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Title: Illustrations of Exotic Entomology, Volume 1
Author: Drury, Dru
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrations of Exotic Entomology, Volume 1" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's note:

The copy on which this edition is based was bound with the 3 volumes of
text in one physical volume and the plates in another. They have been
reordered into 3 separate projects with the plates inserted adjacent to the
related text - other copies are known to have been bound in this fashion.

Page numbers enclosed by curly braces (example: {25}) have been
incorporated to facilitate the use of the Index (in Volume III.).

Images of the original plates are available through Internet Archive. See

       *       *       *       *       *

























The acknowledged value of the figures contained in Drury's
"Illustrations,"[1] the extreme rarity of many of the insects figured
therein, which continue up to the present day to be unique, and the
scarcity of the work itself, which appears almost unknown to Continental
Entomologists, having induced the proprietor of the plates to republish the
work, I have consented to undertake the charge of bringing it forth in a
form more adapted to the present greatly advanced state of Entomology. How
far I have succeeded must be left for the candid Entomologist to decide. It
is fit however that, by way of bespeaking indulgence for the numerous
errors into which I fear that I have, notwithstanding all my care, fallen,
I should mention the obstacles which have operated against my giving the
work that perfect style which I could have wished it to possess. Of these
the chief difficulty has arisen from the non-possession of the specimens
which served for the original illustrations, without which it may be
readily conceived that it has been impossible to ascertain with precision
many of the more minute characters, of which the present state of the
science requires the investigation; thus in many cases I have been obliged
to remain in ignorance of the particular structure of the antennæ, trophi
and legs, and the disposition of the veins of the wings, in many of the
smaller species of Lepidoptera, so that the precise genera may not in some
instances be correctly stated; and to many I have been compelled to attach
marks of interrogation for the like reason. Another and equally strong
obstacle has been produced from the little attention paid to exotic
{iv}Lepidoptera by modern Entomologists. More than two-thirds of these
Illustrations are illustrative of that beautiful order of insects; and yet,
with the exception of some of the showy butterflies and moths, scarcely a
reference is to be found even in the works of Fabricius, the personal
friend of Drury, whose Entomologia Systematica, published in 1793 and 1794,
contains the last general summary of the species of this order; Gmelin
also, whose Systema Naturæ it has been the fashion to decry, but which, as
a laborious compilation from the works of preceding and chiefly Continental
authors, is of great service,[2] was only acquainted with these
illustrations through the early works of Fabricius.[3] It is true that M.
M. Boisduval and Guérin have respectively published various new exotic
Lepidoptera, especially of the Nocturnal group, in the Voyages of the
Coquille and Astrolabe; but we still want a general revision, not only of
the species but of the genera of this order. It was to have been hoped
that, as regarded the Javanese species, this would have been effected by
Dr. Horsfield, whose work upon the Lepidoptera of Java, as far as
published, leaves nothing to be desired of the structural details of the
species illustrated therein. M. Boisduval also, in his Histoire Naturelle
des Lépidoptères, has treated the subject in a masterly manner, availing
himself both of the preparatory states and veining of the wings; but we
greatly miss those beautiful details which render the works of Horsfield
and Curtis invaluable. It is in this comparative ignorance, both of the
structural and metamorphotic details of exotic Lepidoptera, that we may
attribute the want of a sound and philosophical distribution of the order
in question; and which at the same time prevents us from determining the
situation of many remarkable and anomalous groups. Of these the genera
Castnia, Urania, &c. and the whole tribe of the Zygænidæ may especially be
mentioned; and it is with the view of inciting enquiry into this part of
the subject, that I have introduced many of the latter species into the
genus Callimorpha amongst the Nocturnal moths.

Another obstacle has been produced by the little attention paid by the
Entomologists of the last century to the geographical situation of their
insects; as an instance of this, it will be sufficient to mention that
Linnæus and Fabricius made use of the term "In Indiis" generally, to
indicate that an insect was an inhabitant either of the West or East
Indies. Drury indeed appears to have paid more than the ordinary degree of
attention to this part of the subject, as appears from the Catalogue of his
Insects, which I obtained at the sale of Mr. Donovan's collections, to
whom, as appears by a note, they were presented by Mr. Drury. Thus under
Lucanus interruptus, (Genus Passalus, Fabricius,) we find the {v}following

  7.  3. Interruptus,     Muskito Shore,  Capt. Keay,   } also at Maryland,
  8.  3. Interruptus,     Sierra Leone,   Mr. Smeathman,}   New York,
                                                            Carolina, where
                                                            they are very
  9.  3. Interruptus,     Maryland,       Mr. Milward, 1756, Lin. Syst.
                                            p. 560, f. 4.
  10. 4. Interrupt. var.  Rio Janeiro,    Mr. Bonifas, 1775, that on the
                                            right hand from Mr. Laing, at
  12.    Interrupt. var.                  Bought at Seymour's sale.

Here it is quite evident that Drury had carefully noted down the localities
of all the specimens of this insect which he possessed, and which are now
described as distinct species; and this extract will I think be quite
sufficient to shew, that from the careful manner in which these Catalogues
were kept by Mr. Drury, we are entitled to regard them, when there happens
to be a difference between the works of Drury and Fabricius, Linnæus, &c.
as at least of equal authority with the writings of these authors. I regret
that these Catalogues did not come into my hands until after the first and
second volumes of this edition were printed off. I have incorporated the
notes in the third volume; and have given, as an Appendix, extracts from
these Catalogues, where there happens to be any variation or doubt as to
the locality of any of the species figured in the first two volumes.

I have almost invariably adopted the very proper principle of referring to
that name, either generic or specific, which has the priority in point of
date. In the first edition, the first volume appeared without specific
names, which were at that time a novelty but recently introduced by
Linnæus. In the second volume, however, an appendix was given, containing
specific names both of the first and second volumes, and a similar appendix
was given at the end of the third volume; but no specific names appeared in
the body of the work. To many of the names contained in the appendices
Fabricius referred, many he entirely omitted, and for many he substituted
others. These last I have of course rejected; and have in many instances
given the dates when the names were first imposed by the different
authors--a plan which would be very serviceable if generally adopted. I
have, likewise, made a point in many cases of restoring the specific
_proper_ names, where, in consequence of a change in the sex of the generic
name, a corresponding change had been made in such specific name. This
alteration had been carried to a great extent in the Encyclopédie
Méthodique; and many male and female _proper_ names had been completely
altered, in order to suit them to the sex of the new genera in which they
were placed. This was, however, an error on the wrong side; because it is
admitted as an established principle, that if it should be thought
necessary to subdivide a genus, the names of the subdivisions should be of
the sex of the original generic name.

The plan upon which the first edition of this work was published may be
seen from the following specimen, which is one of the shortest given, but
which will be sufficient to shew not only the style of the former edition,
but also the manner in which I have treated the subject and the additions
which I have introduced.

{vi}Vol. I. Plate II.

  Fig. III.--Expands about three inches.

  _Upper Side._--The antennæ are black. The head, thorax, and abdomen
  brown. All the wings (the edges of which are even not dentated) are of a
  deep brown, with a shade of clay colour, rising near the anterior edges
  of the superior ones, runs along near the tips and ends at the external

  _Under Side._--The eyes are black, the palpi yellow. All the wings are
  the same brown colour as the upper side, with the clay-coloured shade
  near the tips as on that. The superior wings have five whitish spots on
  each placed on a row near the external edges, the inferior ones have on
  each sometimes five and sometimes seven spots of the same colour placed
  in a circular row, that meets near the extremity of the body.

  I received it from China. I cannot find it any where described.

  Fig. III.--Il deploye ses aîles environ trois pouces.

  _Le Dessus._--Les antennes sont noires. La tête le corcelet et l'abdomen
  bruns. Les aîles (dont les bords sont unis ou point dentélés) sont d'une
  couleur brune foncée, avec une nuance couleur d'argille se levant proche
  des bords antérieurs des aîles supérieures, qui court le long près des
  bouts et finit aux bords extérieurs.

  _Le Dessous._--Les yeux sont noires, les antennules jaunes. Toutes les
  aîles sont de la même couleur brune que en dessus, avec la nuance
  d'argille proche des bouts chacune des aîles supérieures a cinq taches
  blanchâtres, placées sur une ligne près des bords extérieurs. Les
  inférieures ont chacune quelquefois cinq et quelquefois sept taches de la
  même couleur rangées circulairment et se rencontrant près de l'extrémité
  du corps.

  Il l'ai reçue de la Chine. Je ne le trouve point décrit.

The name of Papilio Eumeus was consequently proposed for this insect in the
Appendix to the second volume.

Amongst the manuscripts with which I have been favoured by the relatives of
Mr. Drury, or have obtained elsewhere, are comprised a variety of notes
relative to the publication of this work, and of observations from which
the following are selected. He notices that "his _descriptions_ are only
intended to assist the reader in ascertaining the different species; and
that they are not intended to be so complete as to give a perfect idea of
the animal without the help of the figure." He alludes to the difficulty
not only "of ascertaining true colours or calling them by their proper
names," but also of "colouring the prints so, as to exactly represent the
natural specimens,"--that he has mentioned and given English names to no
more parts of insects than had suited his purpose for describing
them,--that "there are some parts mentioned in the descriptions which
cannot be seen in the plates, such as the Gorget (Sternum), &c. which may
serve not only to assist in classing them, but to ascertain their species."
"The descriptions of the Hymenoptera are not intended to be so complete as
to give a perfect idea of the insect, but are only given to assist the
reader in observing the figures."

"All the descriptions are taken from the insects themselves; whatever
defects, therefore, are to be observed in comparing them with the coloured
figures must be imputed to the artist, as it would not be proper to
describe them according to the prints, but to {vii}nature."--It is in
consequence of this last remark that I have been careful to omit nothing of
the original edition in this edition of the least importance, but have
given the description as much as possible in the words of the author

I have also added a general Systematic Index to the entire work, and an
Alphabetic Index, in which the names employed in the first edition are
distinguished by an asterisk.

The collection formed by Drury was exceedingly choice, and had occupied
nearly thirty years in its formation; for although, as Drury himself says
(in one of the printed circulars which he distributed with a view to its
sale) "there may be in Holland collections more numerous, having in many
instances a great number of a single species, yet no collection abounds
with such a wonderful variety in all the different genera as this. All the
specimens of which it is composed, are in the highest and most exquisite
state of preservation, such an extensive collection can be supposed to be,
and a very considerable number are _unique_, such as are not to be found in
any other Cabinet whatever, and of considerable value; many of which,
coming from countries exceedingly unhealthy, where the collectors, in
procuring them, have perished by the severity of the climate, give but
little room to expect any duplicate will ever be obtained during the
present age; and the learned quotations that have been taken from it by
those celebrated authors Linnæus and Fabricius, in all their late editions,
are incontestable proofs of the high degrees of estimation they entertained
of it."

This statement was made in 1788, when the author had consumed upwards of
twenty-five years in its formation, and at which period no less a sum than
£4,000. had been expended upon the collection. At this period the
collection consisted of--

                     Subjects.   Different Species.
  Coleoptera            2218        2136
  Hemiptera              895         778
  Lepidoptera           2462        2148
  Neuroptera             172         171
  Hymenoptera            533         533
  Diptera                552         402
  Aptera                 105          96
  English Collection    2641        2070
                        ----        ----
                        9578        8370

Subsequently great additions were made to the collection, which, as will be
seen from the localities affixed to the species figured in these
Illustrations was received from all parts of the world with which England
at that period had intercourse. Of the earnest zeal with which this
collection was made, an idea may be obtained from a copy of a letter
addressed to a gentleman residing in Africa, with whom he was anxious to
enter into correspondence.

  _London, Dec. 13th_, 1766.


  My being an utter stranger to you compels me to apologize for the liberty
  I take in sending you this. Mr. Carghill's recommendation is the occasion
  of my doing so, and he has assured me of your {viii}kind disposition to
  oblige me in those articles that are the subject of the following lines;
  I must therefore inform you that I am engaged in the study of Natural
  History, but as the extensiveness of it in all its several parts is very
  great, I confine myself entirely to one single branch, and that is
  Insects. A branch I find fully sufficient to engage my attention without
  entering into any of the others, and in consequence of this I am
  endeavouring to obtain as large a collection of foreign ones as I
  possibly can; to this end I am under a necessity of getting various
  recommendations from my friends to gentlemen settled in foreign parts,
  who I must consider as the only persons that can effectually assist me in
  this scheme. Permit me therefore, Sir, to beg your concurrence herein,
  and if the highest ideas of gratitude can prompt a man to make an
  adequate return for any favour of this kind, be assured I shall take the
  earliest opportunity of manifesting mine for any thing you shall think
  proper to oblige me with. The great distance the continent of Africa is
  situated from London, the ignorance we labour under of its produce in the
  insect world, and the great difficulty I have found in procuring any
  insects from those parts, are circumstances that rather increase than
  blunt my desire for them; but as in the course of fourteen years I have
  not been able to procure any great number, I can only attribute this
  disappointment to my having never been able to apply to any gentleman
  settled there, for the persons that I have hitherto commissioned to this
  purpose were those that returned with the ships they went in, and I
  imagine their time was too short to be able to procure such things for
  me; but as Mr. Carghill has informed me your residence in Africa will
  afford you many leisure hours, permit me to indulge the hope of your
  complying with this request. It is necessary for me to inform you that
  there is no occasion for your bestowing any time of your own in this
  pursuit, as I imagine it might be done by people to be hired in Africa to
  that purpose for a very trifle; and as it is necessary I should inform
  you where and in what manner insects in general are to be taken, give me
  leave therefore to explain the use of the things I have sent for that
  purpose: you will observe the bows of the forceps being covered with
  gauze, and folding so close together as to prevent any small insect's
  getting out when once enclosed, constitutes a contrivance the best
  adapted of any thing I ever saw for that purpose, it is small enough to
  be carried in the pocket, and if you have curiosity enough to employ an
  hour in this amusement, permit me to say you will have a scene of wonders
  opened to you in the insect world, you will have such a number of objects
  of speculation present themselves, that will amaze you. When an insect is
  inclosed in these nets it is to be stuck through the body with a pin (I
  have sent some for this purpose), and in that manner placed in the box,
  whose top and bottom are lined with cork. Suffer me to beg of you (if you
  will be so obliging to procure me some of those things) to get a larger
  box made in Africa of soft wood, in which a pin will easily enter, and
  replace the insects out of the oval box now sent into that, and when
  filled I will entreat you to commit it to the care of a friend to be
  conveyed to England, giving him at the same time a charge to keep it from
  being tumbled about by the rolling of the ship, which will certainly
  damage the contents, and favouring me with a letter of advice; it is
  necessary to beg you to paste a slip of fine linen or paper all round the
  crevice and opening of the box, to prevent the cockroaches, ants, &c.
  getting in, who will infallibly damage and destroy the insects in it; I
  forgot to mention that they should not be removed out of the oval box
  into the great one till they are dead, because they will scratch and tear
  one another to pieces, therefore when the person comes home from
  collecting, they may be taken out singly and stuck on a piece of board or
  stick, and held close to the fire (not so as to burn or scorch them), and
  this in less than a minute will effectually kill them, afterwards they
  may be stuck very close together in the large box, and in that manner
  sent to England. I will just mention what kinds will be most acceptable,
  and where they are to be found, viz. beetles or insects with hard cased
  wings, insects with transparent wings, such as wasps, {ix}bees,
  waterflies, also locusts or grasshoppers, ants, fireflies, or in short
  any kind except cockroaches, centipedes, or scorpions, which in general
  are so very common they cease to be valuable--of all the other kinds
  there is an infinite variety, differing in size, shape, and colour, any
  of which will be very acceptable, either large or small; and of which,
  give me leave to observe, the most ugly disagreeable insects (as they
  appear to be) are the most desirable. They are found in various places,
  some on flowers, some in horse-dung or cow-dung, some under stones and
  logs of wood, some under the bark of trees where it separates or divides
  itself from the body, which by tearing up will expose many kinds to view;
  but no place abounds more than rotten trees, for there they hide and
  secrete themselves in holes among the rotten wood, and are never seen
  unless they are searched for. Let me here observe, that the different
  seasons will yield different species of insects, some being to be found
  in one week that were not to be seen the preceding ones, and the next
  will afford others differing from the former, while the succeeding one
  shall produce some other sorts that were not to be seen before; so that
  by searching for them at different times, you perceive great varieties
  will be collected. I must also beg you to preserve the horns of them as
  much as possible, as they in a great measure determine their genus, and
  as such should not be broke off. The insects placed in the box will serve
  as samples to show the person you may hire what kinds of things are meant
  to be collected, who for want of them might not be able to understand
  your instructions.

  I have now, Sir, mentioned every article necessary to be known, therefore
  shall conclude with once more begging you to assist me in this scheme;
  and if there is any business, or any other thing, in which I can be
  serviceable to you here, I beg you would command me; but if there is
  nothing of that kind by which I can express my gratitude, permit me again
  to repeat I shall take the first opportunity of making a return fully
  adequate to your favour.

    I am, Sir, with great respect, your most obedient servant,

                                       D. DRURY,
                         At No. 1. in Love Lane, Aldermanbury,

  P. S. I forgot to mention that when you employ an agent to collect
  insects, please to tell him it is not the great number but the variety
  that I desire, six or eight being enough of any one species.

Subsequently, this fine collection came to the hammer, on Thursday, May 23,
1805, and the two following days. A few of the more interesting lots, with
the prices obtained for them, and the names of the purchasers, are given
below as an interesting record.

  Lot 3 Phalæna Aprilina, Graminis, and 22 others 26  £7 12 0  G. Humphrey.
      8 Sphinx Convolvuli, and 8 others            9   4  1 0  Donovan.
     46 Papilio Priamus                            1   4 14 6  General
     64 ---- Claviger, and 5 others                6   7 10 0  MacLeay.
     69 A variety of curious Spiders, chiefly
          from Georgia                           110   4  4 0  Donovan.
     90 Papilio Iris, Edusa, Hyale, and various        4 10 0  Humphrey.
     94 Sixteen curious Curculiones               16  11 11 0    Ditto.
     95 Scarabæus Goliathus, var.                  1  12  1 6    Ditto.
    100 Cerambyx Gigas, and 2 others               3   4  8 0  Haworth.
    104 Thirteen Species of the Buprestis Genus   13   8  0 0  MacLeay.
    105 Elater Flabellicornis, virens, and
          8 others                                10   4  6 0  Latham.
    112 Cetonia hamata, nitens, grandis,
          Scarabæus festivus, and 12 others       16  17  0 0  MacLeay.
    123 A variety of small Insects of the
          Mordella, Forficula, and other Genera,
          among which are Diopsis ichneumonea
          (and also a species ofPaussus)          31   7  0 0    Ditto.
    201 Mutilla bimaculata, thoracica, Scolia
          signata, and 24 others                  27   3  5 0  Kirby.
    269 Sphex tropica, frontalis, Africana, &c.  128   6  6 0  Ditto.

{x}The total amount obtained for the Insects was £614. 8_s._ 6_d._; and
about £300. more for the Cabinets, Books, &c. with the Copper-plates of the

Of the estimation in which the works and collections of Drury were held by
Linnæus, Fabricius, &c. the constant references (especially by the latter)
made to them, will sufficiently prove. The former dedicated a fine species
of Cimex to Drury, figured in the first volume of these Illustrations, pl.
42. f. 1. 5.; whilst the latter described an American species of Stenocorus
from Drury's collection, under the name of St. Drurii (Ent. Syst. 1. 2. p.
302.) and also a Danish Tinea under the name of T. Drurella. The Rev. W.
Kirby also in his Monograph upon the English Bees, has named a rare species
belonging to the modern genus Eucera, Apis Drurella, with the remark--"In
honorem D. Drury, operis entomologici splendidissimi auctoris, cujus museum
insectorum rarissimorum undique conquisitorum gazophylacium ditissimum,
hanc apem ab illo acceptam nominavi." (Mon. Ap. Angl. 2. p. 286.)

That Drury was in correspondence with these "Heroes Scientiæ" will
therefore be unquestioned; and the following letter from the younger
Linnæus, communicated to me by the relatives of the former is interesting
not only on this account, but for the curious statement relative to the
Oestrus humanus then recently discovered in South America.

  Celeberrimo Viro D. Drury.

  S. pl. d.

  Carolus a Linne.

  Dum post mortem dilectissimi parentis occupatus fui in redigendo
  naturalia ab illo in Syst. Nat. nondum determinata, et ut his
  nomenclaturam pro scientia naturali maxime necessariam continuarem,
  maxime sollicitus fui illa, quantum mihi possibile foret, synonymis ex
  præstantioribus auctoribus scientiæ illustrare, imprimis illorum qui
  pulcherrimis individuorum figuris sint ornati. Tu, Vir Celeberrime, es ex
  illis, qui in Insectis pulcherrima præstitisti; ex Tuo opere volumina
  habeo duo, quæ in hereditario cum reliqua Bibliotheca[4] Parentis habeo;
  sed an tertius termes s. plures post secundum prodiere est quod ignoro,
  et de qua re rogarem tuam informationem? et si prodiere ubi inveniuntur?
  et quo prætio? Amicitiam quam erga Parentem habuisti, spero hanc filiolo
  permittere licentiam. Optandum esset a Te in his majorem videre
  augmentum, requirunt insecta figuras; nam vix differentiis determinanda
  sunt. Insecta australioris plaga mundi a Banksio et Forsteriis indagata,
  pulcherrime et utilissime pro scientia methodo Tua illustrari possent.
  Utinam facere vellis, immortalitatem Tuam conservaret scientia hæc!

  {xi}Ego qui nunc novam paro editionem Zoologicam Syst. Nat.[5] summam in
  insectis sentio difficultatem ita exprimere, ut aliis intelligas quod tam
  facile figuris lævatur. Multa præstitit noster De Geer de Insectis, sed
  majora adhuc præstitisset, si figuræ vivis coloribus ornatæ fuissent.
  Quis Entomologus est alius apud vos qui collectionem Insectorum possidet
  ex India occidentali, si quis esset qui desideraret insecta Suecica
  lubenter Illi ea præstare vellem.

  Nuper litteras habui ex America Meridionali ubi morbus endemius est
  hominum etiam Europeos aggredit illuc venientes quæ causatur a larva
  Oestri, quæ intra cutem per integrum annum coelatus et nullo remedio
  expelli potest nisi periculo vitæ; est nova species Oestri.

  Sed hic vale et mihi fave.

      Dabam Upsaliæ, d. 10 Mart. 1780.

  To Mr. D. Drury, Goldsmith in the Strand, in London.

My late friend A. H. Haworth, Esq. thus spoke of Drury and his works in the
year 1807. "In the year 1770 we arrive at the time of publication of a
beautiful work on Entomology, that of my late and regretted friend D.
Drury, F.L.S. in one vol. 4to. printed at London, and containing
comprehensive descriptions in English and French, with an Index of Linnæan
names at the end, and a great many coloured copper-plates of such
interesting exotic Insects, as had not been before or insufficiently
figured. The icons were executed by Moses Harris, in his best style; and
are far superior to any of their predecessors in Britain.

"It is also unquestionably the first work in this country in which the
trivial names of Linnæus are suffered to make their appearance, and
although only given in the shape of an index, their extensive value throws
a lustre on the utility of the work, which, unaided by them, would not have
reached a second volume, published in 1773, and a third in 1782; and even a
fourth would have appeared if the author had lived much longer;[6] as he
himself assured me, some time prior to his decease; wherein would have been
delineated some of the gigantic and extraordinary insects of Demerara, in
which remote territory he had successfully employed a collecting agent. Mr.
Drury's Cabinet was one of the most extensive ever made; and is said to
have contained, in species and varieties, the surprising number of 11,000
insects. He spared neither pains nor cost in getting them together, and
like Petiver of old, sent printed instructions, in various languages, all
over the world for that purpose, by captains of ships and others.

"Soon after his decease, at an advanced age, which happened about two years
since, his valuable collection was disposed of in London, by public
auction."--(Trans. Ent. Soc. Vol. I. 1807. p. 34.)

The decease of Mr. Dru Drury occurred on the 15th of January, 1804, at the
age of eighty, and he was buried at the parish church of St. Martins in the

J. O. W.





It is universally allowed that the study of nature is one of the most
pleasing employments that can engage the mind of man. The entertainment it
affords is as infinite as the variety of subjects of which it is composed;
and such a vast field of speculation lies open to our view, either in the
animal, vegetable, or mineral worlds, that each of them is fully sufficient
to engross the attention of a single person. It must be allowed, that the
study of natural history is so far from having attained that degree of
perfection it might have done, by the assiduity of the curious, that it
cannot, at present, be considered as having attained its meridian; and the
slow manner in which it arrived even to that, has subjected us very much to
the reflections of foreigners; many of whom appear surprised, that a
nation, not inferior to others in every branch of science and knowledge,
should discover so great a want of curiosity, and little attention to a
study that has been productive of so many advantages to mankind, and
probably, may hereafter produce many more. Certainly, such opportunities
for improvement never presented themselves in this kingdom, as in the
present age. All corners of the world are visited by our ships; the
remotest shores of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, are not unknown to
our countrymen; but feel the effects of that insatiable thirst for traffic
and gain, that animates the present generation. Every lover, therefore, of
this study must naturally hope, that such noble occasions of increasing the
knowledge of nature, may not be neglected. It is indeed true, that the
number of its votaries, in England, are but few, in proportion to other
states, where professorships and societies are established under the
patronage and protection of the chief personages: yet if we consider it as
affording an inconceivable fund of entertainment to its followers, it is
rather to be wondered it is not more encouraged and propagated among us,
than that we should find a few who have resolution enough to judge for
themselves, and follow a study that is always new and always pleasing. The
sneers and contempt thrown on it by men of narrow minds, who are impatient
at hearing of persons bestowing their time in collecting a plant, an
insect, or a stone, may perhaps contribute {xiii}not a little to prevent
its progress; but whatever character may be stamped, either upon the study,
or its professors, by such persons; it is certain, none but men fit to be
placed in the first rank, have usually philosophy enough to prompt them to
make enquiries into the works of nature. To some the task appears too
arduous, to others too intricate, and to the generality too trifling; who
are apt to look with contempt on every pursuit that does not coincide with
their own opinions; nor must we, from vulgar minds, expect any conclusions
in its favour: with these, a horse, a dog, or a cock, seem to bound the
utmost limits of their gratifications. But men of refined tastes will judge
otherways. They know that the inexhaustible store of entertainment nature
affords in the contemplation of her works, is unbounded. It is not to be
enjoyed all at once; the more we pursue, the more we shall possess, in
proportion as we manifest a greater or less ardour. Nor is the serene
placid enjoyment found therein, to be measured by the common gratifications
of sense; as these often leave stings behind that worry the soul, and
subvert the end they intended to promote; while the other offers to us its
friendly aid, replete with happiness, health, and peace. And further, if
the contemplation of the works of the Sovereign Architect, tends to promote
that serious and attentive state of mind which disposes men to the pursuit
of virtue, in order to be happy; and if the knowledge and practice of
virtue are the means of supporting the mind through all the difficult
passages and rugged paths of life; the naturalist bids as fair to be happy
as any of the human race. His pleasures are not chequered by remorse, or
damped by despair; his pursuits leave no horrors on the mind, or clash with
the duty he owes his Maker, his neighbour, or his prince; his conscience
suffers not for the indulgence of his mind, nor has repentance need to
stalk behind him with an uplifted arm, for injustice committed on his
fellow-creatures; on the contrary, it is for them ultimately his labours
are pursued, for them he inquires into the various arcana of nature; every
part of the earth is searched for their benefit, and its bowels are torn
out and examined for their advantage.

On the other hand, if we consider natural history as connected with
religion, we shall find them so interwoven and blended together as not to
be separated. In this view we shall find it the best adapted for opening
the mind, enlarging its conceptions, and giving us the most exalted ideas
of the Deity, of any science whatever, astronomy not excepted, whose study,
however noble it may be thought, tends not more to the same improvement;
for certainly the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Almighty are as
conspicuous in the smallest objects, as those of the first magnitude, if
_great_ and _little_ be only relative terms. If, therefore, natural history
is able to accomplish this, nothing surely can afford a more effectual cure
for infidelity. For whoever heard of a naturalist being an atheist? or of
an infidel, who had spent his life in studying and observing the works of
nature? I believe none will hesitate to pronounce the man, who has made any
considerable progress in this study, and who could entertain thoughts so
injurious to the honour of his Maker, to be a more wonderful being than any
that ever went before him.

{xiv}The train of reflections that arise from these considerations, is
greater than is consistent with the plan I have prescribed to myself in
these pages. If the reader is desirous of being further informed of the
uses and advantages of natural history, I shall refer him to
Stillingfleet's Tracts, taken from the Amoenitates Academicæ, published at
Upsal; where he may be acquainted with many curious and interesting
particulars, which I have not room to insert here; my speculations having
been confined to one single branch (insects) I shall only mention such
observations relative thereto as may be proper for an introduction of this

Insects may, with great truth, be considered as a rank of beings so
wonderful and extraordinary, as to strike with astonishment every observer,
if we regard either their structure, powers, or use; and creatures, who, at
the same time that they challenge our regard, loudly proclaim the wisdom,
goodness, and omnipotence of their great Creator. If their shape and beauty
are capable of attracting our notice, their ways of living are no less
adapted for exciting our admiration; and the more we enquire into their
nature and history, the more occasion we shall find for confessing this
great truth, "nothing is created in vain." The wondrous manner in which
numbers of them pass their lives, during their first states, is unknown to
the greater part of mankind. Most people, indeed, know that a Caterpillar
produces a Butterfly; but thousands of persons do not know that a
Caterpillar is a Butterfly in disguise, as Dr. Lister ingeniously
observes,[7] and as Swammerdam[8] proved to the great Duke of Tuscany, by
stripping off the external skins, and displaying the butterfly concealed
beneath them. Many persons are ignorant that plants (even of the most
poisonous nature) are the beloved and favourite food of some species of
insects, and that what is wholesome and nourishing to one, is pernicious
and destructive to another. Who would believe that the hard substance of
the soundest Oak was capable of being macerated by an insect, and received
into its stomach as food? that it should there yield a proper nutriment for
its growth, and that nothing but a substance as hard and firm as that could
possibly contribute to the creature's health and increase? Who would
imagine that a colony of Ants, an insect so contemptible in size,
considered singly, were capable of making animals, of considerable bulk and
strength, retreat from them as from a formidable enemy?[9] Who would
suspect that numbers of insects are appointed to live, during the greatest
part of their lives, within the bodies of other animals, many of whom
receive no material injury thereby; some become frantic and {xv}diseased,
and others are doomed to perish, and by their deaths give birth to these
their inbred enemies? Who, that is a stranger to natural history, would
believe that there are insects destined to live in the waters many months,
where their principal employment is the destruction of animals less than
themselves, on whom they feed and thrive, till they become inhabitants of
the air, when their lives are terminated in a few weeks, perishing by the
depredations of old age, if they are lucky enough to escape the power of
other animals stronger than themselves? Yet such are the truths existing in
nature; truths known to every one conversant with this study. In short,
there is no part of the kingdom of nature, where so many wonders are
unfolded to us, as in this of insects.

Nor are they to be considered in that contemptible light in which the
generality of mankind are apt to place them. We are too prone to think
every thing noxious and unnecessary, if we are not fully acquainted with
its use. "The poor Beetle that we tread on," serves to fill up an order of
beings, as useful and proper in the economy of nature, as that of a
partridge or a hare, whose preservation and increase we are so solicitous
for. Many others, whose very sight create the most disagreeable sensations,
are not less useful and proper, under the same predicament. The carcases of
dead animals, which, when putrid, send forth a most nauseous stench, would
remain so for a great length of time, were it not for the various kinds of
Flesh Flies, who, by depositing their eggs there, help to consume it very
quickly, and prevent a continuance so offensive to our nostrils and health.
Many kinds of insects are to be found here in England, in great plenty,
who, it is highly probable, by a close enquiry into their natures might be
rendered very serviceable to us, either mediately or immediately. The blue
Dung Beetle (Scarabæus Stercorarius of Linnæus) found in great plenty in
July, under horse-dung and cow-dung, it is not unlikely may yield effects,
either in medicine or dyeing, that at present we are ignorant of. It is
certain, it abounds with salts that are strong and pungent; but the
examination of them must be left to time, and the enquiry of some ingenious

The Meloe Proscarebeus of Linnæus, or English Oil Beetle, described by
Moffat, lib. i. cap. 23., also by Godartius in Lister's translation, number
120. yields an oil by expression in considerable quantity, which is used in
Sweden, with the greatest success, in the cure of the rheumatism, by
bathing the afflicted part. Of this I have been well assured by an
ingenious physician who resided there. Might not the same effects be
expected from it here as there? Its virtues, I imagine, are not confined to
a single country; nor can I suppose the different situations of them will
prevent its being equally efficacious here as in Sweden. However, it is
certainly worth while to make the experiment.[10]

{xvi}The Cantharides or Spanish Flies, is a species of insect every one has
heard of. They are brought us from abroad, and used medicinally; but
principally to raise blisters. For these we pay great sums of money to
foreign countries: but a proper examination into the nature of insects
might save us the necessity of doing so; for let me not be disbelieved,
when I say this very species of the cantharides is found in England.[11]
Might not, therefore, a close inquiry into the subject, spare us the
trouble and expense of applying to foreigners for this article? But are the
medicinal virtues of the cantharides confined entirely to that species? Is
there none other found in England, answering the same purpose, which we
might have by seeking for? If I am not mis-informed, there is. The Musk
Beetle, or Cerambix Moschata of Linnæus, is found on the bodies of
willow-trees in the month of July, or sooner, if the weather is favourable.
This insect, I have been confidently informed by an eminent surgeon (the
late Mr. Guy) who tried it, has the same virtues, and produces the same
effects as the cantharides; being capable, when properly prepared, of
procuring a strong blister in as short a space of time as the other.
Whether there is not other insects to be found in this kingdom, whose
properties, when examined, might be found similar to the cantharides, is a
matter that time only will clear up.

I cannot here pass unmentioned the effects of ants, whose volatile
effluvia, arising from their colonies or nests is so great, that a hand
rubbed thereon, and applied immediately to the nose of a fainting person,
exhilarates and refreshes equal to the spirit of hartshorn, or what is
called sal volatile.

Such are the known medicinal uses of insects; and under the article of
clothing they serve us in a more conspicuous manner. To many thousands of
persons they afford the means of living with comfort and happiness. Even
kings are indebted to them for their grandest garments. Immense fortunes
have been procured, by their means, to persons in trade, and the great
number of people who daily subsist by manufacturing silk, either by
spinning, weaving, or dyeing it, have the greatest reason to thank
Providence for the institution of this insect. To the last, the Cochineal
(Coccinella Cacti of Linnæus) affords him the power of giving our silks and
cloths the most beautiful and lasting colours; being without it unable to
produce such proofs of his ingenuity; not to mention many other occasions
wherein this insect is peculiarly serviceable. Nor is there any part of the
world where they do not directly, or secondarily, serve mankind for food.
In every kingdom of the earth, where they are to be found, shrimps, prawns
and crabs are eaten by all ranks and degrees of people, if animal food is
allowed them; and our cray-fish or lobsters must not {xvii}be excluded from
the same order. The Locust represented in Plate 50. Fig. 2. is eaten by
many tribes, and, I may say, nations of people, in Asia and Africa. These
animals are frequently driven from their native soils, by strong winds,
into foreign countries, where, for several days together, by their
inconceivable numbers, they obscure the light of the sun, and make the
inhabitants tremble for their vegetables. It is at those times the Asiatics
and Africans gather them, and eat them with much delight, dressing them,
either by stewing, or frying them with oil; they also pickle and sell them
publicly in some of the markets of the Levant, and many other parts.

The caterpillar belonging to Fig. 1. of Plate 38. which I have mentioned in
my description of that insect to be eaten in the West Indies, and
considered as a dainty, is sought for by those persons who are admirers of
that food, in the most diligent manner; and I have been informed, by
gentlemen of undoubted veracity, that so exceedingly delighted are they
with it, as to employ negroes on no other business but to go into the woods
on purpose to procure these caterpillars, by digging them out of the bodies
of certain trees, the only places where they are to be found. Perhaps the
cossi of the Romans, a kind of food we are told they were much delighted
with, might be a species not much unlike this; however that be, these are
considered as amply recompensing, by their delicious flavour, the pains
taken to procure them.

Honey is a substance known to every one, and the agreeable liquor made from
it, which in some countries serves the inhabitants for their constant
drink, is not to be procured but by the industry of the agile bee.

In fine, the limits of this preface will not permit me to dwell minutely,
and point out the benefits mankind does, and may receive, by the
institution of this order of animals. I shall again refer my reader to the
book I mentioned before, "Stillingfleet's Tracts;" where he will find these
and many other advantages I have not mentioned, treated of in a most
ingenious manner; being the observations of some of the greatest men of the
university of Upsal in Sweden; for this reason, therefore, I shall consider
this subject no farther, but proceed to describe the plan of the work;
wherein, if the reader expects to find the insects classed in systematic
order, as well as represented, he will be greatly disappointed. It is not
my present design to enter into the scientific part of the study, by
arranging the insects according to any system now established; nor will the
reader find that I have given a single name to any one here figured. This,
indeed, must be the consequence of not following the system of any author,
unless I had formed one of my own; for it is impossible I should give names
to them, particularly trivial ones, without doing one or the other. The
calling an insect by the general appellation of moth, butterfly, &c. I
cannot consider as derogatory to what I have said. Hence I flatter myself I
shall avoid all occasion for reflection by the disciples of different
authors, in not following the method established by others; and, therefore,
my desire of giving no room for exceptions of this kind, has induced me to
follow no one whatever. By this, also, I have left it in the power of every
person to {xviii}class them according to his own fancy; and, as every one
has thus an opportunity of following his favourite author, none, I hope,
will object to a method, that will put it in his power of indulging his own

I must here inform my readers, that this work can by no means be considered
as a complete one. The most transitory view will confirm this. Nor can I
take any merit to myself by its publication, unless the great care that has
been taken to give just and accurate figures of the subjects, in which the
different generical characters, according to the several authors I am
acquainted with, are truly represented, will entitle me to any.

Indeed, the many opportunities I have had of observing the great tendency
all kinds of insects have to perish and decay, particularly moths and
butterflies, first gave me the hint of preserving them from oblivion, by
thus delineating them on paper. For these last are of such tender and
delicate natures, that however pleasing and agreeable they may be to our
sight, they are not easily to be preserved with all their gay and striking
plumage. Our utmost care can only secure them to us a few years; and if
they are exposed to air or sunshine, we are quickly robbed of them; the
latter being capable, in a few months, of entirely destroying their
colours, and the first in as short a space, will totally consume every part
of them, leaving nothing behind but a little dust.

Hence it is, I have been induced to give figures of foreign insects. In
prosecuting which, the reader will find many that have never been described
by any author; and if the rescuing them by this method from the ravages of
time, if the delight and amusement arising from contemplating subjects of
this kind, or if an attempt to promote and encourage this branch of natural
history meets with the encouragement I hope for, I must assure the public,
no labour on my side shall be wanting to render it complete, by adding
future volumes, as the subjects I should receive from abroad, and my own
leisure, will enable me to do; and this, I flatter myself, I shall be able
to accomplish by the means of a few ingenious gentlemen situated in
different parts of the world, whose correspondence I am honoured with, and
by whose assistance I shall be able to give sometimes a tolerable history
of an insect, or as much of it as has fallen within their observation; by
which means, new subjects of speculation, some unnoticed circumstances in
insect life, may arise, that cannot fail of being an acceptable
embellishment. But I must observe, such pieces of information cannot be
expected to be numerous; for the difficulty of procuring the natural
history of foreign insects is so exceedingly great, that it is better
conceived than described. Few persons, who visit foreign countries, have
curiosity sufficient to prompt them to make such observations, or indeed
any enquiry, into the works of nature. The desire of acquiring wealth, by
the means of trade, is the grand motive that induces them to leave their
native country; observations in natural history being generally quite
foreign to their thoughts; the desire of extending their commerce, and
making their fortunes, taking entire possession of their minds, and
swallowing up every other consideration. Thus, we see, it is not from such
persons we must expect any improvements tending to promote this study; it
is {xix}only from men of a liberal and ingenious turn of mind, settled
there, that we can hope to have any information of the state of nature in
distant regions; and the scarcity of such men I have found to be exceeding
great. For these reasons the reader must not expect to find the caterpillar
and chrysalis of every insect represented. It is sufficient if I am able to
give figures of many exotics that have hitherto been unknown. The natural
history, the forms of the caterpillars, ways of life, haunts, &c. can, in
such cases, be known only to persons living on the spot, and who have
speculation enough to observe them. Whenever I receive such pieces of
information, they shall, certainly, not be withheld from the public.

When I first engaged in the business of describing the different insects
that compose the following work, I found myself surrounded with
difficulties of so unexpected a nature, that I had more than once
entertained thoughts of postponing, if not totally relinquishing so arduous
a task. Nothing but the strong desire I had of promoting the study of
natural history, could have led me to overcome a sense of my own incapacity
of writing with that precision, which the public eye demands; and,
therefore, I have reason to hope for the candid allowance of the ingenious,
to faults, which might, perhaps, escape from the pen of a _master_, on a
subject so new as the present. Among the rest, I laboured under no little
trouble from a want of knowing what names to give to many colours found on
the wings of some of the farinaceous tribe. The want of a _series_, or
standard for names to colours, is a matter much to be lamented in this
kingdom. I know no English author that has attempted it; perhaps the
arduousness of the task may be the reason it has not been done; for if we
form to ourselves an idea of the difficulty of bringing forth that
innumerable train of colours that is to be done from only a yellow, a red
and a blue, we may partly judge of the labour that man has to undergo who
shall attempt it. In my case, the great variety of tints to be found on the
insects, the harshness of some, the softness of others, together with the
manner of their running into one another, increases the difficulty, and
renders descriptions a matter of such labour, that nothing but the
strongest resolution and perseverance could overcome. From hence, I hope,
if the reader should chance to meet with any part among them, that does not
entirely correspond with the colour given to the print, he will impute it
to its proper cause, the painter. I know of no defects of this kind; but it
is not impossible some may have escaped my observation, among such a
multitude of figures which I had to correct. It is necessary I should
inform the reader, that all my descriptions have been taken from the
_natural subjects_ themselves, and not from the _coloured prints_ of them;
and that my intention therein, is not to give a perfect idea of the
insects, without the help of the figures, but only to assist the
imagination in knowing what is described. And when we consider the
advantages that good engravings have over verbal descriptions, the former
representing to the mind, at first view, the object designed to be
understood, without putting us to the trouble of calling all our ideas, all
our powers of conception to our assistance, in order to discover what is
intended to be described; {xx}while the latter, though given by the best
writers, often puzzles and confounds the mind, if our ideas do not keep
pace with the author's meaning, the present work, by having every coloured
figure explained, must render it superior to any hitherto published in this
kingdom. The last author that published any figures of exotic subjects in
natural history, was Mr. Petiver, who, in his Gazophylacium, delineated a
great variety of all the different _orders_; many of them exceeding curious
and uncommon, being collected from various parts of the world. But they
were sent forth uncoloured, and almost undescribed; circumstances that
render them less estimable by the difficulty there is, in many instances,
of knowing what the author meant; the shape of the animal, plant, &c. being
the principal, and, sometimes, the only thing, we can understand. But
although many of the figures consist of mere outlines, not exquisitely well
engraved, it is not without merit. There are a great many very uncommon
subjects exhibited, that were not known to exist in nature, till he held
them forth to public view. It is, in short, a work, that, at the same time
it manifested his desire for promoting his favourite study, was a proof of
his assiduity, affording great room for speculation; and as the present is
an improvement on his plan, I flatter myself it will not be unacceptable to
the lovers of natural history. There is yet another advantage arising from
the descriptions, that is not less than what I have already mentioned. If
this work should fall into the hands of a bookseller, after my decease, the
public would not probably be pestered with copies so execrably coloured, as
is generally the case with books of this sort, after the author's death;
the descriptions will be such a guide for colouring the prints, that
capital errors will not be able to find admittance: the grossness of
colouring a part yellow that should be red, or green, that ought to be
blue, would immediately be detected; and the publisher, for his own sake,
would undoubtedly be careful to have the prints justly and accurately done.

The experienced naturalist will perceive, that, throughout the quotations,
I have not availed myself of any of the ancient authors. I have scarcely
mentioned Mouffet, Aldrovandus, and others. It is certain, the figures to
be seen in the works of most of the ancients are so bad, I dared not give
any quotation from them. The incorrectness of the outlines, the
irregularity and impropriety of the spots and marks, together with the
looseness of the engravings, renders them too imperfect for any one to
venture mentioning them. Indeed they are, in general, so little expressive
of the insect intended to be represented, that no dependance can be had on
their figures, especially the farinaceous winged tribe. Clerck, Merian,
Roesel, Petiver, &c. are the authors I have principally mentioned, among
the iconographers; and if the insect has been figured by a great many
authors, as particularly Plate 34. Fig. 7, 8. I have only mentioned a few:
the rest may be known by looking into the Systema of Linnæus[12], under the
title mentioned in the quotation. This author is the principal one I have
quoted among the descriptive writers: his great judgment in this study, the
plain method he has laid down for the classing of insects, together with
the {xxi}excellency of his generical characters, are what must endear him
to every professor of this study. I speak only of that part relating to the
insect kingdom; the merits of the other parts are best known to those
conversant in the respective branches. I must not here pass over a
circumstance, which it is proper to apprize my readers of, by way of
apology for giving a few figures (but a few) that have been published
already in this kingdom. When I first laid down the plan of this work, I
had no intention of confining myself to those subjects that were
non-descripts; but proposed to give figures of any exotic insects that
might fall into my possession, or what I could procure drawings of, by the
assistance of those gentlemen who were friends to an attempt of this sort.
I was willing to promote this branch of natural history, by any method that
lay within the compass of my little sphere. This I was the rather prompted
to, by the consideration of its being an attempt entirely novel in this
nation, and conducted in a way different from any yet pursued. But a little
recollection convinced me I was wrong. I was soon sensible, that the giving
figures, already known and published here, could do no service to the
study, or benefit the reader; it is possible I might give a better figure
than that before published; the engraving might be softer, more delicate,
and better becoming the subject; or the colouring more exact and just: but
this would not be improving the reader's judgment, or increasing his
knowledge. In short, from that moment I altered my plan; and it is to this
mistake a few figures are inserted in different places, which have before
made their appearance in England, either separately, or mixed with other
subjects of natural history. From that time I took care to delineate none
that I was conscious had engaged the pencil of any preceding author; but
confined myself to such, whose novelty and striking appearances could not
fail to recommend them. To such non-descripts I have paid the greatest
deference; for in some of the plates, among the butterflies and moths, I
have given complete figures of both the upper and under sides; a practice
that, as deviating from my general rule, I should not have done, if the
richness and softness of the colouring had not been so extremely pleasing,
as to render it scarcely possible to dispense with it. It is only to a few
I have paid this particular respect. In general, I have given to the
butterflies, only figures of one half their under sides, but whole upper
ones; and of those moths that have no representations of their under sides,
the reader may conclude there is no material difference between their upper
and under ones, or else the latter is too poor and mean to justify the
giving a figure of it. I must just mention, that although I used this
forbearance to those figures that had been heretofore published, I by no
means meant to debar myself from representing such as had been only
_verbally_ described; as is the case with a great many to be met with in
the Systema of Linnæus, and in other authors. The refraining, therefore,
from such subjects, would have been rather condemnable than fit to be
approved, for the reasons I mentioned before, of the great difficulty there
is in understanding, sometimes, the best verbal descriptions that ever were
given; therefore figures of this kind may not improperly be considered as
explanatory, or as illustrations to {xxii}such verbal descriptions,
affording the student a two-fold pleasure, by comparing them together.

If the reader has made no progress in the study of natural history, he will
probably find it difficult to understand the several _names_, or _terms_,
the different parts of insects are called by; and which occur in every
description. For this reason I think it incumbent on me to give the most
plain and familiar explanation of them I possibly can. This I have done two
ways; by methodical definitions, and figures; and in both of them shall
make no scruple to follow the method laid down by that great master of
natural history, the judicious Linnæus, whose excellent plan, for the
knowledge and classing of insects, demands the utmost thanks and regard
from every lover of this branch of science. From his plan I have taken the
hint of giving some figures of different genera, with the proper names of
the respective parts in a plate by themselves. By these the reader will not
only be greatly assisted in understanding the descriptions; but it will
enable him to class them with more facility, if he is inclined to do so. I
therefore go on to explain, first the _terms_ used throughout the whole;
and afterwards the distinct and different _parts_ of insects. In doing
this, I divide them into


  _Order_, is a general term, applicable to a whole race of animals,
  whereby they are distinguished from each other, as beasts, birds, fishes,

  _Class_, a term by which insects, as well as other animals, are divided
  into their respective genera or tribes, as the farinaceous, crustaceous,
  transparent, &c.[14]

  _Genus_, a term dividing each class, as butterfly, moth, hawk-moth,
  constitute the farinaceous (Lepidoptera); dung-beetle, lady-bird,
  goat-chaffer, and many others, make up the crustaceous (Coleoptera);
  cockroach, locust, bug, and some others, form the semi-crustaceous
  (Hemiptera, Linn.), &c.[15]

  _Species_, a term comprehending a distinct or individual sort in each
  genus, as the pearl-bordered, admirable, skipper, &c. among the
  butterflies; egger, drinker, peppered, &c. among moths, &c.

To these I must add the word

  _Variety_, a term by which two insects of the same species are known,
  though differing a little (not characteristically) in colour, size,

{xxiii}I shall next proceed to explain and describe the different parts
composing insects, by dividing them into the Head, Thorax, Abdomen, and

The HEAD (Fig. 1, 2, 3, _a_.) includes the ANTENNÆ, MOUTH, PALPI, EYES,

  The _Antennæ_ are formed of various shapes, according to the different
  genera, as may be observed in the figures, and seem instituted by nature
  not only for guiding the animal in its passage, but likewise for other
  purposes; being endued with an exquisite sense of feeling and perception.
  Fig. 1. _d d_. Fig. 2. _c_. Fig. 3. _c c_.

  The _Mouth_ is placed in the head, but sometimes close to the breast, as
  in the spider tribe; sometimes terminating in a horny beak, as in Plate
  32. Fig. 1. also in Plate 42. Fig. 3 and 7. In some it is furnished with
  strong mandibles like pincers, as in Plate 32. Fig. 6. and Plate 37. Fig.
  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. In others it is so covered and guarded by the palpi,
  particularly among the moths, that it is not to be seen.

