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Title: The Curiosities of Dudley and the Black Country, From 1800 to 1860 - Also an Account of the Trials and Sufferings of Dud Dudley - with his Mettallum Martis: Etc.
Author: Clark, C. F. G.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Curiosities of Dudley and the Black Country, From 1800 to 1860 - Also an Account of the Trials and Sufferings of Dud Dudley - with his Mettallum Martis: Etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's Note: I can do no better than to refer the reader to the
author's own words: "This Work is an exact reprint from the original,
and the errors in spelling and the peculiar Grammar of the Author have
been faithfully followed."



    CHARLES HALE,
    PHŒNIX BUILDINGS,
    HALL STREET, DUDLEY.

    THE LARGEST
    Furnishing Show Rooms
    IN THE MIDLANDS,
    A SAVING OF 20 PER CENT.
    AS
    CHARLES HALE
    IS A
    MANUFACTURER.

    References as to House, College, and Hotel Furnishing may be seen
    at the Office.

    18 SHOW ROOMS
    AT
    HALL STREET, DUDLEY.



    ESTABLISHED OVER FIFTY YEARS.

    [Illustration]

    A. J. BAIRD & CO.,
    Silk Mercers, General Drapers, &c.,
    61 & 62, HIGH STREET,
    DUDLEY.

    DEPARTMENTS.

    DRESSES.
    SILKS.
    SATINS.
    VELVETEENS.
    PLUSHES.
    TRIMMINGS.
    HOSIERY.
    GLOVES.
    UMBRELLAS.
    CORSETS.
    RIBBONS.
    MANTLES.
    COSTUMES.
    SHAWLS.
    SKIRTS, &c.
    MILLINERY.
    FLOWERS.
    FEATHERS.
    LINENS.
    FLANNELS.
    CALICOES.
    SHEETINGS.
    PRINTS.
    SATTEENS.
    FURNISHINGS.
    GENTS' TIES.
    UMBRELLAS.
    SHIRTS.
    COLLARS.
    BRACES, &c.

    QUALITY IS THE ONLY TRUE TEST OF CHEAPNESS.

    An Efficient Staff of Dressmakers and Milliners
    on the Premises.

    FUNERALS CAREFULLY AND ECONOMICALLY CONDUCTED.



    ESTABLISHED 1721.

    C. F. G. CLARK & SON,
    WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
    CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS,
    238, MARKET PLACE, DUDLEY,

    Beg to thank their friends and the public for their liberal
    patronage and support during the last 40 years, and assure them
    that their continual efforts will be to secure their continued
    patronage and consideration.

    DRUGS AND CHEMICALS
    OF THE GREATEST PURITY AND STRENGTH ALWAYS ON HAND.

    PHYSICIANS' PRESCRIPTIONS
    _And Family Recipes carefully prepared with genuine Drugs &
    Chemicals_,

    STEAM PREPARED
    PRESERVES & JAMS
    OF THE FINEST FRUIT AND FLAVOUR, VIZ.:--
    Black Currant Jam, Red Currant, Raspberry, Damson,
    French Plum, Gooseberry, and Mixed
    Fruits and Marmalades.

    WHOLESALE BOILERS OF ALL KINDS OF
    Confectionery Goods and Lozenges.
    PICKLE AND SAUCE MAKERS
    OF SUPERIOR STRENGTH AND QUALITY.

    Wholesale Vinegar Merchants.

    ALSO A LARGE ASSORTMENT OF
    PATENT MEDICINES AND PERFUMERY
    ALWAYS ON HAND.



    ESTABLISHED 1784.

    WILLIAM SMITH,
    Wine and Spirit Merchant,
    SWAN HOTEL,
    HIGH STREET,
    DUDLEY.



    W. C. WOOD & SON,
    WHOLESALE & FAMILY
    Grocers, Tea and Coffee Dealers,
    AND
    PROVISION MERCHANTS,
    46, HIGH STREET, DUDLEY.

    BRANCH ESTABLISHMENTS:--
    HALL STREET, DUDLEY, TIPTON, UPPER GORNAL,
    and THE LYE.



    THE GRAND MEDICINE OF THE DAY!

    SQUIRE KNIGHT'S
    CELEBRATED
    PURIFYING FAMILY PILLS.

    These celebrated Pills have for the last HUNDRED
    YEARS proved very superior to every other Medicine offered
    to the Public in the cure of Indigestion, Bilious Complaints,
    Loss of Appetite, Sick Headache, Giddiness in the Head,
    Pain and Fulness after Meals, Wind, Heartburn, Lowness of
    Spirits, Piles, Worms, Shortness of Breath, Nervous Disease,
    Cramps, Spasms, Fevers, Affections of the Liver, Dimness
    of Sight, Pains in the Stomach and Bowels, Eruptions of the
    Skin, &c., &c.

    TESTIMONIALS.

    Mrs. Job Stephens, of Woodside, Dudley, was perfectly cured
    of Wind and Spasms, of one year's duration, by taking these
    celebrated Pills.

    Amelia Griffiths, of Mostyn, was cured of nine years'
    affliction of Indigestion by taking two boxes of these Pills.

    Joseph Wagstaff, of Dudley Port, was afflicted with a severe
    Pain in his Side for four years, but was cured before he had
    taken two boxes of these Pills.

    Mrs. Davis, of Kingswinford, was cured of constant Costiveness,
    Pains in the Bowels, and Giddiness in the Head, by taking these
    Pills.

    Susannah Brewster, Herbert Street, Wolverhampton, was cured of
    a very bad Liver Complaint by taking "Squire Knight's Purifying
    Pills."

    Henry McKay, Woodside, Dudley, has proved these Pills to be the
    best for Indigestion, Wind, Heartburn, and a Disordered Stomach.

    Mrs. Beard, High Street, Bradley, was cured of a very serious
    Outbreak, arising from Impurities in the Blood, besides
    relieving a Congested Liver, and acting upon the Stomach and
    Bowels.

    PREPARED BY
    C. F. G. CLARK & SON,
    (SUCCESSORS TO SQUIRE KNIGHT),
    _CHEMISTS, MARKET PLACE, DUDLEY_.

    Sold by Messrs. Morgan and Lawley, Hewitt, Homes Grove, and
    Roberts, Kidderminster; Mellor, Malvern; Cooper, Upton; Haines,
    Bromsgrove; Hughes, Morris, Hemming, and Levi, Stourbridge;
    Jones, Lye Waste; Bishop and Matthews, Cradley Heath; Darby and
    Sidaway, Cradley; Cox, Old Hill; Briggs and Nicklin, Tipton;
    Rooker, Ford and Addison, Brierley Hill; Pearson, Kingswinford;
    Hudson, Green, Williams, and Burch, West Bromwich; Frampton
    and Dancer, Smethwick; Price, Spon Lane; Hipkiss, Princes End;
    Torbitt and Gittings, Oldbury; Butler, Darlaston; Skirving,
    Emery, and Morris, Wednesbury; Rudge, Bradley, Hyde, Coseley;
    and Collins, Brettell Lane.

    _Sold in Boxes, 7½d., 1s. 1½d., 2s. 9d., and 4s. 6d. each._



    _GRAINGER & SMITH_
    Woollen Merchants,
    HIGH STREET, DUDLEY,
    KEEP THE LARGEST STOCK OF
    WOOLLEN CLOTHS & TAILORS' TRIMMINGS
    IN THE MIDLAND COUNTIES.

    BRANCH WAREHOUSES--
    Carrs Lane, Birmingham; Trinity Street, Hanley.

    PATTERNS OF ANY GOODS SENT ON APPLICATION.



    ESTABLISHED 1830.

    231, MARKET PLACE, DUDLEY.
    JOSEPH GUEST,
    WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
    Confectioner, Fancy Bread and Biscuit Maker.

    Rich Bride Cakes and Funeral Biscuits made to order on
    the shortest notice.

    JAMS, JELLIES, GINGER BEER, BOILED SUGARS, &C.

    DEALER IN BRITISH WINES.

    TEA, COFFEE, AND REFRESHMENTS.



    JAMES WOOD,
    IMPORTER OF
    WINES & SPIRITS,
    _42, High Street, Dudley_.

    WHOLESALE BOTTLER
    OF
    DUBLIN STOUTS,
    AND
    BURTON ALES.

    PRIVATE FAMILIES SUPPLIED.

    _Price List on application._

    Office, 101, KING STREET.



    ABRAHAM GREEN,
    M.R.C.V.S.,
    _DUDLEY HOUSE_,
    DUDLEY.



    ALFRED LANGHAM,
    (_Late Jordan & Langham_,)
    _IRONMONGER_,
    Colliery Furnisher, &c.,

    Has a Stock of Builders' Ironmongery, Cricketing Goods, Lawn
    Tennis Sets, Balls, Racquets, Cutlery, Electro-Plated Goods,
    and a General Assortment of Articles belonging to a Hardware
    Business.



    E. LONG,
    Accountant & Auditor,
    VICTORIA TERRACE,
    DUDLEY.

    MANUFACTURERS', MERCHANTS', AND TRADESMEN'S BOOKS
    AUDITED, POSTED, AND BALANCED; NEW BOOKS ARRANGED
    AND OPENED; BALANCE SHEETS, PROFIT AND LOSS,
    PARTNERSHIP AND OTHER ACCOUNTS
    PREPARED.



    ESTABLISHED 1859.

    _A. WHITFORD_,
    GROCER & PROVISION DEALER,
    11, HALL STREET,
    DUDLEY.

    Agent for W. & A. GILBEY, Wine Growers and Distillers.

    _PRICE LIST ON APPLICATION._



    STEAM BREWERY
    Wine and Spirit Stores,
    NETHERTON, NEAR DUDLEY.

    THOMAS PLANT,
    BREWER,
    Wine and Spirit Merchant.

    TRADE PRICES.

                                 Per Barrel.
    INDIA PALE ALE                   60/-
          Ditto                      57/-
          Ditto                      54/-
          Ditto                      48/-
    ---------------------------------------
               { Beer                12/-
               { Table Beer          18/-
    MILD ALE   { X Ale               36/-
               { XX ditto            42/-
               { XXX ditto           48/-
               { XXXX ditto          54/-
    ---------------------------------------
               { No. 5               60/-
    STRONG ALE {  "  6               72/-
               {  "  8               84/-
    ---------------------------------------
    PORTER                           42/-
    BROWN STOUT                      48/-
    DOUBLE STOUT                     60/-
    ---------------------------------------

    SPECIAL TERMS TO THE TRADE :--

    _N.B. Terms--One Month from date of Invoice. All Accounts
    subject to Interest at the rate of 5% if owing two months
    after the date in margin._



    ESTABLISHED 1766.

    JOSEPH STEVENSON,
    Wholesale & Retail Clothier,
    MANUFACTURER OF
    MINERS' FLANNELS,
    Nos. 3 & 4, NEW STREET,
    DUDLEY.



    MATTHEW SMITH,
    Strong, Mild and Bitter Ales,
    STOUT & PORTER BREWER,
    ALSO SPIRIT MERCHANT,
    QUEEN'S CROSS BREWERY,
    DUDLEY.



    JOSEPH ELD,
    Cigar Merchant,
    246, CASTLE STREET,
    DUDLEY.

    "The Castle Tobacco and Cigar Warehouse,"

    (ESTABLISHED 1856.)

    Gentlemen requiring TOBACCO AND CIGARS of the Choicest
    and most Reliable Quality at a Moderate Price are respectfully
    invited to accord their Patronage to Mr. J. ELD at the above
    address.

    N.B.--Lambert & Butler's, Brankston's, Wills', Cope's, and
    Hignett's Packet Tobaccos. Fancy Goods in great Variety.
    Wilson's S.P. and Top Mill Snuffs, &c., &c.



    WHELPTON'S PILLS

    Are one of those rare medicines which, for their extraordinary
    properties, have gained an almost

    UNIVERSAL REPUTATION.

    During a period of more than Forty-five Years they have been
    used most extensively as a Family Medicine, thousands having
    found them a simple and safe remedy, and one needful to be kept
    always at hand.

    These Pills are purely Vegetable, being entirely free from
    Mercury or any other Mineral, and those who may not hitherto
    have proved their efficacy will do well to give them a trial.

    SHOULD BE IN EVERY HOME, NEVER JOURNEY WITHOUT THEM.

    Recommended for Disorders of the HEAD, CHEST, BOWELS, LIVER,
    and KIDNEYS; also in RHEUMATISM, ULCERS, SORES, and all SKIN
    DISEASES,--these Pills being a _Direct Purifier of the Blood_.

    In boxes, 7½d., 1/1½, and 2/9, by G. WHELPTON & SON, 3,
    Crane Court, Fleet Street, London, and sent free to any part of
    the United Kingdom on receipt of 8, 14, or 33 Stamps. Sold by
    all Chemists at home and abroad.

    _Messrs. G. F. G. Clark & Son, Wholesale Agents, Dudley.
    Established 1866._



    DUDLEY HERALD
    AND WEDNESBURY BOROUGH NEWS.

    _Eight Pages. Price 1d. Published every Saturday Morning._

    The HERALD is the oldest Dudley newspaper, and it circulates
    extensively throughout the mining and manufacturing districts
    of South Staffordshire and East Worcestershire, being
    delivered by upwards of 100 Agents and special Messengers
    in Dudley, Tipton, Oldbury, West Bromwich, Great Bridge,
    Wednesbury, Walsall, Darlaston, Bilston, Coseley, Sedgley,
    Gornal, Kingswinford, Pensnett, Brierley Hill, Stourbridge,
    Cradley, Halesowen, Netherton, Rowley Regis, and the outlying
    districts. It is strictly an independent paper, discussing
    public questions upon their intrinsic merits; and, not being
    identified with any party, sect, or local clique, its columns
    contain full and impartial reports of all public proceedings in
    the district.

    All communications to be addressed to the Publisher, Mr. SAMUEL
    MILLS, at the HERALD Offices, Dudley, to whom Cheques and
    Post-office orders should be made payable.



    ESTABLISHED 1851.

    SAMUEL WARING,
    TAILOR, OUTFITTER, &c.

    LIVERIES & REGIMENTALS
    Executed on the Shortest Notice,
    214, WOLVERHAMPTON STREET,
    DUDLEY.



    E. HOLLIER,
    Pharmaceutical Chemist,
    DUDLEY,

    Respectfully informs the public that, although he has retired
    from the retail trade, he still retains the Proprietorship of
    the Atkinson's Infants' Preservative, the Balsam of Horehound
    and Aniseed, Electro Plate Powder, Chemical Furniture Polish.
    Hawkes' Pearl Ointment, &c., and the other Proprietary Articles
    which he prepared at his former establishment in the Market
    Place. Should any difficulty be experienced in procuring the
    above Preparations, they may still be obtained on application
    by letter or otherwise, at his Office, Stone Street, or private
    residence,

    KING EDMUND PLACE, DUDLEY.



    Established 1806.

    226, MARKET PLACE, DUDLEY,
    OPPOSITE THE FOUNTAIN.

    R. U. DUDLEY,
    Mercer, Hosier, Glover, & Outfitter.

    Agent for FORD'S EUREKA SHIRTS.

    THE BEST & CHEAPEST ASSORTMENT OF
    Under Shirts and Drawers, Long Cloth and Woollen Shirts,
    COLLARS, FRONTS, WRISTBANDS,
    TIES, SCARFS, HANDKERCHIEFS, BRACES, GLOVES, UMBRELLAS, &C.,
    IN THE MIDLAND COUNTIES.
    ESTABLISHED 1794.



    R. DICKINSON,
    (_Late GEORGE FELLOWES_,)
    Timber and Slate Merchant,
    STAFFORD STREET, DUDLEY.

    _SAWING, PLANING, AND MOULDING MILLS._

    ALL KINDS OF
    ENGLISH AND FOREIGN TIMBER, IN LOGS.

    PLANKS AND BOARDS IN STOCK;

    ALSO DOORS, WINDOWS, SKIRTINGS, MOULDINGS,
    SLATES, ROOFING FELT, &c.

    10,000 SLABS ALWAYS IN STOCK.



    ESTABLISHED 1854.

    JOSEPH GWINNUTT,
    LEMONADE, SODA WATER, POTASS,
    AND
    Seltzer Water Manufacturer,
    79, ST. JOHN'S ROAD,
    KATE'S HILL, DUDLEY,

    Begs to return thanks for the liberal support he has received
    in the past, and most respectfully solicits a continuance. All
    orders shall receive prompt attention.

    PRIVATE FAMILIES SUPPLIED.



    WALTER SHOWELL & SON'S
    CELEBRATED
    CROSSWELLS ALES.

    These Ales, brewed from the choicest Malt and Hops, and the
    purest water in existence, have so won their way into popular
    favour that the "Crosswells" has become a "household word."

    Head Office: THE BREWERY, LANGLEY GREEN, near OLDBURY.
    Birmingham Office and Stores: GREAT CHARLES STREET,
                                  corner of SUMMER ROW.
    Potteries Agency Stores: COPELAND STREET, STOKE-ON-TRENT.
    Kidderminster Agency and Stores: OLD WHARF, KIDDERMINSTER.

    _Entered at Stationers' Hall, London._



    PERMANENT PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENTS FROM
    EVERY KIND OF SMALL PICTURE.

    ESTABLISHED 1862.

    W. DAVEY, ARTIST,
    PHOTOGRAPHER,

    Mr. DAVEY begs to announce that all his Enlarged Photographs
    are now executed by a New Patent Carbon or Autotype process,
    which is as permanent as a Water Colour Drawing or Steel
    Engraving.

    Specimens may be inspected at his Studio, 5, CASTLE STREET,
    DUDLEY; also specimen of a New Proof of Printing Manufacturers'
    Patterns, and all kinds of Machines, &c., superior to
    Lithographic work, and as quickly executed.

    PORTRAITS TAKEN DAILY FROM SIX SHILLINGS PER DOZEN.
    Children's Portraits taken by the New Instantaneous Process.
    5, CASTLE STREET, DUDLEY.



    DUFF AND SON,
    WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
    Glass, china & Earthenware Merchants,
    MANUFACTURERS OF ENGRAVED AND CUT GLASS,
    BURSLEM HOUSE, MARKET PLACE, DUDLEY.

    THE CHEAPEST HOUSE IN THE TRADE FOR ALL KINDS
    OF GLASS, CHINA AND EARTHENWARE.

    AN IMMENSE QUANTITY OF PUBLICANS' GLASSES,
    STAMPED AND UNSTAMPED MEASURES, ETC.,
    ALWAYS IN STOCK.

    WEDDING AND OTHER PRESENTS IN GREAT VARIETY.

    TEA SERVICES from            4/6
    DINNER SERVICES from        13/0
    TOILET SERVICES from         4/6

    Sole Agents in Dudley for Mander's Patent Dishes, the
    COOK'S COMFORT.
    ESTABLISHED 1861.



    J. B. HIGGINS,
    (LATE HIGGINS BROS.,)
    Plumber & House Decorator
    39, KING STREET, DUDLEY.

    WHOLESALE DEALER IN PAPER HANGINGS,
    Paints, Oils, and Colours.
    DWELLING HOUSES, PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C.,

    Painted and Decorated in the best style of art, with the
    greatest expedition.

    ESTIMATES GIVEN.



    _J. B. HIGGINS_,
    (SUCCESSOR. TO A. H. HOARE,)
    THE AMERICAN
    Oil and Lamp Stores,
    41, KING STREET, DUDLEY.

    A large assortment of Petroleum and Benzoline Lamps, Lamp
    Chimneys, Globes, Burners, and Cotton Wicks.

    Lamps Repaired.      The Trade Supplied.



    ARTHUR G. KNAPP,
    Chiropodist,
    29, TEMPLE ROW,
    (NEAR BULL STREET,)
    BIRMINGHAM.

    _A. G. K. extracts Corns and Ingrowing Toe Nails
    without pain. Terms Moderate. Attendance
    daily._



    ESTABLISHED 1837.

    JAS. GOFFE & SONS,
    Mineral Water Manufacturers,
    34, 35, & 36, DUKE STREET,
    BIRMINGHAM.

    LICENSEES FOR CODD'S PATENT GLASS STOPPER.

    PRICE LISTS AND TESTIMONIALS ON APPLICATION.



    ESTABLISHED 1835.

    J. F. TIMMINS,
    GLASS, LEAD, AND PAPER HANGING WAREHOUSE,
    28 & 29, HALL STREET, DUDLEY.

    Dealer in Paints, Colours and Varnishes.

    Liberal Discounts to the Trade and
    Property Owners.



    ESTABLISHED 1779.

    S. J. PERKS,
    (_Late ROGERS_,)
    Silversmith, Watch and Clock Manufacturer,
    Working Jeweller, &c.,
    No. 1, WOLVERHAMPTON STREET,
    DUDLEY.

    WEDDING RINGS.
    REPAIRS NEATLY EXECUTED.



    SAVE YOUR EYES,

    _SQUIRE KNIGHT'S_
    EYE OINTMENT,
    For the Cure of all
    Diseases of the Eyes, approaching even to Blindness.

    It Cures Impaired Vision, Blurring, Weak and Watery
    Eyes, Cataracts, Sore Eyes left by Measles, Red
    and Sore Eyelids, Partial Blindness, Inflammation
    of the Eyes, Obscurity of
    Vision.

    Excessive reading by candle or gas light, constant exposure to
    dusty roads, too frequent indulgence in excessively glaring
    sunlight, and the irritating consequences of tobacco smoke in
    confined rooms, are a few of the causes of disease of the Eye.

    This celebrated Eye Ointment has cured thousands of cases of
    Dimness of Sight, Specks, Kells, Sore Eyelids, Inflamed Eyes,
    Bloodshot and Watery Eyes, &c., and is peculiarly valuable in
    curing Sore Eyes in Children left by an attack of Measles.
    There is no pain in its application, as it is simply smeared
    on the lid of the eye every night; and it has been used for
    years, by all ages, with the best effects. _See thousands of
    Testimonials._

    Mr. H. Tomlin, 94, Shepherdess Walk, City Road, London,
    wonderfully cured of inflammation of the eyes, of 12 years'
    standing.--July 5th, 1877.

    J. A. Walkington, 13A Eastborough, Scarboro', was cured of
    dreadful bad inflamed eyes, after trying all the best occulists
    in the country.

    Mary Ann Parsons, of Cradley Heath, Stourbridge, was perfectly
    cured of bad eyes after four years of great pain and partial
    blindness.--17th September, 1873.

    Richard Whitehouse, Park Lane, near Dudley, was blinded by
    inflammation in the eyes for seven years, and was cured by the
    use of two pots of "Squire Knight's Golden Eye Ointment."--1st
    August, 1873.

    Thomas Snow, of Hanley Potteries, was effectually cured of
    bleary and imperfect sight, produced by working in a heated
    potter's room.--3rd February, 1873.

    Mr. George Beale, of 24, Weltham Street, Barnsley, writes to
    say that a great many sufferers with bad eyes, in Barnsley,
    have been rapidly cured by the use of "Squire Knight's
    Ointment."--21st June, 1875.

    Sergeant Hawkins, 48th Regiment, at Bellary, East India, had
    his eyelashes restored by this Ointment, and many soldiers in
    the regiment were cured by its use.

    Mr. John Fletcher, of West Ardsley, near Wakefield,
    writes:--"Your Eye Ointment is worth a guinea a box, for it
    cured my eyes when nothing else would."--5th March, 1875.

    _With thousands of other Testimonials._

    Write to any of the above persons to prove the truth of these
    remarkable cures.

    Sold and prepared only by
    C. F. G. CLARK & SON,
    CHEMISTS,
    MARKET PLACE DUDLEY.

    And sold by all respectable Medicine Vendors in the Kingdom.

    SOLD IN POTS at 1s. 1½d., 2s. 9d., and 4s. 6d., or sent by Post
    for 9, 15, or 36 Stamps.



    BOWEL COMPLAINTS.

    THOUSANDS HAVE BEEN SAVED BY
    _DR. MACANN'S TINCTURE_.

    It was successfully prescribed by the late Dr. Macann, when the
    Cholera raged at Bilston, in 1832, and effected more cures in 1849,
    and again in 1854, than all other medicines. One dose is generally
    sufficient to stop Vomiting, Purging, Cramp, &c., and every family
    should have a supply in the house ready.

    PREPARED ONLY BY
    G. H. LLOYD, Chemist,
    BILSTON,

    And Sold by all Chemists and Patent Medicine
    Dealers, in Bottles, 1s. 1½d. each.

    The Stamp on each Bottle has the signature of G. H. LLOYD, none
    else is genuine.



    ESTABLISHED 1816.

    THOMAS REYNOLDS,
    MANUFACTURER OF ALL KINDS OF
    Fine and Coarse Nail Bagging,
    BAGS, SACKING AND SACKS,
    POCKETING, SPADE WRAPPERING,
    HESSIANS, &c.,
    _Priory Street, DUDLEY_,
    OPPOSITE THE NEW TOWN HALL.



    THE "PEOPLE'S"
    FAMILY LIFE ASSURANCE
    AND
    SICK BENEFIT SOCIETY,
    265, CASTLE STREET, DUDLEY.

    Enrolled, 1859. Paid in claims to Members, £100,000.
    Accumulated Capital, £10,000.

    This Society combines: SICKNESS ASSURANCE, MEDICAL
    AID, AND ASSURANCE ON LIVES.

    MODERATE PAYMENTS. ECONOMY OF MANAGEMENT.
    CERTAINTY OF PAYMENT IN SICKNESS OR DEATH.

    STOKES & CO, Solicitors. W. H. JOHNSON, Sec.

    _Healthy persons of good moral character may become members,
    by applying to any of the Society's Agents._

        AGENT FOR
    DUDLEY          J. CAUTHERRINGTON, 8, Martin Hill Street.
    CRADLEY HEATH   S. THOMPSON, Four Ways.
    SEDGLEY         T. TAYLOR, High Holborn, Dudley Road.
    TIPTON          SAMUEL THOMPSON.
    OLDBURY         W. HILL, Bromford Terrace.
    BRIERLEY HILL   A. LOYNES, Park Street.
    CRADLEY         B. THOMPSON, Windmill Hill.
    STOURBRIDGE     E. DAVIES, Whithy Bank.

    _Information or prospectuses may be had by applying
    to any of the Agents or at the office_,
    256, CASTLE STREET, DUDLEY.



    JOSEPH ALFRED BROOKS,
    WHOLESALE AND RETAIL BOTTLER
    OF
    _Charrington & Company's_
    BURTON ALES AND STOUT.

    OFFICES AND STORES:--
    63, BIRMINGHAM STREET,
    DUDLEY.



    THE GOLDEN MAID COOPERAGE.

    ESTABLISHED 1834.

    WILLIAM EDWARD RUDGE,
    COOPER, &C.,
    _Manufacturer of all kinds of_
    BREWING & DAIRY UTENSILS,

    Patent Churns, Fancy Ovals, Round and Oval Show Casks
    for Liquor Vaults.

    Liquor Casks for Vaults, Butts, Vats, Porter Casks,

    (Of the London Make,) &c., &c., &c.

    ADJOINING THE BANK.
    81, HIGH STREET, DUDLEY.



    S. F. TURNER,
    MANUFACTURER OF BRASS & IRON BEDSTEADS,

    [Illustration]

    (ESTABLISHED 1840.)

    Bronze & Steel Fenders, Fire Irons, Fire & Burglar-Proof Safes, &c.
    WELLINGTON WORKS, DUDLEY.



                      QUEEN'S CROSS WORKS,
                             DUDLEY.

    +----------------+                   +----------------+
    |   PRIZE MEDAL  |                   |                |
    |     OF THE     |                   |     PRIZE      |
    |     DUDLEY     |                   |    AWARDED     |
    |   AND MIDLAND  | ESTABLISHED 1720. | SYDNEY, 1880,  |
    |    FINE ARTS   |                   |      AND       |
    | SCIENTIFIC AND |                   |   MELBOURNE,   |
    |   INDUSTRIAL   |                   |     1881.      |
    |   EXHIBITION.  |                   |                |
    +----------------+                   +----------------+

                   JOSHUA WILKINSON AND SONS,
                       MANUFACTURERS OF
                  Anvils, Vices and Hammers,
            SMITHS' BICK IRONS AND COOPERS' ANVILS.
                  JOINERS' CRAMPS & SCREWS,
                       WATER TUE IRONS.
              _CAPE AND AUSTRALIAN WAGON BREAKS
                       AND SCREW JACKS_,
                CAST IRON SWAGE BLOCKS & STANDS,
                  ALL KINDS OF SMITHS' TOOLS.
           _PATENTEES OF THE SOLID BRASS BOX VICE._

                           ANVILS
             FOR THE SPANISH AND ITALIAN MARKETS.



                           [Illustration]

                "_A chiel's amang ye takin' notes_,
                 _And, faith, he'll prent it._"--BURNS.

                     The Curiosities of Dudley
                             _AND THE_
                           Black Country,
                        FROM 1800 TO 1860:

          _Also an Account of the Trials and Sufferings of_
                            DUD DUDLEY
                             WITH HIS
                         METTALLUM MARTIS:
                  _The First Artificer in Iron_,
                            MADE WITH
                Pit Coale and Sea Coale, in 1618:

    _Being some lively and instructive Traits of the Peculiarities
             of the Inhabitants and their Doings in the
                   Coal and Iron District: also_,
                          AN ACCOUNT OF
                 THE ERECTION OF ST. THOMAS'S CHURCH.

                      _COMPILED AND EDITED BY_
                  C. F. G. CLARK, CARR VILLA, DUDLEY.

                           _PRICE 2/6._

                           Birmingham:
        BUCKLER BROTHERS, PRINTERS, YORK PASSAGE, HIGH STREET.
                              1881.

                   ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL.



[Illustration: DUDLEY CASTLE _FROM BURNT TREE ROAD. 1810._]



Preface.

          "Yea, it becomes a man
    To cherish memory where he had delight,
    For kindness is the natural birth of kindness,
    Whose soul records not the great debt of joy,
    Is stamped for ever an ignoble man."
                                      _Sophocles_--AJAX.


In placing the following pages before the attention of the inhabitants
of Dudley and its vicinity, I am actuated by the desire that the
memories of the past generation, with all its fierce struggles for
social and political predominance, and its efforts to promote local
progression, may be faithfully portrayed in the mirror of its own
doings, reproducing many forgotten scenes and events enacted in this
Borough, which to the writer of these pages, and many others, afforded
_then_ as it will afford _now_ a fund of amusement and reflection, such
as is only to be obtained at the fountain of memory and observation.

The fact of being myself the collector of this large pile of printed
information for the last 40 years, emboldens me to chronicle the Events
and Curiosities of Dudley in such a succession of past years as will at
once convey to my few remaining contemporaries a lively recollection
of once stirring events, which the present generation of active public
men in our midst may perhaps deign to learn therefrom a lesson of
experience and profit. These curious events having been written at the
time they occurred, removes the historian out of the region of fancy
and speculation, giving a clear and unbiassed insight into the ways and
doings of the past generation of our active townsmen.

When this history of events began, Dudley was comparatively a small
country town, separated from Birmingham by the Horseley Fields and
Bromwich Heath; it was governed by a Court Leet of the Manor of Dudley,
which body annually elected a Mayor and High Bailiff, &c. There was
also in force a "Local Town Improvement Act," of some considerable
date, administered by townsmen of property and position in the town;
but this Commission always fought shy of any Sanitary or Drainage
improvements, but contented itself by levying town rates up to a very
circumscribed area in the town. Periodically, as the funds accumulated,
important improvements were occasionally made in the Market Place,
by buying up and removing entirely what was then known as the Old
Middle Row, of all descriptions of tenements and old and dilapidated
buildings, resulting in our now possessing the most spacious Market
Place in the county. Both Bush Street and Upper Vicar Street, leading
into King Street, were widened by this local Authority. The town rate
varied from 1s. to 2s. in the pound annually, but is now extinct.

My book closes with the Life and Trials of Dud Dudley, whose narrative
I have printed in its entirety. If ever a public inventor deserved some
public recognition for his inventions as "the first Artificer in Iron
made with Pit Coale," that man was the renowned Dud Dudley, who lived
and died in our midst.

The Ironmasters, Coal Masters and inhabitants of Dudley and its
district could not perform a more enduring and graceful act than by
placing an iron column in our midst to commemorate the inventions of
Dud Dudley, the great Ironmaster.

                                                           C. F. G. C.



THE

Curiosities of Dudley

AND THE

Black Country.


1820. In these days Dudley could boast of its vigilant "Pitt Club,"
and there were very bitter rival factions of Whigs and Tories in the
town, the miserable affairs existing betwixt the Prince Regent and his
discarded and illused Consort led to much heat and animosity amongst
parties in the town, which tended to sever some of those social bonds
which add so much to the good feeling of any locality.

On October 1st, 1819, a large public meeting was held in the Town
Hall, under the auspices of the Mayor and leading inhabitants of the
town, for the purpose of adopting a dutiful and loyal Address to "His
Royal Highness George Prince of Wales, Regent of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland." The Mr. Francis Finch, so prominently
figuring in this debate, was a highly respectable merchant, resident in
the town. Being a gentleman of superior intelligence to his compeers,
he was looked upon as the leader of the Whig party in the town, and,
accordingly, fought their political battles.

The most notable event which occurred at the commencement of our
recital was the Coronation of George IV., 1821. Dudley, though
breathing a strong and hard pulsation for the unhappy Queen Caroline's
"Stuart-like stains of human weaknesses," was not behind neighbouring
towns in loyal demonstrations toward the Royal Family of England. On
July 17th, 1821, we find it recorded that "a numerous meeting was held
at the Town Hall, to inaugurate the coming Festivities;" The Right
Honourable Viscount Dudley and Ward sent fifty guineas towards carrying
into effect the loyal purposes of the meeting, "which was accomplished
by a public subscription. Divine Service was performed at 10 a.m., at
the Parish Church. All the school children in the town were marshalled
into the Castle Yard and regaled with _suitable eatables_; each child
received a Coronation Medal, furnished by Messrs. Chinner and Payton.
Four sheep and _a due proportion of ale_ were distributed at the Town
Hall. Each publican was to provide a dinner, at two o'clock, for poor
men and women, and it was ordered that any man or woman _obtaining more
than one dinner_ should be prosecuted for fraud. Captain Hawkes, with
the Himley and Enville Troop of Yeomanry, was met with a brass band of
music by the principal gentlemen and escorted to the Town Hall. Luke
Booker, chairman." "The principal inhabitants dined together with great
goodwill, and much festivity:" and the first gentleman in Europe had
around the festive boards in Dudley many a hearty congratulation on
that memorable occasion. 1816. October 25th. _St. Thomas' New Church._
The Foundation Stone of this noble Church was laid this day by the Rev.
Luke Booker, D.D., Vicar of Dudley. This spacious Gothic structure cost
upwards of £24,000, and it was restored and beautified by a public
subscription in 1861, at a cost of £1,750. The Parish Register attached
to this Church is very ancient, commencing in 1520. The early Registers
were written by the Monks (Scribes) of St. James' Priory Church, long
since demolished.

On January 30th, 1823, we find that most indefatigable Radical, and
energetic townsman, Mr. Samuel Cooke, Draper, issuing the following
startling announcement: "Whereas, on Friday, June 24th, 1822, I, Samuel
Cooke, of Dudley, did apply to Messrs. Bourne, Solicitors, for an
inspection of the Vestry Book, appertaining to this parish, and was
by them refused an inspection, unless accompanied by a Churchwarden.
I hereby give notice, that in consequence of the difficulty attending
this mode of access to the Vestry Book, I shall at the next Vestry
meeting propose that the said Vestry Book, containing the alleged
_Secret Order_ to Mr. Brookes for plans and estimates of Netherton
Church, be delivered into the hands of the Churchwardens, to be kept by
them for general inspection of ratepayers." Dudley, January 23rd, 1823.
It was quite clear that Mr. Cooke was not consulted about the erection
of St. Andrew's Church at Netherton; nevertheless, that Church was
erected, and has been a great blessing to many souls in that part of
the parish.

February 2nd, 1823. "One Guinea Reward: Whereas, on Thursday last,
about four o'clock, a party of young men (well-known in the town for
their nocturnal exploits) was at that unseasonable hour riotously
assembled to the disturbance of the peaceable inhabitants; were heard
knocking at Surgeons' doors, breaking of lamps and windows, and to
threaten the life of an inhabitant; whoever can identify which of the
party it was, who maliciously broke the windows of Mr. Samuel Cooke,
shall receive the above reward."


THE DEATH OF THE VISCOUNT DUDLEY AND WARD, BARON OF BIRMINGHAM.

Died, April 25th, 1823, the highly esteemed Viscount Dudley and Ward,
of Himley Hall, acknowledged to be "The rich man's model and the poor
man's friend." This benevolent nobleman spent his truly valuable life
at his estate and amongst his numerous friends and tenantry, dispensing
with rare judgment and true benevolence his continual benefactions. The
noble lord was not only mindful of the well-being and interests of the
rich, "but he ne'er forgot the poor;" and the thousands of colliers
working in his extensive coal mines, and adding so much to his wealth
and greatness, were at all times special objects of his fostering care.

In the obituary of a provincial newspaper was inserted at the time this
just memorial:--"At his seat, Himley Hall, died on Friday evening,
the Right Hon. William, Lord Viscount Dudley and Ward, Baron Ward of
Birmingham, and Recorder of Kidderminster. Though we hope we shall
be the last to burn incense at the shrine of mere worldly greatness,
yet we feel that it would be unjust to withhold from this departed
nobleman the tribute of our sincere respect and gratitude. He did
not suffer himself to forget that it belongs to those who are placed
on an eminence, and entrusted with a superior portion of the goods
of fortune, to be the almoners of Heaven; for it was his delight
to encourage honest industry, to provide for the destitute, and to
befriend every charitable institution in his neighbourhood. While he
lived, his name, wherever it was mentioned, was accompanied with the
poor man's benediction; and now his honourable career is finished, his
memory will be embalmed in the tears of the widow and the orphan; and
he will sleep in that noblest of mausoleums--the bosom of the virtuous
and the good."

This good nobleman's character was illustrated in a remarkable manner,
which truly developed the gentleman and the kind hearted father of
his people, in an event which well-nigh caused "a strike" amongst his
numerous colliers. "Strikes," such as we are periodically subject
to in our day and generation, (too often projected and fostered by
idle designing knaves,) had no existence in those times of a proper
respect and feeling existing between master and man. This incident is
worth recording if it be for no other purpose than showing that the
noble master and his colliers were brought face to face without any
underlings to distort the facts or prejudge the grievance. The person
who then superintended his extensive collieries, judging it expedient
to adopt a different mode of working them, introduced, from Lancashire,
a certain number of miners to carry his plan into execution, which so
exasperated the native workmen, that, shortly afterwards, not fewer
than 3000 of them suddenly assembled and proceeded to the gates of his
lordship's park at Himley; thence deputing some of their body to state
their supposed grievance to him in person, and obtain an order for
the aliens' dismissal. At the same time several of the neighbouring
gentry resorted with all speed to the Hall, accompanied by magistrates
to render their assistance. After the deputation was admitted and
had stated their case, which his lordship desired they would do
fearlessly and explicitly, he requested the attendant gentlemen would
individually give their candid opinion "whether his agent had acted
prudently or not in bringing the foreigners, as they were termed, into
the neighbourhood." The opinion being unanimous "that the mines in
the strangers' country being very different to the mines in this, the
mode of working them is consequently different, and, however competent
the men might be to work _there_, it was conceived that so utterly
incompetent would they be to work here, that accidents to themselves
might be apprehended, and great loss to their employer." "Well then,
gentlemen," said his lordship, "from your judgment I must infer that
the strangers in question have no business here." Then turning to the
deputies, in a firm and dignified tone he thus addressed them:--"go and
tell those who sent you that the foreigners, as you please to style
them, shall depart to-morrow, and if any injury be done to them the
injurers will suffer for it. Tell them, also, that I concede the point
in deference to the opinions of these gentlemen. Had their opinion
coincided with that of the person who brought the men hither I would
have ordered them to remain, even if the mob now at my gates should
proceed to pull down my hall over my head, and to bury me in its
ruins." Accordingly, the next day, the strangers departed in peace and
safety, carrying with them an ample remuneration for their journey and
loss of time. His lordship's love of true liberty was most emphatic,
for on one memorable occasion when importuned to allow his mighty
influence to be used in controlling the civil freedom of some of the
inhabitants of Dudley, he strenuously resisted the suggestion, and on
being reminded that he had only to make his wishes known to ensure a
compliance by his numerous friends, he nobly replied, "I believe I have
many friends at Dudley, but I have no vassals there;" a sentiment that
will honour his name when his monument shall be crumbled into dust. The
venerable nobleman attained the good old age of 73 years.

    "Thus, bow'd with age, must thou, O man! become
      A time-worn ruin, on life's beaten shore,
    At last to moulder in the darksome tomb;
      But, summon'd thence, thou shalt decay no more."

This benevolent nobleman left one son (John William), who became a
famous statesman, and was raised in the Peerage, as the first Earl of
Dudley.

On November 11th, 1826, Messrs. Bourne and Sons, Solicitors to the
Commissioners under the Town Act of 31st of George III, issued a notice
to apply to Parliament for an amended Town Act, giving more definite
power to the Town Commissioners to remove nuisances, obstructions,
&c., and to supply the town with a good supply of pure water, and to
further light and pave the same. _A Ratepayer_ issued a placard on
November 26th, 1826, condemning in strong terms the intended expense
to the ratepayer, and "the unnecessary application for power to supply
pure water to the then 15,000 inhabitants." He says, "Water will never
be brought to this town but at a great expense; if report be true, the
estimate already given in is £17,000; he objected to have a rate levied
for the purpose of supplying the town with water, of better lighting
it, and of establishing a watch." Poor benighted ratepayer, one would
be tempted to think that he belonged to the nocturnal marauders
complained of by Mr. Cooke above, for it is clear that he objected to a
night watch; water at all events was supplied to the people of Dudley
then at a reasonable price, and better quality and quantity than since
the ratepayer ventilated his worldly wisdom.

"Grand Fracas between 'Rough Joe and Nimble Dick.' This was a _turn
up_ arising out of a misunderstanding o'er a bottle; Rough Joe was in
his cups, or rather had given his _twine_ an extra twist, and Nimble
Dick had just received _a load_ (not of barley) but of _John Blewnose's
best_. Rough Joe having something to do with _rope_, fancied he was
calculated to _rig_; now rigging is too knotty a point for Joe, and
altho' he squared his yards as if used to pitch into 'em, yet it was
evident to all present that Joe's rigging was _too coarse_ to stand
long. Nimble Dick, who by the bye, has lately signalised himself in
several skirmishes, one in particular, wherein he unfortunately fell
foul of _a lee shore_; on this occasion he was all afloat, and advised
Rough Joe to get off his _jawing tack_, but instead of altering his
course, he struck not his flag, but his fist straight ahead into the
chops of his would-be pilot, which of course _no chap_ could stand,
so clearing the deck and doffing their dabbs, they duly prepared for
a broadside, with plenty of seasover room. Joe rushing to work like a
tiger, pawed, pinned, and played away, but 'twas all over, his puff
was gone, and his friend the _Nailer_ cried out _bellowes_ to mend.
'Its a spike to a sparrowbill.' Dick, seeing his advantage, _fought
home_, sent in a finisher that proved a closer to the Rough one,
for his eye struck fire so vividly that a wag begged permission to
light his cigar from the effect. All was now up. Joe weighed anchor,
wished all rigging, and the lawyer to-boot, in a hotter place, and in
answer to numerous inquiries, he replied 'I'll ha' no more.' We wish
for the honour of the town they were better men; they ought to be so
considering their condition."

"N.B.--The profits arising from the sale of these are intended for the
purchase of a pair of _Asses' Ears_, to be carried in the procession of
all our future Mayors."--_Vide Gornal Journal._

Future Mayors looked in vain for the asses' ears, but alas for broken
promises the ears never turned up; and as the author of the above
recital doubtless was the owner of a pair of ears, it was at last
charitably supposed that the ears were not forthcoming _without the
ass_; and an exhibition of _the ass_ would expose the author of this
"squib" to what a donkey often gets--"a good thrashing." Rough Joe and
nimble Dick having no remedy, shook hands, and became better friends
than ever.

June 24, 1826. "_Five Guineas Reward._--Whereas late on the evening of
the 19th some person or persons did wantonly break and pull down the
lamp irons in front of the Independent Chapel, King Street. A certain
young man of the name of F----s, and two of his foolish associates,
were seen committing various depredations on that evening, compared
with such persons colliers and miners are complete gentlemen."

The constant practices of horse-play then so much in vogue with the
_young gentlemen of the period_ arose in a great measure from the very
lax administration of public duty by the "Night Watches," for the
"Jarvy" of that period preferred _a quiet snooze_ in his watch box to
the solemn, lonely realities of a midnight perambulation of our then
unlighted streets, lanes, and alleys; better days have dawned upon us,
making our worthy citizens proof against such senseless follies.

Died, August 9th, 1826 (aged 60 years), Mr. Edward Guest, of New
Street, Nail Master. This gentleman was a very zealous Churchman in his
time, and it was mainly through the Rev. Dr. Brookes, Vicar of Dudley,
and himself, that the old Parish Church (of St. Thomas) was pulled
down and the present edifice erected on its site. Mr. Edward Guest
was Churchwarden from 1815 to 1821, during the erection, and he had
many discordant feelings to assuage, and regrets to palliate, arising
from desecrations of the dead and disturbances in the old Church and
Church yard. A mysterious disappearance of stone slabs and gravestones
occurred at this time, and it has often been rumoured since "those good
old times," that a certain court yard at Dixon's Green, is laid with
grave slabs, "_spirited away_" from the Parish Church yard, and "Here
lieth the remains" &c., on slabs is to be seen misrepresenting the
supposed dust of departed souls, and doing duty in a private court yard
as a footpath. Where, "Sacred to the Memory of Mary Jane----," is a
myth and a snare, for the slabs cover nothing but earthworms and mother
earth. _Who was the sacrilegeous sinner?_ August 14th, 1828. We find
that a Ratepayer issued a placard, giving a copy of the Acts of 37,
Geo. III. and 5, Geo. IV., in reference to unjust "Scales and Weights,"
and says, "A demand has been made upon the Overseers of this Parish
for £193 5s. for Scales and Weights, Interests, &c. In order that you
may form a legal opinion upon this subject, and be the better prepared
to discuss its merits at the examination of the Overseers' Accounts,
the annexed extracts, from the two Acts of Parliament, are submitted
for your consideration by a Ratepayer." The gist of the Ratepayer's
anxiety appeared to be, that it was wrong to charge the Ratepayers
(through the medium of the Overseers) with the expenses of searching
out _evil doers_ (employers of short weights and measures), for the
Acts enforce not only fines to the offenders, but that their weights
and measures "shall be seized and broken up, and rendered useless," and
the materials thereof sold; and the money arising from such sale, with
the fines, shall be paid to the County Treasurer. The fact, that £193
5s. having been expended in Dudley for that year would lead us to the
conclusion that rather an extensive raid had been then made upon this
class of public cheats, and the money was well expended if the evil was
stopped, and the poorer classes afterwards got their legal weight and
measure.


THE NEW CONNEXION METHODIST CHAPEL, WOLVERHAMPTON STREET.

1829. This commodious Chapel was built and opened in 1829. The cost
of the structure and land was £4100, and in 1866 the Chapel was
considerably enlarged and beautified at an additional cost of £2094.
Previous to the erection of this long-needed edifice, this section
of the Wesleyan Congregation worshipped in a small Chapel in Chapel
Street. This zealous body (of New Connexion Wesleyans) has largely
increased of late years. They have also an excellent School in Rose
Hill in connection with their tenets.

Died Nov. 24th, 1829, Mr. Squire Knight, Chemist and Druggist, of this
town, (Aged 87 years.) This was a remarkable self-made man. Born of
poor parents at Coseley in 1742, he succeeded in educating himself
to an eminent degree, and in early life he was a Medical Botanist,
collecting medicinal herbs himself and selling them in the Market Place
on Saturdays. He eventually opened a Druggist's shop in Queen Street,
where he passed a long and eventful life. Mr. Knight belonged to the
Wesleyan Methodists, and became an energetic local preacher. On the
occasion of the Rev. Jno. Wesley, M. A., his brother Charles Wesley,
and a Dr. Patterson's visits in their itinerancy and preachings in the
Black Country to the Collier population, they were joyfully entertained
by Mr. Squire Knight. Mr. Knight was not only a diligent student of
medicines, but he was also an amateur Astronomer, and left behind
him at his death some very carefully prepared observations on the
starry regions. Mr. Knight was both a successful and a benevolent old
townsman, and much esteemed for his uprightness and integrity, and was
followed to the grave by an immense concourse of people.


ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH, NETHERTON.

1830. July 16th. This new Church was consecrated and opened by the
Lord Bishop Folliott this day. It was built at the cost of the
Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The first Incumbent was the Rev. Arthur
Miller, M. A. The body of this spacious Church was built to accommodate
1500 people, and the galleries contain 1000 free sittings. The
foundation of this Church was laid by Dr. Booker, the Vicar of Dudley,
on November 30th, 1827. On the awful visitation of the Asiatic cholera
in England, (in 1831 and 1832) Dudley did not escape this dreadful
affliction, which raged for eighteen months with awful violence and
fatality in this parish. By the order of the authorities the cholera
corpses dying in the parish were all buried in the north east side of
St. Andrew's Burial Ground, Netherton.

