examples obtained
at Dinapur in December." (Saunders.)

This small gull is often abundant about Manila Bay but does not remain
throughout the year.



87. LARUS VEGÆ (Palmen).

VEGA GULL.


    Larus argentatus var. vegæ Palmen, Vega Exped., Vetensk (1887),
    5, 370.
    Larus vegæ Saunders, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 25, 269; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 141; Hartlaub, Abhandl. Natur. Ver. Bremen
    (1899), 16, heft. 2, 270; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 21.

    Luzon (Schmacker). Bering Sea and Arctic Siberia; Chinese coasts,
    Japan, Formosa, and Bonin Islands in winter.


Adult male in breeding plumage.--Head, neck, tail, and under parts
white; mantle and wing surface french-gray, with broad white tips
to the scapulars and secondaries, making a conspicuous alar bar;
all the primaries tipped with white; outermost quill blackish from
the base downward (save a narrow gray wedge on inner web), with
a white tip 63 mm. in length in mature birds, and a narrow, black
bar which divides the white into tip and "mirror" in the majority;
second quill blackish for about 10 mm. on both sides of shaft, with a
black subterminal bar, a white mirror, and, on the inner web, a broad,
gray wedge which sometimes breaks through and joins the mirror; third
quill grayish basally, blackish on the lower part of outer web and on
the subterminal bar, gray on the inner web, passing into white at the
apex of the wedge; fourth similar but gray on both webs above the bar;
fifth quill similar but bar narrower; sixth gray, without a bar in
mature birds and with a narrow bar in others; the remaining quills
gray with white tips. In less mature birds there is no mirror on
the second quill. Ring around eye and gape bright orange-red; tarsi
and toes pale flesh-color. Length, about 610; wing, 457; tail, 197;
culmen, 74; tarsus, 70; middle toe with claw, 66.

The female is smaller and less robust.

Adult in winter.--Similar but head and neck streaked with ash-brown.

Immature and young.--In the first autumn the upper parts are streaked
and mottled with brown and grayish buff; quills dark umber, with
paler inner webs and whitish tips to most; rectrices similar, but
more or less mottled with whitish at bases of two or three outer
pairs; feathers of upper tail-coverts brown, with buffish white tips;
under parts nearly uniform brown at first, but afterwards brownish
gray, mottled; bill blackish, paler at base of lower mandible. The
second autumn the head is nearly white, streaked with grayish brown;
the upper parts are barred with brown on a grayish ground, though
no pure gray feathers have yet made their appearance on mantle;
quills paler; tail more mottled with white at the bases of all the
feathers. In the third autumn the feathers of the mantle are chiefly
gray, with some brownish streaks down the shafts; a faint subapical
spot begins to show on the outermost primary; the tail-coverts are
partly white, and the dark portion of the rectrices is much broken up;
under parts nearly white. In the fourth autumn the subapical patch
on first primary is larger, and the quills from the fifth upward
are banded with black and tipped with white; tail-feathers white,
slightly vermiculated with brown; bill greenish yellow basally,
reddish black at the angle. At the molt of the fifth autumn all
brown markings are lost, the primaries have white tips, black bars,
and gray wedges, though the proportion of dark coloring in quills is
greater than it is in older birds. (Compiled from Saunders.)

The only notice of the occurrence of the Vega gull in the Philippine
Islands, appears to be the record by Hartlaub.



Order CHARADRIIFORMES.

SHORE-BIRDS AND WADERS.

Wings long, flat, and pointed, with narrow, rapidly graduated
primaries; inner secondaries long; tail usually quite short; rarely
forked (Glareola) or greatly elongated (Parridæ); legs generally long
and slender, sometimes extremely so; toes short except in Parridæ,
either semipalmate or cleft to the base; lobate in Phalaropodinæ;
bill slender, compressed, and covered with soft skin, rarely hard
throughout (Arenaria). Members of this order live on the ground in
open places, usually near water and many of the species assemble in
flocks during the winter months. Eggs three or four, highly colored
and much spotted, usually pyriform. The nest, with rare exceptions,
is a slight hollow in the ground. The young are downy and able to
run within a few hours after leaving the egg. This order includes
the sandpipers, plovers, snipes, Acurlews, and their allies. [13]



Suborders.


a1. Tail nearly square, never forked; toes and claws not greatly
lengthened.

  b1. Smaller, wing less than 230 mm.; bill small and short or greatly
  lengthened but never heavy. ... Charadrii (p. 99)
  b2. Larger; wing more than 250 mm.; bill moderate in length but
  powerful; tarsus covered with hexagonal scales. ... Oedicnemi
  (p. 154)

a2. Tail forked, or else the claws very long.

  b1. Tail forked; gape deeply cleft; claws normal in
  length. ... Cursorii (p. 152)
  b2. Tail not forked, but with two or more lengthened feathers; gape
  normal; claws extremely long and slender; a sharp spur at bend of
  wing. ... Parræ (p. 150)



Suborder CHARADRII.

Family CHARADRIIDÆ.

Bill slender, in some very long, straight, occasionally gently curved;
tail short and nearly square; legs moderately long to very long;
plumage (except in Rostratula) white, gray, and brown, occasionally
black and reddish. This family includes all the stilts, curlews,
godwits, snipes, sandpipers, and plovers.



Subfamilies.


a1. Toes not laterally scalloped; no serrated edge on back of tarsus.

  b1. Tarsus more than twice as long as middle toe with claw;
  naked portion of thigh much longer than middle toe with
  claw. ... Himantopodinæ (p. 113)
  b2. Tarsus less than twice as long as middle toe with claw; naked
  portion of thigh much shorter than middle toe with claw.

    c1. Culmen with a decided dertrum or arched swelling at tip;
    tarsus reticulate behind.

      d1. A small fleshy wattle in front of eye; front of tarsus
      covered with large transverse scales. ... Lobivanellinæ (p. 101)
      d2. No eye wattle present; tarsus covered with small hexagonal
      scales. ... Charadriinæ (p. 102)

    c2. Culmen without a dertrum at tip.

      d1. Tarsus with transverse plates in front and hexagonal
      scales behind; bill short, less than head; culmen nearly
      straight. ... Arenariinæ (p. 99)
      d2. Tarsus with transverse plates both before and behind
      (except Numenius which has a long decurved bill); bill usually
      much longer than head, either straight or curved, the tip
      usually soft.

        e1. Toes webbed at base. ... Totaninæ (p. 114)
        e2. Toes cleft to the base. ... Scolopacinæ (p. 132)

a2. Toes with lateral lobes; tarsus with the posterior edge
serrated. ... Phalaropodinæ (p. 149)



Subfamily ARENARIINÆ.

Genus ARENARIA Brisson, 1760.

Bill pointed, culmen straight and flattened for basal half; nostril
linear, situated in a groove which extends half the length of bill;
wing long and pointed; first primary decidedly longest; tarsus short
with transverse plates in front and hexagonal scales behind; toes
without webs; hind toe present.



88. ARENARIA INTERPRES (Linnæus).

TURNSTONE.


    Tringa interpres Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 148.
    Arenaria interpres Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 92;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 146; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 3;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 22.
    Strepsilas interpres Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4,
    223, fig. 50 (head).

    Bantayan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett); Cagayancillo (McGregor);
    Cagayan Sulu (Guillemard); Cebu (McGregor); Lubang (McGregor);
    Luzon (Whitehead); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Steere
    Exp.); Negros (Steere Exp.); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, Everett);
    Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester). Cosmopolitan, breeding in high
    northern latitudes.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above black, mixed with chestnut or
partly chestnut feathers on center of mantle; scapulars for the most
part chestnut, but outer ones black at the ends or irregularly marked
with black; accessory scapular plumes white; back and rump pure white;
upper tail-coverts black, longer ones pure white; lesser wing-coverts
blackish; innermost rather broadly edged with white, as also those
near edge of wing; median coverts for the most part chestnut, slightly
mottled with black; greater coverts blackish, narrowly margined and
broadly tipped with white; alula and primary-coverts black, innermost
of the latter with white tips; quills black with white shafts, and
white bases to the inner primaries; secondaries for the most part
white, blackish toward the ends of the feathers, these black markings
decreasing gradually toward the inner secondaries, some of which are
pure white, the innermost secondaries black, mottled with chestnut,
like the scapulars; tail-feathers black with white bases, all but the
center tail-feathers tipped with white, the black diminishing in size
and forming a band toward the outer feathers, which are almost white;
crown and hind neck white, the former streaked, the latter mottled
with black; base of forehead and a narrow frontal line black, followed
by a band of white, which unites with a broad eyebrow and is extended
over ear-coverts; lores and fore part of cheeks white; feathers round
eye and eyelid white, separated from the white loral patch by a narrow
line of black, which unites the frontal band to a square, black patch
beneath the eye, the latter joined to a malar line of black, which
is connected with the sides of the neck and with the fore neck and
sides of breast, all these parts being black, but nearly divided by
a semi-lunar band of white, which reaches from the sides of the neck
almost to the breast; throat and under surface of body from the center
of chest downward, white; under wing-coverts and axillars pure white;
quills below ashy whitish along the inner web. 'Bill black; feet deep
orange-red, claws black; iris hazel.' (Audubon.) Length, 200; culmen,
23; wing, 157; tail, 58; tarsus, 24; middle toe with claw, 28.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Much duller than the male,
and having the same pattern of black and white about the face,
but never developing the same amount of chestnut about the back,
the head and hind neck being brown, mottled with blackish centers to
the feathers. Length, 216; culmen, 23; wing, 160; tail, 62; tarsus,
24; middle toe with claw, 25.

"Young.--Above dusky brown, all the feathers edged with sandy
buff or rufous; wings and tail as in the adult; crown dark brown,
streaked with sandy buff, the margins of the feathers being of this
color; tail-feathers white, with a broad, subterminal band of black,
decreasing in extent toward the outermost feathers, all the feathers
tipped with sandy buff; throat and under surface white; lower throat,
fore neck, sides of neck, and sides of breast, mottled with dusky
blackish centers to the feathers, marking the black pattern of the
adults, even the semi-lunar neck-band of the adults being indicated
by a broad, crescentic band of sandy buff in the young.

"Winter plumage of the adult.--Above nearly uniform dusky brown, but
not showing the tawny rufous margins to feathers of upper surface, the
edges being ashy brown; head uniform brown like the back; hind neck and
sides of neck ashy, mottled with dusky centers to the feathers; sides
of face brown, with more or less white on ear-coverts; black markings
on cheeks and throat as in the breeding bird, but the white semi-lunar
band on the sides of the neck replaced by a patch of light brown.

"The difference between the winter plumage of the adult and the first
full plumage of the young birds consists in the sandy buff margins
to the feathers of the upper surface, which are very distinct in
the latter at first. Afterwards they become abraded, and then there
is scarcely any distinguishing mark between the winter plumages of
the adult and young. In the spring the red plumage is very rapidly
acquired, and I believe that it is gained quite as much by the change
in the pattern of the feathers as by a direct molt." (Sharpe.)

"Often seen in small flocks during the winter months." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)

Not uncommon on tide-flats in the winter months; it is easily
recognized by its bright red legs.



Subfamily LOBIVANELLINÆ.

Genus MICROSARCOPS Sharpe, 1896.

A hard round knob at bend of wing; a small fleshy wattle on each side
of head at base of bill; bill plover-like with a decided swelling at
the tip; nostril linear in a groove; wing pointed, first and second
primaries equal and largest; tarsus long, covered with large hexagonal
scales which appear as transverse plates in front; front toes webbed
at base; hind toe small.



89. MICROSARCOPS CINEREUS (Blyth).

GRAY-HEADED LAPWING.


    Pluvianus cinerea Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Bengal (1842), 11, 587.
    Microsarcops cinereus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    133; Hand-List (1899), 1, 149; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 9; McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 295.

    Luzon (Guerrero). Korea and southern Japanese islands to Mongolia
    and northern China; southern China, Indo-Burmese countries,
    and northeastern Bengal in winter.


"Adult male.--Above light brown, with a slight bronzy gloss; rump,
upper tail-coverts, and base of tail white; terminal third of tail
black, forming a broad band, tips white with a slight subterminal
shade of brown, the black band vanishing toward the outer tail-feather,
which is entirely white; wing-coverts brown like the back, but a little
paler; median coverts with narrow white tips, except the outer ones,
which are pure white; greater coverts nearly entirely white, with
brown at the extreme base, increasing in extent on the inner ones;
alula dark brown; primary-coverts and quills black; secondaries
pure white; outer ones dusky near the ends, inner ones externally
light brown, and innermost brown like the back; crown, nape, and hind
neck, as well as side of face and neck, throat, fore neck, and chest
light pearly gray, with a narrow black band across the upper breast;
chin rather paler gray; remainder of under surface including under
wing-coverts and axillars, pure white. 'Basal two-thirds of bill
deep yellow, terminal third black; feet dull yellow, claws black;
edges of eyelids and lappets deep yellow.' (Oates.) Length, 355;
culmen, 35; wing, 239; tail, 102; tarsus, 67.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male in plumage. Length, 368; culmen,
35; wing, 239; tail, 107; tarsus, 68.

"Adult in winter.--Differs from the summer plumage in having the gray
of head and throat washed with brown, especially on the chest; the
black band obscured by ashy or whitish tips to the feathers." (Sharpe.)

Young male in winter.--Upper parts brown with a slight gloss, the
feathers with dusky shafts; forehead and neck a trifle lighter
and grayer; upper tail-coverts and tail white, rectrices with a
subterminal, blackish band which is widest on central pair and absent
from outermost pair; chin whitish; throat, and sides of head and
neck, light brown with whitish streaks; breast brown, rest of under
parts white; wing-coverts brown like the back but a little paler,
median coverts with narrow white tips, except the outer ones which
are pure white; greater coverts nearly entirely white, with brown at
extreme base, increasing in extent on inner ones; alula dark brown;
primary-coverts and quills black; secondaries white, the inner ones
externally light brown and the innermost brown like the back.

This lapwing resembles a large plover, but is distinguished by
having a small hind toe, a short and blunt wing-spur, and a small,
fleshy wattle or lappet between the eye and the base of bill. The
only Philippine specimen known was taken near Manila in January, 1906.



Subfamily CHARADRIINÆ.

Bill moderate, not longer than head, culmen flat and straight from
base to the terminal swollen dertrum; first primary slightly the
longest; tarsus covered on all sides with small hexagonal scales;
toes webbed at base; hind toe minute or absent.



Genera.


a1. Larger; wing more than 165 mm.; upper parts much spotted.

  b1. A minute hind toe; axillars sooty black. ... Squatarola (p. 103)
  b2. No hind toe; axillars gray or white. ... Charadrius (p. 104)

a2. Smaller; wing less than 165 mm.; upper parts nearly uniform gray
or brown.

  b1. Larger; wing, 140 to 165 mm.; bill stouter. ... Ochthodromus
  (p. 105)
  b2. Smaller; wing, 100 to 115 mm.; bill more slender. ... Ægialitis
  (p. 109)



Genus SQUATAROLA Leach, 1816.

This genus is similar to Charadrius but differs in having a minute
hind toe; the character is scarcely of generic value.



90. SQUATAROLA SQUATAROLA (Linnæus).

GRAY PLOVER.


    Tringa squatarola Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 149.
    Squatarola helvetica Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    182; Hand-List (1899), 1, 152; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 17; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 22.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Cuyo
    (Meyer); Luzon (Sanches); Mindanao (Everett); Negros (Layard);
    Palawan (Whitehead); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Celestino). Subarctic regions, south in winter to Australia,
    Cape of Good Hope, and South America.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above mottled with bars of black
and ashy white, the feathers being black, notched with white and
broadly tipped with the latter; scapulars and wing-coverts like
back, the greater series edged externally with white, inner ones
distinctly notched with white; alula and primary-coverts black,
the former slightly, the latter more plainly, tipped with white;
quills black, the shaft white about the middle; first two primaries
white for the greater portion of the inner web, decreasing in extent
on the succeeding quills, which also have the median portion of
the shaft white, but after the fourth this white shaft accompanied
by an increasing amount of white on outer web; secondaries brown,
with white edges and tips, bases of inner webs also white; innermost
secondaries resembling the back, and notched with ashy brown and
blackish; lower back and rump dusky brown, with white spots and
fringes to the feathers; upper tail-coverts and tail white, barred
with black or blackish brown, the bars decreasing toward the outer
feathers, where they are broken up into spots on the outer web;
crown like the back, but more minutely mottled and more hoary white;
forehead and a broad eyebrow white, extending down sides of neck,
and forming a large patch on sides of upper breast; lores, sides of
face, ear-coverts, and under surface black, excepting abdomen and
under tail-coverts, which are pure white; thighs white, streaked
with black; under wing-coverts white; axillars black, with slightly
indicated fringes of brown at tips; quills below dusky, with white
on inner webs; lower primary-coverts pale ashy. 'Bill, legs, feet,
and claws black; iris dark hazel.' (Seebohm.) Length, 267; culmen,
33; wing, 206; tail, 74; tarsus, 46.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Above, not so strongly mottled
with black as the male, and consequently rather browner, especially
on the head; black of face and under parts not so much developed,
these parts being mottled with irregular black markings. Length, 279;
culmen, 33; wing, 203; tail, 74; tarsus, 46.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Differs from the summer plumage chiefly
in wanting the black on face and breast, but, from the absence of
black mottling on the back, the whole upper surface appears more
uniform, being ashy brown with narrow whitish edgings to the feathers,
before which is a blackish subterminal shade; lores white, but base
of forehead like crown; a line of white above and below eye, but
the white eyebrow scarcely visible above the ear-coverts, which are
dingy blackish; sides of face white, streaked with dusky; throat and
under parts pure white, lower throat and fore neck pale ashy brown,
slightly mottled with dusky markings; under wing-coverts white,
except the lower primary-coverts, which are dusky ashy; axillars black.

"Young.--Like the winter plumage of the adults, and always to be
distinguished from the golden plover by the black axillars, though it
is spangled with golden buff on the upper surface, as is the latter
species." (Sharpe.)

The gray plover, known as the black-bellied plover in the United
States, is found along the seashore in small numbers during the winter
months. As seen in the Philippines it is usually in the gray plumage
but as with its very near relative, the golden plover, individuals
having the breast mottled with black are not uncommon.



Genus CHARADRIUS Linnæus, 1758.

This genus differs from Squatarola in being smaller and in lacking
the hind-toe.



91. CHARADRIUS FULVUS Gmelin.

PACIFIC GOLDEN PLOVER.


    Charadrius fulvus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, 167; Oates,
    Bds. Brit. Burmah (1883), 2, 364; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 22.
    Charadrius dominicus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    195 (part); Hand-List (1899), 1, 152 (part); Oates, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1902), 2, 18 (part).

    Ca-sa-huit', Calayan; ma-tang-vá-ca, Manila.

    Balabac (Steere, Steere Exp.); Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan
    (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns
    & Worcester); Calayan (McGregor); Cebu (Everett, McGregor); Cuyo
    (McGregor); Fuga (McGregor); Leyte (Everett); Lubang (McGregor);
    Luzon (Cuming, Meyer, Everett, Heriot, Whitehead, McGregor);
    Masbate (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Mindanao (Murray, Everett,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Mindoro (McGregor);
    Negros (Layard, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Palawan
    (Platen, Whitehead, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Sibay
    (McGregor & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Sulu (Mearns);
    Ticao (McGregor). Northern Asia and Alaskan coasts of Bering Sea,
    south in winter to Australia and Polynesia.


"Male and female in summer.--Forehead white, continued back over each
eye as a broad supercilium and extending down the sides of neck;
whole upper plumage black, each feather with large marginal yellow
spots on both webs, the spots on the wing-coverts tending to white;
primary-coverts and the greater series brown, tipped and margined with
white; primaries brown, the central portion of the shaft whitish;
secondaries brown tipped with whitish; tail blackish, irregularly
barred with white; chin, throat, fore neck, breast, and abdomen black;
vent and flanks black mottled with white; under tail-coverts white;
axillars smoky brown with white tips.

"Male and female in winter.--Upper plumage black, the feathers margined
with yellow; wing-coverts margined with dull white; quills and tail
much as in summer; forehead and sides of head fulvous, the latter part
streaked with brown; chin and upper throat fulvous-white; lower throat,
fore neck, and feathers under cheeks and ear-coverts rather bright
fulvous with minute streaks of brown; breast grayish, the feathers
broadly margined with fulvous; remainder of lower plumage pale buffy
white; sides of body more or less marked and fringed with fulvous;
axillars smoky brown, tipped with white as in summer. Bill dark brown;
iris dark hazel-brown; legs plumbeous; claws horn-color. Length, 254;
tail, 63; wing, 160; tarsus, 46; bill from gape, 28. The sexes are
of about the same size.

"The golden plover frequents waste ground, grassy plains, and wet
paddy-fields, and also the edges of rivers, and is generally met with
in flocks of considerable size. It breeds in China, and also it is
said in some parts of India, laying four eggs in a hollow lined with
a few blades of grass. The eggs are yellowish blotched with blackish
sepia." (Oates.)

The Eastern golden plover is found in the Philippines on migration
and is then usually in its gray winter dress but specimens have been
taken with numbers of black feathers from the summer plumage.



Genus OCHTHODROMUS Reichenbach, 1852.

This genus should be united to Ægialitis from which its members differ
only in being a little larger.



Species.


a1. Axillars and under wing-coverts white; wing about 140 mm.

  b1. Larger; culmen more than 23 mm. ... geoffroyi (p. 106)
  b2. Smaller; culmen less than 20 mm. ... mongolus (p. 107)

a2. Axillars and under wing-coverts smoky brown; wing about 165
mm. ... veredus (p. 108)



92. OCHTHODROMUS GEOFFROYI (Wagler).

LARGER SAND PLOVER.


    Charadrius geoffroyi Wagler, Syst. Av. (1827), 61.
    Ochthodromus geoffroyi Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    217; Hand-List (1899), 1, 153; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 20; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 23.

    Ma-tang va-ca de collar, general name for small plovers.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett, McGregor);
    Cagayancillo (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor);
    Leyte (Everett); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead, McGregor);
    Negros (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Mearns); Mindoro
    (McGregor, Porter); Palawan (Everett, Lempriere, Platen, Whitehead,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay (Steere Exp.);
    Pata (Mearns); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester). Japan, Formosa,
    and Hainan, south in winter to Africa, India, and Australia.


"Adult in breeding plumage.--Above light brown, with a slight
olive-greenish gloss, wing-coverts like the back, with obsolete
indications of paler fringes to some of the feathers, greater series
tipped with white, forming a narrow wing-bar; alula, primary-coverts,
and quills brown, primaries darker brown along their outer webs and
at tips, shafts white; inner primaries with a white mark toward the
base of outer web; secondaries brown, with white fringes to the end
of outer web and white tips, shafts white, with a little extension
along the sides of the shaft in the inner secondaries; innermost
long secondaries like back, outer ones white along their outer web;
rump and upper tail-coverts a little lighter and more ashy brown than
the back, with white fringes to most of the feathers; sides of rump
white; tail ashy brown with a broad white tip, a subterminal shade of
darker brown, forming an obsolete, subterminal band; outer feathers
with more or less white near base of inner web, outermost one almost
entirely white, except for a slight shade of smoky brown and a slightly
indicated subterminal shade of darker brown; hinder crown light brown,
entirely surrounded by pale cinnamon-rufous, which occupies fore part
of crown and extends down sides of neck round hinder neck, where
it forms a broad collar of pale cinnamon-rufous; base of forehead
white, followed by a narrow black band; lores black; feathers in
front of and below the eye black; which unite with a black band along
top of ear-coverts; sides of face and under surface of body white;
across fore neck and chest a broad band of cinnamon-rufous or light
chestnut, which extends a little way down the sides of upper breast;
under wing-coverts, axillars, and quill-lining white. Length, 215;
culmen, 25; wing, 140; tail, 51; tarsus, 37.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Differs from the summer plumage in wanting
the rufous chest and in the absence of all facial markings. Above
uniform brown, head like the back, hind neck paler and more ashy
brown; lores, forehead, eyelid, and a broad eyebrow white; feathers
below eye brown extending in a streak along ear-coverts; cheeks and
entire under surface white, with a patch of brown on each side of
upper breast. 'Bill black; tarsus greenish gray or pale olive; toes
dusky or blackish; iris brown.' (Hume.)

"Young.--Similar to the adults in winter plumage, but dark brown,
with faint edges of sandy buff to the feathers of upper surface;
eyebrow and sides of face washed with sandy rufous, a strong shade
of which color pervades chest and sides of upper breast." (Sharpe.)

In winter plumage Ochthodromus geoffroyi and O. mongolus are very
similar but the former may be recognized by its larger size and longer
bill. In a male the wing measures 136; tail, 57; exposed culmen, 24;
tarsus, 36; middle toe with claw, 24. Wing of a female, 140; tail,
55; exposed culmen, 24; tarsus, 37; middle toe with claw, 23.



93. OCHTHODROMUS MONGOLUS (Pallas).

LESSER SAND PLOVER.


    Charadrius mongolus Pallas, Reise Russ. Reichs (1776), 3, 700.
    Ochthodromus mongolus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    223; Hand-List (1899), 1, 153; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 23.
    Ægialitis mongolica Grant, Ibis (1896), 126.

    Basilan (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett); Cagayancillo
    (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor);
    Leyte (Everett); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead, McGregor);
    Mindanao (Mearns); Mindoro (Porter); Negros (Bourns & Worcester);
    Palawan (Platen, Whitehead); Ticao (McGregor). Northern Asia,
    south in winter to China, Malay Archipelago, and Australia.


"Adult in breeding plumage.--Similar to O. geoffroyi, but smaller,
bill and tarsus much shorter; a broader black line along sides
of face; ear-coverts entirely black; the white throat separated
from the rufous chest-band by a narrowly indicated line of
black. 'Bill black; feet somewhat bluish black, toes darker; iris
dark brown.' (Stejneger.) Length, 190; culmen, 19; wing, 127; tail,
53; tarsus, 30.

"Adult female in summer plumage.--Similar to the male, but less richly
colored; rufous chest-band never so pronounced; facial markings less
developed, the black bands on the forehead often obsolete. 'Bill
black; feet dark gray, with an olive tinge; toes darker, blackish;
iris dark hazel.' (Stejneger.) Length, 178; culmen, 20; wing, 140;
tail; 47; tarsus, 30.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Differs from the summer plumage in wanting
the facial markings and the rufous chest. Very similar to the winter
plumage of O. geoffroyi, and distinguished chiefly by its smaller
size, shorter bill, and shorter tarsus; there is also a little more
brown on the ear-coverts.

"Young.--Similar to the adults in winter plumage, but darker brown,
all the feathers edged with sandy brown; eyebrow, sides of face,
and under surface of body with a strong tint of sandy buff. 'Bill,
angle of mouth, and ring round eyes black; legs clear gray; tarsus
tinged with yellowish, toes with blackish, and soles with reddish;
iris dark brown.' (Stejneger.)

"The exact method by which the rufous chest of the summer plumage is
gained is not easy to discover. In some specimens in winter dress there
is a distinct narrow line of brown across the fore neck; in most of the
series of skins in the Museum this is wanting, as it is also in young
birds. It may therefore be a sign of very old birds only, as there are
traces of brown feathers in an old bird which has not quite attained
its full summer plumage. In the specimen in question it is also evident
that the rufous breast is being acquired by a change of color in the
feather, from brown to rufous, as well as by a molt. Probably only
very old birds go through this double process, as in the majority of
specimens the rufous breast appears to be gained by a molt only. When
first developed all the rufous feathers are edged with white.

"A young bird is described by Dr. Stejneger as somewhat resembling
the adult: 'The brownish gray of the back is paler, and each feather
narrowly edged with isabella-color, with which also the lower parts
are suffused. On the pectoral region a buffish tinge replaces the
rufous collar, and the black markings are absent from the head, the
cheeks and ear-coverts being slightly dusky; the forehead between
the bill and the eyes whitish, suffused with isabella-color.'

"The winter plumage and young livery of the western and eastern
forms of O. mongolus are, as might have been expected, very difficult
to distinguish, but the western form seems always to have a longer
tarsus (about 32 mm.), whereas the eastern form has the tarsus about
28 mm." (Sharpe.)



94. OCHTHODROMUS VEREDUS (Gould).

EASTERN DOTTEREL.


    Charadrius veredus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1848), 38.
    Ochthodromus veredus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    232; Hand-List (1899), 1, 153; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 23.

    Palawan (Platen, Bourns & Worcester, White). Mongolia and China,
    in winter to the Moluccas and Australia.


"Adult in summer plumage.--Similar to O. geoffroyi, but with a longer
and more slender bill, and distinguished by its smoky brown axillars,
under wing-coverts, and quill-linings. Upper parts uniform brown,
with slightly indicated rufous edgings to many of the feathers;
alula, primary-coverts, and quills dark brown, first primary only
having a white shaft, and no white present on inner webs of quills;
secondaries uniform dark brown, with an obsolete white fringe to the
tips; innermost secondaries like back; tail-feathers brown, with white
tips and a subterminal shade of darker brown, outer feather white
along outer web; crown brown like back, slightly washed with rufous,
as also the hind neck, where, however, there is no distinct collar
as in O. geoffroyi; forehead white to middle of eye; eyebrow, sides
of face, and throat white; lower throat, fore neck, and chest bright
chestnut, extending down the sides of the upper breast and followed
by a horseshoe mark of black; breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts
pure white; under wing-coverts and axillars dark smoky brown, with
ashy whitish tips; quill-lining also dark smoky brown. 'Bill deep
olive-brown, blacker on the terminal portion; feet light brownish
flesh-color; toes washed with gray, blackish on joints; claws black;
eyelids grayish black.' (Swinhoe.) Length, 215; culmen, 25; wing,
165; tail, 61; tarsus, 44.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Differs from the summer plumage in wanting
the rufous chest-band. Above dark brown, including crown; forehead
and eyebrow isabelline white, hinder part of the latter shaded with
sandy buff, which color also pervades the sides of face and of neck,
and forms a faint collar round hind neck; throat isabelline white;
lower throat, fore neck, and chest pale brown; remainder of under
surface white; under wing-coverts, axillars, and quill-lining smoky
brown." (Sharpe.)



Genus ÆGIALITIS Boie, 1822.

This genus includes a number of small plovers not differing greatly
from Charadrius except in size and colors; the plumage is never spotted
and, with the exception of a more or less complete dusky band across
the chest, the lower parts are pure white.



Species.


a1. A black or rusty band across fore breast.

  b1. Shafts of primaries dark, excepting of the first which may be
  partly or entirely white. ... dubia (p. 109)
  b2. Shafts of all the primaries white. ... peroni (p. 111)

a2. A smoky brown band on sides of fore breast or faintly across
breast. ... alexandrina (p. 112)



95. ÆGIALITIS DUBIA (Scopoli).

LITTLE RINGED PLOVER.


    Charadrius dubius Scopoli, Del Flor. et Faun. Insubr. (1786),
    2, 93.
    Ægialitis dubia Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 263;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 154; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898),
    4, 241, fig. 54 (head); Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 25;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 23.

    Basilan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett); Cagayancillo (McGregor);
    Calayan (McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Leyte (Everett);
    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Everett); Mindanao (Everett, Steere
    Exp., Goodfellow); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Negros
    (Bourns & Worcester); Palawan (Platen, Whitehead, Steere Exp.,
    White); Panay (Steere Exp.); Sibuyan (McGregor); Tablas (Bourns &
    Worcester). Europe and northern Asia to Japan, in winter to India,
    Africa, and Malay Archipelago; accidental in California and Alaska.


"Adult male.--Above light brown, a little darker on rump and central
tail-coverts; sides of rump and lateral upper tail-coverts pure white;
wing-coverts like back; feathers round the bend of wing darker brown;
alula blackish with white tips; primary-coverts blackish; primary
quills blackish, internally lighter brown, with dark shafts to all
the primaries except the first, where it is white; secondaries dusky,
lighter and more ashy brown internally, inner secondaries smoky brown,
with a good deal of white on both webs, the long inner secondaries like
the back; tail ashy brown, tipped with white, and with a subterminal
black bar, outer feathers more distinctly edged with white, the two
outermost almost entirely white, with a black patch on inner web
corresponding to the subterminal bar on the rest of the feathers;
base of forehead, lores, feathers above and below eye, and ear-coverts
black; a broad frontal band of white, followed by another broad band of
black above the eye, which is again succeeded by another black line,
which widens out above the eye and forms a distinct eyebrow; hinder
crown as far as nape ashy brown; round the neck a broad white collar,
continuous with the white throat, and followed by a broad band of
black on lower hind neck, and continued across fore neck, widening out
on the sides; cheeks, throat, and under surface pure white, including
under wing-coverts and axillars. 'Bill dusky black; feet flesh-color;
iris dusky brown; ring round eye bright yellow.' (Emin.) Length, 173;
culmen, 15; wing, 117; tail, 60; tarsus, 25; middle toe with claw, 20.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but with the markings not so well
developed, especially the black markings of the face and the black
bands on the hind neck and fore neck, the latter being much mixed
with brown. 'Bill black; feet pale flesh-color; iris dark brown;
ring round eye bright yellow.' (Hartert.) Length, 165; culmen, 16;
wing, 117; tail, 60; tarsus, 25.

"Young.--Differs from the adults in wanting the black on the head,
as well as the black collars on the mantle and fore neck; general
tone of the plumage more rufescent than in the adults, and the whole
of the upper surface varied with wavy lines of pale sandy buff,
before which is a subterminal dusky bar; forehead pale sandy buff;
ear-coverts dusky blackish; the collar on the fore neck composed of
brown feathers, with generally a tinge of sandy buff on the throat. The
black markings on the head and the black collars are gained by a molt
in the following spring. There appears to me to be also a change of
feathers especially on the neck collar." (Sharpe.)

This little plover was abundant along the Baco River in the vicinity of
Balete, Mindoro, where it nested on the extensive gravel-flats exposed
by low water. A nest found April 24, 1905, was a slight hollow, lined
with a mosaic of small pebbles. The three eggs measure 30.4 by 21.8;
28.9 by 21.8; 30.9 by 21.8. Their ground-color is very pale gray,
almost white, carrying a considerable number of small lilac-colored
spots. Small spots and irregularly shaped markings of dark brown
are scattered over the entire surface, but are more numerous on the
larger end.

"A resident species, usually met with about small fresh-water streams
in the interior." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



96. ÆGIALITIS PERONI (Bonaparte).

MALAY SAND PLOVER.


    Charadrius peroni Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. (1856), 43, 417.
    Ægialitis peroni Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 273;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 154; Grant and Whitehead, Ibis (1898),
    247, pl. 6, fig. 8 (egg); Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 25;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 23.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett); Calayan
    (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Fuga (McGregor); Leyte (Everett);
    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead, McGregor); Mindanao (Steere
    Exp., Everett); Mindoro (Porter); Negros (Steere Exp.); Palawan
    (Lempriere, Whitehead, Platen); Romblon (McGregor); Sibutu
    (Everett); Sibuyan (McGregor); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Ticao (McGregor). Greater Sunda Islands to Celebes.


"Adult male.--Above light ashy brown, darker on rump and central
upper tail-coverts; sides of rump and lateral upper tail-coverts pure
white; wing-coverts like the back, with a band of dark sepia-brown
along marginal coverts; greater coverts broadly tipped with white;
alula and primary-coverts dark brown, with white tips, the shafts
conspicuously white; inner primaries white toward base of outer web;
secondaries dark brown, white at ends of outer web, increasing in
extent toward the innermost; long inner secondaries like the back;
four center tail-feathers dark brown, next pair smoky brown, next
pair white with a little smoky brown at the ends, remainder pure
white; crown rufous, with a nuchal collar of pure white, this collar
followed by a broad black band on hind neck overspreading mantle;
forehead white, reaching to above eye and separated from rufous of
crown by a tolerably broad band of black; a distinct loral streak of
black; sides of face and ear-coverts with a black band along upper
margin of the latter; cheeks and under surface pure white, with a
large black patch on each side of fore neck; under wing-coverts and
axillars white; quills below ashy gray. 'Bill black, orange at base;
feet gray, claws black; iris warm chocolate-brown; orbital ring pure
orange.' (Everett.) Length, about 150; culmen, 16; wing, 95; tail,
39; tarsus, 27; middle toe with claw, 20.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but without the black band across
forehead; black on mantle and hind neck represented by dark brown mixed
with rufous; black patch at the side of fore neck replaced by dark
brown mixed with rufous, with a tinge of the latter color spreading
across fore neck. 'Bill black, base yellowish; feet purplish gray;
iris dark brown.' (Everett.) Length, 140; culmen, 16; wing, 102;
tail, 38; tarsus, 27.

"In some specimens, apparently very old males, the black band is
continued right across the fore neck.

"Young birds resemble the adults, but have no facial black markings
or any black or rufous on the mantle or sides of the chest, the whole
of the upper surface being uniform ashy brown, with broad sandy-buff
margins." (Sharpe.)

This little plover differs from Ægialitis dubia and Æ. alexandrina
in having a comparatively stout bill.

Whitehead took three eggs of the Malay sand-plover at Cape Engaño,
Luzon, on May 26, 1895. They are described as follows: "Shape
short ovate. Ground-color pale cream; the whole shell with small
blotches, streaks, and zigzag pencillings of rich sepia and pale
lavender. Measurements 30 mm. by 22 mm. The three eggs were deposited
on the bare sand among sea-drift and only a few yards above high-water
mark. The female was shot. On the same day young plovers nearly ready
to fly were captured." (Grant and Whitehead.)



97. ÆGIALITIS ALEXANDRINA (Linnæus).

KENTISH PLOVER.


    Charadrius alexandrinus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, (1758), 1, 150.
    Ægialitis alexandrina Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    275; Hand-List (1899), 1, 154; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 26; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 24.

    Bohol (Everett, Steere Exp.); Calayan (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor);
    Cuyo (McGregor); Mindanao (Everett); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen,
    Everett, Steere Exp.); Panay (Steere Exp.); Siquijor (Steere Exp.);
    Ticao (McGregor). Europe and central Asia to China and Japan,
    in winter to Africa, Indian Peninsula, and Australia.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above pale earthy brown, with faint
remains of paler margins to the feathers; wing-coverts like back,
marginal ones blackish brown, greater series darker brown with a narrow
white edging to the tip; alula and primary-coverts dark sepia-brown,
the latter fringed with white at the tip; quills sepia-brown, with
white shafts to the primaries, which are pale brown on inner web;
inner primaries for the most part white toward the base of outer web;
secondaries dusky brown with white tips, inner ones also white along
the margins of both webs, innermost long secondaries brown like back;
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts dark sepia-brown, lateral ones
white, forming a patch on each side; the four center tail-feathers
dark sepia-brown, paler toward the base, and having white shafts to
the center ones, three outer feathers white, next ones smoky brown,
with white shafts; crown ashy brown, washed with light tawny-rufous,
especially distinct toward nape; hind neck and sides of neck white,
forming a collar; forehead and a distinct eyebrow white, with a
broad black band separating white of forehead from brown of crown;
eyelid and loral streak black; feathers below the eye and sides of
face white, with a black patch on hinder ear-coverts; cheeks and under
surface pure white, with a patch of black on each side of chest; under
wing-coverts and axillars white; quills below light ashy like the
lower primary-coverts. 'Bill black, with the base of lower mandible
of a dusky flesh-color; tarsi dusky, toes darker, claws black; iris
brown.' (Macgillivray.) Length, 165; culmen, 18; wing, 105; tail,
43; middle toe with claw, 18.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but with less rufous on the head,
this being represented by a tinge over the eye and round the nape;
black band on the fore part of crown absent; black patch on each side
of the chest represented by a brown patch with a rufous tinge. Length,
165; culmen, 18; wing, 109; tail, 48; tarsus, 28.

"The Kentish plovers which attain their breeding plumage in the plains
of India are certainly much brighter in color than any which are
seen in Europe. The black forehead and patch at the side of the chest
are also strongly developed. Occasionally a rufous tinge overshades
the back.

"The adult bird in winter plumage differs from the summer plumage in
the entire absence of bright rufous on the head, and the black markings
on the face and sides of the breast are also not developed. The head
is like the back, the forehead and eyebrow are white, the lores dusky,
and there is always a more or less distinct white collar united to
the two sides of the neck.

"Young birds in first winter plumage only differ from the adults in
having the whole upper surface distinctly marked with pale edges to
the feathers." (Sharpe.)

This plover appears to be a winter visitant to the Philippines and
may be found in small flocks along the seashore wherever there are
tide-flats. It differs from both Æ. dubia and peroni in being slightly
larger and in having an incomplete band on the fore breast.



Subfamily HIMANTOPODINÆ.

Genus HIMANTOPUS Brisson, 1760.

Bill long, slender, straight, and pointed; wing long and slender,
reaching well beyond tip of tail, first primary much the longest; tail
short and square; legs extremely long and slender; bare portion of
tibia equal to three-fourths of tarsus, the latter two and one-half
times as long as middle toe with claw; toes webbed at base; hind
toe wanting.



98. HIMANTOPUS LEUCOCEPHALUS Gould.

AUSTRALIAN STILT.


    Himantopus leucocephalus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1837), 26;
    Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 317; Hand-List (1899), 1,
    156; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 34; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 24.

    Basilan (McGregor); Mindanao (Cuming, Everett, Steere Exp.,
    Celestino). Greater Sunda Islands, Moluccas, Australia, New Guinea.


Male.--A narrow black collar on hind neck; entire wings, their coverts,
and scapulars glossy black; rest of the plumage white. Bill and nails
black; legs and feet bright red, said to be pink in life. Length,
about 350; wing, 220; tail, 77; exposed culmen, 59; tarsus, 126.

Female.--Smaller and the scapulars dark brown. Wing, 210; tail, 75;
exposed culmen, 58; tarsus, 110.

"Young.--Brown on the upper back and inner secondaries; the hind neck,
from the nape to the mantle, ashy gray, mottled with dusky subterminal
bars to the feathers; crown dull ashy gray; lores and fore part of
face white like the under surface of the body." (Sharpe.)

The stilt, even at a considerable distance, is easily recognized by
its very long, slender, red legs. I observed a solitary individual
in Malamaui Island near Basilan and Celestino collected a number of
specimens in northern Mindanao.



Subfamily TOTANINÆ.

Bill long, slender, usually straight, in some species gently curved;
tarsus scutellate both in front and behind except in Numenius which
has the back of tarsus reticulate and the bill very long and decurved;
toes slightly webbed at base.



Genera.


a1. Tarsus transversely scaled in front, reticulated behind; culmen
more than 65 mm.; bill decurved. ... Numenius (p. 114)
a2. Tarsus transversely scaled both in front and behind.

  b1. Bill decurved; culmen less than 50 mm. ... Mesoscolopax (p. 119)
  b2. Bill straight or slightly upturned.

    c1. Much larger; culmen more than 70 mm.; bill recurved and
    slightly exceeding tail. ... Limosa (p. 119)
    c2. Much smaller; culmen less than 65 mm.

      d1. Culmen equal to, and usually greater than, middle toe
      with claw.

        e1. Tarsus longer than middle toe with claw.

          f1. Tarsus about one and one-half times the length of middle
          toe with claw.

            g1. Culmen not recurved. ... Totanus (p. 122)
            g2. Culmen slightly recurved. ... Glottis (p. 129)

          f2. Tarsus but little greater than middle toe with claw.

            g1. Culmen slightly recurved. ... Terekia (p. 127)
            g2. Culmen not recurved.

              h1. Axillars not uniform white.

                i1. Axillars gray. ... Heteractitis (p. 124)
                i2. Axillars brown barred with white. ... Helodromas
                (p. 123)

              h2. Axillars pure white. ... Actitis (p. 126)

      d2. Culmen shorter than middle toe with claw, about equal to
      toe without claw. ... Rhyacophilus (p. 130)



Genus NUMENIUS Brisson, 1760.

Back of tarsus covered with small hexagonal scales. Large wading birds
with long legs; bill very long and decurved, tip of upper mandible
blunt and projecting beyond the lower mandible.



Species.


a1. Culmen, 115 mm. or more; crown uniform in color with the back.

  b1. Lower back and rump white or with streaks and spots of black;
  axillars pure white or with traces of dusky lines. ... arquatus
  (p. 115)
  b2. Lower back and rump brown; axillars white, broadly barred with
  blackish. ... cyanopus (p. 116)

a2. Culmen, 90 mm. or less; crown blackish with a pale or whitish
central vertical band. ... variegatus (p. 117)



99. NUMENIUS ARQUATUS (Linnæus).

COMMON CURLEW.


    Scolopax arquata Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 145.
    Numenius arquatus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 341;
    Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 36.
    Numenius arquata Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 157; Blanford,
    Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 252, fig. 58 (head); McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 24.

    Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Palawan (Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester); Samar
    (Whitehead). India and Africa; Europe east to Lake Baikal, in
    winter to southern China and Malay Peninsula.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above brown, with longitudinal
black centers to the feathers imparting a broadly striped appearance;
feathers of upper surface notched with ashy or rufous, giving to many
of the scapulars a somewhat barred appearance; wing-coverts dark brown,
edged with whity brown, median and greater series also checkered with
whity brown, imparting a somewhat barred appearance to this part of
the wing; alula, primary-coverts, and primaries blackish, externally
glossed with bottle-green; primary-coverts slightly tipped with white,
shafts of outer primaries white, those of inner ones brown, primaries
notched or barred, on inner web only, with sandy buff or whitish,
inner primaries thus marked on both webs; secondaries distinctly
barred with brown and white, both webs being deeply notched with ashy
whitish; innermost secondaries ashy brown with dusky brown cross-bars,
the center of the feathers being also dusky brown; lower back and
rump pure white with black longitudinal spots or streaks, a little
more distinct on the rump; upper tail-coverts barred with black and
white or with sagittate subterminal spots, the longer ones tinged with
sandy buff, giving a streaked appearance; neck more ashy, streaked
with brown; over the eye a white streak, narrowly lined with black;
sides of face and sides of neck, throat, and chest pale sandy buff
streaked with blackish brown, more narrowly on the sides of face;
chin and upper throat white; breast, abdomen, sides of body, thighs,
and under tail-coverts white, streaked with dark brown on breast, and
very narrowly on abdomen and under tail-coverts; thighs unstreaked;
sides of body with distinct bars or sagittate markings of dark brown;
under wing-coverts and axillars pure white, mottled with blackish
centers to the feathers; axillars more or less regularly barred with
blackish or with subterminal, heart-shaped spots; lower primary-coverts
and quills below ashy gray with white notches to the inner webs. 'Bill
fleshy brown, shading into dark brown toward the tip; feet dusky;
iris brown.' (Shelley.) Length, 533; culmen, 121; wing, 279; tail,
108; tarsus, 74.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male, but larger,
and with a longer bill. Length, 610; culmen, 155; wing, 305; tail,
145; tarsus, 81.

"Adults in winter plumage.--Very similar to the breeding plumage,
but paler, and much less heavily striped, especially on the under
surface of the body; the black spots and streaks on the rump scarcely
apparent, and concealed by the white plumage; upper tail-coverts white,
with very few brown cross-bars; tail white, barred with brown. 'Feet
pale leaden gray, claws blackish; bill blackish brown, flesh-color
at the base of the lower mandible.' (Hume.)

"There is evidently a spring molt, but whether partial or entire I
have not been able to determine. The breeding plumage is gained by a
widening of the longitudinal centers to the feathers, of which the
pattern changes on several portions of the body. Such parts as the
rump and the abdomen and under tail-coverts have scarcely any visible
streaks, but these appear with the summer plumage and are gained by
a change of the feather. The sides of the body change from a streaked
to a barred appearance, this being effected by a preliminary widening
of the brown centers to the feathers which develop into bars without
any direct molt. The innermost secondaries, at the autumn molt, seem
to be entirely uniform, and the bars make their appearance gradually.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in being much more tawny, and, as
Seebohm has pointed out, young birds may always be distinguished
from the old ones by the much lighter patterns of the notches and
bars in the innermost secondaries, these markings being tawny buff,
and the black centers to the feathers being much broader." (Sharpe.)

This large curlew is extremely wary and although individuals are
occasionally seen on tide-flats, they are difficult to kill.



100. NUMENIUS CYANOPUS Vieillot.

ASIATIC CURLEW.


    Numenius cyanopus Vieillot, N. Dict. d'Hist. Nat. (1817), 8, 306;
    Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 350; Hand-List (1899),
    1, 158; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 24.

    Bohol (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester). Japan and eastern Siberia, in winter to Australia.


"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to N. arquatus and of
the same size, but distinguished by the dark lower back and rump
and the regular barring of axillars and under wing-coverts. General
appearance more fulvous; under surface tinged with vinous-buff all
over; lower back and rump sandy buff with blackish brown centers to the
feathers, thus greatly resembling the rest of back; upper tail-coverts
barred with blackish brown and sandy buff or white. 'Bill black,
flesh-colored at base of lower mandible; feet bluish gray; iris dark
brown.' (Taczanowski.) Length, 610; culmen, 183; wing, 318; tail,
117; tarsus, 88.

"Adult male.--In this species the difference in size between the
sexes is not so apparent as in some of the allied ones. Length, 533;
culmen, 173; wing, 302; tail, 109; tarsus, 81.

"Young.--Much more tawny than the adults and having tawny-buff bars
or notches on the innermost secondaries; the streaks on the under
surface very fine and narrow.

"Adults in winter plumage do not differ very much from the summer
plumage, but the under surface is much less distinctly streaked;
the upper surface is very similar at both times of the year." (Sharpe.)

This curlew like the next preceding is a large bird and usually,
singly or in pairs, is found feeding on flats exposed at low tide.



101. NUMENIUS VARIEGATUS (Scopoli).

EASTERN WHIMBREL.


    Tantalus variegatus Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. (1786),
    2, 92.
    Numenius variegatus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    361; Hand-List (1899), 1, 158; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 24.

    Ta-ling'-ting, Cagayancillo.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Cagayancillo (McGregor);
    Cebu (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Cuyo (Meyer);
    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Heriot); Malanipa (Murray); Mindanao
    (Platen, Goodfellow); Negros (Steere Exp., Keay); Palawan
    (Whitehead); Panay (Steere Exp.); Samar (Sanchez); Siquijor
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor) [14]. Japan
    and eastern Siberia, in winter southern China to Australia.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above nearly uniform dark brown,
excepting for the broad, ashy brown markings on mantle and upper back;
wing-coverts like back, but margins paler and more whitish, greater
series with whitish notches on both webs; alula and primary-coverts
dark brown, fringed with white at the ends; primaries blackish brown,
notched with white on inner webs, which have a barred appearance along
the edge; inner primaries notched with white on both webs; secondaries
brown, notched on outer webs and barred on inner; innermost secondaries
nearly uniform with the back; shaft of outer primary white, of second
whity brown, and of the rest pale brown; lower back and rump white,
very thickly mottled with spots and bars of brown; upper tail-coverts
barred with brown and whitish, the brown bars somewhat irregular and
not coterminous; tail ashy brown, tipped with white, and crossed by
regular bars of dark brown, about nine in number; center of crown
whitish and streaked with brown, remainder of crown dark brown,
forming two broad bands and followed by a broad eyebrow of dull white
and narrowly streaked with small lines of blackish; lores and upper
margins of ear-coverts dark brown; remainder of sides of face and neck
pale brown, streaked with darker brown, cheeks somewhat whiter; chin
and upper throat white, with scarcely any brown spots; lower throat,
breast, and sides of body pale, rufescent buff, thickly clouded with
longitudinal streaks of dark brown on throat and breast; dark brown
bars of a more or less sagittate shape on sides of body and flanks;
abdomen and under tail-coverts white, the latter with streaks and
bars of dark brown; under wing-coverts and axillars white with broad
dusky brown bars, very distinct on the latter. 'Bill blackish, dark
brown at base of lower mandible; feet dark lead-color; claws black;
iris very dark brown.' (Taczanowski.) Length, 380; culmen, 76; wing,
223; tail, 96; tarsus, 55.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male.

"Young birds may always be distinguished by the more mottled appearance
of upper surface, most of the feathers being spotted on both webs
with whitish or pale, rufescent buff; lower back and rump plentifully
mottled with spots of dusky brown, and innermost secondaries very
distinctly notched with rufescent buff; streaks on throat and breast
and bars on flanks almost as plentifully developed as in the adult;
bars on axillars often very incomplete, and, in rare instances, absent.

"The differences between this race and the whimbrel (N. phæopus)
of Europe are not so strongly pronounced in all cases as to render
the determination of specimens always a matter of certainty. Some
of the Philippine specimens, for instance, are very difficult to
separate from European examples, and many others also appear to be
intermediate between the two forms." (Sharpe.)

The above descriptions of the adult male and of the young are slightly
modified from Sharpe's descriptions of Numenius phæopus of which the
eastern whimbrel is but a subspecies.

The eastern whimbrel is much smaller than either of the two preceding
species and usually it may be killed with little trouble. In the
vicinity of tide-flats at high water it often congregates in flocks,
but as the feeding grounds become exposed the individuals scatter
to various parts following the receding tide. In length the male is
about 420; wing, 205; tail, 100; exposed culmen, 82; tarsus, 53;
middle toe with claw, 41. Wing of female, 240; tail, 110; exposed
culmen, 79; tarsus, 60.



Genus MESOSCOLOPAX Sharpe, 1896.

In structure this genus is similar to Numenius but the tarsus is
transversely scutellated both in front and behind.



102. MESOSCOLOPAX MINUTUS (Gould).

PYGMY CURLEW.


    Numenius minutus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1840), 176.
    Mesoscolopax minutus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    371; Hand-List (1899), 1, 159; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 25.

    Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Mindanao (Mearns). China, eastern
    Siberia, Korea, and Mongolia; in winter Japan to Australia.


"Adult female.--Above blackish, mottled with sandy-buff spots and
margins; wing-coverts blackish brown, with sandy-buff edges inclining
to whitish on greater coverts, which show traces of dusky bars;
lesser coverts, alula, primary-coverts, and quills blackish brown;
first primary with a white shaft, all the quills rather paler brown
on inner web; long inner secondaries tawny on both webs, with dark
brown centers and notches; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts
blackish, mottled with spots of ashy white, with which color also the
feathers are tipped; upper tail-coverts regularly barred with ashy
and blackish; tail-feathers ashy gray narrowly barred with blackish;
bars six in number, but not always strictly continuous across the
feathers; crown blackish, feathers slightly margined with sandy buff;
along center of crown a pale streak of the latter color; lores,
eyebrow, and sides of face uniform isabelline buff; upper margins
of ear-coverts slightly streaked with dark brown; throat whitish;
lower throat and fore neck sandy buff like the sides of body, the
former streaked, and the latter barred with dusky brown; center of
breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts isabelline whitish; under
wing-coverts and axillars pale sandy buff, with bars of dusky brown,
mostly triangular in shape, the axillars having a slight vinaceous
tinge. 'Bill blackish brown, flesh-color at base of lower mandible;
feet gray; iris dark brown.' (Dybowski.) Length, 330; culmen, 44;
wing, 180; tail, 72; tarsus, 46. (Sharpe.)

"Obtained by Bourns in 1888, while with the Steere Expedition, and
not mentioned by Steere." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus LIMOSA Brisson, 1760.

Legs and bill long and slender, the latter gently curved upward;
culmen, 100 mm. or more.



Species.


a1. Tail barred with blackish brown and white. ... baueri (p. 120)
a2. Tail with a white base and broad, black, terminal band; upper
tail-coverts pure white. ... limosa (p. 121)



103. LIMOSA BAUERI Naumann.

PACIFIC GODWIT.


    Limosa baueri Naumann, Vög. Deutschl. (1834), 8, 429.
    Limosa novæ-zealandiæ Gray, Gen. Birds (1847), 3, 570; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 377; Hand-List (1899), 1, 159;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 25.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett, McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor);
    Luzon (Celestino); Negros (Steere Exp.); Samar (Whitehead). Alaska
    and eastern Siberia; south in winter to Australia, New Zealand,
    and Oceania.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above blackish mottled with pale
chestnut-red; wing-coverts dark brown, with white edgings; many of
the coverts tinged with chestnut, especially inner greater coverts;
alula, primary-coverts, and quills blackish; secondaries brown, edged
with white, a longitudinal, subterminal mark of white along inner
web; innermost secondaries like the back; feathers of lower back
and rump blackish with white edges; upper tail-coverts barred with
black and white or chestnut and black; tail brown, tipped and barred
with white, the bars sometimes tinged with chestnut; crown-feathers
chestnut, streaked with blackish brown centers, narrower on hind
neck; broad eyebrow chestnut; lores and sides of face chestnut with
numerous blackish spots on lores; a whitish spot under eye; lower
parts chestnut with blackish streaks on sides of upper breast; under
wing-coverts white with indistinct, dusky brown spots; axillars white
barred with dusky brown. 'Bill clear reddish for its basal half,
blackish toward the terminal part, the base of the lower mandible
paler; feet blackish brown; iris brown.' (Taczanowski.) Length, 395;
wing, 220; tail, 77; culmen, 86; tarsus, 52; middle toe with claw, 36.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male, but not so
entirely cinnamon-rufous below, and with remains of brown bars on
the under surface, especially on the flanks. Length, 406; culmen,
109; wing, 240; tail, 82; tarsus, 58.

"Young.--The young birds may be told from the adults in winter plumage
by their more tawny color, and by the ashy gray shade on the throat and
chest, as well as by the fulvescent bars and notches to the feathers
of the upper surface." (Sharpe.)

Winter plumage.--Above ashy brown with rusty shaft-lines; back, rump,
and upper tail-coverts white with more or less hidden black arrow
marks of dark brown, these taking the form of bars on longest coverts;
below nearly pure white; slightly dusky on breast and with a few narrow
shaft-lines on breast; under tail-coverts with broken, dusky bars;
primaries blackish brown; wing-coverts and secondaries with broken,
dusky bars; primaries blackish brown; coverts and secondaries gray
with blackish shaft-lines and hoary edges.

Birds taken in the Philippines in the spring are in the white and gray
winter dress, but in the autumn (September) many individuals arrive in
nearly perfect breeding plumage, while others are in mixed plumage,
showing numerous light feathers among the dark and chestnut feathers
of the summer dress.



104. LIMOSA LIMOSA (Linnæus).

BLACK-TAILED GODWIT.


    Scolopax limosa Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 147.
    Limosa limosa Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 381;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 159; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 40;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 25.
    Limosa belgica Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 254,
    fig. 59 (head).

    Luzon (Celestino); Negros (Everett, Steere Exp.); Samar
    (Whitehead). Central and northern Europe to valley of Ob River;
    in winter Mediterranean countries and northeastern Africa.


"Adult male in winter plumage.--Above ashy brown, with slightly paler
edges to the feathers; lower back and rump blackish brown; upper
tail-coverts white, long ones tipped with black; lesser wing-coverts
darker brown than back; median coverts dusky brown, lighter brown
externally and fringed with white, forming a wing-band; alula blackish;
primary-coverts blackish, the inner ones broadly tipped with white;
primaries blackish, with white shafts, the greater part of the inner
webs white, and then subterminally brown, the white extending to the
base of the outer web on all but the first primary and increasing
in extent on the inner primaries and secondaries, the latter being
white with broad, blackish tips, which gradually diminish in size
on the inner secondaries; the innermost secondaries brown like the
back; tail white at the base, with a broad, black, terminal band,
gradually decreasing in size toward the outer feathers, which are
edged with white at the tip, the center feathers brownish at the tip;
head ashy brown, the forehead more hoary; an indistinct whitish eyebrow
extending from the base of the nostril to behind the eye; lores dusky
gray; below the eye a whitish spot; sides of face, sides of neck,
throat, and chest light ashy brown, a little darker on the sides
of the body; fore part of cheeks and upper throat white, as well as
the whole of the center of the breast, abdomen, under tail-coverts,
under wing-coverts, and axillars; edge of wing mottled with dark
brown bases to the feathers; quill-lining white. 'Bill pale fleshy,
blackish brown at the tip; feet olivaceous-green, toes blackish brown;
iris brown.' (Hume.) Length, 417; culmen, 112; wing, 223; tail, 76;
tarsus, 81.

"Adult female in winter plumage.--Similar to the male in color,
but rather larger. 'Bill livid pink, blackish horny at the tip; feet
blackish plumbeous, toes brownish; iris brown.' (Hume.) Length, 444;
culmen, 127; wing, 216; tail, 76; tarsus, 85.

"Adult male in summer plumage.--Differs in having the back more or
less mottled with rufous and black, crown rufous with short, broad
streaks of black, sides of face and entire neck all round rufous, fore
neck and breast overshaded with rufous and barred with dusky blackish,
these bars also developed on abdomen and on the sides of body.

"Adult female in summer plumage.--Similar to the male, but with less
rufous, and distinguished by the larger size.

"Young.--Distinguished from the adults by being darker brown above,
with broad, sandy-rufous edges to the feathers of the upper surface,
the innermost secondaries banded with blackish brown and sandy rufous;
the head rufous, streaked with dark brown, but indistinctly; sides
of face buffy white, with very fine streaks of brown; throat white;
lower throat, sides of neck, and chest reddish buff, slightly mottled
with dusky bases to the feathers of the side of breast; remainder of
under surface white, suffused with rufescent buff, and shaded with
ashy brown on the sides of the body.

"It is evident from the molting specimens in the collection that
the black markings are acquired first, and that the rufous-color
overspreads the plumage afterwards. Great variation in the amount
of the nuptial decoration is seen in the series, and sometimes very
old individuals have the abdomen, and even the under tail-coverts,
barred." (Sharpe.)

The black-tailed godwit is extremely rare in the Philippines,
the only specimens examined by me being two killed near Manila,
in February, 1908.



Genus TOTANUS Bechstein, 1803.

Culmen straight, equal to tarsus; secondaries and rump white.



105. TOTANUS EURHINUS (Oberholser).

ASIATIC REDSHANK.


    Totanus calidris Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 414
    (part); Hand-List (1899), 1, 160 (part); Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1902), 2, 43 (part).
    Totanus totanus eurhinus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1900),
    22, 207.
    Totanus eurhinus McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 25.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett, McGregor);
    Cebu (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor); Mindanao
    (Mearns); Mindoro (Porter); Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Palawan (Platen, Whitehead); Siquijor (Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester). Central and eastern Asia, south in winter
    to Malay Archipelago.


"Male.--Above rufescent broccoli-brown, the feathers everywhere with
dark brown centers, the back more or less irregularly barred with the
same; rump pure white, sparingly marked with brownish; tail and upper
tail-coverts dull white, heavily barred with sepia-brown, the terminal
portion of central tail-feathers buffy; wings fuscous, the innermost
secondaries like the back and barred on exposed portions with dark
brown; remainder of secondaries white, but pale brown on concealed
bases; greater coverts white or grayish distally, brownish gray
basally, and barred with sepia; median coverts brownish gray, barred
with sepia; lesser coverts almost plain; lower surface white, more
or less heavily marked throughout with sepia, these markings taking
on throat and breast the form of broad streaks, on flanks, sides,
and crissum of bars, and elsewhere of more or less irregular spots;
lining of wing white, varied with brownish, except on axillars. 'Length
of male, 292; of female, 298; bill black, orange-brown at base beneath;
iris dark brown; feet orange-red; claws black.' (Abbott.)

"The form of Totanus totanus inhabiting Central and Eastern Asia,
although seemingly identical with the European bird in color and
markings, is yet so much larger, particularly in length of wing,
tail, and culmen, that its separation as a subspecies appears to be
warranted." (Oberholser.)

Taking the measurements of three males and two females from
Central Asia as recorded by Oberholser gives the following average
measurements: Wing, 163; tail, 66.8; exposed culmen, 46.6; tarsus,
47.2; middle toe, 30.2.

A male from Cuyo measures: Wing, 159; tail, 61; exposed culmen, 46;
tarsus, 49; middle toe with claw, 34. A female from Cuyo, wing, 151;
tail, 59; exposed culmen, 43; tarsus, 47; middle toe with claw, 35.

I refer Philippine specimens of the redshank to the Asiatic subspecies
as being the one more likely to occur here if two races of Totanus
totanus be recognized.



Genus HELODROMAS Kaup, 1829.

Bill straight, equal to tarsus, greater than middle toe with claw;
rump and tail-coverts white.



106. HELODROMAS OCHROPUS (Linnæus).

GREEN SANDPIPER.


    Tringa ocrophus [15] Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 149.
    Helodromas ochropus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    437; Hand-List (1899), 1, 160; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 44; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 25.

    Bohol (McGregor); Luzon (Everett, Steere, Whitehead); Negros
    (Whitehead); Samar (Steere). Africa, Europe, and northern Asia;
    in winter to Indian Peninsula and Malay Archipelago.


"Adult male in winter plumage.--Above uniform olive-brown with
a slight gloss of bronzy olive; scapulars and wing-coverts like
back, but having a few tiny white spots on the margins; lower back
and rump darker, blackish brown with white edges to the feathers;
upper tail-coverts pure white; lesser wing-coverts, outer median,
and outer greater coverts uniform olive-brown; alula, primary-coverts,
and quills blackish brown, secondaries like the back and freckled with
tiny white spots on the edges; tail-feathers white, the center ones
with three black bars on the terminal half, these bars disappearing
gradually on the lateral feathers, outer ones being entirely white;
crown, hind neck, and mantle uniform ashy brown; a supra-loral streak
of white; lores dusky, surmounted by an indistinct, white eyebrow,
lined with blackish streaks; sides of face, ear-coverts, and cheeks
white, rather broadly streaked with blackish brown; throat white,
streaked with brown on the sides; lower throat, sides of neck, and fore
neck also distinctly streaked with brown; remainder of under surface
pure white; sides of upper breast brown, slightly mottled with white;
under wing-coverts and axillars blackish, barred very plainly with
white; lower primary-coverts and inner lining of quills uniform,
with white dots along the inner edge of the secondaries. 'Bill dusky
above, reddish beneath; feet grayish blue, tinged with green; iris
dusky.' (Macgillivray.) Length, 228; culmen, 35; wing, 137; tail,
56; tarsus, 33.

"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Differs from the winter plumage in
being much more variegated, the whole of the back being spotted with
white, the spots being arranged in pairs on the edges of the feathers,
which are also tipped with a bar or twin spots of white; the whole
of the head and neck streaked with white, and the brown streaks on
the side of the face, fore neck, and chest very broad and distinct,
the sides of the upper breast being brown, very much mottled with bars
of white. Length, 236; culmen, 35; wing, 137; tail, 55; tarsus, 30.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Does not differ in color from
the male, but is not quite so strongly marked. Length, 229; culmen,
38; wing, 142; tail, 50; tarsus, 33.

"Young in autumn plumage.--Scarcely differs from the winter plumage
of the adult, but, when freshly molted, it has indistinct margins
of ashy bronze on the feathers of the upper surface; the tail-bands
are narrower on the center feathers, while the subterminal band is
broader than in the adults.

"The change to the summer plumage is apparently effected by a distinct
molt, which takes place while the bird is in its winter quarters,
and in many instances, especially in the case of the males, the
summer plumage is completely assumed before the species leaves for
its breeding place." (Sharpe.)



Genus HETERACTITIS Stejneger, 1884.

Bill straight, longer than tarsus; back, rump, and tail-coverts
uniform in color.



107. HETERACTITIS BREVIPES (Vieillot).

POLYNESIAN TATTLER.


    Totanus brevipes Vieillot, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat. (1816), 6, 410.
    Heteractitis brevipes Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    549; Hand-List (1899), 1, 161; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 26.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Basilan (McGregor);
    Bohol (Everett, McGregor); Cagayancillo (McGregor); Calayan
    (McGregor); Cebu (Everett, McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor); Leyte
    (Everett); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead); Malanipa (Murray);
    Mindanao (Steere Exp., Goodfellow); Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Palawan (Platen, White); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns
    & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor). Eastern Siberia; in winter China
    to Malay Archipelago and Australia.


"Adult male in winter plumage.--Above uniform ashy gray, with slightly
indicated light ashy margins; scapulars like the back; lower back,
rump, and upper tail-coverts purer gray than the back, with distinct
whitish edges; the long upper tail-coverts with subterminal dusky bars;
wing-coverts like back, with paler margins, greater series margined
with white; primary-coverts and quills blackish, externally washed
with ashy and fringed with white, inner secondaries ashy gray like the
back, fringed with whitish; tail-feathers uniform ashy, with narrow
whitish margins; head and neck like back; base of forehead and large
supra-loral spot white, extending in a narrow streak above the eye;
lores blackish; sides of face and ear-coverts white; the upper edge
of the latter ashy gray; cheeks and under surface of body pure white,
with a shade of ashy gray over the fore neck and chest; sides of
breast and flanks also ashy gray, as well as the outer aspect of the
thighs; under wing-coverts and axillars ashy gray, fringed with white
at the ends; quills below ashy, lighter along the inner edges. 'Bill
blackish gray, light brownish gray at base of lower mandible; feet
light ocher-yellow, joints with a faint greenish tinge; iris dark
brown.' (Stejneger.) Length, 223; wing, 162.

"Adult female in winter plumage.--Similar to the male. 'Bill
black, grayish yellow at base; feet dirty chrome-yellow; claws
black.' (Everett.) Length, 229; culmen, 37; wing, 157; tail, 71;
tarsus, 32.

"Young in winter plumage.--Differs from the winter plumage of the
adults in having the wing-coverts, scapulars, and back mottled with
white dots on the outer webs of the feathers.

"The adult birds appear to molt into winter plumage after quitting
their summer haunts for southern latitudes, arriving with worn and
abraded feathers, but with the barred under surface of the breeding
dress.

"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Resembles the winter plumage
as regards the upper surface of the body being entirely ashy
gray, but differs in the coloring of the lower surface, which is
profusely spotted and barred. The throat is white, but the cheeks,
lower throat, and fore neck are spotted and streaked with dusky
blackish; the chest and breast, as well as the sides of the body
and flanks, are also barred with dusky blackish, with a few bars on
the under tail-coverts. 'Bill brown; feet yellow-ocher; iris dark
brown.' (H. Whitely.) Length, 241; culmen, 38; wing, 155; tail, 66;
tarsus, 29.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Does not differ from the
male. Length, 241; culmen, 38; wing, 152; tail, 66; tarsus,
30." (Sharpe.)

This tattler occurs in great numbers during migration and may be
found feeding on tide-flats.



Genus ACTITIS Illiger, 1811.

Bill straight; culmen, tarsus, and middle toe with claw subequal; back
and rump uniform in color; secondaries nearly as long as primaries.



108. ACTITIS HYPOLEUCOS (Linnæus).

COMMON SANDPIPER.


    Tringa hypoleucos Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 149.
    Tringoides hypoleucus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    456; Hand-List (1899), 1, 161; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 45.
    Actitis hypoleucus McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 26.

    Agutaya (McGregor); Balabac (Everett); Bantayan (McGregor);
    Basilan (Steere Exp.); Batan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett);
    Cagayancillo (McGregor); Cagayan Sulu (Guillemard, McGregor);
    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin
    S. (Murray); Cebu (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Cuyo (McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Jagor, Everett, Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead, McGregor); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao
    (Murray, Everett); Mindoro (Schmacker, McGregor, Porter); Negros
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Palawan (Everett, Platen,
    Whitehead, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay (Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Bourns & Worcester); Sibay
    (McGregor & Worcester); Siquijor (Celestino); Ticao (McGregor);
    Verde (McGregor). Africa, Europe, and northern Asia; south in
    winter from Indian Peninsula to Australia.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above bronzy brown, the feathers
with arrow-shaped central markings of black, which take the form of
bars on scapulars and inner secondaries, wing-coverts bronzy brown
like the back, but regularly barred with blackish; median and greater
coverts with ashy fringes, the latter rather broadly tipped with
white; alula, primary-coverts, and quills brown with an olive gloss;
secondaries tipped with white and having a broad white base; inner
secondaries like the back; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts
like the back; lateral coverts barred with blackish and with white
on outer web; tail-feathers bronzy brown, with irregular cross-bars
of blackish brown; middle feathers narrowly, outer feathers broadly,
tipped with white, penultimate feather barred with white on outer
web, outermost feather almost entirely white with a little brown
on inner web, which is barred with blackish; crown and neck bronzy
brown, with narrow mesial shaft-lines of blackish brown, a narrow
superciliary line of whitish, extending from base of bill; sides
of face bronzy brown, with blackish shaft-lines to the feathers;
fore part of cheeks and under surface pure white, with dusky streaks
on the throat, these being a little longer on chest, the sides of
latter and sides of upper breast brown; under wing-coverts white,
mottled with blackish bases, especially distinct on edge of wing;
axillars pure white; quills dusky below, white toward base of inner
web. 'Bill dusky above, brownish gray beneath; feet grayish, tinged
with green, claws black; iris brown.' (Macgillivray.) Length, 203;
culmen, 28; wing, 104; tail, 51; tarsus, 24.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male in color,
but not quite so heavily marked, and the streaks on the fore neck and
chest less pronounced. Length, 178; culmen, 28; wing, 109; tail, 61;
tarsus, 22.

"Adult in winter plumage.--A little more bronzy olive than in summer,
and uniform above, without the black central streaks and black
spear-shaped spots which are characteristic of the summer dress;
the streaks on the throat are also much narrower and not so distinct.

"Young.--Easily distinguished by the cross-bars of sandy or reddish
buff and dusky brown, which give the upper surface a freckled
appearance; throat uniform, with scarcely any indications of streaks
on the lower part." (Sharpe.)

The common sandpiper is widely distributed and is often found along
fresh-water streams as well as near the sea.



Genus TEREKIA Bonaparte, 1838.

Bill curved upward; tarsus longer than middle toe with claw and less
than two-thirds of culmen; wings long, when folded extending to or
beyond the end of tail.



109. TEREKIA CINEREA (Güldenstädt).

AVOCET SANDPIPER.


    Scolopax cinerea Güldenstädt, Novi
    Comm. Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop. (1775), 19, 473, pl. 19.
    Terekia cinerea Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 474;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 161; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 47;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 26.

    Bohol (Everett); Cebu (McGregor); Masbate (Bourns &
    Worcester); Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Palawan
    (Whitehead). Northern Siberia, northeastern Europe; in winter
    Africa and Indian Peninsula to Australia.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Differs from the winter plumage
in having black centers to feathers of upper surface; head streaked
with blackish brown; a rufescent tint pervades the upper surface;
lesser wing-coverts and scapulars almost entirely black, the latter
forming a double band down the back; wing-coverts, secondaries, lower
back, rump, and upper tail-coverts, mottled with dusky markings; below
white; lower throat and fore neck streaked with blackish. 'Bill black,
base of lower mandible yellowish green; feet olive-gray; iris dark
brown.' (Taczanowski.) Length, 215; culmen, 51; wing, 136; tail, 56;
tarsus, 29.

"The yellow base to the lower mandible appears to me to be a sign of
immaturity and winter plumage, as it seems to disappear entirely in
breeding birds.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male, with less
of the bronzy tint above; black streaks on upper surface and dusky
streaks on throat less pronounced. Length, 241; culmen, 48; wing,
136; tail, 56; tarsus, 25.

"Young male of the year.--Similar to the adults, but with a much
shorter bill, its base conspicuously yellow; mantle streaked with
blackish; scapulars marked with black almost as much as in the adult
bird; upper tail-coverts and tail barred with dusky and pale rufous;
greater coverts black, forming a band across wing; head, neck, and
under parts as in the adult winter plumage, the throat not being
streaked with dusky. 'Bill blackish olive, yellowish olive at base
of both mandibles; feet, including web, bright orange-yellow; iris
blackish brown.' (Stejneger.)

"Adult in winter plumage.--General color above light ashy gray, with
obsolete whitish edges to scapulars and wing-coverts, especially the
greater series; lesser coverts distinctly black in the center; alula,
primary-coverts, and quills blackish, outer primaries with white
shafts, inner primaries ashy toward the ends, with a white fringe;
secondaries broadly tipped with white, and white along the inner web;
inner secondaries ashy gray like the back, with blackish shaft-lines;
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts like the back, the latter
freckled and edged with ashy white; tail-feathers ashy gray, whitish
at base, mottled with ashy; head and neck ashy gray; forehead and
eyebrow white, becoming fulvescent above ear-coverts; lores dusky
ashy; sides of face whitish, streaked with ashy gray, the upper edge
of ear-coverts uniform ashy; cheeks, throat, and under surface pure
white; sides of neck and sides of upper breast ashy gray, the latter
with a distinct dusky patch; axillars and under wing-coverts white;
feathers along edge of wing ashy gray; quills grayish below. 'Bill
dark brown, yellowish at base of lower mandible; feet and toes yellow;
iris brown.' (Oates.)" (Sharpe.)

This curious sandpiper was met with in considerable numbers on the
tide-flats near Minglanilla, Cebu, in November, 1906. At or near
high water the species was found, in company with Heteractitis,
resting among the roots of mangrove trees and at such times it was
no uncommon occurrence to kill several specimens of each species at
one shot. As the rocky flats became exposed these birds scattered to
feed and became more difficult to approach. The bill of the female
is much longer than that of the male, but the plumage is similar
in the two sexes. In a male taken November 20, the bill was black,
except the yellow base, legs bright orange-chrome, and nails black.



Genus GLOTTIS Koch, 1816.

Bill slightly curved upward; culmen decidedly shorter than tarsus;
the latter about twice the middle toe without claw; rump white.



110. GLOTTIS NEBULARIUS (Gunnerus).

GREENSHANK.


    Scolopax nebularius Gunnerus, Leem. Lapp. Beschr. (1767), 251.
    Glottis nebularius Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 481;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 161; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 47;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 26.

    Bohol (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Luzon (McGregor); Mindanao
    (Platen); Mindoro (McGregor); Negros (Steere Exp.). Africa,
    northern Europe and northern Asia; in winter Indian Peninsula
    to Australia.


"Adult in winter plumage.--General color above ashy brown, mottled with
whitish edges to the feathers, which are freckled and subterminally
lined with darker brown, the shafts being also well marked;
scapulars clearer ashy gray, with an interrupted subterminal line of
blackish brown; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts pure white;
exterior wing-coverts uniform blackish brown; median and greater
covers lighter brown, fringed with white; alula, primary-coverts,
and quills blackish, the latter fringed with white at the end of
the inner webs; secondaries ashy brown, edged with white, innermost
long secondaries spotted with black on the margins; tail white,
center feathers crossed with regular but somewhat interrupted bars
of brown, outer feathers with a few broken spots and bars of brown
on outer webs; crown and hind neck grayish brown, the feathers edged
with white, imparting a streaked appearance, more marked on the head;
forehead, lores, and sides of face pure white; sides of neck and upper
margin of ear-coverts narrowly streaked with ashy brown; entire under
surface pure white; sides of upper breast irregularly freckled with
brown; under wing-coverts white, with a subterminal bar of brown,
or a central arrowhead line of the latter color; axillars white,
with a few remains of brown spots; lower primary-coverts ashy,
with whitish edgings; quills below ashy, the lateral markings of
the secondaries indicated below. 'Bill and feet light slate-color;
iris dark brown.' (Ayres.) Length, 330; culmen, 56; wing, 183; tail,
60; tarsus, 55.

"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Of a more ruddy brown than in the
winter plumage and with black centers to feathers of upper surface;
head and neck streaked with black; sides of face white, narrowly
streaked with black; below white, lower throat, fore neck, and chest
with numerous ovate spots of black; flanks with a few irregular bars
of black; under wing-coverts and axillars white barred with black,
bars on the latter somewhat interrupted; lower back, rump, and upper
tail-coverts white, lateral coverts barred with black; two center
tail-feathers ashy gray, slightly freckled with dusky, and notched with
black on the margins; remainder of tail-feathers white barred with
blackish, the bars becoming more irregular on the lateral feathers,
which have distinct bars only on the outer webs. 'Bill blackish
brown, lighter brownish gray toward base, especially on lower jaw;
feet yellowish gray, joints bluish.' (Stejneger.) Length, 305; culmen,
53; wing, 190; tail, 76; tarsus, 56.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male in color. 'Bill blackish brown,
basal half lighter, on upper mandible with a bluish, on lower one
with a reddish-gray tinge; feet dirty olive-gray, joints darker and
more bluish gray.' (Stejneger.)

"Young after first molt.--Similar to the winter plumage of the adults
but more tinged with rufous-brown and with the feathers spotted with
whity brown on both webs; center tail-feathers white, distinctly
barred across with black, chest also distinctly streaked with dusky;
sides of breast spotted and mottled with dusky brown." (Sharpe.)



Genus RHYACOPHILUS Kaup, 1829.

Bill straight; culmen equal to middle toe without claw but much less
than tarsus; rump white.



111. RHYACOPHILUS GLAREOLA (Linnæus).

WOOD SANDPIPER.


    Tringa glareola Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 149.
    Rhyacophilus glareola Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    491; Hand-List (1899), 1, 162; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 48; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 27.

    Basilan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett); Cagayan Sulu (Mearns);
    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Calayan (McGregor); Cebu (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Lubang (McGregor);
    Luzon (Jagor, Meyer, Everett, Whitehead); Mindanao (Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Negros (Steere Exp.); Palawan
    (Platen, Whitehead, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester);
    Ticao (McGregor). Africa, Europe, and northern Asia; in winter
    Indian Peninsula to Australia.


