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Title: Longhead: The Story of the First Fire
Author: Robinson, C. H.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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LONGHEAD:

_THE STORY OF THE FIRST FIRE_



L. C. PAGE & COMPANY

53 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass.


[Illustration: "THEY CAUGHT SIGHT OF THE LIGHT MADE BY THE FIRE."

(_See Page 63._)]



Longhead: The Story of the First Fire

BY C. H. ROBINSON

Author of "Hawk: The Young Osage," etc.

Illustrated by CHARLES LIVINGSTON BULL


  BOSTON      L. C. PAGE &
  COMPANY      MDCCCCXIII


  _Copyright, 1913_,
  BY L. C. PAGE & COMPANY
  (INCORPORATED)

  _All rights reserved_


  First Impression, July, 1913


  THE COLONIAL PRESS
  C. H. SIMONDS & CO., BOSTON, U. S. A.



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                      PAGE

    I. INTRODUCTION OF FIRE                      1

   II. WEAPONS--COOKED FOOD--COMPANIONSHIP      36

  III. GERMS OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION             62

   IV. CO-OPERATION                             76

    V. DAWN OF INVENTION, ART, MARRIAGE,
  RELIGION AND GOVERNMENT                       97



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


                                                     PAGE

  "THEY CAUGHT SIGHT OF THE LIGHT MADE
  BY THE FIRE" (_See page 63_)                   _Frontispiece_

  "A HUGE TIGER WHICH WAS SLOWLY CREEPING
  UP BEHIND HIM"                                       5

  "AFTER SOME VIGOROUS BLOWING, PRODUCED
  FLAME"                                              33

  "SOON THEY HAD A TOLERABLY FIRM PATH
  FROM THE SOLID GROUND TO A PLACE
  NEAR THE GREAT BEAST"                               82



LONGHEAD: THE STORY OF THE FIRST FIRE



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION OF FIRE


  "A fire-mist and a planet,
    A crystal and a cell,
  A jelly-fish and a saurian,
    And a cave where the cave-men dwell;
  Then a sense of law and beauty
    And a face turned from the clod,--
  Some call it Evolution,
    And others call it God."

A strange-looking animal was running across the open glade toward the
forest. It looked something like a human being, but was entirely naked.
Its body, except on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, was
covered with reddish-brown hair, but on the head it was nearly black
and long and matted; while on the rest of the body it was short and
curled--nearly fur, in fact. Its arms were long, reaching below the
knees, and the great toes, as it ran, stood nearly at right angles to
the others.

The animal carried no weapon of any kind, if we except a club or staff
broken from a dry branch, which it seemed to use in maintaining an
upright position as it hurried toward a large tree with pendent branches
which stood at the edge of the forest.

Just as the creature reached the outer branches, which extended nearly
to the ground, a storm, which had been rapidly approaching, burst with
great violence. There was a loud clap of thunder, a bolt of lightning
tore the tree to splinters, and the animal fell to the ground, stunned
by the shock. It lay unconscious for some time, and the thunder shower
had passed, leaving the sun shining brightly, when it raised its head
and sat up. At first it slowly rubbed its body and head, and then,
reaching full consciousness, its attention was attracted by a roaring
and crackling sound a short distance away.

The lightning had prostrated the tree and had set fire to a mass of
brush and logs lying at its roots. The beast sprang to its feet in
astonishment and alarm.

The animal was one of our primitive ancestors, and he now saw fire for
the first time.

As his body, chilled by the recent rain, began to feel the warmth, he
first drew near, but as the heat increased, he was compelled to
withdraw to a greater distance. He gazed as if fascinated, however, at
the curious sight for a long time.

When it began to grow dark, he was surprised to see that the forest for
some distance around, remained nearly as light as day.

[Illustration: "A HUGE TIGER WHICH WAS SLOWLY CREEPING UP BEHIND HIM."]

His feeble intellect, however, soon wearied of the new sensation, and he
withdrew to an overhanging rock near-by. He knew of a small cave at its
base with a narrow entrance, and of this he at once took possession,
rolling against the opening some masses of stone lying near and piling
in others after he had entered, until he had secured the opening against
any dangerous animal. He gave little further thought to the phenomena of
the fire, for man had not yet reached a development in intellect which
permitted a consecutive train of thought for any considerable length of
time. He slept soundly, but when he crawled from his refuge in the
morning, the smoke still rising from the pile of logs and brush
attracted his attention and recalled to his mind what had occurred the
evening before. He approached the fire, which had nearly consumed its
supply of fuel, but was smouldering still in a large decayed log and the
ends of several poles which lay partly in a bed of glowing coals.

So much was the man now interested in this new phenomenon that he forgot
for a moment his usual caution when in the forest, and failed to observe
a huge tiger which was slowly creeping up behind him, and, but for the
sharp sound of a dry stick breaking under the animal's weight, this
story would have ended then and there.

The man had just drawn from the fire a burning pole and was examining
with much curiosity its glowing end, when the sound caused him to turn,
only to meet the tiger, which had made its leap. The man bounded to one
side, and at the same time, more by accident than design, he thrust the
burning stick against the animal's breast. The fierce beast came against
it with such impact that it penetrated through the skin and into the
flesh. With a scream of terror and pain and many snarls and spits, the
tiger began biting the injured spot and then turned and fled into the
forest. Our man, who had given himself up for lost, stared in
bewilderment at the retreating animal and then at the pole which had
saved his life. He thought longer and more deeply than he had ever done
before, as he stood beside the smouldering embers. Without any
particular reason for his action, he gathered up some of the unconsumed
ends of the branches, cast them into the coals, and was much amused to
see them ignited and the flame renewed. It was a new plaything, and for
a long time he continued to pile sticks upon the coals and to delight in
the bright flame, the ascending smoke and the crackling sparks; but that
he could make any practical use of his new discovery had not yet been
suggested to his feeble intellect.

Tiring at length of the sport, he realized that he was hungry, and,
turning into the forest, he sought for food. For some hours he roamed
the hills and valleys, striking down with his stick a small animal which
he devoured raw; finding a few grubs under fallen logs which he turned
over; and he found also a few berries, prematurely ripened, and finally
satisfied his ravenous appetite by filling his stomach with buds of
shrubs and some succulent roots, which experience had taught him were
not injurious and were at least satisfying.

By this time he had reached a part of the forest in which he had been
making his home for a few weeks and, seeking out a tree, in which he had
constructed a sort of nest with interlaced sticks and leaves, he lay
down for a nap. He wakened late in the afternoon, climbed to the ground
and started on an aimless walk through the forest, carrying his stick,
but no other weapon, for other weapons than stones for throwing and
sticks for striking were then unknown.

Most of the people in the group to which he belonged had short round
heads, such as scientists call brachiocephalic, but this man was
dolichocephalous, or longheaded, and this peculiarity had given him the
name of Longhead among this group at the few gatherings of these people,
which happened occasionally, more by accident than design, for they had
no social organization whatever. They had no laws; no leaders; no
permanent habitations and wore no clothing. They slept in nests built in
the branches of trees at night, or sought shelter in any chance caves
of the region through which they roved. This had no defined boundaries
and they remained in the locality only because they found food fairly
plentiful.

As yet, there was not even family organization, for it was many ages
after this time before it dawned upon man anywhere that the male animal
played any part in the propagation of species. To the ordinary and usual
phenomena of nature our primitive forefathers never gave a thought or
question, but accepted them without speculation as to their cause or
fear as to their continuance, so long as regularity obtained. The rising
and setting of the sun were to him perfectly natural events of daily
occurrence from his childhood, and had so continued during the
recollection of the oldest members of the group, and it was only when
eclipses occurred, breaking this orderly continuity, that he felt at all
alarmed. It was natural for the moon to shed her soft light when not
obscured by clouds, and even its waxing and waning occasioned no alarm,
for this, likewise, had continued "since the fathers fell asleep." There
was nothing strange about the gentle dew descending by night or rain
falling from the clouds; these he had observed from his earliest youth;
but when the loud thunders reverberated through the hills, and the
forked lightnings flashed athwart the sky, frequently rending the giant
trees of the forest or bringing sudden death to a comrade, this
mysterious and dangerous display of an unknown power, was, to him,
alarming, and he early attributed these and all other infrequent or
unaccountable phenomena to supernatural beings with whom his fancy
peopled the hills and forests, the rivers and the sky.

It was entirely natural to primitive man that in the spring the trees
and plants should bud and send forth leaves and blossoms, to be followed
later by fruit, "each after its kind." This, also, had always occurred
from his earliest recollection and that of his elders, and it occasioned
no thought upon his part. It was only when floods, drouths and other
calamities interfered with this orderly sequence of events that any
mystery was presented or any thought required. It is clear that among
these common and natural occurrences, which were simply accepted without
question because they had always happened, must be classed the bringing
forth of young by all mammals. Man had always observed that the females
of all the animals about him brought forth young, "each after its kind."
This was to be expected and gave him no surprise, nor, in the then
condition of his intellect, did it give rise to a thought as to its
cause. Likewise, his own womankind gave birth to young, from time to
time, just as did the other animals, and there was no cause for
speculation or thought in regard to this; the occurrence was too common
to be a mystery.

There being then no knowledge of fatherhood, there were no fathers, and
for many generations no relatives were known except in the female line.
Consequently, there was no family hearthstone; no paternal love; no
marriage. The relations of the sexes was purely physical and were
generally indiscriminate, as opportunity might afford; but doubtless,
with some, this companionship was continued for a longer or shorter
period, as circumstances or congeniality might induce.

