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Title: Smithsonian Report on the Construction of Catalogues of Libraries and their Publication by Means of Separate, Stereotyped Titles - With Rules and Examples
Author: Jewett, Charles C.
Language: English
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    Transcriber's Notes

    Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully
    as possible, including inconsistencies in spelling (for example
    "Aroüet" / "Arouët"). Some obvious spelling and punctuation
    errors were corrected, and some lines were added to the table
    of contents. These corrections are listed at the end of the text.

    Italic text is marked with _underscores_. Text in small capitals
    is marked with ~tildes~.



       *       *       *       *       *



    Smithsonian Report.

    ON THE
    CONSTRUCTION
    OF
    CATALOGUES OF LIBRARIES,
    AND THEIR
    PUBLICATION BY MEANS OF SEPARATE, STEREOTYPED TITLES.

    WITH RULES AND EXAMPLES.

    BY CHARLES C. JEWETT,
    LIBRARIAN OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.

    SECOND EDITION.

    WASHINGTON:
    PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
    1853.



    STEREOTYPED AND PRINTED AT THE
    SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.



CONTENTS.


                                                                  _Page._
  PREFACE,                                                              v

  REPORT.
    COPY OF A LETTER,                                                viii
    REPORT OF COMMISSIONERS,                                           ix

  SMITHSONIAN CATALOGUE SYSTEM.
    Difficulties in publishing catalogues,                              3
    Plan for obviating these difficulties,                              5
    Application of the plan for the formation of a general catalogue,   5
    Advantages to be derived from the proposed system,                  6
    Distinction between a catalogue and a bibliographical dictionary,  10
    The same titles to serve for general and particular catalogues,    11
    Form of the catalogue,                                             13
    Necessity of rules for the preparation of catalogues,              17
    Duties of collaborators and superintendent,                        19
    Printing and Stereotyping,                                         23
    Preservation and use of the plates,                                24
    Construction of new catalogues,                                    25

  RULES.

    ~Titles.~
             I.  To be transcribed ~in full~,                          29
            II.  To be transcribed ~with exactness~,                   31
           III.  To be repeated for every edition,                     34
            IV.  Books without title-pages,                            35
             V.  Academical dissertations,                             36
            VI.  Sermons,                                              36
           VII.  Periodical publications,                              36
          VIII.  Number of volumes, how to be specified,               37
            IX.  Imprint,                                              38
             X.  Designation of size,                                  39
            XI.  Number of pages,                                      43
           XII.  Additions to titles,                                  44

    ~Headings.~
          XIII.  To be, generally, the name of author,                 45
           XIV.  Names variously spelled,                              46
            XV.  Prefixes to names,                                    46
           XVI.  Compound surnames,                                    48
          XVII.  Names changed,                                        48
         XVIII.  Cases in which the first name is to be used,          49
           XIX.  Surnames of noblemen, &c.,                            50
            XX.  Joint productions of several authors,                 50
           XXI.  Works of several authors in one series,               50
          XXII.  Works issued by collective bodies,                    52
         XXIII.  Translations,                                         53
          XXIV.  Commentaries,                                         53
           XXV.  The Bible,                                            54
          XXVI.  Reports of Trials,                                    54
         XXVII.  Theses,                                               54
        XXVIII.  Pseudonymous publications,                            54
          XXIX.  Anonymous publications,                               55

    ~Cross-References.~
           XXX.  From one heading to another,                          57
          XXXI.  From headings to titles,                              58

    ~Arrangement.~
         XXXII.  Order of headings,                                    59
        XXXIII.  Order of titles,                                      59
         XXXIV.  Order of titles under name of author,                 60
                 1. Collection of all the works,                       60
                    _a._ Without translations,                         60
                    _b._ With one, or several translations,            60
                    _c._ Translations without the text,                60
                 2. Partial collections,                               60
                 3. Selections, or collected fragments,                60
                 4. Separate works,                                    61
                 5. Entire portions of a separate work,                61
          XXXV.  Order of titles under names of collective bodies,     61
         XXXVI.  Cross-references,                                     61
        XXXVII.  Special rule for entries under "Bible,"               61
       XXXVIII.  Maps, Engravings, Music,                              62
         XXXIX.  Exceptional cases,                                    64

  EXAMPLES.
    REMARKS ON THE EXAMPLES,                                           67
    EXAMPLES,                                                          69
    INDEX OF SUBJECTS,                                                 91
    EXPLANATIONS OF INITIALS,                                          94
    LOCAL INDEX,                                                       95



PREFACE.


This work is intended to explain the plan in operation at the
Smithsonian Institution, for preparing and stereotyping catalogues;
to furnish means of judging of its practicability and importance;
and to serve as a manual for librarians in its execution. The
first edition was printed in 1852. It was, however, limited to a
small number of copies, for distribution principally among those who
would be likely to suggest improvements. The work has, since, been
carefully revised, and is now published for more general circulation.

It was a long and difficult task to develop and adjust the details
of this system, and to make the mechanical arrangements for its
successful prosecution. The difficulties, both theoretical and
practical, have been overcome. The actual operation of the plan has
shown its entire practicability, and warrants the hope that its best
promises will be realized.

This book has been stereotyped by a process entirely new, peculiarly
adapted to the stereotyping of separate titles, or even single lines.
It has been fully reduced to practice for this special purpose, and
will doubtless be found, in many other respects, a valuable addition
to the resources of the art of typography.

The expense of developing the plan has been borne by the Smithsonian
Institution. We have every reason to hope that it will promote
"the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men," and justify
the continual labor of superintendence. In anticipation, the task
proposed seems formidable; but it is to be accomplished, _title
by title_, on a system, which imposes no heavy burden upon any
institution, though it offers benefits to all.

It is not to be supposed that the public will take much interest in a
work of professional details like this. The subject more particularly
addresses itself to those who are conversant with the management
of libraries. Their instruction and experience will enable them to
estimate aright the difficulty of the undertaking here set forth, and
to judge, with fairness, of its practical utility.



REPORT.



COPY OF A LETTER

    Addressed severally to the Hon. ~Edward Everett~, of
    Cambridge; ~Charles Folsom~, esq., Librarian of the Boston
    Athenæum; ~Joseph G. Cogswell~, esq., Superintendent of
    the Astor Library, New York; ~George Livermore~, esq., of
    Boston; ~Samuel F. Haven~, esq., Librarian of the American
    Antiquarian Society, and the Rev. ~Edward E. Hale~, of
    Worcester.


                               ~Smithsonian Institution~,
                                                 _August 16, 1850_.

~Dear Sir~: The Smithsonian Institution, desirous of facilitating
research in literature and science, and of thus aiding in the
increase and diffusion of knowledge, has resolved to form a general
catalogue of the various libraries in the United States, and I submit
to you for examination the plans proposed by Professor Jewett,
librarian of the Institution, for accomplishing this object.

1st. A plan for stereotyping catalogues of libraries by separate
titles, in a uniform style.

2d. A set of general rules, to be recommended for adoption by the
different libraries of the United States, in the preparation of their
catalogues.

Professor Jewett will present to you his plans in person, and I beg
leave, in behalf of the Executive Committee of the Institution, to
request that you will give this subject that attention which its
importance demands, and report:

First. On the practicability of the plan presented.

Second. On the propriety of adopting the rules proposed.

You will also confer a favor on the Institution, by giving any
suggestions with regard to the general proposition of forming a
catalogue of all the libraries in this country.

    I remain respectfully, your obedient servant,
                                       JOSEPH HENRY,
                        _Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution_.



REPORT

    _Of the Commissioners appointed to examine the plan for
    forming a general stereotype catalogue of public libraries in
    the United States._


~The~ undersigned were requested, in the month of August last, by a
letter from Professor Henry, written on behalf of the Executive
Committee of the Smithsonian Institution, to take into consideration
the subject of a General Catalogue of the public libraries of the
United States, proposed to be formed under the auspices of the said
Institution, and more especially the plan proposed by Professor
Jewett, Librarian of the Institution, for accomplishing that object.

Having consented to act as Commissioners for the above named purpose,
the subscribers had several interviews with Professor Jewett, in
the months of September and October, at which he submitted to them,
1. A plan for stereotyping catalogues of libraries by separate,
movable titles of the books contained in them, and, 2. A set of
general rules, to be recommended for adoption by the different
public libraries in the United States, in the preparation of their
catalogues.

Professor Jewett's plan for stereotyping titles on separate plates is
unfolded at considerable length, in a paper read by him, in the month
of August last, at the annual meeting of the American Association for
the Advancement of Science, held at New Haven.

For a full view of the advantages, both economical and literary,
anticipated from the adoption of Professor Jewett's plan, the
undersigned would refer to the valuable and interesting paper just
named. They will allude briefly to a portion of these advantages.

The most important of them, perhaps, will be the economy of time,
labor, and expense, required for the preparation of a new edition
of a catalogue, to include the books added since a former edition
was published. On Professor Jewett's plan, when the catalogue of a
library is published, it will be necessary to strike off only so
many copies as are needed for present use. When the additions to
the library have become so considerable as to make another edition
of the catalogue desirable, or in lieu thereof, a supplementary
catalogue, (always an unsatisfactory and embarrassing appendage,)
the new titles only will be stereotyped and inserted in their proper
places among the former titles, all the titles being on movable
plates. The pages of the new edition will thus be made up with
convenience, and every book in the library will stand in its proper
place in the catalogue. This process will be repeated as often as the
growth of the library may make it necessary.

In this way, not only will the plates, used in a former edition, be
available for each subsequent edition, but when the plan is fairly
and extensively in operation, most of the titles of books added to
any given library, of whose catalogue a new edition is required,
will, in the meantime, have been cast for some other catalogue, and
thus occasion no new charge for any subsequent use, as far as the
expense of casting the plates is concerned. The infant state and the
prospective rapid increase of the public libraries in the United
States, as well as the frequent founding of new libraries, give great
interest to this feature of the plan.

Another advantage of the proposed plan would be of the following
nature: The libraries in any country, (to some extent, indeed, in all
countries,) consist partly of the same books. Professor Jewett states
that, in the catalogues of public libraries of the United States,
possessed by the Smithsonian Institution, there are embraced at least
four hundred and fifty thousand titles. He estimates, however, after
a laborious comparison, that among these there will not be found more
than one hundred and fifty thousand different titles. It follows,
that if the plan proposed had been applied to the publication of
these catalogues, two-thirds of the expense of printing them, as
far as the cost of plates is concerned, would have been saved, by
incurring the extra expense of stereotyping the remaining third
according to this plan. The economy to each particular library, in
the expense of plates for its catalogue, will be in proportion to
the number of books, which it may contain in common with any other
library, whose catalogue has been already stereotyped on this plan.
The title of the same book, in the same edition, will, of course,
be cast but once, and will thenceforward serve for the catalogue
of every library possessing that book, which may enter into the
arrangement.

A third advantage resulting from this plan will be the facility,
with which a _classed_ catalogue, either of a whole library or of
any department of it, might be furnished at short notice, without
the expense of writing out the titles, or of casting new plates, but
by the simple indication of the selected titles, in the margin of a
printed alphabetical catalogue.

Finally, the plan of necessity requires that the titles of the books
in the libraries, included in the arrangement, should be given on
uniform principles, and according to fixed rules; an object of no
small importance to those who consult them.

These and other incidental advantages, which would result from the
adoption of his plan of separate stereotype plates, for the titles
of books in public libraries, are pointed out by Professor Jewett in
the memoir above referred to, and the undersigned are of opinion that
he has not overrated their importance. In proportion as the plan is
concurred in by the public institutions and individuals possessing
valuable collections of books, the preparation of a general catalogue
of all the libraries in the country becomes practicable, accompanied
by references from which it would appear in what library or libraries
any particular book is contained.

The undersigned became satisfied, in the course of their conferences
with Professor Jewett, that the plan in all its parts is practicable.
In connection with the explanation of its mechanical execution,
specimens of stereotype plates of separate titles, made up into
pages, were submitted to them, in common type metal, in electrotype,
and in a newly-invented composition, the use of which, it is
thought by its inventor, would be attended with great economy in
the cost of plates. The undersigned examined these specimens with
much gratification and interest, but they did not feel themselves
competent, from their limited opportunities of inquiry, nor did they
regard it as falling within their province, to form an opinion on the
comparative merits of these processes. They feel satisfied that no
important mechanical difficulty is to be apprehended in carrying the
plan into full effect.

A majority of the undersigned devoted themselves for several
successive meetings to the careful consideration of the set of rules,
submitted to them by Professor Jewett, for the uniform preparation
of the titles of books. This is a subject which has of late received
much attention from bibliographers, and is of great importance in the
formation of the catalogues of public libraries. Professor Jewett's
rules combine the results of the experience of those who have given
their attention to the subject in the principal libraries of Europe,
especially of the British Museum, together with the fruits of his own
experience and study. These rules appear to the undersigned to be
drawn up with judgment and care. A few amendments were recommended by
the undersigned, and a few additions proposed, but they are prepared
to signify their approval of the system substantially as submitted to
them.

In order that a beginning may be made in the execution of the plan,
under circumstances highly favorable to its success, the undersigned
take the liberty of suggesting, that it would be advisable for the
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution to obtain the requisite
authority, to prepare a catalogue of the library of Congress on the
above-described plan. A catalogue of this library is now very much
wanted. Originally constructed on a defective plan, and continued by
the publication of a large number of supplements, it is now almost
useless; and as the library increases, it becomes daily more so.
The preparation of an alphabetical catalogue has in this way become
a matter of absolute necessity for the library itself; while it
affords the best opportunity for commencing an arrangement, by which
the various libraries of the country will be brought into a mutually
beneficial connexion with each other, on the plan proposed by
Professor Jewett.

The undersigned consider the permanent superintendence of this plan
to be an object entirely within the province of the Smithsonian
Institution. They are satisfied that it will tend both to the
increase and diffusion of knowledge, and they therefore hope, that
the sanction of the Regents and of Congress will be given to the
undertaking.

                                 (Signed,)
                                                EDWARD EVERETT,
                                                JOSEPH G. COGSWELL,
                                                CHARLES FOLSOM,
                                                SAMUEL F. HAVEN,
                                                EDWARD E. HALE,
                                                GEORGE LIVERMORE.

~Boston~, 26th October, 1850.



SYSTEM.



SMITHSONIAN CATALOGUE SYSTEM.


DIFFICULTIES IN PUBLISHING CATALOGUES.

Few persons, except librarians, are aware of the nature and extent
of the difficulties, which have been encountered, in attempting
to furnish suitable printed catalogues of growing libraries;
difficulties apparently insurmountable, and menacing a common
abandonment of the hope of affording guides, so important, to the
literary accumulations of the larger libraries of Europe.

It is, of course, entirely practicable to publish a complete and
satisfactory catalogue of a library which is stationary. But most
public libraries are constantly and rapidly increasing. This
circumstance, so gratifying on every other account, is the source of
the difficulties alluded to.

While the catalogue of such a library is passing through the press,
new books are received, the titles of which it is impossible, in the
ordinary manner of printing, to incorporate with the body of the
work. Recourse must then be had to a supplement. In no other way can
the acquisitions of the library be made known to the public. If
the number of supplements be multiplied, as they have been in the
library of Congress, the student may be obliged to grope his weary
way through ten catalogues, instead of one, in order to ascertain
whether the book which he seeks be in the library. He cannot be
certain, even then, that the book is not in the collection, for
it may have been received, since the last appendix was printed.
Supplements soon become intolerable. The whole catalogue must then be
re-arranged and re-printed. The expense of this process may be borne,
so long as the library is small, but it soon becomes burdensome, and,
ere long, insupportable, even to national establishments.

There is but one course left--not to print at all. To this no scholar
consents, except from necessity. But to this alternative, grievous as
it is, nearly all the large libraries of Europe have been reluctantly
driven.

More than a century has passed, since the printing of the catalogue
of the Royal Library at Paris was commenced. It is not yet finished.
No one feels in it the interest which he would, if he could hope to
have its completeness sustained, when once brought up to a given date.

Dr. Pertz, chief librarian of the Royal Library at Berlin, declares,
that to print the catalogue of a large library, which is constantly
increasing, is to throw away money. His opinion is founded upon the
supposed impossibility of keeping up the catalogue, so as continually
to represent the actual possessions of the library.

The commissioners, lately appointed by the Queen of England, to
inquire into the constitution and management of the British Museum,
have, in their report, expressed an opinion decidedly against the
printing of the catalogue at all, and principally on the ground that
it must ever remain imperfect.

One of the witnesses, (the Right Honorable J. W. Croker,) examined
before the commissioners, thus strongly states the case with respect
to printing:

    "You receive, I suppose, into your library every year some
    twenty thousand volumes, or something like that. Why, if
    you had a printed catalogue dropped down from Heaven to you
    at this moment perfect, this day twelve-month your twenty
    thousand interlineations would spoil the simplicity of that
    catalogue; again the next year twenty thousand more; and
    the next year twenty thousand more; so that at the end of
    four or five years, you would have your catalogue just in
    the condition that your new catalogue is now [the manuscript
    part greater than the printed part]. With that new catalogue
    before your eyes, I am astonished that there should be
    any discussion about it, for there is the experiment; the
    experiment has been made and failed."

Not one European library, of the first class, has a complete
printed catalogue, in a single work. The Bodleian Library is not an
exception. It may be necessary to search six distinct catalogues, in
order to ascertain whether any specified book were or were not in
that collection, at the close of the year 1847.

This is, surely, a disheartening state of things. It has been felt
and lamented by every one who has had the care of an increasing
library.


PLAN FOR OBVIATING THESE DIFFICULTIES.

As a remedy for this evil, it is proposed to ~stereotype the titles
separately~, and to preserve the plates or blocks, in alphabetical
order of the titles, so as to be able readily to insert additional
titles, in their proper places, and then to reprint the whole
catalogue. By these means, the chief cost of re-publication (that of
composition) together with the trouble of revision and correction
of the press, would, except for new titles, be avoided. Some of the
great difficulties, which have so long oppressed and discouraged
librarians, and involved libraries in enormous expenses, may be thus
overcome.


APPLICATION OF THE PLAN TO THE FORMATION OF A GENERAL CATALOGUE.

The peculiar position of the Smithsonian Institution suggested the
application of this plan, on a wider scale, and for a more important
purpose, than that of merely facilitating the publication of new and
complete editions of separate catalogues.

It had been proposed to form a general catalogue of all the books in
the country, with references to the libraries where each might be
found. The plan of stereotyping titles, separately, suggested the
following system for the accomplishment of this important purpose:

1. The Smithsonian Institution to publish Rules for the preparation
of Catalogues.

2. Other institutions, intending to publish catalogues of their
books, to be requested to prepare them in accordance with these
rules, with a view to their being stereotyped under the direction of
the Smithsonian Institution.

3. The Smithsonian Institution to pay the whole _extra_ expense of
stereotyping, or such part thereof as may be agreed on.

4. The stereotyped titles to remain the property of the Smithsonian
Institution.

5. Every library, acceding to this plan, to have the right of using
all the titles in the possession of the Institution, as often as
desired, for the printing of its own catalogue, by the Smithsonian
Institution; paying only the expense of making up the pages, of
press-work, and of distributing the titles to their proper places.

6. The Smithsonian Institution to publish, as soon as possible, and
at stated intervals, a General Catalogue of all Libraries coming into
this system.


ADVANTAGES TO BE DERIVED FROM THIS SYSTEM OF PREPARING CATALOGUES.

The plan of stereotyping the titles, separately, would be of great
value to every increasing library, independent of any general
system. Such a library, in the first issue of its catalogue, would
be obliged to incur an additional expense for stereotyping, which we
may, for the present, state at fifty per centum above the price for
composition. But, in the first reprint, both these expenses would
be saved; so that the whole cost of the two editions would, in this
respect, be twenty-five per cent. less, if stereotyped.

Moreover, it would be necessary to print only a comparatively small
number of copies, when the book, in a more perfect state, could be
reproduced so easily; much would therefore be saved in paper and
press-work. Besides, the arrangement of the titles, for a reprint,
would pass from the hands of the librarian to those of the printer.
The proof-reading, also, would have been done, once for all. In
keeping up such a catalogue, the attention and labor of the librarian
would have to be bestowed only upon additional titles.

Reckoning, thus, the expense of stereotyping as a part of the
diminished cost of the first reprint, the saving, for every
subsequent repetition, would be equal to the whole original cost of
composition and proof-reading, for the part already stereotyped, and
a considerable part of that of paper, press-work, and re-arrangement.
It is, therefore, demonstrable that the economy of the plan would
be very great, to every library publishing and reprinting its
catalogues, even without connection with the system proposed.

But, in connection with a general system, the advantages of this plan
would be greatly increased, inasmuch as the same books are to be
found in many libraries. If the titles, which have been stereotyped
for one library, may be used for another having the same books, the
saving to the second would be equal to the whole cost of composition
and stereotyping of the titles common to the two, added to that of
preparation of such titles.

At least one quarter of the titles in any two general libraries,
of ten thousand volumes and upwards, may safely be supposed to be
the same. The saving, from this source, to the second library,
would, therefore, go far towards defraying the extra expense of
stereotyping. A third institution, adopting the plan, would be
likely to find a very large proportion of its titles identical with
those already stereotyped, and the amount saved by the use of these
titles, would, perhaps, be sufficient to counterbalance the whole
extra expenditure for stereotyping. At any rate, the extra expense
would be constantly and rapidly diminishing, and would, probably
after the fourth or fifth catalogue, cease entirely. The Smithsonian
Institution would not, therefore, be required to assume the charge
of an enterprise, which might involve it in great and increasing
expense, but merely to organize, and to guide a system, which will
almost immediately pay its own way, and will soon save large sums of
money to our public libraries.

That the aggregate economy of this plan would be very great, may be
seen from the following statement:

In fifteen thousand pages, mostly in octavo, of catalogues of public
libraries in the United States, there were found to be more than
four hundred and fifty thousand titles. But, according to the best
estimate which could be made, these catalogues contained not more
than one hundred and fifty thousand _different_ titles. Two-thirds,
at least, of the whole cost of printing these catalogues (except the
extra expense incurred by stereotyping the titles which differed)
might have been saved, by following this plan.

Having shown its economy when employed by single libraries, and its
greater economy, in connection with a general system, it is proper
to suggest a few, among the many benefits to the cause of knowledge,
which the general adoption of this method would seem to promise.

It can hardly be necessary to dwell, at length, upon the benefits
to be expected from a general printed catalogue of all books in the
public libraries of America. By means of it, every student in this
country would be able to learn the full extent of his resources
for investigation. The places where books could be found, might be
indicated in the catalogue. A correspondence could be kept up between
this Institution and every other library in the country. A system
of exchange and of loans might, with certain stringent conditions,
be established, or, when the loan of a book would be impracticable,
extracts could be copied, quotations verified, and researches made,
through the intervention of this Institution, as effectually to the
purpose of the student, in most cases, as a personal examination of
the book. All the literary treasures of the country might thus be
made measurably available to every scholar.

Again, this general catalogue would enable purchasers of books
for public libraries, to consult judiciously for the wants of the
country. So poor are we in the books which scholars need; so long,
at best, must we remain in a condition of provincial dependence in
literary matters; that a responsibility to the whole country rests
upon the man, who selects books for any public library.

An important advantage of this system is, that it allows us to vary
the form of the catalogue, at will, from the alphabetical to the
classed, and to modify the classification as we please. The titles,
separately stereotyped, may change their order at command. If, for
example, it were required to print a separate list of all books in
the country, on the subject of _meteorology_, it would merely be
necessary to check off, in the general catalogue, the titles to be
used, leaving to the printer the rest of the work.