From this time to the period of the agitation on the great Reform Bill
of (1832) we find no events worthy of record. The burning question of
Catholic Emancipation received at the time its petitions to Parliament
for and against the measure, in accordance with the expanded or
contracted views of the petitioners; but the Vicar of Dudley (the Rev.
Dr. Booker) failed not in his episcopalian views _occasionally_ to
denounce the contemplated innovation upon our glorious constitution,
and to predict the evils that must follow the introduction of Roman
Catholics into Parliament. The Doctor was an eloquent preacher and a
noble, attractive figure in the pulpit, with a fine voice; during his
many years' ministrations amongst us, he upheld the true dignity of the
Church, and endeavoured zealously to promote the glory of God and the
salvation of the souls committed to his charge. A fine portrait of the
Doctor is to be seen in the drawing room at the Hotel, Dudley.


REFORM AGITATION.

During this period the agitation for Reform was monthly assuming
larger proportions, and the mighty voice of _the then unrepresented
masses_ was knocking at the doors of the Houses of Parliaments with
_miles of petitions_ from all parts of the country, for "a Reform in
the Representation of the People." Dudley joined its neighbours at
Birmingham and Wolverhampton in the cry for Reform (neither of which
important centres of industry _had any share_ then in parliamentary
representation, save through their county members.) The serious aspect
of passing events and political agitation, which was evoking most
persistent demands for "Reform," stimulated the great and eloquent
leaders of that movement to introduce a "Reform Bill" into the House of
Commons by Lord John Russell, on the 1st of March, 1831, "_For leave to
bring in a Bill to amend the representation of the people in England
and Wales._"

This sweeping measure was to disfranchise 60 "Rotten Pocket Boroughs"
of most diminutive numbers of voters holding their rights under all
sorts of curious conditions. These Boroughs then sent 120 members to
Parliament; besides 47 Boroughs were to lose one member each, making
168 old members to be ejected from the House; this annihilation of
"vested rights" was to be supplied by 34 _new members_ to be selected
by manufacturing towns, most of which had no Borough representation
at all, and 55 _additional members_ were to be added to the counties.
Such a startling measure as this necessarily created a wild and frantic
torrent of indignation amongst all classes concerned in maintaining
the unjust and vicious system of mis-representation and jobbery,
whilst those large towns (of which Dudley was one) were jubilant at
the prospects of a new feature in those local privileges, "a Borough
representation." This marvellous debate extended over a period of
thirteen long nights in the House of Commons, and was carried by a
majority of votes.

It is almost needless to say that Lord John Russell's speech, as
published in the political life of the Earl, has become history, and
was one of the most telling and searching exhibitions of close, clear,
and comprehensive reasonings ever uttered in the British Parliament.


EXTRACTS FROM REFORM SPEECHES.

_Mr. Joseph Hume_ says,--"But I must submit that in whatever way you
view the question it is one of immense difficulty, because in the
established institutions of this country any change from the worse
to the better must always be attended with great difficulty, so far
as individual interests and contending parties are concerned. It is
with this view His Majesty's Ministers have done wisely. I candidly
confess that when the noble lord stated yesterday that it was not the
intention of the Ministry to introduce any clause respecting altering
the duration of Parliament, or Vote by Ballot, it struck me that the
measure was defective in that respect."

_Lord Newark_ "Did not suppose at a moment's warning it would put
an end to all corruption, but it was the vainest of all possible
expectations to imagine that reformed Parliament would not do more than
anything else to abate the evil. He confessed that he had not been
prepared for so sweeping a measure, and he hoped that they might be
induced to modify it before it was passed."

_Lord Darlington_ "Thought the rotten Boroughs ought to be carefully
observed, and when they were detected, should be deprived of their
Charter, but he could never agree with those who sought to demolish the
social structure for the purpose of erecting their own temple in its
stead."

_Lord Stormont_ "Would not agree to the Ministerial Budget of Reform.
He represented 'Aldborough' in Yorkshire. Now that borough happened to
be surrounded with walls, and as the place was as fully occupied now as
it was formerly, it was evident that no alteration had taken place in
the constituency. According to the noble Lord's statement, 163 members
were called upon to pronounce civil death to their constituents; he,
however, thought that there were not 168 gentlemen to be found anywhere
who would be ready to vote their own damnation." (_Sensation._)

_Mr. Macaulay._ "For himself he could only say, that so far as he was
able to consider the proposition of the noble lord during the last
twenty-four hours, he thought it a great, noble, and comprehensive
measure, a medicine most skilfully prepared for removing a dangerous
distemper, a plan excellently contrived for uniting and permanently
knitting together all orders in the State. They had forgot the attempts
made to put down emancipation, and how fruitless those attempts had
proved. Did they wait for a time when demagogues demanded again to
divide the power in the Cabinet of the Government of this country?
or did they wait for that worst of all resources in a conflict with
public opinion, the fidelity of the military? If they did not, let
them concede Reform, while yet concession could be made with advantage
to the country. It was yet time to save the property of the country
from risk, to save the multitude (who demanded reform) from its own
ungovernable power and passion, to save it from that danger, which even
a few days might expose them and the country to."

_Mr. Hunt._ "The people of England had for many years past been anxious
for reform, and in 1816, 1817, and 1819, had loudly expressed their
wishes for some measure to amend the state of representation. He did
not condemn the ministers for not going the full length (universal
suffrage) of his views; on the contrary, if they had only gone for
disfranchising one rotten borough, they would have had his support on
principle."

_Lord Morpeth_ said, "If the House was prepared to say that the demand
for reform was not proper, that the evil was not manifest, that the
corruption was not glaring, that they might with perfect consistency
determine not to give up a stone of Gatton, and to die in the ditch
at Old Sarum, where there was nothing left now but a ditch to die
in. He believed that the House would not so far outrage the sense of
the community as to say that they would not so much as entertain the
question of reform. Two extreme parties (Tories and Radicals) were now
agitating the country; one was opposed to all amelioration, and the
other advocated the worst species of reform, with a view of subverting
the existing institutions of the country, and all the gradations of
rank, society, and order. Between those two extremes the only safe path
was the Conservative principle to which the measure led that was now
submitted to the House; to that let them hold fast. By conceding what
was just, wise, and honest, they would be armed with tenfold power to
resist the dangerous principles of some now promulgated, which were
unjust, unwise, and unsafe."

_Sir Charles Wetherell_ said, "It appeared then by this Bill 60
boroughs were to be deprived of their franchise, and the time-honoured
right of sending 120 members to Parliament, and that 47 were to lose
one member each, and in the whole 168 members were to be ejected from
that honourable house. He did not wish to call this by an offensive
name, but as a great man (Mr. Locke) said that things should be called
by their proper names, he would call it by the name of "Corporation
Robbery"--(sensation). The present Cabinet of the noble lord, and his
associates, seem to have proceeded upon the precedent in the history
of England which had been set by Cromwell, Fairfax, Milbourne, and Co.
Those worthy regicides set about reducing the number of members of
Parliament in their day, and this plan of cutting off the boroughs, and
confining the number of members, had not the merit of originality, for
it was almost the same in form, in substance, and in principle, as the
Radical system of reform, which has been introduced by regicides when
they established a Commonwealth in England. Did gentlemen recollect
how many experimental governments were now afloat? Did they recollect
that there was a smithy of political blacksmiths, where constitutions
were constantly on the anvil which was at work in making new fangled
governments for all Europe. Let him be permitted, _as he was in
extremis_, to utter the last expiring expressions of a dying member
that Great Britain might not be added to the catalogue of experimental
states, and that those visionary projects of His Majesty's Ministers
might not be realised. He had taken the liberty to call this measure a
corporation robbery, and as there had lately been special commissions
sent down into the country to enquire into the breaking of thrashing
machines, he wished there could be a special commission issued from
the Crown for preventing the breaking up of ancient and independent
Corporations. There being no precedent for this confiscation of
corporate property, he should be glad to hear from the Attorney-General
upon what principle of law he would justify the present audacious
attack upon the corporate rights of so many of those ridiculed places
called small 'rotten boroughs.' He defied whether even he could lay
his finger on a single page of the journals of that house which would
at all warrant such an act of wholesale confiscation, aye of civil
sacrilege. Then what he asked was the mode by which this amorphous body
proposed to carry out their iniquitous measure? Why neither more nor
less than a most audacious threat to dissolve Parliament in the event
of their failure. The man who would be influenced by this audacious
menace on the present momentous occasion would be nothing less than a
rebel to his country--the man, he repeated, whom such a threat (uttered
by any government) would influence, was a man wholly unworthy the name
of a British Senator; was a recreant in morals; wholly deaf to the
calls of conscience and English liberty. Within the last three days the
house had been promised with a 'purge,' to which, as no name had been
given to it, he would attach the name of 'Russell's Purge.' Yes, he
would call this bill 'Russell's Purge of Parliament.' He held that the
principle of the bill was Republican in its basis; it was destructive
of all property, of all right, of all privileges; and that the same
arbitrary violence which expelled a majority of the members from
that house in the time of the Commonwealth, was now, after the lapse
of a century from the Revolution, during which time the population
had enjoyed greater happiness and security than was ever enjoyed by
any population under the heavens, proceeding to expose the House of
Commons, and the country again to the nauseous experiment of Pride's
Purge."

_The Attorney-General._ "Surely his honoured and learned friend (Sir
Chas. Wetherell) did not mean to say that Colonel Pride's Purge had
anything to do with Cromwell's system of reform, for the periods of
time at which they occurred were quite different. He would, however,
ask his honourable friend and those who were acting with him, whether
there was to be any reform at all? He had said that he was no enemy to
representative improvement. When, where, how, and in what shape had his
learned friend ever expressed himself a friend to reform? He had never
heard such a sentiment proceed from him before. If they were advocates
for reform to any extent, would they inform him of the plan, and how
far it went? His learned friend had never brought forward a plan of
reform, or expressed such a sentiment before that night. Corruptions
abundantly had been proved, and the people of England had at length
discovered that the evils which gave rise to such corruptions were
no longer to be tolerated. The House of Commons was called upon to
redress it; and he was satisfied that the members of that House, as
English gentlemen, would not hesitate to pursue their enquiries into
the practicability of redressing it, by passing the present bill. If
hon. gentlemen were inclined to say that no reform ought to be had,
or only such reform as could be effected by an _ex post facto_ law,
or a detestable bill of pains and penalties, the country knew what it
had to expect from them; but, if they said that reform was necessary,
but that this plan of reform was not satisfactory, then he would ask
them to try their hands at producing a scheme which would give them
less annoyance, and would prove more beneficial to the public at
large. He had the authority of Burke, Pitt, Fox, and Lord Chatham in
his best and proudest days, that reform in the House of Commons was
absolutely necessary for the preservation of the internal quiet of the
country. Mr. Pitt had said, "that without reform no honest man would
be, or could be, an upright minister." It was the mere accident of
Peers having purchased Boroughs, which made it worth while to consult
them as to matters which ought to appertain only to members of that
House, properly so called. He contended that this measure, far from
being unconstitutional, was in strict accordance with the spirit
of the constitution; to take the elective franchise from decayed
and corrupt Boroughs, and send them to more populated and healthy
places. He knew that there were some gentlemen who thought that the
Attorney-General ought to be a sort of censor over the press; but
let him tell those gentlemen that he could find occupation far more
advantageous to the country than proceeding against those whose very
violence prevented them from doing mischief, and only disgusted the
people whom it was their object to excite and exasperate. There were
other violators of the law who were much more dangerous to the public
weal. Let them hear no more about vested rights, for now if a Peer
chose to interfere, by bargaining and influence, to return members
to the House of Commons, that Peer was not only guilty of a gross
breach of the privileges of that House, but subjected himself also to
indictment at law. The character of the people of England was well
known, and it was not their character to approve and applaud acts of
spoliation and robbery. It was not consistent with the fact to say that
the people of this country had been a happy and contented people for
the last century, for, on the contrary, it was true that during that
time they had suffered much and severely from unjust measures of that
House, which would never have passed into law if the people had been
fairly represented in Parliament. Much had been said by hon. members
about revolutionary measures, he believed in his conscience that this
Bill was strictly within the constitution of the land, and the only
measure that is calculated to allay the outside clamour for reform, and
prevent revolution. His learned friend might quit this house a martyr
to the cause he has espoused, but he would have the satisfaction of
reflecting, that on one great question he had been the advocate of
intolerance, and on another the last champion of corruption."

_Mr. G. Bankes._ "The learned Attorney-General had referred to the
plan of reform which had been introduced by Oliver Cromwell in his
parliament, and had stated that Lord Clarendon had given it his opinion
"that it was well worthy of imitation by other parties." Now, let them
but just see how it had worked. Every thing that was absurd, futile,
and ridiculous, it would appear from their debates, had taken place in
this reformed parliament. As a test, however, of the merits of that
reformed parliament, he should quote to the House the opinion of the
parent of the measure after he (Cromwell) had tried it by experiment.
On dissolving this reformed parliament the Protector Cromwell said, 'My
Lords and Gentlemen of the House of Commons, I had every comfortable
expectation that God would make the meeting of this Parliament a
blessing, and the Lord be my witness, I desired the carrying on the
affairs of the nation to that end. Having proceeded upon these terms,
and finding such a spirit as is too much predominant, everything being
too high or too low, where virtue, honesty, piety and justice are
omitted, I thought I had been doing my duty, and thought it would have
satisfied you. You have not only disjointed yourselves but the whole
nation, which is in the likelihood of running into more confusion in
these 15 or 16 days that you have sat, than it hath been from the
rising of the last Session to this day. And if this be the end of your
sitting; and if this be your carriage, I think it high time that an end
be put to your sitting, and I do dissolve this Parliament, and let God
judge between you and me.' (Cries of hear, hear.) Cromwell had given
that parliament two trials, in the first instance five months, and the
second 16 days; at the end of which he was compelled to dissolve it."

_Mr. Hobhouse._ "He had listened to all that had been said on both
sides on the subject of this debate, and he had not heard one single
argument to show that there was any danger whatever that could arise,
or was likely to arise, from adopting the project of the noble lord.
Mr. Horace Swiss had expressed himself very much alarmed lest the
present plan of reform should throw the elective franchise into the
hands of shopkeepers and attorneys. He should like to ask where the
elective franchise voted now? By the bill of the noble lord, the
franchise would be thrown into the hands of that class which ought
to possess it--namely, of people of a certain degree of property,
and of those who had the greatest hold upon the higher classes. This
was as good and proper a basis as could be proposed. It was scarcely
possible to believe that any gentleman was sincere, when he expressed
an apprehension, that a system of public rectitude and intelligence in
electors would give vice and ignorance an ascendancy in the choice of
representatives, and that a system of perjury, bribery, and corruption
was essential to the attainment of virtue and knowledge. If those with
whom he agreed in opinion had been accused of appealing to the fears
of the people, he must accuse gentlemen opposite not of appealing to
the fears of the people, but of doing what was infinitely worse,--they
had appealed, by the worst of artifices, to the fears and selfish
passions of those whom they called the aristocracy of the country.
Could the gentlemen who now opposed the Ministry so violently make up
a Government amongst themselves? A Ministry can only be formed on one
of two principles--Anti-Reform or Reform--and so long as Ministers
attempted to go on without a majority in the house in their favour, and
the people outside against them, it was hopeless to expect tranquillity
or security in the State. He asked the right hon. gentlemen and the
house in the words of Poet Waller, in his famous speech on Episcopacy,
'to Reform, that is not to abolish the Parliament.'"

_Mr. Baring._ "He had sat in that House a many years; he had approved
of many acts of his hon. friends, but when a question of this magnitude
was brought forward he would state his opposition to it without
apology. Those who supported this measure said, 'let the king stand
by himself; let the lords stand by themselves; let the people stand
by themselves; let there be no mutual connection between them.' Such
was their doctrine, but such was not the constitution of this country.
What grievance, he would ask, did any man suffer in this country from
the action and conduct of the other House? Did they find those Peers
pressing on them in any way? Did they find them making laws which were
directed against the popular branch of the legislature? Did they not
find that their rights and liberties were as well secured as those of
the House of Lords? He knew of no such interference, and he was firmly
of opinion that the mixture of different powers and interests in that
House had been the great protector and promoter of public liberty.
It was certainly right and just that large popular bodies should be
represented; but could they, he would ask, allow that principle to
be put in force without having something to counter-balance it? His
noble friend had gone on a reforming tour, but he had taken care to
make no stay at the Borough of Tavistock, (which he represented). By
this plan Boroughs containing less than 2000 inhabitants were to be
disfranchised, and 47 Boroughs, having 4000 inhabitants, were to retain
one member. Would not Tavistock, which was to be retained, belong as
much to the Duke of Bedford as before? He would have the same influence
that he now possesses. If, however, great changes must be made, he
should regret it, and he must say that all the intelligent portion of
the country would view its progress with the greatest concern. Much
of the excitement was caused by this being announced as coming from
the crown, but he felt satisfied that, but for such announcement, the
people would be satisfied with a much less sweeping, and much more
moderate, plan of reform."

_The Marquis of Tavistock_ said, "It appeared to him that the
government of this country had for years been carried on on principles
of most unjustifiable and wasteful extravagance; that patronage had
been kept up for the purposes of maintaining the influences of the
Crown, and that which was known as Parliamentary influence, for the
purpose of carrying on measures against the sense of the country. The
people felt now that they had not their just influence in the councils
of the nation, and they naturally sought for that change which would
give it to them. He sincerely believed that the measure now before the
House would give them all they reasonably could desire. He hoped it
would curb the monopoly so long maintained by the higher orders, and
give a fair expression of the sense of the middle classes. With this
view he should give it his cordial support."

_Lord Palmerston._ "Fondness for change he must say was not the
character of the English people. They had always been remarkable for a
tenacious attachment to their national institutions, affording in this
respect a striking contrast to their neighbours, the French nation.
We well know the difficulty of bringing the people to consent to any
change in their laws, how long and difficult was the struggle which
brought them to give up first the traffic in human beings, the accursed
Slave Trade, and at a later period those laws which condemned a large
portion of the people to political degradation--he meant the penal laws
against Roman Catholics. He contended that the people of this country
sought for a change because the state of the country was such as to
require it. The rock which the late government had split upon was their
defiance of public opinion. They went on spreading wide the canvas of
patronage as they proceeded--but that patronage, and the use they made
of it, did not accelerate their progress, or increase their power, but
proved to be their ruin. Taunts had been thrown out during the debate
against those who like himself were great admirers of the late Mr.
Canning. They had been taunted for abandoning the principles which
that great man had adopted with respect to the important question of
reform. He thought that the events that had taken place in that House
since the death of that illustrious man might have taught those who had
indulged in such taunts that public men might change their opinions on
questions of deep national concernment without being influenced by any
but honest and honourable motives. If any man took a great and enlarged
view of human affairs--without doubt that eminent statesman did--he
would venture to say that had Mr. Canning lived in these days, and
stood in the same circumstances as he (Lord Palmerston) did, his great
genius would at once have comprehended the necessity of the occasion,
and would have stated in that House his well-known convictions of the
necessity for a reform of the representation of the people. If any
hon. member wanted to learn the opinions of Mr. Canning let him refer
to his speech delivered in February, 1826, on the freedom of the silk
trade, when he said 'that those who resisted improvements because it
was innovation upon old worn systems, might find themselves compelled
to accept innovation when it had ceased to be improvement.' He believed
that the proposition would prove satisfactory to the country; he
believed that there did not exist in any country in the world a body
of men more entitled to respect and confidence than the middle classes
of this country. He would venture to say that there was not a class of
men more distinguished for morality and good conduct; for intelligence
and love of order; for true loyalty to the king; for affection for the
constitution; and in case of need for devotion to the country. To the
manufacturing towns it was intended to give thirty-four members, and to
preserve the just preponderance of the landed interest, it was proposed
to add fifty-five new members to the counties. He would add that it was
not talents under the present system that procured a man a seat in that
House, but length of purse, the ability to pay agents and post-horses
up to the fourteenth day. This was a great and practical evil, and this
evil the Bill would do away with, for it would alter the distribution
of the different classes, and bring the middle classes into communion
with others."

_Sir Robert Peel._ "He begged his noble friend to believe that he did
not join in the taunts against him. He never could think that public
men did not look to higher motives than a desire to retain their places
when they were induced to change their opinions, and the character,
the views, and the conduct of his noble friend afforded a sufficient
guarantee for the purity of his motives. In his anxiety to find cause
for blaming the administration which had preceded the last, his noble
friend had said, that if in 1828 that Government had consented to
transfer the elective franchise from the rotten borough of East Retford
to Birmingham, the House would not now be discussing the necessity
for a general reform, for that single measure would have quieted the
apprehensions of the people. But, if from such small events such mighty
results would spring, it was incumbent upon the House to enquire what
was the paramount considerations under those circumstances which _now_
rendered it imperative to change the constitution of the country. Why
did they not consent to the disfranchisement of East Retford? His
noble friend had lamented that the voice of Mr. Canning could not now
be heard in that House, and had assumed that his voice would have
been raised in favour of this Reform Bill. God grant that voice might
now be raised in that House, convinced as he was, that it would be
raised to confound the fallacies and sophistries by which the public
mind was deceived. He regretted that the name of the King should be
obtruded upon the house day by day; and he could not dismiss from
his mind doubts and fears as to the justice and expediency of this
extreme measure of disfranchisement; but, granting that they did not
exist, still it was a harsh measure towards the loyal bodies who were
called upon to sacrifice privileges which they had long exercised;
and even if it was justly introduced, why should the King be held out
as the special author of the plan. Then, the House was threatened
with a dissolution; in his opinion the chances of a dissolution were
as strong if the measure were carried as if it failed. They did not
think that if they rejected that bill it implied an aversion to all
measures of reform! Upon the same principle those gentlemen rejected
the ballot, and why was he not at liberty to discuss this bill? He
had never been the person to excite the people to a pitch of frenzy,
to spur their lazy indifference into an emulation of revolutionary
clamour. If, therefore, this measure which common prudence would have
forborne introducing at such a crisis in our foreign and domestic
relations, when fresh causes of excitement ought to be very cautiously
avoided; if, he said, this extraordinary measure should be defeated he
would never allow that the responsibility of the disappointment could
attach to him, or those honourable members who acted with him in that
House. Some disparagement had been made upon the middle classes, but
he did not participate in that sentiment; on the contrary, he should
ever repudiate it from his heart, for he (personally) desired his
strength from that order of society; he was one of themselves, and
should always be proud of his connexion with the middle classes of this
country. He had heard frequent allusions to Burke and Canning, and
other authorities whose opinions had been advanced in the course of the
debate, but he would quote a passage from a speech of the noble member
for Tavistock (Lord John Russell), in the session of 1819, which he
considered much more to the purpose, and was, besides being apposite
to the question, one of the most beautiful specimens of eloquence ever
uttered in that house. The discussion related to the disfranchisement
of a corrupt borough in Cornwall. When asked what he would do with
the unconvicted boroughs, he replied that he would consider a general
disfranchisement of the unconvicted boroughs a reconstruction of the
House of Commons altogether. He has therefore the noble lord's own
authority for so designating the present plan of reform. He then
observed that 'Old Sarum' had existed when Montesquieu pronounced the
constitution of England the nearest to perfection of any which the most
enlightened States had ever before experienced. When Lord Somers, and
the other great legislators who flourished with him, bore attestation
to its merits, it was open to the same objections which have since
been urged against it, and when Hampden lost his life Rutland returned
the same number of members as Yorkshire. Such was the noble lord's
judicious, and at the present moment timely, warning against the danger
of rashly departing from the practical wisdom of mankind during the
centuries of historic experience, proffered at the critical junction
of 1819. With respect to the question before the House, he could not
but declare that he saw in it but the instrument of men endeavouring
to retain power. It was the inevitable tendency of the Bill to sever
every link of connexion between the poorer classes, and that class from
whom the representatives were now chosen. Now, this severing of the
ties which connected the highest and the lowest classes was opposed to
the practical working of the present system of representation, which
enabled every class, in some way or other, to have a voice in the
election of the members of that House. With regard to the influence
of the oligarchy, he would ask hon. members to point out to him any
attempt to subject the people of England to the sway of an oligarchy,
or to establish any laws of exclusion or distinction among them. Up to
this time no practical advantage had been held out to the House, as to
the natural consequences of the change now proposed. All the reason
that had been urged that it was necessary to conciliate public opinion.
No better way of conciliating public opinion had been devised, than
that of adding half a million of electors to the constituency of the
country; but if that were a good way of conciliating public feeling,
then, if another Government, wishing to participate in this popular
favour, should add another million of electors to the constituency,
would that argument meet with the same favour and success? Look at
the question of reform in all its bearings--look at the parliamentary
debates, and you will find that whenever the question was agitated
some dire misfortune lurked behind. It was brought forward with great
pomp of circumstances in the year of the rebellion in 1745; it was
brought forward during the American war; it was brought forward at the
commencement of the French war; and, to come to our own times, it was
prominently brought forward in 1817, 1819, 1822, in a word, at every
period in which there was either commercial or great agricultural
distress in the country. Then, it was sure to find great favour with
the people. It was brought forward also at the periods when the
excitements of foreign revolutions misled the judgment of the British
public, and, deluding them with a false love of liberty, rendered them
discontented with the moderate freedom they enjoyed. Let us therefore
be content with the well-tempered freedom that we now enjoy, and which
we have the means of securing if we act with ordinary discretion. I
lament exceedingly that the Government should have determined to have
agitated such a vital question, as that of reform, at this particular
crisis; it would have been wiser in my opinion to have avoided these
new causes of excitement, for depend upon it by this process throughout
the land the first seeds of discontent and disunion are sown. Oh, sir,
I lament beyond measure that the Government had not the prudence to
adhere to that course of policy, which, if they did think it necessary
to propose a plan of reform in this excited state of the public mind,
they did not confine it within those narrow limits which are consistent
with the safety of the country and the dignity of their own characters.
They have sent through the land a firebrand of agitation; and it is
easy so far to imitate the giant enemy of the Philistines as to send
300 firebrands carrying danger and dismay in all quarters, but it is
not so easy when the mischief is done to find a remedy for it. In the
present difficulty you should have the powers of summoning all the
energies of life, and should take care that you do not signalize your
own destruction by bowing down the pillars of the edifice of your
liberty, which, with all its imperfections, still contains the noblest
society of freemen known to the habitable world."

_Mr. Calcraft._ "Solemnly declared his opinion that this measure must,
in the end, convert this country into a Republic; and the trifling
difference that existed between his noble friend, the opposition and
himself, was this--that he was for reform, and the noble lord was for
revolution."

_Mr. Wm. Duncombe._ "He had listened to the proposition of the noble
Lord, and in taking a retrospect of the whole debate he was compelled
to acknowledge that there was much more of declamation in it than of
argument, much more of assertion than of fact, and much more of fear
than of resolution. He deemed it to be revolutionary with respect to
the Constitution and Government of the country, and as it affected the
people of England it was tyrannical and unjust. He had never consented
to the disfranchisement of the Irish 40s. freeholders, nor would he
ever consent to the disfranchisement proposed by this Reform Bill."

_Mr. Stanley._ "Had anxiously listened to the discussions that had
taken place in that House the last eight years upon the all-absorbing
question of Reform, without having ventured to give more than a
silent, though cordial vote in favour of the great principles which
it involved. He confessed that he had heard the right hon. baronet
(Sir R. Peel) with some sorrow, use, he would not say inflammatory
language, when speaking of this measure, but declare that it would
lead to revolution. It was not a revolutionary measure, no, but it
was a new constitution. Now, his idea of revolution was this, that
revolution was a great change effected in the constitution of a
country by the use of unconstitutional means, and force, called by the
extraordinary circumstances of the time into operation, and enabled,
in consequence of the operation of those circumstances, to overthrow
the constitution. When this was the case, let those who had always
on principles of justice and of policy maintained and upheld this
great question of Parliamentary Reform,--let them in bringing their
proposition forward, without being told that they were endeavouring to
overawe and intimidate the House, be allowed to advert to the situation
of the country as a collateral argument in favour of the measure
they advocated. He regretted as much as any man that the name of the
Sovereign had been used in that House. He was sorry that that name had
been brought forward in a manner which might be supposed likely to
influence their decision. But the name of the Sovereign had been made
use of in the public press, and to that he could only answer that the
House had no influence over the public press. The hon. Baronet said,
'Why has Government brought this Bill forward? It is a bad time and
ought not to be introduced now.' In answer to this we would ask, what
was the conditional pledge upon which Ministers came in and without
which his noble friend (Lord John Russell) would not have accepted
office. It was this, that they would bring in a measure of Reform. Now,
with this pledge on their lips, with those principles in their hearts,
which they had always maintained, they entered office. Now, what is the
kind of advice the hon. Baronet gives them, he said, 'Now, that you are
in office, tell the people that the time is not convenient for Reform!'
If the Government acted on such a principle as that, then indeed a
fearful responsibility would rest upon their shoulders. Dreadful
would be the consequences arising from disappointed hopes, and high
expectations blighted and falsified by the mean conduct of those upon
whom the people had relied. But let the House look back for the last
few years and mark the time, the money, and the talents which had been
wasted in discussing useless questions with respect to boroughs charged
with malpractices, inquiring, for instance, whether one voter received
one guinea and another five, when it was notorious that boroughs were
commonly bought and sold in the market by the proprietors. And, after
all this labour and enquiry, what had been gained in the shape of any
reform, not one great town, not one great district, had been added
to those represented in that House. Not one corrupt borough had been
deprived of the means of corruption. It was the opinion of Mr. Pitt,
when he attempted to effect a reform in Parliament, that a certain line
should be fixed to the disfranchisement of rotten and corrupt boroughs,
and asserted, that in the earlier periods of the constitution, 'That
as one borough decayed and another arose, the one was abolished, and
the other was invested with the right.' He had been told some curious
circumstances connected with the proceedings at Wareham. His hon.
friend had informed him that on the occasion of his being chaired as
one of the members for Wareham, he heard one elector say to another,
'Pray, which is the new member.' Why, answered the other, 'Calcraft
is one, and a friend of his is the other; but I never saw him, and I
don't know who he is.' Doubtless any person recommended by his hon.
friend would be highly respectable but he was elected without being at
all known by the electors. For his own part he felt no alarm for the
results of the Bill. By that Bill would be upheld the influence of the
aristocracy as it was before; he meant that legitimate influence which
they ought to possess, not the influence of bribery and corruption, nor
the influence of direct nominations, for the only influence which the
Bill would remove was that which was notoriously illegal. Ministers
had come into office pledged to economy, retrenchment, and reform;
these pledges they had redeemed. They had cut off from themselves and
their successors for ever that corrupt patronage upon which heretofore
so much of the Government depended. With these views of the measure
before the House, he earnestly implored hon. members, by their sense of
justice to the country, by their respect of what was due to the people,
by their regard for the maintenance of that glorious constitution, what
had been handed down to them by their ancestors, by their regard for
the permanency of our institutions, and the peace and security of the
state; he called on them by all these considerations, by their respect
for the petitions of the people, for what might be lawfully asked
and could not be constitutionally refused, to support His Majesty's
Government in their endeavour to uphold and cement the legitimate
rights of the Crown, the aristocracy, and the people, and, by so doing,
to fix the whole as well as their own fame on the imperishable basis of
the affections of the people."

_Mr. H. Seymour._ "This measure proceeded not from fear, but from a
desire to court popularity. It was an unjust attempt to reduce the
power of the aristocracy, as well as of the lower classes. He contended
that if the House was the corrupt body it was represented to be, it
was incompetent to settle this great question. It was a measure devoid
of principle, or if principle was asserted in some parts of the plan
it was violated in others. It was broken through for some portion of
the aristocracy to court popularity; if the constitution was to be
violated in this manner, he would rather have no constitution at all.
The whole measure was, in his opinion, one of deceit; it removed the
direct influence which was seen, and left that which was much worse,
the influence which it could not see, yet of which it complained. To a
measure of that kind he could not give his consent."

_Mr. G. W. Wynn._ "The constitution of this country was one of constant
innovations and perpetual amendments; but admitting this, he thought
such amendments ought to be gradual. Many changes which might be
made with great advantage, would, if made at once, be found highly
beneficial to the country. It was on this principle that he, from time
to time, supported motions for the disfranchisement of boroughs which
had been found guilty of gross corruption, and without any personal
vanity, he might say, that he it was that drew the transfer clause to
give the franchise of the corrupt Borough of Helstone to Yorkshire. He
was aware that it had been said that the present measure, if agreed to,
would preclude any further change; but if the measure was rejected,
demands for greater changes would be made by the people. He had always
thought that those great towns ought to have representatives, and he
believed their possessing the elective franchise would be beneficial to
the country."

_Mr. Tennyson_ said, "That he would support the measure of his noble
friend (Lord John Russell), for he believed that it would put the
representation upon a permanent and, he hoped, everlasting standing.
The sacrifice he should make by losing his seat was nothing to him,
but he felt bound to refer to his relative, Mr. Wm. Russell. That hon.
member, by this present Bill, would be called upon to make a sacrifice
of three of what are termed nomination boroughs; boroughs not purchased
by him, but which had descended to him by inheritance; and he was
willing to offer this £100,000, the value of these nominations, upon
the altar of his country, in order to ransom her from that oligarchy
which has too long held her destinies in their merciless and unhallowed
power."

_Mr. Daniel O'Connell_ said, "That he looked upon the plan as large,
liberal and wise, and he should give it his most decided and anxious
support, for in fact it was an effectual measure of reform. It was well
known that he was a Political Reformer, and that he was in favour of
Universal Suffrage and shorter Parliaments; yet, though the measure
did not embrace these points, it was still very liberal, and would be
an experiment to prove whether any further extension was necessary.
He was delighted with the mode in which the noble lord had treated
the close boroughs; he had applied the pruning knife to the rotten
boroughs with a thorough masterly hand. Every part of the constitution
was violated by their existence. We could venture to say that the mound
of Sarum was a Constitutional Borough? Why should noble lords have the
right to send members to sit in that House? Good God, was it to be
sounded in their ears that the Lords were to send their members, one
after another, in the most open and avowed manner into that House for
these rotten and close boroughs; and was he to be told that they were
about to commit robbery; that they were guilty of an unjust seizure of
franchises? But who were the robbers? He never heard of a grant of a
Charter from the Crown, or any Parliament, empowering any individual to
send members to Parliament. No, the franchises were granted to them,
and it was not that this act seized and destroyed them; but this act
was intended to lay hold of the spoliaters of them. That House had no
right to question the privileges of the House of Lords, but it had
as good a right to do it as the lords had to spoliate the privileges
and liberties of the House of Commons. The people out of doors talked
good sense, they say, 'you have got our property, you have spoliated
our liberties, but you must disgorge them.' God help those members
who could crawl into that House and then talk of coming in without
stooping. He would ask the hon. members for Bowbridge and Aldborough,
if they could stand forward and advocate that system, which in the
rotten boroughs gave annual debaucheries, and every six years (for 14
days) all that bribery, and corruption, and robbery could inflict,--was
it fit that such a system of misrepresentation should stand any longer?
Were not the nomination boroughs openly sold, and was not the price
of them as well known as cattle in Smithfield? In 1822, the votes
against Reform and Retrenchment gave a return of 19 votes out of 20,
by members representing places not containing an average population
of 500 persons. When they talked of the excellent working of the
present Constitution, he would whisper a single word into their ears,
'Ireland,' that country, of whose people perennial starvation was the
lot; he would call upon them to secure to that country the blessings
of good Government, and to give to that House a fair and honourable
representation."

_Mr. Coke_ said, "That he had been a member of that House for more
than half-a-century, and during that long time he had watched the
proceedings of parties, and the results of great questions, and he must
say that every day he was more and more convinced of the necessity for
reform. When he had heard that the noble Lord had made a resolution to
do away with rotten boroughs he felt great confidence in the measure,
and was convinced of the necessity of giving the administration his
warmest support."

_Colonel Tidthorp._ "Although there were many blemishes in the existing
representative system of the country, he could never bring himself
to consent to a remedy by the means of taking away the franchise,
at one whole sweep, from so many people who had never abused the
constitutional trust reposed in them. He could not but pronounce the
measure in this respect to be most unjust and tyrannical."

_Mr. R. Grant_ said, "That they were told that the Reformers
entertained the most extravagant expectations, and that the only use
that they intended to make of the present concessions was to render
them subservient to the attainment of objects, remote, dangerous,
and undefined. Had not the history of mankind assured them that the
most effectual mode of resisting unreasonable demands was, to concede
everything which reason and justice could claim. The people of England
were entitled to the whole House of Commons, but in the debate they
had been told that they were not to look for any such thing, that
the Commons House of Parliament had never existed in the British
Constitution, and that the House they had was not the House of Commons,
but was something belonging to the Three Estates, it was the House of
the King, of the Lords, and the Commons!!! In noting this argument he
considered that he gave it its most complete refutation; the House to
which he belonged was the Commons House, and nothing else, Peers and
Bishops could not sit in it. It was vain to talk of maintaining the
doctrines which had been broached in this discussion, in the present
diffused state of knowledge throughout England, with the immense number
of schools in every part of the kingdom, with the prodigious increase
in Mechanics' Institutions, and with all that could give an impetus
to the human mind, it was vain to talk of arresting progress, or of
blinding men to what interested them so deeply. The present state of
the popular enlightenment demanded an improved legislature, and it
would be at once dangerous and absurd, and unjust, to resist such a
demand."

The main features of this great Reform Bill were the disfranchisement
of rotten small towns and places which had fallen into insignificance,
and confer such franchise upon large towns and populations which
hitherto had not any representation. The 40s. freehold vote for
counties had existed for upwards of _three centuries_, but it was
supplemented with a £50 occupation clause, and all borough votes were
fixed at a £10 rental.

The effect of this sweeping measure was that 56 small towns and places,
having a population of less than 2000, were entirely disfranchised.
Thirty towns, having a population under 4000, hitherto sending two
members to parliament, were reduced to one member; twenty-two large
towns, not having had a representative, were supplied with two members
each; twenty other smaller towns were allotted one member each. The
remainder of the seats were added to the counties, some of which
obtained two additional members, and others only one member.

The Reform Bill passed the House of Lords, on June 4th, 1832.

The debate on the Reform Bill in the House of Lords was of a very
excited character, considering the usual gravity of the lords, and the
following recital may be worth perusal:--

"The death of George IV. occurred on the 26th June, 1830. The question
of Parliamentary reform belongs probably to the succeeding reign of
William IV., at the opening of which--after the dissolution and general
election--public feeling ran so high, in consequence of the declaration
of the Duke of Wellington against reform, that the King was warned not
to venture into the city to dine with the Lord Mayor. The scene in the
House of Lords on the occasion of the King coming down to dissolve
parliament is described as being 'riotous.' Lord Wharncliffe rose to
propose his motion affecting the estimates; the Duke of Richmond was
determined to defeat the motion, and interrupted the noble lord by
calling attention to the fact--on a point of order--that noble lords
were not in their places, and moved that standing Order No. 1 be read,
which renders it necessary that noble lords 'shall sit in their proper
places.' The opportunity seized for this intentional interruption arose
out of a noble earl having sat next to one of the junior barons of
the House. Lords Londonderry and Clanricarde simultaneously rose to
'order,' Lord Wharncliffe protested, and Lord Lyndhurst delivered a
violent attack on the Duke of Richmond, to which the latter retorted
by threatening that if this 'tone' were repeated he would move that
Standing Order No. 1 should be read, and further, 'that the order
should also be read which forbids the use of intemperate and offensive
language in the House.' Violent rage and angry gesticulation, it is
reported, ensued. Lord Wharncliffe again attempted to resume his
address, when the Lord Chancellor cut short his remarks by clutching
the seals and darting out of the House. As the King advanced the noise
of the altercation became distinctly audible to him, and he asked,
'What's that, my Lord Chancellor?' To which the Chancellor replied,
'Only, may it please you, sir, the House of Lords amusing themselves.'
The King having ascended the throne, the 'Commons' were summoned to
the Royal presence. The Usher of the Black Rod (Sir Thomas Tyrwhit)
on proceeding to fulfil the Royal command, found the Commons in a
'state of turbulence and disorder.' On the presentation of a petition
for reform Sir Richard Vyvyan arraigned Ministers in an 'offensive
speech.' Uproar ensued, amidst which Sir Francis Burdett rose to order.
The Speaker declared Sir Richard in order, when Mr. Tennyson disputed
the propriety of the Speaker's decision. The Speaker decided that Sir
Richard was in order. The latter then remarked upon the proceeding of
any member questioning the decision of the 'chair.' What followed is
very remarkable. Lord John Russell at once rose 'to complain that any
member should be blamed for so doing,' and 'denying that the decision
of the chair was necessarily imperative in the House.' The entrance of
the Usher, above mentioned, put a stop to these turbulent proceedings,
and the King informed his 'faithful Commons,' in a shrill angry
voice, that he came down with a view to the 'instant dissolution' of
Parliament. After all, our Parliamentary ancestors were not the orderly
beings now-a-days represented; nor is it deemed desirable that their
turbulent example should be imitated. The ancient Borough of Dudley
obtained one member by the Reform Bill, but in Charles I.'s time it had
two Members of Parliament."

Dudley, like most rising towns, was keenly observing these great
political movements, and as far as its influence went in the county
elections on the reform question, it was considered that the reformers
of Dudley were mainly instrumental in unseating _Colonel Lygon_ at the
county election on May 11th, 1831.

In anticipation that the town of Dudley was to have a representative in
Parliament under the Reform Bill, efforts were made by both political
parties to secure a preponderance of power and influence in this
question, and we quote a requisition to the Mayor, in 1831, to hold a
public meeting to consider this business.

    TO J. C. BRETTELL, ESQ.,

    MAYOR OF DUDLEY.

    We, the undersigned, request you will convene an early meeting
    of the principal inhabitants of this town for the purpose of
    petitioning for a _Moderate Reform in Parliament_, and at the
    same time praying that any reform that may be adopted _may
    not include_ Vote by Ballot, Universal Suffrage, or Annual
    Parliaments.

    Also to petition that our ancient privilege of returning two
    members to Parliament may be restored to us.

    L. Booker, Vicar
    P. Robinson
    Wm. Lewis
    John Booth
    A. Hawkes
    Thomas Badger
    C. H. Molineux
    John Roberts
    Wm. Fellowes
    Thomas Fear
    B. Leadbetter
    John Smart
    Chas. Lucas
    Jos. Windsor
    John Owen
    Wm. Izod
    Thos. Griffiths
    Edward Hollies
    Joseph Guest
    Edward Guest
    Walter Williams
    Sept. Badger
    John Rhann
    Wm. Fellowes, Jun.
    John Williams
    Whitehouse & Sons
    William Chinner
    J. S. Turner
    Thos. Pitt Stokes
    Richard Lakin
    Chas. Homer
    John Bagott
    Alex. Gordon
    Wm. Self
    John Darby
    Edward Foley
    B. Dudley
    Jos. Payton
    Jos. Haden
    Isaac Badger
    C. F. Hewitt
    Geo. England
    Thomas Lester
    Edward Terry
    Edward Blakeway
    Stephen Bullas
    James Griffin
    Samuel Paskin
    Chas. Bunn
    John Hodgetts
    Joseph Cox
    Thos. Cox
    Edward Marsh
    Joseph Royle

    with seventy-four other signatures.

    _Dudley, Feb. 7th, 1831._

This highly respectable requisition to the Mayor seems to have awakened
the indignation of "_An Inhabitant_," for the following hand bill
appeared!

    INHABITANTS OF DUDLEY.

    Some Gentlemen, having signed a Requisition to Mr. Brettell
    (the Mayor), but doubtless in ignorance of its real contents,
    to call a Meeting of the _principal_ Inhabitants to support _a
    Moderate Reform_ in Parliament, that is in effect, no Reform at
    all.

    Arouse!!! and assert your dignity of character and right to
    Independence, and your abhorrence at tampering with Vice, for
    no honest men would wish the partial but entire Reform of
    vicious habits and principles.

    Attend then the Meeting, which is to take place to-morrow
    morning, at the Town Hall, at 11 o'clock precisely, and by
    your Vote avenge the insult offered to you by _this impudent_
    Requisition, and shew the arrogant few that the many constitute
    the _principal inhabitants_ of this Town, and at the same time
    do your duty to yourselves, your families, and your country, by
    demonstrating by your voice and votes that nothing short of the
    removal of the whole of the evils which oppress us will satisfy
    the just demands of an insulted and suffering people.

                                                      AN INHABITANT.

    _Dudley, Feb. 9th, 1831._

       *       *       *       *       *

    VOTE BY BALLOT.

    FELLOW TOWNSMEN,

    As some of you may not be aware of the essential importance of
    the Vote by Ballot, I take this opportunity of stating a few of
    its advantages:--

    It will effectually destroy bribery and corruption, as it will
    be in vain for any candidate to purchase votes when he cannot
    possibly know on which side the elector will vote.

    Vote by Ballot is the only means by which we shall get the
    House of Commons filled with men of principle, who will manage
    the affairs of the Nation in a way so as to relieve us from
    oppressive Taxation, and eventually to secure prosperity to
    every class of the community.

    If we exclude Vote by Ballot we are giving up our own right
    of choosing a representative to persons who, from some local
    circumstances, may have influence over us.

    Beware of signing any petition for MODERATE REFORM, which
    excludes Vote by Ballot, as a _Reform_ of that nature will
    only increase our present burdens, and our National sins,
    inasmuch as it will cause Bribery to be still more extensively
    practised, and render still more universal those appalling
    scenes of Electioneering dissipation.

                                                      A TOWNSMAN.

    _Dudley, February 8th, 1831._

This Townsman little dreamt that Vote by Ballot, which we now enjoy,
would be the very means of encouraging bribery and corruption
continually.

Both _Colonel Lygon, M.P._ for the County of Worcester, and Mr.
Abiathar Hawkes, Glass Manufacturer of Dudley, appeared to have
anticipated an election, for they issued their addresses.

    TO THE INHABITANTS OF THE TOWN AND PARISH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    In the event of the Ministerial Bill of Reform being carried
    into a Law, this Town and Parish will enjoy the distinguished
    privilege of returning a Member to Parliament.

    Should that be the case, I beg to announce to you my intention
    of offering myself as a Candidate, and if I am deemed worthy of
    your kind support, and obtain through your Suffrages the high
    object of my wishes, I pledge myself to serve you faithfully,
    diligently, and honestly.

         I have the honour to remain,
                       Gentlemen,
                           Your faithful and obedient Servant,
                                                    ABIATHAR HAWKES.

    _Kingswinford, March 12th, 1831._

Mr. Hawkes having signed the Requisition to the Mayor in favour of a
moderate Reform Bill, was then looked upon as a moderate Reformer, but
a stern advocate for Church and State; he eventually came out as a
decided anti-reformer.

_Colonel Lygon, M.P._, was already one of the Members for
Worcestershire, but his recent Votes on the Reform Question, had
created much disunion amongst his supporters.

    TO THE GENTLEMEN, CLERGY AND FREEHOLDERS OF THE COUNTY OF
    WORCESTER.

    GENTLEMEN,

    When I had lately the Honour of being returned one of your
    Representatives in Parliament, I little expected that it
    would be necessary so soon to address you again; but seeing
    in the County Newspapers, that an Opposition is preparing
    against me, I feel it an imperative Duty to come forward with
    an Avowal of my Sentiments, and in Vindication of my public
    conduct. The Accusation is that _I voted against_ Lord John
    Russell's _Reform Bill_. Gentlemen, my Conscience and my best
    Judgment revolted at this Bill; so violent in principle, so
    hazardous to our well-balanced Constitution, the envy of other
    countries, the safety of our own. I am by no means an enemy
    to such Reform as Time and change of circumstances may have
    rendered necessary; but let calm, and deliberate caution attend
    the Measure, neither spoliating the Property of some, nor
    destroying the Privileges of others; such a Measure shall have
    my best support. I can, with truth say, that the retrospect
    of my public life, whether in a Military or Civil capacity
    gives me no reproach; I have served my Country independently,
    honestly, and faithfully, to the best of my judgment, ever
    anxiously promoting the wishes of my Constituents, never asking
    favour for myself. Let, then, the trial with my Opponents
    come when it will, I will meet it fearlessly; resting on the
    Integrity of my own intentions, and on the support of those
    numerous friends, who now voluntarily offer me their Services.

         With the greatest Gratitude and Respect,
                      I am, Gentlemen,
                  Your very faithful and obedient Servant,
                                              HENRY BEAUCHAMP LYGON.

    _Grosvenor Place, April 19th, 1831._

This ambiguous address of Colonel Lygon's created a vehement outburst
of opposition from the reformers against him, thus--

    TO THE FREEHOLDERS OF THE COUNTY OF WORCESTER.

    BROTHER FREEHOLDERS,

    A factious opposition, and the intrigues of the selfish
    Boroughmongers, have postponed that highly beneficial and
    absolutely necessary measure of Reform introduced into the
    House of Commons by His Majesty's Ministers. Our patriot king,
    however, highly approving of the principles of his ministers,
    and determined that _the Bill_ shall not be crushed, or his
    own and his people's rights longer withheld by the vile
    machinations of _the Wetheralls_, _the Lygons_, and the other
    partizans of corruption, has exercised his undoubted right of
    _dissolving the Parliament_, and "England now expects every man
    to do his duty."

    On every occasion when Col. Lygon has voted he has _opposed
    Reform_ in every shape--however bit by bit--however
    moderate--and now he adds to his political delinquencies,
    _Insult and Hypocrisy_. In his Addresses, "he begs most
    explicitly to declare that he is friendly to moderate and
    constitutional Reform, to remove any abuse or improper
    innovations which time may have introduced."

