By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Francisco the Filipino
Author: Little, Burtis M.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Francisco the Filipino" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

                              THE FILIPINO

                          By BURTIS M. LITTLE
                       ALBAY, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

                         AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY

                 NEW YORK      CINCINNATI      CHICAGO


At the close of the Spanish-American War in 1898, Spain withdrew from
the Philippine Islands after more than three centuries of residence,
and turned over the responsibilities of Philippine control to the
people of the United States.

A number of years have elapsed since the American people took up the
white man's burden in the Orient, and although thousands of Americans
have visited our new possessions during this time, there are still many
persons who think vaguely of the Philippines as a tiny group of islands
somewhere in the Pacific, inhabited by half savage people who wear
little or no clothing and prefer dog meat to all other kinds of food.

When one stops to note that the archipelago consists of more than
three thousand islands, which, if placed within the United States,
would occupy an area extending from Minneapolis to New Orleans and
from Denver to Kansas City, he secures a more definite idea of their
magnitude. And when he learns further that the soil of these islands
is astonishingly fertile, that they abound in valuable timber, coal,
gold, copper, iron, lead, and platinum, and that of the eight million
inhabitants, only about half a million are uncivilized, the remainder
being Christians, some of whom are highly educated, with all the graces
and accomplishments of a European, he again finds himself startled
at the importance of these new American territories across the seas.

It was with the idea of giving American boys and girls a clearer idea
of the Filipino people,--how they live, what they eat and wear, how
they work and how they play,--that this little book was written. The
author recalls with the greatest pleasure the two years spent among
the school boys and girls of Albay Province, and is glad to number
among his warmest friends the Filipinos of southern Luzon.

B. M. L.


    CHAPTER                                              PAGE

        I. Francisco's Home                                  1
       II. Francisco's Work                                  9
      III. Rice                                             17
       IV. Abaca                                            24
        V. Coconuts                                         33
       VI. Francisco's Pleasures                            42
      VII. Francisco at School                              58
     VIII. What Francisco Learned of Philippine History
           and Government                                   69
      IX. The Strength of Nature                            82
       X. Francisco's Graduation and Trip to Manila         92




Francisco was a Filipino boy who lived in the southern part of
the island of Luzon between the towns of Albay (Äl'-by) and Camalig
(Ca-mä'-lig). If you will look at a map of the Philippine Islands, you
can find these places. His home was on a large tract of land where his
father raised rice for the use of the family, and abaca (ä'-bä-cä),
or Manila hemp, for the market. Back of their house was a grove of
tall coconut trees. From the nuts which grew on these trees they made
a part of their living, and their hemp crop was also of much value.

Francisco had one sister and two brothers, all older than
himself. Pablo (Päb'-lo), the oldest brother, was studying in the
College of Santo Tomas (Sän'-to To-mäs') in Manila, preparing to
be a priest, while José (Ho-sa') and Maria (Ma-ree'-ä), the sister,
were living at home and attending school.

This home was very interesting and quite different from the houses in
which American boys and girls live. The house was made almost entirely
of bamboo,--bamboo walls, floors, ceilings, and rafters. The roof
consisted of the leaves of the nipa (nee'-pa) palm, sewed together
to form shingles and tied to the rafters with strips of very strong

Filipinos always build their houses well up from the ground so as to
be above the dampness. Francisco's father had put their home on bamboo
poles about six feet high. This made a large room underneath the house
where were kept three pigs, a horse, and their little two-wheeled cart
called a carromata (car-ro-mä'-tä). Francisco's mother found bamboo
floors convenient, because very little sweeping was necessary; crumbs
and waste from the kitchen were dropped between the strips of bamboo
to the ground below, and there the pigs and chickens quickly ate them.

In the front part of the house was a large room called a sala (sä'-lä),
and here the family sat when their friends came to see them. There
were a number of bamboo chairs and a table in this sala; large windows
let in the light and air, and offered a view of the blue Pacific and
the great Mayon (My-on') Volcano which lifted its head high among
the clouds a few miles to the northward. These windows were not made
of glass, however, but of small shells about three inches square,
fitted into wooden frames that slid back and forth along the sill.

The floor of the sala was not bamboo. It was made of a beautiful
hard wood of a dark red color, and was kept very smooth by polishing
it with banana leaves; this was Francisco's work, and he took much
pride in it. Very often when friends came in for a visit, the table
and chairs were pushed back against the wall, José brought out his
musical instrument that looked like a guitar but sounded like a
mandolin, and all would join in a dance.

The house contained several sleeping rooms with bamboo beds. Francisco
preferred to sleep on the floor wrapped in a petate (pe-tä'-te), or
grass mat. The beds were very simply made with bamboo legs and a bottom
of woven rattan much like a cane-seated chair. José had learned at
school that mosquito bites cause fever, and therefore he had arranged
his own bed to be covered with mosquito netting; but the others of
the family slept as Francisco did, completely wrapped in their petates.

The kitchen was a very different sort of place from those in American
homes. The stove was a large square platform about four feet high,
covered with soil packed down till it was almost as hard as rock,
and having on it several stones. When Francisco's mother wished to
cook rice or boil a chicken, she made a little fire on this platform,
drew two or three of the stones near it, and placed the pot or kettle
on them and over the flames. Filipino houses never have chimneys,
but the smoke finds its way out through the cracks in the bamboo
walls. The wood used for cooking is usually cut into small sticks
an inch or so in diameter and twelve or fifteen inches long, and,
fortunately, burns with very little smoke.

Adjoining the kitchen was a small square room containing nothing but a
large tin can with several small holes in the bottom, and a long rope
passing over one of the bamboo rafters. When Francisco wished to take
a bath, he filled this can with water, pulled it up over his head,
and fastened the rope so that he could stand under the shower. The
water ran on down through the bamboo floor to the ground below,
making a cool, damp place for the pigs to lie.

Filipinos enjoy frequent baths because the hot climate of their
country makes bathing a necessity. José would get home from school
each morning about half past ten, take a cool bath and lie down for a
siesta (si-es'-tä), or nap, during the hot noontime, for school did
not begin again until half past two; then he would go back feeling
refreshed and ready for an afternoon of hard study.

The siesta habit is a very general one in the Philippines. For an
hour or more before and after noon, shops are closed, business stops,
and the streets are deserted, while behind drawn shutters, the people
are peacefully sleeping after their midday meal. About two o'clock,
they take up their regular duties again, thoroughly rested from the
morning's exertions and the extreme heat of noontime. The custom is
almost a necessity in tropical countries, and would undoubtedly be
a valuable habit for the busy, hurrying American to practice, if he
could only feel that the time could be spared for it.



Until Francisco was old enough to go to school, he spent a great deal
of time in helping his mother about the house, carrying water, going
to the market for bananas and fish, or polishing the shiny floor of
the sala. His mother was very neat and did not like to have the ground
about their home littered with leaves or sticks. So, every few days,
some one of the family would sweep carefully all around the house,
using a broom made of strips of stiff rattan about two feet long
fastened tightly at one end but loose at the other.