Another highly beneficial result would be, the attainment of a much
higher degree of _uniformity_ than could otherwise be hoped for. The
rules for cataloguing must be stringent, and should meet, as far
as possible, all difficulties of detail. Nothing, so far as can be
avoided, should be left to the individual taste or judgment of the
cataloguer. He should be a man of sufficient learning, accuracy and
fidelity, to apply the rules. In cases of doubt, reference should be
made to the central establishment, to which the whole work should
be submitted, page by page, for examination and revision. Thus, we
should have all our catalogues formed substantially on one plan. Now,
even if the one adopted were that of the worst of our catalogues,
if it were strictly followed in all alike, their uniformity would
render catalogues, thus made, far more useful than the present chaos
of irregularities. The best possible system ought, however, to be the
object of our aim.

It is an important consideration, that this plan would greatly
facilitate the formation of an American bibliography, or a complete
account of all books published in America.

By law, a copy of every book, for which a copyright shall be
secured, in this country, is required to be delivered to the
Smithsonian Institution, and to be preserved therein. It is hoped,
that additional legislation, on this subject, will soon lighten the
burdens of publishers, and secure the observance of this law, _in all
cases_.

The collection of books thus obtained and preserved, will present
a complete monumental history of American literature, during the
existence of the law. It is needless to enlarge upon its value, in
this point of view. If, now, a list of these publications, as they
come into the library, should, month by month, be published in a
_Bulletin_, and the titles immediately stereotyped, the expense
would be but trifling of issuing, every year, a catalogue of books
copyrighted in America, during the year, and printing, every five
years, a general catalogue of American publications, up to that
limit. Thus, monthly bulletins, annual lists, and quinquennial
catalogues would furnish full and satisfactory records of American
publications.

Another general consideration is, that this project looks towards
the accomplishment of that cherished dream of scholars, _a universal
catalogue_. If the system should be successful, in this country, it
may eventually be so in every country of Europe. When all shall have
adopted and carried out the plan, each for itself, the aggregate
of general catalogues, thus formed--few in number--will embrace
the whole body of literature extant, and from them, it will be no
impossible task to digest and publish a universal bibliography.
How much this would promote the progress of knowledge, by showing,
more distinctly, what has been attempted and accomplished, and
what yet remains to be achieved, and thus indicating the path of
useful effort; how much, by rebuking the rashness which rushes into
authorship, ignorant of what others have written, and adding to the
mass of books, without adding to the sum of knowledge; how much,
by giving confidence to the true and heroic student, who fears no
labor, so that it bring him to the height at which he aims--the
summit of learning, in the branch to which he devotes himself; are
objects which deserve the hopeful attention of all who desire their
attainment.


DISTINCTION BETWEEN A CATALOGUE AND A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY.

A catalogue of a library is, strictly speaking, but a list of the
titles of the books, which it contains. It is not generally expected
to give any further description of a book than the author gives, or
ought to give in the title-page, and the publisher, in the imprint,
or colophon; except the designation of form, which is, almost
universally, added.

A bibliographical dictionary is supposed to contain, besides the
titles of books, such descriptions, more or less extended, drawn
from all available sources of information, as may be necessary
to furnish means of identifying each work, of distinguishing its
different editions, of ascertaining the requisites of a perfect
copy, of learning all facts of interest respecting its authorship,
publication, typography, subsequent casualties, alterations, etc.,
its market value, and the estimation in which it is held.

A catalogue is designed to show what books are contained in a
particular collection, and nothing more. Persons in want of further
information, are expected to seek for it in bibliographical
dictionaries, literary histories, or similar works.

Inasmuch, however, as bibliographical works are not always
accessible, or known to the investigator, additions are, not
unfrequently, made to the titles, in catalogues, of such notices as
belong more appropriately to bibliographical dictionaries, as above
described. These, of course, impart to such catalogues greater value
and usefulness.

As bibliographers, we cannot indeed but wish, that the catalogue
of every library were a bibliographical dictionary of its books.
Practically, however, we must restrict our efforts, within the limits
of probable accomplishment. There is no species of literary labor
so arduous, or which makes so extensive demands upon the learning
of the author, as that of the preparation of such works. The most
which one man can hope to effect, in this department, is to examine
and describe books, in some special branch of knowledge, or books of
some particular class, as _palæotypes_, books privately printed, a
selection of books most esteemed by collectors, &c. It is too much
to expect, that every librarian can find time, or possess learning,
for such a description of all books under his care. Besides, this
would be a waste of labor and of money. The same description would be
prepared and printed, a hundred or a thousand times.

It is doubtless desirable, that such results of _original_
investigations of librarians, as are not to be found in any of the
bibliographical dictionaries, should be given, in the catalogues
which they publish. In other cases, also, as will appear hereafter,
it may be important to give, in a catalogue, fuller and more accurate
descriptions of books, than are to be found upon their title-pages;
but the principle should be established, and ever borne in mind,
that a catalogue, being designed to be merely a list of titles,
with imprints and designations of size, all additional descriptions
should be limited and regulated by explicit rules, in order to give
uniformity and system to the work, and to restrict its bulk and cost,
within reasonable bounds.


PREPARATION OF TITLES SO AS TO SERVE FOR BOTH GENERAL AND PARTICULAR
CATALOGUES.

It is proposed to prepare and stereotype catalogues of particular
libraries, in such a manner, that the titles can be used, without
alteration, for constructing a General Catalogue.

This requires, that the title of every book be such, as will apply to
every copy of the same edition.

If the edition be different, the book is to be considered different.
In almost every instance, the title also, is different. There
are, indeed, cases, where the title of a book is the same, in two
editions, while the body of the work is more or less altered. Such
instances are, however, of rare occurrence. They are, or should be,
recorded in bibliographical works. They could only be described
by one, who should place the two books side by side, and compare
them together. In general, titles vary with the editions. We may,
therefore, in using a title transcribed from one copy of a book,
for other copies, avoid trouble by preparing and stereotyping a new
title for every distinct edition; treating new editions as new books.
So that, if copies of various editions of a work exist in several
libraries, each will appear with a distinct title, in the General
Catalogue.

This method of forming a general catalogue requires, further, that
_peculiarities of copy_, which it may be desirable to note in
preparing the catalogues of particular libraries, should not be
stated within the titles; but, if at all, in notes appended to the
titles, and entirely separate from them.

One copy of the same edition of a book may be on vellum, another,
on paper; one may be in quarto form, another in octavo; one may
have cancelled leaves, another, the substituted leaves, another,
added leaves; some may contain autographs; some, valuable manuscript
notes; others may be bound by Roger Payne, etc., etc. These are
peculiarities of copy, and they may be as numerous as the number of
copies in the edition. They are not noticed in title-pages, and,
consequently, would not modify the entries in a catalogue, which
takes cognizance of titles alone.

The printed matter, which constitutes the book, as a literary
production, is not altered, in any of these cases, except in that of
cancelled, substituted, or added leaves. It is indeed true, that,
occasionally, alterations are made in the body of a book, while it is
passing through the press: that is to say, after a few copies have
been struck off, some error may be discovered and corrected, or some
word may be substituted for another. But, such changes are always
slight, and can only be detected, by comparing two or more copies of
a work together. In the case of cancelled leaves, it may, sometimes
be desirable to print in the general catalogue, the description of
rare and important copies possessed by particular libraries. But
these cases would occur comparatively seldom. The rule would be, to
omit from the title to be stereotyped, all account of peculiarities,
or defects of copies.

In cataloguing particular libraries, such peculiarities should be
stated, upon the card, after the title, but separate from it. They
may be printed, at the expense of such libraries, in the form of
notes to their catalogues. The notes for any particular library
may be made as extensive, as the means of the institution, and the
learning and leisure of its librarian permit.

There is another particular, in which the catalogue title might vary,
in different copies: that, of designation of size. The same book,
in the same edition, may have copies in quarto, in octavo, and in
duodecimo. The size of the printed page is, however, in all these
cases, the same; otherwise, the edition is different. All difficulty,
on this account, therefore, is obviated, and all confusion of
editions prevented, by adopting, instead of, or in addition to
the usual designation of _form_, as the indication of size, the
measurement of the printed page, in inches and tenths. Other reasons
for this mode of marking the size of books, with minute directions,
will be given hereafter.


FORM OF THE CATALOGUE.

The titles constituting the catalogue may be variously arranged. They
may be placed under the names of authors, and the names disposed in
alphabetical order; they may be grouped in classes, according to
subjects; or they may be made to follow the order of the date, or
place of printing.

The two most common forms for catalogues, are the alphabetical and
the classed. Much controversy has arisen respecting their comparative
usefulness. It is not necessary to revive it here, since the system
now proposed, renders it easy to vary the order of titles, so as to
suit any desired form.

For the General Catalogue, however, it is, for several reasons,
desirable to adopt the alphabetical arrangement.

It would be impossible to propose any system of classification,
which would command general approval, or upon which a commission
of competent bibliographers would be unanimous in opinion. A
classification, founded upon the nature of things, though it
has occupied the best thoughts of such men as Bacon, Leibnitz,
D'Alembert, Coleridge, Ampère, and many others, has not yet been
attained. Every classification which has been proposed or used, is
more or less arbitrary, and consequently unsatisfactory, and liable
to be altered or superseded.

If, however, it were possible to agree upon a system of
classification, the attempt to carry it out would, in a work like
that proposed, be fatal to uniformity. Where different men were
applying the same system, their opinions would vary, with their
varying intelligence and skill. This would lead to utter and
irremediable confusion, and would eventually defeat all our plans.

Even were these objections obviated, the occurrence of fewer
difficulties in constructing an alphabetical catalogue would still
present a decisive argument in its favor. Even these are great. If
increased, by an attempt at classification, they would soon lead to
an abandonment of the work.

Another consideration of great weight is, that, in reprinting
classified catalogues, and inserting additions, if the titles were
kept in systematic order, the work of selecting those to be used,
and of distributing them to their places, would have to be done
by a person, who, besides being a practical printer, should be
familiar with the bibliographical system adopted. This would be very
expensive. Whereas, on the alphabetical plan, any printer could do
the whole.

On general considerations, without special reference to those which
are peculiar to this system of publishing, alphabetical catalogues
are to be preferred;--catalogues in which all the works of each
author are placed under his name, and the names of authors are
arranged alphabetically; anonymous works being entered under the
first word of the title, not an article or preposition. Such is now
the general opinion of competent bibliographers and literary men.

The Edinburgh Review, in an able and interesting article upon the
British Museum, holds the following language:

    "It seems to have been almost universally agreed that the
    catalogue ought to be alphabetical. Some time ago the
    current of opinion among literary men seemed to be setting
    towards classed catalogues, or those in which the books are
    arranged according to subjects. We had hardly supposed that
    this illusion (as we hold it to be) had become so nearly
    obsolete as the evidence before us shows that it is: and
    this disappearance of a most injurious opinion, which never
    was entertained to any extent by the really experienced
    in bibliography, encourages us to hope that it will not
    be long before the _professional_ persons just alluded to
    [librarians] will be admitted to know best on all the points
    which have been raised relative to the care of a large
    library."

The experience of all students, of all who use books, if carefully
noted, will show, that, in a vast majority of cases, whoever wishes
to refer to books in a library, knows the names of their authors. It
follows, that this form of arrangement must be, in the main, the most
convenient; and if any other be pursued, it can but accommodate the
minority, at the expense of the majority.

Still, it is indisputable that, oftentimes, the names of authors
are not known; that one knows, merely, what subjects he wishes to
investigate.

It may be said, that a catalogue, being designed to be merely a list
of books contained in a library, is not to be expected to furnish
this information; and that references to all authors, treating of
any particular subjects, may be obtained from bibliographical works,
encyclopædias, and other sources of information. This is true. But,
unfortunately, these sources of information are not generally known,
or not readily accessible, even to men of considerable attainments
and scholarship.

It becomes, then, a question of importance how far the wants of such
persons are to be provided for. The following remarks on this subject
are worthy of attentive consideration:

    "On this, as on other points, we may observe that two
    descriptions of persons consult a catalogue--those who know
    _precisely_ what book they are in search of, and those who
    do not. The first will find by any rule, so soon as they
    have learnt it; and will be glad indeed of a catalogue which
    preserves its consistency, even though 600,000 titles,
    running over four quarters of the globe, four centuries of
    time, and four hundred varieties of usage, should actually
    require _ninety-one_[1] rules of digestion. The second class
    could easily be suited, if all their imperfect conceptions
    tended to the same case of confusion: and, as being the
    majority, would have a right to the adoption of the one
    nearly universal misconception; which, being one, would
    furnish a rule. But it is truth which is single, while
    error is manifold; and consequently, it is clear to every
    common sense except that of men of letters claiming, as
    such, to be bibliographers, that one of two things should be
    done:--either the truth should be taken, when known, or in
    the event of it being possible to be wrong, the error should
    be the consequence of a digested and easily-apprehended
    rule, consistently applied throughout. If the framer of the
    catalogue be allowed to do as he likes, the consulter of
    it must do as he can. Now which of the two classes should
    be considered in preference,--those who know what they
    want or those who do not? The Doctor of Divinity already
    quoted, gives this as one of his rules: 'Item, whan anie
    man comith and wotteth not what he wold haue, then he (the
    keper of the Bokys) shall tell hym, and doe hym to understond
    hys besynesse.' This can be done, to a certain extent,
    by _cross-references_. But, all cross-references being
    concessions to want of accurate knowledge, it is plain that
    discretionary entries, with discretionary cross-references,
    would form a plan which puts entirely out of the question
    the convenience of the person who knows exactly what he
    wants; which kills both calf and cow for the less deserving
    son, without giving the power of making any answer to the
    complaint of the one who never fed on husks. Nothing is
    stranger in the course of the evidence before us, than the
    quiet manner in which the opponents of the existing plan take
    it for granted that no one ever goes with a precise knowledge
    of the title-page of the work he seeks, unless it be the
    coolness with which this accurate inquirer is told, as Mr.
    Carlyle said to those who write useful knowledge, that he
    is one 'whom it is not worth while to take much trouble to
    accommodate.'"

      [1] These are not all that might be wanted. For example,
      the case is not provided for, though it has occurred, in
      which an author, in his title-page, invites the reader to
      make his choice between two ways of spelling his own name.
      Here, we are to presume, some of our witnesses would take
      the first method given, others would leave the cataloguer
      to comply with the author's request.

But it is convenient even for those to whom the principles and
means of research are best known, to be able to ascertain, readily,
what books, of those which they know to have been written upon the
subjects of their investigation, are to be found in the particular
libraries which they consult. This end may be attained in the
following manner. In connection with the _catalogue_ of each library,
there should be an _index_ of subjects. This index should also be
alphabetical. Under each subject, the divisions which naturally
belong to it, should be distinctly recognized. It may here be
remarked, that the parts of any particular science, or branch of
learning, may be clearly defined, and universally acknowledged,
whilst the relation of this science, or branch of learning, to
others, may not be clearly established. To use the words of a
vigorous writer upon this subject: "Take a library upon one science,
and it classifies beautifully, sketching out, to a nicety, the
boundaries, which, it is too rarely noticed, are much more distinct
between the parts of a subject, than between one subject and another.
Long after the counties of England and Scotland were well determined,
the debateable land was nothing but a theatre of war."

This index should be alphabetical, rather than classed, because it
is easier to find a word, in an alphabetical arrangement, than in
any other order of classification; and, besides, the subject of
research may be one not admitted, as a distinct division, in any
classification. Such indexes can hardly be expected, immediately, in
connection with the general catalogue; though, it is to be hoped,
that these valuable appendages will not long be, of necessity,
omitted.

A method of securing uniformity in such indexes may, hereafter, be
agreed upon, so that they may be combined and form an alphabetical
index of subjects to the general catalogue. It is thought best,
however, for the present, to limit our efforts to the procuring
of good alphabetical catalogues, as a groundwork, to which other
valuable aids to research, may, as opportunities offer, be superadded.


NECESSITY OF RULES FOR THE PREPARATION OF CATALOGUES.

The preparation of a catalogue may seem a light task, to the
inexperienced, and to those who are unacquainted with the
requirements of the learned world, respecting such works. In truth,
however, there is no species of literary labor so arduous and
perplexing. The peculiarities of titles are, like the idiosyncracies
of authors, innumerable. Books are in all languages, and treat of
subjects as multitudinous as the topics of human thought.

Liability to error and to confusion is, here, so great and so
continual, that it is impossible to labor successfully, without
a rigid adherence to rules. Although such rules be not formally
enunciated, they must exist in the mind of the cataloguer, and guide
him, or the result of his labors will be mortifying and unprofitable.

In this country, he who undertakes to prepare a catalogue, goes
to the work under great disadvantages, in many respects. Few have
had opportunity to acquire the requisite bibliographical knowledge
and experience; and few libraries contain the necessary books of
reference. A set of rules, therefore, seems peculiarly necessary for
the assistance of librarians.

Minute and stringent rules become absolutely indispensable, when the
catalogue of each library is, as upon the proposed plan, to form part
of a general catalogue. _Uniformity_ is, then, imperative; but, among
many laborers, can only be secured by the adherence of all to rules
embracing, as far as possible, the minutest details of the work.

The rules which follow were drawn up with great care. They are
founded upon those adopted for the compilation of the catalogue of
the British Museum; some of them are, _verbatim_, the same. Others
conform more to rules advocated by Mr. Panizzi, than to those finally
sanctioned by the Trustees of the Museum. Many modifications and
additions have been made, adapted to the peculiar character of the
system now proposed. Some innovations have been introduced, which,
it is hoped, may be considered improvements. The commissioners,
appointed to examine and report upon the catalogue project,
considered not only its general features, but, also, its minute
details. To them, were submitted the rules for cataloguing, which
were separately discussed, and, after having been variously amended
and modified, were recommended for adoption.

It is too much to suppose that any code should provide for every
case of difficulty which may occur. The great aim, here, has been to
establish principles, and to furnish analogies, by which many cases,
not immediately discussed, may be indirectly settled; and, it is
believed, that the instances will be few, which cannot be determined,
by studying the rules, with the remarks under them; and carefully
considering the characteristics of this kind of catalogue.

It should be remembered that a principal object of the rules is to
secure _uniformity_; and that, consequently, some rules, which may
seem unnecessarily burdensome, and, in certain applications, even
capricious, are, all things considered, the best; because they secure
that uniformity, which is not otherwise possible of attainment, and
without which, the catalogues could not be comprehended in a general
system.


DUTIES OF COLLABORATORS AND SUPERINTENDENT.

The catalogue of each library is to be prepared, in accordance
with the rules, under the immediate direction of the librarian, by
transcribers employed by him. Should the system here proposed come
into general use, it will probably be found expedient to have persons
specially trained to the business, who shall go from place to place,
for the purpose of making catalogues. Much of the value of the work
will, of course, depend upon the faithfulness and learning of those
who first prepare the titles. The qualifications, both natural and
acquired, demanded for the suitable accomplishment of their task,
are, unfortunately, rare. No person, who is impatient, indolent,
inaccurate, or careless in his personal habits; who is ignorant of
literary history and bibliography; who is unacquainted with the
classical, and with the most important modern languages; or who is
destitute of that general knowledge of the circle of the sciences,
which is attained in, what is usually called, a liberal education;
can be expected to make a catalogue of a general library, that
will not be discreditable to the compiler, and to the institution
employing him. Great care should, therefore, be exercised in
selecting men for such work.

It is proper to remark, in this place, that no one, whatever may
be his talents, attainments and industry, can safely work with
the rapidity, which the public, and committees (inexperienced in
catalogue-making, however judicious and well-instructed in other
matters) frequently require. It is impossible to say what would
be a good average rate of performance, in cataloguing a library,
without knowing exactly the kind of works it contains. The best and
only satisfactory criterion is furnished by the rate of progress in
the British Museum, the National Library of Paris, and other large
libraries containing books of all kinds. A trial of many years has
shown that men possessed of the best qualifications, long practised
in the work, with every advantage of a systematic division of labor,
of access to all necessary books of reference, and to persons who
could help them in emergencies, provided with every mechanical
facility and assistance to be desired, can prepare about forty or
fifty titles a day.

The danger of working with too great rapidity, without rules, and
without suitable bibliographical preparation, was most strikingly
illustrated during the discussions of the British Museum Commission.
The following account of the particular instance alluded to is
extracted from an article in the Edinburgh Review for October, 1850:

    "Mr. Payne Collier, the secretary of the Commission,
    undertook to show how the Museum catalogue _should_ be
    made, without reference to any preceding one. Mr. Collier
    prepared, according to his own views, twenty-five titles,
    done in an hour, of books from his own library, and with
    which he was therefore previously well acquainted. They were
    handed to Mr. Panizzi, with the full consent of the writer,
    and an invitation of criticism. Mr. Payne Collier is known
    to our readers: but to 'excuse the tone of confidence' he
    assumed, he described himself, in handing over these slips,
    as having attained a certain reputation in letters and
    particularly in antiquarian literature. The description is
    as correct a one as could be looked for from Mr. Collier
    himself: and the Society of Antiquaries, the Shakspeare and
    Camden Societies, and the Royal Society of Literature could
    inform the public, if need were, that he did not overrate
    himself. Moreover, his confidence was proved and supported
    by the most explicit dealing: he willingly lent those of the
    books he had described which were not in the Museum library,
    and, after the criticism to which we are coming, he offered
    no plea of haste. On the contrary, when a contemporary
    journal, of opposite views to our own, called them, by way of
    extenuation, his 'hurried slips,' he wrote a public letter
    in correction of the designation, maintaining that they were
    'not hurried in any sense of the word,' and adhering to the
    defence, presently to be noticed, which he had circulated
    among the Commissioners in a private pamphlet.

    "Mr. Panizzi put these slips into the hands of Mr. Jones, his
    senior assistant, requesting him to report upon them. The
    report was as follows:

      'These twenty-five titles contain almost every possible
      error which can be committed in cataloguing books, and
      are open to almost every possible objection which can
      be brought against concise titles. The faults may be
      classed as follows:--1st. Incorrect or insufficient
      description, calculated to mislead as to the nature or
      condition of the work specified. 2nd. Omission of the
      names of editors, whereby we lose a most necessary guide
      in selecting among different editions of the same work.
      3rd. Omission of the Christian names of authors, causing
      great confusion between the works of different authors
      who have the same surname--a confusion increasing in
      proportion to the extent of the catalogue. 4th. Omission
      of the names of annotators. 5th. Omission of the names of
      translators. 6th. Omission of the number of the edition,
      thus rejecting a most important and direct evidence of
      the value of a work. 7th. Adopting the name of the editor
      as a heading, when the name of the author appears in the
      title-page. 8th. Adopting the name of the translator as
      a heading, when the name of the author appears on the
      title-page. 9th. Adopting as a heading the title or name
      of the author merely as it appears on the title-page--a
      practice which would distribute the works of the
      Bishop of London under the names Blomfield, Chester,
      and London; and those of Lord Ellesmere under Gowan,
      Egerton, and Ellesmere. 10th. Using English or some other
      language instead of the language of the title-page. 11th.
      Cataloguing anonymous works, or works published under
      initials, under the name of the supposed author. Where
      this practice is adopted, the books so catalogued can be
      found only by those who possess the same information as
      the cataloguer, and uniformity of system is impossible,
      unless the cataloguer know the author of every work
      published anonymously or under initials. 12th. Errors in
      grammar. 13th. Errors in description of the size of the
      book. We have here faults of thirteen different kinds
      in twenty-five titles, and the number of these faults
      amount to more than two in each title. A large proportion
      of them, moreover, is of such a nature that it would
      be impossible to detect them when the written title is
      separated from the book; for example, Mr. Collier has
      catalogued an edition of the Odyssey, with a Latin title,
      as though the title were in Greek. A mere perusal of Mr.
      Collier's title would not lead any person to suspect
      the existence of such a blunder. [I may say (says Mr.
      Panizzi), by way of parenthesis, that when I saw this
      Odyssey, printed at Oxford, with a Greek title, I sent
      everywhere to try to find it. I had one with a Latin
      title of the same year, and of the same size, but I could
      not be sure that it was the same. I sent to Oxford; I
      made all sorts of inquiries; nobody knew such an Odyssey
      with a Greek title; but still this was negative evidence,
      until I begged the favor of Mr. Collier to show me the
      book itself from which he drew up his title. The title
      is in Latin, therefore the idea created by his title,
      that there was another edition of the Odyssey in the same
      year and of the same size, at Oxford, is wrong; there
      was only one.] Two editions of Madame de Stael's work on
      the French Revolution appeared at Paris in 1818; but Mr.
      Collier's title making no mention of the edition, the
      inference would arise that the copy to which it referred
      was of the _first_ rather than of the _second_ edition.
      It is a fallacy to say that errors can be corrected on
      a subsequent perusal of the titles or in print, unless
      that perusal be an actual comparison of the title with
      the book. [In fact, in the case of the Odyssey with the
      Greek title, the title looked to all intents and purposes
      very correct, but it was not correct.] Where we see such
      a result as is shown above, from an experiment made by
      a gentleman of education; accustomed to research, and
      acquainted with books generally, upon only twenty-five
      works, taken from his own library, and of the most easy
      description, we may form some idea of what a catalogue
      would be, drawn up, in the same manner, by ten persons,
      of about 600,000 works, embracing every branch of human
      learning, and presenting difficulties of every possible
      description. The average number of faults being more than
      two to a title, the total is somewhat startling--about
      1,300,000 faults for the 600,000 works; that is,
      supposing the proportion to continue the same. But it
      must be borne in mind that the proportion of errors would
      increase with the number of titles; that to errors in
      drawing up each individual title would be superadded the
      errors which would unavoidably occur in the process of
      arranging the titles, and subsequently in the printing.
      In short, I humbly conceive that it would be impossible
      to prove the inexpediency of Mr. Collier's plan more
      effectually than he has himself done; and I hope I may
      add, without giving offence, that, had I seen these
      titles under any other circumstances than the present,
      I should have concluded that the object was to show how
      nearly worthless would be a catalogue, the proposed
      advantages of which were short titles, drawn up and
      printed within the shortest possible period of time.'

