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Title: Spanish Arms and Armour - Being a Historical and Descriptive Account of the Royal - Armoury of Madrid
Author: Calvert, Albert F.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                          THE SPANISH SERIES



                             SPANISH ARMS
                              AND ARMOUR



THE SPANISH SERIES

_EDITED BY ALBERT F. CALVERT_

  SEVILLE
  MURILLO
  CORDOVA
  THE PRADO
  THE ESCORIAL
  SPANISH ARMS AND ARMOUR

_In preparation_--

  GOYA
  TOLEDO
  MADRID
  VELAZQUEZ
  GRANADA AND ALHAMBRA
  ROYAL PALACES OF SPAIN
  LEON, BURGOS & SALAMANCA
  VALLADOLID, OVIEDO, SEGOVIA, ZAMORA, AVILA & ZARAGOZA



                             SPANISH ARMS
                              AND ARMOUR
                        BEING A HISTORICAL AND
                      DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE
                       ROYAL ARMOURY OF MADRID,
                         BY ALBERT F. CALVERT,
                        WITH 386 ILLUSTRATIONS

                  LONDON: JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD
                  NEW YORK: JOHN LANE COMPANY MCMVII


                 _E. Goodman and Son, The Phœnix Press

                               Taunton_

                               DEDICATED
                   WITH PROFOUND RESPECT AND ESTEEM
                            TO HER MAJESTY
                     QUEEN MARIA CRISTINA OF SPAIN
                    WHO SO WORTHILY AND FOR SO LONG
                 MAINTAINED THOSE GLORIOUS TRADITIONS
                         OF SPANISH GREATNESS
                 WHICH ARE SYMBOLISED IN THE TREASURES
                         OF THE ROYAL ARMOURY



PREFACE


In compiling this volume I believe I can claim, in a sense, to have
broken new ground, for although a description of the Spanish Royal
Armoury finds a place in every Guide and Handbook to Madrid, no
exhaustive survey of the contents of this priceless treasure-house,
apart from the official catalogue, is in existence.

The present work is based on the admirable catalogue prepared in 1898 at
the instigation of Queen Maria Cristina by the Conde de Valencia de San
Juan, to whom, with peculiar pleasure, I desire to make full
acknowledgment of my indebtedness. To the formal descriptions of the
exhibits, which the Conde de San Juan has collated with invariable
accuracy, I have prefixed a brief sketch of the historical development
of Spanish arms and armour, which, I venture to hope, will make the book
more acceptable, both to the specialist in armour, and to those who
visit the Armoury without any particular knowledge of the subject.

Though the Armeria Real remains the richest in the world, it has
enriched nearly all the collections of arms and armour in Europe and
America. Mr. G. P. Laking, in a recent number of the _Art Journal_, has
shown that after the fire of 1839, a very large number of pieces were
fraudulently abstracted and sent to London for sale--ultimately finding
their way to armouries and museums as far apart as Rome and New York. If
the truth were known it would probably be found that there was not a
collection of any importance that did not include some of the spoils of
the great treasure house established by the Kings of Spain.

In furtherance of my object, I have laid under contribution a large
number of authorities, and I cannot omit to acknowledge my obligations
to the standard works of Meyrick, Hewitt, Demmin, Lacombe and Clephan,
to the writings of Baron Davillier and Don Juan Riaño, to the
Iconografia Española of Don V. Carderera, and to Dr. Wendelin Boheim, of
the Imperial Armoury, Vienna. I also desire to render a special tribute
of thanks to Mr. E. B. d’Auvergne, who placed his expert knowledge at my
service, and has rendered me invaluable assistance in my endeavours to
make this compilation both accurate and complete.

The value of a book of this kind must, I recognise, depend in a large
measure upon the selection of the illustrations and the excellence of
their reproduction. In this matter I have been greatly helped by Señor
Don Lacoste, and Messrs. Hauser y Menet, whose photographs, other than
those taken by myself, are, with their permission, reproduced here.

A. F. C.

“ROYSTON,”
SWISS COTTAGE,
N.W.



ILLUSTRATIONS


REFERENCE NO.     TITLE     PLATE.

 Crowns and votive Crosses of Guarrazar, Remains of St. Ferdinand’s
 Robe, Moorish Spurs of St. Ferdinand,                                 1

 Cloak and Spurs of St. Ferdinand and Visigothic Bit,                  1A

 Don Bernardo Guillen de Entenza, 13th century,                        2

 Don Guillelmo Ramon de Moncada, Seneschal of Catalonia, died _circa_
 1280,                                                                 3

 Don Juan Alphonso, Lord of Ajofrin, died about 1386,                  3

 G 22. Sword and Scabbard, probably belonging to St. Ferdinand,        4

 G 21. The Lobera of St. Ferdinand,                                    4

 G 22. Sword and Scabbard that probably belonged to St. Ferdinand,     5

 Pedro I, King of Castile,                                             6

 Effigy of St. Ferdinand, King of Spain,                               7

 Sepulchral Effigy of Don Bernardo de Anglesola, _circa_ 1384,         8

 F 123. Bit, believed to have belonged to Witiza, King of the
 Visigoths,                                                            9

 D 11. Helmet-crest of Martin I of Aragon,                             9

 G 4. Pontifical Sword presented by Pope Eugene IV to John II of
 Castile,                                                             10

 G 13. Fifteenth Century War Sword, probably belonged to Ferdinand the
 Catholic,                                                            10

 G 1. Ceremonial Sword of Ferdinand and Isabella,                     11

 G 23. Fifteenth Century Sword of unknown Origin,                     11

 Juan Pacheco, Marquis of Villena, Grand Master of St. James, died
 1474,                                                                12

 G 29. War Sword of the Gran Capitan, Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba
 (1453-1515),                                                         13

 G 28. Sword of the Cardinal Infante Fernando, Brother of Philip
 IV,                                                                  13

 G 31. War Sword of Ferdinand the Catholic,                           13

 A 9. Armet, early 16th century (closed),                             14

 A 9. The Same (open),                                                14

 A 5. Armet, late 15th century and beginning of 16th century,         14

 A 11. Armour of Philip the Handsome,                                 15

 A 16. Tilting Armour of Philip the Handsome,                         15

 A 16. Tilting Armour of Philip the Handsome,                         15A

 A 16. Tilting Armour of Philip the Handsome,                         15B

 A 16. Tilting Armour of Philip the Handsome,                         15C

 Tilting Armour, early 16th century, attributed in the 1849 Catalogue
 to Maximilian of Austria,                                            15D

 A 11. ‘Caperuza’ of Philip I of Castile,                             16

 A 17. Helmet with unusually large Shutter, late 15th century,        16

 D 14. Late 15th century Helmet in the Moorish Style. It is the only
 one of its kind in the Armoury,                                      16

 C 1. Spanish Man-at-arms, 15th century,                              17

 C 1. Spanish Man-at-arms, 15th century (back view),                  17A

 C 4. Spanish Crossbowman, 15th century,                              17B

 C 4. Spanish Crossbowman, 15th century (back view),                  17C

 C 2. Spanish Halberdier, 15th century,                               17D

 C 2. Spanish Halberdier, 15th century (back view),                   17E

 Mace-bearer of the 16th century, with Surcoat displaying the Arms of
 Castile and Leon,                                                    18

 A King of Arms,                                                      19

 A 101. Royal Tilting Armour of Charles V,                            20

 A 19. War Armour of Charles V,                                       20

 A 19. War Armour of the Emperor Charles V (1517),                    20A

 A 26. Tilting Harness of Charles V,                                  21

 A 27. Tilting Armour of Charles V,                                   22

 A 37. Tilting Harness of Charles V, made by Colman Helmschmied,      23

 A 49. Oak-leaf Suit with Lamboys of Charles V,                       24

 A 56. Figure showing Pieces of the Oak-leaf Armour,                  25

 A 65. Tilting Harness of Charles V,                                  26

 A 93. Foot Armour, with Lamboys, belonging to Charles V, with
 reinforcing Pieces for Helmet,                                       27

 A 93. Foot Armour of Charles V, made by Helmschmied in 1526,         27A

 A 112. Armour presented to Charles V by the Duke of Mantua,          28

 A 114. Armour presented to Charles V by the Duke of Mantua,          29

 A 116. Cornucopiæ Armour of Charles V,                               30

 A 129. War Harness of Charles V,                                     31

 A 139. Italian Armour of Charles V,                                  31

 A 139. Armour of Charles V (work of Negroli),                        31A

 A 147. Foot Armour of Charles V,                                     32

 A 149. Armour of Charles V (1541),                                   33

 A 160. Armour of Charles V, probably made by Negroli,                34

 A 164. Charles V at Mühlberg,                                        35

 Armour of Charles V (pieces of the Mühlberg Harness),                36

 Pieces of the Mühlberg Harness of Charles V,                         37

 Harness composed of pieces of the Mühlberg Harness (1547),           37A

 Armour of Charles V, with Lamboys,                                   38

 A 165. Mühlberg Armour of Charles V,                                 39

 A 138. Armour of Charles V, after the Roman style,                   39

 Equestrian Armour of Charles V,                                      40

 Armour of Charles V, made by Colman (1849 Catalogue),                41

 Armour of Charles V., Augsburg or Nuremburg make (1849
 Catalogue),                                                          41A

 Equestrian Armour of the Marquis of Villena, 16th century,           42

 A 189. Foot Armour of Philip II, made by Desiderius Colman,          43

 A 189. Foot Armour of Philip II, made by Desiderius Colman,          43A

 A 217. Armour of Prince Philip (II), of German make,                 44

 A 218. Armour of Prince Philip (II), made in Germany in 1549,        45

 A 231. Armour made for Prince Philip (II) by Wolf of Landshut
 (1550),                                                              46

 A 239. Parade Armour of Philip II,                                   47

 Parade Armour of King Sebastian of Portugal,                         47

 A 239. Suit made for Prince Philip (II) at Augsburg in 1552,         47A

 A 239. Gorget of Philip II, when heir-apparent, for parade (1552). It
 has the collar of the Golden Fleece,                                 47B

 A 242. Saddle-plate belonging to the same Armour as the
 preceding,                                                           47B

 A 243. Equestrian Armour of Philip II, made by Sigmund Wolf of
 Landshut,                                                            48

 A 245. Tilting Armour, made for Prince Philip (II) by Wolf of Landshut
 (1554),                                                              49

 A 263. ‘Burgundy Cross’ Armour of Philip II,                         50

 The ‘Burgundy Cross’ Suit of Philip II,                              50A

 ‘Burgundy Cross’ Armour of Philip II,                                50B

 Armour of King Philip II,                                            51

 A 274. Complete Armour of Prince Charles, son of Philip II,          52

 A 289. Suit presented to Philip II by the Conde de Nieva,            52A

 Armour of Philip II, engraved with the Royal Arms of England,        52B

 A 290. Armour of King Sebastian of Portugal,                         53

 A 290. Armour of King Sebastian of Portugal (2nd view),              53A

 A 290. Armour of King Sebastian of Portugal (3rd view),              53B

 A 290. Armour of King Sebastian (details),                           53C

 A 290. Armour of King Sebastian, back plate (details),               53D

 A 291. Equestrian Parade Armour of Philip III,                       54

 A 291. Armour of Philip III, made by Lucio Picinino of Milan,        54A

 A 347. Armour presented by the Archduke Albert to Philip III,        55

 A 354. Half Suit made at Pamplona for Philip III,                    56

 A 356. War Armour, early 17th century, Milanese make,                57

 A 360. Half Armour of Prince Filippo Emmanuele of Savoy, early 17th
 century,                                                             58

 Armour of Prince Filippo Emmanuele of Savoy (1586-1605),             58A

 A 422. Milanese Armour of King Philip IV,                            59

 Armour sent from Flanders in 1624 by the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia
 to Philip IV,                                                        60

 Armour ascribed to King Philip IV,                                   61

 Armour made at Pamplona for the Duke of Savoy, 1620,                 62

 A 277. Armour ascribed, on doubtful authority, to Diego Garcia de
 Paredes,                                                             63

 Armour ascribed to Don Alonso Cespedes, the Castilian Alcides, died
 1569,                                                                64

 Armour of Fernando d’Alarcon, 16th century (1849 Catalogue),         65

 Half Armour of the Third Count of Altamira (1849 Catalogue),         66

 Half Armour of John of Aldana (1849 Catalogue),                      67

 Half Armour of Alfonso d’Avalos, nephew of the Marquis of Pescara
 (1849 Catalogue),                                                    68

 Milanese Armour of the famous Warrior Antonio de Leiva (1849
 Catalogue),                                                          69

 Half Armour of the Poet Garcilaso de la Vega (1849 Catalogue),       70

 Armour of Luis Hurtado de Mendoza (1849 Catalogue),                  71

 Complete Armour of the Marquis of Pescara, General of Charles V (1849
 Catalogue),                                                          72

 Half Armour of Juan de Padilla, beheaded by order of Charles V in 1520
 (1849 Catalogue),                                                    73

 Half Armour of Juan Arias de Avila, Count of Puñonrostro (1849
 Catalogue),                                                          74

 Coat of Mail ascribed to Alfonso V of Aragon and I of Sicily (1849
 Catalogue),                                                          75

 Harness ascribed to Charles V (1849 Catalogue),                      76

 Harness ascribed to Charles V (1849 Catalogue),                      77

 M 11-17. Armour of John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, taken at the
 Battle of Mühlberg, 1547,                                            78

 Armour of the Elector John Frederick, the Magnanimous, Duke of Saxony,
 taken at Mühlberg,                                                   78A

 C 11. Brigantine of Milanese make which belonged to the Emperor
 Maximilian,                                                          79

 Mark on the Breastplate of a Child’s Corselet (17th century),        79A

 Signature of the noted Engraver of Augsburg, Daniel Hopfer, with
 date,                                                                79A

 Monogram of Guidobaldo II, Duke of Arbino, on Suit A 188,            79A

 C 11. Inside of Brigantine of Maximilian I, with Arms of Austria and
 Burgundy,                                                            79A

 Milanese Brigantine which belonged to Charles V,                     80

 Milanese Brigantine which belonged to Charles V,                     81

 B 1. Boy’s Half Armour which belonged to Philip III,                 82

 B 3. Shield. Subject: Gods overwhelming the Moors,                   82

 B 4. Boy’s Half Armour which belonged to Philip III,                 82

 B 1. Boy’s Half Armour, made in Italy for the Infante, afterwards
 Philip III,                                                          83

 B 1. Boy’s Half Armour, made for the Infante, afterwards Philip III
 (second view),                                                       83A

 B 4. Half Armour presented to the Infante, afterwards Philip III, by
 the Duke of Terranova,                                               84

 B 9. Milanese Armour presented to the Infante, afterwards Philip III,
 by the Duke of Terranova,                                            85

 B 9. Armour of the Infante, afterwards Philip III, Milanese make
 (second view),                                                       85A

 B 12. Boy’s Half Armour, with Medallion on Breastplate of Mutius
 Scaevola,                                                            86

 B 18. Boy’s Half Armour, made for the Infante Fernando, Son of Philip
 III,                                                                 87

 Half Armour belonging to Prince Philip, afterwards Philip IV,        88

 Boy’s Half Armour, Milanese make (late 16th century),                89

 Boy’s Half Armour,                                                   90

 Boy’s Half Armour, end of 16th century (Italian),                    91

 Boy’s Half Armour,                                                   92

 A 434. Gorget. Subject: The Siege of Ostend, 1601,                   93

 A 434. Gorget of Philip II Subject: The Battle of Nieuport,          94

 E 88-89. Superb pair of Gauntlets belonging to Charles V,            95

 A 151. Light War-Armour of Charles V, Corselet and Armlet of rare
 form, also two Helmets,                                              96

 A 75-83. Armet, with reinforcing Pieces,                             97

 A 54. A curious Bevor in two Pieces, nailed on Leather,              98

 A 49. Charles V’s Tilting Helmet,                                    98

 A 29. Helmet belonging to the ‘K.D.’ Suit,                           98

 A 27. Helmet of Charles V,                                           98

 A 120. Burgonet, by Colman,                                          99

 A 118. Morion of Charles V,                                          99

 Cabasset and Leg Armour of a Spanish Pikeman, late 15th century,     99

 A 57. Tilting Helmet of Charles V,                                  100

 A 56. Helmet of Charles V,                                          100

 A 75. Helmet of Charles V,                                          101

 A 59. ‘Dolphin’ Helmet of Charles V,                                101

 D 12. Helmet made by Negroli of Milan,                              102

 A 118. Burgonet of Charles V,                                       102

 A 151. Burgonet of Charles V, with Bevor bought from Sir Richard
 Wallace,                                                            103

 A 151. Burgonet of Charles V, with Bevor not belonging to
 Helmet,                                                             103

 A 151. Corselet of Charles V,                                       104

 A 189. Gauntlet of Philip II,                                       105

 A 190. Helmet of Philip II,                                         105

 Helmet of Philip II, made at Augsburg in 1549, belonging to the suit A
 239,                                                                106

 A 243. Helmet of Philip II, made by Wolf of Landshut in 1554,       107

 A 290. Burgonet of King Sebastian of Portugal,                      108

 A 290. Burgonet of King Sebastian of Portugal,                      109

 A 292. Burgonet made for Philip III by Lucio Picinino,              110

 A 291. Helmet of Philip III, with three beautiful Masks on Visor,
 Nape, and Front; probably Italian, late 16th century,               111

 A 292. Burgonet, the missing parts of which are in the Kensington
 Museum, London,                                                     111

 A 350. Helmet for the Duke of Savoy (front view),                   112

 A 350. Helmet for the Duke of Savoy (side view),                    113

 A 417. Cabasset presented to Philip IV by the Infanta Isabel
 Eugenia,                                                            114

 A 350. Helmet with movable Visor, made in Pamplona, apparently for the
 Duke of Savoy, 1620,                                                115

 A 380. Burgonet, early 17th century, belonged to Philip IV,         115

 A 414. Helmet of Philip IV, presented to him with other Armour by the
 Infanta Isabel Eugenia,                                             115

 A 417. Cabasset presented to Philip IV by the Infanta Isabel
 Eugenia,                                                            115

 B 2. Morion, which belonged to Philip III when a Boy. Subject: The
 Goddess of Plenty,                                                  116

 B 5. Morion, given to Philip III when a Child by the Duke of
 Terranova,                                                          117

 D 3. Burgonet of Charles V, designed by Giulio Romano,              118

 D 3. Burgonet of Charles V, designed by Giulio Romano (second
 side),                                                              119

 D 5. Burgonet, 16th century. Subject: Bacchus and Ariadne (left
 side),                                                              120

 D 5. Burgonet, 16th century. Subject: Silenus supported by
 Bacchus,                                                            121

 D 7. Burgonet, 16th century. Subject: The Wooden Horse of Troy (left
 side),                                                              122

 D 7. Burgonet, 16th century. Subject: The Judgment of Paris (right
 side),                                                              123

 D 13. Milanese Salade, 15th century,                                124

 D 14. Moorish Salade, ascribed to Philip I,                         125

 D 26. Spanish Morion, early 16th century, with the Inscription, ‘Non
 Timeo Milia Populi,’                                                125

 A 188. Roman Helmet (Charles V),                                    126

 A 188. Mask on Shoulder-Guard of Charles V’s Roman Suit,            126

 D 22. Cabasset which belonged to Philip the Handsome,               126

 D 16. Late 15th century Helmet, probably belonged to Philip the
 Handsome,                                                           126

 D 25. Spanish Foot-Soldier’s Morion, early 16th century,            127

 D 23. Parade Headpiece of Charles V,                                127

 D 29. Parade Headpiece, middle 16th century (origin unknown),       127

 D 30. Parade Burgonet, made for Charles V by the Negrolis in
 1545,                                                               127

 D 29. Helmet, middle of 16th century,                               128

 D 28. Steel Cap belonging to Charles V,                             128

 D 30. Burgonet of Charles V, made by Negroli,                       129

 M 5. Helmet of Francis I of France, taken at the Battle of
 Pavia,                                                              130

 M 5. Helmet of Francis I of France, taken at the Battle of
 Pavia,                                                              131

 B 21. Helmet which belonged to Prince Baltasar Carlos,
 1629-1646,                                                          132

 D 31. Burgonet ascribed on insufficient grounds to Antonio de Leyva
 (16th century),                                                     132

 1511. Satin and Velvet Turban found in the Palace of Mustafa, Bey of
 Oran, in 1722,                                                      133

 1533. Steel Turban of Ali Pasha, Turkish Admiral at Lepanto,        133

 Turkish Helmet taken at Lepanto,                                    134

 Helmet of Philip III,                                               134

 Helmet of the 16th century,                                         135

 Helmet of Charles V, belonging to the Cornucopiæ Suit,              136

 Helmet of Charles V, belonging to the Cornucopiæ Suit,              136

 C 11. Salade, with detachable decorative Pieces (belonged to
 Maximilian I or Philip I),                                          137

 M 19. Helmet of Ali Pasha, Turkish Admiral, defeated at
 Lepanto,                                                            137

 A 191. Morion and Arm-guard of Charles V,                           138

 A 27. Shield used in Tilting,                                       139

 A 57. Shield used in Tilting, designed by Hopfer,                   139

 A 57. Shield designed by Hopfer,                                    140

 Shield, with a Mask in Relief, belonging to the Harness of Charles V,
 A 149-156,                                                          141

 Shield of Philip II, belonging to the Armour A 217-230,             142

 Shield of the Emperor Charles V, belonging to the Harness A
 159-163,                                                            142

 A 265. Shield of Philip II,                                         143

 A 241. German Shield, 16th century, by Desiderio Colman: War, Peace,
 Wisdom, and Strength,                                               143

 Shield of Philip III, musket-proof, belonging to the Harness A
 354,                                                                144

 A 293. Shield. Subject: Alexander subduing Bucephalus,              144

 A 293. Shield accompanying armour of Philip III, 1578-1621. In the
 centre, Alexander the Great subduing Bucephalus,                    145

 B 3. Shield which belonged to Philip III when a boy. Subject: Jupiter,
 Neptune, and Mars overwhelming the Moors,                           146

 A 374. Shield belonging to Prince Filippo Emmanuele of Savoy,
 1588-1624 (Italian),                                                146

 D 1, D 2. Helmet and Shield of Charles V,                           147

 D 3, D 4. Burgonet and Shield of Charles V,                         148

 D 8. Shield (Italian) with design representing the Abduction of Helen,
 16th century,                                                       149

 D 6. Shield of Italian workmanship, 16th century,                   149

 D 63. The ‘Plus Ultra’ Shield, designed by Girolamo Romani,         150

 D 10. Shield, early 17th century. Design: Warriors in combat,       150

 D 63. Shield called ‘Plus Ultra,’ with Apotheosis of Charles
 V,                                                                  150A

 D 64. The Medusa Shield, made by Negroli for Charles V,             150A

 Shield of the Emperor Charles V, forming part of the Mühlberg
 armour,                                                             151

 D 66. Italian Shield, Moorish style, 16th century,                  151

 D 67. Italian Shield, Moorish Style, 16th century,                  152

 Shield presented to Charles V by Don Ferdinando de Gonzaga,         152

 D 69. Italian Shield, 16th century. Design: The Triumph of
 Love,                                                               153

 D 68. Shield of Augsburg make, 16th century,                        153

 Shield ascribed to the Marquis of Villena, 16th century,            154

 D 71. Shield of the end of the 16th century,                        154

 Shield of Philip II,                                                155

 Shield of the Milanese School, 16th century,                        155

 D 72. Shield, late 16th century. Design: The Medusa’s Head,         156

 Shield representing Jupiter, Saturn, Venus and Cupid, Mercury, and
 Mars, 16th century,                                                 156

 Shield, the work of E. de Zuloaga, 19th century,                    157

 Unfinished Shield, the work of E. de Zuloaga, 19th century,         157

 Shield, the work of E. de Zuloaga, 19th century,                    158

 D 73. Spanish Shield, 17th century. Design: The Judgment of
 Paris,                                                              158

 D 78. Shield presented to Philip III by the Duke of Savoy in
 1603,                                                               159

 D 79. Shield presented to Philip III by the Duke of Savoy in
 1603,                                                               160

 D 86. Moorish Leather Shield, end of 15th century,                  161

 D 88. Oval Leather Shield, late 16th century. The face decorated with
 admirable Mexican-Indian Feather-work,                              161A

 Leather Shield, with the Arms of the Mendoza family,                162

 M 1-5. Arms of King Francis I of France, taken at the battle of Pavia,
 1525, by the troops of Charles V,                                   163

 M 6. Shield and Sword of Francis I of France, taken at the battle of
 Pavia. Design: The Gallic Cock attacking a warrior and putting him to
 flight,                                                             163A

 G 45. Sword of Hernando Cortes,                                     164

 G 48. Sword of Philip II,                                           164

 G 29. Sword of Gonsalvo de Cordoba,                                 164

 G 60. Pistol and Axe combined, of Philip II,                        165

 G 45. Sword attributed to Hernando Cortes, conqueror of Mexico,
 1485-1547,                                                          165

 G 47. Sword of Philip II, worn with parade armour,                  166

 G 48. Toledan Sword attributed to Philip II,                        166

 G 49. Toledan Sword of the Count of Corunna (16th century). The guard
 is one of the most beautiful in the armoury,                        166

 G 47. Sword of Philip II, with the mark of Clement Horn of
 Solingen,                                                           166A

 G 54. Spanish Sword, middle of 16th century,                        167

 G 59. Spanish Sword, late 16th century. Bears mark of Juanes el
 Viejo,                                                              167

 G 55. Spanish Sword, late 16th century, made by Sebastian Hernandez of
 Toledo,                                                             167

 G 61. Sword of the Duke of Weimar, Commander of the Swedish Army,
 defeated at the Battle of Nordlingen, 1624,                         168

 G 80. Sword attributed to Philip III It bears the date 1604, Toledo
 make,                                                               168

 G 64. Sword attributed to Count de Lamos, 1576-1622, made by Tomás de
 Ayala of Seville,                                                   168

 G 151. Persian Sword, 16th century, probably brought from Tunis by
 Charles V,                                                          169

 G 62. Stradiot’s Sabre, early 17th century, presented by the Duke of
 Savoy to Philip III (1603),                                         169

 G 43. 16th Century Cutlass,                                         169

 G 34. War Sword of Charles V, Italian make,                         170

 G 33. Italian War Sword of Charles V,                               170

 G 35. Sword of Pizarro, Conqueror of Peru,                          170

 G 160. Knife used by the Carver at the King’s Table, as required by
 the etiquette of the House of Burgundy,                             171

 Dagger, early 16th century,                                         171

 16th century Dagger, supposed to have belonged to Charles V,        171

 A 242. War Saddle of Philip II, made by Desiderius Colman of
 Augsburg,                                                           172

 A 242. Pommel and Cantle of Saddle of Philip II,                    172A

 A 242. Cantle-Plate of same Saddle,                                 172B

 A 242. Burr-Plate of Saddle,                                        172C

 A 242. Burr-Plate of Saddle,                                        172D

 A 291. Cantle-Plates of Saddle made by Lucio Picinino,              173

 A 291. Cantle-Plate of same Saddle,                                 173A

 A 291. Burr-Plate of same Saddle,                                   173B

 Saddle (Italian), 16th century. (Marine Monsters),                  174

 Moorish Saddle, with short Stirrups, 18th century,                  175

 Turkish Saddle given to Charles III,                                176

 Arab Saddle, with short Stirrups, taken in the Palace of the Bey of
 Oran in 1732,                                                       177

 Military Saddle, late 16th century,                                 178

 A 352. Saddle made at Pamplona for the Duke of Savoy (1620),        179

 Iron War Saddle of the Emperor Charles V,                           180

 F 22. Italian Saddle, 16th century, probably presented by Frederico
 Gonzaga to Charles V,                                               181

 Military Saddle: Design in Berruguete style,                        182

 2327. Military Saddle,                                              183

 Military Saddle, Augsburg make,                                     184

 Saddle, early 15th century, from Majorca,                           185

 1913. Sword, with the Toledo Blade of the Duke of Olivares,         186

 1880. ‘Flaming’ Spanish Sword of Philip IV,                         186

 1917. Sword of D. Suero de Quiñones, late 16th century,             186

 1864. Dagger, scalloped half-way,                                   186

 1916. Sword, with round Point, of Garcilaso de la Vega,             186

 1920. Sword, with Toledo Blade, of the Marquis of Povar,            186

 631. Shield representing Jupiter sending Lightning on the
 Moors,                                                              186

 1874. Dagger given by Louis XV of France to the King of Spain,      186

 1704. Sword of Isabel the Catholic,                                 187

 1589. Petronel of Charles V, with Battle-Axe,                       187

 1581. Yataghan of Mustafa, Bey of Oran,                             187

 1561. Battle-Axe, 15th-16th centuries,                              187

 1563. Kriss or Malay Dagger,                                        187

 1587. Battle-Axe, Byzantine style,                                  187

 1702. Sword of the Great Captain,                                   187

 1764. Martel-de-fer of Charles V,                                   187

 1591. Alfange or Indian Scimitar,                                   187

 1698. Sword, 16th century,                                          187

 1719. Sword of the Count of Corunna,                                188

 1843, 1816. Pieces of the Barding of a Horse,                       188

 1696. Sword, 15th century,                                          188

 1716. Sword of Philip I, the Handsome,                              188

 2045, 2049. Pistols, 16th-17th centuries,                           188

 2077. Dagger, four edged, 16th century,                             188

 1814. Sword, found in the Tagus, and given to Philip II,            188

 1359, 1315. Armpit Shields,                                         188

 1763. Spurs, in Filigree Silver,                                    188

 1328. Lance-Shield of the Prince of Parma,                          188

 1759. Sword of Bernal Diaz del Castillo,                            188

 1697. Sword of the Prince of Conde,                                 189

 1644. Two-handed Sword, early 15th century,                         189

 1777. Sword of Philip II,                                           189

 1794. Sword of Don John of Austria,                                 189

 1708. German Sword of Frederick Henry, Count of Nassau,             189

 1845. Sword of John of Urbino,                                      189

 1692. Magnificent Toledan Blade, unmounted,                         189

 2067, 2076. A pair of Pistols, 17th century,                        189

 1823. Piece of a Horse’s Barding,                                   189

 1769. Sword of Pizarro,                                             190

 1726. Head Stall,                                                   190

 1721. Very remarkable Sword of the Renaissance,                     190

 1718, 1771. Rondels,                                                190

 2044. Pistols, 16th and 17th centuries,                             190

 929. Head Stall for Charger of the Count of Niebla,                 190

 1770, 1761. Beautiful Stirrups, with Figures,                       190

 1768. Unique Spur,                                                  190

 1873. Sword,                                                        191

 1850. German Sword,                                                 191

 1912. Sword of Philip III,                                          191

 1911. Sword of the Duke of Montemar,                                191

 1872. Sword of Charles II,                                          191

 2034, 2031. Pistols,                                                191

 523. Chamfron,                                                      191

 1773. Sword of Philip II,                                           192

 1659. Sword with four Sides (German), 16th century,                 192

 1807. Sword of Hernan Cortes,                                       192

 1856, 1857. Magnificent pair of Gauntlets,                          192

 1727. Lobera Sword of St. Ferdinand,                                192

 1645. Sword of Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza,                        192

 1562. Moorish Boarding Gauntlet, 14th to 15th century,              193

 1619. Sword presented to John II of Castile by the Pope Eugenius
 IV,                                                                 193

 1711. Halberd of Charles V,                                         193

 1529. Iron Ring, with Points inside,                                193

 1588. Bracelet of Ali Pasha, Turkish Admiral at Lepanto,            193

 1502, 1544. Moorish Quivers,                                        193

 1556, 1605. Malay Battle-Axes, in Wood,                             193

 1620. Sword of Diego Garcia Paredes,                                193

 1606. Wooden Stirrup,                                               193

 1644. Two-handed Sword, early 15th century,                         193

 1554. Quiver with Arrows of the Cacique Guarimacoa,                 193

 2535. Halberd Plate, 15th century,                                  193

 1585. Moorish Boarding Weapon, 15th century,                        193

 1776. Espadon or large two-handed Sword of Charles V,               194

 1878. Sword of the Count Lemos,                                     194

 1862. Valencian Sword of Ferdinand D’Alarcon,                       194

 1976, 1968. Beautiful Pistols of 16th century,                      194

 567. Chamfron which belonged to Philip IV,                          194

 1775. Espadon of Diego Garcia de Paredes,                           194

 1848. Flaming Sword of Don Juan of Austria, Son of Philip IV,       194

 1852. Sword of Pedro Mendez de Aviles,                              194

 1762. Sword of Cardinal Fernando, Brother of Philip IV,             195

 1924, 1806,} 1833.} Pieces of Barding for a Horse,                  195

 1049. Sword of the Count of Benavente, made at Zaragoza,            195

 1634. Espadon,                                                      195

 1599. Scimitar of Don Juan of Austria,                              195

 1598. Spanish-Moresque Sword,                                       195

 1729, 1767. Maces, 15th and 16th centuries,                         195

 1765. Two-handed Sword of Ferdinand V, the Catholic,                196

 1662. Sword in its Sheath, studded with Jewels,                     196

 1713. Two-handed Sword of Charles V,                                196

 1706, 1701. Maces of the Constable of Bourbon, time of Charles
 V,                                                                  196