It was Francisco's morning duty to carry water from the creek to the
house so that his mother would have plenty for cooking. If you had
watched him at this task you might have seen him carrying a long bamboo
pole on his shoulder. This he filled with water and brought back to the
kitchen where he stood it up on end in a corner. When anyone wanted
water, the bamboo pole was tilted to let it run out, and if you had
asked Francisco for a drink while he was carrying it to the house,
he would have told you to put your mouth to the edge of his bucket
and drink all you wanted. Filipinos can drink very easily in this way,
but you would probably have poured most of the water on your clothes.

The creek, where they got their drinking water, also supplied the
water for washing their clothes. Once each week Francisco's mother
and Maria would wade out into the water with the clothes they wished
to wash. These they scrubbed thoroughly in the running stream, and
then laying them on stones, they would beat them with paddles to get
all the dirt out of the cloth. This proved to be a very simple way to
take a bath at the same time that the clothes were being washed. The
garments were hung upon bushes or spread on the grass to dry before
being ironed. Filipino women sit on the floor while ironing their
clothes, and, instead of using a board, they spread a mat or blanket
in front of them and iron on this.

Francisco liked to go to the market because there were so many
interesting things to see and hear. Just back of the public school
was a large open square and there, every evening, the market was
held. Long before sundown you could see the people coming with
great baskets of fish on their heads, with strings of bananas, with
camotes (ca-mo'-tes), or sweet potatoes, tomatoes, onions, corn,
mangoes, little green lemons about as large as plums, and many other
vegetables and fruits, which they spread on the ground to show to
the best advantage.

Every night the market place was filled with people examining the
articles to be sold and quarreling over the price, or standing in
little groups for conversation. Dogs, lean and hungry, ran here
and there watching a chance to steal a fish and dash out into
the darkness to devour it. The air was thick with the mixed odors
of fish, onions, and smoke from the many little coal oil torches
which lighted each group of wares. The Babel of sounds was almost
deafening,--conversations in the native dialect, in Spanish,
in Chinese, and in English, an uproar from yelling boys and an
occasional yelp as some dog was detected in the act of securing his
supper without paying for it.

Francisco was of much help to his father, also, in taking care of
the carabao (ca'-ra-bäo), or water buffaloes. These are large,
strong animals that are used by the Filipinos for plowing the
fields, for hauling the rice and hemp to market, and sometimes for
riding,--although the rider must not be in a hurry, because they move
very slowly.

Carabao have a strange habit of wanting to lie down in the mud and
water for several hours each day. If their master does not allow this,
but tries to make them work all day, they sometimes become crazed
and do much damage, even killing people or severely hurting them.

Francisco drove his father's carabao out to the pasture every day,
where they ate the fresh green grass awhile. Later, they buried
themselves up to their necks in the muddy water, to lie happy and
contented until they were forced to come out again to graze and be
driven home. Each carabao had a strand of twisted rattan through its
nose, and by means of a cord fastened to this, it could be led and
driven very easily. Filipinos often pull very hard upon these cords,
and many carabao have their noses badly torn by careless or cruel
drivers. When well treated, however, they are valuable and necessary
beasts of burden, strong, patient, and able to endure heavy work in
a hot climate.



Francisco used to go with his father and uncles to the rice fields,
where he would watch the carabao while the men worked. A great deal
of hard labor is necessary to raise a crop of rice. First, the seed
must be sown in a plot of ground called a seed bed, where it is left
alone for five or six weeks until the plants have grown several inches
high. During this time the men are busy plowing the field and getting
the ground ready for the second planting. This is a very hard and
disagreeable task, because the work has to be done in mud and water,
the men sometimes wading up to their knees in the slimy black mud
while guiding the plow.

When the ground has been thoroughly stirred and is well under water,
the young plants are taken out of the seed bed, cut back a few inches,
and replanted in the field. This is also very tiresome work, for each
rice plant must be thrust into the soft mud by hand. Men, women,
and children come out for this part of the planting, roll up their
clothes beyond the reach of mud or water, and, with backs bent low,
move slowly across the fields, setting out the young rice plants.

Rice grows well only when it is kept flooded, and this is done by
means of ditches that lead from near-by streams. Great pieces of sod
are thrown up in long rows, forming a sort of dike that holds the
water and separates the fields into divisions called paddies. These
long strips of sod are used as a pathway by persons who need to cross
the fields and wish to remain dry.

Before many days, the young plants are growing, tall and green,
and the field makes a beautiful appearance as the wind sweeps across
it. In about five or six months the green has turned to a rich yellow;
the rice is then ripe and ready for the harvest. Again the men, women,
and children go out to the fields armed with sickles to gather in the
precious crop. Again they move slowly across the level ground,--dry
now,--with backs bent low, gathering in the grain that is to furnish
them food for months to come. The rice bundles are piled on carts,
the carabao strain at their yokes, and the loads go off to the house
to be carefully stored away, for use when needed.

When Francisco's mother wanted rice for cooking, she went down the
bamboo steps, unfastened the door that led to the store-room under
the house, and, taking several bundles into the yard, she laid them
on a petate spread on the ground. Then, stepping out of her chinelas
(chi-ne'-läs), or slippers, she trod upon the heads of grain until
she had separated the rice from the stalk. The next thing needed was
to get rid of the chaff. To do this, she put several handfuls of the
grains into a flat tray, and, by carefully throwing the seeds into the
air and catching them again in the tray, the chaff was blown away,
leaving the clean, fresh rice grains all ready for cooking. Another
way to do this is by pounding the rice in a wooden mortar until the
seed is well separated from the hulls. Sometimes rice flour is made
in these mortars, and bread is baked; but the most common way of
cooking is by boiling.

Filipinos eat rice three times a day, and no meal is really complete
without it. They like it boiled very dry, and a large plate of it is
always placed beside one's regular plate to be eaten with the meal,
much as we eat bread. It is interesting to know that so much rice
is eaten in the Philippine Islands that large quantities must be
shipped in from China in addition to what is raised by the Filipinos

The most commonly raised rice is almost pure white, but there is one
variety grown in certain parts of the Philippines whose grains are
red and whose flavor is different from the white variety.

Not all the rice grown in the Philippine Islands needs the extensive
irrigation that was described earlier in the chapter; there is a
kind of rice that grows with only a moderate amount of moisture. It
is produced on the steep mountain slopes where irrigation would be
impossible or extremely difficult.



"Manila hemp," as it is so commonly called, is not really hemp at all,
but a plant closely related to the banana and so strongly resembling it
that some persons are unable to tell the difference. The correct name
for this is abaca (ä'-bä-cä), and it is probably the most important
crop produced in the Philippine Islands. Nowhere else in the world
does it grow so well, and in southern Luzon where Francisco lived,
the soil is especially well suited for its cultivation.

Francisco's father had a good many acres devoted to it, and his crop
yielded him a good income. A field is planted by setting out, at
regular intervals, shoots from old plants. Three years are required
for these shoots to grow to maturity, and a planter must therefore
be willing and able to wait a long time before he can harvest his
crop. An abaca plant grows to a height of ten feet or more, bearing
long fanlike leaves that wave gracefully in the breeze and shut out
the sun's rays so completely that noontime in an abaca field is like
twilight. The stem consists of crisp, juicy, green leaves rolled
tightly together around a central stalk. These stems are often eight
or ten inches in diameter, and it is from the tightly rolled inner
leaves that the fiber which constitutes the crop is secured.