    _Yet_ he voted against transferring the Elective Franchise of
    East Retford (convicted of gross bribery and corruption) _to
    Birmingham_!

    He is friendly to a moderate and constitutional Reform, _yet_
    he opposed the Marquis of Blandford's Bill!

    He is friendly to a moderate and constitutional Reform, _yet_
    he voted against Lord John Russell's motion to transfer the
    Elective Franchise from boroughs (convicted of corruption) to
    Leeds, Birmingham, and Manchester! Is not this hypocrisy? If
    not, what is it? With these facts before the public--facts
    known to every individual in the county--he insults them
    by sending forth _An Address_, of which the assertions
    above quoted form a part, imagining that the Freeholders
    in the County of Worcester have minds so contracted, and
    understandings so degraded and debased, that a shallow
    hypocritical device like this would dupe them for a moment.

    _Freeholders_, this _Colonel Lygon_ again solicits your
    votes, that he may again oppose the beneficent and patriotic
    intentions of His Majesty's Ministers--again oppose every
    measure beneficial to the people. You know your answer.

                                                   A FREEHOLDER.

    _Dudley, April 23rd, 1831._

       *       *       *       *       *

    "READ! MARK! LEARN! AND INWARDLY DIGEST!"
    IF POSSIBLE.

    TO THE FREEHOLDERS OF THE COUNTY OF SALOP.

    GENTLEMEN,

    An ADDRESS to you from Mr. MYTTON has just now been published.
    He has an equal Right with myself upon your notice; though in
    this act of his it has not my participation--it however obliges
    me to declare my intention of setting forward a Canvass, which
    otherwise, on account of the immediate day for collecting the
    sense of the County at the Nomination, I had forborne to do.

                        Your obedient,
                             Faithful servant,
                                    _(Signed)_ J. CRESSETT PELHAM.

    _Buildwas Bridge_,
             SUNDAY EVENING, _May 1, 1831_.

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE STYLE OF POLITICAL WRITING IN 1831.

    MORNING SERVICE.

    FIRST LESSON.

    AND IT CAME TO PASS in the days of a mighty Monarch, that
    he called forth his mighty men and Counsellors, and said
    unto them, "Go forth every man unto his place, and if ye are
    approved of, return ye; and if ye have not served my people
    faithfully, return ye not. But let my people choose for
    themselves, those that will counsel with my people, that they
    speak their will before me, and plead for them to the intent
    that I may make them a great and happy nation."

    And of the two men who represented the ancient and loyal
    County, even that great County, WORCESTER, one was not found
    faithful, and the people murmured greatly, but the Elders and
    Rulers of the County said, "_We will return those Men_, let us
    make haste," they said, and they did so; and in the morning,
    when they were in the Judgment Seat, going to return those
    men, the men of the County said one to another, "_Will no one
    deliver us from the man we dislike?_" and they were overwhelmed
    with despair, for fear of that awful Man which some of the
    Elders had elected, having £50,000, lest he should destroy
    their liberties, and bring them to bondage for ever! And there
    was sojourning that way a MAN OF WAR, and the people ran unto
    him within a few minutes of the expiration of the last hour,
    and said unto him, "_Deliver us from our oppressors_," and the
    MAN OF WAR said, "I WILL DELIVER YOU;" and suddenly there was
    a shout of joy which rended the air, and those of the Judgment
    Seat were sore afraid, and said one to another, "_What meaneth
    this?_" And when he appeared, the Elders and Rulers of the
    County were struck dumb, and the hand of oppression withered
    at his presence, and the MAN OF WAR said, "_I am come to offer
    myself to represent you in the Great Assembly, in the place of
    the man who is not approved of_," and the people shouted,

    LONG LIVE THE MAN OF WAR!!!

    _SPENCER! FOLEY!_ AND REFORM.

       *       *       *       *       *

    MORNING SERVICE.

    SECOND LESSON.

    After these things the MAN OF WAR passed over and came unto a
    place called the HUSTINGS, in the land of the LYGONITES, over
    against WORCESTER, and great multitudes followed him.

    And the children of the land rejoiced greatly because of him,
    for he was a mighty man of valour.

    And the Chief of the LYGONITES went forth to meet him, and
    asked him, saying,--

    Wherefore art thou come?

    And the MAN OF WAR answered and said, for deliverance of the
    needy am I come, that the poor may rejoice, and the heart of
    the humble be glad.--

    Then the LYGONITISH leader asked him again, knowest thou not
    that this country is mine? that I am chosen of the Elders of
    the Land?

    But he answered Verily I say unto you, though the Elders have
    chosen thee, thou hast purchased them with Bribes;--yea, they
    have received the wages of iniquity.

    And when the Chief of the LYGONITES saw, that by words he could
    prevail nothing, he set his army in array against the MAN OF
    WAR,--and the battle joined.

    And lo, the Chief of the LYGONITES, caused men of foolish minds
    to enlist under his banners, and they fought till the going
    down of the sun.

    And on the morrow they hasted to the Battle, and the army of
    the MAN OF WAR gained the VICTORY!

    After these things there were great commotions and troubles;
    and the noise of their tumult was heard afar off.

    For the Chief of the LYGONITES gathered other servants
    together, and fought against the MAN OF WAR:--But he could not
    prevail.

    Then was heard great rejoicing, for the people were glad.

    And they sung--"Rejoice, and be exceeding glad!--break forth
    into singing, for the victory is won!"

    "For the enemy came forth like a flood; and terrible was his
    army of banners!"

    "But he has fallen from his high estate, and his name shall
    sink into the dust."

    "Yea; now are the mighty fallen; and the doom of the oppressors
    is sealed!"

    NO LYGON,

    DOWN WITH THE BOROUGHMONGERS.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A CONTINUATION OF THE BOOK OF KINGS.

    CHAPTER I.

    And George the King died and was buried with his forefathers,
    and _King William the Fourth_ reigned in his stead, over the
    Land of Great Britain.

    2 And this King William did that which was just and right in
    the eyes of the wise and prudent, and was to his people as a
    blessing from heaven.

    3 He opposed robbers of the public treasury, the
    plunderers of the people, the oppressors of mankind, the
    sacrilegeous--hypocrites, and evil doers, and all such as did
    succumb to them, and brought on them shame and confusion.

    4 And it was on this wise:

    5 A certain man of ancient extraction, and of great repute, an
    Englishman, called _John Bull_, from various causes fell sick,
    and was grievously ill-treated by those to whom he trusted
    to be preserved, and from their machinations was become as
    one going down to the Grave; for many of his _Members_ were
    exceedingly filthy and corrupt--disgusting to the eyes of men
    to behold.

    6 Now it came to pass there were certain good ministers of
    the people, who beheld with horror the state of this man, and
    shuddered at the contemplation of the baseness and iniquity of
    the workers thereof.

    7 And they straightway proceeded to the King, and he giving
    audience, they reported unto him what they knew concerning this
    matter.

    8 And the King was wrath and sore displeased at what he had
    heard.

    9 Then the King commanded them, saying, call me an assembly
    together, both of the good and the bad, and set this man's case
    before them, so that searching diligently into the truth, we
    may relieve his affliction and punish the aggressors.

    10 They went forth from the King's presence and did according
    as he had commanded them.

    11 And when that which had passed was made known to the evil
    doers, they consulted amongst themselves how they might repel
    the attack, and still hold on in the system of hypocrisy and
    plunder: and they, with one accord, cried what _law_ is there
    to prevent the continuation of our practices, and who shall say
    unto us, "so far shalt thou go and no farther:" and they went
    forth, hardened in their sin, to attend the assembly.

    12 And the people cried, lo! behold them bold in their
    iniquity, for shame hath not tinged their cheeks.

    13 And the assembly being met, the man's case was commanded to
    be heard: And the man groaned bitterly and cried unto the good
    ministers "Save me or I perish."

    14 And one of the good men arose, and said unto the assembly,
    hearest thou what this man sayeth, and addressing himself unto
    the evil doers, he saith, this thing needeth amendment, for the
    life of the man standeth in jeopardy.

    15 And this good man with the assistance of another, like
    unto himself, who had grown _Grey_ in the service of mankind,
    prepared a remedy, and he stood up and declared it aloud unto
    the assembly, saying,

    16 Let the _Members_ of this man that are become so filthy and
    impure, so corrupt and nauseous to the sight, and so poisonous
    to the man's whole body be forthwith severed therefrom, that
    the more wholesome part may not be endangered; for without this
    he cannot be saved.

    17 And he, proceeding, said let us make him a draught that
    might _purge_ him of the filth within him, so shall he once
    more enjoy health.

    18 And this draught is called "Russell's Purge" unto this day.

    19 When he had thus spoke the good men rejoiced exceedingly and
    approved of his counsel.

    20 But the workers of iniquity, who sought their own gain,
    though at the life of the man, cried most vehemently against
    it and said, shall our places be taken from us and given unto
    others? Shall we lack our fees which we were wont to receive?
    Shall those Members be cast away that afforded us such profit
    and source of peculation? Shall the rottenness be purged
    away on which we and our understrappers feed? Oh! unjust
    sentence.--Alas! our hope is withered.--And Oh! ye our faithful
    Servants, who like fattened maggots have so gloriously gorged
    upon this man's body, thy day of _Short Commons_ is come.

    21 And the Debate was of long continuance, for seven successive
    nights rested they not from their labours: and the hopes and
    wishes of mankind were great:

    22 But the wicked dwelt not so securely as they in their vanity
    imagined, for the good men prevailed, and this was made known
    unto the King and the People.

    23 And the King was wonderfully well pleased, and the people
    shouted their gladness.

    24 And John Bull failed not in giving honour and praise to
    the King and his ministers; But he said unto the workers of
    iniquity--

    O! ye hypocrites whom I have cherished with my substance,
    And who have polluted my body,
    Thy day of Punishment--the day of retribution, is at hand.
    Thy baseness and cupidity are made known to all men,
    And for these thy works,
    Know that Tribulation treadeth hard upon thy heels,
    And mankind shall curse thee with the curse of _bitterness_.

    25 And the people cried Amen. So be it.

    26 And they went to their homes rejoicing--praising the
    Saviours of their Country, and crying aloud--

    Heaven's blessings on our Ministers and supporters--

    "God save the King."

    (_Thus endeth the First Chapter._)

       *       *       *       *       *

    £50,000 REWARD.

    LOST,

    At ST. STEPHEN'S, WESTMINSTER, on the 19th of April last, an
    OLD MILITARY CLOAK BAG, containing COLONEL LYGON'S POPULARITY;
    the TIE by which it was held had been long weak and flimsy, and
    it finally gave him the slip at the above spot, along with that
    of an OLD TROOPER, one GENERAL GASCOYNE.

    The advertiser cannot but deeply lament the loss of this
    Garment, as although much soiled and worn, he had hoped with
    a little occasional patching it might have proved a good
    strong covering for himself and family, for many generations,
    and as he valued it more for the facility it afforded him of
    forwarding his own Views at the Horse Guards (in which he found
    it highly serviceable) than for any application he made to the
    service of the

    FREEHOLDERS OF WORCESTERSHIRE,

    he is very desirous of being reinstalled in possession, or of
    procuring some other Garment that may enable him again to enter
    ST. STEPHEN'S, he therefore offers the above Handsome Reward
    for its discovery, which will be paid on application to LADY
    BEAUCHAMP!!

    He more particularly appeals to the Attorneys of this and
    the adjoining Counties, and he trusts from the large Reward
    offered, they will exert themselves to the utmost to effect
    the restoration either of the lost Garment, or to procure him
    another that may pass for the original, and which from their
    known fertility of expedient, and the abundance of Funds at
    their disposal, he hopes they will have little difficulty of
    doing; but as he apprehends that in future more attention
    to DECENT APPAREL and CLEAN HANDS will be required at St.
    Stephen's than heretofore, he requests that any counterfeit
    Garment may be made of decent stuff, as he wishes to sit near
    Sir ROBERT PEEL; RAT-SKIN will do provided the Fur is tolerably
    disguised and the smell removed.

    N.B. It is strongly suspected that the said Garment has been
    picked up and converted into a SPENCER by a Sailor who has been
    much about the County lately, and who wears an old WHIG, with
    a placard with REFORM stuck in it; he may be easily discovered
    as he has grown a great favourite with the FREEHOLDERS, and is
    followed all over the County with shouts of

    SPENCER FOR EVER!!

    DUDLEY, MAY 11th, 1831.

       *       *       *       *       *

    REFORM!

    _NO MONOPOLY! NO LYGON!!_

    A voluntary resolution of upwards of 360 Workmen in Stourbridge
    and its Neighbourhood has been entered into for the purpose of
    having no further communications with those persons who were in
    opposition at a Meeting, held in this Town on the 2nd of April,
    1831, against LORD JOHN RUSSELL'S REFORM BILL.

    SUCCESS TO THE
    STOURBRIDGE IRON TRADE,
    AND
    LORD JOHN RUSSELL'S BILL FOR REFORM!
    GOD SAVE THE KING.
    The BILL, the Whole BILL, and Nothing but the BILL!!

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE WORTHY AND INDEPENDENT _FREEHOLDERS_ OF THE COUNTY OF
    WORCESTER.

    GENTLEMEN,

    I come among you as a stranger, and having certainly no
    personal pretensions to the honour of your representation; but
    I am informed that no approved second Candidate, belonging to
    your County, has offered himself to you on the principle of an
    unqualified support of the great measure of REFORM, proposed to
    the late Parliament by His Majesty's Ministers. This Bill I am
    assured, you deem to be of vital importance to the state, and
    are anxious to secure, as far as depends upon you, its success,
    by returning two Members equally and fully pledged to it. My
    political principles being those of my brother LORD ALTHORP, I
    am emboldened to aspire to the high distinction of representing
    you, for this Parliament only, under the unequivocal pledge of
    voting for that most indispensable measure of Reform, to its
    full extent, whenever it shall again be brought forward. I hope
    that in taking this step for the attainment of such an object,
    I am not justly chargeable with presumption; and allow me to
    add, that it is only in consequence of the deep conviction I
    entertain of the necessity of the constitutional Reform, which
    His Majesty's Ministers have brought forward, that I venture at
    all, under these circumstances, to offer my services to your
    notice.

    I shall with the least possible delay pay my respects to you
    personally; and have the honour to be

                                  Your humble Servant,
                                               FREDERICK SPENCER.

    ALTHORP, APRIL 26th, 1831.

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE FREEHOLDERS OF THE TOWN AND NEIGHBOURHOOD OF DUDLEY.

    In your election of a County Representative, you are called
    upon to shew yourselves to assert your Independence, by
    affording your support to a Man who will endeavour to
    promote your Interests by a conscientious discharge of his
    PARLIAMENTARY DUTIES. Tell the self-styled Aristocratic
    Supporters of COL. LYGON, that you will not compromise your
    _Birthrights_; that you will not be intimidated, and that

    "_Gold shall not prevail_;"

    but that by unanimity and the identity of your cause with
    yourselves, you will Stand or Fall. Tell them again, and tell
    them too, _you_ use no undue influence, but that the justice
    of your cause constitutes its strength. Tell the partisans of
    oppression (who lament their Candidate's loss of Interest less
    than their _own_) that you will return a Man who will bring to
    maturity the Plant nursed by your PATRIOTIC MONARCH and his
    Ministers.

    Rise then, Brother Freeholders, and by your energy preclude
    the everlasting stigma being attached to your County of its
    representation being any longer considered the PATRIMONIAL
    INHERITANCE of the LYGONS!

    Let me, I conjure you, by all the ties which bind Man to Man,
    to give effect to the great and glorious Cause in view; let it
    be your pride that you have defeated the Machinations of Party,
    and that you have given to your Country a Member who will
    emancipate you from the thraldom of _Family Influence_! let
    then our cry be "God for England, Spencer, and our Cause."

         _I am, Brother Freeholders, Yours Faithfully_,
                                                      A FREEHOLDER.

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE SECRET OUT!

    MR. FOLEY HAS COALESCED WITH CAPTAIN SPENCER.

    Why?--BECAUSE Captain Spencer's BROTHER is CHANCELLOR OF THE
    EXCHEQUER; and a Place in the Treasury, with a Salary of a
    Thousand Pounds a Year, will be no inconvenient or disagreeable
    REFRESHMENT after the Expense of a contested Election.

    _So much for Mr. Foley's INDEPENDENCE and INTEGRITY._

    Kidderminster, May 10th, 1831.

       *       *       *       *       *

    WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION.

    _STATE OF THE POLL_, FIFTH DAY.

                           FOLEY.  SPENCER.  LYGON.

    FIRST DAY               191      131      206
    SECOND DAY              370      301      288
    THIRD DAY               361      321      200
    FOURTH DAY              323      280      263
    FIFTH DAY               279      252      178
                           ----     ----     ----
                    Total  1524     1285     1135
                           ----     ----     ----
    Majority in favour of   389      150

    _Committee Room, Bush Inn, Dudley, Wednesday, May 11th, 1831._

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE TORIES' DOWNFALL.

    Oh dear, what can the matter be,
    Dear Oh, what can the matter be,
    Oh dear, what can the matter be,
        Tories are dying away.

    They flatter'd, they promis'd, they pledg'd, and intreated,
    The Whigs to let Sutton the turn-coat be seated,
    But brave Abercrombie their forces defeated,
        In spite of all Bobby could say.
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

    Though Francis was absent, and Stanley was praising
    The Tories, whose Gridiron was fearfully blazing,
    Yet brave Abercrombie with prowess amazing,
        Soon drove them all out of his way.
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

    Their Captains and Corporals so fond of excess,
    Bet great odds on their _Manners_, their _Speech_ and _Address_
    But the brave Abercrombie soon left them to guess,
        How to finish their comical play.
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

    Old Billy the Emp'ror who stood far away,
    Expecting the Vict'ry was struck with dismay,
    When the brave Abercrombie's men shouted Huzza!
        Huzza for _Old_ England, Huzza!
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

    Poor old Billy who never could fight nor yet preach,
    Expected that day to have _read_ a long speech,
    But the brave Abercrombie whom none can impeach,
        Made Billy and Bob run away.
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

    So frighten'd was Billy and "_Buy-a-Broom_" too,
    That his Speech for a few days he couldna' get through,
    But the brave Abercrombie and all his brave crew,
        On Tuesday _forc'd Billy_ to bay.
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

    Great numbers of Tories who join'd the retreat,
    Of Old Sutton, refus'd with old Billy to meet--
    Abercrombie for fear of another defeat,
        So they wisely kept out of the way.
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

    Their flag they have "hoisted and nail'd to the mast,"
    'Twill suddenly 'neath the proud ocean be cast,
    But brave Abercrombie's for ever shall last--
        And Reformer's shall carry the sway.
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

    As for Nosey who acted supreme for a week,
    The Bold Hero of _Ney_ and the friend of Old Nick,
    'Gainst the brave Abercrombie is worse than a stick,
        And Old Nick will soon take him away.
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

    Then let's stick to our colours and give ten-times-ten,
    To the Members who've prov'd themselves true Englishmen
    To brave Abercrombie again and again--
        Success and a hearty Huzza.
          _Chorus._--So it's Oh dear, &c.

[Illustration: TOWN HALL & HIGH STREET, DUDLEY. 1832.]


DUDLEY POLITICS.

    TO THE EDITOR OF THE BIRMINGHAM JOURNAL.

    SIR,--I was much surprised on receiving your paper of last
    Saturday, to find a most impudent statement made by Mr. John
    Williams of this town, relative to his exclusion from the
    Bowling Green. In my opinion, he only met with his deserts,
    for it is an invariable rule with us to _cut_ any person who
    differs from us in politics. It was our wish that Colonel
    Lygon should have been again returned to Parliament for the
    County of Worcester, and of course expected no opposition;
    it was, therefore, with feelings of the deepest indignation,
    that we saw Mr. Williams's name announced as Chairman of the
    Committee of a rival Candidate, in direct opposition to Lord
    Dudley's agent, the meek and amiable Chairman of Colonel
    Lygon's Committee. Yes, Sir, Mr. Williams is right, in saying
    it was the election and that alone, which was the cause of
    his expulsion, and surely it was enough to rouse the blood of
    Englishmen (accustomed as we have been to rule the town) to
    find our power gone, and our influence laughed at by the party
    which Mr. Williams espoused. Our feelings are so tremblingly
    sensitive on this point, that one of the gentlemen whose names
    have been so unwarrantably exposed, actually dined with Mr.
    Williams, at his own table, and from it walked down to the
    Bowling Green Committee, and voted for his expulsion, so that
    we do not allow private friendship to interfere with public
    duty; and as we have, besides, the sanction of two intelligent
    County Magistrates, we have little to fear.

    It is a source of poignant regret to us, that none of the
    other members of the Reform Committee could be punished in
    the same way, for although for the most part composed of
    highly-respectable individuals, yet as we wished to keep the
    "Green" select, we did not send them any invitation to join
    us, for we have been long accustomed to love unanimity, and if
    persons thinking differently from ourselves on public matters,
    were to be admitted, there would be no end of discussion, which
    we much dislike, having but few talkers amongst us, and others
    not choosing to give their opinions to be carped at by their
    opponents.

    We have been taunted with having signed the Reform Petition
    a few months since; but what of that? Surely we have as much
    right to support and vote for an anti-reform candidate, as
    we had to sign a petition praying for reform. And, moreover,
    what has supporting a candidate to do with our having signed a
    petition? What if Colonel Lygon has opposed all reform? What
    if he be an enemy to Civil and Religious Liberty? What if he
    has been the undeviating supporter of the reckless expenditure
    of the people's money? What is all this to us? _We_ could
    always afford to pay the taxes! _We_ have thriven under the
    old system! and yet we are to be told, forsooth, that we have
    forfeited our consistency, in supporting a man, than whom a
    more consistent being does not breathe. He subscribes a few
    pounds annually to our charitable institutions, and we are
    really fearful lest these should be discontinued now that
    his political connexion with us has ceased. Such are the
    consequences to be dreaded from this new state of things. It
    was very strange Mr. Williams could not take his dismissal
    quietly, without publishing his disgrace in the newspapers,
    as it never was intended, out of a sincere regard for his
    feelings, that it should be known beyond our own circle.

                                  I am, Sir,
                                  A MEMBER OF THE BOWLING-GREEN.

    _Dudley, June 9th, 1831._
              (_From the Birmingham Journal of June 11th._)

       *       *       *       *       *

    A "SQUIB," ISSUED AT THE FIRST PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION IN FAVOUR
    OF MR. JOHN CAMPBELL.

    March to the battle field,
    The foe is now before us,
    Each heart is Freedom's shield,
    And vict'ry's smiling o'er us;
    The great St. Paul, with tripe and all,
    We quickly made surrender,
    In proud disdain we'll break again
    Each Tory link asunder.

    Who for a Campbell brave
    Would shrink 'neath Tory power?
    Who our just cause to save
    Would rest e'en for an hour?
        Our noble cause,
        Our homes and laws,
    'Gainst Tory power sustaining;
        We'll hold in spite
        Of Tory might,
    Or die our rights maintaining.

    Haste to the poll, my boys,
    The foe is near expiring,
    The Tories all have lost their joys,
    And homeward are retiring.
        The great St. Paul,
        With tripe and all,
    You quickly made surrender;
        In proud disdain,
        Then break again,
    Each Tory link asunder.

The old town of Dudley, with the outlying hamlets of Netherton and
Woodside, having been created into one of the New Reform Parliamentary
Boroughs (allotted to send one Member to Parliament), the whole town
became awakened to its newly endowed responsibilities, and many an
ardent admirer of his native town rejoiced in the fact that Dudley had
been restored to its ancient Parliamentary honours and privileges,
which had been taken from it, viz.: disfranchised by Oliver Cromwell's
Parliament for its fidelity to the Royal Stuarts. As a matter of
course, Dudley proclaimed for Reform, and there was no gainsaying the
opinion that the new Reform Bill had made Dudley into a real borough;
therefore, we must have a Reformer to sit for Dudley. The old Tory
party thought different, and considered that the world was going wrong,
that revolution and the destruction of Church and State was near at
hand, despite the exuberance and hilarity of the Reformers; and they
succeeded in inducing Mr. Abiathar Hawkes, a local Glass Manufacturer,
to issue his _moderate Reform Address_, conveying the impression that
the man was to be elected for some virtue in himself, not for his
pronounced political opinions.

However, Mr. A. Hawkes soon retired from the attitude that he and his
too zealous friends had strung him up to, for _he retired_ before the
first election came on in 1832, and his place was supplied by the
well-known Tory, Sir Horace St. Paul, Bart. The Reformers in the new
borough were far from falling asleep, and after one or two futile
efforts to procure a local candidate, they succeeded in inducing plain
Mr. John Campbell, Q.C., from Edinburgh, to fight the first battle
of Reform in the maiden borough of Dudley. Sharp and fierce was the
contest, but as the majority of the 800 electors were somewhat _raw
and green_ at electioneering adventures and tactics, they did not come
up to the style and vigour of electioneering "pleasure and relaxation"
which was witnessed at our hustings and in our streets in later years.
The close of the poll shewed Mr. John Campbell the winner.

    1st. ELECTION, 1832.

    1.  Mr. John Campbell, Reformer        318
    2.  Sir Horace St. Paul, Bart., Tory   229
                                          ----
                   Majority for Campbell    89

Thus the Reformers of Dudley distinguished themselves at their first
effort at electioneering, and happened to secure the election to St.
Stephen's Hall of one of the soundest lawyers of his day, besides
becoming one of the most accomplished Historians of his country, for
Lord Campbell's "Lives of the Lord Chancellors of England," can never
die in historical readings.

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    THE SPEECHES of SIR H. D. C. ST. PAUL; SIR JOHN CAMPBELL, and
    others;

    Delivered on the Hustings, on Monday Dec. 10th, 1832, being
    the day of Nomination of a Candidate for that New Borough.

    On MONDAY last the election for this borough commenced. The
    candidates are Sir HORACE St. PAUL, a high Tory, and Sir
    JOHN CAMPBELL, the Solicitor-General. A great proportion
    of the houses in the town were decorated with laurel, and
    exhibited the colours of the Solicitor-General; and on Monday
    morning public enthusiasm was wound up to a great pitch in
    favour of Sir John. The hustings were erected immediately in
    front of the Town hall, and at 9 o'clock Sir John Campbell,
    accompanied by his committee and numerous other friends, made
    his appearance, amidst the loud cheering of the populace. Sir
    H. St. Paul shortly afterwards arrived from the Hotel, and was
    greeted with mixed sounds of approbation and displeasure. The
    latter, however, greatly predominated. The applause appeared
    to proceed from, perhaps, some 200 special constables and the
    more immediate friends of the hon. baronet. The necessary oaths
    having been administered to Mr. Cornelius Cartwright, the
    Returning Officer, and other formalities gone through,

    Mr. CARTWRIGHT expressed a hope that the electors would
    discharge the duty imposed upon them with temper and
    moderation; and, by doing unto others as they should wish to
    be done by, display a truly Christian spirit. If they did
    this, whatever might be the issue of the contest, they would
    secure the reward of an approving conscience, and though then
    divided, the town would again subside into a state of peace and
    happiness. (Hear, hear.)

    Mr. DIXON, on rising to nominate Sir Horace St. Paul,
    congratulated the electors of Dudley on their being now
    qualified to return members to the representative branch of
    the Legislature, and he hoped, for the credit of the town,
    they would send that man who, from knowledge, connexion,
    and political principles, would prove their most faithful
    representative. He was about to propose as a candidate for
    their suffrages, a gentleman who had large property in the
    neighbourhood, and who was in every way a fit and proper person
    to return as their representative to Parliament. He begged
    to nominate Sir Horace St. Paul. (Great hooting, with slight
    cheers, and cries of "No tripe." Sir Horace, we believe,
    nightly treats the supporters with tripe suppers.)

    Mr. SALISBURY had great pleasure in seconding the nomination of
    Sir Horace St. Paul, as a gentleman, from his well known honour
    and high integrity, well qualified to represent the borough of
    Dudley in Parliament. (Groans.)

    Mr. TWAMLEY, who was received with loud cheering said, however
    inadequate he might be to perform the task he had undertaken,
    he solicited their attention while he offered a few words on
    the glorious, happy, and momentous occasion on which they
    were then assembled. (Cheers.) He had to introduce to their
    notice a gentleman as a candidate for their suffrages, who had
    long been before the public, a gentleman of great talent and
    commanding eloquence, and who was competent to do every good
    to the country which it was possible for any individual man to
    do. (Cheers.) It gave him, Mr. Twamley, supreme felicity and
    pleasure to propose Sir John Campbell, as the representative of
    the borough of Dudley in Parliament. (Loud cheers.)

    H. BRAIDLEY, Esq. then presented himself to second the
    nomination of the Solicitor-General, when he was vehemently
    opposed by the friends of Sir Horace St. Paul, on the ground
    that he was not properly entered in the register. It appeared
    that by mistake his Christian name was stated on the register
    to be John instead of Henry. Being thus disqualified as a
    voter, it was contended that he had no right to take part
    in the election proceedings. The point was argued at length
    before the returning officer, by Mr. Whitcomb the barrister,
    on behalf of Sir J. Campbell, and by Mr. Hildyard, on behalf
    of Sir Horace St. Paul. Mr. Whitcomb contended that the act
    had provided for any misnomer and wrong description, and that
    it was merely necessary when such a mistake occurred that the
    party claiming a vote should swear at the time of election that
    he was the person described "as A B" in the registration. The
    returning officer, after receiving a protest from the friends
    of Sir Horace, allowed Mr. Braidley to proceed.

    Mr. BRAIDLEY, again presented himself, and was again assailed
    by the interruptions of the Paulites and the cheers of his
    friends. Having at length obtained a hearing, he began by
    observing the glorious cause having triumphed, he then came
    forward to second the nomination of Sir John Campbell. (Loud
    cheers.) Who was his opponent? Sir Horace St. Paul,--a Tory,
    who during the 20 years he had had a seat in Parliament, had
    on all occasions given his silent vote in favour of all the
    wasteful and extravagant expenditure incurred by successive
    Tory Governments. (Groans.) Within the last few months, as far
    as the scope of his abilities would permit, he had done all in
    his power to destroy the elective franchise, which the people
    panted for, and which they now enjoyed; and yet had now the
    daring assurance to ask the electors of Dudley to exercise
    their new privileges in his favour, and return him as their
    representative. (Groans and hisses directed at Sir Horace.) The
    time was now arrived when the electors must honestly perform
    their duty to themselves, to their children, and to posterity.
    Let them throng early and eagerly to the poll, and the triumph
    of Sir John Campbell, whose nomination he seconded, was secure.
    (Loud cheers.)

    Sir H. ST. PAUL was received with loud cheers by his friends,
    and the most uproarious disapprobation by his opponents. It
    then became his duty to address the electors of Dudley, and
    would preface what he was about to say, that he should not
    offer any observations of a personal nature as regarded his
    hon. and learned opponent. He bore no enmity to the learned
    gentleman nor to any of his supporters; and he hoped the
    contest would be conducted, and if possible concluded, in
    perfect good humour on both sides. The political principles
    he had hitherto entertained he still adhered to, and should
    ever continue to maintain them. (Loud disapprobation.) He
    had held those principles when they were in good report, and
    now, when they were for a short time out of favour, he should
    not cowardly abandon them. (Groans, with applause from the
    Paulites.) His principles had ever been those of practical
    economy, and it was upon these principles he acted when he
    opposed the present Ministry in the grant of 5,500,000_l._
    to pay the Russian Dutch loan. (Cries of "Oh, oh.") He
    recollected, and they would all bear in mind, that this sum
    came out of the pockets of the industrious labourers. (Cheers
    from the Paulites.) Again he had opposed the sum of 800,000_l._
    guaranteed to the new King of Greece. What, he would ask, were
    all the trifling savings effected by the present Government
    compared with those enormous items of expenditure? Upon the
    same principle, when Parliament assembled, and he was returned
    as their representative, of which he had not the slightest
    doubt, when His Majesty's servants came down to the house--a
    most disgraceful war--(immense uproar, shouts from the
    Paulites, and groans from their opponents,)--he claimed fair
    play--he said a most disgraceful war, for it could lead to no
    good, but at the same time occasion great depression and ruin
    to the English trade. Many who now heard him already felt its
    disastrous effects. If the trade of the manufacturer by this
    war--this damnable war--(great uproar,) They must excuse him,
    he could not but speak strongly because he felt strongly. He
    could not but think of the sufferings of the inhabitants of
    Antwerp, forced to leave shelter and property, subject to the
    peril of foreign and intestine war. He was, however, about
    to state, that if in England, the merchant and manufacturer
    suffered from this disgraceful war, the sufferings of the
    artisans and the industrious working classes must be much
    greater. Formerly, the man who opposed the Government was
    deemed an independent man. He who now opposed the present
    Administration might, he hoped, claim the same character.
    (Laughter.) Before he concluded, he might be allowed to
    allude to one other circumstance. Englishmen had hitherto
    been considered as being particular lovers, and particularly
    proud, of their country. They were always proud of the flag
    under which they had fought and conquered--a flag respected
    throughout the whole habitable globe,--he alluded to the old
    English union jack, which, by the bye, was their English
    tricolour. Why, then, should an Englishman borrow the colours
    of the French? (alluding to many tricolour flags waving from
    the windows of the houses in the opposite street.) It was bad
    enough to think what had occurred within a few weeks under that
    flag, without being publicly insulted by its exhibition in the
    streets of an English town. Formerly, the English navy knew
    nothing of a French ship in her ports except at the tow of
    an English ship; but recently, to the disgrace of the British
    Government, her fleet had been placed under the command of
    a French admiral, in fact, under the auspices of the French
    flag. It was for wars like these their pockets were drained,
    and the national character humbled. The Government and its
    supporters might talk of economy,--but while they merely talked
    of economy they practised extravagance. Under the British flag
    their heroes had fought, and conquered, and had died,--and God
    forbid that Englishmen should ever be ashamed of it. The hon.
    candidate retired amidst most conflicting demonstrations of
    opinion.

    Sir JOHN CAMPBELL presented himself amidst the most deafening
    cheers, which lasted some minutes. He was proud to present
    himself before the electors of Dudley, and solicit their
    suffrages as their member in the first reformed Parliament.
    (Cheers.) It had been said by his enemies that he was only
    supported by the rabble. Let them look at the rabble that stood
    around him. (Cheers.) First, he was proposed by a venerated
    inhabitant of the town, than whom a more respectable individual
    did not exist in the world. He alluded to his friend Mr.
    Twamley, who for half a century had lived respected and beloved
    in the town, and who was now enjoying an ample fortune as
    the reward of his industry and integrity. (Cheers.) The next
    of the rabble (laughter) by which he was surrounded was his
    friend Mr. Braidley, against whom a strong effort had been
    made by a quibble (and it was only from such quibbles that
    any doubt could be entertained of his, Sir J. Campbell's,
    success) to deprive him of the power of taking any part in
    their proceedings. Through the impartiality of the returning
    officer that attempt had failed, and he (Sir J. Campbell) had
    been honoured with the support of Mr. Braidley. Another of
    his rabble was his friend Mr. Foster, (cheers) a gentleman at
    the very head of the most important manufacturing concerns in
    the district, and who employed more men than all the rest of
    Sir Horace St. Paul's friends put together. (Loud cheers.)
    Indeed, he believed he had the good opinion and suffrages of
    the vast majority of the respectable inhabitants of the borough
    of Dudley. The individual who now presented himself to them
    was no stranger; they had known him, and he them, for a long
    course of years, accustomed as he had been to practise among
    them in that profession to which his studies had been chiefly
    devoted. In the course of his practice in that profession he
    had been called to defend his friend Mr. Cooke, whom he saw
    near, who was prosecuted, or rather persecuted, by the Tories
    of Dudley, for doing that only which he thought it his duty to
    do, (cheers) and through his instrumentality he might assert
    he escaped unmerited punishment. He (Sir J. Campbell) was not,
    however, alone known to them by his professional practice,
    but also as a public man. He Would defy any man to produce,
    during the time he had the honour of a seat in two successive
    Parliaments to find a single sentiment or a single vote he
    ever gave against the rights and liberties of his country.
    His friend, Mr. Foster, one of the rabble (laughter) had sat
    side by side--many a weary hour they had spent within the
    walls of the House of Commons. They invariably supported the
    interests of the people. (Cheers). But where was Sir Horace
    St. Paul? He would take care to say not one word discourteous
    of the hon. baronet, but as a public man he had a right to
    comment on his political conduct. Never then, when the ayes or
    the noes went, were his friend Mr. Foster, and himself, to be
    found in company with Sir Horace St. Paul. His hon. opponent
    was always against the bill, and anything but the bill. He
    (Sir J. Campbell) had been much amused with an expression
    of Mr. Dixon on moving the nomination of his opponent. The
    gentleman set out by congratulating the electors of Dudley on
    the obtainment of the elective franchise. Now this struck him
    as singular, for having anticipated such dreadful consequences
    from the bill, instead of terms of congratulation he should
    have expected terms of condolence. (Laughter and cheers). Mr.
    Dixon ought to have commenced--"Electors of Dudley, I condole
    with you on this melancholy occasion," and instead of the
    brilliant colours now exhibited by his opponents they ought
    to have been habited in mourning and crape. They who thought
    the constitution had been overturned ought not to make it a
    subject of congratulation, but of condolence. In the language
    of defeated men they ought to say "We are beaten, but we will
    do all in our power to restore Old Sarum and Gatton, and the
    rest of the rotten boroughs, and perpetuate every abuse, both
    in church and state." Sir John, after indulging in a strain of
    happy ridicule, said if Dudley, at the present time, returned
    an acknowledged Tory, the town would be for ever memorable
    in the annals of infamy, for he believed that there was not
    one new borough in either England, Scotland, or Wales, except
    Dudley, where an Anti-reformer had dared to show his face. In
    some of the old boroughs, where corruption in a degree existed,
    Anti-reformers had presented themselves as candidates; but he
    believed Dudley was the only new borough in which a candidate
    professing such principles had offered himself. He could not
    believe that the electors of Dudley would stain themselves and
    posterity with such unspeakable discredit (Cheers). It could
    not be, for he knew that, with few exceptions, it was with the
    electors of Dudley "Campbell and Reform." (Loud cheers). If
    they were ashamed of the franchise which had been conferred
    upon them, they would return Sir Horace St. Paul. (Cheers).
    He (Sir Horace St. Paul) had told them, as a honourable man,
    that he entertained the same principles that he had always
    professed; that he was the advocate of again enslaving and
    enthralling them under the mastery of those under whom they
    already smarted. Sir Horace was for the old state of things,
    although he claimed their suffrages under the new bill. He
    (Sir Horace St. Paul), to be consistent, would say, reform
    being bad, the sooner we revert to the old state the better.
    He would support a bill to disfranchise Dudley, and support
    another to enfranchise Old Sarum. (Cheers). The repeal of the
    Reform Bill was considerably too desperate a measure ever to be
    expected, and the object of the Tories was therefore directed
    to the destruction of its objects, and if possible to render
    it a mere dead letter. It would indeed be a dead letter if
    the constituency of England returned anti-reformers--men who
    had exerted all their power to prevent reform in the church,
    the law, and the state. The Reform Bill would prove no good
    to the country unless they returned to Parliament, which the
    King's writ had just issued to assemble, men prepared to
    carry out into beneficial effect ulterior measures, which its
    framers and supporters contemplated, when by their efforts it
    became the law of the land. (Cheers.) The learned gentleman
    went on to state, that when he first offered himself for the
    representation of Dudley, he was induced to do so by a highly
    respectable body of requisitionists, and that, although since
    that time he had been requested to stand for other boroughs,
    both in England and Scotland, where it was supposed he would
    be returned with less difficulty, he had declined doing so,
    because every day brought with it fresh reasons for his
    rejoicing in his original determination to stand for that
    borough. After once pledging himself to the electors of Dudley,
    he should have considered himself the basest of mankind had he
    deserted them. ("Why don't you go to Stafford?") Some gentleman
    called out Stafford. He could only say, that he had no doubt if
    he had gone to Stafford, he should have been returned, as well
    as other places, with little trouble. He had already contested
    that borough with a gentleman whom he saw standing near him,
    and one of his present opponents (Mr. Hawkes), although that
    gentleman then went to Stafford under the colours of reform,
    and he (Sir J. Campbell) had in both cases defeated him.
    (Cheers). He repeated he had no doubt that he should have been
    returned for Stafford without difficulty, but he considered he
    should be more honoured in being returned as the first member
    for the virgin borough of Dudley. (Loud cheers). The resolution
    he had formed he had no doubt would be crowned with a glorious
    victory. (Cheers). The learned gentleman was about to enter
    into certain charges of intimidation he had to prefer against
    a supporter of Sir Horace St. Paul, but first wished to be
    informed by the returning officer whether, if he mentioned the
    name of a person, the accused would be allowed to reply.

    The RETURNING OFFICER, said, any gentleman whose name
    might occur in the discussion should certainly be heard in
    explanation.

    Sir JOHN CAMPBELL was glad to hear that declaration from the
    worthy Returning Officer, as he could then have no difficulty
    in naming the gentlemen to whom he alluded, and calling upon
    him to explain the circumstance he (Sir J. Campbell) was about
    to detail.

    The RETURNING OFFICER said if Sir J. Campbell was about to
    bring forward any matters of accusation against private
    individuals, he would rather that he refrained from so doing.
    He did not think the present the time for discussions of that
    matter.

    Sir JOHN CAMPBELL said he purposely and advisedly put the
    question to the Returning Officer, as he was unwilling to
    mention the name of any gentleman, as connected with certain
    transactions, unless the party accused had an opportunity
    of defending himself. He should certainly, under such
    circumstances, not mention the names of those who had been
    guilty of the most disgraceful intimidation; but if the ballot
    should be introduced, he could with safety predict that it
    would mainly be owing to the exertions of the Tories. (Cheers.)
    Supposing it should be introduced at the next election, they
    would doubtless then congratulate the people of Dudley upon the
    ballot as they now did upon the elective franchise. The learned
    gentleman said he knew of many acts of intimidation, but he
    was happy to say that in several instances they had proved
    unavailing. He then went on to state, that since the last time
    he had presented himself before the electors of Dudley he
    had accepted office under the Crown. Enjoying the confidence
    of His Majesty's Ministers, and the favour of his Sovereign,
    he had been appointed his Majesty's Solicitor-General. He
    thanked God, however, that he believed he lived in times when
    no collision was likely to occur between the duties of the
    King's Solicitor-General and the electors of Dudley. (Cheers.)
    The British constitution, when in healthy operation, worked
    harmoniously together, the privileges of the Crown and the
    rights of the people being equally for the protection of both.
    Could any charge be brought against him for accepting office
    under Lord Grey? Did the people of Yorkshire censure Lord
    Brougham, after his election for that county, for accepting
    the Lord Chancellorship? No; when in office he laboured only
    still more efficiently to carry into effect the measures he
    had advocated and promoted when out. He (Sir John) assured
    the electors of Dudley that he would not hold office one
    moment longer when he found by so doing he was compromising
    the liberties, interests, and happiness of the people.
    (Cheers.) The moment he found he could not hold it consistent
    with his principles he would resign. (Cheers.) The learned
    gentleman next proceeded to reply to Sir Horace St. Paul on
    the Russian-Dutch Loan, and to defend, in eloquent terms,
    the Government on that question, of which he gave a succinct
    history. The fact was, when Lord Grey with his ministry came
    into power, they found a treaty in existence, made by their
    predecessors the Tories, and which they found they could not
    fail to fulfil without a complete breach of national faith.
    Almost the whole of the Tories admitted that according to the
    spirit they were bound to pay the guarantee to Russia, and it
    was only by a quibble such as had been brought against his
    friend Mr. Braidley, that they attempted, for the purpose of
    embarrassing the ministry, to set it aside. As to the Greek
    Loan, that, too, was a job of the Tories; but he confessed,
    unlike most Tory jobs, he approved of it, for it was nothing
    more than a guarantee, if necessary, to enable the Greeks
    to withstand the Tories of Turkey and the Conservatives of
    Constantinople. Every nation of Europe that possessed one spark
    of liberty was anxious that the Greeks should be emancipated
    from the slavery of Turkish tyranny. Sir John next entered
    into the Belgian question, and defended the policy of the
    British Government at great length. He described the present
    state of affairs in Holland and Belgium as the result of
    Conservative influence in this country. With regard to the
    colours which the hon. baronet remarked were so conspicuous
    in the distant vista before him, he (Sir John Campbell)
    was not surprised at his consternation. The banners of the
    Solicitor-General were to be seen at almost every house in the
    long street opposite the Market-hall. He had no doubt, though
    he was the last man to inflict pain, that the hon. baronet
    was literally appalled at the fearful exhibition which then
    presented itself before his astonished eyes. (Cheers.) If they
    could walk through the streets of Dudley, they would find
    200 similar flags; flags all bearing the emblem of British
    loyalty--the crown; all denoting respect and admiration to King
    William IV. (Three cheers for the King.) The learned gentleman,
    after a long and eloquent speech, called upon the electors of
    Dudley to come speedily to the poll. He assured his opponent
    he should not make any vexatious opposition, nor demand the
    administration of any unnecessary oaths. Sir John Campbell
    concluded a speech of about an hour and half in length amidst
    the most vehement cheering.

    After a few observations from MR. HAWKES, a late opponent of
    Sir J. Campbell for Stafford, the Returning Officer put the
    question as to the nomination of the two candidates, when it
    was decided by a large majority for Sir John Campbell. The
    friends of Sir Horace St. Paul immediately demanded a poll,
    which was fixed to commence at 8 o'clock on Tuesday morning.

    The meeting then broke up, and the supporters of the
    Solicitor-General walked in procession through the town.

                           (_From the Times, December 12th, 1832._)

1832. At the time the late Mr. Thomas Hawkes won his first political
spurs, as M.P. for old Dudley; he was the head of the glass trade in
this town, and we could then boast of having _five large glass houses_
in full operation in our midst, employing at the time upwards of 1,000
hands. Since that time the glass trade has nearly departed from Dudley,
and we have now only one glass works amongst us--viz., that highly
respectable firm of Messrs. John Renaud and Son, at the foot of Tower
Street, once the celebrated firm of Messrs. Guest, Wood, and Guest. The
glass trade seems to have migrated to Wordsley and Brettell Lane, for
that is now a large centre of glass manufactory.

The establishment of a Mechanics' Institute in Dudley during the last
fifty years has undergone many phases of decline and prosperity, for
at this early period a feeble effort for securing and maintaining a
Mechanics' Institute was made by holding a Reading and Lecture Room,
with a touch of political debate, in New Street; and the late Rev. John
Palmer, A.B., Unitarian Minister, took great interest in its promotion,
and his subjoined lecture, delivered to the Institute on Monday,
October 14th, 1833, testified his energetic efforts in its promotion.

    LECTURE ON THE ADVANTAGES OF UNITING SCIENTIFIC WITH PRACTICAL
    KNOWLEDGE, IN ARTS AND MANUFACTURES.

    The circumstances under which the mechanic is usually brought
    forward in life, are in a national point of view, as well
    as regards the individual, deeply to be deplored.--England
    has obtained celebrity all over the world for the skill and
    ingenuity of her workmen; but her reward has not ended in a
    mere name: she has experienced the more gratifying testimonials
    of seeing the wealth of the world in her ports, to pay her for
    her superiority in Arts and Manufactures. Indeed, if we trace
    England's greatness to its source, we shall find it issuing
    from the labour and ingenuity of her operative classes. Her
    agriculture is adequate to the support of a small portion of
    her population only, and it is to her manufactures she must
    look for the maintenance of the remainder. It is from the same
    inexhaustible source that her armies have been sent to every
    shore, and her fleets to every sea; it is from the same source
    that her power and energies are everywhere seen rising in such
    gigantic forms, and executing such incredible operations; it
    is from this, too, that her philosophers are wise, her poets
    eminent, her statesmen eloquent: this is her universal spur
    to industry; remove it, destroy the manufactures of England,
    and her greatness is annihilated by the act; a universal palsy
    seizes on her powers, her resources, her genius, her name. Is
    it not then of the first importance that she should look on
    her mechanics, those who hold the germ of her eminence, with
    a favourable eye? Is it not the duty of her statesmen to view
    their country's greatness in its cradle, and to anticipate the
    means best calculated to bring it forward to the best and most
    vigorous maturity? Yes, it may be replied, and this is already
    done; have we not _schools_ in abundance for the children
    of all classes, have we not schools _national_, schools
    _congregational_, _army_ schools, _navy_ schools, _public_
    schools, _private_ schools, was ever country so be-schooled
    as this is?--Alas! the education of our youth is miserably
    defective. I do not desire to put down the schools that now
    exist, but I should wish to see others of a much different
    kind established. The education now universally afforded is
    merely _mechanical_. The intellect is but little taxed, and,
    less still, amused by it. What is the amount of instruction
    penuriously dealt out to the children of our mechanics?--why,
    to know how to read, to mind their _stops_ and _emphasis_ in
    proper places, to write and make up pecuniary calculations,
    and this being done, their education is _finished_; they are
    then sent to learn their _trades_; the system of _mechanical_
    instruction goes on; the hands and feet and fingers must
    practise such and such motions by which such and such results
    are produced; and after all it is often found that a better
    workman may be constructed out of materials of wood and iron.