In these ages, and they were long ones among some peoples, it is obvious
that there could have been no such emotion as paternal love, for no man
even suspected that he was a father. No man experienced the exquisite
pleasure of hearing the first cry of his first-born child; no man heard
"Dada," from infant lips. No man assisted in the support of his children
or took part in their care, except unconsciously as he aided in the
maintenance of the children of the group or tribe; no man cared more for
the mother of his children than he did for any other woman who might
attract his fancy or passion. Above all, the men and women of that long
epoch were strangers to the sacred companionship, the life-long
attachment and communion of souls with mutual interests which attach to
the true marriage of to-day. The children were the common care of the
group or tribe; the boys that they might grow up to be hunters and
warriors, and the girls that they might contribute to the sensual
enjoyment of the men, or, if it pleased the spirits, or stars, or some
other supernatural agency, might become mothers for the perpetuation of
the tribe. In times of extreme danger, famine or privation, or when too
feeble to follow the migrations of the group, the babies, especially the
female ones, were ruthlessly abandoned to wild beasts or slaughtered
outright. There existed, doubtless, the mother instinct which prompts
females, even among the lower animals, to care for and defend their
offspring, but it certainly fell far short of the mother love among
civilized peoples.

After wandering aimlessly a number of miles, Longhead encountered a
female of his own species who was not altogether unknown to him. They
had met occasionally at the infrequent gatherings of the people who
inhabited that part of the forest, and on one or two occasions had
remained together for a few days in that anomalous companionship which
took the place of marriage in those far-off days. There was no kiss,
caress or other sign of affection or pleasure; the pair merely gave each
other a friendly grin and grunted in a satisfactory tone. Words were
scarce in the vocabulary of the people of that epoch, and they
communicated with each other largely by means of signs, gesticulation
and pantomime. The woman could not have been called handsome, according
to our ideas of beauty. She, too, was naked and hairy, but the hair on
her head was longer and less matted than on that of the man, and was
held back from her face by being drawn behind the ears with a strip of
bark twisted about her head to keep it somewhat in that condition. Her
body was smaller than that of Longhead; but her limbs were slender and
ungainly and her stomach also protruded, in consequence of the
quantities of coarse vegetable food required to sustain life. By an
accident in childhood, she had lost one of her front teeth, and on this
account, she was known as Broken Tooth.

The woman soon gave Longhead to understand that she was hungry. The
protective, or probably, the sexual instinct, prompted him to act as a
provider, and he offered to assist her in a search for food. Together
they roamed, finding here a few grubs and there a juicy root, and
finally the man killed a small animal with his club, which they shared,
Longhead tearing it in pieces with his hands and teeth and throwing
small pieces to Broken Tooth, which he admiringly watched her devour.
Her appetite finally satisfied, she lay back in the sunshine against the
roots of a tree, closed her eyes in great contentment, and began a
conversation with her companion in the few words then constituting the
human vocabulary. She recalled their last meeting and asked why she had
not seen him at any of the gatherings of the group since. He told her
that in consequence of the jealousy of one of the giants of the group to
which they both belonged, who had resented his attentions to one of the
females of his harem, he had become involved in a fight with the giant
in which he had been beaten nearly to death, and that, fearing to
remain with his fellows, as well as on account of his serious injuries,
he had retired to a distant part of the forest where he had found
sufficient food and had recovered his strength. He told her that he had
rather enjoyed his isolation and, had present company been with him in
his forced retirement, he would have been entirely content. At this
statement, the woman merely gave an incredulous sniff.

The man then related numerous encounters with wild animals, in which, of
course, he had come off successfully--and just here he recollected his
strange experience with the fire and his encounter with the tiger. With
great truthfulness, and as much detail as his vocabulary permitted, he
told her what had occurred to him the evening before and that very
morning. How, seeking for refuge from a storm, he had been suddenly
stricken unconscious, by what means he did not know; and the strange
sight he had witnessed on recovery. He told her, also, of his adventure
with the tiger that morning and its discomfiture. Broken Tooth laughed
long and loudly at this and was wholly incredulous. Such a thing had
never happened before, and consequently could not have happened now. She
asked him what kind of a weed he had been eating, and said she was not
born yesterday to believe such nonsense. This led to quite a discussion,
the man insisting upon the reality of his experiences and the woman
ridiculing the whole narrative as impossible. The colloquy finally ended
by her asking him to conduct her to the place where he claimed such
wonderful things had happened, that she might see if anything remained
there to confirm his absurd story. Longhead assented and, as it was not
far distant, they arrived at the locality a little before dark. The fire
still smouldered in the decayed log and numerous sticks still smoked at
their ends. Mindful of his morning's amusement, Longhead gathered a
number of the burning poles, placed their glowing ends together and
threw on them some dry leaves and twigs. In a moment a column of smoke
began to ascend, followed soon by a tongue of bright flame and many
rising and glowing sparks. One of these Broken Tooth caught in her
hand, but dropped it with an exclamation of pain. "If a small one hurts
so much, I don't wonder your tiger fled when you thrust a large one
against his breast," she said.

Long they played with the fire, throwing upon it sticks and dry
branches, and the woman clapped her hands and screamed with delight at
each succeeding shower of sparks.

When at length night came on and the darkness made the firelight more
brilliant, the man piled a large number of sticks on the fire to show
how the forest was lighted up; but finally both became weary of the
sport, and then he told her of the cave near-by--just large enough for
two--and invited her to share it with him for the night. She consented,
and as they were about to start, the man, without any thought of the
effect, gathered up four or five of the sticks with live coals at the
end and placed them together. These he waved in the air to amuse the
woman with the flying sparks, as they passed along, she still screaming
at each successive sparkle, until suddenly a bright flame shot up and,
by accident, like many other valuable discoveries, a torch was invented.
By its light they easily made their way to the rocky platform in front
of the cave sheltered by the overhanging rock, and when Longhead cast
down the torch Broken Tooth placed the ends of the burning sticks
together as she had seen him do, and again the flame shot up. The new
experience was too delightful to be given up, and, at the woman's
suggestion, they gathered large armfuls of dry branches and some heavy
logs which lay scattered about near the platform, which they piled up
and from time to time added to the fire.

The night was cool, but as they sat back against the wall of rock under
the sloping cliff to watch the blaze and flying sparks, a pleasant
warmth, new to their experience, pervaded their bodies, and they gave
themselves up to the luxury of the sensation.

The fire roared and blazed merrily, Broken Tooth shouted in glee, and
Longhead began to think, in a slow ponderous way, that this new agent in
his life might do much for his comfort if it could be perpetuated, but
his mental power was too limited to suggest any method for this.

Their shouts and laughter had attracted the attention of the wild
animals, and all at once Broken Tooth saw two glowing eyes and the
crouching form of a great tiger almost at the edge of the platform.
Longhead caught sight of it at the same moment, and with a yell of fear
each scrambled for the narrow entrance of the cave. Broken Tooth,
lighter of form and quicker of movement, reached it a moment the
soonest, but no promptings of sex, gallantry or politeness prevented
Longhead from throwing her roughly to one side while he attained the
coveted shelter. Once within, he began to fill the entrance with stones,
leaving his companion to the fate which he supposed had already
befallen her, when, greatly to his surprise, she tumbled in unhurt.
Filling the entrance so that it would not admit the body of the tiger,
they peered together through the openings and saw the disappointed
animal pacing back and forth just at the edge of the semi-circle of
brilliant light made by the fire. Long they watched the baffled beast,
and at first they were unable to understand why the animal did not
approach the entrance and attempt to remove the stones and secure his
prey. At length Broken Tooth said: "I believe he is afraid of the fire."
She did not, of course, use the word "fire;" she probably said
"brightness," or some equivalent word, if they had one. Longhead agreed
that this might be the case, and together they watched the animal with
great interest. Finally Longhead, emboldened by the tiger's hesitation,
removed one of the stones, and, protruding his head, shouted in derision
at his ancient enemy. The animal, whose rage or hunger made him
momentarily forget his fear, made a dash toward the cave, but, when he
came within the bright light and felt the heat of the fire, he retreated
precipitately. Longhead finally crawled outside and Broken Tooth soon
followed him. They taunted the great cat with the vilest words they
knew; threw stones at it, and simply revelled in their new sensation of
safety. Here was Old Saber-Tooth, the one animal of all others whose
vicinage carried terror wherever he went, at bay at last. For a while
the animal would make dashes toward them, when Broken Tooth would
tumble into the cave and Longhead draw near the entrance, ready for
instant retreat to safety; but each time the fear of the fire sent the
tiger back beyond the charmed circle of its light, where it gave vent to
its disappointment in savage growls and spittings. At length, wearied by
the unprofitable labor, and awed by the strange light and heat, the
beast disappeared; its snarls and growls grew fainter in the distance
and ceased to be heard. Saber-Tooth had at last found something he
feared, and man a protector.

Delighted with this new feeling of security from danger in the night,
the man and woman sat long before the cheerful blaze and enjoyed its
grateful warmth. They agreed that wild animals were afraid of this new
agent, and if they could always have its protection they would have
nothing to fear from them; but to their weak intellects no thought of an
attempt to perpetuate the fire was suggested.

When their fuel was exhausted and nothing but a bed of glowing coals
remained, they retired to the cave, carefully closing the entrance
against the possible return of the tiger or the attack of some other
animal, for they realized that the fire, being now nearly out, they
could no longer depend upon it for protection.