When the proper time comes, the men go out into the field with their
sharp bolos (bo'-los), heavy knives much like corn knives, and cut off
the abaca plants close to the ground. They tear away the leaves and
the green outer part of the stem, which they leave on the ground for
fertilizer. The white inner part comes from the plant in long strips
and is drawn through a machine that presses out the water and pulp,
leaving only the fiber, in long white strands. These are hung up
in the sunshine to dry and bleach, after which they are tied into
bundles and hauled in carabao carts to market. New shoots grow out
from the old stalk so that a plantation constantly renews itself.

The planter usually sells his abaca to a shipper who has a baling
machine and large warehouses in some seaport town, with his own wharves
for loading the freight on steamers bound for Manila or foreign ports.

During the shipping season these warehouses present scenes of busy
activity. Outside is a large courtyard crowded with carabao carts
piled high with fresh abaca which men are weighing and sorting as it is
unloaded. From within can be heard the rattle and rush of the baling as
men and boys, urged by the shrill commands of their foreman, run around
a circular track turning a great wheel that puts the pressure upon the
bales. Extending from the warehouse to the vessel is a long line of
noisy taos (tä'-os), or workmen, carrying the heavy bales out on the
wharf and over the side of the steamer to be stowed away in the hold.

All kinds of rope, from the heavy cables used on board ship to the
small ropes used on the farm, and even string and thread are made
from abaca. Carpets are woven from the fiber. In Paris, hats of the
finest quality are made from it; and in the Philippines similar uses
are made of it. Many Filipino households have their own looms on
which they weave sinamay (sin'-ä'mäy) and pinalpog   (pï'-nal-pog),
beautiful and durable cloths which are used for making men's shirts,
and also women's waists and dresses. It is woven into handsome
patterns in various colors. Sinamay is of rather coarse texture,
while pinalpog is as fine as linen, having a glossy sheen which is
secured by pounding the fiber in a mortar before weaving. Sometimes
threads of silk are woven in with the abaca fiber and the cloth is
then called jusi (hoo'-si).

Francisco's grandmother, whose house was not far away, made her living
by weaving abaca; and she wove a number of very handsome patterns from
which Maria's best dresses were made. The women of the Philippines
wear waists, with open flowing sleeves and very large collars that
fasten like a scarf in front and extend in a V shape from the shoulders
almost to the waist line. It is a custom among Filipinos to decorate
the sleeves and collars of especially nice dresses with hand-painted
designs. Maria had some artistic skill and had so decorated two of
her waists, one with a cluster of flowers and the other with a small
view of Mayon Volcano.

It is easy to see that abaca, with the many uses it is put to in the
Philippine Islands and the many articles into which it is manufactured
abroad, is of great importance among Philippine products. As American
enterprise extends its cultivation, and introduces new and improved
methods of harvesting and transportation, its importance as a source
of wealth is sure to increase.



Few Americans realize what an important part in the lives of the
Filipino people the coconut plays. The tall slender trees without a
branch, except the cluster of leaves at the very top, are the most
characteristic feature of the Philippine landscape. These trees
supply timbers for building, thatch for roofs and walls of houses,
hats, fans, household utensils, oil, food, and drink. The trees are
often used as corner posts for houses, thus giving a secure anchorage
against wind-storms and earthquakes, while the roofs and sides are
covered with coconut leaves.

Each nut is surrounded by a large fibrous husk, so that the fruit
as it comes from the tree is two or three times as large as the nut
itself. The fibers in this outer husk are very stiff and are used to
make hats, brushes, mats, and other similar articles. Cups, spoons,
ladles, and trays are made from the shell of the nut, which takes a
very handsome polish.

The ripe coconut with its hard dry kernel, as it is generally seen
in the United States, is quite different from the young nut as it
hangs on the tree. Then it contains only a thin layer of soft white
meat around the inner part of the shell, the remaining space being
filled with a delicious liquid.

When people are traveling in the Philippines and become thirsty, a
man fastens a strap or cord to his feet so that they will be about as
far apart as the diameter of the tree, and with this aid in bracing
himself, he climbs easily up the long straight trunk to the leafy
crown where the nuts hang in clusters. He cuts off and drops to the
ground as many nuts as are wanted, and then slides down the tree. With
his bolo he strikes a slice from the husk of a nut so deftly that a
small hole is opened in the shell and the liquid, cool, sweet, and
refreshing, is easily drunk. When the traveler's thirst is quenched,
the nut is split in half, a rude spoon is made from the husk, and the
thin layer of soft white meat is scooped from the shell and eaten. By
boiling the kernel of the ripe nut an oil is obtained which is used
for burning in lamps, for cooking, and for oiling the hair. When the
meat of the coconut is dried it is called copra (co'-prä), and large
quantities of this are shipped to foreign countries, where it is used
for making candles and soap.

By tapping the flower, a liquid is secured that is made into a drink
called tuba. Each day in the cool early morning, a Filipino, having a
bamboo tube slung from his shoulder in place of a bucket, climbs the
tree to collect this sap. The flowers can be so tapped for about three
months; of course the nuts have to be sacrificed if tuba is wanted,
because the flowers die. It is a common sight in a coconut grove to see
large bamboo poles reaching from the top of one tree to its nearest
neighbor. These are for the use of the one who taps the flowers, so
that instead of climbing each separate tree he can pass from one to
another by this dizzy bridge and thus secure his tuba with less effort.

Owners of coconut groves take great pains to keep thieves from climbing
their trees and stealing their fruit. If a man's grove is far away
from his house, where he cannot keep close watch, he makes notches
in the trees about fifteen feet from the ground and inserts pieces
of broken glass all around the trunk; then if any one tries to climb
past this barrier, he is severely injured by the sharp glass and is
forced to return to the ground. Sometimes, instead of glass, large
thorny branches are fastened to the trees for the same purpose. When
the owner wishes to get his crop of nuts, he either carefully removes
these obstacles, or he climbs a near-by tree and crosses over from
the top by means of a bamboo pole as when getting tuba.

Francisco's grandfather, who owned a tienda (tï-en'-dä), or small
store, in Camalig, used to tell him a very interesting story about
a coconut. "A long, long time ago," he said, "many years before my
grandfather was born, there grew a very tall coconut tree, far taller
than any you have ever seen; and the fruit that grew on this tree was
so large that you could not even see round it. One day the largest
of these nuts fell from the top of the tree, but instead of striking
the ground, it remained floating about in the air. The fibers changed,
and instead of being brown and coarse, they became soft and green and
slowly grew into grass and flowers and trees. By and by, God put people
on the outside shell of this large nut to use and enjoy the vegetation.

"The milk which was inside changed into a terrible fire that sometimes
burst through cracks in the shell of the nut, causing what we call
volcanoes. Demons and various kinds of evil spirits began to inhabit
this inner fiery region, and they have been known to come out through
the craters of volcanoes to trouble the people who live near by. The
smoke and gases that are so often seen coming from volcanoes, or from
cracks in the ground, are from the burning bodies of wicked people
whom these demons have caught and carried away. And so, Francisco,
if you are wise, you will be a good boy and do just as your father
and mother tell you, or you may be taken from the outside to the
inside of this wonderful coconut."