    "Mr. Jones then proceeded to a detailed proof of his
    assertions. In a case of this kind, we are inclined to
    think that Mr. Collier should have had a reply: but the
    question is complicated, for though here assailed, he was an
    assailant, and moreover was an officer of the court who had
    been permitted to make himself a partizan, and to support
    his own views by circulating pamphlets among the judges,
    which a sense of official propriety prevented Mr. Panizzi
    from answering in the same way. Mr. Collier did answer
    in a pamphlet addressed to the Commissioners, as well as
    (recently) in the journal alluded to. The answer does not
    deny one iota of Mr. Jones's imputation: it merely protests
    against being tried by Mr. Panizzi's rules. 'I intended,'
    says Mr. Collier, 'my English mode of cataloguing to be
    diametrically opposed to his foreign mode, which might
    do well enough for stationary or retrograding countries,
    where want of enlightenment is at this hour producing the
    most lamentable consequences, but which was totally unfit
    for this country, where inquiry is active, where education
    is daily extending, and which mainly owes to the spread
    of education[2] the happiness and tranquillity it enjoys.
    Nothing therefore could be more obviously unjust than
    _to test my titles by Mr. Panizzi's rules_. I discarded
    them altogether; I threw them overboard at once, and _en
    masse_....'

      [2] We understand Mr. Collier to imply that education is
      much more extended in England than in Prussia.

    "We are English as well as Mr. Collier; but we do not see
    that progress and enlightenment are essentially connected
    with bad bibliography at two errors and a fraction per
    title. Neither do we think Mr. Collier's defence more valid
    than would be that of an incorrect arithmetician who should
    attribute the rules to Cocker or Walkingame, and protest
    against the jurisdiction. Mr. Panizzi's rules, like all other
    codes, contain offences divisible into _mala in se_ and _mala
    prohibita_: Mr. Collier justifies his departures from the
    morals of bibliography, by alleging his right to differ from
    Mr. Panizzi about its expediencies. He leaves out an author's
    Christian name, or substitutes his translator for him, and
    says he is not bound to follow Mr. Panizzi's foreign modes:
    and therein he resembles those reasoners who have defended
    false inference by renouncing Aristotle. But his own argument
    may be turned against him: it is a strong presumption in
    favor of the materiality of Mr. Panizzi's rules, that so able
    an opponent finds himself under the necessity of implying
    the following alternative--either those rules, or such
    bibliography as is seen in _this_ rejection of them. We dwell
    the more upon this point because we observe that some of the
    journals adopt the defence, and say in terms that what Mr.
    Panizzi calls errors are deviations from his own ninety-one
    rules. Are we really to believe that, if Mr. Collier had
    chosen to spell authors' names backwards, it would have been
    a sufficient answer to an objection from Mr. Panizzi, that
    the plan of writing them forwards was one of his own rules?
    According to Mr. Collier and his defenders, _English grammar_
    is only one of Mr. Panizzi's foreign modes, repudiated by
    English common sense."

But the most elaborately formed rules for cataloguing are inadequate
to provide for all cases. Doubts and difficulties will unavoidably
arise, as to their application. For example, in abridging titles,
scarcely any two men would agree, even within the limits of the rules
given. It is necessary, therefore, that there should be a central
superintendence of the whole enterprise; and that the duties of those
who are engaged in preparing the titles, and of the superintendent
should be distinctly understood. This object has been kept in view
in preparing the rules. The transcribers are to be responsible for
exactness, in writing off titles without abridgment; and for a
clear statement, in notes, of all peculiarities not mentioned in the
titles. They should also indicate the parts of the titles which they
think might be omitted.

The titles are then to be submitted to the superintendent. He is to
examine them, in order to see that all the rules have been observed.
He is to decide upon all abridgments and additions, and mark the
manuscript for the printer. He is also to examine the last revise.


PRINTING AND STEREOTYPING.

The printing should all be executed in one office, under the
immediate eye of the superintendent. The same type, and the same
style of work should be used in all parts.

It is not necessary, upon this plan, to finish a catalogue in
manuscript, before beginning to print. Titles may be prepared and
stereotyped without regard to their future arrangement. The work of
the printer may keep pace with that of the transcribers. Should it be
desired, a catalogue might be published in parts, each comprising a
particular class of books.

The titles, after having been set up in type, and corrected with the
utmost care, are, before stereotyping, to be sent to the library to
which they belong, to be revised, by a comparison with the books
themselves. This arrangement implies the necessity of a large fount
of type, and of promptness on the part of librarians.

The titles are then to be stereotyped, each upon a separate plate,
or block. The headings (if they be names) are to stand on plates
distinct from the titles. This is required, in order to avoid
repeating them for each title. They must be separate from the titles,
that other titles may, if occasion require, be interposed.

Every name, or other word, used as a heading, is to be printed, in
the title, in small capitals; thus each stereotyped title will show,
at a glance, the heading under which it belongs.

Each title is to have upon it a running number, according to
the order of its being stereotyped. The use of this number is
for reference to the _Local Index_ of the general catalogue, in
which the libraries, where the books are to be found, will be
designated. When the catalogue is made up, these numbers will not
be in connection; but in the index, they will follow each other in
consecutive order, and should there have, printed against each, the
names of the several libraries containing the book. These numbers
will further serve to show the extent and progress of the work.

Copies of the titles stereotyped will be kept at the Smithsonian
Institution, arranged in their numerical order; so that in referring
to any particular title it may not be necessary to copy the title in
full, but merely to give the number attached to it.

It will sometimes happen, that words, which, according to the rules,
are used as headings, do not occur in the titles. There would, then,
without further provision, be no means of ascertaining, from an
examination of the plate itself, its order in the collection. To meet
this case, the expedient has been adopted, of setting up the word to
be used as the heading, in the margin of the title, and in shorter
type, which will then show itself upon the plate, but not upon the
printed page.


PRESERVATION AND USE OF THE PLATES.

When the titles have been stereotyped, and the plates ascertained to
be in perfect working order, they are to be arranged alphabetically,
and kept on sliding shelves, or shallow drawers, placed as near to
each other as possible. The catch-letters of the titles may be marked
upon the front of each shelf, so as to admit of alteration as the
changing of the plates may require. The ranges of shelves may be so
disposed as to form deep and narrow alcoves. A room of fifty feet by
forty would accommodate the plates of upwards of a million titles,
which may, in this manner, be kept in very compact and perfect order,
and, at the same time, be easily accessible.

It may not be amiss to add, that the material, which it is proposed
to employ in the stereotyping, is much less expensive than common
type metal; so cheap, indeed, that the whole expenditure on
this account, even for so large a collection, would be of small
importance. It is, besides, much lighter than type metal, more
convenient in handling, and requires fewer, and less expensive
fixtures. It is not at all affected by dampness, or by any ordinary
elevation of temperature.

The plates are mounted, for printing, upon blocks similar to those
ordinarily used for stereotype plates, but with continuous clamps
extending the whole length of the page. The breadth of page adopted
is such as is suitable for a work in octavo, or in double columns
in quarto or folio. The latter form (folio double columns) will
probably be found most convenient, as well as most economical, for
large catalogues. Presenting more titles upon a page, it enables a
student to examine and compare, with greater facility, the various
works of an author. It requires also less paper and press-work for
the same number of titles. These considerations have led to the
general adoption of the folio form for catalogues of large libraries.
To these it may be added, in the present case, that in folio pages it
would be practicable to avoid the division of titles between lines,
without occasioning observable irregularities in the length of the
pages.


METHOD OF USING THE STEREOTYPED TITLES IN THE FORMATION OF NEW
CATALOGUES.

In concluding these details of the system of stereotyping catalogues,
by separate titles, it now remains to say a few words upon the method
of employing the titles, in the construction of new catalogues.

Whenever, after the publication of one catalogue, upon this plan, it
should be proposed to form a catalogue of another library, the first
step would be to ascertain, which of the titles of such library have
been already stereotyped; for these need not again be transcribed.

This may be done in the following manner. A copy of the catalogue
already published, together with a copy of any titles which may have
been subsequently stereotyped, should be sent to the cataloguer, who
as he takes a book from the shelf should first seek for its title
among those already printed. If a title, strictly identical with that
of the book, be found, it should be marked in the margin.

When titles occur, which he does not find among those already
printed, they are to be written, each on a card or slip of paper,
according to the rules; and, as the work goes on, sent, in parcels,
to be stereotyped. When the cataloguer has gone through the library
in this manner, he is to return the printed catalogues, in the margin
of which he has marked the common titles. The printer will then be
able to select and combine the plates to be used for this particular
catalogue, impose them, print the requisite number of copies, and
distribute them to their places.

After the catalogues of several libraries shall have been thus
prepared and printed, they will be combined to form a general
catalogue of those libraries, and thus the labor of selecting common
titles will always be limited within narrow bounds.



RULES.



RULES FOR PREPARING CATALOGUES.


TITLES.


I. The Titles are to be transcribed ~in full~, including the names
of Authors, Editors, Translators, Commentators, Continuators, &c.,
precisely as they stand upon the title-page.

~Exceptions.~ There are many titles from which much may well
be omitted. But to make omissions without prejudice to ready
investigation is an extremely difficult and delicate task, in the
performance of which, uniformity is highly important; it is therefore
desirable that all abridgments be made by the same person. To this
end, the rule should stand without exception, so far as the writing
out of the titles is concerned. The abridgments for printing should
all be made by the superintendent, and only in the following cases:

Additions to names of authors, &c., not necessary for their
identification; mottoes, repetitions, or expletives not essential to
a full and clear titular description of the book, may be omitted.
Omissions of mottoes and devices are to be denoted by three stars; of
other matter, by three dots, placed thus ...

No omission is to be made which requires any change in, or addition
to, the phraseology of that part of the title which is retained. Not
even an improvement of the title, by any change, is to be allowed.

~Remark 1.~ This rule is understood to apply only to the principal
entry. It is supposed that each title will be entered in full only
once. All other entries will refer to this full entry. They will be
called _Cross-References_; and rules for their preparation are given
hereafter.

~Remark 2.~ It is necessary (in this plan) to give the name of the
Author, in connection with the title, although it be but a repetition
of the heading; for the heading will be stereotyped separate from the
title, and, therefore, the title should contain all that is necessary
to indicate its proper position, in the alphabetical order, in case
of displacement.

~Remark 3.~ Experience shows that it takes less time to transcribe
titles in full, than to abridge them with any tolerable degree
of accuracy. It requires, too, less learning and experience in
the cataloguer. That a catalogue can be made more rapidly, more
economically, and more satisfactorily by transcribing the titles
faithfully and fully, without the omission of a single letter or
point, than by any proper plan of abridgment, cannot be denied by any
one who has fairly tried the experiment.[3] If the catalogue were
not to be printed, this rule should have no exception whatever. The
printing, however, introduces two considerations to modify the rule,
namely, the _expense_ of printing, and the _bulk_ of the catalogue.
The force of the former consideration is much diminished by the plan
of stereotyping the titles. It is but a first expense that we have to
meet, not a repetition of it. Besides, no library but the first has
to print all its titles. The saving, even to the second library, by
the use of those already stereotyped, would doubtless far more than
counterbalance the extra expense of printing long titles. The bulk
of the catalogue is certainly a matter of considerable importance,
though of less than might, at first, be supposed. It does not make
much difference, in convenience of use, whether such a work as an
Encyclopædia be in a hundred volumes or in ten, though it is, of
course, more convenient to refer to one volume than to ten. The
proposed general catalogue would doubtless exceed one volume, even
with short titles. But convenience should not be allowed to have more
influence than the demands of learned investigators. The bulk of
catalogues should not be considered in opposition to their accuracy,
and to such a degree of fulness of title, as may be necessary to
identify the book, and to give all such particulars of information,
as may justly be expected from a titular description.

  [3] A very complete discussion of the comparative advantages
  of long and short titles is contained in the Report of the
  Commissioners on the British Museum, with Minutes of Evidence,
  1850, particularly in Mr. Panizzi's Letter to the Earl of
  Ellesmere, in Appendix No. 12.

~Remark 4.~ It is deemed unnecessary to prescribe any particular
form of card or paper for use in copying the titles. If they are to
be printed at once, it will be found most convenient to write them
on one side only of common foolscap paper. Cross references should
immediately follow the titles to which they belong. If cards have
already been adopted in the library to be catalogued, their form
need not be changed. They may be placed in the hands of the printer
without being transcribed. A manuscript catalogue for constant use
should generally be upon cards. A very convenient method of keeping
them is that employed by Mr. Folsom in the Boston Athenæum. The cards
are long and narrow; are so perforated that they may be strung upon
cords, which, being elastic, allow free motion without displacement;
and are kept in cases, made to resemble folio volumes, one side of
which opens like the cover of a book.


II. The Titles are to be transcribed ~with exactness~.

~Remark 1.~ The titles are _not to be translated_ by the cataloguer.
If, however, the original title, being in a language which does not
admit of being represented in the Roman character, be accompanied by
a translation into a language for which the Roman alphabet may be
used, the latter may be given without the former; this peculiarity
being mentioned, with such explanations as will prevent mistake as to
the language in which the book is printed. If the book be in several
languages, and be provided with title-pages for each, or for several,
the cataloguer may give the preference to languages using the Roman
alphabet in the following order: English, Latin, French, Italian,
Spanish, German. The other title-pages should however be mentioned.

~Remark 2.~ The _precise phraseology_, however quaint, awkward, or
ungrammatical, must be scrupulously followed. When striking faults
or errors occur, the cataloguer should write [_sic_], after each of
them, to denote that the title has been faithfully copied, and that
the error is not attributable to his carelessness.

~Remark 3.~ The exact mode of _spelling_, however inaccurate or
antiquated, must be conscientiously copied. When abbreviations
appear upon the title-page, they should, in transcribing, be copied
accurately. They should also, if possible, be printed. These are most
frequent in early printed Latin and Greek books. If types cannot be
had for printing these abbreviations, the word should be given in
full; the added letters being italics.

~Remark 4.~ The _punctuation_ of the title-page should also be
retained. Sometimes, in the titles of modern books, no pointing is
used; in such cases, none should be introduced. Wide spaces may be
used instead.

~Remark 5.~ The _accentuation_ of the original should be preserved.
In French books, however, it often happens that parts of the
title-page are printed in capitals without accents, and other parts
in "lower-case" letters with accents. This is attributable to the
general want of accents upon what are called "title-letters." To
avoid the striking incongruity which would be occasioned by printing
one part with, and another without accents, when the same letter is
used throughout the title, it will be proper to add the accents,
where they are omitted in the titles of foreign books; but not to
omit or alter any which occur.

~Remark 6.~ When possible, the _form of letter_ (as Black Letter,
Italic, Greek, Hebrew, &c.), is to be preserved. When Black Letter,
Italic, or any peculiar letter or cut of type is used, in the title,
merely as a typographical embellishment, it is not to be copied;
but only when the whole book is printed in it. This rule has no
limitation, except the knowledge of the cataloguer, and the means
of the printing office. With reference to those languages in which
is embodied the great mass of literature, there will be little
difficulty in finding men to copy the titles with accuracy; and
the printing office should contain varieties of type, Roman, Black
Letter, German, Greek, Hebrew, and, in time, fonts of other alphabets.

Books in languages which cannot, at first, be correctly printed or
written, should be reported from each library, as accurately and
fully as possible. An arrangement may hereafter be made to employ
competent persons to catalogue such works, and means may be procured
for printing or engraving their titles. No title, however, should
be stereotyped for the General Catalogue, till its accuracy and
conformity to the rules are fully ascertained.

~Remark 7.~ This principle does not apply to the _use of capitals
or small letters_. Most title-pages are printed wholly in large
letters; some are partly in large and partly in small letters. For
the catalogue, they are to be written and printed in small letters.

~Remark 8.~ _Initial capitals_ are to be used only when the laws of
the language now require them. In English, the first word of every
sentence, proper names, adjectives derived from proper names, names
of the Deity, the first word of the title of a book quoted within
another title, and titles of respect or office, such as Hon., Mr.,
Dr., Capt., Rev., (whether contracted or not,) prefixed to a name,
should be written and printed with initial capitals. In German and
Danish, every noun begins with a capital. In French, Spanish, Italian
and Portuguese, adjectives derived from proper names, are not, as
in English, generally printed with initial capitals. In Latin,
the English usage in this particular should be followed. It would
doubtless be more satisfactory to make the titles, as printed in the
catalogue, perfect transcripts of the title-pages, in respect to the
use of initial capitals; but this is hardly practicable. The use of
both upper-case and lower-case letters in a title-page, is for the
most part a matter of the printer's taste, and does not generally
indicate the author's purpose. To copy them in a catalogue with
literal exactness would be exceedingly difficult, and of no practical
benefit. In those parts of the title-page which are printed wholly
in capitals, initials are undistinguished. It would be unsightly
and undesirable to distinguish the initials where the printer had
done so, and omit them where he had used a form of letter, which
prohibited his distinguishing them. It would teach nothing to
copy from the book the initial capitals in one part of the title,
and allow the cataloguer to supply them in other parts. The only
practicable method of securing uniformity or convenience would seem
to be, to require, as is done above, the cataloguer to employ initial
capitals according to established laws, regardless of the title-page.

There are certain features of title-pages which it is wholly
impracticable to transfer to a catalogue. For example, they
generally are (as they always should be) _inscriptions_, and as
such are meant to have a certain _local disposition_ of parts which
serves to interpret them, by showing at a glance their relations to
each other. A title in a catalogue cannot be expected to retain this
important feature of an inscription.


III. The whole Title is to be repeated for every distinct edition of
the work; and the number of the edition, if not the first, is to be
always given.

~Remark 1.~ The necessity of this rule arises from the stereotyping
of the titles separately. It is frequently the case, that publishers,
after having stereotyped a book, call every thousand copies of it
a separate edition, and, for twenty or more editions, there may
be no alteration in the book, except in the word expressing the
number of the edition, and in the date. In such cases, it cannot
be necessary to print a separate title for each pretended edition.
If there be any important alteration of the book, it should be
designated as a distinct edition. This irregularity is found mostly,
if not exclusively, in American books, and occurs principally in
school-books.

It is easy to see how this artifice of bibliopoles would occasion
great trouble to cataloguers, if it were common. Some publishers
have introduced the terms "second thousand," "tenth thousand," &c.,
instead of "second edition," "tenth edition." This is more honest,
and for our purposes more convenient. But it is not necessary to
introduce these chiliads into the catalogue.

Minor changes are sometimes made in the stereotype plates, after a
part of the copies have been printed; that is, some error may be
discovered and corrected, or some word substituted for another. But
such changes are generally slight and unimportant. They can only be
detected by comparing one copy of a book with another, and, when
known, are seldom worthy of notice.

Sometimes, the title of a book is the same in two editions, while the
body of the work is more or less altered. Sometimes, also, the title
is changed while the book remains entirely unaltered. Such instances
are, however, of comparatively rare occurrence. They are, or should
be, noted in bibliographical dictionaries. It is not often the case,
that the two editions are to be found in one library; consequently,
an account of such variations cannot be expected from the cataloguer.
But, if such facts become known to him, they should be carefully
noted.

The increase of the bulk of the catalogue, which this rule will
occasion, may appear, at first sight, to be a grave difficulty.
It should be considered, however, that the number of books, which
reach a second edition, is comparatively small; and, that, although
there may be a hundred editions of a book, those only will have
their titles repeated, which belong to the library to be catalogued.
The increase in bulk will be much less considerable than might
be apprehended, and it will be more than compensated for, by the
greater exactness of the descriptions. Any one, who has had much
experience in examining catalogues, must have been frequently puzzled
to ascertain the exact character of several editions of a book,
where the only description of any edition after the first, is "_The
same_," or "_Ditto_," with a different date. We may wish to know
whether the titles are identical. In the title of a later edition,
some particular may have been given, which to us is very important,
but which the cataloguer has omitted. To bibliographers, and men of
habits of careful investigation, different editions are different
books, and they should be always described, in catalogues, as
particularly as if they were independent works.


IV. Early printed books, without title-pages, are to be catalogued in
the words of the head-title, preceded by the word [_Beginning_], in
italics and between brackets; to which are to be added the words of
the colophon, preceded by the word [_Ending_], in italics and between
brackets.

If there be neither head-title nor colophon, such a description of
the work should be given, in English, and between brackets, as may
serve for its identification.

~Remark 1.~ Books printed before the adoption of separate title-pages
are comparatively few. Most of them have been described with great
minuteness by bibliographers, particularly by Maittaire, Denis,
Panzer, and Hain. It will be best, in all cases, to refer to their
works in cataloguing such books.

These books generally have at the beginning a head-title, which
contains a sufficient description of the book, while in the colophon
the place of publication, name of the printer, date, &c., are
given; but sometimes the book begins with a table, or dedication,
or register, and has no colophon. In such cases, not unfrequently,
there is a title at the end of the table, or in the dedication. In
short, so great is the variety of cases, that it would be extremely
difficult, if not impossible, to give rules applicable to them all.
The rule given above will, it is thought, be found sufficiently
comprehensive.


V. In cataloguing Academical Dissertations, Orations, &c., the
subject-matter is to be given as the title. If that be not expressed
upon the title-page, it is to be supplied within brackets, if
possible in the words of the author, otherwise in English and in
italics. The contracted words [_Diss. Ac._] when necessary to
indicate the character of the publication, should be prefixed. The
occasion may generally be omitted, except when the subject of the
dissertation or oration has some special reference to it.


VI. In cataloguing Sermons, the book, chapter and verse of the
_text_; the _date_, if it differs from that of publication; and the
_occasion_, if a special one, are to be given. When these are not
upon the title-page, they are to be supplied between brackets, and in
italics.


VII. Periodical publications are to be recorded in the words of the
title-page of the last complete volume; but without designation of
volume or date.