 1700, 1707. Stirrups, of Turkish form, of Charles V,                196

 629. Gilded Handle to Crossbow,                                     197

 1529. Iron Ring, with Spikes inside, which the Moors used as an
 Instrument of Execution,                                            197

 598. Flemish Crossbow, 16th century,                                197

 628. Crossbow, incrusted with Ivory,                                197

 640. Crossbow of the Duke of Alba,                                  197

 1522. Arabian Spur,                                                 197

 1538. Shield for Crossbowman,                                       197

 Gaffles for stretching the String of the Crossbow,                  197

 Trophy formed of different Weapons, by E. de Zuloaga,               198

 Trophy formed of several pieces of Armour of Philip II,             199

 Marks used by the principal Sword-makers of Toledo until the beginning
 of the 18th century,                                                200

 Key to the foregoing,                                               200A

 Heads of Spanish Lances and Pikes, 15th to 17th centuries. ‘The Pike I
 would have, if it might be, of Spanish Ash, and between 20 and 22 feet
 long.’--Sutcliffe, _Practice of Arms_ (1593),                       201

 Heads of Spanish Lances used for Tilts and Tournaments, 15th to 17th
 centuries, pointed, round headed, or furcated,                      202

 Spanish Knives employed by the chief Carver at the Royal Table the
 Handles of which are richly decorated with the Spanish Arms of the
 time of Philip IV,                                                  203

 J 28. Hunting Crossbow, early 16th century,                         204

 J 18. Spanish Hunting Crossbow of Charles V,                        204

 J 37. Small Hunting Crossbow, 16th century,                         204

 H 9. Martel-de-Fer, early 16th century,                             205

 H 6. Battle-axe, middle 16th century,                               205

 H 14. Battle-mace, late 15th century,                               205

 H 15. Battle-mace of Charles V,                                     205

 1987, 1992. Spanish Arquebuses, end of 16th century,                206

 1955. Petronel, 16th century,                                       206

 1961. Spanish Arquebus, with octagonal Barrel inlaid with Mother of
 Pearl and Ivory, 16th century,                                      206

 1972, 1977,} 1946.} Keys or Cranks to cock the Arquebuses,          206

 1602. Elegant Sabre of a ‘Chef d’Estradiots’ (Venetian) given to
 Philip III,                                                         207

 2243, 2285. Spanish Knives, with Spanish Arms, time of Philip
 IV,                                                                 207

 1577, 1578. Persian Sabres,                                         207

 1604. Gourma, or Dagger,                                            207

 1579. Sabre of unknown origin,                                      207

 1600. Misrae or Scimitar of Ali Pasha, Turkish Admiral at
 Lepanto,                                                            207

 1572. Miserecorde, or Dagger, of Diego Garcia de Paredes,           207

 1566. Dagger of Charles V,                                          207

 1580. Dagger of the Kabyles,                                        207

 1562. Manople or Moorish Boarding-sword, 14th-15th centuries,       207

 2167. Repeating Hunting Gun,                                        208

 2296. Turkish Cannon Tinder,                                        208

 2140. Hunting Gun with twelve Shots,                                208

 2164. Repeating Gun, made in 1705,                                  208

 2534. The Barrel of a Breech-loading Gun,                           208

 2294. Turkish Gun Tinder,                                           208

 2142. Model of a Gun with fourteen Shots,                           208

 1. Arquebus of Don John of Austria (K 14),                          209

 2. Arquebus Handle, Dagger, and Primer combined (G 151),            209

 3. Arquebus of Don John Joseph of Austria (K 23),                   209

 4. Arquebus Handle and Primer (K 12),                               209

 5. Nuremburg Arquebus, 16th century (K 11),                         209

 1940, 1944. Barrels, 15th century,                                  210

 651. Lance, with two little Barrels, 17th century,                  210

 903. Spanish Arquebus, 15th century,                                211

 9178. Petronel, 1547,                                               211

 2080. Pistol, with three Barrels,                                   211

 2126. Pistol, with Rifle Barrel,                                    211

 2225. Hunting Gun of Philip V, breech-loading,                      211

 2024. Petronel, 16th century,                                       211

 2635. Revolver, 18th century,                                       211

 2045. Pistol, with two Barrels, 16th century,                       211

 K 30. Small Arquebus of Charles V (Italian make),                   212

 K 33. Small Spanish Arquebus, 1531,                                 212

 K 55. Small Pistol-arquebus, middle 16th century,                   212

 Double breech-loading Cannon, in bronze, used in Spain from the end of
 the 15th century,                                                   213

 A 190. Tailpiece of a Horse’s Bard, 1545,                           214

 A 190. Chanfron, representing the Head and Neck of a fantastic Dragon,
 covered with Scales of Gold, 1545,                                  214

 531. Head-stall of Philip III’s Horse,                              215

 534. Chanfron and Mainfaire of a Horse of Philip III,               215

 567. Chanfron of Horse of Philip IV,                                215

 525. Chanfron (Moorish),                                            216

 558. Chanfron and Mainfaire, 16th century,                          216

 565. Chanfron, with the Imperial Arms in Colours,                   216

 F 110. Chanfron, early 16th century,                                217

 F 113. Chanfron, early 16th century,                                217

 1762. Sword of Cardinal D. Fernando, Brother of Philip IV,          218

 1613, 1624. Christian Standards, from the Battle of Lepanto,        218

 Flag carried at the Obsequies of Philip II,                         219

 Standard of the Ex-Bodyguard,                                       220

 Standard taken from the English who besieged Carthagena (America) in
 1741,                                                               221

 Flag from the Battle of Lepanto, with a Painting representing Christ
 and St. Martin,                                                     222

 Seal of Charles V when Count of Flanders, showing him on Horseback in
 Armour,                                                             223

 Small Shield on Head-stall, with the Arms of Philip II when
 Heir-apparent, and also those of his Wife, Queen Mary of
 England,                                                            223

 Salade-morion of the Prince of Asturias, Baltasar Carlos of Austria
 (1629-1646),                                                        223

 M 75, 77, 76. Lanterns from Flag-ships gained by the Marques de Santa
 Cruz in various naval Engagements,                                  224

 Sedan Chair of Philip V (from the Coach-houses of the Royal Palace,
 Madrid),                                                            225

 Sedan Chair of Ferdinand VI (from the Coach-houses of the Royal
 Palace, Madrid),                                                    226

 Sedan Chair of Charles IV (from the Coach-houses of the Royal Palace,
 Madrid),                                                            227

 Sedan Chair of Philip V (from the Coach-houses of the Royal Palace,
 Madrid),                                                            228

 Sedan Chair of Charles III (from the Coach-houses of the Royal Palace,
 Madrid),                                                            229

 Campaign Litter of the Emperor Charles V,                           230

 Carriage given by Napoleon I to Charles IV (from the Coach-houses of
 the Royal Palace, Madrid),                                          231

 Gala Coach of Charles IV (from the Coach-houses of the Royal Palace,
 Madrid),                                                            232

 Carriage of the President of the Cortes (from the Coach-houses of the
 Royal Palace, Madrid),                                              233

 The Crown Coach (from the Coach-houses of the Royal Palace,
 Madrid),                                                            234

 Wedding Coach of Ferdinand VII and Maria Christina (from the
 Coach-houses of the Royal Palace, Madrid),                          235

 Carriage of the Mace-Bearers of the Cortes (from the Coach-houses of
 the Royal Palace, Madrid),                                          236

 Carriage, with gilt Panels, of Charles IV (from the Coach-houses of
 the Royal Palace, Madrid),                                          237

 Cover of an Album, exterior, the work of E. de Zuloaga,             238

 Cover of an Album, interior, the work of E. de Zuloaga,             239

 Portable Chair, in Leather, of the Emperor Charles V,               240

 Magnificent Bureau, in engraved Iron, belonged to Charles V,        241

 Wooden Trunk, with Ornaments in the Pointed Style,                  242

 Iron Inkstand, embossed and inlaid, the work of E. de Zuloaga,      243

 General View of the Interior of the Armoury,                        244

 General View of the Interior of the Armoury,                        245

 General View of the Interior of the Armoury,                        246

 Figure explaining various technical Terms used in the Text,         247

 Figure explaining various technical Terms used in the Text,         248



SPANISH ARMS AND ARMOUR

INTRODUCTORY


The prominence which Spain has enjoyed from the earliest times as a
manufactory of armour and a school of arms is attributable, in the first
instance, to its mineralogical richness, and, subsequently, to the part
it played in the military history of Europe. In the days of Rome’s
greatness, Spain became the chief mineral-producing tributary of the
Empire. Its mines contained in perfection all the metals then applied to
warlike uses, and its rivers were believed to possess peculiar
properties for the tempering of blades. Bilbilis was as much a name to
conjure with among the Roman warriors as was the “Bilbo” among the
gallants and swashbucklers of Shakespeare’s day. Toledo and the sword
are indissolubly associated in the literature of arms; it is impossible
to mention the name of the city without recalling the unchallenged
excellence of the blades it has given to the world. And if Toledo is the
city of the sword, Spain is the land of swordsmanship. It was in Spain
that the muscular sweep of the broadsword was refined into the
scientific point-play of the rapier; it was there that the art of fence
originated; and to-day it is claimed that there are more books on
fencing in Spanish than in any other language.

From the highest in the land to the lowest the love of arms is seen to
have been inherent in the Spaniard from time immemorial, and he has ever
shown himself quick to adopt foreign methods and innovations that
promised to lend greater efficacy to his blow and sterner resistance to
his defensive armour. Francis I. beheld the youth of Spain stoutly
accoutred and armed to the teeth, and exclaimed, “Oh, happy land, which
brings forth and rears armed men.” The profession of arms was the
avocation of every Spaniard; he left his mother’s breast to take his
place at his father’s side; he was a soldier by birth, breeding, and
training. Only a nation of soldiers could have successfully withstood an
invasion so overwhelming as that of the Saracens. Only a race imbued
with the traditions and love of war and its arts could have persevered
so long against enormous odds to the final and glorious triumph of the
closing years of the fifteenth century.

The Spaniards of the days of Pizarro and Cortes, like their
contemporaries, the English admirals, courted war as a mistress, and
strove to meet her in their bravest array. The devoted attention they
paid to their armour and the temper of their weapons excited the
regretful admiration of their determined foe, old sea-dog Hawkins. The
Castilian loved the glint of shimmering steel and the ring of a true
forged blade on stout harness; his was a land of iron, and so long as
the issue of the battle depended on the sword and the lance, he could
defy Europe, and hold two Continents in fee. But the age of iron passed;
with it passed that grand old craftsman, the armourer; and the day of
Spain also, passed, for a while, into the grey evening of nations. For
Spain, so faithfully wedded to its native arms, and so pre-eminent in
their use, was slow to embrace the faith of explosives. Cervantes, in
the following passage, which he puts into the mouth of Don Quixote, has
left on record the aversion of his countrymen to the levelling-up
influence of the rifle, and their exaggerated attachment to the weapons
of chivalry:

“Blessed be those happy ages that were strangers to the dreadful fury of
those devilish instruments of artillery which is the cause that very
often a cowardly base hind takes away the life of the bravest gentleman,
and in the midst of that rigour and resolution which animates and
inflames the bold, a chance bullet (shot perhaps by one that fled, and
was frighted at the very flash the mischievous piece gave when it went
off), coming nobody knows how or from whence, in a moment puts a period
to the brave designs and the life of one that deserved to have survived
many years. This considered, I could almost say I am sorry at heart for
having taken on me this profession of a knight-errant in so detestable
an age: for though no danger daunts me, yet it affects me to think that
powder and lead may deprive me of the opportunity of becoming famous,
and making myself known throughout the world by the strength of my arm
and the dint of my sword.”

The national love of the sword and buckler was encouraged in the
Spaniards by many of their sovereigns, foremost among whom was the
warrior-King, Charles V. In the beginning of the sixteenth century the
crown of Spain passed to this prince, the grandson and heir of
Maximilian of Germany, in whose veins flowed the blood of the martial
Dukes of Burgundy. Maximilian had done more than any other monarch to
encourage and advance the armourer’s art, and Charles V.’s passion for
the practice and perfecting of arms, and all that pertained to military
equipment, was even greater than that evinced by his grandfather. By a
fortunate combination of circumstances, supplemented by his lust of
conquest, he found himself the monarch of three realms, in one of which
(Spain) the love of arms was almost a mania, while in the other two
(Germany and Italy) the armourer’s craft had attained a degree of
perfection that has not been approached in any other age or country. The
sovereign that could command the services of the Colmans of Augsburg and
the Negrolis of Milan was in an unequalled position for one who desired
to gratify a taste for armour, and Charles did not neglect his
opportunity. He patronised liberally the master-craftsmen of Italy and
Germany, sedulously stimulating their rivalry the while, and at his
death left to Spain--the worthiest of his realms to inherit it--the
finest collection of knightly harnesses that any monarch had ever
possessed.

It will be gathered from the following brief sketch that Spain has
achieved distinction both as a manufactory and a storehouse of arms.
Aragon, and, to a less marked extent, Castile, were always in the van
where the improvement of armour was concerned; and although experts
consider that Italy set the fashion in the craft during the Middle Ages,
it is by no means certain that Barcelona did not, at some periods,
assume the lead. Swords, as in the days of the Cæsars, continued to be
exported to Italy from Catalonia through the twelfth, thirteenth, and
fourteenth centuries, the traffic, curiously enough, being chiefly in
the hands of that unwarlike race, the Jews.

But while arms and armour have ever been a study in the Peninsula which
has engaged the closest attention of Kings, soldiers, and artificers, no
distinct style, no essentially national type of armour was, or could be,
evolved. Nor is this fact calculated to cause surprise, for it is
obvious that there can be no Spanish school of armoury in the sense that
there is a Spanish school of painting, or of music. Weapons and means of
defence must vary according to periods rather than localities, and thus
it follows that while the armour of one century may be easily
distinguished from that of another, to differentiate between a German
and a French suit of the same period is always a difficult, frequently
an impossible, task. The warrior could not permit himself to be swayed
by fanciful or patriotic prejudice in the fashion or make of his arms;
his life depended on the stoutness and quality of his weapons, and he
secured the best that his means could command wherever they were
obtainable. If the enemy were possessed of stronger, more pliant, or
better tempered weapons or accoutrements, the soldier had no choice but
to learn the methods of his foeman. The secrets of improvements in the
science of armoury could only be preserved in times of peace, for, once
the weapons were used in the tented field, the riddle of their
superiority was solved. The harness of a vanquished knight became,
according to the laws of chivalry, the property of his conqueror. In
this manner a constant interchange of arms and armour went on through
the Iron Ages, and the equipment and methods of victorious and
vanquished nations were sooner or later divulged and adopted.

There is, therefore, as has been said, no national school of Spanish
arms; and the Royal Armoury itself, although admittedly the finest
collection of its kind in the world, is not a gallery of Spanish
workmanship. Thanks to the range and extent of the dominion of its
founder, Charles V., the Armoury, from its institution, has assumed an
international character. Here are suits of harness, the choicest product
of native craft, executed at the Emperor’s command, interspersed with
the finest works of Germany, of Flanders, and of Italy--gifts,
purchases, and the spoils of war. In no other collection of a like
nature can be seen so many _chefs d’œuvres_ of the greatest masters of
Europe; but while so many of the most important exhibits are of foreign
origin, the museum remains essentially the Royal Armoury of Spain--the
repository of the armour of its kings, the swords of its captains, and
the trophies of its victorious armies.



I

FROM THE FIFTH TO THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY


When, in the fifth century, the Visigoths passed over the Pyrenees and
laid the foundations of a new nation, they found a people armed for war,
as they were clothed in peace, after the Roman fashion. The legionary’s
equipment must have been tolerably familiar to the fair-haired invaders,
and it is likely that they had already adopted it in many of its
details. That they did so on their establishment in Spain, at all
events, is proved by the descriptions contained in the _Etymologies_ of
St. Isidore, which, however, make no mention of the lorica or
breastplate, and ocreas or greaves worn by the soldiers of the empire.
Reference is made instead by the saintly chronicler to coats of fence,
made of chain-mail, or of thick quilted stuff woven in Silesia.

There was at one time a very general belief that chain armour was
introduced into Europe from the East. This view is successfully combated
by Hewitt--_Ancient Armour and Weapons in Europe_--who proves that this
important article of military apparel was worn by the Germans, Normans,
and Anglo-Saxons at a very remote period. Varro, indeed, ascribes its
invention to the Gauls. The Anglo-Saxon epic, “Beowulf” (eighth century)
contains many allusions to the “ringed byrnie,” while in the _Volsunga
Saga_ we read that “Sigurd’s sides so swelled with rage that the rings
of his byrnie were burst asunder.” It is evident from this passage that
what was meant was mail-armour; _i.e._, composed of interlinked rings,
not merely the quilted tunic on which were sown metal discs, such as
was, however, undoubtedly worn also at that time and for many centuries
after. Both kinds of defensive armour may have been brought to Spain by
the Visigoths, or again adopted by them subsequent to their settlement
in the country.

I have been unable to discover on effigies or in illuminated manuscripts
any specimens of Visigothic armour. There is good reason to believe that
it was far from being of a rude description. The methods of tempering
steel which had made the blades of Toledo and Bilbilis renowned
throughout the Roman world could hardly have been forgotten; and Baron
Davillier has shown that a craft closely allied to the armourer’s--the
goldsmith’s--received liberal encouragement from the successors of
Ataulfo. The Saracens, according to their own historians, were amazed at
the splendour and richness of the treasure accumulated in the cities of
Spain. Tharik Ben Zeyad, when he took Toledo in 712, found amongst a
profusion of crowns, jewellery, and plate, “gilded armour, daggers, and
swords richly mounted, bows, lances, and various arms, offensive and
defensive.” The spoils, as enumerated by another writer, included one
thousand swords for the use of the kings, and one hundred and seventy
crowns of pure gold.

This testimony is confirmed by the priceless relics of Visigothic
dominion, preserved in the Cluny Museum, and, thanks to the liberality
of Queen Isabel II., in the Royal Armoury at Madrid (see plate 1). The
circumstances of their discovery, as related by Don Pedro de Madrazo,
and set forth by Conde de Valencia de San Juan, are of almost romantic
interest.

“On the night of August 25th, 1858, a man and a woman were journeying on
two small donkeys along the road from Toledo to Guadamar. On approaching
the Guarrazar fountain, they observed by the light of the moon, that the
rain which had fallen during a great storm the previous day, had washed
the earth down towards the issue of the fountain, and left bare what
looked like tombs. Out of curiosity, or necessity, the woman got off her
donkey, and approached them, and in a square hole, made of stones and
lime, ill-concealed with two flat stones, between which the moonlight
penetrated, she saw with wonder that something strange was glistening.
On her exclaiming, the man also dismounted, and, putting his hand into
the hole, he touched an object like a collar made of hearts. He took it
out, and after that, other things of different shapes, then a cross,
then a crown, and then a larger one ... washing them with the water from
the adjoining fountain, gold and precious stones revealed themselves to
their astonished eyes. They afterwards declared that they thought they
were dreaming. They took away the treasure they had found with all
secrecy; said nothing in the town, and the following night, with the
same secrecy, and provided with a small lantern and the necessary tools,
they returned to examine the marvellous hiding-place, whence they took
all that remained.

“Within a few days pieces of valuable gold and silver work of an unknown
period began to be seen in the Toledo silversmiths’ shops, and a
goldsmith and dealer in stones and gems in the town, who had his house
and workshop in a beautiful garden by the Tagus, near the Sword Factory,
and who was distinguished among his fellows by his taste for archæology,
had the patience to acquire one by one, and to match together the
different pieces under observation; after many combinations and
rectifications, leaving out some pieces, and, with consummate art,
supplying others that were missing, he at last formed, or rather
restored, several crowns, among them one very large and valuable, which,
by the hangings, was found to be the crown of King Recesvinto (649-672).

“With the same secrecy that the discoverers of the treasure had
observed, Navarro (for this was the name of the dealer in stones and
gems) proceeded with the difficult task of restoring to their original
shape those inestimable insignia of Visigothic Royalty. He took them to
France, and they were already in a case in the Cluny Museum when Spain
heard of the discovery and extraction of the crowns of Guarrazar.

“But the treasure, taken in 1858 from Guarrazar to Guadamar was not
exhausted. About May, 1861, a villager of Guadamar, Domingo de la Cruz,
who had found in the same Guarrazar cemetery, but in a different hole to
the one already explored, other crowns and objects used for worship,
presented himself at Aranjuez, where Queen Isabel was at the time. This
man, after many ambiguous and roundabout proposals, having ascertained
that no harm would come to him from the revelation he was about to make,
and, above all, stimulated by the promises which, relying on the
generosity of the Queen, the Intendant Don Antonio Flores cleverly let
fall in the conversation, said he was the possessor of these treasures.
The crafty rustic had them with him, but at the moment he did not say
so, and only showed them when Flores, having obtained the consent of her
Majesty, formally offered him, in the Queen’s name, a life-pension
[4,000 reals a year], which from that day was religiously paid to him.”

The Armoury and the Cluny Museum probably contain only a half of the
treasure of Guarrazar. As we have seen, much of it was broken up and
melted down by the goldsmiths of Toledo. It is said that it comprised a
beautiful golden dove, which came into the possession of a jeweller, who
had so many qualms of conscience concerning it, that he at last took the
drastic course of throwing it into the Tagus. That rapid stream must
have received a good deal of Visigothic treasure since it first flowed
under the arches of Toledo.

The crowns preserved at Madrid and the Cluny are not the official
insignia of royalty, but offerings at the shrine. This is proved by the
inscriptions on them, and by the fringe of pendants, which could not
possibly have dangled over the royal countenance. The crown of King
Suintila (numbered N1 in the catalogue), who reigned from 621 to 631, is
formed by two semi-circles of double gold plate, joined by hinges, the
resulting hoop being 0.220 in diameter, and 0.060 in height. The inside
plate is plain. The outer hoop is encircled by three bands in relief,
two being set with pearls and sapphires, and the middle and wider one
designed with openwork rosettes, enriched with settings of the same
stones. In its original state the crown had, hanging from its lower
edge, a cross and twenty-two letters, making up the inscription,
SVINTHILANVS REX OFFERET. All and each of the letters were actual jewels
set in a vitreous substance, like enamel sockets, attached to which are
brilliants, pearls, and pear-shaped sapphires hanging from each other in
the order mentioned. Though only twelve letters were remaining, the
dedication was skilfully reconstructed by Señores Madrazo and Amador de
los Rio. The crown is suspended by four chains from an ornament composed
of two golden lilies separated by a piece of rock crystal cut in facets.
Each chain consists of four links, shaped like the leaf of the
pear-tree. Hanging from one of these chains is a cross of beautiful
workmanship, composed of pieces from two other crosses, belonging in all
probability to two different crowns.

The exhibits N4 and N6 are floral ornaments similar to that from which
the crown of Suintila is suspended. The votive crown of the Abbot
Theodosius (N2) is of less elaborate workmanship and design; seven of
its eight pendants of gold, pearls, and sapphires remain. Close to it
(N3) is the Byzantine cross which, the letters stamped upon it in
reverse order tell us, was offered by Bishop Lucetius. It has, likewise,
seven pendants of gold and pear-shaped sapphires. The various articles
in this collection do not differ appreciably in style and material, it
is perhaps unnecessary to observe, from those of similar origin in the
Cluny Museum. All exhibit the traces of Byzantine influence.

To the Visigothic era is also ascribed (Conde de Valencia thinks with
good reason) a very ancient horse’s bit (F123--plate 9), found on a
battlefield in Andalusia, and said to have been used by Witiza, the
ill-fated Roderick’s predecessor. The mouthpiece does not differ greatly
from the modern pattern, but in place of rings it has four oblong
pieces pierced with holes for the reins and halter. These apertures form
dragons’ heads and crosses, alternating with cruciform monograms. The
bit is of unusual thickness, and the roughness of the work, together
with the silver incrustation, complete its resemblance to other relics
classified as Gothic or Scandinavian.

During the three centuries that followed the dreadful days of the
Guadalete, the Spaniard must needs have looked well to his armour and
his weapons: “In native swords and native ranks, the only hope of
courage dwelt.” The sword industry of Toledo had passed under the
control of the invaders, and we read that Abd-ur-Rahman II. (822-852)
regulated and reformed it. One of the numerous friendly passages between
Moor and Christian was marked by a gift of Toledan blades from Al Hakim
II. to Sancho, Count of Navarre (865). Meanwhile, among the fastnesses
of Asturias and the Pyrenees, the hard-pressed Spaniards were forging
for themselves arms and armour against which the sword of the doughty
Roland was shivered, and which successfully withstood the swift strong
lance-thrusts of Saracen chivalry. Cut off though they were from the
rest of the Christian world, the early defenders of Spanish liberty do
not seem to have arrayed themselves for war in a fashion very different
from that of their contemporaries. In the cathedral of Oviedo is
preserved the Libro Goticó,[A] a curiously illuminated codex, where we
see “armigers” carrying circular and kite-shaped shields, and wearing,
in one case, what seems to be a hauberk of mail. The sepulchre of the
three daughters of Ramiro I. of Aragon, dating from the last years of
the eleventh century, is sculptured with the forms of three knights, two
mounted and about to engage in combat, while the third, Samson-like, is
forcing open the jaws of a monstrous beast. The cavaliers wear
close-fitting caps, seemingly fluted, and very much like the
_chapelles-de-fer_ of a later age; long surcoats reaching below the
knee, and decorated with ornamental borders at the neck, cuff, and
openings; one is armed with a spear, the other with spear, sword, and
kite-shaped shield with bosses; and both wear greaves or leg-armour of
plate or leather. The horses are not provided with any defensive armour;
the custom of “barding” chargers not being introduced till a much later
date.

There is an extremely interesting manuscript in the British Museum
called the _Comentario Apocaliptica_, said to have been executed between
1089 and 1109. It is frequently referred to by Hewitt, and throws much
light on the armour of the period. We have reason to be grateful for the
absurd practice persisted in by ancient illuminators and painters of
depicting persons, supposed to have lived in Greek and Roman times, in
the costume of their own day. One of the illuminations shows four
knights mounted. They wear long coats of mail, reaching below the knees,
with sleeves, which, in two cases, reach only to the elbows. In one case
the coat of mail is shown as composed of blue scales, with red studs,
and here we seem to have an instance of jazerine armour (from the
Italian _ghiazerino_). It seems clear that the designer did not mean to
represent chain-mail in this way, for when the body of the garment is
obviously of mail he has taken care to distinguish a different pattern
on the chausses or leg armour. Still in this class of illustration it is
always a moot point what kind of armour the artist actually did mean to
represent. Possibly a shirt of chain-mail was sometimes worn, with
stockings of leather set with scales of metal, as more flexible and
allowing greater freedom to the limbs. The shirts of mail are edged
with wide borders, which may or may not represent the under tunic or
gambeson showing beneath.

On fol. 194, we have the full-length picture of a warrior armed
_cap-à-pie_. He wears a long hauberk of mail, chausses or leg-armour of
the same material, and a conical helmet, with a “nasal” or
nose-protector, exactly the same as that worn by William the Conqueror
and his knights. Hewitt calls attention to the knop, or button,
surmounting the helmet, as a peculiarity. The knight is armed with sword
and spears, and, like the four others just mentioned, carries a circular
target. This is a noteworthy detail, as kite-shaped shields were almost
universally in vogue at this epoch, over the rest of Europe. That they
were to some extent in use in Spain also, is attested by the specimen
(O59) in the Armoury.

This is a kite-shaped war shield, probably of cedar wood. On both sides
it is covered with parchment, and has strong straps of skin, lined with
red velvet, for the grasp of the holder, and part of the strap by which
it hung from his neck. Inside it seems to have been painted black; the
outer side is slightly convex, and was adorned with stripes and other
designs in colour and gilding on a red ground. This description of
decoration was common in the twelfth century, but had no heraldic
signification, the science of blazonry not being at that time well
understood. Nothing definite is known as to the original owner of this
shield, but it is not unlikely that it belonged to Don Gonzalo
Salvadores, surnamed “Four Hands,” or to Don Nuñez Alvárez, both of whom
were buried at the spot where it was found. Ramon Berenguer IV., Count
of Barcelona (1131-1162) is represented on an engraved seal, reproduced
in M. Auguste Demmin’s work on armour, carrying a kite-shaped shield. He
wears the conical helmet with nasal and hauberk of mail, with camail or
hood of mail, such as was generally worn, and the absence of which is
worthy of remark in the warriors of the _Apocaliptica_. Thus early we
are able to distinguish certain differences between the knightly
harnesses of Aragon and Leon.

Such armour as is shown in the illuminated codex referred to, was no
doubt worn by the redoubtable Cid, Ruy Diez de Bivar, whose stormy
career extended from 1029 to 1099. The _Poema del Cid_, which relates
his great achievements, was written unfortunately at least one hundred
and eight years after his death, and therefore we cannot place absolute
reliance upon the few details it contains as to his equipment. The
following passages are of special interest to the student of arms and
armour:

    “With bucklers braced before their breasts, with lances pointing low,
     With stooping crests, and heads bent down above the saddle bow,
     All firm of hand and high of heart, they roll upon the foe.
     And he that in good hour was born, his clarion voice rings out,
     And clear above the clang of arms is heard his battle-shout:
     ‘Among them, gentlemen! strike home for the love of Charity!
     The Champion of Bivar is here--Ruy Diez--I am he!’
     Then bearing where Bermuez still maintains unequal fight,
     Three hundred lances, down they come, their pennons flickering white;
     Down go three hundred Moors to earth, a man to every blow;
     And when they wheel, three hundred more, as charging back they go.
     It was a sight to see the lances rise and fall that day:
     The shivered shields, the riven mail, to see how thick they lay.”

“Riven mail” in the original is _loriga_, a word obviously derived from
the Latin _lorica_; but Mr. Ormsby, whose translation I give, is
undoubtedly right in his rendering of the word, as cuirasses, or
breastplates, were not worn in Spain for one hundred and fifty years
after the date of the poem. Here is another passage of some technical
interest:

[The Cid beholds approaching the army of the Count of Barcelona, and
encourages his own followers.]

    “On with your harness, cavaliers! quick saddle and to horse!
     Yonder they come--the linen-breeks--all down the mountain side.
     For saddles they have Moorish pads, with slackened girths they ride:
     Our saddles are Galician make, our leggings tough and stout:
     A hundred of us gentlemen, should scatter such a rout.”

I am inclined to think that the linen-breeks, so scornfully alluded to,
were the trousers or shalwars worn by Moorish auxiliaries of the Count.
The word “leggings” in the original is “huesos” (French _houseaux_),
which seems to mean the same things. But they are described as being
worn on the chausses or stockings of mail, and may not impossibly have
been greaves or defences of plate after the Roman pattern. These would
seem to be an anachronism at the end of the eleventh century; but Don V.
Carderera y Solano (_Iconografia Española_) says that there are in Spain
several bas-reliefs of the twelfth century, which represent knights
wearing pieces similar to the Roman ocreas. It is, on the whole, more
likely that the _huesos_ that protected the stout legs of the Cid were
of the jazerine pattern--of leather faced with metal discs and strips.

The Armoury at Madrid was, till lately, believed to contain many relics
of the great national hero, among them the _Colada_, a sword which the
Conde de Valencia is satisfied belongs properly to the thirteenth
century. The sword blade numbered G180 may, however, be ascribed, in the
opinion of the same authority, to the eleventh century. It is
double-edged, and ends in a round point. Down the greater part of its
length runs a groove, on the sides of which are engraved and inlaid with
gold certain letters and hieroglyphics, the meaning of which no one has
so far deciphered. This blade was included in the treasury of Ferdinand
and Isabel at Segovia, and corresponds closely enough with the
description in the inventory of that collection of “a sword called
Tizona, which belonged to the Cid.” There is, therefore, a strong
probability that the weapon before us is actually that with which Ruy
Diez de Bivar carved out a kingdom for himself in fair Valencia.

During the twelfth century the conical helmet with nasal began to fall
into disuse, though it was worn in Germany as late as 1195. About the
last quarter of the century the flat-topped, cylindrical heaulme, or
helm, was generally adopted. It was nearly always cast in one piece,
had two horizontal clefts for the vision, and was strengthened by bands
crossing each other over the face.

The ruined monastery of Benevivere, in the Province of Palencia,
contains the tomb and effigy, reproduced in the _Iconografia Española_,
of Don Diego Martinez de Villamayor, sometime Chamberlain to Alfonso
III. of Castile, who died in the odour of sanctity in the year 1176. The
knight is clothed in a long and ample white tunic; over this is thrown a
voluminous red mantle. Thus we cannot very well judge whether or not he
wears armour; but as he is girt with a broad baldric, ornamented with
studs, and clasps a cross-hilted sword, we may not unreasonably infer
that he is in knightly gear, and that his spurs are buckled round
leg-armour, which appears to be of plate.