You must not think that Filipinos spend all their time in planting
rice, harvesting abaca, or climbing coconut trees. On the contrary,
they are fond of amusements, and they find many ways of gratifying
this very natural desire. There were several boys of about the same
age as Francisco, who lived close by, and they played together most
of their spare time. The American soldiers and teachers had shown
the older boys how to play baseball, and the game had become very
popular. Pablo and José both played well, the older boy having
developed into an excellent pitcher before he went to Manila to
enter college. Francisco and his companions were not large enough
to play a real game of baseball, but they found much fun in their
efforts to imitate the older boys. Of course their native tongue,
which in southern Luzon is called "Bicol" (Bee'-col), had no words
for this foreign game, and so the English terms had to be taken bodily
into their own language and used as native words. If you had watched
these small boys playing, you would have heard Francisco shout as he
struck at the ball and missed it,--"Sarong (sä'-rong) strike!"--"Duang
(du'-äng) strike!--Foul!!" "Tolong (to'-long) strike!" "Aco (ä'-co)
out!" sarong meaning one, duang, two, tolong, three, and aco, I.

Filipinos have a game of ball, quite different from baseball,
that is much enjoyed by young and old. The ball is of woven rattan,
about four inches in diameter and very light. As many as wish to play
form a ring, the ball is thrown into the air, and as it comes down,
some one sends it flying upward again. The game is to keep it from
touching the ground, and the players show much skill in striking it
with hands, arms, or feet, from various positions and without getting
very far away from their places in the ring. Old men often watch the
boys awhile and then get into the game themselves, showing surprising
agility and seeming to enjoy fully the brief return to boyhood.

There is a game rather similar to marbles that the younger boys play
a great deal. A ring is drawn on the ground and within this are placed
small stones or centavos (cen-tä'-vos), Philippine copper coins worth
half a cent; the players stand back a certain distance and toss other
stones or coins, trying to knock out the ones inside the ring.

The most harmful amusement in the Philippines is cockfighting. The
present government has limited the enjoyment of this sport to Sunday
afternoons and public holidays, but even so it is a great source
of evil in every community. The cockpit is generally a large roofed
enclosure with rude bamboo seats rising in tiers like circus benches,
and with a fenced arena in the center in which the chickens fight.

A small knife blade, keen and sharp pointed, is fastened to a leg of
each of the birds, and when all is ready they are put into the arena
to fight. The owner of a gamecock trains him carefully, making him
scratch to develop the muscles of his back and legs, and in other
ways preparing him for the ring. The fights are often drawn out until
one of the chickens, weak from loss of blood and from the exertion,
falls over dead. Then the winner crows, if he has any breath left,
the crowds watching the fight cheer loudly, bets are paid, new ones
are made on the next pair of birds, and the excitement continues. At
sunset the people reluctantly leave the ring and return to their homes,
the winners jingling their gains, the losers hoping for better luck
next time, and the owners of birds either proudly showing off their
conquering heroes or tenderly carrying home the limp bodies of their
pets to be boiled for hours in the vain hope of making their hard
muscles tender for the table. Much time and money are wasted on this
cruel and rather disgusting sport, and it is to be hoped that it may
decrease from year to year and finally die out entirely.

Each community in the Philippines has its patron saint, and once a
year, usually on the day celebrated by the church in honor of that
saint, occurs the fiesta (fi-es'-tä), or feast day, of the town. These
holidays are looked forward to with joyful anticipation, and most
elaborate preparations are made for the entertainment of guests. A
great tower or arch, sometimes seventy-five or a hundred feet high,
is built of coconut logs, bamboo, and rattan. Lanterns of gayly colored
paper are hung over this, and at night men climb laboriously over it,
lighting candles in each lantern; the effect is exceedingly pretty
and the lights burn for several hours.

The fiesta usually begins with a solemn celebration of the Mass at
the church, with special music by the band or orchestra in addition to
the choir and organ. When the service is over, the people move about
over the plaza (plä'-zä), or public square, greeting their friends and
enjoying conversation. At noon, the priest serves an elaborate dinner
to the important men of the town and to the distinguished visitors,
while in the various homes, people are entertaining their friends
with the best their tables afford. After dinner is over and all have
rested awhile, games and sports of various kinds are witnessed,--races
around the plaza, jumping, wrestling, ball games, and other feats of
skill or strength, while those who are so disposed go to the cockpit
for the afternoon.

At night it is customary for the presidente (pres-i-den'-te), or
mayor, of the town to give a grand baile (bäi'-le), or dance, to
which nearly every one is invited. The largest hall in the town is
secured and lavishly decorated with flags, palm leaves, bamboo stems,
and bright flowers. The floor is polished until it fairly shines,
a long table groans under the weight of rice, chicken, ham, roast
goat, bananas, and sweets of various sorts, an orchestra or band is
hired, and all is ready for the event. About eight-thirty or nine
o'clock a throng of señores (sen-yo'-res), señoras (sen-yo'-räs), and
señoritas (sen-yo-ree'-täs) (which means gentlemen, married ladies,
and young ladies) arrive, dressed in their finest clothes and ready
to enjoy the music, the dancing, and the refreshments until a late
hour. The waltz, two-step, and Virginia reel are very much in favor,
and a dignified Spanish dance called the rigodon (ri'-go-don), with
complicated figures and graceful steps, is also popular.

Every town has its musicians, and often excellent music is made by a
group of bare-footed players whom you would hardly suspect of being
skilled in anything. Sometimes when better instruments cannot be
secured, the boys organize a bamboo band; generally, however, the
instruments are those which are commonly used the world over. The
great Constabulary Band of Manila, conducted by an American negro,
Captain W. H. Loving, ranks among the first musical organizations of
the world and has several times made tours in the United States.

Filipinos are very fond of plays. In Manila there is a large Grand
Opera House, and many outlying towns have their teatros (te-ä'-tros),
or theaters; but in the smaller places where this is not possible,
plays are given at night in some public square, without stage, scenery,
or costumes. The characters include kings, queens, knights, servants,
and even bears or other animals, all of whom recite their lines to
the great delight of a circle of onlookers who squat upon the ground
holding candles or lamps in order to see the play. At Christmas time,
bands of singers and dancers go from house to house, entertaining
the public and passing the hat for gifts when the program is finished.

These are a few of the pleasures which Francisco and his friends
enjoyed. It is true that some of their work was very hard and
disagreeable while it lasted, but the climate and soil of the
Philippines are so favorable that even the most industrious people
have a great deal of leisure time in which to enjoy life. Francisco's
grandfather had a great fund of stories, and he loved to collect a
crowd of children about him and entertain them with one tale after
another. The following story of "The Three Sisters" was a general

"Once there were three sisters who were very beautiful, and they all
lived in the same house. A beggar came one day asking for rice, and
one of the sisters went down the stairs with a plateful for him. As
soon as he received it, he seized the girl, and putting her into a
sack, he carried her off to his home. The next day he said to her,
'I must go away for several days and will leave you all my keys. But
you must not unlock room thirteen; all the others you may go in,
but not thirteen.'

"So she took the keys and an egg which he gave her to keep, and
prepared to wait for his return. By and by she became curious, however,
and decided to open the forbidden room. As soon as she pushed back
the door, she saw scattered about the floor portions of the body of
a dead man. She was so frightened that she dropped the egg and the
keys, and when she picked them up again the egg of course was broken
and the keys were bloody.