    It is melancholy to reflect how large a field of literature
    has been thus left uncultivated. I lately wanted information
    respecting the iron trade; I desired to know what internal
    or chemical change takes place in the metal in its progress
    through various states: and I have not been able to discover
    that more than one simple and popular treatise on the subject
    has ever issued from the British press. The French have been
    more inquisitive on these important subjects, and some English
    chemists have noticed them in a desultory manner. But a full,
    familiar, and popular treatise on this great source of our
    country's wealth is a _desideratum_ reflecting the greatest
    disgrace on the system of education pursued throughout the
    country. It is impossible that the philosopher who sits down in
    his study to propound theories on subjects connected with arts
    and manufactures should be able to bring as much information to
    the task as is known to the practical man; and it is equally
    useless to hope that the latter can turn his experience to
    the same account as if he were acquainted with the peculiar
    knowledge of the theorist. At the first meeting of this
    society, I mentioned an anecdote of two individuals employed in
    the humble but useful calling of _stone breakers_; one struck
    each stone as it happened to lie before him; the other observed
    that stones broke easiest in _certain directions_; he applied
    this observation to his employment, and was thereby enabled to
    earn considerably more than his companion. Now this fact was
    known to the theorist long before, and under a proper system of
    education, should have been more especially known to him whose
    bread so materially depended on it.

    I constantly observe in the streets and highways, as strong
    an instance as need be adduced to point out the necessity of
    a better national instruction. Waggons are drawn by teams of
    horses to the number of four or even five, placed _one after
    the other_. Now a knowledge of mechanical forces would shew,
    that the nearer the exerting force is placed to the draught,
    the greater the power; to speak in _technical_ language, the
    _power is inversely as the square root of the distance_--thus,
    if one horse be nine feet distant and another sixteen (the
    two horses applying equal strength) the horse nearer the
    draught will draw four pounds for every three drawn by the
    more distant; for these numbers 4 and 3 are the square roots
    of the numbers expressing the distances 16 and 9 feet: or
    in other words, three horses at 9 feet distance will do as
    much as four 16 feet, or as 5 at 25 feet. Horses then in
    draught should always be put _in pairs_; there is an obvious
    inconvenience in increasing the breadth of the team; and
    besides those stationed _too far_ on the side, may be _as far_
    from the centre of gravity of the draught, as if they were
    placed in front of the others. The want of scientific knowledge
    occasioned our ancestors incalculable trouble and expense. I
    will explain this by their aqueducts: should we require to
    convey water from the top of a hill or mountain to another of
    equal elevation, the object may be easily and at little cost
    effected by placing united pipes through the intermediate
    space, and allowing the water to enter at one end. It is
    obvious that it will find its level, it will run through the
    pipe where it has entered, and having filled the lower portion,
    will rise on the opposite side until it has attained the
    elevation at which it entered the pipe on the first hill; but
    before this simple principle was known, it was deemed necessary
    to _find a level_ for the water; immensely high and broad walls
    were raised from mountain to mountain, while to save some
    labour and to afford some convenience, arches of proportionate
    magnitude were built, spanning the valley below, and on the
    top of this structure a canal was formed, over which a stream
    of water, dearer in many instances than _Setin_ or _Falernian
    wine_ was conveyed. The Architects in those days could not have
    been more uselessly and absurdly employed, if their genius were
    exercised in inventing diving bells, to secure the _sea horse_
    from _drowning_, or in constructing steam paddles to assist
    the whale; their employment was more preposterous than that of
    "painting the lily, or flinging fresh perfume o'er the violet."
    Scientific knowledge can be a burden to none, and there are few
    indeed that it may not benefit. Even the frugal house-wife,
    who with her family partakes of the evening cup of tea, may
    practise a little useful economy by knowing a simple chemical
    principle. Some alkalis have a superior power of extracting the
    colouring matter from vegetables. In the tea plant, the essence
    which we extract by infusion is identified with this colouring
    matter; hence, if I put into the tea pot, during the process of
    infusion, a small quantity of the _carbonate of soda_, I shall
    draw forth a larger quantity of the _essential tea-principle_,
    and, of course, I shall have my _tea stronger_; or if I have a
    _respect for my nerves_, a less quantity of tea with a little
    carbonate of soda will answer my purpose.

    In performing operations in certain manufacturing processes,
    all the assurance of success in the mind of the operator
    proceeds from the knowledge that, by the same means, _such
    results have been produced before_. How exceedingly slow then
    must be the progress of discovery and improvement. It is almost
    impossible in some trades, that some fortunate combination of
    circumstances should not occasionally take place, and that
    a discovery of importance should not thereby follow. It was
    thus that the telescope was invented. Some glasses happened
    to be placed by the hands of children, in such a disposition
    as to magnifying or reflecting powers, as that the peculiar
    telescopic qualities were observed. The hint was acted on, and
    after repeated trials and disappointments, some clumsy and
    inefficient telescopes were formed. But had the science of
    optics been known, the secret must have instantly followed;
    or had the construction of the human eye been previously
    considered (for the eye is a perfect and beautiful telescope)
    the hint for making an external and _auxiliary eye_ would
    have been suggested by the study. But let it not be supposed
    that all important discoveries are already made, and that
    there is no opportunity for new Watts and Arkwrights to take
    their illustrious positions in society. Genius still has many
    harvests to reap, and men of common sense and common ingenuity
    have many opportunities of rising to wealth and respectability.
    Even a simple discovery in _candle-making_ is at this moment
    realizing a fortune for the inventor. Many of you know the
    argand lamp; the burner, whether for oil or gas, is circular,
    and through it is a passage for a current of air; while this is
    freely open the volume of flame is large, and the colour of the
    light white, but when obstructed the flame is smaller and of a
    _bluish_ colour. Most of the gas burners in the shops are on
    the argand principle, where the fact now stated may be brought
    to trial. The inventor of the patent candles had nothing to do
    but to transfer this well known principle to materials used in
    candle making; the wick is tubular, and the passage secured
    from obstruction by the melted wax or tallow. This was almost
    the whole improvement. Candles thus made, burn with a purer
    and larger flame, and the protection afforded to inventors by
    the patent laws, will I doubt not, be the cause of an abundant
    reward to the _observer_. Thousands of these discoveries will
    yet be made, and thousands will derive fortunes from the
    discoveries.

    In the very same useful article, I knew an attempt made to
    produce improvement, which was unsuccessful, because the
    individual was poor, and his fellow tradesmen ignorant. Had he
    the means of continuing experiments, or could he have found
    any individual in the candle trade wealthy enough to assist
    him, and possessing sagacity enough to appreciate the intended
    improvement, I am confident the effort alluded to would have
    issued in merited success. The case was this. It may not
    be known to you, that generally, no flame can be produced
    without a quantity of a certain gas which is always in the
    atmosphere, called oxygen; if a portion of air be deprived of
    this gas, you can get nothing to burn in it; if you increase
    the quantity of oxygen, you thereby augment the flame of any
    substance burning in it; if you fill a vessel with pure oxygen,
    almost any thing will burn in it; even _iron_ first touched
    with lighted tinder, will burn in it, with a light intense and
    beautiful. An individual in the candle trade conceived the idea
    of infusing this oxygen gas into tallow; his ingenuity enabled
    him to overcome some obstacles; the tallow was saturated with
    this supporter of flame, and candles were formed from it;
    but when the candle was lighted, it was discovered that the
    tallow all round was possessed with the quality of _wick_; it
    was beautifully inflammable, but the candle burned away very
    rapidly. From circumstances noticed above the inventor could
    not follow up his experiments to the point he had so nearly
    attained _success_. The art of dyeing is very imperfectly
    understood by those who profess it. A dyer possesses merely an
    _imperfect art_ when he ought to command a _perfect science_.
    I know few, if any, trades so completely scientific, and so
    abounding with pleasing investigation. But there is not only
    the absence of this pleasure but absolute loss of money to the
    dyer in the composition of various dyes. This may be shewn in
    several ways; I shall now notice one. The science of chemistry
    has unfolded a singular fact, which is that bodies will not
    always unite in _any proportions_ we might desire; we may take
    salt and water, and mix them in any proportions up to the
    period when the water becomes _saturated_, but it then finds a
    limit. Thus we can make water more or less salt.

    Now common vitriol is a compound formed of sulphur and oxygen;
    two parts of the former being mixed with one of the latter;
    but if one unacquainted with this principle should attempt to
    make vitriol, and should put three parts of the sulphur to
    one of the oxygen, or two of sulphur to two of oxygen, there
    would either be a positive waste of a considerable portion
    of ingredients, or a new article would be formed essentially
    different from the desired acid. A want of knowing this
    valuable truth costs many an humble dyer a fortune. How evident
    is it then, that "Ignorance is a heavy tax."

    In the operation of tanning it might be shewn, and I trust
    will be shewn by gentlemen connected with this institution,
    both by lectures and experiments, that the exhausted tan, as
    it is called, contains much more of the tanning principle
    than has been extracted from it. Our British-oak bark is
    approaching a final exhaustion, and when we are driven to use
    the foreign only, the secret will I doubt not be discovered.
    When I look around me, and consider the several trades, arts
    and manufactures, in which many in this district are engaged,
    I cannot help expressing my astonishment that an Institution
    of this nature was not established before. Instances of the
    beneficial purposes it would serve, multiply on me so fast,
    that I might expend the time of many lectures on the subject
    of this evening. I do not wish to _encourage fraud_, but a
    fact now strikes me, in reference to the gold, silver, and
    jewellery trade, too curious to omit. I shall prepare my way
    by explaining a few principles respecting _weight_. I dare say
    you are aware that the air we breathe possesses weight. If you
    weigh a bottle under ordinary circumstances, containing air,
    and _nothing else_, and afterwards pump the air from it and
    weigh it again, you will find that its weight is reduced; it
    weighs _less_ than when filled with air. Now if I weigh two
    bodies of different sizes, but of equal weights, in the open
    air, and then dip _balance and all_ into water, I shall find
    that they are no longer equiponderant. Each article in weighing
    _loses as much weight as is equivalent to its own bulk of the
    medium in which it is weighed_. For instance, if I weigh a
    piece of timber shaped like a _quart bottle_ and of the size
    of one, and in the other scale have copper weights, the timber
    will lose as much weight as the size of the bottle of air would
    weigh, and the copper loses as much weight as _its_ own size
    of air would weigh. Now if I weigh them both in water, the
    timber will lose as much weight as a bottle of _water_ would
    weigh, and the copper weight will lose as much as its bulk of
    water would weigh. It is evident then that the disproportion in
    the latter case must be much greater than in the former. This
    is the reason why boys lift stones in the water they could not
    raise on land. And this is the reason that we often find, that
    a commodity balances a certain weight at one time, which it
    will not balance at another.

    The cases of air and water, as media for weighing, I have
    adduced as extreme cases, to explain the effects of the
    different states of the atmosphere; some times it is _light_
    and _thin_, at others _dense_ and _heavy_. When air is _light_,
    bodies weighed lose _little_, but when it is _heavy_, they
    lose proportionably. It is then of importance in purchasing
    precious articles by weight, to know the state of the weather
    as indicated by the barometer, and to observe the same index
    when we sell again; the difference in silver would not be much,
    that of gold would be of more importance, but in the purchase
    of _diamonds_ the difference in value may be very considerable.
    But you must observe, that as each body loses according to
    its _bulk_, so the greater disproportion in _this respect_,
    the better; a fraudulent jeweller should then have weights of
    _wood_, and he should buy when the _atmosphere is light_, and
    sell when it is heavy; the rule also will be of service with
    common weights to the dealers in feathers, &c. _So much for
    honesty!_

    In connexion with the silversmith's business, I shall now
    illustrate my subject by a reference to the art of gilding.
    Many of our shopkeepers are proud of having their names and
    callings over their shops, glittering in golden letters; and
    Dudley has many artists well qualified to gratify the taste.
    We also gild our frames for pictures and mirrors; but the
    gilding soon wears off, particularly that exposed to the air.
    The artist cannot prevent this, he has no control over the air,
    but the man of science has. I think I shall best illustrate
    my subject, by noticing the discovery of the truly beautiful
    principle it is now my object to unfold.

    The atmosphere acts with various corroding effects on different
    metals, and it will, under certain known circumstances, often
    pass by one to seize upon another. Some years since the lords
    of the admiralty, struck with the amazing expense of coppering
    ships' bottoms every year, (for one year, or rather one long
    voyage, effectually corroded and destroyed one sheathing)
    applied to Sir H. DAVY, to know if any plan could be devised
    for remedying this serious evil. It would be useless for me
    now to enter into minute details; suffice it to say, that
    Sir H. DAVY was fully aware of the principle noticed above,
    and he applied it; he connected here and there very small
    portions of metals, more liable under certain influences to
    be _rusted_, than the copper of the vessels; the metals he
    used were iron and zinc; the latter placed inside the ship,
    the former connecting it to the copper outside. The process
    was most simple,--the cost very trifling,--the success truly
    gratifying. It was then found that the corrosive qualities of
    both air and sea water were neutralized; and, fortified with
    this simple protection, vessels afterwards completed the whole
    extent of the India voyage, without the copper sheathing being
    tarnished. True, other difficulties made their appearance.
    Rust of copper is pernicious to water-worms and small marine
    animals, that do great injury to the bottoms of ships; and when
    the copper was kept free from rust, by means of Sir H. DAVY'S
    galvanic contrivance, those little reptiles came in vastly
    increased numbers and strength, and achieved as much mischief
    as was prevented. But while ship's bottoms are thus exposed,
    the principle on which it was attempted to secure them, may be
    applied to other purposes; amongst those is gilding. By drawing
    a very simple galvanic circle, made of small morsels of zinc
    and iron from the gilded letters or ornaments outside a shop
    window, the gilding may be made to retain its brilliancy for
    many years. Indeed simply driving a _nail_ in the wood-work
    under every letter, will keep the metallic lustre outside
    distinct and beautiful for a much longer time, than if this
    were not done.

    Whenever a new principle unfolds a law of nature, its
    applications are almost innumerable; and things buried in
    mystery before, become simple and obvious. I some time since
    visited the Cradley Salt Wells, and on entering the bath room,
    saw a man busily and laboriously employed in removing the rust
    from the inside of the boiler; he told me he had to repeat
    this job very often; for that the dust formed very fast, and
    quickly became exceedingly hard. This was obvious to me from
    the difficulty of removing it with a large and heavy knife.
    I instantly saw a method by which the man's labour might be
    altogether saved; or the task much more easily accomplished.
    This was by the application of chemical re-agents. I do not
    profess to know these, because my acquaintance with that
    beautiful science is too limited; but such as it is, I doubt
    not, that after a few experiments, I could discover it. But
    I _do_ know a principle, that if applied, would not only
    have made the task an easy one, but would, absolutely, _have
    rendered it unnecessary_; and that is, the principle noticed
    above in reference to ship's bottoms, and gilding. Were a
    portion of zinc placed, according to the galvanic principles,
    in connection with the inside of the boiler, the rust would
    not accumulate, at least _on the boiler_; the same agency that
    in the former case kept the coppers clean, and the gilding
    bright, would in this case also, prevent the _incrustation from
    adhering_ to the boilers of the _Salt Wells at Cradley_.

    It must be acknowledged, that there is in the human mind a very
    great repugnance to that which is _new_. The march of knowledge
    is always considerably in advance of the march of improvement;
    a philosophical principle of the greatest value, is sometimes
    ascertained a long time before it is profitably employed.
    It was suggested long since that the principle here noticed
    ought to be used in the construction of steam boilers of all
    descriptions, all being subject to rust; but particularly those
    of ships, in which the water is generally from the sea. This
    has not been done; and I am confident that if it had, many
    explosions would have been prevented, and many lives saved.
    But the time is fast approaching, when no useful discovery
    will be rejected, merely from the fact of its being _new_.
    Many a fortune to future mechanics and artists in the form of
    philosophical theories are already stored up in the studies of
    men of science. They want the knowledge of _how_ they should
    be applied, and men who could employ them _knew nothing about
    them_.

    One of the latest triumphs of Science is of a nature too
    interesting, and too appropriate for my present purpose, to
    be omitted. I refer to the cure of _dry rot_ in timber. This
    malady, the scourge of houses and builders, long engaged the
    attention of the literary world; and recently was nearly
    abandoned in despair. Success and perseverance are however
    closely allied. The eye of the chemist was brought to bear
    somewhat more closely on the subject. It was observed that
    in the pores of some timbers a little globule of fluid was
    contained, which further examination proved to be a substance
    called _albumen_, precisely the same as the white of the
    egg. This substance, belonging more to the _animal_ than to
    the _vegetable_ world, was more liable to putrefaction or
    rottenness; and when in this state, it naturally imparted the
    principle of decay to the surrounding woody fibre. This was
    the true nature and cause of _dry rot_. The _knowledge of the
    disease_ is, proverbially, considered _half_ the _cure_. Here
    it was the whole cure. It was known that _corrosive sublimate_
    united to _albumen_ formed a substance not liable to _this_
    species of corruption. The timber then was deposited in tanks
    containing a solution of _corrosive sublimate_, and it was
    discovered that _albumen_ was immediately destroyed; and, of
    course, the dry rot effectually prevented. The discovery is
    truly beautiful, and not less so than valuable and important.

    A question is sometimes asked by persons in this neighbourhood,
    whose querulous propensities cause them to anticipate evils,
    centuries removed,--what will become of the iron trade when all
    the coal pits are worked out? The question brings to mind the
    old lady who, on being told that a certain comet would in the
    year 3,000 and odd burn the world, absolutely lost her senses
    through fear.

    The man who from past improvements relies on human ingenuity
    sees no cause for apprehension in the question. For what is the
    fact,--the same question was just as seriously asked a couple
    of centuries back in reference to timber, what shall be done
    for iron manufacturing when all the timber in the neighbouring
    woods shall be exhausted? It appears that the woods about
    Dudley were very extensive at the time. Of these but little
    remains at present; but the manufacture of iron has experienced
    no obstruction.

    The idea of applying _coal_ to the purpose would have appeared
    _preposterous_. This valuable combustible was known to exist
    abundantly, but it was believed to be impracticable to apply it
    to the manufacture of iron, till a Mr. DUD DUDLEY, in the year
    1619, tried the experiment and tried it successfully.

    Had I time I should gladly read the life of this singular man.
    It may be found in SHAW'S History of Staffordshire; but I have
    not time even to condense it. The obstacles he had to encounter
    for forty years, from a want of scientific knowledge--from
    those who detested _innovations_--from those who saw that his
    success would be prejudicial to their interests--from natural
    causes (such as floods, &c.)--and his final and complete
    triumph over all, evince a mind gifted with no ordinary
    endowments. I think it would interest many were this life read
    in the society some evening of meeting.

    But the question may be asked, do _you_ see any probable
    substitute for coke, when the coal is exhausted? I answer,
    yes I do; and you will smile when I tell you that it is by
    _burning water_; for the fact is undeniable, that water is, in
    its elements, a most combustible body. This discovery has been
    long within sight; the only obstacle was, that the expense of
    other materials, necessary for preparing _water for fuel_, was
    too great to make the discovery practically useful; this it is
    said has been overcome by a gentleman at Leamington[1] and we
    may shortly expect to see coal and timber superseded by this
    more abundant article. Cooks will then light up their fires
    by heaping upon it _masses_ of ice, and the rivers will be in
    constant danger from the impudence of _cigar smoking boatmen_.

    But, seriously, while we laugh, a proper question is, why
    should such anticipations excite laughter? An article appeared
    last year in Tait's Magazine, on reading which, we may have
    cause to suspect, that in the abundance of our laughter, there
    may be much folly. As the article is short, amusing, and to my
    purpose, I shall read it. "About this time five hundred years
    ago, _Anno Domini_ 1340, gunpowder and guns were invented." Now
    the following (setting aside the mode of language, which is
    not essential to our purpose) is the way in which one of these
    gentlemen, a few months previous to that event, would have
    expressed himself in reference to some other impossibility.
    Somebody would be speaking of alterations in the mode of
    warfare, upon which our contemptuous antivicissitudinarian
    would thus break out:--

    "A change like _that_! Why you might as well say that people
    by-and-by will fight with fire and smoke, and that there will
    be arrows as round as plum-puddings, and made of lead, as thick
    as your skull!"--(A laugh among the Hon. Gentlemen of that
    time.)

    In nine months after this speech, gunpowder is invented, and
    the art comes up by which round leaden arrows are shot out of
    cannon, darting fire as they come, and filling the air with
    smoke.

    _Anno Domini_ 1440--The great grandson, or other representative
    of the above gentleman, exclaims, on some fresh subject of
    innovation amidst the honours of the laugh.--"A change like
    _that_! Why, you might as well say that by-and-by there will
    be books without being copied out, and that we shall have a
    hundred of those impossible books in the course of a day."

    Next year the art of printing is invented, which was thought
    at first a thing magical and devilish, and by which we can now
    have a thousand copies of a book in a day.

    _Anno Domini_ 1534.--The great-great-great-great-grandson or
    _now_ representative as aforesaid, is treating some other
    novelty with the usual happy contempt of his race:--"A change
    like _that_! Why, you might as well say, that the people will
    all be permitted to read the Bible, and that nunneries, and
    even Abbots will be put down!!"--(Shouts of laughter, in which
    the Reverend Abbots present were observed to join.)

    The same year the Bible is printed and read openly, and upwards
    of six hundred religious houses suppressed.

    _Anno Domini_ 1666.--"A change like that!" quoth the
    representatives, "Why you might as well say that Englishmen
    will leave off taking a steak and a cold tankard for their
    breakfast--(A laugh)--or that they will go to the other end of
    the world to pluck it off a gooseberry bush."--(Great laughter.)

    The same year tea is brought into England, not indeed off a
    gooseberry bush, but off a bush of no greater importance, and
    (in common parlance) at the other end of the world.

    But what ridicule would the man have excited who would have
    presumed to prophesy the use of the _compass_, the application
    of the _giant steam_, and the rising of gas light over the
    manufacturing and the civilized world! What more interesting
    task than to sit down with our fathers and hear them tell how
    things were done formerly; with what time, trouble, expense,
    and uncertainty operations were then performed, that now cost
    but little delay or uneasiness. There is not a single mechanic
    amongst us who, in the course of his study, will not see
    hints towards an improvement that future times will develope,
    doubtless far greater than what has already taken place.

    And let me urge it on you, the pursuits that will lead to these
    ends belong peculiarly and immediately to you. The philosopher
    goes out of his way to pursue them. When we find Dr. Lardner
    furnishing the world with practical treatises on manufactures,
    we are surprised to think where he got the information. You,
    the mechanics, ought to be the discoverers of all improvements
    in your several trades, and ought to enjoy the reward of
    such discoveries. Talk not of want of time, anticipate not
    difficulties. When you feel disposed to make such apologies,
    call to mind Sir R. Arkwright, when a barber's boy, kicked and
    cuffed by his master for chalking the wig blocks over with
    figures, that were to him fully as intelligible though not so
    pretty as the hieroglyphics of Egypt. Poor Arkwright had the
    most difficult obstacles to surmount; and yet he lived to be
    honoured, and died full of years and possessions.

    And call to mind the profound Bonnycastle, who commenced his
    literary career in the situation of shoe-boy, an _inferior
    kind_ _of John Boots_ in the Military College of Woolwich;
    where he afterwards became deservedly the principal. And
    look to honest Jamie Ferguson, making a heaven and an earth
    for himself while he tended the flocks and herds of his
    agricultural employer. Many a cold night did this poor boy lie
    on his back to watch the motions of the stars, and to imitate
    them by his ingenious contrivances; and who that then saw him
    could have supposed that he was destined to become the light
    and pride of science, the friend and favourite of kings and
    philosophers. And is there nothing inciting in the story of
    BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, the printer, entering Philadelphia unknowing
    and unknown in his 17th year, eating his plain morsel under
    the portico of that proud mansion that afterwards gave him a
    wife?--And is there no magic to rouse to exertion in the names
    _Marmontel_, _Kelper_, _Johnson_, _Linnæus_ and _Simpson_,
    men whose genius no poverty could blight, and "being dead yet
    speak?" But where do I run?--Is not the delight of pursuing
    science an ample recompense? if not, is there not a _golden
    reward_ in reversion. Truly has it been said of wisdom, that
    "she has in her right hand riches and honour."

       *       *       *       *       *

    THIRD EDITION OF THE SPEECH OF THE RIGHT HON. AND REV. LORD
    WARD.

    DELIVERED IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS ON MONDAY EVENING, April 6th,
    1835.

    THE MINISTRY.

    Lord WARD rose and said: For the first time, and perhaps for
    the last, I now address your Lordships. I beg to know from his
    Majesty's Ministers whether they have advised an Honourable
    Friend of mine, the member for Dudley (Mr. T. Hawkes), to
    present an Address from that place to his Majesty, in favour of
    his Majesty's present Ministry.

    [The Duke of WELLINGTON, and the other Members of the
    Government who were on the Treasury Bench, appeared for some
    seconds in consultation; but no answer was given.]

    Lord WARD: Am I to infer from the silence of the noble Lords
    opposite, that such is the case, that the Honourable Member
    for Dudley has presented such an address to his Majesty?
    because, if he has, I feel myself called on to say that it
    was not founded on fact--that that address was got up at a
    hole-and-corner meeting--that it did not express the opinions
    of the people of the town of Dudley--that his Majesty has been
    deceived and cajoled by the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the
    first Lord of the Treasury; and I think it high time that his
    Majesty's confidence should be disabused, and that he should
    be informed that such are not the sentiments of my Honourable
    Friend's constituents.

    The Duke of WELLINGTON: I understand that the Noble Lord has
    inquired if any Members of his Majesty's Government in this
    House have advised the presentation to his Majesty of an
    address from the town of Dudley in favour of his Majesty's
    present Ministers. In reply, I beg to assure the Noble Lord,
    that I have no knowledge whatsoever of the presentation of any
    such address.

                                      _Morning Chronicle, April 7._

       *       *       *       *       *

    From the COURIER, April 7.

    Among the things which occurred worthy of notice, last night,
    in the House of Lords, the short speech of Lord Ward must not
    be overlooked. He asked the Ministers whether they had advised
    his Hon. Friend the Member for Dudley to present an address
    from that town in favour of his Majesty's Ministers. No doubt
    they willingly accepted that or any other little help to eke
    out their popularity and make a show to the King; and no doubt,
    as Lord WARD stated, his Majesty was cajoled to believe that
    his Ministers were very popular in the country. Sir ROBERT
    PEEL seems to have the same opinion, for he appealed the other
    night from the majority in the House to the majority out of
    doors; but he and his friends have so little confidence in
    his popularity, that they carefully exclude, as yesterday at
    Westerminster, all but their invited supporters from the little
    clubs which they call public meetings. Lord WARD stated a plain
    fact in a bold and manly manner.

       *       *       *       *       *

    AN ADDRESS OF THE NON-ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH AND NEIGHBOURHOOD
    OF DUDLEY

    TO THE RIGHT HON. AND REV. LORD WARD.

    MY LORD,

    The Non-Electors of the Borough and Neighbourhood of Dudley
    have felt much gratified at your Lordship's spirited conduct
    in the House of Lords on the 6th instant, and at your generous
    and unsolicited vindication of the Borough of Dudley from the
    suspicion of entertaining sentiments like those imputed to
    them in the hole and corner Address emanating from the Tory
    faction of Dudley, so calculated to mislead the Sovereign
    and induce him to retain a Ministry whose design was to lead
    the Country into Slavery and Ruin. This, my Lord, is the way
    in which Kings have been so often deceived, always to the
    Country's prejudice, and sometimes, as History proves, to the
    destruction of the Throne.

    Thank you, my Lord, for standing up for the plain Truth, so
    necessary at this time both to King and Country and that
    you have not suffered a faction whose personal objects are
    of a most base and selfish character, and whose political
    objects are the destruction of all popular influence and the
    establishment of an aristocratic tyranny.

    We, my Lord, are anxious to maintain the constitutional rights
    of King, Lords, and Commons, these can be supported only by
    doing Justice to the long outraged Millions, who by delusions
    like those attempted in the Address so justly condemned by your
    Lordship, have long been the victims of unprincipled Courtiers
    and corrupt Statesmen, supported heretofore by an abandoned
    Majority of the House of Commons.

    Considering your Lordship at once as a Peer and a Clergyman,
    and what is still more honourable, a friend of Truth and an
    enemy of Deception and Cajolery--we feel ourselves bound thus
    to express our sentiments of respect and admiration, and our
    hope that your Lordship's sagacity and patriotism will detect
    any attempts which may hereafter be made to deceive the King
    and misrepresent the People.

                         We have the honour to be

                   Your Lordship's most obedient Servants,

                 THE NON-ELECTORS OF DUDLEY AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD.

    To the Right Hon. and Rev.  Lord Ward, Himley.

    _Dudley, Monday, April 20, 1835._

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY, August 1833.

    We, the undersigned, Inhabitants of the Town and Parish of
    Dudley, and its Vicinity, having heard with surprise and
    Indignation of the GROSS and UNMANLY attack made by Sir
    John Campbell, on the acting Magistrates of this Town and
    Neighbourhood, in the House of Commons, in the following Words,

    "_That in this Town, Justice is not administered to the
    satisfaction of the Public, and that the most serious
    discontent prevails, and that the Magistrates are such, as in
    their absence he should not like to describe_"--

    Take the earliest opportunity of bearing our voluntary
    Testimony to the upright, independent, and praiseworthy conduct
    of the Magistrates acting for this Town and Neighbourhood;
    and of asserting that they have uniformly conducted
    themselves to the perfect satisfaction of the Inhabitants
    and public in general, and we deny that "serious discontent
    prevails."--To Gentlemen of high respectability and character
    who have sacrificed so much valuable time (each of them being
    extensively engaged in business) we consider ourselves deeply
    indebted; and we beg to tender to them our most sincere
    and grateful thanks for their unwearied exertions in the
    administration of Justice and the preservation of the public
    Peace.

    Luke Booker, Vicar of Dudley
    Proctor Robinson, M.A.
    Edward Harper Wainwright, B.A.
    John Booth, B.A.
    Joseph Bennitt, } Churchwardens
    John Williams,  }
    William Taylor,  } Overseers
    P. V. Swanwick,  } of the
    Henry Harper,    } Poor
    Tho. Shorthouse, }
    J. G. Bourne, Mayor
    Edward Dixon, Banker
    Cornelius Cartwright, Surgeon
    Thomas Wainwright, Surgeon
    W. Bennitt, Capt. of the D.Y.C.
    William Bennitt
    Joseph Guest, Glass Manufacturer
    James Bourne, Solicitor
    Francis Downing, Gent.
    H. D. Bourne, Coal Master
    James Bourne, jun. Solicitor
    W. E. Davies, Glass Manufacturer
    William Masefield, Draper
    Joseph Smith, Innkeeper
    Edward Terry, Grocer
    John Bagott, Tailor
    Stephen Bullas, Ironmonger
    J. M. Capewell, Dentist
    John Harper, Grocer
    John Standish, Hairdresser
    John Orme Brettell, Land Agent
    Thomas Brettell, Coal Master
    O. G. Shaw, Maltster
    James Johnson, Grocer
    Richard Bourne, Organist
    Eber Patten, Hatter
    John Tompson, Mine Agent
    W. H. Tompson, Stone Master
    Samuel Johnson, Agent
    George Payton, Coal Master
    Thomas Griffiths, Shoedealer
    Richard Wilcox, Innkeeper
    Henry C. Brettell, Solicitor
    Joseph C. Brettell, Engineer
    Joseph Payton, Auctioneer
    Richard Lakin, Hatter
    William Fellows, jun. Solicitor
    John Roberts, Surgeon
    John Rann, Gent.
    Charles Homer, Wine Merchant
    Hartil Dudley, Nail Ironmonger
    Benjamin Dudley, Silk Mercer
    Cornelius C. Brettell, Surveyor
    Geo. Sep. Tompson, Shoemaker
    Samuel Pemberton, Coal Master
    John Leake, Chemist and Drysalter
    J. S. Jeavons, Iron Merchant
    J. S. Turner, Chemist
    John Pritchard, Grocer
    Samuel Dunn, Flour Dealer
    Henry Darby, Book-keeper
    James Bloomer, Fendermaker
    James Grigg, Wheelwright
    Benj. Woolley, Nail Ironmonger
    Samuel Lewis, Nail Ironmonger
    James Yates, Agent
    William Fellowes, sen. Solicitor
    John Vaughan, Accountant
    W. R. Baker, Draper
    John Owen, Confectioner
    Richard Timmings, Ironmonger
    William Mills, Grocer
    Benjamin Prince, Town Clerk
    Josegh Whitehouse, Fishmonger
    James Ashton, Innkeeper
    John Henly, Glass Cutter
    Joseph Gardener, Tailor
    John Raybould, Paviour
    John Timmins, Broker
    John Leech, Grocer
    John Oakey, Gent.
    Joseph Bate, Ironmonger
    J. Newbold, Chemist and Druggist
    Thomas Cox, Nail Ironmonger
    William Haden, Ironmaster
    Joseph Haden, Ironmaster
    William Shedden, Gent.
    James Bullas, Gent.
    Thomas Fereday, Surgeon
    William Smith, Accountant
    Joseph Lear, Innkeeper
    Samuel Whyley, Blacksmith
    Charles Cox, Innkeeper
    William Whyley, Butcher
    Edward Kimberley, Fishmonger
    Thomas Pearsall, Attorney's Clerk
    Benjamin Shaw, ditto
    Thomas Allen, Parish Clerk
    John Eld, Baker
    William Brown, Victualler
    Samuel Payne, Innkeeper
    Thomas Gray, Draper
    Benjamin Jordan, Innkeeper
    William Jordan, Shoemaker
    Joseph Dudley, Shoemaker
    George Fellowes, Carpenter
    William Adams, Victualler
    John Nock, Draper
    John Smart, Fishmonger
    B. Woolley, jun. Chain Manufacturer
    Thomas Fehr, Spirit Merchant
    Edward Blakeway, Grocer
    Francis Baker, Grocer
    Joseph Salt, Stonemason
    William Self, Butcher
    W. J. Cruchley, School-master
    Edward Bill, Builder
    Richard Thomas, Sheriffs' Officer
    Thomas Steedman, Maltster
    Richard Whitehouse, Dealer
    William Robinson, Solicitor
    James Darby, Book-keeper
    Thomas Thomas, Nail Factor
    William Howells, Clerk
    Edward Foley, Maltster
    Edward Marsh, Surveyor
    James Fullwood, Wheelwright
    Jos. Hartill, Fender Manufacturer
    Daniel Shaw, Surgeon
    Joseph Whitehouse, Glazier
    Joseph Cooke, Saddler
    William Whatmore, Innkeeper
    Barnabas Willcox, Currier
    John Powell, Painter
    William Deeley, Iron Founder
    John Share, Upholsterer
    William Round, Timber Merchant
    John Rann, Printer
    John Sherman, Draper
    Thomas Lewis, Agent
    Charles Bunn, Butcher
    Joseph Cox, Nail Ironmonger
    John Holland, Builder
    Daniel Parker, Builder
    Jeremy Parker, Timber Merchant
    William Herbert, Engraver
    Samuel Herbert, ditto
    James Bill, Builder
    Matthew Houghton, Coal Master
    Edward Creswell, Iron Master
    Thomas Rhodes, Banker's Clerk
    George Bennett, ditto
    William Smitheman, Innkeeper
    Robert Martin, Iron Founder
    Thomas Eves, Coach Proprietor
    Edward Guest, Glass Manufacturer
    Zechariah Round, Builder
    William Power, Farrier
    Edward Challingsworth, Saddler
    Thomas Stokes, Builder
    John Stokes, ditto
    Joseph Anslow, Plumber
    John Cheshire
    Luke Price, Shoemaker
    William Hollies, ditto
    Edward Robinson, Gent.
    Robert Garratt, Innkeeper
    Sheld. Gray, Wine and Spirit Dealer
    Thomas Whitehouse, Book-keeper
    J. W. Pain, Teacher of Gymnastics
    Thomas Irwin, Glass Cutter
    Joseph Lear, Glassman
    George Lear, Clothier
    A. Power Steedman, Maltster
    William Richardson, Engineer
    Joshua Harvey, Iron Founder
    John Sturmey, Grocer
    George Fryer, Seedsman
    Thomas Woodall, Blacksmith
    John G. Derecourt, Carpenter
    Joseph Pearson, Builder
    Mark Boden, Excise Officer
    John Perry, Locksmith
    Thomas Bradley, Grocer
    James Brewin, Accountant
    Mark Bond, Gent.
    John Allen, Cordwainer
    John Hobson, Victualler
    John Fullard, Hairdresser
    Elijah Hillman, Butcher
    Joseph Haxeltine, ditto
    Thomas Worrad, Innkeeper
    Thomas Hines, Staymaker
    Charles Lucas, Butcher
    Richard Dudley, Surveyor
    Samuel James, Victualler
    Samuel Hudson, Corkcutter
    John Hughes, Clerk
    George Evans, Clerk
    Joseph Bradley, Clerk
    William Morrall, Upholsterer
    Humphrey Hartle, Victualler
    Samuel Fisher, Victualler
    George Lloyd, Glasscutter
    Samuel Chavasse, Accountant
    Thomas Davidson, Accountant

    And others, making upwards of 300 persons who signed
    this Address.

       *       *       *       *       *

    SIR JOHN CAMPBELL.

    (From the _John Bull_ Newspaper, of August 18th, 1833.)

    "SIR JOHN CAMPBELL, the Solicitor-General, has 'put his foot
    into it,' as the old wives have it.

    "It seems that Sir JOHN--a most unpopular man at best--has
    been for some time getting out of the good graces of his
    supporters at Dudley, by having, upon every occasion, voted
    with Ministers, which, as Solicitor-General, appears to us
    to be nothing more than might be expected; not so, however,
    because he had publicly and repeatedly pledged himself to his
    constituents _to do no such thing_.

    "Although Sir JOHN--we speak advisedly--has not the remotest
    chance of being again returned for Dudley, he felt that he
    ought to do something to brush up his radical friends there,
    and accordingly decided upon attacking the characters of the
    Magistrates acting for the town and neighbourhood. As it turns
    out, nothing could have been more unjust, and as it will turn
    out, nothing so foolish.

    "The population of the circle of four miles, of which Dudley
    is the central point, exceeds one hundred thousand; and if
    the purest integrity, patience of investigation, strict
    impartiality, and Christian lenity, are requisite for the
    Bench, these qualifications the Dudley Magistrates in an
    eminent degree possess.

    "In making an enquiry of Lord ALTHORP whether Government
    intended to grant charters to the new boroughs, Sir JOHN
    CAMPBELL stated that no place more needed one than Dudley;
    'for,' said he, '_the people have no voice in the election
    of their Magistrates. Justice is not administered to the
    satisfaction of the public; serious discontent prevails there,
    and the Magistrates are such as in their absence I should not
    like to describe._'

    "It is by no means difficult to point out the party to whom the
    administration of justice in Dudley is not satisfactory. Some
    time since, a considerable number of the friends and supporters
    of Sir JOHN CAMPBELL, who voted for him at the last election,
    were brought before the Magistrates, and convicted of using
    _short weights_ and _false measures_, and accordingly fined for
    their rascality; others of Sir JOHN'S supporters have been in
    'durance vile;' and to these, and such as these, '_justice is
    not satisfactorily administered_;' and amongst these '_the most
    serious discontents prevail_,' but among none else.

    "Sir JOHN, not content, however, with denouncing the existing
    Magistracy of the town he represents, proceeds to observe, that
    there are several enlightened persons in Dudley who could,
    under a new charter, administer justice _in a manner creditable
    to themselves and satisfactory to the public_.

    "Now let us look at some of Sir JOHN CAMPBELL'S objections to
    the present Magistrates. He objects to them because they are
    in trade--one being a banker, and the other two first-rate
    manufacturers in independent circumstances, and employing
    hundreds of hands. Sir JOHN'S friends, with two or three
    exceptions, are _retail_ tradesmen who, by their education
    and habits, are not qualified for the Bench, and who, through
    fear of offending their customers, would not be likely to give
    unprejudiced judgments.

    "The next charge brought by Sir JOHN CAMPBELL against the
    Magistrates is somewhat comical; he not only charges them with
    being active partisans, but with being all on one side.

    "Sir JOHN shews somewhat of the simpleton here. He proclaims
    to the world, if the world happen to care anything about
    him one way or another, that all the respectable part of
    the constituency of the place he represents, is zealously
    and unanimously opposed to him. Certain it is that all the
    respectable portion of the population voted against Sir JOHN;
    but to shew that political feeling had but a small share in
    their disinclination to _him_, the very same people voted for
    Mr. LITTLETON, who is also a _Whig_, and now also a _placeman_.

    "One cannot wonder at Sir JOHN'S soreness, but that he should
    permit it to be seen seems extremely curious--for he is a
    Lawyer, and hath a reputation for 'cunninge;' yet when the
    Magistrates petitioned the House of Commons on Monday, although
    Mr. LITTLETON, the Secretary, and (as he says himself) _de
    facto_ LORD LIEUTENANT OF IRELAND, and Sir OSWALD MOSELEY, the
    Chairman of the Quarter Sessions, gave those gentlemen the
    highest character, founded not only on their public conduct,
    but upon their own personal knowledge, Sir JOHN CAMPBELL, would
    not retract a word of what he had said, but only, as Sir OSWALD
    MOSELEY observed, 'made his attack worse by his explanation.'

    "This stubbornness in his calumny is easily to be accounted
    for. Sir JOHN knows that his doom at Dudley is sealed, and
    therefore imagines, perhaps, that it will look manly, and bold,
    and patriotic, not to flinch. The effect of his venom, however,
    has been rather different from what he anticipated. Addresses,
    _expressive of their best thanks and high admiration of the
    manner in which the Magistrates have discharged their public
    duties, and preserved the public peace upon every occasion_,
    have been spontaneously prepared, and are already signed by
    hundreds of the Clergy, Bankers, Merchants, Manufacturers, and
    Farmers. Never did there appear more unanimity in an insulted
    town--insulted and libelled by its own Representative--and
    never was insult more keenly felt.

    "We have now shewn who the persons are whom Sir JOHN CAMPBELL
    ventures to stigmatise and abuse--now let us exhibit some of
    those to whom he is obliged to truckle. One case will do for
    the present.

    "It seems that a radical bookseller at Birmingham, of the
    name of RUSSELL (no relation we believe to the BEDFORDS)
    published a libel upon the Street Commissioners. Sir JOHN was
    retained to move for a criminal information against him--'it
    was in his vocation, _Hal_!' of course he took the _Gaus_ and
    did his work. Will it be believed, that because he did this,
    his constituents in Dudley write to him--to Sir JOHN the
    KNIGHT--the Parliament man!--the KING'S SOLICITOR GENERAL, to
    know how 'he came to do such a thing as move for a criminal
    information against a libeller?'

    "Will it be believed, that this Solicitor General--the
    denouncer of Magistrates--the representative of independence,
    wrote the following letter to Mr. SAMUEL COOKE, a small draper,
    and _Chairman of a Political Union_, in his vindication against
    so heavy a charge:--

                                        _"London, 17th May, 1833._

        "MY DEAR SIR,

        "I was actually on the point of writing to you about
        RUSSELL'S case, when I had the pleasure of receiving your
        letter. I had been told that you, and many of your friends
        in Dudley, were under a mistake, which I am desirous
        of clearing up, in supposing this was an official or a
        Government prosecution. Government has nothing to do with
        it, nor had I any power or discretion respecting it. I
        merely, as a private barrister, received a brief to move
        the Court of King's Bench for a criminal information, and
        I could not refuse the application. What I said upon the
        occasion, I really do not recollect; but I was not speaking
        in my own person, _or my own sentiments_. I spoke from my
        brief, according to the instructions I received, as any
        other gentlemen of the bar might have done. The freedom of
        the press I have ever maintained, and ever will maintain.--

                                I remain, yours faithfully,
                                                       J. CAMPBELL.

        To Mr. Cooke, Draper, Dudley.

    "This is an agreeable display of the state of servility to
    which the vote-hunters of the "great unwashed" are reduced.
    Would it have been credited, until now, that the KING'S
    SOLICITOR GENERAL could so far sacrifice his dignity of
    character--or rather of the character of his office--as to
    condescend to explain to a huckstering Chairman of a Political
    Union, cried down by the KING'S Proclamation, how and why he
    took a fee in the way of business? But the best of the joke is
    to come. This very COOKE--this '_My dear Sir_' o' the KING'S
    SOLICITOR GENERAL, was himself tried for a libel at Worcester,
    and paid ten guineas, fine or fee, to enable his dear friend,
    the KING'S SOLICITOR GENERAL, to defend him; the which proved
    a useless outlay on the part of the draper, for he was, in
    spite of all the talent and eloquence of his learned advocate,
    CONVICTED.

    "Having shewn the sort of people in Dudley with whom Sir JOHN
    corresponds, we are not surprised that he should know so very
    little of the respectable portion of its inhabitants. We are
    inclined therefore to attribute to ignorance his conduct
    towards the Magistracy, which certainly can find no other
    earthly excuse."

1833. March 6th, died, John William, the First Earl of Dudley, having
been created an Earl, on September 24th, 1827. Aged 52 years.

This nobleman was a distinguished classical writer, for his letters to
the Bishop of Llandaff are replete with profound learning, and show
the evidences of a very elevated mind. He was appointed Secretary of
Foreign Affairs in Mr. Canning's Administration, and also a short time
under the Duke of Wellington's Government. The nobleman never married,
and the title became extinct.

In 1834, Mr. Jno. Campbell having so well disclosed his profound
abilities was made Solicitor General, and came down to Dudley to seek
re-election. The old Tories girt up their loins, and at once determined
to oppose "the aspiring Scotchman," for they little relished the idea
of a foreigner and a stranger "representing their old town." Mr. Thomas
Hawkes, a native of the town and an extensive glass manufacturer, a
proclaimed Moderate Reformer was selected by the Tory party to dispute
the envied seat with Sir John Campbell. Mr. Hawkes was too glad of
the opportunity of showing his zeal and ambition for those high and
distinguished honours which had so recently been showered upon Sir
John; and he was induced to contest the seat against Her Majesty's
Solicitor-General. This election was especially characteristic as being
most violent and riotous, ending in the defeat of Sir John Campbell by
a majority of 68 votes. Towards the close of the poll, (4 o'clock) when
it became evident that Sir John was beaten, a serious riot arose in
the town and it was deemed expedient by the Justices to read the Riot
Act, and send off to Birmingham for military assistance; the Dragoons
arrived in hot haste, but not before much mischief and violence had
been done to both property and persons. It was always alleged that Mr.
Foster's workmen from Shutt End began this senseless destruction of the
property of the innocent inhabitants, by tearing down the shutters of
the shops in the High Street and Market Place, and smashing the shop
windows with the same. Mr. Foster was a strenuous supporter of Sir John
Campbell, and was much chagrined at his friend's defeat. Sir John had
to make his escape from the fury of the mob by a rapid and circuitous
flight down a dark passage in Hall Street, which to this day is known
as "Campbell's Flight." The broken heads and bruised bodies of all
sorts and conditions of men on this memorable occasion, testified to
the intensity of the conflict. The soldiers were quartered upon us for
some time for this unruly piece of business.

The result of this election was--

    1. Mr. Thomas Hawkes, (Tory)            322
    2. Sir John Campbell, Knt. (Reformer)   254
                                           ----
            Majority for Mr. Hawkes          68

In 1832, the year of the great Reform Bill, Campbell, who had
previously been member for Stafford, became member for Dudley. In
reference to this he writes--"What a deliverance from Stafford!
There has been more bribery there than ever, and the new part of the
constituency is worse than the old." And this after the passing of the
Reform Bill! No wonder that every right-thinking man is disgusted with
a system which to a large extent perpetuates this state of things. In
1834 Campbell became Attorney-General, and had to seek re-election. He
was defeated by Major Hawkes. On this he remarks "I was very generously
received by Lord Grey and the Chancellor, but I find that I was blamed
by subordinate members of the Government, who said that I ought to
have carried the seat at any cost. I would sooner have lost my office
and seen the party at once driven from power than have attempted to
corrupt such a constituency. The incipient danger of corruption I find
to arise from publicans and keepers of beer-shops who were electors,
and, without any notion of receiving bribe or voting money, were eager
to have their houses opened with a view to the profit on the sale of
liquor, and I fear would be thereby influenced in their votes." This
second extract certainly reveals a better state of things, but also
gives a glimpse of much that still remains to be remedied.

In 1835, Dudley was doomed to have another election. A Captain Forbes
offered his feeble services, and he was floated by the Reformers amid
many fears and doubts, because it was fully understood that Mr. Thomas
Hawkes was again to run the Tory ticket _against all comers_, and by
the hard exertions of his friends, and the personal regard in which he
was held by the townspeople, he was returned the second time M.P. for
Dudley.

    1. Mr. Thomas Hawkes, Tory              327
    2. Captain Forbes, Reformer             250
                                           ----
            Majority for Mr. Hawkes          77

The spirit of Reform, branching out into every thing we had to deal
with, awakened in this borough a lively sense of its own backwardness
and commercial ease and security. The neighbouring hamlets and villages
were beginning to show signs of much vitality; new coal mines were
opened out; new iron works erected; branches, or arms, of our canal
routes were extended, and a great impetus was given to the development
of the coal and iron trades in every direction. The shops and shop
windows in _our then_ narrow Market Place began to look antediluvian,
weird, and shabby; thus a spirit of rebuilding and renovation set in,
and many of our old familiar shops began to change faces. The increase
of gas lamps in our main streets and an improved effort made by the
Town Commissioners to better our bye-ways and highways, all tended to
convince the occasional visitor to Dudley that the old Dudley town had
caught the flame of Reform and regeneration and was going ahead in
progress and civilisation. The old Middle Row of shops and dwelling
houses had long been deemed a nuisance and an encumbrance on the
ground, and strenuous, and ultimately successful, efforts were made by
both the inhabitants and those _then_ high in authority to pull down
and remove the same, resulting in giving Dudley the largest and most
commodious Market Place in the County.