The history of the publication from its commencement, including all
changes of form, title, editorship, &c., is to be given in a note.

~Remark 1.~ This rule applies to Reviews, Magazines, &c.; not
to works issued in parts, sometimes called "serials," nor to
transactions of learned societies.

~Remark 2.~ The last title is preferred for the catalogue, because
it is that by which the work is currently known, and because of the
peculiar difficulty of finding complete sets of these publications.
If the title be changed, it will become necessary to prepare a new
one for the catalogue, and to make an addition to the note.


VIII. After the words of the title, the number of parts, volumes,
fasciculi, or whatever may be the peculiar divisions of each work, is
to be specified.

When nothing is said, in the title, respecting this point, if
the work be divided into several portions, but the same paging
continue, or, when the pages are not numbered, if the same register
continue, the work is to be considered as divided into _parts_ (not
volumes). If the progressive number of the pages, or the register
be interrupted, then each series of pages, or of letters of the
register, is to be designated as a _volume_.

~Remark 1.~ In designating volumes when the number is not stated
upon the title-page, the words Volume, Tome, Theil, Band, Deel, &c.,
may generally be represented by the initials alone. The numbers may
be always expressed by Arabic figures. If the ordinal expression of
number be used on the title-page, the figures may be given, and the
ordinal termination omitted. The numbers of the first and of the
last volume only are to be given, with a dash between them, thus:

    V. 1--8.  for Volume 1--Volume 8, i.e. Volume first--Volume
                  eighth, or First Volume--Eighth Volume.

    B. 2--22.  "  Zweiter Band--Zwei und zwanzigster Band.

    T. 1--4.   "  Tomo 1--Tomo 4.

    Th. 1--6.  "  Theil 1--Theil 6.

~Remark 2.~ When there is a discrepancy between the number of
divisions of a work indicated on the title-page, and the actual
number of volumes, as defined above, (that is, of divisions with
separate pagings), the number of _pagings_ should be stated;--each
paging being considered a distinct volume. The paging of the
preface and introductory matter is to be excepted. Appendixes, when
separately paged, should be specially noticed in the title, though
not reckoned as separate volumes.


IX. Next should follow the designation of the ~place~ and ~date~ of
publication. The name of the place should be given in the form and
language of the title-page. If, in that, it be abbreviated, the full
name should be supplied, but not translated; the added parts being
between brackets.

Should either of these particulars be omitted in the title-page, the
deficiency should be supplied from the knowledge of the librarian, or
be noticed, in italics and between brackets.

~Remark 1.~ It would on many accounts be desirable to give the name
of the publisher, but, as it would add very much to the labor of
preparation, and considerably increase the size of the catalogue, it
is thought best not to do so.

~Remark 2.~ In the case of early printed books, and typographical
rarities, or where several editions of the same book are known
to have been published in the same year and place, by different
publishers, the name of the publisher should be specified.

~Remark 3.~ The date is to be given in Arabic figures, unless
numerals be used in the title-page, in such a manner as to be on some
accounts distinctive.


X. Next after the imprint should follow the designation of ~size~.

In accordance with general usage, the fold of the sheet, as folio,
quarto, octavo, when it can be ascertained, is to be stated. As an
additional, and more exact designation of size, the _Height and
Breadth of the first full signature page_ (the folio and signature
lines being omitted in the measurement) are to be stated in inches
and tenths, the fractions being expressed decimally.

~Explanation 1.~ The librarian should use a small square or rule,
marked with inches and tenths. The first number given should
represent the height, and the second, the breadth of the page. In the
catalogue, the measurement would be recorded thus:--

                        8º (7.3×4.2)

that is, fold of sheet, 8vo; measuring, 7 inches and 3 tenths in
height, by 4 inches and 2 tenths in breadth.

~Explanation 2.~ When the first signature page is not a full page, or
when it has foot notes, turn to the first succeeding signature page
which is full and without notes.

~Explanation 3.~ When there are no signatures, measure the first full
_recto_ page. If the other pages vary much from the standard page,
add _irr._ for _irregular_.

~Explanation 4.~ Marginal rules and side marginal references and
notes are not to be regarded in the measurement; some editions may
be printed with and some without them. But such marginal references
should be mentioned.

~Explanation 5.~ Catch-words generally stand upon the signature
line, and are therefore not to be counted. The measurement of height
should, however, comprise all printed matter below the folio line,
and above the signature line. By folio line is meant that upon which
stands the number of the page.

~Remarks.~ The designation of the form is added to the titles of
books in catalogues for two purposes: to enable one to distinguish
between different editions of the same book, and to convey to those
who have not seen the book, some idea of its size.

The fold of the paper has been universally adopted, as the measure of
size. A sheet once folded, forming two leaves, or four pages, is a
folio. A sheet twice folded, forming four leaves or eight pages, is a
quarto. A sheet three times folded, forming eight leaves, or sixteen
pages, is an octavo. A sheet so folded as to form twelve leaves, or
twenty-four pages, is a duodecimo. And so on.

But this method of designating the size of a book is inexact and
frequently deceptive; because, 1st, it is not always possible to
ascertain the fold; and, 2dly, the fold, when ascertained, gives no
definite indication of the size or shape of the book.

In many books one can tell, at a glance, the fold of the sheet; but
it is unsafe to rely upon this first impression. Examination of
signatures is indispensable. Sometimes, it is necessary to examine
also the water-lines and water-marks. Occasionally, all these will
fail us.

_Signatures_ are letters or figures placed at the bottom of the first
page of each sheet, as guides to the binder, to denote the order of
the sheets. The signatures of the different forms from folio to 32mo,
would regularly be placed as follows:

    Folio, sheet,   on pages  1,  5,   9,  13,  17,  21, &c.
    Quarto,  "       "   "    1,  9,  17,  25,  33,  41, &c.
    Octavo,  "       "   "    1, 17,  33,  49,  65,  81, &c.
    8vo, 1/2 sheet,  "   "    1,  9,  17,  25,  33,  41, &c.
    12mo, sheet,     "   "    1, 25,  49,  73,  97, 121, &c.
    12mo, 1/2 sheet, "   "    1, 13,  25,  37,  49,  61, &c.
    16mo, sheet,     "   "    1, 33,  65,  97, 129, 161, &c.
    16mo, 1/2 sheet, "   "    1, 17,  33,  49,  65,  81, &c.
    18mo, sheet,     "   "    1, 37,  73, 109, 145, 181, &c.
    18mo, 1/2 sheet, "   "    1, 19,  37,  55,  73,  91, &c.
    24mo, sheet,     "   "    1, 49,  97, 145, 193, 241, &c.
    24mo, 1/2 sheet, "   "    1, 25,  49,  73,  97, 121, &c.
    32mo, sheet,     "   "    1, 65, 129, 193, 257, 321, &c.
    32mo, 1/2 sheet, "   "    1, 33,  65,  97, 129, 161, &c.

But sometimes the paging of the book begins in the midst of a
signature; in such cases the signatures would fall on pages different
from the above, throughout the book, though the intervals would be
regular. Double signatures are sometimes placed upon stereotype
plates, to enable printers to impose them either as octavos or
duodecimos.

Besides the principal signatures, there are subordinate signatures,
which, as they do not help to distinguish the size of the book, but
are only used to aid the binder, are omitted in the above table.

It will be seen from this table, that the signatures are precisely
the same for 8vos, in half sheets, as for 4tos; for 16mos, in half
sheets, as for 8vos; for 24mos, in half sheets, as for 12mos; for
32mos, in half sheets, as for 16mos.

Printers impose in half sheets or sheets, according to their
convenience. Of course, therefore, from the signatures _alone_, it
is impossible to distinguish between 4tos and 8vos, 8vos and 16mos,
12mos and 24mos, 16mos and 32mos. It is generally easy to determine
the fold by the size and shape of the book, but (as we shall show
hereafter) not _always_.

Signatures do not occur in the earliest printed books; but as this
class of books is small, and very particularly described by Panzer,
Hain, and others, there is but little difficulty in ascertaining the
precise description of them.

Books may be quired in printing, that is, several sheets may be put
together, like the sheets in a quire of paper. In this case the
principal signature is the same as if the whole formed only one
sheet. A folio may thus be undistinguishable from an 8vo, by the
signatures alone.

When signatures fail us, resort may sometimes be had to the water
lines, which, by holding the paper up to the light, may be seen
crossing the sheet perpendicularly, in the folio, 8vo, 18mo, 24mo,
and 32mo; and horizontally, in all the other forms less than
32mo; sometimes, also, in the 24mo. The water-mark is a device
of the manufacturer, placed in the middle of the half sheet, and
distinguishable in the same way as the water-line. In the folio,
this occurs in the middle of the page; in the quarto, in the back or
fold of the book; in the 8vo, at the upper and inner corner. At the
present day, however, printing paper is seldom made with water-lines
or water-marks.

In examining a book, all these means of determining its fold
occasionally deceive the most skilful bibliographer. If sheets of
paper had, from the first, been always made of the same size, there
would be comparatively little difficulty. But they have always varied
so much, that a very small 8vo is often in no way distinguishable, in
dimensions, from a large 16mo. Many other sizes also are liable to be
confounded.

The following measurements, in inches, of a leaf of folio, octavo,
and 16mo, of foolscap, medium, and imperial paper, will show how
impossible it would be, from the size of the book to determine the
fold of the sheet, even of paper of what are called the regular
sizes, particularly when the books have been cut down in binding:

                   Folio,         Octavo,         16mo.
    Foolscap,  13-1/4×8-3/8,    6-5/8×4-1/4,   4-1/4×3-3/8,
    Medium,    18-1/4×11-1/2,   9-1/8×5-3/4,   5-3/4×4-1/2,
    Imperial,  21-7/8×15,          11×7-1/2,   7-1/2×5-1/2,

Since the introduction of machine paper and large presses, paper is
made of almost any and every size and shape, and it is no longer
possible to distinguish, with accuracy, the different folds. Books,
which, judged by the eye, would be supposed to be quartos, are, in
reality, duodecimos; books which might be supposed to be octavos,
are 16mos, &c. The signatures, as we have seen, will not inform us
whether a book is an 8vo, or a 16mo on half sheets. There are no
water-marks to help us; nor is it possible in any way to tell.

If it be thus difficult, and often impossible, to ascertain the fold
with the book before us, of what use can it be, as a designation of
size, to those who have only the description? This is a difficulty
which has but commenced. It is becoming more serious every year. It
is more serious in America, than in other countries, for in Europe,
there is much more regularity in the sizes of paper than here.

On these accounts, it has been thought desirable, if not
indispensable, to introduce some new method of designating the size
of books. The measurement of the printed page has seemed the readiest
and most useful. The trouble of measuring is much less than might,
at first sight, be supposed, and the time occupied by it is hardly
worthy of consideration.

It would be, for all purposes of bibliography, better to make this
the universal method of designating the size of books. It would save
numberless blunders and frequent perplexity; and, upon the whole,
would take less of the librarian's time, than the ordinary process of
ascertaining the fold, provided that be done with exactness.


XI. In books of one volume, the body of which does not contain more
than one hundred pages, the number of pages is to be specified. In
applying this rule, copy the number of the last page of the body of
the book, or of any addition paged continuously with it.

~Remark 1.~ The value of catalogues would, doubtless, be enhanced
by giving the number of pages in every volume, after the manner of
Dryander in the Catalogue of Sir Joseph Banks's library; or with even
greater particularity, thus: _pp. xxvi+345+~xlv~_, meaning 26 pages
of prefatory matter, 345 pages in the body of the book, and 45 pages
of appendix. But the disproportionate amount of additional labor, as
well as of increase in the bulk and cost of catalogues, which such
enumeration and notation would demand, renders it necessary to limit
the object of this rule, which is to show whether the work described
be merely of pamphlet size.

~Remark 2.~ Prefatory matter is not to be included in the enumeration
of pages. But if it be something more than a preface or introduction
by the author, and deemed of sufficient importance to be added to
the title, the number of pages of such prefatory matter should be
included in the addition.


XII. All additions to the titles are to be printed in italics, and
between brackets; to be in the English language, whatever be the
language of the title; to be such only as are applicable to all
copies of the edition described, and necessary for a full titular
description of the book.

~Exception.~ When parts of a name are supplied within brackets, they
are to be in the vernacular of the author, whatever be the language
of the title; and, if the name be used for the heading, the part
supplied in the title is to correspond in typography with the rest of
the name; that is, to be printed in small capitals.

~Remark 1.~ It is not always easy to say what additions are
necessary, to render a title satisfactorily descriptive. A title is
often a mere name, arbitrarily chosen by the author. It is sometimes
allegorical, or embodies, in a pun, or conceit, or covert allusion,
some indication of the subject-matter of the book. In such cases,
it was not designed to be descriptive of the work, and could not
be made so, without destroying its character. Explanations of such
titles may be thought desirable; but if so, they should be given in
notes, and separate from the titles themselves. A title should be the
briefest possible designation of the contents of a book. It should
cover everything which the book contains, but in the most general
terms, without minute specifications. Mindful of this definition,
we shall frequently find cases, where the title, intended to be
descriptive, fails to give us what we have a right to expect. A book
may be in a different language from the title-page. It may be in
several languages, while the title indicates but one. It may contain
an important Preface, Introduction, or Biography of the author, by
another hand, not mentioned in the title. In these, and in many other
cases, additions to the titles may be necessary.

~Remark 2.~ There are many cases, however, where it seems desirable
to give further information concerning a work, than could be given
within the title, under the restrictions of the preceding paragraph.
The title may be a misnomer, or it may contain allusions, which it
is desirable to explain. The book may be a rare and valuable one,
with maps and illustrations, the number and description of which
ought to be given. It may have been privately printed, or limited to
a small number of copies, or prohibited, or condemned to be burnt.
The edition may be the _Editio princeps_, or a fac-simile of an
early edition, or a surreptitious or spurious edition; or it may be
identical, except in the title, with what purports to be another
edition, or an independent work. These facts belong, more properly,
to a bibliographical dictionary, than to a catalogue. It is proper,
however, that they should be noted by cataloguers. They may, also, be
printed, at the discretion of the superintendent, but generally, in
the form of separate notes, rather than as additions to the titles.

~Remark 3.~ Peculiarities of copies, such as large paper, satin
paper, vellum; also notes, autographs, cancelled leaves, substituted
leaves, mutilations and alterations; binding in a different number
of volumes from that indicated in the title, or ascertained by
the rule already given, &c. &c.,--these, and other peculiarities
or imperfections of copy, relate only to particular copies, and
therefore should not be noticed in a title intended to apply to the
whole edition. Every cataloguer should, however, note every such
thing, after the title. The note may be printed in the catalogue of
the library containing the book described, but not, usually, in the
title for the General Catalogue.


HEADINGS.


XIII. When the title has been transcribed in accordance with the
foregoing rules, the heading is to be written above it.

This heading determines the place of the title in the alphabetical
catalogue, and consists, in general, of the name of the author in its
vernacular form, when the same can be represented by the letters of
the English alphabet.

When the word cannot be exactly represented by English letters, the
form used by the best English authorities is to be adopted.

The surname is to be printed in capitals. Christian or first names
are to follow, if possible in full, printed in small capitals, and
within parentheses.


XIV. When a name is variously spelled, the best authorized
orthography is to be selected for the heading, and such other modes
of spelling the name, as are likely to occasion difficulty, are to be
added, within brackets.

Cross references are to be made from all other forms of the name,
which occur in the catalogue, to the form preferred.


XV. The following rules are to be observed in cataloguing names with
prefixes:

(1.) If the name has become an English surname, it is to be recorded
under the prefix, which is to be accounted as a part of the name.

Thus: _D'Israeli_, _De Morgan_, _De la Beche_, _Du Ponceau_ are to be
placed under _D_; _Van Buren_ under _V_.

In such cases, cross-references are to be made from the principal
name.

Names beginning with _Mac_, _O'_, _Ap_, and _Fitz_, are to be
recorded under those syllables.

_Mc_, and _M'_, abbreviated forms of _Mac_, are to be considered the
same as if written in full.

(2.) French surnames preceded by the preposition _de_ are to be
catalogued under the name itself, and not under the prefix.

Thus: _Florian (Jean Pierre Claris de)_ is to be placed under _F_,
not under _D_; _Alembert (Jean le Rond d')_ under _A_, not under _D_.

In this respect, usage is by no means uniform among French authors.
Thus, Brunet places _D'Alembert_ under _D_, while Quérard, the
Editors of the "Biographie Universelle," etc., place the same name
under _A_. But consistency is of the first importance, and it is
decidedly best to make this rule positive, and without exceptions.

(3.) French surnames preceded by _De la_, are to be recorded under
the article.

Thus: _La Pérouse (Jean François Galaup de)_, not _De la Pérouse_,
nor _Pérouse_; _La Harpe (Jean François de)_, not _De la Harpe_, nor
_Harpe_.

It is better to make this the invariable rule, although uniformity
will not be found among French writers, in this particular, nor
scarcely consistency in any one writer.

(4.) French names preceded by _Du_ or _Des_ are to be recorded under
these prefixes.

Thus: _Du Halde_, under _D_, not under _H_; _Des Cartes_, under _D_,
not under _C_.

(5.) French names, preceded by the article _Le_, _La_, _L'_, are to
be recorded under _L_.

Thus: _Le Long (Jacques)_, not _Long (Jacques le)_; _L'Héritier
(Marie Jeanne)_, not _Héritier (Marie Jeanne l')_.

(6.) Names with similar prefixes in other languages, are, in all
cases, to be recorded under the word following the prefix, with
cross-references.

Thus: _Delle Valle_, under _V_; _Della Santa_, under _S_; _Da Cunha_
under _C_. So _Buch (Léopold von)_; _Recke (Elisa von der)_; _Dyck
(Anton Van)_; _Praet (Joseph Basile Bernard Van)_; _Hooght (Everard
van der)_; _Ess (Leander van)_.


XVI. Compound surnames, except Dutch and English, are to be entered
under the initial of the first name. In Dutch and in English compound
names, the last name is to be preferred.

Thus, in French, such names as _Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire_,
_Isidore Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire_, should be written _Geoffroy-Saint-
Hilaire (Etienne)_, _Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire (Isidore)_. So in Spanish,
_Calderon de la Barca_, and _Calderon y Belgrano_, should both be
entered under _C_. But _François de Salignac de Lamotte Fénélon_,
is universally placed under _Fénélon_, even by those who generally
adhere to the above rule. There are other names, which must be
considered exceptions, respecting which it seems impossible to
give any invariable rule, but all difficulty must be removed by
cross-references.


XVII. Works of an author who may have changed his name, or added
others to it, are to be recorded under the last name, (if used in
any of his publications,) with cross-references from the other
names. Names that may have been altered by being used in different
languages, are to be entered under their original vernacular form.
But if an author has never used the vernacular form of his name in
his publications, his works are to be recorded under such other form
as he may have employed.

~Remark 1.~ Thus, _Alexander Slidell Mackenzie_ should be placed
under _Mackenzie_, with a cross-reference from _Slidell_. His family
name was _Slidell_, but after becoming known as a writer, he assumed
the name _Mackenzie_.

_François Marie Aroüet de Voltaire_, under _Voltaire_; because
_Voltaire_ is a name assumed as a surname. It is not a title, nor
commonly considered part of a compound surname.

_Jean Baptiste Poquelin Molière_, under _Molière_. His father's name
was _Poquelin_ but he added, himself, the name _Molière_, as _Aroüet_
did that of _Voltaire_.

The family name of an individual is to be considered that which he
has, or adopts, for himself and his descendants, rather than that
which he received from his ancestors,--_his_ family name, not _his
father's_. Now if a man's name have been changed, by his own act, the
name assumed is supposed to be that by which he wishes to be known
to his contemporaries, and which he wishes to transmit to posterity.
A married woman generally drops her maiden name, and assumes that of
her husband. By this, therefore, she should ever after be known. If
she published books under her maiden name, and afterwards under her
married name, they should all be recorded under her married name,
with a cross-reference from the former. It may be that she published
only under her maiden name; in this case, her works should be entered
under that name, followed by her married name, included within
parentheses.

~Remark 2.~ Such changes as are referred to under this rule may
generally be indicated by the mode of printing, thus:

    MACKENZIE (~Alexander~ SLIDELL).
    VOLTAIRE (~François Marie~ AROÜET ~de~).
    DACIER (_Mad._ ~Anne~ LEFÈVRE).


XVIII. The following classes of persons are to be entered under their
first names, or their Christian names:

(1.) Sovereigns, and Princes of sovereign houses.

(2.) Jewish Rabbis, and Oriental writers in general.

(3.) Persons canonized. The family name, when known, is to be added
within brackets.

(4.) Friars, who, by the constitution of their order, drop their
surnames. But the family name, when known, should be added within
brackets.

(5.) All other persons known _only_ by their first names, to which,
for the sake of distinction, they add those of their native places,
profession, rank, &c., as, _Adamus Bremensis_, or _Adam of Bremen_.

A cross-reference should be made from any other name by which the
author may be known, to that used as the heading.


XIX. Surnames of Noblemen and Dignitaries, with the exception of
cases coming under the preceding rule, are to be ascertained, when
not expressed, and to be used for the heading, although the person
may be better known by his title, than by his name. But, in all cases
where doubt would be likely to arise, cross-references should be used.

~Remark.~ Thus, _Home (Henry), Lord Kames_. There should be a
cross-reference; thus, _Kames (Lord). See Home (Henry)_. _Stanhope
(Philip Dormer), Earl of Chesterfield_.

This last is one of the cases which might lead us to doubt the
propriety of the rule. This author is universally known as
_Chesterfield_, not as _Stanhope_. But there are other authors, who
are as well known by their family names as by their titles; while the
greater portion are known by their family names, much better than by
their titles. A general rule is absolutely necessary, and this is
thought to be the best.


XX. If it appear upon the title-page, that the work is the joint
production of several writers, it is to be entered under the first
named, with cross-references from the names of the others.


XXI. The complete works, or entire treatises of several authors,
published together in one series, with a collective title, are to
be recorded in the words of the general title of the series, and to
be placed under the name, of the Editor, if known; if that be not
known, under the title of the collection, like anonymous works. If
any work in the collection be printed with a separate title-page, and
an independent paging, it is also to be recorded under its author's
name, as a distinct work, with a reference to the volume of the
collection in which it is to be found.

Cross-references may be made from names of authors, when they appear
upon the title-page, or when their works were first published in the
collection.

~Explanation 1.~ The principle established by this rule, decides the
case, common among German books, of _works with double titles_, one
general and the other special. Such a work must be entered twice,
once under the general title, which should omit, as much as possible,
what is contained in the special; and once under the special title,
which should refer to the general, stating what volume of the general
collection this particular volume forms.

~Explanation 2.~ This rule applies to _periodical publications_,
which should be entered under the name of the Editor, if this appears
upon the title-page, with a cross-reference from the name of the
publication. But if the publication be issued under the direction of
an association, it comes under the next rule, and is to be recorded
under the name of the association, with a cross-reference from the
editor's name.

~Remark.~ The catalogue, thus formed, will be composed of works,
having each a distinct title-page and an independent pagination.
Doubtless, greater convenience and usefulness might be attained by
adopting a more comprehensive plan;--one, by which every distinct
article in Transactions of Learned Societies, in Magazines, Reviews,
and similar works, where, by the rule of the publication, the
authors of the treatises are named,--should be separately entered,
as if it were a book. Such an attempt is, however, at present,
unadvisable. Should it, hereafter, be thought practicable to extend
the rule, none of the titles which have been prepared, under this
rule, will be superfluous, and none will have to be altered. It is
hoped, that, within a few years, such progress may be made in the
General Catalogue, as to justify the attempt at greater minuteness of
registration.