If this assumption is warranted--and it is supported by the evidence of
the bas-reliefs mentioned by Carderera--it would seem that the Spaniards
had progressed more rapidly in the armourer’s craft than their
contemporaries. Greaves, jambs, or leg-armour of plate, were unknown in
Northern and Central Europe till the fourteenth century. Hewitt thinks
they were of German origin because they are sometimes referred to in
documents of that age as _beinberga_, from the German _beinbergen_. He
admits that they might have been copied from the examples of classical
times with which their wars in Italy would have familiarized the
Teutons. “In the South of Europe the greaves were already become of a
highly ornamental character, as we may see from the sculpture of
Gulielmus de Balmis (1289), from a bas-relief in the Annunziata at
Florence.” [The greaves are ornamented with floral devices and
_écussons_, and are strapped on to chausses of mail.] But in Spain we
get a yet earlier example, even supposing the leg-armour on the Jaca and
Benevivere effigies was not of this sort.

Don Bernaldo Guillen de Entenza was major-domo of Aragon, and one of the
bravest knights in the train of King Jaime I. the Conqueror. He died a
few days after the victory over the Moors at Enesa in 1237, and was
buried at the Monastery of Puig, near Valencia. His sculptured figure
reveals every detail of his apparel (see plate 2). He wears a hauberk of
mail reaching to the middle of the thigh, and to the finger-tips, the
fingers of the glove being separated; the face is framed in the hood of
mail (camail), and the head protected by a round _chapelle-de-fer_,
ornamented with studs, and a strengthening band. Over the hauberk is
worn a sleeveless surcoat, embroidered at the breast and reaching below
the knee; it is split up at the sides to allow greater freedom to the
limbs. Both surcoat and hauberk are bordered with a fringe, except at
the neck, where the surcoat seems to be edged with a setting of stones
or studs. A baldric encircles the lower body, and supports a short,
broad cross-hilted sword on the left hip, and a dagger or misere-corde
on the right. The pommel of the dagger is carved into the resemblance of
a grotesque human face.

The legs are protected by greaves of plate armour, with ornamental
lengths up the middle. The knees appear to be furnished with
genouillères or knee-caps of iron. The sollerets, pointed shoes, are of
mail.

Here, then, in Aragon, in 1237, we find a knight armed with those
defences which did not become common in Europe for another century. The
circumstance, though it may not in itself appear to be of much
importance, is interesting, as proving how quick was the Spaniard of
that day to avail himself of the latest appliances and inventions of the
age. Aragon, at least, seems to have kept pace with Italy, which is
generally allowed to have set the fashion in military equipment. And we
find that the armourer’s craft was sufficiently important at Barcelona
to constitute a guild, which was existing in 1257.

In the citadel of Lerida there is a fine sepulchral monument showing us
that valiant knight, Don Guillelmo Ramon de Moncada, Seneschal of
Catalonia, armed _cap-à-pie_ (see plate 3). He died about the middle of
the thirteenth century. Like his brother-in-arms, at Puig, he wears the
camail and hauberk. Over the forehead he wears a coronet, with shields
and studs and gilt fleurs-de-lys. The surcoat, which shows the hauberk
beneath, is tastefully embroidered with pearls, and is charged with
eight _écussons_, or shields, each supported by two doves. The garment
must have been a beautiful work of art. The Seneschal wears jambs
(leg-armour) and cuisses (thigh-armour) of plate, and what are
unmistakably genouillères of the shell pattern. His shoes are likewise
of plate. The armpits and elbows are protected by pieces new to us--the
round plates, called palettes or rondels, elsewhere rarely found before
the end of the century. Here again, and in the articulated fingers of
the mail glove, we have evidence of the advanced condition of the
armourer’s art in Spain. This is also demonstrated by a comparison of
this effigy with one of identical date--that of a knight in Haseley
Church, Oxfordshire (Hewitt, Vol. I., plate 46.) Here the armour is
entirely of mail, neither jambs nor coudes (coudières, elbow-plates)
being shown. Nor are there any traces of the rich ornamentation seen on
the Aragonese warriors’ surcoats and mantles.

These were the spacious days of Ferdinand of Castile and James of
Aragon, when province after province, city after city, were wrested from
the Moor, and the defeat of Roderick was wiped out on the very spot
where he had endured it five hundred years before. Cordova, Valencia,
Murcia, Seville, fell in turn before the Christian arms. The
armourer-sergeants, wandering through the bazaars of the captured
Moorish cities, and curiously examining the products of their dusky
fellow-craftsmen, must doubtless have gleaned many new ideas and scraps
of useful knowledge. Ibn-Said, born at Granada in 1214, has left it on
record that in his time Murcia was renowned for its coats of mail, its
cuirasses, and for every description of iron armour incrusted with gold;
it was likewise celebrated for its saddles and harness richly gilt. In
fact, continues the Moorish chronicler, for all articles of military
equipment, such as bucklers, swords, quivers, arrows, and so forth, the
workshops of Andalus surpassed those of any other country. He boasts the
beautiful inlaid swords of Seville, which were not inferior to those of
the Indies.[B] Cordova, the great centre of industry and refinement in
the Peninsula, never achieved fame for its steel manufactures, but its
oval leather shields (adargas) were known as early as the tenth century,
and used all over Europe, but more particularly in Spain, in the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Some interesting relics of Saint Ferdinand are enshrined in the Royal
Armoury. The remains of the cloak in which the saintly King was buried
(N9) are thus described in the Catalogue (see plate 1). “Its texture is
of silk and gold, made like an Oriental tapestry, checkered, the first
of the squares being crimson and a dirty white, with gold castles, and
the second with red lions rampant, like those of the Spanish arms, but
turned to the left of the shield. The border is woven in horizontal
bands, a wide one in the centre, composed of graceful floral designs,
blue and red, on a gold ground; two narrow ones, yellow, on the outer
edges of the former, and outside these other two bands of Arab lacework
of gold on a crimson ground.”

The _azicates_ (long-necked Moorish spurs) of St. Ferdinand (F189 and
160) are of easily-worked iron. What remains of the incrustation of gold
is adorned with little silver castles, similar heraldic devices in gilt
being distinguishable on the springs of the straps.

The Conde de Valencia de San Juan endeavours to prove--and, I think,
with success--that the sword numbered G21, believed at one time to be
the Cid’s famous blade “Colada,” is no other than the “Lobera” of St.
Ferdinand. How the name “Lobera” came to be applied to a sword is
unknown. The Conde hazards a conjecture that it was named after a
gentleman called Guillen Lobera, who is referred to in the memoirs of
Jaime I. of Aragon. The word was first used in this connection by the
Saint himself, who, on his death-bed, bequeathed to the Infante Manuel
for all his inheritance, “his Lobera sword, which was of great virtue,
and by means of which God had greatly helped him.”

Not less interesting is the passage in the chronicle of Alfonso XI.,
referring to the famous battle of Salado: “Then the King sent word to
Don Juan, son of the Infante Manuel (grandson of Ferdinand), by a
gentleman, to ask why he and those in the front did not pass the river.
And an esquire, called Garci Jofre Tenoryo, son of the Admiral killed by
the Moors, who was a vassal of the King and in the front, said to Don
Juan, that his Lobera sword, which he said had virtue, would do the
most work that day.”

The blade (see plate 4) is smooth, double-edged, and round-pointed; on
both sides for two-thirds of its length it is grooved, like most swords
of that time. Inside both grooves are certain signs or letters, engraved
and gilded, which the Conde de Valencia reads as the words--_Si_, _si_,
_No_, _non_. This somewhat cryptic inscription, the learned antiquary
explains as being part of the motto of St. Ferdinand, which may be
roughly translated--“Let your yea be yea, and your nay be nay.” The hilt
is of the sixteenth century, and was the work of Salvador de Avila, a
swordmaker of Toledo, who died in 1539.

Next to this sword is another of the same era (G22), erroneously
attributed to Roland, the famed Paladin of the eighth century. It is not
impossible that this also was one of St. Ferdinand’s weapons. It is very
long and broad, thin and flexible, double-edged, scallop-pointed, and
grooved for two-thirds of its length. The groove is engraved with rings
or circles, and ends in an elaborate cruciform device. The guard, of
massive silver-gilt, has quillons drooping and curving inward, and bears
the arms of Castile on one side and those of Leon on the other. The hilt
is of wood, plated with silver; the pommel is of iron, and is plated
with silver-gilt. The plates were once covered with filigree work. The
scabbard is of wood, sheathed in silver-gilt plate, and covered with
lace-work, essentially Morisco in character. Of the seventy-five stones
originally set in this filigree, only the half remain, including a large
amethyst and three engraved stones of the classical style and period
(plate 5).

Shields had not changed much since the preceding century to judge from
the specimen numbered D60. Like the twelfth century shield next to it,
it is of wood covered with parchment, and has grips of skin. On the
obverse may be traced the design of a hood, which has led Don Leocadio
Salazar to conclude that the shield was the property of the Conde de
Bureba, four hoods being on his coat of arms. The epitaph on that
illustrious personage’s tomb declares that “he filled Spain with the
fame of his name, as Themistocles did Athens.”

Our last instance of a Spanish suit of armour of the thirteenth century
illustrates a curious fashion in military attire that often has occupied
the attention of experts. The statue of Don Berenguer de Puigvert, in
the suppressed Monastery of Poblet, represents him clothed in a full
and richly embroidered surcoat, confined at the waist by a baldric,
beneath which he is wearing a complete suit of _banded armour_ of a very
elaborate pattern. On the forearm the mail seems to be composed of rings
placed end to end vertically instead of horizontally. The gauntlets and
leg-armour are composed of alternate horizontal bands, some showing a
zig-zag pattern; the others, perhaps rings set vertically. Banded mail
of various designs seems to have been fashionable all over Europe at the
close of the thirteenth century. Hewitt enumerates four examples in
English statuary. He expounds the various theories advanced to explain
the nature of this armour, and finally confesses that the riddle is
still unsolved. As Aragon seems in all improvements in armour to have
kept well ahead of the rest of the world, we need not be surprised to
find there an example of what was evidently a fashionable style in
Europe generally.

The headpiece universally worn at this time was the heaulme or helm.
About the middle of the century the aventail, or hinged opening for the
face, was introduced, and accordingly we find St. Ferdinand (represented
in the windows of Chartres Cathedral) wearing a casque with an aventail
cleft with three vertical slits. The camail was still generally worn
under the heaulme, which rested not only on the head but on the
shoulders of the wearer, and was secured by a chain. It was too heavy to
wear habitually, and was, therefore, carried at the saddle, or by the
esquire, to be put on at the approach of an enemy. Steel caps also were
often worn underneath; but much must obviously have depended on the
degree of strength and foolhardiness possessed by the individual.

“From the collection of mediæval ‘Proverbs,’” remarks the author we have
so often quoted, Mr. Hewitt, “we learn that Spain was the favourite mart
for the knightly charger. Denmark and Brittany had also a celebrity for
their breeds of horses of a different character. The fiat of popular
approval is given to the--

    “‘Dextriers de Castille,
      Palefrois Danois,
      Roussins de Bretagne.’

“Such was the nature of the high-bred dextrarius that, when two knights
had dismounted, and were continuing the fight on foot, their horses,
left to themselves, instantly commenced a conflict of their own of the
most gallant and desperate character.” Bucephalus and Pegasus were
inferior steeds in comparison.


NOTE

The representation of armour on tombs and sepulchral effigies was
subject, during the Middle Ages, to regulations, which throw light on
the rank and the circumstances of the death of the deceased. In
Carderera’s _Iconografia_ we find the following ordinances ascribed to
the Emperor Charles V. They are probably merely a recapitulation of
enactments which had been in force several centuries:--

“If any person during his life shall have accomplished any notable feat
of arms, or gained honour in the lists, he shall be shown armed _de
pied-en-cap_, helmet on his head, visor raised, and hands joined. His
sword shall be at his side, and his spurs on. These shall be of gold if
he shall have been an armed knight; otherwise he shall have none.

“If he shall have gained no honours in the lists, he shall have the
visor lowered, and his helmet shall be placed beside him.

“If he shall not have distinguished himself in the tourney, but shall
have died on the field of battle, contributing to the victory, he shall
be represented armed _de pied-en-cap_, visor lowered, naked sword in his
hand, the point upwards, and his shield in his left hand. If he shall
have been of the vanquished, he shall be represented armed _de
pied-en-cap_, his sword in its sheath, visor raised, his hands joined,
and his spurs put on. If he shall have been made prisoner and died on
the field or in captivity, he shall be represented as in the preceding
article, but without spurs and with empty scabbard.

“All these personages may be represented in their surcoats, if they
shall have taken part in a pitched battle, at which the Prince in whose
pay they shall have been, shall have been present; otherwise, they shall
not be thus represented, unless they be of the rank of King, Prince,
Duke, Marquis, Count, or Baron.

“No man, howsoever noble, shall be represented in his surcoat unless he
be the Lord and Proprietor of the Church or Chapel, or the successor (?
descendant) of the Lord and Proprietor.

“If any person shall have followed the wars as a man-at-arms, he may be
represented armed, but without surcoat and helmet.

“No one shall be represented with a fringe to his surcoat, unless he be
of the rank of Baron.”

It should be said in conclusion, that these rules were not always
strictly observed, and cannot be relied upon in the absence of
corroborative testimony from other sources.



II

THE FOURTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES


The fourteenth century witnessed a notable transformation in military
equipment.[C] The introduction of firearms and the marked improvement in
weapons of offence led to the almost complete abandonment of the coats
of mail which had served the chivalry of Europe so long and so well, and
to the substitution of plate armour for at least the more vital points
of the harness. In Spain we have seen the transition began considerably
earlier than in Northern Europe, but the adoption of the new fashion in
its entirety did not proceed quite so rapidly as this early start might
lead one to expect.

Aragon, thanks to its intercourse with Italy--to which country, as has
been noted, swords were exported from Barcelona--led the van in
armourership. The companions-in-arms of Jaime el Conquistador are nearly
always represented wearing a considerable weight of plate armour.

Don Ramon Folch, Vizconde de Cardona, surnamed, on account of his
commanding personality and abilities, _el Prohom_, is shown on his tomb
at Poblet wearing jambs, or greaves of steel (it is difficult to say
which), and at the neck a high mentonnière, which must have been worn
with a heaulme, or visored salade. The close-fitting _chapelle-de-fer_
is adorned with cardon flowers, the arms of his house. So also is the
long and tastefully-embroidered surcoat with sleeves, which descends
below the knees. Beneath this was worn a hauberk of mail, with
articulated gloves. A broad decorated baldric supports a short sword.
This monument dates from 1322.

No greaves or any plate armour, on the other hand, appear on the
sepulchral monument, executed about twenty years later, over the remains
of Don Rodrigo de Lauria, son of the famous Admiral. The warrior is
clothed entirely in a suit of mail, with hood and camail, a graceful
coronet with fleurs-de-lys encircling the forehead. The surcoat or tunic
is, as in the other examples, charged with the armorial bearings of the
deceased, and has three openings--at the sides, and in the middle--with
a gilt fringe--“a fashion,” remarks Don Valentin Carderera, “which we
have observed in Spain only on the statues of Aragonese knights.” The
sword is much longer and narrower than usual, and reveals fine
workmanship. The spurs are of the goad shape.

The _Historia Troyana_, executed in Castile about 1350, represents
warriors clad in similar suits of mail, with pointed heaulmes with
visors, but no chin-pieces. Greaves and genouillères are worn with the
chausses. In one instance a surcoat is shown of scaled and studded
pattern. This may have been some rare sort of gambeson, or again may
have been made of the _cuir-bouilli_--boiled leather--common all over
Europe and the East then and for centuries after. Banded armour is also
shown.

The statue of Don Alonso Perez de Guzman, Captain-General of Jerez, who
distinguished himself at the taking of Algeciras in 1344, is interesting
technically as showing several new pieces of plate-armour. The jambs
(leg-plates) are closed, and coudières are worn on the elbows and
vambraces on the forearm. Defences of plate for the arm were coming into
use about this time. The earliest examples date from 1328, but they
occur very rarely prior to 1360. Yet this monument is believed to have
been executed some years before the knight’s death in 1351. It is
evident that the Castilians were not lagging behind in the arts and
appliances of warfare. Don Alonso wears pointed sollerets of six
plates, and the hauberk of mail beneath a surcoat. He clasps a long
cross-hilted sword.

A decided impetus was given to the movement towards plate armour by the
influx of English and French troops into Castile, incidental to the
restoration and final deposition of Pedro the Cruel. Almost for the
first time the Spaniards were brought face to face on the tented field
with a foreign Christian soldiery, and that under leaders no less
formidable than Edward the Black Prince and Bertrand Duguesclin. Against
such doughty foemen stouter defences were needed than against the
light-armed, leather-and-mail-clad chivalry of Islam. Though in Aragon
the cuirass, or _coracina_, had already been worn, its introduction into
Castile is generally ascribed to Bertrand Claquin and those who with him
entered the service of Don Enrique de Trastamara. This tradition seems
to be warranted by a sepulchral effigy of Don Pedro, described in
Carderera’s _Iconografia_ (see plate 6), though it should be said that
this was not executed till seventy-six years after that King’s death.
The components of the armour are: a hauberk of mail, reaching half-way
down the thigh; a coracina or cuirass; vambraces, rere-braces,[D]
coudes, and genouillères. The surcoat and mantle which hide so much of
the armour, are brocaded with gold flowers on a blue field.

The monument of one of Don Enrique’s partisans, Juan Alfonso, Lord of
Ajofrin (see plate 3), was erected a year or two after his death on the
field of Aljubarrota, in 1385. He wears a short hauberk with a sleeved
surcoat, which probably concealed a cuirass. The leg-armour--jambs,
genouillères, cuisses--is entirely of plate. The gauntlets are of
extraordinarily delicate workmanship. The cuff and hand are of plate,
richly chased; the fingers are articulated and composed of small annular
plates, which must have allowed perfect freedom to the joints; the tips
are shaped to imitate the nails; and the knuckles are furnished with
gads or spikes, which served as offensive as well as defensive armour.
Gauntlets of beautiful workmanship were not, of course, peculiar to
Spain, but were adopted there as early as in any other country. The Lord
of Ajofrin wears laminated sollerets, and carries a sword of unusual
length, with drooping quillons, and a shield or escutcheon on the
pommel.

Castile owed, not only the corselet, but an improved headpiece to the
White Company, which crossed the Pyrenees to support the claims of Don
Enrique in 1366. It should, however, be said that Don Pedro in his will,
dated 1362, bequeaths his _bascinet_ to his son, Don Juan.[E] “The
heaulme,” says M. Mathieu Prou, “having become too heavy, was from 1300
onwards little more than a headpiece for parade. In action the knights
preferred to combat with uncovered face, the head protected by a casque
called _bassinet_ or _bascinet_, which was without a nasal, round, at
first rather low, but towards 1330 assuming an ovoid form. From the
beginning of the fourteenth century it became the custom to fix to the
iron cap a visor moving on pivots, or attached to hinges, and opening
like a shutter. This visor was ordinarily pointed and elongated in
muzzle form, and provided with two horizontal slits for the vision
(occularia), and numerous holes for respiration. As this helmet did not
protect the throat, to the lower part was soon added the piece called
beavor, over which the visor fell when it was lowered.”

The celada or salade was also worn in Spain about this time. The
collection of Don José Estruch, at Barcelona, contains such a headpiece
of somewhat peculiar shape. The crest is very high and the brim very
broad. To it is fastened a beavor in three plates, to which again is
laced a covering of mail for the back of the neck. The bascinet is worn
by the Lord of Ajofrin’s contemporary, Don Bernardo de Anglesola, of
Aragon (see plate 8). It is encircled by a double band of ornaments and
precious stones, and is worn over the camail, which falls like an ample
tippet over the breast. The harness is composed of hauberk of mail,
rere-braces, vambraces, coudes, gauntlets, cuisses, genouillères, jambs,
and sollerets. The brocaded surcoat may be intended to conceal a
corselet.

Froissart throws some light on the military equipment and peculiarities
of the Castilians of his day. From more than one passage in the
_Chronicles_ it is evident that the sling, a weapon long discarded by
other Western nations, was still esteemed in Spain, where the javelin
also was a favourite weapon. We read, “‘By my faith,’ said the Duke of
Lancaster, ‘of all the arms the Castilians and your countrymen make and
use, I love the dart best, and love to see it used; they are very expert
at it; and I tell you, whoever they hit with it, he must be indeed
strongly armed, if he be not pierced through and through.’ ‘You say
truly,’ replied the squire, ‘for I saw more bodies transfixed at these
assaults than ever I saw before in all my life. We lost one whom we much
regretted, Senhor Joao Lourenço da Cunha, who was struck with a dart
that pierced through his plates and his coat of mail and a gambeson
stuffed with silk, and his whole body, so that he fell to the ground.’”

The address of the Castilians with the dart or javelin is again referred
to at the attack on Vilha Lobos in 1386; while, at the battle of Najara,
“the Spaniards and Castilians had slings, from which they hurled stones
and crushed heaulmes and bascinets; in which manner they wounded many.”
In another passage we are told that the troops were armed according “to
the usage of Castile, with darts and _archegayes_ (assegais) and
throwing stones from slings.”

There is a tendency among certain historians to exaggerate the influence
exercised by the Moors on the applied arts in Spain. So far as armour
was concerned, it is clear that the Christians of the Peninsula, where
they did not originate fashions, followed those of Italy, or in later
times of France. They certainly did not look to Granada for a lead. And
if the Spanish Moors had been such skilful armourers as some would have
us believe, it is hardly likely that their kinsmen and neighbours, the
Moors of Barbary, would have gone so poorly equipped as they seem to
have gone in Froissart’s time.

“For,” says Messire Froissart, “they are not so well nor so strongly
armed as the Christians; for they have not the art nor the method nor
the workmen to forge armour as the Christians do. Neither is the
material, that is, iron and steel, common with them. Their armour is
usually of leather, and at their necks they carry very light shields,
covered with cuir-bouilli of Cappadocia, which, if the leather has not
been overheated, no weapon can penetrate.”

On the other hand there can be no doubt that the conquest of Andalusia
had let the Castilian artificers into the secrets of many new methods,
such as damascening and enamelling, by which they were not slow to
profit. The traditions of the goldsmith’s craft, handed down from
Visigothic times, had never been lost; and certain it is that in the
fourteenth century, when the conquerors had had time to assimilate the
arts of the conquered to their own, armour and metal work of all kinds
began to assume a rich and elaborate character. The goldsmiths of
Barcelona, Toledo, Valladolid, and Seville enjoyed a European
reputation. They worked in close co-operation with the armour-smith. In
the example of a fourteenth-century harness we have just
considered--that of Don Bernardo Anglesola--not only bascinet,
gauntlets, coudes, and genouillères are chased, and in some cases set
with precious stones, but the hauberk has a rich fringe of gilt, and
each plate of the rere-braces has a decorative band at the lower border.
The baldric is adorned with studs and fleurs-de-lys. In the statue, at
Seville, of Don Alvaro de Guzman, Admiral of Castile, who died in 1394,
the same elaboration may be noticed in the roped edges of the
genouillères, the gauntlets, and the tasteful floral devices,
alternating with rows of studs, in the ornamentation of the baldric. The
pommel of the sword, as was customary, is emblazoned with the arms of
the owner. According to Froissart, the bascinet of the King of Castile
(1385) was encircled by a fillet of gold and precious stones--“qui bien
valoient vingt mille francs.”

Helmets at the close of the fourteenth century were not only richly,
but, as was often the case in preceding ages, fantastically decorated.
We have an excellent illustration in the Armoury (plate 9) in the crest
of King Martin of Aragon (1395-1412), formerly attributed to Jaime el
Conquistador, and carried for many years in the procession of the
“Standart,” at Palma (OII). It represents the head, neck, and wings of a
dragon--the _Drac pennat_, the device displayed in field and tilt-yard
by the Princes of the House of Aragon from Pedro IV. to Fernando II.
(1336-1479). As was generally the case, it is made of boiled parchment
and gilded plaster, and was set on the crest of the helmet, encircled by
the crown or coronal, amid dancing plumes. The cap on which the _Drac
pennat_ is mounted was added in the first years of the fifteenth
century, that it might be worn by the man who carried in the procession
the standard of Jaime I. At the renowned and honourable passage of arms
of Don Suero de Quiñones (1434), the crest of one of the knight’s
helmets was in the shape of a golden tree, with green leaves and golden
fruit; round the trunk was coiled a serpent, and in the middle was a
naked sword with the device--_Le vray amy_. (True friend).

To the last year of the fourteenth century belongs the effigy of a
knight of the Anayas family in the Cathedral of Salamanca, described by
Carderera. French influence is attested by the corselet and by the
brigantine or hauberk of metal discs which was in very general use and
esteem in France at that time. The legs and arms are, as now customary,
sheathed in plate, the coudes being of tasteful design and sharply
pointed. The transition from mail to plate is well illustrated by a
medallion which represents Alfonso V. of Aragon, when a youth (about
1416), in a coat of mail, and a bas-relief portraying him as a man of
mature years in a complete harness of plate, mail only appearing as
gussets at the armpits.

The reign of Juan II. of Castile (1406-1454) is extolled by Spanish
writers as the golden age of chivalry. Knighthood was in flower, in
fact, somewhat later in the Peninsula than in the rest of Europe, though
I can find no adequate reason for ascribing the introduction of
chivalry, as an institution, to the Black Prince and Duguesclin. Such
enactments as that of Jaime II. of Aragon (1291-1327), which ordained
that any cavalier escorting a lady should be secured from any kind of
molestation or hindrance, and given a free passage from one end of the
kingdom to the other, show that the spirit of chivalry was certainly
understood South of the Pyrenees many years before the battles of Najara
and Montiel. But it is likely enough that warfare with a Christian foe
may have put a finer edge on the Spaniards’ sense of honour--blunted,
perhaps, by their relations with the infidel, to whom it was deemed
unnecessary to extend all the courtesies of war. The lull, too, in that
long conflict caused men to find an outlet for their energies in tourney
and tilt-yard, where the atmosphere was more favourable to the generous
emotions than was the field of actual battle. Juan II. and his
all-powerful minister, Alvaro de Luna, Constable of Castile, delighted
in jousts and tournaments, and encouraged the sentiment and exercise of
chivalry by all the means in their power. The Constable himself often
appeared in the lists as a mantenedor (or challenger), or aventurero (or
respondent). The spirit of the age is exemplified by the famous passage
of arms, to which I have already made reference. In 1434, Don Suero de
Quiñones, a knight of good family, besought the King to grant him
release from a vow he had made to his lady, by allowing him to hold the
Bridge of Orbigo, near Leon, with nine friends, for thirty days against
all comers. His Majesty convoked the Cortes to deliberate upon this
grave proposal, with the result that a large sum of money was voted to
defray the expenses of the tournament, and invitations were sent to all
the Courts of Europe. Knights flocked from all parts of the Continent.
Nothing was omitted that could lend dignity and splendour to the scene.
There were in all sixty-eight competitors, and seven hundred and
twenty-eight courses were run. One Aragonese knight having been killed,
and several champions seriously wounded, among them Suero de Quiñones
himself, the latter was adjudged to have fulfilled his vow, and to have
honourably discharged his duty to his lady. This memorable contest was
considered to have reflected immortal lustre on Castilian arms, and King
Juan no doubt felt prouder of himself, his knights, and his kingdom than
if he had driven the Moors from Spain. The Honroso Paso de Don Suero de
Quiñones is set forth in minute detail in a special chronicle, and is
frequently and lovingly referred to in Spanish history.

Stimulated by such public displays of prowess and knightly address, and
despite severe sumptuary laws, armour and military gear became more
ornate and costly every year. In the chronicle of Don Alvaro de Luna, in
the account of the battle of Olmedo in 1445, we read:

“So long had the wars in Castile lasted, that the greatest study of
everyone was to have his armour well decorated and his horses well
chosen; so much so that it would scarcely have been possible in all the
Constable’s host to find one whose horse had no covering, or the neck of
whose horse was without steel mail. Thus all those noble young gentlemen
of the Constable’s house, and many others, were very richly adorned.
Some had different devices painted on the coverings of their horses, and
others jewels from their ladies on their helmet-crests. Others had gold
and silver bells, with stout chains hanging to their horses’ necks.
Others had badges studded with pearls or costly stones around the
crests. Others carried small shields, richly embellished, on which were
strange figures and inventions. Many different things were put on the
helmet-crests, for some had insignia of wild beasts, others plumes of
various colours, and others had plumes both on their helmet-crests and
on the face-covering of their horses. Some horsemen had feathers that
spread like wings against their shoulders; some affected simple armour;
others wore plated coats over the cuirass; others rich embroidered
tunics.”

The increased popularity of tilting and similar martial exercises
brought about a demand for heavy reinforcing pieces of armour, such as
could not be worn habitually except by men of the strongest physique, in
the field. Henceforward we find a distinction made between war harness
and tilting harness. As a specimen of the latter, belonging to the time
of which I am now speaking (middle fifteenth century), we have in the
Royal Armoury, a Spanish tilting breast-plate (E59), thus described in
the 1898 Catalogue:

“Spanish tilting Breastplate, middle fifteenth century, composed of
breastplate and over-breastplate, screwed together. The breastplate,
tin-plated to avoid oxidation, preserves the nails of the brocade with
which it was covered. The over-breastplate was also called ‘the
volant’--a defence much used in tilts in the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries. It was strengthened with iron, as stated in the description
of the honourable passage of Don Suero de Quiñones. It is doubtful if
this second piece was also covered with rich cloth, like others of a
later period; it has its original hollow lance-rest, for tilt, fastened
with a bolt and four staples. It has also a piece of iron, which we call
_flaon_, used as a wedge between the shield and the breastplate, and
forming a resisting whole against the adversary’s lance. This _flaon_,
the only iron one we have seen, serves also to fasten the helm to the
breast”--in the manner shown on the piece A16. [The _flaon_ was nearly
always of wood.]

The headpiece was correspondingly strengthened. Referring more
particularly to the tilting helm that forms part of the suit (A16)
belonging to Felipe I. of Castile (1478-1506), from which the casque
worn by Don Suero probably did not differ, the Conde de Valencia says:

“The tilting helm, or round closed _almete_, as it was called, appeared
at the end of the fourteenth century, and continued in use, with slight
modifications in each country, until the beginning of the sixteenth.
Designed to resist the impact of a lance in front, the part around the
vizor, or the horizontal opening between the crest and the face, was
strengthened, attaining a thickness of nine millimetres in some places;
in others, as the sides and occiput or back of the helmet, it gradually
diminishes. Its vertical and almost cylindrical length, is such that it
might rest on the shoulders, so that, fastened to the breastplate by the
hinge, and to the backplate by a strong strap, it might protect the
tilter’s head without inconveniencing his movements. In certain tilts,
this resource was insufficient against the violence of a lance-thrust at
full gallop of two horses going in an opposite direction, and then the
horsemen protected the head with a stiffened cap, which in German was
called _harnisch kappe_.”

The armet, the most graceful form of steel headpiece, also seems to have
been introduced into Spain about the middle of the fifteenth century. A
fresco in the Escorial, copied from a painting of the first half of that
century, representing the battle of Higueruela, depicts men-at-arms
wearing this species of helmet. It superseded the bascinet for use in
war, and will be described further on in these pages.

The sword continued, as during the preceding centuries, to be
two-edged, of rhomboidal or almond-shaped section, intended much more
for cutting and hacking than thrusting. The grip now tended to lengthen,
and the pommel, which was usually pear-shaped, became lighter. To this
period belongs G4, the sword presented by Pope Eugene IV. to Juan II.,
in the sixteenth year of his pontificate (1446), as the inscription
engraved with aqua fortis on the ricasso records. The blade is wide and
grooved. In the groove are inscribed the words PIERVS ME FECE.

“The guard, notable for its elegant simplicity, is all of silver, gilded
over and chased, with the cross of straight arms with fleurs-de-lys at
the ends. The hilt is a festooned ballister, _i.e._, a small pillar
swelling in the centre or towards the base, and the pommel, covered with
leaves, also festooned, is pear-shaped. The description in the inventory
of this Treasury (King Juan’s) makes us aware that the hilt has lost
much of its most beautiful decoration: ‘Another sword with a groove in
the middle and the words _pierus me fece_, gilded, has the cross one
hand in length, the pommel, hilt, cross, and all the sheath of gilded
silver, and on this are some open leaves soldered to some trunks; and
the cross is a serpent with wings enamelled green; the rim, which is the
first piece of the sheath, is enamelled blue with its _quirimi_’ (from
_quiris_, a spear or javelin), &c.”

G5. Blade of a Pontifical sword, sent to Henry IV. of Castile by Pope
Calixtus III. in 1458. (This Spanish pontiff, Alfonso Borgia, of
Valencia, was elected in 1455, and died in 1458.)

It has four surfaces, with false guard and long ricasso, sloped on both
edges; gilded and engraved on both sections. Length, 1.180; width,
0.039.

The history of this weapon leads us to suppose that the mark is that of
an unknown Italian swordmaker. On each side of the blade is a circular
shield with the arms of the Pontiff (a bull on a ground composed of
bezants, surmounted by the tiara and keys), and this inscription: ACCIPE
S C M GLADIVM MVNVS A DEO I QVO DEI CIES (_sic_) ADVERSARIOS P P LI MEI
XPIANI.