  The _Palpi_ are parts placed close to the mouth, and variously shaped; as
  may be seen by comparing those of the Lepidopterous with those of the
  Coleopterous, and other tribes; consisting of a greater or less number
  according to the species or genus; in some being only two, in most of
  them four, and in some six, (Cicindela, Carabus, Linn.) The use and
  purpose of these parts we are ignorant of. Fig. 1. _c c_. Fig. 2. _b_.
  Fig. 3. _b b_.

  The _Eyes_ are generally immoveable, and suited differently; in some to
  see only in the night, in others in the day; and differ in number
  according to the genera and species, having in general two only, but in
  some five,[18] in others eight, as the spiders. Fig. 1. _b b_. Fig. 3. _d

  The _Tongue_ (elongated maxillæ) is sometimes curled up spirally like the
  spring of a watch, as in butterflies and some moths, &c. in others it
  (including the labium) is doubled under the head, as in bees and wasps;
  but a great many species are destitute of this elongated part.

The THORAX is principally composed of the BACK, BREAST, and in some the

  The _Back_, dorsum or upper part, answering to the back in some animals,
  terminates in some species in a triangular manner, so as to represent the
  scutellum, as in Plate 33. Fig. 5, 6, and 8. Tab. Ann. Fig. 1. _f_. Fig.
  2. _e_.

  The _Breast_, or sternum, is the under part of the thorax, and always
  furnished with legs.

  The _Scutellum_ is a small but hard part like a scale, frequently of a
  triangular shape, placed behind the dorsum of the prothorax, and joining
  to it. It is not developed in every genus, being chiefly perceived in the
  Coleopterous, Hemipterous, and transparent-winged orders.

  The _Mesosternum_ is united to the fore part of the breast, extending
  beyond the middle legs towards the fore ones; and observable only in some
  species of the Coleopterous order. By Linnæus and several other authors
  it is called sternum.

  {xxiv}The _Posterior Coxæ_ are only conspicuously enlarged in some
  particular species (dung beetles). There are two of them placed on the
  sides of the breast next to the abdomen, under the hinder thighs. In some
  they are placed remote and distinct from it, in others they lie close;
  being moveable in some, in others they are fixed. The use of these parts
  we are ignorant of.[19]

  The _Abdomen_ consists of a number of annuli or rings, and contains the
  greatest part of the intestines and other viscera; being united to the
  trunk, and formed with holes on the sides, through which the insect

The LIMBS comprehend the TAIL, LEGS, and WINGS, with their cases.

  The _Tail_ is placed at the extremity of the abdomen; and in some is
  furnished with a sting, in others it is armed with a pair of forceps;
  sometimes with a single bristle, sometimes with a double one; in some
  with a pair of claws like a crab, in others like a fork.

  The _Legs_ include the coxæ, trochanters, femora, tibiæ, and tarsi; the
  latter consisting of two, sometimes of three, four, or five
  articulations. In some the fore ones resemble a crab's claws. Some are
  furnished with spines, others are smooth and plain. The hinder ones are
  formed for running, leaping, or swimming.

  The _Wings_, being always two or four, are either plain or folded, erect
  or open, lying flat or inclining downwards, &c. In some they are dentated
  or scolloped; and some are furnished with two projections like tails.
  They are also membranaceous, reticulated, or transparent, and frequently
  adorned with beautiful colours. In some they are curiously folded within
  two crustaceous cases, that are either smooth or rough, striated,
  furrowed, punctated, &c. in some these cases are soft and flexile, in
  others hard like horn; the Hemipterous are partly soft and transparent,
  as in Plate 49. Fig. 2. and partly opake and hard, as in Plate 42. Fig.
  1. Plate 43. Fig. 2. and Plate 45. Fig. 5.

It is necessary to observe, that I have not been so prolix and explanatory
in the foregoing definitions as I should be, if I intended to arrange the
figures under their respective classes, or establish any system for doing
so; I have explained no more _terms_ or _parts_ than what are sufficient to
enable the reader (if he is not an adept) easily and clearly to understand
the descriptions. It is likewise necessary to mention, that I have given
English names to most of the parts, where I could do it with the necessary
propriety for serving this particular purpose; and where I could not
substitute an English word, that was apposite and significant, I have
preserved the Latin one, as used by Linnæus and others. Thus, for instance,
the term palpi I would have altered, if I could have found an English word
that conveyed the same idea; but not easily finding one, I have kept to the
original. I have not forgot the terms mustachios, whiskers, &c. which I
might have used in its stead; but as these parts in many insects bore no
analogy or resemblance thereto, it being in a great many of them like a
short jointed filament or thread, I rather chose to preserve the Latin one.
The same practice I have observed with the term antennæ. For though feelers
is the general explanation given to this word, I could not prevail with
myself to use it. The reason is, because these animals seem to have a power
{xxv}of applying these parts to purposes different from that of feeling. By
the antennæ they are capable of distinguishing and perceiving, as well as
feeling; and I am strongly inclined to believe, it is by them the males are
capable of discovering the females at a great distance. It is certain their
powers of perception are very obvious and remarkable, which, by close
observations, we may soon discover; and unless we allow them capable of
smelling without nostrils, I do not know what parts they exercise, or by
what means they so readily discover, not only their females but their
respective kinds of food, the places proper for depositing their eggs, &c.
The male moths appear to have this faculty of discovering their females in
a greater degree than most other insects; for there are but a very few, if
any, belonging to this genus, whose females pass the first night after they
quit the chrysalis without coupling with the males; owing to unconquerable
_desire_ in the latter, and the strong effluvia or scent emitted by the
former for attracting their mates. Every adept is fully acquainted that a
female moth, known by the name of the Egger (Phalæna Quercus of Linnæus),
taken into the fields the first day it is hatched, will most certainly
(though shut up in a box) allure all the males round the country that are
within the sphere of its attraction, and even from a great distance; who
will at first fly round the box with wonderful swiftness and eagerness, and
afterwards settling thereon will hunt and run about it with the greatest
impatience, endeavouring to get at the inclosed female; and all this from
the strongest desire of copulation; for the minute that action is performed
by a male, the attractive property of the other ceases. The powers of
perception and distinction, therefore, are very great; and what parts of
the insects, unless it be the antennæ, are employed in this search I am at
a loss to discover. However, at present, I presume it will not be necessary
to offer any further reasons for using this term, as the name substituted
is sufficient for it to be known by, it will fully answer the intended

The names of the other parts are too intelligible to require any

The plate annexed (being the last thing I shall speak of) requires but
little to be said in its favour. The use and advantage of it is too obvious
to dwell on. I have already mentioned, that engravings and delineations
claim the preference in the highest degree of verbal descriptions; and as
such, I presume, the reader will find this plate of the greatest service in
assisting him to understand the descriptive parts with clearness and ease.
I must only recommend it to him, if he is desirous of avoiding difficulty
and trouble, to make himself fully acquainted with the terms and names of
all the parts of insects, before he begins to read the descriptions.


  Explanation of Fig. I.

  _a_  The head.

  _b b_  The eyes.

  _c c_  The palpi.

  _d d_  The antennæ.

  _e e_  The shoulders. The patagia, or tippets, are placed here.

  _f_  The thorax. The part underneath and opposite to this is termed the

  {xxvi}_g_  The abdomen, with the annuli or rings of which this part is
  composed; very conspicuous in such of the Lepidoptera as are figured in
  Plate 27, 28, and 29.

  _A A_  The anterior wings.

  _B B_  The posterior wings.

  _h h_  The bases of the wings.

  _i i_  The tips.

  _k k k k_  The anterior margin.

  _l l_  The posterior or internal margin.

  _m m m m_  The external edges.

  _n n_  The lower corners of the anterior wings.

  _o o_  The upper corners of the posterior wings.

  _p p_  The abdominal edges. In the butterfly tribe this part forms the
  abdominal groove.

  _q q_  The anal angle.

  _r r_  The tails; whereof some species have four, as in Plate 1, 2, and

  _s s_  The eyes on the wings. From round spots resembling an eye.

  _t_  A waved bar.

  _u u_  An irregular indented bar.

The terms upper side and under side, mentioned in all the descriptions of
the farinaceous tribe, require no explanation.

      Explanation of Fig. II.

  _a_  The head.

  _b_  The palpi.

  _c_  The antennæ.

  _d_  The eyes.

  _e_  The dorsum of the prothorax, commonly called the thorax in beetles;
  whereof the under part is the prosternum.

  _f_  The lateral margin of the thorax.

  _g_  The posterior margin of the thorax.

  _h h_  The upper horn.

  _i i_  The lower horn.

  _k_  The scutellum.

  _l l_  The wing cases, or elytra.

  _m m_  The suture.

  _n n_  The lateral margin of the wing cases.

  _o_  The anus.

  _p_  The fore thigh.

  _q_  The middle thigh.

  _r_  The hinder thigh.

  _s s_  The fore tibiæ.

  _t t_  The middle tibiæ.

  _u u_  The hinder tibiæ.

  _w w w w w w_  The tarsi.

  _x x x x x x_  The articulation of the tarsi with the tibiæ.

  _y y y_  The articulation of the tibiæ with the femora.

  _z z z_  The hooks or claws, (ungues.)

      Explanation of Fig. III.

  _a_  The head.

  _b b_  The palpi.

  _c c_  The antennæ.

  _d d_  The eyes.

  _e_  The prosternum; whereof the upper part is the prothorax.

  _f_  The mesosternum.

  _g g_  The dilated posterior coxæ.

  _h h h h_  The abdomen, with its annuli or rings.

  _o_  The anus.

  _p_  The fore thighs.

  _q q_  The middle thighs.

  _r r_  The hinder thighs.

  _s s_  The fore tibiæ.

  _t t_  The middle tibiæ.

  _u u_  The hinder tibiæ.

  _w w w w w w_  The tarsi.

  _x x x x x x_  The articulation of the tarsi with the tibiæ.

  _y y y y y y_  The articulation of the tibiæ with the femora, or thighs.

  _z z_  The hooks or claws, (ungues.)

Fig. IV. is inserted only to shew the three little eyes, which are placed
in a triangular manner, and mentioned in some of the descriptions, viz.
Plate 43. Fig. 4, 5, 6, &c.








Plate I. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera, _Linn._ SECTION: Diurna, _Latr._ FAMILY: Nymphalidæ,

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr._ Papilio Eq. Achiv. _Linn. Drury_. Papilio
  Nymphalis, _Fabr._

  SUBGENUS. Jasia, _Swainson_. Charaxes, _Boisduval_.

  NYMPHALIS (CHARAXES) JASON. Alis fuscis, anticis utrinque strigâ maculari
  limboque apicali fulvis, posticis bicaudatis, ordine postico macularum
  sublunarium fulvescentium, omnibus subtus ad basin ferrugineis
  caracteribus fasciâque albis. (Expans. Alar. 3-4. unc.)

  SYN. Papilio Jason, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 749. _No._ 26. _Herbst. tab._
  64. _f._ 3. 4. 5. _Cram. pl._ 339. _f._ A. B. _Drury, vol._ 1. _p._ 2.

  Pap. (Nymphalis) Jasius, _Fab. Ent. Syst. t._ III. _part_ 1. _p._ 61.
  191. _Drury, vol._ 2. _App._

  Nymphalis Jasius, _Latr. et Godart. Enc. Meth. v._ 9. _p._ 350. 1.

  Charaxes Jasius, _Boisduval Hist. Nat. Lepidopt. pl._ 7. _f._ 12.
  (_imago_) _pl._ 3. _A. f._ 9. (_larva and pupa._)

  HABITAT: Barbary, Asia Minor, and the Northern Coast of the Mediterranean

  _Upper Side._ The anterior wings are of a fine chocolate, with an
  orange-coloured margin running along the exterior edge, within which are
  some faint round orange spots; those next the anterior edge, where they
  begin, being strongest. The posterior wings are furnished with four tails
  (the outer ones being the shortest) and are of a blue black. A yellow
  scolloped margin runs round their external edges, verged with black;
  above which are some lunate spots of a sky blue.

  _Under Side._ The anterior wings, next the body, are of a faint dark red,
  with many spots and marks of a dirty olive, differently shaped, margined
  with white. An orange margin runs along the exterior edge, intersected by
  the blue tendons; and above it are several triangular marks of a faint
  orange, on a blueish hazel ground, which deadens as it approaches the
  margin. The posterior wings have on each a white band, running
  transversely, and meeting just below the extremity of the body; within
  which, and including the anal groove, are many round, oval, and other
  shaped marks of chocolate and dark olive; verged with white. A scolloped
  margin, of a deep lemon colour, runs along the posterior edges, verged
  with dirty green, and separated from the white band by a bar of hazel
  colour, and some large brown reddish spots and marks. Two blue spots are
  placed just above the two longest tails, with several lesser ones, just
  above the lemon-coloured margin.

I have thought it more in accordance with the principles which are now
almost universally adopted, in regulating specific nomenclature, to revert
to the original Linnæan {2}name of Jason in preference to that of
Fabricius. This butterfly may be regarded as one of the most splendid of
the Lepidoptera of Europe, to the southern portion of which and to the
northern shores of Africa it appears to be confined. The strength of its
general structure indicates great powers of flight, and we accordingly find
that it is able to sustain itself in the air with very little motion of the
wings. The female differs from the male only by having the centre of the
posterior wings adorned with small blue spots on the upper side. There are
two broods in the year, namely in June and September, and, according to M.
De Villiers, the insect emits a strong scent of musk. The caterpillar is
naked and thickened in the middle of the body; the tail tapering into two
short points, the head is also armed with two conical erect horns. In this
respect, therefore, this insect very nearly approaches the genus Apatura,
of which the purple Emperor, Ap. Iris is the type, thus proving the
advantages to be obtained, in studying the natural relations of this
difficult order of Annulosa, from an accurate acquaintance with the
structure and habits of the early stages of the insect.

There are several species, having the same general form as the Jason,
including Athamas, pl. 2. fig. 3. 4; Eudoxus, vol. iii. pl. 33. f. 1. 4;
Camulus, vol. iii. pl. 30. f. 1. 2. Mr. Swainson has, accordingly, formed
them into a distinct group, to which he has given the name of Jasia, in
pursuance with his customary, but scarcely correct plan, of raising the
specific name of the typical species into a generic name, and then giving a
new specific name to such type. M. Boisduval, rejecting this system of
nomenclature, has more recently proposed for the same group the name of
Charaxes, which I have adopted.

Amongst the species very nearly resembling Jason, is one sent from
Africa[20] to Mr. Drury by Mr. Smeathman, which, according to the
observations of that traveller, published by Drury, in the introduction to
his third volume, flies in the heat of the day with amazing rapidity, and
seldom descends within eight feet of the ground. It glances from the
prominent branches of one tree to those of another, as swift as a swallow,
and turns its head about instantly to the glade, or path, and will not
suffer any person to approach within a striking distance of it, but darts
away on the least motion of the body. If the collector exert his patience
it will at last become more familiar and careless, and is then to be caught
upon some particular branch, to which it will appear more attached than to


Plate I. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Lycænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. THECLA, _Fabr._ (Syst. Gloss. Synops. in Illig. Mag.) Polyommatus,
  _Latr. et Godart_. Cupido p. Schrank Papilio (Pleb. rural.), _Drury_.

  THECLA ACIS. Alis suprà fuscis subtùs pallidioribus, posticis bicaudatis
  maculâ rufâ ad angulum ani, subtùs punctis duobus fasciâque obliquâ
  albis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio Acis, _Drury, App. v._ 2. (1773). _Cram. pl._ 175. _fig._ C.

  Papilio Mars, _Fabr. Mant. Ins._ 2. 66. _No._ 624. (1787). _Herbst. Pap.
  tab._ 288. _f._ 1. 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 265. 24. (Hesperia M.)
  _Encycl. Meth._ 9. 635. (Polyommatus M.)

  Papilo Ixion, _Fab. Mant. Ins._ 2. 71. _No._ 671?

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury,_) taken on 31st August. South America
  (_Fabr._): Antilles (_Godart_). Cape of Good Hope (_?? Cramer_).

  _Upper Side._ The anterior wings are entirely dark brown, without any
  spots or marks.--The posterior wings the same, with four tails, the inner
  ones much longer than the others; close above which latter are two red
  spots, edged at the bottom with black, and two more, placed at the anal
  angle. The cilia is white.

  _Under Side._ All the wings are of a dark lead colour. A very narrow
  black and white line crosses the anterior wings, parallel to the external
  edges; another indented irregular line crosses the posterior wings,
  beginning near the middle of the anterior edge, and meeting just below
  the extremity of the body. Four long reddish spots are very visible on
  this side, below which are four black ones.

This species is nearly allied to Papilio Echion, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 788.
figured by Roesel, tom. i. tab. 7. f. 3. 4. which is also an American
species, but differs, as Drury observes, in wanting the red spots on the
upper surface of the lower wings, in having a red line crossing the wings
on the under side, &c.


Plate I. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Lycænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. THECLA, _Fabr., Horsfield_. Polyommatus, _Latr. et Godart_.
  Hesperia, _Fabr. olim._ Papilio (Pleb. rur.) _Drury_.

  THECLA SIMAETHIS. Alis supra fuscis, nitidis, subtus flavo-viridibus,
  vittâ transversâ argenteâ, posticis apice ferrugineis strigâ è punctis
  margaritaceis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Pleb. rural.) Simaethis, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Herbst. Pap.
  tab._ 280. _f._ 3. 4. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 286. _No._ 97.
  (Hesperia S.) _Latr. et God. Enc. Meth._ 9. 643. 97. (Polyommatus S.)

  HABITAT: Saint Christopher's (_Drury_). Surinam (_Fabr._)

  _Upper Side._ The wings are brown, tinged with blue. The cilia white,
  posterior wings with two tails like hairs, of a chocolate colour; the
  tips being white.

  _Under Side._ The anterior wings are green next the anterior edge, but
  along the interior one are of a greyish flesh colour. A narrow silver
  line begins at the anterior edge, about a third from the tips, and
  crossing both superior and inferior wings, meets near the extremity of
  the abdomen, running across the inferior wings in a very irregular,
  indented manner, and having its upper side verged with chocolate. The
  {4}posterior wings, above this line, are of a deep pea-green; but below
  it soften into a flesh colour, which continues along the external edge,
  from the upper to the anal corner; whence rises a jagged, indented,
  chocolate line, that runs across the wing, parallel with the silver line,
  whereon are several dark blue spots, shining like polished steel.

Nearly allied to the common British species, Thecla Rubi.




Plate II. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Lycænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. POLYOMMATUS, _Latreille et Godart_. Lycæna, _Fabr._ (Syst. Gloss.
  Synops. in Illig. Mag.) Papilio (Nymph. Phalerat.) _Drury_. (Pleb.
  rural.) _Linn._

  POLYOMMATUS THERO. Alis dentatîs, suprà nigricanti-fuscis, fúlvo
  maculatis, posticis subtùs nebuloso-cinereis maculis linearibus
  nitenti-albis, maculà disci majori, apicibus uncinatâ. (Expans. Alar.
  lin. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Thero, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 787. _No._
  219. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 274. _No._ 57. (Hesperia rural).
  _God. et Latr. Enc. Meth._ 9. 602. _No._ 154.

  Hesperia Erosine, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 266. _No._ 28.

  Papilio Salmoneus, _Cramer, Ins. t._ 1. _pl._ 2. _f._ 1.

  Papilio Rumina, _Drury_, (exclus. syn. Linn.)

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  _Upper Side._ The wings are dentated, and of a fine dark brown colour.
  The anterior having seven square discoidal red spots, of different sizes.
  The posterior ones are furnished with four short tails, two on each;
  above which are three small red spots.

  _Under Side._ The anterior wings are red at the base; but along the
  external and interior edges are of a rusty grey brown, with several dark
  marks or clouds thereon. Near the anterior edge, towards the base, are
  three black spots, with three small white ones in their centres. The
  posterior wings are of a rusty grey brown, darkest in the middle, with a
  margin of a paler colour, running along the external and part of the
  upper edges. Several spots, of a silver white, are dispersed on different
  parts of the wings; some being round, long, triangular, &c. About the
  middle of each wing is a long silvery mark, running in a direction from
  the base to the external edge; being about half the length of the wing.

Drury confounded this species with the European Papilio Rumina, Linn.
belonging to a distant genus (Thais), whilst Fabricius described it twice
under the specific names cited above.


Plate II. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Lycænidæ?

  GENUS. ERYCINA, _Latr._ Hesperia (rurales), _Fab._ Papilio (Pleb. rur.)
  _Linn. Drury_.

  ERYCINA LYSIPPUS. Alis fusco-nigris, singularum utrinque fasciâ tenui
  aurantiacâ; posticis angulatis, subtùs ad basin griseo maculatis.
  (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Lysippus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 793. _No._
  250. _Cramer, pl._ 380. _f._ A. _Fabricius Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 321.
  _No._ 218. (Hesperia rur. L.). _Latr. et Godart, Encycl. Méthod._ ix.
  _p._ 566. _No._ 11. (Erycina L.)

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). Guiana and Brazil (_Latr. et God._).

  {5}_Upper Side._ The wings are of a chocolate-black. On the anterior is
  an orange-coloured line, which, rising about the middle of the anterior
  edge, crosses the wing towards the anal angle, where it suddenly bends,
  and terminates at the posterior edge. The posterior wings, which are
  angulated, have a circular orange line, rising at the anterior edge, near
  the corner, crossing the wings, and meeting near the anal angle.

  _Under Side._ The wings are of the same colour as on the upper side, with
  the same orange line, whereon, in the anterior pair, are some white
  spots. Between this and the base are several faint, dirty grey, oblong
  spots, namely, four on the anterior, and about twenty on the posterior
  wing. The base of the anterior margin of the fore wings, and the anal
  margin of the posterior wings, are of a red colour.


Plate II. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swainson_.

  GENUS. HIPPARCHIA, _Fabr._ Satyrus, _Latr. et God._ Papilio (Danai
  Festivi), _Drury_.

  HIPPARCHIA EUMEA. Alis integris subfuscis, anticis utrinque strigâ latâ
  fulvâ, subtus serie communi punctorum alborum. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Festiv.) Eumeus, _Drury, App. to v._ 2. (1773).
  _Cramer, pl._ 183. _fig._ C. D.

  Pap. (Nymphal.) Gripus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 149. _No._ 457.
  _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 135. _No._ 3. 4.

  Satyrus Gripus, _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth. v._ ix. _p._ 497. _No._ 70.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). India (_Fabricius_).

  _Upper Side._ The wings are entire, and of a deep brown, with a broad
  luteous fascia, rising near the anterior edges of the fore wings, running
  along near the tips, and ending at the external margin.

  _Under Side._ The wings are the same colours as on the upper side. The
  anterior, with five whitish spots on each, placed in a row, near the
  external margin. The posterior have on each sometimes five, and sometimes
  seven spots, of the same colour, placed in a circular row, meeting near
  the extremity of the body.

I have reverted to the name given by Drury, in preference to following
Fabricius, and the authors of the Encyclopédie Méthodique.


Plate II. fig. 4.

  ORDER Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw_.

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr._ SUBGENUS. Charaxes, _Boisduval_. (See page 1.)

  NYMPH (CH.) ATHAMAS. Alis supra nigris, utrinque fasciâ mediâ latâ glaucâ
  subhyalinâ, subtus lunulis ferrugineis marginatâ. (Expans. Alar. 3. unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Equit.. Achiv.) Athamas, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Cramer, Pap.
  pl._ 89. _f._ C. D. _Encycl. Méthod._ 9. 353. (Nymphalis A.)

  Papilio Pyrrhus, _Donovan_. _Insects of India_, _pl._ 4. _f._ 2. (exel.
  syn. Linn.)

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). India (_Donovan_). Java (_Latr. et God._).

  _Upper Side._ The head is brown, with four minute yellow frontal spots.
  The wings are dentated, and of a fine red brown, each with a broad
  brimstone coloured bar, rising near the middle of the anterior wings;
  and, crossing them and the posterior ones transversely, meeting near the
  extremity of the body. {6}Above these, near the tips, are two small oval
  spots of the same colour. The posterior wings have four tails, of nearly
  equal length, above which are seven small brimstone spots, placed on
  each, along the external edge.

  _Under Side._ The broad transverse bar is of a pearl colour, being
  surrounded next the body by a narrow red brown border, edged with black,
  between which and the base, are two small black spots. The two spots,
  near the tips, are also seen on this side, being of a pearl colour. The
  external edges of the anterior wings are of an olive colour; the
  remaining parts being of a very resplendent greyish purple. Several small
  kidney-shaped marks are placed along the outer side of the pearl bar. The
  posterior wings have a narrow orange-coloured border running along their
  external edges; and above it, are seven small black spots, edged at the
  top with white. Above these is a shade of brown olive, over which are
  some black angular marks, with red crescents above them.

Donovan has confounded this species with the Linnæan Pap. Pyrrhus, although
Drury had previously pointed out the diversity of the two species.




Plate III. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ.

  GENUS. EREBUS, _Latr._ Thysania, _Dalm._ Noctua, _Fabr._ Phalæna
  (Attacus), _Linn. Drury._

  EREBUS ODORA. Alis dentatis fuscis, nigro undatis, anticis ocello atro
  auriformi fulvo marginato; posticis sesquialtero. (Expans. Alar. 7½ unc.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Attacus) Odora, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 811. _No._ 11.
  _Sloan. Jam._ 2. _t._ 236. _f._ 13. 14. Noctua Odora, Fabr. Ent. Syst.
  III. 2. p. 10. No. 8. Gmelin, Linn., S. N. 2529. 11. Cramer, Ins. tab.
  169. _fig._ A. B. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 8. 252. 7.

  HABITAT: Jamaica, Antigua, and other West Indian Islands (_Drury_).
  Surinam (_Fabricius_).

  _Upper Side._ The body and wings are of a dark brown. The latter are
  scolloped, the anterior having, near their anterior margin, towards the
  middle, a black eye on each, shaped like a human ear, whose iris is of a
  dark orange colour; and, near the anal angle, towards the external edge,
  is a black scolloped line, running half way up the wing, joining to which
  (under it) is a bar of a very soft and delicate brown colour, differing
  from the general tint of the wings. The posterior wings have, on each,
  near the external edge, a mark somewhat like a large eye; upon whose
  under edge are two semi-eyes, one black, the other the same colour as the
  wings. Many agreeable shades, of a lighter colour, and ingrailed lines,
  run across all the wings.

  _Under Side._ The head, breast, and legs, are the same colour as the
  upper side; except the thighs of the fore legs, which are red. There is
  very little variety of colours on this side, except a purplish hue,
  visible when held in a declining direction.

Drury notices another insect, also received by him from Saint
Christopher's, of smaller size, and differing only in having a narrow
indented bar, of a flesh colour, crossing the upper and lower wings, and
which, he thinks, may possibly be the other sex of the insect here figured;
considering also, that the references to Linnæus and Sloane, apply rather
to the smaller insect. Fabricius states, that the female of Odora is
distinguished by having a fascia, composed of three waved white lines, in
the middle of the wings.


Plate III. fig. 2. [female]. 3. [male].

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. SPILOSOMA, _Stephens_. Arctia p. _Schrank_. Eyprepia p.
  _Ochsenheim_. Bombyx p. _Fabr._

  SPILOSOMA ACREA. Alis niveis (postieis [male] fulvis), punctis nigris,
  costalibus majoribus; abdominis dorso fulvo nigro maculato. (Expans.
  Alar. [male] 2 unc.--[female] 2¾ unc.)

  SYN. [female] Phalæna (Bombyx) Acrea, _Drury, App. v._ 2.

  [male]. Phal. (Bomb.) Caprotina, _Drury, App. v._ 2.

  Bombyx Acria, _Fab. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 451. _No._ 137. _Abbot and
  Smith, Ins. Georg. tab._ 67. (exclus. _Syn. Fabr._ B. lubricepidæ).

  Arctia Pseuderminea (_Peck_), _Harris in Massachus. Agricult. Repos.
  vol._ 7. _p._ 328. _and tab. annex_.

  HABITAT: New York, Maryland, Virginia (_Drury_).

  MALE..--_Upper Side._ The antennæ and eyes are black; the thorax and
  extremity of the body cream colour; he abdomen yellow, spotted on the top
  and sides with black. The anterior wings are cream coloured, spotted with
  black. The number of spots very uncertain, except five which are placed
  on the anterior edge, and six on the external one. The cilia yellow, as
  are the posterior wings, on each of which are three black spots, two near
  the external edge, and one near the middle.

  _Under Side._ The breast and thighs are yellow; the abdomen and legs the
  same, chequered and spotted with black. All the wings are yellow, spotted
  in the same manner with black, as on the upper side.

  FEMALE.--_Upper Side._ The head and thorax white. The abdomen yellow,
  with black spots on the sides and top, the extremity being white. All the
  wings are white, with black spots, whose number is very variable; but, on
  the anterior edges of each anterior wing, are placed five, and on the
  external edges, six.

  _Under Side_. The legs are black and white, the thighs yellow; the
  abdomen white, spotted with black. All the wings are white, with black
  spots, most of which, observed on the upper side, being seen on this.

This species is closely allied to the common British species, Spilosoma
lubricepida, and Menthrastri; but is of larger size, the spots being also
larger. The two figures given by Drury, are now ascertained to be the sexes
of the same species, as, indeed, our author had surmised might be the case.
It appears to be a very common species, and is stated by Drury to breed
twice a year, namely, in June and September. The caterpillar is very hairy,
and when young is white; as it advances in age, it acquires a fox colour,
and, in its last skin, becomes almost black. Dr. Thaddeus W. Harris, a
distinguished American entomologist, to whom I am indebted for many
valuable insects of that country, has published a very interesting notice,
in the work above cited, upon this insect, under the title of "The Natural
History of the Salt-marsh Caterpillar," under which name the larva of this
insect is commonly known, and which is exceedingly destructive to grasses
of various kinds. He states, that when nearly full-fed, "they become very
voracious, and continue eating all the day and night without intermission.
Soon they leave the meadows, aggregated in great numbers, and commence the
wandering state, or begin to run, as is the phrase, devouring everything in
their progress; corn-fields, gardens, and even the coarse and rank
{8}produce of road sides, afford them temporary nourishment, until they
have found a place of security from the wind and weather." Dr. Harris, in a
communication to me, has stated, that he had ascertained that this insect
was the Acria of Fabricius, and that Professor Peck's name must, therefore,
be rejected. Abbot observes, respecting this caterpillar, that it is "a
general devourer of all field and garden-plants, and weeds. It spun up in a
thin web, intermixed with its own hairs, on the 16th of May, and the moth
came out on the 2d of June. Others of the autumnal brood, taken in
September, spun up on the 18th of that month, and remained in the chrysalis
until the 21st of April."




Plate IV. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains_.

  GENUS. CETHOSIA, _Fabr. Latr. et God._ Papilio (Nymphal. Phalerat.),

  CETHOSIA CYANE. Alis dentatis nigris, lineâ communi tenuissimâ angulatâ
  marginali, anticis fasciâ posticis disco (nigro punctato) albis. (Expans.
  Alar. unc. 3½.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Cyane, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Herbst. Pap.
  tab._ 248. _fig._ 3. 4. _Cramer, Pap._ 25. _pl._ 295. _fig._ C. D. _Fabr.
  Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 115. _No._ 352. _Latr. et God. Encycl. Méthod._
  ix. _p._ 247. (Cethosia Cy.)

  HABITAT: Bengal (_Drury_). India (_Fabr._).

  _Upper Side._ The anterior wings are dentated and black: the anterior
  edge of a dirty olive brown; in the middle whereof a broad white bar
  arises, and runs transversely towards the middle of the external edge,
  where, stopping at the distance of a quarter of an inch, it forms, with
  some faint white spots, a black border along the external edge, whereon
  is a row of narrow white angulated marks. The posterior wings, which are
  deeply dentated, are white; with a deep black border running along the
  external edge, whereon is a row of white angulated marks, as on the
  superior wings, and above each of them is a series of short white
  streaks, running parallel with the edge of the wing. Above these are six
  round black spots, one situated between each nerve, and over them six
  more smaller, and fainter; several more spots being dispersed on the
  white parts of the wings, some very distinct, and others very faint.

  _Under Side._ The anterior wings are red, which colour extends from the
  base nearly half along the wing, and which, towards the posterior edge,
  softens to a cream-colour. On this red ground are some short black lines,
  with blue ones between them, extending between the two principal nerves.
  The external edge has a black margin; whereon the white angular marks are
  seen more distinctly, being here shaped like beards of arrows. Above this
  border, near the external angle, are two oval black spots, or eyes, whose
  irides are white, having between them and the black border a row of
  small, round, black spots, placed close together. The white bar described
  on the upper side is also seen here. Several more black spots, of various
  forms, are dispersed on different parts, particularly a group in the
  centre of the wing. The inferior wings are white, with pale
  cream-coloured clouds; but next the base are white, blue, and red, with
  black streaks, from whence a shade of blue and brown runs along the
  anterior edge to the external angle, where a black border commences,
  whereon are angular white marks, like arrow beards or points. This border
  continues to the abdominal corners, where two small, curved, black lines
  meet together, and form an arch. Above the black border is a row of small
  black spots, and above them are six larger, with several others, of
  different shapes and sizes, dispersed on various parts of the wings.

{9}The insect described in the Encyclopédie Méthodique, from Malabar,
differs from that figured by Drury, in having the disc of the posterior
wings of a fulvous buff colour, and the spots larger, with the markings at
the base of this pair of wings, on the under side fulvous instead of blue.
Is this to be regarded as a variety, the opposite sex, or a distinct


Plate IV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw._

  GENUS. CETHOSIA, _Fab. Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymphal. Phal.), _Drury_.

  CETHOSIA BIBLIS. Alis subrotundatis dentatis fulvis, extimo fusco,
  lunulis albis anticarum serie triplici digestis (intermediâ minori),
  posticis ante marginem maculis nigris, singulis subtùs ad basin lineis
  maculisque flavis variis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Biblis, _Drury, App. v._ 2. (1773). _Cramer,
  Pap._ 15. _pl._ 175. _fig._ A. B. _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 248. _fig._ 1. 2.

  Papilio (Nymph.) Penthesilea, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 114. _No._
  349. (exclus. Syn. Crameri.)

  Cethosia Biblina, _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 248.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). From the collection of the late Mr. Lee of

  _Upper Side._ The anterior wings, next the shoulders, are a brown orange,
  occupying half the wings; the other half, next the tips, are of a rusty
  red brown, whereon is a row of white crescents running along the external
  edge. Above this are five white squarish spots, and over them a row of
  angulated marks, like points of arrows, with white spots in their
  centres, above which is a single white spot, between which and the
  shoulders are some short black waved lines, extending between the two
  principal nerves. The posterior wings are entirely of a brown orange,
  except a rusty red-brown border that runs along the external edge,
  whereon is a row of white crescents, and above it are six black spots
  running parallel with the border, beneath which is a denticulated line of
  dark brown.

  _Under Side._ The anterior wings, next the shoulders, are of a brown
  orange, reaching half way along the wings, the remainder being rusty
  yellow. On the orange ground, next the shoulders, are several black,
  irregular, short lines, placed two and two, the middle, or spaces between
  them, being clay-coloured. Two small black spots are placed on the
  anterior edge, on each side near the base. Along the external edge is a
  row of white angulated lines, above which is a row of ash-coloured marks,
  with some dark spots thereon; and over this, is another row of
  ash-coloured marks, shaped like acute angles, with an oblong streak in
  the centre of each. The posterior wings at the base are dark orange, but
  toward the external edges are rusty yellow, on which is a row of
  crescents on a dark border. Above this is a circular bar or band of a
  flesh colour, having a row of dark spots on the lower edge, and the upper
  edge shaped like acute angles, with a black triangular mark in each, and
  a white spot in its centre. About a quarter of an inch above this bar is
  another of a clay colour, about one-eighth of an inch broad, with dark
  spots and marks on it, some of which resemble Greek characters. Over this
  bar is another near the base, of a clay colour, with a double row of
  black marks or streaks on it.

Fabricius has confounded this species and another, under the name of
Penthesilea. Latreille and Godart have altered the specific name proposed
by Drury to that of Biblina, "parce qu'il a été imposé ultérieurement à un
genre de Lépidoptères diurnes." I have, however, restored the specific name
of Biblis, because the same name, was not {10}proposed for a genus by
Fabricius, until many years after the publication of Drury's work, in the
Synopsis of the Systema Glossatorum, published in Illiger's Magazine; and
because the employment of a proper name, like Biblis, for a species, even
when previously used for a genus belonging to a perfectly distinct group,
is not incorrect.




Plate V. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains_.

  GENUS. CYNTHIA, _Fabr. Stephens_. Vanessa p. _Latr. et God._ Papilio
  (Nymph. Gemmat.), _Drury, Fabricius_.

  CYNTHIA HUNTERA. Alis subangulatis dentatis fulvis, nigro variegatis;
  anticis apice productis albo maculatis; posticis infra ad basin griseo
  reticulatis, ad extimum ocellis duobus magnis notatis. (Expans. Alar. 2
  unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph.) Huntera, _Fab. Syst. Ent. p._ 499. _No._ 240.
  _Herbst. Pap. t._ 178. _f._ 5. 6. _t._ 179. _f._ 1. 2. _Abbot and Smith,
  Ins. Georgia, vol._ 1. _tab._ 9.

  Papilio (Nymph. Gemm.) Cardui Virginiensis, _Drury, App. v._ 2.

  Papilio Iole, _Cramer, Pap._ 1. _pl._ 12. _f._ E. F.

  Papilio Bella Donna Virginiana, _Petiv. Gaz. Dec._ 4. _tab._ 33. _fig._

  HABITAT: New York, Maryland, Virginia (_Drury_). Brazil to Georgia (_Enc.

  _Upper Side._ The base of the wings tawny orange; the anterior, dentated
  and angulated; the tips and external edges are brownish black, on which
  are five white spots near the external angle, the largest being round.
  The remainder of the wings is of a fine orange brown, with several black
  marks thereon, near the anterior edges. The posterior wings are a little
  dentated, and of a brown orange colour like the anterior, having five
  black spots placed near the external edge of each, two of which being
  larger than the rest have blue centres, below these is a black border,
  with a row of brown-orange crescents running along the middle. The cilia
  is black and white.

  _Under Side._ The anterior wings at the base are greyish, beyond which
  they are beautifully adorned with rose-coloured and black marks, having
  three white spots on each near the external edge, with several clouds and
  marks of different colours placed at the tips and anterior edges. The
  posterior wings are of a beautiful agate colour, with many lines and
  narrow bars branching from, and intersecting one another under different
  directions (like lines in a map), so as to form spots and clouds of
  different shapes. Each wing has two eyes placed near the external edge,
  one larger than the other, the pupils being of a blueish hue and the
  irides black, the small one having a yellow circle within it; below
  these, a purple line runs parallel with, and near to the external edge.

The caterpillar of this insect is described by Drury as being green, with
black rings round the body, and as feeding about New York upon the wild
balsams, appearing about the latter end of July, or beginning of August.
Once in about five or six years they are exceedingly plentiful, at other
times very scarce; a peculiarity also noticed in the very nearly allied
European species, Cynthia Cardui (the Painted lady), of which species,
indeed, Drury appears to have regarded it as a geographical variety.

The caterpillar, according to Abbot, is of a brown colour, with the
incisions, and a {11}lateral line yellow; it has also two dorsal lines,
formed of alternately white and red points; the head is black, and the
spines, with which the body is armed, are of the prevalent colour of the
surface. It feeds upon the Gnaphalum obtusifolium. The chrysalis is rather
yellow, with black spots, and is assumed towards the end of April or
beginning of May. The butterfly appears at the end of about ten days. It
continues breeding during the summer, and is very commonly seen sucking up
moisture from damp places near houses. The caterpillar folds and spins the
leaves together, in the same manner as the English Painted lady, Cynthia


Plate V. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PIERIS, _Schrank, Latr. et God._ Pontia, p. _Ochsenh. Horsfield_.
  Papilio (Danai Candidi), _Linn. Drury_. Thestias, _Boisduv._ Teracolus,

  PIERIS (THESTIAS) PYRENE. "Alis flavis primoribus apice (medio fulvo)
  nigris, subtus nebuloso maculatis. Habitat in China." _Lin. loc. cit.
  infra._ (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Candid.) Pyrene, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 762. 86? _Latr.
  et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. 120.

  P. Evippe, _Lin. var. teste_. _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Pap. (Dan. Cand.) Sesia, _Fab. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 203. 636.

  Thestias Pirene, _Boisd._ _Hist. Nat. Lep._ 1. _p._ 593. No. 3.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). Asia (_Linn._).

  _Upper Side._ The anterior wings near the base are of a brimstone colour;
  the tips and external edges being of a dark brown, nearly black,
  surrounding a large patch of a fine orange. The posterior are of
  brimstone colour, with a border round their edges of dark brown. The male
  has not this border.

  _Under Side._ Black; all the wings brimstone, without any marks, spots,
  or clouds whatever in the female, the male having its under side of a
  brighter yellow, with several reddish-brown spots on the inferior wings.

There is the greatest confusion respecting the specific names of this, and
several nearly allied species, which would be very difficult to unravel.
Drury considered this insect as a variety of Evippe, whilst Fabricius,
Latrielle, and Godart, give it as identical with the Linnæan Pyrene, which
opinion I have adopted, although I am by no means certain as to the
identity of the species; the under side of the wings offering no trace of
the central discoidal black spot existing in that species. M. Boisduval has
not diminished the confusion, in his work just published, by giving a
species from Guinea, under the name of Evippe (which Linnæus states is from
China), with the erroneous observation, "Il est probable que les anciens
auteurs auront confondu sous le nom d'Evippe trois ou quatre espèces
_Africaines_."--_Hist. Nat. Lépid._ 1. p. 574.


Plate V. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains_.

  GENUS. CYNTHIA, _Fab._ Vanessa p. _Latr. et God._ Papilio (Nymph.
  Gemmat.), _Linn. Drury_.

  CYNTHIA LAOMEDIA. Alis dentatis cinerascentibus lineis fuscis transversis
  undulatis ocellisque (quibusdam coecis) serie posticâ digestis; anticarum
  sex, posticarum quinque. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.) Laomedia, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 772. _No._
  145. _Fabricius, Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 98. _No._ 302. _Cramer_, _pl._
  8. _f._ 10. _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 174. _f._ 1. 2.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). East India (_Linn._). Java (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ The wings are of a greyish purple and a little dentated.
  The anterior have on each four irregular black lines, running from the
  anterior edge near the body half way cross the wings, and six eyes on
  each, near the external edge, whose irides are white, some of which are
  oval, and one, being larger than the rest, is filled up with black and
  red; some are very faint. The posterior wings have six oval eyes on each,
  with white irides; three of which are more distinct than the rest, two of
  them being filled up with red and black. Two dark irregular lines run
  along and near to their external edges.

  _Under Side._ The wings are rather paler than on the upper side. A small
  irregular line begins about the middle of the anterior edge of the
  superior wings, and running cross them and the inferior ones, meets below
  the body. The anterior wings have a distinct dark spot, and also a faint
  one. The posterior ones have two distinct red and black spots, and
  another very faint.




Plate VI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains_.

  GENUS. ARGYNNIS, _Fabr. Latr. God._ Argyreus, p. _Scopoli_. Papilio
  (Nymphal. Phalerati), _Linn. Drury_.

  ARGYNNIS NIPHE. Alis supra luteis nigro maculatis, anticis ad apicem
  coerulescenti-nigris fasciâ albâ transversâ; posticis subtus viridi,
  argenteo, nigroque variis, strigâ quinque ocellorum notatis. (Expans.
  Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Niphe, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 785. _No._ 208.
  _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 142. _No._ 436.

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ The anterior wings near the base are of a brown olive.
  About half the wings (from the lower angle upwards) are of a dark blue,
  with many different shaped spots on them, and a white bar running from
  the anterior edge towards the external one, which, being intersected by
  the black tendons of the wing, appears like three steps. All the wings
  are dentated or scolloped. The posterior ones are of a clay colour, with
  many black spots on them, of various forms. A black border runs along the
  external edges, narrowed as it approaches the external angle, on which
  appear two rows of blue spots like crescents, whose convex sides are
  placed opposite each other.

  _Under Side._ The white bar on the anterior wings appears as on the upper
  side, from whence to the tips is an olive colour, whereon are some silver
  spots; the remainder as on the upper side. The posterior wings are of an
  olive hue, finely variegated with some white silvery spots and marks. A
  line of this colour runs along the external edges almost close to the
  scollops, and above that are five round spots of a darker olive, with
  small white dots in their centres.


Plate VI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains_.

  GENUS. ARGYNNIS, _Fab. Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymph. Phalerat.), _Linn.

  ARGYNNIS TEPHNIA. Alis subrotundatis dentatis, supra luteis nigro
  maculatis, posticis subtus viridi argenteo nigroque variegatis serie
  quinque ocellorum. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Argynnis, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Herbst. Pap.
  t._ 254. _f._ 5. 6.

  Papilio Niphe, var. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 142.

  P. Niphe mas. _Cramer, Pap._ 2. _pl._ 14. _f._ D. E.

  Argynnis Tephnia, _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 262. _No._ 18.

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ The wings are of a brown orange, having many black spots,
  of different sizes and shapes on them. A black scolloped border runs
  along the external edges of the posterior wings, whereon are two rows of
  tawny red spots, appearing like crescents, with their convex sides placed
  against each other. All the wings are scolloped or dentated.

  _Under Side._ The anterior wings, toward the body, are brown orange. The
  tips are of a yellowish flesh colour, with some olive spots on them, with
  black spots, as on the upper side. The posterior wings are of a yellow
  flesh colour, marked with some olive spots, and white marks, which seem
  of a silver hue. A margin of olive colour runs along the external edges,
  whereon is a row of flesh-coloured crescents (as on the upper side), with
  an intersected narrow line above them. Over these, are five round olive
  spots, of equal sizes, with a dot of silver in their centres.

The specific name given to this species by Drury, having the priority in
point of date, would have been retained, had it not been identical with
that of the genus to which it belongs. Engramelle and several other authors
have, inadvertently, given it as an inhabitant of the south of Europe.




Plate VII. fig. 1. (Upper Side). Plate VIII. fig. 1. (Under Side).

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Uraniidæ, _Westw._

  GENUS. NYCTALEMON, _Dalman._ (Prod. Monogr. Castn.) Urania. Divis. C.
  _Latr. et God._ Papilio (Equit. Achiv. _Linn._), Noctua, _Fabr._

  (SUBGENUS. Orontes, _Swainson, Zool. Illustr. 2d. series_, 125.)

  NYCTALEMON PATROCLUS. Alis supra fuscis, subtus griseis fusco undatis,
  utrinque fasciâ communi mediá rectâ albâ, posticis caudatis. (Expans.
  Alar. fere 6 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Eq. Achiv.) Patroclus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 749. _No._ 24.
  _Cramer, Pap. pl._ 198. _fig._ A. _pl._ 109. _fig._ A. B. _Herbst. Pap.
  tab._ 54. _fig._ 2. 3. _tab._ 55. _f._ 1.

  Noctua Patroclus, _Fab. Ent. Syst._ 3. 2. _p._ 8. _No._ 2.

  Urania Patroclus, _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. 710.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). Java, Amboyna (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ are about an inch long, slender, setaceous, and
  gradually diminishing from the base to the extremities. The head is
  small. The thorax is clothed with long soft hair, and, {14}with the
  abdomen, is of a darkish brown. A remarkable straight narrow line, or
  bar, of a cream colour, arises from the middle of the anterior edge of
  each of the fore wings, and, crossing both anterior and posterior wings,
  ends at the abdominal edges, about half an inch below the abdomen; so
  that, when the wings are extended, as in the figure, these lines, with
  the anterior edges, form an equilateral triangle. The space within the
  triangle is dark brown; but the parts, near the shoulders, are lighter,
  having a greyish cast or hue, and contain many small transverse curved
  streaks, extending to the anterior edges, where they are large, black,
  and very conspicuous, like stripes. Some transverse markings of this
  kind, are dispersed on the posterior edges of the superior wings, and
  also on the abdominal edges of the posterior. On the outside the
  triangle, both on the anterior and posterior wings, is a fascia, of light
  brown, about half an inch broad, which deepens into a dark brown. On the
  posterior wings, after becoming dark, it softens again into the same
  light colour, continuing to the external edges. Each of these wings is
  ornamented with two tails, the inner ones the longest and near an inch in
  length, the tips of which incline towards each other; the lesser or outer
  tails, are about half an inch long, strengthened by the tendons of the
  wings passing through the middle of them; all of them being bordered with
  a soft ray of dark brown.

  _Under Side._ The bars or lines, which form the triangle on the upper
  side, are not visible on this; but the inclosed triangular field appears
  of a light greyish brown, darker at the borders, and thickly beset with
  small brown streaks, parallel to each other, and surrounding the body.
  The costal nerve of the anterior wings composes an edging in each, about
  an eighth of an inch broad, which diminishes as it approaches the
  external angle, white, and beautifully marked with black streaks, but
  smaller than those seen on the upper side. Outside the triangle, both in
  the anterior and posterior wings, is a broad border of white, which
  softens into a brown, but lighter than that on the upper side. Both in
  the white, and in the brown, are some small dashes of black, very thinly
  dispersed. The internal margin of the posterior wings is furnished with a
  deep fringe, and the black marks situated below the abdomen, are larger
  and broader than those on the upper side. The tails are whitish, bordered
  with brown, and appear as on the upper side.

This is one of those anomalous forms, whereof examples occur in every tribe
of animals, baffling the skill of the most profound systematists. By
Linnæus, and many other authors, it was considered as a butterfly, and
certainly the genus Urania (in which it is placed by Latreille), as we
learn from Mr. W. S. MacLeay's valuable memoir upon that genus, published
in the first volume of the Transactions of the Zoological Society of
London, is composed of day-flying species. Fabricius, however, regarded it
as a moth, belonging to the genus Noctua, and nearly related to the genus
Erebus, of which the Erebus Odora, figured in the third plate of the
present volume, is a conspicuous species; and when we examine the structure
of the palpi, and the spurs upon the posterior tibiæ, we find good reason
for adopting this relation, admitting, at the same time, that the group in
question is one which, from its various affinities and analogies, it is
very difficult to assign to any single section.


Plate VII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. CALLIMORPHA, _Latr. Leach_. Hypercompa, _Steph._ Heraclia,
  _Hubner_. Phalæna Bombyx, _Drury_.

  CALLIMORPHA PHYLLIRA. Alis anticis nigris lineis albidis apicalibus,
  literam B referentibus; posticis sanguineis maculis nigris. (Expans.
  Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) Phyllira, _Drury, Append. v._ 2. _Olivier, Enc.
  Méth._ 5. 94. 236. _Abbot and Smith, Ins. Georg. tab._ 64.