Late in the morning Longhead and Broken Tooth emerged from the cave. The
fire was out and the ashes cold. When they thought of the pleasurable
warmth it had produced and the protection it had afforded they indulged
in some expressions of regret that it was gone, and then thought no more
about it. They soon made their way to the place of the smouldering log,
but it was now nearly consumed. Directly the woman noticed two or three
tiny threads of smoke, and on investigation they found that some dry
excrescences, which we call "punk," had fallen away from the burning log
and that on one side of each was a small spark. Broken Tooth took up one
of these and, noting the white ash so like the down on certain plants
which she had often blown away in sport, she blew upon it as she held it
in her hand, and was delighted to see the spark spread and glow afresh.
Longhead, too, picked up a piece of the lighted punk and, after blowing
upon it for a few minutes, dropped it carelessly at his feet, where it
fell upon some dry rotten wood and leaves. Without noticing this, he
watched the amusement of his companion as she made the sparks fly from
the piece she held, and then, suddenly, with a yell of pain, he jumped
aside and hopped about on one foot, holding the other in his hand. The
rotten wood and leaves upon which he had dropped the punk had ignited
and the fire had reached his foot. He now understood the defeat of the
tiger the morning before, and had ocular and painful demonstration of
the fact that punk will retain fire, at least for a few hours.

[Illustration: "AFTER SOME VIGOROUS BLOWING, PRODUCED FLAME."]


Longhead now seemed to wake up; at last he had an idea, and he talked it
over with the woman as they slowly returned to the cave platform, each
carrying a piece of the lighted punk. Once there, the man sought for
dry, rotten wood and small twigs, which they piled upon the punk and,
after some vigorous blowing, produced flame.

An idea was born; a discovery was made; the greatest in all time. Broken
Tooth remained to maintain the fire by putting on fresh fuel, while
Longhead carried armfuls of sticks and logs from the forest, together
with pieces of punk for future use. The punk he piled at the cave
entrance to keep it dry, and man was now master of fire, the most
beneficent of nature's gifts. Thenceforth it only remained that a
plentiful supply of dry fuel and punk should be maintained at the cave,
and their comfort and safety were assured.

Their delight at their mutual discovery--for Longhead insisted that if
Broken Tooth had not blown upon the punk for amusement, he would not
have discovered a method for the preservation of the fire--drew the two
closer together as having a great secret in common. The necessity that
the fire be supplied with fuel that it might be kept alive, and that
fresh fire might occasionally be applied to the pieces of punk,
suggested that one should remain for that purpose; and when Longhead
proposed that the two should remain permanently together, the woman to
keep the fire alive while the man sought for food for both, Broken Tooth
agreed at once; and thus came about the first union resembling marriage
in which the man became the provider and the woman the home-keeper.



CHAPTER II

WEAPONS--COOKED FOOD--COMPANIONSHIP


For some months the man and woman maintained their residence in the
cave, uninterrupted by any visits from other human inhabitants of the
forest. Daily Longhead went forth in search of food, which he brought to
the cave and they shared it together. Sometimes there was plenty, but
often their meals were scanty, as the only weapons then known were
stones and clubs. Broken Tooth aided to some extent, by searching a
piece of low moist ground not far from the cave for such roots and
tubers as were palatable, and altogether, they managed to sustain life
as well as before their union, but the woman never ventured far from the
platform for fear that by some accident their precious fire should go
out.

Every night the fire blazed merrily upon the platform, fed with dry
branches and large sticks, which it was the task of the woman to procure
during the day. Frequently they saw wild animals in the forest at night
or heard their growls as they prowled in the surrounding thickets, but
never after their experience with the tiger the first night of their
fire, did one venture within the charmed circle of the light made by the
flames.

Sometimes when it rained or the weather was cold, and sufficient food
remained over from the night before, Longhead lingered about the cave
and platform all day, enjoying the warmth and comfort of the fire, and
on these occasions the couple talked much of the benefits of their new
acquisition.

One day Broken Tooth said: "What shall we say if some of the people
wander this way and find us? What shall we tell them about how we came
in possession of this new comfort?" Then they talked about this long and
earnestly. They had no desire to benefit their fellows by sharing with
them their accidental discovery, for man was yet a purely selfish
animal, and there was no organized society of any kind; but they both
recognized the fact that when others became acquainted with its
benefits, they would soon acquire the fire, by force if necessary, and
that their own lives would stand for nothing, should they resist. They
felt sure that the matter could not long be concealed from other members
of their group, for the first hunter who should wander to that part of
the forest would smell the smoke and would investigate. It was finally
concluded that, as they did not themselves know how the fire had
originated in the heap of logs and brush, they would say Longhead
himself had produced it in a mysterious manner, which they dare not
reveal for fear it might be taken from them.

That they might not be observed in the mornings kindling the fire with
punk and tinder, and their secret be thus exposed, it was agreed that
all the punk should be kept in the cave, the fires lighted there, and
only brought out on the platform after the sticks were ablaze.

Every night two pieces of punk were ignited and laid carefully up on a
small natural projecting shelf in the cave. They used two pieces,
fearing that by some accident one might become extinguished. The fact
is, this very thing did happen once. The lighted punk had been laid back
against the rear wall of the platform when they went to bed, but a
violent storm had come on in the night and the rain had been driven in
so that the punk was wet and the spark gone in the morning. Their
precious fire was only saved by Broken Tooth finding a tiny spark on the
under side of a log which the water had not happened to reach. They had
been greatly alarmed, and so two pieces had been thereafter lighted and
both taken into the cave to avoid such another mishap.

This peaceful enjoyment of their new-found happiness and companionship
had continued for some months, when one evening a small animal which
they were about to tear to pieces for their evening meal, fell into a
large bed of burning coals on the platform. Longhead was about to
recover it when Broken Tooth, whose sense of smell may have been more
acute, said: "Wait a minute; what is that delicious smell?"

Up to this time they had still continued to eat their food raw, and
there had been nothing to suggest to the mind of either that it would be
better if exposed to heat. Now they continued for some minutes to
inhale the new and agreeable odor, but it had the effect to make
Longhead ravenously hungry, and he soon drew the animal from the coals
with a long stick. When he began to tear it the hot carcass burned his
fingers, which alarmed him at first, but the demands of his appetite
must be satisfied, and, tearing it in pieces, he divided with the woman.
At first they both tasted gingerly and were a little afraid of the
unaccustomed heat, but before either had finished the first morsel their
pleasure was evident. They devoured the whole of the animal, and
declared it the finest eating they had ever experienced. Two or three
other small animals lay beside the fire and they decided to repeat the
course. Both had observed that the portions of the first animal which
had been most exposed to the heat had been made tender and more
appetizing, and, on the suggestion of Broken Tooth, a long slender stick
was thrust through an animal, which was by this means held over the
hottest part of the bed of coals by Longhead, who turned it from time to
time, that all parts might be thoroughly cooked. This was so much better
than the first that their appetites returned with renewed vigor, and
when the second animal had been eaten, they again repeated the courses
until all the food on hand had been devoured. They both declared that
roasted meat was far superior to raw, and agreed that this should be the
method of preparing meat for the future.

One day when Broken Tooth returned from the swamp with some wild carrots
and other roots, she thrust one into a pile of hot ashes and burning
coals, merely as an experiment. She left it there while she collected
some fuel and replenished the fire, and when she drew it out and tasted
it she was pleased to find that roots also were much improved by
cooking. When Longhead returned in the evening he was treated to a
surprise--supper of two courses, broiled wood-rat and roasted carrot.

Everything to be used for food was thereafter submitted to the cooking
test, and, whenever broiling or roasting in the ashes seemed to improve
the taste of any article of food, this was adopted.

Longhead and Broken Tooth now found themselves really caring for each
other and each sought to do things to please the other. As far as they
were concerned, the old selfishness was now gone. Their close
companionship around the fire alone during the evenings; its cheerful
light and gay sparkle, its warmth and comfort tended to promote
conversation and they found themselves talking more than they had ever
before in their lives. They even coined a few words to express their new
experiences and feelings. Longhead would relate in detail the hunting
adventures of the day and Broken Tooth would recount her own experiences
in search of roots and eggs.

Both thoroughly enjoyed their new life at the fire-cave; indeed, it
seemed to them they had never really lived before.

Nearly every day Longhead would go into the forest in search of small
animals for food. In his absence Broken Tooth first collected sufficient
fuel to keep the fire alive for another twenty-four hours, then she
would visit the low ground for roots and tubers, eggs and nuts, for
since they had been experimenting with roasting, they had discovered
that a number of roots which had been rejected as bitter and
unpalatable, when raw, were much improved by roasting, and these had
been added to the bill of fare. Broken Tooth had found nesting places of
the waterfowl which frequented the swamp. Her first experiment in
roasting eggs had been a partial failure. She placed a couple of eggs in
the hot ashes, noticing at the time that the shell of one was cracked;
soon there was an explosion and the egg with the sound shell was
destroyed. Thereafter she made a small hole in each for the escape of
the steam and all went well. Her worst trouble with eggs was the want of
a receptacle for transporting them to the fire-cave, for she wore not
even an apron.

When evening began to draw near, Broken Tooth found herself looking
often into the forest and wishing for Longhead's return. She sometimes
feared a savage beast might have killed him. This was a new feeling for
her. In the former life she had never cared for any one or cared
particularly to see others. One evening when the man finally appeared,
she ran into the forest to meet him and put her arms around his neck.
Longhead looked at her in some surprise and then returned the caress,
and they walked arm in arm to the platform. That evening they both
talked a great deal, and finally Broken Tooth said: "I wonder what has
come over both of us. Even when together for a short time in the old
days, we spoke but seldom. I wonder if it is the fire."

It was indeed the fire, with its warmth and cheer, so different from the
old days when each had shivered in the fork of a tree or had spent the
night in a dark and noisome cavern. Neither understood the nature of the
change which was being wrought in them, but if it was not yet real
marriage, it was at least the germ which in the long succeeding ages has
developed into real marriage.