1835. May 14th. This day and night, a violent and boisterous snow storm
visited this town and neighbourhood; the snow remained on the ground
for some days, the thermometer standing at 30 degrees. Great damage was
done to the buildings, grass lands, and gardens, and the like severe
weather had not been witnessed before by the oldest inhabitants.

Died, October 1st, 1835, Rev. Luke Booker, M.A., LL.D., many years
vicar of the valuable living of St. Thomas's, the Parish Church of
Dudley. Aged 73 years.

Dr. Booker came to Dudley as a young curate of great promise, and
was for some time the Incumbent of St. Edmund's Church. On the death
of the Rev. Doctor Cartwright, M.A., the then vicar, his friend and
patron, the good Viscount Dudley and Ward, presented Dr. Booker to the
living of St. Thomas, and a long life friendship existed between him
and his noble patron. Dr. Booker was a gentleman of great classical
learning and erudition, and being favoured with a commanding person,
his appearance both in and out of the pulpit always commanded attention
and respect. He was a sound theological preacher, exercising great
energy and zeal, and secured a large share of church attendants. He
contributed largely as a writer to many of the leading Christian
periodicals of the day; and his firm adhesion to the national
principles of Church and State, made him at all times a powerful
and welcome advocate on the platform. In politics the Doctor was a
pronounced Tory, and at times his persistent interference in political
questions did not add to his dignified position as Vicar of Dudley.
He was also a poet of considerable beauty of thought and enunciation,
a few remains of which are still extant; he also published an History
of Dudley Castle and the genealogy of the noble owners. Among the
varied remarkable acts that he did was to write a voluminous social and
political Diary of the leading events of Dudley and its people in his
day, which he did not live to put in print.

Dr. Booker was a great favourite amongst the weaker sex, for he
embraced the privilege of leading _four blushing brides_ to the
hymeneal altar during his long and excitable life. The unhappy drawback
in the Doctor's character was the thorough hatred of Dissenters, and
his unswerving abhorrence of all Reformers and Radicals, to whom he
ascribed all kinds of inconceivable mischief against King, Lords and
Church, by their _unlawful machinations_ at the time of the Great
Reform Agitation to obtain their political freedom. The Rev. Doctor was
the main motive power in the destruction of the commodious and historic
Old St. Thomas's Church, and the erection of the present handsome
Gothic Parish Church, at a cost of upwards of £20,000. Great opposition
was raised by the Parishioners at this time to the demolition of
their Parish Church, which was known to be quite large enough for its
audience, and which might have been restored to answer all parochial
purposes at a much less cost.

The laying of the foundation stone of this new church took place on
October 25th, 1816, by the Bishop of Worcester, (The Right Rev. Dr.
Folliott,) occasioned an immense Public Procession of School Children,
Clergymen, Merchants, Shopkeepers and Inhabitants of the town and
neighbourhood, with the Reverend Doctor at their head, which presented
such a motley group, as to become a subject of much comment and
ridicule by some of the witnesses of that vainglorious ceremony.

The following amusing description of the procession by an eye-witness,
who happened to be on a visit to Dudley at the time, will repay a
perusal.


    THE PROCESSION AND THE BELLS, OR THE RIVAL POETS, INSCRIBED TO
    THE INHABITANTS OF DUDLEY.

    THE PROCESSION.

      "The morning came, nor find I that the sun,
    As he on other great events hath done,
    Put on a brighter robe than that he wore
    To go his journey in the day before."
                                        CHURCHILL.

    Thursday was fine beyond expression,
    And augur'd well for the Procession:
    At eventide, the sun's last ray
    "Gave promise of a golden day."
    The D--ct--r went to bed at ten,
    Lay for an hour, then rose again:
    With half clos'd eyes he kept awake,
    Anxious to see the morning break.
    His best black brigs, and eke his shoes,
    His long-tail'd coat and silken hose;
    His buckles bright, and broad-brimm'd hat,
    His finest shirt, and best cravat.
    He'd told the servant to prepare,
    And all were plac'd upon the chair.
    The thought of what's at hand forbids,
    Sound sleep to light upon his lids.
    Three times he rose, with anxious eye,
    The beams of morning to descry--
    Three times he rose,--but all in vain;--
    Three times he went to bed again.
        At length, according to report,
    He slept, and dreamt he was at court,
    Sceptres and mitres seem'd to rise
    Before the D--ct--r's wond'ring eyes:
    Orders of knighthood, stars, blue ribbons,
    Were plenteous as the notes of Gibbons.[2]
    And sooth, he wish'd that he possess'd
    A mitre finer than the rest:
    But, as he reach'd to catch the prize,
    He snor'd aloud and op'd his eyes.
        "At length he from his bed arose,--
    Thrice did he spit, thrice wiped his nose;
    Thrice strove to smile, thrice strove to frown,
    And thrice look'd up, and thrice look'd down;"
    And then forthwith his speech he wrote,--
    His breakfast hurried down his throat;
    With eager haste stalk'd through the street,
    The B----p's Reverence to meet;
    And anxious still to see his Grace,
    Chided the coachman's tardy pace,
    Whose stupid, senseless, dull delay,
    Might spoil the pleasures of the day.
        But now, behold, the prelate comes!
    "Sound, sound the trumpets, beat the drums!"
    From street to street the blast makes way;
    All hear the summons, and obey.
    Hundreds on hundreds flock to meet him,
    With open mouths, as if they'd eat him.
        "A B----p! aye! that ne'er can be
    A human thing like you or me,"
    Says one: "No, no," replies a second,
    "A B----p's more than human reckon'd;
    He consecrates, Sir, he ordains,
    Gives orders, if he gives not brains:
    He keeps beneath his watchful eye
    The clerical fraternity;
    Reads them a pious charge, and sees
    They don't neglect----their surplice fees.
    Sometimes he lays his oily hand
    Upon the crowds that round him stand;
    Who, though they feel the unction come,
    From 'twixt his finger and his thumb,
    Will never in this world of sin,
    Take all its blessed influence in;
    Will never know the good that's done,
    Until their mortal race is run!"
        Pardon, my friends, this short digression;[3]
    We hasten now to the Procession.
        All points of etiquette discuss'd,
    And gravely fix'd,--a task which must
    Require no little time and pains,
    And rack the reverend vicar's brains,--
    All points of moment now decided,
    The parties class'd, the ranks divided,
    From Bl--w--tt's to the Church they go,
    Arrang'd in many a martial row;
    Each, you may naturally suppose,
    Adorn'd in his best Sunday clothes.
    Muslin cravats, as white as milk;
    Nay even stockings made of silk;
    Capes, black, brown, blue, green, red and grey,
    Cut out in the most stylish way:
    And "Day and Martin,"--wond'rous sight!
    Sent from each foot a blaze of light!
    Ribbons and medals,--what profusion!
    Beggars and bankers,--what confusion!
    Vicars and curates, cobblers, tinkers,
    Socinians, Churchmen, and Free-thinkers.
    Carpenters, bellows'-menders, nailors;
    Glaziers and maltsters; grocers, tailors;
    And truant from their desks and shops,
    Spruce journeyman and 'prentice fops;
    Tatterdemalions, long and short,
    Big, little, some of every sort.
        Poor children first,--a woeful sight!--
    March'd on in pitiable plight,
    Though ill provided to sustain
    The howling wind and pelting rain.[4]
    Huddled together, see, they go;
    Collected but to make a show;--
    Their warmest, neatest, only dress,
    A rag to hide their nakedness!
        "Billy the tailor, a brisk fellow,"
    Came next, beneath a huge umbrella;
    Sharp as a needle, blithe and gay;
    He led the band and shew'd the way.
    No Churchman; but, 'twas best to go;
    'Twould get him many a job you know[5]--
        Then came his troop, big, strapping men,
    Who made the streets resound again.
    Serpents and clarionets they blew
    Bassoons and flutes, and hautboys too;
    And humouring the D--ct--r's whim,
    Tried to perform "the German Hymn."
        But stay,--who's next?--Some farmer's wife?
    O no! the B----p, on my life,
    In lawn up to his very chin,--
    Emblem of purity within![6]--
        Now order ceases first who can,
    The D--ct--r or his servant man.
    But chief our Reverend Pastor see,
    Rigg'd as aforesaid cap-a-pie:
    Yes, burning with the sacred flame,
    Among the foremost B--k--r came;
    By Nature form'd to make a show
    Above all those who are below:
    For, to the wonder of the people,
    He look'd just like a moving steeple.
    Bombastes all his pomp display'd,
    In this august processionade,
    With such a sanctimonious air,
    With such a face of solemn care.
    As might import him to contain
    A world of----room within his brain.
    His hollow jaws indeed bespeak
    How deeply read he is in Greek;
    His hanging eyebrows also tell
    He construes Latin full as well:
    For, though he never was at college,
    Who doubts he has these stores of knowledge[7]
    Much more my Muse could tell in rhyme,
    The will she has but not the time.
    Suffice it then,----he stalks along
    A giant in the motley throng;
    With all that empty consequence
    Which fools adopt instead of sense;
    And, as he stalks, he seems to say,
    "For all the labours of this day,
    A something whispers I shall not
    In Church preferment be forgot.[8]
    I'll hasten down to H--ml--y Hall,
    And on my noble patron call:
    From my poetic pan shall rise,[9]
    Again to blind my Lady's eyes,
    Thick clouds of incense, till she see
    All that is excellent in me!
    Who knows, but, mighty and ador'd,
    I may become Right Reverend Lord;[10]
    And spite of all his vast pretences,
    My rival great Wigorniensis?
    A mitre,--yea, perhaps the best,
    May crown my toil and make me blest.
    If I can get a mitre--now
    I care not where I go or how.
    I'll hug this hope of future joys,
    And heed nor rain, nor mire, nor noise."--
    These words he had no sooner said
    Than thrice he shook his sapient head,
    And thrice determined to pursue
    The pious end he had in view.
        Next to his giantship, the D--ct--r,
    With humbler step, came hobbling Pr--ct--r,
    He hobbled,[11] but his will was good;
    Could he go better than he could?
    He raised his legs with mighty pain,
    And then,--he set them down again.
    'Tis whisper'd--but my cautious muse
    Will not forget her P's. and Q's.:
    I'll not indulge in retrospections,
    But leave him to his own reflections:
    The darling babe of grace I'll spare;
    For other holy souls were there.
        Mark, then, the next, another priest,
    Starv'd a whole month for this day's feast;
    A little fellow, black his gear;
    Sharp as the blast which blew him here.[12]
    His fine-spun coat, as good as new,
    His trowsers--wide enough for two.
    His cheek-bones and his jaws declare
    Oat-cake has been his daily fare.
    The hat he bought for ordination,
    New-brushed, he sports on this occasion.
    His dress though threadbare, now 'tis wet,
    Looks fresh, and good, and black as jet.[13]
        Now, helter-skelter, all rush on,
    Stiff Ned, long Dick, and gaping John,
        Isaac and Tom, as all admit,
    Two gentlemen of equal wit,
    Of equal polish, equal grace:
    The same in modesty of face.
    I know the town will give it credit,
    Or else my Muse would not have said it;
    For all confess that either brother
    Is just as wise and great as t'other:
    Each so demure, so meek, so mild,
    As gentle as a new-born child.
    These pious patriots were drest
    Each with a token on his breast,[14]
    Of copper wrought, and brighter far,
    Than Venus or the Morning Star,
    A female figure took the place
    Britannia would, in other case;
    Whilst, by her side, in small, portray'd
    A cask of Dudley nails was laid;
    Containing, we may well suppose,
    Sparrow-bill, Ten-penny and Rose;
    Clasp, Flat-points, Flemish-Tack and Clout,
    Of strictly honest tale no doubt:
    For as my muse can only guess,
    She won't presume to call them less.
    Enough:--the curious if they please
    May find a nobler pair than these.
        Now, Tom, an Unitarian true,[15]
    And strange to say, a Churchman too,
    Like Janus with a double face,
    Among our heroes found a place.
    'Twas plain enough how pleas'd the elf
    Was with that paltry thing, himself;
    Proud of his intellect and clothes,
    He felt himself the first of beaux.[16]
    And, pretty creature, strutted more
    Than ever peacock did before.
    The ladies very loath to miss[17]
    An opportunity like this,
    Stretched forth their necks to catch a sight
    Of one so spruce and so polite.
    "There goes the charming man," they cry;
    And then they laugh, I know not why!
    And then, all wonder and amaze,
    At him and at each other gaze.
    The thing's confirm'd beyond a doubt,
    Although the cause is not found out,--
    The modest ninny thinks his worth
    Has not his parallel on earth;
    And justly: for, without a crime,
    I can't describe it e'en in rhyme:
    So nobly bred, so nobly taught,
    In speech as lib'ral as in thought:
    News he can tell, untold before,
    All that he knows, and ten times more:
    And yet, upon his magpie tongue
    Truth, sense, and wit alike are hung:
    His honor----I recall the word,
    Of that my muse has never heard;
    Of facts alone I fain would sing,
    A joke's a very serious thing!
    A man may see with half an eye
    What treasures in his head-piece lie:
    Why then, dear Sir, such wond'rous pains
    To shew the world your lack of brains?
        Then little Dick, and waddling Tim,
    And bawling Joe, and long-legg'd Jem;
    And hundreds more in couples came,
    The which my muse disdains to name:
    I'm certain none of Hogarth's sketches
    E'er formed a set of stranger wretches.
        Among the rest see Doctor Slop,[18]
    An emblem of a physic shop:
    So sour, so nauseous, so splenetic,
    A bolus, blister, or emetic;
    Decoction, julep, pill and drop
    Are typified in Doctor Slop.
    His bones with flesh how poorly clad!
    How like a map his visage sad![19]
    Lavater would at once declare,
    The "City of the Plague" was there:
    And e'en a less discerning eye
    The "Lake of Brimstone" might descry,
    Where all those naughty rebels pop,
    Who don't agree with Doctor Slop.
    If sick,--engage him,--give him time,
    He'll send you to another clime;
    For change of air is understood
    By sons of physic to be good.
    But, oh! my pulse is stopp'd; enough
    Of Doctors and of Doctors' stuff:[20]
    Though half his worth is yet unsung,
    My muse would rather hold her tongue.
        Last came the scarlet troop, as gay
    As new-scrap'd carrots for the day:
    C--w--ll, and all his comrades too:
    Hibernian H--gh--s, and Dicky Dr--we:
    Great captains in the fighting trade,
    Who serv'd their time upon parade.[21]
    But of such Gentlemen no more:
    I bless my stars I see the shore!
        At length, attain'd the sacred spot,
    Where, side by side, their fathers rot,
    Half rising from their tombs to see
    What alter'd things their children be;
    The massy portal open flies,
    And each to gain admission tries:--
    But watchful sentries guard the door,
    T'admit the great, and drive the poor;
    For treason 'twere, and deadly sin,
    To let the herd of vulgar in.
    No matter _how_ they enter: each
    Is thrust against his neighbour's breech.
    One loses half his coat, and one
    Feels that his hat or shoe is gone.
    Another wild with fury, hoots,
    "Stop, scoundrel, stop,--I've lost my boots."
    Another fall'n, for mercy cries,
    And prays to heav'n they'll let him rise,
    But, ah! for naught their lungs they strain:
    They cry, "Hayloo!" and "stop,"--in vain;
    The crowd more anxious, forward press
    To catch a glimpse of holiness;
    And see what ne'er before was known,
    A Reverend Mason lay a stone,
    In solemn silence see him stand,
    The silver trowel in his hand;
    The ponderous mass at his desire,
    Descends into the yielding mire;
    And many a cracking human bone,
    Confess'd it was a mighty stone,
        At length, the task perform'd, His Grace
    Made his best bow, and left the place;
    And, anxious only to be gone,
    Stepp'd in his coach, and cried,--"Drive on."--
    The boy then smacks his whip, and lo!
    The B----p's horses scampering go:
    The party gaze with wild dismay
    To see the chariot roll away!
        Now, as their breasts with anger burn,
    Behold the muddy group return;
    And, as they pace along the street,
    Resolve each joint themselves to eat,--[22]
    Their bellies, judging from their faces,
    As empty as some other places.
        At Bl--w--tt's many a dainty dish
    Of beef and mutton, game and fish,
    Arrang'd upon the table stood;
    For Dudley's sons know what is good.
    But soon each dainty dish was clear'd,
    And only fleshless bones appear'd,
    Each vied with each,[23] and seemed to say,
    "I'll have my belly full to-day."
        The dinner o'er each takes his glass,
    And tries his neighbour to surpass:--
    "For, where's the use of wine," say they,
    "Except to banish care away?"--
        Forgive my Muse,--her task is o'er;
    She recollects but little more,
    She saw the polish'd table shine,
    With blushing fruit and sparkling wine;
    She heard the lofty ceiling ring
    With three times three, "God save the King."
    She look'd again,--one sleeping snor'd,
    And one was sunk beneath the board;
    And one, as well as he was able,
    Was speechifying on the table,
    A moment pass'd,--again she gaz'd,
    And saw each arm in contest rais'd[24]
    The glass in fragments strew'd the floor:--
    She hung her head, and saw--no more.

                             _Qui capit, ille facit._

       *       *       *       *       *

    IMPROMPTU,

    BY DR. BOOKER, ON READING THE ABOVE.

    A certain junto, sore dismay'd
      Our Christian Church to think on;
    Look'd on her strong foundation laid,
      As the Devil look'd o'er Lincoln.

                       _A twig from a rod in pickle._

       *       *       *       *       *

    IMPROMPTU,

    ON READING THE DOCTOR'S IMPROMPTU.

    A junto, Doctor? No, 'tis one
    Who makes,--though hundreds share--the fun;
    He heeds you not. Your "rod" provide:
    'Twill serve to sting your own b-cks-de.
    Yourself shall be "dismay'd" and "sore,"
    As from your breech descends the gore;
    And, as I flog with stroke uncivil,
    I shall be "Lincoln," you the "Devil."
    Again, Sir!--you know where to place it,--
    I say "Qui capit, ille facit."

       *       *       *       *       *

    ANOTHER.

    The Doctor raves, and storms, and vows,
    And looks as wretched as his cows![25]
    With straining pericranium tries
    To write impromptus and replies;
    But, like his cows and ass profound,
    His region is the burial ground,
        Be calm, dear Doctor! Stay your pen!
    The poet, perhaps may write again!
    He knows you;[26] every word betrays it;
    But still, "Qui capit, ille facit."

       *       *       *       *       *

    VERSES INTENDED TO BE CAST UPON THE BELLS OF THIS NEW CHURCH AT
    DUDLEY;

    Written by a certain learned Doctor, November, 1817.

    _The Maiden's Bell._

    Many a maiden fair gave me,
    Whose wedding peal I ring with glee:
    May they in all their future lives,
    Be happy mothers, happy wives.[27]

    _The Matron's Bell._

    Many a matron, grave and good,
    Or wedded, or in widowhood,
    Bade me the time of holy pray'r
    To many a list'ning flock declare.

    _The Glassman's Bell._

    Many a gen'rous man of glass
    Bade me in sound all bells surpass;
    Bright as their ware be all their days,
    And bright through time be Dudley's praise.

    _The Mineman's Bell._

    Many a truly gen'rous soul,
    Men of iron, men of coal,
    Men of metal bade me sound
    Sweetly to all the hills around.

    _The Vicar's Bell._

    For me the vicar preach'd aloud
    To many a kind and godly crowd,
    Who, with a heart devout and willing,
    Gave their bright guinea and their shilling.

    _The Bishop's Bell._

    I, the gift of mitred sage,
    Sound his praise to many an age:
    Reverend name! of ancient line;
    And long on me may Folliot shine.

    _The Patron's Bell._

    Me did the manor's Lord bestow,
    Who loves to lighten human woe:
    To doomsday may the name descend,
    Of Dudley's and the poor man's friend.

    _The Regent's Bell._

    A princely gift! a prince gave me,
    The prince of princeliest land and sea--
    England! His name I nobly ring,
    And bid thee cry, "God save the King."

       *       *       *       *       *

    EPIGRAM.

    Premising that DIVINE POETA! is to be literally rendered POETIC
    DIVINE, we address Dr. Booker in the words of Virgil,--

    "Tale tuum nobis carmin, divine poeta!
    Quale sopor--"

    See Rev. of Dr. Booker's Calista, Ann. Rev. 1803, p. 564.

    It has been said, we know, there but appears
    _One_ Epic Poet in a thousand years:
    But B--k--r lives to prove the thing untrue;
    And to demonstrate that there may be two.

    Th' immortal Milton still the first is reckon'd;
    The thrice immortal B--k--r is the second;
    And Dudley's bells eternally shall toll
    In matchless notes for his poetic soul.

    To future ages shall his name be given,--
    "The saint-like priest who shew'd the way to heav'n,"
    Yes! children's children as they drink their liquor,
    And pay Church levies still--shall _bless_ the Vicar.

                                  _Qui capit, ille facit._

    Nov. 26, 1817.

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE LEARNED DOCTOR'S REJOINDER.

    "N.B.--Though dated Nov. 26, the preceding precious farrago,
    with characteristic piety, was sent on Sunday, the 7th of
    December, no doubt with a charitable hope that it would make
    the Vicar's mind, on that day, very composed and comfortable.
    Its authors will be sorry to know that the effect they hoped
    for was not produced. The delectable performance did not excite
    a single thought till the next morning, when the following
    notice was taken of it, certainly more than it deserves."[28]

    AN OLD ROD NEW TWIGGED.

    "_Stripes for the back of fools._"--PROV.

    A few weak infidels dismay'd
      Our Christian Church to think on,
    Look on her strong foundations laid,
      "As the Devil look'd o'er Lincoln."

    But though they look as black as he,
      And gall for ink he sends them,
    In which to write their ribaldry,
      And inspiration lends them:

    The church her glory shall display,
      Defended from each evil,
    In spite of all such fools can say
      Or their sage friend the D----l.[29]

    Yea, she shall have her merry peal,
      To fill their hearts with sadness;
    While Christians, at such music, feel
      An honest English gladness.

    Nay, she shall have a lofty spire
      With weathercock surmounted,
    That they may, if 'tis their desire,
      See what they are accounted.

    Puff'd here, puff'd there, puff'd every where,
      Save in a right direction,
    Or now the culprits would not share
      A whipping post correction.

    Will ye be good, ye scurvy rogues,
      Ere more your hides I tickle?
    Well then--put up your dirty brogues;
      Rod! sleep again in pickle.

                          _No snake[30] in the grass._

       *       *       *       *       *

    LINES IN REPLY TO SOME VERSES SIGNED "NO SNAKE IN THE GRASS."

    He would an elegy compose
    On maggots squeezed out of his nose;
    In lyric numbers write an ode on,
    His mistress eating a black pudden;
    And when imprisoned air escaped her,
    It puffed him with poetic rapture.
    A carman's horse could not pass by,
    But stood tied up to poesy:
    No porter's burthen passed along
    But served for burthen to his song.--HUDIBRASS.

    _Qui capit, ille facit._

    Repress your fury, sage Divine!
    Perdition breathes in every line.
    Dagger and staff in hand you fight,
    Like Falstaff, Shakespeare's valiant knight,
    How like him though in form and dress
    I leave your Reverence to guess:--
    How far like his your maxims too
    Of honour, Sir, I leave to you.
        You would attempt in canting strain.
    My short effusion to explain;
    And wielding your tremendous birch,
    To say I stigmatize the Church.
    That, Sir, _in toto_, I deny:--
    In your own style, Sir, 'tis a lie.
        The Church I honour:--I admire
    The holy roof, the lofty spire,
    The pealing song, the hope sincere,
    The pray'r of virtue I revere,
    The Church, with an affection true,
    I love,--[31]I stigmatize but you.
        Yes! give the Church a lofty spire,
    Like your tall self, Sir, I desire:
    And like your _ci-devant chapeau_,
    Give it a weathercock also:--
    But make it fast, dear Sir, because
    It may be lost as Gilpin's was[32]
        "In judgment,"--('tis an ancient line,)
    "Remember mercy,"--O Divine!
    And, when your enemy lies low,
    Desist,--strike not another blow.
    But, since you deign to wield your pen,
    Achilles-like, and fight again:--
    But since you deign, O sage divine!
    Again to court the tuneful Nine;
    And since, in acrimonious style,
    You dare my verses to revile,
    And raise a laugh at my expense,
    Dear Doctor! take the consequence.
    "Brave knights are bound to feel no blows
    From paltry and unequal foes."
        The pages of all history shine
    With poets, heathen and divine;
    Whose numbers are so highly priz'd,
    Their memories are immortaliz'd.
    The first, whose poems still are saved,
    Was he who wrote the Psalms, King David.
    Homer and Virgil, and a score
    Of Greek and Latin poets more,
    Have sung in such melodious measure,
    That verses still are read with pleasure.
    The moderns too have sung their share,
    Voltaire, Racine, and Molière;
    And many on Italia's shore;
    In Germany a thousand more.
    In Britain, too, are poets found,
    For Britain is poetic ground,
    Milton and Shakespeare are her pride,
    And Pope and hundreds more beside.
    E'en now we've Southeys, Scots and Byrons,
    And Moore, whose songs are sweet as syrens'!
    Another poet, too, have we;
    The Great L-ke B--k--r, LL. D.!!!
        When all the rest shall be forgotten;
    Their poems, like their bodies, rotten;
    When spills are made of leaves of Pope,
    And Lalla Rookh shall wrap up soap;
    When even David's sacred rhyme
    Shall be destroyed by ruthless time;
    Thy name, O! B--k--r! still shall be
    Lauded to all eternity!
    Yes! Dudley's Vicar shall survive,
    And like a plant perennial thrive!
        What melody pervades each line!
    How rich, harmonious and divine!
    Read where you will, you're sure to find
    Some scintillation of his mind:
    The finest style, the sweetest words
    The Doctor's mother tongue affords!
        Already, in reality,
    He's purchas'd immortality.
    With sermons pious, heavenly, holy,
    He drives the heart to melancholy:
    With magic powers he charms the soul,
    And bids it into madness roll:
    With charity dilates the breast,
    And sinks each sordid view to rest.
    Or, on a sudden can inspire
    The soul with never-quenching fire:
    In short, the mind with joy can fill,
    Or with despair,--just which he will.
        But more,--his pow'r o'er human woes
    Not only shines in nervous prose;
    In strains delightful and sublime,
    He speaks in prose, and writes in rhyme;
    "And when he writes in rhyme will make
    The one verse for the other's sake.
    The one for sense, and one for rhyme,
    He thinks sufficient at a time."
        Yet though his rhymes may be baptiz'd,
    Nothing but prosing poetiz'd,
    There's still some difference between 'em,
    Which all can tell who've ever seen 'em.
    For prose he gets with conscience clear,
    Full twice five hundred pounds a year;
    Yet should his rhymes a folio fill,
    They'd never pay his printer's bill;
    But on his shelf in peace recline,
    And, but to light his candles, shine.

    Claudite jam rivos, pueri: sat prata biberunt. VIR.

       *       *       *       *       *

    _To "No snake in the grass," on his not replying to the lines
    lately address'd to him._

    Contremuit remus.
                     VIR. LIB.

    The pallid scurvy rogue yet tingling stands,
    And holds his breeches close with both his hands.
                                                  POPE.

    The Doctor trembling and dismay'd,
    To write another word afraid:
    In vain implores, with language civil,
    The aid of "Lincoln" and the "Devil."
    He hides, from stroke of "scurvy rogues,"
    His seat of honour with his "brogues:"
    The "tuneful nine," to see him lash'd,
    Hung down their heads and fled abash'd.

                                  "_Je suis ce que je suis._"

       *       *       *       *       *

    LINES BY * * * * * * *

    Qui Capit, ever discontented,
    Envious, jealous, disaffected:
    To stigmatise our Vicar's toils,
    The stigma on himself recoils.
    Who is he satirical and vain?
    His unjust impudence of what avail?
    Qui Capit, know, that God, all just,
    Ne'er means his creatures to be curs'd.
    You honour the Church, Qui Capit,--no!
    Who can believe it?--'tis not so!--
    "Virtuo consistit in actione."
    Sir, henceforth, learn to mend your manners,
    And ne'er insult your betters.
                                     JUNIUS.

       *       *       *       *       *

    REPLY TO JUNIUS.

    "Strange such a difference should be,
    'Twixt tweedle dum and tweedle dee."

    "Junius" to rhyme pray bid adieu,
    Nor shame the dunghill where you grew,
    Hear what a friend of "Qui" advises,
    Stick to your "Latin Exercises,"
    The muse thy folly will disown,
    Pray "tarry till thy beard be grown."

       *       *       *       *       *

    ON THE D--CT--R'S SILENCE.

    Old Argus of an hundred eyes could boast,
    An hundred fluent tongues had B--k--r's head,
    But Argus all his eyes by music lost,
    At dogger'll rhyme all B--k--r's tongues have fled.

1835. November. The Rev. W. H. Cartwright, M.A., a grandson of the
late Doctor Cartwright, a former vicar of Dudley, was nominated to the
valuable living of the parish church, as the successor to the late Dr.
Booker. Mr. Cartwright held the living for ten years, and then suddenly
exchanged livings with the Rev. James Caulfield Browne, M.A., Rector of
Compton Marten, in Somersetshire. Doctor J. C. Browne, held the living
for 25 years, and died universally revered and respected, March 11th,
1870. Aged 65 years.

1835. December 16th, died, the Rev. William Humbel Baron Ward, of
Birmingham. Aged 54 years. This nobleman was the father of the present
Earl of Dudley; but only enjoyed the title and estates a very short
time.

Another Borough election in 1837 again set the town alive, and as the
great spirit of Reform had received innumerable checks throughout the
country; Dudley participated in a modified Reforming declension, and
again was unsuccessful in returning a Reformer. A Mr. Merryweather
Turner was the Reform candidate brought against the old member, Mr.
Hawkes, with the following result:

    1.--Mr. Thomas Hawkes             Tory, 385
    2.--Mr. Merryweather Turner   Reformer, 289
                                           ----
          Majority for Mr. Thomas Hawkes     96

1838. The Rev. John Davies, M.A., was appointed the incumbent of
St. Edmund's Church. This highly esteemed, hard-working, and truly
Christian pastor, held this living for the long period of Thirty-one
years, and died April 21st, 1869, universally esteemed and regretted,
aged 65 years.


BAPTIST CHAPEL.

1839. This substantial brick building was erected in 1777, and
considerably enlarged in 1839, at a cost of £700; in 1880, further
improvements and alterations were made, adding much to the comfort
and convenience of the congregation. The Rev. William Rogers, a true
specimen of a Welshman, was the zealous minister of this Chapel for
many years. There is also a good Sunday School in vigorous operation
held in the vestry room. The Baptist connexion have also another Chapel
situate at Cinder Bank, Netherton, which is said to be of considerable
antiquity. The Rev Geo. M. Michael, B.A., is the present minister.

On the following page will be seen the way in which Holy Mother Church
was supported in Dudley in these days of civil and religious liberty!!!

    CHURCH RATES!

    SEIZURES IN DUDLEY DURING THE YEAR 1837.

  ------------------+------------+------------+----------+--------+--------
                    |            |            |          |_Value_ |
     _Names of_     |            |            |          | _of_   |_Amount_
    _the Persons_   |_Religious_ |  _Trade_   | _Goods_  |_Goods_ |  _of_
   _seized upon_    |_Profession_|            | _seized_ |_seized_| _Rate_
  ------------------+------------+------------+----------+--------+--------
                    |            |            |          | £ s. d.| £ s. d.
  Brown, James      |Quaker      |Confectioner|2 barrels | 2 10 0 | 0 12  1
                    |            |            |  grapes  |        |
  Beasley, Thomas   |Baptist     |Schoolmaster|2 desks   | 4 10 0 | 0  2  1
  Bridgwater, Joseph|Quaker      |Maltster    |Malt      | 4  6 0 | 2 11  0
  Cooke, Samuel     |Independent |Draper      |3 pair    | 2  5 0 | 0 17 11
                    |            |            |  blankets|        |
  Hill, Thomas      |Ditto       |Shoe-seller |10 pair   | 3 10 0 | 0  9  7
                    |            |            |  shoes   |        |
  Houston, William  |Ditto       |Pawnbroker  |1 watch   | 2 10 0 | 0 10 10
  Lay, Benjamin,    |Quaker      |Grocers     |Cheese    | 3 15 0 | 1 12  6
    and Sons        |            |            |          |        |
  Pitchfork, Joseph |Unitarian   |Schoolmaster|2 tables  | 2  2 0 | 0  3  6
  Rogers, Richard   |Independent |Clockmaker  |1 clock   | 5  0 0 | 0  9  7
  Wood, Edward      |Ditto       |Pawnbroker  |1 watch   | 3  0 0 | 0 14  7
  Wood, W C         |Unitarian   |Grocer      |Loaves of | 8  6 6 | 3  5  0
                    |            |            |  Sugar   |        |
  Williams, John,   |Quaker      |Millers     |2 pockets |11 11 0 | 4 14  2
    and Brothers    |            |            |  hops    |        |
  Williams, John    |Ditto       |Miller      |Barometer | 3 10 0 | 1 10  2
                    |            |            |          +--------+--------
                    |            |            |          |56 15 6 |17 13  0
  ------------------+------------+------------+----------+--------+--------

    ONE THOUSAND POUNDS REWARD.

    Whereas, some ill-looking Persons did, on the 21st of
    September, 1837, enter the Premises of W. C. WOOD, Grocer,
    Dudley, and in his absence did wilfully abstract

    FIVE LUMPS OF SUGAR,

    value £8, the honestly-acquired property of the said W. C.
    Wood; and, whereas, the said ill-looking Persons left behind
    them a piece of paper, on which was written that they were
    under the command of one Person called "CAPTAIN," and of
    another called "BAKER;" and by which it further appears that
    the property thus taken was to defray the expenses of _some
    kind of a Religion_, to which these persons are said to be
    attached.

    THIS IS TO GIVE NOTICE,

    that if any Person brings the said parties to Justice, and
    prosecutes them, so as to satisfy the demands of COMMON
    HONESTY, he shall receive the above Reward.

    The "CAPTAIN" stands about 5 feet 6 inches high; of a light
    complexion.--He has a mark on his left ear, occasioned by a
    _wound received in one of his professional encounters_.

    The "BAKER" is about 5 feet nothing, and a square built,
    Sancho-Panza kind of a Person; and rivals Punch in his
    admiration of the Law of the land, and Dogberry in his
    extensive acquaintance with it.

    The Property, it is believed, is now deposited at the Albion
    Inn, Stone Street, Dudley, where, it is expected to be sold, on
    Tuesday or Wednesday next, to maintain the aforesaid _queer_
    Religion; and W. C. WOOD requests the attendance of his Friends
    on the occasion, to prevent the Property being sold below its
    value.

    N.B.--It is ascertained that the "CAPTAIN'S" party visited, on
    the same day, the Premises of Mr. S. COOKE, and Mr. E. WOOD,
    from whence they succeeded in carrying off other Articles, for
    the same _pious_ purpose; to wit, several pairs of

    BLANKETS, AND A WATCH.

1840. At this time the town and neighbourhood was upon the balance of
either increased depression and adversity, or improved development of
the iron and coal trade. In 1836 Mr. Edward Smith built and started
at Hartshill a new branch of the iron trade--viz., manufacturing iron
hurdles and fencing of a very improved and superior style, strength,
and appropriateness; more especially for our colonial possessions,
where thousands of miles of iron and wire fencing have been exported
by this eminent firm (Messrs. Hill, Smith, & Co., the Hartshill
Works, near Dudley). The Woodside Iron Works were built in 1841 by
Messrs. Bramah and Cochrane; but have been considerably enlarged at
various times, and employ upwards of 1,000 hands when in full work.
The extraordinary engineering and mining ability thrown into this very
important iron work by the late esteemed A. B. Cochrane, Esq., J.P.,
soon placed this firm at the head of that species of iron manufactory
for which it is now so world-known. We shall not soon forget that
well-earned proud position which the late Mr. Cochrane secured when he
exhibited to Lord Overstone and others of the Crystal Palace Exhibition
Commissioners, in 1850, a large section of that future exhibition in
Hyde Park, London, which brought all nations, kindreds, and tongues
to witness the Great World's Fair. The construction of the iron work
of the Crystal Palace of 1851 at the Woodside Works was a marvel of
engineering skill and accomplishment, and clearly demonstrated to the
world the power and ingenuity which the Woodside Works possessed to
make and erect anything in the substance and form of iron.

In 1853 Mr. Cochrane became possessed of these important works by the
retirement of Mr. Bramah, and from that date to the period of his
untimely death in June, 1863, this establishment secured and maintained
almost unparalleled advancement and commercial success. Mr. Cochrane
was only 50 years of age at his death, but his natural benevolence
and philanthropic leanings stopped not at the usual benevolence which
belongs to the large employers of labour in our locality, for his open
handed charity induced him, in 1860, to build and maintain at his
own cost, the handsome Holly Hall Schools, for the education of the
children of his own workmen, and all who felt inclined to be benefitted
by its establishment. In 1863 the Vicar of Dudley, the late Dr. Browne,
commenced a series of Religious Services, which were conducted by
the Rev. Robert Harper, M.A., of the Dudley Grammar School, but were
discontinued at the end of eight months. However, on Good Friday, 1865,
the Executors of the late Mr. A. B. Cochrane recommenced the Services
with much success, under the spiritual guidance and care of the Rev.
John Birch, M.A., and eventually the Schools and all their belongings
were purchased by the Earl of Dudley, whose open-hearted liberality
has so often been extended over almost every object of worth and
public utility in Dudley and its neighbourhood. The noble Earl very
handsomely provides the funds for the clergyman's stipend, the Rev. Mr.
Swindell, M.A., and, at the same time, pays the expenses of the school
management, and discharges all its pecuniary liabilities. An effort
is now being made to build a Church at Hartshill to accommodate that
vastly increasing population.

In 1847, the late Mr. William Jeffries erected some extensive Iron
Works at Hartshill (near Messrs. Cochranes' Works), which are now
known as Messrs Hingley and Smith's Iron Works, and have been very
much enlarged in late years. On June 2nd, 1848, an appalling accident
took place at these Iron Works, by the sudden explosion of a large
iron boiler, which dealt death and destruction all around; for it is
melancholy to relate that 40 men and boys were blown to atoms, in
almost an instant, and the destruction to the machinery and works was
most serious to the owners.

Another famous Iron Master in the Black Country, about this period (the
late Samuel H. Blackwell, Esq., J.P.), contributed by his indomitable
activity and knowledge to a large amount of improvement and development
in the Iron and Coal trade. The Old Russell's Hall Furnaces sprung into
being and activity under his management, and Bilston also benefitted by
his energy and manufacturing operations in that quarter. Mr. Blackwell
was a learned Geologist, and took great interest in trying to prove
many of the then undissolved problems in Geology and Iron making. This
gentleman had the distinguished honour conferred upon him of being
strenuously solicited to become one of the Members in Parliament for
South Staffordshire, but this distinction he declined, alleging that
his immense manufacturing engagements precluded such a possibility.
Many of Mr. Blackwell's speculations turned out unfortunate, and
when an adverse turn took place in the Iron trade, he was compelled
to suspend his numerous operations, and died (March 25, 1868) at the
comparatively early age of 52 years.

The appointment of the late Richard Smith, Esq., J.P., as Mining Agent
and Manager for Lord Ward's extensive estates about this time, augured
well for an increase of prosperity in this large mining district. Mr.
Smith's undoubted energy and ability, and his thorough knowledge of
all things belonging to mining operations, ensured every confidence
in those who understand these matters, that the "right man was in the
right place." The feebleness and almost inaction of his predecessor
was soon dissipated, and although Mr. Smith had his detractors and
opponents in opinion in many important operations that he was concerned
in, nevertheless it cannot now be fairly gainsayed that he was most
assuredly the leading spirit and pioneer of that vast amount of mining
development which characterized the Iron and Coal trades in these
parts during the time he was at the head of Lord Dudley's affairs. Mr.
Smith's judgment and far-seeing policy laid the foundation of much that
has since then been accomplished, and the town of Dudley and the whole
district have been substantially and commercially benefitted thereby.
Let any unprejudiced mind make a survey of the increased villages
and hamlets which have arisen around us during the last 30 years,
and he will not fail to note that Pits, Iron Works, Chain and Nail
Manufactories have sprung up where farm houses and green fields once
existed in peaceful seclusion. The laying down of upwards of 20 miles
of mineral railroads on his Lordship's estate to facilitate his vast
working operations, the erection of the Round Oak Furnaces and Iron
Works in 1855, and the additional New Works built in 1863, all combined
to assist in that grand scheme of scientific development, which had its
birth in the fertile brain of the late Richard Smith, and which gave
ready employment to thousands of our hardy sons of toil, increasing our
local trades and population, and adding materially to our progress and
wealth.

We have another "honoured worthy" Iron Master to record in our history,
that _modern Dud Dudley_ of our district, the lately lamented Noah
Hingley, Esq., J.P. The man who introduces a new industry into a
district is a real benefactor to his fellow man; and the splendid
Anchor, Chain and Cable Works, now in full operation at Primrose Hill,
Netherton, proclaim the wisdom and ability which the late Mr. Hingley
put in practical force, under many almost overwhelming difficulties,
when he introduced that particular kind of iron manufacture into our
midst. Assisted by his equally energetic sons, this renowned firm
(Messrs. Noah Hingley and Sons), possess also the newly constructed
blast furnaces at Old Hill, besides other works of importance,
constructing much of the minor materials for their large works. The
death of this good old gentleman, in 1877, drew the tears of sincere
regret from thousands of the working classes of this neighbourhood; and
the public funeral, which was accorded to his remains, witnessed one of
the largest gatherings of respectably dressed, sorrowful men, women,
and children, that ever assembled on any occasion to pay their last
mark of regard to real departed worth. The Mayor and Corporation of
Dudley attended these obsequies in public procession; Mr. Hingley being
an Alderman of the Borough, and in 1870-1 its esteemed mayor.


INDEPENDENT CHAPEL.

1840. This new and commodious Congregational Chapel was built and
opened for Divine Worship in 1841, under the pastorship of that
excellent minister the Rev. James Dawson, who held that increasingly
arduous appointment for a period of forty years. The yearly increasing
numbers of the members of this Christian Church, after Mr. Dawson
had been thoroughly engrafted into his truly earnest and evangelical
work, made it necessary that three enlargements of the old chapel were
required; for, as the minister's popularity increased, his chapel
became so inconveniently filled that the heads of the connexion took
sweet council together, and determined upon erecting a much larger
chapel, more suited to their requirements. The present chapel contains
about 1,200 sittings, and there is an excellent Sunday school connected
with this respectable body of worshippers, instructing in spiritual
grace upwards of 400 children. Mr. Dawson only lived three years after
the opening of the new chapel to enjoy the spiritual fruits of a long
life of affectionate zeal and energy on behalf of those immortal souls
committed to his charge. This handsome brick structure cost £3,500,
raised by the congregation, and happily is quite free from incumbrance.
It is in the recollection of some of the oldest inhabitants that the
establishment of this sanctuary arose in consequence of a split or
religious disagreement occurring amongst the Unitarian congregation in
Wolverhampton Street at that period, which ended in the secession of
many of its communion. The Rev. G. M. Fox, B.A., is the present most
indefatigable minister.


ST. JOHN'S AND ST. JAMES' NEW CHURCHES.

1840, July 27th. These two unpretending and unmeaning looking district
Churches were consecrated this day by the Rev. Robert James, Lord
Bishop of Worcester. Architect, Mr. William Bourne, Dudley. The
first Incumbent of St. John's was the Rev. Mr. Short, M.A. The first
Incumbent of St. James' was the Rev. Chas. Cameron, M.A. The Builders
were Mr. Thos. Pitt Stokes and Mr. John Holland, Dudley. The site and
burial ground, in both cases, were given by that very liberal Church
Patron, Lord Ward. Both these Churches have within the last few years
undergone considerable alterations and attempts at restoration to what
a Church ought to represent when finished, and much of their former
barn-like features have thereby been obliterated, much to the comfort
and satisfaction of the worshippers attending thereat. These extensive
restorations were defrayed by public subscriptions.

The year 1841 brought us another trial of political strength in this
borough, and Mr. Hawkes was pitted against a Mr. J. A. Smith, a
Reformer of very moderate pretensions, but with the like results; Mr.
Hawkes held the good opinions, as a useful local man, of the majority
of the electors, and he was the _third time_ elected member for Dudley.

    1. Mr. Thomas Hawkes, Tory                 436
    2. Mr. J. A. Smith, Reformer               189
                                              ----
                  Majority for Mr. Hawkes      247


DUDLEY BREAD AND SOUP KITCHEN.

1842. This very valuable and highly acceptable institution, to the
distressed poor especially, was established by a number of benevolent
ladies and gentlemen in the town, during one of those cycles of _hard
times_ and _bad trade_ to which this town and district is periodically
subject. Messrs. Thomas and Isaac Badger, Mr. Wm. Barrows, Mr.
Cornelius Cartwright, Messrs. Bourne and Wainwright, the Rev. W. H.
Cartwright, M.A., Vicar, &c., Miss Banks, Mrs. H. M. Wainwright, Mrs.
Wm. Barrows, Mrs. Dr. Roberts, and other ladies and townsmen, lent a
most willing hand to this work of charity. From that period, until
now, this deserving institution yearly distributes its weekly bounty
to thousands of distressed families, in our bleak and dreary winter
months. Its income is about £300 a year.


THE METHODIST WESLEYAN CHAPEL.

1842. This fine brick edifice, forming a centre with two projecting
wings, situated in King Street, was erected in 1790, and had
considerable additions and alterations made in 1810 and 1825. It
contains about 850 sittings, of which 190 are free. The Wesleyan
Members in this town and neighbourhood are a highly respectable and
liberal communion of Evangelical people, having during the last hundred
years exercised a most Christian and beneficial effect upon this town
and locality. In the earlier days of Methodist troubles and internal
contentions, this good old Chapel had its share of them; for there are
some alive amongst us who can recollect the painful disruptions some
50 years ago, when pulling recusant and unpopular parsons out of the
pulpit by main force, portrayed too painfully the dissensions which
then reigned in the midst of the Methodist community. The Ministers
in this chapel are appointed at the Annual Wesleyan Conference. There
is an excellent Sunday-school at the rear of the Chapel, where 300
children receive a careful scriptural training. A few years ago a very
handsome New Wesleyan Chapel was erected at Dixon's Green, which is
a great boon to the numerous Wesleyans residing in that increasing
locality.


THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, ST. MARY AND ST. THOMAS OF CANTERBURY.

1842. This modern Gothic Church was opened on March 7th, 1842, by his
eminence Cardinal Wiseman. Previous to the erection of this sacred
edifice the Roman Catholics in Dudley worshipped in a small Chapel in
King Street, or were necessitated to travel to Sedgley. The Catholic
Church was founded and built at the sole cost of the Honourable Rev.
George Spencer, better known afterwards as "Father Ignatius." The land
was given by Mr. William Fletcher, nail master, of Dudley. In 1875,
this Church was altered and restored at a cost of upwards of £1,000.
The Rev. J. I. Bond, M.R., being the resident priest.

1843. April 12th, died Mr. Wm. Maurice, Bookseller and Printer, Market
Place, an energetic adherent to the Unitarian cause in this town, and
much respected by a large circle of friends. Aged 70 years.

Died, December 23rd, 1843, the Rev. James Dawson, Pastor of the
Independent Chapel, King Street. In penning a few remarks upon the
lamented death of this venerable and pious Christian Minister, who for
the long period of 40 years conducted his valuable ministerial duties
in the Congregational Chapel in King Street, I have to acknowledge the
kindness and courtesy of his son, Mr. John Dawson, Chemist of the Town,
who has furnished me with a perusal of the inner life (a diary) of his
lamented father's serious inspirations often offered up to the Throne
of Mercy on behalf of his attached flock. "In 1801, Mr. Dawson came
as a Minister _on Probation_ to King Street Chapel, and on June 1st,
1803, he was ordained to the Pastoral Office over the Church of Christ
at Dudley." The following is a copy of his certificate of office and
authority.

    "This is to certify that our Brother the Revd. James Dawson
    was regularly set apart to the Pastoral Office in the Church
    of Christ, meeting in King Street, Dudley, in the County of
    Worcester, on the first of June, 1803.

                            Signed, J. Brewer, Birmingham,
                                    J. Moody, Warwick,
                                    Obh. Bennett,
                                    Wm. Williams, Birmingham,
                                    Jno. Hudson, West Bromwich,
                                    Thos. Chipperfield, Stretton,
                                    S. Hanwell,
                                    B. Eaton."

Such then was the form of Ordination of a Minister in the Independent
Society of Christian worshippers in those remote days, whether such is
the authority now in use I am unable to assert.