  HABITAT: New York; taken on the 12th day of July.

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ are black, small, and thread-like, near half an
  inch long; the head and thorax cream-coloured. Behind the head are two
  black spots, and on the thorax are three others, longer, and running
  parallel with it. The abdomen is scarlet, and on each segment is a black
  mark, forming a row, united together in the middle. All the wings are
  entire. The anterior ones black, with cream-coloured cilia; the interior
  edge, and part of the anterior, next the body, are margined with cream
  colour. A line of the same colour, runs from the body, parallel with, and
  near to the posterior edge, quite to the external one, where, suddenly
  returning, in a zigzag manner, it ends at the anterior edge, near the
  tips, and forms two angles, like a B, with a line placed across its top,
  or upper part. The posterior wings are scarlet, having a thin border of
  black, running along their external edges, with four black spots above
  it, those nearest the abdomen, being in shape like hearts.

  _Under Side._ Like the upper: but the colours are more faint and less

The caterpillar of this species is brown, with small dorsal and lateral
diamond-shaped yellow spots, emitting fascicles of hairs. It feeds,
according to Abbot, on the cross-wort, corn, peas, wheat, &c. One of the
caterpillars spun up on the 4th of April, and the moth appeared on the
29th. Another spun up on the 27th of May, and came out on the 16th of June.
It continues breeding during most part of the summer.


Plate VII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. SPILOSOMA, _Steph._ Arctia, p. _Schrank_. Eyprepia, p. _Ochs._
  Phalæna (Noctua), _Drury_.

  SPILOSOMA NAIS. Alis anticis nigris lineis tribus longitudinalibus
  fusco-fulvescentibus, duabus superioribus externè connexis, posticis
  pallidioribus margine irregulari nigro. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Nais, _Drury, Append. v._ 2

  HABITAT: New York; taken on the 24th day of June.

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ are black, and pectinated; the head and body
  are of a light yellowish brown. On the thorax are three black marks,
  running parallel with it, with several black spots on the abdomen. The
  anterior wings are black; the cilia of a light yellowish brown, which
  colour is continued along the interior edges, up to the body; some broad
  lines, of the same colour, occupy about two-thirds of the wing, running
  parallel with the anterior and interior edges. The posterior wings are of
  the same light yellowish brown, with a faint black spot on each, having a
  broad irregular border, of a faint black. {16}running along the external
  edges, being very narrow in the middle. All the wings are plain and

  _Under Side._ Exactly like the upper, but the colours are less brilliant.

This species is nearly related to our common British species, Spilosoma




Plate VIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Geometridæ, _Stephens_.

  GENUS. GEOMETRA, _Linn. Stephens_. Ennomos, _Treitschke, Duponchel_.

  GEOMETRA TRANSVERSATA. Alis angulatis fusco-fulvescentibus undique
  strigis minutis transversis fasciâque tenui communi obscurâ notatis.
  (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Geometra) transversata, _Drury, Append. v._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ are filiform, half an inch in length. The head,
  thorax, abdomen, and wings, of a brown orange. All the wings are
  angulated and besprinkled with small short transverse streaks parallel to
  each other. A narrow brown line, beginning at the external angle of the
  anterior wings, and running in a transverse direction, crosses them and
  the posterior wings near the middle, meeting above the extremity of the

  _Under Side._ Exactly like the upper in every circumstance, except that
  the brown line is not to be seen.

This species seems nearly allied to the moths, which English collectors
call the Thorns, and to which Stephens restricts the name of Geometra, but
which M. Duponchel terms Ennomos.


Plate VIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Geometridæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. BUPALUS, _Leach_. Fidonia, p. _Treitschke_. Phalæna (Geometra),

  BUPALUS CATENARIUS. Fronte fulvâ; alis albis lunulâ mediâ; anticis
  strigis duabus undatis (scil. ante et pone medium), posticis strigâ
  unicâ, nigris. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Geometra) catenaria, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._
  III. 2. _p._ 140. _No._ 41. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2461. 660.

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury_). "In Indiis" (_Fabr._).

  _Upper Side._ The head is orange-coloured; the eyes black; the antennæ
  are broad, and pectinated; the thorax white, with three spots of orange
  colour, one at each shoulder, the other at the base of the abdomen, where
  are two small black specks. The abdomen is white, and on each ring is a
  small black speck. The wings are white; and, on each anterior one, are
  two denticulated lines, running cross the wing, from the anterior to the
  interior edge, in a circular manner; the one near the base, the other
  {17}near the external edge, which last forms, on each nerve, a small
  black speck like an arrow head. Between the two lines is a black spot
  near the anterior edge. The posterior wings have a similar line running
  cross them, from the anterior to the interior edges, in a circular
  manner, and, meeting a little above the extremity of the abdomen, with a
  black spot in each near the middle.

  _Under Side._ Is similar to the upper, only the black spots are more




Plate IX. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. CERATOCAMPA, _Harris, Append. to Hitchcock's Geology of
  Massachusets_. Cerocampa, _Kirby & Spence, Ind. Introd. to Ent._
  Odonestis, _Germar. Stephens._ Lasiocampa, _Latr. Schrank._ Bombyx,

  CERATOCAMPA IMPERIALIS. Alis flavis, fusco irroratis et variegatis,
  omnibus infra maculâ discoidali subocellari fuscâ. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.
  9 lin. [male].--6 unc. [female].)

  SYN. Phalæna (Attacus) Imperialis, _Drury, App. v._ 2.

  Bombyx Imperialis, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 435. No. 89. _Gmel.
  Lin._ S. N. 2417. 510.

  Phalæna Imperatoria, _Abbot and Smith, Ins. Georgia, tab._ 55. _Oliv.
  Enc. Méth._ 5. 56. 116.

  Bombyx Didyma, _Pal. Beauv. Ins. Lep. pl._ 20.

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury_). India (_Fabricius_).

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ are of a reddish colour, broad and pectinated,
  and, near the extremities, appear as if they were stripped of their
  comb-like appendages. The thorax and abdomen yellow, clouded with a light
  reddish-brown colour, inclining to crimson. The anterior wings are of a
  fine bright yellow, with several clouds on them of the same brown colour,
  whereof one takes its rise at the tips, and runs along the external edge
  to the lower corners, being narrower at the extremities than the middle,
  where it branches off, and unites to a large cloud near the shoulders.
  The yellow parts of all the wings appear as if sprinkled with dark
  irregular specks. The posterior wings are of the same bright yellow as
  the anterior, and have, in the middle of each, a small brown eye, with a
  lighter spot in its centre. An irregular bar of the same reddish brown
  colour crosses these wings, which, beginning at the outer angle, meets at
  the anal angle. The edges of all the wings are plain.

  _Under Side._ The thorax and abdomen are yellow. All the wings are of the
  same yellow colour, and sprinkled with brown as on the upper side. The
  superior wings have on each a light reddish brown eye near the middle,
  with a light spot in the centre, and a round brown spot above it. The
  anterior margins next the body are of a reddish brown; and the same cloud
  that appears along the external edge of each wing on the upper side,
  appears also on this, but fainter. The inferior wings have a reddish
  brown eye in each near the middle, with a lighter spot in the centre, and
  of the same size as on the upper side.

  The figure here given, is taken from the male; the female being much
  larger, expanding full six inches; the antennæ being thread-like, and not
  combed or pectinated as the male.

This species breeds twice in the year, namely in June and September. The
caterpillar, according to Abbot, feeds on the plane-tree (Platanus
occidentalis Linn.), oak, liquidambar, and pine trees. Some of them are of
a tawny colour, others tawny and orange, others green. They are furnished
with long rigid hairs, and the second and third segments of the body are
also armed with two pair of short, erect, rugose horns. {18}This insect is
placed by Mr. Kirby in his new genus Cerocampa, together with Phalæna
regalis, Fabr. Mr. Kirby had, however, evidently in view the caterpillars
of the latter insect, when he proposed this generic name, and which are
armed with numerous, long, erect, rigid spines, those near the head being
curved, and giving the insect somewhat the appearance of a cockatoo. This
larva is figured by Abbot and Smith, pl. 61, and specimens, admirably
preserved by Abbot, are contained in the collection of the Entomological
Society of London, presented by Mr. Kirby. There is also considerable
difference between the chrysalides of these two insects, that of imperialis
being more elongate, with a bifid tail, and with transverse rows of short
abdominal spines, of which the chrysalis of regalis is destitute. One of
the caterpillars observed by Abbot, went into the ground on the 16th of
September, and the moth came out on the 4th of July. They are extremely
difficult to rear in confinement.


Plate IX. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. NOCTUA, _Auct._

  NOCTUA SQUAMULARIS. Alis cinereis, anticis fasciâ irregulari centrali
  ferrugineâ, lineis duabus externè cinctâ, posticis fasciis duabus
  obscuris. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Squamularis, _Drury, Append. v._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York; taken on the 11th day of May.

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ are brown, like fine threads. The tegulæ of a
  pearl colour, standing up as if projecting from the back. The colours on
  the anterior wings are divided by a strong bar of a deep chocolate,
  running cross the wings near the middle, from the anterior to the
  posterior edges. This softens into a deep slate colour, covering that
  part of the wings down to the external edges. The part next the shoulders
  is of a light ash or pearl colour, whereon are two small black spots or
  stripes, situated near the anterior edge. On the dark part near the lower
  corner, run two small black irregular lines, from the posterior edge; one
  running cross the wing, the other only half across. The posterior wings
  are of a lightish brown, having two bars of a deep brown (almost black)
  rising from the abdominal edge, and crossing the wing upward, grow
  broader and fainter as they approach the middle and anterior edge.

  _Under Side._ Is of a faint russet colour, having little or no marking
  thereon. All the wings are slightly dentated.

I am unable to ascertain to which of the modern genera of Noctuidæ, this
and the following species are referrible.


Plate IX. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. NOCTUA, _Auct._

  NOCTUA UNDULARIS. Alis subdentatis nigricantibus, strigis transversis
  undulatis circiter 8. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) undularis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ are brown and thread-like. The head, body,
  abdomen, and wings are of a very dark brown, bordering on black, and
  appear somewhat glossy. All the wings are a little dentated, and on the
  anterior ones, from the base to the extremity, is a series of black
  indented lines or bars, whereof the last or outer one is strong and
  conspicuous, crossing the wing from the anterior to the posterior edges,
  about a quarter of an inch from the external margin. The posterior wings
  are marked exactly like the superior.

  _Under Side._ Is of a lighter colour, with the same kind of markings, but




Plate X. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ. _Swains._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr._ Papilio (Nymphales Gemmati), _Linn._ Papilio
  Satyrus, _Fabr. (Ent. Syst.)_.

  NYMPHALIS FERONIA. Alis subdentatis, supra coeruleo, fusco et albo
  marmoratis, omnibus ocellis sex iride simplici. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Gemm.) Feronia, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 770. _No._
  140. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 226. _No._ 710. _Cramer, pl._ 192.
  _fig._ E. F. _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 225. _fig._ 1. 2. _Latr. et God. Encycl.
  Méth. p._ 428. (Nymphalis F.).

  HABITAT: Surinam (_Drury_). India (_Linn. Fabr. incorrectly_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, with two small white spots at their bases,
  on the front of the head, and two more close to the eyes, on the top of
  the head; likewise two on the neck, and two longer ones on the thorax.
  The thorax and abdomen of a very dark blueish hazel. Anterior wings, next
  the shoulders, of a dark blueish hazel, black at the tips and outer
  margin, where are many different shaped flesh-coloured spots; the parts
  nearest the shoulders having many denticulated marks and dashes of a blue
  colour; some being also scattered all over the wings. About a third from
  the shoulder, near the anterior margin, on each wing, is a short, red,
  crooked line, which is seen on the under side. Near the outer margin are
  five ash-coloured spots, all of them being encircled with black, and some
  being edged with blue. Posterior wings of the same dark hazel as the
  anterior; the external edges being black between the scollops. Each wing
  is divided into a number of small different shaped spots margined with
  blue; and near the external margin are six black spots, whose irides are
  blue, having white ones in their centres. Below these is a double row of
  blue marks, like beards of arrows, placed on the black marks between the
  scollops. All the wings are dentated.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings whitish, about a third part at the base; the
  remainder being a dark chocolate, with many different shaped ash-coloured
  spots. Near the external edges are five round ash-coloured spots on a
  row, one being placed above the rest. Posterior wings chiefly whitish,
  except at the {20}outer angle and external edges; the latter being
  alternately marked with dark chocolate and ash colour, near which is a
  row of four round ash-coloured spots, encircled with chocolate, and a
  small faint one near the anal angle.


Plate X. fig. 3. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PIERIS, _Schrank. Latr. et God._ Colias, _Horsf._ Papilio (Danai
  Cand.), _Linn. Drury._ Iphias, _Boisduv._

  PIERIS (IPHIAS) GLAUCIPPE. Alis supra albis, anticis maculâ magnâ apicali
  (medio fulvo) nigrâ, subtus (nisi dimidio basali anticarum) cinereis
  strigis minutis fuscis irroratis. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Glaucippe, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 762. _No._ 89.
  _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 198. _No._ 618. _Cramer, Pap. pl._ 164.
  A. B. [male]. C. [female]. _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 96. _f._ 1-3. _Encycl.
  Méth._ ix. _p._ 119. (Pieris G.), _Boisduval_, _Hist. Nat. Lep._ 1. _p._
  596. (Iphias G.)

  Fem. Pap. Callirhoe, _Fab. Mant. Ins._ 2. 20. 215.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). Java (_Dr. Horsfield_). Bengal (_Boisduval_).

  _Upper Side._ Head and neck light brown; thorax, dark blue, clothed with
  white hairs; abdomen white, with a blueish tinge. Anterior wings next the
  body white, occupying more than one half. The tips are black, which
  colour runs along the anterior and external margins, encircling a large
  spot of a deep orange, whereon are four small triangular black spots.
  Posterior wings wholly white, and very slightly dentated.

  _Under Side._ The mouth, breast, and feet are ash-coloured. Anterior
  wings next the body white; the extremities of a deep flesh colour,
  sprinkled over with a great number of small dark brown streaks. Posterior
  wings of a yellowish flesh colour, and covered with small dark brown

M. Boisduval has formed the present species, and another large Pieridean,
into the genus Iphias, which differs from Thestias, and Mancipium
(Anthocharis Bdv.), in the structure of the antennæ. The larva and pupa of
this species are described and figured by Dr. Horsfield, in his Lepidoptera
Javanica, pl. 3, fig. 7, and 7a, (copied by Boisduval, pl. 2A. fig. 3.).
The former is long subcylindrical, with the dorsal segments somewhat
rugose, being transversely shagreened; it feeds upon the Capparis. The pupa
is navicular, the head being produced into a point. The female imago
differs from the figure here given (which represents the male), in having
the black markings more diffused.




Plate XI. fig. 1. and 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.


  PAP. PHILENOR. Alis dentatis nigris, posticis caudatis virescenti-nitidis
  maculis albis, subtus maculis fulvis albo notatis serieque digestis.
  (Expans. Alar. unc. 3¾).

  SYN. PAP. PHILENOR, _Linn. Mant._ (1771). 6. 535. _Fabr. Syst. Ent._ _p._
  445. _No._ 12. _Smith and Abbot_, _Ins. Georgia_, _Vol._ 1. _tab._ 3.
  _Encycl. Méth._ 9. 40. _Boisduval_, _Hist. Nat. Lepid._ 1. _p._ 324.
  _No._ 167. _Boisd. et Leconte_, _Icon. Lep. Amer. Sept._ _pl._ 11. _f._
  1-4. _Say_, _American Ent. Vol._ 1. _pl._ 1.

  Pap. Astinous. _Drury_, _App. Vol._ 2. (1773). _Cramer_, 208. A. B.

  HABITAT: North America, from New York to Georgia.

  {21}_Upper Side._ Head and neck black, with two small white spots between
  the antennæ at their base, and eight more on the head and neck. Thorax
  black. Abdomen of a glossy hue. Anterior wings black, with a very glossy
  greenish tinge at the anterior angle, with eight small, white, narrow
  crescents on the external margin of each, which make them appear as if
  dentated. Posterior wings of a dark glossy green, with two tails issuing
  from them. The concave part of each scollop is edged with white; and six
  whitish spots run along their edges, meeting below the extremity of the

  _Under Side._ Breast, legs, and abdomen black; the sides spotted with
  cream-coloured spots, one of which appears on the inferior wings, on each
  side the breast. Anterior wings, next the tips, are of the colour of
  soot; but next the body, black, with five whitish spots on the external
  margin, near the interior angle. The upper part of the posterior wings,
  next the body, are soot-coloured; the remaining parts of them being of a
  glossy blue, with seven dark orange spots, placed in a circular manner, a
  little distance from the edge, and meeting at the extremity of the body:
  each spot is encircled with black, except in that part where a small
  silver mark appears on its edge, being represented in the plate by white.
  The scollops are deeper edged on this side with white than on the upper.

This butterfly is one of the most beautiful, and, at the same time, most
common of the North American species; abounding wherever the Aristolochia
serpentaria grows, the larva feeding upon that plant. It is described by
Boisduval and Abbot, and is brown, with four rows of small fulvous
tubercles, and a row of brown spines near the legs; moreover, it has two
long spines directed forwards upon the first segment, three upon the
penultimate, and two upon the tenth segment. The neck is also furnished
with a furcate retractile reddish tentacle; the chrysalis is of a violet
grey, or reddish colour, with two yellow spots, the head being truncate.
The female is larger, with brown-coloured wings, with cupreous reflections.
The insect assumes the chrysalis state on the 26th of April, and the fly
appears on the 4th of May. Another, observed by Abbot, went into chrysalis
on the 21st of June, and the butterfly came out on the 5th July. The latter
delights to frequent the blossoms of the peach and other trees in the


Plate XI. fig. 2. 3. and 5.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.


  PAPILIO ASTERIAS. Alis dentatis nigris, fasciâ maculari maculisque
  marginalibus flavis; posticis caudatis, angulo ani fulvo, puncto atro,
  abdominis dorso duplici serie punctorum flavorum. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6
  lin.--4 unc.)

  SYN. PAPILIO ASTERIAS, _Fabr. Mant. Ins._ _tom._ 2. _p._ 2. _No._ 13.
  _Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 6. _No._ 16. _Cramer_, _tab._ 385. _f._ C. D.
  _God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 58. _No._ 91. _Boisduv. et Lec. Icon. Lep.
  Amer. Sept._ _pl._ 4. _Boisd. Hist. nat. Lep._ 1. 332. _No._ 175.

  Papilio Troilus, _Drury_, _App. Vol._ 2. _Abbot and Smith, Ins. Georg._
  1. _t._ 1. (_exclus. Syn. Linn. et Fabr._)

  HABITAT: New York, Maryland, Carolina, Virginia (_Drury_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ, head, and body black, with two yellow spots at the
  bases of the antennæ, and two more on the neck; the sides of the abdomen
  being spotted with two rows of the same. {22}Anterior wings black. A row
  of eight or nine yellow spots runs along each wing, near the external
  edge. Within these appears another row, smaller in figure 3, but larger
  in figure 2, and shaped like triangles, above which are two spots, one
  nearly round, the other very oblong, which last is not seen in figure 3.
  Posterior wings black and dentated, with one tail issuing from each. Six
  yellow spots appear near the external edge; and at the anal angle is an
  orange-coloured one, with a black dot in its centre. Some specimens have
  a yellow bar running transversely from the row of triangles on the
  superior wings, and meeting below the extremity of the body, just above
  the orange spot, as in fig. 2. In some, instead of a bar, is seen a row
  of spots (as in fig. 3), which are sometimes very faint. Where this
  happens, the space between this row and the six spots mentioned before,
  consists of a shining blue colour; but in proportion as the yellow bar is
  more or less distinct, the wings have more or less blue on them.

  _Under Side._ The under side in all the different varieties differs but
  very little. The breast, sides, abdomen and feet are black. The anterior
  wings of a dirty black colour, with nine yellow spots near the external
  edge; above these, nearer the body, are eight others, varying in size,
  and two small clouds or patches close to the anterior edge. Posterior
  wings, next the shoulders, dirty black, with the inner scollops edged
  with yellow crescents (appearing also on the upper side), within which
  are six spots near the edge--four orange and two yellow. Seven or eight
  orange spots, tipped with yellow, run circularly across the middle of the
  wing. Below each spot in this row is a ray of shining blue, separated by
  a strong black mark, and scattered with powder-like spots. An orange
  spot, with a black centre, is placed at the anal angle.

This species is subject to considerable variation in the size of the
internal series of yellow spots, which is sometimes even entirely
obliterated in the females, in which the yellow is much less brilliant, and
the spots smaller than in the males. These varieties somewhat resemble
Papilio Troilus of Linnæus, with which, indeed, Drury and Smith[21]
confounded the insect here described. Godart and Boisduval have added to
the confusion by their incorrect references to our author, the first of
these writers giving figure 2 of this plate as alone representing P.
Asterias, and figs. 3, 4, and 5, (which represent two distinct species) as
P. Troilus, Linn. which species Drury has not figured; and both of these
authors quoting figure 2, both under Troilus and Asterias, although Drury
expressly states, that the specimens figured at 2 and 3, were reared by
him, with many other individuals, from chrysalides, sent from America by
his correspondent, who assured him that they proceeded from the same brood.
The preparatory states of P. Asterias are figured by Abbot and Smith, and
Boisduval. The larva feeds upon Umbelliferæ, especially the fennel (Anethum
fæniculum, Linn.), and Daucus Carota, and is very similar to that of Pap.
Machaon, which species appears to be replaced in America by P. Asterias,
and which makes its appearance in the perfect state three times in the
year. Abbot states, that one of the caterpillars assumed the chrysalis
state on the 12th of July, and the imago appeared on the 20th.




Plate XII. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.


  PAPILIO PARIS. Alis nigris, aureo-viridi pulverulentis, posticis caudatis
  supra maculâ magnâ discoidali cyaneâ ocelloque purpureo; subtus lunulis
  septem rufis. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.--4 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Equit. Troes.) Paris, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 745. _No._
  3. _Fab. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 1. _No._ 1. _Cramer, pl._ 103. A. B.
  _Esper. Aus. Schmett. tab._ 2. _fig._ 1. _Boisduval, Hist. Nat. Lep._ 1.
  _p._ 208.

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ Head, thorax, and abdomen black, and beautifully powdered
  with fine green specks. All the wings are black, but have a greenish hue,
  occasioned by a multitude of powder-like specks of a fine green. On the
  posterior margin of the anterior wings, near the lower corner, arises a
  series of green spots, becoming weaker, disappearing near the middle of
  the wing, and composed of powder-like specks. Posterior wings scolloped
  or dentated, each furnished with one tail, each scollop being edged with
  white. At the anal angle, near the corner, is a deep red spot, shaped
  like a semi-eye, whose pupil is black; and towards the upper corner of
  the wing, is a large and very splendid blue spot, appearing in some
  directions of a saxon green colour, and diminishing to a line as it
  approaches the semi-eye, over which it extends in an arch-like form,
  being there of a fine green colour.

  _Under Side._ It has apparently no palpi. Breast and abdomen of a very
  dark brown. The superior wings dark brown at the base; from the middle of
  the anterior edge of a dark ash colour, running towards the upper corner,
  the tendons between being dark brown, which unite together at the
  external edge. Posterior wings almost black, sprinkled, or finely
  powdered, with small grey specks near the abdomen; round the external
  edge is a series of eye-like rings of an orange colour, edged above with

This very handsome species is often received from China, but in an
imperfect condition. The female, according to Godart (Enc. Méth. ix. p.
67.) is the Papilio Bianor, Fabr. which has no trace of the shining green
spot on the posterior wings. M. Boisduval, however, asserts, that this is
not correct, and that the female differs only from the male in having the
ground of the wings rather darker, and possessing a transverse interrupted
fascia of green dots near the external margin of the upper wing; these
being represented in Drury's figure, therefore indicate that his specimen
was of the female sex.

Dr. Horsfield has figured another species from Java (Lepid. Javan. pl. 1.
fig. 14.), differing very slightly from the preceding, under the name of
Papilio Arjuna, of which he has also figured the larva and pupa (pl. 4.
fig. 11.). The former has the three first segments of the body covered, as
it were, with a leathery shield, elevated behind, and ornamented with
several ocelli; the other segments are simple; the chrysalis is
considerably curved, with the head bifid.


Plate XII. fig. 3. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach._

  GENUS. COLIAS, _Latr. et God._ Papilio (Danai Candidi), _Drury_.
  Callidryas, _Boisduval_.

  COLIAS (CALLIDRYAS) PYRANTHE. Alis albis, anticis supra puncto minuto
  discoidali apiceque nigris, margine interno penicillatis, subtus (nisi
  basi anticarum) flavescentibus strigis numerosissimis fuscis. (Expans.
  Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Pyranthe, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 763. _No._
  98? _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 97. (Colias P.), _Boisduval,
  Hist. Nat. Lepid._ 1. _p._ 611. (Callidryas P.)

  Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Chryseis, _Drury, Append._ vol. 2.

  Papil. Gnoma, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 210. _No._ 658?

  Pap. Nepthe, _Fabr. loc. cit. p._ 120?

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ Thorax of a blueish black, with white hairs. Abdomen white.
  Anterior wings white, with a small oblong black spot near the middle of
  each; black at the tips, which colour extends down the external edge to
  the interior angle, and also runs a little way along the anterior margin
  towards the body. Posterior wings white, without any marks or shades. The
  edges of all the wings are entire.

  _Under Side._ Breast, feet, abdomen, and anterior superior wings white,
  being covered about a third part from the tips with small, longish,
  light-brown streaks, making that part appear of a pale yellow. Posterior
  wings of the same pale yellow with the small streaks. One sex is very
  remarkable for having a number of hairs growing on the posterior edges of
  the anterior wings, next the body; some of which are erect, some bending
  downwards, and some lying flat on the wing.

There is much confusion respecting the specific names of this and several
other Asiatic species, as may be seen from the citations in the synonyms. I
have followed the French authors in assigning Drury's insect to the
Pyranthe of Linnæus, although that author describes his insect as having a
discoidal red spot on each of the wings beneath. The species of this group
are variable in the intensity of their markings, and the males are less
strongly marked than the females; and as Drury's figure represents a male
(distinguished by the bundle of hairs on the interior margin of the
anterior wings) it may possibly be an extreme variety of the male of
Pyranthe. Boisduval has indeed described another species of considerably
smaller size, which is destitute of the discoidal spot (Call. minna), which
also, he considers, may possibly be a variety of C. Pyranthe.




Plate XIII. fig. 1.3. [female].--2. [male].

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains_.

  GENUS. ARGYNNIS, _Fabr. Latr. et God._ Argyreus, _Scop._ Dryades, _Hubn._
  Papilio (Nymphales Phalerati), _Linn. Drury_.

  ARGYNNIS IDALIA. Alis dentatis, anticis utrinque fulvis nigro-maculatis;
  posticis suprà nigro-coeruleis, punctorum serie duplici, subtùs fuscis
  costâ baseos maculisque 26 argenteis. (Expans. Alar. [male]. 3 unc. 6
  lin.--[female]. 4 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Idalia, _Drury_. _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 252.
  253. _Cramer, pl._ 44. _fig._ D. E. F. G. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 145.
  _No._ 446. _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. 263. (Argynnis Id.)

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury_); taken on the 28th June. Jamaica (_Enc.

  {25}_Upper Side._ Head and thorax of a deep brown orange. Anterior wings
  of a dark orange, the anterior and external margins bordered with black;
  near the latter are eight white spots on the wings of the female. Above
  these, in the female, are five, and in the male six, round black spots;
  those of the latter being smallest. Several black waves and streaks are
  dispersed on other parts of the wings. Posterior wings of a fine dark
  blue, almost black, and slightly dentated; the anterior ones being
  entire. Near the external margin is a row of seven cream-coloured spots,
  which in the male are red. Above these, is another row of the same number
  of cream-coloured spots, situated near the middle of the wings. The base
  of these wings is covered with brown orange-coloured hairs.

  _Under Side._ Head, breast, and feet dark blue, nearly black. Anterior
  wings dark orange, with some triangular silver spots placed along the
  external edges, whose upper points are edged with black, and are
  generally more distinct in the female than in the male. The several black
  waves and streaks seen on the upper side, are here more faint, some being
  scarcely visible. Posterior wings of a dark olive brown, with twenty-six
  different shaped silver spots on each; one of which, in the centre of the
  wing, is divided by a short black line.


Plate XIII. fig. 4. 5.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Hesperiidæ, _Stephens_.

  GENUS. PAMPHILA, _Fabr._ Hesperia (urbicolæ), _Fabr. Latr. et God._
  Papilio (Pleb. urb.) _Drury, Linn._

  PAMPHILA PHYLÆUS. Alis rufo-fulvis, anticis supra fasciâ obliquâ
  interruptâ (mas.) maculâve arcuatâ (foemina) limboque postico fuscis,
  posticis ibidem extùs fusco marginatis. (Expans. Alar. 1½ unc.).

  SYN. Papilio (Hesp. urb.) Phylæus, _Drury, Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix.
  _p._ 767. _No._ 112. (Hesperia Ph.)

  Hesperia (urb.) Vitellius, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 327. _No._.

  Pamphila Vitellius, _Steph. Illust. Brit. Ent. H._ 1. _p._ 103. _Haworth,
  in Trans. Ent. Soc. Vol._ 1. _p._ 334. _Abbot and Smith, Ins. Georgia,
  tab._ 17.

  HABITAT: Antigua, St. Christopher's, Nevis, &c. (_Drury_). Antilles and
  Brazil (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ Thorax and abdomen of a yellowish olive. Superior wings of
  a tawny yellow, having a dark brown (almost a black) indented margin,
  running along the external margin, from the tips to the lower corners.
  Near the middle of each wing are two dark-brown spots, one oblong, the
  other of a longish square form, the former being the largest. Inferior
  wings tawny yellow, and angulated, having a dark brown indented margin.

  _Under Side._ Wings tawny yellow, but rather paler than on the upper
  side. The anterior with several dark brown angular spots, placed along
  the external edges, and in the middle of the wings, with a large one near
  the shoulders. Posterior wings also spotted with many small dark brown
  spots, some being scarcely visible.

A specimen of this species is stated to have been captured by the late Dr.
Abbot in Bedfordshire. It is most probable, however, now that the Pamphila
Bucephalus has been proved to be an indigenous species, that the specimen
the capture of which is recorded by Mr. Haworth, belonged to that species.
The caterpillar of this skipper-butterfly feeds upon a species of panic
grass (Panicum Crus-Galli) and on the buffalo grass.




Plate XIV. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ.

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS. _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymphal. Phal.), _Linn. Drury_.

  NYMPHALIS BOLINA. Alis dentatis, supra nigris, anticis maculis duabus,
  posticis solitariâ magnâ, coeruleo-albis, subtus corticinis fascià albâ.
  (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Ph.) Bolina, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 781. _No._
  188. _Cramer, pl._ 65. _fig._ E. F. _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 244. _fig._ 3. 4.
  _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 126. _No._ 384. _Latr. et God. (Enc.
  Méth.)_ ix. 396. _No._ 157. (Nymphalis Bol.)

  HABITAT: Bombay, Surinam, all the West Indian Islands, New York,
  Carolina, Brazil, Cape of Good Hope, Malabar, Coromandel, China, Ceylon
  (_Drury_). "In Indiæ orientalis Portulaca" (_Fabr._). Cayenne (_Enc.

  _Upper Side._ Three white spots, one before, and two behind, on the head,
  which, with the thorax and abdomen, is of a blackish brown. Wings
  dentated, and of a dark chocolate colour, almost black; but when held
  against the light, in a certain direction, display a blueish purple.
  Anterior wings, in the middle, having a large oval, and another smaller
  oblong white spot at the tips. Posterior wings with a large white spot,
  larger than that in the superior ones. On the edges of all these spots,
  the purple colour before-mentioned, is very conspicuous.

  _Under Side._ Palpi white. The sides of the thorax spotted with white.
  Anterior wings, next the body, of a reddish chocolate; but near the tips,
  of a dirty olive. The large and small white spots appear here as on the
  upper side; with three small angular white spots, close to the anterior
  margin, near the middle. Along the external edge, is a row of white
  crescents on a black border; over which are six small, round, faint,
  white spots. Posterior wings, next the body, of a dirty olive; but toward
  their external edges, more of a chocolate, with a broad central white bar
  running entirely across the wing, with a small angular black mark, near
  the anterior margin. Along the external edges, is a row of white
  crescents; above which is a row of small white triangular spots, placed
  two and two, between the crescents. Above this, six small round white
  spots are placed in a row.

The flight of this species is said by Drury to be exceedingly quick and
rapid, so that it is very difficult to catch them, and hence they are
seldom obtained in fine condition, being generally secured in a faded state
when they are taken with more ease. The purple tint upon the upper side of
the wings is most intense, and when the insect flies in the sun, glancing
before the eye of the observer at a little distance (for it is by no means
a timid creature), the vivid purple, observes Drury, is not much less than
the electrical spark, and its changes depending on the degree of obliquity
which it presents to the sun, are scarcely less rapid.


Plate XIV. fig. 3, 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains_.

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), _Linn. Fabr. God._

  NYMPHALIS IPHICLA. Alis denticulatis, supra fuscis, fasciá communi albâ
  antrorsùm rotundatâ, retrorsùm acuminatâ; anticis suprà maculâ apicis, et
  auguli analis, ferrugineis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Iphicla, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 380.

  Papilio (N. P.) Iphicla, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1.
  _p._ 135. 417. _Cramer, pl._ 188. _fig._ E. F. (var.?)

  Papilio Basilea, _Cram. pl._ 188. _fig._ D. ([male]).

  Papilio Cytherea, _Cram. pl._ 376. C. D. ([female]).

  P. Cythereus, _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 284. _f._ 1. 2.

  P. Iphicla, _Herbst. Pap._ 148. _fig._ 3. 4.

  Nymphalis Iphicla, _Enc. Méth._ ix. 374.

  HABITAT: Surinam (_Drury_). Guiana and Brazil (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ Thorax and abdomen nearly black. Anterior wings of a light
  liver colour, having some faint lines a little waved, of a darker colour,
  running along the external edges. Each has an orange spot, situated at a
  small distance from the tip, and joining to the anterior margin.
  Posterior wings dentated, and angular at the anal angle, of the same
  colour as the anterior; with the same faint waved subapical lines. In the
  middle of the anterior wings arises a bar of a very pale brimstone
  colour, near a quarter of an inch broad, and which extends to the anal
  angle of the posterior wings, below which is an orange spot.

  _Under Side._ All the wings, next the body, are marked and clouded with
  lines and marks of ash colour and olive brown. The pale brimstone bar is
  seen very distinctly on this side; and the two orange spots on the upper
  side of the anterior wings, here assume a tinge of flesh colour,
  separated in the middle by the tendon, which is of an orange cast. The
  faint waved lines also are very conspicuous, of a very dark flesh colour,
  shaded with brown.




Plate XV. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. Vanessa, _Fabr. Latr. God. Curtis._ Hamadryades, _Hubn._ Papilio
  (Nymphalis Phal.), _Fabr. Drury._

  VANESSA CHARONIA. Alis dentatis, supra nigris, fasciâ communi
  submarginali coeruleâ, in posticis serie punctorum nigrorum divisâ;
  anticis apice productis, posticis subcaudatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Charonia, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Cramer, Pap.
  tab._ 4. _pl._ 47. _fig._ A. B. C. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 119.
  _No._ 304. _Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 308. 27 (Vanessa Ch.).

  HABITAT:: China (_Drury_). India (_Fabr._).

  _Upper Side._ The thorax and abdomen black, and furnished with grayish
  hair. The ground of all the wings is black; but towards the body inclines
  to copper. On the anterior wings, near the tips, is a white spot placed
  close to the anterior edge. This edge is narrowly bordered with blue, and
  dappled with little wave-like stripes of black; from whose middle an
  oblique blue spot, almost half an inch long, extends down the wings. A
  little below this, arises a light blue bar of lunules, which runs even
  with the external edge, and is continued transversely across the
  posterior wing, excluding the anal angle. On this blue bar, in the
  posterior wings, are placed six small black angular spots. Beneath these
  is a {28}narrow double border of blue, running along their external
  margin. All the wings are deeply dentated and angulated.

  _Under Side._ The ground of the wings is of a dark orange, with various
  broad transverse purplish shades, and with a variety of irregular small
  wave-like markings, and different tints of brown, intermingled with
  orange shades.

  The under side of the male is of a very dark brown, almost black, with
  some faint wavings, which are not so strong and beautiful as in the


Plate XV. fig. 3. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ.

  GENUS. ARGYNNIS, _Fab. Latr. God._ Argyreus, _Scop._ Papilio (Danai
  Festiv.), _Drury._

  ARGYNNIS ERYMANTHIS. Alis subrotundatis, subdentatis, fulvis, anticis
  fasciâ flavescenti transversâ mediâ nigro maculatâ, apice nigris;
  posticis serie punctorum, duabusque lunularum nigrorum. (Expans. Alar,
  fere 3 unc. [_Drury_], 2 unc. [_Enc. Méth._]).

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Fest.) Erymanthis, _Drury_, _App. v._ 2. _Cramer_,
  _pl._ 238. _fig._ 9. _Fab. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 139. 427. _Enc.
  Méth._ ix. 257.

  Papilio Lampetia, _Cram. Pap. pl._ 148 _fig._ E.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). Coromandel, Java (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings, next
  the body, of a dark tawny orange, which colour occupies about half the
  wings, and is bounded by a very irregular line. A broad black patch
  occupies the tips of the wings, beginning about the middle of the
  anterior edge, and extends along the external one to the interior angle;
  on which, near the tips, are two clay-coloured round spots; and below
  them, in some specimens, are two more spots near the external edge. The
  space between the black patch and the tawny orange is of a clay colour,
  with three round black spots on it, the lower one the largest. Posterior
  wings tawny orange, the posterior edges being of a dirty brown; and above
  them are seen two rows of black crescents irregularly placed, over these
  are five round black spots. The wings are slightly dentated, the inferior
  ones most.

  _Under Side._ All the wings clay colour. A dark, faint, engrailed line,
  composed of a number of crescents, joined together, runs transversely
  across the superior and inferior wings, extending to the anal angle.


Plate XV. fig. 5. 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. HIPPARCHIA, _Fabr. Stephens_. Satyrus, _Latr. et God._ Argus p.
  _Scop._ Orcades, _Hubn._ Papilio (Nymphales Gemmati), _Drury_.

  HIPPARCHIA LEDA. Alis angulatis supra corticino-fuscis; anticis ocello
  apicis sesquialtero in plagâ magnâ luteâ, posticis ocellis duobus;
  omnibus subtus griseo-reticulatis strigâ ocellorum. (Expans. Alar. 3

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Gemm.) Leda, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 773. _No._ 151.
  _Drury_, _App. v._ 2. _Fabricius, Ent. Syst._ 3. 1. _p._ 108. 333.
  _Cramer, Pap. pl._ 196. C. D. _and pl._ 292. _fig._ A. _Encycl. Méth._
  ix. 478. _No._ 4. (Satyrus L.)

  Papilio Solandra (var.?) _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III.1. 106. 328. _Donovan
  Ins. New Holl. pl._ 23. _f._ 1.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). Ind. orient. (_Weber MSS._). Sierra Leone
  (_Fabr._ ??). Mauritius (_Encycl. Méth._). Otaheite and New Holland
  (_Fabr. and Donovan_, P. Solandra).

  {29}_Upper Side._ Antennæ, thorax, and abdomen of a dark brown colour.
  All the wings dark olive brown. On the anterior wings, near the tips, are
  two black circular spots united together: the lower one being the
  largest, each having a small white one in its centre. On the posterior
  wings are two black circular eyes, towards the anal angle; their irides
  being of a gold colour, and the pupils white. The superior wings are a
  little dentated, the inferior ones being angulated.

  _Under Side._ All the wings, on this side, are of a very pale brown,
  marked all over with short, crooked, wave-like stripes, of a dark brown
  colour, almost black. On the anterior wings are four eyes, the largest,
  situated near the middle of the wing, is encircled with yellow, its
  centre being white; below this is a small one, and two other small ones
  are placed near the tips. Posterior wings, with a row of six black eyes
  near the external edge, whereof two are much larger than the rest; the
  irides of all being yellow, and the pupils white. That next the anal
  angle is sesquialterate. In some specimens these eyes are less distinct
  than in others; in some there are not more than five to be discerned, and
  only one on each superior wing; in others not more than three can be
  distinguished, the small ones being entirely wanting.

Drury observes (Introd. to vol. iii. p. 16.) that this insect very much
resembles a species sent by Mr. Smeathman from Africa, which comes out only
about sunset, and is then to be found in dark shades, wavering about
amongst the early flying noctuæ, and other nocturnal species. In some
manuscripts of the late Professor Weber of Kiel, in my possession, the East
Indies are given as the habitat of this species.




Plate XVI. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Hesperi Sphinges (_Latr._). FAMILY:
  Castniidæ. _Westw._

  GENUS. CASTNIA, _Fabricius, Latr. God. Dalman_. Papilio (Dan. Festiv.),

  CASTNIA LICUS. Alis integris, supra atris nitidis; anticis sesquifasciâ
  albâ, posticis serie marginali punctorum rubrorum fasciâque obliquâ albâ.
  (Expans. Alar. fere 4 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Festiv.) Licus, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Cramer, pl._ 223.
  _fig._ A. B. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 45. _No._ 137. (Licas.)

  Papilio Lycus, _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 134. _f._ 1. 2. _Merian Surinam, tab._

  Castnia Licus, _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 797.

  HABITAT: Surinam.

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ are dark brown, at the tips paler; and
  terminating in a point. The head, thorax, and base of the abdomen dark
  chocolate brown; the extremity and sides of the latter dark. Anterior
  wings of a fine deep chocolate brown. A narrow, irregular, and oblique
  cream-coloured bar runs across the wing; between this and the tip, from
  the anterior edge, runs another crooked irregular bar, of a much darker
  colour, reaching almost half across the wing towards the interior angle,
  the external margin being of a lighter shade. Posterior wings, having a
  white bar running transversely across the wing, widening by degrees, and
  ending at the anal angle. Six square orange spots also of different
  sizes, are placed within the external margin of these wings.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings, in the middle, dark chocolate; the tips
  dark fawn colour, lighter next the shoulders. The two irregular bars, on
  the upper side, are here a little broader. Within the external edge are
  three rather pearly white spots. Posterior wings greyish fawn colour,
  with the {30}external edges darker. A pale pearl-coloured bar runs across
  the wing beyond the middle, widening gradually; below this are some very
  faint brown spots, and near the external edge some faint orange ones,
  scarcely visible. The edges of all the wings are entire.

The genus Castnia is another of those curious anomalous forms, which
exhibit the characters of several groups. The general form of the wings is
that of a moth, whilst the variegated colours, indicating diurnal flight,
and the structure of the antennæ are those of a butterfly. It is much to be
regretted, that travellers in South America have not ascertained the
preparatory states of this extraordinary group, which alone will enable us
satisfactorily to ascertain its real relations.


Plate XVI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. GASTROPACHA? _Ochsenh._ Sphinx, _Drury_.

  GASTROPACHA? OTUS. Alis elongatis integris luteo-fuscis, anticis fasciis
  duabus denticulatis nigris. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Otus. _Drury, Append. v._ 2.

  Bombyx Agrius, _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 5. 39. 56.

  HABITAT: Smyrna (_Drury_).

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ and head are of a reddish brown; the former are
  strongly pectinated, and very broad in the middle, but at the extremities
  very narrow and curled. Thorax dark brown. Abdomen reaching half an inch
  below the wings of a reddish dun colour. Anterior wings dun colour; with
  a large spot or patch, of a darker colour, situated on the posterior
  margin, near the base. Two indented black lines run obliquely from the
  anterior edge, near the tip, to the posterior near the middle; the space
  between them being rather lighter than the rest. Posterior wings dun
  colour, immaculate. All the wings, both on the under and upper sides,
  appear very shining and glossy; the scales or feathers appearing, when
  viewed through a microscope, very coarse and long. There is no tongue
  discoverable in this moth.

  _Under Side._ Breast and sides bright dun. The abdomen reddish dun. All
  the wings dun-coloured. The lower indented line appears faintly through
  the wing, of a dark brown colour, also a faint reddish brown indented
  line runs across the posterior wings. The edges of all the wings are

This insect, which appears to have been overlooked by modern authors, seems
to form a connecting link between Zeuzera and Gastropacha, agreeing with
the former in the general form, and with the latter in the transverse
denticulated fasciæ on the anterior wings, and the curved antennæ feathered
to the tips.




Plate XVII. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PAPILIO (Equit. Troj.) _Linn._

  PAP. POLYDAMAS. Alis dentatis, nigro-virescentibus, fasciâ communi
  interruptâ flavâ, posticis subtus maculis linearibus flexuosis rubris,
  tribus argenteis adjectis. (Expans. Alar. unc. 4.)

  SYN. Pap. Polydamas. _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 747. _No._ 12. _Merian.
  Surinam. pl._ 31. _Cramer Pap._ 18. _p._ 33. _pl._ 211. _f._ D. E.
  _Herbst. Pap. t._ 10. _f._ 6. 7. _Boisd. et Leconte Icon. des Chen. de
  l'Amer. Sept. pl._ 1. _Boisd. Hist. Nat. Lep._ 1. 321. _No._ 162.

  HABITAT: America, from Georgia to Brazil, Antigua (_Drury_).

  _Upper Side._ The head and thorax are black; with two red spots on the
  neck, and two small white spots at the base of the antennæ. All the wings
  are scolloped, and of a dark green colour. The anterior wings have a row
  of yellow spots rising near the tips, which, running across the middle of
  the inferior ones, in a circular manner, meet at the extremity of the
  body; some of them being shaped like the bearded points of arrows. The
  hollow or concave part of each scollop, in the inferior wings, is edged
  with yellow.

  _Under Side._ The head, breast, feet, and abdomen are black; with several
  red spots on the sides, abdomen, and shoulders. All the wings are black;
  the anterior having some of the yellow spots that are seen on the upper
  side; with seven irregular red spots, placed along the edge of each
  posterior wing, and three silver spots or marks joining to the second,
  third, and fourth.

Linnæus states, that this insect inhabits the Hibiscus mutabilis. By other
authors it is stated to feed upon the Aristolochia Serpentaria, or
Virginian snake-root. The caterpillar is brown, with fleshy spines of the
same colour, and red stripes, each segment also being ornamented with four
eye-like spots, half yellow and half red.


Plate XVII. fig. 3. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. NYMPHALIS, _Latr. et God._ Papilio (Nymphalis Phal.), _Linn._

  NYMPHALIS ASSIMILIS. Alis subrepandis nigris concoloribus, lineis
  maculisque albo-virescentibus, posticis strigâ apicali punctorum
  coccineorum. (Expans. Alar. fere 5 unc. [_Drury_] 3½ unc. [_Enc.

  SYN. Papilio (Nymphal. Phal.) assimilis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 782.
  _No._ 194. _Cramer, pl._ 154. A. _Esper. Pap. Exot. t._ 57. _f._ 1.
  _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 39. _No._ 114. (Papilio Eq. Ach.)

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ Head black, with two white frontal spots. Thorax black,
  with three white stripes. Abdomen black, marked on the sides with white.
  Anterior wings sooty black, having a number of large spots and stripes on
  them of different forms and dimensions, of a greenish-grey colour. Near
  the external edge is a double row of sixteen small spots of the same
  greenish grey, and above them are five larger of a more circular shape.
  Posterior wings resemble the superior, but have a broad border of clearer
  black running along the external edge, whereon are five spots of a
  scarlet colour, inclining to pink, one having a small black spot in the
  middle. The wings are slightly dentated.

  {32}_Under Side._ Body black, and ornamented with round spots of clear
  white. At the base of the wings, is a remarkable round spot of a clear
  white, about the size of a pin's head. The wings are spotted as on the
  upper side, the greenish spots being rather larger, and in the inferior
  wings inclining to a yellow, the general ground of all the wings
  appearing more sooty on this side.




Plate XVIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ.

  GENUS. LIMACODES? _Latr._ Apoda, _Haworth_. Heterogenea, _Knoch._ Phalæna
  Bombyx, _Linn._

  LIMACODES? ARENACEA. Lutea, alis superioribus supra atomis nigris
  adspersis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) arenacea, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 828. _No._ 65.

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ pectinated, and of a yellow clay colour. The head
  and thorax yellow, but covered over with hairs in such manner that the
  former cannot be distinguished. The abdomen, superior and inferior wings
  yellow. On the anterior wings appear some very minute black spots
  scattered thereon in a very irregular manner. The wings are entire.

  _Under Side._ The thighs, breast, and abdomen are very hairy. The
  superior and inferior wings of the same yellow colour as on the upper
  side, without a mark of any kind.

This insect appears most nearly to approach the genus Limacodes, _Latr._


Plate XVIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ.

  GENUS. SATURNIA, _Schrank. Latr._ Attacus, _Germar._ Phalæna (Bombyx),
  _Linn. &c._

  SATURNIA CECROPIA. Alis anticis subfalcatis, posticis rotundatis; omnibus
  griseis fasciâ communi fulvâ maculâque reniformi ocelloque apicali (in
  anticis) ornatis. (Expans. Alar. 6 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. _Linn. Syst. Nat. v._ 2. _p._ 809. _No._ 3. _Cramer, Ins._ 4. _tab._
  42. _f._ A. B. _Catesby Carol._ 86. _t._ 86. _Abbot and Smith, Ins.
  Georgia, tab._ 45. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 408. _No._ 4. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2401. 3. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 5. _p._ 25. 5.

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury_). North America (_Linn. &c._).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ very broad, pectinated and black. The head is small
  and red. Neck white. Thorax covered with long orange-brown hairs. Abdomen
  alternately with broad stripes of white and orange brown, the latter
  being edged behind with black. Anterior wings, with two bars crossing
  from the anterior to the posterior edges, one at about three-fourths of
  an inch from the shoulders, whitish, edged on the outside with black; the
  other is orange, at about an inch distance from the external margin. The
  base of the wing is a fine orange brown. The middle is deep rusty brown,
  which, towards the upper part, is powdered with buff-coloured hairs. In
  the middle of this is a large white spot verged with black, somewhat
  resembling a kidney bean, and is broadly tinged behind with red brown.
  The extremity of this wing, next the bar, is the same dark brown, and
  powdered, having a black spot about {33}half an inch from the tip, having
  within it a semicircular mark of a pearl colour. From this spot to the
  anterior edge runs a serpentine line of white, bordered on the outer side
  with red. Between this and the orange bar is a broad tinge of light
  purple. The other side, next the tip, is light brown, stained with blood
  colour. From the black spot to the interior angle runs a black serpentine
  line, inclosing a space of dark buff, between which and the dark buff
  margin is a light buff irregular streak. Posterior wings similar to the
  superior, but the orange bar is redder and broader, running parallel with
  the external edge, and is bordered on the inner side with white; the part
  of the wing within this is deep rusty brown, with a larger white spot in
  the middle, verged with black, and tinged behind with red brown. The
  colour below the red bar is deep rusty brown, the border along the
  external edge being of a dark dirty buff, whereon are two small dark
  lines, having an irregular indented line of the same dirty buff above
  them. The wings are entire.