XXII. Academies, institutes, associations, universities, colleges;
literary, scientific, economical, eleemosynary and religious
societies; national and municipal governments; assemblies,
conventions, boards, corporations, and other bodies of men, under
whatever name, and of whatever character, issuing publications,
whether as separate works, or in a continuous series, under a
general title, are to be considered and treated as the authors of
all works issued by them, and in their name alone. The heading is to
be the name of the body, the principal word to be the first word,
not an article. A cross-reference is to be made from any important
substantive or adjective, to the principal word.

~Explanation 1.~ If the name of the author appears upon the
title-page of a work having a distinct title-page and paging,
published by such a body, the work then comes under Rule XXI. It must
be recorded twice; once under the general title, according to the
above rule, and again under the name of the author, referring, if it
be published in a series, to the volume of the series in which it is
contained.

~Explanation 2.~ Catalogues of public libraries are to be entered
under the name of the establishment; and if the name of the compiler
appears upon the title-page, a cross-reference should be made from it
to the principal entry.

~Explanation 3.~ When committees, or branches of a body, issue
publications, the heading is to be the name of the chief, and not of
the subordinate body. Thus, under _United States_, would be placed
all public documents issued at the expense of the United States,
whether as regular Public Documents, or by particular Departments,
Bureaus, or Committees. Such titles, when they become numerous, may
be classed, and conveniently arranged in the catalogue.

On the same principle, the publications of literary and other
societies connected with colleges and universities are to
be catalogued under the names of the colleges, &c., with
cross-references from the names of the societies.

~Explanation 4.~ Under this rule, Liturgies, Prayer-Books,
Breviaries, Missals, &c., are to be placed under the English name of
the communion, religious order or denomination, under whose authority
they are prepared and published. Similar works by individuals, are to
be placed under their names.


XXIII. Translations are to be entered under the heading of the
original work, with a cross-reference from the name of the
translator. If the name of the translator be known, and that of the
author unknown, the book is to be entered, like other anonymous
works, under the first word of the original title, not an article or
preposition, whether the original be or be not in the library to be
catalogued.

When the title of the original cannot be ascertained, or cannot be
expressed in English letters, the translation is to be entered as an
anonymous work, that is, under the first word of its title, not an
article or preposition.


XXIV. Commentaries accompanied by the whole Text, are to be entered
under the heading of the original work, with a cross-reference
from the name of the commentator. If not accompanied by the Text,
they are to be entered under the name of the commentator, with a
cross-reference from the name of the author.


XXV. The Bible, or any part of it, in any language, is to be entered
under the word "Bible."

Cross-references should be made from the names of the writers, as
well as from the names of the several parts of the Bible. Both of
these classes of names are to be expressed in the form adopted in the
authorized English version.


XXVI. Reports of Trials are to be recorded under the name of the
Reporter; or if this be not known, under the first word of the
Title. There should also be cross-references, from the names of the
plaintiff and of the defendant in a civil suit, and from that of the
defendant in a criminal suit.


XXVII. The Respondent or defender in a thesis, is to be considered
its author, except when it unequivocally appears to be the work of
the Præses.


XXVIII. Pseudonymous works are to be entered under the assumed
name, followed by _pseud._; after which may be given the name of
the supposed or reputed author, with (in case of doubt) the word
_probably_ before it, or _?_ after it.

But if the author have published any edition, continuation,
or supplement under his name, the work is not to be considered
pseudonymous. In such case, a cross-reference should be made from the
feigned name.

~Explanation 1.~ Under pseudonyms are to be included not only
fictitious names, such as _Geoffrey Crayon, Gent._, assumed by
Washington Irving, and abbreviated names, as _A. L. Mil._, for _A.
L. Millin_; but also names concealed in an anagram, as _Nides_,
for _Denis_; or formed from the initials of the real name, as
_Talvi_, for _Theresa Adolfina Louisa Von Jacob_, and all words used
fictitiously as proper names of authors.

~Explanation 2.~ Works falsely attributed, in their titles, to
particular persons, are also to be treated as pseudonymous, and
entered under the names of the pretended authors, with such notes as
may be necessary to prevent mistake; unless some edition has been
published under the name of the real author.

~Explanation 3.~ Works published with _initials_, are to be entered
under the full name of the author, if he be known to have published
any edition with his name; otherwise, under the _last_ initial, which
is to be supposed to stand for the surname, and the other letter or
letters for Christian names. But if the last letter be known to stand
for a title, it is not to be used for the heading.


XXIX. Anonymous works are to be entered under the first word of the
title, not an article or preposition. Cross-references may be made
from all words, in the title, under which such a work would be likely
to be sought for, in an alphabetical catalogue.

But if the author have published any edition, continuation, or
supplement under his name, the work is not to be considered anonymous.

~Exception 1.~ An anonymous biography or personal narrative is to be
entered under the name of the person, whose life or adventures form
the subject of the book, if the name appears upon the title-page. But
such works should in all cases be designated as anonymous.

~Exception 2.~ An anonymous continuation, supplement, appendix or
index is to be entered under the heading of the original work.

~Explanation 1.~ A book is not to be considered anonymous, when the
name of the author is given in any part of it, or expressed by any
distinctive description. In such case, the name of the author is to
be inserted in the title, within brackets, and is to be used as the
heading.

~Explanation 2.~ If it be known that the book has been _attributed_
to a certain person, his name may be inserted in the title, within
brackets, with such explanation as shall prevent mistake; and a
cross-reference may be made from the name of the reputed author.

~Explanation 3.~ Works in which the author is described by some
circumlocution, which does not serve to identify him, are to be
considered anonymous.

~Remark.~ This rule will secure uniformity. It will relieve
librarians from an almost incalculable amount of labor, perplexity
and dissatisfaction. It will relieve readers from every
inconvenience, except that of sometimes being obliged to look in two
places for the book. On these accounts, a simple, arbitrary rule is
the only one that can safely be adopted. Any rule for selecting the
most prominent word of a title, or for entering a book under the name
of its subject, would be found fatal to uniformity; it would greatly
increase the trouble of making a catalogue; it would not render the
catalogue more convenient for readers, but, in the main, much less
so. The only objections to the proposed rule are, that it brings many
titles under words of little significance, as a "_Brief_ Survey", a
"_Succinct_ Narrative", &c., and that it brings many titles together,
under such words as "Essay", "History", "Narrative", &c. These
objections have been fully considered, and the rule is given with the
settled conviction that the inconveniences alluded to are much less
than those which would result from any other rule or set of rules,
which have been proposed, or can be devised.


CROSS-REFERENCES.


XXX. Cross-references,--consisting of only the word from which
reference is made, the word _See_, and the name or heading referred
to,--are to be made in the following instances:

(1.) From other forms of a name, than the one adopted in the heading.

(2.) From any name used by an author, or by which he may be generally
known, other than the one used for the heading.

(3.) From important words in the name of any collective body, used as
a heading, under Rule XXII.

(4.) From names of subordinate bodies, when a work is entered under
the name of the principal body, under Rule XXII.

(5.) From the name of a supposed author of a pseudonymous work.

(6.) From titles, or designations of office, or dignity, when used
upon title-pages, instead of surnames.

(7.) From the family names of persons, whose works are entered
under the Christian, or first names; except sovereigns, or princes
belonging to sovereign houses.

(8.) From the names of the several parts of the Bible, and of the
writers of them.

(9.) From former titles of periodicals, when the publication is
catalogued under an altered title, or a new editor, according to Rule
VII.


XXXI. The following classes of cross-references, employed to prevent
the necessity of entering titles in full, more than once, are to
contain so much of the title referred to, as may be necessary to show
distinctly the object of the reference. When it would be difficult to
abbreviate the title, for this purpose, other words, not those of the
title, may be used.

(1.) From the names of Translators, Editors, Commentators,
Continuators, or other persons, named on the title-page, (or added to
the title, on the principle of Rule XII.), as participating in the
authorship of the work.

(2.) From the name of any person, the subject of a biography or
narrative.

(3.) From the name of an author, any whole work of whom, or some
considerable part of it, may be the subject of any commentary or
notes, without the text.

(4.) From the name of an author, whose complete works are contained
in any collection, or any considerable part of whose works have been
first published in such collection, if the name be given upon the
title-page.

(5.) From any word, in the title of an anonymous work, under which
one would be likely to seek for the work in an alphabetical catalogue.

(6.) From the name of a supposed author of an anonymous work.

(7.) From the names of the plaintiff and of the defendant, in the
report of a civil suit; and from the name of the defendant, in that
of a criminal suit.

(8.) From the name of a former editor of a periodical, when the
publication is catalogued under the name of a new editor, according
to Rule VII.


ARRANGEMENT.


XXXII. The order of the Headings will be determined by the plan of
the catalogue, whether alphabetical, classed, or chronological.


XXXIII. The Titles are immediately to follow the headings; and within
the divisions and sub-divisions given below, the arrangement is to
be chronological. Editions without date, and those of which the date
cannot be ascertained, even by approximation, are to precede all
those bearing date, or of which the date can be supplied, either
positively or by approximation. The latter are to follow, according
to their date, whether apparent in any part of the book, or supplied.
Editions by the same editor, or such as are expressly stated to
follow a specific text or edition, and editions with the same notes
or commentary, to succeed each other, in their chronological order,
immediately after the entry of that which is, or is considered to be,
the earliest.


XXXIV. Titles, which occur under the name of an author, are to be
arranged in the following order:

(1.) Collections of all the works.

_a._ Those without translations, whether with or without notes,
commentaries, lives, or other critical apparatus.

_b._ Those with translations.

Editions with only one translation. Those with a Latin translation
are to be placed first; next those with an English; and then those
with a translation into any other language, in the alphabetical order
of the English name of such language.

Editions with several translations into different languages.
Those are to be entered first, which have the fewest number of
translations. Among those having the same number of translations, the
alphabetical order of the first of the languages employed is to be
followed.

_c._ Translations without the text. These are to be arranged among
themselves according to the principles laid down for translations
with the text.

(2.) Partial collections, containing two or more works. Those which
contain the greatest number of works are to precede. The arrangement
of the whole is to be, in other respects, according to the principles
laid down for collections of all the works.

(3.) Selections or collected fragments. Those from all the works are
to precede those from several works, and the whole to be arranged
according to the foregoing principles.

(4.) Separate works. These are to succeed each other alphabetically.
Entire portions of a separate work are to follow immediately after
the work itself. The different editions and translations are to be
arranged according to the foregoing principles.

(5.) Entire portions of a separate work, when the work itself does
not occur.


XXXV. Works placed under the names of collective bodies, (according
to Rule XXII,) are, in general, to be arranged in alphabetical order;
but works forming part of a series are not to be separated, although
that series be interrupted, or the title changed; and works published
by branches or subordinate bodies, are to be separately arranged and
placed under sub-headings, which should be printed in a distinctive
type.


XXXVI. Cross-References are to be placed after all other entries
under the heading, and in alphabetical order of the names referred to.


XXXVII. The entries under the word ~Bible~, are to be arranged in the
following order; subject in other respects to the principles laid
down in Rule XXXIV, except that, in each of the following classes,
editions with the text alone are to precede those with commentaries.

(1.) The Old and New Testaments with or without the Apocrypha.

(2.) The Old Testament.

(3.) Detached parts of the Old Testament, in the same order in which
they are arranged in the English authorized version of the Scriptures.

(4.) The New Testament.

(5.) Detached parts of the New Testament.

(6.) Apocryphal books.


MAPS, ENGRAVINGS, MUSIC.


XXXVIII. Maps, Charts, Engravings and Music, (except when published
in volumes,) are not to be included in catalogues of Books. Separate
catalogues of these should be constructed upon the general principles
of the preceding rules.

(1.) In cataloguing ~Maps and Charts~, the full title is to be given,
including the names of surveyors, compilers, engravers, publishers,
&c.; date and place of publication; and number of sheets composing
the map. Each edition is to be separately recorded, and the separate
title of each sheet, when it varies from the general title. The
titles of sub-sketches are to be introduced at the close of the
main title, within brackets, and to be given in full, including
authorship, scale and size.

(2.) The scale is to be given in all cases. When not stated on the
map, it is, if possible, to be derived from it.

(3.) The size of the map, within the _neat-line_ of the border, is to
be given in inches and tenths. When a map has no printed border, the
measure of the limits of printed surface is to be given.

(4.) The price, if stated on the map, should be copied.

(5.) All important peculiarities of copy, such as the kind of paper,
and whether backed, folded, bound, on rollers, &c., should be
mentioned in a note.

The titles thus prepared are to be arranged under the names of the
countries, or divisions of the earth's surface delineated in the
maps; and these names are to be disposed in alphabetical order, with
the cross-references necessary to facilitate research.

(6.) ~Engravings~ are to be recorded under the names of the
engravers, with cross-references from those of the painters or
designers. The date, and the name of the publisher, if found upon the
print, should also be given. The size of the print, in inches and
tenths, should also be stated. If the copy be an artist's proof, or a
remarkably good impression of a valuable engraving, the fact should
be stated in a note.

(7.) ~Music~ is to be entered under the name of the composer. If the
work have a distinctive title, there should be a cross-reference from
that.


EXCEPTIONAL CASES.


XXXIX. Cases not herein provided for, and exceptional cases,
requiring a departure from any of the preceding rules, are to be
decided upon by the superintendent.



EXAMPLES.



REMARKS ON THE EXAMPLES.


The following examples are introduced, for the purpose of
illustrating the rules, and of furnishing specimens of different
kinds of titles, as well as of showing the general appearance of
the proposed catalogues. In some respects, these are not average
specimens; but have been selected, partly on account of their
containing difficulties. Some titles would require a large number of
cross-references. Only so many are here inserted as are necessary for
the purpose of illustration.

It has not been convenient to give examples of titles in languages
which use other than Roman letters. Our printing-office is not yet
supplied with the requisite variety of type. For the same reason, in
some of the titles, words are spelled in full, which, in the books,
are printed with signs of abbreviation. There is a branch of this
invention which promises to furnish us with the means of engraving,
with facility, any desired characters, and of stereotyping them from
the engraved plates.

The application of the rules to the examples will, in most cases,
be sufficiently obvious, but, it may not be amiss to make some
explanations respecting a few of them.

Rule 1 to 3. The examples illustrating these rules need not be
specially pointed out. Abridgments are frequent; but the rules for
omissions could not be illustrated without giving a great number of
full titles, with abridgments of the same. When an author has only
one Christian name, the full name is supplied, if not given in the
title; when more than one, the initials not given are supplied.
Errors in titles, even to accidental faults in punctuation, have been
scrupulously copied.

Rule 4. See the titles under _Plinius Secundus_ and _Orosius_.

Rule 7. See _North American review_, _American quarterly review_ and
_Bell_. The last journal, being completed, is catalogued according to
the principle of Rule 20, under the first editor's name.

Rule 20. See _Cobbett_ and _Nyerup_.

Rule 21. See _Gale_ and _Historiæ Augustæ scriptores_.

Rule 21, Expl. 1. See _Ancient Irish histories_ and _Autobiography_.
Many of the special titles to the latter are omitted.

Rule 22. See _Linnean society_, _Great Britain_ and _Massachusetts_.

Rule 22, Expls. 2, 3. See _London library_, _University of Oxford_
and _Grenville_.

The catalogues of private libraries are placed under the names of the
proprietors.

Rule 23. See _Méthode_, _Riqueti_ and _Oriental historical mss_.

Rule 28. See _Bombet_, _Gualdi_, _Decanver_ and _Voltaire_.

Rule 28, Expl. 3. See _C._, _La Rochefoucauld_ and _M * * *_.

Rule 29. See _Mémoires_, _Most_ and _Harwood_.

Rule 29, Exc. 1. See _Arc_ and _Dubois_.

Rule 29, Exc. 2. See _Bossuet_ and _Morgues_.

Rule 29, Expl. 1. See _Barbié du Bocage_.


INDEX OF SUBJECTS.

An index of subjects, applicable to these titles, has been prepared
for the purpose of furnishing a specimen of what is proposed for
the catalogue. This general index may be printed separately; being
of itself, a compact and convenient guide to the contents of the
Library. Such an index affords, as will be seen, the opportunity for
making a much more minute and useful classification of titles than is
practicable in a classed catalogue.


LOCAL INDEX.

This is intended to furnish an illustration of the method, described
on page 23, of designating the various libraries, where any work
is to be found, the title of which is in the catalogue. This index
will be an indispensable accompaniment to a general catalogue.
The references given in the present case are, for the most part,
supposititious.


ABBREVIATIONS.

Acc't _for_ account.
Anag. _for_ anagram.
App. _for_ appendix.
App'd _for_ appended.
B. _for_ Band and Bände.
Biogr. _for_ biography or biographical.
Cols. _for_ columns.
Cont'd _for_ contained.
Cont'g _for_ containing.
Crit. _for_ critical.
D. _for_ Deel and Deelen.
Ed. _for_ edited or edition.
Fo. _for_ folio, the fold of the sheet.
Fol. _for_ folio, a leaf, singular or plural.
Hist. _for_ history or historical.
In par. cols. _for_ in parallel columns.
Introd. _for_ introduction.
Irr. _for_ irregular.
Marg. notes _for_ side marginal notes.
Opp. _for_ opposite.
P. _for_ part, pars, partie, &c., singular or plural.
pp. _for_ pages.
Pref. _for_ preface.
Pref'd _for_ prefixed.
Pseud. _for_ pseudonym.
T. _for_ tomus, tome, tomo, &c., singular or plural.
Transl. _for_ translated or translation.
V. _for_ volume, volumen, &c., singular or plural.



EXAMPLES.


ALEXANDER, _the Great_.

  _See_ CURTIUS ~Rufus~ (~Quintus~). De rebus gestis ~Alexandri~
  Magni.


AMERICAN quarterly review (The). V. 1-22. ...
                       _Philadelphia, [1827]-'37. 8º (6.7×3.8)_ [2784]


ANCIENT Irish histories.--The works of Spencer, Campion, Hanmer,
  and Marlebvrrovgh. In two volumes. [_4 pagings._] ...
               _[Dublin, Hibernia press co., 1809.] 8º (6.5×4)_ [2424]


ANTONINUS ~Liberalis~.

  _See_ GALE (~Thomas~). Historiæ poeticæ scriptores. ~Antoninus~
  Liberalis.


APOLLODORUS, _of Athens_.

  ~Apollodori~ Atheniensis bibliothecae libri tres--Ad codd. mss.
  fidem recensiti a Chr. G. Heyne [_In the original._]
                                 _Goettingae, 1782. 8º (4×2.2)_ [1004]

  _See_ GALE (~Thomas~). Historiæ poeticæ scriptores. ~Apollodorus~
  Atheniensis.

  _See_ HEYNE (~C. G.~). Ad ~Apollodori~ Ath. bibliothecam notæ, etc.


ARC (~Jeanne d'~).

  Memoirs of ~Jeanne d'Arc~, ... with the history of her times. In
  two volumes. [_4 pagings._] ...
                                   _London, 1824. 8º (5.3×3.2)_ [1720]


AROUËT (~François Marie~). _See_ VOLTAIRE.


AUTOBIOGRAPHY. A collection of the most instructive and amusing
  lives ever published, written by the parties themselves. With brief
  introductions, and compendious sequels, carrying on the narrative
  to the death of each writer. V. 1-33. ... [_40 pagings._]
                    _London, 1826-'32. 12º (4.7 irr.×2.6 irr.)_ [1255]

      _Note._--This collection contains the autobiographies of
      C. Cibber, D. Hume, W. Lilly, F. M. A. de Voltaire, J. F.
      Marmontel, R. Drury, G. Whitefield, J. Ferguson, M. Robinson,
      C. Charke, E. Herbert, Prince Eugène of Savoy, A. F. F. von
      Kotzebue, J. Creichton, W. Gifford, T. Ellwood, L. Holberg,
      J. H. Vaux, E. Gibbon, B. Cellini, J. Lackington, T. W. Tone,
      Friedrike Margravine of Baireuth, G. B. Dodington, C. Goldoni,
      E. F. Vidocq, M. J. Du Barry, and W. Sampson.


AYSCOUGH (~Samuel~).

  A general index to the Monthly review, from its commencement,
  to the end of the seventieth volume. By the Rev. ~S~[~amuel~]
  ~Ayscough~, ... In two volumes. ...
                                   _London, 1786. 8º (6.5×3.5)_ [2790]

  A continuation of the general index to the Monthly review;
  commencing at the seventy-first, and ending with the eighty-first,
  volume; completing the first series of that work. ... Compiled by
  the Rev. ~S~[~amuel~] ~Ayscough~, ...
                                   _London, 1796. 8º (6.5×3.6)_ [2791]


AYSCU (~Edward~).

  A historie contayning the vvarres, treaties, marriages, and other
  occurrents betweene England and Scotland, from King William the
  Conqueror, vntill the happy vnion of them both in our gratious King
  Iames. With a briefe declaration of the first inhabitants of this
  island: and what seuerall nations haue sithence setled them-selues
  therein one after an other: [_by ~Edward Ayscu~._] ***
                                   _London, 1607. 4º (5.5×3.3)_ [2156]


BADEN (~Gustav Ludvig~).

  Dansk-norsk historisk Bibliothek, indeholdende Efterretning om de
  Skrifter, som bidrage til dansk-norsk Historiekundskab. Ved Dr.
  ~Gustav Ludvig Baden~.
                                    _Odense, 1815. 8º (5.4×3.1)_ [391]


BAIREUTH (_Margravine of_). _See_ FRIEDRIKE ~Sophie Wilhelmine~.


BALFOUR (~Clara Lucas~).

  Sketches of English literature, from the fourteenth to the present
  century. By ~Clara Lucas Balfour~, ... ***
                                       _London, 1852. 8º (5×3)_ [2646]


BANKES (~Henry~).

  The civil and constitutional history of Rome from its foundation to
  the age of Augustus. By ~Henry Bankes~ esq. In two volumes. *** ...
                                   _London, 1818. 8º (6.1×3.4)_ [1384]


BARBIÉ ~du Bocage~ (~Jean Denis~).

  Recueil de cartes géographiques, plans, vues et médailles de
  l'ancienne Grèce, relatifs au voyage du jeune Anacharsis, précédé
  d'une analyse critique des cartes. [_By ~J. D. Barbié du Bocage~._]
  Seconde édition.
           _Paris, 1789. 8º (7.3×4.6) pp. xlij. maps, &c., 31._ [1216]


BAREITH (_Margravine of_). _See_ BAIREUTH.


BARTHÉLEMY (~Jean Jacques~).

  Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grèce, dans le milieu du quatrième
  siècle avant l'ère vulgaire. Seconde édition. T. 1-7. [_By ~J. J.
  Barthélemy~. With tables in V. 7, pp. cccxxij._]
                       _Paris, 1789. 8º (5.3×3.1) marg. notes._ [1215]

      _Note._--For maps, _see_ Barbié du Bocage, Jean Denis.


BASNAGE ~de Beauval~ (~Jacques~).

  The history of the Jews, from Jesus Christ to the present time: ...
  Being a supplement and continuation of the history of Josephus.
  Written in French by Mr. [~Jacques~] ~Basnage~ [~de Beauval~].
  Translated into English by Tho. Taylor, A. M.
                    _London, 1708. fo. (12.3×6.9 irr.) 2 cols._ [1429]


BAYARD (_Chevalier_). _See_ DU TERRAIL (~Pierre~).


BAZIN (_L'abbé_), _pseud._ _See_ VOLTAIRE (~F. M. A. de~).


BECKER (~Wilhelm Adolf~).

  Gallus: or, Roman scenes of the time of Augustus; with notes and
  excursuses illustrative of the manners and customs of the Romans.
  By Professor ~W. A. Becker~. Translated by the Rev. Frederick
  Metcalfe, ... [_With plates._]
                                  _London, 1849. 12º (6.2×3.5)_ [1775]


BELISARIUS.

  _See_ STANHOPE (~Philip Henry~). Life of ~Belisarius~.