Some jarring and hasty remarks have lately been floated in our local
Press, hurling serious charges against the religious belief and good
manners of the people of Dudley _in our own days_. Past experience,
and actual facts, loudly rebut such insane assertions, for we have
only to take a survey of this important Borough _now_ to witness the
religious and scholastic zeal exhibited in the erection of Churches,
Chapels, and Sunday Schools to the Glory of God and the spiritual
good of the people; which its inhabitants have long placed in broad
day-light, shewing their Christian benevolence and charity. Comparisons
sometimes become odious; and a perusal of the following extract
from the memoranda of the late Revd. James Dawson, may assuage some
disappointed feelings, and remove recent and unpleasant impressions.
"When the revival of religion took place in England, through the
instrumentality of Whitfield and Westley, Dudley with the rest of the
Kingdom partook of the advantages. Previous to this revival, the town,
with the surrounding neighbourhood, _was in an awful state of moral
darkness_. The congregation assembling in the Wolverhampton Street
Chapel had forsaken the truth, and God had forsaken them. All was gloom
and desolation in the Church; for the Gospel had not been preached in
it since the time of Richard Baxter, who officiated in St. Thomas's
Church nine months, and taught the Grammar School. The Countess of
Huntingdon's Students and Ministers brought the Gospel to Dudley, and
laboured for a considerable time in a dwelling house in King Street,
and to their labours must be traced the erection of a new Calvinistic
Chapel in this town. It was erected in the year 1788, in what is called
her Ladyship's Connexion. Owing to a variety of causes, but chiefly to
the inefficiency of the supplies, and a heavy debt upon the Chapel,
_the cause_ did not prosper. Difficulties pressed upon the few people
who attended, and it was feared the place must be sold to liquidate
the debt, and at length it was deemed necessary to turn the Chapel
over to the hands of Trustees, and transform it into a Congregational
Church. This change was effected in the year 1792. After this period
it was supplied chiefly by occasional Ministers from Birmingham and
other neighbouring places. In the year 1800, application was made to
Thomas Wilson, Esq., of London, Treasurer to the Dissenting College at
Hoxton, for a Student to come amongst them with a view to a settlement.
Their prayers were heard, and Mr. James Dawson was appointed to visit
them, who, ultimately, took upon him the charge of the Church, and was
ordained to the Pastoral Office on June 1st, 1803. In the year 1809,
the front gallery was erected at a cost of £100, raised entirely by the
Congregation. It was found necessary in 1815 to erect side galleries,
the seats of which were soon occupied. More seats were soon required,
and by a removal of the Sunday Scholars from under the front gallery
into different parts of the Chapel, and by a further addition of seats
in 1819, the increasing congregation was accommodated. In the year
1824, it was thought necessary to enlarge the Chapel still further. A
meeting of a few friends was held to consult upon the best method of
accomplishing the object, when subscriptions were entered into, and
the enlargement was commenced and finished the same year. The seats
were soon occupied, and the place became again too small to accommodate
all who were desirous of attending, and after much deliberation it
was determined to erect a New Chapel upon a scale sufficiently large
for all who were willing to hear the Gospel, and especially to afford
room for the poor. The Foundation Stone was laid the 21st day of May,
1839. May the blessing of God rest upon it, and render it a blessing
to thousands of the fallen sons of Adam. Gloria sit Deo. JAMES DAWSON,
Scripsit, 1839."

The Rev. James Dawson, during the forty years he laboured as the
beloved and respected minister of this Church of Christ, secured the
goodwill and esteem of all denominations. His great energy in the
pulpit and his unwearied efforts amongst his flock, supported as it was
by his strong evangelical views, caused his name to be revered far and
wide, and the life-long result of his ministry was a cheering evidence
of what spiritual blessings a good man can confer upon his fellows. Mr.
Dawson was a very retiring and humble-minded gentleman, very fearful
of being the cause of offence, for in 1805 we find him writing, "It
appears highly improper to speak evil of any one, but much more for one
Christian to speak evil of another. How hateful, then, must it appear
for one minister to speak evil of another; it is exceedingly bad and
most horrible." We find his aspirations and thankfulness for his yearly
increase of spiritual work to be quite child-like and steadfast; for
he writes, "This evening I was very comfortable at the prayer meeting;
found great liberty in addressing a few who were present; our members
increase both at the prayer meetings and public assemblies, for which I
am thankful, and pray they may more rapidly increase in knowledge and
true holiness." Increasing years and duties, however, pressed hard upon
this zealous servant of Christ, for in the latter part of his earthly
sojourn he writes thus, "Although, through the kindness and mercy of my
God, I enjoy a good measure of health and vigour of constitution, yet
I feel myself incompetent to the full discharge of ministerial duties;
visiting becomes irksome; occasional preaching in the neighbourhood,
and meeting Bible classes impracticable at my time of life. The spirit
is willing but the flesh is weak." A monument in the chapel records his
death and excellency; he died December 23rd, 1843, aged 65 years.

In August, 1844, the town was suddenly made acquainted with the
unwelcome news that Mr. Hawkes was about to resign his seat in
Parliament, and that a fit and proper person would have to be elected
in his place. Rumour, with her thousand tongues, ran hard and fast in
conjecture and doubts as to the coming candidate; for it had long been
observed that the Priory influence was yearly gaining strength and
dictation, and the future Reform influence in the borough was being
reduced to very narrow dimensions. The minds of the electors were soon
put to rest by the announcement that Mr. John Benbow, of London (of
the firm of Messrs Benbow and Tucker, solicitors, London), was the
favoured Tory candidate, to do battle for Church and State in Dudley.
The Anti-Corn Law League (emanating from Manchester), had already done
a heavy uphill work throughout the kingdom, in advocating the total
repeal of the Corn Laws; and some of its most talented public advocates
had already obtained seats in Parliament as the reward of their
fidelity to that great public question.

The Reformers of Dudley considering that the promotion of trade and
commerce was more intimately connected with them than the interests of
the British Farmer, for everyone had got hold of the hackneyed saying,
"that we must buy in the cheapest, and sell in the dearest market,"
decided to run a Free-Trade candidate at this by-election in the person
of Mr. William Rawson, the chairman of the Anti-Corn Law League.
Mr. Rawson's claims upon the electors of Dudley mainly consisted in
his advocacy of Free Trade, not only in corn, but everything else,
whilst "the little loaf, and the big loaf" were held up to the gazing
crowd, as the sign-posts of cheap bread, good wages, and increased
commercial progress, and prosperity. Mr. Benbow had the advantage of
a very different introduction to the electors; to many of whom he was
well-known as the legal adviser to the trustees of _the then_ young
Lord Ward, whose immense wealth and popularity was the pass-word to
any man's success. Mr. Benbow was not a fluent speaker, neither was
Mr. Rawson, so that we had not much speechifying from these gentlemen;
it was said, _that Mr. Rawson was a great thinker_; however, these
deficiencies were made up by the incessant fluency of Mr. Samuel
Cooke, a respectable linen draper, of Dudley, Mr. William Insull, and
Thomas Hill, who had become pronounced Chartists, and whose advocacy
for many years of the Nine Points of the Charter entitled them to the
regard and esteem of the whole force of the working classes in this
town and district. Mr. Cooke was a well-read gentleman, with a zeal
and honesty of purpose which few men can aspire to; there was a purity
and singleness of aim in his public deliverances which secured him
the respect of all good thinking people; and when he was committed to
Worcester prison for a time, for what was then construed into seditious
speaking, he was received back again to the scene of his well-meant
labours with public triumph and cordial congratulations.

This election, however, came off under some popular excitement, for
Free Trade was then the great war cry, and it had upset one Ministry
and was wrecking the stability of another; but the Castle influence
was proved to be too overwhelming for the popular cause; and the day
of nomination, with its hordes of men driven up to the hustings like
sheep, to hold up their hands for whom they were bidden, was, in truth
and in deed, a sad exhibition of what was misnamed freedom of election.
Mr. Benbow was elected by a good majority, and entered the House of
Commons as a decided Tory representative.

    1.  Mr. John Benbow, Tory                 388
    2.  Mr. William Rawson, Free Trader       175
                                             ----
                  Majority for Mr. Benbow     213

Benefit Societies, established by the most intelligent of the working
classes, had begun now to have a very beneficial effect in teaching
the great principles of self help. The Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows
had taken the lead throughout the country in this respect, and in the
parish of Dudley we had upwards of 1,500 members enrolled.

1845. July 14th. A monster and grand procession of Odd Fellows walked
the town this day, and went to a service at the Parish Church, when a
collection was made for the Widows and Orphans' Fund, amounting to £10
12s. 3d.

1845. July 30th. The Rev. Doctor Browne, Vicar of Dudley, was installed
an Odd Fellow in the "Rose and Thistle" Lodge, and the worthy Doctor's
zeal on behalf of the Widows and Orphans' was most manifest in the
parish.


THE FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE.

1845. This small place of worship is approached through a passage
leading out of High Street. It was originally built in 1670, was
enlarged in 1793, and has since had additional alterations. The Friends
are a small and select body of worshippers in this town, and appear to
have suffered severe and uncharitable persecution at times, for it is
recorded that on the 2nd May, 1665, four Friends of Dudley were seized
by one Major Wilde, and a troop of horsemen, and taken to Worcester
Gaol, kept there thirteen days till the Assizes and Sessions were over,
and then committed to the _common jail_ for three months without any
trial, or even being brought into open court. At the expiration of
their time of imprisonment, these Friends were brought into open court
and fined 12d. each, and then dismissed. The heinous crime with which
they had been charged was, "that they would not take an oath." Surely
we live in happier days of freedom and enlightenment, which is not
always duly appreciated by the censorious and narrow-minded citizens
of the present age, both social and religious pressure being often
exercised in the sacred name of civil and religious liberty.


THE DUDLEY DISPENSARY.

1845. May 14. The foundation of this most valuable and humane
institution bears date from this period. A public meeting of the
inhabitants was held at the Town Hall, on May 14th, 1845, under the
presidency of Edward Terry, Esq., the Mayor, "For the purpose of
adopting such means as might be deemed best calculated to afford
efficient medical relief gratuitously to indigent persons residing in
the district, and especially of considering whether the establishment
of a hospital at Dennis Park, to be called the Dudley and Stourbridge
Hospital, be desirable or otherwise." The subject was discussed with
much animation and consideration for the wants of the indigent poor
in the Dudley district. It was, moreover, considered that the wealth
and kindly feeling of the inhabitants of Dudley and its immediate
neighbourhood was a sufficient guarantee that a dispensary should and
could be handsomely supported and maintained in the town of Dudley,
irrespective of any pecuniary assistance from the Stourbridge district.
After much discussion, the following resolutions were unanimously
carried:--1st, "That in consequence of the distance of the intended
hospital from this town and parish, such an institution would not be
attended with so much advantage to Dudley and its immediate locality
as a Dispensary." 2nd, "That this meeting is fully of opinion that
the establishment of a Dispensary to provide gratuitous medical
assistance to those who are unable to procure professional relief for
themselves, is the most desirable plan that can be adopted for this
immediate district, and that a subscription be now opened to carry this
object into effect." The handsome sum of £178 was speedily collected
in donations, and premises were taken in the Upper High Street at a
rental of £40 per annum, and converted into a Public Dispensary. Mr.
Richard Meredith was appointed the first resident Medical Officer,
and the Institution was opened with an annual subscription list of
£289. In 1860 it was deemed necessary to enlarge the usefulness of
this charitable institution by erecting a more commodious building
better adapted to its yearly increasing requirements. The noble
Earl of Dudley, under the circumstances, presented the committee
with a very eligible building site in the Priory Road; and that
ever-to-be-remembered humble and unostentatious townsman, Joseph Guest,
Esq., and friend to every good cause in Dudley, at once volunteered
to erect the new dispensary at his sole cost. This noble and truly
Christian offer was at once accepted, and the present Dudley Dispensary
stands amongst us as a living testimony of the benevolent consideration
of a worthy Dudley gentleman, the late Joseph Guest, Esq. It was said
that the dispensary cost upwards of £1,600 in its erection. There
is one feature in the management of this valuable institution which
requires immediate rectification, viz., that a large number of patients
_who now_ derive benefit from this valuable institution _are not_
the kind of people (the indigent poor) for whom it was originally
established, and the rules of the institution are constantly broken by
subscribers giving tickets to such applicants for medical relief.

Railway speculations, and numberless new railway projects cropped up
all over the kingdom, and at Dudley we had the honour of entertaining
what was called "_The Battle of the Gauges_," a most scientific
difference of opinion, "whether the Narrow Gauge, or the Broad
Gauge," was likely to be the most conducive to the public good. We
had _numerous private_, and _two public, meetings_ held to discuss
this important question, inasmuch as two Railway lines were projected
from Wolverhampton (via Dudley), to London and Bristol, &c. The one
named the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway (Broad Gauge),
the other was called the Tring Railway (Narrow Gauge), branching off
to Birmingham in its route to London. After much ignorant conception
and argument about the merits of each project (for we were entirely
in the hands of the Speculators, Lawyers, and Engineers), it was
_unfortunately_ for the _future advantage_ of Dudley decided to support
the "Broad Gauge" (the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton line),
which Bill passed the House of Lords on July 31st, 1845, and was
commenced shortly afterwards.

1846. Mr. C. F. G. Clark, Chemist of this town, who had taken a very
prominent part in supporting sound Odd Fellowship in this town and
district, delivered a very luminous and entertaining lecture in the
Lancaster School-room, Dudley (Dr. Browne, Vicar in the chair), "On
the Origin, History and Principles of the Society of Odd Fellows."
This lecture (on a novel subject) attracted upwards of 500 of the
public, and the clear, and lucid manner in which the lecturer stripped
Odd Fellowship of many of its believed absurdities, and shewed "the
advantages of a society, which not only affords a vast amount of
assistance to its own members, but also relieves the Poor Rates, and
other burdens upon parishes to an unparalleled extent, by teaching its
members to be provident, sober, loyal, and industrious." The profits
of the sale of this lecture were given to the Widows and Orphans'
Fund, when upwards of £50 was added to that excellent Fund. Mr. Clark
continued to lecture in this laudable cause for some years in this
district.

    "ODD FELLOWSHIP, M.U.--On Friday evening week, March 27th,
    1846, a lecture was delivered in the Lancasterian School
    Room, Stafford Street, Dudley, by Mr. C. F. G. Clark, "On the
    Origin, History, and Principles of the Manchester Unity of
    Odd Fellows." The audience was very numerous, and the room,
    which is large, was well filled. The chair was taken by Dr.
    Browne, Vicar of Dudley, who briefly claimed for the lecturer
    a patient hearing. Mr. Clark opened his lecture with an
    introduction on the character of benefit societies in general,
    showing the superiority of Odd Fellowship over most other
    similar institutions. No society, he observed, that had ever
    been established in this country had afforded the amount of
    real benefit to its members which had been conferred by the
    Loyal and Independent Order of Odd Fellows of the Manchester
    Unity. He briefly noticed the origin of these institutions,
    expressing his opinion that they were to be traced from the
    Ancient Guilds, established by the church, in the time of the
    Saxons. He explained several of the laws of the societies of
    Guilds, and showed that they were established for a similar
    object to that of the societies of Odd Fellows. The Manchester
    Unity, he observed, was established in 1812 by twenty-seven
    working men, in Manchester, and remained in obscurity for
    some years, until in 1820 it was introduced into many of the
    large towns in the kingdom by the migrations of the Manchester
    brethren, and from that time its progress was rapid and signal.
    In 1838, it was introduced into Scotland, where it has been
    fostered with a spirit highly creditable to that far-seeing
    and intelligent people. In the Isle of Man, the doctrines of
    the Order had been so propagated that scarcely a man of any
    degree of station or character remained unconnected with it.
    There were upwards of 4,000 lodges in the Unity, and they
    were dispersed throughout Great Britain and Ireland, Malta,
    India, Australia, the Canadas, the United States of America,
    and other possessions of the British empire. In the year 1844
    the society received into its funds £326,207, out of which was
    expended in purposes of relief £170,182, and for carrying on
    the extensive working of the system £71,420. Mr. Clark next
    noticed the system of government adopted by the institution,
    and most minutely explained the advantages arising from its
    completeness and comprehensiveness. He then called attention
    to several individual cases of benefit, and showed that Noah
    Clarke, of the Cumberland Lodge, received up to his death in
    1843, upwards of £300 from the funds of the Cumberland Lodge,
    in the Manchester District. He noticed the objections which
    had been raised by many men to the Order, which he replied to
    with much ability. In closing his remarks, the lecturer noticed
    the benefit which the institution had afforded in Dudley. In
    the year 1842 and 1843, when trade was so bad, £432 3s. 3d.
    was paid on account of sickness and distress by the Wellington
    Lodge alone. During fifteen years and a half, David Pearson,
    of the Good Intent Lodge, held in High Street, had received
    upwards of £145; and Thomas Tomlinson, of the Wellington Lodge,
    in Stone Street, during fourteen years and a half, upwards of
    £120. He concluded by reading an eloquent tribute to the Order
    written by Dr. Wright, of Birmingham, and sat down amidst loud
    applause. Thanks were afterwards voted to the chairman for his
    kindness in presiding, and to Mr. Clark for his eloquent and
    instructive lecture."--From the _Birmingham Journal_.

Died June 22nd, 1846, Mr. Jeffrey Finch, of Portersfield, Fender
Manufacturer; a true specimen of a kind, genial, "Dudley man of ancient
descent." Aged 59 years.

Died June 24th, 1846, Mr. Rice, Castle Street. Aged 56 years.

1846. June 30th. The jury at Worcester Sessions awarded the sum of
£3,440 to Mr. Ralph Musselwhite, Draper, for his shop and house being
pulled down, standing on the Market flat, he demanding from the Dudley
Town Commissioners £4,800!!!

1846. November 10th. A piece of very handsome silver plate was this
day presented to Captain Wm. Bennett, of this town, as the result
of a public subscription, "to mark the sense of his public services
and worth." The testimonial was presented by Lord Ward in a very
complimentary speech.

Died February 1st, 1847, Mr. James Morris, Chemist and Druggist, of
Dudley, a famous freemason. Aged 48 years.

Died March 22nd, 1847, old Mr. Wm. Fellowes, Senior, Castle Street.
This old gentleman was a well known person in this town, and an acute
lawyer in his day, with some eccentricity of character and thought.
Aged 86 years.

In the month of June this year, it was quite evident in the political
horizon that a dissolution of Parliament was at hand, and that our
member, Mr. Jno. Benbow, M.P., would seek re-election; accordingly, on
the 6th of July, the following address was freely circulated in the
borough:--

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    A dissolution of Parliament being soon expected to take place,
    I hasten to solicit a renewal of that important trust which,
    in 1844, you kindly confided to me. During the period of my
    service in Parliament, I have ever been most anxious to prove
    my grateful sense of your generous confidence, by a diligent
    and faithful discharge of the duties which it imposed. On
    questions of national policy, which have been of more than
    ordinary magnitude, I have honestly supported those measures
    which the exigencies of the times, and the conflicting
    claims of the various interests of our free but complicated
    state seemed to me to demand; while in all that concerns
    your local interests it has been my constant endeavours to
    extend the trade and manufactures of your important town and
    neighbourhood, and to advance the general improvement of
    your borough. If by your suffrages I am again placed in the
    distinguished situation as your representative, it shall be my
    zealous aim to enhance your prosperity, and promote the welfare
    of our common country.

                 I have the honour to be,
                          Gentlemen,
                             Your faithful and obliged servant,
                                                      JOHN BENBOW.

    _July 6th, 1847._

Mr. Benbow, it was thought, was not going to have such an easy _walk
over_, as his admirers had anticipated, for a Mr. Joseph Linney, _an
out and out Chartist_, from Bilston, was trotted before admiring
reformers by our old friend Mr. Samuel Cook, with the evident intent of
embracing the opportunity of airing the Six Points of the Charter. On
July 24th, this Bilston Firebrand issued a long-winded address to the
Electors, embracing--

    1. Universal Suffrage,
    2. Vote by Ballot,
    3. Annual Parliaments,
    4. No Property Qualification,
    5. Payment of Members,
    6. Equal Electoral Districts.

In summing up his discourse, he says: "I have but to add in conclusion,
that, if returned, I shall lend my support to those measures
facilitating by Railroad and Cheap Postage the means of easy and rapid
transmission and intercourse; thus I shall oppose all Foreign Wars not
rendered necessary for self-defence or the purposes of humanity, and
that I shall feel it my duty annually to present myself before the
inhabitants of your Borough in public meeting assembled, and there
to resign my trust into their hands, should such be the will of the
majority."

Now it so happened that Mr. Linney was a voluminous talker, and his
free presence on the hustings with his friend, Samuel Cook, Mr. Wm.
Insull, and kindred spirits, was looked forward to with dismay by one
party, and hilarity by the other, for _a turn of local fun_ was sure
to arise in the public discussions. Another element of discord, also,
arose amongst some of Mr. Benbow's previous supporters, arising from
the galling political dictation now assumed by the Priory influence. It
was determined that if we were to be ridden by lordly influence that
we would elect a local man whom we could trust to represent us, and it
was at once determined to invite our own townsman, Mr. Thomas Badger,
a very large employer of labour both in Dudley and the neighbourhood,
to offer himself for the suffrages of the electors. Mr. Benbow and his
friends became now thoroughly alarmed, and aroused to immediate action;
for the old gentleman trudged down to Dudley to survey the situation,
and at once issued the following laconic address:--

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    The dissolution having ensued, I now wait upon you to ask your
    suffrages, and should I be kindly favoured with a renewal of
    your confidence, so as to be again enabled to discharge the
    important duties which will devolve upon your representative in
    Parliament, you may rest assured that I will endeavour to repay
    the obligation by all the means in my power.

                                I am,
                                   Your most obedient servant,
                                                       JOHN BENBOW.

    _Dudley, July 24th, 1847_

The political freedom of Dudley was now in the throes of life, or
death; and whilst our highly respected townsman, Mr. Badger, was
counting the cost, and rehearsing in his mind the past experience of
his friend Mr. Hawkes, late M.P. for Dudley, in Parliamentary matters,
the following "Curiosities of Dudley" appeared before the disturbed
Electors.

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    TO THE INDEPENDENT ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    Gentlemen,

    A dissolution of Parliament is at hand, and I hear of no other
    candidate for our suffrages besides our present Member. Is it
    not, however, worthy of enquiry, if this gentleman, a London
    Lawyer, a nominee, and personally unknown to the great majority
    of you, is the man of your choice, and a proper representative
    of your wants and interests in Parliament, and has he fair
    claims to be re-elected by you?

    To justify these claims, what have been his doings since he
    held his seat for this borough? What has he done for the
    country at large, or for the constituency he represents?
    When the most momentous question that could be raised in a
    Protestant country was agitated--the revival of Popery in the
    endowment of the Papist College of Maynooth, was he at his post
    to defend the strongest bulwark of our national prosperity and
    glory--our reformed Christianity--or did he not skulk behind
    the scenes at each division on this vital question--and, by an
    ignoble silence, allow that measure which opens a broad inroad
    to the triumph of Popery, to pass without his vote? Is such a
    man worthy of the confidence of a Protestant constituency?--And
    in what other measure of national importance, and for the
    welfare of the people, has he taken any part? As to matters of
    local interest, his conduct in the case of the Bill for the
    Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway will not soon be
    forgotten. To this measure, which promised the greatest benefit
    to the town and district, and which was hailed and supported
    by a vast majority of his constituents, he presented the most
    determined, unwearied and implacable opposition, and ever
    since it has passed has continued to throw every obstacle which
    malice or litigation could invent in the way of its progress. I
    say nothing to a number of other matters of local concernment,
    which, in proportion to their importance, redound as little to
    his credit.

    And what has been his bearing towards those of his constituents
    who have held any official intercourse with him? Strong, or
    fancying himself so, in the interest of his patron, he has
    looked down upon them, if not with positive contempt, with the
    most supercilious indifference--riding rough-shod over them,
    their opinions, and their wishes, in the pure style of an
    "IRRESPONSIBLE." Too haughty to listen to their petitions, and
    acknowledging no one's judgment or will but his own, his career
    has been as that of a tyrant among a nation of serfs. And yet
    he has the hardihood to offer himself again to the suffrages
    of these insulted constituents, and, strange to say, they seem
    prepared to sit down in this state of degradation.

    But I shall be told that the honourable member has done great
    things for our borough, and that he has made full atonement for
    all his sins, in procuring from his patron--(one would think
    they were his own gift, if the selfishness of his nature were
    not too well known)--sites for a prison, schools, &c. And does
    he, or will you, my fellow electors, rob the noble head of the
    house of Dudley of these acts of justice and benevolence, or
    will you ascribe to the agent the act of the principal? Had MR.
    BENBOW never heard of that honourable name, I hesitate not to
    aver, that the borough of Dudley had been no loser at all in
    the matter.

    Is he, then, I repeat, the man who ought to represent us in
    Parliament? And have we no one among ourselves equally, or
    better, qualified to support our interests, and to whom some
    debt, _not of reproach_, but of public gratitude is due? I
    think we have, and I would name THOMAS BADGER, ESQ., as one. No
    man is better acquainted with the interests and wants of our
    borough than he is, and no man has exerted himself so much and
    successfully to promote them, or would labour more faithfully
    and zealously in support of those wants and interests.
    Living all his life among us, his character is well known to
    be unimpeached and unimpeachable.--Strong and clear in his
    judgment, firm and decided in his principles and proceedings,
    and well experienced, by years and business, in the knowledge
    of our commerce, and of men and things, _and with a property
    sufficient to place him above temptation_, he is well-fitted to
    serve the interests of his neighbours and his country. I do not
    know that he would accept the trust, but I think he ought to be
    invited to do so, and I throw out this hint in the hope that it
    may be taken up and succeed.

                                  AN INDEPENDENT ELECTOR OF DUDLEY.

    _Dudley, July 20, 1847._

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    A WORD IN THE EAR OF AN INDEPENDENT ELECTOR OF DUDLEY.

    My Dear "Independent,"

    What a funny fellow you are! Asking at this time of the day, if
    Mr. Benbow is the man of the choice of the Dudley Independent
    Electors? And whether he is not "a nominee?" What fun! To ask
    if these things are not "worthy of enquiry?" You droll dog!
    Ask whether the sun shines? "What has he done for the country
    at large, or for the constituency he represents?" I fearlessly
    answer he has done his duty. "Nominees" attend to the interests
    of those who nominate them. And has he not perseveringly upheld
    the interests of his patron in all the railway struggle? What
    had the "vast majority of his constituents" to do with the
    matter? True it is, he opposed the Oxford, Worcester, and
    Wolverhampton Railway Bill, which was hailed and supported by
    a vast majority of his constituents, and that he continues
    "the most determined, unwearied, and implacable opposition" to
    it; but yet he will be re-elected without opposition; clearly
    showing it is no business of theirs. The line of Railway Mr.
    Benbow supported was the most beneficial for Lord Ward's
    estates, and that is one and the same thing as the Borough
    of Dudley. Could the constituency expect more? His conduct
    respecting the endowment of the "Papist College of Maynooth,"
    may have been, from what is known, more independent! We know
    not what Lord Ward's opinions on this subject are:--and Mr
    Benbow, may, in this instance, have equally disregarded the
    opinions of the "Independent Electors of Dudley," and of
    his Patron. Whether they were alarmed at "the revival of
    Popery," or simply objected to the grant of the public money
    for an exclusively sectarian religious education, he may, in
    this instance, have voted to please himself! 'Tis clear the
    "Independent Electors" had nothing to do with it.

    You forgot the Corn-law affair! The "Independent electors,"
    at the last election, returned Mr. Benbow in opposition to
    Mr. Rawson, the enthusiastic Treasurer of the Anti-Corn Law
    League, expressly to uphold those laws, and "protect native
    industry;" and he voted for their total abolition! 'Tis true
    in so doing he showed a similarity of opinion between himself
    and Lord Ward;--and a decided diversity between himself and
    his "Independent" supporters! In return for his independent
    conduct, his "Independent" supporters, will again vote for, and
    elect him Member for Dudley. Never before was such a band of
    disinterested Patriots known! Among them stands pre-eminent,
    Thomas Badger, Esq., selected by you as a proper person to
    oppose Mr. Benbow! In homely language, you have selected him to
    "bell the cat?" There are rumours afloat of the deliberations
    of the council when this measure was proposed! And if there be
    truth in these rumours, these deliberations came to a similar
    result with those of the mouse council! viz., that the advice
    was very bold, but its execution, by any member of the council,
    hopeless. I thought you too severe here. To look for any
    electors of the Borough of Dudley, who approve of Mr. Badger's
    political principles, of sufficient courage and independence
    to oppose the Himley Influence was too bad. Mr. Badger would
    repudiate any such admirer.

    Mr. Benbow is the man for Dudley. 'Tis true he voted for the
    extended Grant to Maynooth, in opposition to many of his
    supporters: no matter;--they will generously support him as
    before! 'Tis true he broke all his pledges to uphold the Corn
    Laws to the disgust and indignation of his "independent"
    supporters: no matter;--they will rally round him at the
    hustings! 'Tis true he opposed himself to the interests and
    wishes of the great majority of the electors and inhabitants
    of the Borough in the Railway affair: no matter;--_they dare
    not vote against him at the poll!_ 'Tis true _he has neglected
    the interests of his nominal constituents whilst living_: no
    matter;--he has procured from his patron the grant of burial
    grounds, without charge, for their benefit, when dead he
    provided them with graves; 'Tis true; the independence of the
    Borough is utterly destroyed: no matter;--Mr. Benbow, like a
    generous enemy, has provided a decent burial!

    When you next write, be guarded in what you say; Mr. Benbow may
    find you out; although you do not sign your name, and although
    you cut off the Printer's name and address: he is so sharp. And
    woe betide any one he catches tripping.

                                  Your sincere friend,
                                          A BROTHER "INDEPENDENT."

    Dudley, July 22, 1847.

       *       *       *       *       *

    "Dudley Castle in Modern Times."

    _A NEW FARCE IN ONE ACT_,

    AFTER SHAKESPEARE.

    SCENE.--_A Room in Smith's Hotel._

    Characters.

    TOM NAILER, _a_ FEELING _Candidate_.
    ISAAC, _one of the Old School_.
    SPIRITS, _a would-be Senator_.
    MAYOR, _a willing instrument_.
    CHARTIST SAM, _an unpopular popular man_.
    BILL, _an American adventurer, lately returned from his travels_.
    GEORGE WESLEY, _an eminent Brewer_.
    MOLLEY, _a newly-appointed Justice_.
    LORD PRIORY, _a Deputy-Landlord_ (_arriving late_.)
    WAITER, _listening through the hey-hole_.

    _Enter_ ISAAC (_musing_) _with the Standard paper in his hand_.

    _Isaac._ Gentlemen, I come no more to make you laugh, things
    that bear a weighty and serious brow, full of state and woe,
    such scenes as draw the eyes to tears, we now present. This
    paper tells me that the Queen hath now dismissed her faithless
    Parliament, once more to meet the public eye, and _he_ whom
    we so lovingly raised to the honour, and safe keeping of our
    state and consciences, comes here again to seek our love, which
    he hath thus _so shamefully abused_. We must be up and doing,
    else the unmitigated errors of our former deeds will cloud the
    bright honour of our party. What say you friends to _another
    Candidate_ for our purpose? (_Yes! yes!! yes!!!_)

    _Mayor_ (_reading his speech._) Most willingly my friends I
    would obey the councils of our party, and having heard our
    friends speak highly of _our worthy Tom_, as one in whom the
    inmost secrets of our hearts and wishes may be safely hid; one
    that will our interests truly represent, despite the reasonings
    of the vulgar herd; one that will faithfully uphold our holy
    church against the _Papal Powers_ and _low dissent_; one that
    has claim upon our love for long tried services and renown, and
    whose ambition is but laudably upright; this is the man _in
    whom we can confide_. I therefore do most thankfully propose
    him as our future Senator. (_Immense cheering, clapping of
    hands, and stamping of feet._)

    _Isaac._ This is the happiest moment of my life, the head and
    front of our noble house is thus most justly to attain his high
    rank in the bold field of senatorial fame. Oh! how toil of
    former years will thus recline upon laurels so nobly won; and
    our famed house, _whose ancestors we can from yore bring down_,
    will now be upward raised to honour, fame and senatorial power.
    I do my friends most cordially approve your choice.

    _Chartist._ Most reverend, grave and noble gentlemen, I would
    intrude upon your presence, and a round unvarnished tale
    unfold, concerning him on whose behalf I am constrained to
    speak. Unkindly given to that _Bending-Bow_, whose bearing to
    my admonitions have been sadly coarse, and whose independence
    ill-becomes his place; his confidence I do now abjure, and
    leave him to his merited deserts. But, whilst my honoured
    friend Tom, _whose mighty hand I have so often felt_, stands
    high with us for _Magistraterial worth_, yet sadly he doth
    _lack_ those _senatorial powers_ which constitute the wisdom of
    our state. He whom I do now propose, so gentle he in _Spirits_,
    mild in speech, so clear in judgment, correct in our cause,
    so free from fetters, and unbiassed in mind; he can our cause
    uphold, and justly raise our state and interests to our wishes.
    I do therefore propose my friend _Spirits_ as our future
    representative. (_Immense murmuring._)

    _Molley._ Why murmur thus my friends, for this ambitious wish
    by him whom we so oft have cause to praise for his discretion,
    probity, and talents. It ill-becometh one, like me, who hath
    derived so much unmerited power and distinction from our noble
    Tom, to try to stem the flood of his most honoured course; but
    know ye not that divers sayings we do hear abroad of the little
    relish the gentle burgesses have for his name? The trumpet
    that was sounded for the object of our choice falls dull
    upon the public ear; and rumour, with her slanderous tongue,
    talks loud of bye-gone bigotry,--party purposes, uncourteous
    bearing,--revengeful feelings,--which were wont to emanate from
    his noble house; besides, the foul slur that he doth lack the
    talent, knowledge, and the like, which ought to fit him for
    St. Stephen's Hall. These things behove us to be on our guard
    against the common enemy, and remember our cause, the church,
    our privileges, our private interests, above all the public
    weal, demands that cheated once out of our former loves, we
    should send one to Parliament in whom we can confide. Perchance
    our Tom might lose the day, but if by trickery, electioneering
    evils, false faces, and designing deeds, we can them all outwit
    and send our man, the game is then our own. These potent
    reasons do constrain me to support another candidate; besides,
    in starting two into the field, we shall mislead the enemy;
    perchance in losing Tom, the other we may securely gain; and
    by our Chartist friend our cause upholding, it augurs well for
    the relish that doth show itself in the ungodly camp of the
    rabble herd; for their support may thus be safely brought unto
    our aid. I would beseech you to adopt this course, and give our
    _Spirituous_ friend the benefit of your close alliance.

    _Tom_ (_rising with great emotion._) Rude am I in speech,
    and little blessed with the set phrase of courtliness, but I
    do requite you for your love to me. I did not go into this
    matter, but by the learned approbation of my friends; and if
    I am traduced by tongues, which neither know my faculties nor
    person, yet will be the chroniclers of my doings, let me say
    it is but the fate of place, and the rough brake that virtue
    must go through. We must not stint our necessary actions in the
    fear to cope malicious usurers, which ever as ravenous fishes
    do a vessel follow, longing for the leaden corpse thrown over.
    My ambitious spirit, aided by your weighty counsels, led me
    to suppose that my success was certain. They do me wrong that
    complain unto the people that I am stern and love them not,
    that fill their ears with dissentious rumours; because I cannot
    flatter and speak fair, smile in men's faces with an apish
    courtesy, thus I must be held a rancorous enemy. Cannot a plain
    man live and think no harm, but thus his simple truth must be
    abused by silken, sly, insinuating snobs. I will forego this
    proffered seat, and leave my younger friend to win the day.

    _George Wesley_ (_beseechingly._) Know, then, that it is your
    fault that you resign this seat; your state of fortune, and
    your birth's due demand your acquiescence. Pray, I beseech you,
    to revise your thoughts and think this noble Isle doth want
    her proper limbs. This _Bending-Bow_ whom our manners call
    _the member_--more bitterly could I expostulate, save that
    for reverence sake to some alive I give a sparing limit to my
    tongue. Come, then, dear Tom, take to yourself this unfettered
    seat of honour, this proffered benefit of dignity, if not to
    bless us and the land withal, yet to draw forth your noble
    ancestry from the corruption of abusing time, into a lineal
    true derived course.

    _Tom_ (_angrily._) I cannot tell if to depart in silence or
    bitterly to speak in your reproof best fitteth my degree,
    for tongue-tied ambition, not replying, yieldeth to bear the
    golden yoke of membership which fondly you would thrust upon
    me. Definitely thus I tell you. Your love deserves my thanks,
    but my deserts unmeritable shun your high request; but if all
    obstacles were cut away, and my path were even to the seat, I
    the sceptre would lay hold, and rid you of your fears. Alas!
    I am, they say, unfit for state and dignity. I do beseech you
    take it not amiss, I cannot, nor I will not, yield to your
    entreaties. (_Lamentations._)

    _Bill._ You are, my sire, too ceremonious for the times; weigh
    it but with the grossness of the age; you break no faith in
    serving on this seat; besides, the benefit is always granted
    to those who have the wit to claim the place. This Bending-Bow
    hath neither claimed it nor deserved it; then taking it from
    him you serve the public most, and thereby elevate our noble
    house.

    _Chartist_ (_with much impatience._) I do beseech you hear the
    sentiments of our spirituous friend.

    _Spirits_ (_rising with great gravity._) My election sure, my
    honour elevated, and your dear wishes realized, I will requite
    your honoured favours. "A life devoted to your service and
    the cause of liberty, an advocate for the people's rights,
    and a recourse to physical force in agitating times, are the
    principles upon which I solicit your support. (Cheers from
    Chartist.) Faithfully attached to the unlimited favour of the
    people, an enemy to that hydra of all religious toleration
    (the Church by law established), considering the connexion
    betwixt Church and State, a libel upon the freedom, and a
    disgrace to this country. I deem the advocacy of politics by
    men who have devoted their lives to the service of God (as is
    witnessed in the House of Lords), as a shameful surveillance
    to the integrity of that section of the executive, for its
    interference is tinctured with the bigotry of the schools,
    and its existence overawes the weak and imbecile opinions of
    the expectant recipients of Church patronage. Considering the
    present franchise a mockery upon the political rights of the
    people, as exclusive in its operations, and venal in its
    results, I shall endeavour to extend the franchise to both
    sexes after they have left school. (Immense cheering, with
    marked disapprobation from Tom and Isaac.) Freedom of election
    being the bulwark of independence, I look upon the system of
    representation as practised in this borough, and the herd-like
    manner in which white slaves are driven about like cattle,
    according to the motives of the noble proprietor, or the
    interests of a small section of the electors; as a violation
    of the sacred rights of man, and a farcical performance
    calculated to revolutionize the organisation of society at
    large. Gentlemen, nay, my constituency! let us leave man, the
    noblest attribute of the Divine origin in the freedom of his
    birth, the unfettered exercise of his mind, and the full powers
    of his physical and gastronomical faculties. (Mingled shouts
    of applause, and prayerful groanings from George Wesley.)
    Gentlemen, don't pledge your consciences for party and base
    purposes. (Cheers.) Beware of peerage interference with your
    noble rights. (Cheers.) Rally round the standard of liberty;
    give me your unqualified support and alliance, and I will
    retrieve our lost influence." (Prolonged cheering, during which
    time Spirits calls for some gin and water.)

    _Lord Priory_ (_entering late, and much excited._) What
    work is this, my countrymen, in hand. Where go ye,--what do
    ye,--speak, I pray you. I tell you, friends, most charitable
    care hath the Member for you; you might as well strike at the
    heavens with staves as try to unseat him. You do us wrong to
    thus traduce our deeds before you hear our reasons; either
    you must confess yourselves wondrous malicious, or be accused
    of folly. Beware, friend Tom, of false ambition, unmerited
    deserts, and silly men. Our member's course has been to win ye
    all, and thus retain your loves; but sadly ye do now requite
    him for his care. Past services, present local advantages, and
    expectant hopes, you bury in the deep malice of your bridled
    minds. Beware the ire of our noble house,--beware the malice of
    our blasted hopes, upon your puny heads. What would ye have,
    ye curs? that like not war nor peace; the one affrights you,
    the other makes you proud. He that trusts you where he should
    find you lions, finds you hares; where foxes, silly geese. He
    who deserves greatness gets your hate, and your affections are
    like a sick man's appetite, who desires most of that which
    would increase his evil. He that depends upon your favours,
    swims with fins of lead, and hews down oaks with rushes. Trust
    ye, ah! with every minute you do change your mind, and call
    him noble that was once your hate; him vile that was once your
    friend. What is the reason that in these several places of the
    city you cry against our noble senators. Shame you not for this
    unnatural alliance; remember whom you take withal into your
    puny councils, and reconsider your uncourteous ways.

    _Chartist_ (_greatly excited._) A thing devised by the enemy,
    thus this babbler wishes to over-awe us. Go, gentlemen,
    every man unto his charge; let not such babblers affright our
    souls; conscience is but a word that cowards use, devised
    at first to keep the strong in awe. Our strong arms be our
    conscience, swords our law; march on, join bravely; let us to
    the pell-mell, not to lose, but hand in hand to win. (_Immense
    shouting._)

    _Enter Messenger_ (_breathless._) Gentlemen, gentlemen, Mr.
    Benbow has just entered the town!!!

    _Molley._ Friends, where shall we meet to-morrow?

    _Isaac._ Oh, at my house, at ten.

    _All._ We will be there in time. Till then, adieu.

                                        "A LOOKER ON IN DUDLEY."

    _July 22nd, 1847._

Such was the literary talent evoked, which helped to keep alive a
little electioneering excitement, under an almost foregone conclusion,
for Mr. Badger had declined to be put in nomination--although it was
almost certain he would have been elected--so Mr. Benbow had only one
opponent to face on the hustings, his Chartist antagonist, Mr. Joseph
Linney. The nomination day came, surrounded with all the tactics
celebrated in the house of Himley; the two candidates _had their say_,
the mob and electors had their _fun and bonnetting_. Mr. Joseph Linney
was elected by the show of hands, _by a large majority_; the usual
poll was demanded, and the day and time fixed upon, but, alas! for
human greatness, poor Mr. Linney could not find the necessary guarantee
(funds) for his election expenses, and his friends and admirers were
in the same plight, so before the polling commenced, it oozed out that
Mr. Linney had retired from the contest, leaving the old member master
of the field. Thus, Mr. Benbow was again returned the member for the
Castle interest in another Parliament.

Much dissatisfaction was felt at this election, by both Tories and
Reformers, at the apparent intention to stamp out that small spark of
political freedom, whenever it was wafted by a little political breeze,
and, as _might became right_, there was no _redemption then_ from a
thraldom which was afterwards so signally revenged by both political
parties on the house of Himley in 1857.

The Irish famine and distress, in the winter of 1846-47, in the
southern and western counties of Ireland, had awakened profound
sympathy and benevolence throughout the nation; and Old Dudley was
not backward in her material pecuniary assistance on this memorable
occasion. A public meeting was convened by the mayor (James Fisher,
Esq.), and a numerous committee was at once formed to canvass the town
for liberal subscriptions to the "Irish Relief Fund." At the close of
the canvass, March, 1847, it was announced that the handsome sum of
£655 2s. had been collected for this very deserving object.

Died, September 10th, 1847, at 11 a.m., having dropped down dead in the
street, old Mr. Stevenson, tailor, of Queen Street. Aged 77 years.

Died, September 24th, 1847, a well-known feature in the Market Place,
old Mr. Morris, of the "Jolly Colliers" Inn. Aged 87 years.

Died, September 26th, 1847, Mr. Cole, the keeper, and visitors' guide
to the Castle Grounds; this old familiar townsman had been for many
years the butler at Himley Park. Aged 86 years. It was through the
strenuous and oft-repeated wish of John Maughan, Esq., the estates land
agent, and Mr. Cole, that Mr. C. F. G. Clark, chemist, in the Market
Place, was induced in 1846 to write and compile the "Dudley Castle
Guide Book;" a condensed history of the Castle, which was much needed
by visitors to our fine old feudal ruins, and delightful sylvan walks
and drives along the Castle Grounds. This popular Guide Book has now
attained its Fifteenth edition, and retains its long-won favours and
popularity.

1847. October 19th. A public testimonial of very valuable books,
handsomely bound, was presented to Charles Twamley, Esq., Solicitor of
this town, to mark the sense of kindly and generous feeling exhibited
towards him by all classes of the inhabitants. Mr. Chas. Twamley's
removal to the lucrative appointment of Registrar of the Lambeth County
Court was a source of much regret to his political friends (Radicals),
for Mr. Twamley had always been a prominent leader and Reformer in the
borough. Mr. Twamley was a scientific Geologist, and often lectured on
that exhaustive subject; he also was a very prominent founder, along
with others, of the Dudley Geological Society in New Street, which
is now transferred to the New Mechanics' Institute. Mr. Twamley's
charming and painstaking research in his History of Dudley Castle and
the Priory, in 1867, will always stamp his history as superior to
any others, having cleared away a host of illfounded surmises by the
late Dr. Booker in his florid history. His lectures on the Silurian
Formation and the Coal Measures are most learned and instructive, and
invaluable to the Geological Student.

Died, November 15th, 1847, Mr. O. Gilbert Shaw, of the "Barrel Inn,"
High Street, much respected by all parties. Aged 69 years.

Died, November 22nd, 1847, Miss Louisa Elkins, sister of Mrs. Dr.
Johnson, Castle Street. This unhappy young lady procured in the night,
from Dr. Johnson's Surgery, a quantity of prussic acid, which she took
up into her bed room and swallowed, death ensuing at once. Aged 22
years.

On Wednesday, November 24th, 1847, the recently built Gothic Trinity
Presbyterian Church, situated in Wolverhampton Street, was publicly
opened for divine worship with considerable ceremony. The Rev. Wm.
Chalmers and the Rev. John Weir, both from London, were the preachers,
and the Rev. George Lewis, Minister of the Church, assisted. This new
Gothic edifice was considered quite a feature of prominence in the
street. Mr. Lewis continued for a number of years to be a most zealous
and acceptable preacher in this church to his fellow countrymen.

November 29th, 1847. A Public Meeting was held by requisition to the
Mayor, Elliott Hollier, Esq., "to take into consideration the propriety
of endeavouring to make such alterations in the days the Fairs in the
town are held, and also of having an additional Fair in the year."

1847, December 4th. The Vicar (Dr. Browne) publically announced that
the "Parochial National Schools," recently erected in Upper King
Street, would be opened for the education of children of the poorer
classes after Christmas. 1st class children charged 2d. per week;
2nd, 4d.; 3rd, 6d. Adult schools for male and females were opened
shortly afterwards. This National School has been a source of immense
educational good in this parish.

1847, December 1st. There was a general reduction of 20 per cent. in
wages, both in the Coal and Iron trade. The slackness of trade and
the great distress and want amongst the working classes, was most
perplexing and distressing, and the local failures in the Iron trade
became alarming.


DUDLEY POLICE STATION.

1847. The Borough Gaol and habitations for our excellent Police Force
were erected at this time by the County of Worcester. Previous to this
wise concentration of the Police Force into one locality, the men were
lodging and living all about the town, much against that discipline
so necessary in the force, and now so characteristically practised by
the Dudley Police. The lock-up for prisoners was a dingy hole at the
Workhouse, in Tower Street. Mr. Superintendent Burton is our veteran
popular chief officer.

1848. Since the intimidation and undue influence exercised at the last
election, it was determined to endeavour to counteract such hinderances
to freedom of election, by using every effort to extend the Franchise.
With this object a Public Meeting was held on February 8th, 1848, in
Dudley, under the Presidency of the Rev. John Palmer, M.A., Unitarian
Minister of Dudley, to promote an extension of the "Midland Counties
Freehold Land Society," whereby, it was shewn how a working man could
obtain a freehold house and a vote for the County. The meeting was
largely attended and addressed by Alderman Weston, Mr. J. S. Wright,
and Mr. W. B. Smith, M.U., as a deputation from Birmingham.

1848, January 7th. Died Mr. Alexander Gordon (of the Straits House,
Lower Gornal), formerly a very active public man in this town. Mr.
Gordon was a strong Reformer in Politics, and the leading member of
the Wesleyan Methodists in this town and district. He was a truly kind
and benevolent old gentlemen, but was particularly partial to his own
views. He died at the advanced age of 77 years.

January 20th, 1848. Mr. Ralph Musselwhite, Draper, in the old "Middle
Row," again brought an action against the Town Commissioners, in the
Queen's Bench at London, to recover the expenses incurred at his
previous trial at Worcester, wherein he was defeated. He was again
defeated at the Queen's Bench, after having expended upwards of £1,000
in useless and unreasonable litigation with the Town Authorities.

1848, February 11th. Died at Bath, Chas. Molyneux, Esq., Manager of the
Dudley and West Bromwich Bank in this Town; he was also a Magistrate,
and sat on our Dudley Police Bench.

February 7th, 1848. A most influential and numerously attended public
meeting was held at the Old Town Hall, Dudley, under the auspices of
Mr. Elliott Hollier (the Mayor), "for the purpose of adopting the best
measures for promoting the objects of the Mechanics' Institute in the
Borough of Dudley," and the following report emanated from the meeting.

    DUDLEY.