  _Under Side._ The markings on all the wings are more distinct, and
  brighter than on the upper. The posterior wings, and the major part of
  the anterior, being covered with dust-like buff hairs, except the spots
  and buff margins round the edges. The posterior wings along the anterior
  edges being verged with white, which becomes broader as it approaches the

The caterpillar of this fine moth feeds upon the wild American plum (Prunus
Pensylvanica), garden plum, &c. It is thick and fleshy, of a pale green
colour, with a pair of small blue spots on each segment, and with two rows
of short and setose yellow dorsal tubercles. One observed by Abbot, spun up
on the 17th of June, and the moth came out on the 30th of March following.
The cocoon is attached to a twig. The outside web is coarse, and the inner
covered with silk, like a silk-worm's cocoon. Abbot states that this silk
has been carded, spun, and made into stockings, and that it will wash like
linen. The species is, however, too rare to be of any utility in Georgia.
It is, however, much more abundant in the neighbourhood of New York, and
has been bred in England from some brought over in the chrysalis state. It
is difficult to rear it in confinement.


Plate XVIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. SPILOSOMA, _Steph._ Arctia, _Latr._ Eyprepia, p. _Ochs._ Phalæna
  (Noctua), _Drury_.

  SPILOSOMA ARGE. Alis albidis, nigro-maculatis et lineatis, posticis
  incarnatis lineâ marginali fulvâ; abdomine concolori maculis nigris.
  (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Arge, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 5. 92.

  Bombyx Dione, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 442. _No._ 106. _Abbot and
  Smith, Ins. Georg. t._ 63.

  HABITAT: New York; taken on the 20th day of May.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform, and cream-coloured at the base, but black
  at their extremities. The tongue is small, and curled up. The neck red,
  having two small black streaks above it. The thorax and abdomen
  cream-coloured. On the former are three black streaks. On each annulus of
  the abdomen is a black spot, and another on each side. Anterior wings
  cream-coloured, with many black spots and marks thereon, of different
  forms and sizes, and varying very greatly in different specimens. The
  {34}anterior margin red. Posterior wings almost transparent, dirty
  cream-coloured, tinged with red, whereon are many oblong sooty spots.
  Ciliæ cream-coloured, within which is a narrow red line.

  _Under Side._ The colours are more faint and dirty than those on the
  upper. Anterior femora red, with two black spots thereon, close to the
  head. Tarsi black and cream-coloured.

The caterpillar of this insect is brown, with five pale longitudinal lines,
and with long hairs arising from fulvous tubercles. It feeds, according to
Abbot, upon plantain, corn, peas, and many other plants. A specimen
observed by this author was hatched on the 23d of July, spun up on the 28th
of August, and the moth appeared on the 9th of September. It is said
occasionally to make great devastation among Indian corn. Sir J. E. Smith
ascertained the specific identity of this insect from Dr. Hunter's Museum,
examined by Fabricius, who has neglected to cite Drury's figure.


Plate XVIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ.

  GENUS. SPILOSOMA, _Steph._ Arctia, _Latr._ Eyprepia, _Ochs._ Phalæna

  SPILOSOMA CUNEA. Alis albis, anticis maculis permultis, posticis duabus
  nigris, abdomine concolori nigro-maculato. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 5 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Bombyx) Cunea, _Drury, App. v._ 2.

  Phalæna punctatissima, _Abbot and Smith, Ins. Georg. t._ 70?

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury_). Georgia and Virginia (_Abbot and Smith_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ pectinated and black. There is no appearance of any
  tongue. Head white. Back and abdomen ash colour. Anterior wings white,
  with a great number of spots differently shaped of a sooty black colour.
  On the external margin are five spots, those nearest the tips being
  shaped like triangles. Posterior wings white, with a sooty spot on each
  near the external edge, and a very faint small mark near the exterior

  _Under Side._ Legs black. Breast and abdomen ash colour. The wings marked
  as on the upper side.

There seems little reason for doubting that this is identical with the
Phalæna punctatissima of Abbot and Smith, of which the female is entirely
white. The last named species feeds upon the mulberry, persimmon, willow,
and wild cherry of America. One observed by Abbot spun up on the 16th of
May, and came out on the 1st of June. The whole brood of caterpillars feed
together in a web, and will often entirely destroy the leaves of a small
tree. The name proposed by Drury evidently alludes to the triangular spots
on the margin of the anterior wings, and seems quite as expressive as that
employed by Sir J. E. Smith, who seems to have treated Drury's work on
several occasions as scarcely deserving of notice.


Plate XVIII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. NOCTUA, _Auct._ (SUBGENUS, Acontia? _Ochsenh. Treit._) Phalæna
  (Noctua), _Drury_.

  NOCTUA (ACONTIA?) NUNDINA. Alis anticis pallide cinereis albido
  variegatis, literâ nigrâ ante apicem notatis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Nundina, _Drury, App. v._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ thread-like, of a reddish brown. The tongue curled
  spirally. Head and thorax ash colour. Anterior wings the same, whereon
  are several faint marks of a light sand colour. Close to the anterior
  margin, about a third from the tips, is a black mark, resembling an I of
  the German text characters. Posterior wings silvery white, with a small,
  faint, light, sandy border, and a small oblong brown discoidal spot.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings silvery white, with a faint indistinct dark
  brown border running along the external margin, and two dark marks
  opposite the German text character. Posterior wings silvery white; the
  oblong brown spots are here plainly seen as on the upper side.




Plate XIX. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.


  PAPILIO PALAMEDES. Alis dentatis nigris, fasciâ maculari maculisque
  marginalibus flavis; posticis caudatis, his subtùs ad basin vittâ albâ
  transversâ rectâ lunulisque rufis. (Expans. Alar. 5 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Eq. Achiv.) Palamedes, _Drury, App. v._ 2. (1773). _Cramer,
  pl._ 93. _fig._ A. B.

  Pap. (Eq. Ach.) Calchas, _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._ 453. _No._ 44. (1775).
  _Ent. Syst._ 3. 1. _p._ 30. _No._ 90. _Herbst. Pap. tab._ 42. _Boisduval,
  Hist. Nat. Lep._ 1. 337. _No._ 178. _Bdv. et Leconte, Icon. Lep. Amer.
  Sept. pl._ 5.

  HABITAT: Carolina (_Drury_). Georgia, Virginia (_Bdv._).

  _Upper Side._ Head, back, and abdomen dark brown; the latter striped on
  the sides with yellow. Two yellow lines, beginning at the palpi, encircle
  the eyes, and, running along the shoulders, end at the base of the
  inferior wings. Anterior wings brownish black; the external margin with
  small yellow crescents, above which are nine yellow round spots. Above
  this is another irregular row of yellow angular spots. Posterior wings
  brownish black, each with a tail. Above it are six yellow spots, reaching
  from the anal to the upper corner, with five small blue spots above them,
  above which a yellow irregular bar runs across the middle of the wing,
  having a black spot, whose upper edge is verged with blue, placed at the
  anal angle, with a small tinge of orange above and below it.

  _Under Side._ Breast and thighs yellow. Abdomen striped with yellow and
  dark brown. Anterior wings brownish black, with the same yellow spots and
  marks as on the upper side. Posterior wings brownish black, with six
  yellow spots near the external edge, having a mark of orange in the
  middle of each, above which is a row of orange crescents joined together,
  whose upper edges are silver, and below each of them is a black circular
  spot, whose inner part is a fine shining blue, from whence appears a
  great number of powder-like gray spots. The anterior edge next the
  shoulders, has a small orange streak, near which an orange-coloured line
  begins, running parallel with the abdomen.

{36}The caterpillar is described by Boisduval as living upon several
species of Laurus, and of a green colour, with pale blue spots, and scarlet
belly and legs, with a scarlet eye-shaped spot on each side of the third
segment. The chrysalis is gibbous, ferruginous on the back, with the belly
rose-coloured, and four rows of pale blue dots. I have reverted to Drury's
specific name, which has certainly the priority, as appears from the dates
which I have introduced amongst the synonyms. Dr. Boisduval has given
another species of this genus under the name of Palamedes, described by
Fabricius under that name, but considered by him to be a Nymphalis. This
latter species must consequently receive a new denomination.


Plate XIX. fig. 3. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains._

  GENUS. MELITÆA, _Fabr._ Argynnis, _Latr. God._ Papilio (Pleb. rur.),

  MELITÆA PELOPS. Alis subrotundatis, integerrimis, suprà fulvis nigro
  reticulatis; posticis subtùs carneis fusco undatis. (Expans. Alar. 1

  SYN. Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Pelops, _Drury, App. v._ 2.

  Argynnis Pelopsa, _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 290. _No._ 62.

  HABITAT: St. Christopher's (_Drury_).

  _Upper Side._ Thorax and abdomen brown, the latter spotted with faint
  brown orange. Wings black, with several rows of large brown orange spots,
  crossing the wings, of different shapes and sizes.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings orange brown, spotted with black, having the
  appearance of indented lines running across them. Posterior wings dark
  flesh-coloured, marked and spotted with brown, and having five minute
  silver spots at equal distances, parallel with the external edge. The
  wings are entire.


Plate XIX. fig. 5. 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Hesperiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. HESPERIA, _Latr. Godart_. Battus, p. _Scop._ Papilio (Pl. ruric),

  HESPERIA ARCAS. Alis nigricantibus immaculatis, margine integro, anticis
  subtùs margine interno dilutiore maculâ parvâ unicâ albâ. (Expans. Alar.
  1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Pleb. ruric.) Arcas, _Drury. App. v._ 2.

  Papilio (Pl. urb.) Philemon, _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._ 534. _No._ 392. _Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 346. _No._ 314.

  Hesperia Ph. _Latr. God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 788.

  Papilio Flyas, _Cram. pl._ 328. E.

  HABITAT: St. Christopher's.

  _Upper Side._ Thorax and abdomen black. Wings very dark brownish black,
  immaculate. Margins entire.

  _Under Side._ Legs, breast, and abdomen dark brown, but rather lighter
  than on the upper side, immaculate, except a small white spot on the
  anterior, placed near the anterior edge towards the tip.




Plate XX. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna, FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. EREBUS, _Latrielle_. Thysania, _Dalman._ Noctua, _Fabr._ Phalæna
  (Attacus), _Linn._

  EREBUS CREPUSCULARIS? Alis griseis, fasciâ maculisque albis, anticis
  ocello fusco, posticis fasciis duabus dentatis fuscis fulvo marginatis.
  (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Attacus) Crepuscularis? _Linn. S. N._ 2. 811. _No._ 13.
  _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 8. 255. 19.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). America (_Linn._).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ setaceous. Palpi standing erect above the head.
  Tongue spiral. Neck with a narrow ring of white. Thorax dark brown.
  Abdomen dirty buff colour. Anterior wings dark nut brown at the base;
  paler at the external margin. On the anterior margin, next the tip, is a
  white subtriangular spot; and from the middle arises a white bar, which
  runs obliquely to the middle of the wing, but suddenly turns and runs to
  the base of the posterior margin; from the inner angle of this bar, near
  the middle of the wing, a black line runs towards the front of the wing,
  forming a large eye. Within the external margin are many dark and white
  marks. All the wings are scolloped. Posterior wings, next the shoulders,
  are of a dirty buff colour; remainder nut brown, separated by a narrow
  line of darker brown, beneath which runs a small narrow line of buff, and
  a quarter of an inch below this is another line, crossing the wing. From
  thence, to the external edge, are several darker coloured clouds, and
  white marks of different shapes and forms; particularly a white angular
  spot on the anterior edge, near the corner.

  _Under Side._ All the wings of a pale clay colour, inclining to buff. On
  the anterior, the two white spots at the tips, visible on the upper side,
  appear here also; and several smaller ones on other parts of the wings.
  The white bar being less distinct than the other white marks; but on the
  posterior wings the white angular spot, near the upper corner, is very
  plain and strong.

The diversity of the habitats, given by Drury and Linnæus, render it
doubtful whether that figured by the former be identical with that
described by the latter.


Plate XX. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ.


  NOCTUA LUNATA. Alis fuscis, strigis multis transversis; anticis maculâ
  centrali, alterâ angulatâ apicali, fasciâque obliquâ posticâ nigris.
  (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Lunata, _Drury, App. v._ 3.

  HABITAT: Carolina, Virginia.

  _Upper Side._ The antennæ light brown and setaceous. The tongue spiral.
  Palpi not very hairy. The head, thorax, abdomen, and wings
  hazel-coloured. Anterior wings with a waved line, of a dark brown colour,
  placed near the anterior angle, beginning at the posterior and ending at
  the external edge. At the shoulders, and along the anterior margin, are
  several small dark brown clouds and marks, that {38}produce a darker
  shade. Posterior wings with a series of narrow transverse waved lines,
  extending from the middle to the external edges. All the wings are

  _Under Side._ The breast, abdomen, and wings are all of a paler hazel
  colour. Anterior wings dappled with dark brown on the middle of the
  anterior edge, and spotted with minute short brown streaks, as well as
  the posterior.


Plate XX. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Geometridæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. GEOMETRA. Subg. Angerona, _Duponch, Steph._ Hipparchus p. _Leach.

  GEOM. (ANGERONA) SERRATA. Alis luteo-fulvis dentatis, fasciâ latâ apicali
  maculâ basali anticarum fasciâque basali posticarum ferrugineis. (Expans.
  Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin)

  SYN. Phal. (Noctua) Serrata, _Drury_, _App. v._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York; taken on the 26th of June.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ and head of a reddish buff colour, the former
  setaceous. Tongue very small and spiral. Thorax and abdomen yellow buff
  colour; as are all the wings in general. The anterior having a bar of
  brown red colour, which begins at the tips, and runs across the wings,
  almost to the middle of the posterior edge; occupying all that space
  along the external margin. At the base is a small cloud of the same
  colour, but much fainter. Posterior wings with a broad marginal bar of
  the same brown red. A small faint line likewise crosses these wings. The
  buff ground is sprinkled all over with faint, irregular, dark brown
  spots, that in some specimens are scarcely visible. All the wings are
  dentated; the lower ones most deeply.

  _Under Side._ Wings yellow buff, with brown red markings, as on the upper
  side, but less distinct. The irroration stronger and plainer, being also
  sprinkled over the brown bars.




Plate XXI. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Swains_.

  GENUS. ARGYNNIS, _Fabr. Latr. et Godart_. Argyreus, _Scop._ Dryades,

  ARGYNNIS PHALANTA. Alis subdentatis, fulvis nigro maculatis, posticis
  subtus ad extimum argenteo-purpurascentibus, ocellis aliquot fulvis.
  (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Phalanta, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 149. _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 259. Papilio
  Culumbina, _Cram. pl._ 337. D. E. ([male]) _pl._ 238. A. B. ([female]).

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). East Indies (_Fabricius, &c._). Isle Mauritius
  (_I. O. W._).

  _Upper Side._ Thorax and abdomen of a dirty clay colour. Anterior wings
  of a fine deep clay colour, the tips being of a dirty black; which colour
  is continued, by irregular and indented marks, along the external edges,
  almost to the interior angle, where are several clay-coloured spots and
  marks. Above these are four round spots, running obliquely toward the
  shoulders. Several other black marks are dispersed on different parts of
  the wings, particularly near the anterior edges. Posterior wings deep
  clay-coloured, with two black waved or indented lines, running along the
  external margin. Over these {39}are four small, round, black spots,
  placed two and two. Above these, nearer the shoulders, are several small,
  black, oblong spots, placed irregularly. The wings, particularly the
  posterior pair, are a little dentated.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings, at the base and along the posterior edges,
  clay-coloured. Near the interior angle of each wing is a round black
  spot; several others which are very small, oblong, and fainter, being
  scattered about on different parts. Posterior wings, at the base, fainter
  clay-coloured. About half the wings, from the external edges, are of a
  blueish clay colour, which is separated from the other part by a faint
  waved line of a reddish hue. Two other faint waved lines also run along
  the external edges, answering to the black ones on the upper side; and
  the four black spots seen there are very small on this side, being but
  just perceptible.


Plate XXI. fig. 3. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw_.

  GENUS. MELITÆA, _Fabr._ Argynnis, _Latr. et God._ Papilio (Dan. Festiv.),

  MELITÆA PHAETON. Alis subrotundatis integerrimis, nigris, singularum
  extimo suprà, paginâ omni subtùs fulvo flavoque maculatis. (Expans. Alar.
  3 unc. 9 lin. fere.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Festiv.) Phaeton, _Drury_, _App. v._ 2. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 46. _No._ 140. _Cramer, pl._ 193. _f._ C. D. Argynnis
  Phaetontea, _Latr. et God. Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 288. _Boisduv. Hist. nat.
  Lep. pl._ 7. _B. f._ 3.

  HABITAT: New York; taken in June and September, whence there are probably
  two broods in the year.

  _Upper Side._ Body and wings black. The anterior pair of the latter with
  nine red spots placed near the external edges; above which are two rows
  of spots, of a lemon colour, with some other small ones placed near the
  upper edges. Posterior wings with eight red triangular spots, placed
  close to the external edges. Above these is a row of lemon-coloured
  crescents; and above that is another row of lemon-coloured round spots.
  The wings are entire.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings black, with a red indented margin; within
  the external edge is a row of lemon-coloured crescents. Near the costa,
  about the middle of each wing, are two larger red spots, and a smaller
  one at the corner, next the shoulders. The remainder of the wings is
  sprinkled with lemon-coloured spots, of different shapes and sizes, in
  all about twenty-six on each. Posterior wings black, having their
  external edges margined with triangular red spots; above which is a row
  of lemon-coloured crescents; and over these is a row of round
  lemon-coloured spots. The remaining part of the wings is covered with
  lemon-coloured and red spots; the former very small, and the latter
  rather large, and angularly shaped.


Plate XXI. fig. 5. 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Nymphalidæ, _Sw._

  GENUS. MELITÆA, _Fabr._ Argynnis, _Latr. et God._ Papilio (Dan. Festiv.)

  MELITÆA THAROS. Alis subrotundatis integerrimis, supra fulvis, lineis
  plurimis transversis limboque communi nigris, posticis utrinque ad
  extimum strigâ punctorum nigrorum. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin. fere.)

  SYN. Papilio (Dan. Festiv.) Tharos, _Drury_, _App. v._ 2. _Cramer, pl._
  169. _fig._ E. F.

  Argynnis Tharossa, _Latr. et God. Encycl. Méth._ ix. _p._ 289. _No._ 61.

  HABITAT: New York.

  {40}_Upper Side._ Head, body, and abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings
  varied with dark brown and orange; in some the dark brown occupying the
  greater part of the wings, in others the orange colour is predominant;
  but the tips and external edges in all are dark brown; in some two ocelli
  are seen close to the anterior edge, and near the lower corner; but in
  others these ocelli are not to be discovered. Posterior wings dark brown
  and orange. Round the edge is a waved dark border, through which a small
  waved white line, runs from the anal angle about half way; above this are
  placed, in a row, five round ocelli, and one oblong, next the anal angle;
  the pupils being black, and the irides orange colour. Above these is a
  broad orange-coloured band, and next the body the wings are dark brown.
  All the wings are entire.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings, at the base, deep clay-coloured, with some
  dark brown clouds on the anterior edges and interior angles; but in some
  these clouds are hardly perceptible. In some a small scolloped line runs
  along the external edges, from the tips to the lower corners, of a
  reddish hue; in others this is not to be seen, having a dark brown border
  in that part. Posterior wings very pale clay-coloured, with a cloud on
  the middle of the external edges, of a reddish brown; where (in some) is
  a silver spot like a half moon. The black pupils of the six ocelli, seen
  on the upper side, are, in some specimens, very small here, and just
  perceptible; in others they are not to be seen. "In short, nature forms
  such a variety of this species, that it is difficult to set bounds, or to
  know all that belongs to it."--_Drury._




Plate XXII. fig. 1. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.


  PAPILIO THOAS. Alis suprà nigris, fasciâ communi lunulisque
  submarginalibus flavis, posticis caudatis, his subtus maculâ discoidali
  ferrugineâ lunulisque coeruleis. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Papilio (Equ. Ach.) Thoas, _Linn. Mant. p._ 536. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._
  III. 1. _p._ 32. _No._ 94. _Cramer, pl._ 167. _fig._ A. B. _Latr. et God.
  Enc. Méth._ ix. _p._ 62. 103. _Boisduval et Leconte Icon. Lep. Amer.
  Sept. pl._ 12. _et_ 13. _Boisd. H. n. Lep._ 1. _p._ 355.

  Var. Pap. Cresphontes, _Cramer_, 165, 166, A.

  HABITAT: Surinam (_Drury_). Paraguay to Georgia (_Boisd._).

  _Upper Side._ Thorax black. Two small yellow streaks extend from the eyes
  to the shoulders. Abdomen yellow, with a black dorsal line; apex red
  brown. Wings black, with deep yellow spots on them. A yellow bar, near
  half an inch broad, begins at the middle of the superior wings, and
  running parallel with the anterior edges, crosses the inferior ones just
  below the shoulders. Several oval and oblong yellow spots are placed
  between the tips and this bar. One also is situated close above it, near
  the middle of the wing; being separated from it by the tendon, which is
  black. Below the bar are four small spots, beginning at the interior
  angle (the first being double). Posterior wings furnished with two black
  tails, having a long yellow stripe in the middle. About a quarter of an
  inch above the external edge is a row of six yellow spots, whereof one is
  obscured by the anterior wing; there being but five shewn in the plate.

  _Under Side._ The breast is ash colour. Anterior wings partly soot
  colour, but principally yellow. A row of eight yellow spots is situated
  within the external margin, and the yellow bar, observable on the upper
  side, is not to be distinguished on this. Several small yellow lines rise
  at the shoulders, and expanding like the sticks of a fan, occupy almost
  the chief membrane of the wing. {41}Between these, and the row of eight
  spots, are two large yellow patches, which nearly take up that middle
  space, with black tendons crossing them like fine threads. Posterior
  wings, next the shoulders, yellow, continuing to about the middle of the
  wings. External margin soot-coloured; having a broad bar of yellow above
  it, whose upper side resembles a row of arches. Above this is an
  irregular black bar, running from the anterior edges, across the wings,
  with two small scarlet streaks at the anal angles. On this bar is a row
  of blue crescents, answering to and placed just above the arch-like bar
  before-mentioned; and in the centre is a faint mark of scarlet.

The caterpillar of this butterfly feeds upon the orange-trees, from
Paraguay to Georgia. Its back is covered with large irregular white spots,
with brown marks, which extend along the middle and posterior parts of the
body. The chrysalis is of a bright brown, with several black dots.


Plate XXII. fig. 3. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Papilionidæ, _Leach_.


  PAPILIO SINON. Alis nigris, fasciis communibus virescenti-albis, posticis
  lunulis sex submarginalibus virescenti-albis anguloque ani rubro.
  (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. fere.)

  SYN. Papilio Sinon, _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._ 452. _Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._
  26. 75. _Cramer, tab._ 317. _fig._ C. D. E. F. _Ency. Méth._ ix. _p._ 53.
  _Boisduv. Hist. Nat. Lep._ 1. _p._ 260.

  Papilio (Eq. Achiv.) Protesilaus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). Florida, Cuba (_Boisduv._). North America
  (_Enc. Méth._).

  _Upper Side._ The thorax black; the hair thereof greenish. Abdomen black.
  All the wings black; posterior ones being furnished with two tails, edged
  with white. Close to the shoulders, in the anterior wings, rises a stripe
  of sea-green, which crosses the inferior ones; and, running parallel with
  the abdominal margin, ends near the extremity of the body. A little below
  this is a small scarlet spot, placed near the anal angle; with two
  smaller spots, of a green colour, below it. At a little distance from the
  shoulders, a second green stripe, rather broader than the first, begins
  at the posterior edge of the anterior wings, and crosses the inferior
  ones, parallel with the first, being continued a little lower. On the
  anterior wings, about the middle of the anterior edge, rises a bar, of a
  fine sea-green colour, which crossing both wings, terminates at the
  middle of the posterior, being narrowest at each end. A row of eight
  white spots runs parallel with the external edge, ending at the lower
  corner. Near the external edges of the posterior wings is placed a row of
  five crescents, of a green colour.

  _Under Side._ Breast and abdomen grey-coloured. Anterior wings light
  chesnut, having a darker cloud near the anterior angle. All the green
  spots and marks, seen on the upper side, are also visible here. The
  ground of the posterior wings is rather paler than the anterior; and the
  green marks and stripes are rather larger here, than on the upper side.
  The scarlet spot, on the abdominal edge, is considerably larger on this
  side. A scarlet stripe also begins on the anterior edge, and fills
  completely the space between the broad green bar and the second stripe,
  mentioned above, extending as low as the extremity of the body. The two
  scollops, next the abdominal corner, are black; whereon appear a few blue
  powder-like specks.

{42}M. Boisduval states that Drury's figure is "peu exacte." It is true,
indeed, that the figure does not agree with the description given by that
author, who describes the fourth pale fascia as "bifide dans la cellule
discoidale des premières ailes." The exact uniformity in the shape of this
fascia, in both of Drury's figures, renders its correctness evident, and
consequently the insect figured by Drury must be regarded as a variety of
the species described by Boisduval.




Plate XXIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ.

  GENUS. NOCTUA, _Auct._

  NOCTUA MELICERTA. Alis anticis variegatis, posticis nigris, fasciâ
  maculisque tribus marginalibus albis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Melicerta, _Drury, Append. v._ 2. _Cramer, tab._
  62. _fig._ C. D.?

  Noctua mercatoria, _Fab. Ent. Syst._ III. 2. _p._ 62. _No_. 175.?
  _Gmelin, Linn., S. N._ 2544. 1039.

  Noctua tigrina, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 2. _p._ 40. _No._ 105. _Oliv.
  Enc. Méth._ 8. 277. 131.

  Noctua vulpina, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 2. _p._ 39. _No._ 102.

  Phalæna Melicene, _Cram. tab._ 323. _fig._ C. D.

  HABITAT: India, Bombay (_Drury_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform. Tongue small and spiral. Thorax and
  abdomen light brown. Anterior wings light greyish brown, and, when held
  in some particular directions, having a hue like mother-of-pearl. Several
  irregular bars, of a deeper brown, cross the wings, and the external
  margin is bordered with pale purple or pearl colour. Posterior wings dark
  liver-coloured, grey-brown at the base, and hairy. In the middle is a
  broad bar, of purplish white, running across the wing. On the external
  edge are three white square spots. The anterior wings are a little
  dentated; the inferior ones entire.

  _Under Side._ Palpi remarkably long and pointed. Anterior wings dark
  brown; the external edge being purplish grey, with a whitish separated
  bar, running from the middle of the anterior edge to the interior angle.
  Posterior wings light greyish brown, palest at the base, and grey at the
  external edge, having a dark spot at the anal angle, and a smaller faint
  one near the shoulders; with several indented lines crossing the wings in
  different places.

Fabricius appears to have described this insect in his Entomologia
Systematica, under three different names. It probably forms the type of a
distinct subgenus in the family Noctuidæ.


Plate XXIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. CATOCALA, _Schrank_. Blephara, _Hübn._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Linn._

  CATOCALA EPIONE. Alis anticis fuscis, strigis transversis dentatis
  ferrugineis et atris, posticis nigris, ciliâ albâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.
  6 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Epione, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Oliv. Encycl.
  Méthod._ 8. 288. _No._ 190.

  HABITAT: New York (_Drury_). Philadelphia (_I. O. W_.).

  _Upper Side._ Thorax and abdomen of a sooty ash colour. Anterior wings
  dark chocolate, with an undulated ferruginous line, running from the
  anterior edge to the posterior, and near the middle of the wings; with
  several other lighter not very distinct marks thereon. Posterior wings
  black; cilia white.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings, at the base, dark ash colour, which as it
  extends further on the wings, becomes black; and next the tips is
  soot-coloured. Seven white spots run along the external margin. Above
  them is a white line, running from the anterior edge, narrowing as it
  goes, and ending near the posterior; between which and the shoulders is a
  rather large oblong white spot. Posterior wings, next the shoulders and
  abdominal edges, very dark ash colour, which deepens along the wings to
  black; cilia white. A faint white streak runs also a little way down the
  wing from the anterior margin. All the wings are a little dentated.


Plate XXIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ.

  GENUS. NOCTUA, _Auct._

  NOCTUA PALES. Alis luteis, anticis strigâ transversâ punctoque apicali
  fuscis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Pales, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: St. Christopher's.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform. Tongue spiral. Head small. Thorax,
  abdomen, and wings light orange clay-coloured, without any markings,
  except on the anterior wings, where a faintish bar crosses the middle;
  and, near the tips of the wings, is a small dark spot. The wings are

  _Under Side._ The same colour as the upper, immaculate.


Plate XXIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Arctiidæ.

  GENUS. CALLIMORPHA? _Latr._ Sphinx p. _Drury_.

  CALLIMORPHA? VINOSA. Alis nigris subdiaphanis, anticarum marginibus
  anticis et posticis rufo fulvis maculâ magnâ externâ (in medio albâ
  margine nigro); posticis fasciâ submarginali rufo-fulvâ. (Expans. Alar. 2
  unc. fere.)

  SYN. Sphinx Vinosa, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Antigua.

  {44}_Upper Side._ The antennæ are black, small, and pectinated. The
  tongue not discoverable. Thorax and base of abdomen yellow orange; the
  remainder of the abdomen rusty grey, with a black stripe down the top of
  it. Anterior wings black and transparent, like gauze; the anterior and
  posterior margins bordered with orange. The tips of the wings are
  likewise broadly orange, through the middle of which runs a broad bar of
  white, from the anterior to the middle of the external edge, where it is
  narrowest, being edged with black. Posterior wings black, and like gauze;
  the external edge having a narrow orange stripe running from the anal
  margin, half way to the exterior angle. The wings are entire.

  _Under Side._ The abdomen is grey, with a black line running from the
  thorax to the tail. Anterior wings not edged with orange; the tips are
  black, where the white bar is plainly seen, having an orange spot on the
  edge, near the external and lower corners. Posterior wings as on the
  upper side.

This insect seems to form the type of a distinct subgenus between Nudaria
and Callimorpha.


Plate XXIII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Diurna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ.

  GENUS. NOCTUA, _Auct._

  NOCTUA NUMERIA. Alis fuscis, anticis vittâ longitudinali albâ, anticè
  strigis undulatis transversis; posticis maculâ externâ albâ. (Expans.
  Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Numeria, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ filiform. Tongue spiral. Head, thorax, and abdomen
  fine brown. Anterior wings fine brown, through the middle of which runs a
  small longitudinal bar of white or pearl, beginning just below the
  shoulders, and losing itself just below the tips. Above this bar the
  wings are watered with various marks of dark and light brown. Behind it
  they are of a darker shade, except a spot near the middle of a yellowish
  brown. Posterior wings dark brown, with two white marks on the edges,
  about a third of an inch long; beginning on the anterior edge, and
  crossing the corner to the external edge.

  _Under Side._ Breast, legs, abdomen, and wings greyish brown or russet,
  with some faint, dark indented lines running across all the wings in
  different parts. The white marks on the edges of the posterior wings are
  very visible on this side. The wings are entire.


Plate XXIII. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Noctuidæ.

  GENUS. CATOCALA, _Schr._ Blephara, _Hübn._ Phalæna (Noctua), _Linn._

  CATOCALA AFFINIS. Alis anticis fuscis maculis ordinariis discoidalibus
  strigisque dentatis obscurioribus; posticis fulvis fasciâ centrali
  margineque postico latè nigris. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) Paranympha, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (excl. syn.

  HABITAT: New York; taken on the 27th day of July.

  {45}_Upper Side._ The thorax and anterior wings dark chocolate, with a
  small, narrow, irregular black line crossing the wings, near the external
  edge; having near it, just above the fringe, a row of seven small grey
  spots. Posterior wings pale orange; having a deep black border. A rather
  broad black line runs in a circular direction from the anterior edge,
  through the middle of the wings, to the lower part of the interior
  margin. At the outer angle is a small spot of a pale orange.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings at the base of a dark clay colour, with a
  large yellowish cloud occupying all the middle part; in which is a large
  black streak running across the wing. Posterior wings marked as on the
  upper side, but all the colours fainter.




Plate XXIV. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Bombycidæ.

  GENUS. ACTIAS, _Leach._ Saturnia, _Schrank._ Attacus, _Germar._ Phalæna
  (Attacus), _Linn._

  ACTIAS LUNA. Alis caudatis flavo-virentibus concoloribus, ocello disci
  lunato, margine antico anticarum purpureo. (Expans. Alar. 5 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Attacus) Luna, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 810. _No._ 5. _Catesby
  Carolina, 2nd vol. p._ 85. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 414. _No._ 22.
  _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2404. 5. _Abbot & Smith Ins. Georgia, pl._ 48. _Oliv.
  Enc. Méth._ 5. 29. 20. _Pal. Beauv. Ins. Afr. & Am. Lep. pl._ 22. _f._ 3.
  _Leach Zool. Misc. v._ 2. (Actias L.)

  HABITAT: New York, Carolina, Virginia, Maryland.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ brown, and strongly pectinated. The head white,
  small, and almost hid under the shoulders and neck, having a small brown
  ring encircling it. Thorax pale yellow, having a chocolate or dark brown
  line crossing it, parallel with the margins of the anterior wings. All
  the wings are of a beautiful pea-green colour; the nerves being of a pale
  red brown. Along the anterior margin of the anterior wings runs a
  chocolate line, which is narrowed towards the tips. About an inch from
  the shoulders springs from this line a small curved one, which, bending
  towards the middle of the wing, terminates in a small eye, pointed in the
  lower part, whose pupil is transparent like glass; the iris being partly
  red and partly black, within which are semicircles of white; external
  margin of the wings, red brown; the posterior being white. Posterior
  wings furnished with two broad tails, which, at their extremities, appear
  as if they were crimped; their external edges being red brown. In the
  middle of each of these wings is likewise an eye, similar to, but rather
  larger than those in the anterior ones. Abdomen white.

  _Under Side._ Abdomen white, the sides being of a dark clay colour. All
  the wings are of the same colour as on the upper side; the nerves being
  browner and more conspicuous, without the brown edge on the anterior
  pair; the eyes themselves are the same as on that side. The anterior
  margin of the inferior wings is white, and the eyes strongly resemble
  those of an animal having them half shut.

Drury's correspondent informed him that the caterpillar of this handsome
moth is red, and feeds on the leaves of the sassafras tree. When they are
full-fed they inclose themselves in a strong case composed of the substance
of the tree, and a glutinous matter which they secrete. They appear in June
and August. The caterpillar, however, figured by Abbot is green, with short
hairs scattered over the body, and with about eight small red {46}spots on
each segment, placed transversely. This author also states that it feeds
upon the sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua, Linn.), different kinds of
walnut, and the Persimon (Diospyros Virginiana). One of them spun up on the
31st of May, and came out on the 8th of June; another on the 23rd of June,
and came out on the 10th of July; and a third, which did not spin up until
the 6th of September, remained in the chrysalis till the 3rd of March. It
continues breeding throughout the summer, but is not very plentiful.


Plate XXIV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Lithosiidæ.

  GENUS. DEIOPEIA, _Stephens_. Euchelia, _Boisduval_. Eyprepia p. _Ochs_.

  DEIOPEIA ORNATRIX. Alis convolutis albidis, anticarum margine rubro
  atropunctato, posticis albo nigroque variis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9

  SYN. Phalæna (Noctua) ornatrix, _Linn. S. N._ 2. 839. _No._ 110.

  Bombyx ornatrix, _Fab. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 480. _No._ 225. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2444. 110. _Oliv. Enc. Méth._ 5. 100. _No._ 258.

  HABITAT: Antigua (_Drury_). America (_Linn. Fabr._).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, filiform. Head with a black frontal spot;
  tongue spiral. Thorax flesh-coloured, with small black spots. Anterior
  wings fine flesh-coloured; the anterior edges being bordered with
  scarlet, except four small white places, in each of which is a small
  black spot; near the base is a red cordate spot, with a small black one
  above it; near the external margin is a row of small black spots; above
  this is a row of red ones, nearly joining together, and nearly united to
  the red border at the anterior edge, and above this is another row of
  black ones. Posterior wings clear white, their external edges with large
  angular spots of black, one of them running to the anterior edge.

  _Under Side._ Anterior wings fine deep scarlet, but next the shoulders
  white, as is the cilia, where, joining to it, is a row of very small
  black spots; a little above this is a black irregular line, running from
  the anterior edge to the lower angle; above this line is another,
  shorter, reaching half way across the wings. Posterior wings clear white,
  spotted with the same black angular spots, as on the upper side; the
  anterior edges being of the same scarlet colour as the superior wings.


Plate XXIV. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Nocturna. FAMILY: Lithosiidæ.

  GENUS. DEIOPEIA, _Stephens_. Euchelia. _Boisduval._ Eyprepia p. _Ochs_.

  DEIOPEIA BELLA. Alis anticis albidis, fasciis sex punctorum nigrorum
  fasciis fulvis divisis; posticis rubris apice nigris. (Expans. Alar. 1
  unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Phalæna (Tinea) bella, _Linn. S. N._ 2. 884. _No._ 348. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ III. 1. 479. _No._ 223. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2447. 348. _Oliv. Enc.
  Méth._ 5. 99. 256.

  HABITAT: New York.

  {47}_Upper Side._ Antennæ black and filiform. Head with a small black
  spot between the antennæ. Thorax and abdomen white; on the former are
  several small black spots. Anterior wings of a fine yellow, with several
  white, narrow, irregular bars crossing them; having on each several small
  black spots; cilia white, and above it is a row of small black spots that
  almost joins it. Posterior wings faint scarlet, externally edged with a
  narrow black border; cilia white.

  _Under Side._ The anterior wings fine scarlet, inclining along the
  anterior edge to yellow; where are several angular black spots, each
  lengthening as it approaches the tips; along the external margin is a row
  of small black spots. Posterior wings scarlet, edged with the same black
  border as on the upper side; on the anterior edge are two white spots,
  with black ones in their centres.

In the 'Systema Naturæ' this and the preceding most nearly allied species
were placed far apart in the genera Noctua and Tinea. This species appears
in May and August. The caterpillar is of the same colours as the anterior
wing of the moth, and feeds on the blue lupine.




Plate XXV. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auct._

  SPHINX CAROLINA. Alis anticis fusco cinereoque variis, posticis fasciis
  3-4 fuscis exterioribus dentatis; ciliâ albo nigroque variâ, abdomine
  maculis 10-12 lateralibus luteis. (Expans. Alar. 5 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Carolina, _Linn. S. N._ 2. 798. _No._ 7. _Brown. Jam._ 438.
  _t._ 43. _f._ 17. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 363. _No._ 25. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2377. _No._ 7. _Stephens Ill. Brit. Ent. H._ 1. 118. _Abbot
  & Smith, Ins. Georg. tab._ 33. _Curtis Brit. Ent._ v. _pl._ 1. 197.

  HABITAT: New York, Maryland, Virginia.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ internally white, but externally brown. The head,
  thorax, and abdomen of a rusty grey brown; the sides of the latter having
  five oblong yellow spots, intersected by black lines, on each of which is
  a small white spot placed between the yellow ones. Anterior wings rusty
  grey brown, with a white spot at the base, and another small discoidal
  white one; a narrow irregular indented line of white begins near the
  interior angle, and runs nearly to the tip; several indented lines,
  nearly black, cross the wings, more or less distinct. Cilia brown,
  spotted with white. Posterior wings brown, darkest in the middle, the
  shoulders being nearly black, with an indented narrow bar of ash colour
  running across them, from the middle of the anterior edges to the anal
  angle; below this is a narrow black one, answering and joining to it.

  _Under Side._ Breast and abdomen ash-coloured. Anterior wings brown,
  without any marks or shades, except two very faint undulated dark lines
  crossing them. Posterior wings, next the body, ash-coloured; the
  remainder being like the anterior, with some faint dark lines crossing

According to Abbot the caterpillar is pale green, with white lateral
oblique stripes, and a pink tail. It is said to feed on the potato,
tobacco, red pepper (Capsicum?), &c. One of these caterpillars, observed by
Abbot, went into the ground on the 19th of June, and came out on the 15th
of July; whilst another went in on the 8th of July, and came out {48}on the
1st of August. The caterpillar is stated by the same author to be very
destructive in plantations of tobacco, the cultivators being obliged to
pick them carefully off the young plants. The chrysalis is of a chesnut
colour, with a long nearly straight tongue case, extending to the middle of
the breast, and clubbed at the end. The moth is generally seen in an
evening, sucking the James-town weed and gourd blossoms, and continues
breeding all the summer; the moth is common in the West Indies, as well as
in Georgia and Carolina. Dr. Brown says it is called the musquito hawk,
from its appearing at that time of the evening when those insects abound,
and being vulgarly but erroneously supposed to prey upon them. _Abbot and
Smith, loc. cit._

Specimens of this American insect have from time to time been captured in
this country. "It unquestionably cannot," however observes Mr. Stephens,
"be considered as indigenous, and ought to be rigidly excluded from our
cabinets; otherwise the most perplexing consequences must inevitably arise,
to the total confusion of our inquiries into the geographical distribution
of insects. If this be admitted, as well might 'the noble monarch of the
forest,' because a captive lioness which had escaped from her prison was
retaken on Salisbury Plain."


Plate XXV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia.? FAMILY: Zygænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SYNTOMIS, _Illiger_. ZYGÆNA, _Rossi. Fabr._ Sphinx, _Linn._

  SYNTOMIS PHEGEA. Viridi-atra alarum punctis fenestratis, anticarum sex,
  posticarum duobus; abdomine cingulo luteo. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Phegea, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 805. 35. _God. Lepid. du Franc.
  pl._ 22. _f._ 14.

  Zygæna Quercûs, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 388. _No._ 6.

  Syntomis Quercûs, _Latr. Genera Crust. et Ins._ 4. _p._ 213.

  Sphinx du Pissenlit, _Engram Pap. d'Eur_.

  HABITAT: Germany.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black, filiform, with the tips white. Head and
  thorax black. Abdomen dark green, almost black; on the top, next the
  thorax, is a deep yellow spot like gold, and near the extremity a ring of
  the same golden yellow extends just below the sides. Anterior wings dark
  green; having six transparent spots, one next the shoulders, two in the
  middle, and three next the tips. Posterior wings of the same colour as
  the superior, with two transparent spots on them.

  _Under Side._ Breast and abdomen dark green; on each side the breast are
  two golden yellow spots. All the wings are coloured and marked as on the
  upper side.


Plate XXV. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Zygænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. GLAUCOPIS, _Fabr._ Charidea, _Dalm._ Sphinx, _Linn._

  GLAUCOPIS FENESTRATA. Alis anticis nigris, maculâ magnâ discoidali fere
  ocellatâ fenestratâ, posticis fenestratis margine nigro, pedibus
  palpisque coccineis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Fenestrata, _Drury_, _App. v._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ nearly black, and pectinated. Head and eyes black.
  Palpi small and long, and of a fine scarlet. Tongue spiral. Thorax
  blueish green, almost black. Abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings the same,
  the middle part being perfectly transparent like glass, wherein is a dark
  cloud which is joined to the anterior margin. Posterior wings small,
  transparent, with a dark brown narrow border running round their edges,
  which at the upper corners is broad where it becomes cloud-like.

  _Under Side._ Breast dark brown. Legs and thighs scarlet, which colour
  extends along the middle of the abdomen, almost to the tail, where it
  becomes a little fainter, being crossed by the rings of the abdomen,
  which are black and very narrow. All the wings of the same colour as on
  the upper side.


Plate XXV. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auct._

  SPHINX CINGULATA. Alis anticis cinereo atroque undatis, puncto parvo
  discoidali; posticis nigro fasciatis, basi sanguineis, abdominis fasciis
  alternis interruptis sanguineis et atris. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Cingulata, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 395. _No._ 56.

  Sphinx Convolvuli var. _Drury_, _Append. vol._ 2. (Exclus. _Syn. Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2376. _No._ 6.) _Abbot and Smith Ins. Georg._ 1. _tab._ 32.

  HABITAT: St. Christopher's.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ white on one side, and brown on the other. Thorax
  dark brown, with several curved lines running across it from one shoulder
  to the other. The abdomen, on the upper part is beautifully encircled
  with five rings of rose colour, and six of black, extending to its sides,
  having on the top of it a line of a rusty brown, which runs from the base
  to the extremity. Anterior wings brown chesnut, marked with lighter and
  darker clouds, some of which are almost black; having a lighter spot near
  the middle, and not far from the anterior margin. Posterior wings at the
  base black, but along the external edges of a grey brown, the middle
  being occupied by three bars of red, ash, and faint rose colours,
  separated by three black waved lines crossing them from the anterior to
  the interior. Cilia brown spotted with white.

  _Under Side._ Breast and abdomen ash-coloured; along the latter are five
  dark spots (the middle ones the largest) placed at the bottom of the five
  segments near the breast. Anterior wings dark hazel, immaculate.
  Posterior wings of the same colour along the anterior and external
  margins; but next the shoulders and inner edges are of a grey ash colour;
  a dark coloured line begins near the anal angle, {50}where it is almost
  black, and runs across the wing, ending at the middle of the anterior
  edge; from whence to the middle it resembles a row of arches joined

The caterpillar of this insect, according to Abbot and Smith, is brown,
with four dorsal dark flesh-coloured lines, and a series of short lateral
oblique cream-coloured marks united together over the legs. It feeds upon
the sweet potatoe plant (Convolvulus Batatas, Linn.), and is sometimes
frequent though the moth is rare. The chrysalis is chesnut, with a long
curved tongue case, the extremity of which is recurved. It is often dug up
with the potatoes. In Virginia one of these insects buried itself October
3rd, and came forth in the perfect state on the 30th of May; whilst one
observed in Georgia went into the ground on the 20th of August, and came
out the 11th of September.

This species was considered by Drury and Smith as a climatal variety of the
Europæan Sphinx Convolvuli. Fabricius, however, considered it distinct, and
designated it by the specific name adopted above.




Plate XXVI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Zygænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. GLAUCOPIS, _Fabr._ Sphinx, _Linn. Drury_.

  GLAUCOPIS POLYMENA. Nigra, alis maculis luteis, anticis tribus, posticis
  duabus; abdomine cingulis coccineis. (Expans. Alar. fere 2 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Polymena, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 806. _No._ 40. _Cram. Ins.
  t._ 13. _f._ D.

  Zygæna Polymena, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 396. _No._ 34. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2394. 40. (Sphinx.)

  HABITAT: China.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black and pectinated, being smallest at their
  extremities; between them is a white round spot placed on the front of
  the head; above them, on the neck, is a round spot of bright scarlet.
  Thorax black. The first segment of the abdomen scarlet; the two next are
  black, verged on their lower edges with a beautiful sky blue colour;
  behind this the abdomen is of a fine vermilion, separated by two small
  black lines, the extremity being black. Anterior wings dark brown, having
  next the shoulders a small spot of shining blue, and three spots of a
  deep yellow; the two largest of which appear as if divided by the
  tendons, which are black and run across them. Posterior wings dark brown,
  with two deep yellow spots; the smaller one near the shoulders, the other
  near the middle.

  _Under Side._ Breast black, spotted with white at the base. The abdomen
  dark brown at the base, behind which is pale red tinged with white; the
  extremity dark brown. Anus pale red. The wings are the same colour as on
  the upper side.


Plate XXVI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Zygænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SYNTOMIS, _Fabr_. Sphinx, _Linn. Drury_.

  SYNTOMIS CERBERA. Viridi-atra, alis anticis punctis sex fenestratis,
  posticis duobus, abdomine cingulis duobus sanguineis (postico latissimo).

  SYN. Sphinx Cerbera, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 806. 38. _Cramer, tab._ 83.
  _fig_. F.

  Zygæna Cerbera, _Fabr. Ent. Syst_. III. 1. _p._ 391. _No._ 16.

  Sphinx Cerbera, _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2393. 38.

  Syntomis Cerbera, _Boisduv. Monogr. Zygæn. pl._ 7. _f._ 6.

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ and head black. Thorax and abdomen shining blueish
  green; the latter having on the middle three rings of scarlet extending
  from side to side, but not meeting underneath. Anterior wings dark green,
  with six transparent spots like glass on them; the smallest, near the
  base, is round; three others, placed next the external margin, are
  oblong; the other two, which are in the middle, are oval and triangular.
  Posterior wings dark green, with two transparent spots; the largest next
  the shoulders; the other, which is round and small, beyond the middle.

  _Under Side._ Breast, abdomen, and legs shining mazarine blue, inclining
  to green; on the former is a small red spot, close to the shoulders of
  the superior wings. The hinder legs have one joint white. Wings of the
  same colour as on the upper side.


Plate XXVI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. DEILEPHILA, _Ochsenheimer_. Spectrum p. _Scop._ Sphinx p. _Linn._

  DEILEPHILA CHIRON. Alis anticis castaneis, fasciâ obliquâ pallidâ
  utrinque fusco marginatâ, posticis nigris maculis quinque albidis.
  (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Chiron, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ and head chesnut; a flesh-coloured line encircles
  the eyes, running to the shoulders, where it becomes white. Thorax
  chesnut. Abdomen rather paler on the top; underneath very light clay
  colour. Anterior wings sorrel chesnut, having two faint oblique waved
  lines crossing them from the tips to the middle of the posterior edges,
  where is a small cloud the colour of blue clay, and next the shoulders is
  a small narrow cream-coloured mark. Posterior wings dark brown, with a
  row of yellow cream-coloured spots running from the anal angle towards
  the middle of the anterior margin.

  _Under Side._ Breast and abdomen very pale clay colour. Anterior wings at
  the base pale clay-coloured, towards the middle darker; from thence to
  the tips prettily clouded with orange and clay-coloured marks, divided by
  dark lines, and many small dark brown spots. Posterior wings along the
  interior margin clay-coloured, and along the extreme part of the anterior
  edges the same; the remainder of the wings dull orange, faintly shaded
  and spotted with brown marks and dots.


Plate XXVI. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia? FAMILY: Zygænidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. ZYGÆNA? _Fabr._ Anthrocera, _Scop._ Sphinx, _Drury_.