One morning a cold rain was falling and Longhead sat long before the
blazing fire, loth to leave the comfort he found there for the chilly
and dripping forest. He drew a long slender stick from the fire and
began to observe its glowing end. As the ashes accumulated and hid the
red coal, he blew them away. After a few minutes, the fire on the stick
went out and the man, picking up a piece of stone, began idly and
without purpose to scrape away the black or charred portion of the end.
When he reached the unburned wood, he found it very hard and as he
continued to scrape, he finally brought the stick to a very sharp point.
He felt this and thought it might be very good for killing small
animals, so when he finally started out for his day's search for food,
he took it with him. It was fortunate he did so, for late in the
afternoon as he was turning toward home, after an unsuccessful hunt, a
pack of wild dogs attacked him. So close were they upon him before he
was aware, that the leader sprang at him to pull him down just before he
reached a tree in which he was about to take refuge. In defense, he
thrust the sharpened stick at the beast with all his might. It passed
clear through the body of the dog, which fell dead and was quickly
devoured by its fellows, while the man scrambled to safety. When
Longhead climbed down, after the dogs had dispersed, he secured the
sharpened stick, and it was with a new feeling of safety he moved
through the forest, spear in hand; for a spear had been invented. A few
days later he even ventured to attack a wild dog he found separated from
the pack; a thing he never would have done when armed with only a club
or stone. He killed the animal and carried it in triumph to the
fire-cave, for it was the first time, to his knowledge, a man, ever,
single-handed, had killed so large an animal of a ferocious kind. Its
roasted flesh supplied the man and woman food for several days.

One day, when kindling a fire on the platform, the woman was too
indolent to remove some small boulders from the spot where she desired
to make the fire, so she piled the fuel over them and was surprised to
find that the fire kindled more readily and burned better on account of
the fuel being raised from the ground, and thereafter, three or four
stones were used to support the sticks. One morning, after the fire had
burned for some time and the stones were red hot, a smart shower came
up. The fire was too far under the slope of the shelving rock to be
directly affected, but as it continued to rain for some time, a small
pool accumulated on top of the rock, which finally worked its way
through the bed of leaves that had dammed its progress and, all at once,
it poured over the face of the rock in a small column and fell directly
upon one of the red-hot stones in the fire-place. The stone was a large
nodule of flint; there was an immediate explosion, a dense cloud of
steam and ashes arose, and the alarmed owners of the cave rushed for
safety to its depths. When all was quiet they emerged to find that one
of the stones which supported the sticks had disappeared. Instead of the
stone, however, there were numerous sharp flakes of flint scattered
about, which Longhead first discovered when he cut his foot by stepping
on one.

With much curiosity, the man examined the flake which had injured him,
then picking up the carcass of a small animal lying near, he found that
he could cut it with the flake. He now carefully gathered up all the
flakes he could find and carried them into the cave. When he returned
from his day's hunt in the evening, he brought with him a long, slender,
dry stick which he rubbed and polished with a flake until perfectly
smooth; then, with some fibrous roots, he bound the longest and sharpest
of his flakes at the end of the pole, and the next day carried this with
him to the forest instead of the fire-hardened wooden spear. Later, he
discovered that narrow strips of rawhide were better than roots for
tying on a flake, and, after many years of progress, the long tendons of
large animals were substituted as still better for the purpose.

Longhead and his new deadly weapon had numerous encounters with small
animals, in each of which he found his new spear superior to anything he
had yet tried, and this gave him still greater confidence in himself. He
no longer sneaked through the forest half bent to the ground and fearing
nearly every animal he might meet, but went with head erect and a more
fearless step.

A few days later, while pursuing some half-grown wild pigs, and when
they were about to plunge into a den in the rocks, he threw his spear at
the last one, in disappointment. To his surprise, it passed clear
through the animal, killing it at once. He carried the pig to the cave
and that night sat long before the fire in deep thought. Finally, he
selected a long and thin fragment of flint, rather broader than those he
had used for the spear, wrapped some small roots about it at one end to
protect his hand, and he had a knife--the first one in the world. The
next morning he tied a strip of bark around his waist to support the
knife, and when he returned in the evening he brought with him several
dry and slender sticks shorter than his spear and proceeded to bind a
sharp splinter of flint to each. Thereafter, he always carried one of
these short ones in addition to his long spear, and thus a javelin was
invented. He practiced throwing this at every animal he saw, and,
indeed, at other objects, and soon became quite expert in its use. He
found, too, that it was now much easier to keep the larder well
supplied.

In his wanderings, Longhead one day approached quite near the locality
in which he had formerly resided with the group, and where he had
received the terrible beating which had made him an exile. He gnashed
his teeth when he thought of the man who had vented his jealous rage
upon him and was wondering in his mind how he could obtain revenge. At
that instant he turned around a point of rocks and found himself face to
face with the giant himself. The fellow was all of a head taller and at
least fifty pounds heavier than Longhead; his strength was immense and
his temper ferocious. By reason of his size and fierce temper, as well
as the surly grunts he generally used instead of words, he was known
among the people of the group as the Bear. He was a veritable tyrant and
most of the others were practically his slaves. When Bear saw a man or
woman with food he wanted, he reached for it with a roar, and it was at
once given up or its owner was beaten nearly to death. He had a large
number of the women so terrified that they did not dare to associate
with the other men; these he kept near himself and compelled them to
supply him with food. Longhead had once persuaded one of these women to
accompany him on a trip in search of food. They were absent several
days, and on his return, Bear had given him the beating. Bear knew him
at once, and with a howl of rage and uplifted club, rushed upon him.
Longhead was terribly frightened, and for a moment forgot all about his
spear, but in a second he recalled the fate of the pig and other animals
and, with all his strength, he threw his javelin at the hairy breast of
the advancing enemy, now but a pace or two distant. It went nearly
through his body and, with a yell of pain, the giant threw up his hands
and fell to the ground. He tried to pull the weapon from his body, and
failing in this, writhed in agony for a few moments and then lay
perfectly still. He was dead, and Longhead looked with wonder and awe at
his victim.

Fighting was not uncommon among the men of that period, but being
without dangerous weapons, the fights had generally resulted in one or
both the combatants being more or less seriously but not dangerously
injured, and this was the first time Longhead had ever seen one human
being killed by another. Deaths he had, of course, known, but they had
been from disease, accident or wild animals.

He now heard some of the people approaching, and drawing his javelin
from the corpse, he concealed himself near-by to observe the effect
when they should discover the body. There were three of the party, and
at first they thought Bear asleep and shouted to arouse him, but when
they discovered the blood and the hole in his breast, they perceived
that he was dead.

Longhead in hiding heard no expressions of sorrow or regret, for, to
tell the truth, Bear was no favorite with the group. His immense size
and irascible disposition had made him a bully, and there were few who
had not been beaten by him at some time; therefore, the remarks
overheard by the man in hiding were rather to the effect that the
finders were well enough pleased, but they expressed great wonder at the
wound and could not conceive what animal had caused it, especially as
there were no marks of teeth or claws or any other wounds on the body.
They picked up the corpse, however, and started with it toward the late
habitation of the giant.

Longhead left his retreat and proceeded thoughtfully toward the
fire-cave. His revenge was gratified and he felt happy on that account,
but the wonderful character of his weapon was beginning to dawn upon his
dull intelligence, and he no longer feared man or beast. He dimly
recognized that with such a weapon a small man was the equal of a
giant.



CHAPTER III

GERMS OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION


After several months' residence at the fire-cave, during which none of
their former neighbors had appeared in the vicinity, Longhead and Broken
Tooth were seated at their fire one evening enjoying a hearty meal of
cooked flesh and roasted tubers and eggs. The man had, thanks to his
javelin, brought home all the meat he could carry, the fire blazed
merrily and they were enjoying themselves to the utmost when they were
greeted by human voices from some trees near the cave. It appeared that
a couple of their old neighbors had been hunting in that part of the
forest and, night coming on, they had sought safety from dangerous
animals by climbing a tree. This happened to be so near the cave that
they caught sight of the light made by the fire, and the strange sight
excited their curiosity. At first, they were greatly alarmed, never
having seen fire before, but curiosity soon overcame fear, and, passing
from tree to tree, they cautiously approached the platform. When quite
near they recognized Longhead and Broken Tooth as old acquaintances and
called out to them. They were at once invited to come down, but declined
at first, being afraid of the strange light, but, being assured by the
man and woman that there was no danger, they soon descended, and very
gingerly and with many pauses, after much encouragement, approached the
platform.

The genial warmth of the fire pleased them greatly and they asked
Longhead what it was and where it came from. He made vague and
mysterious answers and gave them little satisfaction. He told them,
however, that the savage animals were afraid of the light and would not
come near it, relating their adventure with Saber-Tooth their first
night at the cave, and he assured them that if the fire was kept alive
by a supply of fuel, one could sleep in the open forest at night without
danger, and showed them the effect of putting on fresh fuel. He invited
them to remain upon the platform for the night, informing them that but
one must sleep at a time, the other remaining awake to supply the fire
with wood, of which he showed them the pile and instructed them to put
but little on at a time, that it might not be exhausted before daylight.

There was a goodly supply of meat at the cave, for the man had been
successful in the day's hunt, and he and Broken Tooth now proceeded to
cook some of it over the coals. When it was well done, they offered some
to their guests. At first they were afraid of it and declined to taste
until their hosts had eaten some, but, after the first taste they
devoured it ravenously and expressed great surprise and satisfaction at
the improvement over raw meat.

At a late hour Longhead and Broken Tooth retired to their cave, leaving
their guests seated at the fire. They both remained awake all night,
replenishing the fire from time to time, as they had been instructed.
They thoroughly enjoyed the new sensation of light and warmth as
compared with the dark and chilly refuge of a tree-top, and they talked
much of this new element and its mysterious character.

When Longhead and Broken Tooth emerged from the cave in the morning,
their visitors were gone, and so was the last scrap of meat, for their
guests had enjoyed the unusual hospitality to the fullest extent, by
spending the night in roasting and eating until gorged, and had taken
their departure as soon as it was fully daylight.