"Adult male in winter plumage.--Above bronzy brown, with light ashy
bronze margins to the feathers, which are slightly spotted with white
on both edges; scapulars like back, but with somewhat larger white
spots; lower back and rump uniform brown, feathers of the latter edged
with white; upper tail-coverts pure white, lateral ones with blackish
shaft-streaks and irregular longitudinal markings; lesser wing-coverts
uniform brown; median and greater coverts spotted with white on
both webs and resembling the scapulars; alula, primary-coverts, and
quills blackish brown, fringed with white at the ends; secondaries
notched with white on both webs, with a barred appearance of blackish
intermediary bands; center tail-feathers ashy brown, barred with
blackish brown, and deeply notched with white; lateral feathers white,
barred with blackish, these bars becoming irregular on lateral feathers
and reduced to a few freckles on outermost ones; feathers of crown
and hind neck almost uniform ashy brown, slightly mottled with darker
brown centers; lores dusky, surmounted by a distinct white eyebrow;
sides of face white, slightly streaked with dark brown; ear-coverts
uniform dark brown along their upper edge; cheeks and throat white;
sides of neck, lower throat, fore neck, and chest ashy, varied with
shaft-lines of brown; remainder of under surface pure white; sides
of upper breast ashy brown; lateral under tail-coverts with blackish
shaft-streaks and a few frecklings of black; under wing-coverts white,
mottled with blackish bases; axillars white, with a few irregular bars
and freckles; lower primary-coverts and quills below dusky brown, with
whitish spots on the edges of the inner secondaries. 'Basal half of
bill olive-brown, terminal half black; legs and feet pale greenish;
claws dark horn-color; iris brown.' (Oates.) Length, 216; culmen,
29; wing, 12; tail, 47; tarsus, 35.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male. 'Bill blackish, olive at the base
of lower mandible; feet olive; iris very dark brown.' (Butler.) Length,
203; wing, 124; tail, 48; culmen, 28; tarsus, 38.

"Adult male in summer plumage.--More variegated than in winter, the
back being uniform dark brown, with large notches of white on both
webs, and having very distinct white edges to scapulars and inner
wing-coverts; long upper tail-coverts barred with dusky blackish and
resembling the center tail-feathers; head and neck streaked with white;
sides of face, lower throat, and fore neck very distinctly and broadly
streaked with blackish brown centers to the feathers; sides of body
and under tail-coverts mottled with cross-bars of blackish brown; the
axillars narrowly barred with blackish brown. 'Bill blackish olive,
below at base lighter brownish olive; feet light grayish olive; iris
dark brown.' (Stejneger.) Length, 178; culmen, 33; wing, 124; tail,
47; tarsus, 35.

"Young after first molt.--Differs from the adults in being closely
spotted on the upper surface, but the spots more or less rufescent;
lower throat and chest ashy as in the winter plumage of the adults,
but the dusky brown stripes very distinct and invading sides
of body; axillars pure white, or with the merest trace of brown
frecklings. 'Bill dusky brown, inclining to greenish olive toward base;
feet greenish olive, iris blackish brown.' (Butler.)

"In the breeding season the white spots on the upper surface become
much worn and abraded, so that the general appearance of the back
is very uniform; the mottling on the fore neck and chest becomes
very distinct by reason of the abrasion of the white margins of
the feathers, and the axillars are completely barred across with
brown." (Sharpe.)



Subfamily SCOLOPACINÆ.

This subfamily contains all of the snipes and a number of small
sandpipers; the toes are without webs, otherwise many of the genera
might easily fall in the subfamily Totaninæ.



Genera.


a1. Culmen equal to or less than tarsus.

  b1. No hind toe. ... Calidris (p. 132)
  b2. Hind toe present.

    c1. Tarsus about equal to middle toe with claw. ... Pisobia
    (p. 133)
    c2. Tarsus longer than middle toe with claw. ... Heteropygia
    (p. 138)

a2. Culmen longer than tarsus.

  b1. Eye not placed far back in the head; ear opening well behind
  posterior margin of eye.

    c1. Larger; wing more than 150 mm.; culmen more than 40
    mm. ... Tringa (p. 141)
    c2. Smaller; wing less than 130 mm.; culmen less than 40 mm.

      d1. Bill slender, upper mandible narrow, its tip slightly
      expanded; upper tail-coverts white. ... Erolia (p. 139)
      d2. Bill broad and flat; end of upper mandible decidedly
      decurved, its tip pointed; upper tail-coverts not
      white. ... Limicola (p. 142)

  b2. Eye placed well back in head; ear opening just below hinder
  margin of eye.

    c1. Tarsus less than middle toe with claw; culmen nearly twice
    the length of tarsus; culmen straight. ... Gallinago (p. 143)
    c2. Tarsus more than middle toe with claw and but little less
    than culmen; culmen decidedly decurved at its tip. ... Rostratula
    (p. 147)



Genus CALIDRIS Illiger, 1811.

Bill straight, slightly expanded at tip, culmen about equal to tarsus
and longer than middle toe with claw; hind toe wanting.



112. CALIDRIS LEUCOPHÆA (Pallas).

SANDERLING.


    Tringa leucophæa Pallas, in Vroeg's Catal. (1764), 32.
    Trynga alba Pallas, Vroeg's Catal. Adumbr. (1764), 7; Sherborn,
    Smiths. Misc. Colls. (1905), 47, 341.
    Tringa arenaria Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 251.
    Calidris arenaria Oates, Bds. Brit. Burmah (1885), 2,
    398; Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 52; Sharpe, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 526; Hand-List (1899), 1, 163.
    Calidris alba Richmond, Smiths. Misc. Colls. (1905), 47, 347.
    Calidris abba McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 27 (error).
    Calidris leucophæa A. O. U. Committee, Auk (1908), 25, 367.

    Luzon (Whitehead, McGregor). Arctic regions; in winter to Africa,
    South America, Marshall Islands, Indian Peninsula to Australia.


"Winter plumage.--Forehead, face, and the whole lower plumage pure
white; crown, nape, hind neck, back, and scapulars pale ashy, the crown
with well-defined black shaft-streaks, the other parts with narrower
and less distinct shaft-streaks; wing-coverts blackish, the median
and greater coverts broadly edged with white; primaries dark brown,
blacker on the tips and outer webs, the shafts white, a portion of the
outer webs of the later ones white; secondaries black, whitish at base
and tipped with white; tertiaries rather broadly edged with white; tail
pale brown on the outer webs, more or less white on the inner. 'Iris
dark brown; bill, legs, feet, and claws black.' (Armstrong.) Length,
190; tail, 51; wing, 122; tarsus, 25; bill from gape, 28." (Oates.)

"Male in summer plumage.--Differs from the winter plumage in being
mottled and not uniform, the upper surface being cinnamon-rufous,
mottled with black centers to the feathers, which have hoary whitish or
ashy edges; the inner secondaries cinnamon-rufous like the scapulars
and back; sides of lower back and lateral upper tail-coverts pure
white; sides of face, throat, and sides of breast deep cinnamon-rufous,
mottled with black centers to the feathers; rest of under surface
white. Length, 165; culmen, 23; wing, 124; tail, 48; tarsus, 23;
middle toe with claw, 19.

"Female in summer plumage.--Similar to the male but has not quite so
much bright rufous in the plumage, the fore neck being barred with
blackish. Length, 203; culmen, 27; wing, 124; tail, 49; tarsus, 25;
middle toe with claw, 20.

"Young.--Somewhat similar to the winter plumage of the adult but
not so uniform above; entire under surface pure white, as also the
forehead and sides of face; center of forehead mottled with blackish
to base of bill; a dusky streak between bill and eye, as well as
along upper edge of ear-coverts; on sides of breast and on fore neck
a tinge of vinous-buff or vinous; sides of upper breast and of neck
distinctly spotted with black; upper surface black, mottled with
spots of white or sandy whitish, these spots being mostly terminal
on back and scapulars; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ashy
with a sandy buff tip and a subterminal spot of black, and fringed at
the tips with a narrow blackish line, giving the rump the appearance
of being lined transversely with black; feathers of head blackish,
varied with brown or whitish edges, and forming a more or less distinct
cap, which is separated from mantle by the light color of hind neck;
mantle ashy streaked with dusky brown; wings much as in the winter
plumage of the adult but the greater and median coverts, and inner
secondaries mottled like the back." (Sharpe.)

A male taken near Manila in March measures: Wing, 118; tail, 52;
exposed culmen, 24; tarsus, 25; middle toe with claw, 19.



Genus PISOBIA Billberg, 1828.

Bill slender and straight, a little longer than tarsus; hind toe
small and elevated; small sandpipers about 127 mm. in length.



Species.


a1. Outer tail-feathers pale smoky or ashy brown.

  b1. Feet blackish; middle toe with claw not over 19 mm.

    c1. Tarsus slightly more than 20 mm.; sides of face and throat
    slightly rufescent in summer; rufous color predominating over
    the black above. ... minuta (p. 134)
    c2. Tarsus shorter, about 19 mm.; entire throat and chest bright
    rufous in summer. ... ruficollis (p. 135)

  b2. Feet olive-brown; middle toe with claw about 23
  mm. ... damacensis (p. 136)

a2. Outer tail-feathers pure white. ... temmincki (p. 137)



113. PISOBIA MINUTA (Leisler).

LITTLE STINT.


    Tringa minuta Leisler, in Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. (1812), 1,
    74; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 273, fig. 63 (head).
    Limonites minuta Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 538;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 163; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 52;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 27.

    Mindanao (Mearns). Northern Europe and northern Asia to Lake
    Baikal; in winter Africa, Indian Peninsula, and Ceylon.


"Adult in winter plumage.--General color above ashy brown, slightly
darker along the shafts; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts
blackish brown; sides of lower back and lateral upper tail-coverts
pure white; tail-feathers light smoky brown, the long central ones
dark brown, with a very narrow whitish fringe; wing-coverts rather
darker brown than the back, with ashy fringes to the median series;
greater coverts tipped with white, forming a wing-band; alula and
primary-coverts blackish brown, edged with white at tips; quills dark
brown, with white shafts, a few of the inner primaries also edged
with white near the base; secondaries dark brown, fringed with white
at the tips, bases of inner webs white, forming a continuous band
with the one on greater coverts; long inner secondaries light brown
like scapulars, the shafts blackish brown; crown brown like the back,
the feathers with darker brown centers; forehead and supra-loral region
pure white; lores dusky brown; ear-coverts and feathers below eye light
brown, with narrow streaks of dark brown; above ear-coverts a streak of
white lined with brown, forming an indistinct eyebrow; cheeks, throat,
and under surface pure white slightly ashy on throat and fore neck;
sides of neck and upper breast brown, with slightly darker centers or
shaft-streaks; under wing-coverts and axillars white; coverts round
edge of wing dark brown, with white margins; lower primary-coverts
dull ashy brown, forming an inconspicuous wing-patch. 'Bill, feet,
and claw black; iris hazel.' (Seebohm.) Length, 132; culmen, 18;
wing, 96; tail, 41; tarsus, 20; middle toe with claw, 18.

"Adult male in summer plumage.--Much more rufous than in winter;
feathers of upper surface sandy rufous; black centers and white
margins to many of the scapulars and feathers of the back; feathers
of head rufous, with black centers; neck rufous, streaked with dusky
blackish, these streaks being smaller and less distinct on sides of
face, which are also rufous; a slight indication of a whitish eyebrow;
under surface white, throat tinged with rufous, chest pervaded with
ashy, and throat, fore neck, and sides of breast mottled with dusky
spots in the centers of the feathers. Length, 152; culmen, 19; wing,
96; tail, 36; tarsus, 20.

"Adult female in summer plumage.--Similar to the male, but somewhat
less distinctly spotted on the breast. Length, 152; culmen, 18; wing,
98; tail, 37; tarsus, 20.

"Young.--Blackish above, with rufous edgings to the feathers, and
thus somewhat resembling the summer plumage of the adults, but they
may always be distinguished by the more numerous white edgings to the
dorsal and scapular feathers, by the ashy color of the hind neck,
by the absence of spots on the fore neck and chest, both of which
are tinged with isabelline-buff.

"Nestling.--Mottled with rufous and black down, the tips of which
are silvery white or sandy buff; the hind neck sandy buff, forming
a collar; the crown black, slightly mottled with rufous and dotted
with silvery white, the black extending in a line on the forehead,
which is buff, continued into a somewhat broad eyebrow; a black loral
line and a black spot on each side of the hinder crown as well as
on the ear-coverts; under surface of body whitish, with a tinge of
sandy buff on the lower throat." (Sharpe.)



114. PISOBIA RUFICOLLIS (Pallas).

ASIATIC LITTLE STINT.


    Trynga ruficollis Pallas, Reise Russ. Reichs (1776), 3, 700.
    Limonites ruficollis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    545; Hand-List (1899), 1, 163; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 27.

    Ti-út ti-út, Bantayan.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett, McGregor); Calayan (McGregor);
    Cebu (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor); Luzon
    (Meyer, Whitehead); Mindanao (Mearns, Celestino); Negros (Bourns &
    Worcester); Palawan (Platen, Whitehead, Steere Exp.). Eastern
    Siberia, Japan, and Korea; in winter Burmese countries to
    Australia.


"Adult in winter plumage.--Resembles the winter plumage of L. minuta,
but distinguished by the whiter fore neck and chest, and by the
slightly shorter tarsus. Length, 145; culmen, 18; wing, 96; tail,
42; tarsus, 19; middle toe with claw, 18.

"Adult male in summer plumage.--Much more mottled on the upper
surface than in winter, the centers of the feathers being blackish,
and upper parts overspread with a brighter chestnut color, with which
the feathers are broadly margined; crown blackish, washed with rufous
and mottled with gray margins; forehead and eyebrow shaded with bright
rufous, this color occupying entire sides of face, sides of neck,
throat, and chest; chin whitish. 'Bill and feet black; iris nearly
black.' (Dybowski.) Length, 135; culmen, 18; wing, 98; tail, 43;
tarsus, 19; middle toe with claw, 19.

"Adult female in summer plumage.--Does not differ materially from the
male, but is perhaps scarcely so rufous, and retains a little more of
the hoary gray of the winter plumage. 'Iris brown.' (Everett.) Length,
127; culmen, 18; wing, 99; tail, 43; tarsus, 19; middle toe with
claw, 18.

"Young.--Scarcely distinguishable from the young of
L. minuta." (Sharpe.)

"Frequently seen in large flocks during the winter months." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)

Of the stints that visit the Philippine Islands in winter the Asiatic
little stint undoubtedly occurs in greater numbers than all the others
taken together; it is the only abundant species and is usually found
in large or small flocks on tide-flats.



115. PISOBIA DAMACENSIS (Horsfield).

LONG-TOED STINT.


    Totanus damacensis Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13, 192.
    Limonites damacensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    553; Hand-List (1899), 1, 163; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 28.
    Pisobia damacensis A. O. U. Committee, Auk (1908), 35, 367.

    Basilan (McGregor); Luzon (Heriot); Mindanao (Mearns); Palawan
    (Platen, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester). Japan, eastern Siberia,
    islands of Bering Sea, China to northeastern Bengal; in winter
    Burma to Australia.


"Adult male in winter plumage.--Similar to the winter plumage of
L. minuta and L. ruficollis, but darker than either of them, with
the head and neck much more thickly spotted with black, and the
lower throat and fore neck very distinctly streaked or mottled with
brown. The species can of course be distinguished from both of the
above species by its long toes.

"Adult male in summer plumage.--Almost exactly similar to L. minuta,
but easily distinguished by the length of the middle toe and the
color of the legs. Length, 132; culmen, 178; wing, 86; tail, 36;
tarsus, 20; middle toe with claw, 23.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male in plumage. 'Bill blackish,
olive-brown at base of lower jaw; feet grayish yellow, with joints
darker olive; iris dark brown.' (Stejneger.)" (Sharpe.)



116. PISOBIA TEMMINCKI (Leisler).

TEMMINCK'S STINT.


    Tringa temminckii Leisler, in Bechst. Naturg. Deutschl. (1812),
    2, 78.
    Limonites temmincki Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    555; Hand-List (1899), 1, 163; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 53; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 28.

    Negros (Steere Exp.). Northern Europe and Asia, northern and
    northeastern Africa; in winter Indian Peninsula and China.


"Adult in winter plumage.--Above ashy gray, slightly varied with
dusky shaft-streaks; scapulars bronzy brown like inner secondaries;
lower back and rump brown, with a subterminal shade of darker brown;
upper tail-coverts also dark brown, with longitudinal shaft-streaks
of darker brown; wing-coverts brown, with a slight bronzy gloss,
shaft-lines darker, and slight indications of paler edges; greater
coverts tipped with white, forming a cross-band on the wing; alula,
primary-coverts, and quills blackish brown; shafts of the primaries
pale whity brown, that of the first outer primary white; alula white
with a brown center; all the primaries white at the extreme base;
secondaries brown, white at base of inner web, and fringed with white
at the ends; long inner secondaries bronzy brown with dusky centers;
middle tail-feathers dusky brown, the remainder ashy brown, with
white in the center, increasing in extent toward outer feathers, two
external ones entirely white; crown ashy brown like back; lores dull
brown surmounted by a streak of white, hardly joined to a second streak
above the ear-coverts, which forms an indistinct eyebrow; eyelid white;
sides of face and ear-coverts ashy brown, streaked with dusky brown;
cheeks and throat white, with a few dusky streaks on cheeks and lower
throat; fore neck and upper breast light ashy brown; lower breast,
abdomen, sides of body, and flanks pure white; thighs brown, white
internally; under tail-coverts white; under wing-coverts and axillars
white; coverts round the bend of wing dusky brown with whitish edges;
lower primary-coverts brown, forming a patch; quills below ashy brown,
somewhat lighter along the inner edge. Length, 140; culmen, 15; wing,
96; tail, 46; tarsus, 18; middle toe with claw, 18.

"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Only differs from the winter
plumage in being more mottled above, the feathers having black
centers, and being tinged with rufous, especially on the edges
of the feathers; lower throat and chest have some distinct
shaft-lines. 'Bill olive-black, lighter olive brownish at base,
especially on lower mandible; feet olive-yellow, joints more dusky;
iris dark brown.' (Stejneger.) Length, 135; culmen, 19; wing, 94;
tail, 46; tarsus, 16; middle toe with claw, 18.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male, and apparently
quite as much mottled. Length, 132; culmen, 20; wing, 99; tail, 47;
tarsus, 16; middle toe with claw, 18.

"Young birds.--These can always be distinguished from the adults
in summer or winter plumage by the narrow sandy buff margins to the
feathers of the upper surface, and by the ashy fulvous tinge on the
fore neck, which is devoid of the dusky streaks seen in the adults.

"Nestling.--Covered with golden buff down, spotted with black, and
spangled with silvery tips to the down; the black forms a line down
the center of back; under surface dull white, tinged with buff on
the fore neck." (Sharpe.)



Genus HETEROPYGIA Coues, 1861.

Bill straight, very slightly expanded at tip; culmen less than tarsus
and equal to middle toe without claw.



117. HETEROPYGIA AURITA (Latham).

SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER.


    Tringa aurita Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl. (1801), 66.
    Totanus acuminatus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13, 192.
    Heteropygia acuminata Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    566; Hand-List (1899), 1, 163; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 28.
    Pisobia aurita A. O. U. Committee, Auk (1908), 25, 366.

    Batan N. (McGregor); Luzon (Celestino); Mindanao (Everett). Alaska,
    eastern Siberia, and China, south in winter to Australia and
    New Zealand.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--General color above sandy rufous,
streaked with black down the center of the feathers, these black
centers being very much more distinct on the scapulars and inner
secondaries, where the rufous margins are very bright; lower back,
rump, and upper tail-coverts dusky black, the lateral tail-coverts
sandy rufous barred with black; lesser wing-coverts dull brown;
median coverts brown; with blackish centers and ashy fulvous margins;
greater coverts uniform dusky brown with white tips; alula uniform
brown; primary-coverts blackish, the inner ones tipped with white;
quills brown, dusky blackish at tips and along outer webs, the shafts
for the most part white, brown toward the bases; secondaries brown,
with a little white at base of inner webs, and narrowly fringed with
white near tips, inner ones a little more broadly; tail ashy brown
fringed with white round the end, the center feathers blackish and
extended a little beyond the ends of the others; crown bright sandy
rufous minutely streaked with black; lores and a distinct eyebrow
white, with narrow streaks of blackish; sides of face white, with
dusky streaks; ear-coverts tinged with rufous; under surface white;
chin unspotted; throat, fore neck, and chest tinged with sandy rufous,
and minutely spotted with dusky black, which sometimes takes the
form of longitudinal streaks or arrowhead bars, the latter form of
markings being especially distinct on the sides of body; breast and
abdomen white, the latter with a few linear streaks of black; under
wing-coverts and axillars white, bend of wing mottled with blackish
bases; lower primary-coverts dusky with whitish tips; quills dusky
below. 'Bill blackish brown, browner or reddish brown at angle
of mouth, clear gray at base of lower mandible; feet yellowish
ocher-color, tinged with olive, darker on the joints; iris dark
brown.' (Dybowski.) Length, 178; culmen, 28; wing, 137; tail, 53;
tarsus, 30.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Much browner than the summer plumage and
without any rufous except, perhaps, a slight tinge on the head; under
surface white; lower throat and chest ashy fulvous with a few narrow
streaks and lines of blackish; flanks slightly washed with brown;
on under tail-coverts a few narrow mesial shaft-streaks of blackish.

"Young birds.--Much more rufous on upper surface even than the
breeding plumage; back much blacker than in any other age of the bird,
intermixed with a great deal of rufous, and distinguished by the
conspicuous whitish edgings to the dorsal feathers, scapulars, and
inner secondaries; wing-coverts with broad margins of sandy rufous,
and longitudinal black centers; chin white; breast and abdomen white,
sometimes with a slight tinge of buff; the lower throat, fore neck,
and sides of breast sandy rufous; fore neck and chest more ashy and
uniform, so that the black shaft-streaks are confined to the lower
throat; those on the sides of neck and sides of breast being a little
broader." (Sharpe.)

A rare winter visitant to the Philippine Islands.



Genus EROLIA Vieillot, 1816.

Bill long and slender, very slightly decurved and slightly expanded
at tip; culmen greater than tarsus, the latter longer than middle
toe with claw.



118. EROLIA FERRUGINEA (Brünnich).

CURLEW SANDPIPER.


    Tringa ferruginea Brünnich, Orn. Bor. (1764), 53.
    Scolopax subarquata Güldenstädt, Nov. Comm. Petrop. (1774),
    19, 471.
    Ancylochilus subarquatus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    586; Hand-List (1899), 1, 164; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 28.
    Tringa subarquata Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 278,
    fig. 64 (head).
    Erolia ferruginea A. O. U. Committee, Auk (1903), 20, 337.

    Cebu (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead, Celestino);
    Negros (Bourns & Worcester). Northern Siberia, south in winter
    to Africa, Indian Peninsula, and Australia.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above deep bay or dark
cinnamon-rufous; varied with whitish edges to feathers, which are
mottled with black centers, taking the form of stripes on head and
back, and of cross-bars on scapulars; lower back dull ashy brown,
with whitish edges; sides of lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts
white, the latter tinged with rufous, and showing a few black bars;
wing-coverts brown, with whitish edgings, greater series tipped
with white, forming a wing-bar; some of the coverts rufous like the
back, and some of the inner secondaries also rufous on their edges;
primary-coverts and quills darker brown, the latter with white tips,
primaries dark brown with white shafts; secondaries fringed with white,
more broadly on the shorter ones, which are white at base of inner
webs; tail-feathers ashy brown, with white fringes and white shafts;
head like the back, but showing less distinct blackish centers to
the feathers; hind neck distinctly hoary, owing to the gray edgings
of feathers; sides of face and under surface rich vinous-chestnut;
with more or less distinct remains of hoary margins; vent and under
tail-coverts white, the latter tinged with rufous, and having a few
black bars; sides of body and flanks pure white, the latter with a
few black bars; under wing-coverts and axillars pure white; lower
primary-coverts and upper surface of quills light ashy. Bill and
feet black; iris hazel. Length, 188; culmen, 34; wing, 135; tail,
48; tarsus, 29; middle toe with claw, 25.

"Adult female in summer plumage.--Like the male but not so richly
colored, tint of the under surface duller chestnut, and not so
vinous. Length, 178; culmen, 35; wing, 124; tail, 46; tarsus, 29;
middle toe with claw, 25.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Ashy brown above, slightly mottled with
darker centers to the feathers; wing-coverts like the back; quills
as in the summer plumage; rump and upper tail-coverts pure white;
tail-feathers ashy brown, fringed with white, with white shafts, and
a subterminal bar of dusky blackish, the inner webs having a good deal
of white at the base; lores dusky, with a supra-loral streak of white;
under surface of body pure white, with tiny lines of dusky brown on
the sides of face, sides of neck, lower throat, and fore neck.

"Young in first autumn plumage.--Similar in general color to the winter
plumage of the adult, and distinguished by the absence of rufous
color in the plumage of the upper surface; on the under surface the
streaks on the fore neck are almost obsolete, and a fulvescent shade
overspreads fore neck and chest, in some specimens even extending
to the breast itself. On the upper surface it is very similar to
the winter plumage of the adult, but has always more distinct pale
edgings to the feathers, these being gradually fulvescent, while the
mantle is decidedly darker, being blackish, with pale margins to the
feathers." (Sharpe.)

So far as known this species is a rare winter visitant to the
Philippine Islands.



Genus TRINGA Linnæus, 1758.

Bill straight, culmen longer than tarsus, the latter exceeding middle
toe with claw; wing long and pointed, when folded reaching the tip of
tail, the latter nearly square. Pisobia is somewhat similar to this
genus but has a much shorter bill and the species are much smaller.



119. TRINGA CRASSIROSTRIS Temminck and Schlegel.

ASIATIC KNOT.


    Tringa crassirostris Temminck and Schlegel, Fauna Japonica (1847),
    107, pl. 64; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 600;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 164; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898),
    4, 277; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 28.

    Mindanao? (Mearns); Negros (Steere, Bourns & Worcester). Eastern
    Siberia and Japan; in winter China to Australia and western
    Indian Peninsula.


"Adult in winter plumage.--Similar to the winter plumage of T. canutus,
being ashy gray above and white below, but easily distinguished by
the longer bill and pure white upper tail-coverts; the dusky spots
on chest and sides of body smaller and much more distinct.

"Young.--Similar to the adult winter plumage but blacker, with
conspicuous white margins to the feathers of the upper surface;
rump and upper tail-coverts spotted with black, but not barred with
dusky as in T. canutus; head like the back, black with white edges to
the feathers, but scarcely any trace of a white eyebrow, the lores
and sides of face being thickly spotted with black; throat white,
unspotted; lower throat and fore neck light brown, mottled with black
spots; upper breast and sides of body also plentifully spotted with
black, the spots on the sides of the body being large and often
arrow-shaped; axillars white, with marblings of pale ashy gray.

"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Does not differ from the winter
plumage to the same extent as in T. canutus; upper surface only
slightly suffused with rufous; scapulars and inner secondaries more or
less bright chestnut with black subterminal bars; under surface white;
throat thickly streaked and fore neck so closely barred as to become
almost black, these black bars extending on to breast and along the
sides of body; the under tail-coverts spotted with black. 'Bill brown;
feet gray; iris dark brown.' (Taczanowski.) Length, 267; culmen, 41;
wing, 175; tail, 63; tarsus, 33.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male, but with
less rufous. Length, 267; culmen, 43; wing, 190; tail, 67; tarsus,
33." (Sharpe.)

"Coloration in winter.--Upper parts light brownish gray, with
black shaft-stripes which are broadest on the crown; sides of head
and neck whitish, with dark streaks, supercilia and cheeks paler;
wing-coverts with pale edges, greater coverts with white tips; alula,
primary-coverts, and primaries blackish brown; secondaries brownish
gray like back, but with white borders outside and at the end;
lower back and rump dark brown, with white edges to the feathers;
upper tail-coverts the same, but the white borders are much wider,
the white sometimes occupying the greater part or the whole of the
feathers; tail ashy brown; lower plumage white, fore neck and upper
breast streaked or spotted with dark brown.

"In summer the plumage is blackish above, with whitish edges to the
feathers, the scapulars with large chestnut spots; upper and lower
tail-coverts white, with dark brown spots and bars; chin, throat,
breast, and flanks so thickly spotted as to be almost covered in the
middle of the breast with blackish brown; there is no rufous on the
lower plumage." (Blanford.)

"Seen in small flocks along seashore in winter." (Bourns and Worcester
MS.)

I have identified as of this species, a sandpiper collected by Major
Edgar A. Mearns. The field tag gives no locality but I believe the
specimen came from Mindanao. This and many other species of migratory
shore-birds will doubtless be found in considerable numbers when more
attention is paid to collecting them.



Genus LIMICOLA Koch, 1816.

Bill rather long and, except at base, flattened; upper mandible
slightly decurved at tip and decidedly longer than lower mandible;
exposed culmen greater than tarsus, the latter slightly longer than
middle toe with claw.



120. LIMICOLA PLATYRHYNCHA (Temminck).

BROAD-BILLED SANDPIPER.


    Tringa platyrhyncha Temminck, Man. d'Orn. (1815), 398.
    Limicola platyrhyncha Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    612; Hand-List (1899), 1, 165; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 59; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 29.

    Bohol (Everett); Cebu (McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor); Negros (Steere
    Exp.); Palawan (Platen). Northern Europe and Siberia, Mediterranean
    and Red Seas; in winter China to Indian Peninsula and Moluccas.


"Adult male in winter plumage.--Above light ashy gray, somewhat paler
on the edges of the feathers, which have dusky brown centers; lower
back, rump, and upper tail-coverts blackish, with slight remains
of sandy-buff fringes; sides of rump and lateral upper tail-coverts
white; wing-coverts rather darker than the back, marginal ones dark
brown; median series blackish in the center with hoary white margins;
greater series dusky blackish edged with hoary gray, inclined to
white at the ends, and forming a narrow band across wing; alula and
primary-coverts black tipped with white, the latter broadly; quills
black, paler brown on inner webs of primaries, excepting at tips,
which are black; secondaries merely fringed with white near the ends,
and with a little white towards base of inner web; inner secondaries
ashy like back; shafts of all the quills white or whity-brown; middle
tail-feathers blackish like upper tail-coverts, the others ashy brown
with white shafts and white fringes; crown like the back; lores dusky,
surmounted by a broad white streak, which is continued into a narrow
eyebrow; sides of face white, with only a few tiny streaks of dusky
brown; ear-coverts uniform dusky brown; under surface white, with
a few streaks of dusky brown on lower throat and sides of breast;
under wing-coverts and axillars white, the marginal coverts mottled
with dusky bases, lower primary-coverts ashy. Bill dusky black; legs
and feet slaty black; iris dark brown. Length, 165; culmen, 33; wing,
104; tail, 41; tarsus, 20.

"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above black, slightly varied with
rufous edgings to the feathers, some of those of mantle, scapulars,
inner greater coverts, and inner secondaries having sandy-buff
margins, the black forming large subterminal spots; crown black, with
a sandy-buff lateral stripe; lores black; sides of face rufescent,
thickly spotted with dusky black like sides of neck; ear-coverts
rufous, and surmounted by a pale buff eyebrow, which becomes lighter
above the lores; chin and under surface of body white; throat, fore
neck, and chest thickly spotted with dusky blackish, the spots on the
fore neck and chest somewhat arrow-shaped, as they are also along the
sides of body, all these parts slightly tinged with rufous; lateral
upper tail-coverts barred with black; tail-feathers as in the winter
plumage, but with a more extensive area on the inner webs. Length,
165; culmen, 30; wing, 105; tail, 38; tarsus, 20.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male, but not
quite so plentifully spotted underneath.

"Young birds.--Very similar to the summer plumage of the adults, being
rufous above, mottled with black centers to the feathers, and having
very broad whitish margins; center of crown black; outer tail-feathers
with a great deal of white on inner webs, confining the ashy gray to a
broad marginal line; fore neck slightly tinged with buff, as also the
sides of the upper breast, these parts being very scantily streaked
with brown. During the first winter the pale edges become worn off,
so that the general aspect of the upper surface is black.

"The summer plumage is gained by a darkening of the center of the
feathers of the upper surface, which become gradually blacker;
the head becomes blackish, and the streaks on the breast much more
emphasized." (Sharpe.)



Genus GALLINAGO Koch, 1816.

Bill slender and straight; tip of upper mandible slightly thickened,
pitted and with a median groove; ears almost directly underneath eyes;
tarsus about two-thirds of culmen.



Species.


a1. Tail-feathers twenty or more, the outer ones stiffened and very
narrow; dark bars on axillars wider than the white bars.

  b1. Tail shorter, about 48 mm.; outer feathers narrower. ... stenura
  (p. 144)
  b2. Tail longer, about 53 mm.; outer feathers wider. ... megala
  (p. 145)

a2. Tail-feathers usually fourteen in number, neither excessively stiff
nor narrow; dark bars on axillars narrow or obsolete. ... gallinago
(p. 146)



121. GALLINAGO STENURA (Bonaparte).

PINTAIL SNIPE.


    Scolopax stenura Bonaparte, ex Kuhl MS. Ann. Stor. Nat. Bologna
    (1830), 4, 335.
    Gallinago stenura Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    619; Hand-List (1899), 1, 165; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 29.

    Calayan (McGregor); Mindanao (Murray); Palawan (White). Eastern
    Siberia to the Yenesei; in winter China to Malay Peninsula.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Above blackish, striped and mottled
with sandy isabelline; streaks on the sides of back and scapulars very
broad; upper surface interspersed with rufous spots, but general color
of the light markings sandy buff, especially on hind neck; wing-coverts
dark brown, marginal series almost uniform, the rest barred with rufous
or sandy buff, with paler tips, the rufous and black bars very distinct
on the greater coverts, where they are regularly indicated; alula
and primary-coverts blackish, with narrow white tip; quills blackish,
the first primary browner on outer web, which is narrowly fringed with
white; secondaries (outermost of which do not exceed primary-coverts
in length) narrowly fringed with white at tip, inner ones barred with
rufous and blackish, mostly on outer web; innermost long secondaries
barred across, especially near the ends; tail-feathers blackish brown,
ten central ones with a broad band of pale chestnut, followed by
a subterminal bar of blackish brown, before a pale rufescent tip; a
second rufous band, considerably broken up, a little beyond the middle
of the feather; eight outer feathers on each side becoming narrower
and narrower, till the outermost has scarcely any web at all; these
wire-like feathers with white tips, with an indication of a blackish
subterminal bar; crown black, mottled with rufous spots and having a
mesial streak of sandy isabelline; a loral line of black, surmounted
by a supra-loral patch of sandy isabelline continued into a narrow
eyebrow; sides of face and ear-coverts isabelline, rufous just behind
eye, entire sides of face having more or less distinct small streaks of
blackish, and traversed by a broad blackish line across ear-coverts;
fore part of cheeks and chin sandy isabelline; throat and chest sandy
buff, slightly mottled with streaks and narrow horseshoe-shaped bars
of blackish; breast and abdomen white; sides of body slightly tinged
with sandy buff, and distinctly barred with black; under tail-coverts
pale sandy buff, with blackish centers, longer ones narrowly barred
with black near their ends; under wing-coverts and axillars distinctly
barred with black and white, white bars on the latter slightly wider
than the black bars; lower primary-coverts ashy; quills ashy below,
secondaries fringed with white at the ends. 'Basal half of upper bill
horny, distal half blackish brown; basal half of lower bill greenish,
remainder blackish brown; feet greenish; iris brown.' (Cripps.) Length,
223; culmen, 58; wing, 124; tail, 48; tarsus, 30.

"Adult female.--Does not perceptibly differ from the male in color
and markings. Length, 240; culmen, 62; wing, 129; tail, 44; tarsus, 30.

"It is very difficult to distinguish young birds from old ones, and
I believe that the only characters of any value are the uniform black
stripes along the sides of the crown. In old birds, not only are these
black stripes mottled with rufous, but there are also numerous small
spots of rufous-buff interspersed among the black feathers of the
back; the black subterminal marks on the scapulars are also smaller
in the young birds than in the old. A further sign of immaturity is,
I believe, to be seen in the nearly uniform fulvous-brown on the
throat and fore neck, these portions being more mottled with lines
and arrow-head spots of black in the old birds.

"From G. gallinago the present species is distinguished by the
wire-like feathers in the tail and by the entire surface of the
under wing-coverts being regularly barred with black and white, and
the outer web of the first primary being whity-brown instead of pure
white. Occasionally young birds of G. stenura have the whole of the
breast and abdomen regularly barred with dusky." (Sharpe.)



122. GALLINAGO MEGALA Swinhoe.

SWINHOE'S SNIPE.


    Gallinago megala Swinhoe, Ibis (1861), 343; Sharpe, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 624; Hand-List (1899), 1, 165; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 29.

    Can-du-ro', Manila.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Steere Exp., McGregor); Calamianes
    (Bourns & Worcester); Cebu (Everett); Leyte (Everett); Lubang
    (McGregor); Luzon (Jagor, Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor);
    Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Mindoro (McGregor); Negros (Bourns
    & Worcester); Palawan (Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester); Panay
    (Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor
    (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester). Eastern
    Siberia and Japan; in winter China south to the Moluccas.


"Adult male.--Similar to G. stenura, and with wire-like outer
tail-feathers, but these not so narrow and showing at least two
distinct bars towards the ends; the tail-feathers twenty in number,
of which the seven outer ones are attenuated, and only the six central
ones show the characteristic broad subterminal band of rufous. 'Bill
light yellowish brown for basal two-thirds, yellower on base of under
mandible, blackish brown on apical third; feet light yellowish gray,
with blackish brown claws; iris dark umber brown.' (Swinhoe.) Length,
240; culmen, 58; wing, 137; tail, 55; tarsus, 34.

"Adult female.--Does not differ from the male. 'Legs and feet pale
bluish gray, nails black.' (Everett.) Length, 267; culmen, 66; wing,
142; tail, 55; tarsus, 33.

"Young birds.--As with G. stenura so with the present species, the
young birds appear to be distinguishable by their more uniform dark
brown throat and chest; the stripes on the sides of the crown are
also black and not mottled with rufous spots." (Sharpe.)

"Extremely abundant in rice-fields at certain seasons." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



123. GALLINAGO GALLINAGO (Linnæus).

FANTAIL SNIPE.


    Scolopax gallinago Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 147.
    Gallinago gallinago Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    633; Hand-List (1899), 1, 165; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 61; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 29.
    Gallinago coelestis Oates, Bds. Brit. Burmah (1883), 2, 381.

    Can-du-ro', Manila and Mindoro.

    Bohol (Everett); Leyte (Everett); Luzon (Meyer, Everett, Whitehead,
    McGregor); Mindanao (Mearns); Mindoro (McGregor). Europe to
    northern Asia; in winter Senegambia and northeastern Africa,
    Indian Peninsula to Malay Peninsula and the Moluccas.


"Male and female.--Crown black with a fulvous streak over median
line; a blackish streak from bill to eye, above and below which the
feathers are pale fulvous; chin whitish; throat and sides of head and
neck fulvous, streaked with black; breast and sides of body fulvous,
barred with black; abdomen and vent white; under tail-coverts fulvous,
streaked with brown; under wing-coverts barred indistinctly with
black and white; tail black, the end rufous mottled with black; upper
plumage black, edged and streaked with rich fulvous and chestnut;
wing-coverts black, barred with fulvous; quills dark brown, narrowly
edged with whitish. Bill fleshy brownish, green for two-thirds of its
length from base, remainder horny brown; iris very dark brown; legs
and feet brownish green. Length, 267; tail, 61; wing, 127; tarsus,
30; bill from gape, 58." (Oates.)

"Adult female.--Similar to the male. Length, 267; culmen, 71; wing,
135; tail, 62; tarsus, 33.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in being more rufous, especially on
the throat and neck. The black markings of the back are more broken
up and mottled with rufous bars, and the pale outer bands along the
scapulars are not so wide. Seebohm states that young snipes may be
recognized by not having a dark shaft-line on the light tips of the
upper wing-coverts, but I have found indications of the latter in
quite young birds.

"Nestling.--Covered with down of a chestnut color, interspersed with
black along the back, and prettily variegated with silvery tips to
the feathers; below the eye a whitish streak, bordered with lines of
black; under surface of body bright chestnut, with a black spot on
the throat and a black line across the fore neck." (Sharpe.)

"This species and G. stenura are likely to be confounded unless special
attention is paid to the differences between them. The first and most
unfailing point of difference is in the tail. In G. gallinago the tail
is composed of twelve, fourteen, or sixteen ordinary soft feathers;
in G. stenura there are ten soft feathers and on either side of these
a number, varying from five to nine, of narrow rigid feathers with
apparently no webs. These narrow feathers require to be looked for;
they do not strike the eye, as they are more or less hidden by the
tail-coverts and are moreover very close together. A second point of
difference lies in the coloration of the lower surface of the wing. In
the pintail snipe the axillars and the under wing-coverts are very
distinctly and regularly barred with dark brown throughout. In the
common snipe these same parts are indistinctly barred, and there is
always a patch on the coverts left quite white and unbarred. Mr. Hume
points out one or two additional differences which it may be well
to quote: In the common snipe the outer web of the first primary
is white or nearly so, and the secondaries are broadly tipped with
white; in the pintail the outer web of the first primary is of the
same color as the inner, and the secondaries are only margined with
albescent or brownish white." (Oates.)



Genus ROSTRATULA Vieillot, 1816.

Bill long and slender but shorter than in Gallinago, its tip slightly
swollen and bent downward with a median ridge and two lateral grooves,
not pitted; culmen little longer than tarsus; female brighter in
plumage than male.



124. ROSTRATULA CAPENSIS (Linnæus).

PAINTED SNIPE.


    Scolopax capensis Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 246.
    Rostratula capensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 683;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 167; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898),
    4, 293, fig. 67; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 68; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 29.

    Pa-co'-bo, Manila.

    Catanduanes (Whitehead); Leyte (Everett); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon
    (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.);
    Mindanao (Murray, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Panay (Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Steere Exp., Whitehead);
    Sibuyan (McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester). Africa, Indian
    Peninsula, Greater Sunda Islands; Burmese provinces to China and
    Japan south to Malay Peninsula.


"Adult female.--Above ashy brown, strongly glossed with olive-green,
freckled all over with transverse lines of dusky blackish, with
here and there broader bars of greenish black; some of the scapular
feathers edged with bright ocherous forming a streak down each side
of the back; long inner coverts pure white, forming another streak,
generally concealed by the scapulars; wing-coverts distinctly glossed
with olive-green and finely barred with dusky; alula, primary-coverts,
and quills pearly gray, freckled with irregular wavy lines of black,
and ocellated ovate spots of rich ocherous on outer web, and with
bars of the same color on inner web; all the quills marked with black
at base of outer web, more distinctly seen in the primaries than the
secondaries; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail pearly
gray, with black cross-lines, rump with a few white spots, upper
tail-coverts spotted with rich ocherous, tail-feathers barred with
ocherous; crown dusky, slightly glossed with olive-green, a band of
ocherous down the center, bordered on each side by a shade of black;
round eye a cincture of isabelline whitish, reaching to a point above
ear-coverts, and surrounded by a blackish shade above and below, more
broadly in front; lores, sides of face, and throat, deep chestnut,
extending backwards round hind neck; across fore neck a broad collar of
greenish black; remainder of under surface white, extending upwards on
either side of the black præ-pectoral band; on each side of upper part
of breast a black patch with a slight greenish gloss, succeeded by some
brown feathers waved with dusky lines; axillars and under wing-coverts
white, outer ones ashy, freckled with dusky cross-lines and small spots
of white or buff. 'Bill greenish, yellowish fleshy at the tip of both
mandibles; feet pale green; iris dark brown.' (Butler.) Length, 229;
culmen, 47; wing, 140; tail, 42; tarsus, 43.

"Adult male.--Different from the female and rather smaller. Easily
distinguished from the female by the absence of chestnut on the throat
and neck, and by the different color of the wing-coverts. The latter,
instead of being olive-green barred with blackish cross-lines, are
bronzy olive, with numerous bar-like spots of yellow-ocher, these
spots having a black line above and below; the inner secondaries
similarly colored and marked. Although there is a line of sandy buff
on each side of the back, there are apparently no white parapteral
plumes. Instead of the chestnut on the throat, the latter is white with
dusky spots on the upper part, the lower throat light brown, mottled
with dusky bars and whitish margins to the feathers, the lower border
of this dusky patch edged with a band of black. 'Bill purplish brown;
feet dull slaty blue; iris dark brown.' (S. Stafford Allen.) Length,
229; culmen, 49; wing, 127; tail, 41; tarsus, 43.

"Young male.--Resembles the old male almost exactly, but has the
throat entirely white, the lower throat and fore neck washed with
brown, with some dusky streaks; these streaks on the full-grown male
are sometimes black, but the feathers of the back and scapulars have
spots or margins of white.

"Young female.--Is at first like the young male and has the same
yellow-spotted wing-coverts; the hind neck is gray, vermiculated with
dusky like the male, and the markings on the throat are similar to
those of the latter sex. When the chestnut color is first assumed, it
is of a dull tint, and is obscured by dusky margins to the feathers;
the chin is white, and the throat and fore neck uniform brown, with
which the chestnut feathers are often mingled." (Sharpe.)

"Fairly abundant about the rice-fields. Easy to bring down on
account of its comparatively slow and heavy flight. Resident in the
Philippines. We obtained its nest and eggs in Siquijor." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



Subfamily PHALAROPODINÆ.

Small sandpipers with the toes lobed, and posterior side of tarsus
serrated.



Genus LOBIPES Cuvier, 1817. [16]

Bill slender, nearly cylindrical, not widened toward tip; nostrils
separated from loral feathers by a space equal to much less than the
depth of upper mandible at base.



125. LOBIPES LOBATUS (Linnæus).

NORTHERN PHALAROPE.


    Tringa lobata Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758); ed. 12 (1766),
    1, 149.
    Phalaropus lobatus Ridgway, Man. North Am. Bds. (1887), 144.
    Phalaropus hyperboreus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    698; Hand-List (1899), 1, 167; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 70.

    Basilan Straits (Mearns). Arctic regions; in winter to southern
    oceans.


"Adult female in summer.--Above dark plumbeous, the back striped with
ochraceous or buff; wings dusky, the greater coverts broadly tipped
with white; lower parts white; chest and sides of neck rufous.

"Adult male in summer.--Similar to the female, but colors duller,
the rufous almost confined to sides of neck, and less distinct,
the chest chiefly mixed with white and grayish.

"Winter plumage.--Forehead, superciliary stripe, sides of head and
neck, with lower parts generally, pure white; top of head grayish,
the feathers with dusky shaft-streaks and whitish borders; a blackish
spot in front of eye, and side of head, from beneath eye, across
ear-coverts mixed dusky and grayish white; upper parts chiefly grayish;
sides of chest washed or clouded with grayish.

"Young.--Top of head dusky, with or without streaks; back and
scapulars blackish, distinctly bordered with buff or ochraceous; middle
wing-coverts bordered with buff or whitish; forehead, supra-auricular
stripe, lores, and lower parts white, the chest and sides of breast
sometimes suffused with dull brownish; ear-coverts dusky.

"Downy young.--Above bright tawny, the rump with three parallel stripes
of black, inclosing two of paler fulvous than the ground-color; a
triangular patch of brown on crown, bounded irregularly with blackish;
a black line over ears; throat and rest of head pale tawny; rest of
lower parts white, becoming grayish posteriorly.

"Length, 178 to 203; wing, 102 to 113; culmen, 20 to 23; tarsus,
19 to 20; middle toe, 16 to 19." (Ridgway.)



Suborder PARRÆ.

Family PARRIDÆ.

In general aspect and habits like the rails but distinguishable at
once by the enormously lengthened toes and claws; claw of hind toe
exceeding the very long toe.



Genera.


a1. No frontal shield nor lappet; primaries attenuated at their tips;
center tail-feathers not elongated. ... Hydralector (p. 150)
a2. With a leaf-like frontal lappet; primaries not produced; center
tail-feathers greatly elongated. ... Hydrophasianus (p. 151)



Genus HYDROPHASIANUS Wagler, 1832.

End of first primary produced as a filamentous appendage about 30
mm. in length; second and third also produced but the slender tip
often broken; tip of fourth primary less slender; a sharp horny spur
at bend of wing.



126. HYDROPHASIANUS CHIRURGUS (Scopoli).

PHEASANT-TAILED JACANA.


    Tringa chirurgus Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. (1786),
    2, 92.
    Hydrophasis chirurgus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    69; Hand-List (1899), 1, 168; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2,
    71; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 30.

    Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (McGregor); Mindanao (Mearns); Mindoro
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester). Indian Peninsula, Indo-Chinese
    countries to Malay Peninsula and greater Sunda Islands.


Adult in breeding plumage.--Sexes similar; head, chin, and throat
white; occiput and a line on each side of neck black, behind this a
large saddle of golden yellow; mantle and scapulars dark brown glossed
with violet; back, rump, and tail black; lower parts, except chin and
throat, dead black; first primary black, the other primaries mostly
white, but with some black at their tips; remainder of wing white;
axillars and wing-lining white. Iris brown, bill blue, paler at tip;
legs blue; nails blackish. Length of male about 330; wing, 190; tail,
131; exposed culmen, 28; tarsus, 54; middle toe with claw, 75; hind
toe without claw, 20; claw, 29. Length of female, 380; wing, 250;
tail, 162; exposed culmen, 28; tarsus, 60; middle toe with claw, 85;
hind toe with claw, 57.

Adult in non-breeding plumage.--Differs from the breeding plumage
chiefly as follows: Upper parts earthy brown with little gloss; under
parts, including tail and its coverts, white except a black plastron
on fore breast which extends forward on each side of neck; golden
collar replaced by a golden yellow band on each side; secondaries
and coverts mostly earthy brown speckled with white.

Birds in intermediate plumage present endless combinations of the
breeding and non-breeding plumage.

"Young.--Generally resembles the winter plumage of the adults, but
is always distinguished by its rufous head, and in the first stage
of plumage by the sandy rufous margins to the feathers of the upper
surface; the dusky band of the sides of the neck is feebly indicated
and the horseshoe collar on the fore neck is marked by a few spots
of dusky blackish; the white on the primaries is more restricted,
but the elongated tips are present." (Sharpe.)

"Quite abundant about the Laguna de Naujan, in Mindoro. It runs about
over the leaves of water plants, and when approached sinks its body
in the water until only its head and tail can be seen. When wounded
it dives, and sometimes hangs onto water plants below the surface
until it dies." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

This jacana is abundant in Luzon in fresh-water swamps and on the
borders of lakes.



Genus HYDRALECTOR Wagler, 1832.

This genus differs from Hydrophasianus chiefly in having a fleshy
lappet near the base of bill and the tips of the primaries not
attenuated.



127. HYDRALECTOR GALLINACEUS (Temminck).

COMB-CRESTED JACANA.


    Parra gallinacea Temminck, Pl. Col. (1831), 5, pl. 464.
    Hydralector gallinaceus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24,
    79; Hand-List (1899), 1, 168; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2,
    73; Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905), 13, 89; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 30.


    Mindanao (Mearns). Australia, Celebes, southern Borneo.


"Adult male.--Above bronzy brown, more dingy on the lower back
and rump; upper tail-coverts and tail black, all but the center
tail-feathers white at base; wing-coverts like the back; marginal
coverts, alula, primary-coverts, and quills black, with a slight
bluish gloss; inner secondaries bronzy brown like the back; forehead
behind the lappet to center of crown, sides of face, and sides of neck
golden straw-color; throat white, inclining to golden straw-color on
fore neck; an infra-loral streak of black from fore part of cheeks to
fore part of eye; hinder crown black, extending in a broad line down
hind neck and overspreading upper mantle; chest, breast, and sides
of body, as well as under wing-coverts and axillars, sooty black;
entire abdomen, lower flanks, thighs, and under tail-coverts white;
quills glossy black below. 'Bill greenish gray at the extreme tip, then
black to near nostrils; basal portion of upper mandible and the helmet
aurora-red; base of lower mandible light primrose-yellow; fore part
of tibia red, with a mixture in patches of yellow and greenish gray;
iris light sulphur-yellow; eyelash light ash-gray.' (Gould.) Length,
229; culmen with frontal lappet, 46; wing, 142; tail, 41; tarsus,
61; middle toe with claw, 91.

"Adult female.--Resembles the male in color but is decidedly larger;
a male from Port Essington measures 178 in length and has the wing
119, while a female from the same place measures 215 in length and
has the wing 142.

"Young.--Differs considerably from the adult. General color olive-brown
above, the feathers with sandy-rufous margins; crown bright rufous;
under surface entirely white." (Sharpe.)



Suborder CURSORII.

Family GLAREOLIDÆ.

Bill short; culmen curved; gape deeply cleft, its width greater
than length of culmen; wings long and pointed reaching beyond the
forked tail; tarsus twice the length of culmen from base and more
than middle toe with claw; claw of middle toe half the length of its
toe and pectinate on its inner edge.



Genus GLAREOLA Brisson, 1760.

Characters same as those given for the Family.



128. GLAREOLA ORIENTALIS Leach.

EASTERN SWALLOW PLOVER.


    Glareola orientalis Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1820), 132, pl. 13;
    Oates, Birds Brit. Burmah (1883), 2, 361; Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 78; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896), 24, 58; Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 171; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 214
    fig. 48 (head); McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 30.

    Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (Steere Exp., McGregor); Negros
    (Layard); Palawan (Whitehead, White). China, eastern Siberia,
    Indian Peninsula, Indo-Chinese countries; in winter Malay Peninsula
    and Archipelago to Australia.


Adult male and female.--Above nearly uniform earthy brown; tail-coverts
white; a narrow line below eye white; lores black, this color continued
in a line below eyes to ear-coverts and across breast and bordered in
front with white; sides of neck earthy brown, usually extending across
fore breast; chin, throat, and breast light rufous or ocherous-brown;
abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts white; primaries, secondaries,
and alula blackish; axillars and under wing-coverts bright chestnut;
white at base of tail gradually increasing in extent from the central
pair of rectrices outward; tips brown. Bill black, scarlet posteriorly
of nostrils; inside of mouth dull salmon-pink; iris brown; legs and
nails dark seal-brown. Length of male, 230; wing, 182; tail, 78;
exposed culmen, 14; tarsus, 34; middle toe with claw, 29. Female,
wing, 185; tail, 72; exposed culmen, 15; tarsus, 34.

A young female from Calayan, November 11, 1903, resembles the adult
but the black and white lines across breast are wanting, being replaced
by numerous blackish brown dashes a few of which are scattered forward
onto throat.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in having the entire upper surface
blackish, mottled with broad edgings of sandy buff to all the feathers,
especially the quills and tail-feathers; head mottled like the back;
cheeks and under surface of body isabelline-buff; fore neck and
chest mottled with black, the feathers with a broad subterminal bar
or heart-shaped spot of black.

"The sandy-buff margins to the feathers become bleached to white, and
in many respects abraded, so that the subterminal black markings of
the young plumage remain as margins to the dorsal feathers. The adult
plumage is apparently gained by a molt, and the new feathers have a
slight indication of a sandy-buff fringe on the upper parts, while the
chest is mottled with ashy, the feathers having sandy-colored margins;
the throat is at first irregularly spotted or streaked with blackish,
and has scarcely any signs of a black crescent.

"There is considerable variation with regard to the rufous color of
the throat and breast, this being sometimes very rich in tint. I
imagine that this is a sign of nesting plumage to a great extent;
but it may also indicate the age of the bird, the plumage becoming
more richly colored as the bird gets older." (Sharpe.)

"Numerous flocks seen by me on the plains of Isabela in April,
1906." (Worcester.)

During the winter months this anomalous plover visits the Philippines
in small numbers. Its deeply cleft bill and forked tail distinguish
it from all other plovers; and even while on the wing it may be
recognized by its circling, swallow-like flight.



Suborder OEDICNEMI.

Family OEDICNEMIDÆ.

Bill large and strong, nostrils pervious, their opening a long slit;
wings when folded falling short of the tip of tail; secondaries longer
than primaries; tarsus covered with hexagonal scales; tarsus longer
than culmen or than middle toe with claw.



Genus ORTHORHAMPHUS Salvadori, 1874.

Characters same as those given for the Family.



129. ORTHORHAMPHUS MAGNIROSTRIS (Vieillot).

AUSTRALIAN STONE PLOVER.


    Oedicnemus magnirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat. (1818),
    23, 231.
    Orthorhamphus magnirostris Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1896),
    24, 22; Hand-List (1899), 1, 173; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 84; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 30.

    Ta-ba-la-lan, Calayan.

    Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Fuga (McGregor);
    Luzon (Whitehead); Mindanao (Mearns); Mindoro (Platen?); Palawan
    (Whitehead, White). Australia to Bismarck Archipelago and north
    to Borneo and islands of Bay of Bengal.


"Adult.--Above ashy brown, with dusky shaft-lines; scapulars like
back; upper tail-coverts ashy like back, but freckled and barred with
dusky brown; lesser wing-coverts dark brown, lower ones blackish at
the ends and forming a broad band across wing, followed by another
band of white, formed by median coverts, which are gray at the tips,
with a broad white band across the middle followed by another bar
of dusky blackish; greater coverts entirely gray, fading off into
whitish at the ends; alula and primary-coverts white like the quills
they cover; primaries brownish black with white along inner web,
extending across outer web of the first two; inner primaries pure
white; secondaries dark brown, externally gray, with white bases
and small white tips, also white along the inner webs; on the inner
secondaries the white confined to inner web, long innermost secondaries
ashy brown like back; tail ashy brown, with a black band at the end,
before this a broad white band, preceded by a narrow black band;
two middle feathers light ashy brown freckled with dusky mottlings,
the other feathers also slightly freckled with dusky; crown and neck
like the back; lores blackish, as also a broad band along the sides
of crown, extending to the sides of the neck, where it joins the
black ear-coverts and incloses the white of face, which consists of a
white band above and below the eye extending above the ear-coverts;
cheeks white, extending in a line along base of upper mandible and
forming a streak in front of eye; fore part of cheeks black; chin and
throat white; lower throat ashy brown, streaked with darker brown,
as also the sides of neck; breast pale ashy; remainder of the under
surface white with a slight tawny tinge; under tail-coverts tawny-buff;
under wing-coverts and axillars white. 'Base of bill sulphur-yellow,
continued along the sides of upper mandible above nostrils; remainder
of bill black; tibia lemon-yellow; tarsi and feet wine-yellow;
upper ridges of scales of toes lead-color; eyelids primrose-yellow;
iris pale yellow.' (Gould.) Length, about 483; culmen, 76; wing, 274;
tail, 109; tarsus, 84.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male in color. Length, about 508;
culmen, 71; wing, 269; tail, 109; tarsus, 83.

"Young.--Two specimens from the Duke of York Island and Guadaleanar
are apparently immature, having the feathers of the upper surface
tipped with sandy buff, especially on the wing-coverts, where the
white band on the median series is not so defined as in the adults,
but showing a broader band of brown-tipped feathers below. There is,
however, a second white band formed by the white tips to the greater
wing-coverts, and it is somewhat curious that this should be a sign
of immaturity." (Sharpe.)

The stone plover is remarkable for its large and powerful bill. It
is rare in the Philippine Islands and so far as observed it is found
on sea-beaches where it subsists upon sand-crabs.



Order GRUIFORMES.

CRANES.

Very large; bill moderate, straight, and somewhat compressed, rather
blunt; nostrils large, elongated, and pervious, situated half way
between tip and base of bill; neck very long, its upper part and the
head clothed with few, hair-like feathers; wing rounded; secondaries
longer than primaries; tail short and soft; legs very long; toes stout;
hind toe short and elevated.



Suborder GRUES.

Family GRUIDÆ.

Characters same as those given for the Order.



Genus ANTIGONE Reichenbach, 1852.

Characters same as those given for the Order.



130. ANTIGONE SHARPI Blanford.

SHARPE'S CRANE.


    Antigone antigone (not Ardea antigone Linnæus) Sharpe, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1894), 23, 264.
    Antigone sharpii Blanford, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1895), 5, 6.
    Antigone sharpei Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 178; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 94; McGregor, Bull. Philippine
    Mus. (1904), 4, 11, pl. 2; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 31.

    Tipol, Luzon.

    Luzon (McGregor, Worcester). Burma, Cochin China, and Malay
    Peninsula.


Adult.--Nearly uniform pearl-gray, lighter on neck; head and neck
nearly naked to 100 mm. or more below anterior border of ear-coverts;
a few gray feathers on chin and ear-coverts; a few scattered black
hair-like feathers on upper throat and its sides.

An adult female taken in Nueva Ecija Province, Luzon, in September,
yields the following data: Legs rose-pink, brown along the tarsi; nails
blackish; most of bill and forehead pale dirty green; tip of bill gray;
iris yellow; papillose parts of head and neck red, darker behind the
ear-coverts. Weight, 5 kilos. Length, 1,270; extent, 2,200; wing, 565;
tail, 220; culmen from base, 178; bill from front margin of nostril,
103; tarsus, 275; middle toe with claw, 117; hind toe with claw,
24. Another specimen from northern Luzon measures; culmen from base,
160; bill from nostril, 92; tarsus, 280; middle toe with claw, 107.

Sharpe's crane is abundant in the vicinity of Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija
Province, Luzon. When I observed them in September, 1908, they were
feeding in pairs and frequenting a grassy plain. Two badly decayed
eggs were taken from a nest which consisted of a little grass arranged
on the ground in circular form. The eggs are white marked with a few
lavender spots and dented with numerous, small, elongated pits. The
surface is hard and smooth, very slightly glossy, and with a few
small lumps about the larger end. When held toward the light the
shell appears through the hole to be dark green. These eggs measure
91.5 by 63 and 97.5 by 64.6.

This species has been reported from the Candaba Swamp in central Luzon
and Worcester found it abundant in northern Luzon. He says: "I saw
Antigone sharpei in large numbers in Cagayan and Isabela during my
recent trip, 1906, through those provinces. I am informed that these
birds nest on the ground in May, contenting themselves with scraping
together and flattening down a little grass on which to deposit their
eggs. About August they lose their long wing-feathers and when in
this condition can rise but a few feet from the ground. The people
of Isabela then pursue them on horseback and take them with lassoes,
although according to the statements of the hunters the birds, aided
by their wings, run about as fast as deer."



Order ARDEIFORMES.

HERONS, STORKS, IBISES, AND SPOONBILLS.

Body usually compressed; neck and legs very long; plumage full and
soft; bill long, normally straight, wedge-shaped, and pointed, but in
Ibididæ blunt and decurved, in Plataleidæ broadly spatulate; nostrils
near base of bill, elongate; hind toe insistent or but slightly
elevated. Nest made of sticks and twigs usually placed in a tree or
bush; eggs three to five, blue and unspotted; young helpless at birth.



Suborders.


a1. Sides of upper mandible with a deep, narrow groove extending from
nostrils to tip. ... Plataleæ (p. 157)
a2. Sides of upper mandible without any groove.

  b1. Claws broad and flat, that of middle toe not
  pectinate. ... Ciconiæ (p. 159)
  b2. Claws narrow and arched, that of middle toe with its inner edge
  distinctly pectinate. ... Ardeæ (p. 161)



Suborder PLATALEÆ.

Families.


a1. Bill slender, nearly cylindrical, decidedly decurved for nearly
its whole length. ... Ibididæ (p. 157)
a2. Bill very broad, flattened, greatly widened toward the
tip. ... Plataleidæ (p. 158)



Family IBIDIDÆ.

Bill long, compressed, and curved downward, its tip blunt and rounded;
on each side of culmen a longitudinal groove in the basal portion of
which the nostril is pierced.



Genus PLEGADIS Kaup, 1829.

Characters same as those given for the Family.



131. PLEGADIS AUTUMNALIS (Linnæus).

GLOSSY IBIS.


    Tringa autumnalis Linnæus in Hasselquist, Reise Palæstina
    (1762), 306.
    Plegadis falcinellus Oates, Bds. Brit. Burmah (1883), 2,
    271; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 29; Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 187; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 102; Mearns,
    Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905), 18, 89; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 31.

    Mindanao (Mearns). China, Africa, Jamaica, Australia, eastern
    United States, southern Europe to India.


"Adult.--Above black, with varying glossy reflections, either
bronzy purple or green; upper mantle deep maroon-chestnut, as also
lesser wing-coverts and scapulars, the latter having bronzy tips;
median and greater coverts duller and more oily green with bronze or
steel-green reflections; alula, primary-coverts, and quills entirely
glossy green, secondaries with purplish reflections; lower back, rump,
upper tail-coverts, and tail all black, with various reflections of
purple and oily or bronzy green; head and neck all round, as well as
under surface of body deep maroon-chestnut, somewhat lighter on the
chest and breast; forehead and fore part of crown glossy green, as
also base of cheeks and a slight shade below eye; under tail-coverts,
under wing-coverts, and axillars black, with metallic reflections
of green and purple, the quill-lining being similarly glossed. 'Bill
and feet dark brownish olive, iris brown.' (Guillemard.) Length, 558;
culmen, 132; wing, 284; tail, 99; tarsus, 107.

"Female.--Similar to the male in plumage, but smaller in size and
with a somewhat smaller bill.

"The winter plumage would appear to be adopted after the bird has left
for its winter quarters, as a male killed in Celebes on August 20 is
still in full red plumage. The winter plumage of the adults appears
to consist in the entire loss of the chestnut plumage of the head,
back, and scapulars; the rest of the plumage remains metallic with
the same varying shades of green and purple, but the wings are rather
more bronzy and the wing-coverts brighter metallic green. The head
and neck are entirely streaked with black and whitish, and in the
spring the red feathers of the summer plumage are gained by a molt.

"Young birds are similar to the winter plumage of the adult, but are
more of a metallic oil-green, without the beautiful shades which
distinguish the adults at all seasons. The head is dusky brown,
with a certain amount of white striping on the head and throat,
but not so much as in the adult winter plumage." (Sharpe.)

Although the only authentic record of the occurrence of the glossy
ibis in the Philippine Islands is that made by Mearns, there is every
reason to look for it in Luzon and other of the larger islands.



Family PLATALEIDÆ.

Members of this family greatly resemble herons but differ in having
the bill flattened and spatulate, the tip blunt and rounded; from
each of the nostrils there is a groove which extends parallel to the
edge of the mandible and meets the opposite groove at tip of bill.



Genus PLATALEA Linnæus, 1766.

Character same as those given for the Family.



132. PLATALEA MINOR Temminck and Schlegel.

LESSER SPOONBILL.


    Platalea minor Temminck and Schlegel, Fauna Japonica Aves
    (1850), 120, pl. 76; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26,
    50; Hand-List (1889), 1, 188; McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1906),
    1, 766.

    Luzon (Banks). Korea, Japan, China, and Formosa.


"Adult male.--Entirely white with a small but full nuchal crest;
bare forehead black, the black skin extending just behind the eye
and occupying the sides of the face, fore parts of cheeks, and upper
throat, on which the white feathers impinge in a triangular form
in the center; a yellow spot in front of the eye. 'Bill slate-color,
transversely barred with black, the bars broken and disconnected on the
spatule; apical edge black, succeeded by a patch and scattered spots
of orange-ocher over the spatule, which is also freckled with light
slate-color; inside of mouth deep indigo-black; inside of nostrils
ocherous; bare skin of face black, with a bright yellow-ocher patch
before eye, extending over under lid, and a thin line over upper lid;
legs purplish black; iris blood-red.' (Swinhoe.) Length, 685; culmen,
183; wing, 371; tail, 107; tarsus, 121.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male. 'Bill flesh-color, longitudinally
streaked and speckled with blackish, mottled and freckled with
slate-color, chiefly about the spatule; bare skin of face dull purplish
brown; feet purplish black; iris yellowish brown.' (Swinhoe.) Length,
660; culmen, 185; wing, 356; tail, 102; tarsus, 119.

"Young.--Differs from the adults in having a more yellowish bill,
and blackish shaft-stripes to the quills; outer primaries blackish
at ends of outer webs." (Sharpe.)

Mr. Charles S. Banks of the Bureau of Science brought the head of
a spoonbill from Dagupan, Luzon, where he found this species not
uncommon in November, 1907. While I have referred this specimen to
Platalea minor its specific identity is uncertain.



Suborder CICONIÆ.

Family CICONIIDÆ.

Bill long, stout, compressed, and tapering, tip pointed; culmen
straight except at the tip; nostril pervious in a slit; wing large;
secondaries longer than primaries; tail short; tarsus about as long
as culmen and covered with small hexagonal scales; hind toe about
half the length of inner toe; nails short and blunt.



Subfamily CICONIINÆ.

Genus DISSÖURA Cabanis, 1850.

Character same as those given for the Family.



133. DISSÖURA EPISCOPUS (Boddaert).

WHITE-NECKED STORK.


    Ardea episcopus Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. (1783), 54.
    Dissura episcopus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 294;
    Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 370, fig. 87.
    Dissöura episcopus Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 190; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 105; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 31.

    Basilan (McGregor); Bohol (Steere); Calayan (McGregor); Leyte
    (Everett); Luzon (Heriot, Whitehead); Marinduque (Worcester);
    Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Everett, Celestino,
    Goodfellow); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Negros
    (Steere, Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, Keay); Panay (Bourns &
    Worcester); Samar (Whitehead). Tropical Africa, Indian and Malay
    Peninsulas, Indo-Malay Islands, Indo-Chinese countries, Celebes,
    Ceylon.


"Adult male.--Above black, glossed with metallic green and purple, more
especially on hind neck; entire back and upper tail-coverts glossed
with metallic green; tail-feathers black, not to be confounded with
the under tail-coverts, which are white; the outer retrices black,
graduated, and forming a fork; wing-coverts like the back, but
more distinctly glossed, especially on the lesser series, which are
metallic purplish red; quills black, glossed with slaty externally
and with metallic green on the inner face of all the quills, crown
of head blue-black as far as occiput; nape and entire neck white as
well as the throat; chin less thickly clothed with feathers; breast
black, slightly glossed with metallic green, but more strongly with
reddish purple, especially on the fore neck and chest; abdomen and
under tail-coverts white, the long ones stiffened and resembling
tail-feathers; axillars and under wing-coverts black with a gloss of
metallic green. 'Bill in general black, tinged with red on culmen,
tips, and margins; legs and toes red; claws reddish horn-color;
iris crimson; eyelids and facial skin plumbeous.' (Oates.) Length,
about 915; culmen, 914; wing, 508; tail, 183; tarsus, 179.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male. 'Iris very pale, almost whitish
hue.' (H. J. Rainey.) Length, 914; culmen, 145; wing, 470; tail, 183;
tarsus, 157.

"Young birds differ from the adults in being much browner and not
having so much gloss, the black feathers on the head being replaced
by bronzy brown, the purplish gloss on the wing-coverts almost
absent, and the purple gloss on the breast being replaced by dull
bronzy brown. The forehead generally shows a basal line of white
feathers, but these are also apparent in some of the old birds,
and are apparently shed by them in course of time." (Sharpe.)

Specimens obtained in Mindoro have an unfeathered band along the
under side of the forearm. The skin of this space is dark crimson.

"Rather rare and very shy. Usually seen soaring at great
heights. Occasionally met with perching on dead trees, or wading
about the rice-fields." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Suborder ARDEÆ.

Family ARDEIDÆ.

Bill generally slender, straight, and compressed; culmen slightly
curved near its tip; tarsus covered with transverse plates or large
hexagonal scales; toes long; claws well developed, usually sharp and
curved; hind toe well developed, its claw larger than claw of middle
toe, the latter pectinate.



Genera.


a1. Rectrices twelve.

  b1. Bare portion of tibio-tarsus equal to or exceeding the inner
  toe with claw.

    c1. Middle toe with claw as long as tarsus or longer; claw of hind
    toe more than half the length of hind toe itself and but slightly
    curved; plumage variegated, never white. ... Pyrrherodia (p. 162)
    c2. Middle toe with claw shorter than tarsus; claw of hind toe
    curved; plumage nearly uniform slate-gray or largely white.

      d1. Edge of mandibles distinctly serrated, a faintly indicated
      notch near tip of upper mandible.

        e1. Head crested, nape feathers elongated and ornamented;
        plumage of fore neck long but not disintegrated; no dorsal
        train; plumage uniform gray, or else, neck mostly white and
        crest black. ... Ardea (p. 163)
        e2. Head crested, without ornamental plumes; fore neck
        with disintegrated plumes; an immense dorsal train; plumage
        white. ... Mesophoyx (p. 165)

      d2. Edge of mandible not serrated; a distinct subterminal notch
      in upper mandible.

        e1. Bill shorter; culmen not exceeding middle toe with claw.

          f1. No crest plumes; a well-developed dorsal train; plumage
          white. ... Herodias (p. 166)

        e2. Bill longer; culmen exceeding middle toe with claw;
        plumage white. ... Egretta (p. 167)

  b2. Bare portion of tibio-tarsus less than inner toe; feathering
  sometimes extending nearly to the heel.

    c1. Bill without serrations in either mandible; upper mandible
    with a distinct notch just before the end.

      d1. Culmen longer than tarsus, the latter longer than middle toe;
      plumage very dark slate-color. ... Demigretta (p. 168)
      d2. Culmen not longer than tarsus; two or three elongated
      nape plumes.

        e1. Tarsus and culmen about equal; two or three elongated
        nape plumes very slender. ... Nycticorax (p. 169)
        e2. Tarsus decidedly longer than culmen; nape plumes
        wider. ... Gorsachius (p. 172)

    c2. Bill with distinct serrations near its end, sometimes only
    the upper mandible serrated; subterminal notch obsolete.

      d1. Bill moderately long, exceeding middle toe with claw;
      plumage more or less variegated. ... Butorides (p. 174)
      d2. Bill shorter than middle toe with claw; plumage
      white. ... Bubulcus (p. 177)

a2. Rectrices ten; plumage more or less mottled or streaked, never
white.

  b1. Exposed culmen equal to or more than middle toe without claw;
  size much smaller; wing less than 220 mm.

    c1. Culmen more than tarsus. [17]

      d1. Smaller; wing less than 160 mm. ... Ixobrychus (p. 178)
      d2. Larger; wing more than 180 mm. ... Dupetor (p. 182)

    c2. Culmen equal to or less than tarsus. ... Nannocnus (p. 180)

  b2. Exposed culmen much less than middle toe without claw; size
  much greater; wing more than 260 mm. ... Botaurus (p. 183)



Genus PYRRHERODIA Finsch and Hartlaub, 1870.

This genus of large herons is distinguished by having the claws very
long; hind toe contains its claw one and two-thirds times; tarsus
contains the hind toe with claw one and one-half times.



134. PYRRHERODIA MANILENSIS (Meyen).

EASTERN PURPLE HERON.


    Ardea purpurea var. manilensis Meyen, Acta
    Acad. Leop. Carol. (1834), 16, suppl. 102.
    Phoyx manillensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 63,
    pl. 1.
    Ardea manillensis Blanford, Fauna Brit. India Bds. (1898), 4, 381.
    Pyrrherodias manillensis Sharpe, Hand-List (1889), 1, 194; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 111, McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 32.

    La-pay, Ticao.

    Bohol (McGregor); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Catanduanes
    (Whitehead); Leyte (Steere Exp.); Luzon (Meyen, Whitehead,
    McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester);
    Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead); Palawan
    (Bourns & Worcester); Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Romblon (McGregor); Samar (Whitehead); Sibuyan (McGregor); Tablas
    (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor). Celebes, Indian and Malay Peninsulas, Ceylon, China,
    Greater Sunda Islands.


Adult male.--"Forehead, crown, long occipital crest, a streak down
back of neck, one on each side of neck, and another on each side
from gape to nape slaty black; chin and throat white, rest of head
and neck ferruginous red, paler and buff on sides of head and middle
of fore neck; long feathers overhanging upper breast buffy white,
streaked with black and chestnut; lower hind neck, back, rump, and
upper tail-coverts, wings and tail slaty gray, back darker; quills
and tail-feathers blackish; scapulars with long pointed rufous ends;
middle of breast and abdomen and lower tail-coverts slaty black; sides
of breast rich chestnut; flanks ashy gray; thigh-coverts cinnamon;
wing-lining mostly ferruginous. Length, 965; tail, 19; wing, 368;
tarsus 140; bill from gape, 152." (Blanford.)

"Upper mandible dark brown, the margins dusky yellow as far back as
the nostrils, produced to the eye; margins from nostrils to gape dark
brown; anterior half of lower mandible clear yellow; the posterior
half dull yellow; gape and facial skin greenish yellow; edges of the
eyelids yellow; feet and toes yellowish; the front of the tarsus and
toes glossy brown; claws dark horn-color; iris yellow." (Oates.)

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but not quite so bright, and
the black crest plumes not quite so long.

"'Nestling.--Crown of head, quills, and tail lavender-brown; throat
and chin pure white; sides of head and upper neck rufous; lower neck
rufous-gray, the feathers on the sides being centered with brown;
lower plumage rufescent, each feather more or less dark-centered;
thighs plain rufous; upper plumage brown, each feather edged with
rufescent, more especially on the scapulars and tertiaries; upper
and lower wing-coverts bluish brown, each feather broadly edged with
rufous.' (Oates.)" (Sharpe.)

"Young birds have neither crest nor lengthened plumes on scapulars
or breast; upper parts brownish gray, with broad rufous edges to the
feathers; crown partly gray; neck rufous, fore neck with black streaks;
lower surface a mixture of buff and gray." (Blanford.)

This species is the commonest of the large herons and may easily
be identified by means of the preceding excellent descriptions. In
a fine-plumaged male from Anao, Tarlac Province, Luzon, the upper
mandible was dusky; lower mandible yellow, greenish toward base; upper
part of legs light yellowish green, lower parts brown. Length, 1,000;
wing, 375; tail, 133; tarsus, 124; culmen from frontal feathers, 136;
middle toe with claw, 135; hind toe with claw, 80.



Genus ARDEA Linnæus, 1758.

The herons of this typical genus are of large size and except in
plumage differ little from the members of Pyrrherodia but the bill
is comparatively heavier and the claws much shorter; tarsus two to
two and one-half times the length of hind toe with claw.



Species.


a1. Crown and neck white (gray in young); crest black. ... cinerea
(p. 163)
a2. Crown, neck, and crest gray similar to the rest of the
plumage. ... sumatrana (p. 165)



135. ARDEA CINEREA Linnæus.

COMMON HERON.


    Ardea cinerea Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 143; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 74; Hand-List (1899), 1, 194;
    Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 382, fig. 84; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 113; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 32.

    Guimaras (Steere Exp.). Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia.


"Adult in breeding plumage.--General color above light ashy gray,
scapular plumes, parapteral feathers, and innermost secondaries
elongated and forming narrow drooping plumes of pearly gray or white;
the wing-coverts gray like back, the outer ones pearly gray or white,
the greater series dark ashy, outer webs entirely white; alula,
primary-coverts, and quills purplish black, secondaries shaded with
gray externally, inner secondaries like back; tail-feathers entirely
gray; crown of head crested, white in the center, with a broad band of
purplish black on each side, ending in a crest on occiput, and having
two elongated nuchal plumes; entire sides of face, neck all round,
and under surface of body white, with a creamy lilac shade on each
side of fore neck and chest, which have drooping plumes of narrow,
elongated, white feathers; the whole of the lower throat and fore neck
varied with elongated black stripes, differing in breadth and situated
on one side of the feather; on each side of the crop is a large patch
of drooping plumes of purplish black, and continued along the sides of
the body even as far as the vent; sides of body light ashy gray; thighs
and under tail-coverts white; under wing-coverts ashy gray. 'Bill
yellow, with the ridge of the upper mandible brown towards the end;
feet dull green; tibia yellow; claws black; iris yellow; bare space
between the bill and the eye green.' (Macgillivray.) Length, 762;
culmen, 129; wing, 457; tail, 183; tarsus, 173.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male and equally beautifully colored,
but the black crest-plumes not so long, and the black markings on
the chest not quite so pronounced. Length, about 762; culmen, 124;
wing, 452; tail, 170; tarsus, 162.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in being darker and not so pure gray;
head dark slate-color, with a small nuchal crest of purplish black,
neck rather lighter ashy; sides of face and ear-coverts also ashy gray;
cheeks and throat white; neck dark slaty gray, as also the sides of
the body, under wing-coverts, and axillars; lower throat, fore neck,
and chest very broadly streaked with black, the black very thickly
developed on throat, sparsely on fore neck, and represented by a few
black streaks on sides of body; on each side of chest the black patch
of the adult is represented by a dusky patch of feathers, relieved by
several broad white streaks; on bend of wing a tinge of rust-color,
which also pervades the black-streaked feathers of throat and fore
neck." (Sharpe.)

"Rare. Not met with by us on our second visit to the Islands." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)

The common heron is rare in the Philippines but may be recognized by
the pale gray head and neck, set off by the black crest, line on side
of head, and broken line on throat. A very much damaged specimen in
the Bureau of Science collection has unfortunately no data as to its
source but it was probably killed in Luzon.



136. ARDEA SUMATRANA Raffles.

ASHY-GRAY HERON.


    Ardea sumatrana Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1882), 13, 325; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 68; Hand-List (1899), 1, 194;
    Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 112; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 32.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Mindoro
    (Porter); Negros (Keay); Palawan (Platen, Whitehead, Celestino,
    White). Australia, Malay Peninsula, Sunda Islands, Celebes,
    Aracan, Tenasserim.