  ZYGÆNA? THETIS. Coerulea, thorace anticè rubro punctato, alis nigris,
  anticis apice, posticis disco, hyalinis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Thetis, _Linn. Mantiss_. 1. 539.

  Zygæna Thetis, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 391. _No._ 17. _Gmel. Linn. S.
  N._ 2393. 115. (Sphinx T.)

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ black. Head and thorax black. On the neck are two
  small scarlet spots just above the eyes, and one on each side below them.
  Abdomen silvery shining blue, having a triangular black mark at the base.
  Anterior wings dirty black, immaculate; tips whitish. Posterior wings
  dirty black, with a white discoidal transparent cloud.

  _Under Side._ Breast and sides dirty black. Abdomen white; its sides and
  tip dirty black. Wings of the same colour as on the upper side.


Plate XXVI. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sesiidæ, _Steph._

  GENUS. MACROGLOSSA, _Ochs._ Macroglossum, _Scop._ Sphinx, _Fabr. Drury_.

  MACROGLOSSA ZONATA. Alis nigricantibus, anticis punctis tribus
  subapicalibus, abdominisque fasciâ albis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Zonata, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: St. Christopher's.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ dark brown, hooked at the extremities; the under
  sides being paler. Thorax and abdomen dark greyish brown; the extremity
  of the latter broad and hairy, with a white transverse central fascia;
  between which and the extremity are three small lateral white spots.
  Anterior wings very dark brown, with three transparent minute spots
  beyond the middle; above which, near the anterior margin, is a single
  black one. Posterior wings dark brown, immaculate.

  _Under Side._ The middle of the abdomen at the base ash-coloured,
  extending about half way, narrowing gradually; the middle of each of the
  segments being the same. Posterior wings coloured as on the upper side;
  the posterior, along the interior margin to the shoulders, being




Plate XXVII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auct._

  SPHINX ALOPE. Alis dentatis fuscis, strigis dentatis nigris, posticis
  fulvis apice latè nigris; abdomine nigro cingulis interruptis pallidis.
  (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Alope, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Cramer_, 26. _tab._ 301. _fig._
  G. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 362. _No._ 20. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2375.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  {53}_Upper Side._ Antennæ red brown above, white underneath. Head and
  thorax dark brown; head and thorax with a black dorsal line. Abdomen
  encircled with rings of brown and dark ash colour, divided on the top by
  a dark ash-coloured line running from the thorax to the extremity.
  Posterior wings dark brown coloured, having some dark irregular lines,
  almost black, crossing them from the anterior to the posterior margin,
  and a row of small black angular marks running along their external
  margin; these wings are a little dentated. Posterior wings yellow, with a
  deep black border.

  _Under Side._ Abdomen dark ash-coloured. Anterior wings brown, spotted
  along their external edges with long yellowish spots. Posterior wings
  brown, with a deep border; the middle of the wings and abdominal edges
  being yellow; a narrow black indented line begins at the abdominal
  corners, and crossing the wings ends at the anterior margin below the

Fabricius, on the authority of Dr. Pflug, states that this insect frequents
the Carica Papaya. The larva is tailed, without hairs, the back cinereous
anteriorly, with a broad fascia of a brown colour, ocellated in the middle
and ending in a black spot. The chrysalis is brown, with red annuli and


Plate XXVII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. Sphinx, _Auct._

  SPHINX PINASTRI. Alis cinereis, anticis lineolis tribus confertis nigris;
  abdomine fusco, cingulis atris suprà albo marginatis et dorso
  interruptis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Pinastri, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 892. _No._ 22. _Sepp. Ins._
  3. 23. _t._ 5. _Roesel. Ins. Belust._ 1. _Phal._ 1. _t._ 6. _Donov. Engl.
  Ins._ ix. 10. _pl._ 296. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 367. _No._ 35. _Gmel.
  Linn. S. N._ 2385. 22. _Stephens Illust. Brit. Ent. Haust._ 1. 121.

  HABITAT: Germany (_Drury_). England, and other parts of Europe.

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ white on one side, and brown on the other. Head and
  thorax brown grey; the latter at the base being ash-coloured, having a
  black line running on each side. Abdomen brown grey, encircled with rings
  of a dirty black, divided on the top by a broad line of brown grey,
  through which runs a black line from the base to the extremity. Anterior
  wings brown grey, with three short black lines in the middle of each
  wing; at the tips rises another irregular narrow black line, running
  towards the middle of the wing, and chequered with white and black.
  Posterior wings brown grey, immaculate, being a little paler towards the
  shoulders; the wings are entire. Cilia alternately black and white.

  _Under Side._ The breast and abdomen are ash-coloured. All the wings
  brown grey, immaculate. Cilia spotted as above.

This insect is attached to the pine, and is consequently found in the great
forests in Germany, and other parts of Continental Europe. This accounts
for its scarcity in England, and for its having been occasionally found in
the pine forests of Scotland by Dr. Leach and Mr. Wilson. The larva is
described by Mr. Stephens as being entirely yellow in its first skin, in
the second green with yellow stripes, in the third deeper green, with three
longitudinal lemon-yellow lines on each side, and finally of a rich green
with a {54}brown dorsal line; the sides with two deep yellow ones; the
anterior and first segment of the body yellow, the latter spotted with
black; the horn, which was previously straight, becomes curved and black.
It feeds on various species of pine, as Pinus abies, sylvestris, Strobus,
&c. The chrysalis is dark brown, changing to maroon; the tongue-sheath is


Plate XXVII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. Sphinx, _Auct._

  SPHINX ELLO. Alis subdentatis cinereis; posticis rufis margine nigro;
  abdomine pallido cingulis (dorso interruptis) nigris. (Expans. Alar. 3
  unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Ello, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. _p._ 800. _No._ 13. _Cramer,
  tab._ 301. _fig._ D. _Merian Surin. t._ 61. _f._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._
  III. 1. 362. _No._ 21. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2375. 13.

  HABITAT: St. Christopher's (_Drury_). Surinam (_Mad. Merian_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ white on one side, and brown on the other. Head and
  thorax ash-coloured; the latter having some faint narrow dorsal and
  lateral black lines. Abdomen ash-coloured, encircled with black rings
  extending to its sides, divided on the top by an ash-coloured line.
  Anterior wings dentated and ash-coloured, having an irregular shade of
  black and dark brown running from the tips to the shoulders, and a few
  small black spots dispersed on different parts of the wings. Posterior
  wings red, with a black border. Cilia reddish white.

  _Under Side._ Breast, thighs, legs, and abdomen ash-coloured. Anterior
  wings, in the middle, ferruginous; but toward the external edges and the
  tips dirty red brown. Posterior wings next the shoulders and interior
  margin ash-coloured, but in the middle of a reddish colour; along the
  anterior margin they are of a brown grey, and along the external margin
  they are of a dirty red brown. These wings are a little dentated.




Plate XXVIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.


  SPHINX VITIS. Alis anticis olivaceo-fuscis, fasciâ, vittâ lineisque
  pallidis; posticis cinereis fasciâ nigrâ margineque roseo. (Expans. Alar.
  4 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Vitis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 801. _No._ 16. _Merian Surin.
  tab._ 47. _f._ 1. _Cram. Ins. tab._ 267. _fig._ C. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._
  III. 1. 369. _No._ 41. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2380. 16. _Abbot and Smith,
  Ins. Georgia,_ 1, _t._ 40.

  HABITAT: Antigua, Jamaica, St. Christopher's (_Drury_). "In vitæ
  Americes" (_Linn._). "Magnolia glauca" (_Fabr._). "Jussiæa erecta"
  (_Abbot and Smith_).

  _Upper Side._ Head and thorax dark flesh-coloured; on the latter, near
  the neck, is a long spot of olive brown, with another on each side.
  Abdomen dark flesh-coloured, having two olive brown streaks above,
  extending from the base to the extremity, being intersected by narrow
  flesh-coloured annuli or {55}rings. The ground of the anterior wings is a
  fine olive brown; a flesh-coloured bar begins at the tips, and running
  parallel with the anterior margin at the middle of the wing, divides into
  two branches, one continues to the shoulder margin, the other terminates
  at the middle of the posterior margin; on the upper part of the bar is
  placed a small flesh-coloured mark, discoidal, the middle being black;
  near the tips arises also from the upper side a second smaller branch,
  which runs to the anterior edge, which, with the external margin, has a
  narrow border of a rusty clay colour. Posterior wings with their external
  edges bordered with red; above which is a black bar, extending from the
  anterior edge to the anal angle, where it is much fainter; the inner
  margin also red, with a large black patch thereon. The upper parts of the
  wings are of a blueish ash colour. Nerves pale.

  _Under Side._ Breast, thighs, and abdomen dark flesh-coloured. The
  colours of all the wings on this side are faint, being principally of a
  clay colour; the inferior ones, next the abdominal edges, being tinged
  with red.

The caterpillar of this beautiful Sphinx is remarkable for having only a
slight protuberance at the extremity of the body in place of the erect
spine or tail, which is possessed by the majority of the caterpillars of
the Sphingidæ. It is of a pale yellowish colour, with numerous slender
transverse black lines, and white oblique lateral marks _directed towards
the head_. Its food is very various. One, observed by Abbot, went into the
ground on the 14th of August, and came out on the 7th of September; whilst
another which went in on the 29th of September, did not come out until the
18th of July following. The moth is rare; but may occasionally be seen
sucking the gourd blossoms in the evening. The chrysalis has a pointed
tail, but is destitute of a porrected tongue-case.


Plate XXVIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. THYREUS, _Swains. Zool. Illustr. vol._ 1.

  THYREUS LUGUBRIS. Alis brunneis, anticis strigis undatis parallelis
  punctoque subocellari atris. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Lugubris, _Linn. Mant._ 2. 537._Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1.
  356. _No._ 5. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2372. 50. _Abbot and Smith Ins. Georg._
  1. _t._ 30. _Swainson Zool. Illustr. 1st Series, vol._ 1.

  HABITAT: Antigua (_Drury_). Georgia (_Abbot_).

  _Upper Side._ Antennæ, head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. The tail
  very broad and hairy. All the wings dark brown chesnut; having very few
  distinct marks or lines, except the anterior pair, which have a small
  black discoidal spot, and a very narrow line next the shoulders of a
  lighter brown, crossing them from the anterior to the posterior edges.
  The posterior wings are slightly, the anterior deeply, dentated.

  _Under Side._ Thorax, legs, abdomen, upper and lower wings rather paler
  than on the upper side. On the anterior wings are two very faint brown
  lines, crossing them from the anterior to the posterior edges, situated
  between the middle and the external margin. On the posterior wings also
  are two small faint waved lines of a darker colour, beginning at the
  anterior edges and ending a little above the abdominal corners.

{56}The caterpillar of this hawk-moth was found by Abbot on the Virginian
Creeper. It went into the ground on the 18th of August, and the fly came
out on the 11th of September. The tail of the male spreads like a fan. This
is a very rare species; one was caught in the evening on a gourd blossom.
It flew exceedingly swift, making a noise like a humble bee. The
caterpillar is of a very pale greenish colour, with two dark dorsal lines,
terminating at the base of the straight tail; the sides of the body are
also ornamented with pale yellow oblique stripes, margined with brown. The
chrysalis is chesnut, with a short point at the extremity of the body, and
without any tongue-case.


Plate XXVIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. DEILEPHILA, _Ochs._ Eumorphæ p. _Hübn._ Sphinx p. _Fabr._

  DEILEPHILA TERSA. Alis anticis griseis, lineis nonnullis obliquis
  parallelis nigris; posticis nigris fasciâ maculari luteo-albâ. (Expans.
  Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Sphinx Tersa, _Linn. Mant. p._ 538. _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Cramer,
  tab._ 397. _fig._ C. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. _p._ 378. _No._ 69.
  _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2379. _No._ 71. _Abbot and Smith Ins. Georg._ 1.
  _tab._ 38.

  HABITAT: Maryland, Jamaica, St. Christopher, Antigua (_Drury_). South
  America (_Fabricius_). Georgia (_Abbot_).

  _Upper Side._ Head flesh-coloured; which colour, separating at the neck,
  runs on each side of the thorax to the abdomen. Thorax and abdomen dark
  clay colour. Abdomen pointed; the sides being of a yellower colour than
  the top. Anterior wings greyish olive brown; from the tips to the middle
  of the posterior margin run several narrow lines of lighter and darker
  colours, parallel with each other. Posterior wings, at the base, black;
  but along the external margin brown; having a row of narrow angular marks
  of a cream colour running from the anal angle to the anterior edges.
  Cilia white.

  _Under Side._ Thorax and abdomen clay-coloured; paler on the middle than
  the sides. Wings red clay-coloured; the anterior brown in the middle, and
  the posterior having some faint waved lines crossing them; each wing
  having a row of faint small spots along their external margin.

The caterpillar of this insect, figured by Abbot and Smith, is of a pale
green colour, with the three anterior segments elongated and attenuated in
front, having seven beautiful white eye-like spots on each side, with a red
pupil, and margined with black; the anterior ocellus being the largest.
These ocelli are united by a lateral white line, terminating at the base of
the straight red tail. It feeds upon the wild thyme (Spermacoce
Hyssopifolia, Sm.) Some of them are stated by Abbot to be brown. One was
observed by the same author to spin itself up on the 31st of July, from
which the moth appeared on the 15th of August; whilst another which spun up
on the 11th of September, remained in the chrysalis state until the 9th of
May. When disturbed, the caterpillar contracts the anterior segments of the
body.[22] The chrysalis is of a pale brown colour, freckled with darker
marks. It is not provided with a porrected tongue-case.


Plate XXVIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auct._

  SPHINX STRIGILES. Alis integerrimis griseis, margine externo anticarum
  obscuro; posticis fulvis strigis tribus transversis fuscis. (Expans.
  Alar. 5 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Sphinx Strigiles, _Linn. Mant. p._ 538. _Cramer, tab._ 106. _f._ B.
  _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 364. _No._ 26. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2377. _No._

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Upper Side._ Head, thorax, and abdomen fawn-coloured; having on each
  abdominal segment a semicircle of a paler colour. A brown red spot is
  placed on each side the thorax, near the base of the upper wings, which
  are fawn-coloured; having a round spot of olive brown on each near the
  shoulders, and another on the middle of the posterior margin, between
  which and the anterior angle is a patch of a blueish brown; from this
  angle to the tip runs a small narrow border of yellow brown, with several
  short, faint, brown circular marks placed on different parts of the wing.
  Posterior wings pale orange; having three brown, narrow, waved lines
  crossing them in the middle, and with a narrow brown border.

  _Under Side._ The mouth, thorax, thighs, abdomen, superior and inferior
  wings are all of a red clay colour. The border, along the external margin
  of the anterior wing, is of a much paler colour. Several reddish brown
  lines and marks are also placed on different parts of the wings.




Plate XXIX. fig. 1. [female].--fig. 2. [male].

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ. _Leach_.

  GENUS. SPHINX, _Auctorum_.

  SPHINX SATELLITA. Alis integris, fuscis badio griseoque variis, anticis
  puncto nigro ocellari sesquialtero maculâque triangulari ad angulum
  analem nigrâ; posticis basi griseis. (Expans. Alar. 4¼ unc. [male].--5½
  unc. [female].)

  SYN. Sphinx Satellita, _Linn. Mant. p._ 539. _Fab. Ent. Syst._ III. 1.
  370. _No._ 42. _Gmel. Linn. S. N._ 2301. 74.

  Sphinx Licaon, _Cramer_.?

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  FEMALE.--_Upper Side._ Head and thorax pale olive brown, with dark brown
  dorsal and lateral lines; the latter edged with white, extending to the
  abdomen, where two small white streaks run obliquely across it. Abdomen
  light olive brown, paler on its sides; with two rows of dark brown dorsal
  spots, reaching almost to the extremity. Anterior wings olive grey; but
  from the middle of the anterior margin runs a shade of olive brown,
  ending at the external margin, and continuing towards the tips. Two small
  black discoidal spots, and a large squarish spot on the middle of the
  posterior margin of a very dark red brown; from whence to the shoulders
  extends a shade of paler brown. Posterior wings, next the shoulders,
  grey, but at the anal angle reddish ash colour; from whence runs a row of
  small black spots, which lose themselves in a very dark, brown, olive
  colour, occupying a large part of the wings near the exterior angle.
  Cilia pale brown.

  _Under Side._ Thorax, thighs, and abdomen dark brown. Wings reddish
  brown, the posterior palest; and along the abdominal edges ash-coloured.
  There are very few marks of any sort observable on {58}this side, except
  a faint waved line which, crossing the superior and inferior wings, ends
  near the anal angle.

  MALE.--_Upper Side._ Head, thorax, abdomen, and anterior wings sandy
  yellow. The shades and clouds, which in the female are of olive brown, in
  this are of fine red brown; the two discoidal black spots being distinct.
  Posterior wings, next the shoulders, grey, as in the female; but along
  the external margin sandy yellow.

  _Under Side._ The breast, abdomen, thighs, superior and inferior wings
  are, as on the upper side, the same sandy yellow; the faint waved lines,
  crossing both superior and inferior wings, being rather more conspicuous
  than in the female.


Plate XXIX. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Lepidoptera. SECTION: Crepuscularia. FAMILY: Sphingidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. DEILEPHILA, _Ochs. Steph. &c._ Eumorphæ, _Hübn._ Sphinx, _Linn._

  DEILEPHILA EUPHORBIÆ. Alis anticis virescentibus vittâ latâ luridâ
  maculâque disci virescente, posticis nigris fasciâ margineque exteriori
  roseis, abdomine cingulis (interruptis) albis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 10
  lin. [male]. 3 unc. 1 lin. [female].)

  SYN. Sphinx Euphorbiæ, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 802. _Donov. Brit. Ins._ 3.
  _pl._ 91. 92. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ III. 1. 367. _No._ 37. _Gmel. Linn. S.
  N._ 2383. 19. _Haworth Lep. Brit._ 61.

  The Spotted Hawk Moth, _Harris Aurelian, pl._ 44. _f._ a. c.

  Deilephila Euphorbiæ, _Ochs. Schmett._ iv. _p._ 43. _Curtis Brit. Ent._
  1. _pl._ 4.

  HABITAT: Holland, Germany (_Drury_). England, and other parts of Europe.

  _Upper Side._ Head and thorax olive, having a white stripe on each side,
  which, beginning at the palpi and running across the shoulders, ends at
  the base of the abdomen; the olive colour extending along that part to
  its extremity. The first segment of the abdomen is black, the second
  cream colour, the remainder alternately cream colour and olive. The
  superior wings are of a flesh colour, having a narrow olive bar beginning
  at the tips, which, crossing them, ends at the posterior margin, widening
  gradually; an olive patch, the size of a small pea, is also placed on
  each next the shoulders, and another on the middle near the anterior
  edge. Cilia cream colour. The posterior wings black at the base; below
  which is a rose-coloured bar crossing them, next that is a narrow black
  indented bar, and beneath these the wing is flesh-coloured, with white

  _Under Side._ The breast rose-coloured. The abdomen flesh-coloured, with
  cream-coloured rings. Wings faint rose and flesh-coloured; the anterior
  having a black spot in each, near the middle, and not far from the
  anterior edge.

Since the days of Drury this handsome insect has been ascertained to be a
native of our island. It has, however, until lately been deemed one of the
rarest as well as most beautiful species in the rare family to which it
belongs. Entomologists are indebted not only for a considerable number of
specimens, but, what is more interesting, for a knowledge of the habits of
the insect to William Raddon, Esq. the celebrated engraver, by whom an
interesting notice has been published in the Entomological Magazine. It
feeds upon the sea {59}spurge (Euphorbia paralias), which grows in plenty
on the sand hills in the neighbourhood of Barnstaple and Braunton Burrows,
in Devonshire. These sand hills are of great extent, and, as suggested by
Mr. Curtis, must have been collected by the winds and storms to which they
are constantly exposed. During the winter the whole soil is frequently
removed, so as completely to alter the surface of the country; a great
number of the pupæ must consequently be destroyed or buried at a
considerable distance below the surface, where probably they lie hid until
they are brought to light and life by the influence of the elements. These
circumstances account for the great irregularity in the appearance of the
insects. In 1814, for instance, they were so plentiful that Mr. Raddon
found not less than one hundred minute larvæ upon an armful of spurge,
which he had cut at dusk the preceding evening. The rarity of the insect is
also increased by the difficulty of rearing it. The late Mr. Fuseli, the
royal academician, who was a zealous entomologist, was enabled only to
obtain one moth from twenty chrysalides. The larvæ are full grown in
September, and the moth appears in the following June.




Plate XXX. fig. 1. [male].--2. [female].

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. DYNASTES, _MacLeay_. Geotrupes, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus,
  _Latreille_, _Linnæus_, _&c._

  DYNASTES HERCULES. Thoracis [male] cornu incurvo longissimo subtus
  barbato utrinque unidentato, capitis recurvato dentato. (Long. Corp. 5
  unc. 9 lin. [male].)

  SYN. Scarabæus Hercules, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 541. 1. _Oliv. Ins._ 1. 3.
  _b._ 1. _tab._ 1. _f._ 1. _tab._ 23. _fig._ 1. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 1. _p._
  2. _No._ 1. _Naturalists' Library, Beetles, pl._ 11. _Edwards, Birds, t._
  334. _Gronov. Zooph._ 412. _Johnst. Ins. t._ 16. _f._ 1. _Petiv. Gaz. t._
  70. _f._ 1. _Roesel. Scar. tom._ iv. _t._ 5. _f._ 3. _Pal. Beauv. Ins.
  d'Afr. & d'Amer. Col. Pl._ 1. c. _f._ 1. _Marcgr. Braz._ 247. _fig._ 3.

  HABITAT: Gaudaloupe (_Drury_). South America.

  _Male._ Black, except the elytra, which are of an olive colour; having a
  number of black spots on them of different shapes and sizes, varying
  considerably in different individuals. Thorax, above, smooth, and
  shining, the sides covered with a multitude of small punctures. Its front
  is produced into a long shining horn, near three inches in length, which
  gradually bends downwards from the base to the extremity, where it is
  slightly forked; the under side being covered with short fine hairs of a
  yellowish colour, resembling the pile of velvet, and having about two
  inches from its extremity a strong short spine placed on each side. The
  head is furnished with another horn, about two-thirds the length of the
  first, sharp and thin on its upper side, and towards the end bending
  upwards; having on the upper edge, near the middle, three or four teeth
  or strong spines, and another near the extremity. Eyes shining, red
  brown. Tibiæ armed with spines, particularly the anterior pair, which
  have four; three near the tips, and one near the middle. The middle and
  hinder tibiæ have each two strong spurs, and several smaller spines,
  surrounded with hair on the other parts. The edge of the abdomen is
  covered with a row of dark orange-coloured hairs. Several other parts of
  the body, joints, &c. are also clothed with the same {60}coloured hairs.
  Each of the ungues has a little tuft of strong hairs issuing from the
  extremity of the terminal joint of the tarsi.

  _Female._ This sex is unfurnished with horns. The elytra are the same
  colour as in the male, not spotted so much, if at all, and more rugose.
  Thorax black, with a few yellowish spots, formed like stars or rays on
  it. In other respects it resembles the male.

Drury adds to this insect the following remark--"I have observed many
species of beetles whose males have been furnished with horns, either on
the head or thorax, but in which the females have none, but have those
parts quite smooth and plain; and my observations incline me strongly to
think that this rule subsists in every one of them, through the whole
class. The instances I could bring in support of this opinion are too many
to be admitted in this place."

The circumstance observed upon in the preceding note is certainly very
interesting in a physiological point of view. In quadrupeds we find both
sexes of cornuted species armed with horns; but in insects almost
universally the males alone are provided with these appendages. It is also
worthy of remark, that although in the majority of insects the females
considerably surpass the males in size, yet in those species in which the
males are cornuted, the females are almost invariably smaller than their

Burmeister lays it down as a rule, that with regard to the differences of
the sexes, their whole character may be thus distinguished; viz. that the
male displays a preponderance of evolution, and the female a preponderance
of involution; and observes, "that some beetles have processes upon the
head and thorax, which, like the mandibles, can meet, like tongs, and thus
serve as a weapon. This is asserted of Hercules and its large comrades."
This opinion as to the uses of these horns can, however, scarcely be
maintained, since the number of species in which the horns really meet is
very few. Kirby and Spence observe, "What may be the use of these
extraordinary appendages to the males, has not yet been ascertained.
Whether the individuals of this sex are more exposed to the attack of birds
and other enemies, in consequence of being more on the wing than the
females, and are therefore thus provided with numerous projecting points of
defence, is a question worth considering." It is also to be observed that
these appendages, instead of being deciduous, as in many of the higher
animals, are in insects component parts of the external skeleton.

There are a few exceptions to the observation of Drury; thus in the
Lamellicorn genus Hoplites Dej. Catal. (Scarabæus Pan,) the females are
cornuted as well as the males; and in the genus Osmia, belonging to the
section of wild bees, Dasygastres, Latr., the females alone have the head
furnished with two porrected horns.


Plate XXX. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Serricornes. FAMILY: Buprestidæ.

  GENUS. BUPRESTIS, _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Chalcophora, _Solier_.

  BUPRESTIS (CHALCOPHORA) VIRGINIENSIS. Thorace lato fusco, punctis
  cupreis; elytris serratis atris, maculis cupreis, saturâque metallicâ.
  (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

  SYN. Buprestis Virginiensis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Herbst. Col._ ix.
  _p._ 114. 63. _t._ 148. _f._ 1.

  Buprestis Virginica, _Linn. (Gmel.)_ 1. iv. _p._ 1940. _No._ 110. _Rossi
  (Hellw.) Fn. Etr._ 1. _p._ 211. _not._

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  Head small and broad. Antennæ about the length of the thorax, and small.
  Thorax broad and rugged, having the elevated parts of a dark coppery
  colour; but the depressed ones lighter, covered with very small
  punctures, and joining close to the wing-cases. Scutellum very small and
  triangular. Elytra of the same colour with the thorax; the dark parts in
  the figure being those that lie highest. They are margined on the sides
  and suture, extending even with the anus; which near their edges are
  slightly serrated. Under side shining and coppery, but on the sides with
  a tincture of flesh colour. Legs the same; with two tibial spurs.




Plate XXXI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. GOLIATHUS, _De Lamarck_. Cetonia, _Oliv._ Scarabæus, _Linn, &c._

  GOLIATHUS GIGANTEUS. Thorace piceo, nudo, holosericeo-albo lineato;
  elytris glaucis, clypeo porrecto bifido. (Long. Corp. 4 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Goliathus Giganteus, _Kirby in Introd. to Ent. vol._ 3. _p._ 33.
  _v._ 4. _p._ 493.

  Scarabæus Goliathus, _Linn. Mant._ 5. 30.

  Cetonia Goliata, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 1. 2. _p._ 124. 1.

  Cetonia Goliathus, _Olivier_, 1. _No._ 6. _pl._ 5. _f._ 33.

  Goliathus Magnus, _Naturalist's Library, Beetles, pl._ 16.

  Goliathus Africanus, _De Lamarck Anim. sans Vert_.

  HABITAT: Western Africa, near the Equinoctial line.

  Head, above, flesh-coloured; beneath, black; about three-fourths of an
  inch in length, terminating in two blunt, obtuse, and irregular horns.
  Two other thick and jagged horns also arise from its sides, much shorter
  than the former. Its breadth at the base is half an inch; having a small
  projecting ridge running along the middle, from thence to the extremity,
  at the base of the horns. Thorax an inch and a half long, being
  principally black; but along the sides is flesh-coloured. It has also
  five narrow and irregular waved lines of a flesh colour running from the
  anterior to the posterior edges; one of which, being in the middle of the
  thorax, is narrower than the rest; the two next this terminate at the
  posterior edges in a fine rose colour; these next the lateral edges are
  broadest, having likewise a patch of rose colour next the wing-cases.
  About the middle of the thorax, these external lines separate and divide,
  continuing so almost to the anterior edges, where they again unite. The
  under part of the thorax is flesh colour; but in the middle of a
  yellowish brown. The scutellum is triangular and black; with a clear
  white central oblong mark truncated in front. Elytra beautiful
  chocolate-coloured, and {62}covered with a great number of short fine
  hairs, resembling the pile on velvet; the anterior part, with a narrow
  and indented margin, of a cream colour, also surrounding the scutellum.
  The elytra are two inches broad at the base. Legs very dark green colour,
  almost black. Intermediate and posterior femora and tibiæ with dark
  yellow hairs. Abdomen very dark green, furnished on the sides and edge
  with dark yellow hairs. Sternum rather long.

This magnificent insect may be regarded as one of the rarest species
figured in these Illustrations. Drury states, that the specimen here
represented was brought from Africa by Mr. Ogilvie, surgeon of His
Majesty's ship the Renown, being found floating, dead, in the river Gaboon,
opposite Prince's Island, near the equinoctial line. Nearly seventy years
have elapsed since the insect was first described, and yet the insect
remains, as far as my knowledge extends, unique.[23] It would appear that
the specimen either belonged to or passed into the hands of Dr. Hunter
after the death of Mr. Drury, for Fabricius describes the species with a
citation of the museum of Dr. Hunter alone; and Olivier's figure was taken
from the specimen whilst it was in that gentleman's possession. After his
decease it passed, with his collection, by bequest, into the possession of
the University of Glasgow, where it now forms one of the most interesting
objects in the Hunterian Museum. Joseph Hooker, Esq., son of Sir W. Hooker,
the highly distinguished botanist of Glasgow, tells me that the individual
in question was picked up by a sailor in the river above mentioned, and
that it is stated in the MSS. of Dr. Hunter that it cost Mr. Drury £10. In
the Catalogue of the Insects of Mr. Drury, which were sold by auction at
the Natural History Sale Rooms in King Street, Covent Garden (now occupied
by Mr. J. C. Stevens), on the 23rd of May, 1805, and two following days,
the 95th lot is described as "Scarabæus Goliathus, _var._" Whence it would
appear that the insect here figured was not in the possession of Mr. Drury
at his decease, and that he only possessed the insect figured in the 3rd
volume of these Illustrations, pl. 40, which evidently on the authority of
Fabricius he had regarded as a variety only of the specimen here figured.

The genus Goliathus is exceedingly interesting, not only on account of the
gigantic size and singular form of the species of which it is composed, but
also from the geographical range of the group. Mr. Kirby observes upon this
subject, "Mr. W. S. MacLeay has remarked to me that Goliathus Lam. appears
to belt the globe, but not under one form. The types of the genus are the
vast African Goliaths (G. giganteus, &c.), which, as well as G. Polyphemus,
and another brought from Java by Dr. Horsfield, have, like Cetonia, the
scapulars interposed between the posterior angles of the prothorax and the
shoulders of the elytra, while the South American species (G. micans,[24]
&c.) have not this projection of the scapulars; in this resembling
Trichius; Mr. MacLeay further observes, that the {63}female of the Javanese
Goliathus is exactly a Cetonia, while that of the Brazilian is a
Trichius."--_Introd. to Entomology_, vol. 4. p. 494.

Since the publication of this passage, the genus Goliathus has undergone a
considerable revision; the South American species, Cetonia Ynca, _Fabr._
barbicornis, _MacLeay_, _&c._, have been separated from the genus by Saint
Fargeau and Serville in the Encyclopédie Méthodique, under the generic name
of Ynca, and the Javanese species above noticed (Gol. Rhinophyllus[25]
_Wiedemann_) is stated by Latreille in the Règne Animal, 2nd edition, not
to belong to the genus Goliathus, but to that of Cetonia. The genus is thus
restricted to the African species,[26] with the exception of a Mexican
insect which Dejean has named Goliathus Hoffneri. The genus Ynca may thus
be regarded rather as a geographical subgenus, or type of form belonging to
and representing the African species of Goliathus.




Plate XXXII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:

  GENUS. DIAPREPES, _Schonherr._ Chlorima, _Dej._ Curculio, _Linn. &c._

  DIAPREPES SPENGLERI. Niger, thorace albo-squamoso, elytris squamositate
  flava vestitis, saturâ, margine striisque tribus elevatis, nudis, nigris,
  notatis. (Long. Corp. 7 lin.)

  SYN. Curculio Spengleri, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 609. 32. _Fabr. Syst.
  Eleuth._ 2. 532. _No._ 149. _Oliv. Ent. V._ 83. 311. _No._ 345. _t._ 2.
  _f._ 15. _C. T._ 20. _f._ 254. _Herbst. Col._ 6. _t._ 68. _f._ 11. & _T._
  69. _f._ 1. _Schonh. Syn. Ins. Curcul._ 2. _p._ 8. _No._ 1.

  Curculio Aurifer, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head black, long, and rostrated; as long as the thorax, which is also
  black. They are both striped underneath with streaks of a shining,
  golden, green colour. Scutellum very small. Elytra dark brown, extending
  very low down the sides, and terminating in a point, double margined. The
  abdomen dark brown, and, with the wing-cases, adorned with many oblong
  spots or streaks, of a golden green colour. Femora simple, and dark
  brown. Tibiæ hairy, particularly within. Underside of the tarsi brown

  The golden spots, or streaks, on this insect vary very much; in some
  individuals being ash-coloured, some blue, and in others nearly white.
  The colour also of the wing-cases in some is almost black, in others of a
  red brown.


Plate XXXII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Scarabæidæ.

  GENUS. COPRIS, _Geoffroy_. Scarabæus, _Linn._

  COPRIS MOLOSSUS. Thorace retuso bidentato, utrinque impresso; clypeo
  lunato unicorni integro, elytris lævibus. (Long. Corp. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Molossus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 543. _No._ 8.
  _Fabricius Ent. Syst._ 1. p. 51. No. 167. _Olivier,_ 1. 3. _t._ 5. _f._
  37. [male]. _t._ 4. _fig._ 25. _De Geer. Ins._ 1. _t._ 32. _f._ 2.
  _Schonherr Syn. Ins. p._ 43.

  HABITAT: China.

  Entirely black. Head broad and thin, rounded in front and margined;
  having a strong erect horn, near half an inch long. Thorax margined, and
  much elevated, terminating upwards in an high ridge, whose sides are
  furnished with two short horns, varying very much in their length (the
  females being entirely hornless); it is also, as well as the head,
  regularly covered with innumerable small pustules, which are scarce
  visible to the naked eye. Scutellum obsolete. Elytra margined, short, and
  almost smooth. Femora broad, hairy, and strong. Tibiæ with strong spurs.
  Ungues very small, scarcely visible.


Plate XXXII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ.

  GENUS. PHILEURUS, _Latreille_. Geotrupes, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn._

  PHILEURUS DIDYMUS. Depressus, thorace fossulâ excavatâ, capite
  tricuspide, elytris striatis. (Long. Corp. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Didymus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 545. _No._ 19.
  _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 1. _p._ 20. _No._ 61. _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 3. _p._ 42.
  _No._ 46. _t._ 2. _fig._ 9. _Schonherr Syn. Inst._ 1. _p._ 19. _No._ 85.
  _Pal. Beauv. Ins. Col. pl._ 16. _f._ 3.

  HABITAT: (----? _Drury_). America (_Fabricius_).

  Head, black, small, and triangular, having three tubercles issuing from
  it, of which the anterior is pointed, the others blunt. Thorax black,
  which is the general colour of the insect, rounded, smooth, and margined,
  having an impression in front, with a short tubercle situated on it near
  the edge; from whence runs a hollow groove or channel to the posterior
  margin. Scutellum small. Elytra shining, margined and furrowed. Abdomen
  smooth and shining, without hair. Tibiæ furnished with spines, as are the
  first joints of the middle and posterior tarsi.


Plate XXXII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:

  GENUS. BRACHYCERUS, _Fabr._ Curculio, _Linn. &c._

  BRACHYCERUS GLOBOSUS. Ovatus niger, rostro varioloso, subcarinato, medio
  bifoviolato, basi bi-tuberculato, thorace utrinque spinoso, quinque
  sulcato, postice truncato, elytris lævibus. (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Curculio Globosus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 2.
  413. _No._ 6. _Oliv. Ent. V._ 82. _p._ 47. _No._ 6. _t._ 2. _f._ 10.
  _Schonh. Syn. Ins. Curcul._ 1. 392. _No._ 9.

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  {65}Head black, long, and rough above. Antennæ short, gradually
  increasing in size from the base. Thorax black, and very rough; each side
  terminating in a thick spine or tubercle. Elytra black, smooth, and
  round, and reaching so far down the sides of the abdomen as almost to
  meet underneath, being rather longer than the head and thorax. Femora and
  tibiæ partly black, and partly of a dirty orange; being covered in
  several parts with a kind of pile of the colour last mentioned. Scutellum
  obsolete. Each of the ungues furnished with a spine.


Plate XXXII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:

  GENUS. HIPPORHINUS, _Schonh._ Bronchus, _Germar._ Curculio, _Linn. &c._

  HIPPORHINUS VERRUCOSUS. Elongato-ovatus niger, æneo-micans, rostro quasi
  abscisso, quinque sulcato, thorace confertim tuberculato, elytris
  seriato-tuberculatis apice singulatim verrucâ crassâ auctis. (Long. Corp.
  1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Curculio Verrucosus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 12. _p._ 618. _No._ 90.
  _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 534. _No._ 161. _Herbst. Col._ 6. 308. _t._ 84.
  _fig._ 6. _Schonh. Syn. Ins. Curcul._ 1. 481. 27.

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  General colour brassy black. Head long, and furnished with a thick
  rostrum, whereon are placed the antennæ. Thorax rounded, and regularly
  covered with small pustules. Head and thorax almost the length of the
  elytra, which are long, brassy, and covered with several rows of
  tubercles; some being small and round, others larger and oblong; they
  extend very deeply down the sides of the abdomen, and at their
  extremities terminate in two swellings. Scutellum obsolete. Femora
  simple. Posterior tibiæ very crooked.


Plate XXXII. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr. &c._ Cerambyx p. _Linn. &c._ SUBGENUS. Sternotomis,

  LAMIA (STERNOTOMIS) PULCHRA. Nigra, thorace transversé fulvo trifasciato,
  elytris fulvo maculatis et variegatis, maculis interdum viridi-cinctis.
  (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Pulcher. _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (nec C. pulcher Fabr. qui ad
  C. mirabilem _Drurii_ pertinet.)

  Lamia blanda, _Schonh. Syn. Ins._ 3. 373.

  Lamia ornata, _Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Col. Pl._ 37. _f._ 1.

  Lamia regalis, _Fabr.? Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 286.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head orange colour, encircled with black stripes. Antennæ black, being a
  little longer than the insect. Thorax orange-coloured, encircled with
  black rings; having a single spine on each side. Elytra with
  orange-coloured clouds and spots on them, separated by black partitions,
  some being margined with green. Abdomen orange-coloured, the middle being
  of a dirty green. Femora simple, dark green. Tibiæ the same.



CETONIA AURATA, var. [Greek: g].

Plate XXXIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. CETONIA, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus, _Linn._

  CETONIA AURATA. Segmento abdominis primo lateribus unidentato, elytris
  lineolis transversis albis. (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Pallidus, _Drury, App. v._ 2. _Herbst. Col._ III. _p._
  247. 35. _tab._ 31. _fig._ 2.

  Cetonia Aurata, _Duftschm. Fn. Aust._ 1. _p._ 166. 3. _Schonh. Syn. Ins._
  III. _p._ 119. _No._ 37. [Greek: g].

  HABITAT: Smyrna (_Drury_).

  General colour above, rusty copper; beneath, shining purple. Thorax
  smooth, margined, and narrow in front. Elytra margined, and near their
  extremities a little protuberant. On the first joint of the abdomen are
  two scales lying close under the hinder thighs, which are thin and sharp
  on their edges, but next the body are thick and strong.[27] The breast is
  a little hairy. Tibiæ dentated and hairy, except the fore ones. Each of
  the tibiæ with two spurs.


Plate XXXIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. CETONIA, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus, _Linn._

  CETONIA FASCICULARIS. Thorace lineis quatuor albis, elytris viridibus,
  abdominis incisuris barbatis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Fascicularis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 557. 75.

  Cetonia F. _Fabricius Syst. Eleuth._ 2. _p._ 144. 45. _Olivier Ent._ 1.
  6. _p._ 16. 12. _t._ 11. _f._ 108. _Schonh. Syn. Ins._ 3. 126. 67.
  _Petiv. Gazoph. t._ 8. _f._ 6. _Roesel. vol._ 2. _tab._ B. _f._ 6.

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  Head black, small, and quadrangular. Antennæ black. Thorax black, smooth,
  and shining; with a white margin on its sides, and two white lines
  running from the neck to the posterior edge, being placed nearly at equal
  distances. Scutellum triangular, black, and shining. Elytra dark green.
  Each joint of the abdomen is covered with tufts of orange-coloured hairs
  on its sides. Femora and tibiæ, particularly the fore ones, hairy. The
  middle of the breast and abdomen is black and shining. Anterior tibiæ
  with four spines and teeth; the middle ones with six, and the hind ones
  with five.


Plate XXXIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. CETONIA, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus, _Linn._

  CETONIA CAPENSIS. Rufa hirta, punctis albis adspersa. (Long. Corp. 10

  SYN. Scarabæus Capensis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 556. 73. _Fabr.
  Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 144. 48. _Olivier Ent._ 16. _p._ 27. 28. _t._ 6.
  38. n b. _Herbst. Col._ III. _tab._ 29. _f._ 12. _Schonh. Syn. Ins._ III.
  127. 71.

  Scarabæus albo punctatus, _De Geer Ins._ vii. _p._ 640. 40. _t._ 48. _f._

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  Head margined, black, and nearly quadrangular. Antennæ black. Thorax
  margined, and of a dark chocolate colour; which, with the elytra and
  scutellum, are hairy, and embellished with a great number of white spots.
  The latter is black and shining. Elytra fine chocolate-coloured, and
  faintly margined (the suture being black), not covering the anus. The
  under part of the insect is covered with pale clay-coloured hairs; but on
  the fore femora, and next the head, the hairs are browner.


Plate XXXIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. CETONIA, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus, _Linn._

  CETONIA FASTUOSA. Ænea nitidissima, immaculata. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Cetonia Fastuosa, _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 137. 10. _Panzer
  Faun. Ins. Germ._ xii. 16.

  Cetonia Aurata var. _Olivier Icon._ 6. _tab._ 1. 1. _f._ 1. _f._

  Scarabæus æruginosus, _Drury, p._ 72. (Exclus. _Syn. Linn._)

  HABITAT: Smyrna (_Drury_). South of Europe (_Fabricius_).

  Entirely shining golden green-coloured, except the antennæ, which are
  blackish. Head margined, small, and quadrangular. Thorax smooth and
  margined. Scutellum triangular. The elytra margined, having two little
  swellings near the extremities, and not extending beyond the anus. The
  breast and abdomen are smooth. Mesosternum extending beyond the middle
  thighs. Tibiæ armed with spines at the tips, and the fore ones deeply


Plate XXXIII. fig. 5. 6.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. GYMNETIS, _MacLeay_. (_Horæ Ent._ 1. _p._ 1. _p._ 152.) Scarabæus,

  GYMNETIS NITIDA. Glabra viridis, thoracis et elytrorum marginibus
  testaceis, tibiis haud dentatis, capite spinâ recumbente. (Long. Corp.
  fere 10 lin.)

  SYN. Gymnetis Nitida, _MacLeay Horæ Ent._

  Cetonia Nitida, _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 139. 24. _Olivier Ent._ 1.
  6. _p._ 18. 14. _t._ 3. _f._ 16. & _tab._ 7. _f._ 56. a, b, c.

  Scarabæus N. _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 552. _No._ 51. _De Geer,
  vol._ 14. _t._ 19. _f._ 8, 9.

  HABITAT: Antigua, St. Christopher's, Jamaica, Maryland, New York,
  Virginia, &c. (_Drury_).

  {68}Head green, small, quadrangular, and margined. On the front is a
  tubercle, like a short thick horn; in the middle is another lying flat.
  Thorax margined, and of a dark green colour, but round the sides of a
  dirty clay colour. Elytra faintly margined; in some specimens being of a
  dark green, with a dark orange border on the sides; in others almost
  entirely of a dark orange, and in others party-coloured. Thorax
  terminating between the wing-cases, like an obtuse angle; but a
  microscope discovers something like a scutellum. Breast and abdomen
  shining green, and not hairy. The femora and tibiæ clay-coloured; but
  when held in particular positions, seem of a shining green. Posterior
  trochanters distinct.


Plate XXXIII. fig. 7.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Rutelidæ.

  GENUS. MACRASPIS, _MacLeay_. Cetonia, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn._

  MACRASPIS TETRADACTYLA. Atra, scutello elytris dimidio breviore, pedibus
  triunguiculatis, pollice fixo. (Long. Corp. circ. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Tetradactylus, _Linn. Mant._ 530. _Sloane Jamaica, t._
  237. _f._ 2.

  Cetonia T. _Fabr. Syst. El._ II. _p._ 151. 80. _Olivier Enc._ 1. 6. _p._
  74. 93. _t._ 2. _f._ 8. & _t._ 7. _f._ 53.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Entirely deep shining black. Front of the head margined, from whence
  underneath appear two lips. Thorax margined. Elytra not margined, nor
  covering the anus. Scutellum remarkably large and long, reaching half way
  down the wing-cases. Posterior trochanters distinct. Sternum long. Tibiæ
  dentated, and armed with spines, particularly at the tips; tarsal joints
  also furnished with spines. Ungues composed of two principal hooks, which
  divide and separate as usual; but one has an immoveable lesser hook
  within it, and likewise a long spine fixed to the last tarsal joint of
  equal length with the hooks, as shewn in the figure near the insect.


Plate XXXIII. fig. 8.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. GYMNETIS, _MacLeay_. Scarabæus, _Linn._ Cetonia, _Fabr._

  GYMNETIS LANIUS. Livida, thorace punctis duobus, elytris maculis plurimis
  nigris, sterno antice cornuto. (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Lanius, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 557. _No._ 77?

  Cetonia L. _Fabricius Syst. El._ II. _p._ 141. 34. _Olivier Ent._ 16.
  _p._ 19. 15. _t._ 2. _f._ 4. _Sloane Jamaica_, II. _tab._ 237. _f._ 7. 8?

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head quadrangular, with a black margin. Antennæ brown. General colour
  dirty clay. Thorax faintly margined, terminating between the wing-cases
  in a blunt angle, having four black spots on the top near the head.
  Elytra with a great number of black spots of different shapes sprinkled
  all over them. Scutellum concealed. Femora hairy. Tibiæ the same, except
  the fore ones; all of which are party-coloured, being at the base clay
  colour, and at the tips black. The tarsi and ungues black. Posterior
  trochanters large and strong. Sternum long, and inclined from the body.




Plate XXXIV. fig. 1. [male].--2. [female].

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ.

  GENUS: DYNASTES, _MacLeay_. Geotrupes, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus, _Linn.

  DYNASTES SATYRUS. Thorace inermi antice truncato; capitis cornu recurvo
  capite longiori [male]; clypeo tuberculato, thorace plano. (Long. Corp. 1
  unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Geotrupes Satyrus, _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 1. 15. _No._ 49.

  Scarabæus S. _Fabr. Spec. Ins._ 1. 12. _No._ 42. _Olivier Ent._ 13. _p._
  39. _t._ 11. _f._ 94. a. b.

  Scarabæus Jamaicensis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Jablonsky, Nat. S._ II.
  _p._ 83. _No._ 68. _t._ 9. _fig._ 8. 9. (nec Scar. Jamaicensis, _Fabr.

  HABITAT: New York.

  _Male._ Head black, and furnished with a single horn terminating in a
  point, and bending backwards, having in front two small protuberances;
  hairy beneath. Thorax black, shining and margined; the upper part
  elevated, and appearing almost perpendicular. Elytra margined and
  furrowed; also black, as is the anus. Abdomen reddish brown, with dark
  yellow hairs. Thighs brown, almost black; broad, strong, and hairy.
  Anterior tibiæ deeply dentated with a strong spine at the tips, and
  hairy. Middle tibiæ strong, and very spinose; particularly at the tips,
  where there are two long ones on each, which are likewise very hairy.
  Ungues very small. Scutellum triangular and small.

  _Female._ Resembles the male in every part but the thorax and head; the
  former being quite smooth and convex without any prominence, and the
  latter, in the room of a horn, has a small protuberance, just discernible
  by the naked eye.


Plate XXXIV. fig. 3. [male].--4. [female].

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ.

  GENUS. DYNASTES, _MacLeay_. Geotrupes, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus, _Linn.

  DYNASTES ANTÆUS. Thorace tricorni; cornu intermedio longiori simplici,
  capite mutico, elytris lævissimis. (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Antæus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 1. _p._
  12. _No._ 31. _Olivier Ent._ 1. 3. 24. _No._ 23. _t._ 12. _f._ 105. &
  _t._ 13. _f._ 124. a. b.

  Geotrupes A. _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 1. _p._ 12. _No._ 36. _Pal. Beauv.
  Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Col. Pl._ 1. _fig._ 5. 6.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Male._ Head black, with two small protuberances like teeth in front.
  Thorax black, smooth, shining, and margined; having three horns on it,
  each of which is about a third of an inch in length; two of which are
  placed near the elytra, almost erect, inclining towards each other, but
  with their points inclining to the wings; the third arises from the front
  of the thorax, bending backwards in a curved direction. Elytra brown,
  very smooth, shining, and margined. Scutellum triangular. Abdomen red,
  brown, and hairy. Tibiæ the same colour, and hairy, all of them being
  armed with spines, principally about the tips.

  _Female._ Resembles the male in every respect except the horns, which are
  wanting in that sex.


Plate XXXIV. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Rutelidæ.

  GENUS. PELIDNOTA, _MacLeay_. Scarabæus, _Linn._

  PELIDNOTA PUNCTATA. Testacea, elytrorum singulo punctis tribus fuscis
  distantibus. (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Punctatus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 557. 76.

  Melolontha P. _Fabricius Syst. El._ II. _p._ 166. 28. _Olivier Ent._ 1.
  5. _p._ 22. _t._ 1. _f._ 6. a. b. _Herbst. Col._ III. _p._ 69. 16. _t._
  23. _f._ 6.

  HABITAT: New York, Virginia, Maryland, Antigua.

  Head brown orange; but round the eyes (which are black) and next the
  thorax of a shining brassy green. Thorax and elytra brown orange, and
  faintly margined; the former with two small black spots, and the latter
  with three on each side, one close to the thorax, another near the corner
  of the wing-cases, and the third in the middle. Scutellum shining bright
  green. Abdomen and legs greenish black. Tibiæ spinose and denticulated,
  especially at the tips; the three middle articulations of the tarsi are
  also furnished with spines.


Plate XXXIV. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Coleoptera SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Melolonthidæ.

  GENUS. AREODA, _Leach_, _MacLeay_. Melolontha, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn._

  AREODA LANIGERA. Capite thoraceque aureis, elytris luteis, corpore subtus
  lanato. (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Lanigerus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 555. 67.