According to the note in the _Cronicon of Valladolid_, this sword was
sent to Enrique IV. of Castile by Calixtus III., to encourage him to
fight unremittingly against the Moors. The ornamentation has gone; but
we may judge of its richness and artistic value by the sketch of it in
the Inventory of the _alcazars_ of Segovia: it says--”.... A sword, all
gilded, nearly to the last third section, with large letters in each
portion, and the mark consists of seven spots on a small shield; the
pommel, the hilt, and cross are all of gilded _acucharado_ silver, and
in the middle of the pommel are the words Calistus Papa Tercio; the
sheath of gilded silver, engraved with evergreen oak-leaves and acorns,
has four round enamels on the middle portion; on one is St. Peter with a
cross in his hand, in a ship, and on each of the other two (_sic_) is a
coloured cross and four small ones; the rim is enamelled with coats of
arms of the Pope, and a shield with an ox in each quarter and some blue
letters ..., &c. This work of art was by the artificer of Zaragoza,
Antonio Pérez de las Cellas, established in Rome, who worked almost
exclusively for Calixtus III. during his brief pontificate.” (Muntz,
_Les arts à la cour des Papes._)

The name _falsaguarda_, or dummy guard, was given, in an Inventory of
arms of the sixteenth century, to the two small pieces or wings on the
blades of broadswords, a third of the way from the guard, where the
grooving on the blade ends.

These, of course, were presentation swords. The blade (G24), which is
traditionally ascribed to the Conde de Haro, of Juan II.’s reign, is
gilded and engraved at the upper end, the design representing on one
side the Annunciation, on the other, St. John in the Desert. It has a
groove down its entire length, and is diamond-pointed. The sword
(G23--plate 11) is of similar make, and is engraved in Gothic character
on a field of gold with texts, which, translated, run as follows:

THE LORD IS MY HELP; I WILL NOT FEAR WHAT MAN CAN DO UNTO ME, AND I WILL
DESPISE MY ENEMIES; SUPERIOR TO THEM, I WILL OVERTHROW THEM. On a
circle, part of verse 8, chapter xviii. of the Gospel of St. John: IF YE
THEREFORE SEEK ME, LET THESE GO THEIR WAY, BUT JESUS PASSED THROUGH (the
midst of them), and also in the centre, MARY VIRGIN. In another circle,
part of the anthem of the Purification of Our Lady: MAKE ME WORTHY TO
PRAISE THEE, BLESSED BE THE SWEET VIRGIN MARY, and, in the centre, the
monogram of Jesus Christ.

The guard consists of an iron crosspiece with traces of gold: the guard
curved towards the blade and twisted at the ends; circular pommel with
two faces with a cavity (round) in the centre, which was frequently
incrusted with the shield of arms of the owner.

The two-handed sword was introduced in the late fourteenth or early
fifteenth century. The Armoury contains a specimen (G15--plate 10)
belonging to the first half of the latter era. It comes from Mallorca.
The blade is almond-shaped, metre 0.990 long, by 0.038 broad; it has a
long ricasso, counter-guard (_falsaguarda_), and three grooves. The
guard is of copper, once gilded, with quillons drooping very slightly;
the grip, of corded wood, covered with leather; the pommel pear-shaped
and facetted.

Before the century was three-quarters gone, complete suits of
plate-armour were worn in Castile, though the hauberk was still
retained, in some cases, as an additional defence. The powerful and
ambitious Juan Pacheco, Marques de Villena and Grandmaster of St. James,
who died in the same year as his sovereign Enrique IV. (1474), is shown
(plate 12) wearing, in addition to the pieces which had now become a
regular part of the harness, espaliers in five pieces, and _tassets_ or
armour for the hips, of five pieces, in the graceful oak-leaf pattern,
which endured till the time of Charles V. The opening between the
tassets is defended by the skirt of the hauberk, worn beneath the
cuirass. That piece, and the vambraces, are exquisitely chiselled with
floral designs. The armour of Don Iñigo Lopez de Mendoza, Conde de
Tendilla, who died five years after Villena, is very similar. His coudes
are very large, chased, and set with gilt studs round the borders.

We have now reached the beginning of the most glorious and prosperous
epoch in the history of Spain. The chivalric spirit, which had been
sedulously fostered in the nation during the two preceding reigns, in
the age of the Catholic Kings, Ferdinand and Isabel, found its genuine
and loftiest expression in enterprises of supreme national importance.
This was essentially a martial age--the era of the Conquest of Granada
and of the Discovery and Subjugation of the New World. Everything
connected with the profession of arms became the subject of close study
and a matter for improvement. Farseeing men might have predicted, even
as early as the taking of Granada, that the armourer’s craft was a
doomed industry. Considering the productions of its latest ages, we
might be tempted to impute its extinction to its having reached a point
beyond which progress was impossible--where the artificer saw that all
attempts to improve on existing models must be vain.

An interesting relic of this period is the sword (G13) which the Conde
de Valencia thinks may be safely ascribed to Ferdinand the Catholic
(plate 10). The blade is rigid, of rhomboidal section, and without
ricasso; the crosspiece is of gilded iron, very plain; velvet-bound
grip; the pommel is pear-shaped and facetted. “Like nearly all the
swords for the saddle-bow of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries,
which were fastened by the scabbard to the front bow of the man-at-arms’
saddle, this blade has a hilt of the kind then called ‘a hand and a
half,’ because its length allowed of its being used with one or both
hands without disturbing the equilibrium necessary for the proper
handling of the weapon.”--Valencia, _Catálogo_.

G1 (plate 11) is the Ceremonial Sword of Ferdinand and Isabel. The blade
is metre 1.070 long by 0.050 broad, almond-shaped, and without ricasso.
The crossguard is of gilded and engraved iron, the ends of the arms
cusped. On the cusps are the inscriptions TANTO MONTA[F] and MEMENTO MEI
O MATER DEI MEI. The grip is wire-bound and covered with red velvet. The
pommel is disc-like and cut and perforated into a cruciform device; it
bears on one side the yoke, the emblem of Ferdinand, on the other, the
sheaf of arrows, the emblem of Isabel.

G2 is the sheath of the preceding sword. It is of wood, covered with
crimson silk, minus the rim and the ferrule; it bears the Spanish shield
of arms as charged after the taking of Granada, and the devices of the
two Sovereigns.

“This Royal sword is extremely interesting in every way, as it was the
same that Ferdinand and Isabella and their grandson the Emperor, used in
the ceremony of conferring knighthood. This statement is in the
_Relacion notarial de Valladolid_, thus: ‘a wide sword, old, for making
knights, with flat pommel with holes and gilded cross’--a description
which agrees with the illustration of the same sword in the Illuminated
Inventory of Charles V.

“In our opinion, it is the Royal sword which, during the rule of the
House of Austria, and in accordance with the etiquette of the Houses of
Castile and Burgundy, in the solemn entries into cities and on Princes
taking the oath, was carried bare by the Chief Equerry of the King, in
the absence of the Count of Oropesa, ‘whose privilege it was in Castile,
and the Count de Sástago’s in Aragon.’ In support of this opinion we may
instance picture 787 in the Museum of Paintings in Madrid, called the
Pacification of Flanders, where Philip IV. is represented crowned by the
goddess Pallas, assisted by the Count-Duke de Olivares, who has the
sword referred to in his left hand.”

(G31--plate 13). The battle sword of Ferdinand the Catholic is thus
described: “The blade is hexagonal, fluted ricasso with scallop for the
index finger, and narrow groove down to the middle, in the centre of
which are the words--ANTONIVS ME FECIT. (This must have been the famous
swordmaker mentioned by Diego Hurtado de Mendoza in the _Vida del
Lazarillo del Tormes_.) Length, 0.900; breadth, 0.040.

“The whole of the hilt is of gilded iron, delicately chiselled; the arms
of the cross, which broaden at the ends, are flat and curve towards the
blade; it has branches curving to the ricasso; the grip is also gilded
and chiselled; pommel disc-like, with four crescent-shaped indentations
equidistant from each other; around both faces, in monachal letters, are
these octosyllabic verses:

    “‘PAZ COMIGO NVNCA VEO
      Y SIEMPRE GVERA (_sic_) DESEO.’

(There is never peace with me, and my desire is always for
war.)

“Both the author of the 1849 Catalogue and Jubinal attribute this sword
to Queen Isabel the Catholic, but without giving their reasons for so
doing. We find that the great Queen in the year 1500 owned several
cuirasses of Milan plates, covered with gold, which she doubtless wore
to defend herself from attacks like that at Velez-Malaga. She also had a
small dagger, the gold and enamelled handle of which was formed like a
sheaf of arrows (which was her badge); a sword with hilt of silver and
enamel, with strapwork of gold; and another with ‘iron hilt,’ possibly
the one we are now describing. As these words are not sufficient of
themselves to dismiss all doubt, we may refer to the document which
proves that the arm in question belonged to Ferdinand the Catholic. This
does not prevent its having belonged to his illustrious wife
previously.”

The Hispano-Moresque sword (G27) was long cherished as the sword of
Boabdil. The Conde de Valencia and other antiquaries have rudely
dispelled this tradition--like that which ascribed the blades numbered
G21 and G22 to the Cid and to Roland respectively. The blade comes from
the Berber district, and the hilt is certainly modern.

At this point the remarks of Don Juan Riaño (_Industrial Arts in Spain_)
on the manufacture of the Toledo blade cannot fail to be of interest.
“The celebrity of Toledo blades has excited the curiosity of many who
wished to ascertain the cause of their great excellence and renown. Some
supposed the sword manufacturers of Toledo possessed a secret for
tempering their arms. It was not so, however, their only secret being
the waters of the Tagus, and the fine white sand on its banks. This sand
was used for cooling the steel: when the steel was red-hot and began to
give forth sparks, it was uncovered a little, sprinkled with sand, and
sent on to the forgers. As soon as the blade was ready, it was tempered
in the following manner: a line of fire was made, and the blade placed
in it for four-fifths of its length. As soon as it was red-hot, it was
dropped perpendicularly into a bucket of Tagus water. When cold, if it
was found to be bent, a small portion of sand was poured on the yoke,
the blade placed upon it, and beaten until properly straightened. After
this, the remaining fifth part of the blade was fired; and when red-hot,
was seized with tongs and rubbed with suet. After this, the blade was
sent to the grinding stones, and finished by being polished on wooden
wheels with emery-powder.”

The armour worn in the latter half of the fifteenth century is
remarkable for its symmetry, simplicity, and graceful line-forms. From
the beginning of the century the Missaglias, a family of famous
armourers, had been settled at Milan, and the style they designed soon
became fashionable all over Europe. Fortunately for art, a rival
appeared in Nuremberg, in the person of Hans Grünwald, who died in 1503.
The competition between the Italian and German masters of the craft
resulted in the production of what are, perhaps, the most beautiful
pieces of armour ever forged.

The suits numbered A1 to A8 in the Catalogue of the Armoury belong to
the last decade of the fifteenth century, and were the ordinary
war-harness of the Spanish man-at-arms of the period. They do not differ
materially, and consist of the following pieces: armet, breastplate and
backplate, taces, tassets, espaliers or espalier-pauldrons, hauberk of
mail with short sleeves reaching to elbows and showing at the armpits,
coudes, vambraces, gauntlets--in most cases without articulated
fingers--cuisses, genouillères, jambs, and square-toed sollerets, or
shoes of mail. In some cases heavy reinforcing pieces only used for the
tilt have been added, such as heavy elbow-gauntlets and the
“grande-garde,” or extra piece for the left arm. The armets or helmets
merit close attention (plate 14). That of the suit A1 has a comb and a
reinforcing piece over the forehead; visor sharply pointed; large side
or cheek-pieces covering the chin, hinged above the ears, and secured at
the nape of the neck by a small rondel; and beavor of two plates, with
attachment to breastplate. In A5 the armet has, in addition to the
beavor, a tippet or skirting of mail; the beavor is of one plate only;
and the neck is protected by a gorget. The helmet A9, belonging to the
early part of the sixteenth century, and worn by the Duque del
Infantado has no beavor, and is of the “sparrow-beak” type, like that of
A7, where the occularium is the interval between the crownpiece and
visor.

The horses’ bards, for the most part, belong to a later period than the
riders’ suits. The barding (A3) probably dates from the last years of
the fifteenth century. It is composed of large plates of burnished
steel, and comprises: chanfron, mainfaire (mane-covering),
croupière--with wide hangings attached by thick tags of
silk--flechières, and poitrel with hinges and pins, allowing free play
to the horse’s shoulders.

The marriage of the third child of the Catholic Kings with Philip, heir
to the houses of Habsburg and Burgundy, in 1496, drew closer the
relations of Spain with the rest of Europe. The going and coming of
foreign princes, ambassadors, and statesmen rapidly familiarized the
Spaniards with the customs, fashions, and products of other countries.
Native art had new models, and began to lose some of its individuality.
The earliest example of foreign armour we find in the Madrid Collection
is the half-suit (A11-15--plate 15). It is of Flemish make, and, thanks
to the investigations of the Conde de Valencia, may be attributed with
certainty to Philip the Handsome, afterwards Philip I. of Castile. The
constituent pieces are the following:

Breastplate, with lance-rest, and over-breastplate; taces, placed over
the last-named to prevent the adversary’s lance finding an upward
opening; backplate with garde-rein (loin-guard) placed under it; hauberk
of mail with short sleeves covering rere-braces; espaliers; rondels
protecting armpits; coudes; vambraces; gauntlets; mentonnière, or
beavor-gorget, in three plates; peculiar steel hat, or _caperuza_, with
wide brim, turned upwards and outwards, of the shape of the cloth or
velvet caps worn in Flanders at the period (plate 16). The neck defences
are strengthened with mail.

The suit is decorated with gilding and engraving. On the breastplate we
note the emblem of the Order of the Golden Fleece, of which Philip was
Grandmaster, and the inscription, JESVS NASARENVS REX JVDEORVM. On the
backplate, O MATER MEI MEMEM; on the left rondel, the angelic salutation
in old Flemish, WEEST GHEGRVT MARIA VOL VAN GRACIEN DE HER ES METV ...
GHEBEN D; on the right rondel, the same in Latin. On the right coude,
IHES NASARENVS REX; on the left, O MATER MEI MEMENTO MEI. On the right
gauntlet, AVE MARIA ... GR.... IHES NASAR ..., and on the left, IHS
MARIA RENVS REX JVD ... On the brim of the caperuza, JESVS MARIA GRACIA
PLENA DOMINVS TECVM BENEDICTA TV-IN MVLERE (_sic_).

The two-handed sword bears the device of Philip, and the decoration is
in German style; but the mark is the same as that of the sword GI,
belonging to Ferdinand and Isabel, proving that the blade is of Spanish
make.

The Armoury contains a variety of pieces dating from the end of the
fifteenth century (plate 17 _et seq_). By using odd pieces of the
ancient stock in the Armoury, others from the dispersed collection of
the Dukes of Osuna, and particularly a series of Aragonese brigantines,
acquired, like the preceding, by Alfonso XII. in 1882, various types of
Spanish soldiers have been formed, such as pike-men, mace-bearers, and
other infantry of the fifteenth century--copying at C1 and C2,
sculptured figures decorating the portal of the Church of St. Paul at
Valladolid, and the choir seats of Toledo Cathedral carved by the
master, Rodrigo (1495), representing the then recent victories gained by
the Catholic Kings over the Moors of Andalusia.

D86 is a leather Moorish light cavalry shield, probably a trophy of the
Conquest of Granada (plate 161). The inside is bound in linen,
embroidered, especially the clasp, with floral and other devices in
coloured silk. Forming a band, which extends round the circumference,
and repeated on eight oval medallions, is an Arabic inscription which
reads, “And only God is conqueror.” On a like number of circular
medallions, smaller than those mentioned, may be read, “Happiness for my
master.”

The more interesting of the other objects of the same period are of
foreign make. The helmet D12 (plate 123), formerly attributed to
Boabdil, is certainly the work of the famous Missaglias of Milan, who
began to be known by the name of Negroli about this time. The decoration
exhibits a skilful blending of the Renaissance and Oriental styles.

“This helmet is of one piece, and is strengthened with supplementary
pieces that can be taken off and put on at will, being, by its rare
make, a complete head armour for two distinct purposes. Without the
added pieces, it is a simple helmet for war, similar to those on the
low-reliefs of the triumphal arch of Alonso V., of Aragon, in Naples;
with the reinforcing pieces, it is transformed into parade armour of
surprising beauty and good taste. These extra pieces are of plated
steel, chiselled with the outlines of leaves and arabesques in niello,
and the whole design beautifully shaded. The crest is defended by a coif
like that used for combat on foot. The plume-holder is placed over the
forehead. It is to be regretted that a piece of so much merit and value
has been deprived of much of the crest-work that once enriched it.”

The next piece (D13) is a salade (or helmet covering the nape of the
neck), of German fashion, but made by one of the Negroli family. It is a
pure, vigorous piece of work, cast, except the visor, in one piece. The
decoration exhibits the same happy combination of the Italian and
Oriental styles that characterises D12. The design inside the circles on
the skull might easily, at a cursory glance, persuade one of the Moorish
origin of the helmet.

The headpieces D14 to D22 emanate from Flanders. The Salade D14 (plate
125), worn by Philip I., has the skull-piece of octagonal shape and
ending in a knop, surmounted by a pomegranate. It seems to have been
suggested by the Moorish helmet and turban; and we read, in fact, that
Philip appeared before Ferdinand and Isabel in the tilt-yard at Toledo
in Moorish dress. D22 is a Flemish cabasset--an ungraceful
head-covering--forged in one piece.



III

THE AGE OF CHARLES V


Armour reached its highest point of development at a time when it had
become at least highly probable that the use of fire-arms would drive it
altogether from the field. Yet the armour-smith’s craft, so far from
languishing, seemed to renew its youth, and flourished exceedingly in
the early sixteenth century. That was an age of mighty Kings--of
Maximilian and Charles V. of Germany, of Henry VIII. of England, of
Francis I. of France, and of Ferdinand of Aragon--Sovereigns who loved
“the pomp and panoply of glorious war,” and who were keenly alive to the
potentialities of the knightly harness as a medium for display and
ostentation. This, too, was the age of the Renaissance, when the setting
of a gem or the moulding of a goblet was a matter that would occupy a
grave potentate to the exclusion of affairs of state. The armourer’s art
came in for a large share of the interest taken in all the applied arts.
But as in the latter half of the fifteenth century, armour had already
arrived at a purity of line and adaptability to its purpose which could
not be improved upon, the energies of the Renaissance artists were
perforce expended upon ornamentation and enrichment. This tendency was
naturally the more freely indulged as the inefficiency of armour as a
defence for life and limb became more generally recognized.

The “Maximilian” style of armour, which superseded the “Gothic” or late
fifteenth century style, seems to have originated at Milan, probably in
the workshop of the Negrolis of Missaglia. It was modelled on--or
suggested by--the civil costume of the time, and derives its name from
the approval it received from the Emperor Maximilian (1493-1519). That
monarch was distinguished above all the princes of his age for his
fondness for warlike exercises, and for his skill and courage in the
lists. The armour named after him is fluted, and is usually
characterised by heavy-shoulder defences, and skirts of plate or
lamboys.

The earliest pieces introduced into Spain by the Emperor’s son, Philip
I., do not belong to this style; nor does the handsome suit (A16--plate
15), believed to be of Spanish make, and worn by the Prince, possibly at
the tilt organised in his honour in the Zocodover in 1502. Of the heavy
tilting heaulme forming part of the harness, the Conde de Valencia
says:

“This handsome helm, to judge by the dimensions of the shutter, might be
thought either Spanish or Italian; but in forming a definite opinion it
must be remembered that it is marked with a _fleur-de-lys_, very similar
to that of a _Chapeau de Montauban_, which we have seen in the Hefner
collection at Munich.”

The cuirass, decorated with gold brocade, is composed of two stout
plates of steel, tin-plated to prevent oxidation, the lower defending
the body to the waist, and the upper or over-breastplate only protecting
the breast down to a horizontal line of gilded nails. They are fastened
together by a screw in the centre of a rosette of gilded and engraved
metal. The cuirass is completed by a third plate, which covers the
shoulder-blades, connecting with the backplate, and protects the
shoulders from the pressure of the helm. It is all lined with brocade
over strong canvas, and fits close with cords and tags like a corset.

“This remarkable breastplate for tilting is evidently Spanish. In
addition to the Moorish character of the engraving and openwork adorning
the central rosette, inside the plates is a mark which shows its
Valencian origin. It is the tetragon with the Aragon bars, given as a
shield of arms by James I. to the city he had conquered.”

The lance-rest is of the hollow kind, peculiar to Spain and Italy. Note
on the right hip the pocket, cork-lined, on which the butt-end of the
lance was rested before being couched. Above the left breast is a large
ring, to which, by means of a bolt, the target was fastened and held in
position. The leather ball, filled with tow, hanging to this ring, was
to deaden the effect of a blow on the shield. We are ignorant of the use
of the four rings hanging from the central ridge of the breastplate. The
tassets are of three laminæ. The left hip is protected by a strong
reinforcing piece in two plates. The left arm being defended by the
target has no espalier or pauldron, but only coude, vambraces, and
gauntlets. The right arm, in addition to these pieces, has a sort of
espalier-pauldron, called _épaule-de-mouton_, with a fluted pikeguard.
The lance is of pine-wood, and has the point blunted. The next suit
(A17) differs only in a few unimportant particulars from the one just
described.

The body-armour (C11) may have been brought to Spain by Philip. It is
the work of a Milanese armourer, Bernardino Cantoni (who lived in 1492),
and consists of a brigantine with tassets and sleeves, “Greek breeches”
or chausses for the thigh, and brayette. These pieces are composed of
scale armour, overlaid with canvas and crimson silk. The borders and
joints are garnished with fine steel mail. On the rivets is stamped the
Imperial eagle, which goes to prove that the armour belonged to
Maximilian. No less than 3,827 pieces of plate and more than 7,000
rivets have been used to make this wonderful harness. The armourer’s
mark, the heraldic devices of Austria and Burgundy, and the plates cut
in the form of dolphins on the backplate, are worthy of attentive
inspection (see plates 79 and 79A).

Attached to the salade shown with this body-armour, are beautiful wings
of steel, inlaid with gold and other decorations, which could be assumed
or removed according as the helmet was required for war or tilting
(plate 141).

The most remarkable exhibits in the Armoury are the eighteen superb
suits that belonged to the Emperor Charles V. They are the work of the
greatest armourers of that or any age, and illustrate the transition
from the “Gothic” to the more elaborate style of Maximilian.

The suit A19 (plate 20) was made for Charles when he was a youth by
Koloman Colman, surnamed Helmschmied, the famous armour-smith of
Augsburg. It is known as the K. D. suit from the enormous monogram
stamped on the pike-guard of the left-shoulder. The letters stand for
Karolus Dux, Charles being at that time (about 1514) only Duke of
Burgundy and Prince of the Spains. The whole suit conforms to the
elegant simplicity of the earlier fashion, but the size of the left
pauldron or shoulder-guard and the shape of the sollerets show the
influence of the new.

The armour is of burnished steel, “soberly gilded and engraved.” The
borders are adorned by diamond-shaped reliefs. The armet is of the
pattern described under A1, but the side-pieces close in front of the
chin; the visor has five rows of holes and slits for ventilation. There
is no gorget, the interval between the helmet and the upper edge of the
breastplate being defended by chain-mail. The breastplate has a ridge or
tapul down the middle; it is roped at the edges, and decorated with the
Collar of the Golden Fleece. Strong lance-rest, with the Imperial eagle
and armourer’s mark. Attached to the taces are tassets of three plates.
The space between them is incompletely defended by a narrow skirt of
mail. At the armpits are gussets of mail. The right arm has an espalier,
palette, rere-braces, coude, vambrace, and gauntlet; the left, the four
last pieces, but instead of espalier and palette, a large pauldron with
pike-guard, on which is engraved the monogram K. D. The coudes are very
beautiful. The remaining pieces are: backplate, open cuisses,
genouillères, jambs, and laminated sollerets, approximating to the
bear’s-paw pattern that afterwards became fashionable.

This harness belongs to the best period of armour. The decoration is
chaste and tasteful, and there is nothing superfluous or exaggerated in
the whole suit. The armet could be strengthened by the usual reinforcing
pieces. The other tilting-pieces, which might have been worn with this
suit, are shown separately on the equestrian figure A26 (plate 21). Here
we notice the armet with cheek-pieces opening at the sides, according to
the system which now became general; laminated gorget; the enormous
pauldron, elbow-guard, and gauntlet of the right arm; and the handsome
garde-de-rein attached to the backplate. The cuisses have a fringe of
mail at the knee, and the houghs are defended by decorated shields or
rondels. The junction of the jambs and sollerets is similarly
strengthened by mail.

The horse’s barding appears to have been the work of Daniel Hopfer of
Augsburg, who co-operated in many instances with Colman. All the
component parts are gilded, and etched by means of aqua-fortis, the
decoration consisting of imbrications or overlapping of festoons, in
open-work or relief.

Each imbrication encloses two cherubim in the attitude of striking with
sparkling flint bars, and in each festoon is a rose and three
pomegranates surrounding it. The first are emblems of the Golden Fleece;
the rose alludes to one of the seigneuries of the Emperor; and the
pomegranates are a favourite device adopted by the children and
grandchildren of Ferdinand and Isabel, in memory of the triumph over the
Moors at Granada.

The iron borne by the horseman weighs thirty-six kilos., and the horse’s
bard and saddle as much more: if the weight of an average man be added
the result is about 150 kilos, carried by the horse.

The most notable features of the suit A27 (plates 22, 98, 143), which is
mainly composed of extra or reinforcing pieces, are the helmet, called
celada de infante, with serrated comb, decorative bands, deep pointed
visor forming a strong reinforcing piece, beavor “bellows-pattern” with
alternate ridges and rows of perforations, and laminated gorget plates;
and the target screwed to the left shoulder. This defence was only used
at tilts and tournaments. It is concave and trellised, and is
beautifully engraved by Daniel Hopfer.

On it may be seen several birds of the same kind (herons?) in the act of
attacking an eagle in the centre, which has one of them a prisoner in
its talons--possibly an allusion to the alliances promoted by Francis I.
of France against Charles V., after the former refused to comply with
the Treaty of Madrid.

The suit A37-42 (plate 23) is a tilting harness of burnished steel,
probably that in which the Prince appeared in the lists at Valladolid in
1518. The most important piece is the tilting-helm, which weighs more
than nineteen kilogrammes. Divided vertically at the sides in two
halves, which are joined by means of six sliding springs, it was put on
by screwing the back part to the backplate and the front part to the
over-breastplate, the tilter remaining thus between walls of steel, with
the weight shared between the shoulders and the waist.

The lance is of the kind called Bordonasa, hollow and fluted. The larger
variety was used to mark the limits of the lists at tournaments. In an
account of Charles’s doings (1523) we read, “Le jour que sa dite Majesté
jousta à la targette, qui’il courut par diverses fois armé à la
bourdonasse.”

The heavy bard that covers the horse, like the suit, comes from the
Imperial Armoury. It is of German make; but has no mark to show its
origin. Its make and size remind us of those of the _Triunfo de
Maximiliano I._, and the beautiful etchings are in the style of the
celebrated engravers Burgmair, father and son; the latter, as is known,
worked with the armourers of the Imperial House of Austria.

It includes: large chanfron with arched outline, lateral plates,
ear-coverings like sheeps’ horns, and on the crown a small shield with
the two-headed eagle; collar of steel scales; poitrel with sliding
embossed hinges, in the shape of lions’ heads; flechières and croupière,
all covered with pearls, pendants, and reliefs. On the croupière, which
finishes at the crupper in a sheep’s head, Biblical subjects are
engraved: David with the sling, and Samson fighting the Philistines. The
whole is one of the most beautiful bardings known.

The horse armour at A38 is also remarkable, and probably belonged to the
Emperor Maximilian. Note the double-headed eagle on the chanfron, the
motto, “Plus Oultre” on the forehead, and the St. Andrew’s crosses and
bars of the Golden Fleece on the collar.

At A43 the upper limbs are defended by “a pair of narrow armlets to be
used with sleeves of mail” (Valladolid Inventory). “They are specially
worthy of mention as they are very rare, there being none like them in
any other Museum, while in the collection at Madrid there are four sets
belonging to as many suits of armour of the Emperor. On tapestries and
some sepulchral effigies of the fifteenth century they are worn over the
sleeves of the coat of mail, to defend the outside part of the arm from
the shoulder to the hand, being divided in articulated laminæ. Those of
Charles V. have their own garniture of mail and straps to go round the
arm.”

Between 1519 and 1539, five complete suits, almost identical in design,
were made for Charles by the Colmans of Augsburg. They are all decorated
with ornamental vertical bands, and differ mainly in the distances
between these and in dimensions. Two are distinguished, however, by
lamboys or bases, the ugly kilting of armour added to the harness about
this time to gratify the craze for novelty and ornamentation. It may
also have been suggested by the prevailing fashion in civil dress.

The most ancient of these suits is that known as the oak-leaf harness
(_tonelete de hojas de roble_) [A49-64]. It could not have been made
earlier than 1519, the year in which Charles ascended the throne of the
Holy Roman Empire, as the Imperial Eagle is engraved on the coudes. It
was made by Colman Helmschmied.

The armour is shown on three separate figures. The first (A49--plate 24)
is a harness for jousting on foot, with the two-handed sword, mace, or
half-pike. The helmet, of the kind Spanish writers call the _celada de
engole_, has a serrated comb and pointed visor ridged horizontally; the
cheek-pieces open at the sides; and the nape covering or _colodrillo_ is
forged separately from the helmet, and fastened with rivets. This
headpiece has six reinforcing pieces, which are placed at the side of
the figure. Among these is a curious beavor, composed of two plates,
nailed on leather, which clasp on the helmet and close at the chin. The
rest of the suit consists of: laminated gorget; globose breastplate,
roped at the edges, and decorated with ornamental lengths; taces, to the
lower edge of which is attached the lamboy, composed of two bell-shaped
halves, each of eight semi-circular plates, across which the lengths are
continued, and the lowest or outermost of which is decorated all round
with embossed oak-leaves intertwined round a trunk. The espaliers are
small and beautifully decorated with the device of the Golden Fleece in
relief. The coudes show the Imperial Eagle embossed on a gold ground.
The leg-armour does not properly belong to this suit.

(A56). The second figure (plates 25, 99) has a helmet for jousting on
foot, which opens at the sides, and has a large visor in one
semi-spherical piece perforated; slight crest, and stripes of gold which
unite at the back to form two fantastic figures, and, lastly, eight
holes on each side, guarded with metal, for hearing. Undoubtedly it was
altered at a very remote period by cutting horizontally at the neck, at
the back of which the Golden Fleece is engraved; and doubtless it was
cut in order to add the neck-plates, which, screwed on to the cuirass,
serve instead of a gorget.

Note the heavy tilting elbow-guards and gauntlets; the brayette, rarely
shown in English pieces of armour; and the close-fitting tassets,
resembling breeches, in which we may recognise the beginnings of the
lobster-tail armour, worn so much during the seventeenth century. The
back of the espaliers is beautifully designed to resemble the wings of
an eagle.

(A57.) The third figure has tilting pieces of the same armour. The helm
in two pieces, united at the side by means of seven sliding rivets, is
magnificent, with pointed visor, very stout at the edges; it has a
shutter on the right side; two groups of perforations for breathing, and
eight others, guarded with metal, for hearing; in front the decoration
only consists of lightly engraved feathers, on the crest, of a centaur
fighting a serpent, in relief, on a gold ground (plate 100).

The superb shield (plate 143A), screwed to the over-breastplate, bears
the signature of Daniel Hopfer, and the date 1536. Its surface is
divided into twenty-eight compartments of different sizes, in each of
which are engraved groups of nymphs, satyrs, amorini, winged horses,
griffins, and other fanciful creations on a gold ground. The groups are
all different. Some of the female figures appear to have been
intentionally made grotesque. The whole design reminds one of Albrecht
Durer’s school and the German Renaissance.

The beautiful burgonet or helmet (A59--plate 101), shaped like a
dolphin’s head, was made in the workshops of Colman, and almost
certainly designed by Daniel Hopfer. The scales are damascened on a
black ground, and the visor is formed by the snout above the open jaw.

We come now to the harness made for Charles V. at Augsburg about 1521,
and distributed like the last suit among three figures. It presents no
very interesting points of difference from the armour just described
(plate 26). The barding of the horse (A65) is exquisitely engraved with
fanciful figures, in which we recognise the hand of Daniel Hopfer. The
armet of the third figure (A75--plate 102) is of the shape already shown
at A19. The reinforcing piece over the crown is cut to resemble an
eagle, and bears such devices as the Golden Fleece and Pillars of
Hercules, and the motto “Plus Oultre.” It has also the most complete set
of reinforcing pieces in the Armoury. These are shown on plate 97.

The harness numbered A93-107 is the third of the suits decorated with
vertical bands and the second with lamboys made for Charles by Colman
Helmschmied. The Conde de Valencia fixes its date at 1526, and has
elicited from various archives the following interesting historical
details concerning it:

“So long as the young Prince Charles resided in Flanders under the
tutelage of his grandfather, the Emperor Maximilian I., it would be easy
for the armourer Colman Helmschmied to take and certify personally his
measurements, without neglecting the large clientèle that came to his
workshops; but when his patron was obliged to go to Spain, he wished,
and expressed this wish through his agents, that the armourer should
remove to Toledo. Colman demurred, alleging that he was fully occupied,
and from this it has been inferred that he never crossed the Pyrenees.
We, more fortunately, are able to assert that the celebrated artificer,
at last obeying the express command of his Sovereign, went to Toledo in
December, 1525, and returned to Germany the following month.