"Adult male.--Above dull slaty gray, lower back and rump paler gray;
upper tail-coverts more dusky; scapulars with elongated plumes,
pearly white at the ends; wing-coverts and quills dark slaty gray,
with a slight greenish gloss on some of them; innermost secondaries
elongated and tipped with pearly white, like scapulars; tail-feathers
dark slate-color, slightly glossed with green; crown of head slaty
gray and crested, crest-feathers with dusky margins, and with some
long drooping plumes on nape, which are pearly white at the ends;
sides of face and hinder cheeks pale vinaceous-brown; fore part
of cheeks and upper throat white; neck all round slaty brown,
the feathers mostly elongated, and with a mesial streak of white
towards the ends; plumes on the fore neck similarly colored, but
very much elongated; remainder of under surface slaty gray, paler on
abdomen with longitudinal white centers to the feathers, these being
indistinct upon abdomen and under tail-coverts; on each side of upper
breast a large patch of slaty gray feathers, very slightly streaked
with white; under wing-coverts and axillars slaty gray with white
streaks; marginal feathers round bend of wing white. 'Bill black,
lower mandible yellowish white at base; legs and feet black, soles
faded yellow; iris pale orange.' (H. O. Forbes.) Length, about 1,143;
culmen, 173; wing, 465; tail, 155; tarsus, 170.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in having no elongated plumes,
and being everywhere browner; feathers of the upper surface tipped
with a rufous or sandy-buff spot; feathers of neck and under parts
vinaceous-rufous with mesial streaks of white, the whole under surface
very thickly streaked." (Sharpe.)

This is the very largest of Philippine herons and it may be known at
once by its almost uniform slate-gray color. In a male from Bohol
the iris was red; bill black, with some yellow on lower mandible;
legs and nails blackish brown. Wing, 440; tail, 170; culmen from
frontal feathers, 180; tarsus, 164; middle toe with claw, 126; hind
toe with claw, 77.



Genus MESOPHOYX Sharpe, 1894.

Of medium size; plumage all white and with long dorsal plumes during
the breeding season; primaries exceed the secondaries by length of
hind toe with claw; legs and feet black; toes long, culmen much less
than middle toe without claw.



137. MESOPHOYX INTERMEDIA (Wagler).

LESSER EGRET.


    Ardea intermedia Wagler, Isis (1829), 659.
    Mesophoyx intermedia Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26,
    85; Hand-List (1899), 1, 195; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2,
    115; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 32.

    Bohol (Steere Exp.); Calayan (McGregor); Mindanao (Everett);
    Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester); Palawan (Whitehead); Samar (Steere
    Exp.). Indian Peninsula, Malayan Archipelago, China, Japan.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Pure white above and below; the head
crested, but having no drooping plumes; long ornamental plumes of back
immensely developed, being 430 mm. in length; feathers on the fore
neck beautifully developed, 200 mm. long, the webs entirely broken up;
bare part of tibia entirely black like the tarsi and toes. 'Bill black,
facial skin green; iris yellow; feet and toes black.' (Oates.) Length,
about 208; culmen, 74; wing, 317; tail, 137; tarsus, 114; middle toe
with claw, 99.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but the ornamental plumes not
so much developed.

"Adults in winter plumage.--Pure white, but losing the ornamental
plumes altogether. 'Bill yellow, with blackish tip.' (Oates.)

"Young.--Entirely like the adults in winter plumage; the texture of
the plumage soft and downy, and devoid of ornamental plumes." (Sharpe.)

"Comparatively rare and very shy. Fairly abundant about the Laguna
de Naujan in Mindoro." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus HERODIAS Boie, 1822.

Of very large size and plumage entirely pure white.



138. HERODIAS TIMORIENSIS (Lesson).

TIMOR WHITE EGRET.


    Ardea timoriensis Lesson, Traité d'Orn. (1831), 575.
    Herodias timoriensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 98;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 195; Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905),
    18, 89; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 33.

    Luzon (McGregor); Mindanao (Mearns). Northern China and Japan
    to Australia.


Adult male in breeding plumage.--"Entirely pure white; a bunch of
elongated plumes on the back scarcely reaching beyond the tail. 'Bill
beautiful orange; naked space before and behind the eye fine greenish
yellow; legs above the knee pale dull yellow, this color continued
down the center of the inner part of the tarsi; remainder of tarsi
and feet black.' (Gould.) Length, 762; culmen, 112; wing, 381; tail,
160; tarsus, 132 to 162." (Sharpe.)

The following data are from the Luzon specimen which I have recorded:
Killed on the Laguna de Bay, Luzon, March 16, 1906. Sexed by the
taxidermist as a male. Entire legs and feet black; bill yellow. Dorsal
plumes reaching little beyond base of tail, the bird being in rather
poor plumage. Tarsus, 159; bill from gape, 140; culmen from frontal
feathers, 114. This species is the largest as well as the rarest of
the pure white herons known from the Philippine Islands.



Genus EGRETTA Forster, 1817.

This genus appears to be closely related to Mesophoyx but the bill is
longer and more slender; toes and claws shorter; culmen longer than
middle toe with claw, primaries and secondaries about equal in length.



139. EGRETTA GARZETTA (Linnæus).

LITTLE WHITE EGRET.


    Ardea garzetta Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 237.
    Garzetta garzetta Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 118;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 197; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 120.
    Herodias garzetta Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 387,
    fig. 91.
    Egretta garzetta McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 33.

    Ta-ling-daó, Cagayancillo.

    Basilan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett, McGregor); Cagayancillo
    (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Leyte (Everett); Lubang (McGregor);
    Luzon (Jagor, Everett, Heriot, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Mindanao (Steere Exp., Goodfellow); Mindoro (Porter);
    Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Panay
    (Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns &
    Worcester). Africa, southern Europe to central Asia, China, Japan,
    Indian Peninsula, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Everywhere snowy white, with
two elongated plumes depending from nape; dorsal plumes enormously
elongated into a beautiful tuft of feathers, which reach a little
beyond the tail and are recurved at the ends; on the fore neck some
elongated narrow plumes. 'Bill black; bare skin about the eye and
base of bill, whitish fulvescent; tarsi and shanks black, feet
greenish yellow, joints of toes spotted with black on the upper
surface; iris pale ashy yellow, with an outer circle of brownish
red.' (T. Ayres.) Length, about 508; culmen, 84; wing, 267; tail,
70; tarsus, 94.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but the ornamental plumes not
quite so much developed. Length, 571; culmen, 88; wing, 287; tail,
99; tarsus, 95; middle toe with claw, 93.

"Adult in winter plumage.--Differs from that of the summer plumage
in the want of all the ornamental plumes.

"Young.--Resembling the winter plumage of the adult." (Sharpe.)

The lesser and little white egrets are birds of wide distribution,
usually found singly along sandy shores or in the vicinity of mangrove
swamps.



Genus DEMIGRETTA Blyth, 1846.

In size of body and proportional size of bill, legs, and feet this
genus is very similar to Egretta but the legs are feathered nearer
to the heel and the plumage is normally slate-blue.



140. DEMIGRETTA SACRA (Gmelin).

BLUE REEF HERON.


    Ardea sacra Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, pt. 2, 640.
    Demiegretta sacra Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 137;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 198; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 122;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 33.
    Lepterodius sacer Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 391,
    fig. 93.

    Ta-lá-bon, Ticao.

    Balabac (Steere Exp., Everett); Bantayan (McGregor); Batan
    (McGregor); Bohol (Steere Exp., McGregor); Bongao (Everett);
    Cagayancillo (McGregor); Cagayan Sulu (Guillemard); Calayan
    (McGregor); Cebu (Murray, McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor); Fuga
    (McGregor); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester);
    Mindanao (Bourns & Worcester, Mearns); Mindoro (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Negros (Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Panay
    (Bourns & Worcester); Pata (Mearns); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Semirara (Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester); Sulu (Guillemard);
    Tablas (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester);
    Ticao (McGregor). Coast of Bay of Bengal to Australia and Oceania,
    north to Japan and Korea.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--General color deep blackish slate;
head almost black; feathers of upper breast elongated like those of
the middle of the back, some of the latter decomposed; the elongated
feathers of a paler slaty gray, and those of back reaching to end
of tail; head crested and of the same color as the back; abdomen and
vent-feathers tinged with ashy; a pure white streak down the center of
the throat. Length, 584; culmen, 71; wing, 254; tail, 79; tarsus, 74.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male, but the
ornamental plumes slightly less developed. Length, 533; wing, 259.

"Young.--Paler and more sooty brown than the adults, and bleaching
often to a slight earthy brown. No ornamental plumes on head, back,
and chest.

"Adult birds, either in winter plumage or perhaps in the second year,
are blacker than in the summer plumage. Some of these black-plumage
birds have ornamental feathers which looks as if they were fully
adult, and therefore they may be birds of the second year, as it is
quite evident that the grayer plumaged ones are very old and perfect
in livery.

"The white streak down the throat is often absent or reduced to a
few spots. It appears to be absent equally in quite young birds and
in old ones also, and it may be the result of inherent melanism in
the species.

"The white form is exactly similar in size to the gray form, and,
when adult, has the same ornamental plumes. In the Pacific islands
the two forms appear to interbreed, and produce white young ones
mottled or streaked with slaty gray. I have been unable to recognize
any of the many forms into which the reef heron has been subdivided by
naturalists. Some birds are larger, as will be seen by the measurements
of the tarsi given in detail below, and these larger birds have a
slightly longer wing and a heavier bill, but no specific distinctions
can be founded on these variations, which are very slight." (Sharpe.)

"The color of the soft parts is excessively variable. In the adult the
bare portion of the tibia varies from dark grass-green to greenish
plumbeous; the back and sides of the tarsus and the greater part of
the toes are generally pea-green, sometimes duller, sometimes yellower;
the front of the tarsus and the first joint of the mid toe black, but
sometimes these parts are green, only patched or mottled with black,
and sometimes the black extends along the ridges of all the toes;
the color of the bill and bare skin in front of the eye varies from
sienna-brown to chocolate; sometimes the bill is a sort of light
mahogany color, and the bare skin a sort of greenish brown; usually
the bills are yellowish at the tips; the lower mandible is generally
lighter, sometimes brownish horny, sometimes yellowish horny; and in
the breeding-plumage the whole lower mandible becomes apparently a
very decided, though dull, yellow; the irides vary from bright to deep
yellow. I suspect, though we have not been able to work it out, that
these differences in color are due both to age and to season." (Hume.)

"Quite common along the reefs. The young were met with on various
occasions far inland along fresh-water streams, but we never found
fully mature birds in such localities." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

So far as observed, this species is solitary and found only on rocky
shores, usually where coral flats are exposed at low tide.



Genus NYCTICORAX Forster, 1817.

Bill stout; legs rather short; tarsus about equal to middle toe with
claw and little longer than exposed culmen; tarsus covered with
hexagonal scales; head decorated with two or three long, slender,
nuchal plumes and a full crest.



Species.


a1. Wings ashy gray; back blackish glossed with green. ... nycticorax
(p. 170)
a2. Wings maroon, nearly uniform with the back. ... manillensis
(p. 171)



141. NYCTICORAX NYCTICORAX (Linnæus).

Common Night Heron.


    Ardea nycticorax Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 142.
    Nycticorax nycticorax Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26,
    146; Hand-List (1899), 1, 198; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 123; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 33.
    Nycticorax griseus Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4,
    397, fig. 96.

    Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (Meyen, Steere Exp., McGregor); Mindanao
    (Everett). Africa, central and southern Europe to Indian Peninsula,
    Malay Peninsula, China and Japan; Greater Sunda Islands to Celebes.


"Adult male in breeding plumage.--Black above, glossed with dark
green, and with a slight shade of slaty gray on the mantle; upper
scapulars like the back, lower ones light ashy gray; wings entirely
light ashy gray or dove-color, with a slight shade of dull oily green
on secondaries; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail clear
gray or dove-color; head crested, black, and with a dark green gloss,
and having two long white nuchal plumes; base of forehead white,
extending above eye to behind the latter; feathers below the eye,
cheeks, throat, and under parts pure white; ear-coverts and sides
of neck delicate isabelline gray, extending in a collar round hind
neck, and to sides of body; thighs and under tail-coverts white;
under wing-coverts and axillars very pale ashy. Length, about 457;
culmen, 76; wing, 267; tail, 102; tarsus, 71.

"Adult female in breeding plumage.--Similar to the male in color and
having the same long white plumes on the nape. Upper mandible slaty
black with a whitish streak near the edges, central portion of lower
mandible flesh-color, greenish towards base; skin round the eye pale
green; tarsi and feet pale yellow; iris crimson." (T. Ayres.)

"Adults in winter plumage.--Similar to the breeding plumage, but much
greener on head and back, and not having the drooping white plumes
on the nape.

"Young.--Brown above, varied with longitudinal triangular centers of
rufous or buff to the feathers of back and wing-coverts; quills and
tail-feathers tipped with white; head blackish, crest-feathers centered
with rufous; sides of face and under surface of body fulvescent,
streaked with dusky black, with which the feathers are margined;
thighs, under wing-coverts, and axillars streaked like the sides of
body; throat whitish.

"The full-grown young bird is similarly marked to the nestling
described, but all the streaks and spots are much paler, the
throat and under surface of the body being white, with a few dusky
streaks. Judging from a specimen in the Tweeddale Collection from
Canton, the adult plumage is assumed during the next breeding season,
and even the white nape-plumes are put on, but the coloring of the
head and back is not so bright as in older birds." (Sharpe.)

The common night heron in abundant in parts of Luzon but is not so
widely distributed in the smaller islands as is the next species.



142. NYCTICORAX MANILLENSIS Vigors.

PHILIPPINE NIGHT HERON.


    Nycticorax manillensis Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1831), 98; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 162; Hand-List (1899), 1, 198;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 34.
    Nycticorax manilensis Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 125.

    Cuak-cuak, Bohol.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Everett); Bohol (McGregor); Caluya
    (Porter); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu
    (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Leyte (Everett); Luzon
    (Lindsay, Cuming, Whitehead); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate
    (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Platen, Steere Exp.); Mindoro
    (McGregor); Negros (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Panay
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Bourns & Worcester);
    Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns
    & Worcester, Celestino); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor). Western Celebes and northern Borneo.


Adult (sexes similar).--Above deep maroon; crown and crest greenish
black; long nuchal plumes whitish except at base and tip; a narrow
eyebrow stripe light chestnut mixed with whitish; below white,
throat more or less pervaded with chestnut; sides of face neck and
breast chestnut; under wing-coverts, axillars, and thighs light
chestnut mixed with white. Bill black; skin around eye dark green;
legs yellow, nails black. "Bill black; feet pale ocherous-white,
brown in front and upper part of toes; orbital skin yellowish green;
iris golden yellow." (Everett.)

Male.--Length, 635; culmen, 70; wing, 317; tail, 117; tarsus, 79.

Adult female.--Similar to the male in color. Length, 559; culmen,
76; wing, 381; tail, 123; tarsus, 81.

"Young.--Wings conspicuously chestnut; spots and streaks on upper
surface deep rufous or light chestnut; breast very broadly streaked
with black. 'Bill brown, lower mandible dirty yellowish; legs light
greenish yellow, claws gray; iris golden yellow.' (Everett)." (Sharpe.)

"Quite common, but very local in its habits. Feeds at night. Roosts
during the day in lofty trees, frequently choosing trees which stand
out in the open." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

Oates records two eggs of the Manila night heron which were collected
by the Steere Expedition in Siquijor, February 15, and two eggs taken
by Moseley in May. The measurements are respectively: 56.3 by 36.8;
49.7 by 36.3; 60.9 by 37.5; 50.8 by 33.7.



Genus GORSACHIUS Bonaparte, 1855.

This genus resembles Nycticorax in having a short stout bill, deep
nasal groove, and stout legs and toes; it differs in having the
elongated crest feathers shorter and wider and in the coloration of
the plumage. The tarsus is covered with hexagonal scales but those
in front are very wide and appear as transverse plates.



Species.


a1. Head black; axillars barred with black and white; primaries with
whitish tips. ... melanolophus (p. 172)
a2. Head chestnut; axillars rufous, barred with black; primaries
rufous at tip, the white tips obsolete ... goisagi (p. 174)



143. GORSACHIUS MELANOLOPHUS (Raffles).

MALAY BITTERN.


    Ardea melanolopha Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1822), 13, pt. 2,
    326.
    Gorsachius melanolophus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898),
    26, 166; Hand-List (1899), 1, 199; Blanford, Fauna
    Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 398, fig. 97; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1902), 2, 125; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 34.

    Balabac (Everett); Basilan (Mearns); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester);
    Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Luzon (Heriot); Masbate (Bourns &
    Worcester); Mindanao (Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Palawan (Platen, Whitehead, White); Samar (Whitehead); Siquijor
    (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor). Ceylon, southern India,
    Assam to Hainan, Greater Sunda Islands, Formosa south to Malay
    Peninsula.


"Adult male.--Above uniform cinnamon-rufous, wing-coverts and mantle
with a slight ashy shade and with a certain amount of indistinct
freckling; alula-feathers black or slightly mottled with rufous and
having broad white tips; outer primary-coverts black, broadly tipped
with white and rufous at the base; remainder of primary-coverts
cinnamon-rufous slightly tipped with white; quills black, externally
shaded with gray, broadly tipped with cinnamon-rufous, narrowly
fringed with white at the ends; outer primaries with a large white
terminal spot; inner secondaries like back; upper tail-coverts and
tail dark slate-color, with a slight rufescent tinge at the ends of
inner web; crown and long nuchal crest-feathers slaty gray or black;
a narrow line of feathers over eye vinous-cinnamon, broadening out
above ear-coverts and occupying the sides of crown, sides of neck,
and sides of face; chin and center of throat pale isabelline brown,
streaked with black down the center of throat, the black markings
on the feathers being lateral and somewhat irregular in shape,
the inner webs paler and cream-colored, imparting a rather broadly
streaked appearance to the fore neck; center of breast and abdomen
white or creamy buff, the feathers notched and barred with dusky,
more distinct on the sides; abdomen fulvescent and under tail-coverts
white, both of them scarcely spotted at all; under wing-coverts white,
regularly spotted and barred with dusky; axillars regularly banded
with black and white; quills ashy gray below, with the same rufous and
white tips as on the upper surface. Culmen black, sides of the upper
mandible and the lower one fleshy; legs and feet greenish, washed
with brown on the front of the tarsus and toes. 'Iris golden yellow,
frosted or stippled with olive at the exterior; gape, orbital and
loral skin greenish and slaty.' (W. V. Legge.) Length, 508; culmen,
51; wing, 269; tail, 102; tarsus, 68.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male.

"The sequence of plumages in these night herons is not very easy to
follow, but the nestling from Mindanao clearly proves that the first
plumage is spotted with white and that the quills have broad white
tips. Both G. melanolophus and G. goisagi occur on Mindanao, but the
latter is doubtless only a winter visitor, while the former bird is
resident. The same thing occurs in the Island of Formosa, as has been
duly pointed out by Mr. Seebohm, in his 'Birds of the Japanese Empire,'
where the difference between the two species has been correctly given.

"In the Hume collection there are several rufous-colored birds, which
have not yet entirely divested themselves of the wavy immature plumage,
while a female from Dibrughur is beginning to put on rufous plumage,
though it is still for the most part in the mottled dress of the
young. The birds from the Nicobars are decidedly smaller and darker
than birds from the mainland, and the wing does not exceed 240 mm.

"Young.--Entirely different from the adult, being brown above,
thickly mottled and freckled with dusky blackish, and with longitudinal
ochraceous shaft-streaks to the feathers of upper surface; wings like
the back; primary-coverts for the most part rufous, freckled with
dusky, quills black, tipped with white; primaries with a subterminal
shade of rufous; tail-feathers slaty black; crown and nape crested,
the feathers black, with arrow-shaped spots or bars of white; sides of
face and sides of neck regularly barred with ocherous brown and black,
with mesial white spots on the feathers on the sides of the neck;
chin and upper throat uniform white; the center of the lower throat
and fore neck generally pale vinaceous-buff, varied with black streaks
and black mottling or bars, the feathers being browner laterally;
sides of the body like the breast, similarly mottled and streaked with
white; under tail-coverts white, with scarcely any black markings;
under wing-coverts white mottled with dusky; axillars barred with
black and white." (Sharpe.)

"Comparatively rare. Met with about the fish-pens of the natives,
especially just at dusk." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

"The eggs of the Malay bittern in the collection are of a pale
bluish-white color. Two specimens measure respectively: 45.7 by 35.5;
48.2 by 35.5." (Oates.)

The above-described eggs were collected in Palawan, June 27,
by Whitehead.



144. GORSACHIUS GOISAGI (Temminck).

JAPANESE BITTERN.


    Nycticorax goisagi Temminck, Pl. Col. (1836), pl. 582.
    Gorsachius goisagi Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26,
    169; Hand-List (1899), 1, 199; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 34.

    Luzon (Heriot); Mindanao (Steere Exp.). Japan and Formosa.


"Adult.--Differs from G. melanolophus in its deep vinous-chestnut
head, which has a little shade of blackish on the forehead only; the
mantle is browner, and the upper surface generally never seems to be
free from dusky vermiculations; axillars black and rufous instead of
black and white, and no white tips to the outer primaries. Length,
457; culmen, 39; wing, 259; tail, 94; tarsus, 63.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in being browner and more uniform
on upper mantle and back, but with the wings much freckled with
rufous-buff; crown dusky blackish, inclining to dark vinous on the
neck. The young bird differs from the young of G. melanolophus by
the rufous tips to the primaries.

"The description of the young bird is taken from a bird procured by
Mr. Ringer at Nagasaki, which still retains some of the nestling
down on the head. Full-grown birds, exactly similar in plumage,
are in the collection from Luzon and Ayala in Mindanao. 'Bill green,
culmen black; legs and feet green; iris yellow.' (Moseley.)" (Sharpe.)



Genus BUTORIDES Blyth, 1849.

Size small, plumage dark; bill long and slender, much longer than
tarsus, the latter about equal to middle toe with claw; wing pointed,
primaries exceeding secondaries by about two-thirds of tarsus.



Species.


a1. Throat and cheek-stripes white and distinct; abdomen white.

  b1. Smaller; wing about 178 mm. ... javanica (p. 174)
  b2. Larger; wing about 200 mm. ... amurensis (p. 176)

a2. Throat and cheek-stripe ashy or brown not distinctly indicated;
abdomen rusty. ... spodiogaster (p. 176)



145. BUTORIDES JAVANICA (Horsfield).

JAVAN GREEN HERON.


    Ardea javanica Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13, pt. 1, 190.
    Butorides javanica Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 177;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 199; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898),
    4, 395, fig. 95 (head); McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 34.

    Ba-caú i-tim', Manila.

    Bongao (Everett); Cagayancillo (McGregor); Calamianes (Bourns &
    Worcester); Cebu (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Cuyo
    (McGregor); Dinagat (Everett); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Leyte
    (Everett); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Jagor, Everett, Bourns &
    Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.);
    Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow, Celestino); Mindoro (Bourns &
    Worcester, Everett, McGregor); Negros (Layard, Steere, Bourns &
    Worcester, Keay); Nipa (Everett); Palawan (Platen, Whitehead,
    Bourns & Worcester); Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Romblon (McGregor); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Semirara (Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester); Sulu (Guillemard); Tablas
    (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor). Southern China, Malay and Indian Peninsulas, Celebes,
    Ceylon, Mascarene and Greater Sunda Islands.


"Adult male.--Above light slaty gray, feathers of back with hoary,
white shaft-lines; long scapular-feathers green, or green with gray
tips; wing-coverts and quills dark green with ocherous-buff margins,
inclining to white on the edges of the greater-coverts and secondaries,
most of the quills being fringed with white at the ends; lower back,
rump, and upper tail-coverts dull green, more or less powdered with
gray; tail dull green; crown dark glossy green, with the nape feathers
produced into a point; hind neck and sides of neck gray, extending over
the sides of face and ear-coverts; below the eye a streak of greenish
black extending along the ear-coverts, along the upper part of which
runs a whitish streak from behind the eye to the level of the nape;
another streak of white from the base of the lower mandible along the
cheeks; throat, fore neck, and abdomen white; sides of body and flanks,
including the overhanging feathers on the sides of the upper breast,
slaty gray like the sides of the neck, leaving the center of throat
and fore neck white, slightly varied with dingy brown markings,
these markings being on the edges of the throat-feathers; axillars
and under wing-coverts gray, like the quill-lining. 'Upper mandible
black, with a longitudinal yellow streak along the margin below the
nostrils; grape greenish brown; lower mandible greenish yellow, more
or less black along the edges; facial skin green; legs and toes green,
front of tarsus and toes dusky, soles orange, and claws horn-color;
iris yellow.' (Oates.) Length, 483; culmen, 70; wing, 178; tail, 63;
tarsus, 51; middle toe with claw, 53.

"Adult female.--Exactly like the male, but a trifle more dingy,
especially in the throat markings, where the brown is a little more
distinct on the margins of the feathers. Length, 457; culmen, 61;
wing, 173; tail, 70; tarsus, 46; middle toe with claw, 51.

"Winter plumage.--Duller than in summer and much greener above,
without any gray shading; the head green.

"Young.--Brown above; the wing-coverts with triangular whitish or
sandy-buff spots at their ends; head black, streaked with ocherous-buff
shaft-lines; sides of face and under surface of body whitish, strongly
streaked with dusky-blackish margins to the feathers.

"The young bird is browner than the adults, with white mesial streaks
on the wing-coverts; crown of head dusky black; under surface of body
less gray and washed with brown." (Sharpe.)

"Extremely common. Found both along the seashore and about fresh-water
streams and lakes." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



146. BUTORIDES AMURENSIS (Schrenck).

AMUR GREEN HERON.


    Ardea virescens var. amurensis Schrenck, Reis. Amurl. (1860),
    1, 437.
    Butorides amurensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26,
    181; Hand-List (1899), 1, 200; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 34.

    Calayan (McGregor); Cebu (Everett, McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead);
    Palawan (Everett); Samar (Steere). Greater Sunda Islands, China,
    Japan, Celebes, Amurland.


Although in color this species seems to be exactly like B. javanica it
is much larger; the length of wing is particularly noticeable and the
bill is longer, and deeper. A male collected by Major Mearns measures:
Wing, 210; tail, 73; culmen from frontal feathers, 66; depth of bill at
posterior border of nostril, 15; tarsus, 54; middle toe with claw, 62.

A female from Calayan measures: Wing, 197; tail, 69; culmen from
frontal feathers, 64; depth of bill at posterior border of nostril,
13; tarsus, 52; middle toe with claw, 54.

Some of the records for B. javanica probably refer to the present
species but it is impossible to disentangle them.



147. BUTORIDES SPODIOGASTER Sharpe.

NICOBAR GREEN HERON.


    Butorides spodiogaster Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1894),
    3, 17; Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 182, pl. 2; Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 200; Mearns, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 353.

    Palawan (Mearns). Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


"Adult.--Similar to B. javanica, but darker gray on the under
surface, which is of a sooty-slate color with a slight tinge of
rusty on the abdomen, cheeks and ear-coverts uniform slate-color. It
much resembles B. stagnatilis, especially the birds from Flores,
but it is not so dingy underneath and has a less shade of rusty on
the abdomen. 'Bill black, lower portion of lower mandible, from base
to tip, edged pale horny; front of tarsus, toes, and claws brownish
green, bare portion of tibia and back of tarsus dirty greenish yellow;
naked skin round eye dull green, tinged with yellow in front; eyelids
deep green.' (Hume.) Length, 445; culmen, 60; wing, 193; tail, 53;
tarsus, 43." (Sharpe.)

This species differs from both B. javanica and amurensis in its much
darker color, particularly of the under parts which are nearly uniform
slate-gray; the white of chin and throat is much restricted and on the
fore breast is reduced to a few shaft-lines; all of the wing-coverts
are edged with dull rusty buff. The specimen collected by Mearns near
Palawan measures: Wing, 165; tail, 58; culmen from frontal feathers,
60; tarsus, 47; middle toe with claw, 50.



Genus BUBULCUS Bonaparte, 1854.


Non-breeding plumage all white; legs and nails black; primaries and
secondaries about equal in length; exposed culmen less than middle
toe with claw, the latter less than tarsus.



148. BUBULCUS COROMANDUS (Boddaert).

INDIAN CATTLE EGRET.


    Cancroma coromanda Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Eul. (1783), 54.
    Bubulcus coromandus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26,
    217; Hand-List (1899), 1, 202; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 130, pl. 5, fig. 2; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898),
    4, 389, fig. 92 (head); McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906),
    35; McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 322.

    Ta-gac' cal-a-bau, Manila; la-guac', Calayan; tá-bon, Bohol.

    Balabac (Steere Exp., Everett); Basilan (McGregor); Batan
    (McGregor); Bohol (Everett, McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Calayan
    (McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp.);
    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Jagor, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Steere Exp., Goodfellow);
    Mindoro (McGregor); Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Palawan (Steere, Everett, Whitehead, Platen, Steere Exp., Bourns
    & Worcester, White); Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Siquijor (Celestino); Sulu (Platen); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester);
    Ticao (McGregor). Eastern Siberia, Korea, China, Indian Peninsula,
    Ceylon; Indo-Chinese countries to Celebes and Moluccas.


Adult in breeding plumage.--White; head, neck, and fore breast golden
buff; long decomposed dorsal plumes delicate vinaceous-pink, washed
with brown; ends of the plumes on fore breast also vinaceous-pink. Iris
light lemon-yellow; bill and bare skin around eye chrome-yellow; legs
and nails black. A male from Mariveles, Luzon, measures: Length, 540;
wing, 265; tail, 98; exposed culmen, 63; tarsus, 95; middle toe with
claw, 89.

Young.--Pure white, without any ornamental plumes but with an orange
tinge on the crown.

Winter plumage.--Pure white, without any ornamental plumes.

This bird is often seen in large flocks and individuals alight
fearlessly on the backs of cattle; they often feed in plowed
fields. Several hundreds of cattle egrets nested in a patch of giant
grass near Guindulman, Bohol. Eggs obtained in June vary in length from
40 to 50 mm. and in width from 30 to 35. They are pale blue in color.



Genus IXOBRYCHUS Billberg, 1828. [18]


Small, wing 150 mm. or less; bill slender and sharp, plumage reddish
brown, cinnamon-rufous, and white with some mixture of black.



Species.


a1. Primaries black or blackish brown. ... sinensis (p. 178)
a2. Primaries cinnamon-rufous like back. ... cinnamomeus (p. 179)



149. IXOBRYCHUS SINENSIS (Gmelin).

LITTLE YELLOW BITTERN.


    Ardea sinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, pt. 2, 642.
    Ardetta sinensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 227;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 202; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 131;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 35.

    Ba-caú bing-ey, Manila; rat, Calayan.

    Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (Heriot, Whitehead, McGregor);
    Mindanao (Mearns, Goodfellow); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester); Sulu
    (Guillemard); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester). Japan, China, Korea,
    Indo-Chinese countries; Indian Peninsula; Malay Peninsula and
    islands to Australia in winter.


"Adult male.--Above earthy brown, slightly tinged with rufous, more
especially on the scapulars; wing-coverts clay-brown, greater series
rather paler on the edges; edge of wing white; alula, primary-coverts,
and quills black, slightly shaded with ashy; inner secondaries brown,
tinged with rufous; lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ashy
gray, the last somewhat darker; tail-feathers black; crown and nape
black; sides of face, ear-coverts, and sides of neck vinous, becoming
chestnut on the long frill-like feathers of the latter; throat white,
mesially streaked with yellowish buff, like the rest of under surface;
thighs more tawny-rufous; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts
white; on each side of upper breast a patch of dependent feathers,
of a blackish ground with yellowish-buff margins; under wing-coverts
and axillars pure white; quills slaty below, with paler gray at the
ends. 'Eyelids and facial skin green; upper mandible dark brown on
the culmen, and pinkish brown on the margins; lower mandible pinkish
brown, turning to green towards the tip; the toes and tibio-tarsal
joint pale yellow; tarsus dull flesh-color; claws horn-color; iris
yellow.' (Oates). Length, 394; culmen, 51; wing, 124; tail, 38;
tarsus, 44.

"Adult female.--Differs from the male in being more rufous above, the
feathers of the upper surface being rufous-brown with yellowish-buff
margins; the crown is black as in the male, the ear-coverts and
sides of the face are yellowish buff, and the neck-frill is also
washed with the latter color; the under surface of the body the
same as that of the male, but having the mesial lines more strongly
indicated by tawny-buff centers to the feathers of the throat and
fore neck. 'Upper mandible dark brown, lower one greenish yellow;
feet greenish yellow.' (Butler.) Length, 394; culmen, 53; wing, 132;
tail, 41; tarsus, 51.

"Young.--Similar to the old female and streaked in the same manner,
but distinguished by having wing-coverts broadly centered with dark
brown; crown streaked instead of being uniform; feathers black with
yellowish buff margins, and under surface of body much more distinctly
streaked, centers of the feathers being dark brown on throat and fore
neck; flank-feathers also streaked with brown." (Sharpe.)

"Extremely abundant about Lake Naujan, in Mindoro. It comes out on
the mud flats to feed, but promptly takes refuge among the reeds if
disturbed." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



150. IXOBRYCHUS CINNAMOMEUS (Gmelin).

CINNAMON BITTERN. [19]


    Ardea cinnamomea Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, pt. 2, 643.
    Ardetta cinnamomea Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 236;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 203; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898),
    4, 402, fig. 98 (head); Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 132;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 35.

    Ba-caú ca-né-lo, Manila.

    Bohol (McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (Bourns &
    Worcester); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Leyte (Everett); Luzon
    (Everett, Whitehead, McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Mindanao
    (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Mindoro (Steere Exp.,
    Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor, Porter); Palawan (Bourns
    & Worcester); Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Samar
    (Whitehead); Sibuyan (McGregor); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor). China,
    Eastern Siberia, Indian Peninsula, Indo-Malayan subregion;
    Celebes in winter.


"Adult male.--Entirely cinnamon-rufous above, including wings and tail;
sides of face and ear-coverts cinnamon-rufous; cheeks a little lighter
rufous; throat ashy white, with a median streak of tawny-rufous,
which extends down throat and fore neck, being streaked with blackish
longitudinal marks on the outer webs of the feathers; lower throat,
fore neck, breast, sides of body, and thighs tawny-rufous; abdomen
white; under tail-coverts tawny-buff; on sides of upper breast a
patch of dependent feathers, having black centers with tawny-buff
or rufous margins; under wing-coverts tawny-buff; axillars and
under surface of quills pale chestnut. 'Eyelids and facial skin
reddish purple; bill nearly all yellow, the culmen alone being dark
brown; legs and toes yellowish green; claws brown; iris yellow to
pale red.' (Oates.) Length, 279; culmen, 46; wing, 140; tail, 41;
tarsus, 48.

"Adult males in winter appear to be a little more dingy on the upper
parts than in summer, the head and back being shaded with grayish
brown.

"Adult female.--Mantle and back uniform dark brown; wing-coverts dingy
brown, but mottled with sandy-buff margins and checkered notches,
which appear also on scapulars and inner secondaries, and have also
subterminal markings of darker brown on many of the coverts; greater
coverts, primary-coverts, and quills chestnut, with a good deal
of dusky at base and on the inner webs, primary-coverts also dusky
towards the ends; tail-feathers dull chestnut; crown and nape dusky
brown; frilled feathers on the sides of neck brown in the center, with
yellowish margins; sides of face yellowish buff, streaked with brown;
whole of the under surface yellowish buff, very thickly streaked with
dark brown, sides of throat whiter, feathers composing the broad mesial
streak down the middle of throat and fore neck having a distinct rufous
shade; on each side of the upper breast a patch of dependent plumes,
black in the center with yellowish-buff margins; thighs chestnut; under
wing-coverts yellowish buff like the chest; axillars and quill-lining
dull chestnut, the feathers with a good deal of gray in them. 'Facial
skin, margins of upper mandible, and nearly the whole of the lower
mandible yellow, remainder of bill black; back of tarsus and soles
yellow; claws yellowish brown; iris yellow.' (Oates.) Length, 330;
culmen, 51; wing, 136; tail, 43; tarsus, 44.

"The young birds are very like the female, as determined by Mr. Oates
and myself, but the whole back is variegated with yellowish-buff spots
and markings, as well as the wings, so that the uniform brown mantle
is a sign of the adult female, and the spotted mantle of a young
bird. Mr. Everett gives the soft parts of a young female as follows:
'Legs and feet bright olive-green; bill greenish yellow at base,
the culmen of a dark olive-brown tint; iris golden yellow.'

"Considerable variation in the tint of the cinnamon plumage of this
species is observable in a series, and specimens from more southern
localities are decidedly the darker and richer in color." (Sharpe.)



Genus NANNOCNUS Stejneger, 1887.


Very similar to Ixobrychus but the lower part of tibia unfeathered
and the quills and tail-feathers blackish.



151. NANNOCNUS EURHYTHMUS (Swinhoe).

SCHRENCK'S BITTERN.


    Ardetta eurhythma Swinhoe, Ibis (1873), 74, pl. 2; Meyer and
    Wiglesworth, Birds of Celebes (1898), 2, 856, pl. 45.
    Nannocnus eurythmus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26,
    242; Hand-List (1899), 1, 203; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 133; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 35.

    Mindanao (Bourns & Worcester); Negros (Keay). Eastern Siberia,
    China, Japan, Borneo, Celebes.


"Adult male.--Above chestnut-brown; lesser wing-coverts and feathers
round bend of wing also chestnut-brown; alula-feathers chestnut,
outer ones blackish internally, with white on the outer margins;
remainder of wing-coverts olive-clay-color, ashy near the ends of
the feathers, innermost greater-coverts chestnut like scapulars;
innermost secondaries also washed with chestnut, remainder of quills
and primary-coverts ashy brown, paler at the tips, which are fringed
with whitish, the first primary margined with ocherous; tail dark
brown; crown and nape dusky brown; sides of face, ear-coverts, and
neck-frill maroon; a broad band of white running from the middle
of the cheeks down the sides of the neck; fore part of cheeks,
throat, and under surface of body ocherous-buff; under tail-coverts,
under wing-coverts, and axillars white; on the throat some slight
indications of longitudinal dusky spots; feathers of the fore neck
elongated; on each side of chest a patch of black feathers with
ocherous margins. 'Bill blackish brown on culmen, yellowish brown
on the rest, darker on the sides of upper mandible near tomia,
light on sides of lower and on gonys; cere and bare skin round eye
purplish flesh-color, ringed with green; legs and toes grass-green,
yellow near the tarso-tibial joint and on the under surface of
the tarsus; soles clay-colored; claws light yellowish brown; iris
straw-color.' (Swinhoe.) Length, 305; culmen, 50; wing, 150; tail,
39; tarsus, 51.

"Adult female.--Different from the male. Dusky reddish brown,
spotted all over with ocherous-buff, the feathers externally spotted
or notched with this color; wing-coverts like the back, but largely
edged and spotted with ocherous; head like the back; sides of face
dull chestnut, with a band of white from the hinder cheeks down the
sides of the neck; under surface of body ocherous-buff, plentifully
streaked with blackish brown, tinged with rufous; the lower abdomen
and under tail-coverts whiter; under wing-coverts deep ocherous, with
ashy bases; a patch of brown feathers at the sides of the breast,
all edged with ocherous. Length, 305; culmen, 49; wing, 140; tail,
29; tarsus, 48.

"Young.--Like the old female, but blackish brown above, the
wing-coverts maroon-chestnut, and all the upper parts spotted
with white instead of ocherous. 'Bill bright yellow, tinged
with green; culmen black; feet yellowish green; iris golden
yellow.' (Everett.)" (Sharpe.)

"A single specimen secured by us while with the Steere Expedition
has been identified by Grant as Ardetta eurythma." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



Genus DUPETOR Heine and Reichenbach, 1890.


This genus appears to be very near Ixobrychus but it may be recognized
by the blackish or slate-colored upper parts.



152. DUPETOR FLAVICOLLIS (Latham).

BLACK BITTERN.


    Ardea flavicollis Latham, Index Ornith. (1790), 2, 701.
    Dupetor flavicollis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26,
    247; Hand-List (1899), 1, 203; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 133; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 36.

    Cebu (Bourns & Worcester); Luzon (Heriot); Marinduque (Steere
    Exp.); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp., Goodfellow); Negros
    (Keay). Celebes, Ceylon, Malay and Indian Peninsulas, Indo-Chinese
    countries, Greater Sunda Islands, southern and central China.


"Adult male.--Above dark slaty gray, feathers of back and scapulars
somewhat pointed and with a slight hoary gloss; wings and tail
blackish, glossed with slate-color on the coverts, and with green on
some of the latter and on the quills; crown and crest-plumes slaty
gray; sides of face and cheeks black, the latter slightly mottled
with rufous; from the hinder part of the cheeks a band of golden
straw-color runs down the sides of the neck, the lower feathers being
elongated; throat and fore neck prettily variegated with chestnut,
black, and white, the chestnut predominating on the outer webs of the
feathers and the white on the inner webs, with a longitudinal streak
of black at the end of the latter, the long overlapping feathers on
the sides of the chest being slaty gray with white margins, so that
the general appearance of the throat and chest is streaked; remainder
of under surface of body slaty gray, including the under wing-coverts,
axillars, and quill-lining. 'Bill dusky reddish brown, lighter below;
facial skin purplish brown; eyelids bluish; feet dark brown; claws
dark horn-color; iris golden brown or pale red.' (Oates). Length, 508;
culmen, 84; wing, 203; tail, 63; tarsus, 67; middle toe with claw, 76.

"Adult female.--Does not differ from the male. Length, 508; culmen,
31; wing, 203; tail, 68; tarsus, 66; middle toe with claw, 74.

"The slaty gray shade in the plumage appears to be a sign of the
breeding season, as some of the winter specimens are black with a
greenish gloss on the upper surface.

"Young birds are much browner than the adults, and can immediately
be recognized by their more freckled appearance, the feathers of the
upper surface having ochraceous margins. The mottling of the rufous
on the neck is much as in the adult birds but there is more white and
less rufous, and the chest-feathers are much more broadly edged with
white; the breast is dusky brown as well as the sides of the body; the
abdomen is white; the sides of the face and ear-coverts are chestnut,
with a little streak of white at the base of the mandible.

"Nestling.--Similar in color to the young bird described above, but
very much shaded with rufous, and having a great deal of rufous on the
sides of the face; the crown covered with down of an ocherous color,
the throat and chest very rufous." (Sharpe.)



Genus BOTAURUS Stephens, 1819.


The genus Botaurus is distinguished by its large size, comparatively
short and stout bill and heavy legs; culmen much less than tarsus,
the latter less than middle toe with claw; secondaries and scapulars
nearly or quite as long as primaries.



153. BOTAURUS STELLARIS (Linnæus).

COMMON BITTERN.


    Ardea stellaris Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 144.
    Botaurus stellaris Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 253;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 204; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898),
    4, 405, fig. 99 (head); Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 134;
    McGregor, Bur. Government Laboratories (1905), 34, 29; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 36.

    Luzon (Babbitt). Temperate Palaearctic region, northwestern India,
    Burma, China.


"Adult male.--Above tawny-yellow and black, the latter predominating
and occupying the center of the feathers, the sides of which are
tawny-buff, freckled and irregularly barred with black; lower back,
rump, and upper tail-coverts pale tawny-buff, mottled with bars or
cross-lines of dusky brown; marginal wing-coverts rufous, regularly
barred across with black; median and greater coverts tawny-buff,
with irregular bars or arrow-shaped markings of blackish brown, much
less pronounced on the greater coverts, all of which have a rufescent
tinge near the base; alula, primary-coverts, and quills blackish,
barred with rufous, the bars somewhat broken up on the inner webs
of the quills, which are also paler; the inner secondaries like the
scapulars, being tawny-buff on their edges and mottled in a similar
manner; tail-feathers tawny-buff, irregularly mottled with black bars
or cross-markings, more pronounced on the middle of the feathers;
crown of head uniform black, with a frill of erectile plumes on the
nape, these being tipped with tawny-buff, and the pale tips crossed
with lines of black; eyebrow, sides of face, and sides of the neck
tawny-buff, the eyebrow uniform except on the under edge, where the
feathers are barred with black; ear-coverts scarcely marked at all,
but the plumes of the sides of the neck narrowly barred with black,
and elongated into a frill which covers the hind neck, the latter
being clothed in dense down of a tawny-buff-color; the feathers below
the eye, and a streak along the cheeks and down the sides of the neck,
black; malar line of feathers and throat creamy white, with a central
line of reddish buff feathers slightly mottled with black bases; the
lower throat also creamy white, with four or five tolerably defined
broad lines of tawny-buff and black-mottled feathers; the lower part of
the ruff on the fore neck with narrow wavy lines of black; the breast
covered with down of a tawny-buff-color, and hidden by a large patch
of loose plumes on each side of the chest, which are mostly black
with tawny-buff margins; remainder of under surface creamy white,
streaked with black centers to the feathers, the black markings
slightly broken up with mottlings of tawny-buff; thighs and under
tail-coverts with scarcely any markings whatever; under wing-coverts
and axillars tawny-buff, the former narrowly lined with blackish, the
axillars more distinctly barred with dusky blackish. 'Bill greenish
yellow; legs and feet yellowish green; claws dark brown; iris yellow;
bare space before the eye yellowish green.' (Seebohm.) Length, about
610; culmen, 69; wing, 330; tail 112; tarsus, 96.

"Two of the three specimens collected by Mr. Robert Bergman at Yokohama
are apparently young birds and have the primary-coverts and quills
almost uniform, with a certain amount of rufous mottlings confined
to the inner webs; in this state of plumage B. stellaris has a great
resemblance to B. poeciloptilus but is always to be distinguished
from the last-named bird by the tawny-colored frill on the sides of
the neck, instead of the smoky brown one peculiar to the Australian
bird." (Sharpe.)



Order ANSERIFORMES.

DUCKS AND GEESE.


Bill stout, compressed at base, flattened at tip, which is blunt
or rounded or rarely spatulate (Spatula), and covered with soft,
leathery membrane except the hard overhanging "nail" at tip; nostril
from subbasal to subterminal, open and usually oval; neck small and
usually long; body compact, heavy, flattened, densely covered with
short feathers; wings stiff, strong, and rather pointed; tail usually
short and rounded and fairly stiff, never forked and but rarely long
and pointed (Dafila); legs short; toes stout and palmate; hind toe
simple or lobate. Eggs six to one dozen or more, white, cream-color,
or light buff; nest usually lined with down from the breast of the
old bird; young covered with down and able to swim at birth. [20]



Family ANATIDÆ.


Characters same as those given for the Order.



Subfamilies.


a1. Smaller; culmen less than 25 mm.; throat, breast, and abdomen
white. ... Plectropterinæ (p. 185)
a2. Larger; culmen more than 32 mm.; throat, breast, and abdomen not
uniform in color.

  b1. Head, neck, and breast not of a uniform color; no occipital
  crest. ... Anatinæ (p. 187)
  b2. Head, neck, and breast brownish black, in adult male glossy
  black; adult male with a pointed occipital crest. ... Marilinæ
  (p. 197)



Subfamily PLECTROPTERINÆ.

Genus NETTAPUS Brandt, 1836.


Members of this genus are distinguished by their small size and short
stout bill.



154. NETTAPUS COROMANDELIANUS (Gmelin).

INDIAN DWARF GOOSE.


    Anas coromandeliana Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, pt. 2, 522.
    Nettopus coromandelianus Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895),
    27, 68; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 433, fig. 110
    (head); Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 209; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1902), 2, 144; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 36.

    Pa-ti-kí, Manila.

    Luzon (Zelebor, Worcester, McGregor). Indian Peninsula, Burmese
    countries, Greater Sunda Islands, China, Celebes.


"Adult male in summer.--Forehead, crown, and nape hair-brown, the
former darkest; remainder of head, whole neck, and lower plumage
white; a broad collar round the neck black in front, glossy green
behind; white of breast produced round the neck and forming another
collar below the black one; back, scapulars, rump, tertiaries, and
wing-coverts deep glossy green; secondaries glossy green, broadly
tipped with white; primaries dark brown on the basal halves, then
white with the tip black; under wing-coverts greenish black; upper
tail-coverts white freckled with brown; under tail-coverts dark brown
mottled with white; sides of the body vermiculated with brown. 'Bill
black; iris bright red; legs, toes, and webs black, sides of tarsus
and toes dusky yellow; claws horny brown.' (Oates.) Length, 330;
wing, 165; tail, 76; culmen, 23; tarsus, 25.

"Female.--Forehead and a supercilium dirty white; crown and nape
dark brown; lores and line through eyes blackish; remainder of head,
the whole neck, and upper breast dull white, mottled with brown,
the marks on breast and hind neck becoming well-defined wavy lines;
lower plumage dull white, streaked and distinctly barred with brown;
whole upper surface, wings, and tail brown; secondaries tipped with
white and inner primaries also more narrowly tipped with white; upper
tail-coverts white, freckled with brown; under wing-coverts brown,
each feather margined with white. 'Bill brown above, yellowish below;
iris brown; legs and toes greenish yellow.' (Oates.) Size a trifle
less than the male.

"Male in winter.--Similar to the female, but always retains the
conspicuous white patch on the primaries.

"Young.--'Similar to the female till the first spring.' (Oates.)

"Young in down.--Upper parts, flanks, and under tail-coverts blackish
brown; a broad superciliary stripe, cheeks, throat, front neck, and
breast white; a broad line through the eyes; two broad white spots
on each side of back, one near the base of wings, and the other,
much longer, on the sides of the rump; feathers of tail blackish,
very long, and stiff." (Salvadori.)

A male collected near Anao, Tarlac Province, Luzon, March 14, 1904,
measured, 290 in length; wing, 165; tail, 68; culmen from frontal
feathers, 21; tarsus, 27; middle toe with claw, 42. A female from
the same locality and of the same date measured: Length, 290; wing,
165; tail, 66; culmen from frontal feathers, 22; tarsus, 23; middle
toe with claw, 39.

"The eggs of the Indian dwarf goose, or 'cotton teal,' are generally
truly elliptical in form, occasionally compressed at the smaller end,
very smooth and glossy, and cream-color. They measure from 39 to 44
in length and from 30 to 35 in breadth." (Oates.)

This little bird is the only species of goose so far recorded from
the Islands; it occurs on the Laguna de Bay and a few specimens
were secured in Tarlac Province, Luzon. Oates lists three eggs of
this species as having been collected in Siquijor by the Steere
Expedition but Steere does not mention the species. A large goose
has been reported as occurring in the northern part of Luzon but no
specimen has been taken.



Subfamily ANATINÆ.

Genera.


a1. Bill not spatulate.

  b1. Central tail-feathers not greatly lengthened.

    c1. No wing-speculum; lower portion of tarsi with small reticulate
    scales in front. ... Dendrocygna (p. 187)
    c2. Wing-speculum present; lower portion of tarsi with transverse
    scutella in front.

      d1. Larger; bill broader; culmen more than 50 mm.

        e1. Bill uniform blackish. ... Anas (p. 189)
        e2. Bill with a broad yellow band at the tip. ... Polionetta
        (p. 190)

      d2. Smaller; bill narrower; culmen less than 45 mm.

        e1. Larger; wing more than 230 mm. ... Mareca (p. 191)
        e2. Smaller; wing less than 215 mm.

          f1. Secondary-coverts brown; greater part of head and neck
          chestnut in adult. ... Nettion (p. 192)
          f2. Secondary-coverts blue-gray; head and neck not
          chestnut. ... Querquedula (p. 195)

  b2. Central tail-feathers greatly lengthened. ... Dafila (p. 194)

a2. Bill flattened and spatulate. ... Spatula (p. 196)



Genus DENDROCYGNA Swainson, 1837.



General color largely blackish and reddish or yellowish brown; breast
more or less spotted; no bright colored speculum nor white wing-patch;
inner web of first primary deeply scooped near its middle; next three
quills slightly emarginate.



Species.


a1. Wing-coverts deep chestnut.

  b1. Fore part of head white. ... viduata  [21]
  b2. Fore part of head brown; breast rufous-chestnut with small
  black spots. ... arcuata (p. 187)

a2. Wing-coverts blackish brown; breast and sides marked with round
white spots. ... guttulata (p. 189)



155. DENDROCYGNA ARCUATA (Horsfield).

WANDERING TREE DUCK.


    Anas arcuata Horsfield, Zool. Res. in Java (1822), pl. 65.
    Dendrocygna arcuata Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27,
    153; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 158.
    Dendrocygna arcuata Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 214; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 37.

    Ba-li'-uis, Luzon; ná-ga, Ticao; ga-kit', Bohol.

    Bantanyan (McGregor); Basilan (Steere Exp., McGregor); Bohol
    (Everett, McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Catanduanes
    (Whitehead); Cebu (Everett); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Leyte
    (Everett); Luzon (Cuming, Worcester, McGregor); Masbate (Bourns
    & Worcester); Mindanao (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Mindoro
    (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Negros (Clarke MS.) [22]; Panay
    (Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Jagor, Steere Exp., Whitehead);
    Sibuyan (McGregor); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Celestino); Ticao (McGregor). Indo-Malayan Islands, Moluccas,
    Celebes, New Guinea, Australia, Oceania.


"Adult male and female.--Upper part of head and a line down back of
neck brown-black; sides of head and neck pale fulvous; throat almost
white; back and scapulars black, with the edges bright rufous-chestnut,
on upper back the black part of the feathers with rufous spots or bars;
rump black; median upper tail-coverts black, lateral ones buffy white,
more or less spotted with black; breast pale rufous, each feather
with black dots or crescent-like spots in the middle, and shading
into the bright rufous-chestnut of abdomen; lower abdomen and under
tail-coverts whitish buff, the latter uniform, but the abdomen with
brown spots; feathers of flanks with broad mesial buffy white streaks,
edged with black; lesser and median wing-coverts bright chestnut,
the greater ones, quills, and tail black. Iris brown; bill blackish
or dark ashy; tarsi and feet dark ashy. Length, about 432; wing, 216;
tail, 71; culmen, 43; tarsus, 47." (Salvadori.)

A male from Sevilla, Bohol, March 22, 1906, measures: Length, 424;
wing, 188; tail, 56; exposed culmen, 41; tarsus, 45; middle toe with
claw, 71.

A female of the same locality and date measures: Length, 424; wing,
175; tail, 58; exposed culmen, 42; tarsus, 46; middle toe with
claw, 66.

A young bird from Taguig, Laguna de Bay, January 12, 1902, (length of
skin 305 mm.) has upper parts covered with dark gray down and lower
parts covered with white down; on crown, scapulars, breast, sides,
and flanks the feathers of the adult dress are more or less developed.

"The eggs of the wandering tree duck in the collection are almost
elliptical in shape, one end being very slightly compressed. They
are cream-colored and have a fair amount of gloss. Four specimens
measure respectively: 52 by 38; 48.2 by 35.5; 47.4 by 38; 48.2 by
36.3." (Oates.)

"Common in favorable localities throughout the islands. Frequently met
with in very large flocks. Found breeding in the Island of Siquijor
in the month of February." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

This tree duck is usually found in large flocks on lakes and
fresh-water marsh-land. When flushed the flock circles about and
generally the birds can be killed without the precautions which are
usually necessary in duck-shooting. A hard-shelled egg was taken from
a bird killed on the Laguna de Bay in January. Oates records two eggs
collected by Moseley in May.



156. DENDROCYGNA GUTTULATA Wallace.

SPOTTED TREE DUCK.


    Dendrocygna guttulata Wallace, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1863), 36;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 215; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 37.
    Dendrocygna guttata Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27,
    164, pl. 1.

    Basilan (McGregor); Mindanao (Platen). Celebes, Moluccas, New
    Guinea, Tenimber Islands.


"Adult male and female.--Upper part of head dark brown; a black
line along hind neck; back and wings dusky brown; feathers of back,
scapulars, and wing-coverts edged with pale brown; lores brown;
superciliary stripe, sides of head, and upper part of neck grayish,
with dusky cross-lines, giving a mottled appearance; chin and
throat uniform whitish; lower part of neck dusky with white spots;
rump brown; upper tail-coverts black, basal ones broadly barred with
white; upper breast rufous-brown, each feather with a white spot at
the tip; lower breast and abdomen whitish, with faint dusky lines
across; feathers of flanks with large, white, round spots, the longer
feathers are almost barred with black; under tail-coverts whitish,
with black bars; quills brown; tail almost black. 'Bill black;
tarsi and feet ashy, more or less tinged with reddish; iris brown
or chestnut.' (D'Albertis.) Length, about 432; wing, 215; tail, 74;
culmen, 41; tarsus, 41.

"'Young.--Feathers of the flanks paler and with the white spots
elongated and lanceolated.' (Schlegel.)" (Salvadori.)

A male from Basilan, December 26, 1906, measures: Length, 444;
wing, 216; tail, 67; exposed culmen, 45; tarsus, 45; middle toe with
claw, 71.

Of the earlier collectors Platen was the only one to secure this tree
duck in the Philippines; more recently it has been taken in Basilan
but it appears to be a rare species.



Genus ANAS Linnæus, 1758.


Bill of moderate length, the sides nearly parallel; wings long and
pointed; a wide band of metallic color across the secondaries forming
the speculum; tail pointed but not of great length.



157. ANAS LUZONICA Fraser.

PHILIPPINE MALLARD.


    Anas luzonica Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1839), 113; Salvadori,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27, 205; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899),
    1, 216; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 37.

    Du-ma-ras', Manila; da-mu-l'og, Ticao.

    Catanduanes (Whitehead); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Lubang (McGregor);
    Luzon (Cuming, Jagor, Heriot, Whitehead, McGregor, Worcester);
    Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns and Worcester); Mindanao
    (Mearns); Mindoro (McGregor); Panay (Bourns & Worcester); Samar
    (Whitehead); Siquijor (Steere Exp.); Ticao (McGregor).


"Adult male and female.--General plumage brownish gray, almost uniform,
without any dark markings in the center of the feathers; upper part
of head and upper part of nape blackish brown; superciliary stripe,
sides of head, throat, and sides of upper part of neck rufous;
a blackish brown band runs across the eyes from lores to occiput;
back dark gray, changing into brown on rump and upper tail-coverts;
wing-speculum glossy green, bounded anteriorly by a velvety black
band at the tip of greater wing-coverts and by a narrower white one
at the tip of the last row of median upper wing-coverts; posteriorly
the speculum is bounded by a velvety black, subapical band, and by
a narrow, apical, white band; under wing-coverts and axillars white;
under parts brownish gray, deepening into brown on under tail-coverts;
tail brown; colors of the bill and feet not recorded, but apparently
dark olive. Length, about 500; wing, 250; tail, 114; culmen, 51;
tarsus, 43.

"Young.--Similar to the adults, only much paler on the head and throat,
which are scarcely tinged with rufous; the speculum less bright,
and with some purple reflections." (Salvadori.)

Iris brown; bill dark blackish blue, its nail black; legs and claws
dark brown. A male from Luzon measures: Length, 635; wing, 262;
tail, 114; exposed culmen, 51; bill from nostril, 40; tarsus, 43;
middle toe with claw, 63.

The Philippine mallard does not often occur in large numbers; usually,
however, it may be found in pairs in tide creeks, small ponds, or
other suitable localities.

"We found this fine mallard to be rare in all the localities visited by
us with the single exception of the region about the town of Milagros,
on the west coast of the Island of Masbate. In the last-mentioned
district it was very abundant, occurring in great flocks." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)

"Extraordinarily abundant on the Abulug River in northern Luzon in
March, 1906. Flocks of twenty-five to two hundred were constantly
met with on the lower river." (Worcester.)



Genus POLIONETTA Oates, 1899.


A wide yellow band across the tip of bill, otherwise like Anas from
which it is scarcely separable.



158. POLIONETTA ZONORHYNCHA (Swinhoe).

ZONE-BILLED DUCK.


    Anas zonorhyncha Swinhoe, Ibis (1866), 394; Salvadori, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1895), 27, 211.
    Polionetta zonorhyncha Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 217; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 37.

    Calayan (McGregor). Eastern Siberia, Mongolia, China, Japan,
    Kurile Islands.


"Adult male.--Upper part of head and a broad stripe from lores through
eyes to some distance behind them dark brown; superciliary stripe,
sides of head, and throat whitish; from gape toward eyes a slightly
indicated dusky band, formed by dusky streaks; upper parts brown,
back and scapulars paler, with edges of feathers pale grayish; rump
and upper tail-feathers uniform dark brown; lower part of fore neck
and upper breast dull whitish buff, with centers of the feathers
dusky; lower breast and abdomen almost uniform brown, deepening into
black-brown on under tail-coverts; wings brown; speculum glossy blue,
more or less with a green luster, bordered anteriorly and posteriorly
by two velvety black bands; tips of the secondaries narrowly edged
with white; tertials brown, with only the apical part of outer web
white; tail brown, the edges of the feathers whitish. 'Bill black,
with the apical portion, except the tip of the nail, yellow, no red
spots at base; feet light bright red, the web slightly dusky; iris
yellowish brown.' (Holst.) Length, about 580; wing, 295; tail, 117;
culmen, 56; tarsus, 44.

"Female.--Smaller and paler, the feathers of the breast for a greater
extension than in the male having broader whitish edges.

"Young.--Paler even than the female, with smaller dusky spots on the
under parts; edges of upper wing-coverts pale; a broad subapical white
band across the greater wing-coverts, and the outer web of tertials
for the most part white." (Salvadori.)

On December 7, 1903, a dozen birds of this species were observed in
Calayan. A female, the only specimen killed, measured 560 in length;
wing, 267; tail, 99; exposed culmen, 53; bill from nostril, 42;
tarsus, 44; middle toe with claw, 37. Bill jet-black with a broad
tip of bright yellow; most of the nail black; iris tan-brown; legs
and feet light salmon; nails black; webs dusky.



Genus MARECA Stephens, 1824.


Bill small, shorter than head, depressed and slightly narrowing toward
tip, nail large; wings long and pointed.



159. MARECA PENELOPE (Linnæus).

EUROPEAN WIGEON.


    Anas penelope Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 126.
    Mareca penelope Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27, 227;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 218; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 168; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 37.

    Basilan (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (Worcester); Mindanao
    (Celestino). Palaearctic Region from Iceland to Kamtschatka,
    in winter to Madeira, Abyssinia, Persia, northern India, Burma,
    China, Japan, Borneo; occurs as a straggler in the Marshall
    Islands and North America.


"Adult male.--Forehead and top of head buff, rest of the head and
neck cinnamon, minutely spotted, especially round the eyes, with
bottle-green; chin and throat more or less black; mantle, back,
and scapulars gray, crossed with irregular zigzag lines of black;
central tail-feathers paler, almost whitish; lateral tail-feathers
like the under tail-coverts, black; lower fore neck and sides of breast
vinaceous; middle of breast and abdomen white; sides, flanks, and under
wing-coverts gray, with zigzag lines like the back; wing-coverts white,
the largest tipped with black; primaries uniform dark brown; outer webs
of secondaries green, forming a speculum, edged with black; black outer
webs of secondaries broadly edged with white; tail-feathers elongated,
pointed, and nearly black. Iris dark brown; bill bluish lead-color,
tipped with black; legs, toes, and their membranes dark brown. Length,
457; wing, 267; tail, 117; culmen, 39; tarsus, 39.

"Female.--Head and neck pale reddish brown, speckled with blackish;
upper parts brown, each feather with pale whitish edges; edges of
scapulars reddish brown; breast and sides reddish brown; under surface
white; under tail-coverts white, with irregular brown bars or spots;
primaries dark brown, secondaries dull black, slightly tipped with
white; wing-coverts like back, but the larger ones tipped with white;
tail dull grayish brown. Iris brown; bill bluish black.

"Young male.--Resembles more or less the female." (Salvadori.)

A male taken in Calayan in November measures: Length, 840; wing,
260; tail, 104; exposed culmen, 37. A specimen from Basilan is in
very poor plumage.



Genus NETTION Kaup, 1829.


The members of this genus differ from Anas chiefly in being of smaller
size and in having the bill narrower and shorter.



160. NETTION CRECCA (Linnæus).

EUROPEAN TEAL.


    Anas crecca Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 126.
    Nettion crecca Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27, 243;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 38.
    Nettium crecca Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4,
    443, fig. 114 (head); Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 218; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 169.

    Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead); Mindoro
    (? Platen). Palaearctic Region, wintering in northern Africa,
    in Arabia, Persia, India, Ceylon, Burmah, China and Japan;
    accidental in Greenland and eastern United States.


"Adult male.--Head and upper neck chestnut; a glossy green patch on
each side of the head from the eyes backward to upper nape; a narrow
buffy line from the gape upward along the base of the upper mandible
and from thence to the eye, bordering above and below the anterior
part of the green patch; chin black; hind neck, back, and scapulars
with narrow gray and black wavy lines; outer scapulars buff, broadly
edged with black on the outer web; upper tail-coverts black, edged
with buffish brown; on the middle of the neck a collar of whitish
and black cross-lines; breast and abdomen white, the former with
round subapical black spots; sides and flanks waved with narrow black
lines; central under tail-coverts velvet-black, the lateral ones of
a buff-color, with a band of black at the base; upper wing-coverts
lead-gray, the greater row whitish buff, darker toward the inner ones;
wing-speculum on the secondaries velvety black, with a white apical
band on the outer half, glossy green on the inner half; first tertial
velvet-black on the outer web; primaries and tail-feathers grayish
brown, the later with pale edges; under wing-coverts gray, edged with
white, the central ones and the axillars wholly white. Bill nearly
black; iris hazel; legs, toes, and membranes brownish gray. Length,
368; wing, 184; tail, 76; culmen, 40; tarsus, 28.

"Female.--General color of the upper parts dark brown, each feather
with reddish brown edges; upper part of the head darker than the
sides, which are whitish, thickly speckled with black; a black line
behind the eyes; chin and throat whitish; the feathers of the back
and scapulars with two, narrow, transverse, bars of buffy brown;
under parts whitish, with a reddish tinge on the breast, each feather,
except those of the belly, with obscure dark centers; wing as in the
male but somewhat duller.

"Young in first plumage closely resembles the female, but the
wing-coverts have pale edgings, and the dark centers of the feathers
appear also on the belly.

"Males in molting plumage resemble the adult females.

"'Nestling yellowish white on under parts, buff on forehead and throat;
a dark brown streak from the forehead to crown, which with the upper
parts is brown; a dark loral streak, and two other streaks from behind
eye to nape on each side.' (Yarrell.)" (Salvadori.)



Genus DAFILA Stephens, 1824.


This well-marked genus may be recognized by its elongate form, long
neck, and long pointed middle tail-feathers.



161. DAFILA ACUTA (Linnæus).

PIN-TAIL DUCK.


    Anas acuta Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 126.
    Dafila acuta Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27, 270;
    Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 447, fig. 116 (head);
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 219; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 172; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 38.

    Luzon (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor). Northern
    Hemisphere, breeding in the northern parts; south in winter to
    northern Africa, India, Ceylon, China, and Japan and in America
    to Panama and Cuba.


"Adult male.--Head and upper neck plain hair-brown, darker on crown,
and faintly glossed on sides of occiput with purple; upper half of
hind neck black, with a white stripe on each side, confluent with the
white of lower neck and breast; lower hind neck grayish brown; back,
sides, and flanks waved with gray and dusky; upper tail-coverts black,
the median broadly edged with gray; longer scapulars velvety black,
edged with whitish; wing-coverts uniform brownish gray, the last row
broadly tipped with cinnamon, producing a distinct bar; primaries
brownish gray, darker toward the tip; speculum varying from dull
metallic green to bronzy purple, tipped with white, and crossed by a
subterminal bar of velvety black; inner quill of the speculum velvety
black with a white band along the inner part of outer web; tertials
gray, marked with a velvety black median stripe; abdomen whitish,
dusted with gray, lower flanks with a buff tinge; under tail-coverts
black, the outer ones white on the outer web; central tail-feathers
long, acuminate, and black, remainder of tail-feathers dusky gray,
edged with whitish. Bill blackish, with the sides dull lead-blue; feet
grayish black; iris dark brown. Length, from 610 to 760; wing, 280;
middle tail-feathers, 184 to 240; culmen, 47 to 55; tarsus, 39 to 47.

"'Adult female.--Above grayish dusky, varied with irregular bars
of yellowish white or pale ochraceous; head and neck whitish buff,
each feather, except on throat, streaked with blackish; lower parts
dingy white, flanks, abdomen, and under tail-coverts streaked with
dusky; wing brown, smaller wing-coverts tipped with whitish; greater
wing-coverts and secondaries tipped with white, forming two white bars
across the wing, but the space between them dull brown, mottled with
black, without any metallic gloss of any kind.' (Seebohm.) Tail brown
with oblique buffish spots or bars. Length, 533 to 597; wing, 244 to
256; middle tail-feathers, 114 to 127; culmen, 46 to 53; tarsus, 42.

"'Young in first plumage closely resembles adult females, but young
males may always be distinguished by having an alar speculum.

"'Males in first nuptial plumage have pale margins to the wing-coverts,
and most of the feathers of the rump are broadly barred, instead of
finely vermiculated, with white.

"'Adult males in molting plumage may be distinguished from adult
females by having an alar speculum, and being richer and darker
in color.

"'Young in down have the same pale spots on the upper parts as those
of the mallard, but the white on the throat and belly is slightly
suffused with gray instead of buff, and in addition to the dark lines
passing through the eye, a second dark line passes from the lores
below the eye to the nape.' (Seebohm.)

"According to some ornithologists, European specimens differ very
appreciably from North American in having a narrower speculum,
but I have failed to find that there is any appreciable
difference." (Salvadori.)

"Found in very large flocks on Manila Bay during January and February
but wild and difficult to kill." (Worcester.)



Genus QUERQUEDULA Oken, 1817.


This genus is very much like Nettion but the bill is broader, and
instead of being of the same width throughout, is wider toward the tip;
the nail also is broader.



162. QUERQUEDULA QUERQUEDULA (Linnæus).

ASIATIC BLUE-WINGED TEAL.


    Anas querquedula Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 126.
    Querquedula circia Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27,
    293; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 449, fig. 117
    (head).
    Querquedula querquedula Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 220; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 175; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 38.

    Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (McGregor). Northern Europe and northern
    Asia, wintering in northeastern Africa, Indian Peninsula, China,
    and Malay Archipelago.


"Adult male.--Upper part of head and occiput brown-black; from above
eyes, on each side of head, a whitish band, extending to the sides
of occiput; sides of head and upper part of neck chocolate-brown,
streaked with white; chin black; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts
blackish, each feather edged with grayish olive; scapulars elongated
and pointed, black, with a central stripe of white; breast with brown
and black crescentic bands, producing a scaly-like appearance; lower
breast white; abdomen, sides, and flanks white, waved with narrow
blue lines; longer feathers of the flanks bounded by a subapical white
band, and a bluish gray band at the tip; sides of the rump and under
tail-coverts whitish, with black spots; upper wing-coverts and outer
scapulars bluish gray; wing-speculum on the secondaries glossy green,
bounded anteriorly by a white band formed by the greater wing-coverts,
and posteriorly by another white band at the tip of the secondaries;
primaries and tail-feathers brown, the latter edged with whitish;
under wing-coverts dark gray, the central ones, like the axillars,
white. Bill black, iris hazel; legs, toes, and their membranes grayish
brown. Length, about 406; wing, 197; tail, 70; culmen, 41; tarsus, 30.

"Female.--Upper parts dark brown, each feather with a pale margin;
broad superciliary stripe whitish; a dusky band behind eyes; sides
of head and neck whitish, streaked with black; chin and throat
white; feathers of the lower fore neck blackish, with whitish edges;
breast and abdomen white; sides, vent, and under tail-coverts white,
with brown-black spots; wings grayish brown; a dull metallic green
speculum, bounded anteriorly and posteriorly by two white bands; under
wing-coverts brown, margined with white, the greater ones pure gray,
the central ones, like the axillars, white. Size smaller than that
of the male.

"Young in first plumage resemble the females, but are darker and more
suffused with rufous on the breast.

"'Adult males in molting plumage closely resemble adult females,
but are darker in color, and may be distinguished by the brighter
alar speculum.' (Seebohm.)

"'Downy nestling resembles that of the mallard, but it is smaller,
and has a broad unbroken buff streak above the eye, and a well-defined
dark streak through the eye.' (Yarrell.)" (Salvadori.)

In immature plumage this species is likely to be confounded with
Nettion crecca and must be determined with care. The adult males of
the two species are very different.



Genus SPATULA Boie, 1822.


This genus is characterized by the peculiar bill which is twice as
wide near the tip as at the base; sides of upper mandible turned
under near tip.



163. SPATULA CLYPEATA (Linnæus).

SHOVELER.


    Anas clypeata Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 124.
    Spatula clypeata Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27,
    306; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India Bds. (1898), 4, 452, fig. 118
    (head); Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 221; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1902), 2, 177; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 38.

    Calayan (McGregor); Mindoro (McGregor); Luzon (McGregor,
    Worcester). North America, Europe, and western Asia; wintering in
    Africa, Arabia, Persia, Indian Peninsula, southern China, Hawaii,
    West Indies, and Central America to Colombia.


"Adult male.--Head and upper part of neck dark glossy green; lower
neck, breast, and anterior scapulars white; middle of back dark brown,
the feathers with pale edges; ramp and upper tail-coverts black
glossed with green; lower breast and abdomen rich chestnut; flanks,
vent, and thighs paler, freckled with brown; under tail-coverts black,
glossed with green; a white patch on the lower flanks at the base of
the tail; upper wing-coverts and the outer web of two of the longer
scapulars pale blue; remainder of the scapulars black, all with a broad
silky white stripe along the middle; last row of wing-coverts tipped
with white, forming a band, which borders anteriorly the glossy green
wing-speculum; tip of the secondaries and the primaries brown; under
wing-coverts and axillars white; tail mostly white, freckled with
brown-gray, central feathers brown, edged with white. Iris yellow;
bill lead-color; feet reddish orange. Length, about 508; wing, 260;
tail, 95; culmen, 70; tarsus, 35.

"Female.--Upper parts brown, each feather with a broad reddish margin;
throat reddish immaculate; feathers of back and scapulars with reddish
bars, more or less crescentic; under parts reddish buff, each feather
brown in the central part, especially those of breast and flanks;
under tail-coverts lighter; wings resemble those of the male, except
that the blue on the wing-coverts is very dull and the speculum not
so glossy; tail-feathers whitish, with brown marks. Beak olive-brown,
base of the maxilla and the entire mandible orange; iris hazel-brown;
feet dull orange.

"Male in first plumage resembles the female, but the wings are brighter
colored. Bill pale reddish brown; legs and feet flesh-color.

"Males in their first nuptial plumage have the white of the breast with
a few dark crescentic bands, the lower belly with dark bars, and the
rich black of the under tail-coverts mottled with chestnut and white.

"Adult male in molting plumage may be distinguished from the adult
female by the greater brilliancy of the blue and metallic green on
the wing, the plain dark upper tail-coverts, and the general darker
color of the entire plumage; the crown is dark brown.

"Young in down resemble those of the wigeon in having the upper parts
almost uniform, with indistinct pale spots, but they possess the
dark brown stripe through the eye as in the young mallard. The bill
is not widened at the tip, but it grows very rapidly." (Salvadori.)

This duck may be recognized in any plumage by the shape of its bill.



Subfamily MARILINÆ.



Genus MARILA Oken, 1817.


The members of this subfamily and genus differ from all other
Philippine ducks in having a tuft of long feathers springing from
the crown; the bill also is characteristic being short and wide and
slightly wider at tip than at base.



Species.


a1. Back finely vermiculated with white. ... marila (p. 198)
a2. Back uniform black or blackish brown. ... fuligula (p. 199)



164. MARILA MARILA (Linnæus).

SCAUP DUCK.


    Anas marila Linnæus, Fauna Suecica, ed. 2, (1761), 39.
    Fuligula marila Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27, 355;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 223; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 182; McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 295.

    Luzon (Parsons). Northern parts of Europe, Asia, and North America;
    wintering on the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas and in
    India, China, Japan, and Central America.


"Adult male.--Head, neck, upper part of breast and back black; sides of
the head and upper neck glossed with green; rest of back and scapulars
white, narrowly barred with black; rump, upper and under tail-coverts
black; lower breast, abdomen, and sides white; vent somewhat grayish;
sides with black barrings; upper wing-coverts blackish, finely
vermiculated with white; secondaries white, forming the speculum,
which is bounded below by a blackish band, in some specimens more or
less freckled with white; tertials blackish with a green gloss, the
largest ones more or less finely dusted with whitish; primaries grayish
brown, from the fourth quill with a whitish area on inner web, tips
black; marginal under wing-coverts grayish brown dusted with white,
the remainder, as well as axillars, white; tail blackish. Bill and legs
light lead-gray, webs and nail of bill blackish; iris yellow. Length,
about 457; wing, 235; tail, 74; culmen, 46; tarsus, 35.

"Female.--Fore part of head and chin white; rest of head, neck, and
breast brown; upper parts dark brown, back and scapulars slightly
vermiculated with white, under parts white below the breast;
flanks brown, more or less vermiculated with white; vent and under
tail-coverts dark brown, slightly vermiculated with white; wings
duller and browner than in the male, the upper wing-coverts much less
vermiculated with white. Bill and legs darker than in the male. Size
somewhat less.

"Young male has the white at base of bill like the adult female,
but it is of a darker and richer color.

"Male in first nuptial dress has less green metallic gloss on head and
neck; the black breast-feathers have white margins; the black under
tail-coverts are more or less vermiculated; in the vermiculations
of the lower mantle, scapulars, and wing-coverts the dark brown
predominates over the white.

"Males in molting plumage closely resemble adult females.

"Young in down.--'Crown, nape, and upper parts uniform dark
olive-brown; throat, sides of head, and fore part of neck yellowish
white; a dull grayish band crosses lower neck, rest of under parts
dull yellowish, flanks grayish yellow; upper mandible blackish, tooth
of beak yellowish; under mandible yellow.' (Dresser.)" (Salvadori.)



165. MARILA FULIGULA (Linnæus).

TUFTED DUCK.


    Anas fuligula Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 128.
    Fuligula fuligula Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1895), 27,
    363; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 223; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1902), 2, 183; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 39.
    Nyroca fuligula Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 463,
    fig. 121 (head).

    Dú-lum-pá-pa, Calayan.

    Basilan (Steere Exp.); Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (Heriot,
    Worcester, McGregor); Palawan (White). Northern Asia; northern
    Europe; in winter to Greater Sunda, Marianne, and Pelew Islands;
    Mediterranean Sea; Abyssinia; northern Indian Peninsula; southern
    China.


"Adult male.--Head, neck, upper parts, and breast black; occipital
feathers considerably elongated, forming a crest or tuft; sides
of head with a purple gloss; a white spot on the chin; back and
scapulars with obscure traces of pale vermiculations; lower breast,
belly, sides, and flanks white; vent and under tail-coverts black;
wings black; speculum on the secondaries white, with a black band at
the tip; under wing-coverts, except the marginal ones which are dusky,
and axillars white, primaries brown-gray, with the tips and the outer
webs more or less blackish; tail black. Bill pale blue, with the nail
black; iris brilliant golden yellow; legs and toes dark blue, the webs
black. Length, about 432; wing, 203; tail, 63; culmen, 44; tarsus, 28.

"Female.--Crest smaller than in the male; upper parts and upper breast
brown; under parts dull white or pale ashy brown, and less clearly
defined from the brown upper breast; flanks brown; speculum as in
the male; inner secondaries glossed with green.

"Young in first plumage.--Closely resemble adult females, but paler
brown, especially on chin and throat; no metallic green gloss on the
innermost secondaries; many white feathers at base of bill.

"Males in first nuptial dress have white margins to the black feathers
of the breast, a shorter crest, no green or purple gloss on the head,
and a small white spot on the chin.

"'Males in molting plumage are intermediate in color between males
in first plumage and males in first nuptial plumage.

"'Young in down are dark brown, shading into nearly white on the
belly.' (Seebohm.)" (Salvadori.)

The tufted duck visits the Philippine Islands during the winter months
and at times may be found in large numbers; from Laguna de Bay, many
live ducks are brought to the Manila markets, the present species
ranking next in numbers to the common Dendrocygna arcuata.



Order PELECANIFORMES.

CORMORANTS, DARTERS, GANNETS, FRIGATE BIRDS, AND PELICANS.


Bill strong, either sharply pointed or hooked at tip; nostrils wanting
or obsolete; neck moderate to very long; all the toes united by a web;
chin naked and forming a more or less distensible pouch. Birds of large
size, seagoing and fish-eating. The totipalmate feet and obsolete
nostrils are the most obvious peculiarities of this order. [23]
Eggs bluish or white, with a white chalky covering.



Families.


a1. Tail not forked; webs between toes entire or but slightly
emarginate.

  b1. Bill subcylindrical; gular pouch small.

    c1. Bill strongly hooked. ... Phalacrocoracidæ (p. 200)
    c2. Bill sharply pointed.

      d1. Neck longer than body; bill slender; culmen nearly
      straight. ... Anhingidæ (p. 202)
      d2. Neck about one-half as long as body; bill heavy; culmen
      decurved for terminal fourth. ... Sulidæ (p. 203)

  b2. Bill greatly flattened, widened near tip; gular pouch very
  large. ... Pelecanidæ (p. 208)

a2. Tail deeply forked; webs between toes deeply incised. ... Fregatidæ
(p. 206)



Family PHALACROCORACIDÆ.