"When the old man returned, he saw the broken egg and the keys with
blood on them. So he locked the girl in the room with the dead man,
and went again to the home of the sisters, begging for bananas. Just
as before, one of the sisters came to grant his request for food, and
he put her into his bag and took her home with him. As with the first
sister, he gave her an egg and the keys, with the same instructions
not to enter room thirteen. Of course, the second sister did as the
first had done and also dropped the egg and the keys.

"She was put into the room as a prisoner, and for the third time the
false beggar went to the house, asking this time for camotes. The third
sister passed through the same experiences as the others, but she was
less easily frightened and did not drop the egg and keys when she saw
the dead man. Instead, she went into the room and saw her sisters
prisoners there. She released them, put them into a large basket,
and taking some gold which she found in the room, completely covered
them. She collected the pieces of the dead body, put them together,
and a handsome man awoke from death. She allowed him to escape from the
room, put the basket containing the gold and her sisters into another
room, closed room thirteen, and awaited the return of the false beggar.

"When he came and saw that the egg was not broken and the keys were not
bloody, he said, 'You have obeyed me, and we will be married.' 'Very
well,' she answered, 'but first you must carry home for me a basket
of gold for my parents. You must not sit down nor stop to rest till
you have taken this basket to my home. I shall be watching you from
my little window, and if you disobey me, I shall never marry you.'

"So he started out. He found the basket very heavy, and three times he
wished to put it down and rest, but each time he heard a voice which
seemed to come from the basket, saying, 'Go on, for I am watching
you from my little window; and if you disobey me, I shall never marry
you.' Therefore he went toiling on to the home of the three sisters,
and delivered the basket of gold (and the two girls) to the parents.

"When he returned, the man who had been dead but had come back to
life killed the false beggar, married the third sister, and they
lived happily forever afterward."



It was an important day for Francisco when he became old enough to go
to the American school just as Maria and his two brothers had done. In
the Philippines the hottest season of the year extends through March,
April, May, and June; because of this, school begins about the tenth
of June and closes the latter part of the following March. So it
came about that on a certain sunshiny June morning Francisco put on
his cleanest white trousers and his best pink sinamay shirt (which,
like other boys of his age, he wore outside of his trousers), and
started to school. His first teacher was Gregorio Nipas (Gre-go'-rio
Nee'-päs), a Filipino boy who had been attending American schools for
six or seven years, and could read, write, and speak English very well.

Francisco began his work in what is known as a barrio (bar'-rio)
school. A Philippine town includes all the outlying villages for a
distance of several miles around, and each of these villages is called
a barrio. Every barrio has its own little bamboo schoolhouse where
the elementary subjects are taught. As the boys and girls become
farther advanced in their work, they go in to the central town,
where there is a school doing work of a higher grade and having
several teachers. All the barrio and town teachers of one district
are under the charge of an older and more experienced supervisor,--in
most cases an American,--who directs the work of the schools in his
territory and visits the various barrios regularly. From time to time
he meets with the town officials to discuss the needs of the schools,
and as frequently as possible he calls all his teachers together to
consult with them, and give them instructions regarding their work.

Filipino boys and girls do not buy their own books; the government
furnishes the required texts and the pupils are allowed the use of
them while they are attending school. Each child gives a receipt
for all the books that are issued to him, and when school is over he
returns them to his teacher and the receipt is destroyed. In case he
has lost a book or has badly used it, he is required to pay for it.

When Francisco entered school he knew a few English words and
sentences that he had learned from soldiers and from older boys
who went to school. Such expressions as "Good morning," "How are
you?" and "Good-bye," were familiar to him, but of course he could
neither read nor write, and there were many children of his age who
knew no English at all.

For the first lesson with these beginners the teacher called them
up to his desk, and holding up a book so that all could see it, said
very distinctly the word "book." The children repeated it after him,
and in a few minutes they could call the word as soon as he held
up the book. Then he did the same thing with other articles such as
pen, pencil, and paper, until in a little while they knew thoroughly
several English words.

The next step was to form sentences. The teacher again held up the
book, saying slowly and distinctly, "This is a book"; and the children
carefully repeated "Dees ees a book." Filipinos have some trouble in
making the sound of short "I" and of "th" in this, these, and those,
usually saying "Dees," "Dees," and "Dose." Other articles whose
names the children knew were used in the sentences, "This is a pen,"
"This is a pencil."

After these were learned, their teacher made sentences such as "I
give you the book," at the same time giving it to some child; then,
"You give the book to Francisco,"--"Francisco, give the book to me,"
until in a few days the children knew accurately a long list of
English words which they were able to use in simple sentences. These
sentences were written on the blackboard for them to read and copy, and
thus they began to speak, read, and write the English language. They
worked at copying these sentences while the teacher taught the other
classes. Sometimes they sat and listened while the older children
recited, and in this way they learned new words. English was the only
language used in the schoolroom, and often the boys and girls spoke
it among themselves for practice.

After Francisco had worked several weeks in this way and could
recognize many words as soon as he saw them, he was given a primary
reader,--an honor of which he was very proud. He asked his father to
show him how to weave a grass cover for his precious book so that he
would not soil it. He made rapid progress, enjoyed his school life
greatly, and in course of time he completed the work of the barrio
school and went to the school in town.

Here he found two new interests which he had not known in the barrio
school. Mrs. Bond, the wife of the American supervising teacher, had
charge of the town school. She was an excellent musician and taught
the pupils many songs. Filipinos love music, learn songs readily,
and sing with great enthusiasm. The older pupils were becoming able
to read music and sing their different parts correctly, and Francisco
entered into this new subject with all his energy. The padre (pä'-dra),
or priest, was much interested in the children's musical training,
and he made frequent use of it in his church services.

The other interest that Francisco found when he entered the town school
was manual training, which was begun in the upper grades. The boys
began making simple things out of bamboo and coconut wood, such as
paper cutters, ladles, dippers, spoons, cups, and ash trays. Later,
however, the work was extended to larger and more useful articles,
such as tables, bookcases, benches, and desks for their own and
barrio schools.

Of course music and manual training took only a part of Francisco's
time; he was busy reading in more advanced books, and studying
elementary English grammar, arithmetic, and geography. He was growing
rapidly in body as well as in mind, and was learning some of the
simple rules of health that he had been violating before this time
because he knew no better. He was taking better care of his eyes,
was more careful about the kind of water he drank and about eating
overripe bananas. He knew now that it was better for him to keep the
window of his sleeping room open at night instead of tightly closed
as formerly, and he took some money that he had earned, by carrying
a basket of fish to the market, to buy a mosquito netting for his bed.

At last he completed the course given in the town school and was
ready to enter the provincial school, located in the town of Albay,
several miles south of his home. A province in the Philippine Islands
is similar to a county in the United States, and each one maintains a
high school which any boy or girl living in the province may attend,
after he has completed the work of the lower grades and has passed
satisfactory examinations. Courses are offered in the history
and government of the United States and the Philippine Islands,
in literature, in grammar and composition, in mathematics, drawing,
music, cooking, sewing, manual training, agriculture, and, when called
for, Spanish and other subjects. The high school at Albay contained a
very large assembly hall which was used for study when pupils were
not in classes. We shall leave Francisco studying in this room,
while we find out something of the history and government of these
interesting islands.