“A bill ordering the payment of the expenses of his journey, found in
Simancas, states, among other curious details, that he left Augsburg in
December, accompanied by Ludovico Taxis, an official of the Imperial
Post, and two servants, and passed through Lyon in France. He was
summoned to Court chiefly to rectify measurements, before executing
fresh orders, as may be gathered from the extremely curious charge in an
ancient account of the Emperor’s Armoury, the date of which coincides
with the artificer’s stay in Toledo. The French text begins thus: ‘Pour
trois livres de cire et de plomb pour faire les patrons que maitre
Colman, armoyeur, a fait,’ &c.

“The Emperor’s bill, dated Toledo, January 15th, 1526, arranging for the
payment of expenses from and to Augsburg to Colman and his companions is
so interesting in its details that it ought to be known. It runs thus:

“‘Notre Secretaire M. Jehan Lalemand, depechez nos lettres patentes par
les quelles soient mandé a notre Argentier Jehan d’ Adurza et des
deniers de son entremise payer, bailler et delivrer comptant à ...,
Colman maître armoyeur de notre cité d’ Augsbourg en Allemaignes et à
Ludovico de Taxis serviteur du maître des postes estant au dit Augsbourg
la somme de 1,125 ducats d’or de XXXVII. s. VI. d. pièce, à savoir; au
dit Colman 735, les 500 en don gratuit pour une fois pour aucunement des
peines et travaux qu’il a eu et supporté venant par notre expresse
ordonnance au mois de decembre dernier en poste dés sa maison etant au
dit Augsbourg, jusque par devers notre dite majesté en notre cité de
Tolede; les 150 pour ses depenses tant de venir que de retourner en sa
dite maison; les 30 ducats pour convertir et employer en ung
acoustrement pour sa personne, de nos couleurs et livrées et les 55
autres ducats pour une mulle que lui avons fait ce jourd-huy acheter et
presenter aussi en don de par nous; et au dit Ludovico de Taxis 380
semblables ducats, les 200 pour ses peines et frais par lui payés d’etre
aussi par notre dite ordonnance venu accompagner par poste le dit
Colman, dés le dit Augsbourg à quatre chevaux jusqu’ à Lyon sur Rhone en
France et dés le dit Lyon jusqu’ en notre cité de Tolede à trois
chevaux, a cause qu’ un serviteur d’ icelle Colman était demeuré malade
par chemin; les 150 ducats aussi pour ses dépenses et autres frais que
lui conviendra faire accompagnant le dit Colman et portant une montre de
harnais pour notre personne dés le dit Tolede jusqu’ au dit Augsbourg et
les autres 30 ducats aussi en don gratuit pour un acoutrement pour sa
personne aussi de notre dite livrée; revenant ensemble toutes les dites
parties à la dite somme de 1,125 ducats d’or,’” &c. (Simancas. Casa
Real).

The figure A93 (plate 27) shows the armour as worn for combat on foot in
_champ-clos_. The helmet has a complete set of reinforcing pieces. The
roped edge of the breastplate is placed over the gorget. The pauldrons
are large, and furnished with pike-guards. The lamboys are in
bell-shaped halves, joined by sliding rivets. The lowest or outermost
plate can be detached at will, and is decorated with bas-reliefs of
bears and deer pursued by dogs on a gilded ground. Beneath is a
“baticol,” or kind of breeches, of burnished steel, “articulated with
great skill and precision, so as to defend the body without hindering
its movements.” Cuisses, genouillères, and jambs complete the suit.

The tilting pieces attached to the harness are shown on the second
figure (A101--plate 20). The helm, similar to that of A37, is decorated
with gold bands, and is fifteen millimetres thick at the visor. It is
screwed on to the over-breastplate. The arm defences are very handsome,
being gilded, embossed, and engraved so as to resemble the civil dress
of the period. The right coude bears the emblem of the Golden Fleece,
and would appear from the Relacion de Valladolid to have been a prize
won or competed for at tournaments. The armour on the left arm will only
permit the arm to be bent towards the pommel of the saddle.

The cuisses are laminated, and the influence of the civil dress is seen
once more in the genouillères which are composed of strips of metal
placed vertically, so as to give the “slashed” appearance common to the
trunk-hose and sleeves of the period. The jambs are engraved with floral
devices. The sollerets are of mail.

The third figure (A103), described as including the pieces necessary for
war or hunting, does not call for special notice.

A108 is a light harness for war, made by Colman Helmschmied. The emblem
of the Golden Fleece predominates in the scheme of its decoration. Of
this suit the Conde de Valencia says:

“Time has dimmed the effect of its sober and severe ornamentation of
gold on a black ground, confined to a few narrow longitudinal stripes
engraved and gilded. It has the ‘bars’ of the Golden Fleece on the
helmet, the guards, and the shield; two winged griffins, supporting the
Pillars of Hercules on the backplates of the pauldrons, and the image of
Our Lady on the breastplate. According to the Emperor’s inventory, the
backplate, which does not exist, bore the image of St. Barbara.

“It is the last armour the famous Colman made for Charles V. This is
easily proved by the date (1531), engraved on the left tassets--a date
which agrees with that given us some years ago by the learned German
professor, Carl Justi, to whom it was communicated by Canon Braghirolli
on his finding it in the Mantua archives. It is contained in a letter
from Duke Federigo di Gonzaga to the Duke of Urbino on the 9th November,
1532, in which he says that _the Emperor had shown him his armour, among
which was a beautiful suit by Colman, the last one he made for him, for
shortly after he had died_. The statement was confirmed by the payment
lists of the Municipality of Augsburg, from which the name of the
armourer disappeared in the year 1532.”

The helmet is a _celada de infante_, and has a visor with wide gratings
fastening over the beavor. The evolution of leg-armour is well shown by
the tassets extending, in several plates, below the knee where they
overlap the demi-jambs. There are no genouillères. The lower plates of
the tassets were detachable, those pieces being thus convertible into
tassets of ordinary length.

The shield (A109), embossed with the devices of Burgundy and the Golden
Fleece, was found in the province of Burgos, where it was bought for
seven pesetas. It was purchased for the nation by Alfonso XII. at a cost
of 1,250 pesetas.

The suit A112, plate 28, though of the same pattern as those just
described, is the work of the Italian artificer, Caremolo Mondrone, of
Milan. It is one of two suits presented to the Emperor by the Duke of
Mantua, in gratitude for favours received and anticipated. The gift
elicited the following letter of thanks from Charles (Bertolotti, Arti
minori):

“_Carolus Augustus D. F. C. Romanorum Imperator. III. Princeps consange.
Carissima:_

“_Las armas q. nos truxo Caremolo nos ha parescido muy bien y estamos
muy contento dellas porque son muy bien acabadas ya nostra voluntad, y
lo quedamos del animo con que se embiaro porque lo tenemos bien
conoscido y habemos lo que en el hay para nostras cosas. El nostro para
las vestrases de la misma manera como es razon. Caremolo dira
particularmente lo demas q. toca a las armas. Dat. ex Palencia a quatro
de Septembre an. de MDXXXIIIJ.--Carolus._”

The harness was made in 1534 specially for the African expedition which
the Emperor was planning at that time, and was worn by him on his
triumphal entry into Tunis. The decoration has disappeared, all but a
band of embossed leaves round the border of the tassets. The closeness
of the fit and the flowing lines recall the best days of the armourer’s
art.

The helmet has a pointed visor and beavor in one piece, with
perforations on each side. The breastplate is moderately globose, the
espaliers composed of narrow laminæ bolted on to the breast and
backplates. Rondels defend the armpits. The coudes are large. The
genouillères are composed of narrow articulated plates.

In gratitude for his investiture with the principality of Monteferrato,
the Duke of Mantua, in 1536, sent the Emperor a second suit of armour
(A114--plate 29) by the same artificer, and of the same design:

On receipt of these gifts the Emperor replied in the following terms:

“_Carolus Divina favente Clemencia. Roman. Imp. August. Illustria
Princeps consanguine carissime._

“_Las armas son muy buenas, y nos han parescido en extremo bien y
contentado mucho, y assy nos ha satisfecho el armero al qual havremos
plazer que por nuestro respecto tengais por encomendado. De Alba á 23 de
Julio de 1536.--Carolus._”

The suit appears to have been originally blued and richly damascened in
gold. Most of the decoration and the bluish hue have now disappeared.
Gold palms in relief still remain on certain of the pieces. The extreme
delicacy of the azziminia, imitating cufic inscriptions, testifies to
the extraordinary skill of Caremolo Mondrone. It will be noted that many
of the most important pieces are missing from the suit.

The harness A115-A127 is known as the Cornucopia Suit, from the emblem
which predominates in the scheme of decoration. The Conde de Valencia is
of opinion that it is the work of Desiderius Colman, and was made about
1534. The steel was originally blackened, and the ridges, which
correspond to the bands in the other suits, were engraved and gilded.
Excessive cleaning has greatly marred the beauty of this armour.

The first and fourth figures display the blazoned surcoat, similar to
those shown on the seals of Charles V. as Count of Flanders. Attached to
the fourth figure is a curious burgonet or helmet. The visor is embossed
and gilded in the likeness of a grotesque face, according to the debased
taste of the age. The beavor does not belong to the headpiece. The
helmet A120, which bears Colman’s mark, is similarly embossed with a
gargoyle-like design (plates 30, 103A).

The fifth suit, with vertical bands, made at Augsburg (A128-138), is
known as the Harness of Close Bands to distinguish it from the four
others. It is probably the work of Desiderius Colman. The second figure
(A129--plate 31) is a graceful suit, composed of: armet, with visor and
beavor in one piece (eight reinforcing pieces); gorget; breastplate and
backplate, the former engraved with the image of the Blessed Virgin, the
latter with that of St. Barbara, the two plates united by straps over
the shoulders; espaliers of eight plates; rondel over left armpit;
rere-braces, vambraces, coudes, and gauntlets; close-fitting tassets of
many plates; cuisses, jambs, and chaussettes of mail for the ankles. The
whole suit, everywhere striped or banded, is singularly beautiful and
dignified.

We come now to the work of the great rivals of the Colmans--the Negrolis
of Milan. The suit A139 (plate 31) was made for the Emperor in 1539,
and is at once distinguished from the German suits by the bands crossing
the body horizontally instead of vertically. It was originally
blackened, so as to show up the gold and silver of the decoration.

The morion is beautifully decorated. Over the skull-piece, and parallel
with a beautiful laurelled comb, run two wide bands of gold damascening
that meet over the brow in a fantastic face in relief, surrounded by
acanthus leaves and volutes; the visor is also damascened. The borders
of the helmet are similarly enriched. In gold relief are the letters,
PHILIPPVS IACOBI ET FRATR NEGROLI FACIEBANT MDXXXIX. The cheek-pieces
are decorated with small lions’ heads.

The breast and backplates were adorned with images of the Virgin and St.
Barbara--the latter now missing. The pauldrons, coudes, and genouillères
are very tastefully embossed, and inlaid with lions’ heads, scrolls, and
beautiful foliations, the decoration showing up well on the plain
ground.

The helmet has a reinforcing piece or coif (A140) shaped like a serpent
with scales of gold, and with damascened rosettes--a fine piece of work.

Another fine specimen of Italian make, the artificer of which is
unknown, is the Foot Armour, A147. This was erroneously attributed at
one time to the Marques de Villafranca. It exhibits exquisite designs in
gold azziminia. “Its original style,” remarks the Conde de Valencia,
“partakes at once of the classic Pompeian and the Oriental, and does not
follow the _plateresco_, prevalent at that time; and the whole suit is
distinguished from the makes of Milan and Augsburg by uniting the
richness of parade armour with the smoothness and toughness required for
war.” Note the elegant plume-holder in the shape of an Imperial Eagle,
with the arms of Castile inlaid; and the light backplate, in the form of
a St. Andrew’s Cross, to be worn over a coat of mail.

The armour worn by Charles V. in the unfortunate expedition to Algiers
is shown under the numbers A149-A156. Many pieces are missing. The
pieces composing the first suit do not call for special description.
Jambs, with coverings of mail for the feet, are worn according to the
fashion common in Spain. As in the preceding suits of the same epoch,
the genouillères can hardly be considered as separate pieces, the
laminated cuisses being continued down to the jambs (plate 33).

The barding of the horse (which does not belong to the suit) is
magnificent. It was made (according to Herr Leitner) after the designs
of the famous engraver, Hans Burgmair, and came into the possession of
Charles on the death of his grandfather, Maximilian. It is of steel,
lined with silk, and beautifully scalloped at the edges. The poitrel and
croupière are adorned by allegorical groups, illustrating notable feats
of strength; the figures are in low relief and partly gilded. On the
right side, we see Hercules strangling the serpents, wrestling with
Antæus, slaying the Hydra, and subduing the Minotaur; on the left,
Samson carrying off the gates of Gaza, breaking the lion’s jaws, being
shorn of his locks by Delilah, and pulling down the Temple of Dagon.
Hercules as a child again appears amid embossed foliations on the
chanfron. The croupière is completed above the tail by a dolphin’s head.
The saddle is even richer than the bard, and is adorned with fantastic
figures engraved on steel.

Attached to the second figure of the harness (A151), is a notable helmet
in the form of an eagle. The head and beak form the visor, the legs in
low relief cross the cheek-pieces, and the talons appear to grasp the
beavor, upholding between them the Imperial shield, finely engraved.
This beavor was the subject of keen competition between King Alfonso
XII. and the late Sir Richard Wallace, who, at last, gave it up to His
Catholic Majesty (plate 106).

The figure also shows a fine coat of steel mail, traditionally ascribed
to Charles V. Over this was worn a corselet, protecting the back and
breast, and descending from the shoulders to the waist, diminishing in
breadth till it ends in a point. Attached to it are shoulder-guards of
three plates. This is the only piece of the kind in the Armoury--perhaps
in the world. It was no doubt worn, like the peculiar arm-piece
described on p. 81, over a stout leather jerkin (plate 105).

The light helmet, A154, has a cleverly designed and beautifully executed
crest and visor, which, looked at in front, resembles an eagle’s head;
behind, some monstrous animal’s mask; and sideways, a dolphin.

The light war harness, A157 is incomplete, many of the pieces being in
the Imperial Armoury at Vienna. It was made for the Emperor in 1543, by
Desiderius Colman, at the time of the campaign against the Duke of
Cleves and Francis I. of France. The suit is decorated with the vertical
bands of which Charles was fond, probably because they made him look
taller.

The maker of the suit A159-163 (plate 34) is unknown, but he was
certainly an Italian, and not improbably the illustrious Negroli. The
decoration consists, as usual, of broad vertical bands, inlaid,
alternately of gold and silver; these are cut diagonally by sections of
gold leaves, which festoon all the pieces.

The suit A164 (plate 35) has been immortalised by Titian, in whose
picture (No. 457) in the Prado Gallery, Charles is shown wearing it. The
armourer’s mark proves that it was made in 1544--three years before the
Battle of Mühlberg, where it was worn by the Emperor. This, thinks the
Conde de Valencia, must have been the last suit worn by him in the
field. “The four complete cuirasses, and the extra backplates comprised
in it ... show that the Emperor was then a victim of frequent attacks of
gout, and replaced uncomfortable cuirasses by such as were easier.”

The first figure (A164) has been armed in accordance with Titian’s
portrait. It is composed of breast and backplates, with taces; tassets;
laminated gorget; espaliers reaching to elbows over sleeves of steel
mail; and strong gauntlets with fingers united two and two.

“These pieces, combined with the triple-crest morion, the javelin, and
pistolet K51, fastened to the front bow of the saddle, form the armour
called _herreruelos_, which appeared for the first time in that war, as
related by Nuñez de Alba in his _Dialogos del soldado_, who, being a
soldier himself, was in the 1547 campaign against the Schmalkalden
Protestant League.”

The figure A165 (plate 40) is fitted with pieces of the same suit, after
the portrait attributed to Pantoja de la Cruz in the Escorial Library.
It consists of: armet with visor in two pieces, and a grating over the
beavor; laminated gorget; cuirass with taces; lance-rest; the usual arm
armour; tassets; cuisses, and demi-jambs.

The decoration of the whole Mühlberg harness is simple and tasteful. It
is composed of broad lengths of the metal in its native colour, inlaid
with gold, scalloped or festooned on each side in low relief, and
beautifully etched with figures, foliations, &c., down the middle. This
ornamentation appears on all the pieces, the armet included.

The princes and commanders of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
had a fondness for appearing in Roman garb, which, they fancied, lent
dignity to their carriage. Charles V. was the possessor of a suit of
Roman armour (A188), the work of Bartolommeo Campi, of Pesaro, and, in
the opinion of the Conde de Valencia, the offering of Guidobaldo II.,
Duke of Urbino. That prince’s monogram, the Conde points out, is to be
seen on the backplate gilded in relief. The date of the armour is 1546.
We extract the following notes from the Catalogue:

“A. Angelucci, in his work _Documenti inediti per la storia delle armi
da fuoco italiane_, Turin, 1869, p. 330, publishes a brief extract from
the biography of Campi, written by Promis, which we can amplify, thanks
to the documents which, by the kindness of the Dukes of Alba, we have
been able to consult in their important historical Archives.

“Bartholomew Campi was born at Pesaro in the beginning of the sixteenth
century, being in his youth a goldsmith and engraver of metals, and
making arms and armour of great value, which merited the eulogies of the
celebrated writer Pedro Aretino, in letters addressed from Venice to
Bartholomew Egnazio (1545). At that time he made the armour of Charles
V. In 1547 he directed the fêtes in Pesaro in honour of the wedding of
Guidobaldo II. and Vittoria Farnese; and two years after, he finished
the admirable work of art in gold and silver, which the Municipality of
Pesaro presented to the new-born son of that Prince.

“From 1554 to 1560 probably, he was military engineer in the service of
the Republic of Siena, Venice, and the French Monarch. He assisted at
the siege of Calais. In the latter year, he solicited, unsuccessfully,
in spite of the support of Cardinal Granvela, admittance to the Spanish
Army, and then he returned to France, taking the side of the Catholics
against the Huguenots.

“At last, in 1568, Campi served in Flanders, under the orders of the
Duke of Alba. This illustrious leader gave him a commission, which is in
the Archives of his house, as chief engineer of the fortification and
investment of fortresses, at the monthly salary of 500 escudos
(ordinary) and 50 (extraordinary), and to his son Escipion, besides his
salary, 25 escudos a month as an allowance.

“The Duke of Alba had Campi in such esteem, that in a letter to the
King, dated June 3rd, 1569, he says: ‘I tell Your Majesty that you have
a good man in Captain B. Campi, because he is in truth a soldier and has
art, although not so well-founded as Pachote ... and he is the best man
I have met with since I have known men--I do not say only engineers, but
men of any sort--very steady and happy in his work.’

“The death of Campi occurred, says Bernardino de Mendoza in his
_Commentaries_, as the result of an arquebus-shot through the head, at
the siege of Haarlem, on March 7th, 1573, the grief of the Duke and all
his army being very great.”

This superb panoply (plates 40, 125A) is composed of seven pieces of
blackened steel, decorated with gold and silver damascening, and with
ornaments of gilt bronze. The burgonet is of elegant outline, and bears
a close enough resemblance to a Bœotian casque. It has cheek-pieces in
the Roman style. The comb, visor, and nape are adorned by a wide
damascened band, showing up well on the blackened steel. The helmet is
also girdled by a graceful wreath of oak-leaves in gilt, which
terminates at the nape in two volutes, from which springs the
plume-holder.

The cuirass is a triumph of art, and is moulded in the resemblance of
the human torso, the outlining of the muscles proving that the artificer
was well acquainted with anatomy. At the neck is a square piece,
composed of bands of gold inlaid work. Beneath this is the Medusa’s
head, from which spring two volutes, ending in small silver flowers.
This constitutes the only decoration of the breastplate. Campi’s pride
in his work, and the celerity with which he executed it, are testified
by the inscription, BARTHOLOMEVS CAMPI AVRIFEX TOTIVS OPERIS ARTIFEX
QVOD ANNO INTEGRO INDIGEBAT PRINCIPIS SUI NVTVI OBTEMPERANS GEMINATO
MENSE PERFECIT.

The tace is composed of a series of gilded bronze medallions, showing
classic heads, masks, unicorns, and similar devices. From beneath these
fall the tassets--long strap-like pieces of several laminæ each. Beneath
these again is a brayette of steel mail.

“But nothing so enriches this graceful armour as the espaliers, composed
of two large black masks in high relief, whose eyeballs, owing to the
gold circle in which they are enclosed, have a singular expression. On
the shoulders are beautiful damascened festoons fan-shaped, and
underneath, springing from the mouths of each of the masks, another
series of hanging laminas, smaller than those of the skirt or tassets,
and also over fine mail.”

Lastly, the artist held to the compulsory classic nudeness, and limited
the protection of the legs to short steel buskins, openworked, similar
to the cothurnus which, according to Virgil, came up over the leg and
was fastened with cords in front: these buskins have beautiful masks of
satyrs in gilded bronze, and end in mail shoes with the toes outlined.

The figure has in its hand a small mutilated partisan of the Emperor’s
time, with the emblems of Burgundy and the Pillars of Hercules engraved
on the blade.

With the suit A114, above described, the work of Giacopo Filippo
Negroli, the Duke of Mantua presented Charles with a casque and target
by the same artificers. This was between the years 1533 and 1536. The
casque, or helmet-morion (D1--plate 148A), is moulded in the likeness of
a head covered with golden curls, and encircled over the brow with a
laurel wreath. The large side-pieces, shaped to the oval of the face,
are perforated for hearing. The beavor is in the form of a curly beard,
the lips showing above it. The production reflects credit on the skill
of the artificer, but is in bad taste. The target (D2--plate 148A), made
to match the above, has a lion’s head and mane for boss, in high relief;
the border is wide and very beautiful, and composed of medallions
supported by griffins, and linked by scrolls and foliations.

The magnificent burgonet and target (D3 and 4), also believed to have
been the property of the Emperor, are said to have been moulded from the
designs of Giulio Romano. They bear no mark; and “Considering,” says
Conde de Valencia, “the depth and clearness with which each figure and
object is relieved; the masterly chiselling, so fine that it puts
expression into the combatants’ faces; and the exquisite taste of the
damascening, we are compelled to admit that the executor of the work
must have been more a master of his own art than the designer, Giulio
Romano, was of his” (plate 148B).

The helmet is forged in one piece, and follows the lines of the Bœotian
casque. The design on the comb represents combats between Centaurs and
Tritons for the possession of nymphs; on the sides, a combat between
Romans and Carthaginians. A similar subject is shown on the shield, in
the background being seen the city of Carthage as described by Livy.
Allusion, of course, is intended to the expedition to Tunis. The border
is admirably designed with wreaths, figures, scrolls, &c., and the busts
of Roman worthies.

The helmet D5 and shield D6 are of unknown origin. They were probably
the work of an Italian artificer of the sixteenth century. On one side
of the casque Bacchus and Ariadne are represented in a car drawn by
centaurs; on the other, Silenus on his ass, supported by Bacchus, and
preceded by Maenads. The shield D6 is in seventeen pieces screwed
together, and is beautifully chiselled and decorated. The boss is formed
by a mask with draperies, gracefully gathered up and crowned by an
elegant volute, the rich damascening of which contrasts well with the
blackened face. The ground is divided into four ovals, on which are
displayed scenes representing the Rapes of the Sabines, of Deianiera,
and of Helen, and the Contest between the Centaurs and Lapithae. The
border, among other decorations, has the busts of Cæsar, Aeolus,
Hercules, and Theseus (plate 149).

Another Burgonet (D30), made for Charles by the Negrolis, forged in one
piece and exquisitely damascened, has the comb moulded in the form of a
recumbent warrior wearing a turban, his head pointing backwards towards
the visor. The female figures, Fame and Victory, reclining on the brim
of the helmet, grasp the warrior by the moustache. He seems to represent
the Turkish Empire. On a shield above the visor is the inscription, SIC
TVA INVICTE CÆSAR (plate 129).

The magnificent shield (plate 150A), designed by Giulio Romano, and
presented to the Emperor by the Duke of Mantua (D63), is thus described
in the Catalogue:

“Within a wide border, with decorations of fruits and genii, finished
with the Golden Fleece, is the figure of the Spanish Cæsar in the centre
of the composition, armed in the heroic style, standing in a two-oared
boat, maintaining in vigorous attitude the banner of the Double Eagle,
preceded by Fame, at the prow, carrying the shield with the motto _Plus
ultra_, and followed by Victory, in the air, ready to put a crown of
laurel on the Emperor’s head, while indicating the course of the little
boat, always onwards (_Plus ultra_), across unknown seas.

“Hercules obeys the wishes and seconds the impulses of the Emperor,
uprooting, in order to advance them to new limits, the columns which he
once planted on the mountains Calpe and Abyla; while Neptune, leaning on
his trident, beholds with astonishment the expansion of his dominions.

“The woman fastened by her hair to the trunk of a palm, on which is a
turban, seemingly represents Africa subjugated by the then recent
conquest of Tunis; and that of the man lying at the feet of Neptune, is
possibly only an allegory of the Betis, called to be the intermediary
river between Spain and her new possessions.

“The skill of the composition and the richness of the whole contrast
singularly with the simplicity of the work. Forged in one piece of
steel, somewhat convex, the gilded figures stand out more because of the
deep impressions so splendidly engraved by the chisel than on account of
their dimensions and difference of colour.”

Though less elaborate in design than the preceding, the next shield
(D64) is considered the gem of the whole collection (plate 150A). It was
probably made for Charles by the Negrolis about the time of his entry
into Milan (1541). On a separate plate in the centre is daringly and
vigorously embossed the head of Medusa, serpents coiling above and
below. The head and serpents are confined within a broad laurel wreath.
Outside this again are three concentric bands, the first narrow and
richly inlaid with silver and gold; the second, broad and hammered
roughly, and divided into sections by shields bearing the inscription,
IS TERROR QVOD VIRTVS ANIMA E FOR--TVNA PARET; the third, damascened
like the first, showing sirens supporting four circular medallions with
the Double Eagle, Pillars of Hercules, and Golden Fleece. Round the
circumference of the shield runs a second laurel wreath.

Space does not permit us to describe in detail the many beautiful
shields attributed to the Emperor. That numbered D66 (plate 151) is an
example of the Moorish style of decoration so successfully imitated by
the Italian artificers; D68 (plate 153) is of Augsburg make, and
represents Strength as a nude woman steering the ship of Humanity across
the sea of life, her shield being Faith and her haven of refuge Divine
Grace.

Specially worthy of note are (E88 and E89) a pair of Gothic gauntlets
(plate 95), German, late fifteenth century from Charles’s Armoury. Each
is composed of twenty-seven pieces of white steel-plated iron, incised
with aqua-fortis, festooned and openwork, and with the cuff ending in a
point. They are forged and joined together with great skill to defend
the hand without hindering the natural movements, and at the same time
armed against the enemy with sharp points on the knuckles like the _coup
de point américain_. They are more delicate and handsome than those of
the same kind in the Vienna Museum; and if, on account of the period to
which they belong, they do not agree with the armour of Charles V.,
though they are sketched in the Relacion de Valladolid, it is beyond
doubt that they were part of some magnificent armour, possibly of his
father; perhaps of his grandfather Maximilian. This is partly confirmed
by the style of ornamentation, which agrees absolutely with that of the
work of Colman Helmschmied.

Several swords, once the property of the Emperor, are included in the
collection, but they do not possess the same merit or interest as the
defensive armour. The battle-swords G33, G34, both the work of the
Negrolis, have broad hexagonal blades, the middle surfaces and ricasso
being inlaid with gold. The hilt of the first is of iron, similarly
inlaid, with the quillons and pommel terminating in graceful volutes; a
beautifully chased shell protects the hand. The guard of the second is
strengthened by two branches; the pommel is facetted; and the steel hilt
decorated with vertical lines in damascene work, alternating with
acanthus leaves (plate 170).

To Charles’s era belong three swords, which, on account of their
history, are of peculiar interest. G29 (plate 164) was the battle-sword
of Spain’s greatest general, Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba, the Great
Captain (1453-1515). The blade is flat, with bevelled edges, and a
groove along the upper third of its length in which the first words of
the Angelic Salutation in gilded Gothic character may be deciphered. The
guard is of gilded iron, the quillons flat and drooping, and with two
branches to the ricasso. The pommel is of gilt copper, circular, and
with two faces--the obverse representing a battle scene, with the
inscription, GONSALVI AGIDARI VICTORIA DE GALLIS AD CANNAS (referring to
the Great Captain’s victory over the French in 1503), the reverse
bearing the owner’s arms, with an inscription in Latin which,
translated, reads, “Gonzalo de Aguilar, vanquisher of the Turks and
French, restored peace to Italy, and closed the Temple of Janus.” It is
supposed that this sword was presented to the Great Captain by the
municipality of some Italian city. The hand-and-a-half sword, G30, of
Spanish make, also belonged to him.

Pizarro’s sword is marked G35 (plate 170). The blade is rigid and
diamond shaped, with strong ricasso, on which is stamped the name of the
Valencian swordsmith, Mateo Duarte. The hilt is of blued steel, richly
decorated with leaves and ornaments in inlaid gold; with straight arms,
_pas d’ane_ with branches to the ricasso, a hand-guard to the pommel,
and disc-like pommel. This sword in 1809 came into the possession of a
Scotch soldier of fortune, Sir John Downie, who used it against the
French, and died a Spanish Marshal and Governor of the Alcazar in 1826.
In August 1813, Sir John was wounded and taken prisoner; yet he
contrived to throw back to his followers this famous weapon, that its
honour might remain unsullied.



IV

THE DECADENCE OF ARMOUR


Charles V.’s son and successor, Philip II., was more a statesman than a
soldier. In his youth, however, remarks the learned compiler of the
Catalogue, he was accounted a clever tilter, and jousts were frequently
organised on the occasions of his visits to Italy, Germany, and
Flanders. The Conde de Valencia indignantly rebuts the allegation that
this Monarch was opposed to martial exercises and even physically
deformed. “The truth of the latter statement may be judged by examining
his armour, the lines of which are a model of proportion and
regularity.”

To Philip are ascribed six harnesses, arranged like those of his father,
each on two or more figures.

The first suit (A189-A216) is styled the _arnés de lacerías_, from the
tracery of its decorative lengths. It was made at Augsburg in 1545, by
Desiderius Colman, a year before that artificer turned out the Mühlberg
suit for Charles V. We extract the following particulars from the
Catalogue of 1898:

“It is the young prince’s first armour on becoming a man (18), as stated
in the Inventory of the Royal Armoury of 1594. From childhood the
Colmans had made his armour, as they had done for his august father, and
when it ceased to fit him he distributed it among the youths of the
Court. This armour, then, was ordered of Desiderius Colman; but the
decoration was doubtless by a Spanish artist in the service of the
Prince, named Diego de Arroyo; clear proof of this we find in a note in
the Chamberlain’s book, dated Feb. 3rd, 1544 (a date which also appears
on the left cuisse of the equestrian figure A190), reading thus:
‘Firstly, Diego de Arroyo designed all the pieces of a suit of armour to
be engraved, to send to Germany, so that by it a suit of armour might be
made for His Highness--three ducats are given him.’”

Arroyo’s design is composed of wide vertical bands, with Oriental
lacework in the centre, engraved on a white ground, and on both edges,
gilded foliations mingled with extremely beautiful decorations of the
Renaissance period.

Colman in person took his work to Valladolid, at that time the residence
of the Court. This appears from the following Imperial schedule, given
at Worms, July 29th, 1545. “The King: Don Francisco de los Cobos, &c.,
and our Chief Accountant of Castile: Colman, our armourer, we have sent
to your Court to take certain armour which he is conveying to the Prince
our son, and we have granted as salary for each day he may occupy, two
florins of fifteen _bacos_ each, and we have paid him here six weeks and
because on returning he will need more money, we charge you to provide
for paying him there a like amount in this respect.--I the King.”

The first figure (A189, plate 43) shows a suit of foot-armour for
jousting. It has an armet with high ridged comb, visor with two slits
for the occularium, and beavor freely perforated. The tastefully-decorated
breastplate has laminated gussets, and taces to which are attached the
conspicuous lamboys. The border of this kilt of steel is embossed,
gilded, and etched with the devices of the Golden Fleece, griffins, and
scrolls. Espaliers protect the shoulders, rondels the armpits, and small
coudes the elbows. The gauntlet of the right hand is notable (plate
106A): it extends in several articulations to the inside of the wrist,
where it is closed with a hinge to prevent its slipping off the hand.
The leg-armour is peculiar to this description of harness, and has high
laminated cuisses accommodated to the curves of the knee; genouillères
are, therefore, dispensed with. (Compare the suit A149, made in 1541.)

The second figure (A190) bears a fine mid-sixteenth century tilting helm
in three pieces. The beavor, perforated at the sides, is screwed on to
the upper part of the breast-plate, and is secured to the other parts of
the head-piece by side screws, on which the visor revolves; the back of
the helm, including skull-piece, comb, and tail-piece is fastened to the
backplate, and at the sides of the head to the beavor and visor. On the
arm is one of the pieces mentioned at A101, and “slashed” in imitation
of the civil dress of the time. With these pieces is shown a target,
beautifully etched with fantastic figures in the German style. The
superb barding of the horse does not belong to the suit or the period,
and will be described later.