Bill long and heavy; basal portion of culmen slightly concave, tip
strongly decurved and hooked; neck rather long; wings ample but not
reaching beyond base of tail, the latter rather long, its feathers
graduated and stiff; plumage largely black, at times partly white.



Genus PHALACROCORAX Brisson, 1760.


Characters same as those given for the Family.



166. PHALACROCORAX CARBO (Linnæus).

COMMON CORMORANT.


    Pelecanus carbo Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 133.
    Phalacrocorax carbo Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 340,
    text fig. 1; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 198; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 232; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 39.

    Ca-sí-li, Manila, also applied to the darter.

    Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (McGregor); Ticao (McGregor). Europe,
    Africa, northern Asia, Greenland; eastern North America south to
    Georgia; Indian Peninsula to China and Australia.


Adult in breeding plumage.--Almost entirely black, with a slight
oil-green gloss on neck and under parts; chin dirty white, this color
continued backward and upward on each side of neck to back of eye,
forming a border, 20 mm. wide, to the gular pouch and naked skin below
eye; entire crown, nape, neck on all sides, and throat decorated with
long, narrow, soft, white plumes which hide most of the short black
feathers; crest glossy black, narrow and about 40 mm. long; each flank
decorated with a large patch of long, soft, white feathers; upper back,
scapulars, and wing-coverts dull bronze-brown, each feather widely
bordered with dark bluish green or with glossy black; quills brownish
black; secondaries washed with greenish; tail and its coverts black.

Grant gives the following colors and measurements: "Iris bright
emerald-green; naked skin round eye greenish brown; below the eye and
on gular sack lemon-yellow; bill grayish brown; dusky along culmen
and yellowish white toward base; legs and feet blackish. Length,
about 914; culmen, 58 to 81; wing, 317 to 356; tail, 173 to 183;
tarsus, 58 to 72."

Adult in non-breeding plumage.--Similar to the above but without the
elongated feathers on head, neck, throat, and flanks.

"Young when first hatched are blind and covered with purplish black
skin; in the course of a few days they acquire a thick covering of
blackish down.

"Young in first plumage (September).--General color above dull brown,
somewhat glossed on head, neck, and back with bluish green; feathers
of back, scapulars, and wing-coverts with wide dark margins; throat,
front of neck, breast and belly white; sides, flanks, thighs, and
under tail-coverts dark brownish black. As age advances the fore part
of neck and chest become brown.

"Plumage of the second year (September).--Upper parts more like those
of the adult, but the plumage is less brilliant and mixed here and
there with feathers of the first plumage; feathers of the breast and
belly are all widely tipped with brownish black, giving these parts
a mottled appearance.

"Plumage of the third year (May).--Similar to the adult, but the color
of upper parts is less brilliant, and the under parts are not of such
a rich glossy black. Birds of this age (probably about 26 months
old), though they do not breed, assume a partial breeding-plumage;
the hair-like feathers on the head and neck being indicated, while
the white flank patches are partially acquired." (Grant.)

The cormorant appears to be somewhat rare in the Philippines but it
will perhaps be found breeding in some of the extensive marsh-lands
of central Luzon. A fully adult male in breeding plumage, taken in
Tarlac Province, yields the following data: Iris bright sea-green;
small spots of bright blue along edges of eyelids and below eye; bare
skin below eye bright yellow with a slight orange tinge, this yellow
extending to behind angle of mouth and onto base of lower mandible;
entire gular pouch dark, almost blackish brown, closely covered with
yellow spots; a small area just back of angle of gonys solid yellow;
upper mandible blackish brown; lower mandible white with terminal
third dusky brown; legs and nails black. Length, 850; wing, 345;
tail, 180; culmen, 66; tarsus, 60; middle toe with claw, 85.



Family ANHINGIDÆ.


Bill long, slender, straight, and sharply pointed, cutting edges
near tip with distinct serrations; head small; neck long and slender;
tail long; scapular feathers lanceolate; a pair of inner secondaries
and the innermost pair of rectrices with outer webs pliciform.



Genus ANHINGA Brisson, 1760.


Characters same as those given for the Family.



167. ANHINGA MELANOGASTER Pennant.

INDIAN DARTER.


    Anhinga melanogaster Pennant, Indian Zool. (1769), 13, pl. 12;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 39.
    Plotus melanogaster Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 414;
    Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 344, fig. 78; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 236; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 207.

    Ca-sí-li, Manila, also used for the cormorant.

    Luzon (Meyer, McGregor); Mindanao (Mearns, Clemens); Mindoro
    (Steere Exp., Schmacker, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor, Porter);
    Negros (Layard). Mesopotamia, Indian Peninsula, Indo-Chinese
    countries, Indo-Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Celebes.


"Adult male.--Chin, throat, and upper part of fore neck mottled with
white; a narrow white line, about 125 mm. long, commencing above
gape and continued down sides of neck; head and neck brown, darker
and slightly glossed on the crown and along the back of the neck,
paler down the middle of fore neck, each feather being margined with
pale brown and giving the whole a finely scaled appearance; upper
back brownish black, each feather narrowly margined with rufescent
and streaked with white on the lateral parts; rest of back, rump,
lower part of fore neck, and under parts black with an oil-green gloss;
wing-coverts, scapulars, and innermost secondaries black, each with a
long, silvery white streak down the middle; scapulars much elongated
and pointed, the longest measuring about 230 mm.; innermost secondary
transversely ribbed along the basal two-thirds of outer web; quills
and tail black, the middle pair of tail-feathers strongly ribbed on
outer web and outer pairs slightly rayed. Tail composed of twelve
feathers. 'Iris yellow; bill dusky on culmen, yellowish on sides and
on lower mandible; legs black.' (Godwin-Austen.) Length, about 890;
culmen, from feathers on forehead, 89 to 91; wing, 330 to 355; tail,
218 to 230; tarsus, 43; outer toe with claw, 81.

"The fully adult female (if the sex of several specimens in the
British Museum is correctly determined) appears to be perfectly
similar in plumage to the male, the only difference being that the
bill is decidedly shorter, 79 to 81 mm. In some females, however,
which appear to be perfectly adult, the black bases of the fore neck
and the chest are divided on either side from the back by a whitish
buff band, as in immature birds.

"Immature birds.--General color as in the adult, but neck much lighter
and of a pale brownish white, becoming white down the middle of the
fore neck; black at base of fore neck and chest bordered on each
side by a whitish buff band; streaks on the upper plumage of a more
yellowish white, long pointed scapulars absent or half developed;
quills and tail-feathers pointed and narrowly margined at the tips with
pale whitish brown; ribs on innermost scapulars and tail-feathers but
slightly indicated; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts brownish black.

"Young in down.--Head, neck, upper back, and under parts covered with
white down, amongst which the plumage of the immature is more or less
visible; quill- and tail-feathers half grown, pointed and narrowly
margined at the extremity with pale brownish white; scapulars and
wing-coverts much like those of the adult, but fringed externally
with brown. Length, 724." (Grant.)

"Exceedingly abundant about Lake Naujan in Mindoro, where it
breeds. Rarer about fresh-water streams in the interior of that
island. Not met with by us outside of Mindoro.

"Always swims with its body entirely immersed, and can remain
under water an incredibly long time. Flies with difficulty when it
first rises from water. Makes straight for some good roosting place,
preferably a stump or log in the edge of the water, where it alights,
turns its back to the sun, spreads its wings, and remains until
thoroughly dry. When dry it flies rapidly, and may often be seen
during the heat of the day soaring at a considerable height." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)

"Very abundant on the upper waters of the Rio Grande de Cagayan in
Isabela Province, and on the upper Agusan River and its lake system
in Mindanao." (Worcester.)

The Indian darter is fairly abundant along the Baco River in Mindoro
and on the Cagayan River in the vicinity of Aparri, Luzon. Clemens
collected specimens on Lake Lanao, Mindanao.



Family SULIDÆ.


Bill stout and pointed, tapering gradually, the tip slightly curved but
never hooked; a groove along each side of culmen; nostrils completely
closed in adults; wings long and pointed, first primary longest;
tail long and wedge shaped; tarsus short and stout; outer and middle
toes nearly equal; claw of middle toe broad and pectinate.



Genus SULA Brisson, 1760.


Characters same as those given for the Family.



Species.


a1. Upper parts, head, and neck mostly pure white (adult). ... piscator
(p. 204)
a2. Upper parts uniform deep sooty brown.

  b1. Breast and belly pure white (adult). ... leucogastra (p. 205)
  b2. Breast and belly light brown (immature).

    c1. Outer webs of flight feathers washed with hoary
    gray. ... piscator (p. 204)
    c2. Outer webs of flight feathers dark brown. ... leucogastra
    (p. 205)



168. SULA PISCATOR (Linnæus).

RED-LEGGED BOOBY.


    Pelecanus piscator Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 134.
    Sula piscator Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 432;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 39.
    Sula piscatrix Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 237; Oates, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1902), 2, 210.

    Mindanao (Steere Exp.). Oceania, southern Atlantic, Indian and
    Australian seas.


"Adult.--General color pure white; primaries, primary-coverts,
outer webs and tips of secondaries, and secondary-coverts hoary gray,
inclining to blackish on outermost quills in freshly molted birds, and
to blackish in worn specimens; chin and upper part of throat naked,
the feathers ending in a straight line across throat; tail composed
of fourteen, or sometimes sixteen feathers. Iris gray; bill grayish
blue, shading into pink or reddish toward the base; naked skin round
eye blue; gular pouch dark slate or black; legs and feet vermilion,
red or dark pink, almost magenta.

"Adult male.--Length, about 750; culmen from feathers on forehead,
89; wing, 394; tail, 10 to 28; tarsus, 35.

"Adult female.--Length, about 710; culmen from feathers on forehead,
81 to 88; wing, 373 to 375; tail, 208 to 210; tarsus, 35.

"Immature in first plumage.--Entire plumage above and below brown,
lighter on breast and belly; primaries and secondaries and their
coverts like those of the adult, but the inner webs of the secondaries
black. Cutting edges of the mandible sometimes serrated, and the inner
margin of the middle claw pectinate. Bill bluish pink, the latter
predominating toward the base; naked skin round eye dark leaden hue;
gular pouch flesh-colored.

"More adult specimens (perhaps in the plumage of the second year)
head, neck, and under parts white; back, wings, and tail brown as in
the immature; middle tail-feathers dark, brownish gray toward the base,
shading into white toward the extremity.

"A still more adult bird has a large amount of white or partially
white feathers mixed with the brown of the back and wings.

"I should imagine that the fully adult plumage is not attained until
the third or perhaps the fourth year. This species may be recognized
in all stages of plumage by the hoary gray appearance on the outer
webs of the quills." (Grant.)



169. SULA LEUCOGASTRA (Boddaert).

BROWN BOOBY.


    Pelecanus leucogaster Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. (1783), 57.
    Sula sula Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 436; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 237; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 40; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 212; Worcester,
    Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 275. pl. 1 (Didicas Rocks).
    Sula leucogaster Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 346,
    fig. 80 (head).
    Sula leucogastra A. O. U. Committee, Auk (1908), 25, 359.

    Batan (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Didicas Rocks (Worcester);
    Dinagat (Everett); Luzon (McGregor); Mindanao (Cuming,
    Everett). Tropical Atlantic, Indian, Australian, and Pacific
    Oceans.


"Adult.--Head, neck, chest, entire upper parts, wings, and tail dark
sooty brown; breast, rest of the under parts, axillars and under
wing-coverts of the secondaries pure white. Tail composed of 14
feathers. Iris silvery white, white, or gray; bill whitish green or
greenish blue, becoming flesh-colored or bluish at the base; naked skin
on sides of face and gular pouch bluish, greenish, or yellowish; legs
and feet pale green or lead-green, sometimes inclining to yellowish.

"Adult male.--Length, about 711; culmen from feathers on forehead,
100; wing, 389 to 396; tail, 190 to 195; tarsus, 46 to 48.

"Adult female.--Length, about 711; culmen from feathers on forehead,
100; wing, 389 to 396; tail, 190 to 195; tarsus, 46 to 48.

"Immature in first plumage.--Differs in having the head, neck, chest,
entire upper parts, wings and tail brown, much lighter than in the
adult; breast, belly, and under parts still paler brown, the feathers
fringed with whitish brown, and generally sharply defined from the
darker chest; axillars and secondary under wing-coverts mixed with
smoky brown.

"More mature birds (? plumage of the second year).--Breast, belly,
and under parts largely mixed with white, only the subterminal portion
of each feather smoky brown.

"Still more mature bird (? plumage of the third year).--Head, neck,
chest, and upper parts darker brown, and more like those of the adult;
the breast and belly thickly mixed with the pure white feathers of the
adult. These appear to be entirely attained by molt, many half-grown
ones being concealed beneath the plumage." (Grant.)

This gannet is quite abundant about the small islands north of Luzon
and it probably finds nesting places on some of the more isolated
rocks. Gannets lay their chalky white eggs in the sand or construct
flat nests of sticks which they place in bushes or trees. One or two
eggs are deposited in a nest.



Family FREGATIDÆ.


Bill long and strongly hooked, both mandibles decurved at tip; lateral
grooves deep; nostrils situated in the grooves and practically closed;
a large naked and brightly colored gular pouch; wings pointed and
extremely long; first primary longest; tail long and very deeply
forked; feet absurdly small and weak for so large a bird; claw of
middle toe pectinate; tarsus very short; plumage black with beautiful
green and purple gloss.



Genus FREGATA Lacépède, 1799.


Characters same as those given for the Family.



Species.


a1. Breast and sides black (males).

  b1. Larger; culmen, 92 to 112 mm.; wing, 520 to 655; no white patch
  on flank. ... aquila (p. 206)
  b2. Smaller; culmen, 58 to 89 mm.; wing, 488 to 533; a white patch
  on each flank. ... ariel (p. 207)

a2. Breast and sides white (females).

  b1. Larger; culmen, 109 to 132 mm.; wing, 612 to 678; no white
  collar round back of neck. ... aquila (p. 206)
  b2. Smaller; culmen, 81 to 91 mm.; wing, 510 to 528; a white collar
  round back of neck. ... ariel (p. 207)



170. FREGATA AQUILA (Linnæus).

GREATER MAN-O'-WAR BIRD.


    Pelecanus aquilus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 133.
    Fregata aquila Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 543;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 237; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 212; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 40.

    Sa-la-gun-ting', Manila; lang-y-san', Cagayancillo.

    Cagayancillo (McGregor). Tropical and subtropical oceans of
    both hemispheres.


"Adult male.--General color black, becoming sooty below; feathers of
head, upper back, and scapulars elongate and pointed; head with slight
oil-green gloss; scapulars strongly glossed with bronze-green, this
color changing to purple when specimen is held away from the light;
a trace of green and purple gloss on breast and sides. Iris brown;
bill black except the tip which is horn-gray; gular pouch dark crimson;
feet blackish brown, flesh-colored below; webs bluish below; nails
brown. Extent of wings, 1,830; length of bird, 914; wing, 600; tail,
410; depth of fork, 240; culmen from base, 105; tarsus, 20. Grant
gives the following measurements: Length, about 1,016; culmen, from
feathers on forehead, 91 to 112; wing, 521 to 655; tail, 355 to 376;
tarsus, 18."

"Adult female.--Feathers of head less elongate than in the male and
with little or no gloss; upper back and scapulars slightly elongate
and almost devoid of metallic gloss; back of head dark brown;
fore neck, chest, breast, and sides of belly pure white; lesser and
median wing-coverts brown, with paler margins and dark middles; rest
of plumage like that of adult male. Iris dark brown; bill bluish
horn-color; orbits and gular skin dark plumbeous, with a tinge of
violet; feet carmine. Length, 582 to 678; tail, 373 to 483; tarsus, 25.

"Male and female immature.--Head, neck, upper part of chest, and
middle of lower breast and belly, white; sides and upper breast dark
sooty brown; rest of plumage like adult female. Iris dull dark blue;
naked skin on throat lavender, bill horn-color, darker at base;
feet pale pinkish blue." (Grant.)

"The eggs of the great frigate bird measure from 59 to 72 mm. in
length and from 42 to 51 in breadth." (Oates.) The eggs are white
and covered with more or less chalk-like substance.

The frigate pelicans are preëminently soaring birds of wonderful
power. In these Islands they are rarely seen, and far more rarely
killed, as they usually fly at great heights. During the nesting season
they are fearless and may be observed near at hand. The larger species,
at least, may nest on some of the more remote and rocky islands of
this Archipelago.



171. FREGATA ARIEL (Gould).

LESSER MAN-O'-WAR BIRD.


    Attagen ariel Gould, in Gray's Genera Birds (1845), 3, 669.
    Fregata ariel Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 447;
    Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1898), 4, 338, fig. 77 (head);
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 237; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 213; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 40.
    Fregata minor (not Pelecanus minor Gmelin) Sharpe, Ibis (1888),
    204; Grant, Ibis (1896), 128.

    Con-pi-sao', Bantayan.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Cagayancillo (McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead);
    Mindanao (Bourns & Worcester); Negros (Bourns & Worcester); Palawan
    (Whitehead). Tropical and subtropical Indian and Pacific Oceans.


"Adult male.--General color black, inclining to sooty black on
under parts; feathers of head, upper back, and scapulars elongate
and pointed, the former with a dull oil-green gloss, the latter dark
metallic-green in freshly molted specimens, but becoming bronze or
purple with wear; a large white patch on each flank. Tail composed of
12 feathers. Iris black; naked skin round eye and gular pouch red;
bill gray; feet black. Length, about 760; culmen from feathers on
forehead, 58 to 89; wing, 487 to 533; tail, 279 to 338; tarsus, 19.

"Adult female.--Head like that of the male, but feathers of the
back and scapulars less elongate and of a brownish black color with
scarcely a trace of metallic gloss; breast, sides of belly, flanks,
and a wide collar round the neck white; lesser and median wing-coverts
pale brown, with whitish margins and deep brown shaft-stripes; plumage
otherwise like that of the male. Iris red; bill gray; bare skin round
the eye and on the throat red, but not so light as that of the male;
feet red. Length, about 760; culmen from feathers on forehead, 81 to
91; wing, 510 to 528; tail, 287 to 343; tarsus, 18.

"Male and female immature.--Head and neck white, shading into brown
on the chest, breast, sides of belly, lower neck, and upper parts;
middle of belly and flanks white. It will thus be seen that the colors
of the above parts are just the reverse of those of the adult female,
the white parts being dark and vice versa; rest of the plumage much
like that of the adult female. Iris black; bill and feet whitish with
a shade of blue." (Grant.)

"Not infrequently seen singly or in small flocks, but very difficult
to kill." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Family PELECANIDÆ.


Body large and heavy; upper mandible depressed, narrower and higher
at base, broader and flattened toward the end, composed of a median
bar, continuing the whole length of the bill and terminating in a
strongly hooked nail, and of two lateral portions each separated from
the median bar by a very narrow groove, in the basal part of which
the small nostril opens; lower mandible thin, of two flexible arches
supporting a large pouch of naked membrane.



Genus PELECANUS Linnæus, 1758.


Characters same as those given for the Family.



172. PELECANUS PHILIPPENSIS Gmelin.

SPOTTED-BILLED PELICAN.


    Pelecanus philippensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, pt. 2, 571;
    Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1898), 26, 471; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 238; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 217; McGregor,
    Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4, 14, pls. 3 & 4; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 40; Dubois, Genera Avium, Pelecanidæ
    (1907), 3, pl. fig. 4.
    Pelecanus manillensis Oates, Birds Brit. Burmah (1883), 2, 236;
    Hume, Nests & Eggs Ind. Bds. Oates ed. (1890), 3, 276.

    Pa-ga'-la, Manila.

    Luzon (Sonnerat, McGregor, Worcester); Mindanao (Mearns). India
    and Ceylon, south to Burmah and Malay Peninsula, east to China
    and Hainan.


"Adult in breeding plumage.--(September to February). General
color pure white; forehead, top of head, fairly long crest, cheeks,
and neck covered with dense curly, very soft, pure white feathers,
with their black bases more or less visible; hind neck, from crest to
upper back, covered with soft grayish brown feathers, forming a mane;
upper back, scapulars, and wing-coverts white, tinged, especially
on the lesser wing-coverts, with cream-color; winglet, primaries,
and primary-coverts brownish black, with the upper surface of the
shafts dark; secondaries grayish brown, paler on the outer web and
shading into brownish gray on innermost secondaries; an interscapular
line down the middle of upper back; lower back, rump, flanks, under
tail-coverts, axillars, and under wing-coverts vinaceous; rest of
under parts pure white, chest and upper breast tinged with yellow;
tail-feathers ashy, paler toward the tips and with dark shafts. Tail
composed of 22 feathers. 'Bill pinkish yellow, the lateral portions
of the upper mandible with large bluish black spots; the nail and
terminal halves of both mandibles orange-yellow; central portions of
sides of lower mandible smeared with bluish black; pouch dull purple,
blotched and spotted with bluish black; eyelids and skin round eye
orange-yellow; skin in front of eye livid; legs and feet very dark
brown; claws yellowish horn; iris stone-white, varying to pale yellow,
clouded with brown.' (Oates.) Length, 1,295 to 1,500; culmen, 320 to
368; wing, 558 to 610; tail, 203 to 421; tarsus, 84 to 96. The female
is somewhat smaller than the male, but not conspicuously so.

"Adult in non-breeding plumage (March-August).--Plumage similar to
that of the young after the first molt.

"Nestling.--Covered with white down; iris dark brown; bill pale
plumbeous; legs china-white; pouch pale bluish white. The down on the
wings soon turns to pale rufous; and the scapulars, when they appear,
are brown, edged with ferruginous; the wing-coverts, on making their
appearance, are furnished with a dense fringe of rufous down, which,
however, soon falls off, leaving the feathers with rufous margins;
the scapulars are developed very rapidly, and their ferruginous
margins are diminished in extent as the bird grows; the down on the
head and neck gives place to brownish feathers, and the crest and
loose feathers of the mane on the hind neck soon make their appearance.

"The young bird, when fully fledged, retains its first feathers
for at least one year, the only change being that the brown colors
become darker and the rufous edgings abraded and consequently less
marked. The impressed spots on the bill are not indicated till the
sixth month, and even at the end of twelve months these spots are
quite indistinct, compared with those of the adult bird. Toward the
end of the first year a livid spot appears in front of the eyes and
soon becomes clearly defined. The nail and the terminal third of the
edges of the bill are yellow, legs and toes flesh-color.

"After the first molt, at about twelve months of age, the whole head
and neck are covered with short, soft, downy feathers, the bases of
which are black, the tips white; and the crest and mane are developed
to the same extent as in the adult; the shoulders and scapulars
are wood-brown; the lesser and median coverts to the secondaries
wood-brown; the feathers all edged with paler; the greater coverts
darker brown, edged with light brown; the coverts to the tertiaries
grayish brown, edged with pale fulvous. The whole of the coverts
narrow and sharp-pointed; the winglet, primaries, and their coverts
dark brown; the secondaries brown, tinged with ashy on the outer webs;
the whole back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and flanks white; the lower
plumage whitish brown, each feather being white with the tip brownish,
the feathers close, dense, and soft.

"In June of the third year, or when the bird is about thirty months
old, the molt into adult breeding plumage is commenced and the
change is entirely effected by October, except that in this first
breeding season the wing-coverts never become entirely white as
in the old birds, the feathers of these parts being a mixture of
long sharp-pointed, white feathers, and comparatively blunt brown
ones. Between June and October the pouch, which has hitherto been
spotless, becomes blotched with livid as in the adults, the blotches
extending to the face; the legs turn to dark brown; the iris becomes
paler brown; and the spots on the bill become firm and well defined.

"Mr. E. W. Oates, having kept large numbers of P. philippensis
in confinement, has had exceptional opportunities of studying the
changes of plumage, and the above descriptions are the results of
his observations, published in his Birds of British Burmah." (Grant.)

"We were informed that pelicans were abundant on the Laguna de Bay
at certain seasons, but when we were there none were to be found. A
number of specimens are preserved in the Jesuit Museum at Manila,
and several live birds were to be seen there on different occasions
when we visited the Museum. Padre Sanchez kindly offered us specimens,
and we intended to accept his offer at a later date, but unforeseen
circumstances prevented our doing so." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

"Abundant about fish-breeding ponds in tide-water marshes of Bulacan
in February, 1904. Also at Anao, Tarlac Province, in same month and
year. Fairly common in the Candaba swamp, Luzon." (Worcester.)



Order ACCIPITRIFORMES.

EAGLES, HAWKS, AND FALCONS.


Bill strong, upper mandible considerably longer than the lower, culmen
much curved, end of bill hooked and its tip perpendicular; basal
portion of bill covered by a membrane or cere, in which the nostrils
are situated; legs large; feet very strong, claws curved and sharp;
general plumage compact; wings long and powerful; tail nearly square,
rarely forked or wedge-shaped.



Suborders.


a1. Claws less curved, that of middle toe describing much less than
a semicircle; outer toe not reversible. ... Accipitres (p. 211)
a2. Claws greatly curved, that of middle toe describing a full
semicircle; outer toe reversible. ... Pandiones (p. 244)



Suborder ACCIPITRES.


This suborder includes all the hawks and eagles except the fish hawks
of the genera Pandion and Polioaëtus; its members are distinguished by
having the outer toe not reversible and all of the claws moderately
curved, that of middle toe describing much less than a semicircle;
concave or under side of each claw hollowed or grooved instead
of rounded.



Family FALCONIDÆ.


Characters same as those given for the Suborder.



Subfamilies.


a1. Tarsus and toes longer and more slender. ... Accipitrinæ (p. 211)
a2. Tarsus and toes shorter and stouter. ... Aquilinæ (p. 222)



Subfamily ACCIPITRINÆ.


In external characters this subfamily differs very little from
Aquilinæ; its members are weaker with body and legs more slender,
wings and tail longer, and plumage less compact.



Genera.


a1. Hinder aspect of tarsus with many hexagonal scales; wing, 300
mm. or more. ... Circus (p. 211)
a2. Hinder aspect of tarsus without hexagonal scales; wing, 200
mm. or less.

  b1. Middle toe without claw about twice the culmen from anterior
  margin of cere. ... Astur (p. 216)
  b2. Middle toe without claw more than twice the culmen from anterior
  margin of cere. ... Accipiter (p. 219)



Genus CIRCUS Lacépède, 1799.


Bill moderate or weak, somewhat compressed; margin of upper mandible
slightly sinuate but not toothed; wing very long and pointed, first
primary short, about equal to sixth; secondaries much shorter than
primaries; tail long, slightly graduated or nearly square; tarsus
long and slender, feathered at the base and overhung for about
half its length by the long thigh-feathers; front of tarsus with
transverse plates, sides and most of the hinder aspect with hexagonal
scales; toes long, nails long and much curved; behind ear-coverts and
sometimes across the throat a "ruff" of short, rather stiff feathers,
most conspicuous in the young of melanoleucos and not very evident
in the other species.

The harriers or marsh hawks are noticeable among birds of prey
for their slender form, long slender legs, and slow flight. Adult
birds can be easily identified but the immature specimens present
considerable difficulty.



Species.


(Adult.)

a1. Upper parts black; tail silvery gray; lower breast, abdomen,
and crissum white.

  b1. Throat and fore breast white streaked with black. ... spilonotus
  (p. 211)
  b2. Throat and fore breast black. ... melanoleucos (p. 214)

a2. Upper parts dark brown; tail bluish ash. ... æruginosus (p. 215)

(Immature.)

a1. Facial ruff complete across the throat; smaller, tarsus about 70
mm.; wing, 340 mm. ... melanoleucos (p. 214)
a2. Facial ruff incomplete; tarsus about 90 mm.; wing, 400 mm.

  b1. Lighter; general color more rufous-brown. ... spilonotus (p. 212)
  b2. Darker; general color more chocolate-brown. ... æruginosus
  (p. 215)



173. CIRCUS SPILONOTUS Kaup.

ASIATIC MARSH HAWK.


    Circus spilonotus Kaup, Cont. Orn. (1850), 59; Sharpe, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 58; Hand-List (1899), 1, 245; Blanford,
    Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3, 388; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1902), 2, 236; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 40.

    La-uin', Manila; ma-na-o', Calayan, all species of small hawks.

    Batan (Edmonds); Calayan (McGregor); Luzon (Heriot, Whitehead);
    Mindanao (Platen); Mindoro (Everett); Palawan (Whitehead,
    Everett); Sulu (Guillemard). Eastern Siberia; in winter to China,
    Indo-Burmese countries, and Malay Archipelago.


Adult male.--Above black, nape and hind neck narrowly streaked with
white; feathers of lower back and rump tipped with ashy gray or white;
sides of head and ear-coverts black; lower parts white; chin, throat,
and breast with bold black shaft-streaks; primaries black, white for
basal third; alula, primary-coverts, and secondaries ashy white with
blackish shafts; secondary-coverts black, more or less mixed with
ashy white; under coverts and axillars white; tail ashy white; upper
tail-coverts white. Iris bright yellow; legs dull yellow; cere waxy
green; bill and nails black. The above specimen from Tarlac Province,
Luzon, measures, 520 in length; wing, 410; tail, 230; culmen from base,
33; tarsus, 92; middle toe with claw, 63.

Younger male.--Color pattern similar; upper parts brown; white streaks
on head and neck more numerous; under parts white with wider streaks of
reddish brown which are also present on flanks and abdomen; primaries
black, some of them barred with ashy white; wing-coverts brown with
less white than the adult; primary-coverts and alula ashy white but
with blackish brown bars; under wing-coverts white, streaked with
blackish brown; axillars white, streaked and barred with reddish
brown. Length, 533; wing, 400; tail, 235; culmen from base, 32;
tarsus, 80; middle toe with claw, 61.

"Adult female.--Above brown slightly shaded with ashy, the dorsal
feathers obsoletely margined with dull rufous; crown and hind neck
tawny-buff, paler on the neck, all the feathers mesially streaked
with brown; scapulars and wing-coverts margined and barred with tawny
or fulvous, the least wing-coverts more conspicuously margined with
rufous; quills brown, narrowly tipped with whitish, externally shaded
with ashy gray, the secondaries less distinctly, and all barred across
with darker brown; under surface of wing white, the dark bars showing
very distinctly; lower back and rump brown, the feathers distinctly
tipped with pale rufous; upper tail-coverts pure white; tail ashy
gray, tipped with fulvous and crossed with five blackish bands, the
subterminal one much the broadest, the ashy gray interspaces inclining
to or replaced by pale tawny on the outer feathers; lores as well
as a distinct eyebrow and ear-coverts buffy white; sides of face
and of neck, as well as the facial ruff, rufous-buff streaked with
dark brown; under surface of body creamy buff, with central pointed
marks of rufous-brown to the feathers, more distinct on the fore
neck and under wing- and tail-coverts; flank-feathers and axillars
rufous-brown, with large rounded spots of creamy buff on both webs;
under wing-coverts and thighs creamy buff, with irregular central
streaks of rufous-brown occupying the major part of the greater under
wing-coverts. Length, 584; wing, 394; tail, 279; tarsus, 79." (Sharpe.)

"Adult female.--Brown above, the feathers throughout with pale
rufous edges; tail-coverts white and rufous; tail with about six dark
cross-bands, which disappear in old individuals; lower parts buff,
with broad rufous-brown shaft-stripes. The quills are dark brown but
become grayish in old birds.

"Young birds so closely resemble those of C. æruginosus as to be
indistinguishable at times. The pale head and neck-feathers are
always striated in C. spilonotus, but the body, wings, and tail are
uniform brown or variegated with buff on the wing-coverts, back,
and breast. Generally, though not invariably, traces of bars will
be found on some of the tail-feathers of C. spilonotus, but this
occasionally happens in C. æruginosus also.

"Length, of male, 508; tail, 235; wing, 394; tarsus, 89; tail of
female, 254; wing, 419; tarsus, 94." (Blanford.)



174. CIRCUS MELANOLEUCOS (Pennant).

PIED MARSH HAWK.


    Falco melanoleucos Pennant, Ind. Zool. (1769), 2, pl. 2.
    Circus melanoleucus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 61;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 245; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895),
    3, 385; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 237; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 41; McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907),
    2, sec. A, 322, pl. 1.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Mearns); Bohol (McGregor); Calayan
    (McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Luzon (Steere Exp., Whitehead);
    Mindanao (Steere Exp., Celestino); Negros (Bourns & Worcester,
    Keay); Sibay (McGregor & Worcester); Sulu (Guillemard); Ticao
    (McGregor). Eastern Siberia and Mongolia; in winter to China,
    northeastern Indian Peninsula, and Indo-Chinese countries.


"Adult male.--Upper parts glossy black; rump and upper tail-coverts
white, the latter with two or three broad cross-bars of black or ashy
gray, the former also shaded with gray; wing-coverts silvery gray,
margined with white, with a broad band of black feathers extending
from the bend of wing parallel with its margin and joining the median
coverts, which are also black; primaries black; primary-coverts and
secondaries silvery gray, except the innermost, which are black;
tail entirely silvery gray, tipped with white, below and on the inner
webs white; sides of face and neck, throat, and chest glossy black;
rest of under surface, including under wing- and tail-coverts, pure
white. Bill and cere black; feet yellow; iris yellow. Length, 457;
culmen, 25; wing, 356; tail, 216; tarsus, 76." (Sharpe.)

"Adult female.--Above dark brown, the feathers of the crown and neck
with rufous edges, those of the nape broadly bordered with white;
a well-marked ruff of small white or buffy white feathers with brown
shaft-stripes; around eyes whitish; cheeks and ear-coverts dirty white
or pale rufous with brown streaks; smaller coverts along forearm white
(in younger birds rufous) with blackish brown shaft-stripes, median
coverts brown with gray or white spots and bars, larger coverts dusky
gray with a broad subterminal blackish band and another near the base;
primaries outside blackish brown; secondaries gray, with blackish
cross-bands, beneath all are grayish or whitish with dark bands;
upper tail-coverts white, sometimes with rufous-brown drops or bands;
tail gray with dark brown cross-bands; lower parts white, with dark
brown shaft-stripes, broad on the throat and breast, narrower and
sometimes disappearing on the abdomen.

"Young birds are more uniform brown above than the adult female,
and have no gray on the wings or tail, which are brown with darker
bands; the ruff is ill-marked at the sides, but there is a large white
brown-streaked nuchal patch and another patch of buff-edged brown
feathers on the throat; the lower parts generally are rufous-brown,
faintly streaked darker.

"For a long time it was supposed that both sexes in this bird were
pied and similar, but the true facts were gradually traced out by
Mr. Hume. Still one undoubted case is recorded by Mr. Cripps in which
a female assumed the pied livery of the adult male, and other probable
cases are indicated by the measurements of pied specimens. Length of
male, 432; tail, 216; wing, 349; tarsus, 76; length of female, 470;
tail, 228; wing, 368; tarsus, 81; bill from gape, 30." (Blanford.)

The adult male of the pied marsh hawk is a very beautiful and graceful
bird; the female and young are dull brown and unattractive. This
species is fairly abundant in the lowlands where it frequents open
country.



175. CIRCUS ÆRUGINOSUS (Linnæus).

EUROPEAN MARSH HAWK.


    Falco æruginosus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 91.
    Circus æruginosus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 69;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 246; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India Bds. (1895),
    3, 387; Grant, Ibis (1895), 438; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 239; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 41.

    Cagayan Sulu (Mearns); Luzon (Whitehead); Mindoro
    (Everett). Temperate Europe and Siberia; in winter to northern
    Africa, Indian Peninsula, and China.


"Adult male.--Head, neck, and breast buff or pale rufous, with dark
brown shaft-stripes, broader on the breast; back and most of the
wing-coverts dark brown; scapulars still darker, sometimes gray toward
the base; smallest coverts along the forearm whitish, with dark brown
shafts; outer greater coverts, primary-coverts, and all quills except
first six primaries dark silvery gray, remaining coverts and very
often the tertiaries dark brown; first six primaries black with the
basal portion white; upper tail-coverts white with rufous and brown
mixed in various ways; tail gray above, isabelline below; abdomen
and lower tail-coverts ferruginous brown, more or less striped darker.

"Females are dark brown except the crown, nape, chin, and more or less
of the throat, which are buff with brown stripes. There is sometimes
a patch of buff on the breast, the wing-coverts and back have buff
edges, and the upper tail-coverts are rufous.

"The young of both sexes resemble the female, except that the buff
on the head is sometimes unstreaked and more limited in extent, being
confined in some cases to a nuchal patch or even wanting altogether.

"'Bill black; cere and base of bill greenish yellow; iris
yellow, brownish yellow in females and young; legs and feet rich
yellow.' (Hume.)

"Length of males, 533; tail, 241; wing, 406; tarsus, 86; length of
females, 572; tail, 248; wing, 419; tarsus, 89." (Blanford.)

The measurements given by Sharpe are as follows: "Male, length, 571;
culmen, 39; wing, 406; tail, 254; tarsus, 86. Female, length, 584;
wing, 432; tail, 279; tarsus, 96."

The young of Circus spilonotus and C. æruginosus are similar in
plumage and as the size is also nearly the same it is a matter of
some difficulty to distinguish between them. Sharpe identified
as C. æruginosus a young female collected in the Philippines by
Cuming, but he finally referred it to C. spilonotus. Whitehead
obtained an immature male in northern Luzon which according
to Grant "is undoubtedly referable to the present species
[æruginosus]." Concerning the specimen from Calayan Sulu, collected
by Mearns, Dr. Chas. W. Richmond writes that "it may prove to be
spilonotus." Hartert makes no comment on the specimen collected by
Everett in Mindoro.

Some of the numerous brown marsh hawks in the Bureau of Science
collection may be of this species but they can not be determined
at present.



Genus ASTUR Lacépède, 1799.


Bill small and compressed, upper mandible with a deep notch or a
strong sinuation near its tip; first primary short, third or fourth
longest; tarsus rather long and with transverse plates in front and
behind but the division lines between plates very obscure.



Species.


a1. Larger, length more than 330 mm.; under parts white, barred with
brown or pale rufous. ... trivirgatus (p. 216)
a2. Smaller; length less than 330 mm.; under parts not barred.

  b1. Breast light chestnut. ... soloensis (p. 217)
  b2. Breast light gray. ... cuculoides (p. 218)



176. ASTUR TRIVIRGATUS (Temminck).

CRESTED GOSHAWK.


    Falco trivirgatus Temminck, Pl. Col. (1824), 1, pl. 303.
    Astur trivirgatus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 105;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 249; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 243;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 41.

    Balabac (Everett); Leyte (Everett); Mindanao (Everett, Steere
    Exp., Platen, Bourns & Worcester, Celestino, Goodfellow); Palawan
    (Whitehead, Platen); Samar (Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead). Indian
    Peninsula, Indo-Malayan Islands, Ceylon, Formosa.


"Adult male.--Above slaty gray, the upper tail-coverts blackish
and tipped with white; head and neck clearer slaty gray, including a
conspicuous occipital crest, the sides of the neck somewhat tinged with
rufous; quills browner than the back, primaries with rufescent shafts,
barred above with dark brown, much plainer underneath, where the quills
are white at the base of the inner web; tail ashy brown, paler at tip,
crossed with four bands of dark brown; throat white, with a distinct
black moustachial streak on each side and a broad median line; chest
clear tawny-rufous; rest of under surface white, broadly banded with
pale rufous, each bar of this color having a conterminous brown bar,
the thighs thickly barred with ashy brown without any rufous tinge;
under tail-coverts white; under wing-coverts white, spotted with brown
or rufous-brown, and the axillars similarly barred. Cere orange-yellow;
bill black, lead-color at base; cheeks and orbits orange; feet yellow;
iris orange-yellow. Length, 356; culmen, 27; wing, 198; tail, 160;
tarsus, 56.

"Adult female.--Similar to the adult male, but much larger. Length,
457; wing, 246; tarsus, 68.

"Young.--Above brown, with a fully developed occipital crest, upper
tail-coverts banded with darker brown and tipped with white; quills
and tail much as in the adult, the latter with five cross-bands
of darker brown; under surface of body white, the throat with the
three characteristic streaks like the adult, the breast broadly
streaked with pale rufous, inclining to dark brown in the center
of the chest, the lower breast and abdomen barred with pale rufous,
the bars narrower and darker on the thighs; under tail-coverts white,
with a few narrow, nearly obsolete, cross-bars; under wing-coverts
buff, spotted and barred with dark brown." (Sharpe.)



177. ASTUR SOLOENSIS (Latham).

HORSFIELD'S GOSHAWK.


    Falco soloensis Latham, Gen. Hist. (1821), 1, 209.
    Astur soloensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 114,
    pl. 4, fig. 1; Hand-List (1899), 1, 250; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1902), 2, 245; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 41.

    Basilan (McGregor); Cagayancillo (McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead);
    Mindanao (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow). China and
    Indo-Chinese countries; in winter to Malay Peninsula, Indo-Malayan
    Islands, and Moluccas.


"Adult.--The adult plumage appears to be gained by a gradual mersion
of the rufous stripes on the breast. Above light bluish gray, some
of the feathers margined with darker gray; sides of face and neck
gray like the head, but a little more dingy; under surface of the
body pale buffy vinous, the throat, flanks, and thighs, as well as
the under wing- and tail-coverts, white, with a slight grayish shade
on the sides of the breast; quills black externally, shaded with ashy
gray, under surface white at base of inner web, but having no distinct
bars above or below; tail dull bluish gray above, ashy white beneath,
with four or five indistinct cross-bands of dark brown, a little
plainer underneath, but these not strictly continuous. Cere yellow;
gape and orbits yellowish; bill black, lead-color at base; feet yellow;
iris yellow. Length, 300; culmen, 19; wing, 200; tail, 137; tarsus, 48.

"Observation.--A specimen from the Philippines, nearly adult in every
respect, is much deeper slate-color above, and far more ruddy and
vinous below, than the one described.

"Young.--Above brown, with rufous edgings to the feathers, a little
broader on the upper tail-coverts, the sides of the neck washed with
rufous, the nape mottled with white; crown blackish, an ill-defined
eyebrow and fore part of the cheeks white, narrowly lined with
blackish brown; the ear-coverts brown, slightly washed with dull
rufous; throat buffy white, with a moustachial line on each side
and a median streak of brown; rest of under surface buffy white,
the chest broadly streaked and the breast and flanks barred with
pale rufous; under tail-coverts white; under wing-coverts clear
buff, the lowest ones spotted with blackish; quills dark brown,
slightly tipped with whitish, very indistinctly barred above with
darker brown, underneath buffy white at the base of the inner web,
indistinctly barred with dark brown, visible only on the inner webs;
tail ashy brown, whitish at tip, crossed with five bars of darker
brown, the under surface whitish ashy, the cross-bars more distinct,
except on the outer web, where they are almost obsolete." (Sharpe.)

"Met with only in Mindanao, where it is not at all common." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)

Male specimen from Cagayancillo: Bill black, bluish at base; iris
dark brown; cere and legs buffy yellow; nails black. Length, 285;
wing, 190; tail, 131; culmen from base, 20; tarsus, 41.



178. ASTUR CUCULOIDES (Temminck).

CUCKOO GOSHAWK.


    Falco cuculoides Temminck, Pl. Col. (1823), 1, pls. 110, 129.
    Astur cuculoides Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 115,
    pl. 4, fig. 2; Hand-List (1899), 1, 250; McGregor, Bull. Philippine
    Mus. (1904), 4, 15; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 41.

    Cagayancillo (McGregor). China; in winter to the Malay Archipelago.


"Adult.--Above light slaty gray, the margins to the feathers rather
darker, the ear-coverts and sides of neck a little paler than the
upper surface; lores slightly whitish; under surface of body very
pale vinous, somewhat tinged with ashy on sides of breast and throat,
the latter being otherwise whitish; lower flanks, abdomen, under
tail-coverts, and thighs white; the latter indistinctly dusted with
ashy; under wing-coverts and axillars pure white; upper wing-coverts
slaty gray like back; quills blackish, shaded above with slaty gray,
lower surface of primaries black, all the quills white at base of inner
web, more extended on the secondaries, which are ashy gray toward the
tips; tail deep slaty gray, nearly uniform above, grayish ash-color
below, inclining to white near base of feathers and crossed with five
bands of darker brown, the subterminal one broadest. Cere yellow;
bill horn-brown; feet yellow, claws black; iris dark brown. Length,
310; culmen, 18; wing, 203; tail, 127; tarsus, 51." (Sharpe.)

A male specimen from Cagayancillo measures: Length, 300; wing, 190;
tail, 136; culmen from base, 20; tarsus, 40. Iris very dark brown; bill
black, greenish at base; cere orange; feet light orange; nails black.



Genus ACCIPITER Brisson, 1760.


This genus is closely related to Astur but the plumage is always more
or less mottled or barred and the middle toe is relatively longer;
culmen from front margin of cere less than half the middle toe without
claw; notch in upper mandible less pronounced.



Species.


a1. Under parts with wide dark bars, with wide shaft-stripes, or with
large round drop-like spots; tarsus of male, 42; of female, 44.

  b1. Fourth primary considerably longer than fifth. ... gularis
  (p. 219)
  b2. Fourth primary but slightly longer than fifth. ... virgatus
  (p. 220)

a2. Under parts nearly uniform dull chestnut, abdomen, flanks, and
thighs narrowly barred with white; tarsus of male, 48; of female,
54. ... manillensis (p. 220)



179. ACCIPITER GULARIS (Temminck and Schlegel).

JAPANESE SPARROW HAWK.


    Astur (nisus) gularis Temminck and Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Aves
    (1850), 5, pl. 2.
    Accipiter gularis Grant, Ibis (1896), 104; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 254; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 41.
    Accipiter virgatus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 150
    (part).

    Calayan (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Fuga (Whitehead); Mindanao
    (Koch & Schadenberg). Japan, northern China; in winter to Malay
    Peninsula and Malay Archipelago.


Adult.--Above including wings, blackish slate, the bases of the
feathers pure white with a tendency to show on the nape; ear-coverts
and sides of neck slaty gray, the feathers edged with rufous;
sides of face slate, lined with white; chin and throat white with
blackish shaft-lines; breast and sides vinous-chestnut; abdomen
and under tail-coverts white; quills blackish, inner webs white
basally; secondaries and inner primaries barred with blackish; under
wing-coverts and axillars pale ochraceous; tail ashy brown crossed
by five bars of blackish brown, seven bars on outermost pair. Male,
length, 273; wing, 190; tail, 124; culmen from base, 18; tarsus, 45;
middle toe with claw, 33. Female, length, 295; wing, 205; tail, 148;
culmen from base, 18; tarsus, 42; middle toe with claw, 34.

Immature.--Upper parts dark brown, most of the feathers edged with
rusty or earthy brown; under parts white with wide bars of light rusty
brown. This plumage is followed by one in which the under parts are
white with wide shaft-streaks of blackish brown. Specimens occur with
the fore breast streaked and the hind breast, sides, and flanks barred
and with individual feathers both barred and streaked. The acquisition
of adult plumage probably takes some time, two or three years.

The preceding descriptions are taken from birds collected in Calayan
Island and while none of them shows the complete adult plumage, one
specimen has the breast partly chestnut indicating the adult plumage.

Grant characterizes A. gularis as follows:

"Female adult.--Like A. nisus, being barred transversely up to the
throat, which is white, with a more or less well-marked dark line
down the middle, formed by the very narrow black or grayish-black
shaft-stripes to the feathers. Fourth primary quill longest and
considerably longer than the fifth.

"Male adult.--Throat white, the line of feathers down the middle
with black shafts, forming a very narrow black central line, absent
in the most adult examples. The fourth primary quill longest, and
considerably longer than the fifth."



180. ACCIPITER VIRGATUS (Temminck).

INDIAN SPARROW HAWK.


    Falco virgatus Temminck, Pl. Col. (1823), 1, pl. 109.
    Accipiter virgatus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 150
    (part); Hand-List (1899), 1, 253; Everett, Ibis (1895), 38.
    Accipiter gularis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 41
    (part).

    Palawan (Everett). Southern India, Ceylon, Andamans, and Greater
    Sunda Islands.


"Adult male.--Above deep blackish slate-color, the nape slightly
mottled with white, the crown and wing-coverts a little darker;
quills dark brown, shaded with slate-color, without any bars above,
the under surface paler and more ashy, inclining to pale rufous near
the base of inner web, with blackish cross-bars; tail ashy gray above,
whitish ashy beneath, paler at tip, and crossed with three bars of
slaty black; ear-coverts and sides of neck slaty gray, the latter
washed with rufous; fore part of cheeks and throat buffy white, with
a few indistinct blackish shaft-lines here and there; rest of under
surface bright vinous-chestnut, much paler on the thighs; abdomen
and under tail-coverts white; under wing-coverts rich ocherous, the
lower ones and the axillars irregularly barred with brownish. Cere
yellow; bill black, lead-color at base; feet pale orange-yellow;
iris yellow. Length, 279; culmen, 19; wing, 168; tail, 129; tarsus, 48.

"Adult female.--A little larger than the male. Length, 330; wing,
188; tarsus, 56." (Sharpe.)



181. ACCIPITER MANILLENSIS (Meyen).

PHILIPPINE SPARROW HAWK.


    Nisus manillensis Meyen, Beitr. (1834), 694, pl. 9.
    Accipiter virgatus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 150
    (part).
    Accipiter manillensis Grant, Ibis (1897), 212; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 254; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 41.
    Accipiter stevensoni Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1878), 938,
    pl. 57.

    Cebu (McGregor); Guimaras (Bourns & Worcester); Leyte (Whitehead);
    Luzon (Heriot, Whitehead, McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Bourns &
    Worcester, Celestino, Goodfellow); Mindoro (Everett, Porter);
    Negros (Steere).


Adult.--Above brown; head, neck, and mantle with an ashy blue wash,
basal portion of feathers white or with one or two large white spots;
back, rump, and tail-coverts brown without hidden white spots; sides
of head brown; chin and throat white with a narrow median brown line;
remainder of under parts rich reddish brown or rusty chestnut, most
intense and uniform on breast and sides, each feather barred with dark
brown and white, the barred portion hidden, more or less, by the wide
reddish brown tips; crissum white; wings brown, primaries barred with
gray on distal part of inner webs and with ochraceous on basal part;
secondaries barred with ochraceous on inner webs; scapulars with two
or more large white spots, all concealed; axillars and wing-lining
faint ochraceous, barred with brown; tail brown, crossed by five
darker brown bars.

Male from Benguet, Luzon.--Length, 254; wing, 156; tail, 114; culmen
from base, 18; tarsus, 48; middle toe with claw, 35.

Female from Benguet, Luzon.--Bill black, bluish at base, cere
pea-green; iris and eyelids bright yellow; skin about eye and base
of bill dull green; nails very dark brown; legs and feet light
yellow. Length, 310; wing, 185; tail, 140; culmen from base, 20;
tarsus, 53; middle toe with claw, 45.

Breeding female from Cebu.--Bill horn-blue; cere waxy green; iris and
eyelids chrome-yellow; legs greenish yellow; nails blackish. Length,
312; wing, 179; tail, 136; culmen from base, 20; tarsus, 56; middle
toe with claw, 44.

Immature male.--Upper parts earthy brown; head and mantle slightly
bluish ash; feathers of wings, mantle, rump, and upper tail-coverts
edged with rusty brown; median line on throat incomplete; breast and
abdomen white with very wide, seal-brown, shaft-stripes; sides and
flanks with some reddish brown cross-bars; thighs white, barred with
brown; wing-lining ochraceous with large blackish brown spots.

"Accipiter manillensis is, I think, subspecifically distinct from
typical A. virgatus, and Mr. Whitehead having, in addition to the
Museum series, now obtained three adult females, we have a fair number
of skins for comparison.

"Adult female.--Differs from the female of A. virgatus in having the
chest, breast, and sides nearly uniform light red in the most adult
birds, while in somewhat younger examples the middle of the breast
shows distinct cross-bars of reddish brown and white; the under
surface on the quills washed with rufous. Wing, 175 to 178; tail,
137 to 139; tarsus, 52 to 53.

"Adult male.--Like the male of A. virgatus. Wing, 152 to 155; tail,
122 to 124; tarsus, 51." Grant, Ibis, (1896), 109.

I have found considerable difficulty in identifying members
of the genus Accipiter from the Philippines and the preceding
descriptions will require revision when more specimens shall have
been collected. With some hesitation I have placed A. stephensoni as
a synonym under A. manillensis instead of under A. gularis.



Subfamily AQUILINÆ.



Genera.


a1. Tail nearly square or slightly forked; or, if decidedly graduated,
the wing over 350 mm.

  b1. Bill without a distinct tooth on its cutting edge; first primary
  much shorter than second or third.

    c1. Feathers of lores and circumocular region not scale-like;
    loral bristles present.

      d1. Tail not forked.

        e1. Tarsus covered to the toes with short thick-set feathers.

          f1. Distance between tips of primaries and secondaries much
          greater than length of tarsus. ... Lophotriorchia (p. 223)
          f2. Distance between tips of primaries and secondaries much
          less than length of tarsus. ... Spizaëtus (p. 224)

        e2. Tarsus not feathered to the toes.

          f1. Nostril a vertical slit; bill extremely
          compressed; culmen curved throughout its length; size
          large. ... Pithecophaga (p. 226)
          f2. Nostril round or oval; bill not greatly compressed.

            g1. A full, circular, occipital crest; plumage of under
            parts with numerous round white spots. ... Spilornis
            (p. 227)
            g2. Crest scanty or wanting; plumage not spotted.

              h1. Back of tarsus covered with hexagonal scales; wing,
              330 to 380 mm.

                i1. Tarsus with hexagonal scales in front; wing falling
                far short of tip of tail; lower plumage whitish,
                barred or spotted with brown. ... Butastur (p. 230)
                i2. Tarsus with transverse scutes in front; wing very
                long, extending beyond end of tail; plumage chestnut
                and white in adult. ... Haliastur (p. 233)

              h2. Back of tarsus with large transverse plates; wing
              over 500 mm. ... Haliæetus (p. 232)

      d2. Tail slightly forked, middle feathers about 10 mm. shorter
      than outermost; unfeathered portion of tarsus covered with
      small round scales. ... Elanus (p. 234)

    c2. Feathers of lores and large circumocular area short and
    scale-like; no hairs about the bill; tarsus covered with long
    feathers for more than half its length, unfeathered portion with
    small hexagonal scales on all sides. ... Pernis (p. 235)

  b2. Bill with one or two well-developed teeth on its cutting edge;
  first primary nearly as long as second and usually longer than third.

    c1. Head crested; tarsus feathered for half its length. ... Baza
    (p. 236)
    c2. Head not crested; tarsus feathered at base only and covered
    with hexagonal scales.

      d1. No tubercle in nostril; length less than 200
      mm. ... Microhierax (p. 238)
      d2. A tubercle in center of nostril; length more than 250
      mm. ... Falco (p. 239)

a2. Tail distinctly graduated; bill shorter; feet smaller and weaker;
middle toe without claw two-thirds to three-fourths of tarsus; wing
less than 250 mm. ... Cerchneis (p. 243)



Genus LOPHOTRIORCHIS Sharpe, 1874.


Cutting edge of bill sinuate; a narrow occipital crest about 60
mm. long; wing moderate in length; first primary very short; third and
fourth subequal; inner web of first four quills abruptly and deeply
cut; legs closely feathered to base of toes which are covered with
small hexagonal scales; claws strong and curved.



182. LOPHOTRIORCHIS KIENERI (Geoffroy St. Hilaire).

RUFOUS-BELLIED HAWK.


    Astur kienerii Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Mag. de Zool. (1835), cl. 2,
    pl. 35.
    Lophotriorchis kieneri Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1,
    255; Hand-List (1899), 1, 262; Grant, Ibis (1895), 438; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 42.

    Luzon (Heriot, Whitehead); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Mindanao
    (Steere Exp., Celestino); Panay (Steere Exp.); Sibuyan (McGregor);
    Tablas (Celestino). Malay and Indian Peninsulas, Lesser Sunda
    and Indo-Malayan Islands, Indo-Chinese provinces, Ceylon, Celebes.


"Adult.--Above black, with an occipital crest 60 mm. in length;
ear-coverts somewhat mixed with whitish; cheeks, throat, and breast
pure white, with a few narrow black shaft-lines on the side of the
latter; rest of under surface, including under wing- and tail-coverts,
tawny rufous, streaked with black shaft-stripes, rather broader on the
flanks, where they are more merged; wings black, some of the feathers
externally brownish, the inner lining of quills whitish ashy, with a
few blackish bars on the inner web of the primaries, the secondaries
narrowly tipped with white; tail black, very slightly tipped with
whity brown, and with indications of brown cross-bands under certain
lights, the lower surface of the tail ashy white, with a subterminal
brown bar. Cere yellow; bill leaden blue; feet yellow, claws black;
iris brown. Length, 533; culmen, 38; wing, 358; tail, 211; tarsus,
74." (Sharpe.)

Immature male.--Upper parts earthy brown, lighter on crown, the
feathers tipped with white; forehead all white; long crest-feathers
blackish brown; a black patch in front of and over eye; wing-coverts
like the back; primaries and secondaries blackish brown, tipped with
white; tail blackish brown, tipped with white and crossed by about nine
lighter bars; entire under parts, except a brown patch on each flank,
pure white. Wing, 370; tail, 225; culmen from base, 35; tarsus, 69;
middle toe with claw, 72.

The sexes are similar in color. A male from Sibuyan measures: Wing,
340; tail, 190; culmen from base, 34; tarsus, 72. A female from
northern Mindanao measures: Wing, 360; tail, 210; culmen from base,
35; tarsus, 66.



Genus SPIZAËTUS Vieillot, 1816.


Bill compressed; culmen rapidly curved from base to tip; edge of
upper mandible sinuate; nostril large and oval; occipital crest short
and slightly pointed; wings moderate, fourth or fifth quill longest;
secondaries long, falling short of primaries by about length of middle
toe without claw; tarsus covered to the toes with short thick-set
feathers; top of toes covered with small irregular scales.



Species.


a1. Under parts white with bold brown markings on breast; thighs
brown with fine white cross-bars. ... philippensis (p. 224)
a2. Under and upper parts uniform blackish brown. ... limnæëtus
(p. 225)



183. SPIZAËTUS PHILIPPENSIS Gurney.

PHILIPPINE HAWK EAGLE.


    Spizaetus philippensis Gurney, in Gould's Birds Asia (1863),
    pt. 15.
    Spizaetus philippinensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874),
    1, 261 (footnote).
    Limnaëtus philippensis Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9, pt. 2,
    141, pl. 24.
    Spizaëtus philippinensis Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 264;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 42.

    Basilan (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Luzon (Gevers, Heriot,
    Whitehead); Masbate (Steere Exp.); Mindoro (Porter); Negros
    (Everett, Steere Exp.); Palawan (Platen); Siquijor (Bourns &
    Worcester).


"The general color of the upper surface in this species is a dark
umber-brown; but the base of the feathers of the crest is white and
the margins of the other occipital feathers are of a light yellowish
brown. Some of the scapulars and other alar feathers (especially the
latter) are slightly tipped with the same; the tail, which is of a
somewhat lighter brown than the back, is tipped with a very narrow
edging of white, and is also crossed by seven blackish brown bars,
the upper one, however, being somewhat indistinct, and the two lower
being separated by an interval which is twice the breadth of the
spaces between the other bars. The throat has a broad blackish band
running down the center, with two similar and nearly parallel bands
proceeding from the corners of the mouth, the three bands all merging
in a cluster of dark brown lanceolate marks upon the upper portion
of the breast, the intervals between these markings, and also the
whole sternal and abdominal regions, being tinged with a yellowish
rufous; the under tail-coverts are barred with brown and white, the
former bars being much broader than the latter; and the thighs and
tarsi are marked throughout their length with narrow, equidistant,
transverse bars of the same color. Length, 635; crest, 63; wing, 375;
tail, 292; tarsus, 89; middle toe with claw, 76." (Sharpe.)

A rare species found only in forest. A male from Lubang measures:
Length, 610; wing, 390; tail, 250; culmen from base, 38; tarsus, 97.



184. SPIZAËTUS LIMNÆËTUS (Horsfield).

CHANGEABLE HAWK EAGLE.


    Falco limnæëtus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13, pt. 1,
    138.
    Spizaetus limnaetus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 272.
    Spizaëtus limnaëtus Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 264; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 274; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 42.

    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Lubang (McGregor); Mindanao
    (Platen); Mindoro (Everett); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen). Burmese
    provinces, Malay Peninsula, northeastern Bengal, Greater Sunda
    Islands, Assam, and the Himalayas.


"Adult.--Above and below deep chocolate-brown, inclining to blackish
on the head and back, the quills and tail blackish, the shafts of the
latter brownish, the inner webs of the quills clear ashy; tail-feathers
below ashy white, brownish toward the tips, the penultimate ones with
remains of irregular cross-markings. Cere yellowish; feet pale yellow;
iris bright yellow. Length, 635; culmen, 43; wing, 406; tail, 279;
tarsus, 104.

"Young (type of species).--Above clear brown, with faint terminal
margins of fulvous-brown, the buff-colored bases showing very
conspicuously on all the upper parts, but especially distinct on
the wing-coverts, which are also broadly margined with buffy white;
quills deep brown, the secondaries lighter and more purplish brown,
broadly tipped with buffy white, and indistinctly barred with darker
brown, plainer on the inner web, especially underneath, where it is
ashy white on the primaries and grayish on the secondaries; lower
back and rump pale brown, the upper tail-coverts brownish buff;
tail brown, tipped with buffy white and crossed with six equidistant
bands of darker brown; head and neck whitish buff, the sides of the
latter washed with sandy rufous, and mottled with dark brown in the
centers of the feathers; under surface of body buffy white, washed
with pale fawn-color on the sides of the body and thighs, with a few
indistinct spots of the same on the chest; under wing-coverts white,
spotted with dark brown, the spots larger on the greater series. Iris
brownish. Length, 610; wing, 394; tail (not fully grown), 241;
tarsus, 94.

"Another young bird, collected by Mr. Wallace, is rather larger in
general bulk than the foregoing example, though having the wing of
the same length. It is purer white below, with a shade of dark brown
on the lower flanks, and a few distinct oval spots of brown on the
breast. The center tail-feather has seven bands of dark brown.

"Nestling.--Covered with snow-white down, the crown of the head
inclining to fawn-color, the sprouting feathers blackish brown,
the greater wing-coverts tipped with white; the few breast-feathers
visible white, with broad blackish cross-bars." (Sharpe.)

A male was taken on Lubang Island. Iris brown, bill, cere, and nails
black; feet pale yellow. Length, 610; wing, 400; tail, 260; culmen
from base, 37; tarsus, 98. This species is an inhabitant of deep
forest and is seldom seen.



Genus PITHECOPHAGA Grant, 1896.


Bill deep, greatly compressed, depth of upper mandible twice its
width at edge of cere; culmen greatly curved for its entire length;
nostril in a vertical slit near margin of cere; a very full crest of
long feathers; wings rounded, rather short; inner webs of primaries
slightly narrowed from middle to tip; tarsus slightly feathered in
front at base; a row of transverse plates in front, sides and back
with small hexagonal scales; feet powerful; tail-feathers wide and
slightly graduated.



185. PITHECOPHAGA JEFFERYI Grant.

MONKEY-EATING EAGLE.


    Pithecophaga jefferyi Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1896),
    6, 17; Ibis (1897), 214, pl. 5, text figs. 1 to 4; Whitehead,
    Ibis (1899), 90; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 265; McGregor,
    Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4, 15; Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907),
    2, sec. A, 297; Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905), 18, 73;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 42.
    Pithecophaga jefferi Clemens, Condor (1907), 9, 92 (photo).

    Leyte? (Whitehead); Luzon (Ickis); Mindanao (Keller, Clemens,
    Farrel); Samar (Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester).


"Top of head pale whitish buff with dark middles to the feathers,
which are rather narrow and pointed, especially those on the occiput,
which form a long full crest; general color above rich brown, most of
the feathers with paler margins, especially the quill-feathers and
wing-coverts; tail-feathers dark brown, the two median pairs with
wide dark bands; shafts of quills and tail-feathers creamy white;
under parts uniform creamy white; thighs and long flank-feathers with
reddish brown shaft-stripes. Length, about 840; bill, greatest depth
measured from base of cere to ridge of culmen, 38; from base of cere
to tip, 38; wing, 525; tail, 381; tarsus, 118; middle toe without
claw, 68; claw, measured in a straight line from base to tip, 37;
hind toe without claw, 46; claw, 51." (Grant.)

"Iris dull creamy brown, with an outer ring of brownish red, the two
colors melting into one another and not sharply defined; face and
base of bill dull french-blue, tip of bill black; legs and feet dull
yellow; claws black." (Whitehead.)

Grant's original description given above is quite sufficient to
identify this remarkable eagle, and agrees with a specimen before
me, but in at least two specimens which I have examined there were
conspicuous black shaft-lines on the feathers of chin and jaw. This
may have been due to a more adult plumage than the one described
by Grant. Respecting the size of this bird Grant says in part:
"The depth of the bill is greater than that of any known bird of
prey, except Pallas's sea eagle (Haliaëtus pelagicus), in which
it is sometimes a trifle greater, while such extreme narrowness,
compared with the depth, is quite unique in birds of this order. It
is also among some parrots, such as the black cockatoo (Microglossus
aterrimus), that we find a bill approaching this type, but in none
of these is it laterally compressed to the same extent. The high
vaulted nasal opening, set almost vertically, is another peculiar
character. The naked tarsi and feet approach those of the harpy eagle
(Thrasaëtes harpyia) in size and strength, and the scaling of the
tarsi is remarkably similar. Strange as it may seem, we have little
doubt that the harpy is the nearest known ally of the present species."

Measurements of several specimens have been given by me in the
Philippine Journal of Science and they need not be repeated here.



Genus SPILORNIS Gray, 1840.


Culmen straight to edge of cere, from there strongly curved to tip;
cutting edge of bill without notch or sinuation; a large nearly
naked space between eye and bill; occipital crest full; first primary
short, fifth longest and but little longer than secondaries; tarsus
feathered in front for a short distance, covered throughout with
hexagonal scales.



Species.


a1. Chest uniform brown without white spots. ... bacha (p. 227)
a2. Chest brown with numerous large white spots.

  b1. Breast and abdomen darker; chin and throat
  blue-gray. ... holospilus (p. 228)
  b2. Breast and abdomen lighter; chin and throat light
  gray. ... panayensis (p. 229)



186. SPILORNIS BACHA (Daudin).

MALAY SERPENT EAGLE.


    Falco bacha Daudin, Traité (1800), 2, 43.
    Spilornis bacha Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 290;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 299; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 42.

    Balabac (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Palawan
    (Whitehead, Platen, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Everett). Malayan Peninsula, Greater Sunda Islands.


"Adult male.--Head largely crested, jet black with white bases to
the feathers; upper surface of body brown, the wing-coverts with
a few minute spots of white on the margins of the feathers; quills
black, primary-coverts and secondaries narrowly tipped with white,
the primaries somewhat shaded with ashy gray externally and crossed
with two brown bands, one broad and very distinct, the other basal and
nearly obsolete, these bars less distinct above on the secondaries,
but rather plainer below; upper tail-coverts and tail blackish brown,
slightly tipped with whitish, the latter crossed with a broad median
band of pale ashy brown, with indications of a second basal one only
visible below; sides of head and throat blackish, cheeks somewhat
shaded with ashy gray; remainder of under surface of body brown, the
chest uniform, the breast with distinct oval spots of white on both
webs, more numerous on thighs and inclining to bars on flanks and
under tail-coverts; under wing-coverts paler brown, thickly varied
with oval spots of white, larger and further apart on the axillars
and greater coverts. Cere yellow, bill black, horn-colored at tip;
feet orange-yellow; iris yellow. Length, 622; culmen, 48; wing, 406;
tail, 254; tarsus, 86.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male but larger. Length, 660; wing,
419; tail, 267; tarsus, 95." (Sharpe.)



187. SPILORNIS HOLOSPILUS (Vigors).

PHILIPPINE SERPENT EAGLE.


    Buteo holospilus Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1831), 96.
    Spilornis holospilus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 293;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 266; Grant, Ibis (1894), 503; ibid. (1896),
    110; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 42.

    Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp.); Bongao (Everett); Catanduanes
    (Whitehead); Cebu (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Leyte
    (Everett); Luzon (Everett, Meyer, Steere Exp., Whitehead,
    McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Mindanao (Cuming, Everett,
    Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino,
    Goodfellow); Mindoro (Steere Exp., Everett, Porter); Samar (Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Sulu (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi
    (Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult.--Above pale brown with a purplish gloss and the feathers
irregularly spotted or margined with white at their tips; hind neck and
interscapulary region lighter than the rest of the back, the feathers
tipped with pale rufous, and ocellated with large rounded spots of
white; head much crested, ashy black, the feathers slightly margined
with rufous and spotted with white; sides of face and throat ashy gray,
the latter varied with oval markings of whitish; under surface of
body very light tawny, ocellated all over with spots or half bars of
white, the latter more distinct on the under tail-coverts; the thighs
and under wing-coverts a little darker and more thickly spotted with
white; wing-coverts dark brown, minutely spotted with white; primaries
brown, whitish on inner web, black at tip, and crossed with a black
bar about the middle of the feather; secondaries pale brown like the
back, with white tips and faint indications of obsolete whitish bars
on the feathers; upper tail-coverts brown, darker before the tips,
which are white, and having remains of rounded white spots concealed
or obscured by the brown color of the feathers; tail pale brown,
narrowly tipped with whity brown, and crossed with two broad bands
of blackish brown, one subterminal and the other about the middle of
the tail, a band of light brown before the lower black band, and a
broad band of whity brown between the two black bands. Length, 635;
culmen, 46; wing, 368; tail, 254; tarsus, 90.

"Young.--Above brown, the feathers tipped with pale rufous, the white
bases very conspicuous especially on the wing-coverts, which appear
lighter than the back; head, which is largely crested, and hind neck
rufous, the feathers buffy white at the base; with a chestnut-brown
subterminal spot; ear-coverts and sides of face uniform dark brown;
throat white; rest of under surface of body fulvous washed with
rufous, more especially on the breast-feathers, which have dark
brown shafts; under wing-coverts fulvous, washed with tawny rufous;
primaries dark brown, secondaries rather lighter like the back,
and tipped with buffy white, all the quills white at base of inner
web, and barred with darker brown, showing more plainly underneath,
as the interspaces are whitish ashy; tail brown, washed with rufous
near the base, and slightly tipped with fulvous, crossed with four
or five bars of dark brown, the basal ones indistinct and more or
less dissolved into mottlings." (Sharpe.)

From Cape Engaño we have received an immature female, which has the
head and upper mantle whitish buff, with brown shaft-spots; there is
the beginning of a short deep black superciliary band extending above
the eye, while a few feathers of a more adult plumage are beginning
to make their appearance on the occiput; these are brownish red,
with a white subterminal black tip. (The appearance of this black
eyebrow-stripe is very puzzling, as it does not appear in the adult
plumage; it may be part of an intermediate plumage or fade with age
and wear to the dark brown of the adult.) General color above brown,
with irregular, ill-defined reddish white spots on either web; tail
dark brown with two wide brownish white bands across the terminal half;
chin and throat whitish buff. Sides of the head and under parts pale
buff, with brownish red shaft-stripes, widest on the terminal half;
thighs buff, with wide chestnut middles, constricted at intervals,
so as to form ill-defined buff spots down the sides of the feathers,
one or two half grown adult feathers on the left thigh. Wing, 386;
tail, 272; tarsus, 86.

"Although somewhat peculiar in plumage and large in size, I have
no hesitation in referring this specimen to S. holospilus, and
Mr. Whitehead shares the same opinion." (Grant.)



188. SPILORNIS PANAYENSIS Steere.

PANAY SERPENT EAGLE.


    Spilornis panayensis Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 7; Grant, Ibis (1896), 527; Whitehead, Ibis (1899),
    93; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 266; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 42.
    Spilornis holospilus Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 44 (part).

    Si-cub', Bohol.

    Bohol (McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Keay); Panay (Steere Exp.); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester,
    Celestino).


"Adult male.--Head black, feathers of crest sulphur-white at base,
then black, narrowly edged with whitish; rest of upper surface with
wings light ashy brown, all the feathers edged with whitish. Tail
broadly tipped with white and with two broad whitish bars and part
of a third basal one; throat bluish ash, unmarked; rest of under
surface pale cinnamon, shaded with ash and spotted and banded
as in S. holospilus. Length, 502; wing, 317; tail, 229; tarsus,
71. Distinguished from S. holospilus by its small size and pale
coloring." (Steere.)

The validity of this species is somewhat doubtful. Bourns and Worcester
consider that it "was founded on differences due to change of season
and to individual variation." Grant thinks "that S. panayensis may
fairly be recognized as a distinct form."



Genus BUTASTUR Hodgson, 1843.


Bill small, its edge slightly sinuate; wings moderate, primaries
cut on inner web; first primary short; secondaries much shorter
than primaries; tarsus feathered in front for a short distance,
a row of large hexagonal scales in front, rest of tarsus with small
hexagonal scales.



189. BUTASTUR INDICUS (Gmelin).

TIC-WEE BUZZARD.


    Falco indicus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, pt. 1, 264.
    Butastur indicus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 297;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 266; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 278;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 43.

    Lim-bas', Manila and Lubang; tic-weé, in general; cu-yab', Calayan.

    Balabac (Everett); Basilan (Steere Exp., McGregor); Batan
    N. (Edmonds [24]); Bohol (Everett, Steere Exp.); Cagayancillo
    (McGregor); Cagayan Sulu (Mearns); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Cebu (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns
    & Worcester, McGregor); Cuyo (Meyer); Fuga (Whitehead); Guimaras
    (Meyer); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Meyer, Everett, Steere Exp.,
    Whitehead, McGregor); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao
    (Steere, Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Goodfellow); Mindoro
    (Everett, McGregor, Porter); Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Keay); Palawan (Everett, Whitehead, Platen, Bourns &
    Worcester, White); Panay (Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Samar (Bourns & Worcester); Sibay (McGregor & Worcester); Siquijor
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Sulu (Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Verde (McGregor). Ussuri-land;
    Japan; China to Malay Peninsula; Celebes.


"Adult.--Above brown, inclining to ashy on head and upper back, and
to rufous on lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts, the latter of
which are plainly barred and broadly tipped with pure white; forehead
white; sides of face clear ashy gray; sides of neck ashy brown,
uniform with the interscapulary region; wing-coverts rufous-brown,
mottled with clearer rufous; primary-coverts rufous, externally
mottled and broadly tipped with black; quills rufous, narrowly tipped
with buffy white, primaries brown externally and toward their tips,
also barred with dark brown on their inner webs; the secondaries ashy
brown, inclining gradually to whity brown at their tips, washed with
rufous and barred with dark brown; the lower surface of the wing
creamy white on the inner webs of the quills, somewhat washed with
rufous; tail ashy brown, whity brown at tip and crossed with three
or four broad bars of blackish brown, the lower surface ashy white,
the bars showing more plainly, except on the outermost feather, where
they are obsolete; throat white, with a mesial line of ashy brown,
as well as two not very distinct moustachial streaks; upper breast
ashy brown, washed with rufous, the lower breast and abdomen barred
with white and rufous-brown, the latter bars decreasing toward the
vent and thighs, and totally absent on the under tail-coverts; under
wing-coverts with slight cross-markings of pale rufous. Bill leaden
black, yellow at base; cere and feet yellow; iris yellow. Length,
470; culmen, 33; wing, 333; tail, 201; tarsus, 61.

"Adult female.--Larger. Length, 470; wing, 345; tail, 213; tarsus, 62.

"Young.--Considerably different from the adult. Above dark brown,
the wing-coverts washed with rufous and tipped with dull white, the
greater ones with rufous or rufous-white spots on both webs, giving a
mottled appearance to these parts; forehead and eyebrow creamy white;
crown and hind neck brown, the feathers margined with creamy white,
giving a striped appearance, the latter also slightly washed with
rufous; sides of face ashy brown, streaked with darker brown, the
fore part of the cheeks white; under surface of body creamy buff,
the throat with a central blackish streak on the lower part; center of
chest streaked with dark brown, the breast with pale chestnut, becoming
spade-shaped spots on the flanks, but narrowing to small streaks on
the thighs, and disappearing altogether on the under tail-coverts,
which are creamy buff; under wing-coverts creamy buff, with a few
rufous-brown marks on the lower series, and bars of the same on the
axillars; upper tail-coverts brown, white at the base and at tip,
and having the outer margin also white; tail ashy brown, tipped
with pale rufous-brown and crossed with five bars of darker brown,
the subterminal one broader; quills dark brown, the secondaries paler,
the base of the inner web white, with remains of ashy bars on the inner
secondaries. Cere and feet yellow; bill black; iris yellow." (Sharpe.)

"Exceedingly common throughout the group. Most abundant about
scattering trees in open fields. Breeds." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

The tic-wee buzzard is the commonest hawk in the Philippines and on
Calayan and Batan Islands it occurs in immense flocks during migration.



Genus HALIÆETUS Savigny, 1809.


Bill stout, culmen straight at base, then greatly curved, with a
long overhanging hook, edge sinuate; tail rounded, its feathers wide
and pointed; tarsus heavy, feathered for a short distance in front;
a row of large transverse plates in front, a row of large hexagonal
scales behind, sides covered with small hexagonal scales.



190. HALIÆETUS LEUCOGASTER (Gmelin).

WHITE-BREASTED SEA EAGLE.


    Falco leucogaster Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, pt. 1, 257.
    Haliaetus leucogaster Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 307.
    Haliaëtus leucogaster Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 267; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 279; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 43.

    Ma-na-ol', Ticao, Manila.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Basilan (Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns
    & Worcester); Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Cebu
    (McGregor); East Bolod (Mearns); Fuga (Whitehead); Luzon (Bourns
    & Worcester); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Mindanao
    (Steere Exp.); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor, Porter);
    Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, Bourns & Worcester, White); Romblon
    (Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead); Semirara (McGregor & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester); Sulu (Bourns
    & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Tawi Tawi
    (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor); Verde (McGregor); Y'Ami
    (McGregor). Indian Peninsula; Indo-Chinese Provinces; Malay
    Peninsula to Australia and Oceania.


Adult.--Entire head, neck, and lower parts white, many of the feathers
with blackish shafts; tail blackish, its terminal third white;
primaries blackish with white bases; axillars and wing-lining white;
remainder of wings and upper parts bluish slate-gray, with a slight
mixture of brown. Male from Ticao: Iris dark; bill at base and cere
horn-blue; bill at tip and nails black; legs and toes white. Length,
685; wing, 550; tail, 230; culmen from base, 52; tarsus, 91. The
female is said to be slightly larger.

Young.--Head, chin, and throat buffy or pale yellowish white, more
or less streaked with light brown; general color brown, darker above,
many of the feathers with lighter brown or whitish shaft-lines which
widen at the tips; primaries black with whitish bases; end of tail
brown, basal two-thirds white mottled with brown.

The white-breasted sea eagle is widely distributed but nowhere in the
Philippines is it abundant. In adult plumage it is easily identified
by its white under parts. Its nest consists of a mass of sticks and
is usually supported by the branches of some large tree. Islets on
which there are but a few trees are in particular favor with this
species. The eggs are usually spheroidal and white with a few faint
markings of reddish brown.

"Common along the seashore. Frequently seen perching on the fish
pens of the natives, where it secures abundant food." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



Genus HALIASTUR Selby, 1840.


Bill moderate, compressed, with a long overhanging tip; culmen well
curved, cutting edge slightly sinuate; wings long, extending beyond
tip of tail; inner webs of primaries abruptly cut; tail nearly square;
tarsus feathered in front for about half its length, the lower half
with large transverse plates, its sides and back with variously shaped
scales; claws strong and well curved.



191. HALIASTUR INTERMEDIUS Gurney.

MALAYAN BRAHMINY KITE.


    Haliastur intermedius Gurney, Ibis (1865), 28; Sharpe, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 314; Hand-List (1899), 1, 268; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 282; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 43.

    La-uin', Lubang, Manila; ba-nog', Bohol, Ticao.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Bohol (Steere Exp., McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Buluan off
    Mindanao (Mearns); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Catanduanes
    (Whitehead); Cebu (Murray, Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Cuyo (McGregor); Guimaras (Meyer, Steere Exp.); Leyte (Everett);
    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Meyer, Everett, Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead, McGregor, Seale); Maestre de Campo (McGregor &
    Worcester); Malanipa (Murray); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate
    (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Murray,
    Goodfellow); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor, Porter);
    Negros (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Panay (Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester); Samar
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Celestino); Sulu (Guillemard,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor). Celebes; Malay
    Peninsula; Greater Sunda Islands; Indo-Chinese Provinces.


Adult.--Entire head and neck, chin, throat, and breast white,
with narrow black shaft-lines; rest of the plumage rich chestnut,
the shafts blackish, the chestnut most intense on mantle and back;
primaries black with light rufous bases; axillars and wing-lining
chestnut; tail chestnut, tipped with gray. Length of male, 470; wing,
410; tail, 210; culmen from base, 35; tarsus, 53.