When Francisco entered the provincial school he knew something about
local government from seeing local officials and hearing older people
discuss matters of politics, but his knowledge did not extend beyond
his own barrio and town. As for the history of the Philippines, he
knew little more than that the islands had been under the control
of Spain and were transferred to the United States. Rizal (Rï-zäl')
Day, which was celebrated on the thirtieth day of each December,
was greatly enjoyed by him as a holiday, but he had little idea of
the reason for its celebration.

American boys and girls know even less than Francisco about these
new possessions of ours across the Pacific. Hence, we shall find it
interesting and worth while to follow the outline of Philippine history
and government which Francisco studied in the provincial school.

It is now about four hundred years since the Spaniards first discovered
the Philippines. An expedition under the command of Magellan set out
from Spain in the year 1519, sailed across the Atlantic and down the
eastern coast of South America, through the strait at the southern
end of the continent, and northwest across the great Pacific, until it
finally arrived at the island of Cebu. Here, on the seventh of April,
1521, a landing was made, and the country was claimed for the king
of Spain.

The savage customs of the natives whom Magellan found there are shown
in the method they followed when drawing up a treaty of friendship
between themselves and the Spaniards. Cuts were made in the breasts of
Magellan and the native chief, and each one drank some of the other's
blood as a pledge that the agreement should be kept forever. There were
priests in the company, and they persuaded many of the Filipinos to
accept baptism. The chief was given the new name of "King Charles I of
Cebu," and he agreed to rule under the guidance of the king of Spain.

This Cebu tribe was at war with the Filipinos living on the neighboring
island of Mactan. Magellan undertook to aid his newly made allies
against their enemies, and was killed in battle on the twenty-seventh
of April, 1521. Thus the Spanish expedition lost its brave and able
leader. Of the five vessels that set out from Spain in 1519, only one,
the Victoria, returned three years later, battered and worn by its
long voyage around the world, and carrying only a small fraction of
the company of men who had sailed with the little fleet.

After Magellan's expedition, several other voyages were made to the
new islands, but there were no attempts at a permanent settlement
until 1564. In that year, King Philip II of Spain sent out a company
under the leadership of Legaspi (Le-gas'-pi), a brave and experienced
soldier who had seen years of service in Mexico, and was well known
to the king. It was he who suggested the name "Las Islas Felipinas"
(Läs Ïs'-läs Fe-li-pï'-näs) for the islands, in honor of King Philip,
or Felipe (Fe-lï'-pe), as the name is in its Spanish form. Magellan
had previously named them the San Lazaro (San Lä'-za-ro) Islands,
but this name was abandoned.

Legaspi's company made a landing on the island of Cebu just as
Magellan had done, but about seven years later it was found that the
port of Manila offered a better location for the seat of government;
so Legaspi transferred his capital to that place and began the building
of a strong city. Later, great walls of stone were erected, and a fort
was placed at the point where the Pasig (Pa'-sig) River flows into
Manila Bay. Meantime, various expeditions were sent into the interior
of Luzon and other islands to subdue the natives, make treaties with
the chiefs, and claim all the lands for the king of Spain.

The fortifications which were erected in Manila and at other important
points in the islands were necessary for defense against invaders,
and they witnessed many stirring sieges from the time they were built
until Spain ceded the islands to the United States in 1898. For two
hundred and fifty years, the cities and towns of the Philippines
suffered from the incursions of pirates,--Chinese, Japanese, and
Moros, the last-named being Mohammedan Filipinos from the southern
islands. Numberless towns were attacked and plundered by these
dreaded pirates who, with their swift sailing praos (prä'-os), or
boats, would swoop down upon a town, kill the men, burn the houses,
and carry away the women and children either to be sold into slavery
or held for ransom. The Spanish government used all the powers at
its command to suppress this piracy, but with only partial success.

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the people of the
Philippines were greatly troubled by invasions of Dutch and English
fleets, echoes of larger wars in Europe between these countries and
Spain. Commerce was preyed upon, ships were sunk, and rich stores
of precious silks, spices, and gold were seized and carried off as
booty. Such losses were very hard upon the merchants whose property
was stolen, and the taxes, made necessary by the long struggle with
these enemies, laid a still greater burden upon the people. For about
two years, from 1762 till 1764, the English held Manila, but when
peace was finally declared, the British flag was hauled down and the
islands returned to Spain.

Wars with pirates, and with the Dutch and English, were not the only
causes of distress in the Philippines, however. Numberless times in the
history of the islands crops have been damaged and houses destroyed
by terrific storms and earthquakes, cattle have been carried off in
great numbers by disease, while cholera and smallpox have claimed
thousands of human lives, and leprosy has spread itself alarmingly.

Until early in the nineteenth century, the island government was
administered from Mexico rather than directly from Spain, and this
often led to dishonesty and bad management of affairs. Corrupt men got
into power and used their offices to enrich themselves. A system of
taxation was followed for many years, by which the collectors were able
to work great injustice upon the Filipinos. Commerce was so restricted
that the islands, instead of developing their natural wealth, remained
poor. A very strict rule governing the production and sale of tobacco
required that a man's crop be sold only to the government, and at
a price which the government fixed. Schools were few, free speech
was suppressed, and attempts to publish anything in criticism of the
evil conditions was severely punished. A number of Filipinos of great
ability and honesty of purpose, among them the patriot whose memory
is kept alive by a public holiday in his honor,--Dr. José Rizal,--were
executed for conspiring against the government.

Therefore it is not strange that there should have been a constantly
growing spirit of dissatisfaction and rebellion, which broke
out into armed revolution at numerous times during the nineteenth
century. In 1898 the United States and Spain became involved in war,
and when fighting ceased the Philippine Islands were ceded to the
Americans. The Filipinos were displeased at this, for they desired
their independence, and the insurrection was continued for several
years. However, as the people came to see the real purpose of the
United States government,--to stamp out disease and crime, to establish
schools over the islands, to develop the natural resources of the
country, and to train the people for the art of self-government,--the
resistance came gradually to an end, and conditions are now peaceful
throughout practically the whole of the Philippines.

When military rule could be done away with and a civil government be
established, the United States followed the outlines already worked
out by the Spaniards, with such changes as seemed best, keeping the
three divisions,--insular or general government, provincial government,
and municipal or town government.

At the head of all is the governor-general, who is appointed by the
President of the United States. He is assisted by a number of men,
Americans and Filipinos, who are also appointed by the President and
who together make up what is called the Philippine commission. The
laws for the islands are made by the Congress of the United States and
by this commission acting with an assembly of representatives elected
by the people. A supreme court holds its sessions in Manila and tries
cases brought to it from the lower courts. There is a special system
of money for the Philippines, the unit of which is called the peso
(pe'-so), and is worth half a dollar in American money. The post
office system is separate and distinct from that of the United States;
the stamps are different and will carry only mail which is originally
posted in the Philippine Islands. A custom house is maintained for
the collection of duties upon certain goods brought into the islands
from other countries, and taxes are laid upon liquor, tobacco, and
similar articles.