    MECHANICS' INSTITUTE.--A numerous meeting of the friends of
    this project was held at the vacant rooms in Wolverhampton
    Street on Tuesday week, to consider the best means of
    establishing a Mechanics' Institute, adapted for all classes,
    upon a solid and permanent basis. Elliott Hollier, Esq., Mayor,
    was called to the chair. After some animated discussion,
    entered into by those gentlemen who are usually found at their
    posts in advocating and assisting the advancement of knowledge,
    and the establishment of useful institutions, it was deemed
    advisable to give more publicity to the project, and canvass
    the merits of the question amongst all classes. In accordance
    with this disposition it was at once resolved to suspend
    operations till a more definite system should be agreed upon.
    The most effectual way of submitting this to the inhabitants
    was considered to be by petitioning the Mayor to convene a
    public meeting for the especial object, and then submitting a
    definite plan for approval at that assemblage. S. Blackwell,
    Esq., proposed, and Dr. Browne, seconded, a proposition to that
    effect: and a resolution was at once signed by the meeting
    to the Mayor, who fully acquiesced in the expediency and
    propriety of the movement. Amongst the various modes suggested
    for effectually maintaining a Mechanics' Institution _was
    one announced by Mr. Clark, which appeared to augur well for
    ultimate success; and as it is a project, which, if carried
    out, would affect collectively two other institutions already
    established in the town, it may not be amiss to give our
    Dudley readers an outline of it_. The proposition is "that
    a Mechanics' Institution shall be established by 200 or 300
    shares of one guinea each, and that the annual subscription
    shall be 10s. The capital thus raised to be appropriated to the
    purchasing of a library, apparatus, and the necessary furniture
    required for the effectual carrying on of the institution.
    That overtures be made to the Geological Society (now
    almost defunct) and the New street News Rooms, for a mutual
    amalgamation of these bodies into one large and comprehensive
    Philosophical Institution, to be managed agreeably to the usual
    customs of such institutions." In the event of this suggestion
    being carried out, little or nothing (save a capital for
    library), would be required to commence operations, for the
    News Room is already in full operation, and rooms connected
    with the Geological Society are partially unoccupied, and
    well-adapted for the purpose. Amongst the gentlemen and
    tradesmen present at the meeting, were the Rev. Dr. Browne,
    Vicar; Rev. Messrs. Noot, A. Davis, Rogers, and Lewis; Messrs.
    S. Blackwell, Houghton, Bateman, Hickman, J. C. Cook, Grainger,
    Boddington, Clark, Rudge, Minty, Rock, Wright, Mainwaring,
    &c. From an advertisement in another column, it will be seen
    that at a public meeting on Monday, the mayor in the chair, a
    series of resolutions were carried for the purpose of actively
    promoting the institution.--_Birmingham Journal_, 1848.

February 19th, 1848. The committee appointed at the public meeting,
after mature and earnest consideration, issued the following
suggestions as a programme, upon which a sound and successful
Mechanics' Institute might be grafted; it being arranged that the
prosperous "Reading Room," which Mr. Secretary C. F. G. Clark, had
established in 1845, at the Geological Rooms in New Street, should be
incorporated with the new institution.


DUDLEY MECHANICS' INSTITUTION, UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF THE RIGHT
HONOURABLE LORD WARD.

    The Sub-Committee appointed at a Public Meeting of the
    Inhabitants of the Borough of Dudley, convened by the Mayor,
    (pursuant to a Requisition), and held at the Old Town Hall, on
    Monday Evening, the 7th instant, for the purpose of taking into
    consideration the best means to be adopted for the permanent
    establishment of the Dudley Mechanics' Institution, beg to call
    your attention to

    THE FOLLOWING RESOLUTIONS WHICH WERE PROPOSED AND UNANIMOUSLY
    ADOPTED:--

    1.--That this Meeting, acknowledging the desirability of the
    permanent establishment of the Mechanics' Institution in the
    Borough of Dudley, pledges itself to promote the same by every
    means in its power.

    2.--That for the promotion of such an object a Sub-Committee
    be appointed, for the purpose of soliciting subscriptions and
    donations to establish a fund to carry out the purposes of such
    an Institution to the fullest extent possible.

    3.--That a Sub-Committee of the following Gentlemen be
    appointed for the purposes referred to in the preceding
    resolution:--The Rev. Dr. Browne, Vicar; Mr. Elliott Hollier,
    Mr. S. H. Blackwell, Mr. William Bourne, Mr. John Bateman, the
    Rev. John Raven, the Rev. George Lewis, and Mr. Henry Johnson.

    4.--That in order to afford all classes an opportunity
    of attending, and deriving the greatest benefit from the
    establishment of this Institution, it be recommended that two
    classes of Subscribers be adopted, consisting of Honorary
    Members at One Guinea, and Ordinary Members at not less
    than Ten Shillings each per annum, which may be received
    fortnightly, in advance.

    5.--That the Sub-Committee be requested to solicit the
    patronage of the Right Honourable Lord Ward to this
    Institution, and that of the Members for the Borough, the
    Eastern Division of Worcestershire, and the Southern Division
    of the County of Stafford, and also the support of all parties
    who, though not residing in, may have property or an interest
    in Dudley and its neighbourhood.

    The want of an Institution of this character in Dudley, has
    been so long acknowledged, that the Sub-Committee cannot but
    hope that such general support will be given to it as will
    render it effective for the objects it proposes to carry out,
    and ensure its being established upon a permanent basis.

    These objects are, the establishment of a READING ROOM AND
    LIBRARY;--the diffusion of general information on the various
    Branches of Science and Literature by LECTURES;--and especially
    the providing its Members with opportunities of acquiring
    good and useful instruction by means of CLASSES in WRITING,
    ARITHMETIC, DRAWING, MUSIC, &c., &c.

    The Sub-Committee regard the establishment of these
    Institutions as most important, and as having a direct
    and immediate bearing upon the great question of National
    Education. They are calculated indeed to furnish almost the
    only means by which the ends proposed to be effected by
    our various schools can be fully carried out, for, unless
    facilities are afforded to those whose education has been
    commenced in these schools, of continuing and perfecting that
    education, the advantages already obtained must be, to a
    certain extent, lost.

    The Sub-Committee therefore appeal with confidence, upon this
    ground, to all those who recognize the importance of General
    Education to all Classes, and who, feeling that the question
    has long been decided whether Education is to be general or
    not, are anxious to render it as sound and comprehensive as
    possible.

    Some of the neighbouring Towns of smaller population, and
    of less manufacturing importance than our own, are already
    in possession of Mechanics' Institutions affording all
    the advantages proposed by this; and when the extent and
    character of the population of Dudley, and its position as the
    _Centre_ of a great Manufacturing District are considered, it
    must be acknowledged that it possesses ample means for the
    establishment of an Institution that shall be at least equal to
    any in the neighbourhood.

    To ensure this, general support alone is required, and
    therefore the Sub-Committee venture to solicit your individual
    patronage and active assistance; at the same time they have
    much pleasure in announcing a Donation of Fifty Pounds from
    the Right Honourable Lord Ward, with an Annual Subscription of
    Five Guineas, and also a Donation of Ten Pounds, and an Annual
    Subscription from John Benbow, Esq., M.P.

                   (Signed) on behalf of the Sub-Committee,
                                            ELLIOTT HOLLIER, Mayor.

    _Dudley, February, 19th, 1848._

Died February 12th, 1848. Mr. John Allen, who held the office of Parish
Clerk in St. Edmund's Church for the lengthened period of thirty-seven
years. Aged 86 years.

1848, February 22nd. A sanguinary and destructive Revolution broke out
in Paris, which lasted six days, ending in the abdication and flight
of Louis Phillippe, King of the French, and his family to England,
wherein he afterwards died. A Republic was established on the wreck of
this criminal revolution.

On the 25th of February, 1848, a large and influential meeting of all
classes of the inhabitants of Dudley was held at the old Town Hall
(Mr. Elliott Hollier, the mayor, in the chair), "for the purpose of
petitioning the Legislature against the Income Tax, and in favour of a
Property Tax alone."

The following placard issued by our old Chartist leader, (Mr. Samuel
Cooke), gives the public a pretty good notion of his views on this
European calamity.

    BRAVO!!!

    Three Cheers and one Cheer more for the Establishment in France
    of a Republican form of Government.

    French Men, and French Women, yea and English Men and English
    Women, study the following portions of the Bible!

    Genesis   1 ... 26 ... 29
    Judges    8 ... 22 ... 23
       "      9 ...  1 ...  6
       "        ...  7 ... 15
       "        ... 50 ... 55
    Samuel    8 ...    ...
       "     12 ... 16 ... 19
    Hosea     8 ...  4 ...
       "     11 ... 12 ...
    Isaiah    1 ... 26 ...

    The Bible is the most ample Republican and Democratic Book in
    the world.

    Who makes Governments, and what are they made for?

    Are they not made by the people, and for the people?

    Made by the people to be a benefit to the people.

    If they injure instead of doing good to the people, ought not
    the people to remove them and punish them?

                                                     SAMUEL COOK.

    _Dudley, Feb. 26th, 1848._

Died, March 2nd, 1848, at his house in Vicar Street, Mr. John Hodgetts,
Nail Master. This gentleman took a very conspicuous part in politics,
on the Reform side, during the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, and
acquired for his zeal the cognomen of "Lord John." Aged 59 years.

March 6th, 1848. A New Cattle Fair was established this day, to be
holden on the first Monday in March annually. The usual May, August,
and October Fairs were ordered to be held on the first Mondays of the
respective months. E. Hollier, Mayor.

On Monday, (March 20th, 1848,) a large meeting of the working classes
was held at the Old Dock Square, Dudley, (Mr. Samuel Cook in the
chair), "for the purpose of congratulating _the French_ on the recent
victories obtained, at the recent Revolution, by that noble and
patriotic nation, and adopting the National Petition (the People's
Charter), and other measures for the general advancement of the
people." Mr. Thos. Clark of London, Mr. J. Linney of Bilston, Mr.
Ernest Jones, and Mr. Fussell of Birmingham, advocated the nine points
of the Charter with much heat and zeal, for they said "that the day of
your political regeneration is drawing nigh. The political earthquake
of France has pierced the hearts of the tyrants to the core; show that
you produce all and partake of the least of God's blessings; that you
have been the easy prey of those who have fattened upon your labour;
and in return they despise the very men who feed them, are facts no one
will dispute," for,

    "The gold you make another heaps,
    The corn you sow another reaps,
    The cloth you weave another wears,
    The arms you make another bears."    (SHELLEY.)

GOD SAVE THE PEOPLE.

"Notice!!! The originators of this meeting strictly forbid riot or
tumult, and should the same occur, an adjournment will immediately take
place."

       *       *       *       *       *

This Chartist meeting took place, and after a fair amount of banter
and wind had been let off by the various speakers, the meeting quietly
dispersed, for they well knew that the authorities were watching their
movements, and that a strong body of police was at hand to put down
either riot or tumult. The Chartist movement throughout the country was
at this time assuming large and formidable dimensions.

March 24th, 1848. The Town Commissioners purchased the Jolly Colliers
Inn, and three other houses at the back, on the Market flat, the
property of Mr. Homer, Kateshill, for the sum of £2,800; the rental
brings in £142 per annum.

April, 1848. In consequence of the frequent "_pitfalls_" from mining
operations on the Dudley Castle grounds, it was deemed expedient to
close the grounds entirely for some little time.

April 18th, 1848. The opening address to the members of the
newly-established Mechanics' Institute was this evening given by Dr.
John Percy, of Birmingham.

"The Easter season," observed by the Church, again awakened the ire
and ruffled the temper of our old townsman, Mr. Samuel Cook, for here
follows his public effusion on that head.

    TO THE PUBLIC.

    The word "_Easter_," in the 4th verse of the 12th chapter of
    Acts, _is a notorious lie_.

    The word "_Bishopric_," in the 20th verse of the 1st chapter of
    Acts, _is a notorious lie_.

    The word "_Harlot_," in the 1st verse of the 2nd chapter of
    Joshua, and in the 31st verse of the 11th chapter of Hebrews,
    _is an atrocious lie_.

    Is it not a disgrace to, and ought it not to shame, the
    religious public, that they have allowed the impious
    scoundrelisms of James the 1st so long to pollute the Sacred
    Volume?

                                                     SAMUEL COOK.

    _Dudley, April 20th, 1848._

1848, April 26th. A public meeting was held at the old Town Hall,
under a numerous requisition of tradesmen to the mayor (Mr. Elliott
Hollier), "to consider some measure calculated to obtain an unanimous
_closing of the shops_ at eight o'clock in the evening throughout the
year, (except on Mondays and Saturdays), for the purpose of allowing to
the assistants engaged in business an opportunity for the enjoyment of
healthful recreation, and to enable them to participate in the benefits
it is intended should accrue to them by the recent establishment of the
Mechanics' Institute, but from which this class of the community is
totally debarred by the present system of late closing."

This question was not very enthusiastically taken up, for many long
heads in the town thought, and thought wisely, that the "Public House"
would be more likely to be patronized than the Mechanics' Institute,
where such "pleasure and relaxation" was afforded, and the upshot
of it was that every master was the best judge of his own business
requirements as to labour and relaxation.

    TO THE INHABITANTS OF DUDLEY.

                              OAKHAM COTTAGE,
                                    5 a.m. Saturday, May 27, 1848.

    MY DEAR PARISHIONERS,

    I eagerly embrace the opportunity afforded me for
    congratulating you most cordially on the unanimity and good
    feeling displayed at the general meeting of the supporters of
    the Mechanics' Institute, last evening.

    I point to the labours of the Committee and to the encouraging
    support they have received with honest pride and the most
    sincere delight--and, in consequence of these successful
    labours, and this public approbation thereof, I feel called
    on to suggest and recommend the most _prompt_, _energetic_,
    and _unanimous_ support and co-operation of all classes and
    individuals in behalf of this Philanthropic Institution--that
    this unostentatious but admirable and holy principle, so dear
    to every Christian heart,--"Glory to God in the Highest, peace
    on earth, and goodwill towards men,"--may be brought into
    active and perpetual operation in this Parish, is my motive for
    offering my humble support and anticipating your co-operation.

    Why--let me ask--should any individual withhold the hand of
    fellowship from his neighbours and fellow parishioners in a
    work from which the elements of discord are carefully and
    fundamentally removed?

    I do not envy that man's feelings who can allow groundless and
    purblind prejudice, the offspring of unreasoning ignorance, to
    blind his eyes, and steel his heart against endeavouring to
    benefit his fellow creatures.--Let such an one--if indeed he
    can be found--remember that man is not a mere animal, but a
    _reasoning_, _reasonable_, and consequently a _responsible_
    being; and according to the food his mind receives, so will it
    be vigorous for good or evil.

    Let us therefore feed men's minds with wholesome information,
    and thus--"Lead them thro' nature up to nature's God."--And
    rest assured this grand remembrance is the mainspring of my
    every action, the burden of my every waking thought, and the
    leading object of my life.

    "_Magna est veritas, et prevalebit._"

    Great is the truth and it will prevail.

                Believe me to remain,
                      My dear Parishioners,
                               Your faithful friend,
                                        JAMES C. BROWNE, D.C.L.,
                                                 _Vicar of Dudley_.

June, 1848. A most heartrending and devastating accident happened at
Hartshill. A boiler connected with a forge mill suddenly exploded, and
eleven men were instantly scalded to death.

Church rates were still levied in this parish, and occasionally we had
to witness some very unwise and unpleasant seizures of respectable
townsmen's goods or furniture, who conscientiously refused to pay the
obnoxious church rates. The spirited remonstrance made by Mr. Joseph
Pitchfork, the talented and genial master of "Baylisses School," in
Tower Street, who was occasionally a victim in this unrighteous cause,
will repay perusing.


CHURCH RATES.

    "GLORY TO GOD IN THE HIGHEST, PEACE ON EARTH, AND GOOD WILL
    TOWARD MEN."

                 "_Do this in remembrance of me._"
                                               _Luke_ 22. v. 19.

    FELLOW TOWNSMEN,

    My household goods have been pounced upon a third time,
    to furnish the Churchmen of the ward, in which I have the
    misfortune to dwell, with means to worship their God more
    cheaply; with wine to drink in remembrance of their Saviour
    at the communion table, at less expense to their niggardly
    pockets; to pay for the washing and mangling of their parson's
    surplice, and for removing the dust and dirt which will
    accumulate in "temples made with unclean hands."

    Now, is it not a burning shame that churchmen still resort to
    this disreputable means of "raising the dust" to save their own
    miserable pelf? Why will they not render unto God the things
    that are God's without sending the Constable to lay his hands
    upon Dissenters' goods? Cannot they partake of the Sacrament
    at their own cost, without bringing down upon the solemn
    ceremony the suspicion and reality of unspeakable shabbiness?
    Cannot they remove their own dust and dirt without making
    use of the cleaner hands of their dissenting neighbours? Why
    not quite as reasonably call upon the Dissenter to pay their
    Bakers' and Butchers' Bills? Why not tax him with the washing
    and mangling of the Vicar's _Shirts_ as well as the Vicar's
    Surplices.

    I wrote some time ago to the high-spirited D.C.L. of Dudley,
    offering to pay the amount of my present and all future
    church rates, towards the support of what are called _his_
    Schools; which I could conscientiously do; because Education
    benefits and blesses Society at large; it does not, like
    Church-of-Englandism, take my goods and in return tell me that
    I shall "without doubt perish everlastingly": I have received
    no answer:--of course, a person doomed like me was not entitled
    in this upper world to any politeness from one who without
    doubt will lie in Abraham's bosom everlastingly.

    What a miserable mockery it is to plead a Law in defiance of
    such wretched practices! What is called the Law in Dudley is no
    law at all in Ireland:--In the large towns of Birmingham and
    Wolverhampton;--in Westbromwich and in every other place, in
    which intellect, intelligence and education have the upper hand
    of vulgar, ignorant and unscrupulous wealth, the inhabitants
    have swept the accursed tax indignantly away.

    Besides, is it quite certain, that my goods are gone to the
    support of the _Right_ Church, to the "_Right of Private
    Judgment_" Church, or to that more ancient church which
    forbids the Right? It is notorious that a sort of leaning
    lovingly towards the elder Sister with the Scarlet Robe
    extensively prevails in the Church of England, and that if the
    temporalities of the Church did not stand corruption-like in
    the way, great numbers of your Reverend Doctors and divines
    would fall, "nothing loth," into the arms of the "nameless one"
    of Rome.--Verily, the Shepherds are infected, if the flocks be
    free.

    Let us hope, that in no long time the Churchman will be
    _shamed_ into dropping this wretched tax into oblivion for
    ever: for if it continue many years longer to annoy and
    distress Dissenters without the slightest semblance of common
    sense or common justice; they will, I'm afraid, be led on to
    regard the Churchman with suspicion and aversion, and his
    church, as our Saviour regarded the temple at Jerusalem, when
    he chased from its precincts the Money-mongers who defiled it.

          I am, fellow townsmen,
                     One doomed by the Church of England "without
                       doubt to perish everlastingly" and through
                       Church-rates, to pay the expenses of his
                       own condemnation.
                                                JOSEPH PITCHFORK.

    _Dudley, June, 1848._

The subjoined placard will shew that everyone in Dudley was not a
believer in Mr. Samuel Cook's politics and singular religious tenets:--

    TO THE PEOPLE.

    SAMUEL COOK

    Having, by a shameless and impious placard, invited you to
    attend a meeting on Sunday evening next, to hear a discussion
    on the question of resistance to the law, and endeavour to
    TREPAN YOU INTO DISAFFECTION AND REBELLION, we think it our
    duty, as sincere friends to your welfare, to caution you
    against the BASE AND GODLESS DESIGNS OF SUCH INFIDEL MEN.
    Whatever they may tell you to the contrary, we know their
    object is to make you like themselves--DESPISERS OF THE
    COMMANDMENTS BOTH OF GOD AND MAN, and thus bring you into a
    condition for every wicked work. They will teach you to become
    a set of wretched infidels, like the FRENCH, and then make you
    their tools to aid them in getting up a REBELLION, AND FILLING
    OUR LAND WITH PLUNDER, SLAUGHTER, AND BLOOD.

    Be assured this is the end they have in view.--Therefore, as
    you love YOURSELVES, YOUR FAMILIES, and YOUR GOD, AVOID THE
    COMPANY, AND GO NOT NEAR THE PLACE WHERE SUCH SABBATH-BREAKING
    FIREBRANDS ASSEMBLE.

    _Dudley, June 30, 1848._

ASIATIC CHOLERA.--This much dreaded epidemic, which was now spreading
with fearful rapidity in most of the large centres of industry and
dense populations, had infected the towns of Bilston and Wolverhampton
with great severity and loss of valuable life, and at last reached the
town of Dudley, causing much fearful looking to a premature ending of
all earthly things.

Our local Sanitary Authorities at once put in force all the powers
the law then gave them, viz., "The Nuisance Removal and Disease
Prevention Act of 1848." Our back streets were kept cleaner, and
free from refuse and stinking garbage; our ashpits were thoroughly
inspected and cleansed; orders were issued for the absolute observance
of much greater attention to both personal and household cleanliness
and sobriety. The poorer victims were generally buried at night,
in St. John's and St. James' Churchyards, and the "Cholera Black
Waggon," slowly and mournfully "picking up" and conveying its loaded
freight of once bright and happy beings, both young and old to their
unbidden, hurried, and mixed common grave, was a nightly sight not
easily forgotten, and one sight quite sufficient for one lifetime to
witness. "As drowning men," it is said, "catch at straws," so _we_, the
denizens _of then_ poor stricken down Dudley, were too glad to listen
to any advice which might help to mitigate the fearful scourge in our
midst. The Rev. J. B. Owen, M.A., of Bilston, at this particular
juncture, came and lectured at our newly formed Mechanics' Institute,
"On Sanitary Improvement securing Good Health." It need hardly be
written that this lecture was densely crowded, as Mr. Owen was one of
the God-fearing guardian angels and friends of all the awe-stricken
inhabitants in Bilston, who was night and day to be seen aiding in the
cause of our common humanity. It was afterwards known that upwards of
750 persons perished in Bilston of Asiatic Cholera. Up to this date
the death rate had been observed principally amongst the really poor,
indigent, delicate and sickly; the deaths amongst young children being
very numerous also.

The once celebrated Dudley Races, held where the present railway
station and railway line runs towards the Lime Kilns, down the New
Tipton Road, were held the last time in July, 1848. The grand stand was
backed up against the Castle grounds wall, and the race ground extended
in an oblong course, running from the New Road to the Lime Kilns.

July 24th, 1848. The town was suddenly agitated this day, by the
announcement of the failure of Messrs. Jno. and M. Williams and Co.,
Corn Millers, of this town; liabilities said to be £35,000.

The general trade of the town and district was now in a most deplorable
state, and in the recollection of the old tradesmen it was never known
to have been so bad. Added to the distress, the puddlers and colliers,
&c., received notice for a reduction in wages of 10 per cent., which
was equal to 6d. per day.

At this distressing period of our history, men, women, and children,
in a state of absolute starvation, were seen daily dragging a light
waggon through our streets, asking for alms of loaves of bread and
victuals for their famishing families, shewing the dire disasters that
had visited our old town and locality. To make matters worse, seventeen
shops, ranging from St. Edmund's to St. Thomas's Churches, were "to
let" at this unhappy time.

Our active and exciteable neighbour, Mr. Samuel Cook, was still bent
upon enlightening the people in something, which eventually did not
fill their bellies, but caused some of the incautious to be sent to
jail for seditious speaking and rioting. This time he secured the
services of that Arch Infidel from Leeds (the hot-bed of Chartism) to
lecture at Tipton, on a Sunday, "On the Curse of an Aristocracy, the
Rights of the People, and Primitive Christianity." The drum and fife
band, with Mr. Cook and the lecturer at its head, led many foolish men
and youths on the broad road to infidelity and lawlessness.

    "THE PEOPLE, THEIR RIGHTS, AND LIBERTIES, THEIR DUTIES AND
    THEIR INTERESTS."

    On Sunday, August the 13th, 1848, TWO LECTURES will be
    delivered in the open air, Waterloo Street, Tipton, by Mr.
    JOSEPH BARKER, of Wortley, near Leeds.

    Afternoon Subject.--"The Curse of an Aristocracy, and the need
    of a Democracy." Evening Subject.--"Primitive Christianity,
    True Religion, &c." The lecture in the afternoon to commence
    at Three o'clock, and the one in the evening at six. Go ye men
    and women in your Tens and Hundreds and Thousands, and hear Mr.
    Barker on the above important subjects.

                                                      SAMUEL COOK.

1848. August. The St. Edmund's National School Foundation Stone was
laid by Lady Ward, of Himley. The Right Honourable Lord Ward subscribed
£100 to the Building Fund and gave the land, the remainder of the money
was raised by public subscription. This flourishing school has been of
immense value to the poorer classes of the inhabitants, having turned
out some very clever boys and girls.

Died, September 6th, 1848, Mr. John L. Wood, Grocer, High Street. Aged
40 years.

    BRAVO!

    THREE CHEERS AND ONE CHEER MORE FOR THE NAIL MASTERS.

    "Dudley Nail Ironmongers' Meeting.--On Wednesday last, a
    Meeting of the Nail Ironmongers was held at the Hotel in this
    town, on the recent alterations of the prices to the nailers,
    when it was agreed that the latter should receive the prices
    as in the year 1838, and which we are pleased to add will
    be in effect, giving to the nailers their old and increased
    prices." _Birmingham Journal_ September 9th. Nail Masters, Iron
    Masters, Coal Masters, Cotton Lords, Woollen Lords, and all
    other manufacturing Lords and Masters.--Get fair profits, and
    be content--give reasonable wages, and let live, as well as
    live. Be not avaricious, and go not beyond your tether. Try not
    to undersell each other, and keep the markets steady. Then the
    Australian, the East Indian, the Brazilian, the American, and
    other buyers will know how to order.

                               This is the radical advice of
                                                      SAMUEL COOK.

    _Dudley, September 13th, 1848._

1848. October 3rd. The following public notice was extensively
distributed in the town and parish, in reference to the attack of
cholera:--

    THE NUISANCES REMOVAL AND DISEASES PREVENTION ACT.--1848.

    NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN,

    That the Board for repair of the Highways of this Parish are
    resolved to enforce the provisions of the above Act, and are
    prepared to receive Notices in writing, in accordance with the
    said Act, from such Householders who may have cause to complain
    of any nuisance.

    The required Forms and further information may be obtained at
    my Office.

                                        JOHN BATEMAN,
                             _Clerk and Surveyor to the said Board._

    _3rd October, 1848._

1849. January 20th. An explosion of gas, arising from the frost, took
place this morning at the shop of Mr. Thomas Guest, grocer, Queen
Street; the window was blown into the street, and the goods in the shop
were much damaged. Mr. Guest, who was in the place at the time, escaped
most miraculously.

February 7th, 1849. This evening, the members of the "Rose and Thistle"
Lodge of Odd Fellows, M.U., unanimously seceded from membership in
the Manchester Unity, and issued the following "reasons" for their
proceedings:

    TO THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS, M.U.

    REASONS

    For the Secession of the "Rose and Thistle" Lodge of Odd
    Fellows from the Manchester Unity.

    1.--That the present system of management is extravagant,
    vexatious, and unnecessary, and consumes 29 per cent, or
    _nearly one-third_ of the Income arising from the Contributions.

    2.--That the Scales of Payment are not based upon the actual
    rates of Sickness and Mortality, as shown by the Reports of the
    Registrar General, and other practical Actuaries. For instance,
    the M.U., in the Dudley District, proposes to assure to its
    members, on the payment of 6d. per week contribution, and an
    entrance fee of £1 1s. 0d., the following:--

    At the death of a Member, £8 from Lodge fund; £6 from District
    fund; £1 from Widows' and Orphans' fund. At the death of a
    Member's wife, £4 from Lodge fund; £3 from District fund;
    making a total of £22; besides 8s. a week during sickness, and
    5s. per quarter allowance to Widows, and some small payment to
    Children; whereas, to assure all these benefits, taking the
    average ages of the members at thirty-two years, 8¼d. weekly
    contribution should be paid instead of 6d.

    See Mr. Nelson's Observations on the Insolvency of the
    Manchester Unity. (Page 22, 23, 24).

    3.--That the M.U., not being protected by Law, is subject to
    fraud, robbery, and imposition, without any redress against the
    offending parties, as lately witnessed in the wholesale fraud
    committed by the late Corresponding Secretary of the Order, at
    Manchester.

    4.--That the uniformity which exists in this District, in the
    payments of Tradesmen's and Miners' Lodges to the district
    fund, is contrary to all well-recognised principles of justice;
    because the Miners' Lodges are subject to a much greater
    percentage of Sickness and Death than the other Lodges, and
    only pay in the same ratio.

    5.--That the members of the M.U. do not pay according to their
    respective ages, for a member at thirty five years of age pays
    no more contribution than a young member at eighteen years of
    age, with the exception of an increased initiation fee on his
    entrance.

    6.--That the M.U. _makes no real provision for the infirmities
    of old age_; because, as long as a member (it matters not how
    aged) is not under medical treatment, he is not entitled to
    lodge pay: thus a member may live to old age, and not receive
    any benefit from the Lodge, except at death.

    7.--That the present general system adopted throughout the
    Unity is delusive, and incapable of fulfilling perpetually
    its professed engagements, which justifies the adoption of
    a sounder principle of assurance for the Working Classes,
    according to the actual returns of Sickness and Death, as
    furnished by scientific and practical Actuaries.

    See Mr. Nelson's Pamphlet. Page 40.

                          By Order of the Committee,
                                       GEORGE DEELEY, CHAIRMAN.

    Rose and Thistle Lodge,
        Hope Tavern.
            _February 14th, 1849_.

Died Feb. 18th, 1849, Mrs. Dixon, the beloved wife of Edward Dixon,
Esq., Banker, formerly of this town. Aged 67 years.

Two numerously attended lectures were given in the Lancasterian School
Room, on the 26th and 27th February, by J. Kingsley, Esquire, of
London, on "No Church Rates," and "Separation of Church and State!!!"

The members of the "New Dudley Provident Society," which emanated from
the secession of the late "Rose and Thistle Lodge of Odd Fellows,
M.U.," issued their new rules and scales of payment in sickness and at
death.--JOHN FINCH, President; JOHN BAGOTT, Secretary.

Feb. 27th, 1849. The druggist's shop of Mrs. Lydia Morris, High Street,
took fire this evening, but was soon got under. Damage about £50.

Feb. 27th, 1849. The Postmaster General having intimated his intention
to discontinue the Birmingham and Ludlow morning mail coach, and
intending to substitute a mail cart to convey the letters and parcels,
a public town's meeting was convened by Mr. Edward Terry, the mayor, to
petition against the same.

    BRAVO! BRAVO!!

    Ten thousand times ten thousand cheers for the defeat of the
    French Ministers on the nefarious conduct of their General
    against the Illustrious Roman Republic.

    Soon may all the Continental _Brambles_ be supplanted by _Olive
    Trees_, _Fig Trees_, and _Vines_ (Judges ix.),

                                    Is the ardent prayer of
                                                      SAMUEL COOK.

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO CHURCHMEN AND DISSENTERS OF DUDLEY, AND THE PARISHIONERS
    GENERALLY.

    _DOWN WITH CHURCH RATES!_

    You are again called upon in these times of deep distress to
    arm the State Church with power to add to your already too
    heavy burden an enormous Levy or CHURCH RATE of TENPENCE IN THE
    POUND.

    It remains for you to protest in the face of your country
    against such an impost, OR FOR EVER BE SLAVES!! Join with your
    neighbours who think proper to support their own forms of
    religious worship, their Ministers, and Temples, and declare by
    your united action, THAT NO CHURCH-RATE SHALL BE ADDED TO YOUR
    BURDEN OF TAXATION.

        (A COPY).

        NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN,

        That a meeting of the Ratepayers in the Vestry, of and
        for this parish, will be holden in the Vestry of St.
        Thomas's Church, Dudley, at Eleven o'clock in the forenoon
        of Friday, the 9th of March instant, for the purpose of
        granting the Churchwardens a Rate or Levy of TENPENCE in
        the pound.

        If a poll be demanded, the meeting will be immediately
        adjourned to the Old Town Hall, and the poll will commence
        forthwith, and be kept open till four o'clock in the
        forenoon of the said ninth day of March, and the poll
        will be continued at the Old Town Hall aforesaid, from
        the hours of Ten in the forenoon of Monday, the 12 day of
        March, to the hour of Four in the afternoon of the same
        day, and again at the same place, from the hour of Ten in
        the forenoon, to the hour of Twelve at noon on Tuesday,
        the thirteenth day of March, when the poll will then be
        declared.

                            JAMES C. BROWN, D.C.L., Vicar.
                            JOHN ORME BRETTELL, }
                            E. HOLLIER,         } Churchwardens.

        _Dudley, March 3rd, 1849._

    CHURCH RATES.

    A Church Rate is proposed by the Churchwardens of St. Thomas's
    Church, of Sixpence in the Pound, to be granted, in the Vestry,
    on Thursday, the 8th instant, at Ten o'clock. Will the People
    of Dudley submit to this? Ratepayers, attend the meeting, and
    show your opposition to the obnoxious Tax, by voting for a
    Penny Rate.

    A preliminary meeting will be held at the "Swan Inn," on
    Wednesday Evening at Eight o'clock. All Persons in favour of
    Religious Liberty are requested to attend.

    _Committee Room, Swan Hotel, Dudley, April 5th, 1852._

Died April 28th, 1849, Miss Mary Parsons, of Wolverhampton Street. On
the death of this very elderly lady, £8000 reverted to the Unitarian
Schools and Charities in this town. Aged 96 years.

Died May 14th, 1849, Mr. Abiathar Bunch, Auctioneer and Valuer. He
unhappily dropped down dead in a fit in the Market. Mr. Bunch was
decidedly a very eccentric man of the true Dudley type, but very genial
and hearty withal. Aged 57 years.

Died August 2nd, 1849, Mr. Benjamin Wood, Tobacconist, Market Place.

August 28th, 1849. The Town Commissioners bought the last lot of
building remaining on the Market Place (formerly occupied by Mr. Robert
Houghton, Draper) for £1,860.

Sept. 15th, 1849. On the grand occasion of the British Association
visiting the Silurian Caves and the Castle this day, the Caverns were
beautifully illuminated at the expense of Lord Ward, and a splendid
luncheon was given at the National School Room to commemorate the
event. Many thousands of people attended the illuminations in the
Caverns, for it was such an unique and unparalleled sight as cannot be
repeated, for some of these spacious limestone caverns have since that
time "fallen in," and the canal is not used.

Sept. 29th, 1849. The "Dudley News Room," held in New Street, was
finally closed this day, its numerous members having joined the new
Mechanics' Institute. The balance of fund in hand was presented to the
Dudley Dispensary Fund. C. F. G. CLARK, Secretary.

Sept. 25th, 1849. The awful scourge of Cholera still raged in our
midst, and we had fifty-four well authenticated deaths by Cholera, and
all conceivable human efforts were adopted to assuage its attacks.

Died Sept. 25th, 1849, Mrs. Allender, of the Woolpack Inn, Castle
Street, of a clear case of Asiatic Cholera. Aged 54 years.

Sept. 26th, 1849. This day was appointed by the Bishop of Worcester
(Dr. Pepys) as a day of fasting and prayer to Almighty God to assuage
the raging of the Cholera in this afflicted district. It was held
with great solemnity by all denominations of people, for we all felt
most acutely that we were in the same boat in this perilous voyage of
life, daily hanging in the balance, and dreading, but little knowing,
whose turn it would be next to be suddenly called away. Some curious
remedies and preventatives of Cholera were adopted. Some people kept
close quarters in their comfortable houses, and watched the destroying
angel pass by, others thought it best to be out and abroad. Vegetables
and fish were eschewed by all genteel people, although it was clearly
shown that the poor who ate such forbidden things died no sooner
for the use of such edibles. Pills, Plasters, and Mixtures (having
reputed infallible cures) were taken wholesale, and brandy and salt
found its many votaries, for the brandy was swallowed whilst the salt
was employed as a poultice to the stomach. The use of Cayenne Pepper
(largely) was considered an infallible preventative of Cholera Morbus.
Alas, all failed, and the Cholera raged until it burnt itself out, and
had claimed all its victims. God grant that we may never have such a
dreadful and alarming visitation again.

Nov. 15th, 1849. The Queen in Council ordered a general Thanksgiving
Day for the abatement of Asiatic Cholera in England, for happily it had
nearly been stamped out. This day was held with great earnestness and
thankfulness throughout the land.

During the strain of fear and sorrow which this sad visitation had
forced upon the nation, and the local enquiries which were held in
various important towns on the principles and practices which ought
to govern Local Authorities in managing their own districts, a great
divergence of public opinion was elicited, which ultimately ended
in Parliament appointing a searching Commission to examine these
undissolved problems of scientific men.

The sanitary state and condition of a nation is a very broad platform
to stand upon, and a good plea has been urged on the ground of private
rights and privileges, but it is now unmistakeably admitted that the
"Grand All People" must enter into a man's calculations when he builds
a house, or feeds his pig, and that he cannot be allowed to create a
nuisance which can be proved detrimental to his neighbour's health, or
a shame to morals or decency. Since those memorable, harrowing times
many most salutary Sanitary Acts have been passed, which will I hope
for ever place beyond the pale of probability a revisitation of the
fatal Asiatic Cholera.


THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, DUDLEY.

1849. Rev. A. Kerr Thompson, M.A., Queen's College, Oxford, Head
Master, late Senior Assistant Master in King Edward the VIth's School,
Birmingham; Rev. F. J. Fairhead, B.A., Queen's College, Cambridge,
Second Master, late Second Master of the College, Wye, Kent; Mr. John
Henn, Assistant Master, formerly Assistant Master in King Edward the
VIth's School, Meriden Street, Birmingham, and late Head Master of St.
Peter's National School, Birmingham.


DUDLEY UNION WORKHOUSE.

    At a Meeting of the Inhabitants of Dudley, convened by the
    Mayor (EDWARD TERRY, Esq.,) in compliance with a respectably
    signed requisition, held at the Town Hall, the 8th day of
    October, 1849, "to take into consideration the confined
    situation of the present Poor House, and the necessity that
    exists for the adoption of measures without delay for its
    removal to a more open and healthy site."

    _Resolved_,--On the motion of THOMAS BADGER, Esq., _seconded_
    by C. F. HEWITT, Esq., "That it is the opinion of this Meeting
    that the present Workhouse in Dudley is in a most inconvenient
    and objectionable situation, being too confined, and being
    too much in the midst of the population of the Town, and that
    during this period of pestilence it is (as on former occasions
    it has been) fraught with the utmost danger alike to the
    inmates, and to the inhabitants; and moreover, that it is the
    opinion of this Meeting that the situation of the premises does
    not admit of the said Workhouse being enlarged or improved."

    _Resolved:_--On the motion of Mr. JOHN VAUGHAN, _seconded_ by
    Mr. THOMAS WOOD, "That this Meeting be adjourned until Monday,
    October the 22nd inst., at eleven o'clock, to afford time for
    further consideration of the subject; and that Messrs. C. F.
    Hewitt, John Marsh, William Bourne, C. F. G. Clark, Fisher
    Smith, Alexander Patterson, J. Bateman, and J. C. Cooke, be
    appointed a Committee to collect information as to the probable
    cost of erecting a suitable Workhouse for the Dudley Union, and
    to report on the probable value of the present Workhouses."

                                          _Signed_,
                                              EDWARD TERRY,
                                                       Chairman.

    _October 8th, 1849._

It is wise and prudent at times to look within ones-self and "try to
see ourselves as others see us;" thus the subjoined public views of
"Curiosities of Dudley" will illustrate this point.

    The Government _of_ all, _by_ all, _for_ all.

    THE DUDLEY CHARTISTS, AND THE REFORM AND FINANCIAL ASSOCIATIONS.

    _At a Committee Meeting, held October_ 15th, 1849, It was
    resolved:--"That the Committee of Dudley Chartists renders
    its most cordial and energetic aid to any and all parties
    favourable to the present move for Financial and Parliamentary
    Reform, at the same time reserving to itself the right of
    progressing when these objects are achieved." N.B. The above
    resolution has been copied into the _Birmingham Mercury_, the
    _Northern Star_, and the _Nonconformist_.

       *       *       *       *       *

    REFORM! REFORM! REFORM!

    _The MANIFESTO of the NATIONAL_ REFORM ASSOCIATION.

    After mutual deliberation, the Middle and Working Classes have
    agreed upon the basis of a representative system--both parties
    accept the principles of the National Reform Association. They
    are--"1st. The extension of the Suffrage to every Occupier of
    a Tenement, or portion of a Tenement. 2nd, Vote by Ballot.
    3rd. Triennial Parliaments. 4th. A more equal apportionment
    of Members to Population, 5th. The abolition of the Property
    Qualification." Such a Reform carried in its integrity would
    make the House of Commons the embodiment and expression of the
    mind and will of the people; and with this, and with nothing
    less, should the people be content. To work, not words, we must
    devote the next few weeks for the advancement of our political
    rights, and to the means of alleviating the burdens of our
    fellow men. Republished by order of the Committee of the Dudley
    Mutual Improvement Society.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY REPRESENTATION.

    (_From the Daily News, December 1st, 1849._)

    Dudley was enfranchised by the Reform Bill. It is the centre of
    a manufacturing district; it contains a population of nearly
    five and thirty thousand; it has 1,300 £10 householders, of
    whom nearly 1,000 were registered electors: corruption has not
    been practised in it, and nevertheless it returns a strong
    Tory representative, and, under existing circumstances, would
    continue to do so, let the suffrage be extended as it might.

    It will at once be inquired--what is the cause of this? An
    anomaly is here presented which requires explanation. These
    facts, it will be said, appear to militate against the
    arguments in daily use--that the feeling of the country is
    Liberal--that the people are well fitted to receive an extended
    suffrage--and that the large manufacturing constituencies
    are the most enlightened, and, as a rule, return the most
    useful representatives. It will be observed, too, that the
    position of Dudley appears the more anomalous because the town
    is immediately adjacent to, and in many respects materially
    influenced by, Birmingham and Wolverhampton--places which may
    almost be described as centres of political enlightenment. It
    will be asked how these things are to be accounted for and
    reconciled. In dealing with the borough system of England it is
    certainly our duty not to pass them over.

    The Toryism which is predominant at Dudley is a very peculiar
    Toryism. It is a low and vulgar Toryism; an ignorant and very
    brutal Toryism. As a rule Toryism is the aristocratic principle
    of England: it presents itself in the flowing wig and ruffle
    style of the early days of George the Third; it boasts of
    long descent and ancient pedigree, and, as many a Tory of the
    present day will tell you, came to him as an inheritance with
    his family plate and pictures. But the Toryism of Dudley is
    nothing of this sort; there is not a Tory in the town who can
    boast of his grandfather; it is difficult to put your finger
    upon a member of the party who is entitled to the position and
    reputation of a gentleman. A coarser and more vulgar crew than
    the Tories of the town of Dudley, high and low, it would be
    impossible to pitch upon in any community in England.

    The Toryism of Dudley is a Toryism of ignorance--a Toryism of
    habit--a Toryism of self interest--and a Toryism of coercion.
    We have been in places where Toryism was the representative of
    loyalty. At Dudley they care as much about the Sovereign as
    they do about the President of France. There are other towns
    where Toryism shadows forth the Church of England, and where
    Tories march in array to the poll with a view, as they believe,
    to keep dissent in check. At Dudley the Tories profess no
    Church principle, nor, indeed, any description of religious
    principle. Up to 1845, when a diocesan effort was made to
    civilize this locality, there were few places where the Church
    was so completely useless--where it was so apt a representation
    of the dried up well of the desert in which thousands are
    perishing of thirst. Even now, when the Church is making
    some effort to enlighten this depraved and almost heathen
    population, it is not the Tories of Dudley who support its
    efforts, nor the Tories of Dudley who promote its usefulness.

    And this fact shadows forth one of the great causes of the
    Toryism of this town. We have said that the Toryism of Dudley
    is a Toryism of ignorance. The ignorance of Dudley Tories is
    not mere personal ignorance--though there is an ample amount of
    that--but it is an entire and utter ignorance of the population
    amongst which they live. That population is a most important
    population. It is almost exclusively a mining population.
    Within the _parish_ of Dudley there exists 32,000 souls: but
    within a circle of three or more miles around it there are
    scarcely less than 100,000 more, and the great proportion of
    these are engaged exclusively in the mining operations of
    the district. Talk of our large towns--why the population of
    the parishes of Dudley, and of Tipton, Clent, Kingswinford,
    Sedgley, and West Bromwich, all in close proximity to Dudley,
    equal the population of Birmingham itself! What is the
    condition of this population? Who cares for and protects this
    enormous mass of labouring poor? The Dudley Tories--for whom so
    many of them labour? We lament to say not one of them.

    It is a painful fact to record, but we do believe that there
    is not one of the employers of the Dudley district who knows
    one per cent. of the men who toil and labour to produce his
    wealth. Take England through, and you will not find a locality
    where there is not so little sympathy between the employers and
    employed, but such an utter regardlessness on the part of the
    former of every single interest appertaining to the latter. It
    is upon the records of official evidence that they omit even
    the commonest precautions for the preservation of their lives.
    Human existence here is treated as a cheap commodity. Those
    horrible pit accidents, of which we hear so frequently--(and
    yet, in comparison of the frequency of their occurrence, so
    very rarely)--proper precautions would prevent one half of
    them--precautions entailing trouble and expense no greater than
    is the bounden duty of every master to provide.

    But the utter ignorance of the Dudley Tories of the population
    amongst whom they live is no better exhibited than by "the
    strikes," which are of habitual occurrence in this important
    district. If the history of the labour of this locality were
    written, it would be found that "strikes" amongst the pitmen
    were the rule, and continuous labour the exception. The pitmen
    in the Dudley district are always, in fact, in an incipient
    state of strike, or else in strike itself. It is evident that
    there must be something wrong in a system under which such
    a state of things as this exists. We do not hear of these
    repeated strikes in the cotton manufacturing districts, in the
    woollen trade, or in the clothing trade, at Manchester, or
    Bolton, or Huddersfield, or Leeds. Why should the population
    on the Dudley side of the coal country "strike" so much more
    frequently than they do upon the Wolverhampton and Bilston side
    of the same district? There must be a fault here, and we have
    little hesitation in attributing it to the want of sympathy of
    the employers for the employed.

    In order to explain this more thoroughly it is necessary to
    describe shortly how the mines of this coal district are
    worked. We will take the district immediately adjacent to the
    town of Dudley. The great owner of the soil is Lord Ward. Lord
    Ward lets his land on royalties: that is to say, the person
    taking a lease of it engages to work the minerals upon the
    property, to pay so much per ton for all the coal and ironstone
    obtained, to get no more than a certain maximum quantity,
    which is agreed on, every year, but to pay as for a certain
    minimum quantity, whether he may get the maximum or none.
    This is the contract as between the owner of the soil and the
    ironmaster. But the ironmaster does not work the mines himself:
    he contracts with a middleman, called a butty-collier, who
    engages to open the mine for him, and to get a certain quantity
    of coal or ironstone per week, at a price to be agreed. The
    butty-collier employs a gang of men for this purpose. These men
    are consequently never brought into connexion with, nor do they
    in the slightest degree engage the sympathies of, their real
    employer. In many cases they do not even know the "butty," for
    the butty contents himself with negotiating with the master,
    and contracts with the men through one of their own class, who
    is ordinarily called a "doggie." The master never goes into the
    mines: the "butty" very rarely. But it is in these mines that
    the colliers exist from one week's end to another; it is here
    that they live, and breathe, and have their being.

    Now, the effect of this system of labour in the iron district
    is highly detrimental to every class engaging in the trade.
    The labourer, having nothing in common with the employer, is
    continually striking to get more out of him--and hence the
    "strikes" by which the trade is continually suffering. On the
    other hand the employer is led to treat the workman as a mere
    machine; as a machine without wants or feelings; as a machine
    in which he is only so far interested as he can work it. A
    remarkable proof of this position is to be found in the fact,
    that although accidents in the pit-work are in the fearful
    proportion of no less than _seventy-two_ per cent. per annum
    to the number of labourers, yet there is not in the Town of
    Dudley, or in the country round about it, a hospital, or even a
    dispensary! "All cases requiring peculiar care must be sent to
    Birmingham," twelve miles off!

    When people are found so careless of the lives of the labourers
    by whom they live, how can it be expected that they can be
    anxious concerning their political position? The late Vicar
    of Dudley put it upon record that his rich fellow townsman
    cared nothing either for the spiritual or moral welfare of
    the poor. "I had the greatest possible difficulty," he says,
    "in obtaining money for building district churches. On coming
    to the parish I found only two old endowed schools in one
    building, and they were in great difficulties." This reverend
    gentleman and other clergymen detail the difficulties they
    have in extracting a sixpence from the richest masters in
    the district for the benefit of the poor, and the utter
    regardlessness which there is for their social or spiritual
    well being.

    This ignorance of the working class--of their wants, wishes,
    feelings and interests--is no doubt a predisposing cause to
    the Toryism of the Dudley ironmasters. The system of their
    trade is another predisposing cause. Most people know, that
    virtually, the iron trade is a monopoly. The large ironmasters
    are continually struggling to maintain it so. You have heard
    probably of what are called "Ironmasters' Quarterly Meetings."
    Allow us an opportunity of exposing one of the greatest
    absurdities that ever existed in any trade. In the week after
    every legal quarter day the ironmasters of South Staffordshire
    perambulate the district to hold what they call their quarterly
    meetings, and to arrange what the price of iron shall be for
    the ensuing quarter. The ironmasters meet, say at Wolverhampton
    or at Dudley. They dine at the hotel. They fix the price of
    iron--the price that is to govern all the trade. One of them--a
    jolly red nosed old Tory--the most convivial of all the lot,
    and the most emphatic about the price, returns home after
    dinner, and finds a letter on his table requesting him to
    tender for a quantity of rails. Within twelve hours after he
    has "settled the price," he is certain to be underselling all
    his neighbours. This "settling the price" of iron is a farce.
    But if so, what is the use of the quarterly meeting? Why,
    the use of the quarterly meeting is to keep up the monopoly,
    to afford an occasion for excluding "the new man" in the
    business--to present a favourable opportunity for a combination
    against the weaker and humbler manufacturer--and, in addition
    to all this, to put the screw upon the labourer, by combining
    to enforce the lowest rate of wages in the works and pits. For
    at these Ironmasters' Quarterly Meetings, wages, forsooth, are
    regulated, as well as the price of iron. And you will find, if
    you examine the subject attentively, that these wages are fixed
    without regard to the quality of the labour or the skill of the
    workman, in the same way as the price of iron is fixed, without
    regard to its quality, or the nature of the supply.