BELL (~Thomas~), _Sec. R. S._

  The zoological journal. V. 1, 2. From March, 1824, ... to April,
  1826. Conducted by ~Thomas Bell~, esq. F. L. S. ... V. 3, 4. From
  January, 1827, ... to May, 1829. Edited by N. A. Vigors, ... [_With
  plates._]
                               _London, 1825-'29. 8º (6.2×3.6)_ [2940]

      _Note._--Mr. Bell was assisted in the publication of V. 1,
      2, by J. G. Children, J. De C. Sowerby, and G. B. Sowerby;
      Mr. Vigors, in the publication of V. 3, 4, by T. Bell, E. T.
      Bennett, J. E. Bicheno, W. J. Broderip, J. G. Children, Thos.
      Hardwicke, T. Horsfield, W. Kirby, J. De C. Sowerby, G. B.
      Sowerby, and W. Yarrell.


BENTINCK (_Lord_ ~George~).

  _See_ DISRAELI (~Benj.~). Biography of Lord ~Geo. Bentinck~.


BEYLE (~Henri~).

  _See_ BOMBET (~L. A. C.~), _pseud. for_ ~Henri Beyle~.


BODLEIAN ~library~. _See_ UNIVERSITY ~of Oxford~.


BOMBET (~Louis Alexandre César~), _pseud. for Henri Beyle_.

  The lives of Haydn [_by G. Carpani,_] and Mozart [_by
  Schlichtegroll_], with observations on Metastasio, and on the
  present state of music in France and Italy. Translated from the
  French of ~L. A. C. Bombet~ [_H. Beyle, by R. Brewin_]. With notes,
  by [_W. Gardiner,_] ... Second edition.
                                   _London, 1818. 8º (5.9×3.3)_ [1864]


BONAPARTE (~Napoléon~). _See_ NAPOLÉON I. ~Bonaparte~.


BOSSUET (~Jacques Bénigne~), _Bishop of Meaux_.

  Discours sur l'histoire universelle. Pour expliquer la suite de la
  religion & les changemens des empires. Première partie. Depuis le
  commencement du monde jusqu'à l'empire de Charlemagne. Par Messire
  ~Jacques Bénigne Bossuet~, ... Dixième édition. *** [_With 3 maps._]
                    _Amsterdam, 1710. 12º (4.9×2) marg. notes._ [1377]

  Continuation de l'histoire universelle de Messire ~Jacques Bénigne
  Bossuet~, ... [_By Jean de La Barre._] Tome second. Depuis l'an
  800. de nôtre Seigneur jusqu'à l'an 1687. inclusivement. [_With 3
  maps._]
                               _Amsterdam, 1714. 12º (4.9×2.5)_ [1378]

  Discours sur l'histoire universelle, à Monseigneur le dauphin: pour
  expliquer la suite de la religion, et les changemens des empires.
  Première partie. Depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'à l'empire
  de Charlemagne. Par Messire ~Jacques Bénigne Bossuet~, ... Nouvelle
  édition.
                 _Paris, 1752. 12º (4.5 irr.×2.1) marg. notes._ [1435]

  Suite de l'histoire universelle, de Monsieur l'évêque de Meaux [~J.
  B. Bossuet~]. Depuis l'an 800. de notre Seigneur jusqu'à l'an 1700.
  inclusivement. Seconde partie. Nouvelle édition. [_By J. de La
  Barre._]
                                 _Paris, 1752. 12º (4.8×2.4)_ [1436]


BOWDICH (_Mrs._ ~T. Ed.~). _See_ LEE (_Mrs._ ~R.~).


BROTHERS ~in unity~. _See_ YALE ~college~.


BULWER (_Sir_ ~Edward Lytton~). _See_ LYTTON (_Sir_ ~Ed. G. E. L.~
  BULWER).


C. (~M. G. D.~), _Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras_.

  Mémoires de Monsieur de Bordeaux, intendant des finances. Par ~M.
  G. D. C.~ [_Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras._] T. 1-4.
                               _Amsterdam, 1758. 12º (4.7×2.3)_ [2731]


CÆSAR (~Caius Julius~).

  _See_ NAPOLÉON I. Précis des guerres de ~César~.


CAMPION (~Edmund~).

  Ancient Irish histories.--A historie of Ireland, written in the
  yeare 1571. By ~Edmund Campion~, ... [_Ed. by James Ware._]
                                     _Dublin, 1809. 8º (6.7×4)_ [2426]

      _Note._--Cont'd in V. 1 of "Ancient Irish histories." A reprint
      of the Dublin edition of 1633.


CAPITOLINUS (~Julius~).

  _See_ HISTORIÆ Augustæ scriptores. ~Julius Capitolinus~.


CASTRO (~João de~).

  _See_ FREIRE ~de Andrada~ (~Jacinto~). Vida de ~João de Castro~.


CATTEAU-CALLEVILLE (~Jean Pierre Guillaume~).

  Histoire de Christine, reine de Suède, avec un précis
  historique de la Suède depuis les anciens tems jusqu'à la
  mort de Gustave-Adolphe-le-Grand, ... par [~J. P. G.~]
  ~Catteau-Calleville~, ... T. 1, 2. ***
                                    _Paris, 1815. 8º (5.7×3.1)_ [1876]


CAVENDER (~C. H.~).

  _See_ DECANVER (~H. C.~), _anag. for_ ~C. H. Cavender~.


CIBBER (~Colley~).

  An apology for the life of Mr. ~Colley Cibber~, comedian. Written
  by himself. ***
                                  _London, 1829. 12º (4.7×2.6)_ [1256]

      _Note._--V. 1 of "Autobiography."


CLÉMENT (~David~).

  Bibliothèque curieuse historique et critique, ou catalogue raisonné
  de livres dificiles à trouver, par ~David Clément~. T. 1-9. ***
  _T. 1-3, Göttingen, T. 4, 5, Hannover, T. 6-9, Leipsic, 1750-'60. 4º
                                                       (6.5×5)_ [2638]

      _Note._--This catalogue is alphabetical, but unfinished,
      extending only to _Hessus_.


COBBETT (~William~).

  Elements of the Roman history, in English and French, from the
  foundation of Rome to the battle of Actium; selected from the best
  authors, ancient and modern, with a series of questions ... The
  English by ~William Cobbett~; the French by J. H. Sievrac.
                                  _London, 1828. 12º (5.5×3.1)_ [1029]

      _Note._--With a title-page in French.


COCHRANE (~John George~).

  _See_ LONDON ~library~. Catalogue; compiled by ~J. G. Cochrane~.


CONON ~Grammaticus~.

  _See_ GALE (~Thomas~). Historiæ poeticæ scriptores. ~Conon~
  Grammaticus.


COURTILZ ~de Sandras~ (~Gatien de~).

  _See_ C. (~M. G. D.~), ~Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras~.

  _See_ DU BUISSON (----), _pseud. for_ ~Gatien de Courtilz de
  Sandras~.


CUETO (~Leopoldo Augusto de~).

  _See_ QUEYPO ~de Llano~ (~J. M.~). Historia de España: con su vida
  por ~L. A. de Cueto~.


CURTIUS ~Rufus~ (~Quintus~).

  [~Q. Curtii Rufi~, de rebus gestis Alexandri regis Macedonum
  libri ~viii~. Pref'd are two books of supplement. App'd are the
  supplements of J. Freinsheim, pp. 93. Edited by D. Elzevir.]
                                                 _8º (6.9×3.4)_ [1379]


CUVIER (~Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert~), _Baron_.

  _See_ LEE (_Mrs._ ~R.~). Memoirs of ~G. L. C. F. D. Cuvier~.


DECANVER (~H. C.~), _anagram for C. H. Cavender_.

  Catalogue of works in refutation of Methodism, from its origin
  in 1729, to the present time. Of those by Methodist authors on
  lay-representation, Methodist episcopacy, etc., etc., and of the
  political pamphlets relating to Wesley's "Calm address to our
  American colonies." Compiled by ~H. C. Decanver~ [_C. H. Cavender_].
                      _Philadelphia, 1846. 8º (6.3×3.8) pp. 54._ [310]


DIBDIN (~Thomas Frognall~).

  The bibliomania; or, book-madness; containing some account of the
  history, symptoms, and cure of this fatal disease. In an epistle
  addressed to Richard Heber, esq. By the Rev. ~Thomas Frognall
  Dibdin~, F. S. A. ***
                      _London, 1809. 8º (6.4 irr.×3.5) pp. 87._ [2736]

  The bibliomania; or book-madness; containing some account of the
  history, symptoms, and cure of this fatal disease. In an epistle
  addressed to Richard Heber, esq. By the Rev. ~Thomas Frognall
  Dibdin~, F. S. A. ***
                         _London, [1842.] 8º (6.4×3.6) pp. 64._ [2631]

      _Note._--A reprint of "The first edition," 1809.

  Bibliomania; or book madness: a bibliographical romance, in six
  parts. [_1 paging. 2d edition._] Illustrated with cuts. By the Rev.
  ~Thomas Frognall Dibdin~. ***
                              _London, 1811. 8º (6.3 irr.×3.5)_ [2629]

  Bibliomania; or book-madness; a bibliographical romance.
  Illustrated with cuts. By ~Thomas Frognall Dibdin~, D. D. New and
  improved edition, to which are now added preliminary observations,
  and a supplement including a key to the assumed characters in the
  drama. [_With indexes, pp. xxxiv._]
                                   _London, 1842. 8º (6.4×3.7)_ [2630]


DIOGENES ~Laërtius~.

  ~Diogenis Laertii~ de vitis, dogmatibus et apophthegmatibus
  clarorum philosophorum libri ~x~. Græce et Latine [_in par.
  cols._]. Cum subjunctis integris annotationibus Is. Casauboni,
  Th. Aldobrandini & Mer. Casauboni. Latinam Ambrosii versionem
  complevit & emendavit Marcus Meibomius. Seorsum excusas Æg.
  Menagii in Diogenem observationes auctiores habet volumen ~ii~.
  ... Additæ denique sunt priorum editionum præfationes, & indices
  locupletissimi. *** [_V. 1, 2. With portraits._]
                  _Amstelædami, ~ciↄ iↄ c viiic~. 4º (8.1×5.4)_ [1414]


DISRAELI (~Benjamin~).

  Lord George Bentinck: a political biography. By ~B~[~enjamin~]
  ~Disraeli~, ... *** Second edition.
                                   _London, 1852. 8º (5.8×3.3)_ [2757]


DISRAELI (~Isaac~), _or D'Israeli_.

  Amenities of literature; consisting of sketches and characters
  of English literature, illustrating the literary, political, and
  religious vicissitudes of the English people. By ~I~[~saac~]
  ~D'Israeli~, ... In three volumes. ... Second edition.
                                   _London, 1842. 8º (6.3×3.6)_ [2622]

  Curiosities of literature. By ~Isaac Disraeli~. With a view of the
  life and writings of the author. By his son. In three volumes. ...
  Fourteenth edition. [_With 2 portraits, a fac-simile, & a view._]
                                   _London, 1849. 8º (6.7×3.8)_ [2734]


DUBOIS (~Guillaume~), _Archbishop of Cambray_.

  Vie privée du cardinal [~Guillaume~] ~Dubois~, ... [_By Antoine
  Mongez._]
                                  _Londres, 1789. 8º (5.7×3.1)_ [1721]


DU BUISSON (----), _pseud. for Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras_.

  The history of the life and actions of ... the Viscount de Turenne.
  Written in French by Monsieur ~Du Buisson~ [_G. de Courtilz de
  Sandras_], ... And translated into English by Ferrand Spence. ...
                                   _London, 1686. 8º (5.7×3.3)_ [1719]


DUMOURIEZ (~Charles François~ DUPERIER).

  The life of General [~C. F.~] ~Dumouriez~. In three volumes. ... ***
                                     _London, 1796. 8º (6×3.5)_ [1702]


DU TERRAIL (~Pierre~), _Chevalier Bayard_.

  _See_ SIMMS (~W. G.~). Life of ~Pierre Du Terrail~, Chevalier
  Bayard.


EDINBURGH review (The), or critical journal: ... quarterly. *** ...
                                         _London, 8º (6.7×3.8)_ [2781]

      _Note._--This publication was commenced in October, 1802. To
      October, 1853, inclusive, there were published 98 volumes.

  General index to the ~Edinburgh~ review, from its commencement in
  October 1802, to the end of the twentieth volume, published in
  November 1812.
                                _Edinburgh, 1813. 8º (6.6×3.8)_ [2782]

  General index to the ~Edinburgh~ review, from the twenty-first to
  the fiftieth volumes inclusive. (April 1813-January 1830.)
                          _Edinburgh, 1832. 8º (6.8×4) 2 cols._ [2783]


EMERSON (~George Barrell~).

  _See_ MASSACHUSETTS. Report on the trees and shrubs of M.; by ~G.
  B. Emerson~.


ESS (~Willem Lodewyk van~).

  The life of Napoleon Buonaparte; containing ... a philosophical
  review of his manners and policy as a soldier, a statesman, and a
  sovereign: including memoirs and original anecdotes of the imperial
  family, and the most celebrated characters that have appeared
  in France during the revolution. By ~Willem Lodewyk van Ess~.
  Illustrated with portraits. V. 1-4.
                        _Philadelphia, 1809, '10. 8º (6.6×3.7)_ [1854]


EYTON (~Thomas C.~).

  A history of the rarer British birds. By ~T. C. Eyton~, esq.
  Illustrated with woodcuts.
                                   _London, 1836. 8º (6.3×3.6)_ [2893]

  A catalogue of British birds. By ~T. C. Eyton~, esq.
                           _London, 1836. 8º (6.3×3.5) pp. 67._ [2894]


FRIEDRIKE ~Sophie Wilhelmine~, _Margravine of Baireuth_.

  Memoirs of ~Frederica Sophia Wilhelmina~, ... Margravine of
  Bareith, sister of Frederic the Great. Written by herself.
  Translated from the original French. In two volumes. ...
                                  _London, 1828. 12º (4.6×2.7)_ [1278]

      _Note._--V. 20, 21 of "Autobiography."


FREIRE ~de Andrada~ (~Jacinto~).

  Vida de D. João de Castro, ... escrita por ~Jacinto Freire de
  Andrada~. Nova edição emendada, e acrescentada com a vida do autor.
                        _Paris, 1818. 12º (5×2.6) marg. notes._ [1815]


FRONTINUS (~Sextus Julius~).

  ~Sexti Julii Frontini~ viri consularis strategematicôn sive de
  solertibus ducum factis & dictis libri quatuor. Samuel Tennulius
  variis mss. contulit, emendavit, notis illustravit, & copiosissimo
  indice rerum ac verborum ornavit. ***
            _Lugduni-Batav. & Amstelædami, 1675. 12º (4.2×2.1)_ [1053]

  *** Astvtie militari di ~Sesto Iulio Frontino~ huomo consolare, di
  tvtti li famosi et eccellenti capitani romani, greci, barbari, et
  hesterni. [_Ending "Stampato in Vinegia ... mdxxxvi."_]
                                       _1537. 8º (4.9×2.9) ***_ [1054]


GALE (~Thomas~).

  Historiæ poeticæ scriptores antiqui. Apollodorus Atheniensis. Conon
  Grammaticus. Ptolemæus Hephæst. f. Parthenius Nicaensis. Antoninus
  Liberalis. Græcè & Latiné. Accessêre breves notæ & indices
  necessarij. [_Ed. by ~Thomas Gale~._]
                      _Parisiis, 1675. 8º (5.5×3.3) 3 pagings._ [1002]


GALLICANUS (~Vulcatius~).

  _See_ HISTORIÆ Augustæ scriptores. ~Vulcatius Gallicanus~.


GANDELL (~Henry Wood~).

  _See_ VOLTAIRE (~F. M. A. de~). Philos. of hist.; transl. by ~H. W.
  Gandell~.


GODDARD (~Austin Parke~).

  _See_ GUICCIARDINI (~Fr.~). History of Italy; transl. by ~A. P.
  Goddard~.


GODWIN (_Mrs._ ~Mary W.~). _See_ WOLLSTONECRAFT (~Mary~).


GRAHAM (~Catharine~ SAWBRIDGE ~Macaulay~).

  The history of England from the accession of James I. ... to the
  revolution. V. 1-5 ... By Catharine Macaulay. V. 6-8. By ~Catharine
  Macaulay Graham~. [_With an app. to V. 2, pp. xxiv, & to V. 5, pp.
  lv._]
                  _London, 1763-'83. 4º (7.4×4.7) marg. notes._ [2118]

  The history of England, from the revolution to the present time,
  in a series of letters to the Reverend Doctor Wilson, ... By
  ~Catharine Macaulay~ [~Graham~]. V. 1.
                                       _Bath, 1778. 4º (7×4.5)_ [2119]


GREAT BRITAIN.

  State papers published under the authority of his majesty's
  commission. V. 1-11. King Henry the Eighth. ... [_With 3 genealog.
  tables & 3 maps._]
                _[London,] 1831-'52. 4º (8.1×5.5) marg. notes._ [2296]


GRENVILLE (~Thomas~).

  Bibliotheca Grenvilliana; or bibliographical notices of rare and
  curious books, forming part of the library of the Right Hon.
  ~Thomas Grenville~: by John Thomas Payne and Henry Foss. V. 1, 2.
  [_1 paging. Alphabetical; with an index, pp. xxxiii, & addenda._]
                           _London, 1842. 8º (6.9×3.9) 2 cols._ [2737]

  Bibliotheca Grenvilliana; part the second, completing the catalogue
  of the library bequeathed to the British museum by the late Right
  Hon. ~Thomas Grenville~. By John Thomas Payne and Henry Foss.
  [_Alphabetical; with an index, pp. xlii, addenda, & books printed
  for clubs and societies._]
                           _London, 1848. 8º (6.9×3.9) 2 cols._ [2738]


GUALDI (_L'abbé_), _pseud. for Gregorio Leti_.

  La vie de Madame Olimpe Maldachini qui a gouuerné l'église, durant
  le pontificat d'Innocent ~x.~ c'est à dire, depuis l'an 1644.
  iusques à l'an 1655. Escrite par l'abbé ~Gvaldi~. [_Gregorio Leti._]
                               _Cosmopoli, 1666. 12º (4.2×2.3)_ [2700]


GUICCIARDINI (~Francesco~).

  The history of Italy, translated from the Italian of ~Francesco
  Guicciardini~, by Austin Parke Goddard, esq; The third edition. ...
  V. 1-10. [_Pref'd to V. 1 is a life of the author, pp. xxxii. App'd
  to V. 10 is an index, pp. 77._]
                        _London, 1763. 8º (5.6×3) marg. notes._ [1600]


HANMER (~Meredith~).

  Ancient Irish histories.--The chronicle of Ireland. Collected by
  ~Meredith Hanmer~, doctor of diuinity, in the yeare 1571.
                                     _Dublin, 1809. 8º (6.7×4)_ [2427]

      _Note._--Cont'd in V. 2 of "Ancient Irish histories." A reprint
      of the Dublin edition of 1633.


HARWOOD (~Edward~).

  Biographia classica: the lives and characters of all the classic
  authors, the Grecian and Roman poets, historians, orators, and
  biographers. ... [_By ~Edward Harwood~._] The second edition,
  corrected and improv'd. To which is now added, at the end of every
  life, a list of the best and most curious editions of each classic
  author. In two volumes.
                                  _London, 1750. 12º (5.1×2.8)_ [1019]

  Biographia classica: the lives and characters of the Greek and
  Roman classics. A new edition, corrected and enlarged, with some
  additional lives; and a list of the best editions of each author.
  By ~Edward Harwood~, D. D. In two volumes. ...
                                    _London, 1778. 12º (5×2.8)_ [1020]


HERCULANO (~A.~).

  Historia de Portugal por ~A. Herculano~ T. 1-3
                                 _Lisboa, 1846-'49. 8º (6×3.6)_ [1621]


HEYNE (~Christian Gottlob~).

  Ad Apollodori Atheniensis bibliothecam notae avctore ~Chr. G.
  Heyne~ cvm commentatione de Apollodoro argvmento et consilio operis
  et cvm Apollodori fragmentis. P. 1-3. [_1 paging._]
                               _Goettingae, 1783. 8º (4.1×2.4)_ [1006]


HISTORIÆ Augustæ scriptores ~vi~. Ælius Spartianus. Julius
  Capitolinus. Ælius Lampridius. Vulc. Gallicanus. Trebell. Pollio.
  Flavius Vopiscus. Cum integris notis Isaaci Casauboni, Cl. Salmasii
  & Jani Gruteri. Cum indicibus locupletissimis rerum ac verborum. T.
  1, 2. ***
                      _Lugduni Batav[orum], 1671. 8º (5.9×3.4)_ [1201]


HUME (~David~).

  The history of England by ~David Hume~, in eight volumes. ... ***
  [_With portraits._]
                      _Oxford, 1826. 8º (6.6×3.5) marg. notes._ [2219]

      _Note._--Pref'd to V. 1 are an autobiography of Hume, & a
      letter from Adam Smith to Wm. Strahan, pp. ~xxvi~.

  The life of ~David Hume~. Written by himself.
                          _London, 1826. 12º (4.7×2.6) pp. 16._ [1257]

      _Note._--V. 2 of "Autobiography."


IRVING (~David~).

  The lives of the Scotish poets, with preliminary dissertations on
  the literary history of Scotland, and the early Scotish drama. By
  ~David Irvine~, L.L.D. [~Irving~.] V. 1, 2. [_With 2 portraits._]
                                _Edinburgh, 1810. 8º (5.8×3.3)_ [2455]

      _Note._--A second copy, in the Library of Congress, purports
      to be the "Second edition, improved," printed in "London." The
      only difference is in the title-page.


IRVING (~Washington~).

  Chronicle of the conquest of Granada. [_By ~Washington Irving~._]
  From the mss. of Fray Antonio Agapida.
                                _New-York, 1850. 12º (5.7×3.5)_ [1816]

      _Note._--V. 14 of "The works of Washington Irving."


JERDAN (~William~).

  The autobiography of ~William Jerdan~, ... With his literary,
  political, and social reminiscences and correspondence during the
  last fifty years. V. 1, 2. [_With 2 portraits._]
                                   _London, 1852. 8º (5.3×3.1)_ [2479]


JERVIS (~Henry Jervis-White~).

  History of the island of Corfú, and of the republic of the Ionian
  islands. By ~Henry Jervis-White Jervis~, ...
                                    _London, 1852. 12º (5.2×3)_ [1489]


JULIANUS (~Flavius Claudius~).

  _See_ LA BLETTERIE (~Jean Ph. René de~). Life of the Emperor
  ~Julian~.


KELLY (~Michael~).

  Reminiscences of ~Michael Kelly~, of the King's theatre, and
  theatre royal Drury Lane, including a period of nearly half a
  century; with original anecdotes of many distinguished persons,
  political, literary, and musical. [_With an app. cont'g an acc't of
  the King's theatre._]
                                   _New-York, 1826. 8º (6×3.6)_ [2556]


KRAFT (~Jens Edvard~).

  _See_ NYERUP (~Ras.~). Litteraturlexicon for Danmark, Norge, og
  Island; ved R. N. og ~J. E. Kraft~.


LA BARRE (~Jean de~).

  _See_ BOSSUET (~J. B.~). Suite de l'hist. univ.; par ~Jean de La
  Barre~.


LA BLETTERIE (~Jean Philippe René de~).

  The life of the emperor Julian. Translated from the French [_of
  ~J. P. R. de La Bletterie~._] And improved with coins, notes and a
  genealogical table. ***
                                  _London, 1746. 12º (5.1×2.6)_ [1114]


LAIRESSE (~Gerard de~).

  Het groot schilderboek, door ~Gerard de Lairesse~, D. 1, 2. [_With
  plates._]
                    _Amsterdam, 1707. 4º (6.2×4.1) marg. notes._ [644]


LAMARTINE (~Alphonse de~ PRAT ~de~).