To figure A191 are attached a notable morion, with roped comb, and arm
guards, waved or imbricated with gold and steel alternately, and
delicately etched. The tassets, cuisses, and gauntlets display the same
decoration as the rest of the armour. The shield A193 was designed by
Diego de Arroyo, like the other pieces.

The armour A217-A230, made in Germany about 1549 for Philip when he was
heir-apparent, is that in which he is represented by Titian (Prado
Gallery, No. 454) and Rubens (No. 1607). It was in this suit also, that
Velazquez represented the Conde de Benavente, who lived nearly a
hundred years after it was forged (No. 1090). The component pieces are
striped and bordered by wide bands of engraved and gilded arabesques,
designed in all probability by Diego de Arroyo. In the second figure
(A218, plate 49) the tassets are of unequal length. The fingers of the
right gauntlet are united, those of the left joined in couples. The
cuisses are laminated, and reach to about the middle of the thigh. This
armour appears to have consisted of more pieces than any other in the
collection.

Philip’s third suit (A231-A238) was made for him at Landshut in Bavaria,
in 1550, by Sigmund Wolf. Many of the pieces are now at Brussels. The
ornamentation is chaste, consisting of narrow bands, etched with
graceful scrolls and volutes on white burnished steel.

The parade armour (A239-A242) was made for Philip at Augsburg by
Desiderius Colman and Georg Sigman, in 1552. An order exists, issued by
Philip, directing his treasurer to pay 2,000 gold escudos, on account of
3,000 escudos, which it seems was the price of this splendid harness.

The history of this suit is not without interest. We borrow the
following details from Conde de Valencia:

“When Colman undertook this important work, all embossed and damascened,
he showed that he could produce very different work to that which
generally left his workshops; that is, tilting and war-armour, which
only required superficial ornamentation, like the engraving and low
relief on the parts least exposed to lance-thrusts. His recognised
superiority in this branch of his industry, and especially forging, is
attested by his almost exclusively supplying the Emperor and his son,
and by the many suits he made for the chief captains and officers of the
Imperial Army. Under such circumstances he was justified in wishing to
excel also in the making of armour for parade or _de luxe_, his rivals
the Negrolis of Milan, who a little while before had made various
magnificent pieces for Charles V.: among them, armour A139.

“However, it does not seem that Colman possessed the necessary skill to
undertake a work of this kind alone. So at least it would appear from
his co-operating with a person, whose artistic capacity he recognised to
such a degree, that he permitted him to place his signature beside his
own on the principal piece of the armour.

“This associate was a German silversmith, named Georg Sigman, who,
though resident in Augsburg, had not succeeded in getting the
municipality to register him as a master in the trade to which he
belonged. Colman saw doubtless in the skill of this artist a powerful
medium that would permit him to rival the Negrolis in the ornamentation
of armour _de luxe_, and accepted his assistance in return for his using
his influence at the Imperial Court on Sigman’s behalf.”

The scheme of the decoration is as creditable as the execution. On a
ground of blackened steel all the pieces are adorned with broad vertical
bands, embossed with grotesques, and bordered by narrow outer bands,
which are in their turn bordered by pretty trefoil work projecting over
the plain ground.

The crest of the burgonet is decorated with laurels and exquisite
traceries; the rest of its surface is covered with small figures, birds,
scrolls, and foliations charmingly relieved and intertwined. On either
side of the crest are medallions representing heroic combats, all
delicately chiselled, and with gilded profiles.

At the junction of the visor and helmet may be seen the marks and
initials of Colman and Sigman, with the date 1550. Sigman, not content
with stamping his initials beside those of his principal, has repeated
them with the date 1549 beneath the plume-holder, to commemorate the
two years he was employed upon the decoration of the work.

The cuirass is composed of overlapping plates placed horizontally. This
species of defence was called the lorica, from being originally made of
leather which was modelled, while wet, to the muscles of the human body,
and was imitated in the bronze cuirass in late Roman times. The four
upper plates which formed the gorget are missing. They were joined to
one on which is engraved and gilded the collar of the Golden Fleece.
Beneath it hangs the Fleece itself, supported by two nymphs, and
beginning the exquisite series of groups which run down the central
band. The remaining bands are equally well conceived and executed. The
cuisses are similarly composed of plates set horizontally and decorated
vertically. About half-way down the thigh the lower edge of the plate is
decorated, so that at this point the upper plates could be disconnected
from the lower, and used as simple tassets. The genouillères are
decorated with masks and satyrs. The arm-guards are similar to the rest
of the suit. The coudes are admirably embossed and gilded, the design
showing a woman wearing the Collar of the Golden Fleece and an Imperial
tiara; on each side of her are warriors armed in classic style; the
Imperial Eagle is shown on the inside of the piece, and a mask at the
elbow. Note the laminated gorget (A239 _bis_, plate 47B), beautifully
decorated in the same way as the rest of the armour, and suitable for
wearing over a coat of mail or leather doublet.

The shield A241 (plate 146), belonging to this harness, has a peculiar
interest as commemorating the rivalry that existed between the great
German and Italian armourers of the sixteenth century. It is in one
piece, blackened and richly decorated, embossed and inlaid with gold.
From the boss spread radiations enclosed by a laurel wreath, and outside
this by a narrow band with the following inscription in German:
DESIDERIO COLMAN CAYS MAY HARNASCHMACHER AVSGEMACHT IN AVGVSTA DEN 15
APRILIS IM 1552 JAR (Desiderius Colman, Armourer of His Cæsarean
Majesty, finished this on April 15th, 1552). At equal distances round
the shield are disposed circular medallions encircled by wreaths of
laurel and myrtle, and designed with the following subjects: Strength in
a triumphal car drawn by men, Victory in another car drawn by lions,
Minerva drawn by horses, and Peace borne on the shoulders of Kings.
Between the medallions are seen other Kings enthroned and surrounded by
other figures, masks, cartouches, and foliations in great profusion. In
the rim between two laurel wreaths, hunting scenes and bull-fights are
depicted. In one group Colman has symbolised his supposed triumph over
his Milanese competitor by a bull overthrowing a man whose shield bears
the word “Negrol.” As a matter of fact the shield is a far less
creditable performance than the rest of the armour, nor does the best of
Colman’s work deserve to be preferred to the Medusa shield executed by
Negroli. In justice to the German it should be added, however, that the
shield shows every sign of having been left unfinished. The war-saddle
(A242, plate 47B) is the finer work. The subject of the design of the
centre-band is Venus riding the waves in a shell drawn by dolphins, and
attended by cupids. The sword G47 (see _infra_) also belonged to this
harness.

The armour of Philip II., called the Burgundy-Cross-Armour, was made in
1551 by Sigmund Wolf. The order exists authorising the payment to the
armourer on account of the Prince of “two hundred gold escudos in token
and part payment of some gilded armour” made for him.

The suit is very richly decorated with bands of the natural colour of
the steel on which are etched alternately the Cross of Burgundy or of
St. Andrew, and the emblems of the Golden Fleece--all gilded. On the
breastplate of the first figure (A263, plate 50) is engraved the image
of the Madonna. The cuisses are high and laminated as in former
examples. The horse’s bard is very handsome, and seems to be a
reproduction in metal of the richly-embroidered caparison usually worn
by the Imperial chargers.

The suit A243-262 was made for Philip by Wolf, of Landshut, somewhere
about 1554, the date being fixed by the chanfron of the horse being
charged with the arms of England, which Philip could only have assumed
on his marriage with Mary Tudor. The panoply includes a greater number
of pieces for tilting than any other owned by this Prince, and
demonstrates his partiality for manly exercises. The decoration consists
of wide vertical bands on a ground of burnished steel, gilded and etched
with black waves or undulations, and bordered on either side by narrow
bands exhibiting a similar design. The armour appears to have comprised
about eighty-five pieces, of which seventy-four are in the Madrid
collection.

The first figure (A243, plate 48) is conspicuous by the enormous
reinforcing piece, or overguard, on the left elbow, and for the symmetry
and elegance of the leg-armour.

The gay barding for the horse does not belong to the armour: it comes
from the armour of Prince Charles, son of Philip II.: in his inventories
all the pieces are enumerated, although the general lines and character
of the ornamentation agree with the bards of the Emperor’s time. It was
made in Nuremberg by the German armourer, Conrad Lochner the younger,
whose mark, together with that of the city, is stamped on the
breastpiece and crupper. It includes saddle; reinguard; croupière;
fléchière; poitrel, with large linch-pins; collar; mainfaire, and
chanfron, the latter with two large twisted ram’s horns, and above the
hind part of the head the shield with the Royal arms. All these pieces
are decorated with graceful bands etched with alternating imbrications
of iron and gold, which border and cross them in various directions. In
the spaces where the steel preserves its natural colour, there are a
large number of volutes and palms in relief. The bridle is late
sixteenth century, of long strips well filed, like the perforated
_copas_, which are decorated with gold.

The third figure (A245, plate 49) shows various reinforcing pieces for
the tilt, to be worn on the preceding suit, A244, with the exception of
the helm and tassets--“the total weight being thirty-nine kilogrammes,
which could only be supported during the short time occupied by three or
four courses and in breaking as many lances.”

The various pieces are adjusted and shaped with marvellous precision.
The helm is a triumph of the armourer’s craft, with an occularium four
millimetres wide, ventail on the right hand side, and strong beavor
coming well down on to the left shoulder, where is screwed a manteau
d’armes or target, with raised trellis-work and floral devices etched on
the panels. The tassets are of unequal length. The leg-armour again
illustrates Wolf’s skill and eye for symmetry. The fifth figure (A247)
has preserved the colours of the decorative bands very well.

The same scheme of decoration is exhibited by the armour (A274-A276)
made in 1558 for the unfortunate Prince Charles, son of Philip II. It
was made for him by Sigmund Wolf when the Prince was thirteen or
fourteen years of age. The difference in size between the right and left
pauldrons goes to prove that the Prince was slightly deformed, as has,
indeed, been often asserted. The first figure (A274, plate 52) has a
morion with high comb, visor, and beavor secured by a hook on the left
and a button on the right side. The tassets are continued to the knee
after the lobster-tail style then becoming fashionable.

Of the arms and detached pieces of armour ascribed to Philip II., and
included in the Armoury, the most remarkable is the sword (G47)
belonging to the parade-armour A239.

The blade is of diamond section, with a short groove below the tang. The
first third of its length is adorned with engravings and small squares
of gold, enclosed in which we find these inscriptions, on one side--PRO
FIDE ET PATRIA. PRO CHRISTO ET PATRIA. INTER ARMA SILENT LEGES SOLI DEO
GLORIA; on the other--PVGNA PRO PATRIA. PRO ARIS ET FOCIS; NEC TEMERE,
NEC TIMIDE, FIDE SED CVI VIDE. On the ricasso is the mark of the maker,
Clement Horn, of Solingen. The hilt is the most remarkable in the
collection. It is blued and carved in gold relief in the Italian
renaissance style. The centre of the guard is decorated with numerous
figures in high relief on a gilded ground; one quillon curves downwards,
the other upwards, and both end in the heads and busts of men entwined
about with spirals. From a cartouche engraved with the Judgment of Paris
on the guard, springs an exquisite counter-guard composed of two
beautiful Caryatides united by volutes. The grip is of quadrangular
section, and formed with four pieces of rock-crystal engraved in gold.
The pommel, which is the most admirable part of the composition, is
formed by two volutes, which hold and press between them the head of an
old Satyr, whose expression reveals his vexation; in the curves of the
volutes are two little genii. They grasp and tread on festoons of fruit,
which are gathered up at the back of the pommel by the god Vertumnus,
beneath whom, on an oval cartouche, Hercules is seen in combat with the
Nemean lion.

The sword G48, believed to have been the work of the Toledo maker
Martinez Menchaca, and the property of Philip II., is flat, with three
pierced channels in its upper third. The hilt is German, and highly
ornate. The quillons and guards resemble the coils of a serpent, and are
elaborately chased and incrusted with silver. They are further adorned
with masks, torsos, and nude figures within medallions, the whole being
designed and executed with much taste. The hilt of the sword, G49,
attributed to the Conde de Coruña (Viceroy of Nueva España in 1580), is
another beautiful piece of work, the decoration being less elaborate,
but on the whole more tasteful than that of the sword G48. It is of
Spanish (Toledo) make, but the maker’s name remains unknown.

Perhaps the most magnificent suit in the whole Armoury is the Parade
Armour (A290, plates 53, 53D) made for King Sebastian of Portugal
(1554-1578) by Anton Pfeffenhauser of Augsburg.

“Examined from the artistic point of view,” says the Conde de Valencia,
“this is Pfeffenhauser’s masterpiece, and places him on a level with, if
not above, the best German armourers of his time. True, he falls into
the mistake of over-ornamentation, and his figures are incorrectly
designed; but the composition and embossing are bolder than Colman’s,
and, above all, his chiselling is of inimitable precision and clearness.
With regard to the style of the decoration, on comparing the capricious
combinations of figures, scrolls, and other features of the
ornamentation with the designs published by Hefner Altenech, we are led
to believe that it was the work of either Hans Mielich, of Munich, or
some other German artist of the same age and equal ability.”

The sixteen pieces of the armour are blackened, and gilded only at the
nails, clasps, and plume-holder. The burgonet is cast in one piece and
richly embossed. On the comb are seen Tritons, sea-horses, dolphins, and
Nereids; the major portion of the surface is occupied by battle scenes,
the warriors wearing classic garb, and fighting on the backs of
elephants--an allusion, like the coat-of-arms carried by one of the
warriors, to the Portuguese conquests in India; at the base of the skull
are represented Diana, Hercules, Neptune, and Amphitrite; and on the
cheek-pieces, each of three laminæ, are the images of Strength and
Justice.

The decoration of the other pieces consists in the customary wide
vertical bands, traversing the body from the gorget to the ankle. On the
widest and midmost band is the figure of Jupiter; beneath him is Diana;
and, lastly, the infant Hercules strangling the serpents. The other
bands, both on breast and backplates, likewise display mythological
subjects. The pauldrons are even more richly ornamented than the other
pieces: at the back and front they are embossed with designs
representing respectively Power, Victory, Peace, and Navigation.

The coudes display the four figures of the Cardinal Virtues. Beautiful
emblematic groups and figures adorn the genouillères and demi-jambs. The
tassets are detachable half-way up the thigh. The gauntlets correspond
in decoration and elegance with the rest of this magnificent suit.

The armour of Philip III. belongs to the period of the decadence of the
armourer’s craft. The final victory of the firearm in the long struggle
between attack and defence was now very generally recognised, and
complete suits of armour were worn mainly for display. Tilting, too, was
going rapidly out of fashion. By the middle of the seventeenth century
the burgonet, cuirass, and tassets were well-nigh the only pieces of
armour worn in the field.

The suit B1 to B3 (plates 82 _et seq._) presented to Philip III. when
Prince, at the age of _seven_, by his brother-in-law, Carlo Emmanuele,
Duke of Savoy, is obviously one of the harnesses intended for ornament,
and not defence. It is a beautiful example of Italian art, including
twelve pieces, worked in gilded iron, and decorated with innumerable
figures, masks, &c., in the low relief contained in cartouches, scrolls,
and bands--all embossed and damascened. There is no leg-armour attached
to the suit, and the gauntlets have disappeared.

The helmet, or _celada de engole_, has a large mask on the visor, and at
the sides Victory and Fame; on the outside part of the collar, Strength
and Prudence, and on the other, the Ducal Crown; on the breastplate the
figure of Fortuna, accompanied by two winged genii, with a phylactery on
which is the word SPANIA; and in different places, Justice, Temperance,
and various small symbolic figures, which may also be seen on the
backplate, the pauldrons, and the armlets. It bears no armourer’s mark.

B2. Infantry morion, forged in one piece, with similar decoration to the
preceding; a mask, in front on the forehead figures representing
Abundance and Prosperity, grotesques, and trophies.

B3. Shield, for combat on foot. A medallion covers the centre, on which
are represented Jupiter, Neptune, and Mars destroying the Moors; around
are four Ephesian Dianas on _estipites_ (pedestals in the form of
inverted pyramids), and between them an equal number of panels with
warlike and mythological subjects: the decoration of the groundwork is
completed by other subjects similar to those of the preceding pieces.
Diameter 0.39.

The half-suit B4-5 (plate 84), also presented to the successor of Philip
II. in his childhood, is believed to be the work of Lucio Picinino. The
decoration is very beautiful and less profuse than in the preceding
example. On the wide middle band of the breastplate may be seen a mask
upheld by two nude figures, the goddess Pallas, satyrs, &c. Festoons
with masks extend from band to band. The pauldrons bear grotesque masks,
and the coudes symbolical figures.

The harness, A291-294 (plate 54), seems to have been made in Milan by
Lucio Picinino, and was presented by the Duke of Savoy to Philip III.
“Although it belongs to the decadent period of the Italian Renaissance,”
remarks the Conde de Valencia, “it is assuredly one of the handsomest
pieces of work turned out by the Milanese armourers of the late
sixteenth century.” The panoply is unfortunately very incomplete, owing
to the strange course having been adopted of dressing with parts of it
the corpse of the Infante Carlos, who died in 1632.

The whole suit is profusely decorated with reliefs and gold and silver
damascene work. The burgonet displays three masks--on the visor (which
is in two pieces), and at the base of the skull. The upper edge of the
breastplate is roped. In the centre of the chest is an embossed mask;
beneath it a panel with the figure of Victory, seemingly held in
position by chains, and by two male figures. Below it and on either side
are grotesque masks. The pauldrons (one of which has a bufe or
passe-garde), the tassets, cuisses, genouillères, and demi-jambs are
similarly decorated with cartouches and medallions with martial and
allegorical subjects.

“The rich covering for the horse is also incomplete. It is composed of
pieces of the two distinct bards mentioned in the Inventory, one ‘inlaid
with gold and silver, fluted, and in relief, all adorned with blue
stones (lapis lazuli) and yellow stones and illuminated crystals’; and
the other, ‘with the same pieces as the one above, lacking nothing, and
this is of gilded iron in relief.’

“Saddles, chanfrons, and mainfaires of both bards are preserved, these
sets being that of the dragon chanfron on the horse A190, and that with
the inlaid work on the present figure; but the cruppers and poitrels of
both have been broken up, and their component parts have been mostly
dispersed abroad. What was preserved in the Armoury, now without stones
or crystals, together with other remains found in the ancient edifice
after the fire, constitute the crupper and poitrel of this horse.”

To the first decade of the seventeenth century belongs the suit
(A338-A346) attributed to the third Duke of Escalona. It has a tilting
helmet with visor in two pieces, and a shutter in the ventail; the
leg-armour is still complete. The elaborate ornamentation, consisting of
wide vertical bands etched, alternating with trophies, medallions, and
lacework, has lost much of its richness, owing to the disappearance of
the blackening and gilding.

The horse’s barding is older than the armour; it is of the early
sixteenth century, and the style of the ornamentation appears to be
Spanish Renaissance. The several pieces of which it is composed are
decorated with trophies, flowers, grotesques, and other devices in good
taste, etched, and part of them engraved by hand. On the poitrel may be
seen St. James on horseback, fighting against the Moors, accompanied by
two warriors of antiquity. The chanfron has the escutcheon of the
Alvarez de Toledo family, the surname of the celebrated Duke of Alba,
from whom possibly it might have come.

The days had passed when Spanish Kings sent to Augsburg for their
harness, and in 1620 we hear of a Royal armour factory at Pamplona in
Navarre. The first specimen of its work is the parade armour made for
the Duke of Savoy by order of Philip III. (A350-353, plate 62). Being a
presentation suit, it was lavishly decorated with vertical bands and
panels, with a bordering of trefoils of silver in relief. The initial
letter, and the ducal crown and palms of Savoy figure in the
ornamentation; and on the centre band of the cuirass may be seen the
arms of the County of Nice--a crowned eagle gazing at the sun.

Philip III.’s half-suit of armour, numbered A354-355, was also forged at
Pamplona. It is of steel-plated iron, and of extraordinary thickness. It
is blued and decorated at the borders with bands on which are chiselled
flowing scrolls, animals, grotesques, &c. A graceful edging of silver
trefoils in relief finishes off the bands. The helmet, or cabasset, has
a drooping brim, and is forged in two pieces. The breastplate is adorned
by the Collar of the Golden Fleece, and another collar or riband
(engraved), from which hangs the medal of the Immaculate Conception. A
curious feature is the seven indentations made by the bullets of an
arquebus, and each set with silver pearls. These marks do not say much
for the quality of the metal, which is ten millimetres thick. The
backplate, which is only three millimetres thick, has been perforated by
the bullet. The arms are defended by espaliers reaching to the elbow,
where they meet the cuffs of the gauntlets.

At Pamplona were also made six half-suits of boys’ armour for the three
sons of Philip III.--the Infantes Philip, Charles, and Ferdinand. These
suits (B13-B20, plates 87, &c.) are composed of closed helmet, gorget,
cuirass, and the usual arm armour. The steel is blued, and each piece is
decorated at the edge with the Collar of the Golden Fleece. The rest of
the surface is divided by beautiful foliations in silver into
diamond-shaped sections, in which are displayed the Tower and Lion of
Spain, the Pillars of Hercules, warlike trophies, and the Double-headed
Eagle.

The suit A360-368 (plate 58) was made in the first years of the century,
in Italy, apparently for the Prince Filippo Emmanuele of Savoy, who died
in 1605, aged 19. It consists of closed tilting helmet, gorget, cuirass,
tassets, and the usual pieces for the limbs. All the pieces are richly
decorated, but the blackening of the groundwork and the gilding of the
ornamentation have disappeared. The crown of Savoy, with the palms and
olive-branch, and groups of trophies are etched in rhomboidal sections
formed by intertwined lovers’ knots, the emblem of the ducal house.

The same scheme of decoration is apparent on the two suits (A369, A377)
of Italian make that were the property of the victor of St. Quentin,
Prince Emmanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Grand Admiral of Spain (1588-1624).
On the first suit certain Spanish heraldic devices, such as the Tower
and Lion, may also be seen associated with the emblems of Savoy.

The last period of armour is illustrated by the suits belonging to King
Philip IV. Six of these were sent to him from Brussels by his aunt, the
Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia, wife of the Archduke Albrecht.

The first of these (A380-393) dates from 1624. It is shown on two
figures, both with the same decoration of vertical bands traced on a
groundwork of gold. On the shield may be deciphered the initials M. P.
with a crown and three fleurs-de-lys, which leads the Conde de Valencia
to hazard the conjecture that the armourer may have been one of the
Petits, who served Louis XIII. of France. The harness includes the
complete leg-armour, which now was never worn in the field; but the
second figure (A381, plate 60) has, instead, the lobster-tail tassets,
which were in actual use.

The second presentation suit (A394-401) is that in which Philip IV. is
represented by Velazquez in the portraits in the Prado, numbered 1,066
and 1,077. It seems to have been originally blackened with the edges and
rivets gilded, but probably lost its hue when worn by the illustrious
Don Juan José, natural son of Philip IV., in his Italian campaign in
1652.

The armour A408-413 was among the gifts presented by the Archduchess
Isabel Clara. It was very elegantly decorated with bands of gold and
silver, chiselled by hand in zig-zag fashion. The next suit, A414-421,
from the same donor, was worn by Don Juan José, who is shown wearing the
cuirass on a bust in the Prado gallery.

The two remaining suits attributed to Philip IV. were the gift of his
brother, the Cardinal Infante Ferdinand. The first (A422, plate 59) has
the lobster-tail tassets, and is blued and decorated with vertical bands
of medallions with various subjects. This suit was formerly, for some
obscure reason, ascribed to Columbus. The second suit (A423-428) was
originally blued and gilt, but the natural colour of the metal has now
reasserted itself. The armour is distributed over three figures, and
includes several pieces fast becoming obsolete at that time (1632).
Notice the unusual size of the garde-de-rein on the first figure.

With these suits the Cardinal sent another for his boy-nephew, Prince
Baltasar Carlos (1629-1646). This armour is little more than a toy, and
preserves its blackening and gilding almost unimpaired.

The magnificently engraved collar and gorget numbered A434-A441 (plates
93, 94) are now known to represent the siege of Ostend (1601-1604) and
the Battle of Nieuport (1600). The details are executed with marvellous
clearness, and the chiselling reflects the greatest credit on the
unknown artist. The horseman in the centre group on the gorget is
probably the Archduke Albrecht, who distinguished himself by his valour
at the Battle of Nieuport. These pieces were worn over a buff jerkin,
such as was used by Cromwell’s Ironsides.

This brief survey of the principal objects of interest in the Royal
Armoury at Madrid may be fittingly concluded with some account of the
origin and vicissitudes of that establishment. Its nucleus was the
armour accumulated by the Emperor Charles V., not with a view to a
collection, but for his personal use. Philip II. was not slow to
recognise the value of the treasure bequeathed him by his father. On his
return to Madrid, upon the death of his wife, Mary Tudor, Philip
deposited all the Emperor’s armour in a building specially designed for
its reception, and added to it from time to time trophies won from the
enemies of Spain, and such antiquities of national and military interest
as he could procure. His good example was followed by his successors
till the manufacture of defensive armour altogether ceased at the end of
the seventeenth century, while the spoils of war became every year
rarer towards the close of the eighteenth.

A calamity befell the collection at the outbreak of the War of
Independence. The people of Madrid, in their eagerness to procure arms,
invaded the building on December 1st, 1808, and carried off more than
three hundred swords and other weapons with which to attack the French.
And three years later Joseph Buonaparte foolishly piled the contents of
the Armoury in the garrets, in order to make room for the dancers in the
hall.

In the reign of Isabel II. the collection was re-installed and
re-arranged. A catalogue was issued for the first time in 1849, the
author being Don Antonio Martinez del Romero--a work displaying
considerable research and industry, but full of errors, and completely
superseded by the catalogue published in 1898 by the Conde de Valencia
de San Juan.

It was to that gentleman that the late King Alfonso XII., soon after his
accession, entrusted the complete re-organisation of the collection.
This was a work presenting extraordinary difficulties, and after three
years of incessant labour, the Conde had the mortification of seeing a
fierce fire break out, which in the night of July 9th, 1884, reduced to
ashes sixty-two flags taken from the enemy, twenty leather shields, and
all the wooden figures prepared for the arrangement of the armour.

Without hesitation the work was begun all over again. The King added new
and priceless acquisitions to the collection, among these being eleven
examples of fifteenth-century brigandine armour (quilted jackets with
the additional protection of plates of iron secured among the pads)
discovered in Aragon, and several of the finest pieces in the armouries
of the Dukes of Osuna and del Infantado.

Her Majesty Queen Cristina, during her regency, was not forgetful of the
interest taken by her lamented husband in this magnificent Museum of
Arms; and, thanks to her, the number of its treasures has been
materially increased. Nor is it likely that any opportunity of adding to
the value and usefulness of the collection will be neglected during the
reign of a young Monarch devoted, like so many of his illustrious
ancestors, to manly exercises and chivalrous traditions.

[Illustration: PLATE 1.

(1 TO 5). CROWNS AND VOTIVE CROSSES OF GUARRAZAR.
     (6). REMAINS OF ST. FERDINAND’S ROBE.
     (7). MOORISH SPURS OF ST. FERDINAND.
]

[Illustration: PLATE 1A.

CLOAK AND SPURS OF ST. FERDINAND AND VISIGOTHIC BIT.]

[Illustration: PLATE 2.

DON BERNARDO GUILLEN DE ENTENZA, 13TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 3.

DON GUILLELMO RAMON DE MONCADA, SENESCHAL OF CATALONIA, DIED CIRCA 1280

[Illustration: DON JUAN ALFONSO, LORD OF AJOFRIN, DIED ABOUT 1386.]

[Illustration: PLATE 4.

G 22. SWORD AND SCABBARD, PROBABLY BELONGING TO ST. FERDINAND.]

[Illustration: G 21. THE LOBERA OF ST. FERDINAND.]

[Illustration: PLATE 5.

G 22. SWORD AND SCABBARD THAT PROBABLY BELONGED TO ST. FERDINAND.]

[Illustration: PLATE 6.

PEDRO I., KING OF CASTILE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 7.

EFFIGY OF ST. FERDINAND, KING OF SPAIN.]

[Illustration: PLATE 8.

SEPULCHRAL EFFIGY OF DON BERNARDO DE ANGLESOLA, CIRCA 1384.]

[Illustration: PLATE 9.

F 123. BIT, BELIEVED TO HAVE BELONGED TO VITIZA, KING OF THE VISIGOTHS.]

[Illustration: D 11. HELMET-CREST OF MARTIN I. OF ARAGON.]

[Illustration: PLATE 10.

G 4. PONTIFICAL SWORD PRESENTED BY POPE EUGENE IV. TO JOHN II. OF
CASTILE.

G 13. 15TH CENTURY WAR SWORD. PROBABLY BELONGED TO FERDINAND THE
CATHOLIC.]

[Illustration: PLATE 11.

G 1. CEREMONIAL SWORD OF FERDINAND AND ISABELLA.

G 23. 15TH CENTURY SWORD OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN.]

[Illustration: PLATE 12.

JUAN PACHECO, MARQUIS OF VILLENA, GRAND MASTER OF ST. JAMES, DIED
1474.]

[Illustration: PLATE 13.

G 29. WAR SWORD OF THE GRAN CAPITAN, GONZALO FERNANDEZ DE CORDOBA
(1453-1515).]

[Illustration: G 28. SWORD OF THE CARDINAL INFANTE FERNANDO, BROTHER OF
PHILIP IV.]

[Illustration: G 31. WAR SWORD OF FERDINAND THE CATHOLIC.]

[Illustration: PLATE 14.

A 9. ARMET, EARLY 16TH CENTURY (CLOSED).]

[Illustration: A 9. THE SAME (OPEN).]

[Illustration: A 5. ARMET, LATE 15TH CENTURY AND BEGINNING OF 16TH
CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 15.

A 11. ARMOUR OF PHILIP THE HANDSOME.]

[Illustration: A 16. TILT ARMOUR OF PHILIP THE HANDSOME.]

[Illustration: PLATE 15A.

A 16. TILTING ARMOUR OF PHILIP THE HANDSOME.]

[Illustration: PLATE 15B.

A 16. TILTING ARMOUR OF PHILIP THE HANDSOME.]

[Illustration: PLATE 15C.

A 16. TILTING ARMOUR OF PHILIP THE HANDSOME.]

[Illustration: PLATE 15D.

TILTING ARMOUR, EARLY 16TH CENTURY, ATTRIBUTED IN THE 1849 CATALOGUE TO
MAXIMILIAN OF AUSTRIA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 16.

A 11. ‘CAPERUZA’ OF PHILIP I. OF CASTILLE.]

[Illustration: A 17. HELMET WITH UNUSUALLY LARGE SHUTTER, LATE 15TH
CENTURY.]

[Illustration: D 14. LATE 15TH CENTURY HELMET IN THE MOORISH STYLE. IT
IS THE ONLY ONE OF THE KIND IN THE ARMOURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 17.

C 1. SPANISH MAN-AT-ARMS, 15TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 17A.

C 1. SPANISH MAN-AT-ARMS, 15TH CENTURY (BACK VIEW).]

[Illustration: PLATE 17B.

C 4. SPANISH CROSSBOWMAN, 15TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 17C.

C 4. SPANISH CROSSBOWMAN, 15TH CENTURY (BACK VIEW).]

[Illustration: PLATE 17D.

C 2. SPANISH HALBERDIER, 15TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 17E.

C 2. SPANISH HALBERDIER, 15TH CENTURY (BACK VIEW).]

[Illustration: PLATE 18.

MACE-BEARER OF THE 16TH CENTURY WITH SURCOAT DISPLAYING THE ARMS OF
CASTILE AND LEON.]

[Illustration: PLATE 19.

A KING OF ARMS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 20.

A 101. ROYAL TILT ARMOUR OF CHARLES V.

A 19. WAR ARMOUR OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 20A.

A 19. WAR ARMOUR OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V. (1517).]

[Illustration: PLATE 21.

A 26. TILTING HARNESS OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 22.

A 27. TILTING ARMOUR OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 23.

A 37. TILTING HARNESS OF CHARLES V. MADE BY COLMAN HELMSCHMIED.]

[Illustration: PLATE 24.

A 49. OAK-LEAF SUIT WITH LAMBOYS OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 25.

A 56. FIGURE SHOWING PIECES OF THE OAK-LEAF ARMOUR.]

[Illustration: PLATE 26.

A 65. TILTING HARNESS OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 27.

A 93. FOOT ARMOUR, WITH LAMBOYS, BELONGING TO CHARLES V., WITH
REINFORCING PIECES FOR HELMET.]

[Illustration: PLATE 27A.

A 93. FOOT ARMOUR OF CHARLES V. MADE BY HELMSCHMIED IN 1526.]

[Illustration: PLATE 28.

A 112. ARMOUR PRESENTED TO CHARLES V. BY THE DUKE OF MANTUA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 29.

A 114. ARMOUR PRESENTED TO CHARLES V. BY THE DUKE OF MANTUA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 30.

A 116. CORNUCOPIA ARMOUR OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 31.

A 129. WAR HARNESS OF CHARLES V.