Each province has a governor and various other officers to enforce the
laws, collect taxes, and do the public work. There is a court, called
the Court of First Instance, for trying violations of the law. There
are also an engineer to keep roads and bridges in repair and arrange
for the erection of public buildings, a division superintendent of
schools who, under the director of education at Manila, has charge
of public education in his province, and other legal, financial,
and military officials.

The presidente, who corresponds to the mayor of a city in this country,
is at the head of the town government, and he is aided by a municipal
council, whose members are elected by the voters of the central town
and its barrios. Small cases of law-breaking are tried before justices
of the peace, and order is kept by a municipal police force.

Such, in brief, is the form of government now in force in the
Philippine Islands. The natives play a very large part in the
administration of public affairs, most of the offices are open
to Filipinos of ability, and peace and good order are apparent
everywhere. Much remains to be done before conditions are exactly as
they should be, but the establishment of free public schools from
one end of the archipelago to the other, the decrease in crime and
disorder, the almost complete prevention of the terrible plagues of
cholera and smallpox, and the removal of all lepers to one island
where the disease cannot be given to others, are important results
of the new era in the Philippine Islands, for which the Filipinos
should be grateful to the United States.



Francisco lived in a country where Mother Nature is very kind
to her children, and yet treats them with great severity. He was
close enough to the equator to enjoy tropical sunshine the year
round, with no cold weather and but a few months of long-continued
rains. The soil of the Philippines is so fertile that crops grow with
little cultivation. Food, drink, clothing, and shelter are obtained
readily, and so people's wants are easily satisfied. But, as if to
counterbalance this generosity, Nature is exceedingly harsh with the
Filipinos, and those who live in these islands must remain in almost
constant danger of inconvenience, loss of property, or even death at
her hands.

At various times during the year, especially in the month of September,
a traveler in the Philippine Islands will notice many of the houses
braced with long poles which reach from the four upper corners out
to the ground some distance from the house. This is to safeguard
the house against being blown down by a baguio (bä'-gï-o). Baguios
are terrific cyclones which sweep in from the China Sea or the
Pacific Ocean, and rage over the islands for hours and even days,
leaving death and destruction in their track. Houses are demolished,
crops ruined, trees felled, and boats washed up on shore or dashed
to pieces on some of the treacherous coral reefs that fringe the
shores of most of the islands. All vessels that have time either
hasten to some sheltered port or put out into the open sea until
the wind abates. The weather bureau at Manila sends out telegraphic
reports whenever a typhoon is known to be approaching the islands,
and thus preparations can be made for the storm.

Even if the storm is not severe enough to blow a house over,
the thatched roof is sometimes lifted so that the rain pours in,
soaking clothing and furniture. While a baguio is in progress the
people often gather in one room of their house and pray for safety,
chanting their prayer in a most mournful wail that rises and falls
with the gusts of wind.

After such a storm has subsided, the sight is a sorry one; acres of
abaca beaten down and washed into heaps of useless vegetation,--a
most serious loss requiring three years of growth for the plants
to replace themselves; fields that were waving with beautiful green
rice lying flat, ruined for a season; trees broken off or uprooted;
houses roofless or in ruins, and the shores strewn with drift-wood
or wreckage. It is most fortunate that tropical nature is so lavish
with those who live there, else they could not withstand the loss
and devastation that result from the frequent and violent storms.

People who live in volcanic countries may expect earthquakes at
any time, and such shocks are very common in the Philippines,--so
common, in fact, as to arouse little comment unless the shaking is
severe. Francisco was awakened many nights by hearing his bamboo home
creak and by feeling the strange swaying motion, or the sudden jerks,
that are so terrifying when one is only half awake.

Unless the shock is violent there is little danger, even for those
who live in stone houses. In the history of the islands there have
occurred many earthquakes, however, of such strength that whole
cities have been left in ruins. About 1863 Manila and the surrounding
country received a shock that destroyed practically the entire city
and killed thousands of people. In 1880, violent shocks lasted over
a period of ten days, causing untold loss and suffering. In recent
years re-enforced concrete has been taking the place of stone in the
building of bridges, churches, and other large structures, and it
has been found to withstand earthquakes well.

Closely connected with the earthquakes are the volcanoes of the
islands, which have a long and destructive history, especially
Mount Taal (Tä'-äl) near Manila, and Mount Mayon (My-on') in southern
Luzon. The latter volcano has been in eruption many times; the records
show a total of more than twenty-five eruptions since the year 1616,
and it is probable that previous to the nineteenth century observations
were inaccurately made and many eruptions have gone unrecorded. More
than half of the eruptions have been severe. That of February 1, 1814,
was especially dreadful, burying the country around the mountain under
tons of lava and ashes, and causing about twelve hundred deaths. The
parish priest of one of the towns near by has left the following
description of the event:

"Repeated earthquakes took place the night before, and they continued
during the morning of the first. There was then a stronger shock,
and at the same moment a cloud of smoke rose from the mouth of the
volcano. The cloud rose in the form of a pyramid and then assumed a
feathery appearance which was very beautiful. As the sun was shining,
the phenomenon presented various colors. The top was black, the center
took on various colors, while the sides and lower part appeared of an
ashy tint. While we were watching this, we felt a strong earthquake,
which was followed by loud noises and rumblings. The volcano then
continued to vomit forth lava, and the cloud extended till it darkened
the whole district; and then sparks and flashes seemed to come from
the ground and from the cloud, so that the whole presented the aspect
of a most terrible storm. There followed almost immediately a rain of
large, hot stones which broke, and burnt whatever they fell upon. A
little later, smaller stones, sand, and ashes were thrown out for more
than three hours.... Towns were entirely destroyed and burnt.... The
darkness caused by the eruption was noticeable as far as Manila,
... and, according to some, the ashes erupted passed as far as China."

Around the base of Mount Mayon are many geysers and hot springs which
are used for baths as cures for diseases, and as convenient places in
which to scald hogs at butchering times. Gases and steam arise from
cracks in the ground constantly, as if some great kettle were boiling
just beneath the surface of the earth. At times the mountain smokes,
sending up thin, fine wisps that curl lazily into the air or wind in
graceful circles about the crater. Wise men who understand volcanoes
say that it is a good sign when the mountain smokes, because it means
that the gases are escaping, and that an eruption is not so likely
to occur as when the crater is closed and the steam is confined.

There is an interesting story current in various parts of the
Philippine Islands, which advances a new theory to account for
the smoking of volcanoes. It is said that many years ago an old
man lived in the crater of the mountain and ruled all the country
round its base. He permitted the people to use the land part way up
the mountainside, but drew a line beyond which they might not go. He
disappeared for a long time, however, and the people forgot his ruling,
planting tobacco all the way to the summit.

Finally, however, the old man returned, and when he saw that he had
been disobeyed, he was exceedingly angry. He roared out his curses at
the people, shook the mountain, and threw down hot stones and ashes
at them until they fled down into the valley, terrified and ashamed.

As a further punishment, he took all their crop of tobacco and told
them that until he had finished smoking it they might not make any
use of the mountain slopes. Then he retired within the crater with
his immense stock of tobacco, and whenever the mountain smokes, the
older men nod wisely and say he is still smoking the people's tobacco.