  The history of the restoration of monarchy in France. By ~Alphonse
  de Lamartine~. ... V. 1-3. Second edition.
                              _London, 1851, '52. 8º (5.8×3.3)_ [1748]

      _Note._--The edition of V. 2, 3 is not designated.


LAMPRIDIUS (~Ælius~).

  _See_ HISTORIÆ Augustæ scriptores. ~Ælius Lampridius~.


LA ROCHEFOUCAULD (~François vi. de~), _Duke_.

  Mémoires de la minorité de Louis ~xiv~, corrigés & augmentés
  de plusieurs choses fort considérables, qui manquent dans les
  autres éditions. Avec une préface nouvelle, qui sert d'indice &
  de sommaire. Par M. le duc [~François vi.~] ~D~[~e~] ~L~[~a~]
  ~R~[~ochefoucauld~.] T. 1, 2.
                                 _Trévoux, 1754. 12º (3.9×2.1)_ [2711]


LA TOUR ~d'Auvergne~ (~Henri de~), _Viscount de Turenne_.

  _See_ DU BUISSON (----). Life of ~Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne~,
  Viscount de Turenne.


LA TROUSSIÈRE (----).

  Mémoires de la vie de François Dusson, ... Où l'on voit tout
  ce qui s'est passé de plus considérable, pendant les derniers
  troubles de France, au sujet de la religion. [_P. 1, 2. By ---- ~La
  Troussière~._]
                               _Amsterdam, 1677. 12º (3.9×2.2)_ [2707]


LEE (_Mrs._ ~R.~), _formerly Mrs. T. E. Bowdich_.

  Memoirs of Baron Cuvier. By Mrs. ~R. Lee~ (formerly Mrs. T. Ed.
  Bowdich). [_With a fac-simile letter._]
                                   _London, 1833. 8º (5.8×3.3)_ [1710]


LETI (~Gregorio~).

  _See_ GUALDI, (_L'abbé_), _pseud. for_ ~Gregorio Leti~.


LILLY (~William~).

  ~William Lilly's~ history of his life and times, from the year 1602
  to 1681. Written by himself, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, to
  his worthy friend, Elias Ashmole, esq. Published from the original
  ms. London, 1715.
                                  _London, 1829. 12º (4.6×2.6)_ [1258]

      _Note._--V. 2 of "Autobiography."


LINNEAN ~society of London~.

  The transactions of the ~Linnean society of London~. ... *** [_With
  plates._]
                                 _London. 4º (7×5.2 & 7.5×5.5)_ [2825]

      _Note._--This publication was commenced in 1791. To 1851, there
      were published 20 volumes. Pref'd to V. 7 are the charter,
      bye-laws, &c. of the society, pp. xl. App'd to V. 17 are lists
      of the members of the society, for 1835 & 1837, pp. 15, each;
      to V. 18, lists for 1838, 1839, & 1841, pp. 15, each. V. 5-20
      contain lists of the additions to the library; & V. 10-20,
      lists of objects presented to the museum.


LINONIAN ~society~. _See_ YALE ~college~.


LONDON ~library~.

  Catalogue of the ~London library~, 12, St. James's square, by
  John George Cochrane, ... The second edition, greatly enlarged.
  [_Alphabetical; with addenda._]
                                     _London, 1847. 8º (6.9×4)_ [2742]


LOUIS XIV., _of France_.

  _See_ LA ROCHEFOUCAULD (~Fr. vi. de~). Mémoires de la minorité de
  ~Louis xiv.~


LUDEN (~Heinrich~).

  Geschichte des teutschen Volkes. Von ~Heinrich Luden~. B. 1-12. ***
                                _Gotha, 1825-'37. 8º (6.1×3.5)_ [1858]


LYNES (~John~).

  _See_ PARR (~Sam.~). Catalogue of Parr's library; compiled by ~John
  Lynes~.


LYTTON (_Sir_ ~Edward George Earle Lytton~ BULWER).

  Athens its rise and fall with views of the literature, philosophy,
  and social life of the Athenian people. By ~Edward~ [~G. E.~]
  ~Lytton Bulwer~ [~Lytton~], ... V. 1, 2.
                                   _London, 1837. 8º (5.8×3.3)_ [1147]


M * * * (_Countess de_), _Henriette Julie de Murat_.

  Mémoires de Madame la comtesse de M * * *, [_H. J. de Murat,_]
  avant sa retraite. Servant de réponse aux Mémoires de M. le comte
  de * * *, rédigés par Monsieur de Saint-Évremond. Nouvelle édition.
                             _[Amsterdam?] 1753. 12º (4.2×2.2)_ [2733]


MACAULAY (~Catharine~). _See_ GRAHAM (~C. S. M.~).


MADDEN (~R. R.~).

  The united Irishmen, their lives and times. By ~R. R. Madden~, ...
  *** In two volumes. ...
                                  _London, 1842. 12º (5.9×3.2)_ [2440]

  The united Irishmen, their lives and times. By ~R. R. Madden~, M. D.
  With numerous original portraits. *** Second series. In two
  volumes. ... [_With a hist. introd., pp. c, & a map._]
                                  _London, 1843. 12º (5.9×3.2)_ [2441]

  The united Irishmen; their lives and times. By ~R. R. Madden~,
  ... With numerous original portraits. *** Third series. In three
  volumes. ...
                                  _Dublin, 1846. 12º (5.7×3.2)_ [2442]


MAHON (_Lord_). _See_ STANHOPE (~Philip Henry~).


MAIDALCHINI (~Olimpia~). _See_ PAMFILI (~O. M.~)


MALDACHINI (~Olimpia~). _See_ MAIDALCHINI.


MARCHAND (~Louis Joseph Marie~).

  _See_ NAPOLÉON I. Précis des guerres de César, écrit avec une
  préface par ~L. J. M. Marchand~.


MARLEBOROUGH (~Henry~).

  Ancient Irish histories.--The chronicle of Ireland. By ~Henry
  Marlebvrrovgh~; continued from the collection of Doctor Meredith
  Hanmer, in the yeare 1571.
                             _Dublin, 1809. 8º (6.7×4) pp. 32._ [2428]

      _Note._--Cont'd in V. 2 of "Ancient Irish histories." A reprint
      of the Dublin edition of 1633.


MASSACHUSETTS.

  A report on the trees and shrubs growing naturally in the forests
  of ~Massachusetts~. [_By George B. Emerson._] Published agreeably
  to an order of the legislature, by the commissioners on the
  zoological and botanical survey of the state. [_With 17 plates._]
                                   _Boston, 1846. 8º (6.6×3.9)_ [2771]


MÉMOIRES sur le consulat. 1799 à 1804. Par un ancien conseiller
  d'état.
                                    _Paris, 1827. 8º (5.6×3.2)_ [1967]


MEN (The) of the time in 1852 or sketches of living notables ...
                                  _London, 1852. 16º (4.5×2.8)_ [1828]


MEN (The) of the time or sketches of living notables ...
                                _New York, 1852. 12º (5.6×3.3)_ [1948]


METCALFE (~Frederick~).

  _See_ BECKER (~W. A.~). Gallus; transl. by ~Fred. Metcalfe~.


MÉTHODE pour apprendre facilement l'histoire romaine, avec une
  chronologie du règne des empereurs, & un abrégé des coûtumes des
  Romains. Nouvelle édition, corrigée & augmentée.
                                 _Londres, 1754. 24º (4.9×2.7)_ [1069]

  An easy ~method~ of learning the Roman history; with a chronology
  of the Roman emperors, and an abridged account of the Roman usages
  and customs. ... Translated from the French, with additions, by
  George Watterston, ...
                              _Washington, 1820. 12º (5.4×3.1)_ [1070]


MICALI (~Giusêppe~).

  L'Italia avanti il dominio dei Romani [_By ~Giusêppe Micali~._] T.
  1-4.
                                  _Firenze, 1810. 8º (5.6×3.2)_ [1596]

  Antichi monumenti per servire all'opera intitolata L'Italia avanti
  il dominio dei Romani [_By ~Giusêppe Micali~._]
     _Firenze, 1810. fo. (13.2×9.1) pp. xi. 1 map & 60 plates._ [1771]


MIRABEAU (_Count de_). _See_ RIQUETI (~H. G.~).


MOLBECH (~Christian~).

  Forelæsninger over den nyere danske Poesie, særdeles efter Digterne
  Evalds, Baggesens og Oehlenschlägers Værker, af ~Christian
  Molbech~, ... Deel 1-2.
                                _Kiöbenhavn, 1832. 8º (5.4×3.1)_ [292]

  Om offentlige Bibliotheker, Bibliothekarer, og det, man har kaldet
  Bibliotheksvidenskab af ~Christian Molbech~, ... (Andet, med et
  Tillæg og Register forögede Aftryk.)
                                  _Kiöbenhavn, 1829. 8º (6×3.5)_ [291]

  Ueber Bibliothekswissenschaft oder Einrichtung und Verwaltung
  öffentlicher Bibliotheken von ~Christian Molbech~, ... Nach der
  zweiten Ausgabe des dänischen Originals übersetzt von H. Ratjen,
  ... Von dem Verfasser mit Zusätzen, mit einem Verzeichnisse der
  Pergament-drucke der grossen K. Kopenh. Bibliothek und einem
  Beitrage zur Geschichte dieser Bibliothek vermehrt; von dem
  Uebersetzer mit Anmerk. versehen. Mit einer Steindrucktafel.
                                   _Leipzig, 1833. 8º (6.2×3.5)_ [317]


MONGEZ (~Antoine~).

  _See_ DUBOIS (~Guill.~). Vie privée; par ~Ant. Mongez~.


MONTHLY review (The). ... *** V. 1-81. V. 1-108. [_New series._] V.
  1-15. New and improved series. V. 1-[33.] New and improved series.
                               _London, [1809]-'42. 8º (6.6×4)_ [2789]

      _Note._--From January, 1831, to December, 1841, inclusive,
      there was published, annually, a new series of 3 volumes, each.
      For an index to the first series, _see_ Ayscough, Samuel.

  A general index to the ~Monthly~ review, from the commencement of
  the new series, in January, 1790, to the end of the eighty-first
  volume, completed in December, 1816. In two volumes. ...
                                   _London, 1818. 8º (6.8×3.6)_ [2780]


MORGUES (~Matthieu de~), _Sieur de Saint Germain_.

  Diverses pièces povr la défence de la royne mère dv roy
  très-chrestien Lovys ~xiii.~ faites et reveves par Messire
  ~Matthiev de Morgves~ sieur de S. Germain, ...
                   _[Antwerp?] 1643. 8º (5.5×2.8) marg. notes._ [2728]

  Pièces cvrievses povr la deffence de la royne mère dv roy Lovys
  ~xiii.~ par divers avthevrs en suitte de celles du sieur de S.
  Germain [~Matthieu de Morgues~]. ... T. 2.
  _[Paris, 1644?] Iouxte la copie imprimée à Anuers. 8º (5.4 irr.×2.9)
                                                    6 pagings._ [2729]


MOST excellent and perfecte homish apothecarye or homely physick
  booke (A), for all the grefes and diseases of the bodye. Translated
  out the Almaine speche into English by Jhon Hollybush. ***
            _Collen, 1561. fo. (8.6×5.2) marg. notes. fol. 41._ [2806]


MURAT (~Henriette Julie de~ CASTELNAU ~de~), _Countess_.

  _See_ M * * * (_Countess de_), ~H. J. de Murat~.


NAPOLÉON I. ~Bonaparte~, _of France_.

  Précis des guerres de César, par ~Napoléon~, écrit [_with preface_]
  par M. Marchand, à l'île Sainte-Hélène, sous la dictée de
  l'empereur; suivi de plusieurs fragmens inédits.
                           _Paris, 1836. 8º (5.6×3.3) 1 chart._ [1288]

  _See_ ESS (~W. L. van~). Life of ~Napoleon~.

  _See_ NORVINS (~J. M. de M. de~). Histoire de ~Napoléon~.


NECKER (~Jacques~).

  De la révolution françoise, par M. [~Jacques~] ~Necker~. T. 1-4.
                                  _[Paris?] 1796. 8º (5.5×3.1)_ [2070]


NORTH AMERICAN review (The). ... *** [_Quarterly._]
                                        _Boston. 12º (6.5×3.5)_ [2778]

      _Note._--This publication was commenced in May, 1815. To April,
      1853, inclusive, there were published 76 volumes. The titles
      of V. 1-12 read "The North American review and miscellaneous
      journal." V. 1-58 are in 8vo. V. 59-76 are in 12mo.

  General index to the ~North American~ review, from its commencement
  in 1815 to the end of the twenty-fifth volume, published in
  October, 1827.
                                   _Boston, 1829. 8º (6.1×3.6)_ [2779]


NORVINS (~Jacques Marquet de Montbreton de~).

  Histoire de Napoléon, par M. [~J. M. de M.~] ~de Norvins~. Ornée de
  portraits, vignettes, cartes et plans. T. 1-4.
                               _Paris, 1827, '28. 8º (5.5×3.2)_ [1707]

  Histoire de Napoléon par M. [~J. M. de M.~] ~de Norvins~ 21^e
  édition illustrée par Raffet.
                             _Paris, 1852. 8º (10×7.2) 2 cols._ [2099]


NYERUP (~Rasmus~).

  Almindeligt Litteraturlexicon for Danmark, Norge, og Island; eller
  Fortegnelse over danske, norske, og islandske, saavel afdöde
  som nu levende Forfattere, med Anförelse af deres vigtigste
  Levnets-Omstoendigheder og Liste over deres Skrifter. Ved ~R.
  Nyerup~ og J. E. Kraft.
                             _Kjöbenhavn, 1820. (7.5×6) 2 cols._ [216]


ORIENTAL historical manuscripts, in the Tamil language: translated;
  with annotations. By William Taylor, missionary. In two volumes,
  ... [_With appendixes A-G., pp. 52._]
                                   _Madras, 1835. 4º (7.5×5.6)_ [1410]


OROSIUS (~Paulus~).

  ~Pauli Orosii~ historiographi clarissimi opus prestantissimum.
  *** ... [_Ending_] Pauli Orosii viri præclarissimi historiarum
  opus absolutum est: q_uod_ diligentissime emendatu_m_ impressum
  Parhisiis in Bellouisu pro Ioanne Petit commora_n_te in vico
  diui Iacobi sub leone argenteo. Anno ab incarnatione Domini.
  ~m.cccccvi.~ die. ~xxi.~ mensis Ianuarii.
                         _4º (6×3.8) marg. notes. fol. cxxiii._ [1202]


PAMFILI (~Olimpia~ MAIDALCHINI).

  _See_ GUALDI (_L'abbé_). La vie d'~Olimpe Pamfili~.


PARR, (~Samuel~), _LL. D._

  Bibliotheca Parriana.--A catalogue of the library of ... ~Samuel
  Parr~, ... [_Compiled by John Lynes; with a portrait of Parr.
  Classed, with an alphabetical index, pp. viii._]
                              _London, 1827. 8º (6.4 irr.×3.7)_ [2659]


PARTHENIUS, _of Nicæa_.

  _See_ GALE (~Thomas~). Historiæ poeticæ scriptores. ~Parthenius~
  Nicaensis.


PATERCULUS (~Caius~, _or_ ~M.~ _or_ ~P. Velleius~).

  ~C. Velleivs Patercvlvs~ cvm animadversionibvs Ivsti LipsI, qvas
  postremvm avxit et emendavit. *** [_With index._]
         _Antverpiæ, 1667. fo. (11.4×6.7) marg. notes. pp. 84._ [1427]


PLINIUS ~Secundus~ (~Caius~).

  [_Beginning, folio 4, verso,_] ~Caii Plynii Secvndi~ natvralis
  historiae liber .1. [_Ending,_] Caii Plynii Secvndi natvralis
  historiae libri tricesimiseptimi et vltimi finis impressi Tervisii
  dvctv et impensis Michaelis Manzoli Parmensis. ~m.cccc.lxxix.~
                                    _fo. (8.3×5.2) 358 leaves._ [2851]


POLLIO (~Trebellius~).

  _See_ HISTORIÆ Augustæ scriptores. ~Trebell. Pollio~.


POTTER (~John~).

  Archæologia Græca: or, the antiquities of Greece. The seventh
  edition. By ~John Potter~, ... V. 1, 2. ... ***
                              _London, 1751. 8º (6.4×3.5 irr.)_ [1162]


PTOLEMÆUS ~Chennus~, _of Alexandria_.

  _See_ GALE (~Thomas~). Historiæ poeticæ scriptores. ~Ptolemæus~.


QUEYPO ~de Llano~ (~José Maria~), _Count of Toreno_.

  Historia del levantamiento, guerra y revolucion de España, por [~J.
  M. Queypo de Llano~] el conde de Toreno. Nueva edicion aumentada
  con su vida [_by L. A. de Cueto, pp. l,_] y retrato. T. 1-3.
                                    _Paris, 1851. 8º (6.8×3.7)_ [2003]


RAFFLES (_Sir_ ~Thomas Stamford~).

  The history of Java. By ~Thomas Stamford Raffles~, ... In two
  volumes. With a map and plates. ... [_With app. A-M, pp. cclx._]
                      _London, 1817. 4º (7.6×5.3) marg. notes._ [1584]


RIQUETI (~Honoré Gabriel~), _Count de Mirabeau_.

  Histoire secrète de la cour de Berlin, ou correspondance d'un
  voyageur françois, depuis le mois de juillet 1786 jusqu'au 19
  janvier 1787. Ouvrage posthume. Avec une lettre remise au roi de
  Prusse regnant, le jour de son avénement au trône: par le comte de
  Mirabeau [~H. G. Riqueti~]. T. 1, 2.
                                  _Londres, 1789. 8º (5.5×2.9)_ [2039]

  The secret history of the court of Berlin; ... In a series of
  letters, translated from the French. A posthumous work. To which
  is added a memorial, presented to the present king of Prussia, on
  the day of his accession to the throne, by Count Mirabeau [~H. G.
  Riqueti~.] V. 1, 2.
                                   _London, 1789. 8º (5.7×3.1)_ [2040]


SCHELTEMA (~Jacobus~).

  Staatkundig Nederland; een woordenboek tot de biographische kaart
  van dien naam, door M^r. ~Jacobus Scheltema~. D. 1, 2. ...
                  _Amsterdam, 1805, '6. 8º (5.6×3) marg. notes._ [645]


SIEVRAC (~Jean Henri~).

  _See_ COBBETT (~Wm.~). Roman hist. in French and English; the Fr.
  by ~J. H. Sievrac~.


SIMMS (~William Gilmore~).

  The life of the Chevalier Bayard; "The good knight," "Sans peur et
  sans reproche." By ~W. Gilmore Simms~. ***
                                _New York, 1847. 12º (5.7×3.2)_ [1723]


SPARTIANUS (~Ælius~).

  _See_ HISTORIÆ Augustæ scriptores. ~Ælius Spartianus~.


SPENCE (~Ferrand~).

  _See_ DU BUISSON (----). Life of Turenne; transl. by ~Ferrand
  Spence~.


SPENSER (~Edmund~).

  Ancient Irish histories.--A view of the state of Ireland, written
  dialogue-wise, betweene Eudoxus and Irenæus. By ~Edmund Spencer~,
  esq. in the yeare 1596. [_Ed. by James Ware._]
                                     _Dublin, 1809. 8º (6.5×4)_ [2425]

      _Note._--Cont'd in V. 1 of "Ancient Irish histories." A reprint
      of the Dublin edition of 1633.


STANHOPE (~Philip Henry~), _Lord Mahon_.

  History of the war of the succession in Spain. By [~P. H.
  Stanhope~,] Lord Mahon. Second edition. [_With a map & an app., pp.
  cxxxv._]
                                   _London, 1836. 8º (6.3×3.5)_ [1630]

  The life of Belisarius. By [~P. H. Stanhope~,] Lord Mahon. [_With a
  map._]
                                   _London, 1829. 8º (6.1×3.5)_ [1304]


TACITUS (~Caius Cornelius~).

  ~Cornelii Taciti~ opera. Ad codices antiqvos exacta et emendata
  commentario critico et exegetico illvstrata edidit Franciscvs
  Ritter ... V. 1-4. [_With a biogr. and crit. preface._]
                             _Cantabrigiae, 1848. 8º (6.6×3.7)_ [2273]

  ~Cornelii Taciti~ annales. Ad codices antiqvos exacti et emendati
  commentario critico et exegetico illvstrati opera Francisci
  Ritteri. V. 1, 2.
                             _Cantabrigiae, 1848. 8º (6.6×3.7)_ [2274]

      _Note._--V. 1, 2 of "Cornelii Taciti opera."

  ~Cornelii Taciti~ historiae. Ad codices antiqvos exactae et
  emendatae commentario critico et exegetico illvstratae opera
  Francisci Ritteri.
                             _Cantabrigiae, 1848. 8º (6.6×3.7)_ [2275]

      _Note._--V. 3 of "Cornelii Taciti opera."

  ~Cornelii Taciti~ libri minores Germania Agricola Dialogvs.
  Ad codices antiqvos exacti et emendati commentario critico et
  exegetico illvstrati opera Francisci Ritteri. Accesservnt indices.
                             _Cantabrigiae, 1848. 8º (6.6×3.7)_ [2276]

      _Note._--V. 4 of "Cornelii Taciti opera."


TAYLOR (~William~).

  _See_ ORIENTAL hist. mss. in the Tamil language; transl. with
  annotations by ~Wm. Taylor~.


THIBAUDEAU (~Antoine Claire~).

  Histoire des états généraux et des institutions représentatives en
  France depuis l'origine de la monarchie jusqu'à 1789 par ~A. C.
  Thibaudeau~ [_T._] 1-3.
                                  _Bruxelles, 1844. 8º (6.6×4)_ [2005]


THORTSEN (~Carl Adolph~).

  Historisk Udsigt over den danske Litteratur indtil Aar 1814. Af Dr.
  ~Carl Adolph Thortsen~, ...
                                _Kjöbenhavn, 1839. 8º (6.2×3.4)_ [290]


TORENO (_Count of_). _See_ QUEYPO ~de Llano~ (~J. M.~).


TOWNSEND (~William C.~).

  The lives of twelve eminent judges of the last and of the present
  century. By ~William C. Townsend~, ... In two volumes. ...
                                   _London, 1846. 8º (6.6×3.7)_ [2332]


TURENNE (_Viscount de_). _See_ LA TOUR ~d'Auvergne~ (~Henri de~).


UNGEWITTER (~Francis H.~).

  Europe, past and present: a comprehensive manual of European
  geography and history; with separate descriptions and statistics of
  each state, and a copious index, ... By ~Francis H. Ungewitter~,
  LL.D.
                                _New York, 1850. 12º (5.6×3.5)_ [1490]


UNIVERSITY ~of Oxford~.

  Catalogus librorum impressorum bibliothecæ Bodleianæ in ~Academia
  Oxoniensi~. V. 1-3.
                          _Oxonii, 1843. fo. (11.9×7.1) 2 cols._ [140]

      _Note._--This catalogue, prepared by Dr. Bulkley Bandinel,
      contains the titles of books in the library up to 1835, except
      those of which special catalogues had been published, viz.:
      Books bequeathed by R. Gough, Books and MSS. bequeathed by
      F. Douce, "Dissertationes Academicae" [_See_ titles of these
      catalogues below], and those described in the following
      catalogue, "Bibliotheca celeberrima Hebraea quam collegit Dav.
      Oppenheimerus, 8º Hamburgi 1820."

  Catalogus impressorum librorum quibus aucta est bibliotheca
  Bodleiana, annis ~mdcccxxxv-mdcccxlvii~.
                          _Oxonii, 1851. fo. (11.8×7.1) 2 cols._ [141]

      _Note._--The half-title reads: "Catalogi impressorum librorum
      bibliothecæ Bodleianæ volumen quartum." It is also designated
      in the signatures as Vol. 4.