A 130. ITALIAN ARMOUR OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 31A.

A 139. ARMOUR OF CHARLES V. (WORK OF NEGROLI).]

[Illustration: PLATE 32.

A 147. FOOT ARMOUR OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 33.

A 149. ARMOUR OF CHARLES V. (1541).]

[Illustration: PLATE 34.

A 160. ARMOUR OF CHARLES V., PROBABLY MADE BY NEGROLI.]

[Illustration: PLATE 35.

A 164. CHARLES V. AT MÜHLBERG.]

[Illustration: PLATE 36.

ARMOUR OF CHARLES V. (PIECES OF THE MÜHLBERG HARNESS).]

[Illustration: PLATE 37.

PIECES OF THE MÜHLBERG HARNESS OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 37A.

HARNESS COMPOSED OF PIECES OF THE MÜHLBERG HARNESS (1547).]

[Illustration: PLATE 38.

ARMOUR OF CHARLES V., WITH LAMBOYS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 39.

A 165. MÜHLBERG ARMOUR OF CHARLES V.

A 138. ARMOUR OF CHARLES V. AFTER THE ROMAN STYLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 40.

EQUESTRIAN ARMOUR OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 41.

ARMOUR OF CHARLES V., MADE BY COLMAN.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 41A.

ARMOUR OF CHARLES V., AUGSBURG OR NUREMBERG MAKE.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 42.

EQUESTRIAN ARMOUR OF THE MARQUIS OF VILLENA, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 43.

A 189. FOOT ARMOUR OF PHILIP II., MADE BY DESIDERIUS COLMAN.]

[Illustration: PLATE 43A.

A 189. FOOT ARMOUR OF PHILIP II., MADE BY DESIDERIUS COLMAN.]

[Illustration: PLATE 44.

A 217. ARMOUR OF PRINCE PHILIP (II.), OF GERMAN MAKE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 45.

A 218. ARMOUR OF PRINCE PHILIP (II.) MADE IN GERMANY IN 1549.]

[Illustration: PLATE 46.

A 231. ARMOUR MADE FOR PRINCE PHILIP (II.) BY WOLF OF LANDSHUT (1550).]

[Illustration: PLATE 47.

A 239. PARADE ARMOUR OF PHILIP II.

PARADE ARMOUR OF KING SEBASTIAN OF PORTUGAL.]

[Illustration: PLATE 47A.

A 239. SUIT MADE FOR PRINCE PHILIP (II) AT AUGSBURG IN 1552.]

PLATE 47B.

[Illustration: A 239. GORGET OF PHILIP II. WHEN HEIR-APPARENT. FOR
PARADE (1552). IT HAS THE COLLAR OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE.]

[Illustration: A 242. SADDLE-PLATE BELONGING TO THE SAME ARMOUR AS THE
PRECEDING.]

[Illustration: PLATE 48.

A 243. EQUESTRIAN ARMOUR OF PHILIP II. MADE BY SIGMUND WOLF OF
LANDSHUT.]

[Illustration: PLATE 49.

A 245. TILTING ARMOUR MADE FOR PRINCE PHILIP (II.) BY WOLF OF LANDSHUT
(1554).]

[Illustration: PLATE 50.

A 263. ‘BURGUNDY CROSS’ ARMOUR OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: PLATE 50A.

THE ‘BURGUNDY CROSS’ SUIT OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: PLATE 50B.

‘BURGUNDY CROSS’ ARMOUR OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: PLATE 51.

ARMOUR OF KING PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: PLATE 52.

A 274. COMPLETE ARMOUR OF PRINCE CHARLES, SON OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: PLATE 52A.

A 289. SUIT PRESENTED TO PHILIP II. BY THE CONDE DE NIEVA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 52B.

ARMOUR OF PHILIP II., ENGRAVED WITH THE ROYAL ARMS OF ENGLAND.]

[Illustration: PLATE 53.

A 290. ARMOUR OF KING SEBASTIAN OF PORTUGAL.]

[Illustration: PLATE 53A.

A 290. ARMOUR OF KING SEBASTIAN OF PORTUGAL (2ND VIEW).]

[Illustration: PLATE 53B.

A 290. ARMOUR OF KING SEBASTIAN OF PORTUGAL (3RD VIEW).]

[Illustration: PLATE 53C.

A 290. ARMOUR OF KING SEBASTIAN (DETAILS).]

[Illustration: PLATE 53D.

A 290. ARMOUR OF KING SEBASTIAN, BACK PLATE (DETAILS).]

[Illustration: PLATE 54.

A 291. EQUESTRIAN PARADE ARMOUR OF PHILIP III.]

[Illustration: PLATE 54A.

A 291. ARMOUR OF PHILIP III., MADE BY LUCIO PICININO OF MILAN.]

[Illustration: PLATE 55.

A 347. ARMOUR PRESENTED BY THE ARCHDUKE ALBERT TO PHILIP III.]

[Illustration: PLATE 56.

A 354. HALF SUIT MADE AT PAMPLONA FOR PHILIP III.]

[Illustration: PLATE 57.

A 356. WAR ARMOUR, EARLY 17TH CENTURY, MILANESE MAKE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 58.

A 360. HALF ARMOUR OF PRINCE FILIPPO EMMANUELE OF SAVOY, EARLY 17TH
CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 58A.

ARMOUR OF PRINCE FILIPPO EMMANUELE OF SAVOY (1586-1605).]

[Illustration: PLATE 59.

A 422. MILANESE ARMOUR OF KING PHILIP IV.]

[Illustration: PLATE 60.

ARMOUR SENT FROM FLANDERS IN 1624 BY THE INFANTA ISABEL CLARA EUGENIA TO
PHILIP IV.]

[Illustration: PLATE 61.

ARMOUR ASCRIBED TO KING PHILIP IV.]

[Illustration: PLATE 62.

ARMOUR MADE AT PAMPLONA FOR THE DUKE OF SAVOY, 1620.]

[Illustration: PLATE 63.

A 277. ARMOUR ASCRIBED ON DOUBTFUL AUTHORITY TO DIEGO GARCIA DE
PAREDES.]

[Illustration: PLATE 64.

ARMOUR ASCRIBED TO DON ALONSO CESPEDES, THE CASTILIAN ALCIDES, DIED
1569.]

[Illustration: PLATE 65.

ARMOUR OF FERNANDO D’ALARCON, 16TH CENTURY.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 66.

HALF ARMOUR OF THE 3RD COUNT OF ALTAMIRA.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 67.

HALF ARMOUR OF JOHN OF ALDANA.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 68.

HALF ARMOUR OF ALFONSO D’AVALOS, NEPHEW OF THE MARQUIS OF PESCARA.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 69.

MILANESE ARMOUR OF THE FAMOUS WARRIOR ANTONIO DE LEIVA.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 70.

HALF ARMOUR OF THE POET GARCILASO DE LA VEGA.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 71.

ARMOUR OF LUIS HURTADO DE MENDOZA.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 72.

COMPLETE ARMOUR OF THE MARQUIS OF PESCARA, GENERAL OF CHARLES V.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 73.

HALF ARMOUR OF JUAN DE PADILLA, BEHEADED BY ORDER OF CHARLES V. IN 1520.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 74.

HALF ARMOUR OF JUAN ARIAS DE AVILA, COUNT OF PUÑONROSTRO.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 75.

COAT OF MAIL ASCRIBED TO ALFONSO V. OF ARAGON AND I. OF SICILY.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 76.

HARNESS ASCRIBED TO CHARLES V.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 77.

HARNESS ASCRIBED TO CHARLES V.

(1849 CATALOGUE.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 78.

M 11-17. ARMOUR OF JOHN FREDERICK, ELECTOR OF SAXONY, TAKEN AT THE
BATTLE OF MÜHLBERG, 1547.]

[Illustration: PLATE 78A.

ARMOUR OF THE ELECTOR JOHN FREDERICK THE MAGNANIMOUS, DUKE OF SAXONY,
TAKEN AT MÜHLBERG.]

[Illustration: PLATE 79.

C 11. BRIGANTINE OF MILANESE MAKE WHICH BELONGED TO THE EMPEROR
MAXIMILIAN.]

PLATE 79A.

[Illustration: MARK ON THE BREASTPLATE OF A CHILD’S CORSELET (17TH
CENTURY).]

[Illustration: SIGNATURE OF THE NOTED ENGRAVER OF AUGSBURG, DANIEL
HOPFER, WITH DATE.]

[Illustration: MONOGRAM OF GUIDOBALDO II. DUKE OF URBINO, ON SUIT A
188.]

[Illustration: C 11. INSIDE OF BRIGANTINE OF MAXIMILIAN I., WITH ARMS OF
AUSTRIA AND BURGUNDY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 80.

MILANESE BRIGANTINE WHICH BELONGED TO CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 81.

MILANESE BRIGANTINE WHICH BELONGED TO CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 82.

B 1. BOY’S HALF ARMOUR WHICH BELONGED TO PHILIP III.

B 3. SHIELD. SUBJECT: GODS OVERWHELMING THE MOORS.

B 4. BOY’S HALF ARMOUR WHICH BELONGED TO PHILIP III.]

[Illustration: PLATE 83.

B 1. BOY’S HALF ARMOUR. MADE IN ITALY FOR THE INFANTE, AFTERWARDS PHILIP
III.]

[Illustration: PLATE 83A.

D 1. BOY’S HALF ARMOUR. MADE FOR THE INFANTE, AFTERWARDS PHILIP III.
(SECOND VIEW.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 84.

B 4. HALF ARMOUR PRESENTED TO THE INFANTE, AFTERWARDS PHILIP III., BY
THE DUKE OF TERRANOVA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 85.

B 9. MILANESE ARMOUR PRESENTED TO THE INFANTE, AFTERWARDS PHILIP III.,
BY THE DUKE OF TERRANOVA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 85A.

B 9. ARMOUR OF THE INFANTE, AFTERWARDS PHILIP III., MILANESE MAKE
(SECOND VIEW.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 86.

B 12. BOY’S HALF ARMOUR, WITH MEDALLION ON BREASTPLATE OF MUTIUS
SCAEVOLA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 87.

B 18. BOY’S HALF ARMOUR MADE FOR THE INFANTE FERNANDO, SON OF PHILIP
III.]

[Illustration: PLATE 88.

HALF ARMOUR BELONGING TO PRINCE PHILIP, AFTERWARDS PHILIP IV.]

[Illustration: PLATE 89.

BOY’S HALF ARMOUR, MILANESE MAKE, LATE 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 90.

BOY’S HALF ARMOUR.]

[Illustration: PLATE 91.

BOY’S HALF ARMOUR, END OF 16TH CENTURY (ITALIAN).]

[Illustration: PLATE 92.

BOY’S HALF ARMOUR.]

[Illustration: PLATE 93.

A 434. GORGET. SUBJECT: THE SIEGE OF OSTEND, 1601.]

[Illustration: PLATE 94.

A 434. GORGET OF PHILIP II. SUBJECT: THE BATTLE OF NIEUPORT.]

[Illustration: PLATE 95.

E 88-89. SUPERB PAIR OF GAUNTLETS BELONGING TO CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 96.

A 151. LIGHT WAR-ARMOUR OF CHARLES V., CORSELET AND ARMLET OF RARE FORM,
ALSO TWO HELMETS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 97.

A 75-83. ARMET WITH REINFORCING PIECES.]

[Illustration: PLATE 98.

A 54. A CURIOUS BEVOR IN TWO PIECES, NAILED ON LEATHER.]

[Illustration: A 49. CHARLES V.’S TILTING HELMET.]

[Illustration: A 29. HELMET BELONGING TO THE ‘K.D.’ SUIT.]

[Illustration: A 27. HELMET OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 99.

A 120. BURGONET BY COLMAN.]

[Illustration: A 118. MORION OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: CABASSET AND LEG ARMOUR OF A SPANISH PIKEMAN, LATE 15TH
CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 100.

A 56. HELMET OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: A 57. TILTING HELMET OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 101.

A 75. HELMET OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: A 59. ‘DOLPHIN’ HELMET OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 102.

D 12. HELMET MADE BY NEGROLI OF MILAN.]

[Illustration: A 118. BURGONET OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 103.

A 151. BURGONET OF CHARLES V., WITH BEVOR BOUGHT FROM SIR RICHARD
WALLACE.]

[Illustration: A 151. BURGONET OF CHARLES V., WITH BEVOR NOT BELONGING
TO HELMET.]

[Illustration: PLATE 104.

A 151. CORSELET OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 105.

A 189. A 190.

GAUNTLET AND HELMET OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: PLATE 106.

HELMET OF PHILIP II., MADE AT AUGSBURG IN 1549, BELONGING TO THE SUIT A
239.]

[Illustration: PLATE 107.

A 243. HELMET OF PHILIP II., MADE BY WOLF OF LANDSHUT IN 1554.]

[Illustration: PLATE 108.

A 290. BURGONET OF KING SEBASTIAN OF PORTUGAL.]

[Illustration: PLATE 109.

A 290. BURGONET OF KING SEBASTIAN OF PORTUGAL.]

[Illustration: PLATE 110.

A 292. BURGONET MADE FOR PHILIP III. BY LUCIO PICININO.]

[Illustration: PLATE 111.

A 291. HELMET OF PHILIP III., WITH THREE BEAUTIFUL MASKS, ON VISOR,
NAPE, AND FRONT; PROBABLY ITALIAN, LATE 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: A 292. BURGONET, THE MISSING PARTS OF WHICH ARE IN THE
KENSINGTON MUSEUM.]

[Illustration: PLATE 112.

A 350. HELMET FOR THE DUKE OF SAVOY (FRONT VIEW).]

[Illustration: PLATE 113.

A 350. HELMET FOR THE DUKE OF SAVOY (SIDE VIEW).]

[Illustration: PLATE 114.

A 417. CABASSET PRESENTED TO PHILIP IV. BY THE INFANTA ISABEL EUGENIA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 115.

A 350. HELMET WITH MOVABLE VISOR, MADE IN PAMPLONA, APPARENTLY FOR THE
DUKE OF SAVOY, 1620.]

[Illustration: A 380. BURGONET, EARLY 17TH CENTURY (BELONGED TO PHILIP
IV.).]

[Illustration: A 414. HELMET OF PHILIP IV., PRESENTED TO HIM, WITH OTHER
ARMOUR, BY THE INFANTA ISABEL EUGENIA.]

[Illustration: A 417. CABASSET PRESENTED TO PHILIP IV. BY THE INFANTA
ISABEL EUGENIA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 116.

B 2. MORION WHICH BELONGED TO PHILIP III. WHEN A BOY. SUBJECT, THE
GODDESS OF PLENTY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 117.

B 5. MORION GIVEN TO PHILIP III. WHEN A CHILD BY THE DUKE OF
TERRANOVA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 118.

D 3. BURGONET OF CHARLES V., DESIGNED BY GIULIO ROMANO.]

[Illustration: PLATE 119.

D 3. BURGONET OF CHARLES V., DESIGNED BY GIULIO ROMANO (SECOND SIDE).]

[Illustration: PLATE 120.

D 5. BURGONET, 16TH CENTURY. SUBJECT, BACCHUS AND ARIADNE (LEFT SIDE).]

[Illustration: PLATE 121.

D 5. BURGONET, 16TH CENTURY. SUBJECT, SILENUS SUPPORTED BY BACCHUS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 122.

D 7. BURGONET, 16TH CENTURY. SUBJECT, THE HORSE OF TROY (LEFT SIDE).]

[Illustration: PLATE 123.

D 7. BURGONET, 16TH CENTURY. SUBJECT, THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS (RIGHT
SIDE).]

[Illustration: PLATE 124.

D 13. MILANESE SALADE, 15TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 125.

D 14. MOORISH SALADE ASCRIBED TO PHILIP I.]

[Illustration: D 26. SPANISH MORION, EARLY 16TH CENTURY, WITH THE
INSCRIPTION, ‘NON TIMEO MILIA POPULI.’]

[Illustration: PLATE 126.

A 188. ROMAN HELMET (CHARLES V.).]

[Illustration: A 183. MASK ON SHOULDER-GUARD OF CHARLES V.’S ROMAN
SUIT.]

[Illustration: D 22. CABASSET WHICH BELONGED TO PHILIP THE HANDSOME.]

[Illustration: D 16. LATE 15TH CENTURY HELMET. PROBABLY BELONGED TO
PHILIP THE HANDSOME.]

[Illustration: PLATE 127.

D 25. SPANISH FOOT-SOLDIER’S MORION, EARLY 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: D 23. PARADE HEADPIECE OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: D 29. PARADE HEADPIECE, MIDDLE 16TH CENTURY (ORIGIN
UNKNOWN).]

[Illustration: D 30. PARADE BURGONET MADE. FOR CHARLES V. BY THE
NEGROLIS IN 1545.]

[Illustration: PLATE 128.

D 29. HELMET, MIDDLE OF 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: D 28. STEEL CAP BELONGING TO CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 129.

D 30. BURGONET OF CHARLES V., MADE BY NEGROLI.]

[Illustration: PLATE 130.

M 5. HELMET OF FRANCIS I. OF FRANCE, TAKEN AT THE BATTLE OF PAVIA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 131.

M 5. HELMET OF FRANCIS I. OF FRANCE, TAKEN AT THE BATTLE OF PAVIA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 132.

B 21. HELMET WHICH BELONGED TO PRINCE BALTAZAR CARLOS, 1629-1646.]

[Illustration: D 31. BURGONET ASCRIBED ON INSUFFICIENT GROUNDS TO
ANTONIO DE LEYVA (16TH CENTURY).]

[Illustration: PLATE 133.

1511. SATIN AND VELVET TURBAN FOUND IN THE PALACE OF MUSTAFA, BEY OF
ORAN, IN 1722.

1533. STEEL TURBAN OF ALI PASHA TURKISH ADMIRAL AT LEPANTO.]

[Illustration: PLATE 134.

TURKISH HELMET, TAKEN AT LEPANTO.]

[Illustration: HELMET OF PHILIP III.]

[Illustration: PLATE 135.

HELMET OF THE 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 136.

HELMET OF CHARLES V., BELONGING TO THE CORNUCOPIÆ SUIT.]

[Illustration: HELMET OF CHARLES V., BELONGING TO THE CORNUCOPIÆ SUIT.]

[Illustration: PLATE 137.

C 11. SALADE, WITH DETACHABLE DECORATIVE PIECES (BELONGED TO MAXIMILIAN
I. OR PHILIP I.).]

[Illustration: M 19. HELMET OF ALI PASHA, TURKISH ADMIRAL, DEFEATED AT
LEPANTO.]

[Illustration: PLATE 138.

A 191. MORION AND ARM-GUARD OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 139.

A 27. SHIELD USED IN TILTING.]

[Illustration: A 57. SHIELD USED IN TILTING, DESIGNED BY HOPFER.]

[Illustration: PLATE 140.

A 57. SHIELD DESIGNED BY HOPFER.]

[Illustration: PLATE 141.

SHIELD, WITH A MASK IN RELIEF, BELONGING TO THE HARNESS OF CHARLES V., A
149-156.]

[Illustration: PLATE 142.

SHIELD OF PHILIP II., BELONGING TO THE ARMOUR A 217-230.]

[Illustration: SHIELD OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V., BELONGING TO THE
HARNESS A 159-163.]

[Illustration: PLATE 143.

A 265. SHIELD OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: A 241. GERMAN SHIELD, 16TH CENTURY, BY DESIDERIO COLMAN:
WAR, PEACE, WISDOM, AND STRENGTH.]

[Illustration: PLATE 144.

SHIELD OF PHILIP III., MUSKET-PROOF, BELONGING TO THE HARNESS A 354.]

[Illustration: A 293. SHIELD. SUBJECT: ALEXANDER SUBDUING BUCEPHALUS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 145.

A 293. SHIELD ACCOMPANYING ARMOUR OF PHILIP III. 1578-1621. IN THE
CENTRE, ALEXANDER THE GREAT SUBDUING BUCEPHALUS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 146.

B 3. SHIELD WHICH BELONGED TO PHILIP III. WHEN A BOY. SUBJECT: JUPITER,
NEPTUNE, AND MARS OVERWHELMING THE MOORS.]

[Illustration: A 374. SHIELD BELONGING TO PRINCE FILIPPO EMMANUELE OF
SAVOY, 1588-1624 (ITALIAN).]

[Illustration: PLATE 147.

D1, D2. HELMET AND SHIELD OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 148.

D3, D4. BURGONET AND SHIELD OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 149.

D 8. SHIELD (ITALIAN) WITH DESIGN REPRESENTING THE ABDUCTION OF HELEN,
16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: D 6. SHIELD OF ITALIAN WORKMANSHIP 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 150.

D 63. THE ‘PLUS ULTRA’ SHIELD, DESIGNED BY GIROLAMO ROMANI.]

[Illustration: D 10. SHIELD, EARLY 17TH CENTURY. DESIGN: WARRIORS IN
COMBAT.]

PLATE 150A.

[Illustration: D 63. SHIELD CALLED ‘PLUS ULTRA,’ WITH APOTHEOSIS OF
CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: D 64. THE MEDUSA SHIELD, MADE BY NEGROLI FOR CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 151.

SHIELD OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V., FORMING PART OF THE MÜHLBERG ARMOUR.]

[Illustration: D 66. ITALIAN SHIELD, MOORISH STYLE, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 152.

D 67. ITALIAN SHIELD, MOORISH STYLE, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: SHIELD PRESENTED TO CHARLES V. BY DON FERDINANDO DE
GONZAGA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 153.

D 69. ITALIAN SHIELD, 16TH CENTURY. DESIGN: THE TRIUMPH OF LOVE.]

[Illustration: D 68. SHIELD OF AUGSBURG MAKE, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 154.

SHIELD ASCRIBED TO THE MARQUIS OF VILLENA, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: D 71. SHIELD OF THE END OF THE 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 155.

SHIELD OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: SHIELD OF THE MILANESE SCHOOL, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 156.

D 72. SHIELD, LATE 16TH CENTURY. DESIGN: THE MEDUSA’S HEAD.]

[Illustration: SHIELD REPRESENTING JUPITER, SATURN, VENUS AND CUPID,
MERCURY, AND MARS, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 157.

SHIELD, THE WORK OF E. DE ZULOAGA, 19TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: UNFINISHED SHIELD, THE WORK OF E. DE ZULOAGA, 19TH
CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 158.

SHIELD, THE WORK OF E. DE ZULOAGA, 19TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: D 73. SPANISH SHIELD, 17TH CENTURY. DESIGN: THE JUDGMENT
OF PARIS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 159.

D 78. SHIELD PRESENTED TO PHILIP III. BY THE DUKE OF SAVOY IN 1603.]

[Illustration: PLATE 160.

D 79. SHIELD PRESENTED TO PHILIP III. BY THE DUKE OF SAVOY IN 1603.]

[Illustration: PLATE 161.

D 86. MOORISH LEATHER SHIELD, END OF 15TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 161A.

D 88. OVAL LEATHER SHIELD, LATE 16TH CENTURY. THE FACE DECORATED WITH
ADMIRABLE MEXICAN-INDIAN FEATHER-WORK.]

[Illustration: PLATE 162.

LEATHER SHIELD, WITH THE ARMS OF THE MENDOZA FAMILY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 163.

M 1-5. ARMS OF KING FRANCIS I. OF FRANCE, TAKEN AT THE BATTLE OF PAVIA,
1525, BY THE TROOPS OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 163A.

M 6. SHIELD AND SWORD OF FRANCIS I. OF FRANCE, TAKEN AT THE BATTLE OF
PAVIA. DESIGN: THE GALLIC COCK ATTACKING A WARRIOR AND PUTTING HIM TO
FLIGHT.]

[Illustration: PLATE 164.

G 45. SWORD OF HERNANDO CORTES.

G 48. SWORD OF PHILIP II.

G 29. SWORD OF GONSALVO DE CORDOBA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 165.

K 60. PISTOL AND AXE COMBINED OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: G 45. SWORD ATTRIBUTED TO HERNANDO CORTES, CONQUEROR OF
MEXICO, 1485-1547.]

[Illustration: PLATE 166.

G 47. SWORD OF PHILIP II., WORN WITH PARADE ARMOUR.]

[Illustration: G 48. TOLEDAN SWORD ATTRIBUTED TO PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: G 49. TOLEDAN SWORD OF THE COUNT OF CORUNNA (16TH
CENTURY). THE GUARD IS ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL IN THE ARMOURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 166A.

G 47. SWORD OF PHILIP II., WITH THE MARK OF CLEMENT HORN OF SOLINGEN.]

[Illustration: PLATE 167.

G 54. SPANISH SWORD, MIDDLE OF 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: G 59. SPANISH SWORD, LATE 16TH CENTURY. BEARS MARK OF
JUANES EL VIEJO.]

[Illustration: G 55. SPANISH SWORD, LATE 16TH CENTURY, MADE BY SEBASTIAN
HERNANDEZ OF TOLEDO.]

[Illustration: PLATE 168.

G 61. SWORD OF THE DUKE OF WEIMAR, COMMANDER OF THE SWEDISH ARMY,
DEFEATED AT THE BATTLE OF NORDLINGEN, 1624.]

[Illustration: G 80. SWORD ATTRIBUTED TO PHILIP III. IT BEARS THE DATE
1604, TOLEDO MAKE.]

[Illustration: G 64. SWORD ATTRIBUTED TO COUNT DE LEMOS, 1576-1622, MADE
BY TOMÁS DE AYALA OF SEVILLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 169.

G 151. PERSIAN SWORD, 16TH CENTURY, PROBABLY BROUGHT FROM TUNIS BY
CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: G 62. STRADIOT’S SABRE, EARLY 17TH CENTURY, PRESENTED BY
THE DUKE OF SAVOY TO PHILIP III. (1603).]

[Illustration: G 43. 16TH CENTURY CUTLASS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 170.

G 34. WAR SWORD OF CHARLES V., ITALIAN MAKE.]

[Illustration: G 33. ITALIAN WAR SWORD OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: G 35. SWORD OF PIZARRO, CONQUEROR OF PERU.]

[Illustration: PLATE 171.

G 160. KNIFE USED BY THE CARVER AT THE KING’S TABLE, AS REQUIRED BY THE
ETIQUETTE OF THE HOUSE OF BURGUNDY.]

[Illustration: DAGGER,

EARLY 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: 16TH CENTURY

DAGGER, SUPPOSED TO HAVE BELONGED TO CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 172.

A 242. WAR SADDLE OF PHILIP II., MADE BY DESIDERIUS COLMAN OF
AUGSBURG.]

[Illustration: PLATE 172A.

A 242. POMMEL AND CANTLE OF SADDLE OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: PLATE 172B.

A 242. CANTLE-PLATE OF SAME SADDLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 172C.

A 242. BURR-PLATE OF SADDLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 172D.

A 242. BURR-PLATE OF SADDLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 173.

A 291. CANTLE-PLATES OF SADDLE MADE BY LUCIO PICININO.]

[Illustration: PLATE 173A.

A 291. CANTLE-PLATE OF SAME SADDLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 173B.

A 291. BURR-PLATE OF SAME SADDLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 174.

SADDLE (ITALIAN), 16TH CENTURY. (MARINE MONSTERS.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 175.

MOORISH SADDLE, WITH SHORT STIRRUPS, 18TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 176.

TURKISH SADDLE GIVEN TO CHARLES III.]

[Illustration: PLATE 177.

ARAB SADDLE, WITH SHORT STIRRUPS, TAKEN IN THE PALACE OF THE BEY OF ORAN
IN 1732.]

[Illustration: PLATE 178.

MILITARY SADDLE, LATE 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 179.

A 352. SADDLE MADE AT PAMPLONA FOR THE DUKE OF SAVOY (1620).]

[Illustration: PLATE 180.

IRON WAR SADDLE OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 181.

F 22. ITALIAN SADDLE, 16TH CENTURY, PROBABLY PRESENTED BY FEDERICO
GONZAGA TO CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 182.

MILITARY SADDLE: DESIGN IN BERRUGUETE STYLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 183.

2327. MILITARY SADDLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 184.

MILITARY SADDLE, AUGSBURG MAKE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 185.

SADDLE, EARLY 15TH CENTURY, FROM MAJORCA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 186.

1913. SWORD, WITH THE TOLEDO BLADE OF THE DUKE OF OLIVARES.

1880. ‘FLAMING’ SPANISH SWORD OF PHILIP IV.

1917. SWORD OF D. SUERO DE QUINONES, LATE 16TH CENTURY.

1864. DAGGER, SCALLOPED HALF-WAY.

1916. SWORD, WITH ROUND POINT, OF GARCILASO DE LA VEGA.

1920. SWORD, WITH TOLEDO BLADE, OF THE MARQUIS OF POVAR.

631. SHIELD REPRESENTING JUPITER SENDING LIGHTNING ON THE ARABS.

1874. DAGGER GIVEN BY LOUIS XV. OF FRANCE TO THE KING OF SPAIN.]

[Illustration: PLATE 187.

1705. SWORD OF ISABEL THE CATHOLIC.

1589. PETRONEL OF CHARLES V., WITH BATTLE-AXE.

1581. YATAGHAN OF MUSTAFA, BEY OF ORAN.

1561. BATTLE-AXE, 15TH AND 16TH CENTURIES.

1563. KRISS OR MALAY DAGGER.

1702. SWORD OF THE GREAT CAPTAIN.

1591. ALFANGE OR INDIAN SCIMITAR.

1587. BATTLE-AXE, BYZANTINE STYLE.

1764. MARTEL-DE-FER OF CHARLES V.

1698. SWORD, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 188.

1719. SWORD OF THE COUNT OF CORUNNA.

1843, 1816. PIECES OF THE BARDING OF A HORSE.

1696. SWORD, 15TH CENTURY.

1716. SWORD OF PHILIP I., THE HANDSOME.

2045, 2049. PISTOLS, 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES.

2077. DAGGER, FOUR EDGED, 16TH CENTURY.

1814. SWORD, FOUND IN THE TAGUS, AND GIVEN TO PHILIP II.

1359, 1315. ARMPIT SHIELDS.

1763. SPURS, IN FILIGREE SILVER.

1328. LANCE-SHIELD OF THE PRINCE OF PARMA.

1759. SWORD OF BERNAL DIAZ DEL CASTILLO.]

[Illustration: PLATE 189.

1697. SWORD OF THE PRINCE OF CONDE.

1644. TWO-HANDED SWORD, EARLY 15TH CENTURY.

1777. SWORD OF PHILIP II.

1794. SWORD OF DON JOHN OF AUSTRIA.

1708. GERMAN SWORD OF FREDERICK HENRY, COUNT OF NASSAU.

1845. SWORD OF JOHN OF URBINO.

1692. MAGNIFICENT TOLEDAN BLADE, UNMOUNTED.

2067, 2076. A PAIR OF PISTOLS, 17TH CENTURY.

1823. PIECE OF A HORSE’S BARDING.]

[Illustration: PLATE 190.

1769. SWORD OF PIZARRO.

1726. HEAD STALL.

1721. VERY REMARKABLE SWORD OF THE RENAISSANCE.

1718, 1771. RONDELS.

2044. PISTOLS, 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES.

929. HEAD STALL FOR CHARGER OF THE COUNT OF NIEBLA.

1770, 1761. BEAUTIFUL STIRRUPS, WITH FIGURES.

1768. UNIQUE SPUR.]

[Illustration: PLATE 191.

1873. SWORD

1912. SWORD OF PHILIP III.

1872. SWORD OF CHARLES II.

1850. GERMAN SWORD.

1911. SWORD OF THE DUKE OF MONTEMAR.

2034, 2031. PISTOLS.

523. CHAMFRON.]

[Illustration: PLATE 192.

1773. SWORD OF PHILIP II.

1659. SWORD WITH FOUR SIDES (GERMAN), 16TH CENTURY.

1807. SWORD OF HERNAN CORTES.

1856, 1857. MAGNIFICENT PAIR OF GAUNTLETS.

1727. LOBERA SWORD OF ST. FERDINAND.

1645. SWORD OF DON DIEGO HURTADO DE MENDOZA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 193.

1562. MOORISH BOARDING GAUNTLET, 14TH TO 15TH CENTURY.

1619. SWORD PRESENTED TO JOHN II. OF CASTILE BY THE POPE EUGENIUS IV.

1711. HALBERD OF CHARLES V.

1529. IRON RING, WITH POINTS INSIDE.

1588. BRACELET OF ALI PASHA, TURKISH ADMIRAL AT LEPANTO.

1502, 1544. MOORISH QUIVERS.

1556, 1605. MALAY BATTLE-AXES, IN WOOD.

1620. SWORD OF DIEGO GARCIA PAREDES.

1606. WOODEN STIRRUP.

1644. TWO-HANDED SWORD, EARLY 15TH CENTURY.

1554. QUIVER WITH ARROWS OF THE CACIQUE GUARIMACOA.

2535. HALBERD PLATE, 15TH CENTURY.

1585. MOORISH BOARDING WEAPON, 15TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 194.

1776. ESPADON OR LARGE TWO-HANDED SWORD OF CHARLES V.

1878. SWORD OF THE COUNT LEMOS.

1862. VALENCIAN SWORD OF FERDINAND D’ALARCON.

1976, 1968. BEAUTIFUL PISTOLS OF 16TH CENTURY.