"Young.--Above deep brown, the interscapulary feathers inclining
to dull maroon toward their tips, the rest of the feathers of
the upper surface tipped with rufous, and most of them externally
shaded with ashy gray; head and neck pale rufous, with buffy white
centers and tips to the feathers, giving a streaked appearance, as
in a young Milvus; forehead, lores, and sides of face white, with
narrow black shaft-lines to the feathers; ear-coverts slightly washed
with brown; chin whitish; rest of under surface pale rufous-brown,
the shaft-stripes distinct, all the feathers with central streaks
of buffy white, the chest-feathers darker, and washed with brown
on both margins, thighs and under tail-coverts inclining to maroon;
under wing-coverts and axillars clear brown, tipped with rufous or
maroon, and centered with black shaft-streaks." (Sharpe.)

"Extremely common. Frequently abundant about shipping in the harbors,
where it feeds on refuse thrown overboard from the ships. Often seen
feeding over surface of fresh-water streams as well. Not infrequently
met with hawking over open fields at some distance inland." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)

"An egg of the Malayan brahminy kite taken in Borneo is of an elongated
elliptical form and plain white. Another, taken in the Philippine
Islands, is white, minutely speckled all over with dark brown. Neither
specimen shows any trace of gloss. They measure respectively: 49.5
by 35.5; 49.5 by 40.6." (Oates.)

The second egg mentioned above was taken in Siquijor by the Steere
Expedition.



Genus ELANUS Savigny, 1809.


Bill moderate, edge gently sinuate; culmen strongly curved; wings
long, extending beyond tip of tail; primaries not cut on inner webs;
tail slightly forked; tarsus feathered in front for half its length,
remainder of its surface covered with minute roundish scales.



192. ELANUS HYPOLEUCUS Gould.

PHILIPPINE BLACK-WINGED KITE.


    Elanus hypoleucus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1859), 127; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 338; Hand-List (1899), 1, 269;
    Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 291, pl. 13, figs. 3; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 44.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Everett); Bohol (McGregor); Bongao
    (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Cebu (Everett, Bourns
    & Worcester); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Luzon (Jagor, Steere Exp.,
    Whitehead, McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Goodfellow); Mindoro
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Everett, Whitehead, Porter);
    Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Samar (Whitehead);
    Sibuyan (McGregor); Sulu (Burbidge, Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi
    (Bourns & Worcester). Celebes; Greater Sunda Islands.


Adult.--Above pearl-gray, paler on head and fading to pure white above
eyes, on forehead, and sides of neck; lores and a narrow line above
eye black; entire lower parts including under surface of wings and
tail white; median and lesser coverts black but a few of the inner
lesser coverts white; a few small black feathers near edge of wing;
primaries and secondaries tipped with white and largely white on inner
webs, primary-shafts black; tail-feathers white, except central pair
which are gray above.

Male from Bantayan.--Length, 330; wing, 300; tail, 143; culmen from
base, 25; tarsus, 36.

Female from Manila.--Bill and nails black; iris carmine; cere, gape,
and legs chrome-yellow. Length, 355; wing, 300; tail, 138; culmen
from base, 25; tarsus, 34.

An immature female from Bohol is like the adult but the wing-feathers,
including the black coverts, are widely tipped with white, and the
feathers of crown and nape are edged with white and a little buff
giving the head a streaked appearance. Iris light yellow; bill and
nails black; cere waxy yellow; feet bright chrome-yellow.

"Female, not quite adult (type).--Above ashy gray, scapulars and quills
plainly tipped with white, and washed with rusty brown, especially
on the interscapular region; crown white, the hinder part inclining
to ashy gray, plainly streaked with rusty brown; wing ashy gray,
primaries darker, all the quills, as well as the coverts tipped with
white, the lesser and median coverts black, forming a conspicuous
shoulder patch; tail white, shaded with ashy toward the tip, the two
center feathers entirely ashy gray; under surface of body entirely
white, including the under wing-coverts; under surface of quills deep
ashy gray toward the tip, whitish at base. Cere yellow; bill black;
feet yellow; iris red. Length, 368; culmen, 28; wing, 305; tail, 157;
tarsus, 38." (Sharpe.)

"Quite abundant about the open fields, but difficult to shoot. Iris
bright red; legs and feet yellow; nails black; bill black, except
cere and gape which are bright yellow." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

"The sole egg of the Philippine black-winged kite in the collection
is a blunt oval, smooth, and devoid of gloss. It is white, thickly
smeared especially at the large end, with two shades of brown. It
measures: 41.9 by 31.7 mm." (Oates.)

The egg described above was collected by Everett in Mindoro,
December 14.



Genus PERNIS Cuvier, 1817.


Bill small, elongate, the cutting edge regular or slightly sinuate;
nostril a narrow slit; side of head covered with short close-set
feathers; no bristles nor hairs about base of bill; wings long,
primaries obliquely cut on inner webs; tail composed of long wide
feathers; tarsus feathered in front for its upper half, its remaining
surface covered with small scales.



193. PERNIS PTILORHYNCUS (Temminck).

CRESTED HONEY BUZZARD.


    Falco ptilorhyncus Temminck, Pl. Col. livr. 8 (1821), 1, 44.
    Pernis ptilonorhynchus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1,
    347; Hand-List (1899), 1, 271; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2,
    293, pl. 14, fig. 4; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 44.
    Pernis cristatus Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3, 406
    (part), fig. 98 (head); Grant, Ibis (1897), 213.

    Cebu (Bourns & Worcester); Luzon (Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester);
    Mindanao (Everett, Celestino, Goodfellow); Mindoro (McGregor);
    Palawan (Whitehead, Platen); Romblon (McGregor); Samar (Whitehead);
    Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Sulu (Platen, Bourns & Worcester);
    Tablas (Celestino). Indian and Malay Peninsulas, Indo-Chinese
    countries, Ceylon, Greater Sunda Islands.


Adult.--Upper parts brown, many of the feathers white basally; top of
head, neck, and sides of neck light brown with heavy black shaft-lines;
long crest-feathers black; scale-like feathers of lores and side of
head ashy gray; chin, throat, and breast white with black shaft-lines
and many feathers with long wide terminal spots of black or dark brown
on the throat, forming a median and two lateral stripes; abdomen,
thighs, and under tail-coverts light brown, barred with white; under
surface of primaries and secondaries light gray, banded with dark
brown, the basal bars broken; axillars and wing-lining tawny-brown,
the latter mottled with white; tail from above light brown, with five
or six wide bars of dark brown; from below the tail is light gray,
crossed by dark brown bars. Bill black, its base bluish; iris bright
yellow; legs dull yellow; nails black. A male from Mindoro is 570
in length; wing, 390; tail, 285; culmen from base, 33; tarsus, 45;
middle toe with claw, 58.

A breeding female, taken in Mindoro, February 19, 1905, is 610 in
length; wing, 395; tail, 290; culmen from base, 36; tarsus, 44.



Genus BAZA Hodgson, 1836.


Bill stout, culmen well curved; cutting edge with two teeth, in young
birds there is often a single tooth; cere small; nostrils narrow,
slightly oblique; crest long and narrow; wing moderate, third or
fourth quill longest; tail square; tarsus short, feathered in front
for half its length, naked part reticulate. The key is based on the
plumage of the young females; the adult of leucopais is unknown.



Species.


a1. Breast banded with pale rufous; a black streak down center of
throat. ... magnirostris (p. 236)
a2. Breast not banded; no black streak on throat; entire under parts
pure white. ... leucopais (p. 237)



194. BAZA MAGNIROSTRIS Gray.

LARGE-BILLED BAZA.


    Baza magnirostris Gray, Cat. Acciptr. Brit. Mus. (1844), 19;
    Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 356, pl. 10, fig. 1;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 271; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 44.

    Luzon (Cuming); Mindanao (Platen, Goodfellow).


"Nearly adult female.--Crown and long occipital crest black; feathers
over eye, as well as the sides and back of the neck tawny rufous,
the latter spotted with black; sides of face grayish washed with
rufous; upper surface of body brown, with a gloss of purplish brown,
some of the feathers also shaded with greenish in certain lights;
quills brown, tipped with whitish, barred with purplish brown, the
secondaries very much paler brown, against which the bands of darker
brown contrast strongly, especially the subterminal one, which has
a distinct purplish gloss; under surface of quills grayish white,
with dark brown bands, pure white near the base; tail brown, tipped
with whity brown, and crossed by three bands of dark purplish brown,
the subterminal one being very broad, and glossed with greenish; under
surface of tail grayish white, like that of the wings, the subterminal
band distinctly marked, the basal ones very faintly, excepting on the
outermost feathers, which have a patch of dark brown on the outer web,
extending on to the inner one also; under surface of body whitish,
broadly streaked on sides of throat and chest, banded on breast,
and spotted on under tail-coverts with pale rufous, darker and more
inclining to rufous-brown on flanks, sides of body, and axillars; down
the center of the throat extending to the fore neck, a broad black
streak; under wing-coverts buffy white, spotted with pale rufous,
the lower ones barred with this color. Bill horn-black, browner on
lower mandible; feet yellow. Length, 444; culmen, 38; wing, 312;
tail, 206; tarsus, 38.

"Adult male (type).--Another specimen in the national collection
(British Museum) differs from the foregoing in not having so stout
a bill, in the sides of the face being more conspicuously gray, this
shade also extending over the throat and breast, the former of which
is narrowly streaked with grayish down the center; the crown of the
head is blackish, feathers of the forehead being edged with rufous;
the sides and hind part of the neck similarly marked, producing a
striped appearance; occipital crest black, with a narrow white tip to
one or two of the feathers; the bands on the breast very broad and
pale rufous. Length, 389; culmen, 34; wing, 292; tail, 190; tarsus,
38. This would apparently be the adult male, and the other perhaps
a female not quite adult." (Sharpe.)



195. BAZA LEUCOPAIS Sharpe.

WHITEHEAD'S BAZA.


    Baza leucopias Sharpe, Ibis (1888), 195 (error).
    Baza leucopais Whitehead, Ibis (1890), 43, pl. 2; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 271; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 44.

    Palawan (Whitehead); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Bourns
    & Worcester).


"Young female.--General color above brown, with whitish brown margins
to the feathers; lesser wing-coverts brown, the inner ones rufous,
with brown centers; median and greater coverts pale rufous, white
externally toward the ends and round the tips; alula dark brown,
externally rufous; primary-coverts uniform dark brown; quills dark
brown fringed with white round the ends, and crossed with blackish
brown bars, four in number, one subterminal; secondaries paler brown,
externally rufous; upper tail-coverts tawny-rufous, edged with white
and with dark brown centers; tail-feathers dark brown, narrowly
fringed with white at the ends, and crossed with blackish bands, the
subterminal one very broad, but not nearly so wide as the preceding
interspace; a crest of white feathers, the long ones freckled with
brown; head, nape, and hind neck, lores, sides of face, ear-coverts,
cheeks, sides of neck, and entire under surface of body pure white,
slightly washed with rufous on the head and hind neck; the breast,
abdomen, and under tail-coverts washed with creamy buff; the sides of
the body and flanks with slight indications of spots of pale tawny
buff; under wing-coverts and axillars like the breast; quills below
ashy gray, with blackish bars on the primaries. Length, 394; culmen,
29; wing, 274; tail, 178; tarsus, 35.

"The typical [=type] specimen, though manifestly immature, differs
thoroughly from the young of B. sumatrensis, and I feel sure that
the adult bird, when discovered, will be markedly distinct." (Sharpe.)

"Rare and shy. Iris, legs, and feet yellow; nails black; bill black,
slaty at base; bare flesh of head greenish yellow. One specimen had
been eating crabs when shot.

"A male measures 457 in length; wing, 312; tail, 199; culmen, 27;
tarsus, 76; middle toe with claw, 40. A female, 457 in length;
wing, 305; tail, 208; culmen, 26; tarsus, 64; middle toe with claw,
43." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

The adult of this rare species appears to be undescribed.



Genus MICROHIERAX Sharpe, 1874.


Bill strong; edge of mandible with a double notch forming a sharp
tooth; cere small; no crest; first primary nearly equal to second
and third which are the longest; secondaries short; tarsus and feet
strong; plumage black and white; length less than 200 mm.



Species.


a1. Slightly smaller. ... erythrogenys (p. 238)
a2. Slightly larger. ... meridionalis (p. 239)



196. MICROHIERAX ERYTHROGENYS (Vigors).

PHILIPPINE FALCONET.


    Hierax erythrogenys Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1831), 96.
    Microhierax erythrogenys Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1,
    369; Hand-List (1899), 1, 273; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 44; McGregor, Philippine Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 323.

    Bohol (McGregor); Luzon (Meyer, Möllendorff, Everett, Steere Exp.,
    Whitehead, McGregor); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, Porter); Negros
    (Keay).


Adult (sexes similar).--Above, including wings and tail, black with a
dark green gloss; below white; sides, thighs, and under tail-coverts
black. Iris brown; bill and nails black; legs dark blue. Length of
a male from Mindoro, 160; wing, 110; tail, 68; culmen from cere,
11; tarsus, 20. A male from Bohol measures: Wing, 110; tail, 63;
culmen from cere, 13. A female from Luzon: Wing, 110; tail, 66;
culmen from cere, 12.

Young.--The immature male resembles the adult but the inner webs of
primaries are barred or mottled with white.

"Extremely local in its habits. Often found perching on a dead limb
at the top of some tree, and may be met with in exactly the same place
day after day. It feeds on insects and often leaves its perch on short
flights in pursuit of its prey, promptly returning, however. When shot
at but not killed it usually takes but a short flight, and returns
at once to its favorite perch. Small flocks frequently found together.

"Iris brown; legs and feet black; bill black. Nine specimens average,
179 in length; wing, 108; tail, 62; culmen, 13; tarsus, 22; middle
toe with claw, 21." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



197. MICROHIERAX MERIDIONALIS Grant.

GRANT'S FALCONET.


    Microhierax meridionalis Grant, Ibis (1897), 220; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 273; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 44.

    Cebu (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Everett, Koch &
    Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Celestino, Goodfellow); Samar (Whitehead,
    Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult male.--Similar to the male of M. erythrogenys, but considerably
larger; the under wing-coverts and inner webs of the primaries
uniform black; and belly, vent, and under tail-coverts washed with
pale fulvous. Length, 165; wing, 113; tail, 66; culmen (from cere
to tip), 13; tarsus, 22. The type of the male is from Zamboanga,
southern Mindanao.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but larger. Length, 183; wing,
117; tail, 70; culmen (from cere to tip), 13; tarsus, 22. The type
of the female is from the Island of Samar." (Grant.)

Grant's falconet is a species of doubtful validity, but the name may be
retained until more specimens have been examined. In M. erythrogenys
the white bars on the primaries are due to immaturity and are not
characteristic of the typical adult male.



Genus FALCO Linnæus, 1758.


Bill stout, culmen strongly curved from front of cere to tip; a
well-marked tooth in edge of upper mandible; wings long and pointed,
second primary longest, the first and third but little shorter; first
primary with a deep notch near its tip; legs, feet, and claws strong,
middle toe long; tarsus covered on all sides with small hexagonal
scales. The falcons are powerful birds, strong and rapid in flight,
and easily recognized by the rapid motion of the wings.



Species.


a1. Much larger; wing more than 300 mm.

  b1. Light color from breast extending forward below ear-coverts and
  partly separating a blackish band on side of throat from black of
  side of head. ... peregrinus (p. 240)
  b2. Light color of breast not invading the auricular region, the
  entire side of head, sides of throat, and ear-coverts being black.

    c1. Bars on under parts black and close-set; flanks,
    thighs, abdomen, and under tail-coverts washed with smoky
    blue-gray. ... ernesti (p. 242)
    c2. Less closely barred below; under parts not washed with smoky
    blue-gray. ... melanogenys (p. 241)

a2. Much smaller; wing less than 250 mm. ... severus (p. 243)



198. FALCO PEREGRINUS Tunstall.

PEREGRINE FALCON.


    Falco peregrinus Tunstall, Ornithologia Britannica (1771),
    1; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 273; Blanford, Fauna
    Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3, 415; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 296; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 44.
    Falco communis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 376.

    Batan (Edmonds); Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor);
    Catanduanes (Whitehead); Fuga (Whitehead); Luzon (Steere Exp.,
    McGregor); Mindanao (Steere Exp.); Mindoro (Everett); Negros
    (Steere Exp.); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, White). Northern
    America, Europe, Asia; in winter, Africa and Indian Peninsula.


"Adult.--Above bluish gray, darker on the head and nape, pale on rump
and upper tail-coverts; feathers of the head and nape, the scapulars
and sometimes other parts of the upper plumage dark shafted, and all
feathers except those of the head and hind neck with dark cross-bands;
forehead whitish; a broad cheek-stripe from beneath eye black;
primaries blackish, the inner webs, except near the end, closely barred
with white; secondaries ashy gray with darker cross-bands; tail dark
gray or blackish, with numerous ashy gray cross-bars, closer together
and paler toward the base, extreme tip and borders near tip whitish;
lower parts white with a rufous tinge, a few brown or black spots on
lower breast and middle of abdomen, and narrow dark bars on flanks,
lower wing-coverts, thighs, and under tail-coverts.

"Young birds are very dark brown above, the feathers edged with rufous,
the buff bases of the feathers showing about nape; tail-feathers with
about six transversely oval rufous spots on each web, forming imperfect
cross-bars; primaries as in adults; cheek-stripe narrower; lower parts
white, buff, or rufescent, spotted except on the throat, with broad
brown elongate median stripes, becoming broad spots on the flanks.

"After the first molt peregrines are brownish gray above and gradually
acquire a pure slaty-gray back. The spots and bars on the lower parts
are much broader at first and grow smaller and narrower with age,
the drops on the breast become narrow lines and ultimately disappear
altogether, the bands fade off the under tail-coverts and in very old
birds only small scattered specks remain on the abdomen and triangular
markings on the thigh-coverts. The general tint of the lower surface
varies from almost white to light rufous.

"Bill bluish, black at tip; cere yellow; iris brown; legs and feet
yellow. Length of a female, about 483; tail, 190; wing, 368; tarsus,
53; middle toe without claw, 57; bill from gape, 33. Males are
considerably smaller, length, about 406; wing, 317." (Blanford.)

An old female, taken in Tarlac Province, Luzon, was 470 in length;
wing, 360; tail, 195; culmen from base, 30; tarsus, 55; middle toe
with claw, 68. Iris brown; cere, legs, and skin about eyes light
lemon-yellow; nails black; bill black, its basal third very pale
yellow.



199. FALCO MELANOGENYS Gould.

AUSTRALIAN FALCON.


    Falco melanogenys Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1837), 139; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 385; Hand-List (1899), 1, 274;
    Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 298; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 45.

    Luzon (Heriot). Australia.


"Adult male.--Head and nape deep black, including the entire sides
of face, cheeks, and ear-coverts; interscapulary region blackish,
with a few obsolete transverse bars of bluish gray; rest of upper
surface bluish ashy, barred all over with blackish, some of the bars,
especially of the upper tail-coverts, assuming a triangular form;
upper wing-coverts somewhat washed with brown, the gray shade being
more perceptible on the greater series; quills black, the primaries
outwardly shaded with gray, outer secondaries narrowly tipped with
creamy white, the inner ones almost entirely bluish gray, with obscure
blackish marblings and cross-bars; tail blackish, with a narrow ashy
white bar at the tip, the upper surface shaded with gray, clearer
toward the base, bars on center rectrices eleven in number, not
including the broad subterminal black band; throat and upper breast
deep creamy buff, the latter with a few median black shaft-stripes;
rest of the under surface buffy white, closely but narrowly barred
across with black, sides of body and thighs shaded with a bluish
gray tinge; fore part of breast and under wing-coverts with a strong
fawn-colored shade. Bill greenish at base, horny black at tip, under
mandible deep orange; feet yellow; claws black; iris dark. Length,
376; culmen, 30; wing, 300; tail, 152; tarsus, 51.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but larger and more richly
colored; underneath deep ferruginous, paler on the chest, the cross
barring narrow and irregular, sometimes confined to a small subterminal
spot. Length, 419; culmen, 37; wing, 338; tail, 168; tarsus, 51.

"Young male.--Above brownish, the feathers edged with fulvous,
especially distinct on the wing-coverts and secondaries; hinder neck
marked with pale tawny; lower back and rump alternately barred with
ashy and dark brown, the subterminal bar being somewhat triangular
in shape; tail brown, similarly barred with ashy and tipped with
fulvous; quills dark brown, with paler edgings; under surface
buffy white, inclining to deep fawn on the breast and abdomen,
which are longitudinally streaked with blackish brown, the flanks,
under wing-coverts, and axillars barred with the same color. Cere,
bill, and feet paler than in the adults.

"Young female.--Brown, head and cheeks blackish; feathers of
upper surface spotted and tipped with rufous-fawn; underneath
deep buff, inclining to rufous on the abdomen, the streaks on
the chest dart-shaped, on the abdomen oval, all very broad and
distinct." (Sharpe.)



200. FALCO ERNESTI Sharpe.

ERNEST'S FALCON.



    Falco ernesti Sharpe, Ibis (1894), 545; Hand-List (1899), 1, 273;
    Grant, Ibis (1895), 438; (1896), 530; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 44.
    Falco atriceps Clarke, Ibis (1895), 476.

    Luzon (Heriot, Whitehead); Negros (Keay, Whitehead); Sibuyan
    (McGregor [25]); Siquijor (Celestino). New Guinea; Greater Sunda
    and Fiji Islands.


Diagnosis.--Similar to Falco melanogenys but blacker; beneath
everywhere shaded with ashy gray; wing-lining and axillars black,
crossed with narrow white bars. Length, 394 mm.; wing, 295; tail,
140; tarsus, 48. [26]

"The adult male [collected by Hose at 1,400 meters on Mount Dulit,
Borneo] is a remarkably beautiful specimen, and is evidently of the
same race of peregrine as Mr. Pretyman's bird from the Lawas River,
but is not quite so red on the chest. The closeness of the barring of
the under wing-coverts and axillars is remarkable and gives the species
a much blacker look than F. melanogenys while no specimen of the last
name falcon in the [British] Museum has the under tail-coverts and
thighs bluish gray like the sides of the body. Whether Falco ernesti
(as I have named the bird, after Mr. Ernest Hose) is confined to
Borneo I can not yet tell, but I think that it is very likely to be
found to be the resident form of all the Indo-Malayan Islands, as a
specimen procured by Mr. Maitland-Heriot in Manila seems certainly
referable to it." (Sharpe.)

Grant says: "In adults of F. ernesti, though the breast is occasionally
washed with fulvous, the sides, flanks, and belly are dark slate-gray
or bluish gray, and the whole of the under surface below the crop is
thickly covered with rather wide, close-set black bars, giving these
parts a very dark appearance."



201. FALCO SEVERUS Horsfield.

ASIATIC MERLIN.


    Falco severus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13, pt. 1,
    135; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 397; Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 274; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 45.

    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester);
    Luzon (Heriot, Whitehead, McGregor, Worcester); Mindanao (Everett,
    Goodfellow); Mindoro (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Negros (Layard,
    Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester);
    Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester); Sulu
    (Platen, Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester). Malay
    Peninsula, Burmese provinces, Himalayas, Ceylon, southern Indian
    Peninsula, Greater Sunda Islands to New Guinea and New Britain.


"Adult female.--Above black, with a slight slaty gray shade, more
distinct on the lower back, rump, and tail, the bars on the latter
being obsolete; cheeks and ear-coverts entirely black, like head;
under surface of body uniform bright chestnut; throat and sides of
neck creamy white, the latter with a slight wash of chestnut; under
wing-coverts chestnut like breast, some of the lower ones barred with
black; primaries black, with a few rufous bars near the base. Cere,
orbits, and feet yellow; bill bluish black, yellow at base; iris dark
brown. Length, 343; culmen, 24; wing, 231; tail, 117; tarsus, 36.

"Adult male.--Similar to, but smaller than the female. Length, 297;
wing, 216; tail, 114; tarsus, 29.

"Young.--Similar to the adult, but the breast covered with median
tear-shaped black spots on each feather, the tail broadly banded and
tipped with rufous, as also are the primaries; nape slightly varied
with rufous; throat purer white than in adult." (Sharpe.)

"A very rapid flyer and usually seen on the wing. Much detested
by Spaniards and natives on account of its depredations on their
dovecotes and poultry yards." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus CERCHNEIS Boie, 1826.


Smaller than Falco but tail slightly graduated or wedge-shaped and
actually longer than in the peregrines; wing pointed, first primary
a trifle longer than fourth and decidedly shorter than third, the
second longest; tarsus feathered for a short distance in front,
the bare portions covered with hexagonal scales, large in front,
small on lateral and posterior aspects.



202. CERCHNEIS TINNUNCULUS (Linnæus).

KESTREL.


    Falco tinnunculus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 90.
    Cerchneis tinnuncula Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 425.
    Cerchneis tinnunculus Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 276; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 308; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 45.

    Luzon (Whitehead); Palawan (White). Europe and northern Asia;
    in winter, Africa and the Indian Peninsula.


"Adult male.--Upper parts brick-red, with a few arrow-head markings
of black, larger on the inner secondaries; primary-coverts and
quills dark brown, the former narrowly margined with rufous, the
primaries notched with white for about two-thirds of their length,
the inner primaries and outer secondaries narrowly edged and tipped
with buffy white; head and neck clear blue-gray, with narrow black
shaft-stripes; forehead and narrow eyebrow buffy white; cheeks silvery
gray, inclining to blackish below the eye and on the fore part of
cheeks, forming a tolerably distinct moustache; lower back, rump,
upper tail-coverts, and tail clear blue-gray, the latter tipped with
ashy white, before which is a broad subterminal band of black; throat
and under tail-coverts buff, unspotted; remainder of under surface
rufous-fawn; the chest-feathers mesially streaked with black, these
dark centers being larger and more oval in shape on flank-feathers;
thighs clear rufous unspotted; under wing-coverts white, spotted with
black. Bill bluish horn-color, black at tip, yellowish at base; cere,
orbits, and feet yellow; iris brown. Length, 317; culmen, 44; wing,
234; tail, 170; tarsus, 41.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male underneath but not so deeply
colored. Upper surface entirely rufous, banded with black, with a
faint bluish shade on the rump; upper tail-coverts inclining to buff;
head rufous, streaked with black; tail rufous, banded with black,
the bars not being strictly continuous, tipped with buffy white,
before which is a conspicuous broad band of black; facial features
and soft parts as in the male. Length, 317; culmen, 19; wing, 234;
tail, 165; tarsus, 41.

"Young male.--Resembling the old female but rather paler and more
distinctly striped on the breast. The tail first changes, becoming blue
like that of the old male; and thus birds are often seen in partial
plumage, having the blue tail of the adult male, but retaining the
rufous head of the old female dress." (Sharpe.)



Suborder PANDIONES.


This suborder with a single family of two genera is distinguished
from the suborder Accipitres by having the outer toe reversible;
in addition to this the claws are very greatly curved and the under
side of each claw is rounded instead of being grooved or concave as
in the hawks and eagles.



Family PANDIONIDÆ.


Characters same as those given for the Suborder.



Genera.


a1. Smaller; front of tarsus covered with small imbricated
scales. ... Pandion (p. 245)
a2. Larger; part of tarsus covered with large transverse
plates. ... Polioaëtus (p. 247)



Genus PANDION Savigny, 1809.


Bill slightly compressed; width of upper mandible at nostril more
than its depth; primaries abruptly and deeply cut on inner web and
exceeding secondaries by more than length of tarsus; back of tarsus
covered with small scales like those in front.



Species.


a1. Much larger; wing, about 500 mm. ... haliætus (p. 245)
a2. Much smaller; wing, 460 mm. or less. ... leucocephalus (p. 246)



203. PANDION HALIÆTUS (Linnæus).

EUROPEAN OSPREY.


    Falco haliætus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 91.
    Pandion haliaëtus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 449;
    Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 315; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 45.

    Luzon (Worcester, Whitehead); Mindoro (Everett, McGregor,
    Whitehead); Palawan (Whitehead). Eastern hemisphere.


"Adult.--Above brown, most of the feathers with obsolete margins
of paler brown, more distinct on the wing-coverts; primaries black,
secondaries brown like the back, the primaries pale, but uniform whity
brown below, the secondaries whitish on the inner web, with indistinct
bars of ashy brown; tail almost uniform brown, tipped with whity brown,
and shaded with ashy externally, the inner web obsoletely barred
with ashy brown, a little more distinct below, where the interspaces
are whitish; head brown, with white bases to the feathers; a broad
white streak from behind the eye running down the sides of the neck;
ear-coverts blackish brown; sides of neck uniform with the back;
sides of face and entire under parts white, the breast varied with
brown centers to the feathers of more or less extent, the chin and
fore part of cheeks also slightly streaked with dark brown; axillars
and a few of the flank-feathers also marked with rufous-brown like
the breast; under wing-coverts buffy white, with dark brown centers,
the outermost almost entirely brown, with whitish tips. Cere blue;
bill black; feet blue; iris yellow. Length, 610; culmen, 44; wing,
503; tail, 241; tarsus, 61.

"Young.--Glossy chocolate-brown, all the feathers terminally
margined with buffy white, these margins somewhat tinged with
rufous, and broadest on the secondary quills and upper tail-coverts;
crown of head black, with white or fulvous margins to the feathers,
giving a distinctly streaked appearance; nape white, not streaked;
from behind the eye a broad line of white runs down the side of
the neck, slightly streaked with black; below this another line of
black feathers, including the ear-coverts, is conterminous; sides
of face and entire under parts pure white, somewhat tinged here and
there with yellowish buff; under wing-coverts white, the outer ones
strongly washed with tawny-buff, and crossed with broad bars of dark
brown; primaries black, secondaries chocolate-brown like the back,
and tipped in the same manner, all of them whitish at base of inner
web, indistinctly barred with pale brown; tail-feathers alternately
barred with dark sepia-brown and ashy brown, tipped with whitish,
and having whitish shafts; the bars six in number, and more distinct
on the inner web, which is buffy white.

"Nestling.--Covered with down of a sooty-brown color, except along
the center of the back, along the carpal bend of the wing, on the
breast and flanks, where it is dusky white; all the feathers of the
back are dark brown, with a broad tip of ochraceous-buff; crown and
ear-coverts blackish; eyebrow and throat white.

"Observation.--Ospreys seem to get whiter on the head with age; but
the mottling on the breast is at present unintelligible to me. It
appears to be strongly marked in all old birds; but the brown centers
to the feathers, which give the bird its mottled appearance, are
never exactly similar, there being a continued alteration in the
pattern of the feather itself. At the same time two young birds,
distinguished by the fulvous margins to the upper surface, have not
a similar amount of brown on the breast; for in one it is almost
entirely absent, while the other has very few markings indeed. The
tail becomes more uniform brown with age, so that a strongly barred
tail is a sure sign of immaturity." (Sharpe.)



204. PANDION LEUCOCEPHALUS Gould.

AUSTRALIAN OSPREY.


    Pandion leucocephalus Gould, Syn. Birds Austr. (1838), pt. 3,
    pl. 6; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874), 1, 451; Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 279; North, Catal. Austral. Bds. ed. 2 (1898), pt. 1,
    70; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 317; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 45.

    Balabac (Everett); Luzon (Worcester); Marinduque (Steere Exp.);
    Palawan (White). Australia and Austro-Malayan Islands.


"Similar to P. haliætus, but very much smaller; cere bluish lead-color;
bill black; feet pale bluish white; iris primrose-yellow in some,
bright orange in others. Length, 508; wing, 414. A specimen killed
by Mr. Wallace in New Guinea had the wing 432 long." (Sharpe.)

"Adult.--Upper surface of body, wings, and tail, glossy brown, the
feathers mesially shaded with a darker tint, many of the feathers of
the interscapular region, back, scapulars, and shoulders margined
with white; primaries blackish brown, black at the tip past the
notch, the inner web becoming white on the margin toward the base,
some showing remains of brown bars; a few of the inner primaries,
some of the adjacent secondaries and wing-coverts, narrowly margined
with buffy white; under surface of the wings white, the outer series
of the under coverts blotched with brown; feathers along the outer
margin of the wing from elbow to base of primaries, dark brown
margined with white, under surface of the secondaries and of the
primaries past the notch ashy brown, the basal marginal portion of
the inner webs white, barred down the center portion with brown; head,
throat, and back of the neck white, a few feathers on the nape having
a streak of blackish brown down the center; lores blackish lead-color;
ear-coverts blackish brown, which color extends on to the sides of the
neck, where the feathers are brown margined with white; chest, breast,
and lower part of hind neck white, much mottled with brown on the tips
of the feathers, and occasionally centered with a blackish stripe;
the remainder of the under surface, thighs, and tail-coverts white;
tail above brown, feathers narrowly margined at the tips with white,
the inner webs of a lighter brown, all except the two center quills
broadly margined and toothed with white toward the base; under surface
of tail ashy white, tips of the feathers ashy margined with white. Bill
black; legs and feet lead-blue; iris yellow. Length, 760; wing, 508;
tail, 228; tarsus, 63; bill, 43; [27] from nostril, 30; culmen, 49.

"Observation.--In some specimens, apparently fully adult, the whole
of breast, chest, and sides of the neck are strongly mottled with
brown, and the feathers centered with a blackish stripe; the under
wing-coverts are barred with brown; the scapulars, upper wing-coverts,
and quills scarcely if at all margined with white; in others the
whole of the head and neck, except the ear-coverts and sides of the
neck immediately behind them, is white, without any brown markings,
and the dull brown of the chest takes no definite form, but is for
the most part darkest on the center of the feathers." (North.)



Genus POLIOAËTUS Kaup, 1847.


Bill decidedly compressed, width of upper mandible at nostril less
than its depth; primaries obliquely and slightly cut on inner web and
exceeding secondaries by less than tarsus; back of tarsus smooth with
plate divisions obsolete.



205. POLIOAËTUS ICHTHYÆTUS (Horsfield).

GRAY-HEADED FISH EAGLE.


    Falco ichthyætus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13,
    pt. 1, 136.
    Polioaetus ichthyaetus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1874),
    1, 452.
    Polioaëtus ichthyaëtus Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 279; Oates,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 217; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 45.

    Basilan (Bourns & Worcester); Bongao (Everett); Calamianes
    (Bourns & Worcester); Luzon (Whitehead); Mindanao (Steere Exp.,
    Celestino); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Negros (Keay);
    Samar (Whitehead). Malay and Indian Peninsulas, Burmese provinces,
    Greater Sunda Islands, Celebes, Ceylon.


"Adult male.--Above brown, paler on the interscapulary region and
darker on the wings, primaries blackish; under surface of wing
leaden brown, with a whitish spot at base of primaries; tail white,
with a broad terminal bar of brown; entire head and neck all round
clear ashy gray; breast brown, a little lighter than the back; belly,
vent, thighs, lower flanks, and under tail-coverts pure white; under
wing-coverts uniform ashy brown. Cere and bill blackish; feet dirty
yellowish white; iris brown. Length, 660; culmen, 58; wing, 457;
tail, 254; tarsus, 95.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male but larger. Length, 737; wing,
518; tarsus, 99.

"Young.--Above brown, glossed with chocolate, most of the feathers
of the upper surface with paler brown margins; feathers of the
head and hind neck mesially streaked with fulvous; sides of face a
little paler than the head, but streaked in the same manner; under
surface of body pale brown, inclining to rufous, and longitudinally
streaked with whitish down the center; thighs white, much mottled
with rufous-brown; lower abdomen, vent, and under tail-coverts pure
white; under wing-coverts pale brown, plainly streaked with white,
the greater series almost entirely white, with a few brown markings;
quills brown, white at base of inner web, the white extending further
on secondaries; which have ashy brown cross-bars; tail fulvous brown,
mottled all over with dark brown, except at the tip, which is uniform
dark brown, forming a very distinct band.

"The bird above described, though full grown, is evidently immature
as regards its plumage. The second stage is very similar to the adult,
but is by no means so gray on the head and throat." (Sharpe.)

"Less common than Haliæetus leucogaster but frequents the same
localities. Quite abundant at Lake Naujan in Mindoro." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)

A few individuals were seen near the Baco River in Mindoro and
Celestino took a pair of young birds in northern Mindanao.



Order STRIGIFORMES.

OWLS.


Head large and round; bill strongly hooked and with a cere which
is more or less hidden by stiffish bristles; eyes large, directed
forward, each surrounded by a more or less perfect ruff of modified,
close-textured feathers; in most species a bunch of elongate erectile
feathers above each eye forming the so-called horns or ear-tufts;
feet strong, claws curved and sharp; outer toe reversible; plumage
soft and fluffy; colors generally various shades of brown, gray,
and rufous and in most species vermiculated and streaked, the plumage
resembling that of the Caprimulgidæ; habits nocturnal, or crepuscular,
and insectivorous; eggs white, nearly globular, usually deposited
in a hole in a hollow branch or trunk of a tree, or in a deserted
hawk's nest.



Families.


a1. Claw of middle toe not pectinate; middle toe longer than inner
toe. ... Strigidæ (p. 249)
a2. Claw of middle toe pectinate on inner margin; inner and middle
toes about equal in length. ... Aluconidæ (p. 271)



Family STRIGIDÆ.


Characters same as those given in the key to Families.



Subfamilies.


a1. Ear-conch not larger than eye and without an operculum; portion
of facial disk below the eye greater than the area above the
eye. ... Buboninæ (p. 249)
a2. Ear-conch much larger than eye and with a large operculum; facial
disk distinct and extending as far above as below the eye. ... Striginæ
(p. 270)



Subfamily BUBONINÆ.



Genera.


a1. Toes without bristles.

  b1. Larger; wing, 230 mm. or more, but relatively shorter, falling
  short of the end of tail. ... Pseudoptynx (p. 249)
  b2. Smaller; wing, 220 mm. or less, but relatively longer, when
  folded reaching nearly or quite to tip of tail. ... Otus (p. 252)

a2. Toes scantily clothed with rather stiff bristles. ... Ninox
(p. 260)



Genus PSEUDOPTYNX Kaup, 1848.


Large; ear-tufts moderate; primaries but little longer than
secondaries; plumage full and streaked; legs closely feathered to
the toes; toes naked.



Species.


a1. Larger; wing, 330 to 380 mm.

  b1. Smaller and lighter; wing, about 350 mm. ... philippensis
  (p. 250)
  b2. Larger and darker; wing, about 375 mm. ... mindanensis (p. 251)

a2. Smaller and darker; wing, about 235. ... gurneyi (p. 250)



206. PSEUDOPTYNX PHILIPPENSIS Kaup.

LUZON HORNED OWL.


    Pseudoptynx philippensis Kaup, Cont. Orn. (1852), 117.
    Bubo philippinensis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1875), 2, 43.
    Pseudoptynx philippensis Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9,
    pt. 2, 144, pl. 25, fig. 2; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 284;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.
    Bubo philippensis Grant, Ibis (1894), 503.

    Luzon (Cuming, Heriot, Möllendorff, Steere Exp., Whitehead,
    McGregor).


"Adult (type of species).--Above tawny-rufous, the feathers mesially
dark brown, giving a closely striped appearance; the wing-coverts
rather darker, some of the scapulars and greater-coverts externally
creamy buff, forming a kind of longitudinal bar down the latter;
entire head and auricular-tufts colored like the back, but somewhat
more narrowly streaked; quills dull brown, tipped with fulvous, more
plainly on the secondaries, the primaries spotted on the outer and
barred on the inner web with pale tawny-rufous, the bars more distinct
on the secondaries; tail-feathers dull brown, tipped with fulvous and
crossed with a few bars of tawny-buff, the middle feathers nearly
uniform, with only one bar and indications of a second, the bars
gradually increasing in number toward the outer tail-feather, which
has five bars on the inner web, and is externally tawny-buff; lores
white, the anterior bristles black toward tip; sides of face tawny,
with white shafts; facial disk tawny, with central streaks of brown to
the feathers, which are fulvous at base; under surface of body buffy
white, longitudinally streaked with dark brown centers to the feathers,
each mesial streak having a narrow edging of rufous on each side,
and decreasing in width toward the abdomen and under tail-coverts,
the tarsal feathers entirely uniform; under wing-coverts buffy white,
the outermost longitudinally spotted with dark brown, the greater
series whitish at base, brown at tip, resembling the inner lining of
the wing. Bill horn-blue at base, yellow at tip; feet fleshy brown,
claws light horn-color. Length, 546; auricular-tufts, 33; culmen,
58; wing, 356; tail, 178; tarsus, 68." (Sharpe.)

An adult male was taken near Irisan, Benguet Province, Luzon. Iris
yellow; bill pale horn-blue, cere similar but darker; feet pale dingy
blue; nails blackish. Length, 483; wing, 350; tail, 185; culmen from
base, 47; tarsus, 77.



207. PSEUDOPTYNX GURNEYI Tweeddale.

GURNEY'S HORNED OWL.


    Pseudoptynx gurneyi Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1878), 940,
    pl. 58; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 284; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Mindanao (Everett).


Adult male.--"Sides of face bright pure unmarked rufous; lengthened
stiff plumes springing from base of maxilla rufous, mixed with tawny,
and many with dark brown shafts and tipped with dark brown; space above
front of eyes, uniting on forehead and extending back over eyes, pale
tawny-rufous; crown and occiput dark rufous, many of the feathers with
a broad dark brown mesial stripe; nape and sides of neck pure rufous;
lengthened ear-tufts rufous, some with very narrow brown mesial linear
markings near their apices; plumes bordering facial disk albescent
tawny, some almost pure white, tipped with dark brown; chin and upper
throat tawny-rufous; middle of throat white; breast and remainder of
lower surface pure rufous, more dilute on lengthened tibial plumes
and under tail-coverts; a few pectoral plumes with large, dark brown,
terminal drops; many abdominal plumes, with elongated dark brown,
central stripes; back rufous, minutely freckled with brown, each
feather with a bold, irregular, dark brown central stripe; scapulars
like back, but some of the shorter and outer ones albescent tawny
on outer webs; dark brown central marks so arranged that the back,
together with the scapulars, appears to have three parallel dark
brown stripes running down it; rump and upper tail-coverts rufous
brown, with darker shafts; rectrices brown, minutely freckled with
pale rufous, and with eight or nine rufous cross-bands; lesser and
median wing-coverts brown, freckled with rufous, each with a narrow
central brown line; greater coverts brown on inner web, freckled with
rufous on outer web; quills brown, alternately banded with freckled
brown and pale rufous; tertiaries pure rufous, with traces of dark
brown along the shafts; edge of wing white; lining yellowish white;
some of the under carpal coverts rufous; thigh and tarsal coverts
pale rufous and tawny white. 'Iris warm brown; bill grayish white;
feet pale gray; claws white tipped with dark gray.' (Everett.) Wing,
236; tarsus, 46; culmen without cere, 28; middle toe, 35." (Tweeddale.)

This species differs from P. philippensis in its smaller size, more
rufous under surface, darker upper surface, and finer dark markings
of the mantle.



208. PSEUDOPTYNX MINDANENSIS Grant.

MINDANAO HORNED OWL.


    Pseudoptynx mindanensis Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1906), 16,
    99; Ibis (1906), 496.

    Mindanao (Goodfellow).


Adult male.--"Nearly allied to P. philippensis, from which it differs
in being somewhat larger and in the following points: General color
of upper parts much darker, the feathers being brownish black,
and rather narrowly margined with sandy rufous, instead of bright
tawny-buff; primary quills dark brown, with only faint traces of buff
markings; secondaries similar with faintly indicated grayish buff
transverse markings; tail-feathers brown, with whitish or whitish buff
transverse markings, rather faintly indicated on outer webs; under
parts more heavily streaked with blackish. 'Iris light brownish gold;
bill whitish toward the tip, bluish gray at base; feet pale gray;
nails white at base, gray at tip.' (Goodfellow.) Length, about 495;
culmen, 51; wing, 371; tail, 185; tarsus, 76." (Grant.)



Genus OTUS Pennant, 1769.


Small; ear-tufts well developed; primaries not greatly exceeding
secondaries; plumage buffy and mottled; tarsus more or less feathered;
toes naked in Philippine species.



Species.


a1. Tarsus feathered nearly to the toes.

  b1. Plumage without many fine vermiculations.

    c1. Darker above.

      d1. Above very dark or deep rich brown.

        e1. Head and neck not heavily streaked with blackish brown.

          f1. Larger.

            g1. Wing of male about 165 mm. ... everetti (p. 253)
            g2. Wing of male about 185 mm. ... whiteheadi (p. 256)

          f2. Smaller ... boholensis (p. 260); fuliginosus (p. 254)

        e2. Head and neck heavily streaked with blackish brown; wing,
        160 mm; tail, 75 ... romblonis (p. 259)

    c2. Lighter above.

      d1. Above light rufous-fawn. ... megalotis (p. 252)
      d2. Above bright tawny-rufous. ... rufescens (p. 256)

  b2. Plumage with many fine vermiculations.

    c1. Smaller, wing about 150 mm. ... sibutuensis (p. 254)
    c2. Larger, wing about 165 mm. or more.

      d1. Head and neck heavily streaked with blackish
      brown. ... cuyensis (p. 257)
      d2. Head and neck finely mottled with blackish
      brown. ... calayensis (p. 258)

a2. Tarsus feathered for proximal half only.

  b1. Larger; rictal bristles and ear-tufts longer. ... longicornis
  (p. 255)
  b2. Smaller; rictal bristles and ear-tufts shorter. ... mindorensis
  (p. 256)



209. OTUS MEGALOTIS (Gray).

CUMING'S SCREECH OWL.


    Scops megalotis Gray, Cat. Acciptr. Brit. Mus. (1844), 45; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1875), 2, 69; Hand-List (1899), 1, 285.
    Lempijius ? megalotis Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9, 145,
    pl. 25, fig. 3.
    Otus megalotis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Luzon (Cuming).


"Adult (type of species).--Everywhere light rufous-fawn, with
separate vermiculations of dull blackish, a little coarser on the
auricular-tufts and on the wing-coverts, almost obsolete on the
under surface of body; tarsal feathers fulvous, slightly mottled
with rufous; greater and primary wing-coverts rufous-fawn color,
very coarsely and thickly vermiculated with blackish, forming five
or six indistinct bars; quills blackish, with six or seven bars
of fawn-color, very distinct on the outer primaries, but gradually
becoming more and more obscured with blackish frecklings till the
bands are obsolete on the secondaries; tail blackish, with six or
seven bars of fawn-color, more or less obscured with frecklings of
blackish, which are plentifully distributed over the whole tail;
under wing-coverts uniform fulvous; the under surface of the wing
ashy brown, with bands of fulvous. Bill pale horn-color, yellowish
on under mandible; feet yellowish brown. Length, 279; culmen, 33;
auricular tufts, 37; wing, 165; tail, 89; tarsus, 37." (Sharpe.)

The type, secured by Cuming in "Manila," is the only known specimen.



210. OTUS EVERETTI (Tweeddale).

EVERETT'S SCREECH OWL.


    Scops everetti Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1878), 492; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 287.
    Otus everetti McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Basilan (Everett); Mindanao (Everett); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen);
    Samar (Steere Exp.).


Description.--"May be described as being a large form of Scops
[=Otus] lempiji as it occurs in Java. Above it has the deep rich
brown coloring of the Javan species; the same broad dark brown mark
in the form of a parallelogram on the head and nape; the same pale
colored forehead, stripe above each eye and round the nape, and
the broad dark stripe leading from behind the eye, and including
most of the ear-tufts; there are no pale uniform tawny or fulvous
scapulars. Underneath, the markings differ from those of the Javan
bird by being more confused, and by the absence of regular dark
brown cross-markings on the abdominal plumes. The general coloring
of the under surface is of a ruddier brown. Male: 'Iris deep brown;
feet whitish.' (Everett.) Wing, 165; tail, 89; tarsus, 30; culmen,
16. Female: 'Iris warm brown; bill pale greenish leaden, nearly white;
feet whitish gray; claws dark gray.' (Everett.) Wing, 171; tail, 92;
tarsus, 30; culmen, 17." (Tweeddale.)

"A single male specimen, secured in Palawan, measured 203 in length;
wing, 137; tail, 73; culmen, 15; tarsus, 29; middle toe and claw,
26. Bill pale horn, darkest at base; feet dirty white; nails black
at tip, gray at base; food insects. This specimen started within a
meter of the head of the collector, and flew less than three meters
before alighting.

"If S. everetti is a smaller race of S. lempiji it is hard to
understand the above measurements. We were at first inclined to
identify our Palawan specimen with the latter species, but after
comparison with Dr. Steere's specimen of S. everetti from Samar,
find ourselves unable to do so." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



211. OTUS FULIGINOSUS (Sharpe).

PALAWAN SCREECH OWL.


    Scops fuliginosa Sharpe, Ibis (1888), 197; Hand-List (1899),
    1, 287.
    Scops everetti Whitehead, Ibis (1893), 44.
    Otus fuliginosus McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Palawan (Whitehead).


Diagnosis.--Similar to Otus umbratilis but much smaller, and entirely
rich brown; vermiculated and spotted as in typical Otus but auricular
region uniform rufous-brown; and with frontal and cervical bands pale
and obsolete. [28]

Whitehead, who collected the type, refers this species to Scops
(=Otus) everetti and says: "I find that Mr. Sharpe has not much faith
in his Scops fuliginosa, which in all probability is only the young
of S. everetti." Sharpe retains the species in his "Hand-List" and
therefore it is given here.



212. OTUS SIBUTUENSIS (Sharpe).

SIBUTU SCREECH OWL.


    Scops sibutuensis Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1893), 2, 9;
    Ibis (1894), 244; Hand-List (1899), 1, 287.
    Otus sibutuensis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Sibutu (Everett).


Diagnosis.--Similar to Otus mantananensis but upper side of wings
scarcely spotted with white and quills but faintly banded below. "Bill
blackish brown; feet brown; iris yellow." (Everett.) Length, 203;
wing, 152. [29]

Everett collected an adult male and female and a young bird in
Sibutu. Sharpe makes the following observations: "This race is
intermediate between S. menadensis [from Celebes] and S. mantananensis
[from Mantanani Island, Borneo] which I described last year; the white
wing markings, however, are altogether smaller and not so distinct,
the under surface of the quills being almost devoid of markings. From
S. menadensis the Sibutu bird differs in having all the markings of
the upper surface very fine and not all over as in that species. The
quills have also more bars in the Celebean bird than in the species
from Sibutu."



213. OTUS LONGICORNIS (Grant).

LONG-HORNED SCREECH OWL.


    Scops longicornis Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. (1894), 3, 51;
    Ibis (1894), 504; (1895), 439; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 287;
    McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 3, 7.
    Otus longicornis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Bang-aó, Benguet.

    Luzon (Whitehead, McGregor).


Adult male.--Upper parts bright rufous, the feathers with streaks and
irregular bars of blackish brown, mostly near their tips; forehead,
line over each eye, and complete collar white, the feathers blackish at
their tips; collar narrow but distinct on hind neck, wider on breast;
loral plumes with white bars and black tips, the longest plumes
about 28 mm.; ear-tufts colored like the head, longest feathers 31
mm.; ear-coverts barred with white, blackish brown, and rufous; chin
whitish; throat and sides of throat white, each feather with a black
tip and subterminal rufous line; breast rich rufous boldly mottled
with black and less white; abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts
largely white, the feathers mottled with blackish and rusty brown;
thighs rufous; wings blackish, mottled and speckled with fulvous and
rusty brown, tail similar. Bill dingy dull green, tip and cutting edge
dark brown; cere dirty flesh at base but dull yellowish green over
nostrils; legs whitish flesh; nails gray; iris bright yellow. Length,
184; wing, 145; tail, 72; culmen from base, 17; tarsus, 33.

Adult female.--Similar to the male. Length, 190; wing, 153; tail,
71; culmen from base, tip broken, 18; tarsus, 30.

Downy young.--The natal down is pure light gray; this soon gives place
to a soft gray plumage barred with brown, darker on head and upper
parts. A nest with three downy young was found in Benguet, Luzon,
on May 26.

"A single male specimen of this remarkable little owl was obtained. It
most nearly resembles Scops pennatus, but may be instantly recognized
by having the basal half of the tarsi entirely devoid of feathers,
as well as by the length of the horn-like feathers on the head, which
measure 38 mm., whereas in S. pennatus the longest are only 23. The
markings on the feathers of the head are coarse and form black bands,
and the whole of the markings on the back and under parts are coarser
and less neat. Length, 203; wing, 142; tail, 74; tarsus, 29; of which
15 is naked and covered with small octagonal scales." (Grant.)

The subject of Grant's remarks, quoted above, was a long-horned
screech owl collected by Whitehead in "North Luzon." The same collector
secured specimens in Lepanto and I have seen a living example which
was reported as having come from Nueva Ecija.



214. OTUS MINDORENSIS (Whitehead).

MINDORO SCREECH OWL.


    Scops sp. inc. Grant, Ibis (1896), 462.
    Scops mindorensis Whitehead, Ibis (1899), 98.
    Otus mindorensis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 56.

    Mindoro (Whitehead).


Adult female.--Similar to Otus longicornis but smaller; hair-like
feathers on each side of mandible shorter, the longest less than 25
mm.; forehead and space above eyes almost uniform pale buff; ear-tufts
shorter, the longest feather about 30 mm.; white nuchal band obsolete;
lower parts mostly buffy, and almost entirely devoid of white. Length,
183; wing, 135; tail, 63; tarsus, 29. Male unknown. (Whitehead.)

This species is known from the type only, a badly damaged skin obtained
by Whitehead.



215. OTUS WHITEHEADI (Grant).

WHITEHEAD'S SCREECH OWL.


    Scops whiteheadi Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. (1895), 4, 40;
    Ibis (1895), 440; Whitehead, Ibis (1899), 97; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 287.
    Otus whiteheadi McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Luzon (Whitehead).


Description.--"This remarkably fine new species is most nearly
related to Scops everetti of Tweeddale, from the Island of Mindanao,
but it is very much larger, and is, in fact, the largest Scops at
present known to inhabit the Old World. The feathering on the tarsi
extends over the basal joints of toes; the light cross-bars on the
inner webs of the quills are much less conspicuous; and the middle
of the lower breast and belly is uniform whitish buff, in marked
contrast to the sides. Both the gray and rufous phases of plumage
are represented. Adult male. Length, 241 to 254; wing, 185 to 188;
tail, 91 to 94; tarsus, 42. Adult female. Length, 279 to 289; wing,
195 to 203; tail, 99 to 102; tarsus, 42 to 48." (Grant.)

"Iris golden brown; bill brownish white, tipped with white; feet dull
white, nails white." (Whitehead.)

Known from Whitehead's specimens only, which were collected in Lepanto,
northern Luzon.



216. OTUS RUFESCENS (Horsfield).

RUFOUS SCREECH OWL.


    Strix rufescens Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13, pt. 1,
    140.
    Scops rufescens Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1875), 2, 102;
    Proc. Zool. Soc. (1879), 314; Hand-List (1899), 1, 287.
    Otus rufescens McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Sulu (Burbidge). Malay Peninsula, Greater Sunda Islands.


Adult.--"Everywhere bright tawny-rufous, browner on the head and upper
parts generally, these also varied with small triangular cross-bars of
fulvous, which become larger and more distinct on the wing-coverts;
the outer margin of the scapulars paler and more inclining to
tawny-fulvous; ear-coverts 25 mm. long, and colored like the head;
lores and forehead clear fulvous, with little black spots along the
shaft of the feathers; sides of face rufous; inclining to dark brown
around the eye; behind the ear-coverts a line of black feathers running
down the sides of the neck; under surface of body tawny-rufous, paler
on the lower parts, and varied with little tiny spots of black along
the shafts, less distinct toward the abdomen, and absent on thighs and
under tail-coverts, which are uniform tawny-buff; quills dark brown,
barred across with fulvous, paler on the outer margin of primaries,
but less distinct on the secondaries, which are almost uniform rufous
like the back, but with indistinct bars of dark brown on the inner
web; tail rufous, mottled with dark brown vermiculations, making it
look darker than the back, with remains of five or six, more or less
plainly indicated, fulvous bars; under wing-coverts buffy white,
more tawny on outer edge, and having a line of dark brown feathers
near the outer margin. Length, 239; culmen, 229; wing, 132; tail,
66; tarsus, 27." (Sharpe.)

This species is included in the Philippine list because of the single
specimen collected by Burbidge which, however, may really represent
an undescribed species. Sharpe says: "This bird seems to me to differ
slightly from Bornean and Malaccan examples in having a much darker
face, the ear-coverts shaded with black. I do not, however, propose
to found a new species on a single example, and must wait for more
specimens. The measurements of the Sooloo [=Sulu] bird are as follows:
Length, 178; culmen, 18; wing, 122; tail, 66; tarsus, 22."



217. OTUS CUYENSIS McGregor.

CUYO SCREECH OWL.


    Otus cuyensis McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4, 17;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Bu-caó, Cuyo.

    Cuyo (McGregor).


Adult male, light phase, type.--Feathers of head and neck heavily
streaked with blackish brown, the edges more or less notched with
whitish and light rufous; ear-tufts also blackish, but edges rufous;
back dark rufous, finely speckled with blackish, clearer rufous on
upper tail-coverts; each outer scapular with a large white spot on
outer web followed by a blackish spot on tip and bordered toward base
by a dark brown line; chin and upper throat whitish with narrow brown
shaft-stripes, the webs marked more or less with cinnamon; remainder
of under parts dark cinnamon, more or less cross-barred with white
and dark brown, each feather with a blackish brown shaft-stripe;
the coloration heaviest across upper breast because of the greater
width of the shaft-stripes and reduction of the white areas; middle of
abdomen almost pure white; flank-feathers with narrow shaft-lines and
wide white bars; thighs rufous-brown; wings mostly sandy cinnamon more
or less mottled with brown; outer webs of primaries regularly notched
with five or six spots of white or whitish cinnamon, bordered with
dark brown; similar notches on secondaries but less prominent owing
to darker color of spots; quills below brownish with slightly lighter,
irregular, and almost obsolete bars; alula with similar light notches
on outer webs, on the first feather the notches are white; coverts
generally uniform, but some feathers of median series with large
white patches on outer webs; tail similar to the back with about eight
irregular and nearly obsolete cross-bars; short plumulaceous feathers
below and behind the eye finely mottled with pale cinnamon, brown, and
whitish; behind ear, feathers of the incomplete ruff broadly tipped
with blackish brown forming a prominent dark band on side of head;
bristle-like feathers of lores with bases whitish, tips blackish
brown, the longest about 20 mm.; anterior bristles pale cinnamon;
tarsus feathered to base of toes. Bill, cere, and feet dirty brown;
nails horn-brown; iris yellow. Length, 235; wing, 170; tail, 82;
culmen, 23; tarsus, 35; middle toe with claw, 33.

Adult female, light phase.--Not greatly different from the male, but
white notches on primaries and alula with a cinnamon wash. Length,
235; wing, 175; tail, 88; culmen (tip broken), 21; tarsus, 35; middle
toe with claw, 32.

Red phase.--The pattern of coloration is the same as in the light
phase; white and whitish markings nearly all replaced by rufous;
chin and upper throat and modified feathers below and behind eye
almost clear rufous; blackish brown markings on breast very wide;
a few whitish bars on abdomen and flanks.



218. OTUS CALAYENSIS McGregor.

CALAYAN SCREECH OWL.


    Otus calayensis McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4, 17;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 46.

    Cok-cok bá-buy, Calayan.

    Calayan (McGregor).


Adult male, light phase; type.--Lower parts dark cinnamon finely
mottled with brown and white, a few feathers on throat and breast
with dark brown shaft-stripes or spots; abdomen, flanks, and under
tail-coverts extensively white with very little cinnamon and the
brown mostly reduced to fine speckles; thighs and tarsi cinnamon with
cross-lines of dark brown; upper parts dark rufous finely mottled
with blackish brown, producing a rather uniform coloration; lores,
continuous with a line above eyes, white; tips of nasal and loral
bristles dusky brown or cinnamon, the longest about 20 mm.; modified
feathers of ear-coverts and below eye finely speckled with white and
dark brown; behind this the incomplete ruff forms a conspicuous rufous
band along side of head, but most of the feathers tipped with dusky
brown; feathers of ear-tufts dark rufous with irregular blackish spots
toward tips; wing-coverts and scapulars about same as back, some of
the latter with a large white area on outer web; exposed surface of
quills and tail similar and a little lighter than back; tail crossed
by several irregular lighter bars; quills dusky brown; outer webs
of outer primaries notched with pale cinnamon; inner webs of quills
crossed by pale cinnamon bars which become very wide on secondaries;
tarsi feathered nearly to toes. Bill, feet, and nails brown, the feet
with a slight green wash; iris bright yellow. Length, 216; wing, 169;
tail, 85; culmen, 21; tarsus, 31; middle toe with claw, 29.

Female.--In every way similar to the male. Length, 203; wing, 164;
tail, 81; culmen, 21; tarsus, 31; middle toe with claw, 28. In the
red phase, the white markings, except a few bars and freckles on
abdomen and flanks, are replaced by rufous.



219. OTUS ROMBLONIS McGregor.

ROMBLON SCREECH OWL.


    Otus romblonis McGregor, Publ. Gov. Labs. Manila (1905), 25, 12;
    Phil. Jour. Sci. (1906), 1, 768; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 46.

    Banton (Celestino); Romblon (McGregor).


Adult female, type.--Feathers of upper parts rufous with median black
stripes on head, neck, and back, heaviest on head; ear-tufts colored
like neck and inconspicuous; white spots on scapulars washed with
pale fulvous; lower parts and wings patterned as in O. cuyensis but
more rufescent; black band on side of head narrower and less marked
than in cuyensis. Length, 222; wing, 158; tail, 76; tarsus, 29;
middle toe with claw, 28.

This species is similar to Otus cuyensis from which it differs in
having shorter wings and tail.



220. OTUS BOHOLENSIS McGregor.

BOHOL SCREECH OWL.


    Otus boholensis McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 323.

    Bohol (McGregor).


Female, type.--Crown, nape, and interscapular area, conspicuously
blackish, the feathers sparingly vermiculated and notched with
sandy buff; basal portion of a few feathers sandy buff forming a
narrow and hidden nuchal band; forehead whitish, the whitish marking
continued as a wide band over each eye to tips of ear-tufts on inner
webs, outer webs blackish spotted with fulvous, these white bands
more or less broken by fine vermiculations of dark brown; loral
plumes whitish with blackish tips; ear-coverts grayish, shaded with
fulvous and narrowly barred with dark brown, the hinder ear-coverts
tipped with black forming a short band; side of neck whitish with
fine blackish cross-lines and wide blackish tips to the feathers;
behind ear-coverts an imperfect ruff of whitish feathers with wide
terminal or subterminal black bars; chin whitish; feathers of throat
somewhat modified in continuation of the ruff; breast, sides, and
abdomen rufescent cinnamon with fine vermiculations and irregularly
shaped median stripes of blackish brown, each feather with one or
two rounded spots of light buff on each web; under tail-coverts light
sandy buff with a few wavy blackish lines near their tips; legs sandy
buff crossed by distinct wavy blackish lines; feathering of tarsi
extending nearly to basal joints of toes; primaries dark brown;
the outer webs with large clear and distinct spots of sandy buff,
six in number on short first primary, and corresponding faint bars
on inner webs; secondaries dark brown with sandy buff bars somewhat
obscured by darker vermiculations; the primary-coverts resemble the
secondaries, and first quill of alula is marked like the primaries;
secondary-coverts, scapulars, and back vermiculated with sandy buff,
light buff, and blackish brown and marked with large irregular blackish
brown spots; under wing-coverts nearly white, inner ones uniform,
the outer buff mottled with blackish; edge of wing white; tail dark
brown, mottled with sandy buff and with seven or eight poorly defined
bars of sandy buff. Wing, 155; tail, 82; tarsus, 30; culmen from base,
24; culmen from anterior margin of cere, 16; ear-tuft, 29.

This owl is clearly allied to Strix lempiji Horsfield, and doubtless it
is closely related to Scops everetti Tweeddale, with which it should
be compared. The type was taken in the interior of Bohol and is the
only specimen known.



Genus NINOX Hodgson, 1837.


Usually larger than Otus; neither ruff nor ear-tufts present; tarsus
more or less feathered; toes sparsely covered with stiff bristles;
primaries much longer than secondaries.



Species.


a1. Breast streaked, each feather broadly centered with darker color.

  b1. Wing-coverts uniform with no rows of white spots.

    c1. Belly white, streaked or largely spotted with brown.

      d1. Head grayer, much lighter than back, which is browner;
      tail clear gray tipped with white, the black bands in strong
      contrast; axillars barred with brown and white; wing, 200 to
      220 mm. ... lugubris (p. 261)
      d2. Head browner, generally uniform with the back, seldom grayer;
      tail dark brown with blackish brown bars.

        e1. Smaller; wing, 197 to 210 mm. ... scutulata (p. 262)
        e2. Larger; wing, 218 to 235 mm. ... japonica (p. 263)

  b2. Wing-coverts spotted with white; outer edge of primaries with
  distinct rows of white spots.

    c1. Top of head uniform ... philippensis (p. 264)
    c2. Top of head more or less spotted.

      d1. Larger; wing, 195 mm. ... everetti (p. 265)
      d2. Smaller; wing, 162 to 175 mm. ... spilocephala (p. 266);
      reyi (p. 267)

a2. Breast spotted or transversely barred with fine lines.

  b1. Much larger; wing, about 240 mm. ... spilonota (p. 266)
  b2. Much smaller; wing, 160 to 170 mm. ... mindorensis (p. 268);
  plateni (p. 268)



221. NINOX LUGUBRIS (Tickell).

TICKELL'S HAWK OWL.



    Strix lugubris Tickell, Jour. As. Soc. Bengal (1831), 2, 573.
    Ninox lugubris Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1875), 2, 154;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 290; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 329;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 47.

    Basilan (Steere Exp.); Luzon (Heriot, Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns
    & Worcester); Mindanao (Steere Exp.); Negros (Keay); Sulu (Bourns &
    Worcester). Himalayas, Indian Peninsula, Burmese countries.


"Adult female.--Above ashy brown, the head very much grayer, the
sides of the face and neck being decidedly light gray; forehead,
lores, fore part of cheeks and chin very conspicuously white, the
loral plumes with hair-like black shaft-lines; feathers round the
eye grayish; scapulars marked externally with large bars of white,
not very distinct, and often half concealed; upper wing-coverts ashy
brown like the back, the outer median-coverts and the primary-coverts
deeper and more inclining to sepia-brown; quills dark brown, a little
deeper than the back, barred across with light ashy or grayish brown,
inclining to whitish on the outer web of some of the primaries and
inner secondaries, most of which are narrowly tipped with white;
tail very pale grayish brown, inclining to white at the base,
and also tipped with white, crossed with six blackish brown bands;
under surface of body white, the throat yellowish buff, streaked
longitudinally with grayish brown, the chest broadly streaked with
rufescent brown, the abdomen spotted, and each feather subterminally
barred with the same; under tail-coverts pure white, the basal ones
with a few brownish bands; leg-feathers rufous-brown, very slightly
mottled with whitish cross-markings; under wing-coverts white,
barred across with dark brown, the outermost almost entirely brown,
the edge of the wing white; the greater series dusky grayish brown,
barred with buffy white, thus resembling the inner lining of the wing,
which is grayish brown, barred with buffy white on the inner web,
these bars inclining to fulvous near the base. Cere and bill green,
the tip of the latter dusky; feet grayish or reddish yellow; iris
bright golden yellow. Length, 343; wing, 232; tail, 145; tarsus, 34.

"Adult male.--Smaller than the female, and having only five blackish
bands on the tail. Length, 292; wing, 216; tail, 142; tarsus,
29." (Sharpe.)

"The two specimens collected measure 294 in length; culmen, 15; wing,
222; tail, 123; middle toe with claw, 30; tarsus, 28. Iris yellow; legs
and feet yellow; bill black along gape, elsewhere dirty greenish. Food
insects." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



222. NINOX SCUTULATA (Raffles).

RAFFLES'S HAWK OWL.


    Strix scutulata Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1822), 13, pt. 2, 280.
    Ninox scutulata Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1875), 2, 156
    (part); Hand-List (1899), 1, 290; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902),
    2, 329; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 47.

    Palawan (Platen). Southern India, Malay Peninsula, Greater Sunda
    Islands, Ceylon, Tenasserim.


"Adult (type of Athene malaccensis [30]).--Above deep chocolate-brown,
the head slightly darker, the scapulars with concealed white
bars; wing-coverts exactly like the back and equally uniform, the
primary-coverts blackish, quills dark brown, slightly washed externally
with ocherous, the primaries inclining to rufous-ocherous toward
their tips, all the wing-feathers nearly uniform, with no lighter
cross-bands, the inner secondaries barred with white, but these bars
entirely concealed; upper tail-coverts uniform chocolate-brown like
the back; tail-feathers ashy brown, rather paler at tips, and crossed
with five blackish bands (one basal and concealed); sides of face
chocolate-brown, as also the sides of the neck, the latter slightly
washed with rufous; forehead and lores whitish, the latter obscured
by blackish shaft-lines; chin whitish, slightly streaked with brown;
rest of under surface rufous-chocolate, the throat washed with buff,
the breast varied with white, generally as if streaked, the margins to
the feathers being whitish; on the abdomen the white predominating and
cutting across the feather, so as to form an oval spot of brown at the
tips of the abdominal plumes, leg-feathers brown; under tail-coverts
whitish; under wing-coverts rufous-chocolate, the inner feathers
washed and barred with ochraceous-buff, the edge of the wing whitish;
the greater series sepia-brown, nearly uniform, excepting for a few
ochraceous bars near the base, thus resembling the inner lining of the
wing, which is sepia-brown, with a few ochraceous bars near the base of
the quills. Length, 317; wing, 213; tail, 122; tarsus, 28." (Sharpe.)



223. NINOX JAPONICA (Temminck and Schlegel).

JAPANESE HAWK OWL.


    Strix hirsuta japonica Temminck and Schlegel, Fauna Japonica,
    Aves (1850), 29, pl. 9 B.
    Ninox scutulata Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1875), 2, 156
    (part).
    Ninox scutulata japonica Meyer and Wiglesworth, Bds. of Celebes
    (1898), 1, 96.
    Ninox japonica Grant, Ibis (1896), 111; Sharpe, Hand-List (1899),
    1, 290; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 330; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 47; McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907),
    2, sec. A, 283.

    Cuá-go, Manila; cok-cok, Calayan; ngi-ngi-aó, Cuyo.

    Basilan (Mearns, McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin
    N. (McGregor); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester); Cuyo (McGregor); Fuga
    (Whitehead, McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Celestino); Mindoro
    (Whitehead). China, Japan, Indo Malayan islands; in winter to
    Celebes, Ternate, and Sangi Islands.


Adult.--"Above vandyke-brown, washed on the head with grayish,
and with rufous on the back, sides of neck, throat, and wings;
wing-coverts unspotted, the outer ones dark purplish brown, the
inner ones like back, scapulars with concealed white spots; outer
web of primaries light cinnamon-rufous with two or three partially
obliterated yellowish bars; tail reddish brown crossed with five
dusky bars and terminally margined with buff; under parts white with
long oval light chestnut-brown spots; under side of wing banded on
the inner webs of the feathers with yellowish isabelline except on
the ends of the primaries. 'Iris golden yellow; bill dark lead-gray;
feet light yellow.' (Platen). Wing, 218 to 235; tail, 115 to 136;
tarsus, 25 to 29; culmen from cere, 13 to 17." (Meyer and Wiglesworth.)

"A male of the Japanese hawk owl was obtained on the Island of Fuga. It
differs from the typical N. japonica from Japan and the Loo Choo
Islands in having the predominating color of the under parts white
instead of reddish brown, all the feathers being white, with an oblong
reddish brown spot, about 15 mm. long, at the end of each. Examples
from Luzon and Mindanao, however, approach the Fuga Island bird,
having less reddish brown and more white on the under parts.

"N. japonica appears to be perfectly distinct from the Indian
N. scutulata, the markings on the sides and flanks in the latter
species taking the form of wide bars with a detached heart-shaped spot
or bar at the tip of each feather. The sides and flanks thus appear
spotted, not longitudinally streaked, as in N. japonica." (Grant.)

The Japanese hawk owl is a common species. In Calayan Island I killed a
number of specimens on the beach and in both Fuga and Camiguin I found
it common in the forest. The number of bars on the wings and tail is
by no means invariable and must not be depended upon in identifying
this species.



224. NINOX PHILIPPENSIS Bonaparte.

PHILIPPINE HAWK OWL.


    Ninox philippensis Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. (1855), 41, 654;
    Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9, 144, pl. 25, fig. 1; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1875), 2, 167; Hand-List (1899), 1,
    290; Grant, Ibis (1896), 531; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 47.

    Bu-caó, Ticao and Masbate.

    Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Leyte (Whitehead); Luzon (Meyer, Heriot,
    Steere Exp., Whitehead, McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.);
    Masbate (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Negros (Steere Exp.,
    Whitehead); Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino);
    Ticao (McGregor).


"Adult.--Above brown, the head slightly darker and more
chocolate-brown, the scapulars with large oval marks on the outer webs,
some of the inner ones barred with ochraceous; wing-coverts dark brown,
slightly washed with ochraceous, all of them distinctly spotted with
white or ochraceous white, those on the median and greater series large
and oval in shape; quills brown, margined narrowly with ochraceous,
and barred across with paler brown, almost obsolete on the inner web,
but indicated on the outer one by a distinct white spot, very plain,
and producing a checkered appearance; upper tail-coverts rather more
ochraceous brown than the back; tail-feathers sepia-brown, crossed
with six narrow bands of pale ochraceous, the last one subterminal;
frontal plumes whitish at base, but this color not visible; sides of
the face brown like the head, the ear-coverts rather more dusky; under
surface of body ochraceous brown, the chin whitish, and the throat
marked with a few blackish streaks; the abdomen whiter, the centers
to the feathers being ochraceous-brown, producing a broadly streaked
appearance; under tail-coverts white; leg-feathers ochraceous-brown;
under wing-coverts ochraceous, the edge of the wing white, those
coverts nearest the margin being marked with dark brown; the lowest
series sepia-brown, barred with pale ocher on the inner web, thus
resembling the inner lining of the quills. Length, 216; wing, 176;
tail, 102; tarsus, 51.

"Young.--Above rufous-chocolate, the upper surface almost entirely
uniform, with the exception of a few buffy white bars on the outer
scapulars; wing-coverts uniform like the back, and only a little
darker, the greater series distinctly spotted on the outer web with
ochraceous or white; primary-coverts uniform dark brown; quills dark
brown, notched on the outer web with ochraceous or buffy white; tail
darker brown than the back, with a fulvous tip and crossed with six
narrow bars of fulvous-brown; forehead whitish, with long hair-like
black bristles over the lores; side of face uniform rufous-chocolate
like the head; under surface of body fawn-color, the feathers of the
chest margined narrowly with whitish, causing a slightly streaked
appearance, the abdominal plumes white, with broad fawn-colored
centers, causing this part to appear very broadly streaked; thighs
fawn-color; under tail-coverts white; under wing-coverts fawn-color
excepting the lower series, which are brown, spotted with fulvous
on the inner web, exactly resembling the inner lining of the
quills. Length, 203; wing, 164; tail, 86; tarsus, 30." (Sharpe.)

"Five specimens average, 206 in length; wing, 177; tail, 89; tarsus,
28; middle toe with claw, 35; culmen, 14. Iris yellow; legs and
feet light yellow; bill yellow at tip, greenish at base. Food
insects." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

"Mr. Whitehead's Negros collection contains three adult examples of a
little hawk owl, and I am in considerable doubt as to whether this form
should not be separated from typical examples of N. philippensis from
Luzon. I have before me at the present time nine examples from Luzon,
two from Guimaras, four from Negros, and one from Siquijor. All seven
birds from the last three mentioned islands differ very considerably
from Luzon specimens. The latter have the chest and breast mostly
tawny brown, shading into pale tawny toward the edges of the feathers,
and the belly and flanks whitish, with rather ill-defined brownish
red middles. In Negros birds, as well as those from the other central
islands already mentioned, the feathers of the breast and chest are
chocolate-brown edged with white, and the rest of the under parts
are white, with fairly wide and clearly defined shaft-stripes of a
dark brownish red color.

"The general impression conveyed is, that the Luzon birds have the
under parts tawny brown, suffused with white on the belly and flanks,
while in birds from the central islands, the chest and breast, as well
as the rest of the under parts, are white, clearly striped with reddish
brown. These birds remind one of small examples of Ninox japonica,
though of course the latter has the stripes on the underparts of a much
darker color. It is quite possible that it may be found necessary to
separate the birds from Negros, etc., under some distinctive name,
but before doing this I should like to have more material from the
adjacent islands." (Grant.)



225. NINOX EVERETTI Sharpe.

EVERETT'S HAWK OWL.


    Ninox everetti Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. (1897), 6, 47; Ibis
    (1897), 449; Hand-List (1899), 1, 290; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 47.

    Siasi (Everett).


Diagnosis.--Similar to Ninox reyi but pale spots of primaries few,
fulvescent, very slightly spotted with white; and abdomen, flanks,
and thighs ocherous-fulvous, not white spotted with brown. Length,
241; wing, 195. [31]

This is a little-known species of which more specimens should be
examined and compared with Rey's hawk owl.



226. NINOX SPILOCEPHALA Tweeddale.

TWEEDDALE'S HAWK OWL.


    Ninox spilocephala Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1878), 940;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 290; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 47.

    Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino).


Adult.--Very similar to Ninox philippensis from which it differs in
having the head and neck spotted with rufous or tawny brown and the
white spots on primary- and secondary-coverts larger; decomposed
feathers below eye unusually long and entirely covering the true
ear-coverts. A male from Basilan is 230 in length; wing, 177; tail,
83; culmen from base, 22; tarsus, 26. Female, length, 230; wing, 158;
tail, 82; culmen from base, 21; tarsus, 28.

"Very common in the islands where it occurs. Hides among thick
vines or bushes during the day. Feeds on beetles, grasshoppers, and
the like. Iris yellow; legs and feet dirty, light yellow; bill pale
greenish horn-color. Ten specimens average, 214 in length; wing, 162;
tail, 76; culmen, 15; tarsus, 28; middle toe with claw, 22." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



227. NINOX SPILONOTA Bourns and Worcester.

SPOTTED HAWK OWL.


    Ninox spilonotus Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 8.
    Ninox spilonota Sharpe, Hand-List (1899), 1, 290; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 47.

    Cebu (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Mindoro (Platen, Everett,
    Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Tablas (Bourns & Worcester).


"Sexes alike.--General color of upper surface fulvous-brown;
feathers of head, nape, interscapulars, and wing-coverts spotted
with light rufous-brown giving the parts in question a decidedly
speckled appearance; rump fulvous-brown, upper tail-coverts faintly
spotted with pale rufous-brown; tail nearly black with nine narrow
transverse bands of light rufous-brown; quills like tail but spotted,
instead of barred, with light rufous-brown; scapulars like back,
some of them with large nearly white spots on outer webs; a few of
greater series of wing-coverts also spotted with white on outer webs;
chin and throat whitish, almost pure white in one specimen, in others
light rufous-brown, the feathers always with black shaft-stripes;
auriculars fulvous-brown somewhat mixed with light rufous-brown;
sides of neck like head; breast, abdomen, flanks, thighs, under
wing-coverts, and axillars rufous-brown, the depth of the color
subject to great individual variation, many feathers of breast and
abdomen with fulvous-brown spots and all with blackish bases; under
surface of wing fulvous-brown. Inner webs of feathers, especially
of secondaries, spotted and barred with light rufous-brown; a spot
of white on bend of wing; tarsus feathered for rather more than half
its length. Iris yellow; legs and feet pale yellow; bill black at tip,
gray at base. Two females measure, 241 in length; culmen, 13; tarsus,
31; wing, 181; tail, 102.

"A single specimen of this species was secured in Cebu by Mr. Worcester
in 1888. Its curious mottled back and under surface were suggestive
of immaturity, and Dr. Steere thought it to be the young of some
undescribed species. We have altogether too much material now to make
such a theory tenable." (Bourns and Worcester.)

A rusty brown male was taken in Sibuyan. Iris yellow; bill and legs
pale dirty greenish; cere a little darker; nails gray, blackish
at tips. Length, 285; wing, 210; tail, 114; culmen from base, 23;
tarsus, 32.

A male from Cebu is in the light phase. Chin, throat, and forehead
mostly white; rictal bristles with white bases; scapulars spotted with
white; abdomen and flanks very largely white and with no fulvous nor
rusty brown wash.



228. NINOX REYI Oustalet.

REY'S HAWK OWL.


    Ninox reyi Oustalet, Bull. Assoc. Sc. France (1880), No. 39, 206;
    Sharpe, Ibis (1894), 245; Hand-List (1899), 1, 291; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 47.

    Bongao (Everett); Sulu (Montano & Rey, Marche).