It chanced that they returned to their group of people on the day of a
general gathering, and over and over again they told the marvels they
had witnessed the night before. Most of their auditors set them down as
first-class liars, and not a few told them plainly what they thought of
the story. On the second day, however, three of the group agreed to
accompany them to the fire-man's cave and verify the matter. The five
arrived near the platform about dusk, and brought with them several
small animals they had killed on the way. As dark was coming on, the
fire burned brightly on the rocky bench in front of the cave. The two
who had been visitors before advanced boldly, but when they neared the
light, the others promptly climbed trees to view the strange sight from
a position of safety. They saw Longhead and Broken Tooth seated by the
fire, and, when their companions reached the platform, they saw them
welcomed and seated. These called to them to come on as there was
nothing to fear, and finally, they climbed down and cautiously
approached. Their surprise was great and their satisfaction unbounded
when they felt the warmth; and now the first comers suggested a trial of
the new method of preparing food. Here a new surprise awaited them, for
Longhead and Broken Tooth each produced a flint knife and proceeded to
cut the animals in small pieces instead of tearing them,--a proceeding
which the new-comers watched with great interest, for they had never
before seen a knife. Longhead gave each a piece and showed how to hold
it over the hottest part of the burning coals, and to turn it that all
parts might be cooked and not scorched.

They took the delight of children in a new game, and besides, they were
hungry from their long tramp, and the feast lasted until all the meat
and roasted roots had been disposed of, many questions being asked,
however, during the progress of the meal about the origin of the fire.
These the man and woman answered mysteriously, and finally retired to
the cave, leaving their guests more mystified than ever.

The visitors remained awake most of the night, one or two sleeping while
the others kept the fire supplied with fuel. It happened, also, that a
couple of tigers approached the light near enough to be seen by them,
but sneaked off, afraid of the strange sight.

This time they all remained until the man and woman arose in the
morning, and then insisted that Longhead should tell them where the fire
came from and how they could procure it for the benefit of the group. He
answered as mysteriously as before, and pointed to the sky as the place
from whence it came; but he gave them to understand that he controlled
the mysterious agent; that there were plenty of caves in the ravine
near-by, and if the group would take these for their habitations, he
would not object to supplying them with the fire; and he showed them how
it might be conveyed to a considerable distance by means of torches. He
was careful, however, not to say anything about its preservation by
means of the punk, and he declined to give any explanation in regard to
the flint knives with which the meat had been cut.

Since he had become acquainted with the use of fire, Longhead's
intellect had expanded rapidly, and he now began to have a vague idea
that he could make use of these secrets to his own personal advantage.

On their return to the group, the party reported that all the first two
had said about the fire was true and the half had not been told. They
enlarged upon the appetizing method of preparing food by roasting, and
the warmth and comfort of the heat, to say nothing of the terror in
which the fire was held by the ferocious animals.

They told of the caves in the vicinity of the fire-man's habitation and
his offer to supply them all with fire, and proposed an immigration to
the locality, that all might enjoy this new agent for man's comfort.

Most of the group agreed to the proposition, and the next day removed
with their few belongings and located themselves in the caves of the
ravine; but a few conservative old fellows said they would have nothing
to do with such unnatural and mysterious business; and as to roasting
meat, it was surely intended that it should be eaten raw, else why were
they furnished with hands to tear and teeth to chew, and besides, had
not their fathers always eaten their meat raw? For their part, they
would remain at the old locality and follow the old and tried methods,
at least, until they should see if any harm befell the immigrants on
account of the innovation.

By the time the procession of emigrants had arrived at the fire-cave,
Longhead and Broken Tooth had determined upon their own course of
action, and when the new-comers had selected their respective caves and
came to be instructed in the use of fire, Longhead told each that as
this mysterious agent was his property and he alone could produce or
destroy it, he would require of each that he should bring an armful of
fuel or a present of food when he came for fire; and further, that if
the fire on any hearth should go out, it should not be rekindled with
that of a neighbor, but by a torch lighted at his own central fire; and
he threatened that if these rules should be violated, he would at once
extinguish all the fires and retire to a distant part of the forest,
leaving them in their former condition.

So beneficial did the people by this time believe the fire to be, that
they all readily agreed to his terms, and scattered through the forest
to secure armfuls of fuel with which to purchase the blessing, except a
few who happened to have food to exchange. As each threw down his
contribution he received a lighted torch and was given instruction how
to kindle his fire, and, by the time it became dark, the whole ravine
was brilliantly illuminated and merry with the shouts of old and young
as they gathered for the first time around hearthstones and enjoyed
light and heat.

Those who had visited the fire-cave before the immigration, proceeded at
once to roast their meat and tubers, and the others imitated them,
though a few concluded to eat theirs raw until they might see if the new
method was injurious to those who tried it. The first touch of the hot
meat with lips or fingers brought exclamations of surprise or fear from
some, but, on the whole, cooking was voted a success and was thereafter
universally practiced.



CHAPTER IV

CO-OPERATION


A few days after the arrival of the colony of settlers at the fire-cave,
the conservatives of the group who had remained at the old home could no
longer control their curiosity, and so, one afternoon they approached
the vicinity of the new settlement, after cautiously reconnoitering from
the tree-tops. When discovered, they were cordially invited to approach,
for the old selfishness and exclusiveness seemed to melt away under the
influence of fire and the companionship it inculcated, and they were
soon enjoying for the first time roasted carrots and broiled meat. They
soon lost their shyness and fear under the new conditions, and remained
permanent denizens of the settlement.

The men of the group soon observed the flint knives and spear-heads used
by Longhead; they at once appreciated their superior effectiveness as
weapons, and importuned him to supply them with similar ones, or teach
them how to make them for themselves. He was now too shrewd, however, to
risk the loss of any of his prestige by revealing the secret of their
manufacture, but agreed to make them similar weapons for a
consideration, payment of which should be made in the shape of food and
fuel, the only commodities at that time of any value.

Each man now brought him suitable sticks for javelins and spears, and
for each he made a long spear, two javelins and a knife.

When the first supply of flakes was exhausted, Longhead heated another
nodule of flint and poured water on it from a piece of bark, but he was
careful to do this when none of the others were about; and thus
maintained both secrecy and a supply of materials.

The control of fire and the manufacture of these valuable and mysterious
weapons, gave Longhead a standing in the group which none had ever
before attained. Human society had not yet been organized in any form;
there were no laws, no rules and no chiefs. Each did exactly as he
pleased, and if there was any restraint at all upon a man's actions, it
came not from a sense of justice, morals or ethics, but simply the fear
of a beating by the injured party, if any of his supposed rights were
infringed upon.

Soon, however, individuals began to consult Longhead in regard to
ordinary affairs. One would ask him if there would be rain during the
day; another, the direction he should take for a prosperous hunt, and,
as he was always careful to make replies which were somewhat vague and
mysterious, except where he had certain knowledge, he soon acquired a
reputation for superior wisdom.

Longhead, now relieved, to some extent, from the daily exertion
necessary to procure food for himself and Broken Tooth, by the
contributions of many who, through indolence or ignorance, permitted
their fires to become extinguished, had much time for thought, and, as
he sat making weapons, the manufacture of which brought him additional
supplies, it one day occurred to him that if a number of the men armed
with the new weapons could be employed at the same time against larger
animals theretofore always avoided, the people might combat with them
successfully and thus the food supply might be largely increased. This
was the first suggestion of coöperation, and the idea but slowly took
form in his mind, though it recurred to him almost daily. Up to this
time each man had hunted alone, and if two or more happened to be in
company, it was by the merest accident; but, as Longhead worked out the
problem, he concluded that if a number could be directed by an
intelligent leader, their efforts might be successful, and he determined
to make the experiment at the earliest opportunity.

About this time a hunter returned one afternoon in great excitement, and
reported that a large rhinoceros had partly mired in a swamp near the
settlement. He said the huge animal was able to make but little progress
and might be approached quite near without grave danger. This was
Longhead's opportunity to try his experiment of coöperation.
Fortunately, there were quite a number of the men about that day, and he
at once called them together, told them to bring their weapons and
accompany him to the swamp. He assumed the leadership of the party, and
when they approached the swamp, each was directed to gather a bundle of
dry grass, reeds and brush. These he had thrown down as they progressed,
to give them footing in the soft ooze, and soon they had a tolerably
firm path from the solid ground to a place near the great beast. On
their approach the rhinoceros made no further attempt at progress, but
he turned his head with its long sharp horn toward his foes and, with
loud snorts of rage, seemed to dare them to come nearer. Their ancient
fear of this formidable animal made the men hesitate, but under the
peremptory orders of Longhead, they ventured forward and threw their
javelins into the body of the huge animal. It must be confessed that
for some time the attack seemed only to increase his rage, he made
vigorous efforts to reach his tormentors and snorted loudly. But while,
for the most part, the javelins did not penetrate beyond the thick layer
of fat which surrounded the animal's body, a few had reached some of the
larger blood-vessels, and when these were broken off or torn out in the
desperate struggles of the beast, the blood poured forth in torrents and
he soon began to weaken; his snorting was no longer so loud and he would
lie down occasionally as if to rest, closing his eyes and breathing
loudly but with evident difficulty. During one of these resting spells,
Longhead came close to him and thrust his long spear with all his might
into the animal's body just back of his shoulder. When it was
withdrawn, the blood spouted from the wound and also from the mouth of
the beast, and soon its eyes grew dim, its struggles grew less frequent
and violent, and finally ceased entirely, for the great rhinoceros was
dead.

[Illustration: "SOON THEY HAD A TOLERABLY FIRM PATH FROM THE SOLID
GROUND TO A PLACE NEAR THE GREAT BEAST."]