567. CHAMFRON WHICH BELONGED TO PHILIP IV.

1775. ESPADON OF DIEGO GARCIA DE PAREDES.

1848. FLAMING SWORD OF DON JUAN OF AUSTRIA, SON OF PHILIP IV.

1852. SWORD OF PEDRO MENDEZ DE AVILES.]

[Illustration: PLATE 195.

1762. SWORD OF CARDINAL FERNANDO, BROTHER OF PHILIP IV.

1924, 1806, 1833. PIECES OF BARDING FOR A HORSE.

1649. SWORD OF THE COUNT OF BENAVENTE, MADE AT ZARAGOZA.

1634. ESPADON.

1599. SCIMITAR OF DON JUAN OF AUSTRIA.

1598. SPANISH-MORESQUE SWORD.

1729, 1767. MACES, 15TH AND 16TH CENTURIES.]

[Illustration: PLATE 196.

1765. TWO-HANDED SWORD OF FERDINAND V., THE CATHOLIC.

1662. SWORD IN ITS SHEATH, STUDDED WITH JEWELS.

1713. TWO-HANDED SWORD OF CHARLES V.

1706, 1701. MACES OF THE CONSTABLE OF BOURBON, TIME OF CHARLES V.

1700, 1707. STIRRUPS, OF TURKISH FORM OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 197.

629. GILDED HANDLE TO CROSSBOW.

1529. IRON RING, WITH SPIKES INSIDE, WHICH THE MOORS USED AS AN
INSTRUMENT OF EXECUTION.

598. FLEMISH CROSSBOW, 16TH CENTURY.

628. CROSSBOW, INCRUSTED WITH IVORY.

640. CROSSBOW OF THE DUKE OF ALBA.

1522. ARABIAN SPUR.

1538. SHIELD FOR CROSSBOWMAN.

GAFFLES FOR STRETCHING THE STRING OF THE CROSSBOW.]

[Illustration: PLATE 198.

TROPHY FORMED OF DIFFERENT WEAPONS, BY E. DE ZULOAGA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 199.

TROPHY FORMED OF SEVERAL PIECES OF ARMOUR OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: PLATE 200.

MARKS USED BY THE PRINCIPAL SWORD-MAKERS OF TOLEDO UNTIL THE BEGINNING
OF THE 18TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 200A.

KEY TO THE FOREGOING.]

[Illustration: PLATE 201.

HEADS OF SPANISH LANCES AND PIKES, 15TH TO 17TH CENTURIES. ‘THE PIKE I
WOULD HAVE, IF IT MIGHT BE, OF SPANISH ASH, AND BETWEEN 20 AND 22 FEET
LONG.’--SUTCLIFFE, _PRACTICE OF ARMS_, (1593).]

[Illustration: PLATE 202.

HEADS OF SPANISH LANCES USED FOR TILTS AND TOURNAMENTS, 15TH TO 17TH
CENTURIES, POINTED, ROUND HEADED, OR FURCATED.]

[Illustration: PLATE 203.

SPANISH KNIVES EMPLOYED BY THE CHIEF CARVER AT THE ROYAL TABLE, THE
HANDLES OF WHICH ARE RICHLY DECORATED WITH THE SPANISH ARMS OF THE TIME
OF PHILIP IV.]

[Illustration: PLATE 204.

J 28. HUNTING CROSSBOW, EARLY 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: J 18. SPANISH HUNTING CROSSBOW OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: J 37. SMALL HUNTING CROSSBOW, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 205.

H 9. MARTEL-DE-FER, EARLY 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: H 6. BATTLE-AXE, MIDDLE 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: H 14. BATTLE-MACE, LATE 15TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: H 15. BATTLE-MACE OF CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 206.

1987, 1992. SPANISH ARQUEBUSES, END OF 16TH CENTURY.

1955. PETRONEL, 16TH CENTURY.

1961. SPANISH ARQUEBUS, WITH OCTAGONAL BARREL INLAID WITH MOTHER OF
PEARL AND IVORY, 16TH CENTURY.

1972, 1977, 1946. KEYS OR CRANKS TO COCK THE ARQUEBUSES.]

[Illustration: PLATE 207.

1602. ELEGANT SABRE OF A ‘CHEF D’ESTRADIOTS’ (VENETIAN) GIVEN TO PHILIP
III.

2243, 2285. SPANISH KNIVES, WITH SPANISH ARMS, TIME OF PHILIP IV.

1577, 1578. PERSIAN SABRES.

1604. GOURMA, OR DAGGER.

1579. SABRE OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN.

1600. MISRAE OR SCIMITAR OF ALI PASHA, TURKISH ADMIRAL AT LEPANTO.

1572. MISERECORDE, OR DAGGER, OF DIEGO GARCIA DE PAREDES.

1566. DAGGER OF CHARLES V.

1580. DAGGER OF THE KABYLES.

1562. MANOPLE OR MOORISH BOARDING-SWORD, 14TH-15TH CENTURIES.]

[Illustration: PLATE 208.

2167. REPEATING HUNTING-GUN.

2296. TURKISH CANNON TINDER.

2140. HUNTING GUN WITH 12 SHOTS.

2164. REPEATING GUN, MADE IN 1705.

2534. THE BARREL OF A BREECH-LOADING GUN.

2294. TURKISH GUN TINDER.

2142. MODEL OF A GUN WITH 14 SHOTS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 209.

1. ARQUEBUS OF DON JOHN OF AUSTRIA (K 14).

2. ARQUEBUS HANDLE, DAGGER, AND PRIMER COMBINED (G 151).

3. ARQUEBUS OF DON JOHN JOSEPH OF AUSTRIA (K 23).

4. ARQUEBUS HANDLE AND PRIMER (K 12).

5. NUREMBERG ARQUEBUS, 16TH CENTURY (K 11).]

[Illustration: PLATE 210.

1940, 1944. BARRELS, 15TH CENTURY.

651. LANCE, WITH TWO LITTLE BARRELS, 17TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 211.

903. SPANISH ARQUEBUS, 15TH CENTURY.

1978. PETRONEL, 1547.

2080. PISTOL, WITH THREE BARRELS.

2126. PISTOL, WITH RIFLE BARREL.

2225. HUNTING GUN OF PHILIP V., BREECH-LOADING.

2024. PETRONEL, 16TH CENTURY.

2635. REVOLVER, 18TH CENTURY.

2045. PISTOL, WITH TWO BARRELS, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 212.

K 30. SMALL ARQUEBUS OF CHARLES V. (ITALIAN MAKE).]

[Illustration: K 33. SMALL SPANISH ARQUEBUS, 1531.]

[Illustration: K 55. SMALL PISTOL-ARQUEBUS, MIDDLE 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 213.

DOUBLE BREECH-LOADING CANNON, IN BRONZE, USED IN SPAIN FROM THE END OF
THE 15TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 214.

A 190. TAILPIECE OF A HORSE’S BARD, 1545.]

[Illustration: A 190. CHANFRON, REPRESENTING THE HEAD AND NECK OF A
FANTASTIC DRAGON, COVERED WITH SCALES OF GOLD, 1545.]

[Illustration: PLATE 215.

531. HEAD-STALL OF PHILIP III.’S HORSE.

534. CHANFRON AND MAINFAIRE OF A HORSE OF PHILIP III.

567. CHANFRON OF HORSE OF PHILIP IV.]

[Illustration: PLATE 216.

525. CHANFRON (MOORISH).

558. CHANFRON AND MAINFAIRE, 16TH CENTURY.

565. CHANFRON, WITH THE IMPERIAL ARMS IN COLOURS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 217.

F 110. CHANFRON, EARLY 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: F 113. CHANFRON, EARLY 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 218.

1762. SWORD OF CARDINAL D. FERNANDO, BROTHER OF PHILIP IV.

1613, 1624. CHRISTIAN STANDARDS, FROM THE BATTLE OF LEPANTO.]

[Illustration: PLATE 219.

FLAG CARRIED AT THE OBSEQUIES OF PHILIP II.]

[Illustration: PLATE 220.

STANDARD OF THE EX-BODYGUARD.]

[Illustration: PLATE 221.

STANDARD TAKEN FROM THE ENGLISH WHO BESIEGED CARTHAGENA (AMERICA) IN
1741.]

[Illustration: PLATE 222.

FLAG FROM THE BATTLE OF LEPANTO, WITH A PAINTING REPRESENTING CHRIST AND
ST. MARTIN.]

[Illustration: PLATE 223.

SEAL OF CHARLES V. WHEN COUNT OF FLANDERS, SHOWING HIM ON HORSEBACK IN
ARMOUR.]

[Illustration: SMALL SHIELD ON HEAD-STALL, WITH THE ARMS OF PHILIP II.
WHEN HEIR-APPARENT, AND ALSO THOSE OF HIS WIFE, QUEEN MARY OF ENGLAND.]

[Illustration: SALADE-MORION OF THE PRINCE OF ASTURIAS, BALTASAR CARLOS
OF AUSTRIA (1629-1646).]

[Illustration: PLATE 224.

LANTERNS FROM FLAG-SHIPS GAINED BY THE MARQUES DE SANTA CRUZ IN VARIOUS
NAVAL ENGAGEMENTS (M 75, 77, 76).]

[Illustration: PLATE 225.

SEDAN CHAIR OF PHILIP V.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 226.

SEDAN CHAIR OF FERDINAND VI.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 227.

SEDAN CHAIR OF CHARLES IV.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 228.

SEDAN CHAIR OF PHILIP V.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 229.

SEDAN CHAIR OF CHARLES III.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 230.

CAMPAIGN LITTER OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 231.

CARRIAGE GIVEN BY NAPOLEON I. TO CHARLES IV.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 232.

GALA COACH OF CHARLES IV.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 233.

CARRIAGE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE CORTES.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 234.

THE CROWN COACH.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 235.

WEDDING COACH OF FERDINAND VII. AND MARIA CHRISTINA.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 236.

CARRIAGE OF THE MACE-BEARERS OF THE CORTES.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 237.

CARRIAGE, WITH GILT PANELS, OF CHARLES IV.

(FROM THE COACH-HOUSES OF THE ROYAL PALACE, MADRID.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 238.

COVER OF AN ALBUM, EXTERIOR, THE WORK OF E. DE ZULOAGA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 239.

COVER OF AN ALBUM, INTERIOR, THE WORK OF E. DE ZULOAGA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 240.

PORTABLE CHAIR, IN LEATHER, OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 241.

MAGNIFICENT BUREAU, IN ENGRAVED IRON. BELONGED TO CHARLES V.]

[Illustration: PLATE 242.

WOODEN TRUNK, WITH ORNAMENTS IN THE POINTED STYLE.]

[Illustration: PLATE 243.

IRON INKSTAND, EMBOSSED AND INLAID, THE WORK OF E. DE ZULOAGA.]

[Illustration: PLATE 244.

GENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE ARMOURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 245.

GENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE ARMOURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 246.

GENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE ARMOURY.]

[Illustration: PLATE 247.

FIGURE EXPLAINING VARIOUS TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN THE TEXT.]

[Illustration: PLATE 248.

FIGURE EXPLAINING VARIOUS TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN THE TEXT.]

       *       *       *       *       *

                                  THE
                            SPANISH SERIES

Edited by ALBERT F. CALVERT

A new and important series of volumes, dealing with Spain in its various
aspects, its history, its cities and monuments. Each volume will be
complete in itself in an uniform binding, and the number and excellence
of the reproductions from pictures will justify the claim that these
books comprise the most copiously illustrated series that has yet been
issued, some volumes having over 300 pages of reproductions of pictures,
etc.

Crown 8vo.

     MURILLO. A Biography and Appreciation. Illustrated by over 165
     reproductions from photographs of his most celebrated pictures.

     SPANISH ARMS AND ARMOUR. A Historical and Descriptive Account of
     the Royal Armoury at Madrid. Illustrated with 386 reproductions
     from photographs.

     THE ESCORIAL. A Historical and Descriptive Account of the Spanish
     Royal Palace, Monastery and Mausoleum. Illustrated with plans and
     278 reproductions from pictures and photographs.

     CORDOVA. A Historical and Descriptive Account of the Ancient City
     which the Carthaginians styled the “Gem of the South.” With over
     155 Illustrations.

     SEVILLE. A Historical and Descriptive Account. With 300
     Illustrations.

     THE PRADO. A Guide and Handbook to the Royal Picture Gallery of
     Madrid. Illustrated with 221 reproductions from photographs of Old
     Masters.

IN PREPARATION

  GOYA
  GRANADA
  VELAZQUEZ
  TOLEDO
  ROYAL PALACES
  MADRID
  LEON, BURGOS, &C.
  VALLADOLID, SEGOVIA, &C.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

MURILLO

A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION. ILLUSTRATED BY OVER 165 REPRODUCTIONS FROM
PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIS MOST CELEBRATED PICTURES

While the names of Murillo and Velazquez are inseparably linked in the
history of Art as Spain’s immortal contribution to the small band of
world-painters, the great Court-Painter to Philip IV. has ever received
the lion’s share of public attention. Many learned and critical works
have been written about Murillo, but whereas Velazquez has been
familiarised to the general reader by the aid of small, popular
biographies, the niche is still empty which it is hoped that this book
will fill.

In this volume the attempt has been made to show the painter’s art in
its relation to the religious feeling of the age in which he lived, and
his own feeling towards his art. Murillo was the product of his
religious era, and of his native province, Andalusia. To Europe in his
lifetime he signified little or nothing. He painted to the order of the
religious houses of his immediate vicinity; his works were immured in
local monasteries and cathedrals, and, passing immediately out of
circulation, were forgotten or never known.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

SPANISH ARMS AND ARMOUR

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE ROYAL ARMOURY AT MADRID.
ILLUSTRATED WITH 386 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS

Although several valuable and voluminous catalogues of the Spanish Royal
Armoury have, from time to time, been compiled, this “finest collection
of armour in the world” has been subjected so often to the disturbing
influences of fire, removal, and re-arrangement, that no hand catalogue
of the Museum is available, and this book has been designed to serve
both as a historical souvenir of the institution and a record of its
treasures.

The various exhibits with which the writer illustrates his narrative are
reproduced to the number of over 300 on art paper, and the selection of
weapons and armour has been made with a view not only to render the
series interesting to the general reader, but to present a useful text
book of European armoury for the guidance of artists, sculptors,
antiquaries, costumiers, and all who have practical interest in
historical accuracy.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

THE ESCORIAL

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE SPANISH ROYAL PALACE,
MONASTERY AND MAUSOLEUM. ILLUSTRATED WITH PLANS AND 278 REPRODUCTIONS
FROM PICTURES AND PHOTOGRAPHS

The Royal Palace, Monastery, and Mausoleum of El Escorial, which rears
its gaunt, grey walls in one of the bleakest but most imposing districts
in the whole of Spain, was erected to commemorate a victory over the
French in 1557. It was occupied and pillaged by the French two and
a-half centuries later, and twice it has been greatly diminished by
fire; but it remains to-day, not only the incarnate expression of the
fanatic religious character and political genius of Philip II., but the
greatest mass of wrought granite which exists on earth, the leviathan of
architecture, the eighth wonder of the world.

In the text of this book the author has endeavoured to reconstitute the
glories and tragedies of the living past of the Escorial, and to
represent the wonders of the stupendous edifice by reproductions of over
two hundred and seventy of the finest photographs and pictures
obtainable. Both as a review and a pictorial record it is hoped that the
work will make a wide appeal among all who are interested in the
history, the architecture, and the art of Spain.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

CORDOVA

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE ANCIENT CITY WHICH THE
CARTHAGINIANS STYLED THE “GEM OF THE SOUTH,” WITH OVER 155 ILLUSTRATIONS

Gay-looking, vivacious in its beauty, silent, ill-provided, depopulated,
Cordova was once the pearl of the West, the city of cities, Cordova of
the thirty suburbs and three thousand mosques; to-day she is no more
than an overgrown village, but she still remains the most Oriental town
in Spain.

Cordova, once the centre of European civilisation, under the Moors the
Athens of the West, the successful rival of Baghdad and Damascus, the
seat of learning and the repository of the arts, is now no more than a
third-rate provincial town; but the artist, the antiquary and the lover
of the beautiful, will still find in its streets and squares and patios
a mysterious spell that cannot be resisted.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

SEVILLE

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT, WITH 300 ILLUSTRATIONS

Seville, which has its place in mythology as the creation of Hercules,
and was more probably founded by the Phœnicians, which became
magnificent under the Roman rule, was made the capital of the Goths, was
the centre of Moslem power and splendour, and fell before the military
prowess of St. Ferdinand, is still the Queen of Andalusia, the Spanish
Athens, the foster-mother of Velazquez and Murillo, the city of poets
and pageantry and love.

Seville is always gay, and responsive and fascinating to the receptive
visitor, and all sorts of people go there with all sorts of motives. The
artist repairs to the Andalusian city to fill his portfolio; the lover
of art makes the pilgrimage to study Murillo in all his glory. The
seasons of the Church attract thousands from reasons of devotion or
curiosity. And of all these myriad visitors, who go with their minds
full of preconceived notions, not one has yet confessed to being
disappointed with Seville.

The author has here attempted to convey in the illustrations an
impression of this laughing city where all is gaiety and mirth and
ever-blossoming roses, where the people pursue pleasure as the serious
business of life in an atmosphere of exhilarating enjoyment.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

THE PRADO

A GUIDE AND HANDBOOK TO THE ROYAL PICTURE GALLERY OF MADRID. ILLUSTRATED
WITH 221 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS OF OLD MASTERS

This volume is an attempt to supplement the accurate but formal notes
contained in the official catalogue of a gallery which is considered the
finest in the world. It has been said that the day one enters the Prado
for the first time is an important event like marriage, the birth of a
child, or the coming into an inheritance; an experience of which one
feels the effects to the day of one’s death.

The excellence of the Madrid gallery is the excellence of exclusion; it
is a collection of magnificent gems. Here one becomes conscious of a
fresh power in Murillo, and is amazed anew by the astonishing apparition
of Velazquez; here is, in truth, a rivalry of miracles of art.

The task of selecting pictures for reproduction from what is perhaps the
most splendid gallery of old masters in existence, was one of no little
difficulty, it is believed that the collection is representative, and
that the letterpress will form a serviceable companion to the visitor to
The Prado.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

TOLEDO

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE “CITY OF GENERATIONS,” WITH
OVER 480 ILLUSTRATIONS

The origin of Imperial Toledo, “the crown of Spain, the light of the
world, free from the time of the mighty Goths,” is lost in the
impenetrable mists of antiquity. Mighty, unchangeable, invincible, the
city has been described by Wörmann as “a gigantic open-air museum of the
architectural history of early Spain, arranged upon a lofty and
conspicuous table of rock.”

But while some writers have declared that Toledo is a theatre with the
actors gone and only the scenery left, the author does not share the
opinion. He believes that the power and virility upon which Spain built
up her greatness is reasserting itself. The machinery of the theatre of
Toledo is rusty, the pulleys are jammed from long disuse, but the
curtain is rising steadily if slowly, and already can be heard the
tuning-up of fiddles in its ancient orchestra.

In this belief the author of this volume has not only set forth the
story of Toledo’s former greatness, but has endeavoured to place before
his readers a panorama of the city as it appears to-day, and to show
cause for his faith in the greatness of the Toledo of the future.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

GRANADA AND THE ALHAMBRA

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MOSLEM RULE IN SPAIN, TOGETHER WITH A PARTICULAR
ACCOUNT OF THE CONSTRUCTION, THE ARCHITECTURE, AND THE DECORATION OF THE
MOORISH PALACE, WITH OVER 450 ILLUSTRATIONS

This volume is the third and abridged edition of a work which the author
was inspired to undertake by the surpassing loveliness of the Alhambra,
and by his disappointment in the discovery that no such thing as an even
moderately adequate illustrated souvenir of “this glorious sanctuary of
Spain” was obtainable. Keenly conscious of the want himself, he essayed
to supply it, and the result is a volume that has been acclaimed with
enthusiasm alike by critics, artists, architects, and archæologists.

In his preface to the first edition, Mr. Calvert wrote: “The Alhambra
may be likened to an exquisite opera which can only be appreciated to
the full when one is under the spell of its magic influence. But as the
witchery of an inspired score can be recalled by the sound of an air
whistled in the street, so--it is my hope--the pale ghost of the Moorish
fairy-land may live again in the memories of travellers through the
medium of this pictorial epitome.”

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

VELAZQUEZ

A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION. ILLUSTRATED WITH 142 REPRODUCTIONS FROM
PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIS MOST CELEBRATED PICTURES

Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez--“our Velazquez,” as Palomino
proudly styles him--has been made the subject of innumerable books in
every European language, yet the General Editor of this Spanish Series
feels that it would not be complete without the inclusion of yet another
contribution to the broad gallery of Velazquez literature.

The great Velazquez, the eagle in art--subtle, simple, incomparable--the
supreme painter, is still a guiding magnet of the art of to-day. This
greatest of Spanish artists, a master not only in portrait painting, but
in character and animal studies, in landscapes and historical subjects,
impressed the grandeur of his superb personality upon all his work.
Spain, it has been said, the country whose art was largely borrowed,
produced Velazquez, and through him Spanish art became the light of a
new artistic life.

The author cannot boast that he has new data to offer, but he has put
forward his conclusions with modesty; he has reproduced a great deal
that is most representative of the artist’s work; and he has endeavoured
to keep always in view his object to present a concise, accurate, and
readable life of Velazquez.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

MADRID

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE SPANISH CAPITAL, WITH OVER
300 ILLUSTRATIONS

Madrid is at once one of the most interesting and most maligned cities
in Europe. It stands at an elevation of 2,500 feet above the sea level,
in the centre of an arid, treeless, waterless, and wind-blown plain; but
whatever may be thought of the wisdom of selecting a capital in such a
situation, one cannot but admire the uniqueness of its position, and the
magnificence of its buildings, and one is forced to admit that, having
fairly entered the path of progress, Madrid bids fair to become one of
the handsomest and most prosperous of European cities.

The splendid promenades, the handsome buildings, and the spacious
theatres combine to make Madrid one of the first cities of the world,
and the author has endeavoured with the aid of the camera, to place
every feature and aspect of the Spanish metropolis before the reader.
Some of the illustrations reproduced here have been made familiar to the
English public by reason of the interesting and stirring events
connected with the Spanish Royal Marriage, but the greater number were
either taken by the author, or are the work of photographers specially
employed to obtain new views for the purpose of this volume.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

GOYA

A BIOGRAPHY AND AN APPRECIATION. ILLUSTRATED BY REPRODUCTIONS OF 600 OF
HIS PICTURES

The last of the old masters and the first of the moderns, as he has been
called, Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes is not so familiarised to
English readers as his genius deserves. He was born at a time when the
tradition of Velazquez was fading, and the condition of Spanish painting
was debased almost beyond hope of salvation; he broke through the
academic tradition of imitation; “he, next to Velazquez, is to be
accounted as the man whom the Impressionists of our time have to thank
for their most definite stimulus, their most immediate inspiration.”

The genius of Goya was a robust, imperious, and fulminating genius; his
iron temperament was passionate, dramatic, and revolutionary; he painted
a picture as he would have fought a battle. He was an athletic, warlike,
and indefatigable painter; a naturalist like Velazquez; fantastic like
Hogarth; eccentric like Rembrandt; the last flame-coloured flash of
Spanish genius.

It is impossible to reproduce his colouring; but in the reproductions of
his works the author has endeavoured to convey to the reader some idea
of Goya’s boldness of style, his mastery of frightful shadows and
mysterious lights, and his genius for expressing all terrible emotions.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

LEON, BURGOS AND SALAMANCA

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT, WITH OVER 350 ILLUSTRATIONS

In Leon, once the capital of the second kingdom in Spain; in Burgos,
which boasts one of the most magnificent cathedrals in Spain, and the
custodianship of the bones of the Cid; and in Salamanca, with its
university, which was one of the oldest in Europe, the author has
selected three of the most interesting relics of ancient grandeur in
this country of departed greatness.

Leon to-day is nothing but a large agricultural village, torpid, silent,
dilapidated; Burgos, which still retains traces of the Gotho-Castilian
character, is a gloomy and depleting capital; and Salamanca is a city of
magnificent buildings, a broken hulk, spent by the storms that from time
to time have devastated her.

Yet apart from the historical interest possessed by these cities, they
still make an irresistible appeal to the artist and the antiquary. They
are content with their stories of old-time greatness and their
cathedrals, and these ancient architectural splendours, undisturbed by
the touch of a modernising and renovating spirit, continue to attract
the visitor.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

VALLADOLID, OVIEDO, SEGOVIA, ZAMORA, AVILA AND ZARAGOZA

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT, WITH OVER 325 ILLUSTRATIONS

The glory of Valladolid has departed, but the skeleton remains, and
attached to its ancient stones are the memories that Philip II. was born
here, that here Cervantes lived, and Christopher Columbus died. In this
one-time capital of Spain, in the Plaza Mayor, the fires of the Great
Inquisition were first lighted, and here Charles V. laid the foundation
of the Royal Armoury, which was afterwards transferred to Madrid.

More than seven hundred years have passed since Oviedo was the proud
capital of the Kingdoms of Las Asturias, Leon, and Castile. Segovia,
though no longer great, has still all the appurtenances of greatness,
and with her granite massiveness and austerity, she remains an
aristocrat even among the aristocracy of Spanish cities. Zamora, which
has a history dating from time almost without date, was the key of Leon
and the centre of the endless wars between the Moors and the Christians,
which raged round it from the eighth to the eleventh centuries.

In this volume the author has striven to re-create the ancient greatness
of these four cities, and has preserved their memories in a wealth of
excellent and interesting illustrations.

_UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

ROYAL PALACES OF SPAIN

A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE SEVEN PRINCIPAL PALACES OF
THE SPANISH KINGS. PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED

Spain is beyond question the richest country in the world in the number
of its Royal Residences, and while few are without artistic importance,
all are rich in historical memories. Thus, from the Alcazar at Seville,
which is principally associated with Pedro the Cruel, to the Retiro,
built to divert the attention of Philip IV. from his country’s decay;
from the Escorial, in which the gloomy mind of Philip II. is perpetuated
in stone, to La Granja, which speaks of the anguish and humiliation of
Christina before Sergeant Garcia and his rude soldiery; from Aranjuéz to
Rio Frio, and from El Pardo, darkened by the agony of a good king, to
Miramar, to which a widowed Queen retired to mourn: all the history of
Spain, from the splendid days of Charles V. to the present time, is
crystallised in the Palaces that constitute the patrimony of the Crown.

The Royal Palaces of Spain are open to visitors at stated times, and it
is hoped that this volume, with its wealth of illustrations, will serve
the visitor both as a guide and a souvenir.

BY ALBERT F. CALVERT

THE ALHAMBRA

OF GRANADA, BEING A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MOSLEM RULE IN SPAIN FROM THE
REIGN OF MOHAMMED THE FIRST TO THE FINAL EXPULSION OF THE MOORS,
TOGETHER WITH A PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF THE CONSTRUCTION, THE ARCHITECTURE
AND THE DECORATION OF THE MOORISH PALACE, WITH 80 COLOURED PLATES AND
NEARLY 300 BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS (NEW EDITION)

Size 10 × 7-1/2. Price £2 2s. net

PRESS NOTICES

“It is hardly too much to say that this is one of the most magnificent
books ever issued from the English Press.”

_Building World._

“One is really puzzled where to begin and when to stop in praising the
illustrations.”

_Bookseller._

“The most complete record of this wonder of architecture which has ever
been contemplated, much less attempted.”

_British Architect._

“A treasure to the student of decorative art.”

_Morning Advertiser._

“Mr. CALVERT has given us a Book Beautiful.”

_Western Daily Press._

“It is the last word on the subject, no praise is too high.”

_Nottingham Express._

“May be counted among the more important art books which have been
published during recent years.”

_The Globe._

“Has a pride of place that is all its own among the books of the month.”

_Review of Reviews._

“Has in many respects surpassed any books on the Alhambra which up to
the present have appeared in our own country or abroad.”

_El Graduador, Spain._

“It is one of the most beautiful books of modern times.”

_Ely Gazette._

“One of the most artistic productions of the year.”

_Publishers’ Circular._

“The most beautiful book on the Alhambra issued in England.”

_Sphere._

“The standard work on a splendid subject.”

_Daily Telegraph._

“A remarkable masterpiece of book production.”

_Eastern Daily Press._

“A perfect treasure of beauty and delight.”

_Keighley News._

“A magnificent work.”

_Melbourne Age, Australia._

“Immense collection of fine plates.”

_The Times._

“A standard work, the compilation of which would credit a life’s
labour.”

_Hull Daily Mail._

MOORISH REMAINS IN SPAIN

BEING A BRIEF RECORD OF THE ARABIAN CONQUEST AND OCCUPATION OF THE
PENINSULA, WITH A PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF THE MOHAMMEDAN ARCHITECTURE AND
DECORATION IN THE CITIES OF CORDOVA, SEVILLE AND TOLEDO, WITH MANY
COLOURED PLATES, AND OVER 400 BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS, DIAGRAMS,
ETC., DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO H.M. KING ALFONSO XIII.

Crown 4to. (7-1/2 × 10 ins.) Price £2 2s. net

PRESS NOTICES

“The making of this book must surely have been a veritable labour of
love; and love’s labour has certainly not been lost.”

_Pall Mall Gazette._

“The best age of Moorish architecture in Spain is shown with remarkable
vividness and vitality.”

_The Scotsman._

“A most gorgeous book.... We cheerfully admit Mr. Calvert into the ranks
of those whom posterity will applaud for delightful yet unprofitable
work.”

_Outlook._

“A large and sumptuous volume.”

_Tribune._

“The illustrations are simply marvels of reproduction.”

_Dundee Advertiser._

“One of the books to which a simple literary review cannot pretend to do
justice.”

_Spectator._

“A special feature of a work of peculiar interest and value are the
illustrations.”

_Newcastle Chronicle._

“The illustrations are given with a minuteness and faithfulness of
detail, and colour, which will be particularly appreciated and
acknowledged by those who are most acquainted with the subject
themselves.”

_Liverpool Post._

“It is impossible to praise too highly the care with which the
illustrations have been prepared.”

_Birmingham Daily Post._

“It is illustrated with so lavish a richness of colour that to turn its
pages gives one at first almost the same impression of splendour as one
receives in wandering from hall to hall of the Alcazar of Seville; and
this is probably the highest compliment we could pay to the book or its
author.”

_Academy._

“It is certainly one of the most interesting books of the year.”

_Crown._

“The occasional delicacy of design and harmony of colour can scarcely be
surpassed ... a valuable and profusely illustrated volume.”

_Guardian._

“An excellent piece of work.”

_The Times._

“Mr. CALVERT has performed a useful work.”

_Daily Telegraph._

“A truly sumptuous volume.”

_The Speaker._

“Mr. CALVERT has given a very complete account of the evolution of
Moresco art.”

_The Connoisseur._

LIFE OF CERVANTES

A NEW LIFE OF THE GREAT SPANISH AUTHOR TO COMMEMORATE THE TERCENTENARY
OF THE PUBLICATION OF “DON QUIXOTE,” WITH NUMEROUS PORTRAITS AND
REPRODUCTIONS FROM EARLY EDITIONS OF “DON QUIXOTE”

Size Crown 8vo. 150 pp. Price 3/6 net

                             PRESS NOTICES

“A popular and accessible account of the career of Cervantes.”

_Daily Chronicle._

“A very readable and pleasant account of one of the great writers of all
time.”

_Morning Leader._

“We recommend the book to all those to whom Cervantes is more than a
mere name.”

_Westminster Gazette._

“Nothing could be more useful than this careful and authoritative book.”

_Vanity Fair._

“It is made trebly interesting by the very complete set of Cervantes’
portraits it contains, and by the inclusion of a valuable bibliography.”

_Black and White._

“Nothing better could be desired.”

_Literary World._

“A capital and most interesting little book.”

_The Queen._

“Excellent little volume.”

_The Graphic._

“A book full of information and of convenient compass.”

_Onlooker._

“A handy, compendious life, with good Quixotic pictures.”

_Rapid Review._

“Can be heartily recommended to all who want to know something of the
life of Cervantes.”

_Nottingham Express._

“Mr. CALVERT is entitled to the gratitude of book-lovers for his
industrious devotion at one of our greatest literary shrines.”

_Birmingham Post._

“Should be greatly appreciated by all lovers of the chivalrous Knight.”

_Dublin Express._

“A most interesting résumé of all facts up to the present time known.”

_El Nervion de Bilbao, Spain._

“The most notable work dedicated to the immortal author of _Don Quixote_
that has been published in England.”

_El Graduador, Spain._

“Although the book is written in English no Spaniard could have written
it with more conscientiousness and enthusiasm.”

_El Defensor de Granada, Spain._

FOOTNOTES:

[A] It is a work ascribed to the twelfth century, but resembles more a
work of the tenth. There is internal evidence to show that the costumes
were actually those of the Kings of Pelayo’s line.

[B] Gayangos, Mohammedan Dynasties, Bk. I.

[C] I have not been able to discover a single specimen of fourteenth
century armour in the Royal Armoury of Madrid.

[D] Vambrace from _avant bras_; rere-brace from _arrière bras_.

[E] Conde de Valencia, Catálogo de la Real Armeria.

[F] In allusion to the equal rights claimed and exercised by Ferdinand
and Isabel.





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