Diagnosis.--Distinguished at once from the common species (Ninox
philippensis) by its greater length (290 mm.), by its much longer
wings passing even the tip of the tail, and finally by its reddish
brown plumage and transverse brown bars on head and on shoulders. [32]

"A female from Bongao. 'Iris light yellow; bill greenish plumbeous;
feet greenish yellow.' The specimen now sent appears to be not
quite adult, but it shows the distinctness of the species from Ninox
philippensis in the barred upper surface. The upper breast is barred
with white and dark brown, and the flanks are white, with longitudinal
pear-shaped mesial streaks of pale rufous-brown. The tail has likewise
ten dark bands, much narrower than in N. philippensis, which has six
broad bands of dark brown." (Sharpe.)



229. NINOX MINDORENSIS Grant.

MINDORO HAWK OWL.


    Ninox mindorensis Grant, Ibis (1896), 463; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 291; McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1904), 4, 17;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 47.

    Mindoro (Whitehead, McGregor, Porter).


Adult.--In color and color pattern very similar to Ninox spilonota
but very much smaller; it also resembles N. spilocephala in size
and pattern of upper parts but differs from the latter in having the
breast and abdomen cross-barred instead of boldly striped. Both rufous
and light phases occur in this species.

Male.--Iris yellow; bill, cere, and legs greenish; nails dark
brown. Length, 225; wing, 167; tail, 88; culmen from base, 20;
tarsus, 30.

Female.--Length, 220; wing, 158; tail, 78; culmen from base, 20;
tarsus, 23.

"An adult female of this little Mindoro hawk owl was obtained in
the lowlands, and is nearly allied to N. spilocephala Tweeddale,
from Mindanao and Basilan, resembling that species in having the top
of the head and nape barred with buff. It may, however, be at once
recognized by having the whole of the under parts, including the
belly and flanks, tawny-buff, transversely barred with brown, while
in the female of N. spilocephala, though the breast is generally like
that of the present species, the belly and flanks are always white,
with longitudinal reddish brown shaft-stripes. Length, 203; wing,
152; tail, 76; tarsus, 28.

"I have of course carefully compared this species with Bourns and
Worcester's description of N. spilonotus, specimens of which were
obtained in Mindoro, but the much smaller size of this bird serves
to at once distinguish it." (Grant.)



230. NINOX PLATENI Blasius.

PLATEN'S HAWK OWL.


    Ninox plateni Blasius (in litt.), Hartlaub, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen
    (1899), 16, 271; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 47.

    Mindoro (Platen).


Adult female.--Above reddish brown, slightly shaded with olive;
top and sides of head, hind neck, sides of neck, and mantle lighter,
pale reddish, and narrowly banded; on lower back and rump the bands
inconspicuous so that these parts appear nearly uniform; chin light;
throat-feathers light fawn-color with dark shaft-stripes, ground color
of chest and belly bright red-brown, with narrow blackish stripes;
bend of wing white; scapulars and greater wing-coverts with some
larger opaque white spots on outer webs; primaries with inner webs
uniform black, outer webs with broad dark brown and smaller pale
reddish band spots; on the tertials appear very inconspicuous, broad,
darker bands, and on the whole length of the edges of the outer webs,
pale fawn spots; tail-feathers with darker brownish bands of equal
width; under tail-coverts light fawn; inner wing-coverts light reddish
brown with darker spots. Legs light yellowish; iris yellow. Length,
250; wing, 169; tail, 80.

Male.--Differs only in the following that the bands on the lower
belly and thighs are on a lighter background; and the reddish brown
ground-color of chest and epigastrium is somewhat lighter. Wing, 168;
tail, 80.

Another female.--The brownish red of abdomen very fiery with irregular
and less distinct bands. Wing, 168 mm.; tail, 78. [33]

I doubt very much if this species is really distinct from Ninox
mindorensis; the size is nearly the same and specimens of the two do
not seem to have been actually compared.



Subfamily STRIGINÆ.



Genus STRIX Linnæus, 1758. [34]


Large; without ear-tufts; secondaries nearly as long as primaries;
plumage compact; barred below, spotted above; legs and toes closely
feathered.



231. STRIX WHITEHEADI (Sharpe).

PALAWAN BARRED OWL.



    Syrnium whiteheadi Sharpe, Ibis (1888), 196, pl. 3; Hand-List
    (1899), 1, 294; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 47.

    Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, Bourns & Worcester, Celestino).


"Adult male.--General color above chocolate-brown, spotted with white,
the spots arranged in pairs, the one on the inner web often fulvescent;
scapulars forming a light patch of tawny-buff, covered with narrow
bars of chocolate-brown; lesser wing-coverts dark chocolate-brown,
with scarcely any white spots; median and greater coverts more reddish
chocolate-brown, transversely barred with white, slightly tinged with
tawny-buff; alula and primary-coverts uniform blackish brown; quills
brown, crossed with lighter and more rufous-brown bars, whiter near
the edge, especially of the secondaries, which are slightly freckled
externally; the innermost secondaries spotted with white, like the
back; upper tail-coverts like the back, but barred with tawny-buff or
whitish; tail-feathers dark chocolate-brown, barred with tawny-buff or
creamy white, with which the tail is conspicuously tipped, the light
bars, seven in number, on the center feathers, broader and coalescing
on the remainder; crown of head like the back, thickly spotted with
white, the spots arranged in pairs; feathers of the hind neck with
concealed bases of tawny-buff; the mantle somewhat more uniform brown;
sides of face chestnut, deeper about the eyes and on the ear-coverts,
which are whiter posteriorly; ruff dark chocolate-brown, barred across
with rufous; chin rufous, followed by a broad white patch, narrowly
barred with black; remainder of under surface of body tawny-rufous,
narrowly barred across with blackish brown including the thighs
and under tail-coverts; fore neck with broad bands of white and
chocolate-brown; under wing-coverts and axillars like the breast;
quills below dusky brown, barred with yellowish buff, these bars
broader toward the base of the inner web. Length, 444; wing, 330;
tail, 190; culmen, 34; tarsus, 58.

"Of this fine owl Mr. Whitehead obtained several specimens. Its nearest
ally is Syrnium sinense, but it is easily distinguished from that
species by its rufescent under surface, with the absence of white
bars." (Sharpe.)

Female.--In colors similar to the male, but size slightly
greater. "Iris brown; eyelids dark carmine; bill and nails
black." (Celestino.) Length, 460; wing, 340; tail, 200; culmen from
base, 39; tarsus, 50.

"We heard a large owl, in all probability of this species, hooting
at night in the Calamianes Islands; a single specimen was secured in
Palawan; it measured, 432 in length; wing, 202; tail, 186; culmen,
26; tarsus, 61; middle toe with claw, 48." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Family ALUCONIDÆ.


Middle toe pectinate; ruff around eyes and across throat fully
developed; primaries much longer than secondaries; proximal half of
tarsus fully feathered, distal half covered with much shorter, more
hair-like plumes; toes sparsely covered with hairs; plumage very soft
and fluffy.



Genus ALUCO Fleming, 1822.


Characters same as those given for the Family.



232. ALUCO LONGIMEMBRIS (Jerdon).

GRASS OWL.


    Strix longimembris Jerdon, Madras Jour. (1839), 10, 86.
    Strix candida (not of Latham, 1801) Tickell, Jour. As. Soc. Bengal
    (1833), 2, 572; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1875), 2, 308;
    Hand-List (1899), 1, 302; Oates, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1902), 2, 342;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 48.
    Aluco longimembris McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1908), 3, sec. A,
    283.

    Cua-gong ta-lá-hib, Manila.

    Batan (McGregor, Edmonds); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Cebu
    (Everett); Luzon (Heriot, Steere Exp., Whitehead, Worcester,
    McGregor); Mindanao (Mearns); Siquijor (Steere Exp.). Indian
    Peninsula, Burmese provinces, northern Australia, Fiji, Formosa,
    Celebes.


Adult male (Benguet, Luzon, May 10, 1903).--Feathers of upper parts
dark brown, the bases and edges, more or less, yellowish buff,
this color forming a collar on hind neck; many of the feathers of
back and wing-coverts each with a small white spot near the tip;
a blackish spot in front of each eye; face white slightly tinged
with buff; stiff ruff-feathers white, the outer ones with black
shafts and blackish brown tips; sides of neck light tawny-buff with
large brown spots; under parts white with a few small black spots on
breast and flanks; breast faintly washed with buff; wing-lining and
axillars white with larger black spots; primaries and secondaries,
above light buff, with dark brown bars and whitish tips, below white,
the tips of primaries dark brown; primary-coverts orange-buff basally;
rectrices white with four blackish brown bars, the bars obsolete on
outermost pair. Bill white, legs dirty brown; nails brown. Length,
395; wing, 355; tail, 135; bill from anterior border of nostril, 19;
tarsus, 85; middle toe with claw, 55.

Female (Batan Island, June, 1907).--Similar to the male from Benguet
but darker; under parts heavily washed with ocherous-buff; face
washed with vinaceous-brown; the blackish spots of under parts more
numerous. Length, 406; wing, 368; tail, 130.

The difference in color between the male and female, as described
above, is not due to either age or sex and occurs in many, if not in
all, of the members of this genus.

Nestling (Laguna Province, Luzon, February 15, 1906).--Wings and tail,
as far as developed, like those of the adult; body and legs thickly
covered with yellowish buff down.



Order PSITTACIFORMES.

COCKATOOS AND PARROTS.


Bill short, extremely strong; upper mandible movable, cered and
strongly hooked as in the birds of prey; toes four, the outer toe
permanently reversed; tarsus short and stout, covered with small
scales. Eggs pure white, seldom with any gloss; oval, or rarely
spheroidal; deposited in hollow trees.



Families.


a1. Hook of bill underneath nearly smooth or with very
superficial longitudinal ridges, but with no distinct file-like
surface. ... Loriidæ (p. 272)
a2. Hook of bill underneath with a series of transverse ridges more
or less bent along the median line and producing a file-like surface.

  b1. Head crested; plumage nearly all white. ... Cacatuidæ (p. 273)
  b2. Head without crest; plumage nearly all green, or green and blue,
  never white. ... Psittacidæ (p. 275)



Family LORIIDÆ.


"Bill much compressed, generally longer than deep, not notched,
and smooth; culmen rounded and narrow; lower mandible rather long,
with the gonys narrow, straight, and obliquely slanting upward, not
flattened in front and with no keel-like ridge; upper mandible with
no file-like surface on the under surface of the hook; tongue brushy;
cere broader over the culmen and gradually becoming narrower along
the sides of the bill; * * * wing acute, with the three first quills
generally the longest." (Salvadori.) In the single Philippine species
the forehead is "dark rosy red."



Genus TRICHOGLOSSUS Vigors and Horsfield, 1826.


Characters same as those given for the Family.



233. TRICHOGLOSSUS JOHNSTONIÆ Hartert.

MRS. JOHNSTONE'S LORIKEET.


    Trichoglossus johnstoniæ Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1903),
    14, 10; Novit. Zool. (1906), 13, 755; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 48; Grant, Ibis (1906), 495; Goodfellow,
    Avicult. Mag. (1906), 4, 83 (plate).

    Mindanao (Goodfellow, Waterstradt).


Adult.--"Forehead dark rosy red, in the male obscured by greenish
tips to the feathers; narrow loral line and broad line from the
eyes backward meeting (in the female indistinctly) on the nape,
dark brownish purple (not quite as dark as 'prune-purple', Ridgway's
Nomenclature of Colors, pl. 8, fig. 1); rest of crown and whole upper
surface grass-green, the inner webs of remiges and first primary on
both webs black, all, with the exception of the first three, with
a large sulphur-yellow patch in the middle of inner webs; feathers
round the mandible to ear-coverts dark rose-red, those toward the
ear-coverts, with yellowish-green tips; feathers of under surface
dull sulphur-yellow, with gray bases and broad green tips; lower
abdomen and under tail-coverts more greenish yellow, the green tips
less distinct; under wing-coverts yellowish green, those near edge of
wing dark green and some of the longest ones pale yellow; tail from
below greenish brownish-yellow. Wing, 106 to 108; tail, 71 to 74;
bill from cere to tip, [male], 14.5; [female], 12; metatarsus about
13. 'Bill yellowish red.'" (Hartert.)

Known only from specimens collected on Mount Apo, Mindanao.



Family CACATUIDÆ.


Bill very strong; edge of upper mandible strongly sinuate; lower
mandible with the lower face wide and slightly rounded; a large
unfeathered space about the eye; head crested; tail moderate and
square; plumage nearly all white in the single Philippine species.



Subfamily CACATUINÆ.



Genus CACATUA Vieillot, 1817.


Characters same as those given for the Family.



234. CACATUA HÆMATUROPYGIA (P. L. S. Müller).

PHILIPPINE COCKATOO.


    Psittacus hæmaturopygius P. L. S. Müller, Natursyst. Suppl. (1776),
    77.
    Cacatua hæmaturopygia Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    20, 130; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 11; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 48.

    Ca-ta-la, Manila; a-bú-cay, Ticao and Bohol; ca-lang'-ai, Lubang.

    Balabac (Steere, Everett); Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Doherty, McGregor); Bohol (McGregor);
    Bongao (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Cebu (Everett,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Guimaras (Meyer, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester); Lapac (Guillemard); Leyte (Everett, Steere
    Exp.); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Meyer, Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead, McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Steere
    Exp., McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Koch & Schadenberg, Goodfellow, Celestino); Mindoro
    (Steere Exp., Schmacker, Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Negros (Meyer, Everett, Bourns & Worcester, Keay, Whitehead);
    Nipa (Everett); Palawan (Steere, Lempriere, Whitehead, Platen,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Panaon (Everett); Panay
    (Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Steere Exp., Whitehead); Siquijor
    (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Sulu (Burbidge); Tablas (Bourns
    & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor).


Adult (sexes alike).--White; under tail-coverts vermilion edged
with white; inner webs of remiges and rectrices sulphur-yellow
much deeper on the latter and in some specimens tinged with red;
sexes similar. Length, 300 to 350; three specimens measure, wing,
210 to 218; tail, 112 to 117; culmen from cere, 25 to 27; tarsus,
19 to 20. Iris bright red; naked skin around eyes, pale pink; bill
dirty white; legs and nails bluish.

The ear-coverts are usually tinged with vermilion and the bases of
crest-feathers are suffused with sulphur-yellow but both of these
characters are variable. Bourns and Worcester killed two specimens
in Panay in which "the plumage showed a peculiar faint pinkish tinge."

The "catala" is usually met with in small flocks either in forest or
fields; its presence is proclaimed by the conspicuous white plumage and
harsh note. In the island of Ticao we observed this species nesting in
holes in dead trees but we secured only young birds; these resembled
the adult. Bourns and Worcester took nestlings in Masbate in May, 1888.

"Iris of females usually blood-red, sometimes brown. We are inclined
to think red the normal color in fully adult females. Iris in males
very dark brown to black; bare skin around the eye creamy white;
bill drab, with white tip. Three females measure, 315 in length;
wing, 206; tail, 110; culmen, 25; tarsus, 18; middle toe and claw,
38." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Family PSITTACIDÆ.


Bill with a series of transverse ridges under the hook; head uncrested;
colors green and blue, or green, blue, and red; never white.



Subfamily PALÆORNITHINÆ.



Genera.


a1. Larger; length, more than 250 mm.; wing, more than 125 mm.

  b1. Smaller; wing, about 150 mm.; middle pair of rectrices elongated
  and racket-tipped. ... Prioniturus (p. 275)
  b2. Larger; wing, about 200 mm.; rectrices graduate. ... Tanygnathus
  (p. 281)

a2. Smaller; length, less than 190 mm.; wing, less than 115 mm.

  b1. Larger; bill heavier; culmen exceeding width of bill but
  little. ... Bolbopsittacus (p. 284)
  b2. Smaller; bill more slender; culmen twice the width of
  bill. ... Loriculus (p. 286)



Genus PRIONITURUS Wagler, 1832.


Length, 280 to 300 mm.; bill moderate, edge of upper mandible
nicked; tail moderate, rectrices equal, except middle pair which
are nearly twice as long as the others and racket-tipped; colors
blue, green, and greenish yellow; in two species the male has a red
crown-patch. Rectrices below verditer-blue; inner web of remiges below
with a wide edge of verditer-blue; first primary above edged with
blue on outer web. The key is based on male birds. The name parrakeet
(the same as parrokeet, parakeet, paroquet, etc.) is applied to any of
the smaller parrots, more particularly to those that have long tails.



Species.


a1. Wing, 160 to 173 mm.

  b1. A bright red patch on vertex.

    c1. "Hind neck yellowish green". ... verticalis (p. 276)
    c2. Hind neck grass-green. ... montanus (p. 276)

  b2. No red patch on vertex.

    c1. Rump green like the back.

      d1. Forehead green. ... discurus (p. 277)
      d2. Forehead and crown blue. ... suluensis (p. 277)

    c2. "Rump light greenish brown". ... waterstradti (p. 279)

a2. Wing, 142 to 155 mm.

  b1. Upper parts not uniform in color.

    c1. Top of head violet-blue. ... mindorensis (p. 279)
    c2. Top of head verditer-blue; throat and breast
    blue. ... cyaneiceps (p. 280)

  b2. Upper and under parts nearly uniform; general color more
  yellowish. ... luconensis (p. 280)



235. PRIONITURUS VERTICALIS Sharpe.

EVERETT'S RACKET-TAILED PARRAKEET.


    Prioniturus verticalis Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1893), 3,
    10; Ibis (1894), 248, pl. 6; Hand-List (1900), 2, 29; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 48.

    Bongao (Everett); Sibutu (Everett); Tawi Tawi (Everett, Bourns
    & Worcester).


Male.--Crown light blue with a small scarlet patch in the center;
forehead, nape, and sides of head grass-green; neck and sides of neck
yellowish green; remainder of upper parts, including exposed edges of
wing- and tail-feathers, dark grass-green; lower parts greenish yellow,
breast clearer yellow, abdomen, flanks, and crissum more greenish. A
male from Tawi Tawi measures: Wing, 180; tail with rackets, 150;
culmen from front margin of cere, 21.

Female.--"Differs from the male in being emerald-green all over, and
wanting the verditer-blue on the head as well as the scarlet spot on
the latter." (Sharpe.)

"Discovered by us in October, 1891; it is the finest of the Philippines
representatives of the genus. Found in deep forest, but especially
abundant in the high mangrove trees south of Tataan. The amount of
red on its head is exaggerated in the plate in The Ibis, and it is
too light in color.

"Eight males from Tawi Tawi measure, 268 in length; wing, 171; tail,
exclusive of racket, 90; culmen, 22; tarsus, 15; middle toe with
claw, 29. Four females measure, length, 255; wing, 165; tail, 96;
culmen, 21; tarsus, 16; middle toe with claw, 28. Iris varies from
pale yellow to hazel; legs and feet gray; nails gray to black; bill
gray to white." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



236. PRIONITURUS MONTANUS Grant.

MOUNTAIN RACKET-TAILED PARRAKEET.


    Prioniturus montanus Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1895), 4, 41;
    Ibis (1895), 466; Whitehead, Ibis (1899), 397; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 29; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 48.

    U-lis', Benguet.

    Luzon (Whitehead, Worcester, McGregor, Mearns.)


Male.--Forehead, lores, and face blue, bases of the feathers largely
green; a large red spot on vertex, surrounded by blue; hind head,
neck, and sides of neck grass-green; mantle, back, and rump duller and
more yellowish green; wings, upper tail-coverts, and middle pair of
rectrices grass-green; lower parts green, slightly yellowish. Iris
gray; bill, legs, and nails light horn-blue. Whitehead gives the
iris as "dark brown." Length, including rackets, 305 to 317; two
males measure, wing, 164 to 166; tail, without rackets, 84 to 85;
culmen from cere, 20 to 21; tarsus, 15 to 16.

Female.--Much like male but red and blue of head and face replaced by
dark green; a slight trace of blue on forehead and around eyes. Colors
of soft parts as in the male. "Differs from the female of P. verticalis
in having the head dull grass-green, the forehead, lores, sides of
the crown, and feathers round the eyes being washed with blue. The
under parts are like those of the male and never yellow-green as in
the Sibutu female." (Grant.) One female measures, wing, 158; tail
without rackets, 83; culmen from cere, 20; tarsus, 17.

Young.--Immature birds of each sex resemble the adult female.

The mountain racket-tailed parrakeet was discovered by Whitehead in the
mountains of Abra and Lepanto Provinces. At San Jose a live bird was
purchased. The natives said it "had been snared in their maize-fields
and that it was common enough when the cereal was ripe." We collected
a number of specimens in Benguet Province where it was not uncommon
though somewhat difficult to secure; the species is well known to
the Igorot by the name "u-lis." It is improbable that this beautiful
parrot occurs below the pine belt but with our meager knowledge of
the vertical distribution of birds in the Philippines it is better to
follow this statement with a large interrogation mark. This species
is very noisy and does not differ in habits from lowland members of
the genus.



237. PRIONITURUS DISCURUS (Vieillot).

PHILIPPINE RACKET-TAILED PARRAKEET.


    Psittacus discurus Vieillot, Gal. des Ois. (previous to 1823),
    1, 7, pl. 26.
    Prioniturus discurus Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    20, 417; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 29, McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 49.
    Prioniturus discurus suluënsis Blasius, Jour. für Orn. (1890),
    140. [35]

    Pa-lé-ta, Manila; ma-ná-guin, Ticao; ca-gak', Bohol.

    Basilan (Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Doherty,
    McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu
    (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Guimaras (Meyer, Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Leyte (Steere Exp., Whitehead); Luzon
    (Meyer, Everett, Steere Exp., Whitehead); Masbate (Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Mindanao (Cuming, Murray, Everett,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino, Goodfellow); Negros
    (Steere Exp., Whitehead, Keay); Samar (Steere Exp., Whitehead);
    Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Sulu (Burbidge, Platen,
    Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester).


Adult.--General color green, vertex verditer-blue changing with the
light; rest of head, neck, and face bright grass-green; rest of upper
parts and wings dark green; below uniform yellowish green; spatules
black, sometimes tinged with green or with blue; short rectrices
blue along shaft, bordered with green and tipped with black. Sexes
alike. Iris dark; cere very dark blue; bill light horn-blue; feet
and nails darker blue. Length, including rackets, 292 to 317; four
specimens from Ticao measure, wing, 160 to 169; tail without rackets,
76 to 85; culmen from cere, 21 to 23; tarsus, 15 to 17.

"A common and widely spread species. P. discurus, as well as the
other five Philippine representatives of the genus, is usually met
with in the forest or in fruit trees in the open, where it has gone
to feed. At certain seasons it frequents the mangrove swamps. All the
Philippine species are birds of very rapid flight, and scream almost
constantly when on the wing. They usually fly in small flocks. In
the forest they make the most of their protective coloring, and one
may pass within ten feet of one without seeing it.

"Measurements are given exclusive of rackets. Four males from Basilan
measure, 232 in length; wing, 149; tail, 66; culmen, 21; tarsus, 14;
middle toe with claw, 28.

"Sibuyan birds are slightly larger, and have a light yellowish green
area on back, but we do not feel warranted in separating them. Three
females from Sibuyan measure, 257 in length; wing, 161; tail, 134;
culmen, 22; tarsus, 16; middle toe with claw, 29. Iris brown; legs
and feet leaden; nails blackish; bill grayish white." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



238. PRIONITURUS WATERSTRADTI Rothschild.

WATERSTRADT'S RACKET-TAILED PARRAKEET.


    Prioniturus waterstradti Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1904),
    14, 72; Hartert, Novit. Zool. (1906), 13, 756; Grant, Ibis (1906),
    495; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 49.

    Mindanao (Waterstradt, Goodfellow).


Male.--"Forehead to the eyes pale blue, the feathers being green
at base; lores and sides of face greenish blue; sinciput and nape
grass-green; scapulars and back green with a slight brownish tinge;
rump light greenish brown; wings outwardly bright green, inner
webs of remiges, blackish from above, pale bluish from below; upper
wing-coverts grass-green, slightly tinged with blue near bend of wing;
rectrices, bright green from above, bluish from below, tipped with dull
black for about 12 to 14 mm., the central pair quite green except the
shaft and spatules, which are dull black; entire under side uniform
yellowish green. Bill (in skin) whitish with leaden-gray base; feet
dark gray. Wing, 152 to 157; tail, about 66, with lengthened central
pair, 120 to 140; culmen from cere, 22; metatarsus, 15. One specimen
marked '[female]' is similar to the male." (Rothschild.)

This species is known from specimens collected by Waterstradt on
Mount Apo at 900 meters elevation, and by Goodfellow at 2,500 meters.



239. PRIONITURUS MINDORENSIS Steere.

MINDORO RACKET-TAILED PARRAKEET.


    Prioniturus mindorensis Steere, List Birds and Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 6; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20,
    419; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 29; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 49.

    Mindoro (Steere Exp., Schmacker, Everett, Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead, McGregor, Porter).


Male.--Most nearly related to P. discurus but distinguished by the
crown patch which in mindorensis is blue with a slight violet tinge
and is sharply defined in front against the green forehead; the bill
is larger and the rackets are never so long as in adult specimens
of discurus. Length, including rackets, 317; wing, 165; tail without
rackets, 90; culmen from front margin of cere, 22.

Female.--Similar to female of discurus but often with traces of the
violet crown patch. Length, including rackets, 300; wing, 160; tail
without rackets, 90; culmen from front margin of cere, 21.

"Three males average, 268 in length, exclusive of rackets; wing, 162;
tail, 135; culmen, 20; tarsus, 21; middle toe with claw, 28. A female
measures, 261 in length; wing, 154; tail, 118; culmen, 21; tarsus,
15; middle toe with claw, 27. Iris light straw-yellow, nearly white;
legs, feet, and nails light leaden; bill pale horn-color." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



240. PRIONITURUS CYANEICEPS Sharpe.

BLUE RACKET-TAILED PARRAKEET.


    Prioniturus cyaneiceps Sharpe, Ibis (1888), 194; Hand-List (1900),
    2, 29; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20, 419; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 49.

    Balabac (Steere, Everett); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Celestino, White).


Male.--All of head, neck, and under parts bright verditer-blue, a
little duller below where the feathers are yellowish at base, this
when specimen is held toward the light, away from the light the blue
parts become light bluish green; under tail-coverts bright greenish
yellow and tipped with green; wings, back, and rump grass-green;
tail-spatules black, touched with green; short rectrices green, deep
blue along the shaft, tip black. Bill bluish white; legs blackish. A
male from Palawan measures: Wing, 150; tail without rackets, 77;
culmen from front margin of cere, 19.

Female.--Differs from the male in having the blue restricted to top
and sides of head and in having the lower parts uniform light green
with traces of blue; under tail-coverts deeper yellow than in the male.

Young.--"Green, with no verditer-blue shade on the head and neck;
greater wing-coverts and secondaries edged with yellowish green;
under parts yellowish green; under tail-coverts yellow, washed with
greenish; middle tail-feathers longer than the lateral ones, narrow
towards the point and entirely webbed." (Salvadori.)

"Ten males from Busuanga measure, 238 in length (exclusive of rackets,
which may attain a length of 60 to 75); wing, 154; tail, 77; culmen,
19; tarsus, 14; middle toe with claw, 26. Seven females average,
233 in length; wing, 150; tail, 76; culmen, 19; tarsus, 15; middle
toe with claw, 26." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



241. PRIONITURUS LUCONENSIS Steere.

LUZON RACKET-TAILED PARRAKEET.


    Prioniturus luconensis Steere, List Birds and Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 6; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20,
    420; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 49.
    Prioniturus luzonensis Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 29.

    Luzon (Steere Exp., Whitehead, McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.).


Male.--General color bright yellow-green, very slightly darker
on back and rump; alula, primaries, and coverts dark green; short
rectrices green above, with wide dark tips; spatules black and dark
blue. Iris dark brown; bill and feet light blue; nails horn-blue. Sexes
alike? Length, with rackets, about 305; two males from Mariveles,
Bataan Province, measure, wing, 140 to 143; tail without rackets,
67 to 73; culmen from cere, 17 to 18; tarsus, 13 to 14.

"Immature.--Differs from the adult in having the middle tail-feathers
with the shaft not naked and with no developed spatula, although
the webs become narrower before the end; the tips of the two middle
tail-feathers are blue; the lateral tail-feathers have, towards the
end, less blue than in the adult bird." (Salvadori.)

"We found this beautiful species common about the foot of Monte
Arayat, in central Luzon, though we failed to meet with it in Albay
or Catanduanes. In north Luzon it was abundant in the maize fields,
feeding on the flower at the top of the plant. Young were obtained
in the month of May in Isabella." Whitehead, Ibis, (1899), 397.



Genus TANYGNATHUS Wagler, 1832.


Bill very heavy and strongly curved; edge of mandible but slightly
nicked; tail long; rectrices graduated, about 25 mm. difference
between longest feathers and shortest; colors green and yellowish
green; wing-coverts variegated; length, 300 mm.



Species.


a1. Top of head bright blue; back green. ... lucionensis (p. 281)
a2. Top of head green; back blue.

  b1. Median upper wing-coverts edged with pure golden
  yellow. ... megalorhynchos (p. 283)
  b2. Median and greater upper wing-coverts edged with yellowish green.

    c1. Wing about 195 mm.; head darker green. ... everetti (p. 283)
    c2. Wing about 225 mm.; head lighter, more yellowish
    green. ... burbidgei (p. 284)



242. TANYGNATHUS LUCIONENSIS (Linnæus).

PHILIPPINE GREEN PARROT.


    Psittacus lucionensis Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 146.
    Tanygnathus luconensis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    20, 424; Grant, Ibis (1896), 561 (critical notes).
    Tanygnathus luzonensis Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 30.
    Tanygnathus lucionensis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 49.

    Pi-coy', Bohol and Ticao.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Doherty, McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Cagayan Sulu
    (Guillemard, McGregor); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Caluya
    (Porter); Cebu (Everett, McGregor); Guimaras (Meyer, Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Lapac (Guillemard); Leyte (Everett);
    Luzon (Meyer, Whitehead, McGregor); Maestre de Campo (McGregor &
    Worcester); Malanipa (Murray); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Murray, Everett,
    Koch & Schadenberg, Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow, Celestino);
    Mindoro (Steere Exp., Schmacker, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor,
    Porter); Negros (Layard, Steere, Everett, Steere Exp., Keay);
    Palawan (Steere, Everett, Lempriere, Whitehead, Platen, Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns
    & Worcester); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Samar
    (Whitehead); Sibutu (Everett); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Sulu
    (Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor); Verde (McGregor).


Adult.--Forehead, lores, and sides of face grass-green connecting with
the grass-green collar of hind neck; [36] crown and occiput bright
blue; rest of upper parts green, yellowish on the mantle and more
or less mixed with light blue on the back; below yellowish green,
becoming clear green on abdomen and under tail-coverts; primaries
blackish on inner web, dark green on outer web, tips of shorter ones
blue; secondaries mostly blue with light green edges; tertials green
with blue tips; alula and primary-coverts dark blue, black along the
shafts and more or less washed with green; distal greater and median
coverts bright blue with yellow-green margins; proximal greater and
median coverts with the middle black, surrounded by a narrow line
of bright blue followed by a wide edge of old gold; lesser coverts
black, some of the proximal ones bordered with blue and old gold;
tail grass-green above, dark golden yellow below.

Iris very pale straw, a narrow inner ring of darker yellow; upper
mandible bright scarlet, except tip which like the lower mandible is
dull yellow, cere black; legs dull green; nails dark horn. Length,
300 to 330 mm. Specimens from different parts of the Archipelago
vary greatly in measurements and colors. The sexes do not differ
except that the female is a little the smaller. Four males from Ticao
average: Wing, 195; tail, 132; culmen from cere, 33; tarsus, 18. Two
females from Ticao average: Wing, 187; tail, 126; culmen from cere,
28; tarsus, 18.

Young.--Differs from the adult in having little or no blue on the head
and face which are green; back largely sky-blue; blue of wings and
coverts largely replaced by green; the coverts bordered with light
yellowish green.

"The Philippine green parrot is the common cage bird of the natives,
who have doubtless aided in its dispersal. Escaped cage birds were
shot by us on several occasions. Called 'picoi' by the natives. Occurs
in deep forest, but is also very common in the open, especially about
dead trees, where it nests in natural cavities or in deserted holes
of the great woodpeckers (Thriponax).

"Iris of male birds has an outer ring of white and an inner of brown;
iris of females light yellow; legs and feet drab, nails black; bill
scarlet, yellowish at tip. Fully adult specimens show very great
variability as to size, running from 300 to 395. Fourteen males
from Tawi Tawi measure 325 in length; wing, 191; tail, 126; culmen,
29; tarsus, 16; middle toe with claw, 29. Two females from Masbate
measure, length, 311; wing, 180; tail, 124; culmen, 30; tarsus, 17;
middle toe with claw, 35." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

Grant finds some very considerable differences among specimens of
this species from various islands but evidently he considers them to
be of less than even subspecific value. Possibly this species will
eventually be split into several subspecies or races.



243. TANYGNATHUS MEGALORHYNCHOS (Boddaert).

LARGE-BILLED PARROT.


    Psittacus megalorhynchos Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. (1783), 45.
    Tanygnathus megalorhynchus Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    20, 426; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 30.

    Balut (Mearns). Western New Guinea, Papuan and Molucca Islands,
    Sangi, Talaut, and Togian Islands.


"Adult.--Green, underneath yellowish green; sides yellow; feathers
of the interscapular region green, edged with light blue; lower
back and uropygium light blue; scapulars black, edged with blue;
quills and greater upper wing-coverts blue, edged with green;
smaller and median upper wing-coverts black, the last edged with
bright yellow; under wing-coverts and axillars yellow; tail above
green, with yellow tip, underneath golden yellow, duller towards
the base. 'Iris yellowish, with an outer ring white; bill coral-red;
feet lead-color.' (D'Albertis.) Length, 432; wing, 238 to 254; tail,
150 to 160; bill, 45 to 51; tarsus, 21.

"Female.--Has the bill smaller than the male.

"Young.--Has the scapulars and the upper wing-coverts not so black and
more greenish, and the yellow edges of the same paler." (Salvadori.)



244. TANYGNATHUS EVERETTI Tweeddale.

BLUE-BACKED PARROT.


    Tanygnathus everetti Tweeddale, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877),
    20, (4), 533; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20, 432,
    pl. 10; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 30; Whitehead, Ibis (1899),
    398; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 49.

    Luzon (Whitehead); Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp., Celestino);
    Negros (Whitehead); Panay (Steere Exp.).


Male.--General color green; entire head and neck grass-green, the
neck with a yellow tinge; mantle grass-green, each feather edged with
dark blue; back and rump dark blue; tail-coverts green, some of them
edged with blue; wings green, some of the smaller coverts edged with
yellowish green; under parts green, some feathers on abdomen and sides
of breast slightly edged with blue; tail-feathers above green with
yellowish tips, below golden yellow. Bill bright red, feet blackish
in skin. Length, 330; wing, 196; tail, 136; culmen from cere, 31.

Female.--Like the male but the bill white. Wing, 195; tail, 138;
culmen from cere, 31.

"Rare about Zamboanga. Only one specimen obtained. Mr. Moseley, of the
Steere Expedition, killed one specimen in Panay, and Mr. Worcester
saw another so near that there was no room for doubt as to its
identity. Two specimens in the Jesuit Museum at Manila are marked
'Negros.' We searched for it in vain in Samar." (Bourns and Worcester
MS.)

"This parrot may prove to have a much wider distribution in the
Philippines than is at present known, our discovery of the bird in
north Luzon being a mere chance. * * * Male, iris orange; bill rosy
red; feet dull olive-brown; female, iris orange; bill creamy white;
feet dull olive-brown." (Whitehead.)



245. TANYGNATHUS BURBIDGEI Sharpe.

BURBIDGE'S PARROT.


    Tanygnathus burbidgei Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1879), 313;
    Hand-List (1900), 21, 30; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    20, 432, pl. 11; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 49.

    Bongao (Everett); Sulu (Burbidge, Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Everett, Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult.--Dark green; head and neck bright yellowish green;
lower back and uropygium deep turquoise-blue; upper wing-coverts
with very narrow yellowish green edges; tail above dark green;
underneath dull golden olive. Iris red; bill vermilion; tarsus dull
olive-brown." (Guillemard.) Length, 406; wing, 223; tail, 157; bill,
38; tarsus, 19.

"Young.--A little smaller than the adult, the head somewhat darker
and the bill whitish.

"This is a very distinct species, resembling T. everetti, but much
larger and with the head lighter than the body, and no blue edgings
to the feathers of the interscapular region." (Salvadori.)

"Common in Sulu but very shy, and seemed to be
shot-proof. Unfortunately, too, it was molting at the time of our stay,
and but two good specimens were secured. Readily distinguished from
T. lucionensis by its cry alone. Found in deep forest, and in fruit
trees in the open.

"Two males average, 375 in length; wing, 213; tail, 150; culmen,
33. Less common in Tawi Tawi, and observed only in the forest." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



Genus BOLBOPSITTACUS Salvadori, 1891.


Bill short and very broad; edge of upper mandible strongly sinuate
but not toothed; the short, nearly equal, rectrices extend but little
beyond the tail-coverts; colors green, yellow, and blue; length,
140 to 165 mm.



Species. [37]


a1. Cheeks blue.

  b1. Cheeks and collar pale blue. ... lunulatus, [male] (p. 285)
  b2. Cheeks and collar bright blue. ... intermedius, [male] (p. 285)

a2. Cheeks green.

  b1. Collar deep blue. ... mindanensis, [male] (p. 286)
  b2. Collar yellow, with crescent-like black bands. ... lunulatus,
  [female] (p. 285); mindanensis, [female] (p. 286)
  b3. Collar faint orange-yellow. ... intermedius, [female] (p. 285)



246. BOLBOPSITTACUS LUNULATUS (Scopoli).

LUZON GUAIABERO.


    Psittacus lunulatus Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. (1786),
    86.
    Bolbopsittacus lunulatus Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    20, 504; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 34; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 49.

    Bo-bó-toc, gua-ya-bé-ro, Luzon.

    Luzon (Cuming, Möllendorff, Steere, Meyer, Everett, Steere Exp.,
    Whitehead, McGregor).


Male.--General color green, lighter below; lores, orbit, cheeks, a
narrow line on forehead, and a narrow collar on hind neck pale blue;
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts light greenish yellow;
the longest coverts clear green; primaries, primary-coverts, and
alula blue on outer webs, inner webs black; ends of primaries more or
less green; on under side of wing a pale yellowish band across inner
webs of secondaries and shorter primaries; rectrices green above,
blue below. Iris brown, cere black; bill black, with base white;
legs dull green; nails horn-brown. In the female all of the lower
mandible is dirty white. Three males and three females from Bataan
Province average, wing, 98; tail, 36; culmen from cere, 18; tarsus, 13.

Female.--Differs from the male in having the lower parts lighter green;
blue of head confined to feathers of lower cheeks overhanging chin
on each side; a narrow ring of light green around eye; collar on
hind neck yellow, each feather with two narrow crescentic lines of
blackish green; lower back and rump green, with blackish crescentic
marks. Same size as the male.

Young.--"Young male resembles the female." (Salvadori.)



247. BOLBOPSITTACUS INTERMEDIUS Salvadori.

INTERMEDIATE GUAIABERO.


    Bolbopsittacus intermedius Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    20, 505; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 34; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 49.

    Leyte (Whitehead); Samar (Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead).


Male.--"Similar to the male of B. lunulatus, from which it differs
in having the face of a deeper blue with a purple tinge, and a blue
collar on the lower part of the hind neck brighter and like that
of B. mindanensis; the under parts are of a deeper and brighter
green than either in B. lunulatus or in B. mindanensis; bill black;
feet greenish. Length, 147; wing, 99; tail, 33; bill, 19; tarsus,
10." (Salvadori.)

Female.--"It differs from the male in having the blue of the head
confined to the throat, the cheeks being light green. Around the eye a
ring of green lighter than that of crown. The blue collar is replaced
by an indistinct collar of faint orange-yellow. Rump only slightly
lighter than back and green, not yellow as in male. Under surface
slightly lighter and more yellowish. Thighs green instead of yellow.

"A young male is like the female but has less blue on sides of
throat." (Bourns and Worcester.)

"A male measures 168 in length; wing, 98; tail, 33; culmen, 18;
tarsus, 12; middle toe with claw, 22. Two females measure: Length,
168; wing, 95; tail, 35; culmen, 19; tarsus, 12; middle toe with claw,
20. Iris dark brown; legs and feet light olive-green; nails black;
bill blackish at tip, gray at base; cere black. Food guavas. All of
the specimens obtained were shot from a flock found in a mangrove swamp
the day before our departure from Samar." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



248. BOLBOPSITTACUS MINDANENSIS (Steere).

MINDANAO GUAIABERO.


    Cyslopsitta mindanensis Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 6.
    Bolbopsittacus mindanensis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    20, 506; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 34; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 49; Grant, Ibis (1906), 494.

    Mindanao (Cuming, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Goodfellow, Celestino); Panaon (Everett).


"Adult male.--Differs from that of B. lunulatus in having the cheeks
green, the blue round the eyes separated by the green cheeks from
the blue of the throat; the collar on the lower hind neck is of a
brighter and deeper blue; the green of the head has a yellowish
tinge, contrasting with the purer green color of the back. Iris
dark brown; bill black, the base of the maxilla light gray; feet
greenish." (Everett.) Length, about 152; wing, 96 to 99; tail, 33;
bill, 18; tarsus, 10.

"Adult female.--Exactly similar to the female of
B. lunulatus." (Salvadori.)

"Two males average, 159 in length; wing, 97; tail, 39; culmen, 18;
tarsus, 12; middle toe with claw, 20. Six females, length, 154;
wing, 96; tail, 41; culmen, 18; tarsus, 12; middle toe with claw,
19. Iris brown; legs and feet light olive-green. Called by the natives
'guayabero' from its habit of eating guavas. On the few occasions
when we met with this species it occurred in flocks. It is a common
cage bird in Mindanao. We searched in vain for it in Basilan, but
are by no means satisfied that it does not exist there." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



Genus LORICULUS Blyth, 1849.


Length, about 150 mm.; bill compressed; tail short, rectrices
slightly graduated and extending a little beyond tail-coverts;
general color grass-green, more yellowish below; forehead, rump,
and upper tail-coverts scarlet; tail green above, blue below; under
surface of primaries black, widely edged with blue on inner webs;
adult males with a large, oval scarlet spot on throat and breast;
bases of the feathers yellow; adult females and immature males with
blue cheeks; young in first plumage with scarlet rump and tail-coverts,
but neither blue nor red on head.



Species. [38]



a1. Bill orange red.

  b1. No blue on crown.

    c1. Red on head confined to the forehead.

      d1. Rectrices dark green above, with very little if any blue.

        e1. Interscapular region golden yellow, more or less tinged
        with orange; in the adult male a red patch on throat and
        cheeks green; in female no red patch on throat; cheeks and
        chin bluish. ... chrysonotus (p. 288)
        e2. Interscapular region green, with no golden orange tinge;
        cheeks green in the male, bluish in the female.

          f1. A golden-orange band on hind neck, more or less
          orange-yellow on the crown.

            g1. Vertex bright orange-yellow, sharply defined in
            the male; slightly tinged with orange and cheeks blue
            in female.

              h1. Orange crown-patch larger. ... regulus (p. 288)
              h2. Orange crown-patch smaller. ... bournsi (p. 289)

            g2. Vertex and hind neck with a very slight yellow
            tinge, both in males and females; female like that of
            regulus. ... philippensis (p. 290)

          f2. No orange band on hind neck or at most only a trace;
          red of forehead ending sharply against bright green of
          crown. ... mindorensis (p. 290)

      d2. Rectrices dark green above, lateral rectrices deep blue
      toward the tips. ... siquijorensis (p. 291)

    c2. Red on head continuous from forehead to nape and becoming
    orange on nape.

      d1. Crown-patch wider, spreading out posteriorly and ending
      broadly.

        e1. Back less heavily washed with golden yellow. ... apicalis
        (p. 292)
        e2. Back more heavily washed with golden yellow. ... dohertyi
        (p. 292)

      d2. Crown-patch narrower, tapering sharply to a point
      posteriorly. ... worcesteri (p. 293)

a2. Bill black.

  b1. A deep blue spot on middle of crown. ... galgulus (p. 294)
  b2. No blue on crown. ... bonapartei (p. 294)



249. LORICULUS CHRYSONOTUS Sclater.

CEBU COLASISI.


    Loriculus chrysonotus Sclater, Ibis (1872), 324, pl. 11; Salvadori,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20, 522; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900),
    2, 36; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 50.

    Co-lan'-si, Toledo, Cebu.

    Cebu (Meyer, Steere, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor).


"Adult male (type).--Green, underneath yellowish green; forehead, rump,
and upper tail-coverts red; vertex, occiput, nape, and upper back
golden yellow; an obsolete spot in the middle of the nape, also the
upper back, tinged with orange; cheeks, sides of the head and of the
neck grass-green; a large patch on the throat orange-red, the yellow
color of the base of the feathers showing through; sides of the lower
back tinged with blue; quills and tail above dark green; inner web
of the quills and tail beneath blue; tail-feathers tipped with light
green. 'Iris brown; bill orange-red; feet orange.' (Everett.) Length,
157; wing, 99; tail, 51; bill, 15; tarsus, 11.

"Adult female.--Differs from the male in having the anterior part of
the cheeks and throat tinged with blue; no red patch on the throat; the
golden yellow tinge on the head and nape not so bright; the upper back,
or interscapular region, green, slightly washed with golden orange,
and the blue tinge on the sides of the lower back paler." (Salvadori.)

"This was the only Loriculus which we failed to find abundantly in
coconut-trees where the trees themselves were accessible. In 1888
several days of hard work in the great coconut-groves near Carmen,
Cebu, brought us but a single specimen. In 1893, however, we found
it quite abundant in the woods near Toledo. It is possible that its
disappearance from the coconut-groves of the east coast is due to the
lack of suitable breeding ground near by. The forest has been almost
entirely cleared from the island, and the little which remains will
soon be gone.

"Five males average, 154 in length; wing, 96; tail, 54; culmen, 14;
tarsus, 11; middle toe with claw, 19. Five females, length, 157; wing,
97; tail, 55; culmen, 13; tarsus, 11; middle toe with claw, 20. Iris
dark brown; legs and feet orange-red; nails black; bill usually
scarlet, may be pale red or even yellow." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



250. LORICULUS REGULUS Souancé.

CENTRAL ISLAND COLASISI.


    Loriculus regulus Souancé, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. (1856), 222;
    Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20, 523; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 36; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 50.
    Loriculus panayensis Tweeddale, Challenger Report (1881), 2,
    Zool. pt. 8, pl. 1.

    Có-si, Ticao and Masbate.

    Guimaras (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Masbate (Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Negros (Meyer, Everett, Steere
    Exp., Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Panay (Murray, Steere,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor).


Adult male.--A wide band of golden yellow across vertex, touching the
scarlet forehead; a narrow band of golden orange on nape; mantle and
back grass-green. A male from Ticao measures: Length, 145; wing, 93;
tail, 46; culmen from cere, 16.

Adult female.--Vertex green, tinged with yellow; a narrow band of
golden orange on nape; cheeks tinged with light blue; throat and
breast yellowish green. A female from Ticao measures: Length, 150;
wing, 93; tail, 42; culmen from cere, 14.

"Exceedingly abundant in the central Philippines, especially
in Masbate. Though a large series of specimens was obtained from
Tablas, Romblon, and Sibuyan, none of the males show so much yellow
on the crown as in typical L. regulus. Specimens of L. philippensis
from Marinduque collected by the Steere Expedition show a decided
wash of yellow on the crown, and it seems quite possible that
other intermediate forms between L. philippensis and L. regulus may
eventually be discovered in Banton and the other islands which connect
the Tablas-Romblon-Sibuyan group with Luzon.

"Ten males from Masbate measure, 149 in length; wing, 90; tail, 47;
culmen, 14; tarsus, 12; middle toe with claw, 19. Thirteen females
from the same locality, length, 147; wing, 91; tail, 47; culmen,
13; tarsus, 10; middle toe with claw, 18. Iris brown; legs and feet
orange to brown or yellow; nails nearly black; bill deep orange-red
to brownish red." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



251. LORICULUS BOURNSI McGregor.

BOURNS'S COLASISI.


    Loriculus regulus Worcester and Bourns,
    Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Wash. (1898), 20, 557, no. 265 (part).
    Loriculus bournsi McGregor, Bur. Govt. Laboratories, Manila
    (1905), 25, 16; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 50.

    Romblon (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Sibuyan (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino).


Male.--Similar to L. regulus but the yellow patch on crown much
smaller. Wing, 97; tail, 46; culmen from front margin of cere, 14.

Female.--Similar to the female of L. regulus.

This form which is merely a subspecies of Loriculus regulus is abundant
in Romblon, Tablas, and Sibuyan.



252. LORICULUS PHILIPPENSIS (P. L. S. Müller).

LUZON COLASISI.


    Psittacus philippensis P. L. S. Müller, Syst. Nat. Suppl. (1776),
    80.
    Loriculus philippensis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    20, 524; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 36; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 50.

    Co-la-sí-si, Manila.

    Banton (Celestino); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Luzon (Meyer, Heriot,
    Möllendorff, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor);
    Marinduque (Steere Exp.).


Adult male.--Forehead red, bordered behind by a narrow line of yellow;
crown faintly tinged with yellow; a narrow golden orange band or spot
on nape. Length, 160; wing, 92; tail, 42; culmen from cere, 15.

Adult female.--Differs from the male in having the cheeks blue and
under parts yellowish green with no red breast-patch. Length, 152;
wing, 93; tail, 45; culmen from cere, 13.

"The habits of the Philippine representatives of this genus agree so
closely that a description of one species will suffice for all. The
eight Philippine species at present known are all peculiar to the
group. They are common in the deep forests of the wilder islands,
but are most readily observed and easily obtained in the coconut
groves near and in the native villages, where they feed on the
young blossoms and drink the 'tuba.' The latter article of diet is
the palm juice which the natives obtain by cutting off the blossom
stalks of the coconut trees and fitting a joint of bamboo over the
cut ends. The Loriculi are inordinately fond of this juice, and
many of our specimens were shot from the 'bombons' (bamboo tubes),
as they drank it. They are by all odds the commonest cage birds of
the Islands, and are frequently carried by the natives from place to
place. The various native names 'colacici,' 'cucci,' 'culanci' are all
attempts to imitate the note. They have the peculiar undulating flight
of woodpeckers, and give their shrill whistle at frequent intervals
when on the wing. Usually very shy in the woods, but exceedingly
bold in the coconut groves. Almost never seen in flocks." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



253. LORICULUS MINDORENSIS Steere.

MINDORO COLASISI.


    Loriculus mindorensis Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 6; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20,
    526; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 36; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 50.

    Co-la-sí-si, Mindoro.

    Mindoro (Steere Exp., Schmacker, Everett, Whitehead, Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor, Porter).


Adult male.--Red of forehead sharply defined against the bright
green of crown; no yellow band on nape or with a faintly indicated
spot. Length, 152; wing, 99; tail, 46; culmen from cere, 15.

Adult female.--Similar to the male but cheeks slightly blue, throat and
breast yellow. Length, 152; wing, 97; tail, 47; culmen from cere, 14.

"Abundant both in the forests of the interior and the coconut groves
along the coast. Six males measure, 152 in length; wing, 80; tail, 47;
culmen, 15; tarsus, 11; middle toe with claw, 18. A female measures,
159 in length; wing, 92; tail, 52; culmen, 15; tarsus, 11; middle
toe with claw, 20. Iris dark brown; legs and feet orange to dirty
yellow; nails nearly black; bill scarlet, black at tip." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



254. LORICULUS SIQUIJORENSIS Steere.

SIQUIJOR COLASISI.


    Loriculus siquijorensis Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 6; Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20,
    526; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 36; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 50.

    Siquijor (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino).


Adult male.--Forehead bright scarlet, ending sharply against the
green of crown; no yellow on the head and no yellow neck-band; rump
and upper tail-coverts dark poppy-red; red throat-patch small; all
rectrices, except central pair, tipped with light blue. Length, 165;
wing, 100; tail, 55; culmen from base, 16; tarsus, 11.

Female.--Similar to the male; red spot on forehead smaller and sides
of forehead, lores, cheeks, chin, and upper throat sky-blue; no red on
the breast. "Eyes brown; feet yellow; nails black." (Celestino.) Wing,
100; tail, 55; culmen from base, 14; tarsus, 12.

Young birds resemble the adult female but the red of forehead is much
reduced and the red breast-patch is wanting in very young males.

"The Siquijor colasisi is a well-marked species which seems to be
strictly confined to the little island of Siquijor. There is but little
forest on this island, and L. siquijorensis is found in the coconut
groves, fruit trees, and bamboo clumps. It is sharply distinct from
L. chrysonotus and L. regulus, and more resembles L. apicalis. The
female shows more blue about the head than does that of any other
Philippine species, having the cheeks, lores, a line over the eye,
and entire throat heavily washed with the color.

"Measurements of two males: Wing, 94; tail, 46; culmen, 14; tarsus,
11; middle toe with claw, 18. Six females: Length, 162; wing, 98;
tail, 52; culmen, 13; tarsus, 12; middle toe with claw, 20. Bill
scarlet to orange; legs and feet pale yellow to orange, nails nearly
black." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



255. LORICULUS APICALIS Souancé.

MINDANAO COLASISI.


    Loriculus apicalis Souancé, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. (1856), 220, 221;
    Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20, 528; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 36; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 50.
    Loriculus hartlaubi Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877), 819,
    pl. 82.

    Bazol (Everett); Dinagat (Everett); Mindanao (Cuming, Everett,
    Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino,
    Goodfellow, Waterstradt).


"Adult male.--Green; crown red, changing into orange on the nape;
back and scapulars washed more or less with golden; rump and upper
tail-coverts rich crimson; sides of the rump tinged with bluish;
cheeks and under parts yellowish green; a red patch on the throat,
with the base of the feathers yellow; quills black, dark green on
the outer web, blue on the inner web below; tail above green, the
lateral feathers blue toward the tip, and tipped with pale bluish
green; tail underneath blue. 'Iris brown, bill red-orange, cere and
feet orange.' (Everett.) Length, 147; wing, 91; tail, 43; bill, 15;
tarsus, 10.

"Female.--Differs from the male in having the lores, cheeks, chin,
and upper throat pale blue, and no red patch on the lower throat and
upper breast.

"Young.--Crown-feathers green at the base and tipped with orange
instead of red; the back pure green, not suffused with yellow,
the uropygium less intense crimson, mixed more or less with green;
cheeks, chin, and throat green, but in a second stage these parts
become more and more tinged with blue." (Salvadori.)

"Abundant in Zamboanga. The Panay record made by Count Salvadori for
this species on the strength of a specimen collected by Mr. Worcester
and marked from that island is certainly an error, probably due to
the misplacing of a label, as Mr. Worcester never shot L. apicalis
in Panay." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



256. LORICULUS DOHERTYI (Hartert).

DOHERTY'S COLASISI.


    Loriculus apicalis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20,
    528 (part); Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 36 (part); McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 50 (part).
    Loriculus philippensis dohertyi Hartert, Novit. Zool. (1906),
    13, 757.

    Basilan (Steere Exp., Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor).


"Adult.--Three males and three females from Basilan show at a glance a
much stronger and more reddish golden yellow wash on the back than in
the specimens from Mindanao. In the old males the whole back appears
to be golden orange, about the apical half of the feathers being golden
orange. In the females it is as strong, or nearly so, as in the males,
or in some specimens less developed, though always evident." (Hartert.)

Male.--Length, 152; wing, 94; tail, 47; culmen from cere, 15.

Female.--Wing, 94; tail, 51; culmen from cere, 12.

"The Basilan birds differ from Mindanao birds in having the nape
scarlet, not golden, and in having the feathers of the back broadly
tipped with orange. The back shows nearly as much color as in
L. chrysonotus. The species is very rare in Basilan however, and
while we think it probable that the Mindanao and Basilan birds may
eventually be separated, we do not feel warranted in establishing a
new species with so small an amount of material at our disposal.

"Two males average, 159 in length; wing, 89; tail, 44; culmen, 14;
tarsus, 97; middle toe with claw, 15. Four females, length, 144; wing,
83; tail, 45; culmen, 13; tarsus, 12; middle toe with claw, 17. Legs
and feet orange; nails black; bill scarlet." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



257. LORICULUS WORCESTERI Steere.

WORCESTER'S COLASISI.


    Loriculus worcesteri Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 6; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 36; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 50.
    Loriculus apicalis Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20,
    528 (part).

    Co-si, Bohol.

    Bohol (Everett, McGregor); Leyte (Everett, Steere Exp., Whitehead);
    Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead).


Adult male.--Entire forehead and crown red, tinged with orange on
occiput where it tapers to a point; back and mantle slightly tinged
with yellow; red throat-patch much smaller than in L. philippensis
and mindorensis. Length, 152; wing, 88; tail, 45; culmen from cere, 15.

Adult female.--Top of head similar to that of the male; cheeks and
upper throat light blue; throat and breast yellowish green. Length,
152; wing, 94; tail, 48; culmen from cere, 13.

"L. worcesteri is scarce about Catbalogan, and as there are no coconut
groves near the town, we had great trouble in securing a good series
of specimens, being less fortunate in this respect than was the Steere
Expedition. Measurements from two males: Wing, 91; tail, 43; culmen,
15; tarsus, 10; middle toe with claw, 18. Iris dark brown; legs and
feet orange; bill red; nails black." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



258. LORICULUS GALGULUS (Linnæus).

BLUE-CROWNED COLASISI.


    Psittacus galgulus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 103.
    Loriculus galgulus Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20,
    531; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 36; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1903), 3, 17; Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905), 18,
    90; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 50.

    Cagayan Sulu (Mearns). Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Banka,
    Nias.


"Adult male.--Green; a deep blue spot on middle of crown; a golden
yellow triangular spot on interscapular region; a bright yellow
band across lower back; rump and upper tail-coverts scarlet-red;
a large scarlet-red patch on throat; wings and tail above green;
greater under wing-coverts, inner web of quills underneath, and tail
below verditer-blue; tail tipped with yellowish green. 'Bill and
cere black; iris deep brown; feet buffy brown.' (Davison). Length,
about 132; wing, 84; tail, 36; bill, 11; tarsus, 10.

"Adult female.--Green of under parts duller and more yellowish;
blue crown-spot duller; orange patch nearly obsolete; no yellow band
across lower back; rump and upper tail-coverts duller red, the coverts
shorter than in the male; no red patch on throat.

"Young.--Dull green, all the feathers with narrow dusky edges;
forehead gray, with a bluish tinge on the sides; no blue spot on
crown; no orange patch on interscapulars; rump green, with edges
of feathers dull red. 'Bill, cere, legs, and feet dull yellow; bill
shaded dusky.' (Davison.)" (Salvadori.)

This species is included in the list of Philippine birds on the
evidence of a pair of cage birds obtained by Mearns, in Cagayan
Sulu. These were probably brought from Borneo.



259. LORICULUS BONAPARTEI Souancé.

BONAPARTE'S COLASISI.


    Loriculus bonapartei Souancé, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. (1856), 222;
    Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 20, 53; Ibis (1891), 48,
    pl. 3; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 36; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 50.

    Bongao (Everett); Sulu (Guillemard, Platen, Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester, Everett).


"Adult male.--Green, under parts a little lighter; head above red,
scarlet on the forehead, shading off into a rich orange on the occiput;
rump and upper tail-coverts red; a large patch on the throat also red;
outer web of the primaries and tail-feathers dark green, the last
tipped with lighter green; inner webs of the quills underneath and
under surface of the tail-feathers verditer-blue. Bill horny black;
feet in the dried skin dusky, nearly black. Length, about 152; wing,
94; tail, 49; bill, 15; tarsus, 11. (Museum Rothschild.)

"Female.--No gular red patch, lores and cheeks blue. (Museum
Rothschild.)" (Salvadori.)

"Common in the scattering trees between the town of Sulu and the
hills back of it. Found about flowering trees in Tawi Tawi. Bill of
adult birds coal black.

"Seven males from Tawi Tawi measure, 148 in length; wing, 90; tail,
49; culmen, 14; tarsus, 10; middle toe with claw, 17. Six females from
Sulu measure, length, 144; wing, 93; tail, 50; culmen, 13; tarsus,
11; middle toe with claw, 19. Iris black; legs and feet light to
dark brown; nails black; bill black in adults, yellow in immature
birds." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Order CORACIIFORMES.

FROGMOUTHS, ROLLERS, KINGFISHERS, HORNBILLS, BEEBIRDS, GOATSUCKERS,
AND SWIFTS.


Claw of hind toe shorter than that of third toe; two toes united
for their basal joint; or, if toes are free, then the feet small and
weak and gape deeply cleft. Toes usually three in front, one behind;
in some, two in front and one behind; rarely, four in front and in
pairs. Bill large and with a horny crest, often bright red in color,
when not red the surface more or less sculptured (Bucerotes); or, bill
long, straight, tapering, and sharp, usually red or black (Halcyones);
or, bill slender and gently curved, tail long (Meropes); or, bill
stout, gape wide (Coraciæ and Podargi); or, bill minute and weak,
gape wide and deeply cleft (Caprimulgi and Micropodii). This order
is an extremely unsatisfactory one as its members have few external
characters of ordinal value. The suborders Caprimulgi and Micropodii
seem to be particularly out of place.



Suborders.


a1. Bill large and strong, or very broad at base, or long and sharp;
culmen greater than tarsus.

  b1. Bill very large, crested, or sides plicated, or both; birds of
  large size. ... Bucerotes (p. 326)
  b2. Bill long or broad, neither crested not plicated.

    c1. Bill long and tapering to a sharp point.

      d1. Middle tail-feathers not greatly prolonged; culmen straight
      or nearly so. ... Halcyones (p. 303)
      d2. Middle tail-feathers greatly prolonged; culmen gently
      decurved for its entire length. ... Meropes (p. 339)

    c2. Bill short and wide; width at base more than half of culmen.

      d1. Nostrils exposed; colors black, blue, and bluish green in
      large masses. ... Coraciæ (p. 301)
      d2. Nostrils hidden by stiff feathers; colors white, blackish
      brown, and rufous-brown in spots and vermiculations. ... Podargi
      (p. 296)

a2. Bill small and weak, deeply cleft; culmen much less than tarsus
(except in Hemiprocne).

  b1. Wings when folded not reaching tip of tail; wings mottled and
  spotted with black and shades of reddish brown. ... Caprimulgi
  (p. 342)
  b2. Wings when folded reaching beyond tip of tail; wings blackish
  or steel-blue, never mottled nor spotted. ... Micropodii (p. 350)



Suborder PODARGI.



Family PODARGIDÆ.


Bill very broad and flat; ten tail-feathers; middle toe-nail not
pectinate; plumage mottled.



Genus BATRACHOSTOMUS Gould, 1838.


Bill extremely broad and short; culmen strongly curved; nostrils
covered by long hair-like plumes; eyes rather large; a bunch of
elongated feathers behind each eye; tarsus short, feet weak; outer
and middle toes united for half of their basal joint; tail moderately
long, outermost rectrices very short, the next pair considerably
shorter than third; plumage lax, in color reddish brown, buff, or
gray, with spots of white or creamy fawn, barred and vermiculated with
blackish brown. Birds of this genus fly at night feeding upon insects
and remain concealed in dense forest during the day. Their capture
is extremely uncertain and difficult. The nest is a small pad-like
structure saddled on a branch of a tree; the single egg is white.



Species.


a1. A white or buff band across chest; another similar band across
lower breast.

  b1. Bill larger; culmen from base, 25 mm. or more.

    c1. Wing longer, 155 mm. or more. ... septimus (p. 296)
    c2. Wing shorter, 140 mm. or less. ... menagei (p. 298)

  b2. Bill shorter; culmen from base, about 20 mm.; wing, about
  130. ... microrhynchus (p. 297)

a2. No light band across under parts; throat and abdomen much mottled
with cream-color or light buff.

  b1. Wing more than 130 mm. ... javensis (p. 300)
  b2. Wing less than 125 mm. ... affinis (p. 301)



260. BATRACHOSTOMUS SEPTIMUS Tweeddale.

TWEEDDALE'S FROGMOUTH.


    Batrachostomus septimus Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877),
    542; Challenger Report, Zool. (1881), 2, pt. 8, pl. 2; Hartert,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 638; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900),
    2, 43; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 50.

    Basilan (Celestino); Mindanao (Murray, Everett, Koch & Schadenberg,
    Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow, Celestino).


Male.--General color rufous-brown; wings and upper parts
chestnut-rufous mixed with fine lines of lighter brown and blackish
brown, taking the form of obsolete bars on rectrices; a narrow white
band across mantle, bordered on each side with blackish brown; outer
webs of scapulars whitish, each feather with a black spot near its tip;
a wide creamy band across the fore breast, each feather tipped and
double barred with narrow lines of blackish brown, the double bars
concealed; another light band about 30 mm. posterior to this with
blackish tips but without the double bars; crissum buffy; primaries
and secondaries blackish, mixed with chestnut-rufous on outer webs;
primary-coverts nearly totally black, each of the secondary-coverts
with a large white spot at tip, preceded by a smaller black spot;
axillars buff. A male from Basilan measures: Wing, 160; tail, 121;
culmen from base, 29; width of bill at gape, 41; tarsus, 16.

Female.--Similar to the male but colors less rufescent; white collar
less sharply defined and the light webs of scapulars washed with
rufous. A female from Basilan measures: Wing, 150; tail, 114; culmen
from base, 27; width of bill at gape, 38; tarsus, 14.

This species is easily distinguished from B. javensis by its larger
size and comparatively much shorter tail, and by the sexes being
similar in their general coloration.



261. BATRACHOSTOMUS MICRORHYNCHUS Grant.

SMALL-BILLED FROGMOUTH.


    Batrachostomus microrhynchus Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club (1895),
    4, 41; Ibis (1895), 463; (1896), 121; Whitehead, Ibis (1899),
    384; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 43; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 50.

    Luzon (Whitehead, McGregor).


"Adult male in very dark plumage.--Crown brownish black marked and
mottled with buff, nuchal band of the same color; mantle and back very
similar to the crown, but with more buff finely intermixed; scapulars
mostly clear buff, with mottled black barrings on the inner webs and
a black subterminal spot; wing-coverts black mottled with rufous,
most of the median and greater with a whitish spot at the extremity
of the outer web; sides of head, chin, and throat finely mottled and
barred with black and buff, darker on the hinder cheek; bands above
and below the chest whitish, edged with black; chest whitish buff,
finely mottled with black; belly rather paler and more coarsely marked.

"Adult female.--General color uniform chestnut, with scarcely a trace
of any black markings except on the secondary quills; in other respects
very similar in plumage to the female of B. septimus. The outer webs
of the scapulars rufous-buff, each with a small subterminal black
spot; greater and median wing-coverts with a terminal white spot on
the outer web, edged internally with black; nuchal and pectoral bands
white, edged with black." (Grant.)

Another male specimen was taken by Whitehead near Cape Engaño,
northern Luzon. "It is an interesting specimen in the chestnut phase of
plumage, the upper parts being like those of the female type described
[above], but the outer webs of the scapulars are pale buff, as in
the dark-colored male type, though the subterminal black spots are
small, as in the female. The feathers of the throat and of the chest
between the white bands are paler chestnut than in the female, and
have white middles irregularly edged and barred with black; belly,
flanks, and under tail-coverts brownish white, with a few faint
reddish brown mottlings.

"As will be seen, the length and width of the culmen are slightly
greater than in the types. There can not be the slightest doubt that
these three differently plumaged birds all belong to one species,
though Mr. Whitehead was inclined to believe that the dark and rufous
forms represented distinct species." (Grant.)

Grant's measurements of the three specimens described above, reduced
to millimeters, are as follows: Male and female from Lepanto: Wing,
127 to 132; tail, 99 to 102; tarsus, 17 to 18; length of culmen,
19; width at gape, 29. Male from Cape Engaño: Wing, 131; tail, 104;
tarsus, 18; length of culmen, 22; width of gape, 32.

In a female from Irisan, Benguet Province, the iris was pale yellowish;
bill light horn-brown, basal half of cutting edge dull pea-green;
inside of mouth brighter pea-green; legs and nails dirty white;
edge of eyelids brown. Wing, 132; tail, 104; culmen from base, 20;
width of bill at gape, 30; tarsus, 17.



262. BATRACHOSTOMUS MENAGEI Bourns and Worcester.

MENAGE'S FROGMOUTH.


    Batrachostomus menagei Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 11; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 43; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 51.
    ? Batrachostomus sp. inc. Clarke, Ibis (1900), 355.

    Cow-cow, Negros.

    Negros (Keay); Panay (Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult male.--Top of head rich dark-brown, slightly washed with
black; feathers of forehead buff, tipped with fulvous brown, forming
a distinct buff stripe reaching back to the eye; feathers of crown
lighter fulvous with spots of rufous-brown on the edges, each spot
being surrounded with black; some of the feathers tipped with rufous,
and having black subterminal bands; occiput and nape with less
black; elongated auriculars tawny-buff, with black spots and bars,
the tips being black; sides of face tawny-buff streaked with black,
lighter below; a distinct buffy white nuchal collar formed by white
subterminal bars on feathers of neck, the bases of which are dark buff
thickly vermiculated with black; their tips are black, and a black
band intervenes between the white subterminal band and the buffy bases
of the feathers; feathers of back dark brown, thickly vermiculated
with black; feathers of rump fulvous-brown, spotted with black and
reddish brown toward their tips, these colors assuming the form of
irregular bands on upper tail-coverts; a few of the shorter scapulars
almost black with irregular bars of dark rufous-brown; outer webs of
longer scapulars light buff, the two outermost feathers entirely of
this color; the next scapulars have inner webs thickly vermiculated
with black; inner and longest scapulars have both webs marked in this
manner, their inner webs being the darker; last of the longer scapulars
with an irregular terminal spot of black; lesser wing-coverts nearly
black, tipped with chocolate-brown; bases of primary-coverts fulvous
brown, their outer webs heavily spotted with rufous-brown, inner webs
less so, and a subterminal bar of black crossing entire outer web
and half of inner web, all the feathers tipped with prominent spots
of creamy white; secondary-coverts like primary-coverts but the black
bar and white spot confined to outer web; primaries fulvous-brown when
held toward light, changing to smoky brown when held away from light;
outer webs spotted with buffy white throughout their entire length,
the spots being much lighter on the second and third primaries; tips of
feathers mottled with rufous-brown; general color of secondaries same
as primaries, their outer webs and tips being spotted with rufous-brown
and these spots in turn being speckled with fulvous-brown; inner three
secondaries speckled with fulvous-brown, rufous-brown, and creamy
white, each feather with a terminal spot of fulvous; general color
of tail rufous-brown, distinctly barred with lighter rufous-brown,
each of these bars succeeded by a narrow irregular bar of black, the
entire feather thickly speckled with black and each feather having
a small black terminal spot; throat and fore breast like sides of
face; a buffy white pectoral band continuous with nuchal collar and
succeeded by a second creamy white band, the feathers between the two
bands being brown, thickly vermiculated with black and creamy white;
abdomen lighter; flanks and under tail-coverts ashy, slightly tinged
with pinkish, some of the feathers with dark black shaft-stripes,
others with small terminal spots of black; under surface of tail much
like coverts, the black markings of upper surface showing only faintly;
shafts of tail-feathers creamy white; under wing-coverts fulvous-brown,
tipped with white; axillars white. Eyes pale yellow; legs, feet, and
nails nearly white; upper mandible brown, lower dirty green. Culmen,
27; wing, 139; tail, 105; tarsus, 15.

"Food, beetles. Native name 'cow-cow.' The single specimen
obtained is a fully adult male; its rich and complicated markings
are very difficult to describe. We have named it in honor of
Mr. Menage." (Bourns and Worcester.)

Female.--"Head and hind neck a fine mixture of black and fulvous, the
feathers terminally barred with broader bands of these tints, producing
a spotted appearance; an indistinct buff band from the forehead over
the eye; elongated auriculars fulvous, banded and tipped with black;
nuchal collar banded with buff, fulvous, and black; mantle and lower
back reddish brown, closely vermiculated with black and darker than
the head; upper tail-coverts similar, but more coarsely vermiculated;
scapulars plain cinnamon on the outer webs, vermiculated with black
on the inner webs, each feather with a subapical spot of black;
wing-coverts like the back; some of the feathers with conspicuous
apical spots of white; primary-coverts chiefly black; primaries
cinnamon, barred with dusky on the outer webs, dusky on the inner
webs; secondaries cinnamon, irregularly barred and mottled with
black on the outer webs, dusky in the center and on the inner webs;
tertials cinnamon, vermiculated with black; tail cinnamon-rufous,
with transverse bands of a dark tint, which are narrowly margined with
black; chin, throat, and breast tawny, finely banded with black, the
concealed portions of the feathers of the upper breast being white,
subterminally and mesially banded with black; feathers of the lower
breast and abdomen chiefly whitish, margined with tawny slightly
vermiculated with dusky; thighs and under tail-coverts buff. Wing,
140; tail, 106; tarsus, 18; culmen, 25." (Clarke.)

There can be little doubt that the specimen described above is really
the female of B. menagei. Birds of this genus are so complex in colors
and so scarce in collections that it is very difficult to arrive at
a satisfactory understanding of their plumages and relationships.



263. BATRACHOSTOMUS JAVENSIS (Horsfield).

JAVAN FROGMOUTH.


    Podargus javensis Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13,
    pt. 1, 141.
    Batrachostomus javensis Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892),
    16, 640; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 43; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 51.

    Palawan (Whitehead, Everett, Steere Exp.). Borneo, Java, and
    Sumatra.


"Rufous phase.--Deep reddish brown, with numerous fine black
vermiculations; an indistinct white band across the neck, and large
white spots on the scapulars; under surface deep reddish brown below,
with a broad pure white band across the upper breast, the feathers
of this part being white with dark terminal cross-bars, one distinct
and one generally obsolete, the bases being dark. Many feathers of
the breast have very large central spots of white, margined with a
black line; abdomen mingled with blackish, brownish, and a good deal
of isabelline.

"Brown phase.--Above dark brown, with many pale bars and
vermiculations; a broad distinct band of whitish across the hind neck
and much white on the scapulars; a good deal of creamy white on the
lower surface.

"Blackish phase.--Several specimens from Borneo are black or blackish
in color, the vermiculations white or whitish.

"The reddish specimens are probably females, the brown and the black
ones being probably males in different phases or perhaps representing
different ages.

"The size of all is about the same, the total length being about 229
to 254; wing, 135; tail, 132; tarsus, 14; culmen, 20; width of gape,
33 to 35.

"The specimens described above are all from Borneo. Two females in
the British Museum from Sumatra, in reddish plumage, are lighter than
those from Borneo, being rather of a cinnamon-rufous color. The patches
on the lower throat are cream-colored, with a cinnamon-rufous border
and a blackish subterminal bar, but without any further blackish bars.

"These differences, however, seem to me not constant after comparing
the material in the Leyden Museum; nevertheless, I have not yet
heard of any blackish specimens from Sumatra, and it must therefore
be left open to question at present whether it is possible to
separate the Sumatran and Bornean specimens specifically or
subspecifically." (Hartert.)



264. BATRACHOSTOMUS AFFINIS Blyth.

ALLIED FROGMOUTH.


    Batrachostomus affinis Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Bengal (1847),
    1180; Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877), 426, pl. 45; Hartert,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 643; Everett, Ibis (1895), 38;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 43; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 51.

    Palawan (Everett, White). Malay Peninsula, southern Tenasserim,
    Borneo, Sumatra.


Adult.--In plumage somewhat similar to B. javensis, but of smaller
size. Hartert gives the measurements of the male as follows: "Length,
about 216; wing, 114; tarsus, 13; width of gape, 25 to 30; culmen,
18 to 20."

Female.--A specimen recently collected in Palawan by White resembles
the brown phase of B. javensis as described under that species. The
specimen was taken near Iwahig on July 10, 1908, with its nest and
two small nestlings. The adult bird measures: Wing, 115; tail, 113;
culmen from base, 20; width of gape, 33; tarsus, 15.



Suborder CORACIÆ.



Family CORACIIDÆ.


Bill broad and slightly depressed; twelve tail-feathers; pectination
of middle claw not comb-like; plumage not mottled, colors gaudy.



Subfamily CORACIINÆ.



Genus EURYSTOMUS Vieillot, 1816.


Bill short and broad; width of gape about equal to culmen; no rictal
bristles and the bristles about bill very short; tail square.



265. EURYSTOMUS ORIENTALIS (Linnæus).

BROAD-BILLED ROLLER.


    Coracias orientalis Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 159.
    Eurystomus orientalis Hume, Oates ed., N. & E. Ind. Birds (1890),
    3, 57; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 33, pl. 2, fig. 1;
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 47; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3,
    107, fig. 30 (head); McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 51.

    Lo-ro in'-chic, Manila; lan-gac, Cagayancillo; ta-ga-tac, Calayan;
    Sa-lac-sá-can, Ticao.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Bohol (McGregor); Cagayancillo (McGregor);
    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin
    N. (McGregor); Cebu (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Cuyo (Meyer);
    Dinagat (Everett); Fuga (McGregor); Guimaras (Meyer, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester); Leyte (Steere Exp., Everett, Whitehead);
    Libagao (Porter); Luzon (Meyer, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor); Maestre de Campo (McGregor &
    Worcester); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Steere Exp.,
    McGregor); Mindanao (Steere, Murray, Everett, Koch & Schadenberg,
    Steere Exp., Goodfellow, Celestino), Mindoro (Steere Exp.,
    Schmacker, Everett, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor, Porter); Negros
    (Steere, Layard, Everett, Steere Exp., Whitehead, Keay); Palawan
    (Everett, Platen, Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester, White); Panaon
    (Everett); Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (Bourns
    & Worcester); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead);
    Sibutu (Everett); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Sulu (Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester);
    Tablas (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor); Verde (McGregor). Malay Peninsula, Burmese provinces,
    Cachar, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Andamans, and Nicobars.


Adult.--Forehead, crown, and sides of face black becoming dark
brown on occiput, neck, ear-coverts, and sides of neck; back, rump,
tail-coverts, scapulars, inner secondaries, and secondary-coverts
brown, washed with dull oily green; chin black with a small white
spot in the center; throat deep purplish blue with bright blue mesial
streaks; remainder of under parts greenish blue, becoming more intense
on crissum; primaries, outer secondaries, and rectrices glossy black,
marked more or less on both webs with deep purplish blue; a wide band
of light blue across middle of primaries; alula and primary-coverts
black, edged with deep purplish blue. Bill and legs bright red;
nails and tip of bill black. Length of a male, 280; wing, 180; tail,
96; culmen from base, 33; tarsus, 17. Length of a female, 266; wing,
190; tail, 104; culmen from base, 34; middle toe with claw, 29.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in being duller in color and in having
a black bill, and in wanting the bright blue patch on the throat,
which is greenish, a little duller than the abdomen." (Sharpe.)

"Sixteen specimens measure as follows: Length, 352; wing, 181; tail,
109; culmen, 24; tarsus, 17; middle toe with claw, 26. Usually seen
perching on some dead limb from which it flies in pursuit of insects,
soon returning to its perch. Often seen flying about actively just
after dark, like a night hawk." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

This roller is easily identified by its gaudy plumage, bright red
bill, and peculiar jerky flight; there is no other Philippine species
resembling it.



Suborder HALCYONES.



Family ALCEDINIDÆ.


Bill long, strong, and pointed, never hooked; culmen rounded or
slightly flattened, straight or nearly so; nostrils small, reached
by frontal feathers; wings and tail moderate, the latter slightly
rounded; tarsus short; feet weak; front toes more or less united. The
two subfamilies will not be considered here as their differences are
very slight.



Genera.


a1. Tail longer than culmen.

  b1. Bill compressed; culmen flattened; a groove on each side
  from nostril parallel to culmen; length of bird, 350 mm. or
  more. ... Pelargopsis (p. 303)
  b2. Bill little if at all compressed; culmen rounded; groove
  parallel to culmen shallow or absent; length of bird, 300 mm. or
  less. ... Halcyon (p. 318)

a2. Tail shorter than culmen.

  b1. Toes four. ... Alcedo (p. 305)
  b2. Toes three; forest inhabiting.

    c1. Bill more slender and more compressed; the species usually
    found near streams. ... Alcyone (p. 308)
    c2. Bill stouter and less compressed; the species usually found
    away from water in forest or in thickets. ... Ceyx (p. 311)



Genus PELARGOPSIS Gloger, 1842.


Large, length 300 mm. or more; bill bright red, very large and strong;
culmen flattened and perfectly straight; a well-marked groove on each
side of bill from nostril to near tip of bill, back and rump pale blue,
lower parts buff, tail much longer than bill.



Species.


a1. Back and wings deep ultramarine blue; lower back rich
cobalt. ... javana (p. 303)
a2. Back and wings bluish green; lower back greenish cobalt.

  b1. Head, neck, and under parts rich deep ocherous. ... gouldi
  (p. 304)
  b2. Head whitish; hind neck and under parts pale
  ocherous-buff. ... gigantea (p. 305)



266. PELARGOPSIS JAVANA (Boddaert).

BORNEAN STORK-BILLED KINGFISHER.


    Alcedo javana Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. (1783), 47.
    Pelargopsis leucocephala Steere, List Bds. & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 9; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    98; Hand-List (1900), 2, 48; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 51.