At last the day came when Francisco had completed his course in
the provincial school and was ready to receive his certificate of
graduation. The term closed on the twenty-seventh of March, and the
principal had arranged for a great "fiesta" in honor of the occasion,
consisting of music and addresses in the morning, athletic exercises
in the afternoon, and a grand "baile" at night.

A temporary stage, erected by the boys of the manual training classes,
was placed at the north end of the plaza, and long before the appointed
hour the square was filled with gayly dressed women, and men in the
whitest of suits, who walked about under the trees or sat on the
green grass to await the commencement exercises.

Promptly at ten o'clock the procession issued from the front door of
the schoolhouse, filed into the plaza, and took seats on the stage. The
graduates sat in the center, the chief officials on their right, and
the faculty of the school on their left. The school orchestra was
stationed just in front of the stage, and as they finished playing
"America," the padre in his long black gown stepped forward and
offered a short prayer, speaking in Bicol and Spanish so that his
hearers might understand and follow him. Then came short addresses
by the governor of the province, the major commanding the United
States troops stationed at that post, the presidente of the town,
and the division superintendent of schools, after which the principal
presented the graduates with their certificates. Every one rose
and stood while the orchestra played "The Star-Spangled Banner,"
and Francisco's high school days were at an end.

During the month of April, he remained at home getting ready to leave,
for in May he was to sail for Manila, visit a month with Pablo, and
then enter the Philippine Normal School. He had never been so far
away before, and he looked forward with delightful anticipation to
his trip by steamer to the capital city of the islands. The time for
departure came at last, the good-byes were all said, and Francisco
found himself established on board the steam-ship Venus, ready to
sail. At six o'clock the last bale of abaca had been stowed away in
the hold, the hatches were closed, the anchor was lifted, and the
voyage began. Francisco watched the familiar mountains and valleys
of Albay province fade into the distance as the Venus rounded the
outer headlands of the bay and made for the straits of San Bernardino

The moon shone brightly that night, and he remained on deck until
late, watching the water glow with phosphorescence as the boat plowed
through it, and thinking of the unexplored world that lay before
him. He could still see the huge bulk of Mount Mayon standing out
clear against the sky, and he felt as if it were the only friend
remaining in the midst of so many strange sights and sounds.

It is pleasant to travel on the tranquil inland seas of the
Philippines, where cool breezes temper the heat of the tropical sun,
and where land is always in sight. Flying fish dart out of the water as
the vessel approaches them, skimming along the surface of the sea like
birds, before diving back again into its depths. Shoals of porpoises
appear from time to time and swim along with the boat, leaping out of
the water and playing in apparent enjoyment of life. Such experiences
were new to Francisco, for he had never been on the sea before,
and he enjoyed every detail of his trip.

After two days of travel they passed the island of Corregidor
(Cor-re'-hï-dor), which guards the entrance to the immense bay of
Manila. A few hours later they had covered the remaining thirty
miles of their journey and were steaming slowly past Fort Santiago
(Sant-iä'-go) and up the Pasig River to a wharf just below the Bridge
of Spain, where the boat was made fast and the passengers went ashore.

Manila is one of the most interesting cities in the world, not only
because it is the meeting place of the Far East and the Far West,
but also because the present and the remote past are to be found side
by side, and such excellent opportunity is offered for the study of
history at first hand. Here may be found stone walls that were built
at the close of the sixteenth century; and within a stone's throw are
structures erected according to the latest methods of working with
steel and concrete. Almost every language known to man may be heard
on the streets and in the shops, and the Filipino, the Japanese,
the Chinese, and the East Indian rub elbows with the American,
the European, and the African as they all move along the crowded
narrow streets.

Francisco found that he must depend upon his knowledge of the
English language in order to make his way in Manila; he knew very
little Spanish, and his native tongue, Bicol, was almost useless. The
Filipinos in this part of the islands speak a language called Tagalog
(Ta-gal'-og), which is strikingly different from Bicol. For example,
if Francisco wanted a banana he would call for a "batag" (bä'-täg),
but the Manila Filipinos would probably not understand him, as
their word for banana is "saging" (sä'-ging). Due to the widespread
influence of the American schools, one can find English spoken in
even remote parts of the Philippines, and hence in spite of sixty
different native languages, the people now have a common method of
speech which can be understood in all sections of the islands.

Manila is a city of churches. There are scores of them in all parts
of the city, and many of the older ones are worth visiting for their
beauty of decoration, for their interesting bamboo organs, or for
their historical connections. Those of the Jesuits and the Dominicans
(Do-min'-i-cans) are the most beautiful, having a great wealth of gold,
silver, and marble, many statues and paintings, and fine wood carvings
to adorn altars, pulpits, and chapels. The oldest church is that of
the Augustinians (Aug-ust-in'-ians), built in 1599, and the skill
of its builders is shown by the fact that it has escaped the fury
of the numerous earthquakes from which Manila has suffered. Legaspi,
the first of the Spanish governors of the Philippines, is buried back
of the altar of this church.

Manila consists of several distinct districts, each with its own
peculiarities. That part of the city within the walls is the oldest
part, and is called "Intramuros" (In-trä-mu'-ros), or the walled
city. Here the streets are narrow and the houses are of the old
Spanish style, closely walled, with barred windows below, the second
floor extending a short distance out over the sidewalk. The oldest
churches are to be found within the walled city, and here also are
the great cathedral and the government offices.

The wall, built about 1590 for defense against invaders, is very
suggestive of the time of knights in armor; the moat that formerly
surrounded the wall has been drained for sanitary reasons, but the
old bridges and gates are still used, and a few Spanish cannon can
be seen still mounted on the battlements. Of course masonry built
in the sixteenth century would offer small resistance to the guns
of the present day, but the fortifications are allowed to remain as
interesting reminders of the times that are gone.

Just outside of the walled city is the Luneta (Lu-ne'-ta), a beautiful
driveway and park at the bay's edge, where the people of Manila walk
or drive in the evening. Here they may enjoy the cool breezes from the
sea and listen to the band concerts, which are given several times
each week. The electric cars pass the Luneta, and excellent drives
leading to it from various directions make it easy for all to enjoy
this public park.

The districts of Ermita (Er-mï'-tä) and Malate (Ma-lä'-te) are
occupied chiefly by residences, while Binondo (Bi-non'-do) is the
business section of Manila. Here may be found business houses of all
sorts,--American soda fountains, Spanish clothiers, English bankers,
French restaurants, and Japanese curio dealers, with a miscellaneous
collection of Filipinos, Chinese, and other races who make a living
by trade.

Francisco found much to occupy his time during the month he had
for sightseeing. He visited not only the points of interest in
Manila, but made excursions to near-by places,--to Fort McKinley,
where the United States troops are quartered, for a railroad trip
on the Manila and Dagupan (Da-gu'-pan) railroad (Francisco's first
railroad experience), and up the Pasig River by motor boat,--all of
them delightful and interesting to him.

But at length his vacation came to an end, as all good vacations
do, and early in June he began his work in school again. We have
followed him throughout his common school life; we must leave him
here, just entering the front door of the Philippine Normal School,
and in return for his graceful bow and courteous "Adiós" (Ä-di-os')
we must offer our equally courteous "Good-bye."

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Francisco the Filipino" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.