Longhead now, for a while, lost control of the situation. The men went
simply wild. Their shouts filled the air, and to these were joined the
shrill cries of the women and children who had approached the swamp and
had been interested witnesses of the battle and its result. The great
animal--an abundance of food for several days--was theirs. They had
occasionally before this happened upon the body of one of these animals,
killed in one of the fights which frequently occurred between the males
of the species, but, without knives, they had been unable to tear the
thick hide, and even when it had been torn by wolves or bears, the meat
was so tough they were able to obtain but a few small pieces. Their
present hilarity might certainly be excused.

Soon Longhead began issuing orders and enforcing them by punches with
the blunt end of his spear or sound blows with the pole, and some
semblance of order was obtained. By his direction, men, women and
children joined in bringing more brush and grass. This was piled close
to the carcass and the men with their flint knives proceeded to cut up
the huge body. The women and children carried loads of meat to the
settlement, and soon most of the flesh was removed. The head was
dragged by the men to Longhead's cave and set upon a stick on the
platform as his trophy, while all stood around and roused the echoes of
the ravine with their yells and acclamations,--the first time a public
acknowledgement was ever given a leader.

Such feasting the group had never known. At each fire, large pieces of
rhinoceros steak were roasted on coals or sticks, and for several days,
every man, woman and child was literally too full for utterance.

After this experience, Longhead, as the organizer and leader of the
coöperative attack on the rhinoceros and the final slayer of the animal,
was, by common consent, regarded as the head of the group; his advice
was sought on all occasions, and his word was law. He gradually assumed
the direction of everything that was done.

Having demonstrated the strength of coöperative hunting, he organized
easily a squad of the bravest and most active of the men as special
hunters of large game. Each was armed with a long spear, two javelins
and a knife, and he required them to practice javelin throwing until
each became expert. On a hunt these men always kept within hearing or
sight of each other, and they soon originated a code of rude signals by
which the whole party might be informed of the appearance of any large
animal.

This band of hunters, on their first expedition, led by Longhead in
person, encountered a drove of wild hogs. When each man had hunted
alone with stones and clubs as his only weapons, these savage creatures
were almost as much dreaded as the cave lion or the saber-tooth tiger,
and now when they appeared, nearly every hunter, mindful of his old
fear, scrambled into a tree; but at Longhead's command they descended,
and he organized them into a compact body, back to back. When the hogs
charged in their usual manner, the slaughter wrought by the spears and
javelins was so great that not an animal escaped, for, in accordance
with their habit, the hogs knew nothing of retreat, and the last
survivor charged as bravely as if at the head of the herd.

Again coöperation had triumphed, and the settlement feasted for many
days.

The genius for leadership shown by Longhead, together with the
superiority of the weapons he had invented, and, above all, his
mysterious control of the fire, had now firmly established him as leader
or chief, and none thought of questioning his authority in anything.
There had been no election to the office, nor, indeed, any consultation
on the subject; he simply assumed the leadership and the group
acquiesced by compliance with his commands.

This first social organization for coöperation in hunting--the germ from
which all governments and laws have grown--was not the only one
resulting from the use of fire. The manifest blessings or comforts due
to its use, and the mysterious manner of its production in the
fire-cave hidden from the sight of all, began to give rise to the idea
that Longhead and Broken Tooth must be in communication with some
superior being.

It cannot be said that man at that time had any religion, any conception
of a god, or indeed, any definite idea of supernatural beings, but there
were many mysteries of nature which he could in no wise comprehend.
Incapable of speculative thought, or, indeed, of much continuous thought
of any kind, he was unable to distinguish clearly between the animate
and inanimate; he attributed active life to all surrounding objects and
believed even the trees and plants to put on foliage, blossom and
produce fruit because they desired to do so. When a rock, loosened by
the action of frost and storm, became detached from a cliff and rolled
into the valley below, it did so of its own accord and was regarded with
fear. A man would make a wide circuit to avoid it in passing and none
would voluntarily approach it. They lived in a region of cliffs and
mountains and when one gave a shout, under proper conditions, his words
were repeated, sometimes more than once; and none could find the
mysterious beings who did the mocking; indeed, after vain searches, they
became convinced that the tantalizing mockings came from beings
invisible to man, consequently his superiors and, therefore, dangerous.
They began to avoid the glens and valleys wherein echoes abounded, or,
if compelled to pass through them, did so in silence that their
dangerous neighbors might not be provoked to do them an injury. The
curling mist rolling silently down the mountain side, was to them
another mysterious being of whom they stood in awe, and thunder,
lightning and storm each became to them personified and living
supernatural beings who terrified them. They had yet no belief that man
had a soul or spirit which existed after his death. This thought was to
come ages thereafter.

It was not long until it was suggested that Longhead must have subjected
to his control one or more powerful but invisible beings whom he kept
shut up in his cave under the guardianship of the woman, and who, at his
command, produced the fire and wonderful weapons. That Broken Tooth was
the guardian of these beings, made mystery attach to her as well, and
they began to look upon her with fear and reverence also. The man and
woman encouraged this by becoming more mysterious than ever. When
further questioned in regard to the fire, they boldly asserted that the
whispered stories were true; that their control of fire and the ability
on the part of the man to make superior weapons was due to supernatural
beings who frequented the cave and were subject to them. They asserted
that these beings were so powerful they could strike them all with
instant death, and would have done so but for the intercession of the
fire-man and the woman to whose control they were subject; but the
people were assured that so long as Longhead and Broken Tooth should be
treated with proper respect, their wants satisfied and their commands
obeyed, they would not permit these malevolent beings to molest any of
the group, and the fire should not be taken away.

Soon the people of the group at the fire-cave were informed that the
fire-spirits desired the man to remain most of the time at or near the
cave that they might converse with him at all times and instruct him in
additional methods for promoting the happiness and welfare of the
people, and it would, therefore, be impossible for him to take part in
the daily hunt for game, though he would still lead them in important
expeditions. On this account he directed that each member of the group
should daily bring to the fire-cave contributions of food, sufficient
not only for the wants of the man, but of the woman and spirits also.
The people readily believed this, for they were incapable of conceiving
that such beings as spirits had not need of material food, and,
consequently, each brought his or her offering daily, either of food or
fuel. If by reason of failure in the chase, an unfortunate hunter had no
offering to bring, he was required to come to the cave and, through the
medium of Longhead, ask pardon of the spirits, and bring a double
portion the next time.

To all this the people of the group readily submitted; Longhead and
Broken Tooth lived in comfort, if not in luxury, without any effort upon
their part; the people were educated to ask the forgiveness of superior
and supernatural beings whose existence was shrouded in mystery, through
the medium of a priest whose natural wants they were required to supply;
and thus a religious worship with a dedicated and supported priesthood,
if not a religion itself, was established among men.



CHAPTER V

DAWN OF INVENTION, ART, MARRIAGE, RELIGION AND GOVERNMENT


Affairs at the settlement near the fire-cave now moved along smoothly.
Their new weapons enabled the hunters to secure abundance of food in a
country teeming with animal life, now that they dared attack the larger
animals. Cooking made both the flesh and vegetables more nourishing as
well as more appetizing, and soon the enormous stomachs, no longer
continually distended with raw and indigestible food, became reduced in
size and their bodies less unwieldy. Made confident by the use of fire
and superior weapons, the men now walked fully erect and wandered
through the forest with little fear. As their supply of nourishing food
increased, more children were born than before, and the mortality among
infants was greatly reduced. All this tended toward a rapid increase of
population in the settlement. This increase in the population
necessitated more habitations, and this, at the time meant more caves,
for this was the epoch of cave-men. After all the available caves in the
ravine and vicinity had been appropriated, an enterprising young man of
the group who, by reason of mutual attachment and because of the
example, perhaps, of Longhead and Broken Tooth, had induced a young
woman to establish similar relations with him, being unable to find an
unoccupied cave, concluded to establish housekeeping upon a horizontal
ledge overhung by a projecting rocky cliff. This location, protected
only in the rear, soon proved to be too exposed for comfort, and the
couple concluded to improve it. They took several good sized sticks of
different lengths which had been burned off by the fires and after
leaning them up against the sloping rock, piled on brush and grass. This
was much better than the open front, but a coal from their fire having
blown into the grass after it had dried, caused a conflagration which
reduced them to their former condition. The man proved to be quite
intelligent, and he began to select logs of the same length, burning
them off at the proper place when necessary; and these they sloped up
side by side at the front as before, but, mindful of the fire, they
filled the interstices with sticks, stones and moss, finally plastering
the whole front, except for a small opening for entrance, with mud. This
was a great improvement over all former conditions; the rain and wind
were excluded, to a considerable extent; indeed, it was preferable to a
cave. It was lighter and better ventilated, and, when they had learned
to construct movable frames which could be securely fastened in the
doorways, to prevent incursions by wild animals, these lean-tos or
rock-shelters, the remains of which have been found in many parts of
Europe, became the favorite habitations of the people of the group.

The inhabitants of the caves and rock-shelters did not clean house every
spring and fall, or, indeed, at any other time; the refuse and debris of
the household were allowed to accumulate upon the floors of the caves
and rock-shelters, and to this we owe nearly all the knowledge possessed
by civilized man of the domestic arts, weapons, food, etc., and the
general conditions under which the cave-men lived, as well as of the
animals which were their contemporaries. The floors of these ancient
dwellings, when excavated by scientists, show several feet of debris or
accumulations, which are called "brecchia," being a conglomeration of
dirt, bones of animals, bones of human beings, weapons, implements and
other artifacts, which are frequently cemented with limestone
formations caused by the drippings of the rocks and caves, in the nature
of stalactites and stalagmites.