    Mindoro (Steere Exp.); Palawan (Whitehead, Steere Exp.). Borneo.


"Adult male.--Head and back of neck deep ochraceous, the latter
rather deeper in color; upper part of the back, scapulars, and lesser
wing-coverts rich blue; the median and greater coverts and the outer
aspect of the primaries rich ultramarine, inner secondaries entirely
of this color; tail ultramarine above, black beneath; under surface
of body deep rich ochraceous, a little lighter on throat and sides of
face. 'Bill and feet coral-red; iris chocolate.' (Everett.) Length,
330; culmen, 76; wing, 147; tail, 84; tarsus, 11." (Sharpe.)

"Included in this list chiefly on the authority of Dr. Sharpe,
who identifies a bird collected by Dr. Steere as P. leucocephala
(=javana). Mr. Whitehead speaks of 'two specimens' secured by himself,
and refers to the fact that the bird was discovered by Dr. Steere in
the Island. It is our opinion that the Mindoro bird is P. gouldi,
and we doubt the correctness of Dr. Steere's identification of the
bird collected by the Steere Expedition in Palawan. It might well
happen that an occasional specimen of P. javana should find its way
into Palawan, but there is little doubt that P. gouldi is the common
species there." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



267. PELARGOPSIS GOULDI Sharpe.

GOULD'S STORK-BILLED KINGFISHER.


    Pelargopsis gouldi Sharpe, Ibis (1870), 63; Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 100; Hand-List (1900), 2, 49; Grant, Ibis
    (1896), 470; McGregor, Bur. Govt. Labs. (1905), 34, 12, pl. 9
    (nest); McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 52.

    Balabac (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Cuming); Mindoro (Steere Exp.,
    Schmacker, Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor, Porter);
    Palawan (Lempriere, Whitehead, Platen, Steere Exp., White).


"Adult (type of species).--Entire head and neck, as well as the whole
of the under surface of the body, rich ochraceous; upper part of
back, scapulars, wing-coverts, upper tail-coverts, and tail bluish
green; quills and tail-feathers rather more blue; entire back and
rump silvery cobalt. Length, 330; culmen, 81; wing, 152; tail, 89;
tarsus, 13." (Sharpe.)

Iris dark brown; bill and legs bright scarlet; nails dark brown;
eyelids scarlet. A male from Mindoro is 343 in length; wing, 143;
tail, 89; culmen, 85; tarsus, 15.

Individuals of this species are often found near the seashore where
they feed on small crabs; at other times they are fairly common
in mangrove swamps. A nest found in Mindoro on April 18, 1905, was
excavated in a deserted termites' nest which was fastened to a tree at
about 9 meters from the ground. The three incubated eggs were glossy
white and measured 37.8 by 27.6; 39.8 by 28.9 and 39.6 by 28.9.

"In Volume XVII of the Catalogue of Birds, P. gouldi is recorded
from Panay, the specimen having been collected by the Challenger
expedition. This specimen seems to have been identified with some
doubt as P. gigantea by Lord Walden, Proceedings of the Zoological
Society (1877), 536. It would seem altogether probable that this
identification was correct, as P. gigantea has since been repeatedly
found in the central Philippines." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



268. PELARGOPSIS GIGANTEA Walden.

PHILIPPINE STORK-BILLED KINGFISHER.


    Pelargopsis gigantea Walden, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1874), (4),
    13, 123; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 100; Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 49; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 52.

    Ba-rí-ta, Ticao.

    Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Bohol
    (McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Dinagat (Everett); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Lapac (Guillemard);
    Leyte (Everett); Masbate (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Mindanao (Murray, Steere, Everett, Koch & Schadenberg,
    Steere Exp., Goodfellow, Celestino); Malanipa (Murray); Negros
    (Bourns & Worcester, Keay); Panay (Murray, Bourns & Worcester);
    Salok (Meyer); Samal (Goodfellow); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns
    & Worcester, Whitehead); Sibutu (Everett); Sibuyan (Bourns &
    Worcester); Sulu (Burbidge, Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns &
    Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor).


Adult male.--Back, rump, wings, and tail as in P. gouldi, but head,
neck, and entire under parts very much lighter in color, being pale
ochraceous-buff. Wing, 155; tail, 92; culmen from base, 82; bill from
nostril, 69.

Adult female.--Similar to the male. Bill bright scarlet, blackish at
tip; iris brown; eyelids and legs scarlet; nails dark horn-brown. A
specimen from Ticao measures: Length, 370; wing, 159; tail, 93;
culmen, 88; tarsus, 18.

Immature.--Differs from the adult in having buff of lower parts
darker and the breast-feathers narrowly edged with dark brown forming
crescentic marks. The bill and legs are much duller than those of
the adult.

"Abundant along the seashore and the banks of large fresh-water
streams in the islands indicated. P. gigantea is a very tough bird,
and will carry off a pretty good-sized load of shot. Ten specimens
measure 379 in length; wing, 153; tail, 93; culmen, 83; tarsus, 16;
middle toe with claw, 35. Iris dark brown; feet red to dark red;
bill dirty red to dark red." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus ALCEDO Linnæus, 1758.


Small, length less than 200 mm.; bill long; culmen slightly curved
and rounded, not flattened, a slight groove on each side; tail shorter
than bill; toes four.



Species.



a1. Wings dirty green; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts
greenish cobalt; head and wing-coverts spotted with greenish
blue. ... bengalensis (p. 306)
a2. Wings black; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts cobalt-blue; head
and wing-coverts spotted with purplish blue. ... meninting (p. 307)



269. ALCEDO BENGALENSIS Gmelin.

ASIATIC KINGFISHER.


    Alcedo bengalensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. (1788), 1, 450; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 52.
    Alcedo ispida Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    141 (part); Hand-List (1900), 2, 50 (part); Blanford, Fauna
    Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3, 122, fig. 35 (head); Oates and Reid,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 33 (part).

    Su-sul'-bot, Manila; ma-min-dí-ta, Calayan; sa-cal', Lubang.

    Balabac (Steere Exp., Everett); Basilan (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Bantayan (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Bohol (Everett,
    McGregor), Cagayancillo (McGregor); Cagayan Sulu (McGregor);
    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Calayan (McGregor);
    Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (Everett, Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Leyte (Everett); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Cuming,
    Meyer, Everett, Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor); Masbate
    (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Steere, Everett,
    Steere Exp., Celestino, Goodfellow); Mindoro (Schmacker, Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor, Porter); Negros (Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Keay); Palawan (Lempriere, Platen, Whitehead, Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay (Bourns & Worcester);
    Romblon (Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Bourns &
    Worcester, Celestino); Sulu (Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester);
    Tablas (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester);
    Verde (McGregor). Malay and Indian Peninsulas, Burmese provinces,
    Moluccas and Greater Sunda Islands, China, Hainan.


Adult male.--Upper parts, including wings, dark greenish blue; back,
rump, and tail-coverts light cobalt-blue; feathers of head banded
with cobalt; median wing-coverts tipped with cobalt; lores and a
band to ear-coverts deep ferruginous, followed by a white patch on
side of neck; a wide band from lower mandible to below white patch,
greenish blue, spotted with cobalt; lower parts deep ferruginous or
orange-rufous but chin and throat buffy white; under wing-coverts
and axillars similar to breast but slightly paler. Bill black,
dusky red along base; feet bright red; nails dark brown; iris dark
brown. A male from Mindoro measures: Length, 168; wing, 71; tail,
32; culmen from base, 39; tarsus, 9.

Adult female.--Similar to the male. A specimen from Mindoro measures:
Length, 170; wing, 75; tail, 34; culmen from base, 40; tarsus, 9.

Young.--Similar to the adult but duller; lower parts with little or
no ferruginous; throat and chin white; breast and abdomen ashy or
dusky brown.

"Probably occurs abundantly on every island of the group. Found along
the seashore, in mangrove swamps, and along banks of fresh-water
streams in the open. Much less commonly met with along streams in
the forest." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



270. ALCEDO MENINTING Horsfield.

MALAYAN KINGFISHER.


    Alcedo meninting Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13, pt. 1,
    172; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 157; Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 51; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 33;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 52.

    Balabac (Everett); Bongao (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns &
    Worcester); Palawan (Platen, Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester,
    White); Sulu (Guillemard); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester,
    Everett). Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, southern Tenasserim, Java,
    Borneo.


"Adult male (type of species).--Above rich purplish blue; the entire
back brilliant cobalt, changing to deeper blue on the lower rump
and upper tail-coverts; wing-coverts black, washed with purplish
blue, with a small spot of brighter blue near the end of each
feather; quills black, secondaries externally purplish blue like
the scapulars; tail black, washed with purplish blue; crown black,
barred with purplish blue rather brighter than the shade of the back;
hind neck beautiful purplish blue, with the black cross-bars more
or less obsolete; lores blackish, with a rufous supra-loral streak;
sides of face, ear-coverts, and cheeks purplish blue like the crown,
the feathers mottled with black bases; behind the ear-coverts a broad
band of white, tinged with ocherous-buff; throat white with a rufous
wash; rest of under surface of body from the lower throat downwards
chestnut-rufous, with a patch of purplish blue, lilac-tinged feathers
on each side of the upper breast; under wing-coverts chestnut-rufous,
a little paler than the breast. 'Bill blackish brown; feet coral-red;
iris brown.' (Everett.) Length, 135; culmen, 42; wing, 65; tail, 27;
tarsus, 9.

"Adult female.--Exactly resembles the male in color, and has even
the cheeks blue like the male. It appears, however, always to have
the bill more, or less red, and generally the greater part of the
lower mandible is rufous. Length, 140; culmen, 42; wing, 66; tail,
27; tarsus, 6." (Sharpe.)

"Found chiefly along banks of fresh-water streams in forest. More
rare in mangrove swamps and never seen by us along the seashore. Iris
dark brown; legs and feet deep scarlet; bill black, reddish at base
of lower mandible. In a single case the bill was deep scarlet except
base and culmen black. Seven birds average as follows: Length, 155;
wing, 64; tail, 28; culmen, 37; tarsus, 8." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus ALCYONE Swainson, 1837.


The Philippine species here placed in Alcyone are scarcely separable
generically from those of the next following genus. They feed along
small forest streams wherein they differ from the members of the genus
Ceyx which are always found away from water in forest or in thickets.



Species.


a1. Back and upper tail-coverts cobalt-blue; head spotted with
cobalt-blue; chin and throat orange-buff.

  b1. Lower mandible dark red; spots on crown smaller. ... cyanopectus
  (p. 308)
  b2. Lower mandible black; spots on crown larger. ... nigrirostris
  (p. 311)

a2. Back and upper tail-coverts black, more or less spotted with white;
chin and throat white.

  b1. Breast and sides dark greenish blue. ... argentata (p. 309)
  b2. Breast and sides purplish blue. ... flumenicola (p. 310)



271. ALCYONE CYANOPECTUS (Lafresnaye).

BLUE-BREASTED KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx cyanopectus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool. (1840), 33; McGregor,
    Bur. Govt. Labs. (1905), 25, 13, pl. 10.
    Ceyx cyanipectus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 185;
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 53; Bourns and Worcester, Ibis (1895), 404;
    Minnesota Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 48.
    Ceyx steerii Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 187.
    Alcyone cyanipectus Grant, Ibis (1895), 112, 464; Whitehead, Ibis
    (1899), 385.
    Alcyone cyanopectus McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 52.

    Sal-pac', Ticao and Masbate.

    Luzon (Cuming, Heriot, Möllendorff, Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead);
    Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Mindoro (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor);
    Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Ticao (McGregor).


Male.--Lores orange-chestnut; sides of face, crown, and occiput
deep blue, the feathers tipped with silvery cobalt; back, rump, and
tail-coverts silvery cobalt; scapulars black, widely edged with dark
blue; wings black, secondaries edged with dark blue; secondary-coverts
dark blue, each feather with a spot of silvery cobalt; a large spot
of orange-chestnut on side of neck; throat orange-chestnut, much
paler on chin; middle of abdomen and a large spot on center of breast
orange-chestnut; rest of under parts deep ultramarine-blue and forming
two bands across the breast; axillars and wing-lining orange-chestnut;
tail dark blue. A male from Mindoro measures: Length, 145; wing, 60;
tail, 23; exposed culmen, 35.

Female.--Similar to the male, but all the lower parts deep
orange-chestnut except the pale throat and a single dark blue band
across the breast. A female from Mindoro measures: Length, 152; wing,
61; tail, 23; exposed culmen, 35.

"We found A. cyanopectus abundantly in Masbate. In Sibuyan it
was much more rare. It is to be found along the banks of small
fresh-water streams, which it is extremely loath to leave. In Sibuyan
one specimen was seen in a mangrove swamp. We never met with it away
from water. Legs, feet, and nails scarlet; upper mandible black,
lower red; food (in one case) fish.

"Eight males average, 138 in length; wing, 58; tail, 22; culmen,
39; tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw, 17. Seven females average, 142
in length; wing, 60; tail, 22; tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw, 17;
culmen, 39." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



272. ALCYONE ARGENTATA (Tweeddale).

SILVERY KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx argentata Tweeddale, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877), 20,
    (4), 533; Proc. Zool. Soc. (1878), pl. 6, 108; Sharpe, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 187; Hand-List (1900), 2, 53.
    Alcyone argentata McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 52.

    Basilan (Bourns & Worcester); Dinagat (Everett); Mindanao (Everett,
    Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow,
    Celestino).


Adult.--Sexes similar; upper parts, wings, and sides of head black;
bases of loral feathers white; sides of crown from above eyes to nape
with small white spots; back, rump, and upper tail-coverts white,
resulting from the wide tips to the feathers; white tip of each feather
preceded by a light blue bar which is more or less concealed; a large
white patch on each side of neck; chin, throat, and fore breast pure
white, forming a well-defined patch; thighs and middle of abdomen
white; remainder of under parts black, the breast and sides of abdomen
strongly washed with blue; greater secondary-coverts with white tips;
edge of wing and most of wing-lining white; axillars black. "Eyes
black, feet red; nails and bill black." (Celestino.) A male from
northern Mindanao is 152 in length; wing, 64; tail, 27; culmen from
base, 41; tarsus, 10. A female from the same region is 150 in length;
wing, 60; tail, 22; culmen from base, 39; tarsus, 10.

In some specimens the white patch behind ear-coverts is washed with
buff and some of the median secondary-coverts are tipped with pale
blue. These characters are probably due to immaturity.

"We obtained four specimens in Mindanao and one in Basilan; it is
extremely rare in the latter island, at least in the portion over
which we collected. Like A. cyanopectus and A. nigrirostris it is
invariably found along the banks of wooded streams."

"Iris very dark brown; legs and feet scarlet, much darker in some
specimens than in others; nails red to black. Three males from
Mindanao measure, 145 in length; wing, 59; tail, 21; culmen, 39;
tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw, 15. A female from Basilan measures,
143 in length; wing, 61; tail, 28; culmen, 39; tarsus, 9; middle toe
with claw, 16." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



273. ALCYONE FLUMENICOLA (Steere).

STEERE'S RIVER KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx flumenicola Steere, List. Birds & Mams. Steere Exped. (1890),
    10.
    Ceyx fluminicola Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 187;
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 53.
    Alcyone fluminicola McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 53.

    Leyte (Everett, Steere Exp., Whitehead); Samar (Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead).


"Adult male.--Similar to C. argentata, but differing in having the
breast and sides of body black, washed with ultramarine or purplish
blue. 'Bill black; legs and feet scarlet, the nails brown; iris
brown.' (Worcester.) Length, 127; culmen, 37; wing, 61; tail, 23;
tarsus, 10.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male in color. Length, 140; culmen,
37; wing, 58; tail, 22; tarsus, 9.

"The specimen from Leyte is more ultramarine on the breast than
those from Samar, which incline to purplish blue; but Steere unites
the birds from the two islands, and thus the Leyte specimen in the
Museum may be immature, especially as it has the throat and abdomen
tinged with buff. This last character Steere considers to be specific,
but I feel sure that it is a sign of immaturity." (Sharpe.)

"We had scant faith in Steere's C. flumenicola before our return
to the Philippines. But one specimen of C. argentata was collected
by the Steere Expedition, and that was so shot to pieces that the
differences between it and C. flumenicola were not in evidence to
any great extent. The examination of a good series of specimens from
Mindanao and Basilan has, however, convinced us that the Samar-Leyte
birds are quite distinct.

"The blue of the under parts affords the best means of distinguishing
the species, being much darker in the northern birds. The under
wing-coverts in the southern birds are white; in the northern birds
they are almost invariably light buff. All of our specimens from the
south have pure white throats, while the northern birds usually have
the white of the throat washed with buff. This last character is not
of a very satisfactory nature, however, as the northern birds show a
great deal of individual variation in this respect. This variation is
independent of the sex; nor does it seem to be, as Dr. Sharpe thinks,
a sign of immaturity, young birds in some cases having very little
of the color. C. flumenicola is always found along the wooded banks
of streams where it perches over the water.

"Iris very dark brown; legs and feet bright scarlet; nails usually
blackish; bill black. Food, in one case, small crabs. Eight males
measure, 136 in length; wing, 56; tail, 23; culmen, 36; tarsus,
8; middle toe with claw, 20. Five females measure, 139 in length;
wing, 57; tail, 23; culmen, 34; tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw,
16." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



274. ALCYONE NIGRIROSTRIS (Bourns and Worcester).

BLACK-BILLED KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx nigrirostris Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 13; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 54.
    Alcyone nigrirostris Mcgregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 53.

    Cebu (Bourns & Worcester); Negros (Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead);
    Panay (Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult male.--Back and upper tail-coverts bright cobalt-blue, slightly
lighter than in C. cyanipectus; crown and nape blue-black, thickly
spotted with bright cobalt, the spots being much wider and slightly
lighter than in C. cyanipectus; spots much larger on hind neck,
causing it to appear nearly uniform cobalt; scapulars black, heavily
washed with dark verditer-blue; wing-coverts washed with verditer-blue,
each feather with a bright spot or stripe of cobalt-blue; wing black,
the outer webs of secondaries heavily washed with light verditer-blue;
tail black, the central pair of feathers washed with verditer-blue
on both webs, the others on outer webs only; loral spot reddish buff;
a spot of same color on sides of neck; chin and throat white, washed
with buff; fore neck, breast, and abdomen uniform buff; flanks, sides
of breast, and a complete band across the breast dark verditer-blue;
a half band of same color behind this; under tail-coverts buff,
the larger ones tipped with verditer-blue; under wing-coverts like
the breast, with a spot of verditer-blue at end; basal portion of
inner webs of primaries and secondaries washed with pale buff; bill
black. Average measurements from ten males: Culmen, 36; tarsus, 9;
wing, 56; tail, 22. Length of a single male measured in the flesh, 165.

"Female like male, but has only a half band of verditer-blue across
the breast, this being more imperfect than in C. cyanipectus. Average
measurements from three females: Culmen, 37; tarsus, 8; wing, 59;
tail, 24. Length of single female measured in the flesh, 143.

"A well-marked species easily distinguished from C. cyanipectus, its
nearest ally, by the heavy markings on crown and nape, by its black
bill and by the entirely different color of its under surface. Like
the former species, it is strictly confined to the banks of fresh-water
streams and it is usually found in the woods." (Bourns and Worcester.)



Genus CEYX Lacépède, 1799.


Bill intermediate in form between Alcedo and Halcyon, less compressed
than in the former, not grooved; culmen straight and slightly
flattened; only three toes, the inner or second toe wanting;
tail very short and rounded; plumage very bright, red often
predominating. (Blanford.)



Species.


a1. Lower parts lilac and rufous.

  b1. Smaller; wing and tail shorter.

    c1. A bright blue spot behind ear-coverts. ... melanura (p. 312)
    c2. No bright blue spot behind ear-coverts. ... mindanensis
    (p. 312)

  b2. Larger; wing and tail longer. ... samarensis (p. 313)

a2. Lower parts yellow, or yellow washed with rufous.

  b1. Above rufous, or black and rufous, washed with more or less
  lilac. ... euerythra (p. 314)
  b2. Above silvery cobalt to deep ultramarine-blue but with no
  rufous. ... bournsi (p. 316); goodfellowi (p. 318)



275. CEYX MELANURA Kaup.

KAUP'S KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx melanura Kaup, Fauna Eisv. (1848), 15; Sharpe, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 180 (part); Hand-List (1900), 2, 53; Bourns
    and Worcester, Minnesota Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1,
    46; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 53.

    Luzon (Heriot, Möllendorff, Steere Exp., Whitehead).


"Adult.--Above lilac-rufous, washed with lilac; edge of wing rufous;
scapulars rufous like the back, with a broad band of black on each
side of mantle; wing-coverts black, spotted minutely with bright blue;
alula, primary-coverts, and quills black; tail-feathers rufous like
the back, the lateral ones blackish; crown lilac-rufous, with faint
but distinct spots of brighter lilac; lores pale orange; eyelid and a
mark in front of eye blackish; sides of face, ear-coverts, and cheeks
lilac-rufous, succeeded by a band of white on the sides of the neck,
above which is a spot of bright blue; throat white; fore neck, breast,
sides of body, and flanks bright lilac-rufous; abdomen white; thighs
and under tail-coverts rufous, as well as the under wing-coverts and
axillars and the inner edge of the quills. Length, 127; culmen, 30;
wing, 53; tail, 18; tarsus, 9.

"Young.--Exactly similar to the adults, but with a shorter and paler
bill, the latter being horny whitish." (Sharpe.)



276. CEYX MINDANENSIS Steere.

MINDANAO KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx mindanensis Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere Exped. (1890),
    10; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 181 (foot
    note); Hand-List (1900), 2, 53; Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 47; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 53.
    Ceyx basilanica Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere Exped. (1890),
    10.
    Ceyx platenæ Blasius, Jour. für Orn. (1890), 141.

    Basilan (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Steere,
    Steere Exp., Platen, Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow).


"Above rufous; head, cheeks, and back thickly spotted with bright
lilac; wings black, secondaries edged with rufous; coverts black,
broadly tipped with rufous, these rufous tips carrying faint lilac
spots; breast rufous washed with bright lilac." (Steere.)

"With a very large series of specimens from Mindanao and Basilan
at our disposal we are unable to detect the slightest difference
between the birds from the two islands and we therefore unite them
under the name C. mindanensis, as the Mindanao birds were obtained
and described first. Frequents forest or low second growth away from
water." (Bourns and Worcester.)

"Since Steere has attempted to separate the Mindanao and Basilan birds,
we give measurements from all our specimens:

"Eight males from Basilan measure, 134 in length; wing, 58; tail,
21; culmen, 36; tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw, 16.

"Eighteen females from the same place measure, 135 in length; wing,
58; tail, 22; culmen, 39; tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw, 14.

"Four males from Mindanao measure, length, 135; wing, 58; tail, 22;
culmen, 39; tarsus, 8; middle toe with claw, 15.

"Two females from same island measure, 143 in length; wing, 59; tail,
23; culmen, 39; tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw, 16.

"Iris very dark brown; bill, legs, feet, and nails scarlet to
orange-red. Usually keeps near ground. Occasionally alights 5 to
10 meters above ground. Food, insects and their larvæ." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



277. CEYX SAMARENSIS Steere.

SAMAR KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx samarensis Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere Exped. (1890),
    10; Grant, Ibis (1897), 243; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 53;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 53.
    Ceyx melanura Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 180 (part).

    Leyte (Steere Exp.); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead).


"Upper surface deep rufous; interscapulars forming two broad black
bands; wings black, coverts black and spotted with cobalt; sides
of the head rich lilac; breast and upper abdomen lilac, fainter
behind. Length, 147; tail, 30; bill, 30; wing, 66; middle toe with
claw, 15. Differs from true C. melanura of Luzon in its larger size,
in coloring of cheeks and breast, and in amount of coloring on the
lower surface." (Steere.)

"We obtained a fine series of specimens in Samar which agree in every
detail with the description of C. melanura. The specimens secured by
us were found among the hills in deep forest and invariably away from
water." (Bourns and Worcester.)



278. CEYX EUERYTHRA Sharpe.

RED-BACKED KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx euerythra Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    179; Hand-List (1900), 2, 53; Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 45; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 53.

    Balabac (Everett); Bongao (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns &
    Worcester); Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester, Schmacker, McGregor);
    Palawan (Lempriere, Platen, Steere Exp., Whitehead, Bourns &
    Worcester, Celestino, White); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester,
    Everett). Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo.


Adult.--Above red, washed with lilac, heaviest on head and rump;
below deep yellow, strongest across the breast; chin and upper throat
white, washed with yellow; wing-coverts like the back; primaries
and secondaries black; first primary and the secondaries edged
with rufous; wing-lining yellow. "Iris dark brown; bill and feet
red." (Celestino.) Male, length, 140; wing, 58; tail, 23; culmen
from base, 40. Female, length, 140; wing, 58; tail, 24; culmen from
base, 40.

"We have fourteen specimens from Tawi Tawi, Palawan, and the Calamianes
Islands and they show some interesting plumage changes which were
for some time a puzzle to us.

"An adult pair in high plumage from the Calamianes have entire upper
surface of body red, washed with lilac, most heavily on head and
rump. Wing-coverts and scapulars like back. Secondaries rufous with
broad black shaft-stripes. Primaries black, the first rufous for
entire length of outer web and most of the others showing a small
amount of rufous at their tips. Under surface of primaries washed
with rufous on inner webs. Chin and throat white faintly tinged
with lemon-yellow. Remainder of under surface deep golden-yellow,
darkest on sides of breast and flanks. A yellowish white patch behind
ear. Under tail-coverts golden yellow, tipped with rufous. Tail uniform
bright rufous above and below. Under wing-coverts and axillars golden
yellow. Bend of wing rufous.

"This plumage we take to be typical for fully adult birds in fine
feather. Two females from Palawan agree with this description except
that in one the secondaries show rufous only on under surface of
inner webs, and that the primaries show no rufous except on basal
half of outer web of first. The under wing-coverts, axillars, and
bend of wing are light rufous instead of yellow.

"Sharpe, Ibis (1894), 246, reports an adult male of this species
from Bongao and a female from Tawi Tawi. We note certain differences
shown by our Tawi Tawi specimens, of which we have twelve. Of these
four agree with the Calamianes birds except that the scapulars show
more or less black at their bases and that the secondaries show more
of black. Among the remaining specimens, however, there are some
curious variations.

"First it is to be noted that in three fully adult birds beginning
to molt the under surface is pale dirty yellowish, the throat white.

"In two of the birds a few scattered yellow feathers are appearing
in the white of the throat. This then is the worn-out plumage of
old birds.

"A male with rich yellow under surface and white throat has some of
the scapulars entirely black, tipped with blue, the remainder being
tipped with lilac. Some of the wing-coverts are black, tipped with
blue. No rufous on primaries except on outer web of first.

"Another bird has chin and throat pure white, the breast mottled with
golden yellow and light cinnamon-rufous. Feathers of abdomen nearly
white, tips washed with rufous. Under wing-coverts and axillars
cinnamon-rufous. A little more black in the scapulars than the
preceding. Tail with broad black shaft-stripes on apical half of
under surface of feathers.

"Another specimen has chin and throat pure white. Sides of face,
breast, flanks, under wing-coverts, and axillars cinnamon-rufous,
deepest on the breast. Abdomen nearly white. A few golden-yellow
feathers appearing on breast, flanks, and abdomen. Scapulars, except
a few of the smallest, black quite broadly tipped with blue; tail
with tips of all its feathers black.

"Finally, a single specimen has under surface as in preceding except
that yellow feathers have not begun to appear. Scapulars and inner
third of inner secondaries black, the former tipped with blue, the
latter with rufous washed with lilac. Tail with apical two-thirds of
feathers black washed with rufous on edges of webs. The bill of this
last bird shows signs of immaturity, being blackish toward the tip
instead of clear scarlet.

"We were at first greatly puzzled by these birds, as the black
scapulars with their blue tips form a striking marking and with
a single exception the bills of our specimens showed no sign of
immaturity. After carefully examining the whole series, however, we
are convinced that the cinnamon-rufous under surface, tail-feathers
tipped with black, and black scapulars tipped with blue are themselves
signs of immaturity, the black gradually disappearing with age,
and yellow feathers appearing on the outer surface until the plumage
first described by us is reached. This finally becomes worn and soiled
giving the dirty yellowish under plumage already noted. Our Tawi Tawi
birds were shot late in October and early in November, Palawan birds
in December, and Calamianes birds in January and February." (Bourns
and Worcester.)

"Usually found along the banks of fresh-water streams in the forest,
not, however, strictly confined to banks of streams, but sometimes
met with in the woods away from water.

"Iris very dark brown; bill, legs, and feet scarlet. Food shrimps
and insects, in one case small lizard and crabs. Eighteen specimens
average as follows: Length, 140; wing, 58; tail, 24; culmen, 37;
tarsus, 8; middle toe with claw, 16." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



279. CEYX BOURNSI Steere.

BOURNS'S KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx bournsi Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere Exped. (July,
    1890), 10; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 185;
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 53; Bourns and Worcester, Minnesota
    Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1, 47; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 53.
    Ceyx malamaui Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere Exped. (1890),
    10; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 184.
    Ceyx suluensis Blasius, Jour. für Orn. (August, 1890), 141.
    Ceyx margarethæ Blasius, Jour. für Orn. (August, 1890), 141.

    Banton (Celestino); Basilan (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Mindanao (Steere Exp., Platen, Bourns & Worcester); Negros
    (Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan
    (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester);
    Sulu (Platen, Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester, Everett).


Adult (sexes similar).--Above, sides of head and neck, and wings
ultramarine to silvery cobalt-blue; having a more or less spotted
appearance on head; lores and under parts orange-rufous, but chin,
throat, and middle of abdomen white or with a pale yellow wash;
alula, primaries, and primary-coverts black; edge of wing and outer
web of first alula-quill and of first primary rufous; tail blue,
darker than back and coverts. In a male from Banton the wing is 68;
tail, 26; culmen from base, 39; tarsus, 10.

"Young.--Similar to the adult, but less brilliant and with a duller
red bill; the head, scapulars, and wing-coverts black, with blue
ends to the feathers; the blue of the back lighter than in the adult,
and inclining to cobalt on the lower back; loral spot as large as in
the adult." (Sharpe.)

This species exists under a number of plumages some of which have been
described as separate species. Bourns and Worcester have collected
a great number of specimens which show that these variations can not
be specific. In part they say:

"We find that we must either multiply the number of small blue woods
Ceyces from the Philippines indefinitely or reduce the above-mentioned
species [C. bournsi, malamaui, suluensis, and margarethæ] to one. It
would be an almost endless task to describe the different phases of
plumage shown and we will only say that we have a practically unbroken
series between a bird with a magnificent deep blue upper surface and
a bird with a fine silvery white upper surface which has not a blue
feather on it. In the latter specimens the white occupies exactly
the position of the blue in the specimens first mentioned.

"Our series shows that these extraordinary differences of color are
independent of sex, age, or locality, some young birds are very light,
others very dark. In one case where parent and offspring were killed
at one discharge of the gun they exhibited marked differences in color.

"The amount of blue or white is, however, dependent on age to some
extent, the young birds always showing much more black on the upper
surface than do adults. In the young the bill is at first black tipped
with pale horn and the legs and feet are pale flesh-color.

"Ceyx bournsi is a strictly woods form and its shy habits doubtless
explain its having been so generally missed by collectors." (Bourns
and Worcester.)

"Found in precisely the same locality as C. mindanensis and in company
with it in the Islands of Mindanao and Basilan. Food the same as that
of C. mindanensis.

"When one has learned its note and habits it may be secured without
great trouble. It always gives a shrill 'cheep' just before taking
wing, and repeats the same note at frequent intervals during flight. It
flies with great rapidity, but usually for a short distance, when
it alights on some branch, stump, or stone, where it sits perfectly
still. It is a bird of extremely local habits, and displays great
reluctance to leave the thicket to which it is accustomed. If pursued
it usually flies in a circle, soon returning to the place from which it
started, continuing to follow about the same course until the hunter
either shoots it or gives up the attempt. When its route has been
once learned, two men can easily bring it down, one driving it while
the other waits near one of its favorite resting places. In this way
we secured a considerable number of our specimens. We believe that
this species never 'fishes' in the streams.

"Iris dark brown; bill, legs, feet, and nails scarlet in adults,
growing paler in immature birds. Very young birds have the bill black,
with a whitish horn tip. Food, insects, larvæ and worms.

"Six males from Tawi Tawi measure as follows: Length, 140; wing,
64; tail, 25; culmen, 38; tarsus, 8; middle toe with claw, 16. Four
females from Tawi Tawi: Length, 141; wing, 64; tail, 24; culmen, 37;
tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw, 17.

"Five males from Tablas measure: Length, 146; wing, 65; tail, 25;
culmen, 36; tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw, 17. Four females from
Tablas: Length, 145; wing, 66; tail, 25; tarsus, 9; middle toe with
claw, 22; culmen, 36.

"We have given measurements of birds taken at the extremes of the
range of the species. It will be seen that the northern birds are
slightly longer. As stated in our preliminary notes, the color of
the dorsal surface of this bird varies from deep indigo-blue to
pure silvery white, and this variation is independent of age, sex,
or locality." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



280. CEYX GOODFELLOWI Grant.

GOODFELLOW'S KINGFISHER.


    Ceyx goodfellowi Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. (1905), 16, 17;
    Ibis (1906), 6, 492.

    Mindanao (Goodfellow).


"Adult male.--Most nearly allied to C. malamaui Steere [=bournsi],
but the back, rump, and upper tail-coverts are of a brilliant
ultramarine-blue, tinged with cobalt on the middle of the lower back
and rump; the feathers of the crown and nape are also tipped with
much of the same brilliant color; the wing-coverts and scapulars like
those of C. malamaui, are of a deep purplish blue. 'Iris dark brown;
bill, feet, and nails bright vermilion.' (Goodfellow.) Length, 127;
wing, 63; tail, 22; culmen, 39; tarsus, 10." (Grant.)

This species, described from a single specimen, is doubtfully distinct
from Ceyx bournsi.



Genus HALCYON Swainson, 1821.


Bill large; culmen from base less than tail, rounded not flattened;
birds of medium size and various bright colors. The species here
included in Halcyon are by some authors assigned to at least three
genera but, other than their style of coloration, the genera Sauropatis
and Callialcyon seem to have no tangible characters. Halcyon hombroni,
lindsayi, and moseleyi stand apart from the other Philippine species
of the genus because of their short stout bill, longer tail, and
peculiar spotted plumage. The genus Actenoides might be used for
these three species.



Species.


a1. Scapulars and wing-coverts unspotted.

  b1. Bill entirely red.

    c1. Crown uniform in color with wings and tail; above dark
    rufous-brown washed with lilac. ... coromandus (p. 319)
    c2. Crown not uniform in color with wings and tail.

      d1. Crown chestnut-rufous; lower back bright greenish
      blue. ... gularis (p. 320)
      d2. Crown black; lower back ultramarine-blue. ... pileatus
      (p. 321)

  b2. Bill mostly black.

    c1. Collar and spot in front of eye rufous-brown. ... winchelli
    (p. 322)
    c2. Collar and spot in front of eye white. ... chloris (p. 323)

a2. Scapulars and wing-coverts more or less spotted.

  b1. Crown and back blue. ... hombroni (p. 324)
  b2. Crown and back green.

    c1. Breast-feathers edged with green. ... lindsayi (p. 325)
    c2. Breast-feathers edged with black. ... moseleyi (p. 326)



281. HALCYON COROMANDUS (Latham).

RUDDY KINGFISHER.


    Alcedo coromanda Latham, Ind. Orn. (1790), 1, 252.
    Halcyon coromandus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 217;
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 56; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903),
    3, 37; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 54.

    Sa-luc-sac, Calayan.

    Batan (Edmonds); Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor);
    Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Luzon (Steere Exp., Whitehead, Bourns &
    Worcester); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Everett,
    Celestino); Mindoro (McGregor); Palawan (Whitehead, Bourns &
    Worcester, White); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns
    & Worcester). Sangi and Liu Kiu Islands, Indo-Chinese countries,
    Malay Peninsula, eastern Himalayas, China, Japan, Korea, Formosa,
    Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes.


Adult male.--Above, including wings and tail, dark rufous, heavily
washed with violet; on lower back, rump, and tail-coverts a narrow
stripe of silvery white, slightly washed with blue; below dark
cinnamon-buff, chin whitish; throat, breast, and under tail-coverts
washed with violet. Bill, legs, and nails bright coral-red; iris
brown. Length of a specimen from Camiguin, 250; wing, 116; tail, 72;
culmen from base, 57; tarsus, 15.

Female.--Much less violet wash on upper parts and very little or none
on lower parts. Length of a specimen from Calayan, 270; wing, 119;
tail, 74; culmen from base, 55; tarsus, 15.

Young.--Lower parts lighter, chin more extensively whitish, violet
wash less, and feathers of throat and breast edged with blackish
brown forming numerous small crescents.

"Probably ranges throughout the Philippines, but is as yet noted from
but few of the islands. It is sometimes found in deep woods away from
water, but more commonly along the banks of wooded streams and in
mangrove swamps. It is usually shy and hard to shoot, but in Sibuyan
two individuals of this species took up their abode in the bamboos
in our back yard, apparently attracted by the flesh of land shells
thrown out as we cleaned our specimens. In several islands where we
met with this species we obtained but a single specimen.

"Bill, legs, and feet scarlet; nails bright red or orange-red; iris
very dark brown. Food crabs, in four cases. Seven males measured,
258 in length; wing, 111; tail, 63; culmen, 58; tarsus, 15; middle toe
with claw, 25. Four females: Length, 253; wing, 109; tail, 64; culmen,
56; tarsus, 15; middle toe with claw, 25." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



282. HALCYON GULARIS (Kuhl).

WHITE-THROATED KINGFISHER.


    Alcedo gularis Kuhl, Buffon and Daubenton,
    Fg. Av. Col. Nom. Syst. (1820), 4.
    Halcyon gularis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 227;
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 56; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903),
    3, 38; McGregor, Bur. Govt. Labs. (1905), 34, 13, pl. 11; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 54.

    Til-ma-ma-noc', Manila.

    Basilan (Bourns & Worcester); Bohol (McGregor); Caluya (Porter);
    Cebu (Meyer, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Guimaras (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Leyte (Everett);
    Libagao (Porter); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Everett, Steere
    Exp., Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Maestre de Campo
    (McGregor & Worcester); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Mindanao (Murray, Everett,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino, Goodfellow); Mindoro
    (Steere Exp., Schmacker, Bourns & Worcester, McGregor, Porter);
    Negros (Steere, Layard, Keay, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Whitehead); Panaon (Everett); Panay (Murray, Steere,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns
    & Worcester, Whitehead); Sibay (Porter); Siquijor (Bourns &
    Worcester, Celestino); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao
    (McGregor); Verde (McGregor).


Adult.--Entire head, neck, and sides of face deep chestnut; scapulars
bright blue; back and rump more silvery cobalt-blue; a large patch on
chin and upper throat pure white; remainder of under parts chestnut,
a little lighter than crown; basal part of primaries blue on outer web,
white on inner web; distal part black; alula and primary-coverts blue;
secondary-coverts black; edge of wing and axillars chestnut; tail blue
above and black below. When the specimen is held away from the light
the blues become green. Iris dark brown; bill and legs bright red;
nails black. A male from Bohol measures: Length, 280; wing, 124; tail,
80; culmen from base, 62; tarsus, 15. A female from Mariveles measures:
Length, 286; wing, 124; tail, 83; culmen from base, 63; tarsus, 14.

"Steere states that neither this species nor H. coromandus nor even
H. chloris frequents streams. We can not agree with him. All three
of the species are frequently found along streams, and H. gularis is
usually found along fresh-water streams. It sometimes feeds in dry
open country, however. Several nests of this species were found by
us at various times. They were invariably placed in the mud nests
of white ants, and consisted of mere tunnels, without lining of any
sort. The eggs are pure white and highly polished. Two eggs before
us are nearly spherical, measuring 28.5 by 26.4 and 28.9 by 26.9,
respectively. Six others, while nearly as broad as long, are quite
abruptly pointed at the smaller end. They measure, 30.9 by 27.6;
31.4 by 28.7; 30.9 by 25.9; 32.5 by 28.9; 30.9 by 27.9.

"H. gularis has the legs and feet red, bill red, nails black, iris dark
brown. Six males measure, 282 in length; wing, 122; tail, 81; culmen,
64; tarsus, 14; middle toe with claw, 25." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

A large number of white-throated kingfishers nested in the banks of
the Baco River, Mindoro, during our stay at Balete in April, 1905,
while other pairs excavated holes in masses of earth held among the
roots of overturned trees.



283. HALCYON PILEATUS (Boddaert).

BLACK-CAPPED KINGFISHER.


    Alcedo pileata Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. (1783), 41.
    Halcyon pileatus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 229;
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 57; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903),
    3, 38; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 54.
    Halcyon pileata Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3, 132,
    fig. 37 (head).

    Balabac (Steere, Steere Exp., Everett); Basilan (Steere Exp.);
    Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns
    & Worcester). Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, southern India to Canara,
    Indo-Chinese countries to China and north to Korea, Java, Sumatra,
    Borneo, Celebes.


"Adult male.--General color above purplish blue on the mantle and
scapulars, the center of the back and rump brighter and more purplish
cobalt; upper tail-coverts and tail-feathers purplish blue, the latter
blackish along the inner webs and having black shafts; wing-coverts
black; alula, primary-coverts, and outer aspect of quills purplish
blue, the latter blackish at the ends, and with broad white bases to
the inner webs; crown, sides of face, and ear-coverts black, as well
as the base of the cheeks; round the hind neck a broad white collar;
cheeks and throat white, extending down the center of the breast;
sides of the latter, flanks, abdomen, and under tail-coverts, under
wing-coverts, and axillars rich orange-buff; quills below black, with
a broad white band across the base. 'Bill deep red; mouth pale red;
eyelids pinkish plumbeous, covered with white feathers, except on
the edges, where they are black; feet dark red, brownish in front of
the tarsus; claws dark horn-color; iris dark brown.' (Oates.) Length,
279; culmen, 61; wing, 127; tail, 86; tarsus, 14.

"Adult female.--Does not differ in color from the male. Length, 279;
culmen, 61; wing, 130; tail, 76; tarsus, 13.

"Young birds have dusky blackish fringes to the feathers of the
breast." (Sharpe.)

"Common in Balabac, but very rare in Tawi Tawi and Basilan. The
single Tawi Tawi specimen obtained was shot in the banana trees
about our house on the very day of our departure, and must have been
a straggler. Bill scarlet; iris very dark brown; legs and feet dark
red; nails black." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



284. HALCYON WINCHELLI Sharpe.

WINCHELL'S KINGFISHER.


    Halcyon winchelli Sharpe, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1876), 1, 318, pl. 47;
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 255; Hand-List (1900), 2, 58;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 54.
    Halcyon alfredi Oustalet, Le Natur. (1890), 62.

    Basilan (Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Bohol (McGregor); Bongao (Everett); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester);
    Mindanao (Everett, Koch & Schadenberg, Goodfellow, Celestino);
    Negros (Whitehead); Romblon (Bourns & Worcester); Samar (Steere
    Exp.); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester);
    Sulu (Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi
    (Everett, Bourns & Worcester).


Male.--Above, including wings and tail, deep blue; lores and a narrow
collar on hind neck chestnut; a band of light blue extending backward
from above eye and joining its fellow across nape; back, rump, and
central tail-coverts light silvery blue; sides of head and a small
patch on each side of breast dark blue; lower parts white; primaries
and alula black, remainder of wing-feathers edged with blue; tail blue
above, black below. Bill black, except under part of lower mandible
which is white near base; feet greenish drab; nails black. Length of
a male from Basilan, 255; wing, 103; tail, 75; culmen from base, 57;
tarsus, 14.

Female.--Above similar to the male but blacker because of the greater
restriction of blue on each feather; chestnut collar much wider;
below white, washed to a greater or less extent with fawn, heaviest
on breast, usually wanting on middle of abdomen. Length of a female
from Basilan, 255; wing, 102; tail, 75; culmen from base, 54; bill
from nostril, 46.

Young.--A specimen taken in Sibuyan indicates that the young male
resembles the adult female.

"A deep-woods form, usually seen perching in trees at a considerable
distance from the ground, though it goes to the ground to feed. On
being surprised when feeding it flies up into the trees at once. This
kingfisher seems to be fully possessed of the idea that it can sing,
and may often be seen at early morning or dusk, perched 15 meters
above the ground, and squawking away as if life depended on it.

"Familiarity with its habits and its note enabled us to procure it
in many islands where it was not previously known. It is, however,
a difficult bird to shoot at the best.

"Iris dark brown; legs and feet light greenish olive, sometimes
yellowish olive; nails black; bill black except base of lower mandible
which is usually white; tip of bill sometimes white; food, beetles,
grasshoppers, spiders, and grubs.

"Eight males average, 247 in length; wing, 98; tail, 74; culmen, 51;
tarsus, 13; middle toe with claw, 23. Thirteen females, length, 250;
wing, 100; tail, 74; culmen, 52; tarsus, 13; middle toe with claw,
24." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



285. HALCYON CHLORIS (Boddaert).

WHITE-COLLARED KINGFISHER.


    Alcedo chloris Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. (1783), 49.
    Halcyon chloris Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 273,
    pl. 7, fig. 3; Hand-List (1900), 2, 60; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1903), 3, 41; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 55.
    Sauropatis chloris Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3,
    135, fig. 38 (head).

    Ti-ca-rol', Bohol; ba-ca-ca, Cagayancillo; tac-ca-rit, Ticao.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Banton (Celestino); Basilan (Steere,
    Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Batan (McGregor);
    Bohol (Everett); Bongao (Everett); Cagayancillo (McGregor);
    Cagayan Sulu (Guillemard); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester);
    Caluya (Porter); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Camiguin S. (Murray);
    Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (Murray, Meyer, Everett, Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Cuyo (McGregor); Dinagat (Everett); Fuga
    (McGregor); Guimaras (Meyer, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Leyte (Everett, Steere Exp.); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon (Meyer,
    Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor);
    Maestre de Campo (McGregor & Worcester); Marinduque (Steere
    Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Mindanao (Steere,
    Everett, Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Celestino, Goodfellow); Mindoro (Steere Exp., Schmacker, Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor, Porter), Negros (Layard, Steere, Everett,
    Keay, Bourns & Worcester); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, White); Panay (Murray, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (McGregor); Samar (Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester); Semirara (McGregor & Worcester); Sibay
    (McGregor & Worcester); Sibutu (Everett); Sibuyan (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino);
    Sulu (Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester, Everett); Tablas (Bourns &
    Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester); Ticao (McGregor);
    Verde (McGregor); Y'Ami (McGregor). Aru, Molucca, Tenimber,
    Lesser Sunda, and Sula Islands, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, Mysol.


Adult.--Forehead and crown greenish blue, set off by a black line which
begins at lores, passes under eye to ear-coverts and meets its fellow
on hind neck; this followed by a white collar; a spot of white behind
each nostril; wings, back, rump, and tail blue; scapulars greenish
blue like crown; rump and upper tail-coverts lighter and bluer;
tail, primaries, and secondaries deeper blue; under parts all white;
tail and wings blackish; wing-lining and axillars white; sexes alike
in color. Iris dark brown; bill black except a wedge-shaped space
on lower mandible which is pale yellow or dirty white. A male from
Cagayancillo measures: Length, 240; wing, 105; tail, 70; culmen from
base, 50; tarsus, 13. A female from Bohol: Length, 246; wing, 107;
tail, 71; culmen from base, 52; tarsus, 15; middle toe with claw, 27.

Young.--Immature birds have the feathers of breast, sides of neck
and breast, and sometimes the white collar, edged with black or dusky
brown forming crescentic marks on the breast.

"The commonest of Philippine kingfishers. Frequently observed perching
on native houses in villages and very common in coconut groves. Not
infrequently found fishing along small fresh-water streams in the
open, less common along wooded streams. Especially abundant in
mangrove swamps and along the seashore. The usual native name is
'tick-a-rool'." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



286. HALCYON HOMBRONI (Bonaparte).

HOMBRON'S KINGFISHER.


    Actenoides hombroni Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Avium (1850), 1, 157.
    Halcyon hombroni Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    284; Hand-List (1900), 2, 61; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 55.

    Mindanao (Hombron & Jacquinot, Steere, Everett, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow, Celestino).


"Adult male.--Head and nape bright blue, more brilliant on the sides
of the head, above the eye, and on the nape; round the latter a narrow
line of deep black; ear-coverts chestnut; along the lower line of the
lores a streak of black, reaching below the eye, and widening behind
the latter, being here washed with blue; cheeks bright blue, forming
a broad band; sides of neck and hinder part of the latter deep tawny,
varied with narrow black edgings to the feathers; mantle blackish,
mottled with spots of tawny-buff, these being subterminal, with a
narrow fringe of black; center of back, scapulars, and wing-coverts
green, with a slight shade of verditer, each feather having a distinct
subterminal spot of ochraceous-buff; quills blackish, externally washed
with greenish, the primaries edged with ochraceous, the secondaries
with the same subterminal spot of ochraceous as on the wing-coverts;
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts bright silvery cobalt,
the sides of the back and the lateral coverts blackish, washed with
blue; tail-feathers deep blue, with black shafts; throat white,
slightly washed with tawny; rest of the under surface deep tawny,
whiter on the center of the abdomen; breast-feathers with narrow,
nearly obsolete, blackish margins; thighs externally blackish,
internally deep tawny; feathers at side of vent, adjoining the sides
of the lower back, deep blue, the outer web more or less ochraceous;
under wing-coverts and axillars deep tawny; quills blackish below,
edged with pale tawny-buff along the inner web. Length, 287; culmen,
51; wing, 126; tail, 105; tarsus, 19." (Sharpe.)

Female.--Similar to the male but crown and cheek-band greenish; the
greenish wash on wings very faint; tail faintly washed with green
instead of blue.

"A strictly woods form, never met with in the open. Quite common in
Mindanao, and so far as is at present known, confined to that island.

"Iris very dark brown; legs and feet dirty greenish olive; culmen
black; bill along gape dirty red, darker at base. Food, beetles
and small snails. Measurements from seven males: Length, 283; wing,
123; tail, 94; culmen, 46; tarsus, 16; middle toe with claw, 26. Six
females, length, 278; wing, 120; tail, 94; culmen, 48; tarsus, 16;
middle toe with claw, 28." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



287. HALCYON LINDSAYI (Vigors).

LINDSAY'S KINGFISHER.


    Dacelo lindsayi Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1831), 97.
    Halcyon lindsayi Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    286; Hand-List (1900), 2, 61; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 55.

    Luzon (Lindsay, Eydoux & Souleyet, Möllendorff, Cuming, Everett,
    Heriot, Steere Exp., Bridges).


"Adult male.--Above green, a little brighter on the center of lower
back, rump, and upper tail-coverts; lateral upper tail-coverts and
sides of lower back and rump dingy green, the scapulars, mantle,
and wing-coverts each having a distinct spot of ocherous-buff;
quills brown, externally edged with fulvous, secondaries greener, and
terminally spotted with ocherous like the scapulars; tail-feathers dull
greenish brown, fringed with sandy buff at the ends, the penultimate
feather notched with buff on the inner web, the outermost one on both
webs, producing a banded appearance; head green, the forehead with a
few cinnamon feathers; lores black, surmounted by a streak of pale
cinnamon-buff reaching above the eye and continued into a line of
bright cobalt, which encircles the hinder crown and nape; feathers
round the eye black, continued into a band which encircles the hind
neck, and is followed by a band of cinnamon feathers, fringed with
black; sides of face and ear-coverts cinnamon; throat pale cinnamon,
separated from the band on the sides of the face by a broad band
of bright cobalt, which occupies the cheeks and lateral margin of
the throat; fore neck and breast mottled, the feathers being white,
margined with green, the green edges diminishing in size on the lower
breast, till they gradually disappear on the abdomen, which, with the
under tail-feathers, is pure white; sides of body like the breast;
thighs blackish, tipped with ocherous; under wing-coverts, axillars,
and quill-lining fawn-buff. 'Bill black, the culmen and under mandible
yellow; feet light green; iris brown.' (Everett.) Length, 241; culmen,
47; wing, 106; tail, 79; tarsus, 16.

"Adult female.--Resembles the male, but the band encircling the
crown is green instead of blue; the broad band on the cheeks is also
green, not blue; the throat is white; and the green edgings to the
breast-feathers are less pronounced. 'Bill black, the culmen and
mandible chrome-yellow; feet light green; claws horn-yellow; iris
brown.' (Everett.) Length, 249; culmen, 47; wing, 109; tail, 89;
tarsus, 16.

"Young male.--Like the adult male, but with smaller ocherous spots
on the upper surface; the band round the crown and the cheek-stripe
not so blue as in the adult, but not so green as in the female;
under surface as in adult, but with a fulvescent tinge throughout.

"Young female.--Duller than the adult female, and with smaller ocherous
spots; otherwise like the old female, and having a green band round
the crown." (Sharpe.)



288. HALCYON MOSELEYI (Steere).

MOSELEY'S KINGFISHER.


    Actenoides moseleyi Steere, List. Birds & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 11.
    Halcyon moseleyi Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 288;
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 61; Grant, Ibis (1896), 557; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 55.

    Negros (Steere Exp., Whitehead).


"Immature female (type of species).--Similar to H. lindsayi, but
distinguished by the edgings of the breast-feathers, which are black
and not green. 'Bill black, culmen and lower mandible yellow; legs
and feet greenish.' (Moseley.) Length, 264; culmen, 46; wing, 109;
tail, 86; tarsus, 14." (Sharpe.)

"Moseley's kingfisher, a truly splendid species, is represented by
three fully adult males. The only example previously known is the
immature female originally described by Prof. Steere. From this female
type the male birds before me appear to differ in the following points:
The lower ear-coverts are chestnut instead of buff, the moustachial
stripes cobalt-blue, like the band round the crown of the head, and
there is a small triangular green patch in the middle of the black
interscapular region. From the adult male of H. lindsayi they are
easily distinguished by the generally black ground-color of the mantle
and scapulars, as well as by the black margins to the feathers of the
breast and flanks, only those in the middle of the breast being tinged
with greenish. Length, 254; wing, 107; tail, 80; tarsus, 18." (Grant.)

"Discovered by Mr. E. L. Moseley after whom it was named by
Dr. Steere. But one specimen was secured by him. We searched diligently
for this fine Halcyon on our return to Negros, but failed to find
it. It is undoubtedly extremely rare there. So far as we know at
present this species is confined to Negros, and no closely related
species is known from any island nearer than Luzon." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



Suborder BUCEROTES.



Family BUCEROTIDÆ.


Bill very large; culmen curved, its basal part expanded into a hollow
casque, or else the sides of the bill deeply chiseled; eyelids with
large lashes; wings short and rounded; tail-feathers long and broad;
outer and middle toes united for basal two-thirds, inner and middle
toes united for basal joint; plumage harsh and rough; large noisy
birds of heavy flight. The Philippine species are all well-marked
and easily identified.



Genera.


a1. Tail uniform, white, dirty buff, or yellowish brown, with no
black bar.

  b1. Bill bright red for its basal half at least; body plumage not
  all black. ... Hydrocorax (p. 327)
  b2. Bill not red; plumage, except tail, all black.

    c1. Bill entirely black. ... Anthracoceros (p. 330)
    c2. Bill nearly all white. ... Gymnolæmus (p. 331)


a2. Tail not uniform in color, a wide black or blackish bar at its end.

  b1. Bill not bright red. ... Penelopides (p. 332)
  b2. Bill bright red. ... Craniorrhinus (p. 338)



Genus HYDROCORAX Brisson, 1760.


Bill and casque very large, the latter flat on top, overhanging on
each side and its posterior border overhanging and extending to above
the ear; bill smooth except for a few shallow furrows on base of lower
mandible; chin and throat feathered; a small bare space about the eye.



Species.


a1. Upper outline of casque straight, its anterior end forming a
projection which overhangs the culmen in front.

  b1. Casque and bill entirely bright red. ... hydrocorax (p. 327)
  b2. Casque and basal half of bill bright red, terminal half of bill
  whitish. ... mindanensis (p. 328)

a2. Upper outline of casque not straight, its anterior end
sinking to the culmen and not forming an anterior overhanging
projection. ... semigaleatus (p. 329)



289. HYDROCORAX HYDROCORAX (Linnæus).

LUZON CALAO.


    Buceros hydrocorax Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 153.
    Hydrocorax hydrocorax Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    358; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 64; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 55.

    Ca-lao, Manila; reloj del monte, Spanish name.

    Luzon (Meyer, Möllendorff, Everett, Steere Exp., Whitehead,
    McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.).


Adult.--Chin, upper throat, a band from throat to eye, and feathers
above eye, all black, followed on throat by a white space which shades
gradually into the dull chestnut-brown of lower throat and sides of
neck and head; breast and sides black; abdomen, thighs, and crissum
dull chestnut; back, rump, and wings brown, the rump lighter; primaries
and most of the secondaries black, some of the latter edged with pale
buff; tail-feathers pure white when fresh but soon becoming yellow or
dirty buff. Entire casque and bill bright red. "Naked skin round eye
yellow; iris red; feet brownish red; nails black." (Everett.) Length of
male, about 950; wing, 410; tail, 350; bill from nostril, 160; greatest
length of casque, 160; greatest width of casque, 52; tarsus, 60.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male. Length, 914; wing, 381; tail,
295; tarsus, 56.

"Young.--Cheeks and upper parts of head blackish; rest of head and
neck, rump, thighs, crissum, and under tail-coverts yellowish white
mixed with rufous; breast and belly yellowish white mixed with blackish
gray; back, wing-coverts, scapulars, and outer secondaries reddish
brown, the wing-coverts tipped and the scapulars and secondaries
margined with buff; primaries and rest of secondaries brownish black,
margined on the outer web and tipped with buff; basal two-thirds
of tail-feathers reddish brown, margined in all except the middle
pair with black. Bill and casque dark black, except the base of
the lower mandible and the extreme tip of the bill, which are
blood-red." (Grant.)

The three Philippine species of Hydrocorax do not differ in colors
but they are easily distinguished by the color and shape of the bill
and its casque. These large hornbills frequent forest, where they feed
on fruits, usually in high trees. Their call is loud and penetrating
and may be heard at a great distance. Their flight is rather labored
and produces a great noise.



290. HYDROCORAX MINDANENSIS (Tweeddale).

MINDANAO CALAO.


    Buceros mindanensis Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877), 543;
    Challenger Report, Zool. (1881), 2, pt. 8, pl. 3.
    Hydrocorax mindanensis Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    359; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 64; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 55.

    Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Mindanao (Murray, Everett, Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow, Celestino).


Adult.--Plumage as in H. hydrocorax but casque much narrower and bill
with distal two-thirds white. "Naked skin round eye sooty black,
yellow just before the eye, gular skin yellow; iris light yellow
(light green in living bird); feet coral-red; nails dark brownish
gray." (Everett.) Length of male, about 915; wing, 390; tail, 300;
bill from nostril, 155; greatest length of casque, 136; greatest
width of casque, 42; tarsus, 52. Length of female, 863; wing, 365;
tail, 290; bill from nostril, 136; greatest length of casque, 124;
greatest width of casque, 39; tarsus, 48.

"Young.--Upper part of head and cheeks black; feathers on chin and
breast white, blackish gray at base; rest of head, neck, rump,
belly, flanks, and tail-coverts white mixed with rufous; back,
upper wing-coverts, scapulars, and outer secondaries brown, the
three latter widely tipped, and the last named also widely margined
on both webs with white; rest of secondaries and primaries blackish
brown, with a white margin on the outer web, gradually increasing in
width on the outer secondaries; under wing-coverts brownish buff;
middle feathers of tail have basal two-thirds brown, and the rest
the basal half dull chestnut; the remainder of the feathers white;
casque rudimentary. Bill black, yellowish at the tip; naked skin round
eye and on gular region yellow; legs gray-green (in skin)." (Grant.)

"Habits like those of H. semigaleatus. Eyes yellow to brown in female,
light bluish gray in male; legs and feet red; bill scarlet on basal
half, rest yellowish white; bill of young birds black. A male measures
927 in length; wing, 393; tail, 312; tarsus, 54; middle toe with claw,
66." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



291. HYDROCORAX SEMIGALEATUS (Tweeddale).

INTERMEDIATE CALAO.


    Buceros semigaleatus Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1878), 279.
    Hydrocorax semigaleatus Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    360; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 64; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 55.

    Cao, Bohol.

    Bohol (McGregor); Leyte (Everett, Steere Exp., Whitehead); Panaon
    (Everett); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead).


Adult.--Colors of plumage as in the two preceding species, colors
of bill as in H. mindanensis, but the casque abruptly contracted in
front and its upper outline, in front, continuous with that of the
culmen. "Naked skin round eye darkest sepia, almost black; gular skin
dark indian-yellow; iris light yellow (light green in living bird);
feet coral-red; nails dark brownish gray." (Everett.) Length of male,
about 890; wing, 400; tail, 320; bill from nostril, 153; greatest
width of casque, 53; tarsus, 53.

"Adult female.--Does not differ in plumage from the male. Length,
787; wing, 350; tail, 279; tarsus, 53.

"Young.--Similar to that of H. mindanensis, except that the outer
tail-feathers have not the basal half chestnut, although the middle
feathers are the same.

"In older examples of both sexes, when the adult plumage has been
nearly attained the bill is jet-black, the yellow tip of the young
having disappeared, and the anterior part of the casque is distinctly
raised above the line of the culmen." (Grant.)

"Extremely abundant on the hills back of Catbalogan in Samar. Sometimes
comes down into the mangrove swamps near the town. In damp weather its
hoarse cry can readily be heard a mile. Usually frequents very lofty
trees, but may be readily called down by imitating its note. We secured
a fine series of specimens in this way. In a few cases we observed
H. semigaleatus feeding in low brush, and even on the ground. This
species has a highly developed oil-gland the secretion from which
is gamboge-yellow. When the feathers are well oiled the color of the
whole bird is changed. Feeds on fruit.

"Two males measure, 883 in length; wing, 385; tail, 305; tarsus, 57;
middle toe with claw, 74. Six females, length, 830; wing, 361; tail,
298; tarsus, 53; middle toe with claw, 71." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus ANTHRACOCEROS Reichenbach, 1849.


Casque small, compressed and rounded on top, its outline gently curved,
rounded and vertical behind, and continuous with culmen in front; very
fine striæ near base of bill; chin and upper throat partly feathered.



292. ANTHRACOCEROS MONTANI (Oustalet).

MONTANO'S HORNBILL.


    Buceros montani Oustalet, Bull. Hebd. Assoc. Scien. Fr. (1880),
    205.
    Anthracoceros montani Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    370; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 64; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 55.

    Sulu (Montano & Rey, Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Bourns &
    Worcester).


Adult (sexes alike).--Tail white; remainder of plumage black; back
and wings slightly glossed with green. A female measures: Wing, 290;
tail, 260; bill from nostril, 101; tarsus, 52. This species has been
described as having the tail entirely white but in a female specimen
collected in Tawi Tawi, November 2, 1891, by Bourns and Worcester, two
rectrices on one side have the outer web black for about three-fourths
of the distance from base to tip and one feather on the other side of
the tail has the outer web black to a less extent; the inner webs,
also, are black for a short distance on two of these feathers. More
specimens are necessary to determine whether this is an individual
variation or a normal character, perhaps dependent upon age, which
has been previously overlooked.

"We were fortunate enough to secure a series of fourteen specimens of
this rare hornbill from Sulu and Tawi Tawi. The tail is pure white;
all other parts black, the feathers of the back and wings glossed
with dark green. The bill in adult birds is coal-black; all of our
adult males had the iris nearly white, while in the adult females it
was dark brown; legs and feet dull leaden, nails black. Young birds
have the tip of the bill white or pale horn.

"Common on the hills back of the town of Sulu, and very abundant
in Tawi Tawi where it occurs in great flocks, but very wild and
extremely difficult to approach. The cry of this bird is the most
peculiar bird-note we have ever heard. It begins with a series of notes
precisely like the 'song' of a common hen magnified about fifty-fold,
and ends with an indescribable combination of cackles and shrieks.

"Two males from Tawi Tawi measure, 717 in length; wing, 293; tail,
243; tarsus, 52; middle toe with claw, 59. Six females from same
locality measure: Length, 672; wing, 268; tail, 224; tarsus, 51;
middle toe with claw, 55. A male and two females from Sulu are
slightly smaller. Eyes vary from nearly white to nearly black, the
females usually having the darker eyes; bare skin of head black;
bill black. Food fruit." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus GYMNOLÆMUS Grant, 1892.


Casque large, compressed, and fairly smooth, its top rounded, outline
gently curved, overhanging behind and abruptly truncated in front;
no chiseling on sides of bill; chin, upper throat, and large space
around eye entirely nude.



293. GYMNOLÆMUS LEMPRIERI (Sharpe).

PALAWAN HORNBILL.


    Anthracoceros lemprieri Sharpe, Nature (1885), 32, 46
    (desc. nulla); Proc. Zool. Soc. (1885), 446, pl. 26; Everett,
    Ibis (1895), 30.
    Anthracoceros marchii Oustalet, Le Naturaliste (1885), 108.
    Gymnolæmus marchii Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 370.
    Gymnolæmus lemprieri Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 65; McGregor
    and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 56.

    Balabac (Everett); Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Palawan
    (Marche, Lempriere, Whitehead, Platen, Steere Exp., Celestino).


Adult male.--Rectrices pure white, their shafts pale yellow;
remainder of plumage black, glossed with dark green. A male from
Palawan measures: Length, about 710; wing, 290; tail, 240; bill from
nostril, 111; greatest length of crest, 106; tarsus, 52.

"Adult female.--Resembles the male, but the casque is less developed
and the size smaller. Length, 610; wing, 264; tail, 216; tarsus,
53." (Grant.)

"We saw this bird on several occasions in Palawan, but always in very
high trees, and it was so extremely wild that we did not succeed in
securing any specimens from that island. In the Calamianes Islands we
found it both common and tame. On several occasions we saw it feeding
in low fruit trees within a few feet of the ground.

"Iris brown; legs and feet leaden; nails black; bill white except
base of lower mandible; bare skin of head white. A female measures,
610 in length; wing, 263; tail, 204; tarsus, 46; middle toe with claw,
58." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus PENELOPIDES Reichenbach, 1849.


Casque small, compressed, ridged on top, its outline curved,
posteriorly falling away gently to the culmen; abruptly or obliquely
truncate in front; basilateral portion of both mandibles with deep
oblique chiseling; part of chin naked but feathered in the middle.



Species.


a1. Abdomen rufous; thighs chestnut. ... panini, [male] (p. 332)
a2. Abdomen and thighs neither chestnut nor rufous.

  b1. Breast and abdomen white.

    c1. Base of both mandibles with deep grooves; tail black with
    a wide band of white or rufous across the middle. ... manillæ,
    [male] (p. 333)
    c2. Base of upper or lower mandible, but never both, with deep
    grooves.

      d1. Base of upper mandible only with grooves; no black band at
      base of tail; sexes alike in plumage. ... mindorensis (p. 335)
      d2. Base of lower mandible only with grooves; tail with some
      black at the base.

        e1. Upper tail-coverts black.

          f1. A black patch on basal half of upper
          mandible. ... affinis, [male] (p. 336)
          f2. No black patch at base of upper mandible which is
          flesh-colored. ... basilanica, [male] (p. 337)

        e2. Upper tail-coverts white, tinged with buff. ... samarensis,
        [male] (p. 337)

  b2. Breast and abdomen black.

    c1. Tail black with a rufous band about 25 mm. wide across the
    middle; base of each mandible with deep grooves. ... manillæ,
    [female] (p. 333); talisi, [female] (p. 334)
    c2. Tail rufous, widely tipped with black and with more or less
    black at base.

      d1. Base of each mandible grooved; black at base of tail almost
      obsolete. ... panini, [female] (p. 332)
      d2. Base of lower mandible only grooved; black at base of tail
      well-marked. ... affinis, [female] (p. 336); basilanica, [female]
      (p. 337); samarensis, [female] (p. 337)



294. PENELOPIDES PANINI (Boddaert).

PANAY TARICTIC.


    Buceros panini Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. (1783), 48.
    Penelopides panini Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9, 166,
    pl. 28; Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 372; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 65; McGregor, Bur. Govt. Labs. (1905), 25,
    25, pl. 9 (nest); McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 56.

    Ta-ric'-tic, Ticao; ta-ric', Masbate.

    Guimaras (Meyer, Steere Exp.); Masbate (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Negros (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead); Panay (Sonnerat, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Ticao (McGregor).


Male.--Head, neck, and breast pale buff; cheeks, ear-coverts, and a
band across neck black; back and wings black, glossed with dark green;
abdomen rufous; crissum, thighs, and upper tail-coverts chestnut;
tail light rufous, terminal third black, slightly glossed with
green. Iris red; bare skin of face white; legs dark brown; bill and
casque dull red, base of upper mandible with six or seven vertical
ridges, separated by pale yellow grooves; base of lower mandible
with several oblique grooves. Length, 650; wing, 290; tail, 275;
bill from nostril, 97; tarsus, 48.

Female.--Black; neck, wings, and back glossed with dark green; tail
as in the male but outer web of outermost feather entirely black
and inner web black at base; next feather with outer web black at
base. Iris red; bare skin of head bluish; legs and nails black; bill
black, casque dark red; grooves on upper mandible light yellow. Length,
600; wing, 260; tail, 245; bill from nostril, 78.

"Young female (without casque and only one ridge developed on the
base of the upper mandible).--Differs from the adult in having the
upper tail-coverts chestnut and the middle of the basal part of the
tail-feathers with more black. 'Naked skin round eye and on throat
white, faintly tinged with bluish; iris dull chestnut-brown; feet
dark lead-gray with faint greenish cast, nails black; bill brown,
with olive-green tinge.' (Everett.)" (Grant.)

"Very common in many parts of Panay, Guimaras, Negros, and Masbate,
but curiously enough absent in Cebu. A very noisy bird, called
'ta-ric-tic' by the natives from its note. Food fruit and occasional
beetles. Iris brownish red; legs and feet slate-color; nails black;
bare skin of head white.

"Four males from Masbate measure, 652 in length; wing, 260; tail, 228;
tarsus, 45; middle toe with claw, 52. Four females from same locality,
length, 607; wing, 252; tail, 216; tarsus, 44; middle toe with claw,
47." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

A set of three eggs of the Panay tarictic taken in Ticao, May 9, 1902,
measure: 48.5 by 32.5; 46.7 by 33.7; 45.7 by 33. In color they are
dull white with no markings except a few nest stains; their surface
is chalky with occasional minute lumps. The eggs were deposited in
a cavity in the trunk of a large tree. The entrance was plastered
up by the birds, leaving but a narrow slit through which the female
was fed by her mate. The female remains within the cavity during the
whole period of incubation. As she molts at this time she is probably
unable to fly even if liberated.



295. PENELOPIDES MANILLÆ (Boddaert).

LUZON TARICTIC.


    Buceros manillæ Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. (1783), 54.
    Penelopides manillæ Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 373;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 56.
    Penelopides manillæ Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 65.

    Ta-lic-tic, native name in vicinity of Manila.

    Luzon (Cuming, Meyer, Everett, Heriot, Marche, Steere Exp.,
    Whitehead, McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.).


"Adult male.--Top of the head and neck yellowish white; cheeks,
ear-coverts, and feathered part of throat black; back, rump, upper
tail-coverts, and wings brown, more or less glossed with dull green,
most of the primaries, the secondaries, and their coverts narrowly
margined with buff on the outer web; breast, belly, thighs, and
under tail-coverts white, tinged with buff; basal half of tail dark
brown, succeeded by a wide white band (stained rufous) followed
by a terminal black band glossed with green; the outer web of the
outer tail-feathers is uniform black; naked skin round eye and
on chin and throat white. Iris crimson; feet and nails dull black;
casque transparent horn-brown; bill dark brown; the base of the upper
mandible with five transverse ridges, that of the lower with about
four oblique ridges separated by ocher-colored grooves. Length, 525;
wing, 233; tail, 188; tarsus, 43.

"Young male differs from the adult in having the upper tail-coverts
chestnut and the buff edges to the quills and coverts much wider.

"Adult female.--Head and neck very dark brown; back, rump, upper
tail-coverts, and wings dark brown, glossed with dull green;
under parts brownish gray, tinged with buff on the breast; tail
as in the male adult; naked skin round eye and on chin and throat
purplish. Iris brown; legs and feet dull black; bill and casque as
in the male. Length, 483; wing, 221; tail, 185; tarsus, 41.

"Young female with half developed casque differs from the adult
in having the under parts buff, edges of both the webs of the
tail-feathers margined with brown, and the upper tail-coverts and
the ends of the feathers suffused with bright buff." (Grant.)



296. PENELOPIDES TALISI Finsch.

NORTHERN TARICTIC.


    Penelopides talisi Finsch, Notes Leyden Mus. (1903), 23, 190;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 56.

    Talisi, native name.

    Luzon (van der Valk).


Adult male.--Appears to differ from P. manillæ in having no light
edges to the primaries and in the banding of the tail-feathers which is
as follows: Middle pair with a rust-colored cross-band, 25 mm. wide;
on the pair next to the middle the band only one-half as wide; on the
third pair only the inner web with small light rust-colored spots which
form cross-bands; two outermost tail-feathers on each side uniform
brownish black; upper mandible with four basal grooves. Length, 500;
wing, 243; tail, 220; bill, 95. [39]

This species was described from an adult male collected in Cagayan
Province, Luzon, February 23, 1892; if it is distinct from P. manillæ,
as seems quite probable, we have the interesting case of two species of
Penelopides resident in the same island. I have not examined birds
referable to P. talisi and the diagnosis is taken from Finsch's
description which will be found in the footnote.

A hornbill collected in Albay Province, Luzon, and recorded by Grant
as the young of P. manillæ, Ibis (1895), 261, is believed by Finsch
to be P. talisi.



297. PENELOPIDES MINDORENSIS Steere.

MINDORO TARICTIC.


    Penelopides mindorensis Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 13; Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 374;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 65; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 56.

    Ta-ric-tic, Mindoro.

    Mindoro (Steere Exp., Schmacker, Bourns & Worcester, Everett,
    Whitehead, McGregor, Porter).


Male.--Crown, sides of neck, and under parts whitish; ear-coverts and
band across throat black; hind neck, back, rump, upper tail-coverts,
and wings black, glossed with dark green, some of the wing-feathers
edged with pale buff; tail chestnut, its terminal third black,
outermost feather with entire outer web and most of the inner web
black. Wing, 235; tail, 205; bill from nostril, 74.

Female.--Similar to the male but forehead blackish and black band on
upper throat wider. Wing, 235; tail, 210; bill from nostril, 77.

"Adult male.--Is most nearly allied to P. panini, but differs from
that species in having the belly and under tail-coverts white, the
rump and upper tail-coverts black glossed with green, like the rest
of the back, and the upper mandible only with transversely grooved
basal plates. From P. manillæ and affinis it differs (and resembles
P. panini) in having no black at the base of the tail. Length, 565;
wing, 246; tail, 203; tarsus, 43." (Grant.)

"Similar to P. manillæ, but black with bronze-green gloss instead of
brown as in P. manillæ. The whole base of the tail is light ferruginous
instead of this color being limited to a narrow bar as in P. manillæ,
and the lower mandible is plain instead of being chiseled as in
that species. The female of P. mindorensis has the feathers of the
head white as in the male, thus differing from the other Philippines
species, in all of which the females are black-headed.

"The males and females of P. mindorensis differ chiefly in the color
of the bare skin about the eye and base of the beak, this in life
being dark blue in the female and flesh-colored in the male." (Steere.)

"Habits like those of P. manillæ. All the Philippine representatives
of this genus have the peculiar undulating flight of woodpeckers when
going for any considerable distance. P. mindorensis is exceedingly
abundant in Mindoro." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



298. PENELOPIDES AFFINIS Tweeddale.

ALLIED TARICTIC.


    Penelopides affinis Tweeddale, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877),
    (4), 20, 534; Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 375;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 65; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 56.

    Dinagat (Everett); Mindanao (Everett, Koch & Schadenberg, Steere
    Exp., Goodfellow, Clemens, Celestino).


"Adult male.--Top of the head and neck yellowish white; cheeks,
ear-coverts, and feathered part of throat black; back, rump, upper
tail-coverts, and wings black, glossed with dark green; breast, belly,
thighs, and under tail-coverts white, tinged with buff; tail white
(stained rufous), with a wide terminal black band and some black
at the base of the feathers, sometimes a band nearly as wide as at
the extremity. 'Naked skin round eye and on chin and throat white;
iris crimson; feet greenish lead; nails grayish black; basal half
of bill and casque dark brown, rest of bill pale brown; base of the
lower mandible with three or four obliquely transverse yellow ridges
separated by dark brown grooves.' (Everett.) Length, 500; wing, 236;
tail, 195; tarsus, 41.

"Young male (with undeveloped casque) differs from the adult in having
the upper tail-coverts chestnut and the black band across the end of
the tail suffused with rufous.

"Adult female.--Head, neck, and under parts dull black; back,
rump, upper tail-coverts, and wings black, glossed with dark
green; tail resembles that of the male. 'Naked skin round eye and
on chin and throat dark blue: iris crimson, feet dark greenish
leaden.' (Everett.) Bill and casque brown, base of lower mandible
with indistinct obliquely transverse grooves. Length, 500; wing, 218;
tail, 175; tarsus, 41.

"Young female (with undeveloped casque) differs from the adult in
having chestnut upper tail-coverts and the black band across the end
of the tail suffused with rufous." (Grant.)



299. PENELOPIDES BASILANICA Steere.

BASILAN TARICTIC.


    Penelopides basilanica Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 13; Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 375;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 65; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 56.

    Basilan (Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor).


"Much like P. affinis of Mindanao, but differs from it in having the
rufous upon the tail reaching to and beneath the upper tail-coverts,
so that the whole base of the tail appears rufous, though some
specimens show some black at the bases of the feathers when they are
uncovered. The sides of the mandible are also flesh-colored to their
bases instead of being black behind as in P. affinis." (Steere.)

"The differences enumerated by Steere between this species and
P. affinis, though slight, occur in all the specimens secured by us. A
male measured, 610 in length; wing, 231; tail, 205; tarsus, 45; middle
toe with claw, 46. A female, length, 559; wing, 211; tail, 183; tarsus,
39; middle toe with claw, 45. Eyes red to umber-brown; legs and feet
greenish slate-color; nails black; bill white at tip, black on crest,
remainder mottled with reddish brown." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



300. PENELOPIDES SAMARENSIS Steere.

SAMAR TARICTIC.


    Penelopides samarensis Steere, List Birds & Mams. Steere
    Exped. (1890), 13; Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 376;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 65; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 56.

    Tao-sí, Bohol.

    Bohol (McGregor); Leyte (Everett, Steere Exp.); Samar (Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead).


Male.--Very similar to the male of P. affinis but upper tail-coverts
very pale buff. Wing, 260; tail, 230; bill from nostril, 90.

Female.--Like the female of P. affinis. Wing, 235; tail, 225; bill
from nostril, 72.

"A well-marked species. Five males average, 606 in length; wing, 232;
tail, 208; tarsus, 42; middle toe with claw, 52. Eyes reddish brown;
legs and feet slaty black; nails brown to black; bill dark brown,
reddish at the tip and around grooves.

"It seems probable that Everett's Dinagat birds were of this species,
but they can, of course, be placed here only provisionally." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



Genus CRANIORRHINUS Cabanis and Heine, 1860.


Jaw, entire chin, and a large space around eye naked and bright red;
base of lower mandible deeply and obliquely chiseled, upper mandible
smooth; casque high, greatly compressed, its outline gently rounded
behind and abruptly truncated in front; in the female the casque
is smooth and has a sharp ridge above, in the male it is somewhat
rounded above, and the sides are distorted by deep vertical plications.



Species.


a1. Tail white with a black band at tip. ... leucocephalus (p. 338)
a2. Tail white, stained rufous, the basal third and the tip
black. ... waldeni (p. 339)



301. CRANIORRHINUS LEUCOCEPHALUS (Vieillot).

WHITE-HEADED HORNBILL.


    Buceros leucocephalus Vieillot, Nov. Dict. d' Hist. Nat. (1816),
    4, 592.
    Craniorrhinus leucocephalus Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9,
    165, pl. 27.
    Cranorrhinus leucocephalus Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892),
    17, 378; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 65; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 56.

    Camiguin S. (Cuming); Mindanao (Steere, Everett, Koch &
    Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Clemens, Goodfellow,
    Celestino).


"Adult male.--Occiput, nape, and back of neck deep chestnut; rest of
head, neck, and upper chest buff; tail white, with a terminal black
band; rest of plumage black, glossed with dark bluish green. Naked
skin round eye and on chin and throat fiery orange-red; iris crimson;
feet dull black; bill and casque deep red; lower mandible crossed at
the base by four or more obliquely transverse ridges, the basal one
being dark red, the rest whitish and separated from one another by
brown grooves; casque with numerous transverse folds. Length, 737;
wing, 335; tail, 244; tarsus, 51."

"Adult female.--Differs from the male in having the plumage of head
and neck dark shining black, and the casque smooth. Length, 597;
wing, 302; tail, 22; tarsus, 46." (Grant.)