  Melolontha L. _Fabr. Syst. El._ II. _p._ 165. 26. _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 5. _p._
  21. 17. _t._ 4. _f._ 39. a. b. _Herbst. Col._ III. _p._ 152. 109. _t._
  26. _f._ 8.

  Areoda L. _MacLeay Horæ Ent._ 1. _part_ 1. _p._ 158.

  HABITAT: New York, and other parts of North America.

  Head brownish yellow, being divided in the middle by a transverse suture,
  the front or fore part being margined, and very plain or even; posterior
  part shining green or pearl colour, according to the various directions
  in which it is held. Thorax and scutellum of a changeable brown yellow
  colour. Between the thorax and the elytra is a row of pale yellow or
  white hairs. Elytra lemon-coloured, surrounded by a very small, narrow,
  black margin, and minutely punctured. Abdomen shining green black,
  covered with a multitude of grey hairs. Legs red brown. Anterior tibiæ
  broad and thin; being black on the outside, where they are armed with
  three strong spines or teeth. Intermediate and posterior tibiæ with two
  spurs. Ungues remarkably bent and long.


Plate XXXIV. fig. 7. [male].-8. [female].

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ.

  GENUS. ORYCTES, _Illiger_. Geotrupes, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn._

  ORYCTES NASICORNIS. Thorace prominentiâ triplici, capitis cornu recurvo,
  elytris lævibus. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Nasicornis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 11. _p._ 544. _No._ 15.
  _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 3. _p._ 37. _No._ 41. _t._ 3. _f._ 19. _a-d_. _Panzer
  Faun. Ins. G._ 28. _No._ 2. [male]. _Roesel Ins._ 11. I. _p._ 41-65. _n._
  5. _t._ 7. _f._ 8. [male]. _f._ 10. [female]. & _t._ 6, 8 & 9. Larva,
  Pupa, &c. _Stephens Illustr. Brit. Ent. Mandibulata_, 3. _p._ 216.

  HABITAT: Holland, and other parts of Europe.

  _Male._ Head black, with a horn terminating in a point, and bending
  backwards. Eyes red brown. Thorax brown, almost black, margined and
  prominent, terminating upwards in three pointed tubercles. Scutellum
  black, and nearly triangular. Elytra red brown, smooth, shining, slightly
  margined. The abdomen, legs, and all the under parts of a red brown, and
  hairy. Tibiæ spined.

  _Female._ Resembles the male in every thing but the head and thorax;
  having on the former, instead of the horn, a small tubercle, and on the
  latter a small impression in the place of the pointed knobs.

This insect has been introduced into the list of British species on the
authority of the late Mr. Haworth, who recorded the fact of a living
specimen having been taken by a bricklayer amongst old timber, on pulling
down the roof of a building at Chelsea, (Entom. Trans, vol. i. p. 76.) Mr.
Stephens, however, (loc. supra citat.) thinks it very doubtful whether the
species be really indigenous, as it appears highly probable that the
specimen above alluded to, may have been imported amongst some of the
Continental plants which abound in the above vicinity, the insect occurring
very copiously in rotten bark, the refuse of conservatories, and putrid
wood in various parts of the Continent.




Plate XXXV. fig. 1.

  ORDER. Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Scarabæidæ.

  GENUS. ONITIS, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn._

  ONITIS SULCATUS. Ater, capitis tuberculo unico, elytris striatis, thorace
  anticè lineà irregulari dorsali impresso. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Sulcatus, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2.

  Onitis Nicanor, _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 1. _p._ 29. _Tabl. Col._ 2. _t._
  15. _f._ 8.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head broad and thin, hairy underneath; terminating in a short straight
  horn, inclining backwards, with a small tubercle on each side. Eyes
  almost surrounded by the thin sides of the head, being placed so as to
  see both above and below it. Thorax margined, with several protuberances
  on its front; and on the top with a strong indented line running from the
  front to the suture of the elytra, where likewise {72}its margin is
  interrupted by two smaller impressions, forming an appearance like a
  square escutcheon. Elytra as long as the thorax, margined, and deeply
  furrowed, scarcely reaching to the anus. General colour above black or
  raven grey, but not shining. Thighs very strong, black, and broad.
  Anterior tibiæ strong, with three teeth and a spine. Tarsi and ungues
  very small. Middle and hinder tibiæ small at the base, but broad and
  thick with strong spines at the tips. Scutellum obsolete.


Plate XXXV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Scarabæidæ.

  GENUS. COPRIS, _Geoffroy_. Scarabæus, _Linn._

  COPRIS CAROLINA. Thorace retuso binodi, capitis cornu erecto brevissimo,
  clypeo integro, elytris sulcatis. (Long. Corp. circ. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Carolinus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 11. 545. _No._ 16. _Fabr.
  Syst. Eleuth._ 1. _p._ 43. _No._ 60. (Copris C.) _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 3. _p._
  134. _No._ 160. _t._ 12. _f._ 113. _De Geer Ins._ 4. _p._ 310. _t._ 18.
  _f._ 13. _Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Amer. et d'Afr. Col. pl._ 3. a. _f._ 7.

  HABITAT: Maryland, New York.

  Head broad and thin, not hairy underneath. Near the front is a thick
  tubercle (not rising to an horn, as in Fig. I.) projecting forward, being
  in some specimens (probably females) very small. Thorax margined, lying
  very high above the head, having protuberances in front, which in some
  are very faint, and with a small impression on each side near the margin
  on the lower part. Elytra longer than the thorax, margined and furrowed,
  (but not so deeply as in Fig. I.), and reaching to the anus. General
  colour deep black, and shining like pitch, both on the upper and under
  sides. Thighs very strong, not hairy. The anterior tibiæ strong, with
  four teeth, and a strong spine to each. The tarsi and ungues very small.
  The other tibiæ are like those in the preceding figure. Scutellum


Plate XXXV. fig. 3. 4. [male].--5. [female].

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Scarabæidæ.

  GENUS. PHANÆUS, _MacLeay_. Copris, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn._

  PHANÆUS CARNIFEX. Thorace mutico angulato postice igneo-cupreo, capitis
  cornu longo reflexo, corpore æneo. (Long. Corp. {8}-{10½} lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Carnifex, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 11. _p._ 546. _No._ 22.
  _Fab. Syst. Eleuth._ 1. 48. 84. _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 3. _p._ 135. _No._ 161.
  _t._ 6. _f._ 46. a. b. _t._ 10. _f._ 86. var. [female]. _Brown Jamaica_,
  428. _t._ 43. _f._ 5. _Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Col. pl._ 3. a.
  _f._ 8. 9. _MacLeay Horæ Entomol. vol._ 1. Phanæus C.

  Scarabæus Pillularius Americanus, _Catesby Carolina_, 3. _p._ 11. _tab._

  HABITAT: New York, Maryland, Virginia, Carolina, &c.

  There is no doubt that all these figures belong to one species; though
  differing, not only in size, but structure. Antennæ light red brown. Head
  thin, rounded, margined, and of a green golden colour; some (which are
  evidently males) being furnished with a smooth, round, black horn, almost
  as long as the thorax, and inclining backwards; others have only a small
  tubercle in the place of the horn; and others have a small horn, about
  one-fourth the length of the first mentioned, as in Fig. IV. Thorax
  {73}next the head golden green; behind and on the upper part is golden
  red, and margined, rough and shagreened. In the horned specimens this
  part terminates on each side the posterior margin in a projecting angle,
  which is more or less conspicuous, in proportion as the horn is long or
  short. Those which are quite hornless, as Fig. V., are entirely destitute
  of these angulated risings, having the thorax rounded, but in its front a
  small black protuberance or swelling is seen. Elytra golden green,
  inclining to a blue, and very much channelled, with small striæ placed
  between others of larger size, extending almost even with the anus.
  Abdomen black, the sides shining green. Anterior femora and tibiæ black
  and hairy; the latter very strong and dentated, having a long moveable
  spine fixed on the inner edge of each, extending somewhat beyond the
  tarsi, which are very short and small. Intermediate and posterior thighs
  shining golden green, broad and strong. Tibiæ black, with two spines (one
  very long) at the tips. Tarsi five-jointed, ungues single, and not
  divided as most insects have them. Scutellum obsolete.


Plate XXXV. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Scarabæidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. COPRIS, _Geoffroy_. Scarabæus, _Drury_.

  COPRIS MINUTUS. Niger, capitis cornu parvo erecto, thorace anticè elevato
  et tuberculato, elytris striatis. (Long. Corp. 4½ lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Minutus. _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Copris Lævis. _Schonh. Syn._ 1. 54. 126. (Nec Lævis, _Drury, tab._ 35.
  _f._ 7. sec. cit. _Sch._)

  HABITAT: New York.

  Entirely black. Head broad and black, extending on each side beyond the
  eyes, having a small horn on it projecting forwards. Thorax margined,
  high and prominent, with some small protuberances on its front. Scutellum
  obsolete. Elytra furrowed, longer than the thorax, and margined;
  extending beyond the anus. Femora strong and round. Tibiæ small at the
  base, thickened towards the tips, and armed with spines.


Plate XXXV. fig. 7.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Scarabæidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. COPROBIUS, _Latr._ Ateuchus, _Fabr._ Scarabæus p. _Linn._

  COPROBIUS LÆVIS. Niger opacus lævis, clypeo emarginato, thorace postice
  rotundato, elytrorum lateribus humeralibus haud incisis. (Long. Corp. 9

  SYN. Scarabæus Lævis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (1773.) _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 3.
  _p._ 160. _No._ 197. _t._ 10. _f._ 89.

  Scarabæus Volvens, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 1. _p._ 66. _No._ 221. _Syst.
  Eleuth._ 1. _p._ 60. _No._ 26. (Ateuchus v.) (Exclus. syn. Scar.
  pilularius, _Linn._) _Schon. Syn. Ins._ 1. 1. _p._ 62.

  HABITAT: New York, Maryland.

  Entirely black, shining like pitch on the under side. Head broad,
  flattish, and smooth. Thorax margined, smooth, and convex. Scutellum
  obsolete. Elytra margined, smooth, not reaching to the anus, and rather
  longer than the thorax. Anterior tibiæ having three teeth on their outer
  sides, above {74}which are several very minute ones. Intermediate and
  posterior thighs and tibiæ smaller than are usually observed among those
  lamellicorn beetles which have no scutellum.

The advantages resulting from the modern method of investigation adopted in
Natural History in general, and especially in Entomology, are no where more
conspicuous than in the case of the present species of dung-rolling beetles
or _pillularii_, as they were aptly termed by Pliny and other old writers;
the present species inhabiting North America, having been long confounded
with an inhabitant of Southern Europe, which indeed possesses a similarity
in general appearance and habits, but belongs to a distinct genus. Linnæus
applied the term pilularius specifically to the species inhabiting Italy
and Spain; referring, however, to Catesby's Carolina, pl. 11., so that it
is evident that this writer had never seen the North American insect.
Schonher however remarks, "scarabæus pillularius Linn. pertinet ad At.
volvens Fabr;"[28] whilst Fabricius, although quoting Drury and De Geer
(who both figure the North American species) has increased the confusion by
giving Southern Europe as its habitat. Under these circumstances I have
done our author the justice to revert to his specific name; his being
certainly the earliest systematic specific reference to the American
species, which may be distinguished from the European one by the following

  GENUS. Coprobius, _Latreille_.

  (Elytra entire at the sides; intermediate tibiæ with two spurs.)

  Coprobius lævis, _Drury_. (Scarab.) volvens, _Fabr._

  HABITAT. North America.

  GENUS. Gymnopleurus, _Illiger_.

  (Elytra with a deep lateral notch near the shoulders; intermediate tibiæ
  with one spur.)

  Gymnopleurus pilularius, _Linn._ (Scarab.) _Fabr. Oliv._

  HABITAT. Southern Europe.


Plate XXXV. fig. 8.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Scarabæidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. ONITIS, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn. Drury_.

  ONITIS SPINIPES. Exscutellatus niger opacus, capite subcornuto, pedibus
  intermediis dilatatis et incisis. (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Spinipes, _Drury_, _App. vol._ 2. (1773).

  Scarabæus Sphinx, _Fabr. Ent. Syst. p._ 25. _No._ 98. (1775.) _Syst.
  Eleuth._ 1. _p._ 29. 9. (Onitis Sp.) _Schonh. Syn. Ins._ 1. _p._ 31. 10.

  HABITAT: China.

  Entirely black. Head margined and rough, having two small protuberances
  entirely surrounding the eyes. Palpi rather long. Thorax convex, smooth,
  and margined, being as long as the elytra, and having on each side near
  the lateral margin a small impression. On the posterior margin next the
  suture are two more impressions, and a longer one between them. Scutellum
  obsolete. Elytra furrowed, {75}and extending to the anus, having a double
  margin on the sides. Anterior tibiæ as long as the thorax, and remarkable
  for not having any tarsi, but being bent inwards at their extremities and
  dentated on their outer sides. Middle femora very broad and flat. Tibiæ
  short, very narrow, and small at their base, but broad at the tips.
  Hinder thighs and tibiæ not so broad as the middle ones. Tarsi




Plate XXXVI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. DYNASTES, _MacLeay_. Geotrupes, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn. Latr._

  DYNASTES CENTAURUS. Thoracis cornu incurvo basi dentato apice bifido,
  capitis recurvato unidentato. (Long. Corp. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Centaurus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 1. _p._ 4. _No._ 5. _Syst.
  Eleuth._ 1. _p._ 4. _No._ 5. _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 3. _p._ 14. _n._ 9. _t._ 11.
  _f._ 104. _Jablonsk. Nat. Syst._ 1. 223. _No._ 4. _t._ 2. _f._ 1. _Schon.
  Syn. Ins._ 1. _p._ 4. _No._ 10.

  Scarab. Gideon, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (Exclus. Syn. _Linn._)

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone (_Drury_). "In India Orientali, Africa"

  Head and thorax black; the latter terminating in a horn near an inch and
  a half long, standing almost erect, but bending forward and diminishing
  towards the end, which is forked, having a strong spine on each side of
  the front near the base. The head is furnished with another horn that
  inclines backwards towards the other, and at the extremity is curled and
  pointed, having a square knob placed on each side near the curl. Elytra
  dark brown, almost black, smooth and shining. Tibiæ armed with spines and

Drury states that this insect was brought from Sierra Leone, and that it
lives in the mangrove trees; many specimens having been taken from thence.


Plate XXXVI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Cetoniidæ.

  GENUS. TRICHIUS, _Fabricius_. Cetonia p. _Oliv._ Scarabæus, p. _Linn._

  TRICHIUS FASCIATUS. Niger, flavo-rufo-tomentosus, elytris atris fasciis
  duabus luteis internè confluentibus. (Long. Corp. 7-8 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Fasciatus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ II. _p._ 556. _Fabricius
  Ent. Syst._ 1. 119. _Donovan Brit. Ins._ 4. _pl._ 140. _Steph. Illustr.
  Brit. Ent. Mandibulata_, 3. _p._ 230.

  Trichius Succinctus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ II. _p._ 132 (variety).

  HABITAT: Germany, France, England.

  Head and thorax black, but thickly covered with yellow hairs. The
  scutellum black and triangular. Elytra tawny yellow, not reaching to the
  anus; having a black margin, and three large black spots situated on the
  lateral margin. Abdomen and breast black, and covered with hairs of a
  very light or pale yellow. Femora and tibiæ black and hairy.

{76}The insect here figured is regarded by most authors as a variety only
of the Trichius fasciatus. Fabricius, however, considered it as a distinct
species, which he named Trichius succinctus. Dessau also, in the Bulletin
des Sciences Naturelles (February 1829), has published some observations,
in order to prove the specific distinctness of this and two other species
with which it is generally regarded as identical. Its habits are different
from those of the other Trichii; being generally found upon flowers, a
peculiarity, with which its hirsute body and bee-like appearance apparently
offer some indicatorial connexions. It is extremely rare in this country.


Plate XXXVI. fig. 3. [male].--4. [female].

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. DYNASTES, _MacLeay_. Geotrupes, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn. Drury_.

  DYNASTES TITANUS. Thorace tricorni, intermedio longiori apice bifido,
  lateralibus subarcuatis acutis, capite mutico. (Long. Corp. cum corn.
  thorac. 1 unc. 7½ lin.)

  SYN. Scarab. Titanus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 1. _p._ 13. _No._ 36. _Syst.
  El._ 1. _p._ 13. _No._ 39. _Jablonsk. Nat. Syst._ 1. _p._ 282. _t._ 6.
  _f._ 2. [male]. _Olivier_, 1. 3. _t._ 5. _f._ 38.

  Scarabæus Simson, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (Exclus. Syn. _Linn._)

  Scarabæus major niger tricornis, _Sloane Jamaica, vol._ 2. _t._ 237. _f._
  4. 5.

  The Great Brown Sawyer, _Brown's Jamaica, p._ 428. _t._ 43. _f._ 6.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  _Male._ Head black. Antennæ dark brown. Thorax black, smooth, and
  shining, and armed with three horns; two of which, being about one-third
  of an inch in length, are placed on the upper part on each side, lying
  almost parallel with the body. Beneath these, near the head, rises
  another from the middle of the thorax, which is a little longer than the
  two first, bending upwards, and forked at the extremity. Elytra rather
  rough and furrowed, but shining and black. Tibiæ armed with spines,
  especially at the extremity, which facilitate the animal in its passage.
  Abdomen black; anus with a row of light brown hairs.

  _Female._ Differs from the male chiefly in the thorax, which is entirely
  unarmed. Black and shining, but rather less so than the males; and in the
  front, just above the head, is a small impression. All the under parts of
  the insect which in the males are black, in this sex are of a dark
  reddish brown. In other circumstances it resembles the male.


Plate XXXVI. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Dynastidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. DYNASTES, _MacLeay_. Geotrupes, _Fabr._ Scarabæus, _Linn. Drury_.

  DYNASTES GIDEON. Thoracis cornu incurvo maximo apice bifido, capitis
  recurvato bifido supra unidentato. (Long. Corp. cum corn. 2 unc. 4½ lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Gideon, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 541. _No._ 2.
  _Swammerdam Book of Nature, t._ 30. _f._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 1. _p._
  4. _No._ 3. _Olivier Ent._ 1. 3. _p._ 14. _t._ 11. _f._ 102.

  Scarabæus Oromedon, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Eleuth._ 1. _p._
  4. _No._ 4. (Var. præcedentis.)

  HABITAT: East India.

  {77}General colour dark brown, almost black. Thorax smooth and shining,
  as if polished, and terminating in a strong thick horn, which inclines
  forward in a curved position, and is forked at the end. From the head
  also springs another strong horn, forked at the extremity, which in
  length corresponds with the first; its outer side being broad and round,
  but its inner side, or that opposite the other horn, is thin and sharp,
  having a small swelling in the middle. Elytra smooth and shining, with a
  narrow margin. Anterior tibiæ with four teeth; two being at the tip, and
  two a little above them. The other tibiæ are furnished with several sharp
  spines (five or six), chiefly about the tips; which, as noticed in D.
  Titanus, assist the animal in its passage. Anus not hairy, as in many
  other species.


Plate XXXVI. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Rutelidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. CYCLOCEPHALA, _Latreille_. Chalepus, _MacLeay_. Scarabæus,

  CYCLOCEPHALA SIGNATA. Glabra, pallidè lutea, thorace lineis duabus,
  elytris maculis tribus, duabus aut nullis. (Long. Corp. 7-8 lin.)

  SYN. Melolontha Signata. _Fabricius Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 169. _No._
  51. _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 5. _t._ 4. _f._ 33. & 36. _Herbst. Col._ III. _p._
  79. _f._ 2. 32.

  Scarabæus Amazonus? _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Sloane Hist. Jamaica_, 11.
  _p._ 206. 8. _t._ 237. _f._ 38. (Exclus. Syn. _Linn._)

  HABITAT: Antigua, New York, Virginia, St. Christopher's.

  Entirely dark dirty straw-coloured. Thorax margined, with two oblong
  black spots on it. Scutellum triangular. Elytra margined, with two small
  faint brown spots on each. Abdomen and legs hairy, the former extending
  beyond the ends of the elytra. Anterior tibiæ spinose; the internal spur
  being remarkably long.


Plate XXXVI. fig. 7.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. FAMILY: Scarabæidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. COPROBIUS, _Latr._ Scarabæus, _Linn._ _Drury_. Ateuchus, _Fabr._

  COPROBIUS TRIANGULARIS. Niger; clypeo bidentato, thoracis margine fulvo
  obtusè angulato, femoribus posticis brunueis. (Long. Corp. fere 6 lin.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Triangularis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._
  30. _No._ 122. _Syst. Eleuth._ 1. _p._ 63. _No._ 42. _Oliv. Ent._ 1. 3.
  _p._ 166. _t._ 15. _f._ 139.

  HABITAT: Surinam.

  Head dirty green. Thorax very convex and broad, dark yellow all round the
  edge, but black in the middle, and of a coppery hue. Elytra black and
  margined. Abdomen yellow. Anus black. Thighs yellow. Tibiæ and tarsi
  black. Scutellum obsolete.


Plate XXXVI. fig. 8.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Lamellicornes. Family: Scarabæidæ, _MacLeay_.

  GENUS. ONTHOPHAGUS, _Latreille_. Copris, _Fabricius_. Scarabæus, _Drury_.

  ONTHOPHAGUS SERRATIPES. Niger, capite lato, abdomine subæneo, elytris
  striatis luteo marginatis. (Long. Corp. lin. 5.)

  SYN. Scarabæus Serratipes, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: China.

  Head and thorax black; the former very broad. Antennæ are black. Abdomen
  dark green, almost black. Scutellum obsolete. Elytra rather longer than
  the thorax, furrowed and black, slightly margined; just above which, all
  round their external edges, they are of a dirty clay colour. Anus the




Plate XXXVII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Prionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PRIONUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx, _Linn._ SUBGENUS: Orthosoma, _Serv._

  PRIONUS (ORTHOSOMA) PENSYLVANICUS. Obscurus, thorace marginato
  tridentato, pectore abdomineque ferrugineis, antennis brevibus. (Long.
  Corp. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Pensylvanicus, _De Geer Mem._ 5. _p._ 99. _t._ 13. _f._ 13.

  Cerambyx unicolor, _Drury. App. vol._ 2.

  Cerambyx brunneus, _Forster Cent. Ins. p._ 37. _Linn. Syst. N._ (_Gmel._)
  1. iv. 1828.

  Cerambyx cylindroides, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ (_Ed. Gmel._) 1. iv. 1818.

  Prionus cylindricus, _Fabr. Sp. Ins._ 1. _p._ 207. 14. _Syst. Eleuth._
  II. _p._ 261. _Oliv. Ent._ iv. 66. _p._ 23. _t._ 1. _f._ 6. _Latr. Gen.
  Cr._ III. _p._ 33. _Serv. Ann. Soc. Ent. France_, 1. 156. (Orthosoma c.)

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head dark chesnut-coloured. Antennæ about two-thirds of the length of the
  insect. Thorax somewhat darker, rounded, and margined; having three small
  spines on each side. Scutellum semi-oval. Elytra light chesnut, margined,
  and flattish; being about three times the length of the thorax and head,
  and broad at their extremities. Abdomen, thighs, and tibiæ red chesnut,
  shining as if polished.


Plate XXXVII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Prionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PRIONUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx, _Linn._ SUBGENUS: Derobrachus, _Serv._

  PRIONUS (DEROBRACHUS) LATICOLLIS. Niger latus, thorace marginato
  transverso, tridentato, atro nitido; antennis brevibus. (Long. Corp. 1
  unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Laticollis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Prionus brevicornis, _Fabricius Syst. Eleuth._ 2. _p._ 260. 15. _Sch.
  Syn. Ins._ 3. 339. _Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Col. Pl._ 34. _f._

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head black. Antennæ 12-jointed, about half the length of the insect.
  Thorax black, broad, short, and shining; thick in the middle, but on the
  sides thin and jagged. Scutellum bell-shaped. Elytra {79}rough, black,
  and margined on the sides and suture; extending in one of the sexes
  beyond the anus. Abdomen and under parts black and shining. Tibiæ with
  two short spurs. Tarsi beneath of a dirty clay colour.


Plate XXXVII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. STENOCORUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn._ SUBGENUS: Eburia,

  STENOCORUS (EBURIA) 4-MACULATUS. Pallidè luteus, thorace spinoso scabro,
  elytris bidentatis maculis binis glabris albidis. (Long. Corp. fere 1

  SYN. Cer. 4-maculatus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 11. _p._ 626. 27? _Fabricius
  Syst. El._ II. _p._ 308. 16. _Syst. Ent. p._ 180. 11. _Trans. Ent. Soc._
  1. _p._ 83. _Oliv. Ent._ iv. 67. _p._ 45. 58. _t._ 21. _f._ 164. _Sloan.
  Hist. Jamaica_, 1. _p._ 209. 20. & 11. _tab._ 237. _f._ 21. _Serville
  Ann. Soc. de Franc._ 3. _p._ 9. (Eburia q.)

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head pale clay-coloured. Antennæ (being the length of the insect) of a
  redder colour, and at their bases almost surrounded by the eyes. Thorax
  of the same colour as the head, very cylindrical; having a sharp spine on
  each side, and two short black ones on the top. Scutellum small, and
  semi-oval. Elytra pale clay-coloured, having on each two spines at the
  tip of each, the inner one being the smaller; and having also four oblong
  yellow spots, two placed at the middle and two at the base. Each of these
  spots appears to be composed of a large and a small one joined close
  together; the largest (in the upper spots) being the inner one, and in
  the lower spots being the outer one. Abdomen and legs of the same colour
  as the head, &c.; the four posterior femora with two small spines at the


Plate XXXVII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. CLYTUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx, _Linnæus_.

  CLYTUS LONGIPES. Obscurè rufescens; thorace cylindrico, elytris pallidè
  sericeis, lunulis quatuor fuscis apiceque dentato. (Long. Corp. fere 1

  SYN. Cerambyx longipes, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Sch. Syn. Ins._ 3. 409.

  Cerambyx lunulatus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ (_Gmel._) 1. iv. _p._ 1864.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  General colour dark red brown. Antennæ about half the length of the
  insect. Thorax cylindrical, and covered with a fine short down or hair;
  having on each side a small tubercle or swelling, without any spine.
  Scutellum small, and semi-oval. Elytra party-coloured; the lighter parts
  (as seen in the plate) being covered with the same kind of short hair as
  the thorax; with four spines at their extremities, the two inner ones
  being the smallest. Abdomen with three yellow spots on each side, and
  another at the anus. The body has likewise a large one on each side, and
  another near the breast, joining to the middle legs. Four hind legs long.
  Femora rough, with two short spines at the tips. Tibiæ with two spurs.


Plate XXXVII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. STENOCORUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Chlorida,

  STENOCORUS (CHLORIDA) FESTIVUS. Thorace utrinque bidentato, elytris
  bidentatis viridibus lineâ laterali luteâ. (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Festivus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 11. _p._ 623. 11.
  _Fabricius Syst. Ent. p._ 179. 4. _Syst. Eleuth._ 11. _p._ 305. 3.
  _Herbst. Arch. p._ 92. _t._ 25. _f._ 12. _Serville Ann. Soc. Ent. de
  Franc._ 3. 32. (Chlorida f.)

  Cerambyx Sulcatus, _Oliv. Ent._ iv. _p._ 67. _p._ 28. 32. _t._ 16. _f._

  Cerambyx Spinipes, _De Geer Ins._ v. _t._ 13. _f._ 14.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head clay-coloured. Antennæ about two-thirds the length of the insect,
  very dark brown; first articulation clay-coloured. Thorax also
  clay-coloured; having two spines on each side of it, one larger than the
  other. Scutellum small, and nearly triangular. Elytra margined at the
  sides and suture, each with two spines at the extremities, the inner ones
  being the smallest; green, and deeply furrowed or grooved, having a
  yellow line running along their lateral margins. Legs, abdomen, and all
  the under side clay-coloured. Tibiæ armed with two spines at the tips.


Plate XXXVII. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. STENOCORUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Cerasphorus,

  STENOCORUS (CERASPHORUS) BALTEATUS. Thorace cylindrico 1-spinoso; elytris
  bidentatis griseis maculâ oblongâ obliquâ. (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc.)

  SYN. Cerambyx balteatus, _De Geer Ins._ v. _p._ III. _t._ 14. _f._ 3.

  Stenochorus garganicus, _Fabricius Syst. Ent. p._ 178. 3. _Syst. Eleuth._
  II. _p._ 305. 2. _Oliv. Ent._ iv. 67. _t._ 15. _f._ 105. _Pal. Beauv.
  Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Col. pl._ 37. _f._ 3.

  Cerambyx cinctus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Virginia, New York, Maryland, Antigua.

  General colour greyish hazle. Antennæ longer than the insect. Thorax
  cylindrical, with a single short spine on each side. Scutellum
  triangular, and of a yellowish colour. Elytra margined; having an oblong
  spot, of a faint yellowish colour, running transversely cross each, near
  the thorax, with two small spines of equal size at the tip of each. It is
  covered all over with short hair, or down.




Plate XXXVIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Prionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PRIONUS, _Geoffroy_. Cerambyx p. _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Stenodontes,

  PRIONUS (STENODONTES) DAMICORNIS. Thorace marginato denticulato,
  mandibulis porrectis bidentatis, elytris  brunneis. (Long. Corp. mandib.
  inclus. 3 unc. 7½ lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Damicornis, _Linn. Mant._ 1. _p._ 532. _Fabricius Syst.
  Ent. p._ 162. 10. _Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 262. 23. (Prionus d.) _De Geer
  Ins._ v. _p._ 97. 2.

  Lucanus fuscus maximus, _Browne Nat. Hist. Jamaica, p._ 429. _t._ 44.
  _f._ 8. _Sloane Jamaica, vol._ 2. _tab._ 37. _fig._ 6.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). America (_Fabricius_).

  {81}Head dark brown, almost black, broad, large and rough on the top;
  mandibles triangular and sharp pointed, bending or inclining towards each
  other; somewhat longer than the head, and a little hairy within; having a
  tooth or spine on the inner edge, near the point, and another near the
  base. Thorax of the same colour as the head; very rough and uneven at
  top, being margined on the anterior and posterior edges; the sides being
  thin and serrated. Antennæ, rather shorter than the insect, and placed
  before the eyes. Scutellum triangular. Elytra brown and margined, not
  reaching to the anus. Abdomen and legs dark red brown. The tibiæ with
  three small spurs.

The larva of this beetle is a great fleshy grub, which lives in the stumps
of tree. It is eaten by many persons, by whom it is considered a great
dainty. The perfect insect is called by the natives the macokko beetle. The
following observations, published by Mr. Drury in the introduction to his
third volume, will be read with interest from the spirit of practical
utility in which they are written.

"The larvæ or caterpillars, not only of this but of all the beetles that
feed on decayed wood, seem to be rich and delicate eating, particularly
those of the Curculio palmarum (vid. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 606. 1.), and in
general all those of the Cerambyces. So that every forest in the torrid
zone affords a man plenty of very wholesome and hearty nourishment, who has
an instrument strong enough to cut in pieces the decayed trees. This
knowledge might have saved the lives perhaps of many seamen who have been
shipwrecked on desert equinoctial shores, which are generally covered with
thick woods. Mr. Smeathman has met with many maritime people, who, by
living on a scanty allowance of unripe fruits, crude roots, coarse seeds,
nuts, and other trash, after a shipwreck, or in other cases of distress so
frequent with people in the African trade, have made themselves exceeding
sick, and much increased their hardships, which by means of these
caterpillars only, might have been greatly alleviated. The very best kind
of vegetable food is but poor nourishment for the labouring Europeans, if
not accompanied with animal flesh, or at least with animal or vegetable
oils; and such foods as seamen in distress meet with, as above mentioned,
have oftentimes very acrimonious qualities, and are dangerous even in small
quantities to those who eat them at intervals, either out of mere curiosity
or to gratify their appetites; while these kinds of insect foods, abounding
with a very rich and delicious oil, are consequently the most wholesome and
nutritious which men in the situation above described could possibly
procure, requiring no other preparation than roasting in any manner. (See
Philosophical Transactions.) To this kind of food may be added that of the
termites and locusts in general among the insect tribes, which are not only
wholesome to all, but palatable to many. At any rate they are sufficient to
support life; and the knowledge of such a resource universally extended,
might in many instances be the means of saving the lives of adventurers to
distant climes. Besides these means of subsistence, if the botanists could
point out a plain and obvious method for men in general to distinguish the
noxious roots and herbs from those which are edible, men thrown on any
thing but mere rocks and sandbanks would readily find subsistence, the kind
hand of nature being extended all over the {82}surface of our globe to
every one who will accept the friendly invitation, and use the means she
has with such a motherly tenderness offered for our benefit and support.

"Mr. Smeathman has assured me, that in clearing the ground in Africa he has
found great quantities of roots of the yam and potatoe kind (Convolvulus
Batatas), that grew spontaneously, and which the slaves from distant
interior regions knew exceedingly well, and sought for with great avidity.
He lived near two years in Africa before he found that the most excellent
greens for boiling grew wild in every open glade of the island, and even
close to his very door. I mention these things because they are all within
the power of men in the most naked, unarmed, and unprepared situation, and
require neither fire-arms or other powerful apparatus to obtain them; and
shew that in these cases, as well as many others, the study of natural
history is of no small importance to mankind, since it may not only promote
trade, arts, and sciences, but be conducive to the immediate happiness and
safety of men's lives."


Plate XXXVIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Prionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PRIONUS, _Geoffroy_. Cerambyx p. _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Mallodon,

  PRIONUS (MALLODON) MELANOPUS. Thorace marginato denticulato, mandibulis
  porrectis multidentatis, elytris ad apicem mucronatis. (Long. Corp.
  mandib. inclus. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Melanopus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 623. 8.
  _Fabricius Sp. Ins._ 1. _p._ 208. 20. _Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 264. 34.
  _Oliv. Ent._ iv. 66. _p._ 18. _t._ 12. _f._ 46. _Merian Ins. Surinam, t._
  24. _f._ 1.

  Cerambyx crenulatus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica (_Drury_). "In America Meridionali" (_Fabr._).

  Head short and black. Mandibles short. Antennæ dark brown, almost black;
  shorter than the insect. The thorax broad, rough and black, margined on
  the posterior and anterior edges; having many small sharp spines on its
  sides, the two last of which are larger than the rest, and having two
  tubercles on the upper side. Elytra dark brown, almost black, margined on
  the sides and suture, with a small spine on each, at the extremities, and
  extending a little beyond the anus. Abdomen smooth and shining, and of a
  dark brown colour, nearly black. Sides of the breast hairy. Legs dark
  brown, almost black, smooth and shining, with three small tibial spurs.


Plate XXXVIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Prionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PRIONUS, _Geoffroy_. Cerambyx p. _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Mallodon,

  PRIONUS (MALLODON) MAXILLOSUS. Thorace marginato crenato, mandibulis
  porrectis intus hirsutis quadridentatis, elytris ad apicem mucronatis.
  (Long. Corp. fere 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Maxillosus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabricius Syst. Ent. p._
  163. 151. _Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 264. 31. (Prionus m.) _Oliv. Ent._ iv.
  66. _p._ 16. _t._ 1. _f._ 3.

  HABITAT: Barbuda, near Antigua, "where it was found dead at the foot of a
  tree." (_Drury_). America (_Fabr._).

  {83}Head black, broad, and very rough above, with two strong, thick,
  black triangular mandibles, nearly as long as the thorax; having the
  inner margin very hairy, and armed with teeth; sharp pointed at the tips,
  with their points bending towards each other. Antennæ about half the
  length of the insect; close underneath which on each side is a strong
  spine. Thorax black, as broad as the elytra; very rough on the sides, but
  shining in the middle, the surface being very uneven; the anterior angle
  projecting beyond the edge. Scutellum semi-oval. Elytra dark red brown,
  shining, and margined deeply on the edges, but faintly along the suture;
  having a very short and small spine at the extremities, and extending a
  little beyond the anus. Abdomen red brown, smooth and shining. Legs red
  brown, and smooth, being furnished with three very small tibial spurs.




Plate XXXIX. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. CERAMBYX, _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Hamaticherus, _Zeigl._ Cerambyx, SERV.

  CERAMBYX (HAMATICHERUS) HEROS. Thorace spinoso rugoso, niger, elytris
  subspinosis piceis, antennis longis. (Long. Corp. 2 unc.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Heros, _Fabr. Mant._ 1. _p._ 132. _Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._
  270. 21. _Oliv. Ent._ iv. 67. _p._ 12. _t. f._ 1. _Panzer F. I. G._ 82.
  _pl._ 1.

  Cerambyx cerdo (var. major), _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 629. 39.
  _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Italy, Smyrna, Scandaroon, Sicily, Gibraltar (_Drury_). Central
  and Southern Europe.

  Head dirty black. Antennæ black, much longer than the body. Thorax very
  rough, round, black and shining, having a spine on each side; the
  fore-part, next the head, appearing as if surrounded by a groove.
  Scutellum small and triangular. Elytra black and margined, dark brown at
  the extremities, and narrow, covering the anus; having a small spine on
  each, and being very rough, and shagreened. Abdomen and legs black. Tibiæ
  clothed with short brown hair, and terminated by two spines; under side
  of the tarsi cushioned.


Plate XXXIX. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. TRACHYDERES, _Dalm._ (_in Sch. Syn._ III. _p._ 364.) Cerambyx p.

  TRACHYDERES SUCCINCTUS. Thorace bispinoso rugoso, elytris fasciâ flavâ,
  antennis longioribus compressis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Cerambyx succinctus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 627. 32. _Fabr.
  Syst. Ent. p._ 168. 16. _Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 274. 20. _Oliv. Ent._
  iv. 67. _p._ 20. _t._ 7. _f._ 43. a. b. _De Geer Ins._ v. _t._ 14. _f._

  Cerambyx Zonarius, _Voet. Col. Ed. Panz._ III. _p._ 20. _t._ 7. _f._ 17.

  Quici, _Macgr. Brazil, Lib._ vii. _p._ 25. 4. _Jonston Hist. Nat. Ins.
  t._ 14.

  HABITAT: Surinam (_Drury_). "In America meridionali" (_Fabr._).

  Head dark brown, or dirty black, and very rough. Antennæ longer than the
  insect, with the two basal joints blueish black; the rest red brown, the
  extremity of each joint being blueish black. Thorax dark brown, shining,
  and very rough, with large swelling in the middle; having two short thick
  tubercles {84}on each side. Scutellum large and long. Elytra dark brown,
  margined and shining, rather broad at their extremities, and spineless;
  having a narrow transverse yellow bar in the middle. Abdomen dark brown.
  Femora dark brown at the base, black at the tips. Tibiæ and tarsi red
  brown; the latter cushioned beneath with yellow pile.


Plate XXXIX. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn. Drury_.

  LAMIA CAPENSIS. Thorace bispinoso; nigra, elytris fasciis quatuor rufis,
  antennis mediocribus. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 4½ lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Capensis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 628. 36.
  _Fabricius Syst. Ent. p._ 173. 14. _Syst. Eleuth._ II. 296. 78. _Oliv.
  Ent._ iv. 67. _p._ 121. _t._ 8. _f._ 51. a. b.

  HABITAT: Cape of Good Hope.

  Head black; face vertical. Antennæ black, and about the length of the
  insect. Thorax black and rugged, with two obtuse spines on each side.
  Scutellum small, black and triangular. Elytra black, rounded and margined
  at the sides and suture, extending beyond the anus; being rough next the
  thorax, with a multitude of small round pustules. Each elytron has four
  red bars crossing it, placed at equal distances, and inclining toward
  each other; the two first, next the thorax, almost joining at the suture;
  the two last separated by a small space. In some specimens there are five
  of these bars. Abdomen and breast black; the latter having between the
  middle and hinder feet, two oblong red spots. Legs black. Tarsi cushioned
  beneath and lighter coloured.


Plate XXXIX. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. Cerambyx, _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Callichroma, _Latr._

  CERAMBYX (CALLICHROMA) AFER. Thorace rotundato spinoso, corpore viridi,
  suturâ elytrorum aureâ, antennis pedibusque rufis. (Long. Corp. 10½ lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx afer, _Linn. Mant. p._ 532. _Fabr. Syst. Ent._ 166. 9.
  _Ent. Syst._ 1. II. _p._ 252. 4. _Syst. Eleuth._ II. _p._ 268. 7. (_C.
  ater_, lapsu calami.) _Sch. Syn._ III. _App. p._ 150.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone and Calabar.

  Head golden green. Mouth and palpi dirty orange. Eyes black. Antennæ
  longer than the insect, orange brown. Thorax round, golden green, with
  many small lines or waves crossing it; and having on each side an obtuse
  spine. Scutellum small and triangular, golden green. Elytra margined,
  extending beyond the anus; and, next the thorax, of a golden green, but
  becoming less brilliant towards their extremities, where they are
  spineless, having a yellow narrow line running on each side the suture.
  Breast and abdomen golden green. Legs dark orange.




Plate XL. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. CERAMBYX, _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Callichroma, _Latr. Serv._

  CERAMBYX (CALLICHROMA) VIRENS. Thorace rotundato spinoso, corpore viridi,
  femoribus rufis, antennis pedibusque nigris. (Long Corp. fere 2 unc.)

  SYN. _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. _p._ 627. 33. _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._ 166. 8.
  _Syst. Eleuth._ 2. _p._ 267. 3. _Oliv. Ins._ 4. 67. _t._ _II._ _f._ 78.
  _t._ 18. _f._ 138? _Browne Nat. Hist. Jamaica, p._ 430. _t._ 43. _f._ 8.
  _Sloane Hist. Jamaica_, 1. 1. _p._ 208. _t._ 237. _f._ 39. 40.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head green and shining. Palpi orange brown. Eyes black. Antennæ black,
  and twice the length of the body; the last joint very long. Thorax green
  and round, the upper part transversely rugose, and armed on each side
  with a spine, before which is a small tubercle. Elytra green, and
  margined; tapering gradually towards their extremities, where they are
  narrow and pointed; being covered with an infinite number of very small
  pustules. Abdomen and breast covered with small short hairs, and
  appearing of a grayish green colour. Thighs dark red, black at the tips.
  Tibiæ black, and compressed. Tarsi black beneath, cushioned, and


Plate XL. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Prionidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. PRIONUS, _Geoffr._ Cerambyx, _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Orthomegas,

  PRIONUS (ORTHOMEGAS) CINNAMOMEUS. Thorace marginato denticulato, corpore
  ferrugineo, elytris ad apicem denticulatis. (Long. Corp. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Cinnamomeus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. _p._ 623. 10. _Fabr.
  Syst. Eleuth._ 2. _p._ 264. 33. _Syst. Ent. p._ 163. 16. _Merian Ins.
  Surinam, tab._ 24.

  Prionus corticinus, _Oliv. Ent._ 4. 66. _p._ 21. _t._ 9. _f._ 34.

  HABITAT: (----? _Drury_). Surinam (_Merian_).

  General colour like that of cinnamon. Head covered with hair in front.
  Eyes black, extending almost round the head, being only separated both
  above and beneath by a narrow space. Antennæ shorter than the body;
  flattened towards the tips. Thorax thin on the sides, and margined;
  having two spines, the posterior largest; and on the top are two round
  tubercles, covered with very short fine hairs or down. Scutellum small
  and rounded. Elytra margined deeply on the sides, but more faintly at the
  suture, extending beyond the anus; having a small spine at their
  extremities, where they are nearly as broad as at the thorax; clothed
  with exceeding short fine hairs, as are likewise the abdomen and breast.
  Tibiæ with two spurs.


Plate XL. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. LAMIA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx, _Linn._

  LAMIA VERRUCOSA. Fusca; thorace griseo lateribus angulatis, disco
  verrucoso; elytris basi rudè punctatis apice lævibus. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.
  4½ lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx verrucosus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (nec _Oliv. Ent._ 4. _t._
  20. _f._ 148.)

  Lamia verrucata, _Schon. Syn. Ins._ 3. _p._ 396. 189.

  HABITAT: Barbadoes.

  Head black, inclining downwards. Antennæ greyish or dirty black, as long
  as the body. Thorax dirty grey; and, next the elytra, encircled with a
  hairy collar, of a red brown colour; very rough above, with short hairs
  on it; having a strong thick spine on each side, and underneath covered
  with short red brown hairs. Scutellum small, triangular, hairy, and red
  brown. Elytra margined at the sides and suture, not covering the anus;
  rough on the top and sides next the thorax, with deep punctures; but at
  the tips smooth and shining. Abdomen, breast, femora, and tibiæ covered
  with short red brown hairs; the latter with a single spur. Tarsi
  cushioned, and dirty yellowish coloured beneath.




Plate XLI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. SAPERDA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx, _Linn._

  SAPERDA TRILINEATA. Grisea seu luteo-rufa, vittis tribus longitudinalibus
  dentatis albis, antennis longis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Cerambyx trilineatus, _Linn. Mant. p._ 532. _Fabr. Sp. Ins._ 1. 226.
  _Syst. Ent._ 179. 6. (Stenochorus t.)

  Saperda vittata, _Fabr. Mant. p._ 231. _Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 322. 30.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head dark brown, the top being tawny yellow, the sides striped with
  white. Antennæ greyish brown, much longer than the insect. Thorax very
  cylindrical, without spines, yellowish brown, having a white stripe on
  each side, and another on the top. Scutellum very small, semicircular,
  white, with a black spot in the middle. Elytra margined from the middle
  to their extremities, where each terminates in a spine, having a white
  line running on each side from the thorax to their extremities,
  internally serrated; another white line (also internally indented) runs
  along the suture, being parallel with those on the thorax and head.
  Abdomen greyish, with some tawny yellow hairs on each ring. Breast tawny
  yellow. Legs greyish brown, (the fore ones in one of the sexes being
  elongated) without any spines at any of the joints.


Plate XLI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. CLYTUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn._ Leptura p. _Drury_.

  CLYTUS PICTUS. Thorace rotundato flavo-fasciato, elytris fasciis septem
  flavis; anticis antrorsum, posticis retrorsum arcuatis. (Long. Corp. fere
  9 lin.)

  SYN. Leptura picta, _Drury, Append. vol._ 2.

  Clytus flexuosus, _Fabr. Syst. El._ 2. 345. 1. _Syst. Ent._ 191. 22.
  (Callidium f.) _Oliv. Ent._ 4. 70. 34. _t._ 6. _f._ 76.

  Leptura Robiniæ, _Forster Cent. Ins. p._ 43.

  HABITAT: New York; where they are found upon the Locust tree (_Drury_).

  Head black, surrounded by a yellow line; front yellow, with a black spot
  between the antennæ. Antennæ red brown. Thorax black, cylindrical, and
  smooth, without spines or risings; being encircled with four yellow
  rings. Scutellum yellow and oval. Elytra black, with six irregular
  angulated streaks crossing them at equal distances; and another regular
  and even yellow line crossing them at the joining of the thorax. Abdomen
  yellow, with dark brown rings. Breast greyish yellow. Legs light red
  brown, with a small tibial spur.


Plate XLI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. STENOCORUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Elaphidion,

  STENOCORUS (ELAPHIDION) IRRORATUS. Thorace mutico inæquali, elytris apice
  bidentatis, albo irroratis, antennis longis aculeatis. (Long. Corp. 9

  SYN. Ceramb. irroratus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. _p._ 633. 62. _Oliv.
  Ent._ 4. 67. _t._ 21. _f._ 163. _Fabricius Syst. Ent. p._ 180. 9. _Syst.
  Eleuth._ 2. 307. 9. _Serville Ann. Soc. Ent. de Franc._ 1835. _p._ 67.
  (Elaphidion i.)

  HABITAT: Jamaica; residing in the mahogany trees (_Drury_).

  Head very dark brown, almost black; front dappled with cream colour.
  Antennæ dark brown, and about the length of the insect; having spines at
  each joint, except that next the head. Thorax spineless, brownish black,
  with white patches on its sides; and, when viewed through a microscope,
  punctured. Scutellum very small, and nearly triangular. Elytra brownish
  black, margined at the sides and suture, with whitish patches thereon,
  punctured; having two spines at the extremity of each. Abdomen and breast
  black, and covered with short grey hairs like pile. Legs reddish brown,
  with a small spine at the tip of each of the femora (except the fore
  ones), and another at the tips of the tibiæ.


Plate XLI. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. STENOCORUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn._ SUBGENUS. Elaphidion,

  STENOCORUS (ELAPHIDION) SPINICORNIS. Thorace inermi tuberculato; elytris
  bidentatis, antennarum articulis bispinosis, corpore luteo-griseo, fusco
  variegato. (Long. Corp. circ. 10 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx Spinicornis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Fabr. Syst. Ent. p._
  179. 7. _Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 306. 5. _Oliv. Ent._ 4. 67. _t._ 17. _f._ 130.
  _Serville loc. cit. sup._ (Elaphidion s.)

  Cerambyx insularis, _Linn._ (_Gmel._) 1. 4. _p._ 1859.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  {88}Head clay-coloured. Antennæ red brown, about as long as the insect,
  each joint having two spines, except that next the head. Thorax
  clay-coloured and cylindrical, without spines; having a small red brown
  streak extending along the middle and down the head. Scutellum
  triangular. Elytra clay-coloured, with many small red brown streaks
  crossing them; margined on the sides and suture, each having two spines
  at its extremity. Abdomen and breast greyish clay-coloured, with a small
  red brown spot on each side of each of the segments. Legs red brown,
  having a strong spine at the tip of each of the femora, except the fore
  ones, and another at the tips of each of the tibiæ.


Plate XLI. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Lamiidæ.

  GENUS. SAPERDA, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn._

  SAPERDA CARCHARIAS. Griseo-pubescens, nigro-punctata, antennis
  mediocribus griseo nigroque annulatis. (Long. Corp. 5.-8 lin.)

  SYN. Ceramb. Carcharias, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 631. 52. _Fabricius
  Syst. Eleuth._ 2. 317. 1. _Oliv. Ent._ 4. 68. _t._ 2. _f._ 22. _Panzer F.
  I. G._ 69. 1. _Stephens Ill. Brit. Ent. Mand. vol._ 4. 238.

  HABITAT: Germany (_Drury_). "In Europæ Sylvis" (_Fabr._).

  Head dark clay-coloured. Antennæ clay-coloured, with black rings, and
  about the length of the insect. Thorax cylindrical and clay-coloured,
  without any spines or risings on it. Scutellum nearly square. Elytra dark
  clay-coloured, and margined along the sides; when viewed through a
  microscope they appear to be covered with a great number of small black
  pustules. Abdomen and breast clay-coloured; as are the legs, on each of
  which is a small spine at the tip of the tibiæ.