Not only have we learned from this "brecchia" what progress the cave-men
had made in domestic art, but our knowledge of the animals which lived
in the locality and were their contemporaries is almost wholly derived
from rude pictures made by these cave people, who seem to have suddenly
developed an artistic sense and made such pictures by etching or
scratching them with sharp flints upon pieces of bone, ivory and slate.
These drawings are by no means so crude and wanting in artistic skill as
we would be inclined to expect. The animals depicted are readily
recognizable; such drawings show groups of reindeer, now found only in
the arctic regions; the wild horse; the single horned rhinoceros; the
giant elk; and on a smooth piece of his own tusk, we see the
curved-tusked, hairy elephant of gigantic size--the mammoth, or _elephas
primigenius_, whose bones have been found in many parts of Europe and
Asia, and of which at least one specimen was found whole with the flesh
intact, in the frozen tundra of Siberia. But for these drawings--the
natural history of his time--left by cave-men, we would not know that
immense animals, now long extinct in Europe, had contested with men of
the cave period, the ownership of the forests, swamps, plains and
mountains.

In the "brecchia" of these caves, are often found long bones of animals
which have been split longitudinally to obtain the marrow, which was
regarded as a great delicacy by primitive man; and as some long bones of
the human body have been found split in the same manner, some scientists
have concluded that cave men were cannibals, or at least occasionally
made a feast upon the bodies of prisoners captured in war, or upon such
sacrifices when offered to the gods.

At the time when rock-shelters became favorite habitations of the people
at the fire-cave, marriage relations were still loose, and any idea of
male parentage was yet to come, but in a few generations, instead of
accepting the birth of children without thought, it was generally
believed that the supernatural beings with whom their imaginations
peopled the hills, valleys, groves and ravines, were responsible for
their advent. However, the more frequent and intimate association of the
sexes around the fires and in preparing food by roasting, had a great
effect, and it was noticeable that men and women began to pair off in
the caves and rock-shelters; that such cohabitation continued for longer
periods of time, and there were a number who appeared to have formed
permanent unions. There was something about the fire--the social
hearthstone--which tended to prolong such associations. The cheerful
light of the fires; the measure of comfort they furnished, and the
talkativeness promoted by companionship as the hunters related around
the evening fires the adventures and experiences of that and former
days, all combined to make man more of a social being, and the same
influences promoted more permanency of union between couples who found
themselves at all congenial.

Perhaps the example of Longhead and Broken Tooth, who had remained true
to each other, had something to do with this gradual change in the
relations of the sexes, but it was not until many generations after when
the fact of male parentage became known to mankind, that anything at all
like marriage was known or any man regarded any child or children as his
own. There being no settled custom in this matter, many couples
continued to unite and separate as they might feel inclined. The most
that can be said is, that the use of fire in some manner appeared to
promote a longer union than was common before its discovery, and that,
in the progress of ages, fire seems to have been one of the agencies
which greatly assisted in bringing about the present sacredness of home
and marriage.

The hunters of the group still continued their coöperative search for
food, and the fact that it was often impossible to determine who had
killed a particular animal, while it was frequently certain that the
weapons and efforts of several had a part in it, brought about a system
for making an equitable distribution of all the animals taken in each
expedition. First the share required by Longhead and Broken Tooth would
be set apart, then the remainder was apportioned to each member of the
group or to each habitation in proportion to the number of persons to be
supported.

The women, too, whose task it was to find the roots and vegetables,
eggs, berries and nuts which entered into their diet, began to imitate
the actions of the men in this respect. They soon arranged to leave the
older and more feeble women at the settlement to maintain the fires and
look after the younger children, and to these was allotted a share of
the food secured by the others.

These customs were established gradually and without definite
enactments, or even agreements, but by common consent; they were,
however, greatly promoted by Longhead, who seemed to make coöperation a
sort of a hobby. They seemed to have just happened, but they were, in
fact, the natural outgrowth of fire and the changed conditions due to
its influence. In the course of years these customs crystallized into a
communal organization in which all things, except perhaps, the weapons
of a hunter and a very few personal belongings upon which the owner had
expended thought and labor, were regarded as the property of the group
or tribe. This communal organization of society continued for thousands
of years and its vestiges still exist amid the highest enlightenment, as
the foundation for business corporations, partnerships, and, indeed, all
commercial and other coöperation,--communism--the greatest good to the
greatest number, being the basis of all civilized laws.

While the hunters of the settlement at the fire-cave scoured the forest
for animal food, and the women sought vegetables, nuts, berries and
eggs, Longhead was by no means idle. True, he was, by the contributions
exacted from the group, relieved from the necessity of daily effort to
secure sustenance for himself, Broken Tooth and a bright-eyed little
cave-boy who had been sent to the woman by the spirits, and he seldom
joined in a hunting excursion; but, weapons were often broken or lost,
and, as he still retained the secret of their manufacture, he was kept
tolerably busy in replacing them. Continual experience in this work gave
him greater skill and a truer eye for symmetry of form coupled with
effectiveness for use, and he also learned to distinguish the best
materials of the vicinage. He invented no new weapons, for the bow and
arrow and even the stone axe, were to be the products of a much later
epoch; but he discovered that a javelin could be thrown with much
greater accuracy if the two sides of the flint point were exactly alike
and evenly balanced. Experience had also demonstrated to him that the
weapon had greater penetrative force if the flake for the flint head was
thin and the edges and point very sharp. He became more careful,
therefore, in the selection of his flakes, and when he found one
suitable for his use, except one side was larger than the other or the
edges too thick, he found that he could batter off small pieces with
light blows of a pebble, or flake them by pressure with a bone, and
thus bring it into shape. He discovered also that when the base of a
flake had some notches near it, the fastenings remained more firm and
the point was less likely to become detached from the shaft. He
therefore began, by pecking and flaking, to form such notches where he
did not find them to suit him, and soon his spear and javelin heads
assumed a conventional form. There was a slow but continuous improvement
in the weapons of the period, but eventually these spear and knive heads
became much like those still found upon the village sites of primitive
man all over the world.

The worst trouble Longhead had to overcome in the manufacture of weapons
was the method of fastening the points to the shafts or handles. The
small fibrous roots he used at first would fray and break when they
became dry, and the points would be lost or fail the hunter at a
critical moment. The stringy bark he cut from trees with his knife was
little better, but, one day when cutting up a large animal for cooking,
he found its hide so tough he could hardly penetrate it with the knife,
an idea occurred to him, and he cut off a long narrow strip of the skin
for an experiment. This he hung up until he should have time to make the
test he had in mind, and when he came to try it he found that he could
not break it even by exerting all his strength. From the skin of the
next animal that came into his larder, he secured a number of long
strips, and, having dried these, he wet them to make them more pliable,
and used some of them in lashing a point to a javelin. This weapon he
tested by frequent use, and was pleased to note that the new lashing did
not fray or break when it became dry, nor did it loosen, but, on the
contrary, the strings of rawhide shrank when drying and held the point
the tighter. Thereafter the tough hides were removed, dried and prepared
for strings for this and other purposes, and it was not long until he
accidentally discovered that wet wood ashes placed on a skin for a few
hours would loosen the hair and permit its removal, leaving the skin
improved for making strings.

About this time Broken Tooth made a discovery and, like the others, it
was also accidental. In her cooking operations, pieces of food were
continually falling upon the ground or being laid upon it in course of
preparation, and they became more or less covered with sand or fine
particles of grit, which did not taste good, and, besides, they hurt her
teeth. She had no idea of their uncleanliness; it was simply a matter of
discomfort. One day she observed a long strip of bark hanging to a tree
which had recently blown over, and the idea occurred to her that if she
had some pieces of this bright, clean bark on which to place the food,
the disagreeable sand might be avoided. She tried to break the bark, but
it was too tough and stringy, so she went to the cave and returned with
a flake of flint. It happened to have a sharp but very ragged edge, and
she found that by drawing the edge back and forth across the grain of
the bark and at the same time putting on some pressure, she could cut it
rapidly. That evening she surprised Longhead by presenting his supper on
a set of clean bark dishes. The man examined them curiously and asked
how she had cut them. She produced the flint and demonstrated on one of
the plates how it would cut. She had invented, or at least, she had made
the first application of the saw.

The man examined the flake thoughtfully, and, picking up a piece of
stick, tried it on that. He soon sawed it off, and was greatly pleased.
To get the staves of his spears and handles of javelins the right
length, he had been burning them off in the fire, but now he would use a
saw. He soon found that the more numerous and regular the notches the
faster the implement would cut, and, as few, if any, of the flakes came
off the nodules in this condition, he applied pecking and pressure, and
soon had a saw with small and regular serrations or teeth, and found it
very useful.

Up to this time, all his knives had been made of long flakes with a
wrapping of roots at one end to protect the hand, but he had found it
difficult to secure many flakes long enough for both blade and handle.
One day he had the misfortune to break the shaft of his favorite spear.
It had a thin blade which was very long and sharp, and the rawhide
strings held it firmly. He attempted to untie the lashings, that he
might use the blade for another shaft, but they had become so hard and
dry that he could not succeed in untying them. He picked up his saw to
cut them, but first began idly to draw it across the shaft. At once he
noticed that if cut off at the point where he was sawing, the spear
would become a knife with a wooden handle. The operation was quickly
completed, and he found the new style of knife much superior to the old.
Flakes of this size were much more frequently produced in breaking a
nodule with fire and water, and all his knives were thereafter furnished
with wooden handles.

The saw thus became one of the most useful of his few tools. Thus the
flint saw, discovered by accident by a primitive woman, was the germ
from which has been elaborated, with little change except for material,
one of the most useful tools known to civilized man.