  A catalogue of the books, relating to British topography, and Saxon
  and northern literature, bequeathed to the Bodleian library, in the
  year ~mdccxcix.~ by Richard Gough, esq. F.S.A.
                                    _Oxford, 1814. 4º (7.2×5.3)_ [142]

  Catalogue of early English poetry and other miscellaneous works
  illustrating the British drama, collected by Edmond Malone,
  esq. and now preserved in the Bodleian library. [_Prefixed is a
  biographical memoir of Edmond Malone._]
                          _Oxford, 1836. fo. (11.9×7.1) 2 cols._ [145]

  Catalogue of the printed books and manuscripts bequeathed by
  Francis Douce, esq. to the Bodleian library.
                          _Oxford, 1840. fo. (11.9×7.1) 2 cols._ [144]

      _Note._--The Catalogue of manuscripts is separately paged,--90
      pages, with 4 lithographic plates.


VAN ESS (~Willem Lodewyk~). _See_ ESS.


VOLNEY (~Constantin François~ CHASSEBŒUF ~de~).

  Recherches nouvelles sur l'histoire ancienne. P. 1-3, ... Édition
  revue et complète. [_By ~C. F. C. de Volney~. With maps & tables._]
                               _Paris, 1814, '15. 8º (5.6×3.4)_ [1154]


VOLTAIRE (~François Marie~ AROÜET ~de~).

  Memoirs of the life of [~F. M. A. de~] ~Voltaire~. Written by
  himself. With introduction and sequel, condensed from the life by
  Condorcet.
                                  _London, 1826. 12º (4.6×2.6)_ [1259]

      _Note._--V. 2 of "Autobiography."

  The philosophy of history, or a philosophical and historical
  dissertation, on the origin, manners, customs, and religion of
  the different nations, and people, of antiquity; with a clear and
  concise exposition, of the usages, and opinions common amongst
  them; and, in particular, of their religious rites, ceremonies, and
  superstitions: ... Translated from the original French manuscripts
  of Mons^r. l'abbé Bazin [_pseud. for ~F. M. A. de Voltaire~_]. By
  Henry Wood Gandell, ... ***
                                   _London, 1829. 8º (6.2×3.5)_ [1693]


VOPISCUS (~Flavius~).

  _See_ HISTORIÆ Augustæ scriptores. ~Fl. Vopiscus~.


WILSON (~Robert Thomas~).

  History of the British expedition to Egypt; to which is subjoined,
  a sketch of the present state of that country and its means of
  defence. Illustrated with maps, and a portrait of Sir Ralph
  Abercromby. By ~Robert Thomas Wilson~, ... V. 1, 2. *** The fourth
  edition.
                                   _London, 1803. 8º (5.7×3.3)_ [2053]


WOLLSTONECRAFT (~Mary~), _afterwards Mrs. Godwin_.

  An historical and moral view of the origin and progress of the
  French revolution; and the effect it has produced in Europe. By
  ~Mary Wollstonecraft~. V. 1.
                                     _London, 1794. 8º (6×3.3)_ [1687]


YALE ~college~, _New Haven, Conn._

  Catalogue of books in the library of ~Yale college~. [_Classed._]
                                 _New Haven, 1823. 8º (6.6×3.6)_ [502]

  Catalogue of the library of the Linonian society, ~Yale college~,
  November, 1846. [_Alphabetical, with a classed index._]
                                   _New Haven, 1846. 8º (6.5×4)_ [457]

  Catalogue of the library of the society of Brothers in unity, ~Yale
  college~, April 1846. [_Alphabetical, with a classed index._]
                                 _New Haven, 1846. 8º (6.7×3.8)_ [458]



INDEX OF SUBJECTS.


Antiquities.
  Dissertation on,                                         _Voltaire._
  Grecian A. _See_ ~Greece~.

Athens.
  Rise and fall of,                                          _Lytton._

Autobiography.
  Collection of lives.                                _Autobiography._
  A. of W. Jerdan.                                           _Jerdan._

Bibliography.
  Bibliomania, or book-madness.                              _Dibdin._
  Catal. de livr. difficiles à trouver.                     _Clément._
  Dansk-norsk hist. Bibliothek.                               _Baden._
  Litteraturlexicon for Danmark, Norge og Island.            _Nyerup._
  Bibliotheca Grenvilliana.                               _Grenville._
  Om Bibliotheksvidenskab.                                  _Molbech._
  Ueber Bibliothekswissenschaft.                            _Molbech._
  Works in refutation of Methodism.                        _Decanver._
  _See_ ~Catalogues~.

Bibliomania.
  Bibliomania, or book-madness.                              _Dibdin._

Biography.
  B. of classic authors.                                    _Harwood._
  Celebrated characters of the French revol.                    _Ess._
  De vitis, etc. philosophorum.                   _Diogenes Laërtius._
  Lives of the Scotish poets.                           _Irving (D.)._
           the United Irishmen.                              _Madden._
           twelve eminent judges.                          _Townsend._
  Sketches of living notables, in 1852.                         _Men._
  Staatkundig Nederland.                                  _Scheltema._
  De rebus gestis Alexandri.                          _Curtius Rufus._
  Hist. de Christine, de Suède.                  _Catteau-Calleville._
           Napoléon.                                        _Norvins._
  La défence de Marie de Médicis.                           _Morgues._
  La minorité de Louis ~xiv~.                      _La Rochefoucauld._
  Life of Belisarius.                                      _Stanhope._
          Chev. Bayard.                                       _Simms._
          Dumouriez.                                      _Dumouriez._
          Guicciardini.                                _Guicciardini._
          Julian.                                      _La Bletterie._
          Napoleon.                                             _Ess._
          Turenne.                                       _Du Buisson._
  Lives of Haydn and Mozart, with observ.
    on Metastasio.                                           _Bombet._
  Mém. de F. Dusson.                                  _La Troussière._
          la comtesse de Murat.                             _M * * *._
          M. de Bordeaux.                             _C. (M. G. D.)._
  Mem. of Cuvier.                                               _Lee._
          J. d'Arc.                                             _Arc._
  Political B. of L'd G. Bentinck.                    _Disraeli (B.)._
  Reminiscences of M. Kelly.                                  _Kelly._
  Vida de J. de Castro.                           _Freire de Andrada._
  Vie d'O. Maldachini.                                       _Gualdi._
  Vie privée du cardinal Dubois.                             _Dubois._

Botany.
  Transactions of the Linnean soc.                      _Linnean soc._
  Trees and shrubs of Mass.                           _Massachusetts._

Catalogues.
  C. de livres difficiles à trouver.                        _Clément._
  C. of Bodleian libr'y.                            _Univ. of Oxford._
  C. of libr'y of Brothers in unity.                   _Yale college._
  C. of libr'y of Linonian soc.                        _Yale college._
  C. of libr'y of S. Parr.                                     _Parr._
  C. of libr'y of T. Grenville.                           _Grenville._
  C. of libr'y of Yale college.                        _Yale college._
  C. of London libr'y.                               _London library._

Corfu.
  History of,                                                _Jervis._

Denmark.
  Dansk-norsk hist. Bibliothek.                               _Baden._
  Forelæsninger over den danske Poesie.                     _Molbech._
  Litteraturlexicon for,                                     _Nyerup._
  Udsigt over den danske Litteratur.                       _Thortsen._

Drama.
  Catal. of books on the British,                   _Univ. of Oxford._
  Diss. on the early Scotish,                           _Irving (D.)._

Egypt.
  Br. expedition to, and present state of,                   _Wilson._

England.
  Br. expedition to Egypt.                                   _Wilson._
  History of,                                                _Graham._
    "                                                          _Hume._
  Hist. of E. and Scotland to the union.                      _Ayscu._
  Lives of twelve eminent judges.                          _Townsend._
  Sketches of the literature of,                            _Balfour._
    "                 "                               _Disraeli (I.)._
  State papers: Henry ~viii~.                         _Great Britain._
  _See_ ~Great Britain~.

Europe.
  Manual of the geogr. and hist. of,                     _Ungewitter._

France.
  Celebrated characters of the revol.                           _Ess._
  De la révolution françoise.                                _Necker._
  Hist. des instit. représentatives.                     _Thibaudeau._
  Hist. of the restoration.                               _Lamartine._
  Mémoires sur le consulat.                                _Mémoires._
  Mem. and times of J. d'Arc.                                   _Arc._
  State of music in,                                         _Bombet._
  View of the revol.                                 _Wollstonecraft._

Geography.
  Manual of European,                                    _Ungewitter._

Germany.
  Germania.                                                 _Tacitus._
  Geschichte des deutschen Volkes.                            _Luden._

Granada.
  Conquest of,                                          _Irving (W.)._

Great Britain.
  Catal. of books on Br. drama.                     _Univ. of Oxford._
  Catal. of books on Br. topogr.                    _Univ. of Oxford._
  Catal. of Br. birds.                                        _Eyton._
  Hist. of Br. birds.                                         _Eyton._
  _See_ ~England~, ~Ireland~ and ~Scotland~.

Greece.
  Antiquities of,                                            _Potter._
  Hist. of Corfú and the Ionian repub.                       _Jervis._
  Recueil de cartes, etc.                          _Barbié du Bocage._
  Voyage d'Anacharsis.                                   _Barthélemy._

Hebrews.
  _See_ ~Jews~.

History.
  Histoire universelle.                                     _Bossuet._
  Manual of European,                                    _Ungewitter._
  Orosii hiptoriographi opus.                               _Orosius._
  Philosophy of,                                           _Voltaire._
  Recherches sur l'hist. ancienne.                           _Volney._

Holland.
  _See_ ~Netherlands~.

Iceland.
  Litteraturlexicon for,                                     _Nyerup._

India.
  Oriental hist. mss.                                      _Oriental._

Ionian Islands.
  Hist. of the republic of,                                  _Jervis._

Ireland.
  Ancient histories of,                                     _Ancient._
  United Irishmen; their lives and times.                    _Madden._
  _See_ ~Great Britain~.

Italy.
  History of,                                          _Guicciardini._
  I. avanti il dominio dei Romani.                           _Micali._
  State of music in,                                         _Bombet._

Java.
  History of,                                               _Raffles._

Jews.
  History of,                                    _Basnage de Beauval._

Libraries.
  Catalogues of L. _See_ ~Catalogues~.
  Om Bibliotheksvidenskab.                                  _Molbech._
  Ueber Bibliothekswissenschaft.                            _Molbech._

Literature.
  Catal. of books on Saxon and northern,            _Univ. of Oxford._
  Curiosities of,                                     _Disraeli (I.)._
  Literary hist. of Scotland.                           _Irving (D.)._
  Sketches of English,                                      _Balfour._
      "          "                                    _Disraeli (I.)._
  View of Athenian,                                          _Lytton._
  Udsigt over den danske,                                  _Thortsen._

Methodism.
  Works in refutation of,                                  _Decanver._

Music.
  State of M. in France and Italy.                           _Bombet._

Mythology.
  Ad Apollodori bibliothecam notæ.                            _Heyne._
  Apollodori bibliotheca.                               _Apollodorus._
  Historiæ poeticæ scriptores.                                 _Gale._

Natural History.
  Plinii historia naturalis.                       _Plinius Secundus._
  _See_ ~Botany~, ~Ornithology~ and ~Zoology~.

Netherlands.
  Staatkundig N.; biogr. kaart.                           _Scheltema._

Northern Literature.
  Catal. of books on,                               _Univ. of Oxford._

Norway.
  Dansk-norsk hist. Bibliothek.                              _Baden._
  Litteraturlexicon for,                                     _Nyerup._

Ornithology.
  Catal. of British birds.                                    _Eyton._
  Hist. of British birds.                                     _Eyton._

Painting.
  Het groot schilderboek.                                  _Lairesse._

Pharmacy.
  Homish apothecarye booke.                                    _Most._

Philosophers.
  De vitis, etc. philosophorum.                   _Diogenes Laërtius._

Philosophy.
  View of Athenian,                                          _Lytton._

Poetry.
  Forelæsninger over den danske,                            _Molbech._
  Catal. of early English,                          _Univ. of Oxford._

Portugal.
  Historia de,                                            _Herculano._

Prussia.
  Hist. secrète de la cour de Berlin.                       _Riqueti._
  Secret hist. of the court of Berlin.                      _Riqueti._

Reviews, Literary.
  American quarterly,                                      _American._
  Edinburgh,                                              _Edinburgh._
  Monthly,                                                  _Monthly._
  North American,                                    _North American._

Rome.
  Civil and constitutional hist. of,                         _Bankes._
  Elements of the hist. of,                                 _Cobbett._
  Gallus: or, Rom. scenes.                                   _Becker._
  Historiæ.                                              _Paterculus._
  Historiæ Augustæ scriptores.                             _Historiæ._
  Méthode pour apprendre l'hist. rom.                       _Méthode._
  Method of learning Rom. hist.                             _Méthode._
  Taciti opera.                                             _Tacitus._

Saxon Literature.
  Catal. of books on,                               _Univ. of Oxford._

Scotland.
  Literary hist. and drama of,                          _Irving (D.)._
  Hist. of England and S. to the union.                       _Ayscu._
  _See_ ~Great Britain~.

Spain.
  Hist. de la revolucion de,                        _Queypo de Llano._
  Hist. of the war of succession in,                       _Stanhope._

Sweden.
  Précis historique de,                          _Catteau-Calleville._

Theatre.
  Acc't of King's theatre, London.                            _Kelly._

Topography.
  Catal. of books on British,                       _Univ. of Oxford._

War, Art of.
  Astutie militari.                                       _Frontinus._
  Précis des guerres de César.                             _Napoléon._
  Strategematica.                                         _Frontinus._

Zoology.
  Zoological journal.                                          _Bell._



EXPLANATIONS OF INITIALS
USED IN THE LOCAL INDEX.


A. L., _for_ ~Astor Library~.
B. A., _for_ ~Boston Atheneum~.
B. U., _for_ ~Brown University~.
C. H. S., _for_ ~Cambridge High School~.
H. C., _for_ ~Harvard College~.
L. C., _for_ ~Library of Congress~.
L. C. P., _for_ ~Library Company of Philadelphia~.
L. S., _for_ ~Lane Seminary~.
N. Y. S. L., _for_ ~New York State Library~.
S. C. C., _for_ ~South Carolina College~.
S. I., _for_ ~Smithsonian Institution~.
U. A., _for_ ~University of Alabama~.
Y. C., _for_ ~Yale College~.



LOCAL INDEX.


   140            A. L., B. U., S. I.
   141            A. L., B. U., S. I.
   142            A. L., B. U., S. I.
   144            A. L., B. U., S. I.
   145            A. L., B. U., S. I.
   216     B. A., H. C., S. I., Y. C.
   290         L. C. P., S. I., Y. C.
   291            L. S., S. I., Y. C.
   292         H. C., S. C. C., S. I.
   310            S. I., U. A., Y. C.
   317                   A. L., S. I.
   391                   B. U., S. I.
   457                   A. L., S. I.
   458                   L. S., S. I.
   502                   S. I., Y. C.
   644                   A. L., S. I.
   645                   B. U., S. I.
  1002            H. C., L. C., U. A.
  1004                   L. C., Y. C.
  1006                   B. A., L. C.
  1019      C. H. S., L. C., S. C. C.
  1020                L. C., S. C. C.
  1029                   L. C., U. A.
  1053                L. C., L. C. P.
  1054                   A. L., L. C.
  1069      B. A., L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  1070                   L. C., L. S.
  1114         H. C., L. C., L. C. P.
  1147     B. U., L. C., U. A., Y. C.
  1154                   L. C., S. I.
  1162            B. U., L. C., Y. C.
  1201      L. C., N. Y. S. L., U. A.
  1202         A. L., C. H. S., L. C.
  1215                   L. C., L. S.
  1216                   L. C., Y. C.
  1255            H. C., L. C., S. I.
  1256         C. H. S., L. C., U. A.
  1257         A. L., L. C., L. C. P.
  1258                          L. C.
  1259             L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  1278                   B. A., L. C.
  1288                   B. U., L. C.
  1304            H. C., L. C., U. A.
  1377            B. A., L. C., Y. C.
  1378         H. C., L. C., S. C. C.
  1379                   L. C., S. I.
  1384         L. S., L. C., S. C. C.
  1410                   L. C., Y. C.
  1414         A. L., L. C., S. C. C.
  1427            H. C., L. C., U. A.
  1429                   L. C., L. S.
  1435         B. U., C. H. S., L. C.
  1436                   H. C., L. C.
  1489         A. L., C. H. S., L. C.
  1490                L. C., L. C. P.
  1529             L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  1584    A. L., B. U., L. C., Y. C.,
  1596                C. H. S., L. C.
  1600                L. C., S. C. C.
  1621                   L. C., U. A.
  1630                   B. U., L. C.
  1687                L. C., L. C. P.
  1693             L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  1702            H. C., L. C., Y. C.
  1707                C. H. S., L. C.
  1710            A. L., L. C., L. S.
  1719            B. A., H. C., L. C.
  1720                   L. C., S. I.
  1721                   L. C., U. A.
  1723            B. U., L. C., Y. C.
  1748         C. H. S., H. C., L. C.
  1771                L. C., S. C. C.
  1775             L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  1815            A. L., L. C., S. I.
  1816         C. H. S., L. C., S. I.
  1828            A. L., H. C., L. C.
  1854            B. U., L. C., S. I.
  1858                   L. C., L. S.
  1864      H. C., L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  1876         L. C., S. C. C., U. A.
  1948                L. C., L. C. P.
  1967                   L. C., L. S.
  2003            B. A., L. C., Y. C.
  2005                C. H. S., L. C.
  2039                   H. C., L. C.
  2040             L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  2053         L. C., S. C. C., U. A.
  2070            A. L., L. C., Y. C.
  2099            B. U., L. C., U. A.
  2118                C. H. S., L. C.
  2119            L. C., L. S., Y. C.
  2156         L. C., S. C. C., Y. C.
  2219            L. C., S. I., U. A.
  2273            H. C., L. C., Y. C.
  2274            H. C., L. C., Y. C.
  2275            H. C., L. C., Y. C.
  2276            H. C., L. C., Y. C.
  2296                   B. A., L. C.
  2332                   L. C., U. A.
  2424         A. L., L. C., L. C. P.
  2425         L. C., L. C. P., U. A.
  2426            H. C., L. C., Y. C.
  2427                   B. A., L. C.
  2428      L. C., N. Y. S. L., S. I.
  2440                   B. U., L. C.
  2441         C. H. S., L. C., U. A.
  2442         B. U., L. C., S. C. C.
  2455         B. U., L. C., L. C. P.
  2479            Y. C., L. C., L. S.
  2556                   L. C., U. A.
  2622                   A. L., L. C.
  2629                   A. L., L. C.
  2630                          L. C.
  2631                   L. C., S. I.
  2638                   H. C., L. C.
  2646            B. U., L. C., S. I.
  2659      C. H. S., L. C., S. C. C.
  2700         C. H. S., L. C., Y. C.
  2707            A. L., L. C., S. I.
  2711         B. A., C. H. S., L. C.
  2728                   H. C., L. C.
  2729            B. U., H. C., L. C.
  2731            A. L., L. C., U. A.
  2733                L. C., L. C. P.
  2734  B. A., B. U., L. C., S. C. C.
  2736                C. H. S., L. C.
  2737             L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  2738                   L. C., L. S.
  2742                   L. C., S. I.
  2757            A. L., L. C., Y. C.
  2771         H. C., L. C., S. C. C.
  2778                   L. C., U. A.
  2779      B. U., L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  2780            B. A., L. C., U. A.
  2781            B. A., L. C., S. I.
  2782            A. L., L. C., S. I.
  2783            L. C., S. I., Y. C.
  2784            B. U., L. C., S. I.
  2789                   L. C., L. S.
  2790         A. L., C. H. S., L. C.
  2791             L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  2806         A. L., L. C., S. C. C.
  2825                   B. A., L. C.
  2851            B. U., L. C., L. S.
  2893             L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  2894             L. C., N. Y. S. L.
  2940            L. C., S. I., Y. C.



       *       *       *       *       *



    Transcriber's Notes

    The following lines were added to the table of contents:

    REPORT.
      COPY OF A LETTER,                                           viii
      REMARKS ON THE EXAMPLES,                                      67
      EXAMPLES,                                                     69
      INDEX OF SUBJECTS,                                            91
      EXPLANATIONS OF INITIALS,                                     94
      LOCAL INDEX,                                                  95

    The following corrections were applied to the text. The first line
    is the original line, the second the corrected one.

    page 33: "un-undesirable" changed to "undesirable":
                                                               and un-
    undesirable to distinguish the initials where the printer had
    and undesirable to distinguish the initials where the printer had

    page 63: "artists'" changed to "artist's":
    tenths, should also be stated. If the copy be an artists' proof, or a
    tenths, should also be stated. If the copy be an artist's proof, or a

    page 70: "3 4" changed to "3.4":
    _London, 1818. 8º (6.1×3 4)_ [1384]
    _London, 1818. 8º (6.1×3.4)_ [1384]

    page 73: missing full stop added:
    _T. 1-3, Göttingen, T. 4, 5, Hannover, T. 6-9, Leipsic, 1750-'60 4º
    _T. 1-3, Göttingen, T. 4, 5, Hannover, T. 6-9, Leipsic, 1750-'60. 4º

    page 76: "." changed to ",":
    _London. 8º (6.7×3.8)_ [2781]
    _London, 8º (6.7×3.8)_ [2781]

    page 77: single quote changed to double quote:
    [_Ending "Stampato in Vinegia ... mdxxxvi.'_]
    [_Ending "Stampato in Vinegia ... mdxxxvi."_]

    page 81: "pp" changed to "pp.":
    to V. 18, lists for 1838, 1839, & 1841, pp 15, each.
    to V. 18, lists for 1838, 1839, & 1841, pp. 15, each.

    page 83: two missing full stops added:
    _Firenze, 1810 fo (13.2×9.1) pp. xi. 1 map & 60 plates._ [1771]
    _Firenze, 1810. fo. (13.2×9.1) pp. xi. 1 map & 60 plates._ [1771]

    page 85: missing full stop added:
    édition illustrée par Raffet
    édition illustrée par Raffet.

    page 88: missing full stop added:
    Thibaudeau~ [_T_] 1-3.
    Thibaudeau~ [_T._] 1-3.

    page 91: "Thorsten" changed to "Thortsen":
    Udsigt over den danske Litteratur.                       _Thorsten._
    Udsigt over den danske Litteratur.                       _Thortsen._

    page 91: "representitives" changed to "représentatives":
    Hist. des instit. representitives.
    Hist. des instit. représentatives.

    page 92: "avant" changed to "avanti":
    I. avant il dominio dei Romani.
    I. avanti il dominio dei Romani.

    page 92, under "Libraries": "Bibliotheksvidenskap" changed to
    "Bibliotheksvidenskab":
    Om Bibliotheksvidenskap.
    Om Bibliotheksvidenskab.

    page 92: "Thorsten" changed to "Thortsen":
    Udsigt over den danske,                                  _Thorsten._
    Udsigt over den danske,                                  _Thortsen._

    page 95: "P. L. C." changed to "L. C. P.":
    1053                L. C., P. L. C.
    1053                L. C., L. C. P.

    page 96: "N. Y. S. S." changed to "N. Y. S. L.":
    1864      H. C., L. C., N. Y. S. S.
    1864      H. C., L. C., N. Y. S. L.

    page 96: "H. O." changed to "H. C.":
    2274            H. O., L. C., Y. C.
    2274            H. C., L. C., Y. C.

    page 96: "S. L." changed to "S. I.":
    2783            L. C., S. L., Y. C.
    2783            L. C., S. I., Y. C.

    page 96: "S. L." changed to "S. I.":
    2940            L. C., S. L., Y. C.
    2940            L. C., S. I., Y. C.





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