This fine insect has, within a few years, been found in considerable
abundance in the fenny districts of Cambridge and Huntingdonshire, upon low


Plate XLI. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Longicornes. FAMILY: Cerambycidæ, _Leach._

  GENUS. STENOCORUS, _Fabr._ Cerambyx p. _Linn._

  STENOCORUS ATOMARIUS. Nigricans, sericie luteâ indutus; thorace
  cylindrico nec tuberculato nec spinoso; elytris fusco cinereoque
  variegatis. (Long. Corp. 8 lin.)

  SYN. Cerambyx atomarius, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (nec _De Geer_, 5. _p._
  65. 4. nec _Fabr. Syst. El._ 2. 287. nec _Oliv._ 4. 67. _t._ 9. 59. d.)

  Stenochorus marylandicus? _Fabr. Syst. Ent._ 179. 5. _Syst. Eleuth._ 2.
  306. 4. _Oliv. Ent._ 4. 70. _t._ 1. _f._ 5.

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head brownish black, covered with short yellowish grey pile. Thorax dirty
  black, covered with yellow grey pile; cylindrical, and without any spines
  or risings. Antennæ dusky brown; having a spine on each joint, except
  that next the head, and about the length of the insect. Scutellum very
  small. Elytra black, mottled with yellow grey; being margined at the
  sides and suture, and not reaching or covering the anus, each having two
  spines at the extremity. Abdomen and breast greyish brown, as are the
  legs, each of which is furnished with a spine at the tip of the tibiæ.




Plate XLII. fig. 1. 5.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Heteroptera. SECTION: Geocorisa. FAMILY:
  Scutati, _Burmeister._

  GENUS. SCUTELLERA, _Latreille_, _Burmeister_. Tetyra, _Fabr._ Cimex.

  SCUTELLERA DRURÆI. Supra rufa, capite, pronoti maculis duabus, scutelli
  fasciis duabus irregularibus maculisque duabus subapicalibus nigris.
  (Long. Corp. 7½ lin.)

  SYN. Cimex Druræi, _Linn. Mant._ 534. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 4. 83. 13.
  _Syst. Rhyng._ 132. 17. (Tetyra D.) _Sulzer Hist. Ins. t._ 10. _f._ 5.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_). America (_Fabricius_, incorrectly).

  Head black and small. Antennæ rather longer than the thorax, black,
  5-jointed, the two basal joints being shortest. Thorax convex, and
  slightly margined at the sides; of a fine scarlet colour, with two black
  spots thereon; somewhat oval, but the outline forming with the head an
  obtuse angle, the points on the sides being cut off. Wings defended by a
  thick scaly scutellum, which is very convex and smooth, without any
  suture, entirely covering the abdomen and extending to the anus, of a
  scarlet colour, with two broad, black, indented and irregular bars
  crossing it; one next the thorax which is broadest, and on which are two
  small scarlet spots; the other placed just below the middle, and seeming
  to be composed of four spots united together; beneath this are two small
  black spots, nearly round, situated near the anus. Fig. _a_. represents
  one of the hemelytra, which when at rest are concealed beneath the
  scutellum, having the basal portion or corium strong, thick, and opake;
  and the terminal portion beyond the transverse rib membranaceous. The
  wing at _b_. is very thin and membranaceous; being more transparent than
  the hemelytra. Abdomen scarlet, with an oblong black spot at the anus,
  and four others on each side joining to the edge. The breast appears in a
  strong light of a deep mazarine blue, almost black. Legs, the same. The
  proboscis is also blue, lying close to the breast, and extending to the
  beginning of the abdomen.


Plate XLII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Adephaga. FAMILY: Carabidæ. SUBFAMILY:

  GENUS. GALERITA, _Fabricius_. Carabus p. _Linn. &c._

  GALERITA AMERICANA. Nigra, thorace antennis pedibusque ferrugineis,
  elytris cyaneis. (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Carabus Americanus, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. II. _p._ 671. _No._ 19.
  _De Geer Ins._ iv. _t._ 17. _f._ 21. _Fabricius Syst. Eleuth._ 1. 214. 1.
  (Galerita a.) _Olivier Ent._ III. 35. _n._ 77. _t._ 6. _f._ 72. _Klug.
  Jahrb. der Entomol._ 1. _p._ 63.

  Carabus Janus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 1. _p._ 136. _No._ 51.

  Carabus bicolor, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _De Jean Spec. General_, 1. _p._
  187. 1.

  Galerita bicolor. _Klug. loc. cit._

  HABITAT: Virginia (_Drury_). North America.

  Head very long, black, with a red brown spot on the middle. Antennæ dark
  brown, the basal joint being longest, thickest, and lightest coloured;
  the others are nearly of equal length; the whole being a little longer
  than the elytra. Neck distinct and black. Thorax light red brown, and
  almost oval, about the length of the head, and a little broader; it is
  also a little margined, and next the body truncate. Scutellum minute,
  black, and triangular. Elytra black, margined and furrowed, oval next the
  thorax, but more square at their extremities, and not covering the anus.
  Abdomen black. Breast light red brown; as are all the legs. The basal
  joint of the posterior tarsi is very long.


Plate XLII. fig. 3. natural size, and 7. magnified.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Rhyncophora. FAMILY: Curculionidæ. SUBFAMILY:
  Brenthides, _Schonh._

  GENUS. BRENTHUS, _Illiger._ Brentus, _Fabr._ Curculio p. _Linn._

  BRENTHUS MINUTUS. Niger, elytris striatis nigro-brunneis. (Long. Corp.
  fere 6 lin.)

  SYN. Curculio minutus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Herbst. Col_. 7. 200. _t._
  108. _f._ 9. B. (Brentus m.) _Schonh. Sys. Ins. Curcul._ 1. 368. 6.

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  Head black, with a long, horny, slender beak. Antennæ placed near the
  head, near the base of the beak, black, and about the length of the
  thorax, the first and last joints being the longest. Thorax black,
  smooth, and shining; being almost the length of the body, and nearly
  round, but thickest towards the middle. Scutellum indistinct. Elytra dark
  brown, with some patches on them of a lighter colour; margined on the
  sides and suture, and with rows of small punctures thereon. Abdomen dark
  brown, smooth and shining. The fore legs are longer than the rest, and at
  the tips of the tibiæ are furnished with a spine. All the thighs are very
  thick in the middle.


Plate XLII. fig. 4. natural size, and 6. magnified.

  ORDER: Coleoptera. SECTION: Adephaga-Geodephaga. FAMILY: Carabidæ.
  SUBFAMILY: Brachinides.

  GENUS. CASNONIA, _Latrielle._ Attelabus p. _Linn. Drury._

  CASNONIA LONGICOLLIS. Nigra, elytris punctato striatis, singulo tuberculo
  parvo subapicali luteo; thorace fere longitudine elytrorum, pedibus luteo
  nigroque variis. (Long. Corp. 4½ lin.)

  SYN. Attelabus longicollis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  Head black, long and broad over the eyes, but narrow next the thorax.
  Antennæ dark brown, about the length of the head and thorax. Thorax
  nearly the length of the wing-cases, black, slender and shining, rising a
  little circularly from the body. Scutellum wanting. The elytra are
  margined and shining, not covering the anus, with rows of very small
  punctures on them, and near their extremities have a small papilla or
  swelling of a yellow colour. Abdomen black. Legs partly yellow, and
  partly black.




Plate XLIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Mellifera. FAMILY: Apidæ, _Leach._

  GENUS. XYLOCOPA, _Fabr._ Apis, _Linn. Drury._

  XYLOCOPA VIRGINICA. Hirsuta pallida; abdomine, excepto primo segmento,
  atro. (Magn. Bomb. terrestr.)

  SYN. Apis Virginica, _Linn. Mant. p._ 540. _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 346. 14.
  (Bombus v.) _Ent. Syst._ 2. 318. 15.

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  Head, between the eyes, black, with a cream-coloured spot in front, just
  above the mouth. Antennæ black, and shorter than the thorax, which is
  covered at top with hairs of a pale yellowish colour. All the four wings
  are membranaceous and transparent. Abdomen composed of six rings,
  {91}entirely black, except the first, which is pale yellow above, but
  black underneath. The breast and legs are black and hairy, the hairs on
  the fore legs being rather dark brown. The under parts of all the tarsi
  are light brown.


Plate XLIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Heteroptera. SECTION: Geocorisa. FAMILY:
  Scutati, _Burmeister_. (Longilabres, _Latr._)

  GENUS. TESSERATOMA, _St. Farg. & Serv. in Enc. Méth. Latr. Lap. Burm._

  TESSERATOMA PAPILLOSA. Lutea, thoracis lateribus subrotundatis, antennis
  fuscis basi subferrugineis, abdomine supra purpureo-ferruginoso subtus
  luteo. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Cimex Papillosus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (nec _Fabr. Burmeist. Saint.
  Farg. & Serv. &c._)

  Tesseratoma Sonneratii. _St. Farg. & Serv. Enc. Méth._ 10. 590. _Guérin
  Icon. R. An. Ins. pl._ 55. _f._ 4.

  Cimex Chinensis, _Thunb. Nov. Ins._. 45. _t._ 11. _f._ 59. _Laporte
  Class. Hemipt. p._ 60.

  Cimex papillosus? _Donovan Ins. India, pl._ 13. _fig._ 2.

  HABITAT: China (_Drury_).

  Head small, yellowish olive-coloured. Antennæ black. Thorax yellow olive,
  lying high above the level of the head, and projecting at the ligature of
  the wings. Scutellum triangular, terminating in a point near the middle
  of the abdomen; the basal part lying underneath the thorax. Hemelytra
  crossing each other when at rest; with the basal portion opake, and
  yellow olive-coloured; the apical membrane being almost transparent.
  Wings entirely membranaceous, and yellow brown. Abdomen above, dark red,
  but underneath clay-coloured; furnished with a sharp tooth at each of its
  segments. Anus terminating in two angular points, with a small spine on
  each side. Breast pale clay colour; having a black spot directly under
  the fore legs, and another on each side the middle ones. Legs brown
  yellow colour. Proboscis brown.

This very common Chinese insect has been confounded by Fabricius, &c. with
an African species (Tesseratoma confusa Westw.) and by Saint Fargeau and
Serville, with another from Java (Tesseratoma Javana, Klug. Burm. 2. 350.
figured by Stoll. t. 1. fig. 2.) As, however, Drury's specific name, as
applied to the Chinese species, has the priority in point of date, I have
here reverted to it, and would apply a new specific name to the species
from Sierra Leone. The Fabrician species belongs to a different section of
the genus having the terminal joint of the antennæ elongated. The only
specimens which I have seen of it are those contained in the Banksian
Collection in the possession of the Linnæan Society of London. Wolff
figures the Chinese species. I have little doubt that Donovan's figure is
intended to represent the true papillosus, although it is given as an
inhabitant of India.


Plate XLIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Heteroptera. SECTION: Geocorisa, _Latr._
  FAMILY: Coreidæ, _Leach._ (Anisoscelites, _Laporte_.)

  GENUS. LEPTOSCELIS, _Laporte_. Anisoscelis p. _Burm._ Lygæus p. _Fabr._

  LEPTOSCELIS BALTEATUS. Thorace subspinoso; ferrugineus, elytris lineâ
  transversâ flavâ, femoribus posticis gracilibus spinulosis. (Long. Corp.
  6½ lin.)

  SYN. Cimex balteatus, _Linn. Mant._ 534. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 4. 142. 27.
  _Syst. Rh._ 213. 39. (Lygæus b.)

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head small and slender, red brown, striped with black. Eyes projecting.
  Antennæ dark brown, or russet colour, and almost the length of the
  insect. Thorax red brown, with two small yellow spots in front; lying
  above the level of the head, and terminating at the side in right angles.
  Scutellum small and angular. Hemelytra coriaceous half way down, and with
  the basal portion brown red; the apical membrane opake and dark brown;
  having a yellow bar crossing them near the middle. Wings transparent.
  Abdomen, above, yellow, and edged with dark brown, the sides being
  entire; underneath, entirely dark clay-coloured. Proboscis extending to
  the abdomen along the breast, and lying between the legs.


Plate XLIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Mellifera. FAMILY: Apidæ, _Leach._

  GENUS. CENTRIS, _Fabr._ Apis, _Drury_.

  CENTRIS SURINAMENSIS. Hirsuta nigra; abdomine, excepto primo segmento,
  flavo. (Mag. Xylocop. virginicâ minor.)

  SYN. Apis Surinamensis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 961. 52. _Fabr. Ent.
  Syst._ 2. 318. 14. _Syst. Piez._ 355. 3. (Centris S.)

  HABITAT: Surinam.

  Head black. Antennæ black. Tongue very long, extending to the middle of
  the abdomen. Thorax black and hairy. Wings transparent. Abdomen deep
  yellow, except the basal segment which is black. Breast and legs black,
  and covered with short hairs like pile. Hind legs very broad and thin,
  resembling scales; and at the tip of the tibiæ furnished with two sharp
  spurs; intermediate tibiæ also with two shorter spurs.


Plate XLIII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Pupivora. FAMILY: Ichneumonidæ, _Leach._

  GENUS. OPHION, _Fabr._ Ichneumon, _Drury_.

  OPHION MACRURUM. Fusco-luteum; alis hyalinis, abdomine thorace triplo
  longiori ensato. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Ichneumon Macrurus, _Linn. Mant. p._ 540. _Drury, Append, vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  {93}Head small, dark orange-coloured. Eyes large, black, and oblong.
  Ocelli shining brown. Antennæ nearly the length of the insect, brown
  orange, and resembling threads. All the other parts of the insect are of
  the same brown orange, except the wings, which are transparent. Thorax
  short. Abdomen three times as long as the thorax, very small at the base,
  like a thread, but increasing in depth (not in thickness) to the
  extremity, where it appears square and even as if obliquely cut off;
  arched from the base to the tip. Legs slender, the hinder ones being the
  longest. Tips of the tibiæ with two long spines, those of the fore legs
  having only one.

This insect very closely resembles the common English species Ichneumon
luteus, Linn. It is, however, considerably larger.

After describing this insect our author took occasion to enter into the
natural history of the family to which it belongs, namely, the
Ichneumonidæ, so named from the Linnæan genus Ichneumon, which last he
says, "appears to be taken from its nature and way of life." He then
proceeds as follows:--

"It is generally known that butterflies are produced from caterpillars, and
that these caterpillars put on different forms before they arrive to that
of the butterfly; but few persons know, who have not engaged in this study,
that the bodies of these caterpillars are receptacles or habitations for
lesser insects, that live and grow within them during a certain time; where
they are nourished and fed by the juices of their bowels, till they arrive
to a mature age; when, by the appointment of nature, they kill their
fosterers, being totally unable to live on any other kind of food but what
the intestines of these animals supply them with. The uses and advantages
accruing to mankind by the institution of such a genus of insects, together
with their natural history, are the subject of the following lines.

"If we examine the glorious works of the creation, and reflect on the
paternal care and wisdom of the Almighty, displayed in the preservation and
increase of all ranks and kinds of animals; that even the most direful and
noxious, have such a proportion in the scale of life, as is most agreeable
to the ends of His divine providence; that the limits He hath prescribed to
each, extend so far and no farther; and that each species shall multiply in
such abundance or scarcity, as are best adapted to preserve, by a just
equilibrium, the harmony of the universe: When, I say, we behold this, the
mind can scarcely forbear crying out, under a rapturous sense of
conviction, "every thing is good." It is to this end we see the strong are
permitted to prey on the weak; and that the number of the latter increase
in a proportion sufficient to supply the wants of the former; it is to this
end we see some feed on herbs and plants, some on fruits and seeds, and
some on flesh; each being furnished with appetites and powers, suited to
their respective ways of life: and it is to this end, we see those of the
most minute kinds, abounding in a degree far beyond those of the first
magnitude. The knowledge of the insect kingdom illustrates this observation
beyond all possibility of doubt; and the number that may be bred from a
single pair, in many species, would exceed all credibility, if it was not
to be proved by any person who {94}would take the trouble. The wonderful
increase that only two summers would be capable of producing among many of
them, if each egg was to yield its respective insect, is amazing. The world
itself, in a few years, would be incapable of affording plants sufficient
for the nourishment of one single species.[29]

"Hence will appear the 'loving kindness' of the Almighty, in setting such
bounds, and keeping them within such limits as best answers the purpose for
which He created them; and hence appears the necessity of their becoming
food to other animals. Birds, fishes, and the smaller kinds of beasts, are
at eternal war with them; but as all these would be insufficient of
themselves to restrain and prevent them from multiplying too fast, other
kinds of beings are instituted for this end, whose existence depends on
their destruction. Of these, the species of insect I am describing, is the
most singular, of which (genus) there are several sorts, differing greatly
in size and shape. Some are furnished with three setæ or bristles at the
extremity of their bodies, the middle one being a hollow tube, secured or
fenced by the outer ones, through which they eject their eggs, after they
have penetrated the body of the caterpillar they settle on. Some appear to
have no bristles, others have them bent close under their bodies, and are
not to be seen, unless closely examined. As their whole business appears to
be the destroying the caterpillars of the butterfly and moth tribes, they
are indefatigable in the pursuit of them; but as this is confined to the
pregnant females, they are observed ranging about continually in search of
the proper subjects to lay their eggs on; flying on every bush, and running
with unwearied diligence on every twig, till they have arrived to the place
where the scent of the caterpillar soon furnishes them with the certainty
of its being there. Having thus discovered the animal it was in quest of,
the Ichneumon immediately settles on it, with an intent to discharge its
eggs; but the caterpillar being sensible, from a natural instinct, of its
enemy's assault, bends its head backwards to the place where it feels
itself attacked, and endeavours by various means, either by striking its
head violently against the part, falling to the ground, or by some sudden
contortion, to disengage itself: but this seldom happens, unless the
Ichneumon is feeble, and unable to withstand the shocks of the caterpillar;
in which case they will frequently relinquish their attack, and seek out
some other subject, whose resistance they are more capable of encountering.
On the other hand, if the Ichneumon is strong enough to withstand the
efforts of the caterpillar, it either lays its eggs on the outside of the
skin, as is the nature of some to do, or else perforates the body with the
bristle before described, and immediately discharges an egg. Some of these
Ichneumons quit the caterpillar upon the emission of an egg, but others
{95}continue thereon till they have emitted them all; which sometimes is
more than an hundred. It is necessary to observe, that many caterpillars of
moths and butterflies (the former more especially) are infested by a
particular species of these Ichneumons, that confine themselves entirely to
them alone, and never, that we know of, attack any other. Thus that of the
Privet Hawk or Sphinx Ligustri of Linnæus, that of the Elephant Hawk or
Sphinx Elpenor of the same author, &c. are always found to yield particular
kinds of Ichneumons. Others, indeed, attack any kind of caterpillar
belonging to the farinaceous-winged tribe; and, as I observed above, if not
too powerful and strong for them, will there deposit their eggs.

"If the egg is laid on the body of the caterpillar, and not within it, a
few days, by the warmth of the sun, ripens it to maturity; and then the
young destroyer, directed by nature, eats its passage through the
under-side of the egg, and passes into the body of the caterpillar, but if
the egg is discharged into its body, it there ripens, unseen, to maturity.
In either case, it lives on the substance or juices of its intestines;
thriving and increasing in bulk, in a proportion equal to the creature it
is doomed to kill. The caterpillar, also, notwithstanding its having thus
received the means of a slow but certain death, increases in size, and, to
outward appearance, in health; arriving to the period when it is to undergo
its metamorphosis, and become a Chrysalis, in as much strength and vigour
as any other of the species: but when the time arrives for its enlargement
into its complete state, and to become a moth or butterfly, the Ichneumon
makes its appearance; having arrived to its time of completion within the
body of its supporter, and exhausted its juices by the nourishment drawn
from it, leaving behind it a dry empty shell, in the form of a chrysalis.

"In this manner many of these Ichneumons exist. Others, when arrived to
maturity, having lived within the bodies of the caterpillars, as described,
eat their way out through its sides, and, crawling to a small distance,
form round themselves cases of a substance like silk; wherein, having lain
a few days, they quit their prisons in the shape of very small flies, some
having two wings, others four."--Vide Goedartius, Albin, Wilks, Harris, &c.


Plate XLIII. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Diploptera. FAMILY: Vespidæ, _Leach._

  GENUS. POLISTES, _Fabr._ Vespa, _Linn. Drury._

  POLISTES ANNULARIS. Fusca; genubus, antennarum apicibus margineque primi
  segmenti abdominis flavis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Vespa annularis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 950. 9. _Fabr. Syst.
  Piez._ 271. 3. (Polistes a.)

  Vespa cincta, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Virginia (_Drury_).

  Head dark brown colour, like the rust of iron. Antennæ shorter than the
  thorax; dark brown, yellow at the tips. Thorax dark brown, with a black
  stripe on each side. Wings extending beyond the abdomen, thin,
  membranaceous, and dark brown, not perfectly transparent, and doubled or
  folded {96}lengthways together. Abdomen black, except the first segment,
  which is dark orange, margined with yellow. Anterior femora dark brown,
  the other parts of those legs yellow. The other legs dark brown; the tips
  of the tibiæ and the tarsi being yellow.


Plate XLIII. fig. 7.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Diploptera. FAMILY: Vespidæ, _Leach._

  GENUS. POLISTES, _Fabr._ Vespa, _Linn. Drury_.

  POLISTES SQUAMOSA. Thoracis dorso nigro lineis flavis, scutello flavo
  lineâ nigrâ, abdomine fulvo annulo nigro versus apicem. (Long. Corp. 10

  SYN. Vespa Squamosus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Polistes lineata? _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 271. 9. _Ent. Syst._ 2. 259. 20.

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head yellow; but on the top, near the ocelli, black and hairy. Antennæ
  shorter than the thorax, dark brown, yellow next the head to the first
  joint, including about a third part. Thorax yellow, slightly hairy;
  having three black stripes on the top and two on each side meeting on the
  breast. Wings thin, almost transparent, and doubled or folded
  longitudinally. Abdomen dark orange, with a black ring next the anus, and
  two lesser ones near the thorax; none of which are seen underneath, being
  there entirely of a dark orange. Legs yellow, and furnished with two
  spines at the tips of the tibiæ; the anterior having only one.


Plate XLIII. fig. 8.

  ORDER: Chilognatha, _Latreille_. Aptera, _Linnæus, Drury_. FAMILY:

  GENUS. POLYDESMUS, _Latreille, Brandt in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. vol._ 6.
  Julus, _Fabr._ Fontaria, _J. E. Gray._

  POLYDESMUS (FONTARIA) VIRGINIENSIS. Corpore pallide griseo, segmentis
  convexis, articulo pedum secundo acutissimo. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Julus virginiensis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr.
  et d'Amer. Apter. pl._ 4. _f._ 5. _p._ 156.

  Julus tridentatus, _Fabr._

  Fontaria Virginiensis, _J. E. Gray in Griff. An. K. Ins. pl._ 135. _f._

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  This insect is entirely wingless. Head circular and flat, placed under
  the first segment. Antennæ composed of five equal articulations. Body
  rounded at top, forming an arch equal to one-fourth of a circle, and
  consisting of nineteen rings or scales, which lie very closely over one
  another, the hinder part of one exactly fitting the fore part of the
  next. Each of these scales, except some near the head, have four short
  feet fixed to them; the whole number of which is sixty. The general
  colour of the insect is whitish grey; the under part being lighter than
  the upper. Along the middle of the latter runs a darker shade, having a
  single spot of a wainscot colour placed on the middle of each scale.




Plate XLIV. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Diptera. SECTION: Notacantha, _Latr._ FAMILY: Mydasidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. MYDAS, _Fabr. Latr._ Midas, _Weidemann_. Musca, _Drury_, _De

  MYDAS CLAVATUS. Niger, abdominis segmento secundo aurantiaco, alis
  nigris. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Musca clavata, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (1773.)

  Bibio filata, _Fabr. Mant. Ins._ 2. 328. 1. (1787.) _Syst. Antl._ 60. 1.
  (Mydas f.) _Weidemann Aussereur. Zweifl. Ins._ 1. 240. 3. _tab._ 11.
  _fig._ 3. _Ditto in Nova Acta Nat. Curios. vol._ 5. _p._ 2. _pl._ 53.
  _fig._ 8.

  Nemotelus asiloides, _De Geer Mem. vol._ 6. _t._ 29. _f._ 6.

  HABITAT: New York, and other parts of North America.

  Head black. Antennæ nearly the length of the thorax, black, slender, and
  knobbed at their extremities. Thorax black and smooth. Wings coppery
  brown, very membranaceous, and not transparent. Abdomen black, and
  composed of eight segments, the second being of a deep yellow; which
  colour extends only to its sides, the under part being black. Legs
  entirely black; the hinder ones being furnished with a strong spine at
  the tips of the tibiæ, the middle ones having four small ones, and the
  fore ones none. Each of the ungues has two small yellow scales (puvilli)
  placed underneath.


Plate XLIV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Diptera. SECTION: Tabaniens, _Latr._ FAMILY: Tabanidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. TABANUS, _Linn, &c._

  TABANUS PLUMBEUS. Obscurè coccinelleus, abdomine marginibus posticis
  pallidioribus, alis sublimpidis costâ fuscâ, antennis brunneo-rufis.
  (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Tabanus plumbeus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Tabanus ruficornis, _Fabr. Syst. Ent._ 789. 8. _Syst. Antl._ 96. 14.
  _Weidemann Auss. Zw._ Ins. 1. 112.

  Tabanus Americanus, _Forster Novæ Sp. Insect. Cent._ 1. 100.

  Tabanus limbatus, _Pal. Beauvois Ins. d'Afr. & d'Amer. Dipt. t._ 1. _f._

  HABITAT: New York, Virginia, &c. North America.

  Head ash-coloured. Eyes nearly black. Antennæ red brown. Only one
  ocellus, placed a little above the antennæ. Proboscis almost equal in
  length to the depth of the head. Thorax dark greenish-brown coloured;
  having a white spot at the base of each wing. Abdomen dark brown colour;
  each segment being on the under side margined with grey. Wings
  transparent; anterior edges brown and opake. Legs dark brown; the middle
  ones having two spines at the tips of each of the tibiæ. The ungues have
  two small brown scales under them. Breast hairy and ash-coloured, but
  white on the sides.


Plate XLIV. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Diptera. SECTION: Tabaniens. FAMILY: Tabanidæ.

  GENUS. TABANUS, _Linn. &c._

  TABANUS AMERICANUS. Niger, abdomine canescente, alis fusco-nigris. (Long.
  Corp. circ. 11 lin.)

  SYN. Tabanus Americanus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (nec _Forster._)

  Tabanus atratus, _Fabr. Syst. Ent._ 789. 9. _Syst. Antl._ 96. 16.
  _Weidemann Auss. Zw. Ins._ 1. 114. _No._ 3.

  Tabanus niger, _Pal. Beauv. Ins. Afr. et Amer. Dipt. t._ 1. _f._ 1.

  HABITAT: New York, and other parts of North America.

  {98}Head black. Antennæ black, being placed on the front of the head; the
  parts surrounding them shining, as if finely polished. Ocelli wanting.
  Proboscis red brown; being inclosed in a kind of sheath, which is black.
  Thorax very dark brown, almost black. Wings dark brown and membranaceous,
  not transparent. Abdomen lead coloured, the extremity nearly black; being
  of the same colour underneath as at top. Legs entirely black; the middle
  ones being furnished with two spines at the tips of the tibiæ. Breast
  hairy and black.


Plate XLIV. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Sphegidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. SPHEX, _Linn. &c._

  SPHEX JAMAICENSIS. Castaneo-rufus, abdomine nitido, capite thoraceque
  fulvo-hirtis, antennis nigris, alis fuscis.

  SYN. Vespa Jamaicensis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head brown orange. Antennæ almost black, and near the length of the
  thorax. Eyes large, and dark brown. Thorax brown orange-coloured, and
  hairy, with a black spot between the wings. Wings nearly transparent,
  _and doubled or folded together_. Abdomen shining and very smooth, red
  brown, and united to the thorax by a small but short thread-like
  peduncle. Legs red brown, and, except the fore ones, furnished with three
  spines at the tips of the tibiæ.

Drury described this insect as having the wings doubled or folded together,
a peculiarity observed only in the wasps, amongst which the insect was
placed by our author, who named it _Vespa_ Jamaicensis. My specimen of this
insect, which I have reason to believe belonged to Drury, is so pinned,
that the upper surface of the thorax is pressed down, and the upper wing
forced backwards, and thrown nearly upside down, which was evidently the
case with the specimen described by Drury.


Plate XLIV. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Scoliidæ.

  GENUS. SCOLIA, _Fabr._ Sphex, _Drury_.

  SCOLIA FOSSULANA. Atra, thorace flavido hirto, abdomine fasciis quatuor
  flavis, intermediis dentatis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Scolia fossulana, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 242. _No._ 18.

  Sphex plumipes, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head pale yellow in front, black on the top and hairy. Antennæ black, and
  shorter than the thorax. Neck hairy, lemon-coloured. Thorax black, and
  covered with yellow hairs. Wings dark brown, almost transparent; not
  folded or doubled together. Abdomen black underneath and lemon-coloured
  above, where it has three black lines crossing it, two of them being
  broadest in the middle. Anus and breast {99}black. Legs black and hairy;
  the hinder ones being furnished with two remarkable long spines at the
  tips of the tibiæ. Tarsi, particularly those of the hinder legs,
  furnished with very strong hairs, or rather bristles at each of the
  joints; pale yellow-coloured.

I should have retained the specific name given to this insect by Drury, on
account of its priority, but it is so inappropriate, not only being
applicable to one sex alone, the female, but the spines on the fore legs
being found throughout the genus, as well as in nearly all the burrowing
Hymenoptera. Fabricius has incorrectly referred this figure to his Scolia
radula, which has a spotted thorax.


Plate XLIV. fig. 6. Imago--fig. 7. Cocoon--fig. 8. Imago taken out of the
Plate XLV. fig. 8. Nest--fig. 9. Section of the Nest--fig. 10. two Cocoons

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Fossores. FAMILY: Spegidæ.

  GENUS. Pelopæus, _Latr. Fabr._ Sphex, _Linn. Drury._

  PELOPÆUS CÆMENTARIUS. Abdomine petiolato nigro, segmento primo (excl.
  pedunc.) lunulâ flavâ thoraceque punctis flavis, pedibus flavis
  posticorum femoribus apiceque tibiarum nigris. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

  SYN. Sphex Cæmentaria, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Pelopæus lunatus, _Fabr. Syst. Piez._ 203.

  HABITAT: Jamaica, Antigua, St. Christopher's (_Drury_). "In America
  insulis, in India orientali frequens." (_Fabricius_, incorrectly?)

  Head black and hairy. Antennæ black, basal joint yellow. Thorax black,
  with short hairs on it, but next the head yellow, having a yellow spot at
  the base of each wing, and another next the abdomen. Wings brown, and
  almost transparent; lying flat, not folded. Abdomen black and round,
  nearly as long as the thorax; basal segment (exclusive of the peduncle)
  yellow; pointed at the tip, and armed with a retractile sting. Peduncle
  very slender, black at top, and yellow underneath; being nearly the
  length of the thorax itself. Breast black. Fore and middle legs black
  next the body, but from the middle of the thighs yellow. Hinder thighs
  and lower parts of the shins black, the remainder yellow. Claws black.

The following particulars relative to the economy of this species were
communicated to Mr. Drury from a correspondent in Antigua, who forwarded to
him specimens of the insect.

"This insect is called at Antigua, and several other places in the West
Indies, the Mason Fly, a name given it from the remarkable manner in which
it builds its nest, or receptacle for its young.

"When the male and female have performed the business of copulation,
their[30] next care is to provide a proper habitation for raising and
securing their future progeny; to this end they seek out a proper spot that
is secure from rains, &c. and is so situated as to afford a {100}sufficient
warmth for the young offspring, but not so hot as to destroy instead of
nourishing them. The sides of a wall underneath the eaves of a house, is
the place often pitched on for this purpose. Thus prompted by nature, and
instinctively knowing the necessity of performing this work, they carry a
quantity of dirt, and place it against the wall, which they temper and
soften with a liquor issuing from their bodies, that renders it
sufficiently strong and tenacious, and when dry, is proof against any rains
that may happen to get at it. The nest is composed generally of about a
dozen cells, that are round, and sufficiently capacious to hold the
caterpillar when grown to its full size; each of which is about an inch
long, and about three-eighths of an inch in diameter, lying parallel with
each other, and formed in such a manner, that each cell lies between two
others, both above and below it, except the outward ones, having a hole
left open at the extremity of each, for the parents to go in and out at
pleasure. See Plate 45. Fig. 8. that at 9 being a nest supposed to be cut
through its middle, to shew the form of the cells, and manner of their
being built. The industry exerted on this occasion is remarkably great, for
in a few days the whole is completed. There is no doubt but the heat of the
climate greatly contributes to facilitate this work, as the dirt of which
it is composed is quickly dried, and by that means enables them to be very
expeditious. Their next employment is procuring a number of small spiders,
with which each cell is properly filled, and are to serve for food to the
young brood; of these they always take care to lay in such a sufficient
store, that the young ones seldom, if ever, perish from want. I have opened
many of these cells, and constantly found a spider remaining uneat,
sometimes two, and not seldom three, so that it is evident the parent
animal makes ample provision for the appetite of its young. By the time one
cell is replenished with provision, the pregnant female, finding the eggs
within her ripening to maturity, and under the necessity of discharging
them, lays a single one in the cell, and then covers up the hole with dirt,
which was left open for a passage, in so neat and curious a manner, that
the nicest eye could not discover the place where they used to enter. She
then proceeds in the same manner to the next, and so on, till all her eggs
are emitted and laid in their respective cells, each cell being furnished
with a single egg and no more. My correspondent assures me, he is not
certain whether the male assists in building the nest, or whether it is the
sole production of the female; but they both equally contribute to furnish
it with provision, which they carefully watch and preserve from the ants,
that in that hot climate would soon rob them of. In a little time the young
ones are hatched; and each, finding in its respective habitation a proper
quantity of food, subsists thereon, and there lives unseen, till it arrives
to its complete state. When it (the caterpillar) is advanced to its full
size, it forms round itself a brown case, as appears at Fig. 7. Plate 44.
and at Fig. 10. Plate 45. and in that inclosure undergoes its
transformation; when it puts on its form as at Fig. 8. Plate 44. remaining
with its legs, wings, and horns, closed round, as is there shewn, till it
has acquired strength to break its enclosure. At its first assuming this
form, it is white, soft, and tender, and its wings shorter than those in
the figure; in a few weeks its becomes hard, strong, and of its proper
{101}colour. The wings, also, before that time, grow to their proper size;
and now, finding itself arrived at a period when the forementioned
circumstance of its confinement is no longer necessary to its well being,
it obtains its liberty, by making a hole at the end of its cell, with its
jaws and fore legs, large enough to permit its escape.

"The separation of the thorax and abdomen, by such a long slender membrane
or ligament, is very singular, and the power the insect is invested with,
by means of those jaws or forceps placed at its mouth, is really wonderful;
for the number of insects, of a superior strength, as well as size, which
it is capable of destroying, is scarcely credible. It will overcome a
spider of twice its own size, if it can but get upon the back of it, by
means of its forceps and sting: nor will multitudes of other insects find
it a less formidable enemy, if they are not guarded by nature with a
covering too hard to yield to the force of these destructive weapons. In
short, it seems to be an animal formed by nature, as one of those
instruments instituted for subduing and lessening the vast numbers of small
insects that abound in warm climates."




Plate XLV. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Heteroptera. SECTION: Geocorisa, _Latr._
  FAMILY: Coreidæ, Leach. (Anisoscelites, _Laporte_.)

  GENUS. LEPTOSCELIS, _Laporte_. Anisoscelis p. _Burm_. Lygæus p. _Fabr._

  LEPTOSCELIS PICTUS. Niger, capitis lineâ dorsali, thoraceque crenulato
  rufis, hoc anticè maculâ margineque postico nigris, femoribus gracilibus
  denticulatis, abdomine supra cyaneo maculis marginalibus rufis. (Long.
  Corp. 7½ lin.)

  SYN. Cimex pictus. _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Lygæus crenulatus, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 4. 144. 33. _Syst. Rh._ 250. 11.
  (Alydus cr.)

  HABITAT: Antigua.

  Head small and slender; red, striped with black. Eyes round and
  projecting. Antennæ black, and nearly the length of the insect;
  four-jointed. Thorax red, with black marks near the head, and another
  near the abdomen; the sides lying high and angular. Scutellum black and
  triangular. Hemelytra dark (almost black), the apical membrane being
  rather less so than the basal portion. Wings almost transparent. Abdomen
  above, blue along the centre, and red on the edges, indented with black;
  beneath red and brown, as are also the breast and sides. Legs black.
  Hinder thighs, having several spines on them. The proboscis extends to
  about the middle of the abdomen.

This species is very closely allied to the insect figured in Plate 43, fig.
3.; nevertheless, their descriptions are placed very widely apart in the
Systema Rhyngotorum. They appear to form a good subgenus, nearly allied to
Hypselopus of Burmeister, which is confined to Africa.


Plate XLV. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Diploptera. FAMILY: Vespidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. EUMENES, _Fabr. Latr._ Vespa, _Linn. Drury_.

  EUMENES ABDOMINALIS. Fusco-fulva, antennis fuscis apice nigris, abdomine
  pyriformi petiolo longo nigro apice fulvo, segmento sequenti nigricanti.
  (Long. Corp. 10½ lin.)

  SYN. Sphex abdominalis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head brown yellow. Eyes black. Antennæ brown, but near their extremities
  black, being the length of the thorax. Thorax brown yellow. Wings
  membranaceous, yellowish, and almost transparent, being folded
  longitudinally. Abdomen round, and longer than the thorax, brown yellow;
  the first segment (exclusive of the peduncle) black, with several black
  spots or streaks on the under side. It is attached to the thorax by a
  curved peduncle, considerably less than itself, being black; but at the
  tip yellow, and of the length of the thorax. Breast and sides black,
  streaked with brown. Legs brown yellow, furnished with a spine at the
  tips of the tibiæ, except the hinder ones, which have two.


Plate XLV. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Hymenoptera. SECTION: Mellifera. FAMILY: Apidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. CENTRIS, _Fabr._ Apis, _Linn. Drury_.

  CENTRIS GROSSA. Aureo-viridis, nitida; antennis pedibusque nigris. (Magn.
  Bomb. terrestr.)

  SYN. Apis grossa, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head black, inclining to blue, with a mixture of green. Eyes large.
  Antennæ black, and shorter than the thorax. Tongue yellow, and secured
  within its brown case. Thorax shining, of a dark golden green, with a
  mixture of blue, having a few black hairs on it. Wings membranaceous and
  brown. Abdomen of the colour of the thorax, but underneath more of a
  mazarine blue. Breast the same. Legs hairy and black; posterior tibiæ
  more so than the others.

This fine species appears nearly allied to the Centris versicolor, Fabr.
(Syst. Piez. 359. 23.) which is an inhabitant of the Islands of America,
but which is described thus, "thorace hirto cinerascente, abdomine cyaneo,
ano rufescente."


Plate XLV. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Diptera. SECTION: Athericera. FAMILY: Muscidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. ECHINOMYIA, _Dumeril_. Tachina, _Fabr._ Musca, _Drury_.

  ECHINOMYIA HIRTA. Atra; alis obscuris, abdomine rufo-fusco setis longis
  nigris obsito, pedibus nigris. (Magn. Muscæ carnariæ.)

  SYN. Musca hirta, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  {103}Head black. Eyes light brown. Antennæ like jointed scales, not
  hairy. Thorax above almost black, with a few hairs on the sides. Wings
  brown and opake, not transparent. Abdomen red brown, covered with very
  long black hairs. Legs black.


Plate XLV. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Hemiptera. SUBORDER: Heteroptera. SECTION: Geocorisa. FAMILY:
  Reduviidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. REDUVIUS, _Fabr._ Cimex, _Linn._ Subgenus: Conorhinus, _Laporte_,
  _Burm._ Triatoma, _Lap. olim._

  REDUVIUS (CONORHINUS) VARIEGATUS. Niger; thoracis lateribus maculisque
  marginalibus abdominis ferrugineis, corio nigro rufo-marginato. (Long.
  Corp. fere 1 unc.)

  SYN. Cimex variegatus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Reduvius gigas, _Fabr. Syst. Rh._ 267. 3. _Burmeister_ II. 246. 1.?
  (Conorhinus G.) _Stoll._ 13. _f._ 85.? _Wolff_, 12. f. 113.?

  HABITAT: Antigua.

  Head black and small. Eyes black. Antennæ black, and shorter than the
  insect. Thorax black, the sides red brown and angular. Scutellum small,
  black, and angular. Basal portion of the hemelytra black, verged with
  red; the apical membrane opake and brown. Wings transparent. Abdomen
  black, with red spots on its sides, which are seen also beneath. Legs
  black, yellow at the base.

The antennæ of this insect, as represented in the figure, are quite unlike
those of any of the Reduviidæ, although in every other respect, and more
especially in the peculiar neuration of the membranous part of the upper
wings, it agrees with the Reduvius gigas of Fabricius, a species very
widely dispersed, being found in South America, Sierra Leone, East Indies,
as well as the Island of Mauritius.


Plate XLV. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Diptera. SECTION: Athericera. FAMILY: Syrphidæ, _Leach._.

  GENUS. ERISTALIS, _Meigen_. Musca, _Drury, &c._

  ERISTALIS CINCTUS. Ater; thorace punctis quatuor fasciâque posticâ
  sulphureis, abdomine castaneo fasciâ mediâ sulphureâ. (Magn. Musc.

  SYN. Musca Cincta, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head large and black. Eyes brown (antennæ broken off). Thorax black, with
  two yellow spots next the head, and one on each side, at the base of the
  wings, with a yellow line crossing it next the abdomen. Scutellum
  chesnut-coloured. Abdomen chesnut-coloured at the base, with a yellow
  ring crossing the middle; at the extremity golden green. Legs and breast
  black. Wings transparent.


Plate XLV. fig. 7.

  ORDER: Diptera. SECTION: Athericera. FAMILY: Muscidæ.

  GENUS. ECHINOMYIA, _Dumeril_. Tachina, _Fabr._ Musca, _Drury_.

  ECHINOMYIA PILOSA. Atra; setis rigidis numerosissimis obsita, alis opacis
  fuscis, capite brunneo. (Echin. hirtâ paullo minor.)

  SYN. Musca pilosa, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Tachina hystrix, _Fabr. Syst. Antl._ 310. 8. _Weidemann Auss. Zw. Ins._
  2. 284.

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head red brown. Antennæ short and thick, without hairs. Thorax and
  abdomen entirely covered with thick black hairs, or rather bristles, when
  compared with the size of the insect. Wings opake and brown, not
  transparent. Breast black, covered with black bristles. Legs black,




Plate XLVI. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Filicornes. FAMILY: Myrmeleonidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. MYRMELEON, _Linn. &c._

  MYRMELEON LIBELLULOIDES. Alis fusco punctatis maculatisque corpore nigro
  flavoque maculato. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Myrmeleon Libelluloides, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. _p._ 913. 1.
  _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 92. 1.? _Latr. Gen. Crust. & Ins._ 3. 191.

  Libella turcica major alis locustæ, _Pet. Gaz._ 6. _t._ 3. _f._ 1.

  HABITAT: Smyrna (_Drury_). "In Europa australiori et per totam Africam"

  Head dark yellow, divided by a black line, which runs along it from the
  thorax. Antennæ black and clubbed, small at the base, and gradually
  increasing to their extremities. Thorax brownish yellow; having a black
  line running along its upper part, and two small black spots at the base
  of the superior wings, being covered with greyish hairs. Abdomen about an
  inch and a quarter long, yellow, with a black line on the top, and one on
  each side; the male having two small horny tails issuing from the
  extremity. Wings membranaceous and pellucid (the inferior ones being as
  long as the superior), and elegantly adorned with a great number of dark
  spots of various shapes and sizes.

Fabricius gives the Cape of Good Hope as the habitat of this species,
referring not only to the present figure, but also to that given in Vol. 3.
Plate 41. which is said by Drury to have been brought from Sierra Leone.
This is the more inexcusable, because Drury expressly observed in a note,
"There is a species found near the Cape of Good Hope very much like this,
but distinctly different," although in the synoptical appendix to the third
volume, he gives the large species from Sierra Leone as a variety of M.


Plate XLVI. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Filicornes. FAMILY: Myrmeleonidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. EUPTILON, _Westw. Gen. Nov._ Hemerobius, _Linn. Drury._

  EUPTILON ORNATUM. Viride, thoracis puncto antico abdomineque lineâ
  dorsali nigris, alis hyalinis venis numerosissimis, strigisque duabus
  obliquis obscuris. (Expans. Alar. circ. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Hemerobius ornatus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Dinwiddie, in Virginia.

  Head dark green. Antennæ pectinated or combed. Eyes black. Thorax dark
  green, with a black patch next the head. Abdomen dark green, with small
  rings of yellow, and a small black line running along the upper side from
  the thorax to the extremity. Wings membranaceous and pellucid, or
  transparent, of equal length; the superior ones having two small
  transverse black stripes placed near their posterior edges, at about half
  an inch distance from each other.

Latreille, in his Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum, Vol. 3. p. 199, after
describing the genus Chauliodes belonging to the family Hemerobiidæ,
observes, "Congenerica videntur insecta a Dom. Drury iconibus vivis
expressa, tom. 1. Pl. 46. Fig. 2. 3." I have never seen the present
species, but from the admirable accuracy of Moses Harris (by whom the
figures were drawn) it is evident that the neuration of the wings of this
species is identical with that of Myrmeleon, agreeing especially with the
insect represented at Fig. 4. of this plate, and exhibiting the irregular
longitudinal nerve below the subcostal nerve and the strong furcate nerve
running along the middle of the wing; whilst, at the same time, the
neuration is quite unlike that of Fig. 3. Hence I have no hesitation in
placing this insect in the family Myrmeleonidæ. It however disagrees with
the genera of which that family is composed, viz. Myrmeleon, Linn.
(Myrmecoleon, Burm.) Ascalaphus, Fabr. and Nymphes, Leach, in having
bipectinated antennæ, so that I have been compelled to establish a new
genus for its reception. Can it be possible that, according to the not
uncommon practice of the time, the specimen had been mended, and that
pectinated antennæ had been substituted in the stead of the ordinary ones
of a Myrmeleon?


Plate XLVI. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Filicornes. FAMILY: Hemerobiidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. CHAULIODES, _Latreille._ Hemerobius, _Linn. Drury_.

  CHAULIODES VIRGINIENSIS. Capite thoraceque nigris fulvo punctatis, alis
  latis hyalinis venis nigro punctatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.)

  SYN. Hemerobius Virginiensis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Hemerobius pectinicornis, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 911. 1.? _Pal. Beauv.
  Ins. Afr. et Am. Neur. pl._ 1. _f._ 2.?

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  Head black, with a yellowish spot in the front, and another on the top.
  Eyes greyish, and shining like polished bell-metal. Antennæ pectinated or
  combed, and longer than the thorax. Ocelli three. Thorax black, with
  three small yellowish spots on the posterior part. Abdomen almost black
  at top, {106}and underneath of a greyish yellow (as are all the legs),
  having two short setæ or tails at the extremity. Wings membranaceous and
  transparent; the nerves appearing, when viewed by a magnifier, to be
  black and white, like the quills of a porcupine. Inferior wings shorter
  than the superior.

Drury has figured the wings as of an uniform colourless appearance, which
induces me to consider that it may be distinct from the Linnæan H.
pectinicornis, that species being described by the great Swede with
"_signaturis_ nervisque fuscis albo subarticulatis." From the paleness of
the present species it is evident that the transverse nerves connecting the
longitudinal ribs of the wings in the typical species of this genus have
been overlooked, especially as the longitudinal nerves are correctly
represented. This genus and Corydalis, seem to form a connecting link
between Hemerobius and Perla.


Plate XLVI. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Filicornes. FAMILY: Myrmeleonidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. MYRMELEON, _Linn, &c._

  MYRMELEON AMERICANUM. Thorace griseo nigro notato, alis hyalinis fusco et
  luteo punctatis, punctis nonnullis lineam centralem longitudinalem
  formantibus, abdomine fusco. (Expans. Alar. 5 unc.)

  SYN. Myrmeleon americanus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head black, front grey and hairy. Mouth with four long palpi. Eyes dark
  brown, almost black. Antennæ black, and as long as the thorax; being
  small at the base, and increasing in size to their extremities. Neck
  yellowish, striped with black, and covered with longish grey hairs.
  Thorax yellowish, with black stripes, and covered with long grey hairs.
  Abdomen, which is full an inch and a half long, brownish-coloured, and
  darker on the sides; being furnished at the extremity with two short
  hairy tails, seemingly of a horny substance. Wings of equal length,
  membranaceous and transparent, having a great number of small spots
  thereon of a dark brown colour; the superior ones being most spotted.
  Legs black, and covered with grey hairs; each of them being furnished at
  the tips of the tibiæ with two long spines that bend inwardly towards
  each other.


LIBELLULIDÆ, Pl. 47 & 48.

All the insects represented in these two plates belong to the genus
Libellula of Linnæus, or the family of Dragon-flies, Libellulidæ. When the
original edition of this work was published, there was no English work in
which the natural history and curious transformations of this tribe of
insects were detailed. Our author, therefore, in order to supply the
deficiency, published the following interesting series of observations upon
the subject:--

"As I have not met with any English author who has given the natural
history of the insects delineated in these two plates, I shall make no
apology for its introduction; {107}the frequent opportunities I have had of
observing their mode of life and action, together with the many singular
circumstances observable in both, being motives for its publication too
powerful to be resisted.

"It is not easy to determine whether they should be ranked among the water
insects, or those of the land, nor shall I attempt here to ascertain it; my
present business being only to relate the several circumstances attending
them during their respective states in which they are passing from the egg
to the complete animal: and although these observations have been confined
to our English ones, yet they so exactly agree and coincide with those of
foreign countries, (as my correspondents have assured me), that their
nature and behaviour appear to be just the same; so that what is observable
in ours, is at the same time applicable to the whole genus wherever found.