When the little cave-boy of their family was something over a year old,
a small girl was brought by the spirits, and as the children grew and
thrived, Broken Tooth began to suggest that their present home was
becoming crowded. The cave was indeed a small one for two, three made it
uncomfortable, and now four was certainly a crowd. Longhead first
proposed searching for a cave of larger proportions, but to this Broken
Tooth raised several objections. All the larger caves in the vicinity
were already occupied, and, while they might no doubt use the authority
of the spirits to compel the present occupants to vacate a cave for
their use, this course was sure to create ill feeling which, sooner or
later, might work to their disadvantage; and, besides, where could they
find one with so large a platform in front and so well protected by
overhanging rock. Could not some plan be devised to enlarge this one?
and she called Longhead's attention to the fact that the rock inside was
soft and friable, and that small pieces were continually falling down,
which she carried out and threw over the edges of the platform.

The man undertook to make the cavity larger by pulling down and removing
all the loose pieces, but, when this was done, little increase in the
size of their home was apparent. On one side the man noticed that the
rock was full of small cracks and seams, but these were so tightly
fitted and irregular that he could remove but few of the stones with his
hands. One piece that was quite loose he tried for a long time to pull
out, but it pinched too tightly at one corner. In a rage, he picked up a
large, sharp cornered piece of flint with both hands and struck it with
all his might into the crack which held the tightest. The piece that
bound it was broken and the stone fell out, followed by a number of
others. Another discovery of the value of flint pieces had been made--a
pick had been found, and daily both Longhead and Broken Tooth spent some
hours digging at the loosened rocks until, in the course of time, they
had a cave sufficiently large for their needs, and in succeeding years
this was extended, as the growth of the family and their ideas of
comfort demanded.

By the same means Longhead removed the irregularities of the floor and
side walls, and finally he somewhat enlarged the doorway, gave it a more
regular shape, and substituted strong wooden bars, held in place by
notches cut in the stone, for the large stones they had formerly rolled
into the opening at night to prevent the entrance of dangerous animals.
The curious inhabitants of the settlement watched these operations, and
it was not long until many other caves were thus enlarged and more
comfort secured.

During the remainder of Longhead's life, little further progress was
made in the manufacture of weapons and implements, other domestic arts
or the conditions of the group; but the flint saw became a common
implement and was applied to various uses; many of the families used
bark dishes, and a sort of rude basket had been evolved from naturally
curled cylinders of bark into which a bottom of bark or interlacing of
rawhide strings had been inserted. These were used to transport nuts,
berries, wild fruit, eggs, etc., to the caves and as receptacles in
which to retain the same afterwards. No basketry or other weaving
process had been thought of, nor had there been any attempt made to
manufacture or use any kind of clothing, the skins of animals being used
only for strings, or occasionally to carry food products.

Social conditions also remained practically the same, but food was more
easily procured in consequence of slowly extending coöperation, and the
method of its preparation by cooking made it more nourishing,
consequently more of the children grew to manhood and womanhood, and the
average of life was longer. The possession of effective weapons
continued to render men less fearful, they became more and more erect
and grew to a taller stature.

The inventions and improvement in conditions already described were the
necessary and almost immediate results of the control and use of fire,
and when this point was reached, further progress for many generations
can scarcely have been considerable. Primitive man was not fertile in
original ideas, nor inventive, except from accident aided by necessity,
and the use of the bow and arrow, stone axe, baskets, weaving and
pottery were to come many generations after the death of Longhead,
Broken Tooth and their fellows of the fire-cave settlement. A method for
producing fire by friction of wood upon wood, after the method of the
fire-drill, which has been common to nearly all primitive peoples who
have come under the observation of civilized men, probably came with the
other later discoveries, but it was doubtless still longer before any
clothing was used, and then, at first, it was most likely more for
ornament than for comfort or any feeling of modesty.

However, the succeeding generations of the group described never lost
the inventions of Longhead, and in after ages, when the idea of a
Supreme Being or beings had been elaborated as a religion, he was
deified and worshipped as a god and the founder of the tribe or people.

The descendants of Broken Tooth--for descent for many ages was still
reckoned only in the female line--continued to be the weapon-makers and
rulers of the tribe, and from them were the fire-priests always
selected, when the worship of fire, with a consecrated priesthood and a
more or less elaborate ritual, had been developed.

Many ages were to pass with a slow but continued upward progress before
this group of fire-people entered even the lowest stages of barbarism,
but certainly the discovery of the use and control of fire had much to
do with the early progress of the rude people described, and whose
individuals, we have assumed for the purposes of the story, were our own
far away ancestors.


THE END



Works of

C. H. ROBINSON

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POLLYANNA


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 romances; carefully studied, well wrought, and full of exciting
 incident."--_Cleveland Enquirer._

 "Romance at its best."--_Boston Herald._



THE WHAT-SHALL-I-DO GIRL


Or, The Career of Joy Kent

_By Isabel Woodman Waitt_

_12mo, cloth decorative, illustrated by Jessie Gillespie. Net $1.25;
postpaid $1.40_

When Joy Kent finds herself alone in the world, thrown on her own
resources, after the death of her father, she looks about her, as do so
many young girls, fresh from the public schools, wondering how she can
support herself and earn a place in the great business world about her.
Still wondering, she sends a letter to a number of girls she had known
in school days, asking that each one tell her just how she had equipped
herself for a salary-earning career, and once equipped, how she had
found it possible to start on that career. In reply come letters from
the milliner, the stenographer, the librarian, the salesgirl, the
newspaper woman, the teacher, the nurse, and from girls who had adopted
all sorts of vocations as a means of livelihood. Real friendly girl
letters they are, too, not of the type that preach, but of the kind
which give sound and helpful advice in a bright and interesting manner.
Of course there is a splendid young man who also gives advice. Any
"What-shall-I-do" young girl can read of the careers suggested for Joy
Kent with profit and pleasure, and, perhaps, with surprise!



THE HARBOR MASTER


_By Theodore Goodridge Roberts_

Author of "Comrades of the Trails," "Rayton: A Backwoods Mystery," etc.

_12mo, cloth decorative, with a frontispiece in full color by John Goss.
Net $1.25; postpaid $ 1.40_

The scene of the story is Newfoundland. The story deals with the love of
Black Dennis Nolan, a young giant and self-appointed skipper of the
little fishing hamlet of Chance Along, for Flora Lockhart, a beautiful
professional singer, who is rescued by Dennis from a wreck on the
treacherous coast of Newfoundland, when on her way from England to the
United States. The story is a strong one all through, with a mystery
that grips, plenty of excitement and action, and the author presents
life in the open in all its strength and vigor. Mr. Roberts is one of
the younger writers whom the critics have been watching with interest.
In "The Harbor Master" he has surely arrived.

 _Of Mr. Roberts' previous books the critics have written as follows_:

 "The action is always swift and romantic and the love is of the kind
 that thrills the reader. The characters are admirably drawn and the
 reader follows with deep interest the adventures of the two young
 people."--_Baltimore Sun._

 "Mr. Roberts' pen has lost none of its cunning, while his style is
 easier and breezier than ever."--_Buffalo Express._

 "It is a romance of clean, warm-hearted devotion to friends and duty.
 The characters are admirable each in his own or her own way, and the
 author has made each fit the case in excellent fashion."--_Salt Lake
 City Tribune._

 "In this book Mr. Roberts has well maintained his reputation for the
 vivid coloring of his descriptive pictures, which are full of stirring
 action, and in which love and fighting hold chief place."--_Boston
 Times._

 "Its ease of style, its rapidity, its interest from page to page, are
 admirable; and it shows that inimitable power--the story-teller's gift
 of verisimilitude. Its sureness and clearness are excellent, and its
 portraiture clear and pleasing."--_The Reader._



THE BLOSSOM SHOP


A Story of the South

_By Isla May Mullins_

_Cloth decorative, illustrated by John Goss. Net $1.00; postpaid $1.15_

One of those exquisitely simple and appealing stories of mother love and
sacrifice for a little blind daughter, written in a delightful vein,
combining humor and pathos. The reader will love little blind Eugene
(the child had received the name of her dead father) and will rejoice
with the brave young mother, the heroine of the story, when the child's
sight is restored. There is a time for rejoicing, too, when a lost will
is found, bringing wealth and release from all worries, and the young
mother is free to accept the love and protection that in her sorrow she
denied herself.

Southern types are amusingly contrasted with those of the North; and the
simple language and fine sentiment of the story will charm readers of
all ages.



JOHN O' PARTLETTS'


_By Jean Edgerton_

_12mo, cloth decorative, illustrated, net $1.25; postpaid, $1.40_



The reading public is no longer content with the old hackneyed love
story, the impossible mystery story or the superficial tale of
adventure. It is necessary that a novel to be successful shall appeal to
the best in us--shall grip our hearts and fill our thoughts. Few first
books by a new writer can supply such an exacting demand, but "John O'
Partletts'" is among these few. Its simple, straightforward plot; its
able and convincing portrayal of character--real character; the author's
mastery of her art--these are the elements which make the book worthy of
wide appreciation. No one character dominates the story, neither "Witch"
Beevish, the eccentric old woman at war with the village, nor Jim, the
little orphan, nor Henry Carruthers, the minister, nor even Kitty
Merryweather, the shrewd-tongued gossip. But if there is a hero it is
John O' Partletts', "Witch" Beevish's great dog, the friend and
protector of Little Jim.

This is a story to compare with "Rab and His Friends" and with "A Dog of
Flanders"--a story that is bound to make its way.



Transcriber's Note:

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and bold text by =equal signs=.

p12: "drouth" is an old variant spelling of "drought"

Retained non-standard hyphenation for several words, as in original text

p89: "cooperation" changed to "coöperation", the spelling used
consistently everywhere else in the book

p71: "knive" spelling as in original

In the ad for What-shall-I-do Girl: corrrected printer error, "friendly"
for "riendly"

Moved ad for other books by same author to end of book, prior to ads for
other authors.





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