"Common in Mindanao. Seems not to occur in Basilan. Frequents the
highest trees and feeds on fruit. Eyes red; legs black; tops of feet
black, bottoms yellowish; bill dark scarlet. A male measures, 711
in length; wing, 319; tail, 232; tarsus, 50; middle toe with claw,
54." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

When new the tail-feathers are white but they soon turn light
buff. The male is much larger than the female and has a larger
casque. A male from northern Mindanao is 762 in length; wing, 360;
tail, 235; bill from nostril, 126; length of casque at base, 76;
tarsus, 50. A female is 620 in length; wing, 290;, tail, 220; bill
from nostril, 89; length of casque at base, 57; tarsus, 49.



302. CRANIORRHINUS WALDENI Sharpe.

WALDEN'S HORNBILL.


    Craniorrhinus waldeni Sharpe, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1877), 1, 322.
    Cranorrhinus waldeni Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17,
    380; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 65; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 56.

    Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Negros (Steere Exp., Keay, Whitehead);
    Panay (Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult male.--Head, neck, and chest dark chestnut, the feathers next
the naked parts of the face and throat inclining to buff; tail white
(stained rufous), the basal third and the tips of the feathers black;
rest of the plumage black, the upper parts glossed with dark green;
naked skin round the eye and on the throat yellow; iris red; legs
and feet black; bill and casque red, except toward the end; base
of the lower mandible covered by a plate with dark-colored oblique
grooves; casque transversely folded. Length, 724; wing, 345; tail,
254; tarsus, 51.

"Adult female.--Differs from the male in having all the plumage of
the head and neck black, and the casque without transverse folds;
naked skin appears to have been black mixed with yellow. Length, 673;
wing, 310; tail, 218; tarsus, 48." (Grant.)

"Hornbills, almost certainly of this species, were seen by the Steere
expedition in Negros, but no specimens were obtained." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



Suborder MEROPES.



Family MEROPIDÆ.


Bill long, slender, pointed, and gently curved downward for its entire
length; a well-defined ridge on culmen; tarsi short and unfeathered;
fourth and third toes united to last joint; second toe united to
middle toe for basal joint only; eggs white, deposited in holes in
sandy ground, the birds usually nesting in colonies.



Genus MEROPS Linnæus, 1758.


Tail moderate, composed of twelve feathers, middle pair slender and
prolonged beyond the others; wing moderately long and pointed, first
primary very short, second longest.



Species.


a1. Mantle and crown chestnut; throat pale green. ... americanus
(p. 340)
a2. Mantle and crown green; throat largely chestnut. ... philippinus
(p. 341)



303. MEROPS AMERICANUS P. L. S. Müller.

CHESTNUT-HEADED BEEBIRD.


    Merops americanus P. L. S. Müller, Natursyst. Suppl. (1776), 95;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 56.
    Merops bicolor Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. (1783), 15; Walden,
    Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9, 150, pl. 26, fig. 1; Sharpe,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 60; Hand-List (1900), 2, 73;
    Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 49.

    Pe-ric', Manila; pi-ley pi-ley, Lubang.

    Bohol (McGregor); Cagayancillo (McGregor); Calamianes (Bourns
    & Worcester); Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (Everett, Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Cresta de Gallo (McGregor); Fuga (McGregor);
    Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Leyte (Everett); Lubang (McGregor); Luzon
    (Meyer, Möllendorff, Everett, Steere Exp., Whitehead, McGregor);
    Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Mindanao (Steere, Murray, Everett, Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester, Celestino, Goodfellow); Mindoro (Steere Exp.,
    Schmacker, McGregor, Porter); Negros (Meyer, Everett, Steere Exp.,
    Bourns & Worcester); Panay (Steere, Bourns & Worcester); Samar
    (Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead); Semirara (Worcester); Sibuyan
    (McGregor); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester).


Adult (sexes alike).--Above, from bill to and including mantle
and sides of neck, bright chestnut; lower back, rump, and upper
tail-coverts clear sky-blue; a band from corner of mouth through eye
to ear-coverts black, bordered below by sky-blue; below apple-green,
lighter posteriorly and more or less mixed with blue; under
tail-coverts light blue; wings and coverts dark green; primaries
and secondaries with dusky tips and dark ocherous-buff inner webs;
long tertials tipped with dark blue; tail above dark cerulean-blue,
the lateral feathers darker than middle pair which are broadly tipped
with black; shafts black, tail brown below. Iris bright red; bill and
nails black; legs dark flesh. Length, including long tail-feathers,
about 300. Three males from Mariveles, Luzon, measure: Wing, 117 to
118; tail, without long feathers, 87; bill from nostril, 34 to 36.

"Young.--Differs from the adult in being duller and greener, the red
of the head being overshaded with green and the mantle and upper back
green; the under surface is paler, the throat and abdomen pale blue
and the breast light green." (Sharpe.)

"Nest.--Nests in level sandy strips of ground. The tunnel is some 50
mm. in diameter at its mouth and at first runs sharply downward. When
a depth of 60 to 90 cm. has been reached it turns and slopes gradually
upward for 120 to 150 cm. of its length, ending in an enlarged chamber
in which the eggs are deposited on the bare sand. The eggs are pure
white and highly polished. They are frequently nearly spherical. They
vary from 21 to 24 in length by 18 to 20 in breadth.

"Sometimes feeds singly, but is more usually found in small flocks, and
at times very large flocks gather, apparently attracted by swarms 36;
tarsus, 11; middle toe with claw, 20. Eight females, length, 267; of
bees. Six males average, 282 in length; wing, 114; tail, 100; culmen,
wing, 112; tail, 91; culmen, 34; tarsus, 11; middle toe with claw,
19." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



304. MEROPS PHILIPPINUS Linnæus.

GREEN-HEADED BEEBIRD.


    Merops philippinus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1766), 1, 183; in
    errata; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 71; Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 74; Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3, 111,
    fig. 31 (head); Meyer and Wiglesworth, Bds. Celebes (1898), 1,
    253, pl. 8, fig. 2 (tail); McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 57; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 51.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Bazol (Everett); Bohol (Everett, McGregor); Cebu (Murray, Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp.);
    Leyte (Everett); Luzon (Meyer, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester);
    Mindanao (Steere, Murray, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Mindoro (McGregor); Negros (Meyer, Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, Keay); Panay (Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester);
    Samar (Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (McGregor); Siquijor (Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Sulu (Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester). Malay and Indian Peninsulas,
    Indo-Chinese Provinces, Ceylon, Celebes, Malayan islands.


Adult (sexes alike).--Above dark green mixed with a little dull
chestnut; occasional touches of blue on head; rump and upper
tail-coverts cerulean-blue; a narrow line of blue across forehead,
ending on each side over posterior border of eye; a broad black band
from nostril through eye to and including ear-coverts; chin light
yellow; a wide chestnut band on throat; breast, sides, and abdomen
green, mixed with ocherous-buff and touches of pale greenish blue;
vent and under tail-coverts delicate sky-blue; wings and tail nearly as
in Merops americanus. Iris red; bill, legs, and nails black. Length,
with a full-grown tail, about 305. Measurements of three males from
Luzon: Wing, 126 to 133; tail, without central pair of feathers, 89
to 93; bill from nostril, 35 to 36. Three females from Luzon: Wing,
124 to 125; tail, without long feathers, 89 to 91; bill from nostril,
31 to 33.

Young.--"Much duller in color generally, with the blue tail and rump
of the adult, but without the blue eyebrow, this being replaced by
a little lighter green shade than on the crown; cheeks pale green;
throat pale brownish." (Sharpe.)

"We can not agree with Dr. Steere that M. philippinus feeds only
singly or in pairs, having repeatedly seen it feeding in large flocks,
and even in company with M. americanus.

"Iris red; legs and feet dark brown; nails and bill black. Six males
average, 255 in length; wing, 122; tail, 94; culmen, 36; tarsus,
11; middle toe with claw, 20. Eight females, length, 240; wing, 124;
tail, 94; culmen, 35; tarsus, 11; middle toe with claw, 18." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



Suborder CAPRIMULGI.


Ten primaries and ten rectrices; wing long and pointed; gape very
wide; bill small and weak; legs and feet moderate and rather weak;
middle toe-nail pectinate; toes with slight webs at base; plumage
soft and mottled; in habits crepuscular and probably nocturnal,
feeding largely on moths and large beetles. The two mottled eggs are
deposited on the bare ground.



Family CAPRIMULGIDÆ.


Characters same as those given for the Suborder.



Subfamily CAPRIMULGINÆ.



Genera.


a1. Rictus without conspicuous bristles; feathers on sides of
occiput elongated, forming ear-tufts; larger, wing more than 250
mm. ... Lyncornis (p. 342)
a2. Rictus armed with strong bristles; no elongated feathers on head;
smaller, wing less than 230 mm. ... Caprimulgus (p. 344)



Genus LYNCORNIS Gould, 1838.


Similar to Caprimulgus but rictal bristles wanting; a conspicuous
ear-tuft on each side of head; no large white spot on primaries.



305. LYNCORNIS MACROTIS (Vigors).

PHILIPPINE EARED NIGHTJAR.


    Caprimulgus macrotis Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1831), 97.
    Lyncornis mindanensis Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1878), 945.
    Lyncornis macrotis Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16,
    605; Grant, Ibis (1894), 519; Whitehead, Ibis (1899), 383; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 81; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906),
    57; McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 284.

    Basilan (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Luzon (Lindsay,
    Möllendorff, Steere Exp., Whitehead, Celestino); Mindanao (Everett,
    Celestino); Mindoro (McGregor, Porter).


Adult (sexes alike).--Head light chocolate-brown, very finely
vermiculated with gray and buff; along middle of head and on ear-tufts
a number of large black spots; lower feathers of ear-tufts pure black;
a rusty collar on neck continued on sides of neck and connected with
the white spot on each side of throat; sides of face and ear-coverts
black, vermiculated with cinnamon; wings, coverts, and back variously
mottled and splotched with black, ocherous-buff, and cinnamon;
scapulars with large black terminal spots; primaries, secondaries,
and lesser coverts black with dark cinnamon vermiculations; a few
of the median coverts with buff spots on tips; rectrices black
with a few irregular mottled bars of dark buff; feathers of lower
parts black, on chin and crop with narrow cross-lines of cinnamon,
on breast tipped with wide bands of dark buff, on abdomen and sides
tipped with narrower bands of light buff; under tail-coverts largely
buff with irregular black cross-lines. "Iris brown; bill clear brown,
tip black; feet clear brown, their scales darker brown." (Celestino.)

Length of a male from Mindoro, 348; wing, 275; tail, 170; exposed
culmen, 10; tarsus, 18; middle toe with claw, 29. Length of a female
from Bataan Province, Luzon, 368; wing, 290; tail, 180; exposed culmen,
9; tarsus, 17; middle toe with claw, 29.

The crown is often largely rufous, again it may be ochraceous and the
variations involve other portions of the plumage. The bars of the tail
are variable, sometimes fairly regular and at other times much broken.

"We obtained a single male specimen of this fine goatsucker in
Basilan. Iris very dark brown; bill black at tip, lighter at base;
eyelids black; legs flesh-color, shading to dark brown on the toes;
nails dirty grayish. Length, 343; wing, 276; tail, 223; tarsus, 16;
middle toe with claw, 29; culmen, 13." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)

"If these two forms [L. macrotis and L. mindanensis], the types of
which are before me, are really distinct species, then both occur
in north Luzon, for out of four specimens of Lyncornis sent by
Mr. Whitehead, three are typical L. macrotis, perfectly similar to
Vigors's bird, and the fourth agrees perfectly with Tweeddale's types
of L. mindanensis. Personally I am inclined to believe that the latter
are merely younger examples of the same species. The darker head and
shorter wing may be characteristic of youth, as it seems unlikely
two closely allied forms should occur in the same locality." (Grant.)

Whitehead thus describes the habits of this species: "Fairly common in
the lower valleys in the mountainous districts of north Luzon. This
species has the pretty habit of its Malay cousin L. temmincki. Just
at the last moment of the tropical day, when the highest heavens
are tinged with the soft light of the setting sun, Lyncornis leaves
its bed among the dead leaves and grass and flies high into the air,
rising and descending with vertically held wings, uttering every now
and then its pretty whistle, 'tet-a-bow, tet-a-bow.' But soon when the
last rays have ceased to gild the sky, it descends to mother earth
to feed on winged insects, its pretty note being then exchanged for
a frog-like croak. Toward sunrise Lyncornis once more rises to the
heavens and utters the same 'tet-a-bow,' but it shortly dives to the
ground, and rests unseen until the evening light again tempts it from
its concealment."



Genus CAPRIMULGUS Linnæus, 1758.


Wings long and pointed, first primary shorter than second; rictal
bristles conspicuous, no ear-tufts on sides of head; males generally
distinguished by having large white spots on wings and tail.



Species.

MALES.


a1. White spot on first primary smaller and not reaching the shaft.

  b1. White spot on outer rectrix subterminal. ... jotaka (p. 349)
  b2. White spot on outer rectrix terminal.

    c1. Spot on outer rectrix on inner web only; spot on second
    primary not reaching the shaft. ... manillensis (p. 346)
    c2. Spot on outer rectrix involving both webs; spot on second
    primary reaching shaft on both webs. ... macrurus (p. 348)


a2. White spot on first primary larger and reaching the
shaft. ... griseatus (p. 344); mindanensis (p. 346)


FEMALES.


a1. A large terminal white spot on tail.

  b1. Larger, length about 290 mm.; a larger terminal white spot across
  both webs of outer rectrix; spot on first primary white and larger,
  on second primary extending to the shaft. ... macrurus (p. 348)
  b2. Smaller, length about 250 mm.; a smaller terminal white
  spot across inner web of outer rectrix; spot on first primary
  buff and smaller; on second primary not extending to the
  shaft. ... manillensis (p. 346)

a2. No terminal white spot on tail which is barred and mottled.

  b1. Smaller; wing less than 180 mm.; spots on primaries much larger,
  whitish and unspeckled. ... griseatus (p. 344); mindanensis (p. 346)
  b2. Larger; wing more than 190 mm.; spots on primaries much smaller,
  buffy and speckled with brown. ... jotaka (p. 349)



306. CAPRIMULGUS GRISEATUS Walden.

PHILIPPINE NIGHTJAR.


    Caprimulgus griseatus Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875), 9, pt. 2,
    160; Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1877), 691; Hartert, Cat. Birds
    Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 550; pl. 11; Grant and Whitehead, Ibis
    (1898), 245, pl. 6, fig. 7 (egg); Clarke, Ibis (1900), 353; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 86; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903),
    3, 67; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 57; Worcester,
    Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 271, pls. 1 & 2.

    Catanduanes (Whitehead); Cebu (McGregor); Luzon (Everett,
    Whitehead, McGregor); Mindanao (Goodfellow); Mindoro (McGregor,
    Porter); Negros (Keay); Sibuyan (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor).


Adult male.--Upper parts finely vermiculated with blackish brown,
pale buff, and gray, more heavily marked with blackish brown on top of
head and on scapulars, some of the latter with wide edges of fulvous
or buff on outer web; an obsolete collar of buff on hind neck; lower
parts finely marked with blackish brown, buff, and whitish buff; a
large white patch on each side of throat; some of the breast-feathers
with rather large, pale buff, terminal spots; lower breast, flanks,
and abdomen buff, rather narrowly barred with brown, less closely
barred posteriorly; under tail-coverts very pale buff or white and
unbarred; inner primaries, primary-coverts, and outer secondaries
strongly barred with rich fulvous; first primary with a large white
spot reaching shaft; second, third, and fourth primaries each with a
buff-margined white spot crossing both webs and involving the included
section of shaft; exposed portion of each of the two outer pairs of
rectrices with a large terminal white area, a dusky wash near the
tip; rectrices barred basally with buff and dark brown. A male from
Mariveles measures: Length, 228; wing, 170; tail, 103; tarsus, 18;
middle toe with claw, 25.

Adult female.--Differs from the male in lacking the terminal white
area on tail-feathers which are barred and mottled with pale buff and
dark brown; on the outer feather there is an ill-defined light buff
area at tip of inner web. A female from Mariveles measures: Length,
228; wing, 164; tail, 100; tarsus, 18; middle toe with claw, 26.

Young.--Upper parts blackish brown, very finely vermiculated with white
and lacking the black blotches and fulvous edges to scapulars which
are present in the adult plumage; under parts about the same shade
of gray as in the adult but more finely and more uniformly mottled
and barred and without fulvous or buff spots on breast; white spots
on throat just indicated; wings and tail similar to the adult.

Eggs.--Whitehead took two eggs of this species at Cape Engaño,
Luzon, May 26, 1895, which he described as follows: "Shape elliptical
oval; ground-color pale creamy white, with very pale lavender-gray
under-markings and very pale brownish over-markings; the blotches and
markings, none of which are very large, are unevenly distributed over
the whole surface; measurements 31 by 22 mm. The eggs were placed on
the sand just above high water mark among sea drift, which, in this
instance, consisted of huge tree trunks. Both birds were seen and
identified beyond doubt." (Grant and Whitehead.)

The gray nightjar appears to be confined to the vicinity of sandy or
shingle beaches and while abundant in the localities where it has been
discovered the species has been recorded from but few islands and the
female and young have been but recently described. The description
of the eggs was published two years before that of the female.

Clarke says with feeling that the female "is not an easy specimen
to describe," but it is much easier to describe a single specimen
than to write anything that will apply to the variations which occur
in the species. In using the descriptions given above considerable
allowance must be made for variation in the shade of buff or fulvous;
this refers particularly to the scattered spots on breast, the broad
edgings of scapulars, and the rusty bars on primaries, primary-coverts,
and secondaries, all of which vary from a light buff (even almost white
on edges of scapulars) to rich fulvous. These variations are probably
due to age, the parts becoming darker with successive molts. In two
females from Mariveles, Luzon, the buff spot on first primary does
not reach the shaft.



307. CAPRIMULGUS MINDANENSIS (Mearns).

MINDANAO NIGHTJAR.


    Caprimulgus affinis mindanensis Mearns,
    Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905), 18, 85.
    Caprimulgus mindanensis McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 57.

    Mindanao (Mearns).


"Adult male.--Similar to Caprimulgus affinis but differing as
follows: General coloration darker. Upper parts hair-brown, finely
vermiculated and dotted with clove-brown, light gray, and black;
scapulars marked with broken spots of cinnamon; first four primaries
barred across their middle with pure white except the outer web of
the first primary, this band varying from 12 to 24 mm. in width on
the differing feathers, widest on the fourth; outer tail-feather white
only on the terminal half, the basal half being cinnamon, clouded and
irregularly cross-banded with brownish black, and the tips of both
webs clouded with brownish black; second feather similar, but with
much less of the dusky clouding at tip; lower abdomen and thigh-coverts
cross-banded with pale sepia-brown; under tail-coverts and anal region
buff, without cross-bands; upper third of tarsus feathered. Length
of skin, 205; wing, 163; tail, 100; culmen, 8; tarsus, 19.

"Individuals vary greatly in the character and size of the punctate
and vermiculate markings of the upper surface. The vague black
cross-bands of the middle pair of tail-feathers are somewhat V-shaped
(open apically), numbering about eight.

"In true affinis, adult males have the outer tail-feather all white,
and the lower abdomen, thigh-coverts, and under tail-coverts 'uniform
pale fulvous buff.' In C. affinis griseatus the bars are spread over
the whole of the lower abdomen, thighs, and lower tail-coverts, and
the color is more grayish rufescent than in C. affinis mindanensis,
which appears to be closest to the form of C. affinis inhabiting
Celebes." (Mearns.)



308. CAPRIMULGUS MANILLENSIS Walden.

MANILA NIGHTJAR.


    Caprimulgus manillensis Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. (1875),
    9, pt. 2, 159; Grant and Whitehead, Ibis (1898), 246 (eggs);
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 86; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1903), 3, 68, pl. 11, fig. 9; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 57.
    Caprimulgus manillensis Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892),
    16, 544.

    Tuc-ca-ró, Masbate and Ticao.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Basilan (Everett); Bohol (McGregor); Cebu
    (McGregor); Luzon (Cuming, Steere Exp., Whitehead, McGregor);
    Masbate (McGregor); Mindanao (Everett, Goodfellow); Mindoro
    (McGregor, Porter); Negros (Keay); Palawan (Platen); Romblon
    (McGregor); Ticao (McGregor).


Male.--General coloration and pattern very much as in C. macrurus;
post-auricular area and band on hind neck light buff; white area on
throat divided, forming two patches; fore breast darker with no rufous;
barring on abdomen and under tail-coverts broken, resulting from the
larger light tips. The following characters are diagnostic; white spot
on first primary washed with buff, small and reaching but half way to
shaft; spot on second quill a little larger, not reaching shaft and
a narrow line indicates spot on outer web; spots on third and fourth
quills reaching shaft on both webs and on the fourth the included
section of shaft nearly all white; outer pair of rectrices with white
area about 32 mm. in length and on inner web only; second pair with
white area across both webs. A male from Romblon measures: Length,
255; wing, 170; tail, 125; tarsus, 15; middle toe with claw, 24.

Female.--Spots on first and second primaries dark fulvous; spot on
third primary not reaching shaft; otherwise like the male. A female
from Romblon measures: Length, 255; wing, 167; tail, 115; tarsus,
15; middle toe with claw, 24.

Young.--Upper parts very much as in the adult, but the blackish brown
spots on head and scapulars greatly reduced in size; as a whole the
upper parts are dark silvery gray; white throat patches wanting, being
indicated by two small buff areas; feathers of breast vermiculated
with light brown and light buff with lighter buff tips; abdomen and
flanks light fulvous, distinctly barred with brown; the partially
developed wings and tail with markings as in the adult.

Eggs.--A set of two eggs collected May 22, 1895, by Whitehead near
Cape Engaño, Cagayan Province, Luzon, are described as follows:
"Shape elliptical oval; ground-color pale cream; under-markings
pale lavender-gray; irregularly blotched over-markings pale brown,
but darker than in C. griseatus. In one egg the over-markings are
almost wanting, being reduced to one or two blotches. Measurements
29 mm. by 22." (Grant and Whitehead.)

The Manila nightjar is the most common species of its genus in the
Islands and has a considerable vertical range, being found in the
pine woods of Benguet Province as well as in the lowlands and near the
sea. Its food consists largely of moths and beetles which it takes on
the wing. During the day it rests in dark thickets and comes out to
feed only after sunset. Its presence in a locality may be detected
by hearing its peculiar note which has given it the Tagalog name
"tucaroc."



309. CAPRIMULGUS MACRURUS Horsfield.

HORSFIELD'S NIGHTJAR.


    Caprimulgus macrurus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13,
    pt. 1, 142; Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 537; Sharpe,
    Hand-List (1900), 2, 87; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906),
    57; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 68, pl. 1, fig. 8.

    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Palawan (Whitehead,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Papuan Islands,
    northeastern Australia, Greater Sunda Islands, Java.


Male.--Forehead, crown, and nape grayish brown, finely vermiculated
with buff and brown, producing a nearly silvery appearance; down the
center of head to nape the feathers conspicuously marked with blackish
brown; an indistinct fulvous band across hind-neck connecting with a
bright fulvous patch on each side behind ear-coverts; back and rump
mottled with dark brown and a little fulvous; a large white patch on
throat, the longer feathers tipped with black, subterminally marked
with fulvous; sides of face, ear-coverts, chin, and a small area
posterior of white patch rich rufous with fine irregular black lines;
lower throat rufous, mottled with black; breast finely marked with
blackish brown and pale fulvous, a few feathers with large patches of
fulvous; abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts barred with brown;
wing-coverts blackish, each with a light fulvous terminal spot;
scapulars with black terminal spots and narrow fulvous subterminal
bars; white spot on first primary moderate and not reaching
shaft; on second, third, and fourth the white crosses both webs;
secondaries notched with dark rufous; tail-feathers blackish brown,
outer webs notched with fulvous; two outer pairs each with a large
white terminal area about 38 mm. long, involving both webs. A male
from Puerto Princesa, Palawan, measures: Length, 265; wing, 180;
tail, 140; tarsus, 16; middle toe with claw, 24.

"Female.--Differs from the adult male in having the outer web of
first primary spotted with rufous, in having pale rufous marks on
the primaries instead of white ones, in the white tips to the outer
rectrices being less in extent and tinged with buff or rufous,
speckled with brown on the tip of outer web.

"Young.--The markings are less developed in younger individuals;
the young male has the white patches on the primaries and rectrices
tinged with rufous and less in extent. The nestling is covered with
buffy down." (Hartert.)

"Iris dark brown, bill nearly black; legs and feet brown; nails
black. A male from Busuanga measures, 263 in length; wing, 184; tail,
135; culmen, 13; middle toe with claw, 22. A female from Palawan,
length, 250; wing, 222; tail, 135; culmen, 13; tarsus, 14; middle
toe with claw, 22." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



310. CAPRIMULGUS JOTAKA Temminck and Schlegel.

JAPANESE NIGHTJAR.


    Caprimulgus jotaka Temminck and Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Aves
    (1847), 37, pl. 12; Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16,
    552; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 88; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 57; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903),
    3, 74, pl. 1, fig. 14.

    Calayan (McGregor); Palawan (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino,
    White). Northeastern Siberia, China, Japan, Indo-Chinese provinces;
    in winter to New Guinea, Malay Peninsula, Greater Sunda Islands.


"Adult male.--Above gray, finely penciled with brown, with broad
black stripes along the top of the head, back, and rump; scapulars
with velvety black centers or spots and buff or rufous-buff spots
or bar-like markings; wing-coverts with roundish buff spots speckled
with brown; some longitudinal buff spots on the hind neck; a golden
buff spot on each side of neck, just behind ear-coverts; primaries
deep blackish brown, outer webs with some minute rufous spots, inner
web of first primary with a round white spot, not reaching shaft, a
white band across both webs of next three; central pair of rectrices
deep blackish brown, with broad pale grayish brown, dark speckled bars,
the others with narrower bands, becoming more rufous on the outer ones,
and all, except central pair, with a broad subterminal white bar; a
white band across throat, interrupted at center and variegated on lower
edge with ferruginous buff and blackish spots; throat pale rufous-buff
with brown cross-markings; chest and upper breast pale grayish brown,
with dark markings and some more or less developed larger buff spots;
abdomen buff, barred with dark brown, the bars becoming broader and
less numerous on lower tail-coverts which are sometimes nearly uniform;
rictal bristles dark toward the base. Length, 279; wing, 203 to 221;
tail, 140 to 147; tarsus, 16; feathered in front.

"Adult female.--Similar to the male, but a little smaller on the
average; spots on primaries buff and speckled, band on second primary
always interrupted; spots on throat buff; tail-feathers without a
distinct white band.

"Young.--Young individuals are paler above and below, the dark
markings less developed, and pervaded with a sandy rufous tinge;
the young male shows already the white spots of the adult male, but
they are shaded with buff and that on the second quill is a little
interrupted." (Hartert.)

Worcester and Bourns took a male of this species in Palawan in
December, 1891. It was 260 in length; wing, 212; tail, 128; culmen,
12; tarsus, 14; middle toe with claw, 22. The second Philippine
specimen was shot by my assistant in Calayan Island, the last day
of 1903. This specimen measures: Length, 260; wing, 210; tail, 127;
tarsus, 15; middle toe with claw, 21. Bill and legs brown; nails black;
the stomach contained several beetles and a large mantis.

The species appears to be a migrant from Asia and although not uncommon
in Calayan we secured but one specimen. The male is distinguished from
the other Philippine species by having a subterminal white tail-band;
the female is distinguished from the females of C. manillensis
and C. macrurus by the lack of a large white tail-spot and from
C. griseatus by the much darker plumage and larger size.



Suborder MICROPODII.


Bill small and weak, the gape deeply cleft; rictal bristles not
obvious; legs and toes small and weak; middle toe-nail not pectinate;
tarsus very short; tail short to moderately long, either square or
forked, and not reaching the tips of the folded wings. Diurnal in
habits; eggs pure white, two in number; nest composed of sticks and
moss, or else wholly or in part of a salivary secretion.



Families.


a1. Culmen equal to tarsus or greater; tufts of elongated feathers
above and below eye. ... Hemiprocniidæ (p. 350)
a2. Culmen decidedly less than tarsus; no elongated feathers anywhere
on head. ... Micropodidæ (p. 351)



Family HEMIPROCNIIDÆ.


Swift-like; wings long and pointed, tail deeply forked; feet stout;
tarsus shorter than middle toe without claw; colors largely blue and
brown with a slight metallic gloss; plumage of the sexes dissimilar;
at once distinguished from any nearly related family by the elongated
white feathers above and below eye. Habits more flycatcher-like
than swift-like.



Genus HEMIPROCNE Nitzsch, 1829. [40]


Characters same as those given for the Family.



311. HEMIPROCNE MAJOR (Hartert).

PHILIPPINE WHISKERED SWIFT.


    Macropteryx comata Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16,
    517 (part). Macropteryx major Hartert, Novit. Zool. (1897), 4,
    11; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 89; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 58.

    Basilan (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Cebu
    (Everett, Bourns & Worcester); Guimaras (Steere Exp.); Luzon
    (Meyer, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead, McGregor);
    Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao
    (Steere, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Goodfellow);
    Mindoro (Steere Exp., Schmacker, McGregor, Porter); Negros (Steere,
    Bourns & Worcester, Keay, Whitehead); Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Samar (Bourns & Worcester); Sibutu (Everett); Sulu
    (Guillemard, Bourns & Worcester); Tablas (Bourns & Worcester);
    Tawi Tawi (Bourns & Worcester).


Adult male.--Lores deep black; ear-coverts chestnut; a broad white
stripe from base of culmen, continued over eye and running out in
elongated feathers to nape; a similar white line under ear-coverts,
continued from the large white chin-patch; remainder of head and throat
dark metallic blue; back, rump, upper tail-coverts, breast, and sides
of body bronze-brown; middle of abdomen and under tail-coverts white;
wings and tail dark metallic blue; innermost secondaries white. Iris
dark brown; bill and legs black. A male from Mariveles, Luzon,
measures: Wing, 140; tail, 80; tarsus, 6.

Adult female.--Like the male but ear-coverts metallic blue instead
of chestnut. A female from Irisan, Benguet, Luzon, measures: Wing,
140; tail, 81; tarsus, 6.

"Curiously local in its habits. Perches in the same place day after
day, taking short flights from time to time in pursuit of insects. The
ground under its favorite perch is usually covered with excrement. Five
males average, 148 in length; wing, 129; tail, 73; culmen, 6; tarsus,
7; middle toe with claw, 12. Two females are somewhat larger, measuring
160 in length; wing, 136; tail, 81; culmen, 6; tarsus, 7; middle toe
with claw, 13." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Family MICROPODIDÆ.


Wing long, pointed, and when closed extending far beyond the end
of tail; bill small and weak but gape very wide; legs and feet very
small and weak; plumage mostly black or dark brown, slightly glossy,
often with patches or mottlings of white; small birds capable of
long continued flight; nests usually placed in caves or fastened to
cliffs or houses; eggs two, white and unspotted. Certain species of
the genus Collocalia vel Salangana make the edible nests of commerce
and nest in great colonies. Birds of this family are wide ranging
and one or more species may be expected to occur in any island of
the Philippine group. Of the genera, Tachornis may be recognized by
its deeply forked tail; Chætura by its sharp, stiff tail-feathers;
Collocalia by its square, or nearly square, tail without spines;
Micropus by its white throat and tail without spines.



Subfamilies.


a1. Tarsi unfeathered or with a few feathers only; tail square or
but slightly forked; toes arranged normally, three in front one
behind. ... Chæturinæ (p. 352)
a2. Tarsi distinctly feathered; tail decidedly or even deeply forked;
all the toes directed forward. ... Micropodinæ (p. 360)



Subfamily CHÆTURINÆ.



Genera.


a1. Shafts of rectrices ordinary and without spinous tips; wing less
than 140 mm. ... Collocalia (p. 352)
a2. Shafts of rectrices stiff and extending in a sharp point beyond
the web; wing more than 150 mm. ... Chætura (p. 357)



Genus COLLOCALIA Gray, 1840. [41]


Hind toe directed backward and only partially reversible; tail
short, square or but slightly forked; shafts of rectrices normal,
not extending beyond the webs. This genus includes numerous small
swifts, several of which build the edible nests of commerce.



Species.


a1. Larger; wing, 115 mm. or more; under parts brown; no white
on abdomen.

  b1. Without whitish or grayish band across rump.

    c1. Tail square; tarsi unfeathered. ... lowi (p. 352)
    c2. Tail slightly forked.

      d1. Tarsi entirely devoid of feathers.

        e1. Above lighter and more brownish; below lighter, throat
        paler. ... whiteheadi (p. 353)
        e2. Above darker, and more blackish; below darker and more
        uniform. ... origenis (p. 353)

      d2. Tarsi sparsely feathered. ... fuciphaga (p. 354)

  b2. A whitish or grayish band across rump. ... germani (p. 355)

a2. Smaller; wing, 106 mm. or less; lower parts mottled with white;
middle of belly extensively white.

  b1. A white band across the rump. ... troglodytes (p. 355)
  b2. Without white band on rump.

    c1. Upper tail-coverts margined with white. ... marginata (p. 356)
    c2. Upper tail-coverts concolorous with back. ... isonota (p. 357)



312. COLLOCALIA LOWI (Sharpe).

LOW'S SWIFTLET.


    Cypselus lowi Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1879), 333.
    Collocalia lowi Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 498;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 89; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs
    (1903), 3, 75; Oberholser, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1906),
    58, 190.
    Salangana lowi McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 58.

    Palawan (Everett, Whitehead, Steere Exp.). Northern Borneo,
    Anamba Islands, accidental in Sumatra and on Nias Island.


Adult.--"Upper surface sooty black with a little greenish gloss,
somewhat purplish on the tail; lower surface brownish gray, with
somewhat darker shaft-stripes; feathers in front of eye white, broadly
tipped with black; under wing-coverts blackish. Length, about 127;
bill at base, 5; wing, 135; tail, 51; nearly quite even; tarsus, 102;
thinly but obviously feathered if not abraded by the string of the
label." (Hartert.)

Young.--Similar to the adult.

Everett found nesting colonies of Low's swiftlet in Palawan and in
northern Borneo during the month of October; the nests were made of
moss and were fastened to the walls of caves with dry saliva.



313. COLLOCALIA WHITEHEADI Grant.

WHITEHEAD'S SWIFTLET.


    Collocalia whiteheadi Grant, Ibis (1895), 459; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 89; Oberholser, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1906),
    58, 192.
    Salangana whiteheadi McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 58.
    Collocalia unicolor amelis Oberholser,
    Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1906), 58, 193.

    Bantayan (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Bohol (McGregor);
    Cagayancillo (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Luzon (Whitehead,
    McGregor); Mindoro (McGregor, Porter); Sibuyan (McGregor); Palawan
    (Whitehead, White); Verde (McGregor).


Adult.--Similar to Collocalia lowi in coloration but slightly larger
with the tail distinctly forked and the tarsi entirely devoid
of plumes. Iris brown; bill and nails black; legs dark reddish
brown. Measurements from ten skins of each sex from Irisan, Benguet
Province, are: Males, wing, pressed flat against the rule, 119 to 125;
tail, 46 to 51; depth of fork, 5 to 8. Females, wing, 118 to 125;
tail, 48 to 56; depth of fork, 6 to 9.

Young.--Nestling; similar to the adult but more sooty above and
lacking the green gloss; lower parts grayer. Iris dark brown; bill
and nails black; legs pale flesh.

Nest.--In Benguet Province, Luzon, eggs and nestlings were found in
June. The nests were made of green moss and placed in a water-worn
cave. The eggs are pure white. Two specimens measure, respectively,
22.3 by 13.9 and 23.6 by 14.2.



314. COLLOCALIA ORIGENIS Oberholser.

MINDANAO SWIFTLET.


    Collocalia origenis Oberholser,
    Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1906), 58, 191.

    Mindanao (Mearns, Celestino).


Adult.--"Upper surface uniform brownish black, the rump not lighter
but wings and the distinctly forked tail more brownish, their feathers
paler along the inner margins; entire ventral surface uniform smoky
hair-brown, the throat not paler; sides of head and neck darker brown
than the under parts; a blackish spot in front of the eye; lining of
wing blackish brown.

"In its large size, deeply emarginate tail, and lack of tarsal
feathering Collocalia origenis agrees with Collocalia whiteheadi,
but is readily distinguishable by the dark colors, particularly on the
upper parts which are even more blackish than in Collocalia fuciphaga
from the Philippines."

Oberholser gives measurements of two males as follows: Wing, 129, 138;
tail, 53, 60; exposed culmen, 6, 5.5; tarsus, 13, 14. Two females:
Wing, 134, 130; tail, 51, 54; exposed culmen, 5.5; tarsus, 12.5, 14.

"This new species was discovered by Doctor Mearns during his recent
trip to the Island of Mindanao, the four adults obtained having
been brought by natives who had found them in a cave on Mount
Apo." (Oberholser.)



315. COLLOCALIA FUCIPHAGA (Thunberg).

THUNBERG'S SWIFTLET.


    Hirundo fuciphaga Thunberg, K. Vet. Acad. Nya Handl., (1812),
    33, 153, pl. 4.
    Collocalia fuciphaga Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16,
    498; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 89; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1903), 3, 75.
    Salangana fuciphaga McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 58.
    Collocalia fuciphaga fuciphaga Oberholser,
    Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1906), 58, 185.

    Cebu (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Luzon (Whitehead,
    Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Mindoro (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Negros (Everett, Steere Exp., Whitehead);
    Palawan (Whitehead, Steere Exp.); Panay (Steere Exp., Bourns
    & Worcester). Nias, Java, Borneo, Natuna Islands, Mariana and
    Caroline Islands, New Guinea, Duke of York, Friendly and Loyalty
    Islands.


Adult.--Very similar to Collocalia whiteheadi but the tarsi distinctly
feathered. Hartert gives the following description and measurements:
"Upper surface dark sooty brown with very little gloss; head,
wings, and tail darker and more glossy; feathers in front of the
eye whitish with dark brown tips; lower surface brownish gray with
darker shaft-stripes; under wing-coverts blackish brown. Total length,
about 114; bill at base, 4; wing, 112 to 119; tail, 56. The young
bird is like the adult in plumage." (Hartert.)

"Two males measure, 120 in length; wing, 107; tail, 46; culmen, 6;
tarsus, 7; middle toe with claw, 9. Two females: Wing, 116; tail,
48; culmen, 6; tarsus, 10; middle toe with claw, 7. Bill, feet,
and nails black, legs light brown." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



316. COLLOCALIA GERMANI Oustalet.

OUSTALET'S SWIFTLET.


    Collocalia germani Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (1876), 1-3.
    Collocalia francica Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 503
    (part); Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 90 (part); Oates and Reid,
    Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 76 (part).
    Salangana francica McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 58.
    Collocalia francica inexpectata Mearns,
    Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905), 18, 90.
    Collocalia francica germani Oberholser,
    Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1906), 58, 201.

    Ca-li-pat'-pat, Cuyo; sa-lin-ba-bá-tang, Cagayancillo.

    Cagayancillo (McGregor); Cagayan Sulu (McGregor, Mearns);
    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester, McGregor); Cebu (Steere
    Exp.); Cuyo (McGregor); Negros (Steere Exp.); Panay (Bourns &
    Worcester). Mergui Archipelago; Tenasserim; Malay Peninsula;
    Siam; Candore Island; Cochin China.


Adult.--Similar to Collocalia whiteheadi but easily recognized by
the whitish or smoky gray band across rump; shafts of rump-feathers
darker; tarsi unfeathered.

Young.--Probably the young bird is much like the adult, as with other
species of the genus.

"Four males from Culion measure, 112 in length; wing, 115; tail, 50;
culmen, 5; tarsus, 9; middle toe with claw, 9. Iris dark brown; legs
and feet light brown; bill and nails black." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



317. COLLOCALIA TROGLODYTES Gray.

PYGMY SWIFTLET.


    Collocalia troglodytes Gray, Gen. Birds (1845), 1, 55, pl. 19;
    Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 507; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 90; Oberholser, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1906),
    58, 202.
    Salangana troglodytes McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 59.

    Bú-ta bú-ta and sai-aó, Bohol, also used for Salvadori's swiftlet.

    Banton (Celestino); Bohol (McGregor); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Guimaras (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester); Leyte
    (Whitehead); Luzon (Jagor, Bourns & Worcester); Marinduque (Steere
    Exp.); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindanao (Everett, Celestino);
    Mindoro (Bourns & Worcester); Negros (Steere Exp., Bourns &
    Worcester); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen, Bourns & Worcester,
    White); Panay (Steere, Bourns & Worcester); Romblon (Bourns &
    Worcester, McGregor); Samar (Bourns & Worcester); Sibuyan (Bourns
    & Worcester, McGregor); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester, Celestino);
    Ticao (McGregor).


Adult.--Above glossy black, bases of feathers smoky brown; across the
rump a white band 5 mm. wide, the shaft of each feather dusky; chin and
sides of face and neck dusky brown; feathers in front of eye white with
dusky tips; feathers of throat, breast, and abdomen with white tips
and dusky bases and shaft-lines, producing a mottled appearance, the
white predominating on the abdomen; under tail-coverts glossy black.

"Very common throughout the Islands. Builds edible nests. Nests always
in caves, and composed chiefly or entirely of secretion from the mouths
of the birds. When the birds are persistently robbed, however, they
seem to become discouraged, and mix in grass, stems of small plants,
moss, etc. Two or three white eggs are deposited. They measure:
15.2 to 17.7 by 10.1 to 10.9. Fourteen males from Siquijor average,
92 in length; wing, 92; tail, 41; culmen, 4; tarsus, 8; middle toe
with claw, 9. Bill, legs, and feet black." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



318. COLLOCALIA MARGINATA Salvadori.

SALVADORI'S SWIFTLET.


    Collocalia marginata Salvadori, Atti. R. Acad. Sci. Torino
    (1882), 17, 448; Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892),
    16, 508; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 90; Oberholser,
    Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1906), 58, 203.
    Collocalia cebuensis Kutter, Jour. für Orn. (1882), 171.
    Salangana marginata McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 59.

    Ni-do and sa-lum-pi-ping-ao, Calayan.

    Babuyan Claro (McGregor); Banton (Celestino); Bohol (McGregor);
    Calayan (McGregor); Camiguin N. (McGregor); Cebu (Koch, McGregor);
    Luzon (Othberg, McGregor); Masbate (Bourns & Worcester); Mindoro
    (McGregor); Polillo (Ickis [42]); Sibuyan (McGregor); Tablas
    (Celestino).


Adult.--Above very dark glossy green, short upper tail-coverts margined
with pure white; feathers in front of eye white with dusky tips; sides
of head, neck, and chin mouse-gray; feathers of throat with narrow
white edges, posteriorly the white edges gradually increase in width
so that the abdomen is almost entirely white; under tail-coverts dark
glossy green with narrow white margins; under wing-coverts narrowly
edged with white. Iris, bill, toes, and nails black; tarsi dark
flesh. Length, about 96. Five specimens of each sex from Calayan
measure: Males, wing, 102 to 107; tail, 40 to 46; females, wing,
102 to 105; tail, 41 to 42.

Young.--Two nestlings from Sibuyan are like the adult in plumage
except that the white edges to the upper tail-coverts are but just
indicated. Bill and nails black; legs pale flesh.

Nest.--Nests in small colonies, fastening the nests to the face of
a rock. The nest is composed of blackish brown hair-moss and held
together by the characteristic glutenous saliva. The eggs do not
differ from others of this genus being two in number and pure white
in color. The eggs of a set collected in Sibuyan, June 11, 1904,
measure 18.2 by 10.9 and 17 by 11.6 mm.

This species has been very rare in collections; the only specimen in
the British Museum in 1892 was a skin of doubtful locality collected
by von Othberg. We have met with it on several islands; in Sibuyan
and Calayan it was extremely abundant.



319. COLLOCALIA ISONOTA (Oberholser).

OBERHOLSER'S SWIFTLET.


    Collocalia linchi Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 90 (part); Oates
    and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 77 (part).
    Salangana linchi McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 59.
    Collocalia linchi isonota Oberholser,
    Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1906), 58, 208.

    Pi-ping-aú, Benguet.

    Bongao (Everett); Luzon (Whitehead, McGregor); Mindanao (Koch &
    Schadenberg); Mindoro (McGregor, Porter).


Adult.--About the size of and very much like Collocalia marginata
but without white margins to tail-coverts, and with more white on
the abdomen.

Young.--The young bird resembles the adult in plumage but the tarsi
are flesh-color.

Nest.--Composed of moss or lichens and placed on the ground in the
protection of grass or ferns. Two eggs measure 22.3 by 13.9 and 21.5
by 13.9.



Genus CHÆTURA Stephens, 1826.


Size large, length 100 to 200 mm. or even more; shafts of tail-feathers
very stiff and extending a short distance beyond the webs; claws
strong and curved. Birds of this genus are very strong and steady in
flight and usually feed high in the air.



Species.


a1. Much larger; length, over 200 mm.; chin and throat black.

  b1. No white spot on side of forehead. ... gigantea (p. 357)
  b2. A large white spot on each side of forehead.

    c1. Under wing-coverts uniform dark brown. ... celebensis (p. 358)
    c2. Under wing-coverts edged with white. ... dubia (p. 359)

a2. Much smaller; length, less than 120 mm.; chin and throat
white. ... picina (p. 359)



320. CHÆTURA GIGANTEA (Temminck).

GIANT SPINE-TAILED SWIFT.


    Cypselus giganteus Temminck, Pl. Col. (1825), 364.
    Chætura gigantea Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 475;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 91; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1906), 59.

    Calamianes (Worcester, Celestino); Palawan (Whitehead, Platen,
    Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino, White). Sumatra,
    Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo.


Adult.--Forehead, crown, nape, sides of head and neck, wings and tail
black with very dark steel-blue gloss; lores deep black; remainder
of plumage deep smoky brown, except under tail-coverts and a patch
on lower flank which are white; shafts of under tail-coverts dark
brown. A male from Palawan measures: Length, 239; wing, 203; tail,
67; exposed culmen, 10; tarsus, 17. A female from Culion measures:
Length, 229; wing, 200; tail, 68; exposed culmen, 9; tarsus, 16.

Worcester and Celestino collected a large series of giant swifts in
Culion and Palawan. I have seen large swifts in Benguet Province and
in Calayan, and Worcester observed a large flock in northern Luzon
which may have been either C. gigantea or C. dubia.



321. CHÆTURA CELEBENSIS (Sclater).

CELEBES SPINE-TAILED SWIFT.


    Chætura gigantea var. celebensis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1865),
    608.
    Chætura celebensis Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16,
    467; Meyer and Wiglesworth, Bds. Celebes (1898), 1, 329, pl. 12;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 91; Clarke, Ibis (1894), 533; Mearns,
    Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. (1905), 18, 185; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 59.

    Basilan (Mearns); Negros (Keay).  Celebes.


Adult.--"Deep steel-blue, back and rump with purple gloss; two white
spots on the sides of the forehead; sides of the abdomen and under
tail-coverts white. In size similar to C. gigantea." (Hartert.)

Clarke gives the following notes on a specimen obtained in Negros:
"The back is an admixture of dark brown, or brownish black, and deep
steel-blue, each feather having a broad subterminal band of blue with
an edging of dark brown, which conceals the blue to a considerable
extent, so that the brown predominates. The tail and secondaries are
glossed with green and blue in about equal proportions. Length, 241;
wing, 216; tail, 73; tarsus, 18."

"Female.--A specimen in the Sarasin Collection marked '[female]
juv.' (but we can not see any signs of immaturity) answers to
Mr. Hartert's description of the species, except that the lores are
reddish brown not white. Wing, 208; tail, 63; tarsus, 16; bill from
nostril, 6." (Meyer and Wiglesworth.)

Mearns gives the following measurements of two males from Basilan:
"Length, 240, 255; wing, 215; tail, 75; bill from frontal feathers
(chord), 8.5, 9.6; bill from anterior margin of nostril, 6.1, 7.1;
tarsus, 19, 20; middle toe with claw, 22.5."

But six specimens of this large swift are known, three from Celebes,
one from Negros, and two from Basilan.



322. CHÆTURA DUBIA McGregor.

PHILIPPINE SPINE-TAILED SWIFT.


    Chætura dubia McGregor, Bur. Govt. Lab. Manila (1905), 34, 15,
    pl. 12; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 59.

    Mindoro (McGregor).


Adult.--General color blackish brown; back and rump noticeably
lighter, being light seal-brown, each feather with a subterminal,
more or less concealed area or band of bluish violet; head and body
shot with bluish violet gloss, strongest on chin, throat, breast,
and sides of head and neck; a large white patch on each side between
nostril and lores; crissum white, each feather blackish brown at its
base, the long tail-coverts with edges also blackish brown except
near tip; extending diagonally upward and forward on each flank,
a wide white stripe connected with the white crissum behind as in
Chætura gigantea; exposed edges of wing-feathers black, inner webs
of primaries largely light brown; inner webs of alula, primary- and
secondary-coverts shot with greenish blue gloss; tertiaries greenish
blue; lining of wing brown, each feather bordered with dirty white
which has its greatest extent on innermost feather; axillars dark
brown, shot with bluish violet gloss, exposed portion of tail blackish,
the concealed basal portion glossed with green and blue. Bill black;
iris brown; legs and feet reddish flesh; nails light brown.

Male: Length, 229; wing, 220; tail, 64; bill from frontal feathers,
10; bill from anterior margin of nostril, 7; tarsus, 18. Female:
Length, 234; wing, 218; tail, 64; bill from frontal feathers, 10;
bill from anterior margin of nostril, 7; tarsus, 18.

This fine species is known from the type specimens, a pair taken
on the Baco River, Mindoro. It requires comparison with Chætura
celebensis. The following notes probably refer to Chætura dubia:

"We think it probable that C. gigantea will eventually be found in
Mindoro. We repeatedly saw a very large swift in that island, but
it always kept well out of range. We thought it to be C. gigantea
but could not, of course, be at all sure. On our first trip we found
C. gigantea flying low over the mangrove swamps in Palawan and had
no special difficulty in securing specimens. On our second trip,
however, we were less fortunate, as the few individuals that we saw
kept out of range." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



323. CHÆTURA PICINA Tweeddale.

TWEEDDALE'S SPINE-TAILED SWIFT.


    Chætura picina Tweeddale, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1878), 944, pl. 59;
    Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 487; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 92; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 59.

    Leyte (Whitehead); Mindanao (Everett).


Adult.--"Black with a blue gloss, greenish in some lights;
chin, throat, and larger under wing-coverts pure white. Wing,
161; tail, 32." (Tweeddale.) "Iris dark brown; bill black; legs
lead-gray." (Whitehead.)

This species is known only from the type, a female collected near
Zamboanga, Mindanao, and from three specimens taken in Leyte by
Whitehead.



Subfamily MICROPODINÆ.



Genera.


a1. Smaller; toes all directed forward, but in pairs, two toes
on each side of the median tarsal line; plumage nearly uniform
brown. ... Tachornis (p. 360)
a2. Larger; toes all directed forward and at equal intervals; chin,
throat, and rump white. ... Micropus (p. 361)



Genus TACHORNIS Gosse, 1847.


Toes all directed forward, in pairs, two toes on each side of the
median tarsal line, none of them reversible; tail deeply forked,
its feathers narrow; plumage nearly uniform in color without white
markings.



324. TACHORNIS PALLIDIOR McGregor.

PALER PALM SWIFT.


    Tachornis infumatus McGregor, Bull. Philippine Mus. (1903), 1, 5.
    Tachornis pallidior McGregor, Bur. Govt. Lab. (1904), 25, 27;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 59.

    Bohol (McGregor); Cebu (McGregor); Luzon (McGregor); Mindanao
    (Celestino); Ticao (McGregor).


Adult.--Upper parts dark brown; nearly black on head, neck, and back
which have a faint green gloss; feathers of rump and upper tail-coverts
lighter brown and narrowly fringed with gray in unworn plumage, the
tail-coverts with dark shafts; wing-feathers blackish brown, glossy on
outer webs; short primaries narrowly edged with white on inner webs;
tail of the same color as wings; sides of head brown; chin and throat
light drab-gray, merging gradually into the dark drab-gray of the lower
breast and abdomen where the feathers are narrowly edged with whitish;
stiff feathers in front of eye white with brown tips. Length in flesh,
114; wing, 119; lateral rectrices, 50; central rectrices, 31.

This species is easily recognized by the deeply-forked tail and
peculiar paired toes; it is a near relative of Tachornis infumata from
which it differs chiefly in having a paler chin and throat. It has
been found in small numbers in the islands from which it is recorded.



Genus MICROPUS Meyer and Wolfe, 1810. [43]


Tarsus well feathered in front; outer toes more or less reversible;
claws strong; tail decidedly forked; rectrices pointed but not stiff;
nostril opening oval with a median septum which is not plainly seen
in the dry specimen.



Species.


a1. Larger; wing, more than 160 mm.; feathers of breast tipped with
white. ... pacificus (p. 361)
a2. Smaller; wing, less than 150 mm.; feathers of breast uniform
blackish. ... subfurcatus (p. 362)



325. MICROPUS PACIFICUS (Latham).

WHITE-RUMPED SWIFT.


    Hirundo pacifica Latham, Index Orn. Suppl. (1801), 58.
    Micropus pacificus Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 16, 448.
    Cypselus pacificus Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 96; McGregor,
    Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 339 and 346, pls. 4 & 5,
    fig. 1; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 81.

    Batan (McGregor, Mearns); Camiguin N. (McGregor). Eastern Siberia,
    China, Japan, Formosa, Burmese provinces, Assam, Manipur; in
    winter to Australia.


Adult.--General color blackish brown; a broad rump-band white, its
feathers with brown shafts; upper parts with a slight oil-green gloss;
loral feathers white with black tips; chin and throat white with narrow
dusky shaft-lines; sides of head and neck light dingy brown; under
parts and under wing-coverts brown, each feather with a wide white
fringe and a deep brown subterminal band; under tail-coverts narrowly
fringed with white. Iris brown; bill and nails black; feet blackish
brown. Length, 184 to 190. A male measures: Wing, 182; tail, 77;
depth of fork, 29; bill from frontal feathers, 7. A female measures:
Wing, 178; tail, 77; depth of fork, 29; bill from frontal feathers, 8.

This handsome swift was observed in large numbers on Batan Island and
all of our specimens were killed within the town of Santo Domingo
de Basco. Near the summit of Mount Araya (1,160 meters) numbers of
these birds were seen in their graceful and powerful flight.



326. MICROPUS SUBFURCATUS (Blyth).

LESSER WHITE-RUMPED SWIFT.


    Cypselus subfurcatus Blyth, Jour. As. Soc. Beng. (1849), 18, 807;
    Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3, 169; Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 96; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 82;
    McGregor, Phil. Jour. Sci. (1907), 2, sec. A, 346, pls. 4 & 5,
    fig. 2.
    Micropus subfurcatus Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892),
    16, 456.

    Camiguin N. (McGregor). Northeastern Bengal, Indo-Chinese
    provinces, southern China, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo.


Adult.--Very similar to Cypselus pacificus but much smaller; under
parts darker, more blackish brown and the feathers without white
fringes.

"Bill black; iris dark brown; legs and feet varying from deep purplish
black to flesh-color. Length, about 146; tail, 51; wing, 140; tarsus,
10; outer rectrices, 7, longer than middle pair." (Blanford.)

A female from Camiguin, north of Luzon, measures: Wing, 136; tail,
52; depth of fork, 8; bill from frontal feathers, 7.

The only known Philippine specimen was shot from a flock of Micropus
pacificus on Camiguin Island, north of Luzon.



Order TROGONES.

TROGONS.


First and second toes reversed; the other two toes united for
two-thirds of their length.



Family TROGONIDÆ.


Bill short, strong, and wide; culmen curved; a notch at tip of upper
mandible; nostrils covered by well-developed bristles; face partly
naked; wings short and curved to the body; first primary about one-half
of fifth which is longest; tail long and broad, square at the end; two
outer pairs of rectrices short; legs short, tarsus partly feathered;
plumage full and soft; skin very thin and tender.



Genus PYROTROGON Bonaparte, 1854.


Characters same as those given for the Family.



327. PYROTROGON ARDENS (Temminck).

PHILIPPINE TROGON.


    Trogon ardens Temminck, Pl. Col. (1826), 404.
    Harpactes ardens Grant, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1892), 17, 487.
    Pyrotrogon ardens Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 150; McGregor and
    Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 60.

    Basilan (Steere, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester, McGregor);
    Bohol (McGregor); Dinagat (Everett); Leyte (Whitehead); Luzon
    (Meyer, Möllendorff, Steere Exp., Whitehead, Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Marinduque (Steere Exp.); Mindanao (Peale, Murray,
    Everett, Koch & Schadenberg, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Goodfellow, Celestino); Samar (Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    Whitehead).


Adult male.--Above orange-brown, lighter on rump and tail-coverts;
lores and forehead black, shading gradually into deep reddish purple
on top of head, occiput, nape, and ear-coverts; chin and throat black,
shading into pink on the chest; upper breast deep scarlet, shading
into lighter scarlet on rest of under parts; wings black; primaries
edged with white; secondaries and secondary-coverts barred with narrow
lines of white; three outer pairs of tail-feathers white with black
bases; next two pairs black; middle pair light coffee-brown with
black tips. Bill dark green at base; terminal half bright yellow. A
male from Bohol measures: Wing, 145; tail, 181; culmen from base, 24;
bill from nostril, 15. A male from Bataan Province, Luzon, measures:
Wing, 143; tail, 173; culmen from base, 20; bill from nostril, 14. A
male from Basilan measures: Wing, 150; tail, 187; culmen from base,
24; bill from nostril, 17.

Adult female.--Above similar to the male but head, nape, and
ear-coverts olive with no trace of vinaceous color; scapulars and
back olive-brown; rump and tail-coverts orange-brown as in the male;
chin and throat black; rest of under parts light rusty buff, a little
paler on abdomen and darker on under tail-coverts; wings similar
to those of the male but the fine cross-bars light brown instead of
white; tail similar to that of the male but with less white on the
outer feathers. A female from Bohol measures: Wing, 135; tail, 176;
culmen from base, 24; bill from nostril, 16.

Young.--The young male resembles the adult female but the brown bars
on the secondaries are much wider and the black terminal bar of the
middle rectrices is lacking. As the bird becomes older the vinaceous
of head, and pink and scarlet of under parts, gradually appear.

"Abundant from Luzon to Basilan. Usually found in dark places in the
forest. Makes a loud whirr with its wings when it flies. A stupid bird,
easily shot. Five males measure, 327 in length; wing, 132; tail, 167;
culmen, 21; tarsus, 15; middle toe with claw, 23. Iris dark brown
to black; legs and feet olive; nails black; base of bill green,
tip yellow; flesh round eye purple." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Order COCCYGES.

CUCKOOS.


Bill stout, culmen curved, neither cered nor hooked; tail-feathers
ten in number, usually long, broad, and not noticeably stiffened;
outermost pair of rectrices much shorter than the others; first
and fourth toes directed backward; front toes free. Nesting habits
variable, some species are parasitic, while others build bulky nests
and raise their young in the normal manner.



Suborder CUCULI.



Family CUCULIDÆ.


Characters same as those given for the Order.



Subfamilies.


a1. Wing longer and flatter, less curved to the body; distance
from tip of wing to tip of secondaries greater than culmen or
tarsus. ... Cuculinæ (p. 364)
a2. Wing shorter, more rounded and curved to the body; distance from
tip of wing to tip of secondaries less than either culmen or tarsus.

  b1. Hind claw long and straight, lark-like. ... Centropodinæ (p. 380)
  b2. Hind claw short and curved. ... Phoenicophainæ (p. 387)



Subfamily CUCULINÆ.



Genera. [44]


a1. With a long crest; tarsus almost naked. ... Clamator (p. 364)
a2. Without a crest; tarsus more or less feathered at base.

  b1. Secondaries shorter, in closed wing, scarcely exceeding half
  the length of primaries. ... Cuculus (p. 370)
  b2. Secondaries longer, in closed wing, equaling two-thirds the
  length of primaries or more.

    c1. Plumage never entirely black; bill at nostril wider than deep,
    or at least not deeper than wide.

      d1. Larger, length 300 mm. or more; plumage banded or barred,
      hawk-like in both sexes. ... Hierococcyx (p. 368)
      d2. Smaller, length 250 mm. or less.

        e1. Tail slightly forked, outer feather short; plumage black
        with a white bar on inner webs of primaries. ... Surniculus
        (p. 365)
        e2. Tail rounded; plumage never black.

          f1. Larger; tail, about 120 mm.; plumage rather dull,
          never metallic bronze nor violet.

            g1. Young and adult differently colored; bill compressed;
            tail-feathers of the same length throughout. ... Cacomantis
            (p. 374)
            g2. Young and adult similar; bill stout, not compressed;
            tail-feathers narrower near their tips. ... Penthoceryx
            (p. 373)

          f2. Smaller; tail, about 75 mm.; plumage bright
          metallic bronze or violet; abdomen strongly barred with
          white. ... Chalcococcyx (p. 375)

    c2. Plumage entirely black in the male, barred in the female,
    with ten or more buff bars on the tail; length, 250 mm. or more;
    bill at nostril decidedly deeper than wide. ... Eudynamys (p. 377)



Genus CLAMATOR Kaup, 1829.


A pointed occipital crest; wing short and rounded, primaries extending
but little beyond the secondaries; tail much longer than wing;
tail-feathers graduated; sexes similar in color.



328. CLAMATOR COROMANDUS (Linnæus).

CRESTED CUCKOO.


    Cuculus coromandus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, (1766), 1, 171.
    Coccystes coromandus Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 19,
    214; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 155; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1903), 3, 103, pl. 2, fig. 4; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 60.

    Mindanao (Everett); Palawan (Bourns & Worcester); Siquijor (Bourns
    & Worcester). Malay and Indian Peninsulas, Burmese countries,
    southern and central China, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes.


"Adult male.--Entire upper half of head black, strongly glossed with
blue on the crest; across the back of the neck a clear white collar;
back black, strongly glossed with greenish blue, and passing into
glossy olive-green on the scapulars and inner portion of wings;
remainder of wings chestnut, with brown ends to the quills; tail
glossy violet-black, most of the feathers, especially the outer ones,
partially tipped with white; throat chestnut-buff; chest buffy white;
flanks, abdomen, and thighs grayish ash, passing into violet-black
on under tail-coverts; under surface of wings chestnut, fading
into buff towards the least coverts, and into brown at the ends
of the quills. 'Iris dark brown; bill black, with the pale basal
portion of lower mandible light gray; legs, feet, and claws slaty
blue.' (Darling.) Length, 406; culmen, 28; wing, 173; tail, 254;
tarsus, 25.

"Adult female.--Similar in plumage to the male, but smaller. Length,
381; culmen, 30; wing, 155; tail, 229; tarsus, 25. Colonel Legge
states that the female bird is larger than the male, but this is not
borne out by the series in the [British] museum.

"Nestling.--Differs from the adult in having most of the feathers
of the upper parts tipped with rufous, the collar being shaded
with rufous; the tail-feathers broadly tipped with pale sandy buff;
the throat buffy white like the chest, and the under tail-coverts
rufous-buff. Length, 350; wing, 160." (Shelley.)

"Apparently a stranger in the Philippines. A single specimen
was obtained by Everett in Mindanao. We obtained one specimen in
Siquijor, and another in Palawan. No other example was met with on
our trip. The Palawan specimen, a female, measures, 375 in length;
wing, 153; tail, 219; culmen, 30; tarsus, 30; middle toe with claw,
29. Iris dark brown; legs, feet, and nails slaty blue; bill black,
pale at base of lower mandible." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus SURNICULUS Lesson, 1831.


Length, about 215 mm; plumage almost entirely black; tail nearly
square, tips of the feathers turned outward giving the tail a forked
appearance like that of a drongo (Dicrurus); outer pair of feathers
much shorter than the rest.



Species.


a1. Tail longer, about 120 mm.; head, neck, and back with a light
oil-green gloss. ... lugubris (p. 366)
a2. Tail shorter, about 100 mm.; head, neck, and back blue-black
without gloss. ... velutinus (p. 367)



329. SURNICULUS LUGUBRIS (Horsfield).

GLOSSY DRONGO CUCKOO.


    Cuculus lugubris Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13,
    pt. 1, 179.
    Surniculus lugubris Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 19,
    227; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 156; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1903), 3, 104; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 60.

    Balabac (Everett); Palawan (Everett, Whitehead, Platen, Steere
    Exp., Bourns & Worcester, Celestino, White). Southern China,
    Malay and Indian Peninsulas, Burmese provinces, Ceylon, Java,
    Sumatra, Borneo.


Adult male.--Black; wings, upper and under tail-coverts, and tail
glossed with dark green; head, neck, back, and under parts glossed
with blue; a few hidden white feathers on occiput; a patch of
white feathers on each thigh; under tail-coverts narrowly barred
and tipped with white; a large white spot on inner web of first
primary; a diagonal white bar across inner webs of inner primaries;
outermost tail-feathers incompletely barred and tipped with white;
outer webs of three or four outer tail-feathers narrowly edged with
white near base. "Bill, legs, and claws black; gape and inside of
mouth orange-red; iris brown." (Shelley.) Length, 240; wing, 130;
tail, 122; culmen from base, 24.

Adult female.--Similar to the male. Wing, 120; tail, 112; culmen from
base, 21.

"Immature.--Slightly less glossy, of a more violet shade, and with
clear white terminal spots to many of the feathers irregularly
dispersed over the plumage; under wing-coverts irregularly barred
with white, and the white bar across the quills broader than in the
adult; the tail rather more barred with white, the white bars being
much more distinct on the outer feathers, and the penultimate ones
partially barred near their quills, and all the feathers with white
spots at their tips.

"This species varies considerably in the shape of the tail which is
sometimes very much forked, with the long feathers curved outwards
towards their ends, but is sometimes square, the outer feather on
each side being always short. The white of the nape is often absent,
and the amount of the white spotting of the upper tail-coverts varies
greatly. The most constant characters are the white spot and bar on
the under surface of the quills, the bars on the under tail-coverts,
and the bars on the outer tail-feathers, the latter varying in amount
according to age. The immature bird, Cuculus albopunctatus Drap. has
white spots which vary in number and size, the last to disappear with
age being those at the ends of the tail-feathers. * * *." (Shelley.)

"A single male from Palawan measures, 229 in length; wing, 119; tail,
120; culmen, 23; tarsus, 15; middle toe with claw, 19." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



330. SURNICULUS VELUTINUS Sharpe.

PHILIPPINE DRONGO CUCKOO.


    Surniculus velutinus Sharpe, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool. (1877),
    1, 320; Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 19, 230; Bourns
    and Worcester, Minnesota Acad. Nat. Sci. Occ. Papers (1894), 1,
    49; Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 156; McGregor and Worcester,
    Hand-List (1906), 60.

    Basilan (Steere, Everett, Steere Exp., Bourns & Worcester,
    McGregor); Luzon (Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead); Mindanao
    (Everett, Bourns & Worcester, Celestino); Mindoro (McGregor);
    Negros (Whitehead); Samar (Bourns & Worcester, Whitehead); Sulu
    (Bourns & Worcester); Tawi Tawi (Everett, Bourns & Worcester).


"Adult.--Very closely allied to S. lugubris; tail always square,
with the exception of the outer pair of feathers, which are much
shorter; it differs in having the head, back, throat, and breast
velvety black, with absolutely no trace of white on any of the
tail-coverts, and a distinct narrow white basal edging to the
tail-feathers. 'Iris dark chocolate-brown; bill and claws black;
feet bluish gray.' (Everett.) Length, 203; culmen, 23; wing, 119;
tail, 109; tarsus, 14. The sexes are similar in plumage." (Shelley.)

"Immature.--A young bird from Basilan, two-thirds grown, is light
rusty brown in color, lightest on under surface; crown and nape show
metallic blue-black feathers; one of the scapulars, many feathers of
rump, and all of tail same color, mostly tipped with rusty brown;
wing-coverts rusty brown with faint dark shaft-markings appearing;
upper surface of wing black, faintly metallic, all the feathers
edged with rusty brown; under surface of body uniform light brown;
wing-coverts white strongly washed with brown at tips; white spot on
inner webs of primaries appearing; under surface of tail dull metallic
blue, each feather with several spots of white.

"A bird nearly grown shows numerous brown feathers on head and
back. Primaries washed with rusty brown, primary-coverts uniform
brown. Throat, chin, and upper breast nearly black. A third has general
color of adult but some feathers of head, nape, primary-coverts,
breast and abdomen as well as tips of some of the secondaries are
washed with rusty brown." (Bourns and Worcester.)

"Abundant in Basilan; not uncommon in Tawi Tawi and Sulu. Found in
the forest, or in second growth. Five males average, 215 in length;
wing, 116; tail, 110; culmen, 23; tarsus, 15; middle toe with claw,
21. Five females, length, 212; wing, 115; tail, 106; culmen, 23;
tarsus, 15; middle toe with claw, 20. Bill and nails black; iris
black to leaden; food insects." (Bourns and Worcester MS.)



Genus HIEROCOCCYX S. Müller, 1839-44.


Superficially this genus resembles Cuculus but differs by its
comparatively shorter primaries and longer secondaries. In plumage
and flight these cuckoos mimic the smaller Accipitrine hawks, and this
probably protects them from the attacks of the larger hawks and owls.



Species.


a1. Breast with distinct blackish brown bars, tip of tail white;
wing, 200 mm. or more. ... sparverioides (p. 368)
a2. Breast without bars; tip of tail rufous; wing, 180 mm. or
less. ... fugax (p. 369)



331. HIEROCOCCYX SPARVERIOIDES (Vigors).

ASIATIC HAWK CUCKOO.


    Cuculus sparverioides Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1831), 173.
    Hierococcyx sparverioides Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891),
    19, 232.
    Hierococcyx sparveroides Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 157;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 61.

    Calamianes (Bourns & Worcester); Luzon (McGregor); Negros
    (Whitehead); Palawan (Platen). Malay and Indian Peninsulas,
    Burmese provinces, eastern Siberia, Japan, China, Borneo.


"Adult.--Above brown with a bronzy gloss, changing gradually into
gray on the back of the neck and crown; the outer tail-coverts barred
with white, and the longest ones often with darker ends and narrow
pale edges; tail with about five distinct dark bars and narrow pale
tips to the feathers, seldom much shaded with rufous; sides of the
head and chin gray, with a broad white band from the front of the
eye to the white on the throat, separating the gray of the head
from the chin; upper throat white, changing on the lower throat and
front of the chest into rufous, and the whole mottled with pale gray;
remainder of the under parts white, with the breast down to the thighs
broadly barred with dusky brown, and partially washed with rufous;
under wing-coverts white, shaded with rufous; quills dusky brown with
numerous white or buff partial bars on their inner webs. 'Bill black,
with the base of the lower mandible pale green; iris, eyelids, legs,
and claws bright gamboge-yellow.' (Davison.) Length, 394; culmen,
28; wing, 206; tail, 190; tarsus, 25.

"Immature.--Differs from the adult in the gray of the upper parts being
confined to the crown, the back of the neck being mottled with rufous,
the feathers of the back and wings more or less edged or barred with
rufous. Under surface white washed with buff; chin generally darker,
often black; throat and front of the chest broadly striped, the breast
with broad short bars to the feathers." (Shelley.)

"One adult female was obtained in the Island of Busuanga. Upper
mandible black, lower greenish; eyelids yellow; eyes orange; legs,
feet, and nails bright lemon-yellow. Length, 400; culmen, 32; wing,
223; tail, 211; tarsus, 33; middle toe with claw, 37." (Bourns and
Worcester MS.)



332. HIEROCOCCYX FUGAX (Horsfield).

HORSFIELD'S HAWK CUCKOO.


    Cuculus fugax Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1821), 13, pt. 1, 178.
    Hierococcyx fugax Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 19, 236;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 157; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1903), 3, 104; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 61.

    Banton (Celestino); Basilan (Bourns & Worcester); Bohol (McGregor);
    Cagayancillo (McGregor); Cebu (Bourns & Worcester); Luzon (Heriot);
    Mindanao (Everett, Steere Exp.); Mindoro (McGregor, Porter); Sulu
    (Bourns & Worcester). Sumatra, Java, Borneo.


Adult.--Above uniform slate-gray; end of tail bright rufous otherwise
very similar to that of H. sparverioides; below white, with a variable
amount of rufous on the breast; in some specimens the whole chest
rufous, in others only the edges of the feathers rufous; chin gray;
throat white slightly tinged with gray, and occasionally streaked
with brown or rufous; no bars on breast thus distinguishing it from
H. sparverioides. Length of male from Cagayancillo, 280; wing, 170;
tail, 151; exposed culmen, 20; tarsus, 18. Length of female from
Mindoro, 285; wing, 170; tail, 157; exposed culmen, 20; tarsus, 19.

"Immature.--Top of head gray; upper parts including wings, dark gray
barred with rufous, tail barred as in the adult with light brown,
blackish brown, and rufous, the rufous bars narrowest; under parts
white with broad, pointed, mesial stripes of blackish; edges of
feathers washed with rusty-brown; under tail-coverts white.

"Nestling.--Similar in plumage to the immature bird, with the back
brown and the markings on the breast rather larger. Length, 208
mm." (Shelley.)

"Rare and shy. Found skulking in thick bushes or under-brush, often
near water. A male measures, 286 in length; wing, 167; tail, 153;
culmen, 25; tarsus, 20; middle toe with claw, 27. A female, length,
305; wing, 173; tail, 139; culmen, 25; tarsus, 22; middle toe with
claw, 28. Iris brown; legs, feet, and nails bright yellow. Bill with
upper mandible olive-green at base, black at tip; lower mandible
olive-green. Food beetles and other insects." (Bourns and Worcester
MS.)



Genus CUCULUS Linnæus, 1758.


Secondaries about half the length of primaries; wing long and flat;
tail shorter than wing; in adults the upper parts are nearly uniform
brown or gray, chin and throat gray; abdomen white barred with black.



Species.


a1. Tail with a subterminal black band; crown and throat grayish
contrasting with mantle and back. ... micropterus (p. 370)
a2. Tail without a subterminal black band; crown and throat gray like
the back.

  b1. Larger; wing, 200 to 230 mm.; bars on breast more dusky; edge
  of wing white and brown. ... canorus (p. 371)
  b2. Smaller; wing, less than 200 mm.; bars on breast jet-black,
  broader and more complete; edge of wing white. ... saturatus (p. 372)



333. CUCULUS MICROPTERUS Gould.

SHORT-WINGED CUCKOO.


    Cuculus micropterus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1837), 137; Shelley,
    Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 19, 241; Grant, Ibis (1896), 560;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 158; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List
    (1900), 61.

    Negros (Whitehead). Malay and Indian Peninsulas, Andaman Islands,
    Burmese Provinces, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Ternate, Ceylon,
    China, Japan.


"Adult.--Above dark brown, shading into slaty gray on the back of
the neck and head; tail rather paler brown, with a broad subterminal
black bar and a white tip, all the feathers having about five or
six white spots on their quills, increasing in size toward the outer
feathers, and most of them having white notches on their inner webs;
throat gray, sometimes shaded with dusky on the sides of the crop;
sides of the head and neck rather darker gray, more like the crown;
remainder of the under parts buff or white, rather broadly barred
with black, the under tail-coverts being less regularly marked and
with fewer bars; under surface of the wings as in C. canorus. 'Iris
brown; bill horny, below lighter and tinted with yellow toward the
base; gape and eyelids bright yellow; feet and legs duller yellow;
two front claws horny, two hind ones yellow.' (Bingham.)  Length,
305; culmen, 25; wing, 20; tail, 160; tarsus, 20.

"Immature.--Above brown, darker on the head; the crown and neck
thickly mottled with broad fulvous ends to the feathers; feathers
on the back and wings broadly tipped with rufous or buff; tail very
similar to that of the adult, but with the pale portion more rufous;
beneath buff, barred with black, and mottled with gray on the throat
in older specimens." (Shelley.)



334. CUCULUS CANORUS Linnæus.

EUROPEAN CUCKOO.


    Cuculus canorus Linnæus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1758), 1, 110;
    Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 19, 245; Blanford, Fauna
    Brit. Ind. Bds. (1895), 3, 205, fig. 60 (head); Sharpe, Hand-List
    (1900), 2, 158; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds' Eggs (1903), 3, 105;
    McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 61.

    Basilan (McGregor); Batan (McGregor); Calayan (McGregor); Palawan
    (Platen); Siquijor (Bourns & Worcester). Europe and northern
    Asia; in winter to Africa, Indian Peninsula, Malayan subregion
    to Australia.


"Adult male.--General color above leaden gray, slightly shaded with
olive on the mantle and wings; quills dark brown, more or less notched
with white on the inner webs; lateral upper tail-coverts narrowly
edged and partially barred with white; tail slaty black, with white
ends to all the feathers and with about seven double white spots along
their shafts and white notches on their inner webs never forming bars
across the feathers; sides of the head and neck, chin, and throat gray,
slightly paler than the crown; remainder of the under parts white,
shaded with buff on the abdomen and under tail-coverts, and very
regularly barred with dusky black; axillars and under wing-coverts
barred like the breast, with a portion near the bend of the wing and
most of the greater series leaden gray; quills beneath dusky brown,
with white bars on their inner webs, broadest and most strongly marked
toward the base of the feathers. Bill black, yellowish at the base
and edges; iris and legs yellow. Length, 356; culmen, 229; wing, 226;
tail, 178; tarsus, 20.

"Adult female.--Differs only in plumage from the male in having the
base of the throat shaded with rufous. Length, 320; culmen, 22; wing,
211; tail, 173; tarsus, 19.

"Nestling.--General plumage above dark brown, partially barred with
rufous, with a narrow white terminal margin to each of the feathers,
broadest on the wings and tail; crown and nape much mottled with
white; sides of the head, chin, and throat blackish brown and white
in broad bars of nearly even breadth; remainder of the under surface
of the body white, with blackish brown bars not half the width of
the intervening white spaces. Length, 170; wing, 127.

"Young nearly full-grown.--Above gray, passing into brownish black on
the head, wings, and tail; crown and nape mottled with white feathers;
feathers of the head, neck, wings, and tail strongly barred with
rufous; remainder of the back much less distinctly barred, each
feather being tipped with white next to a subterminal dark bar;
tail with waved rufous bars passing into white near the shafts of
the feathers and with white ends; general color of the under parts
buffish white, with blackish brown bars, slightly broader on the chin
and throat than on the breast. Length, 297; wing, 184.

"Hepatic phase.--General color of the upper parts cinnamon, barred
on the head, mantle, and wings with dusky black; lower back and
upper tail-coverts with a few black spots next to their shafts;
outer tail-coverts with partial traces of dark bars; tail partially
barred with black and marked with white near the shafts, the tips,
and some of the edges of the feathers, and with a broad subterminal
black band; under parts buffish white, rather darker on the throat,
and all the feathers barred with dusky black. Length, 297; culmen,
22; wing, 216; tail, 170; tarsus, 19." (Shelley.)

"We secured a single specimen in Siquijor in February, 1891; a second
specimen was seen but not secured. The specimen in question, a male,
measures, 311 in length; wing, 201; tail, 161; culmen, 27; tarsus, 22;
middle toe with claw, 26. Iris brownish yellow, with inner ring of dull
brown; feet bright yellow; nails yellowish, except that of middle toe,
which is black; upper mandible black, lower light yellowish." (Bourns
and Worcester MS.)



335. CUCULUS SATURATUS Hodgson.

HIMALAYAN CUCKOO.


    Cuculus saturatus Hodgson, Jour. As. Soc. Bengal (1843), 12, 942;
    Sharpe, Hand-List (1900), 2, 158; Oates and Reid, Cat. Birds'
    Eggs (1903), 3, 114; McGregor and Worcester, Hand-List (1906), 61.
    Cuculus intermedius Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. (1891), 19, 252.
    Cuculus canoroides Blasius, Ornis (1888), 6 (of reprint); Jour. für
    Ornith. (1890), 145.

    Mindanao (Platen); Palawan (Platen). Eastern Siberia, Indian
    Peninsula, Andaman Islands, Malay Archipelago, Burmese provinces,
    northeastern Australia, Japan, China, New Guinea, New Britain.


"Adult male.--Very similar to C. canorus, but smaller, with the bill
shorter and stouter. The plumage differs in the upper parts being
of a deeper and more blue-gray, the breast and under tail-coverts
more washed with buff, and the bars on the body black, broader and
more sharply defined than in C. canorus. 'Bill above blackish, below
greenish; gape and mouth inside deep orange; eyelids bright yellow;
iris stone-color; legs dull yellow; claws pale.' (Cripps.) Length,
325; culmen, 23; wing, 188; tail, 160; tarsus, 18.

"Adult female.--Differs only in plumage from the male in having the
base of the throat shaded with buffish rufous, as is the case in
C. canorus. Length, 292; culmen, 18; wing, 188; tail, 152; tarsus, 18.

"Nestling.--General plumage above blackish brown, with narrow terminal
white margins to the feathers, which margins are broadest on the wings
and tail; the white nuchal patch so characteristic of C. canorus
is indicated by three white feathers; a few rufou