"If we take a cursory view of the different ranks of animals that inhabit
our globe, we shall hardly find one that can excite our wonder and
astonishment more than this genus; nor is it from that general ignorance of
the insect world, that reigns so strongly in these kingdoms, that I am
emboldened to say this; but if we reflect that the beasts, birds, and
reptiles are furnished with powers for living only in the air, and that
even the amphibious tribes can perform the office of respiration only in
that element: if we also consider that fishes, on the contrary, are unable
to respire but in water, and when deprived of that must certainly perish,
we cannot but conclude that all these animals are most wisely fitted with
means and faculties for filling up the respective orders and ranks wherein
they are placed. But let us cast our eyes on the subjects I am about to
describe, and there behold a tribe of beings, who, as soon as they leave
their eggs, subsist for a certain number of months, (I had almost said
years), creeping and swimming in the liquid element; are there invested
with organs and powers for existing and weathering out the utmost severity
and intemperance of the winter; that afterwards as the spring and summer
advances, and the period arrives when they are to appear in other forms, in
the space of about half an hour those very organs and powers that before
enabled them to live under water should be so entirely altered, the very
natures and abilities of the creatures so changed as to permit them to quit
their former element and place of residence, insomuch that all the
remaining part of their lives is spent in the open air, furnished with
wings, and flying about in the full glee of wanton liberty; that in a very
few weeks after, having performed the business of generation, the same
animals should die of mere old age, with their wings quite ragged and worn
out, their strength exhausted, and all the powers of their bodies lost by a
total imbecility and weakness, which but a little before enabled them to
transport themselves through the air with the swiftness of a bird. If, I
say, we reflect on all these circumstances, we cannot but allow them to be
objects of a very extraordinary nature, and well adapted for leading the
mind to the contemplation of their supreme Author, who has thought proper
to exhibit to us these kind of insects, thus differing from almost all the
animals in the creation.

{108}"They have been variously named by different authors, owing perhaps to
the time when they wrote, or the progress natural history had made in the
world. Some have called them by the name of Dragon Fly, others Adder Bolt,
Balance Fly, Perla, Libellula or Libella. I shall prefer the last, as
conveying an idea well known to English adepts. The caterpillars of them
all live in ponds and stagnant waters (that are undisturbed by cattle)
during the greatest part of their lives, and make their appearance under
three general forms. The first is shewn by Fig. 1. 1.; the second by Fig.
2.; and the third by Fig. 3. See Plate 47. As these are the shapes in which
they all appear, it will not be improper to mention each particularly.

"The two caterpillars at Fig. 1. 1. Plate 47, belong only to or produce
those that sit at rest, with their wings erect, (see Plate 48. Fig. 2.),
and differ from both the others not only in size but in the roundness and
slenderness of their bodies; at the extremity whereof they are furnished
with three tails, each of which upon examination being found to be a kind
of feather, and is an appendage that neither of the others have. Their
behaviour also in the water is different from the others, being enabled to
twist and bend their bodies in a more circular manner. [Subfamily

"The second sort of caterpillars, at Plate 47. Fig. 2. are much shorter and
thicker in their bodies than either of the others, producing those Libellas
with flat bodies, as Plate 47. Fig. 4. and 6. and Plate 48. Fig. 1. and 5.
These are, of all others, the most disagreeable in their appearance; most
of them having their bodies and legs very rough and shaggy, and of the
exact colour of mud. Others appear of a dirty green, and very unpleasing
hue, a colour that in general reigns among them all; for none can boast of
any beautiful appearance while in this state, unless the different shapes
here exhibited can be called so. Indeed the beauty and symmetry, so
apparent in their complete states, make ample amends for the want of it in
this; all of them in general being then very beautiful, discovering colours
superior to art. [Subfamily, Libellulides. Genus, Libellula.]

"The caterpillars of the third sort (see Plate 47. Fig. 3.) are very
different from the preceding, being the size of the figure, with the
abdomen flat at bottom and rounding at top, longer and slenderer than those
at Fig. 2. but not so much as those at Fig. 1. 1. These produce those large
Libellas with long slender bodies, who sit at rest with their wings
expanded, as Plate 47. Fig. 5. [Subfamily, Libellulides. Genus, Æshna.]

"Under these three forms are all the caterpillars of Libellas found, there
being but little difference in the colours or marks of the respective
tribes; the various sizes and shapes being the chief observable
circumstances attending them. They are all furnished with six legs, and
have each of them four little membranaceous substances issuing from the
back, or upper part of the thorax, that are the follicles, or cases,
wherein the wings are inclosed. When the young caterpillars issue from
their confinement in the eggs, there is no appearance of these cases, nor
till a considerable time after; but as they arrive to a maturer state they
become more conspicuous, and, like the young leaves of trees that open
{109}and expand themselves on the arrival of the spring, their appearance
increases, till having approached the period when they are to forsake their
former habitations and become inhabitants of the air, these wing-cases have
then arrived to their due size, and carry the appearance in which they are
here seen. They are all of them, from the largest to the smallest, armed
with a strong offensive weapon, which serves them, and is indeed the means
they are endued with, for obtaining their food. This weapon being placed in
the under part of the head, just beneath the mouth, I have displayed in
Fig. 1. and 3. of Plate 47. where it appears just in the same manner as
when they are endeavouring to catch their prey. In the largest figure at 1.
and also in Fig. 2. it appears contracted and shut up, as when at rest. The
strength and power that these animals discover in the use of this
instrument is very singular and extraordinary. There are two joints to it,
one about the middle, the other underneath the mouth, close to the throat;
and in some (particularly all those of Fig. 2.) when it is closed or
contracted, it appears fastened to the face of the creature, by fitting it
so exactly as to form a perfect mask; covering the mouth, and reaching
almost as high as the eyes. In others it is made to fit only the under part
of the mouth, and when at rest is drawn up close underneath it. At the
extremity of those that are extended may be observed two very strong and
remarkable fangs; that, shutting over each other, form a pair of forceps,
of such strength that few, if any of their captives, can escape if once
inclosed therein. [This organ is the greatly developed lower lip of the
larva, and is analogous in its structure to the same part in the imago.]

"The motion of these creatures in the water, particularly those of the
largest size, is very slow; seldom exercising any swiftness or activity,
unless they are disturbed and threatened with danger, in which case they
can transport themselves to places of more security with the quickness or
agility of a fish; but, in general, they appear to have so little
inclination to move, that I have often seen them (I mean those that I have
kept in glass bowls) remaining in their respective places above a week
together, and could not discover the least motion in them, unless under the
circumstance above mentioned, or when they had seen their prey and were
advancing to seize it. The caterpillars of Fig. 1. 1. and 3. generally fix
themselves to some little stick or straw, &c. that they find in the water,
and there remain, as I said before, without stirring. Those of Fig. 2. are
more frequently seen in motion among the thickest part of the roots and
plants that grow there, routing and searching for those small animals
inhabiting that part, which are their proper food. This aversion to motion,
so apparent in those of No. 1. and 3., appears to me to be the effect of an
extraordinary cunning and sagacity; and may be considered as the principal
means by which they obtain their prey: for while they continue thus
motionless in the water, the small animals, who constitute their proper
food, approach them with less fear than they would otherwise do, not
suspecting their grand enemy lies upon the watch to seize them the moment
they come within his reach; but no sooner has their insensibility of danger
brought them within a small distance of those destructive weapons
(mentioned before, being placed under their mouths) but that very instant
they dart upon them with {110}the utmost rapidity, suddenly throwing out
their forceps, and seizing them with as much eagerness as a pike does the
unwary gudgeon; they then bring their forceps up to their mouth with their
prey in it, and feast on their captive prisoner. Nor is their voracious
nature less astonishing; and the greediness with which the large ones seize
other small animals would hardly gain belief among persons entirely
ignorant of this study. I have seen one of them, in less than an hour's
space, devour three insects, each of which was full two thirds as big as
itself; but, in general, the small ones are the sacrifices made by the
greater; wherein I must observe, that when they have got a caterpillar of
the small Libellas in their forceps, such as those of Fig. 1. Plate 47.,
they leave no part uneaten, except the three tails, which they let fall to
the bottom, as perhaps not having substance in them sufficient to afford
them proper nourishment; for as their food consists altogether of animals
less than themselves, they neither spare the caterpillars of the lesser
Libellæ, nor confine themselves to those belonging to other tribes. They
will eagerly prey upon the different kinds of Cads, or caterpillars of the
Phryganeæ; great numbers of whom, at certain seasons, quit those husks or
cases they make and swim about, with less fear and dread than in the early
part of the spring. I have also seen the caterpillars of the Notanecta's or
Boat-flies devoured by them, and not seldom the small blood-worms, as they
are called. In short, there are but few of the lesser animals that live in
the water, but when once they get within the reach of their instruments
will certainly fall victims to these freshwater Leviathans.

"I could never observe that these caterpillars ever threw off any exuvia,
or skin, in their progress from the egg to the complete animal, as most
other insects do that live in the open air; neither could I ever perceive
any difference between the caterpillars and chrysalis's of this genus in
their outward forms[31]: the same voracious behaviour in seizing and
devouring their prey, reigning both in one and the other; but that they
internally undergo some material alteration, when passing their respective
states, is what I do not entertain the least doubt of; as the organs of
respiration during the creature's life in the water, appear to me to be
under a necessity of receiving a great alteration, when they are to perform
the same office in so different a medium as the air; nor can I suppose this
business to be done in so quick and sudden a manner, as the short space of
time in which the creature would then be passing from the caterpillar state
to the perfect one would permit, without having the intestines prepared, as
it were, and fitted by some previous change. However, as this is conjecture
only, I shall dwell no longer on this head, my present purpose being to
point out and describe their general circumstances and behaviour.

"When the caterpillars of the respective species have arrived to their full
growth, and nature informs them they are to quit their former element of
water, for one wherein they are to appear invested with very different
powers, they prepare for this extraordinary change; and, creeping up the
sticks, straws, or plants they find for their purpose, whose tops grow out
of the water, they entirely quit that element, and, stopping at about six
or {111}eight inches above its surface, there fix themselves, and continue
some time, till their internal form, growing too big to be confined within
the skin, that a few minutes afterwards will be entirely thrown off, on a
sudden, that part of it that covers the thorax, splits or bursts on the
upper side, and the creature, pushing out its head, next disengages its
fore legs, which fastening to any substance within its reach, draws gently
the remainder of its body and legs entirely out, just as a man draws his
leg out of a boot, leaving its slough or skin sticking in its place, and in
the exact form wherein it appeared itself but a few moments before. Having
thus quitted its former covering, it waits for the wings to expand
themselves, and grow to their proper size, being before confined within
those small cases I mentioned were placed on its back. In about half an
hour, if the weather is favourable, this extraordinary operation is
completed; and the wings having arrived to their proper size, the creature
generally makes an effort to try its strength, well knowing, that if it
fails in attempting to fly without being endued with a sufficient degree of
it, it must certainly fall in that water it lately quitted, and there
perish; but having made several motions with its wings, and finding its
power equal to its desire, it suddenly flies into the air, and there fills
up a character, as different from the former as one element is from the
other. At the time this change is accomplishing, the instrument or weapon
for catching their prey, before mentioned, by an effect of nature, totally
disappears, and not the least vestige of it then remains; the mouth,
indeed, is furnished with jaws, and those of a very extraordinary form
(dividing themselves both horizontally and perpendicularly), but no part of
them appear extended beyond the rest, or have the least appearance of being
furnished with an instrument like what they had in their former state.[32]

"Hitherto I have considered these creatures only in their infant or
incomplete states; wherein the faculties and powers they are endued with,
are entirely different from those of their perfect and complete ones. In
the former I have described them swimming and grovelling about in the
water, preying upon the lesser kinds of insects, being incapable of
subsisting for any length of time out of that element; in the latter we
must view them capable of flying in the open air, and conveying themselves
from place to place. If they are then confined to the limits of a small
pond, they are now capable of roving from tree to tree, and from field to
field, darting and skimming along with all the rapidity and seeming joy,
that a being sensible of, and exulting in its own powers, can be supposed
to do; in short, we {112}must now view them in shapes so distinct and
different from their former ones, that they hardly seem to bear any
relation to each other, except in their nature and appetites; for although
they appear in a far more elegant dress than when in their caterpillar
states, yet these are just the same, the same voracious inclinations
subsisting now as formerly; hunting after, and preying upon, the lesser
genera, with the same eagerness and desire as they did when inhabitants of
the water. Incredible numbers of small moths, bees, flies with four and two
wings, are the daily sacrifices offered to the insatiable appetites of
these hungry gluttons; and where they devoured one insect in the water they
now destroy a hundred, if the mildness of the season will permit them to
range about in quest of them. In rainy weather they seldom or ever move,
nor when the wind is very strong and boisterous. Indeed, it is not to be
wondered at. The small insects, who are their proper food, being by the
same reasons prevented from being abroad, consequently are an impediment to
those motives, that so strongly induce the Libellas to fly about. During
such inclement times they generally shelter themselves from the wind, &c.
being suspended by their feet in a perpendicular position on some twig,
that is remote and separate from any boughs, waiting in that manner,
without motion, for better weather and sunshine.

"I am strongly inclined to believe, that the greater part, if not all the
Libellas, are two years in passing from the egg to the complete animal. But
as this is a circumstance I do not remember to have seen in any author, I
shall not attempt to establish my opinion as an absolute truth. I shall
mention my reasons for this belief, and leave it to every person either to
confirm or confute it, as his observations shall hereafter give him an

"In order to do this, it would be necessary I should mention the times when
each species first makes its appearance here in England. But as this would
not only take up too much of the reader's time, (there being at least
twenty-two of them) but it would likewise be impossible to be understood by
any, but the experienced adept, unless I gave figures of them all; I shall
therefore content myself with observing, that the Libella figured in Plate
47. Fig. 5. though found in America, about New York, &c. is nearly the same
with our English one, differing but a very little from it, and which I have
inserted chiefly as an instance to illustrate this subject. Ours is the
last species but one, that comes forth in the summer, breeding only once a
year, appearing about the 2nd of August. Therefore, to elucidate this
point, suppose we allow a fortnight or three weeks from that time for all
the Libellas of this species to make their appearance in, that nature
intended should be bred that year; but in order to set this matter in the
strongest light, I shall allow a month to that purpose. If, therefore, the
Libellas were only one year in passing from the egg to the perfect state,
we might justly conclude, that after the 2nd of September, (a month from
the time of their first appearing) all of this species would have arrived
to their complete states; and that none of their caterpillars could be
found in the waters after that time, by reason they had all quitted that
element, and were become flying insects. This, I say, is the conclusion we
might fairly, and without presuming on the matter, make. But this is
{113}very far from being the case. For let any one examine stagnant waters
at any time during the months of August, September, or October, and from
thence in any part of the following winter, and he will find these very
caterpillars at any of those times: and this, not in any one particular
year, but they will be found also in any one whatever, fully fed, and of
the largest size. Nor are the caterpillars of this species the only ones to
be found fully fed. Those of No. 2. belonging to the flat-bodied Libella,
will also be found very plentifully, many of them being of the first
magnitude, together with numbers of the same species, very young according
to the time of year when sought for; and appearing to have been hatched
from those eggs that were laid by parent insects in the spring; for such I
must conclude them to be, how else can we account for their smallness, at
the same time that we may find others of the largest size? We must not
suppose there can be this difference of size in the same species, owing to
some eggs having been laid three weeks or a month sooner than others; that,
being so short a space of time as not to allow it possible for one of those
caterpillars to attain its full size, (and all the species of flat-bodied
Libellas appear within a month of each other.) Nor can we be so deceived as
to mistake a species of the long-bodied caterpillars, for one of the
short-bodied; the difference being extremely apparent at the first glance.

"These reasons appear to me so convincing, I should have thought myself
inexcuseable to have passed them over in silence, when I was giving the
history of these animals. I shall therefore think myself happy to have this
circumstance corroborated by future experience, or rectified and cleared
up, if found to be an error. I shall only say, I have dwelt the longer on
it, as it is an observation I never heard of before. I have likewise
singled out the largest Libella, and the flat-bodied ones for its
illustration, as being more conspicuous by their size, and easier to be
observed than those of the smaller sorts.

"The two principles of hunger and lust, so apparent through the animal
kingdom, are in no class or tribe more manifest and visible than in these
insects. The former I have described and explained through their different
states; it remains for me to shew the manner in which they obey the calls
of the latter. And herein I must observe, that the different manner in
which the act of copulation is performed, depends on the difference of the
respective kinds; the organs of generation being placed in different parts
of the body, according to the distinct species. All the flat-bodied ones
have those parts placed in common with most other insects, at the extremity
of the tail. In all the slender-bodied ones, the organ of the male is
placed next the breast, close to the part where the thorax and abdomen
unite; while the same organ in the female lies in the very extremity of the
tail, and the singular manner of these creatures coupling is a circumstance
worthy of observation.

"As soon as they have arrived to their perfect state, the males seek out
their mates, in order to propagate their species; for this purpose they
frequent ponds and standing waters, places where the females generally
harbour, and when the male in the course of his flight comes within a
certain distance of her, if it be one of that species whose sexual parts
{114}in both sexes are placed in the tail, he immediately flies to her, and
fixing himself by his feet to the hinder part of her abdomen, bends his
body round her tail, and performs the business of generation, both flying
about all the time this act is performing; the whole transaction not
exceeding the space of half a minute. Within a few hours after, the female,
thus impregnated, begins to lay her eggs in the following manner. She
singles out a leaf, grass, or some such matter, that is floating just below
the surface of the water, in some pond, and, hovering in the air about a
foot above this spot, on a sudden she descends, and dips the extremity of
her tail in the water, at which instant she discharges an egg, that at the
moment of its emission is inveloped in a glutinous liquid, sufficiently
tenacious to enable it to adhere firmly on the floating substance
above-mentioned without sinking. In this manner she continues depositing
them till she has discharged the proper quantity, hovering in the air all
the time, and emitting them as fast as the pendulum of a clock performs its
vibrations; placing them close to one another in no regular or exact order.
Whether she discharges at one time all her quantity of eggs, or only those
that were fecundated and ready for emission, waiting to have the remaining
eggs within her again fecundated by the male, or whether the first act of
copulation sufficiently impregnates the whole quantity which she discharges
at different times, as nature ripens them, is a circumstance I cannot
determine. However this may be, it is certain she does not discharge them
all at once; but comes again to the same place, when those within her are
ready for emission, and there lays them in the same manner as at first.

"In this manner all the flat-bodied Libellas copulate and lay their eggs;
the others, which are formed with slender bodies, behave very differently
in every circumstance; for in each of those species, when the male has
singled out its mate, he flies to her, and by means of two little bony
substances placed at the end of his tail, issuing on each side, and
composing a kind of forceps, he fixes himself to the forepart of her neck,
close behind the head, the female discovering no sign of fear while he is
performing this action; having fixed himself in this position, he remains
there several days, sometimes appearing with his body quite erect, at other
times bending himself, and settling with his legs on the same substance she
may happen to alight on, without ever quitting his hold; but flies through
the air, thus united, wherever the fancy or inclination of the female
disposes her to go. This behaviour we must consider as a prelude to
copulation, for that is not performed till a considerable time after they
are thus united; and therefore I look on it as a wooing, or act of
courtship in the male. But having remained a sufficient time in this
manner, that is, till the female is disposed to receive him, she bends her
tail round to that part where I described the organ of generation to be
placed in the male, and, being still held fast by the neck, in that
attitude they perform the mandate of nature. This action being over, that
in the smaller kinds takes up a considerable space of time (for I have
known them in this posture above eighteen hours) the female soon after
begins to lay her eggs. She flies to some rush, reed, or other plant
growing in the water, and settling close to its edge dips {115}the end of
her tail a little below the surface, and fixes her eggs to the rush or
substance she is settled on; which, by means of the glutinous matter all
eggs of this kind are surrounded with, adheres sufficiently fast, and there
remains till the heat of the sun has brought the young animal into life;
which immediately on quitting its confinement sinks to the bottom, or
repairs to the place where nature directs it to seek out its food.

"In this manner all the slender-bodied tribe behave, differing only in some
particular circumstances; as, for instance, the largest Libellas, as that
at Fig. 5. Pl. 47. are not near so long in copulating or wooing as the
small ones; for by the former this act is performed in a very short space,
and while they are flying about in the air. Others, of a smaller size, are
less quick in this performance; and as we descend to the smallest species,
we shall find they take by much the longest time; observing, by the way,
that all these slender-bodied ones lay their eggs in the same manner, that
is, by fixing them to some substance to which they adhere, till they are
ripened into life. My experience well informing me they never scatter them
in any loose careless manner as some insects do, but are placed in such
proper and apt situations as to receive the influence of the sun to bring
them to maturity.

"If we attentively consider these creatures, either in their caterpillar or
complete states, we cannot help concluding them to be a rank of beings of
greater benefit and advantage to mankind than they appear to be at first
view; for, not to mention their being annual 'ministers of nature,' they
are appointed by the great Governor of the universe as grand instruments
for assisting to preserve that equilibrium so apparently reigning through
the insect world, and which all who have made any progress in the study of
natural history unanimously confess. Hence the voracious disposition of the
Libellas is wisely made to answer a most necessary and beneficial purpose;
and the great numbers of small insects which are daily sacrificed to their
insatiable appetites, both in their caterpillar as well as complete states,
is as strong an instance as any I know of the necessity and propriety of
the existence of these animals. The general principle reigning through the
whole animal kingdom, of the stronger preying upon the weak and
defenceless, can hardly be explained to the purpose of being useful to
mankind, and agreeable to the laws of nature, in any one instance more than
is evidently to be observed in the subjects I have been describing. The
least reflection will confirm this; for if the food of the Libellas when in
their complete forms had consisted of the leaves of plants, like the locust
genus, and not of those small insects they now prey on; or had it, like the
beetle tribe, consisted of the superfluous parts of nature, as the putrid
carcases of dead animals, rotten wood, &c. how great a chasm would there
have been in the universal chain? how evident and conspicuous would it have
appeared? and how could the vast number of small insects, increasing every
day during the summer, be restrained and lessened? what genus of the
transparent-winged class could possibly have performed this business
singly? or could all the genera of flies, and even birds that we know of,
have accomplished this end? could all the Dipteræ, or any other {116}kinds
that prey on the lesser genera, have prevented such an increase of them as
to become in a little time a plague too great to be borne? No. The Almighty
Creator has most wisely constituted this genus for executing His commands
in the manner I have described; and for this reason they must be considered
as beings of greater consequence than the inconsiderate part of mankind
allow them to be.

"Nor is this the only advantage arising from their existence. The still
waters, where these creatures are inhabitants during their infant state,
are in some degree by their assistance preserved sweet and good, that
otherwise might corrupt and putrify, for the motion the waters receive by
these insects is not trifling; the respiration they perform in that element
being observable by a close attention, which, together with that and the
motion of thousands of other insects, does in some measure contribute to
keep it sweet and wholesome."




Plate XLVII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. LIBELLULA, _Linn. &c._

  LIBELLULA LYDIA. Subænea, abdomine ([male]) coeruleo lateribus luteis,
  alis hyalinis, singulâ strigâ parvâ basali fasciâque latâ transversâ pone
  medium, fusco-chalybeis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Lydia, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  Front of the head green. Eyes dark brown, very large, and placed near
  each other. Thorax green, having on each side two transverse yellow
  stripes. Abdomen of the male blue, with small yellow indented marks on
  the sides; that of the female yellow; the former having two little horny
  substances like tails at the extremity, which are wanting in the female.
  Wings reticulated and transparent; the middle of each being of a very
  dark blue colour, occupying about a third part, and crossing them from
  the anterior to the posterior edges, which by the reflection of white
  paper becomes dark brown. A dark brown stripe also, about a quarter of an
  inch in length, issues from the base of each wing, almost joining to the
  anterior edge; below which the males have a white patch placed on their
  inferior wings.


Plate XLVII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. ÆSHNA, _Fabr._ Libellula, _Linn. &c._

  ÆSHNA JUNIA. Fuscescens, unicolor (in vivis virescens?), alis hyalinis,
  costâ pallidè infuscatâ, stigmate oblongo, nigro. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 3

  SYN. Libellula Junia, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: New York.

  Head large, and in front of a brown yellow. Eyes brown, almost black,
  large, and placed close together. Thorax, when the insect was living,
  apparently green. The abdomen is now brown, but {117}was probably green
  also; for these kind of insects are very subject to lose the gay colours
  they exhibited when alive. Wings reticulated and transparent, appearing
  of a brownish colour along the anterior edges; having a small slender
  black stripe, about a quarter of an inch long, placed thereon near the
  tips, and a small angular white spot at the base of each next the body.

"This insect is very much like one we have in England, but not entirely so,
differing in some circumstances from ours; and is introduced rather as a
subject for illustrating the history of these insects, than as a specimen
meriting a place in this work."--_Drury._


Plate XLVII. fig. 6.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.


  LIBELLULA SERVILIA. Alis hyalinis, basi flavis, thorace fusco, abdomine
  rubro. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Servilia, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (1773.)

  Libellula ferruginata, _Fabr. Mant. Ins._ 336. 11.

  Libellula ferruginea, _Fabr. Ent. Syst. t._ 2. _p._ 380.

  HABITAT: China.

  This insect was of a beautiful red colour when living, but is now much
  altered; being considerably darker. Head red brown. Eyes darker, but not
  black. Thorax red brown; having a kind of ridge running along the middle
  of its upper side. Abdomen red brown, flat underneath, but above
  terminating in a high ridge, from the extremity of which a small black
  line runs along the upper ridge to the thorax. Wings reticulated and
  transparent; having a small, slender, dark stripe placed near the tip of
  each, and also near the body a small reddish brown cloud.




Plate XLVIII. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.


  LIBELLULA CAROLINA. Thorace fusco, abdomine ([male]) coeruleo, alis
  hyalinis, posticis basi dentato maculâ magnâ ferrugineâ flavo cinctâ.
  (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Carolina, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 2. 904. 17. _Amoen. Acad._ 6.
  411. 85. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 382.

  Libellula Chinensis, _De Geer, vol._ 3. _tab._ 26. _f._ 1.

  HABITAT: New York, Virginia, China, Madras (_Drury_).

  Front of the head dark yellow. Eyes large, and situated near together.
  Thorax dirty green. Abdomen round; and in some appears to have been of a
  yellow, in others of a blue, colour. Wings reticulated and transparent;
  the superior (being narrowest) have only a small dark spot on the
  anterior edge of each near the extremity; all the remaining part being
  transparent. The inferior have also a small dark spot on each, like the
  superior; but close to the abdominal edge they have a large dark
  {118}cloud on each, which reaches from the anterior edge almost to the
  posterior. At this part the wings are much broader than is generally
  observed in any of this genus; gradually widening from the extremity to
  the abdominal edge.


Plate XLVIII. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. AGRION, _Fabr._ Libellula, _Linn._ Calepteryx, _Leach_.

  AGRION VIRGINICA. Aureo-viridis, abdomine nigro, alis fusco-luteis apice
  nigricantibus, stigmate ([female]) albo. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula virgo var. Gamma, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (Exclus. Syn.

  HABITAT: Virginia.

  Head beautiful golden green. Eyes round, black, not so large as those in
  the other figures, and placed at a distance from each other. Thorax
  golden green. Abdomen black, long, and slender. Legs black, very spinose.
  Wings reticulated, and of a fine shining brown, somewhat inclining to
  dark blue, with a remarkable white oval spot near the tips of each, which
  part is much darker than the rest; but in the males is the same, the
  wings there being of a deep mazarine blue, almost black, and without the
  white spots.

Drury observes of this insect, that "it is somewhat like one we have in
England, but distinctly different, and soon to be discovered by comparing
them together." He nevertheless applied to it the name of the English
species, which I have been consequently obliged to reject.


Plate XLVIII. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.

  GENUS. AGRION, _Fabr._ Libellula, _Linn._ Calepteryx, _Leach_.

  LIBELLULA BERENICE. Lutea, thorace nigro lineato, abdomine ([male])
  coeruleo; ([female]) luteo; alis hyalinis nubilâ centrali costali fuscâ
  stigmateque nigro. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Berenice, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Virginia, New York, Maryland.

  Front of the head yellow. Eyes brown, large, and joined close together.
  Thorax yellow, and beautifully marked with black stripes, both at top and
  on its sides; the former running parallel with it, the other obliquely.
  Abdomen yellow, the characteristic of the female; but in the other sex
  blue, with black joints. Legs black. Wings transparent, with a slender
  black spot near the tips of each; in the middle of each also is a rather
  large dark cloud placed on the anterior edge, and another at the base
  next the body.


Plate XLVIII. fig. 4.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, Leach.

  GENUS. CORDULEGASTER. _Leach_, _Steph._ Libellula p. _Drury_.

  CORDULEGASTER SABINA. Ænea, thorace nigro lineato; abdomine clavato
  nigro, flavo annulato, alis hyalinis stigmate minuto. (Expans. Alar. 3
  unc. 3 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula Sabina, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: China, and the Island of Johanna, near Madagascar.

  Front of the head green. Eyes brown, large, and placed close together.
  Thorax green, with three black longitudinal stripes at top, and with
  several others running obliquely on its sides. Abdomen, next the thorax,
  large and green, with black transverse stripes, but of a sudden becomes
  very small and slender for about five-eighths of an inch; black, with
  yellow rings; afterwards it becomes broad near the extremity, where it is
  black, the apex being yellow. Legs black. Wings transparent, except a
  small slender spot near the tips of each on the anterior edges.


Plate XLVIII. fig. 5.

  ORDER: Neuroptera. SECTION: Subulicornes. FAMILY: Libellulidæ, _Leach_.


  LIBELLULA PULCHELLA. Thorace villoso olivaceo, lineolis duabus sub alis,
  abdomine ([male]) coeruleo lateribus luteis; alis hyalinis maculâ baseos
  fasciâ mediâ apiceque fuscis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Libellula pulchella, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. (1773.)

  Libellula bifasciata, _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 374. (1793.)

  HABITAT: New York.

  Front of the head green. Eyes brown, large, and placed close together;
  behind each are two yellow spots, one round, the other oblong. Thorax
  hairy, and of a dirty brownish green; having on the sides two long yellow
  spots placed obliquely above one another, the under one being the
  shortest. Abdomen flattish, but triangular; in the male blue, but in the
  female yellow. Legs black. Wings transparent, with a small brown cloud on
  the tip of each; from whence issues along the anterior edge, a slender
  black stroke near the middle of each wing. Another small brown cloud
  begins on the anterior edge, and reaches about two-thirds cross the wing.
  At the base of each, also, a third dark cloud of a longish form seems to
  extend from the body near the anterior edge, to almost a third part of
  the wing. Between these clouds the males have a remarkable white patch or
  spot on each wing, and also another on the abdominal edge of the
  posterior ones, all which are not to be discerned in the females.




Plate XLIX. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Locustidæ (Acridites,

  GENUS. LOCUSTA. Gryllus; Sect. Locusta, _Linn._ Gryllus, _Fabr._
  Acrydium, _Latr._ (SUBGENUS. Rutidoderes, _Westw._ Acrydium, _Serv._ )

  LOCUSTA (RUTIDODERES) SQUARROSA. Viridis, pronoto tripartito spinoso,
  elytris viridibus fusco-punctatis, alis rubris nigro punctatis. (Expans.
  Alar. 4 unc.)

  SYN. Gryllus Squarrosus, _Linn. Mant._ 533. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 52.

  HABITAT: Sierra Leone.

  {120}Head green. Eyes perfectly round and dark brown, very prominent, and
  standing at a little distance from each other. Antennæ 18-jointed, longer
  than the thorax, which is dark green, and on the upper part gibbous;
  having on each side three swellings, each of which terminates in three
  short and thick spines. Tegmina darkish green, with a great number of
  small black spots on them of different shapes. Wings scarlet, spotted
  with black; the spots being larger than those of the wing-cases, and of
  different shapes. Abdomen green, with several yellow rings surrounding
  it, and about the same length as the tegmina. Legs green; the thighs
  being armed with spines.

Our author states, that he was informed by a gentleman who lived several
years at Sierra Leone, and by whom this species was communicated to him,
that "they appear about the end of June, and soon afterwards retire among
the branches of the palm trees, where they reside till the violent rains
compel them to quit that situation, and live among the plants, &c. on the
ground." In the Introduction to the third volume, he however states on the
authority of Mr. Smeathman, that "this beautiful locust is an inhabitant of
the sandy plains, called Savannas, which indeed abound with palms; but my
friend is in doubt whether they have any kind of predilection for those

"'Although the hot climates abound in every part with insects of the locust
and cicada kinds, insomuch that their chirping, particularly that of the
cicadas, becomes in some instances intolerable; yet in the sandy plains
before mentioned, which are thinly covered with grass, their numbers are
immensely greater, and of various kinds, sizes, and colours, skipping or
flirting about in all directions at every step of the traveller.' Perhaps,
indeed, their kinds may not be so various as one would at first imagine,
the same insect differing so much from itself in the various periods of its
life. From the fact however here mentioned, it seems most certain that
these insects breed under ground in Africa, as well as in these climates,
according to Linnæus and other entomologists."

From the knowledge which we possess at the present time relative to the
economy of this tribe of insects, it is necessary to observe, upon the last
above-quoted passage, that the term "breeding under ground," must be
restricted to the mere circumstance of the eggs being buried beneath the
surface of the earth, because the insects in all their active stages
(including that of the pupa) feed upon grass and other vegetable substances
above ground.

In following up the very proper plan proposed and partially effected by Mr.
Kirby, in the Zoological Journal, of restoring to the primary divisions of
the Linnæan genus Gryllus the names which he gave to them, and which have
been so confusedly employed by Fabricius and the French entomologists, and
of which I have elsewhere given a more complete explanation, it is
necessary that the generic name Locusta should be restored to the true
migratory locusts composing the genus Acrydium of Latreille, and that a new
name (Rutidoderes) should be given to the subgenus Acrydium of Serville,
comprising the present and other allied species.


Plate XLIX. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Saltatoria. FAMILY: Locustidæ (Acridites,

  GENUS. LOCUSTA. Gryllus; Sect. Locusta, _Linn._ Gryllus, _Fabr._
  Acrydium, _Latr._ (SUBGENUS: Locusta. Oedipoda, _Serville_.)

  LOCUSTA TARTARICA. Thorace subcarinato tripartito; fusco, lineâ dorsali
  pallidâ; elytris fulvescentibus fusco punctatis, alis hyalino
  subvirescentibus. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 6 lin.)

  SYN. Gryllus tartaricus? _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. _p._ 700. 42. _Fabr.
  Ent. Syst._ 2. 53. _Serville Revis. Orthopt. p._ 92. (Acryd. t.)

  Gryllus americanus, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  HABITAT: Virginia, Antigua, New York, Madras, and Sierra Leone (_Drury_).
  "Tartaria et Africa." (_Linn._)

  Head striped with dark and light brown. Eyes oblong. Thorax dark brown;
  having a light brown stripe running along it from the front of the head,
  which, when the wings are closed, is continued along the margin of the
  tegmina; on the sides it is light brown, and margined beneath with
  stripes and spots of dark buff. Antennæ thread-like, and about the length
  of the thorax. Tegmina dark buff-coloured, almost transparent, variegated
  with stripes and spots of different shapes; those next the shoulders
  being nearly black, and those toward the extremity more transparent.
  Wings very thin, and more transparent than the tegmina, being of a
  greenish hue. Abdomen light brown on the sides; having a small stripe of
  a paler colour running along it, and on the upper ridge is black. Legs
  pale brown. Hinder thighs almost square, the outer sides being white and
  prettily chequered, which, when viewed by a magnifier, seem like scales
  laid over one another; on the outside of the tibiæ is a round white spot,
  and over that a long black one. Posterior tibiæ brownish red, with two
  rows of spines on the hinder sides of a white colour, and tipped with
  black, consisting of nine in the outer and eleven in the inner row.

The different habitats given of this insect by Drury, leads to believe that
he had confounded several closely allied species under one name,
Americanus; which I should have adopted, but for its inapplicability for
the individuals of the Old World. It is also on the like account that I
have given the reference to Linnæus with doubt, although Fabricius cites
Drury's figure under Gryllus tartaricus without any hesitation.




Plate L. fig. 1.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Mantidæ.

  GENUS. EMPUSA, _Latr. Serv._ Gongylus, _Thunberg_. Mantis, _Fabr. Drury_.

  EMPUSA PENNICORNIS. Capite subulato, prothorace longissimo, femoribus
  anticis fusco trifasciatis, alis virescentibus. (Long. Corp. 2 unc. 1½

  SYN. Mantis pectinata, _Drury, App. vol._ 2.

  Empusa pectinicornis, _Fabr. Ent._ 2. 25. _Oliv. Enc. Méth. No._ 32.
  _Serville Revis. Orthopt._ 21. (nec _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 691. _No._

  HABITAT: Jamaica.

  Head yellowish brown; the upper part terminating in a point like a strong
  spine. Antennæ strongly pectinated or combed, and about half the length
  of the thorax. Thorax long and slender, flat on the under side, and
  rounded at top. Tegmina very thin, green, and almost transparent;
  extending, when {122}closed, beyond the abdomen. Wings green,
  transparent, towards the tips brownish, being near the same length as
  their cases. Abdomen about the length of the thorax, and near the
  extremity three times its breadth. Fore legs brownish yellow, with dark
  spots on them. Trochanters terminating in a thick spine; femora on the
  outer side furnished with two rows of spines, and a deep groove between
  them, which seems formed for receiving the tibiæ when closed up, like as
  the blade of a razor is received in the haft. Tibiæ furnished at the
  extremity with a strong spine, bending inwards, from whence the tarsi
  arise. Middle and hinder legs furnished with two spines at the tips of
  the tibiæ, and at the tips of the femora with one; having four small
  membranes almost joining to them.

This insect has been considered by all writers as identical with the
Linnæan Mantis pectinicornis; but as that insect is described by Linnæus as
an inhabitant of China, and the former as found in Jamaica, I have thought
it more correct to restore the name of pectinicornis to the Linnæan insect,
and give that figured by Drury another denomination.


Plate L. fig. 2.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Mantidæ.

  GENUS. EMPUSA, _Latr. Serv._ Gongylus, _Thunberg_. Mantis, _Fabr. Drury_.

  EMPUSA GONGYLODES. Capite subulato, prothorace antice dilatato,
  trochanteribus anticis spinâ, femoribus quatuor posticis lobo terminatis.
  (Long. Corp. 3 unc. 4½ lin.)

  SYN. Mantis Gongylodes, _Linn. Syst. Nat._ 1. 2. 690. 4. _Stoll. Mant.
  t._ 16. _f._ 58. 59. 61. _Fabr. Ent. Syst._ 2. 17. 17. _Serville Revis.
  Orthopt._ 21. _Roesel. Ins._ 2. _Gryll. tab._ 7.

  HABITAT: Madras (and Philadelphia, sed? _Drury_). Africa, Asia
  (_Fabricius_). East India (_Serville_).

  Head yellow, exactly resembling the colour of a withered leaf, and
  inclining downwards; terminating at top in a spine, with a small membrane
  on each side. Antennæ short, and thread-like; about the length of the
  head. Thorax very slender, flat at bottom, rounded at top, and grooved on
  the sides; being about the length of the abdomen, exactly representing a
  twig of a tree, being furnished on each side next the head with a thin
  yellow membrane of an angulated shape. Tegmina yellow, about two-thirds
  the length of the abdomen; the edges are margined, and the principal
  tendons by which they are united to the body extend like the rib of a
  leaf from the base to the extremity; several other smaller ribs or
  tendons branching out from the first, make them the exact figures of the
  leaves of trees. Wings green and transparent, except on the anterior
  edges, and rather shorter than the tegmina. Abdomen yellow, broad towards
  the extremity, but where it joins the thorax it is narrow, terminating at
  the anus in a short point; having two smaller ones above it on the last
  segment but one. Middle and hind legs greyish brown, and shaped exactly
  like the twig of a tree; the former being furnished at the tips of the
  tibiæ with three small spines, and the latter with two; each of the
  femora has a single spine to it, and close thereto are placed three
  membranes; two on the fore part, smaller than that behind, which is
  circular and remarkably thin. Fore legs yellow, with brown spots or
  clouds on them. Trochanters flat and thin, and ending in a short strong
  spine, a little crooked. Femora broad, and on the outer side thick and
  hollow, with two rows of spines; but on the inner side very thin and
  smooth. Tibiæ joining to the shins, long and triangular; the under side
  being hollow, and furnished with two rows of {123}small teeth like hairs;
  the extremity terminating in a long sharp spine, from whence issue the
  tarsi. Middle and hind legs furnished with two spines at the tips of the


Plate L. fig. 3.

  ORDER: Orthoptera. SECTION: Cursoria. FAMILY: Phasmidæ. (Spectra,

  GENUS. BACTERIA, _Latr._ Mantis, _Drury._

  BACTERIA LINEARIS. Obscurè fusca (viridis insecto viventi) pedibus
  gracilibus simplicibus. (Long. Corp. 2 unc. 4½ lin.)

  SYN. Mantis linearis, _Drury, App. vol._ 2. _Gray Syn. Phasm. p._ 17.
  (Bacteria? l.)

  HABITAT: Antigua.

  This insect resembles a parcel of straws united together, being entirely
  wingless, and is indeed, but incorrectly, stated by Drury to be the larva
  of an insect like that at Fig. 1. Its general colour, as he was informed,
  is green; but having received it in spirits, it had become of a dusky
  brown colour. Head small and long, reaching almost to the fore legs. Eyes
  round and black. Antennæ like hairs; being as long as the insect itself.
  Body, which extends from where the hinder legs are placed, consisting of
  nine segments, almost as long as the remaining part of the insect; those
  legs being fixed nearly in the middle, at a small distance from whence
  are placed the middle legs.

This insect belongs to a singular and numerous family, known to collectors
by the names of Spectres, or Walking-stick insects; and others,
Walking-leaves, from the strong resemblance which they exhibit to pieces of
dried sticks and detached leaves.

The insect here figured appears to be in an immature state, and would
probably in its final state have acquired wings. Our author appears to have
been aware of this, but he incorrectly describes it as the caterpillar of
an insect like that at Fig. 1.




 [1] The original title of this work, Vol. I., was "Illustrations of
     Natural History, wherein are exhibited upwards of two hundred and
     forty figures of EXOTIC INSECTS, according to their different genera,
     very few of which have hitherto been figured by any author, being
     engraved and coloured from nature, with the greatest accuracy, and
     under the author's own inspection; on fifty copper-plates; with a
     particular description of each Insect, interspersed with remarks and
     reflections on the nature and properties of many of them, by D. Drury,
     1770." The second volume containing upwards of two hundred and twenty
     figures, on fifty copper-plates, appeared in 1773; and the third
     containing upwards of two hundred figures, also on fifty plates, was
     not published until 1782. The majority of the plates were drawn and
     engraved by the celebrated Moses Harris, but some of the plates in the
     last volume were by a different hand.

 [2] A similar compilation bringing down the science to the present time
     would be invaluable, even with all the inaccuracies charged to Gmelin.

 [3] This is evident from Gmelin's occasionally copying some of Fabricius'
     erroneous references, e.g. Bombyx ornatrix, Gmel. p. 2444. with a
     reference to Drury, v. I. t. 74. as in Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 586.
     instead of tab. 24.

 [4] Subsequently purchased by the Linnæan Society.

 [5] This contemplated edition of the Syst. Nat. never appears to have been

 [6] I find no notice of this contemplated fourth volume amongst Drury's

 [7] See Goedartius, translated by Dr. Lister.

 [8] See Swammerdam's Book of Nature, translated by Dr. Hill.

 [9] There is a species of ants in Africa, exceedingly numerous, and
     continually ranging from place to place; not dwelling in colonies or
     hills, as we see them in England; being armed with strong jaws or
     forceps, and whatever animal they assail in the course of their
     travels, they generally by means of their numbers overcome; there
     being no method of securing themselves, or preserving their lives, but
     by running into the water. The blacks, as I have been informed by
     gentlemen who have lived there, will get out of their way, or quit
     their habitations, taking their children, &c. with them, and wait till
     the ants have passed them. So numerous is this host, that a deer, hog,
     &c. being killed and left on the ground, in one night will have the
     flesh entirely cleared from the bones, and made a complete skeleton.

[10] If any person is inclinable to make this trial, I must advise him to
     collect them in the spring, when they abound with this liquor, and to
     choose only the females, whose bodies at that season are so large,
     being as it were overcharged with oil and a great number of eggs, that
     they seem with difficulty to drag them along. When they have
     discharged their eggs, they appear much less, and are not furnished
     with that oil they before abounded with. The males have little, if any
     of it, therefore are not proper for the purpose. This insect is of a
     blue colour, and found in the fields during the months of April and
     May, in the state I have mentioned; the blue colour is not shining and
     beautiful as that on the belly and legs of the blue dung beetle, but
     of a fine mazarine blue, without that polish. It is about an inch and
     half long (the males are shorter), the head and thorax about
     five-eighths of an inch, being very small and slender for the size of
     the insect.

[11] I have seen in the cabinet of a very curious lady, sister to Ralph
     Willett, Esq. of Dean Street, Soho, not less than forty of this
     species, being taken near his seat at Morley Place, near Winbourn, in
     Dorsetshire, where she informed me they were found in great plenty
     during the month of June or July, frequenting the privet trees. I have
     also found them in the environs of London, but not plentifully.

[12] The synonyms of this author are all taken from the 12th edition.

[13] The primary division of the Annulose subkingdom, now adopted, is into
     classes, Crustacea, Arachnida, Insecta.

[14] The primary division of the class Insecta, now adopted, is into
     orders, Lepidoptera (called farinaceous by Drury), Coleoptera (called
     crustaceous by Drury), &c.

[15] In consequence of the great increase of the science it has been found
     necessary to divide the Orders of Insects into Sections, Families,
     Subfamilies, &c. before arriving at Genera, which are now much more
     limited than in the time of Linnæus.

[16] There is no branch of natural history where the existence of a _Lusus
     Naturæ_ is so plain and observable as in this, particularly among the
     insects brought from warm climates; where the wantonness and
     luxuriance of nature is so great; that its laws, strict and regular as
     they are, through the rest of the animal creation, almost seem to be
     invaded and broke in upon. Instances, also, are frequent in this
     study, of a cluster of eggs being discharged by a female, the insects
     springing from which, have differed in the circumstances
     above-mentioned so very greatly, as in some cases to be mistaken for
     different species.

[17] In these definitions, I have thought it serviceable to give the modern
     names without introducing those, now out of use, employed by Drury,
     &c. The most conspicuous parts are alone noticed. (_J. O. W._)

[18] By five eyes, I mean those that have three lesser ones, as in Plate
     43, 44, 45, &c. See the Plate in the Preface, fig. 4.

[19] They are part of and give support to the hind pair of legs.

[20] The name of this African species has not been recorded. The following
     additional observations by Mr. Smeathman will be serviceable in
     enabling us to obtain an idea of the treasures which, even yet,
     European entomologists may expect to receive from this but little
     investigated quarter of the globe. "The whole country of Africa,
     within the tropics, is one immense forest, except where the sandy
     plains are too unsettled to afford a proper footing for vegetation.
     Wherever any inhabitants settle, they make plantations by cutting down
     the woods and burning them to fertilize the ground, and never sow two
     years together on the same spot, but let the trees grow up again for
     two or three years, by way of fallow, before they attempt to get
     another crop from it. It is these spots, which Smeathman calls recent
     plantations, which afford the greatest variety of insects and the
     easiest obtained. In the second and third year they become impassable
     to human feet."

[21] Sir J. E. Smith states that the Linnæan cabinet does not contain a
     specimen of this insect, nor of the Ilioneus of "the Insects of
     Georgia," pl. 2, one of the figures of which was considered by Mr.
     Jones, the celebrated lepidopterist, to be the Linnæan Troilus.
     Nevertheless, on the authority of the Banksian cabinet labelled (from
     recollection alone) by Fabricius, Sir J. E. Smith gave the Asterias
     under the name of Troilus, and the true Troilus as a new species.

[22] From the peculiar power of contraction and elongation possessed by
     these segments, and which is found in the caterpillars of other
     species of Deilephila, these insects have obtained the name of
     Elephant-hawk Moths.

[23] Since this was written, I have been favoured by Mr. MacLeay with an
     inspection of his magnificent collection, which possesses a Goliathus,
     nearly resembling the insect here figured, and which that gentleman
     considers as a variety of this. It is, however, considerably smaller,
     and the horns of the head are not so much developed.

[24] Goliath. micans is an inhabitant of Africa, and not of South America,
     it is figured in the 2nd vol. of these Illustrations, pl. 32.

[25] The female of this insect and two other new species of Goliathus, are
     described by M. L. Buquet, in the Annales de la Société Entomologique
     de France, for 1835 and 1836.

[26] Hence I have not adopted De Lamarck's specific name Africanus, which
     is of course applicable to all the species.

[27] These scales, which Drury in his description called "the abdominal
     scales," are the dilated trochanters of the posterior pair of legs.

[28] If this had really been the case, the Fabrician name ought surely to
     have yielded to that of Linnæus.

[29] "Let no one that is unacquainted with this study, suppose that there
     is any exaggeration in this account; or that what I have related, is
     done with a view to catch the opinion of the public. Far from it.
     Every adept knows it, and to every adept I would appeal.

     "I have counted above three hundred eggs, contained in the bag of a
     spider; and I have observed more than that number laid by a water
     insect (Phryganea) on a blade of grass, by a river side. The moth,
     common in our gardens, named the _Great Tiger_ (or Caja of Linnæus),
     lays above six hundred eggs; and almost double that number I have
     known discharged by a _Long Legs_, as it is called, or Tipula of
     Linnæus. Goedartius mentions two thousand worms that he plainly
     counted, springing from their parent insect, and imagines there were
     three thousand bred from the same animal.

[30] From our information respecting the habits of the indigenous and
     European species of Fossorial Hymenopterous insects, including the
     Pelopæus spirifex, it is evident that the male takes no share in the
     labour of constructing the nest. See my memoirs upon this subject in
     the "Annales de la Société Entomologique de France," for 1836, and the
     Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, vol. i. for the
     same year, and the Memoirs of Saint Fargeau and Shuckard therein
     referred to.

[31] The presence of the dorsal wing cases indicates the arrival of the
     insect at the pupa state.

[32] "The morning is the time they generally choose for completing this
     change, because I am pretty certain it is in their power to retard
     this regeneration considerably, if I can judge from concurrent
     circumstances attending those I have kept in glass bowls, on purpose
     to observe their nature and behaviour. In one of these I have seen two
     libella-caterpillars, that were fully grown, for three days
     successively creep up the straws out of the water, in order to undergo
     their transformation; but finding themselves deprived of the
     sun-shine, (a circumstance generally attending this performance,) or
     at least that agreeable warmth of air so necessary for their purpose,
     they retired into the water: in an hour's time they made another
     essay, but finding the same circumstances subsisting as before, they
     again retired under water, and this they continued doing for three
     mornings; till at length one of them, wearied out by those frequent
     efforts, the period of nature not being to be totally avoided or
     suppressed, although it might be retarded, perished in the water,
     being at length so weak as to be unable to creep above its surface.
     The other, on removing the vessel into the sunshine, yielded its
     proper insect."

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