    Their monopoly, therefore, makes the Dudley ironmasters Tories
    by habit and Tories by position. We will now show how they
    are also Tories by self-interests and Tories by coercion. The
    coal-field, or as it is sometimes called "the great black
    cake," is of limited extent. The lords of the soil are few in
    number. Lord Ward possesses the largest share of it. Sir Horace
    St. Paul _was_ the next greatest proprietor. Now it is a matter
    of absolute necessity with the lessees, that they should be
    upon as good terms as possible with the owners of the soil. And
    we will explain the reasons why. When a coal-field is taken to
    work a considerable amount of capital is necessarily invested.
    Works have to be erected; a shaft has to be sunk. From the
    nature of the property no very large quantity of land can be
    taken at once. In a little time, probably, all that has been
    originally leased is worked out. The lessee has now to obtain
    a new piece of ground. You will see at once that in order to
    make his original pit and works available it is necessary that
    such new piece of ground should adjoin that he originally took.
    The instances are rare in which this adjoining ground does not
    belong to the same landlord. If the master is on good terms
    with the steward he gets it; if he is not, a large proportion
    of his capital is necessarily sacrificed. The self-interest,
    therefore, of these ironmasters induces them to go with the
    owner of the soil, and obliges them to submit to the coercion
    of the steward. At Dudley, as we shall presently find, this
    has gone so far that the constituency are content to swallow
    Lord Ward's own agent as their representative in parliament,
    a person who rarely comes amongst them, who does the town no
    earthly good, and who is as careless about the fulfilment of
    his parliamentary duties as if he was sitting for Gatton or Old
    Sarum.

    Such, then, to conclude this branch of the subject, are the
    circumstances under which the important town of Dudley is a
    Tory town. The explanation will set at rest all cavil as to
    the reason why this large manufacturing constituency should
    now send a Tory to the House of Commons. We started by saying
    that there was little hope of improvement--that an extension
    of the suffrage would probably have no effect whatever on the
    returns of this constituency. If the suffrage was household, it
    would be extended in Dudley to a lower class of "buttys" and
    "doggies," who are all under the thumb and immediate influence
    of the master. If it was universal, it would be extended to the
    mining labourers, who in their turn are under the thumb and
    immediate influence of the "buttys" and "doggies." Indeed the
    character of this particular population requires that, before
    the suffrage, another enlightener should be introduced, in the
    person of the schoolmaster. "The old collier of this town,"
    says the late Vicar of Dudley, "is a heavy, superstitious,
    gluttonous animal, most harmless, and naturally good natured,
    _without a spark of political feeling_, unless as regards his
    daily wages: all beyond is to him dreary and unreal." Some
    years ago, the Chartists thought they had made an impression in
    the coal country; but it was a mistake. They were all powerful
    in Birmingham, but not in any way understood in Dudley. "The
    Chartists," says a working man, "had a room in Dudley for a
    year or more before the strike. Occasionally Lecturers would
    come and lecture there. Not many men at any time enrolled their
    names. I should say 50 or 60 might be the most, and they paid
    1d. a week, but the room could not have held that number at
    once." Another working man says: "The men did not follow the
    Chartists from any principle, but fled to them for refuge in
    the strike, and were glad for any one to come and instruct
    them in the prices of iron and so forth. Political affairs
    had nothing to do with us; we had to deal with our masters.
    The Chartists never had any friends in Dudley." A population
    of this sort evidently requires instruction in order duly to
    exercise political privileges.

    And, now, having fully pointed out the position of Dudley as
    regards the social and political influences at work there, we
    proceed to give that which is more immediately the business of
    this article, the electoral history of the town. It is a short
    and dreary one, only marked by the occurrence of one exciting
    contest.

    The large towns which were enfranchised in 1832 felt at the
    first election which occurred in them all the awkwardness of
    a first appearance in a new character. Parties were unformed,
    no combinations of any sort prevailed, and in the majority of
    cases accident rather than deliberate judgment determined the
    choice of the electorates. An accident threw the representation
    of Dudley into the hands of no less a person than the
    Solicitor-General, Sir John Campbell. Mr. Campbell had sat
    for Stafford in the parliaments of 1830 and 1831. But with
    the passing of the Reform Bill he was desirous of obtaining
    election by a different constituency, and indeed circumstances
    which had occurred at Stafford prevented his again sitting for
    that town. Dudley, a borough not far distant from Stafford,
    was selected, it is believed, by Mr. Joseph Parkes. Sir John
    Campbell went to Dudley in utter ignorance of the character
    of the constituency and of the men with whom he had to deal.
    But it was a new borough, a large borough, and a manufacturing
    borough, and therefore was supposed necessarily to be a Liberal
    borough. When Sir John Campbell got down he found apparently
    a very influential opponent in the field. This was Sir Horace
    St. Paul, one of the principal owners of the "great black
    cake." The nomination of Sir Horace St. Paul, however, was not
    free from objection. He had represented Bridport in several
    preceding parliaments, and had been an opponent of the bill
    by which Dudley was enfranchised. For common honour the great
    body of the new electorate were obliged to set their faces
    against this. But there was another circumstance greatly to Sir
    Horace's disadvantage. Although he owned a considerable part of
    the mineral property of the district, his possession of that
    property was far from beneficial to the iron and coal masters.
    Sir Horace St. Paul worked his own mines, and the ironmasters
    regarded him with some jealousy, as a rival in their business.
    The support he received from them was, therefore, anything but
    warm; and the political Union of Birmingham having declared
    for Sir John Campbell, "plain Jack" was enabled to secure a
    comparatively easy victory at the poll, where the numbers
    were--for Campbell, 348; St. Paul, 229. At this time there were
    only 670 voters on the poll, instead of 1000, as at present.

    In February, 1834, Sir John Campbell having succeeded Sir Wm.
    Horne as Attorney-General, came down to Dudley to obtain his
    re-election. Circumstances, however, had vastly changed since
    1832. The reform excitement had passed away. The Birmingham
    Political Union was defunct. The Liberal party had become less
    popular, and in Dudley Sir John Campbell had done nothing to
    secure for himself any local sympathy. The party which had
    brought him in in 1832 was a party without any influence or
    weight whatever in the town. They had succeeded mainly in
    consequence of the feeling of the day, and the fact of their
    having succeeded was sufficient to unite against them very
    strong and powerful influences. The Dudley Tories, in fact, had
    now begun to shew a formidable front, and were prepared stoutly
    to contest the seat.

    The candidate they selected was a local man--Mr. Thos. Hawkes,
    of Himley. Mr. Hawkes was an amiable man, whose family had made
    their property in Dudley, and who had himself been engaged in
    the glass trade of the district. He was a man of some ambition,
    and had aimed for a long time at high society and a seat in
    parliament, without having either the means sufficient for
    the one, or the ability desirable for the other. However, the
    Dudley Tories were disposed to gratify him, the more so as
    he was a man very likely to succeed at an election from his
    general popularity, and the more so from his residence being
    next door to Himley Hall.

    Mr. Hawkes was accordingly proposed. The Tories exerted
    themselves indefatigably on his behalf, and it was speedily
    evident that they would be successful. But the Tories of Dudley
    are not a class of people who can bear either success or defeat
    with moderation. They had displayed from an early period of
    this contest violent passions, and an infinite amount of bad
    feeling towards their opponents of all classes. Gangs of
    bullies had gone about to threaten and assault individuals,
    canvassers upon the Liberal side had been insulted in the
    public streets, and it was an open boast with the Tories that
    they would make the town too hot for their adversaries. On
    the day of election all those coarse and vulgar methods of
    exasperation were increased tenfold. People were insulted
    at the poll, and the authorities, all Tories, would afford
    them no protection. At length the town became a scene of riot
    and confusion. It was feared that Sir John Campbell would
    personally become an object of attack, and he was advised to
    leave the town. Accordingly whilst the Tory mob was bellowing
    in the street, in the front of his hotel, the Attorney General,
    accompanied by a friend, and disguised by a muffler round
    the lower part of his face, left the inn by a back door, and
    proceeding through the narrowest and dirtiest parts of the
    town, escaped from it by a circuitous route. The passage by
    which Sir John left Dudley received the name of "Campbell's
    flight," and will probably be so distinguished long after the
    circumstances which gave it celebrity have passed into oblivion.

    An hour of retribution, however, was now at hand. The Tory mob
    had held the town all day, but it is a dangerous thing in a
    district of this sort to play a game at mobs. No sooner was it
    known that there was rioting in Dudley than the largest coal
    and ironworks on the Stourbridge side poured forth an army of
    miners; men to whom to see the light of day was itself almost
    an excitement. Into Dudley they poured with wild shouts and
    outcries. The people fled in terror. The shop windows had all
    been closed. As they came down the streets the colliers pulled
    down every shutter, and threw them through the windows into the
    houses. Not a whole pane of glass was left. The pavements were
    torn up. Stones began to fly in all directions. The town for a
    whole hour was given up to a worse riot than before, and then
    the Blacks began to retire.

    The rear of their army was at one end of the town when the
    Dragoons from Birmingham galloped in at the other. The
    authorities who had permitted riots on their own side all
    the day, had sent expresses for the troops the moment they
    found they had got the worst of the game they had begun. The
    military arrived too late to prevent the mischief; but they
    held possession of the town all night, and thereby afforded
    security to the inhabitants. And thus terminated one of the
    most riotous elections ever known in England--an election
    thoroughly disgraceful to the town where it occurred, but of
    which the Dudley Tories boast to this hour, as if, instead of
    exciting the worst feelings of humanity, they had achieved some
    great moral triumph.

    Mr. Hawkes sat for Dudley from February, 1834, to July 1844.
    At every successive election some one was brought forward to
    oppose him, but his majorities increased at every contest, and
    the Liberals polled fewer and fewer the more frequently they
    fought the borough. Except the excellence of their cause, they
    have not in fact a single element of strength in Dudley.

    Mr. Hawkes probably acquired some additional influence in
    consequence of the marriage of one of his daughters with the
    brother and heir presumptive of Lord Ward. The peer himself
    was for a long time understood to be the lady's suitor,
    but the younger brother ultimately obtained her hand. Mr.
    Hawkes might have continued, under these circumstances, to
    represent the town, but unfortunately the pressure of pecuniary
    embarrassments obliged him, in 1844, to go abroad, with a view
    to repair his fortunes. He accordingly relinquished his seat,
    to which Mr. John Benbow, the agent and auditor of the Ward
    estates, immediately succeeded.

    Mr. Benbow's pretensions to the representation of the town
    rest exclusively upon the office which he holds. He is neither
    a native nor a resident, nor in any other way connected with
    the place. He is comparatively very slightly known in Dudley.
    He visits it but rarely, and does nothing of himself to
    advance its local interests. A representative he can scarcely
    be called, for Mr. Benbow is one of those members who rarely
    record their opinions by a vote in Parliament, being contented
    with the seat without the trouble of attending.

    Dudley, thus represented, has reached, as one may suppose,
    the lowest point of its political degradation. It fell very
    low when the seat descended from the Attorney-General to Mr.
    Hawkes. It fell still lower when the resident and the friend
    was superseded by the stranger and the mere official. Nothing
    can change Dudley but a change in the opinions of Lord Ward.
    And stranger things may come to pass than that.

    Dudley, in outward appearance, is an improving place. Within
    the last five years its shops have assumed a much handsomer
    aspect, some of its streets have been widened and more
    attention has been paid to cleanliness. It has all the bustle
    of a busy and a thriving town; but as its trade depends
    exclusively upon the coal and iron districts all around it,
    it is necessarily subjected to many fluctuations. We cannot
    recommend Dudley to the tourist as a halting place, for the
    smoke renders the atmosphere in the town and country all
    around it particularly disagreeable. But there is no district
    in England better worth examination, both as regards the
    state of an important trade, and the condition of an enormous
    population. Those who will face the dirt and dinginess of
    Brierley Hill and Tipton will find ample food for study; and
    they will see a scene of industry and wealth where, within the
    memory of man, little else was to be found but open waste and
    common.

The concluding paragraph in this severe editorial, but too truthful
recital of the political status of Dudley at this period of our
history, wherein it is written that, "Nothing can change Dudley, but
a change in the opinions of Lord Ward, _and stranger things may come
to pass than that_;" has been most unexpectedly fulfilled by his
Lordship's recent recantation of his former steadfast political views,
discarding now for ever the long held Conservative principles of the
House of Himley, and passing over with all his enormous powers and
local belongings into the ranks of the modern so-called Liberalism.
Pitiable is it indeed to witness the twingings of a forced compliance
now to his new-born politics in all degrees and stations of his
_employes_; whose former by-gone stereotyped orders, wrung from many an
honest heart the secret feelings of a detestation of such doings, but
silenced by the sense that his daily bread absolutely depended upon his
compliance. Such is the fate of Political Toadyism!

Died January 10th, 1850, Mr. George Lester, Pork Butcher, High Street.
Aged 32 years.

Died February 9th, 1850, Mr. Frederick Johnson, Solicitor,
Wolverhampton Street. This was a young gentleman of brilliant talents,
and had he lived would have been an ornament to the town. Aged 27 years.

"The Truck or Tommy system," an odious practice of paying hard working
men in kind or provisions instead of money, had very extensively
ramified itself into the business operations of Iron Masters, Coal
Masters, Nail Factors, and Nail Foggers to such an extent, as to
threaten the annihilation of all fair dealings betwixt the employer
and the employed in our varied labour markets. The consequence was,
that a public meeting (under the auspices of Thomas Fereday, Esq., the
Mayor), was held in the Old Town Hall, on April 1st, 1850, to form an
Association for enforcing the law against the payment of wages in Truck
or Tommy. A very influential Association was at once formed, and Mr.
Geo. Boddington, Solicitor, Dudley, was appointed Solicitor to this
Association; which, by its energetic _convictions of numerous offending
parties_, speedily gave a sensible check to this wicked and dishonest
usage. It was clearly shown that the poor working man was paying _25
per cent. more_ for his provisions than he ought to do; besides being
deprived of the right to buy his daily food in the best market. Mr. C.
F. G. Clark became a prominent Lecturer to the working classes in this
district on this burning question, and laid bare with an unsparing hand
the iniquity of the Truck system.

May 1st, 1850. The South Staffordshire Railway was this day publicly
opened. It runs from Dudley to Alrewas, joining the Midland line at
that Station. A procession took place from the Dudley Station to the
Hotel, where was held a public Dinner to celebrate the event.

Died May 8th, 1850, by his own hand in a fit of temporary insanity, Mr.
Joshua Wilkinson, Anvil and Vice Manufacturer, Queen's Cross, Dudley.
This sad death was most grievously deplored, for Mr. Wilkinson was a
large and liberal employer of labour, and a most kind and genial friend
and neighbour. Aged 56 years.

May 20th, 1850. This being Whit-Monday, the Dudley Castle and Silurian
Caverns were opened to the public with uncommon array and splendour,
as the caverns were lighted the _first time with gas_. Mr. Elliott
Hollier, Chemist, was the chief instrument in having this grand
spectacle opened to the public, for his untiring exertions throughout
were truly extraordinary, the whole entertainment devolving upon his
efforts. The fetes were kept open for three successive days, and as
the profits were to be appropriated to paying off the debt of the
Geological Society, it was gratifying to find that the realization of
£750 was the result of this wonderful and pleasurable exhibition of
nature and art. Upwards of 20,000 people attended these fetes.

May 26th, 1850. An Evening Lecture was commenced this day (Sunday) in
St. Edmund's Church, the Rev. A. Kerr Thompson, M.A., the Head Master
of the Grammar School, was appointed the Lecturer. The stipend was
raised by a voluntary annual subscription.

July 2nd, 1850. Miss Ellen Browne, second daughter of Dr. Browne,
Vicar, was this morning married to the Rev.--Osborne, M.A., with much
ceremony and rejoicing.

July 2nd, 1850. Died, in consequence of a fall from his horse in St.
James' Park, London, Sir Robert Peel, Bart., M.P., acknowledged the
greatest statesman and debater of his day. Aged 64 years.

Died, August 26th, 1850, at Claremont, near London, "Louis Phillippe"
ex-King of the French. Aged 77 years.

Died, September 8th, 1850, Mr. Mark Bond, many years Clerk at St.
Edmund's Church. Aged 79 years.

Died, September 13th, 1850, old Mr. Morris, maltster, Castle Street,
much esteemed. Aged 78 years.

September 20th, 1850, there had been a great dearth for want of rain,
as there had been none since August 20th till this date. The want of
rain had dried up all vegetation and created a great scarcity of green
meat for cattle all over the country.

Died, October 11th, 1850, Mrs. Wilson, formerly of Queen Street,
feather dealer, &c. Aged 93 years.

Died, October 29th, 1850, John Roberts, Esq., J.P., Surgeon,
Wolverhampton Street, Dudley. Aged 62 years. This gentleman was a noted
but bigotted politician in his day; was appointed a Borough Magistrate;
very fond of office, but was not always wise in administering the
claims of justice; was a warm friend and good counsellor to those
intimately acquainted with him. A marble monument erected in St.
Edmund's Church records the many virtues of this gentleman.


PAPAL AGGRESSION.

On November 26th, 1850, a large and influential public meeting of all
denominations of Christians, Thomas Fereday, Esq., the Mayor, in the
chair, was held in the Old Town Hall, for the purpose of presenting
an address to the Queen, "against the recent insolent usurpation by
the Pope of Rome of authority and jurisdiction in this your Majesty's
independent dominions."

This meeting was addressed at great length by the Mayor, Dr. Browne,
Vicar; Rev. Jno. Wesley Thomas, Wesleyan Minister; Rev. Jno. Palmer,
Unitarian Minister; with our ever-green and watchful friend, Mr. Saml.
Cook. The meeting passed off most enthusiastically, and the address was
duly presented to the Queen; but, like all other efforts to put down
freedom of opinion in religious faith, it signally failed to secure
the ends aimed at; for all parties seemed to have forgotten "Catholic
Emancipation," granted some twenty-one years before.

February, 1851. This month all the Market ground which had been cleared
of the old buildings was paved with new stones.

Died February 27th, 1851, Mr. John Smith, the kind, considerate, and
jovial landlord of the "Hotel." Aged 58 years.

1851. March 30th. The Census of the United Kingdom was taken this night.

MARRIAGE OF LORD WARD.--April 24th, 1851, the marriage of Lord Ward,
so well known as being one of the largest proprietors of the empire,
with Miss Selina Constance De Burgh, eldest daughter of Hubert De
Burgh, Esq., was celebrated at St. George's Church, Hanover Square, in
the presence of a select circle of the friends of both parties. The
ceremony was conducted in a comparatively private manner, owing to
the recent demise of a member of the De Burgh family. The Rev. Legh
Claughton, Vicar of Kidderminster, and brother-in-law to Lord Ward,
officiated. Shortly after nine o'clock the bridal party entered the
church; Mr. De Burgh gave his daughter away. Lady Wallscourt, the Hon.
Mr. and Mrs. Dudley Ward, Mr. and Mrs. Hawkes, the Hon. Mrs. Blake, the
Dowager Lady Ward, and other friends of the families, were present.
At the conclusion of the ceremony the bridal party repaired to the
residence of Mr. De Burgh, in Grosvenor Crescent, and there partook of
breakfast. The happy pair subsequently left town for Sandgate, to pass
the honeymoon.--_Birmingham Journal._

This unhappy lady died shortly afterwards of fever, and was interred in
the family vault in Himley Church, amidst a grievous sorrowing throng
of relations and friends. Aged 22 years.

1851. May 1st. This day the Great National Exhibition was opened in
Hyde Park, London, by the Queen and Prince Albert, in great pomp
and state, attended with an immense retinue of English and Foreign
potentates. Many of us denizens of the Black Country attended also and
paid our respects to the immense block of coal exhibited, which came
from the bowels of the earth at Dudley Port, or Horseley Fields.

May 5th, 1881. This town and locality was this day visited with a
terrific storm of thunder and lightning. Some houses in Prospect Row
and St. Thomas's Church were struck with the lightning, but fortunately
no lives were lost.

July 28th, 1851. A partial eclipse of the sun took place this day, at
the hour of 3 p.m.

August 6th, 1851. "Proposed Application of the Public Health Act to
Dudley." Mr. Lee, one of the Inspectors under the Sanitary Act, held
a Public Enquiry, and made a survey of the Borough of Dudley, and he
declared "that this town was the worst drained and the filthiest of
any town in the kingdom." The death-rate was much higher than any
other, being 28 deaths in every 1,000 inhabitants _during the last 10
years!!!_ whereas the general average was 20 deaths in every 1,000
inhabitants. Oh! ye advocates for economy, and keeping your hands
tightly on your breeches pockets; who draw the rent, with greed, from
your ignorant tenants, but refuse to bear the burden which belongs
to the landlord for the domestic health of those very tenants you
live upon day by day, read the subjoined astounding report and ask
yourselves whether conscience does not struggle hard to resume her seat!


PROPOSED APPLICATION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH ACT TO DUDLEY.

    On Tuesday last, WILLIAM LEE, Esq., one of the Superintending
    Inspectors of the General Board of Health, opened an enquiry
    at the Old Town Hall, Dudley, for the purpose of enabling
    the authorities at Whitehall to form an opinion as to the
    desirability of bringing the provisions of the Public Health
    Act into operation within the Borough. Such investigations
    have mostly hitherto been instituted upon the petition of
    the inhabitants of such towns as were considered to require
    improvement in sanitary matters. In this instance, however, the
    Board had taken advantage of the powers given them by one of
    the sections of their act, which directs them to take steps for
    the application of its provisions to towns where the returns
    of the Registrar-General showed that the deaths annually
    exceeded twenty-three in the thousand. Although doubtless
    the attention of the Board had been called to the matter by
    some influential gentlemen of the town, we suppose we must
    attribute the very thin attendance of the inhabitants at the
    opening of the enquiry as much to the private and non-popular
    nature of its origin, as to any want of interest in the matter
    either as a question of public health, or as one which may
    ultimately become important to the community as ratepayers. The
    proceedings did not commence until nearly an hour after the
    appointed time, and even then not more than a dozen or fourteen
    persons were present. Amongst them were the Rev. Dr. Browne,
    (the Vicar,) John Houghton, Esq., T. W. Fletcher, Esq., (firm
    of Robinson and Fletcher, Solicitors,) Messrs. Hollier, Fisher,
    Richardson, Bowen, Bateman, T. P. Stokes, Minty, Griffiths, and
    Cook.

    MR. LEE began by remarking on the scanty attendance, which
    either showed that the inhabitants were not generally aware of
    the enquiry being about to take place, or that they did not
    feel very much interested in the question. It was, however,
    a question of very great importance to all the residents of
    the town, and he regretted very much that the room was not
    filled. All the rated inhabitants had a right to be present,
    and to be heard on any matter touching that enquiry, and it had
    been proved that full notice had been given, so as to enable
    the inhabitants to know when and where the enquiry would be
    held. The fact of there being reporters present would enable
    those inhabitants who were not present to know something of
    the proceedings, and he hoped that the result would be that if
    any misapprehensions existed, they would be removed. In the
    few remarks he should make, he thought it would be well to
    direct their attention to that portion of the Public Health
    Act which related to preliminary inquiries. Under that Act,
    the General Board of Health was appointed to intimate its
    application under certain circumstances stated in the 8th
    section. They were to appoint inspectors to make preliminary
    enquiries in large and populous towns and places, and these
    enquiries would be instituted either upon the petition of not
    less than one-tenth of the inhabitants rated for the relief
    of the poor, or where the returns of the Registrar-General
    showed that the deaths annually exceeded the proportion of
    twenty-three to a thousand. Upon the latter alternative the
    Board had the power of directing an enquiry to be made, without
    any petition from the Inhabitants. The section then went on
    to state the chief objects of the enquiry. The report was to
    be made to the General Board of Health by the Inspector in
    writing, and was then to be printed and circulated in the parts
    to which the enquiry related. Upon that report any inhabitant
    might make any statement in writing, as to anything contained
    in, or omitted from, such report. It would be the duty of the
    General Board of Health to consider the report and statements
    made; and there were then two modes of proceeding for that
    body to adopt, according to circumstances. If the inquiry had
    been instituted upon the petition from the inhabitants of the
    locality, if the boundaries for the district were the same
    as those from whence the petition came, and if there should
    be no local act of Parliament in force in the district, then
    the act might be applied by an order of Privy Council, naming
    the day when the election of a Local Board of Health should
    take place. But if the inquiry should have been instituted
    in consequence of the mortality being over twenty-three to a
    thousand, and if the boundaries were different, and if there
    were a local act of Parliament, then the General Board, if
    they thought the Public Health Act should be applied, would
    have to make a provisional order, which would have no force
    or effect until it had been approved by Parliament. In the
    case where a Municipal Corporation exists, it is made the
    Local Board of Health. As the inhabitants of Dudley had no
    Corporation, either the Commissioners must act as a Local Board
    of Health, or the residents must meet and elect one. Mr. Lee
    then proceeded to detail the duties that would fall within the
    province of the Local Board, stating that their powers were
    permissive, not compulsory, and that money to carry out the
    necessary works could be borrowed on the rates, to be repaid
    by equal annual instalments, running over a space of thirty
    years. By the latter provision, all difficulty as to causing a
    burden on the inhabitants was removed, for if the amount should
    come to anything like the sum of £5 per house, the rate of
    interest would not be more than one penny per week. He would
    now take them back to the grounds on which that inquiry had
    commenced. The census of 1851 had been taken, but the returns
    of the Registrar-General had not been made up so that the
    general rates of mortality could be ascertained. There was no
    difficulty, however, in the returns for any particular town,
    and it would be sufficient for him to show to them that the
    rates of mortality had increased very considerably in Dudley
    since 1841. He had before him the Registrar-General's return
    for Dudley, dated the 7th of June, 1851, made according to
    the terms of the act, from the year 1844 to 1850 inclusive.
    The present population of the parish of Dudley was 37,954.
    The deaths during those years were 6,864, giving an annual
    mortality of twenty-eight to every thousand of the inhabitants
    living. If he took the comparative returns of 1841, he should
    take a much more favourable view of the condition of Dudley
    than now existed. In 1841, according to the census returns,
    the rate of mortality in England and Wales was little more
    than twenty to a thousand of the population; and at that time
    the rate of Dudley was 26.7, while in Walsall it was 24.2,
    in Wolverhampton 25, and in Birmingham, (with a population
    four times more than Dudley,) 26.5. He found that in the same
    year the deaths in Dudley were 1 in 37; in Walsall, 1 in 41;
    in Birmingham, 1 in 38. The deaths from epidemic diseases in
    Dudley were 1 out of every 131 of the population annually; in
    Walsall, 1 out of 154; and in Birmingham, 1 out of 202. The
    average age of all who died in Dudley was only 17 years, at a
    time when the mortality was less than it was now. In Walsall
    it was 19 years and 3 months; in Wolverhampton, 19 years and
    1 month: and in Birmingham, 23 years and 9 months. They would
    see by that excessive mortality how large a proportion of the
    community were cut off before they arrived at the years of
    maturity. Of those who died above 20 years of age, the average
    was 50 years and 10 months; in Wolverhampton it was the same;
    in Walsall, 52 years and 6 months; and in Birmingham, 51 years
    and 7 months. There they saw that no place among them all was
    so bad as Dudley. Taking the whole of the deaths, and dividing
    their per centage, there were 34.5 per cent. under a year old,
    in Dudley; in Walsall, 29.7 per cent.; in Wolverhampton, 27.6;
    and in Birmingham, 24.8. Under five years, in Dudley, 60.8
    per cent.; in Walsall, 55.7; in Wolverhampton, 55.3; and in
    Birmingham, 48.4. Seven out of every ten persons under 20 years
    of age died annually, a much larger rate than any other place
    mentioned. As death had done its main work during the years
    of infancy, they were not persons who had lost their lives in
    mines, for two-thirds of their population died under five years
    of age; as they got farther on in life there were, of course,
    fewer remaining in Dudley to be killed, and consequently the
    per centage was less in unhealthy than in healthy districts, as
    the greater portion had been destroyed before arriving at the
    years of maturity. He would give one instance--between 70 and
    80 years of age 4.4 died in Dudley; in Wolverhampton, 4.8; in
    Birmingham, 5.7 The figures were greatly to the disadvantage
    of Dudley. Indeed there were very few places in the kingdom
    so unhealthy as Dudley. To show the enormous disparity that
    existed between Dudley and registration districts in the
    counties of Worcester, Stafford, and Warwick, Mr. Lee quoted a
    number of other figures. For instance, he showed that in the
    district comprising Bewdley, Martley, and Tenbury, (containing
    a population equal to that of the Dudley district,) the average
    age at death was 41 years and 4 months against the average of
    17 years in Dudley. Now he said, there might be persons who
    talked about economy with respect to sanitary arrangements,
    and would be fearfully alarmed at the expense that would be
    brought upon the town of Dudley by the adoption of sanitary
    measures. It would be found from the registration districts
    he had named, with a population equal to their own, by the
    most extensive experience, not only of the medical men,
    but of those who had made the strictest enquiries into the
    sanitary condition of the country, that there were not less
    than twenty-eight cases of sickness in excess, spending on an
    average 20s. each, to every death in excess. Well, comparing
    the registration district of Dudley, which contained, in 1841,
    86,000 inhabitants, with the district he had cited, they would
    see that there were 831 deaths in excess in a year, and of
    these more than one-third were due to the parish of Dudley.
    Taking twenty-eight cases for each death in excess, it exhibits
    a loss of £23,268. Taking next, the mourning fees, coffins,
    and other incidental expenses connected with a funeral, which
    could not amount to less than £5 each, they would have a loss
    by funerals of £4,115. Every adult lost eight years and eight
    months of his life, and every individual twenty-four years
    and four months. Taking only the adult deaths, and reckoning
    those adults to have been able to earn only 7_s._ 6_d._ per
    week each on an average, the loss in labour would be £115,934.
    Those three items of loss, by one year's deaths alone, for
    sickness, funerals, and labour, was £143,357. They would all
    admit that, at a very moderate estimate, one-third of that
    cost would fall upon the parish of Dudley, and they then would
    find that the parish were annually losers in those three items
    to the extent of £47,786. That was the loss upon a mortality
    of 26.7, but the last returns exhibited a mortality of 28 to
    every thousand of the inhabitants, during the seven years'
    average. They might, therefore, fairly conclude that their loss
    at that present moment, from excessive deaths, was £50,000
    per annum. Could anybody imagine for a moment that the most
    efficient sanitary works that could be constructed in Dudley,
    would bear to be looked at, in comparison with these figures.
    He could direct their attention to a very important table
    from the same returns, containing 61 registration districts
    in England and Wales, with a population of 1,003,124 persons,
    having a mortality of only 16 to a thousand, and where all
    who were born, on an average lived to the age of 37 years and
    5 months; and adults on an average to 60 years of age. Now,
    compare that with Dudley, and though no sanitary means were
    used at the places he referred to, nevertheless the mortality
    was 16 as against 28, in the parish of Dudley; average age,
    37 years 5 months, as against 17 years; adults, 60 years as
    against 50 years and 10 months, and the percentages of deaths
    under 20 years of age, 38.4, as against 70.1. Could anybody
    doubt that there was a cause for that, and one that might to a
    great extent be removed? Could any reasonable man say it was
    not a case of vital importance, and one that demanded careful
    enquiry? Was it not the duty of every inhabitant to promote
    such an enquiry, and if it were found that remedies could be
    applied, to take the greatest interest in their application?
    He did not suppose that any person resident in Dudley was
    aware that such a comparative state of things existed. They
    had the facts now before them, and he therefore anticipated
    that he should receive all the assistance they could render
    him in making that enquiry, while he stayed in Dudley. They
    perceived that the jurisdiction of the General Board of Health
    arose from the excessive mortality, over 23 to 1,000, which
    the Legislature regarded as such an excess as to call upon the
    General Board to take proceedings to apply the act without
    any petition from the locality. The mortality of Birmingham,
    Sheffield, Bradford, and Leeds, was less than Dudley, and he
    did not believe the mortality of Manchester was higher. He
    could not recollect a large town in the whole country, except
    it was Liverpool, as it existed previous to the application
    of sanitary measures, that was in such an awful condition
    as Dudley appeared to be. It was growing worse, as was the
    condition of most unimproved towns. The filth accumulating
    in open cesspools, ash-pits, privies, &c., in consequence
    of badly-constructed channels and drains, was constantly
    saturating the earth, and going into the subsoil underneath. As
    that saturation increased, the unhealthiness of the town would
    increase, and there would come a time when the subsoil of such
    towns would become a mere dunghill, and the site of the town
    would be uninhabitable. They saw themselves how the healthiness
    of the place had decreased since 1841. He next explained the
    manner in which he intended to conduct that enquiry. Awaiting
    the assembling of the inhabitants that morning, he had taken
    down several complaints that had been made to him of nuisances
    existing in the vicinity of houses, and he should be glad to
    enter more upon his minutes. He would place also upon his
    minutes the name of any person who should wish to accompany
    him in making an inspection of the town. He should adjourn
    the enquiry, as far as that room was concerned, until that
    inspection was complete. He should have to depend upon those
    who accompanied him to point out the worst parts of the town,
    and, if there was a difference of opinion existing amongst
    them, he should wish both parties to accompany him. After other
    general observations, he concluded by saying that his object
    was to discharge faithfully his duty to the Board of Health and
    the inhabitants of Dudley.

    About five minutes before Mr. Lee concluded his address, Isaac
    Badger, Esq., entered the room. As soon as the Inspector
    sat down, Mr. BADGER said he wished to ask a question, as he
    had that morning met most of the principal gentlemen of the
    town, not one of whom knew anything about the origin of the
    enquiry. He wished for some information why the meeting was
    held, and was proceeding to remark that although he did not
    deny something of the sort was wanted, yet that he thought
    Dudley could very ill afford to go to any expense at all;
    when Mr. LEE interrupted him with "Don't make a speech, if
    you please; if you ask any questions I will answer them."
    He had before met with cases of this sort, where gentlemen
    of influence in the locality came in after he had given his
    explanation of the cause of the enquiry--an explanation which
    in the present instance had occupied an hour in the delivery,
    after waiting nearly another hour past the time appointed--and
    would have him to go over the explanation again, for their
    personal information. He would put it to those present whether
    such a thing could be expected from him.--Mr. BADGER said it
    was an important thing for the town, and he was surprised
    the authorities knew nothing about it. He might have signed
    a requisition if he had been asked to do so, and he wanted
    to know who was the cause of the meeting being called.--Mr.
    LEE: As they doubtless knew there was to be an enquiry here
    this morning, they should have been here at ten o'clock.--Mr.
    BADGER: What I have asked for is information that the town
    ought to have, but as he refuses to answer the question, I will
    now withdraw. I saw a very respectable medical practitioner
    yesterday, and he tells me--Mr. LEE: You had better address
    yourself to me, sir.--Mr. BADGER: All I have to say is, that
    the town never was in a more healthy state than at present;
    and I object to the whole proceedings. Mr. Badger then left
    the room, accompanied by J. G. Walker, Esq.--Mr. LEE said that
    any other gentleman might come into the room and put such
    questions, and with equal reason expect him to answer them.
    It was not a matter affecting his own convenience, but it was
    a waste of time which he would not permit. The gentleman had
    thought proper to withdraw, and perhaps he would say that he
    had been refused information, but there were those present
    who could correct such a statement. At a subsequent stage of
    the proceedings, the Inspector, in reply to a remark that
    he had spoken to Mr. Badger "in a way to which he was not
    accustomed," said he had no respect of persons, and could make
    no distinction between the rich and the poor.

    Mr. Fletcher presented the evidence taken before Mr. Slaney,
    M.P., in 1842, while inquiring into the state of Dudley under
    the Public Health Commission; and after receiving some evidence
    as to the nuisance in existence, Mr. Lee adjourned the inquiry.

    Tuesday afternoon was spent in viewing some parts of the town;
    and on Wednesday Mr. Lee continued his inspection, in company
    with the Rev. Dr. Browne, J. C. Bourne, Esq., J. Maughan, Esq.,
    Messrs. Bateman, J. Marsh, and other respectable inhabitants
    of the borough. He proceeded to the Friends' Chapel, in the
    High Street, Wolverhampton Street, Shaver's End, St. James's
    Terrace, the Dock, Vicarage Prospect, Spring's Mire, Stafford
    Street, Cross Street, &c., jotting down his observations as he
    went along. We may venture to affirm that few places require
    the surveillance of an inspector of some kind or other more
    than the Ball Court, Belper, Marrian's and Pagett's Yards, the
    Barracks, the Lodging-houses, (chiefly occupied by Irish) in
    Cross Street, and some other places, which have always been
    noted as hotbeds of epidemic and contagious diseases--the
    cholera, fever, small pox, scarlatina, and measles, having
    always in these localities assumed their most virulent type. By
    some of the gentlemen in attendance it was confessed that they
    were entirely unaware of such hotbeds of pestilence existing
    in such crowded localities. On Thursday Mr. Lee again attended
    at the Town Hall, when some evidence was offered on the part
    of J. Bennett, Esq., as to Messrs. Smith and Pigott having
    certain premises in Tower Street, to which, on account of their
    close proximity to the Workhouse, whenever epidemic disorders
    prevailed, many pauper patients were always brought, thus
    becoming to some extent an hospital for the poor. Mr. Lee was
    this day attended by J. G. Bourne, J. Bennett, and J. Maughan,
    Esqrs., Messrs. Hollier, Dudley, Bateman, Marsh, and some
    others, and inspected the Workhouse, New Street, Tower Street,
    Green Man Yard, Birmingham Street, Pottery Fields, &c. Some
    of the courts and yards, in Birmingham Street particularly,
    attracted the notice of Mr. Lee and the gentlemen with him as
    being close, confined, ill drained, and badly ventilated.

    As it appears very probable that the provisions of the Health
    of Towns Act will be enforced in Dudley (for we cannot imagine
    what other report than an unfavourable one can be presented
    to the Board by Mr. Lee), would it not be better that the
    town itself should take the matter up, and by a new Town Act
    or Charter of Incorporation endeavour to procure those powers
    which will enable the inhabitants to act for themselves rather
    than be compelled to adopt the provisions of the Health of
    Towns Bill, which must entail upon the Borough a vast expense,
    that at the present time it is but ill able to bear. It is
    high time these matters were thought of by the inhabitants
    of Dudley, and that the obstinate opposition of some one or
    two parties should not be allowed to stop all improvements,
    as otherwise they will be compelled at last to adopt those
    measures which a little more consideration might have prevented.

    We believe Mr. Lee will continue his inspection, which is
    expected to last some days longer.

August 16th, 1851. Nothing especially resulted from the above _exposé_
of the flagrant unsanitary condition of this town, except _a scare_,
from which the Town Commissioners (the only ruling authority we
then had in the town), began to fear that their brief authority
would shortly be taken from them by the Board of Health in London;
consequently on October 3rd, 1851, an extraordinary meeting of the
Town Commissioners was held this day at the Hotel, "to consider
the propriety of applying to Parliament for increased powers in the
Dudley Town Commissioners Act," which dated back to 1791. After a
lengthened discussion (in a very numerous attendance of members) it
was resolved on the motion of Mr. C. F. G. Clark, chemist, seconded by
Mr. Thomas Fletcher, "That the anticipated early application of the
Health of Towns Bill to this parish would obviate the necessity of any
increased powers in the Dudley Town Commissioners Act." There was also
a very strong feeling expressed in favour of applying for an Act of
Incorporation as soon as it might be deemed advisable. This desire for
incorporation very soon cooled down, for the town was not incorporated
_for sixteen years afterwards_ (in 1867).

Died, August 24th, 1851, Mr. Wm. Badger, the second son of Thos.
Badger, Esq., J.P., "The Hill Home," Dudley. Aged 34 years.

August 27th, 1851, a new fire engine was sent to this town by the
Birmingham Fire Insurance Company; Mr. C. F. G. Clark was the local
agent.

Died, November 14th, 1851, at Schwalbach, Duchy of Nassau, the Lady
Selina Constance, the first wife of Lord Ward. Aged 22 years.


SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE WATER COMPANY.

December 1st, 1851. This new company gave public notice of their
intention to apply to Parliament for a Bill to give to a large portion
of South Staffordshire, together with the town of Dudley, a better
supply of water. After considerable opposition they succeeded in
obtaining the Bill in the main, and from that time our water supply has
been given by that now very enlarged company.

March 2nd, 1852. Married Miss Cresswell, of the Priory Home, to Mr.
John Beddard, Nail Factor and Iron Merchant.

_Church Rates_ becoming yearly more deservedly unpopular, not only
in Dudley but in the country at large, on March 24th, 1852, a severe
contest took place this day in St. Edmund's district parish, betwixt
the Church party and the Dissenters. A Church Rate of _5d. in the
pound_ was proposed by the Churchwardens, and 1d. in the pound by the
Dissenters; the result of the parish poll was--

    For a 5d. Church Rate, 112 votes
      "   1d.      "        76   "
                          ----
                  Majority, 36   "

April 10th, 1852. St. Thomas' parish was also most vigorously and
successfully assailed against Church Rates, and, as the parish contains
some of our large manufactures, it was at first doubtful which way
a poll would terminate; but when it became known that Messrs. A. B.
Cochrane and Samuel K. Blackwell were decidedly turned against the
future imposition of the obnoxious Church Rates, it became a foregone
conclusion that the Church party would lose the day, and be left to
provide for Mother Church as well as they could.

The following hearty appeals were made to the ratepayers at this
memorable Dudley fight for Mr. Samuel Cook's innate principles of civil
and religious freedom:--

    TO THE RATEPAYERS OF ST. EDMUND'S DISTRICT, DUDLEY.

    DISSENTERS,

    The Churchwardens of this District have been defeated this
    day at the Vestry, in attempting to impose upon you a Rate of
    FIVEPENCE IN THE POUND. The Churchwardens have demanded a poll,
    to obtain the Votes of the District generally upon the matter,
    to take place in the VESTRY OF ST. EDMUND'S CHURCH, ON TUESDAY
    NEXT, at Ten o'clock in the morning.

    Will you suffer in silence another of these fearful infractions
    on common sense and common justice to be thrust down your
    throats? Defeat this mean, shabby means of the Churchwardens
    to obtain money for them and their Church-going brethren to
    worship God in what they are pleased to call, most strangely,
    "the beauty of holiness," at your expense.

    CHURCHMEN,

    If you cannot poll against this Rate, stay at home, and show
    by your silence, that your good sense and common duty of man
    toward man are sadly wounded by this reflection upon either
    your want of means or want of principle to worship your God
    with clean hands and a clean heart, without forcing your
    unwilling and conscientious neighbours to pay towards what, if
    you love your God "in spirit and in truth, you would shrink
    from with fear and trembling."

                                       A CONSCIENTIOUS DISSENTER.

    _March 19th, 1852._

    GO TO THE POLL AT THE TIME APPOINTED.

       *       *       *       *       *

    CHURCH RATE MEETING.

    A POLL DEMANDED.

    A meeting of the ratepayers of this parish was held on Thursday
    last in the vestry of St. Thomas's Church, for the purpose of
    granting a church rate of sixpence in the pound, to meet the
    expenses of the ensuing year. The Rev. Dr. Browne, the vicar,
    occupied the chair. Mr. Hollier, the people's warden, read the
    account of the present year's receipts and expenditure up to
    Easter; from which it appeared that the expenses for salaries,
    &c., for the various churches amounted to £364 and upwards,
    that there was about £212 which had to be provided out of the
    arrears of the last rate. It also appeared that the further sum
    of £423 was due to other persons in the parish. After a few
    remarks from the Chairman upon the apparent hardship inflicted
    upon those who had paid, while others had not paid the rate,
    (and in which Mr. Steedman concurred), the rev. gentleman
    stated that during the seven years he had resided in the parish
    no church rate higher than 5d. in the pound had been granted,
    except that when a rate of 10d. in the pound was granted, this
    extended over a period of two years. He then referred to the
    improvements effected, alluding particularly (_inter alia_)
    to the wall surrounding the burial ground, and where nobody
    could be refused interment. Mr. Pattison here observed that the
    10d. rate referred to was granted for the purpose of paying
    the bills of Mr. Holland, builder, and Mr. Powell, painter,
    and inquired what was still owing to them, when Mr. Hollier
    stated that a sum of £66 was due to Mr. Holland, and £60 to Mr.
    Powell, and after giving a summary of the expenses incurred
    in connection with the churches, Mr. Hollier further stated
    that he had not broken faith with the parishioners on his
    first appointment to office; that the expenses had been always
    carefully looked to; nor had he asked for a greater rate than
    6d. in the pound. Mr. Pattison submitted that he had not done
    his duty in not enforcing the rate from those who refused, and
    yet were well able to pay; the churchwardens had the law upon
    their side, and they ought to enforce it. Mr Hollier expressed
    his unwillingness to distrain upon parties if it could be
    possibly avoided. The office of churchwarden had not been
    sought by him, but was thrust upon him, and he should only be
    too happy to be relieved from its cares and responsibilities.
    The Chairman then read a resolution which had been very
    recently entered upon the vestry book, to the effect that all
    persons able to pay the church rate should be compelled to
    do so. After further remarks, resulting in an animated but
    good humoured discussion, Mr. Hollier proposed a rate of 6d.
    in the pound, which was seconded by Mr. W. Sheppard. It was
    then proposed as an amendment (the Rev. Chairman, however,
    declining to put it to the meeting _as an amendment_, on the
    ground that a penny rate was quite insufficient to meet the
    expenses,) on the motion of Mr. J. Finch, seconded by Mr. D.
    Lloyd, that a rate of a penny in the pound be granted. Mr.
    Lloyd enquired the necessity for the present meeting if the
    amendment was not to be put, to which the Chairman observed
    that the meeting was called for the purpose of granting a 6d.
    rate, and nothing else; whereupon Mr. T. Stanley remarked
    that they (the opponents of the sixpenny rate) "were like
    sheep driven to the slaughter." Mr. Hollier stated that if a
    penny rate were granted, similar meetings might take place
    week after week. The rev. Chairman (after some remarks about
    a poll being demanded, and having stated that a minority
    could grant a church rate) was then asked what was the use or
    necessity of a poll at all; to which he facetiously replied,
    "for amusement;" an announcement which was received with much
    laughter. Mr. Insull then asked whether it was legal for the
    meeting to propose either a greater or a less rate than the
    one sought for. The Chairman answered that as to a greater, he
    was not sure, but certainly not a less rate. T. Fereday Esq.,
    the other churchwarden, here remarked that the object of the
    meeting was to grant a sixpenny rate, and if refused by the
    meeting, the better way was to go to the poll. The Chairman
    then put the penny rate to the meeting, and afterwards the
    sixpenny rate; when, on a show of hands, a majority appeared
    to be decidedly in favour of the penny rate. Mr. Hollier then
    demanded a poll, which was instituted immediately. Mr. Lloyd
    urged the propriety of the meeting being adjourned to the Old
    Town Hall. This, however, was overruled, as the Guardians were
    stated to be using it at that time. The Chairman stated that
    no ratepayers would be entitled to vote unless not only the
    previous poor rate, but also the last church and highway rates
    were paid, a legal point upon which the majority of the meeting
    differed, contending that the payment of the poor rate was only
    the test of qualification. It was at length agreed that the
    polling should take place at the vestry, and that all votes
    tendered should be taken on payment of the previous poor rate,
    the votes being afterward subjected to a scrutiny. The poll
    immediately commenced, and was kept up till five o'clock, when
    it closed for that day. The numbers were then as follows:--For
    the penny rate, 78: for the sixpenny rate, 91. The poll will be
    resumed to-day (Saturday), and will continue from ten o'clock
    a.m. till five o'clock p.m., and will be again resumed on
    Monday, at ten o'clock, finally closing at 12 o'clock at noon.
    The best feeling seems to be manifested by all parties.

April 10th, 1852. There was a majority of 98 against this rate.

    CHURCH RATES.

    RATEPAYERS OF DUDLEY,

    At the Vestry Meeting held this morning, for the purpose of
    imposing a Sixpenny Rate, an amendment for a Penny Rate was
    moved, and almost unanimously carried by a show of hands. The
    Churchwardens demanded a _Poll_, which is now going on at the
    Vestry of St. Thomas's Church.

    Embrace the present opportunity! Lose no time! All who
    conscientiously oppose this exorbitant tax, hasten and Vote for
    the Penny Rate! All Poor Rates that have been demanded must be
    paid previous to voting. The Polling will be kept open till
    five o'clock this afternoon. Attend the Public Meeting at the
    Swan Inn, this evening at 8 o'clock.

    _Thursday, April the 8th, 1852._

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY CHURCH RATES.

    The Friends of Religious Liberty are requested to attend, _as
    early as possible_, at the VESTRY ROOM OF ST. THOMAS'S CHURCH,
    between the hours of from Ten till Four on Saturday, April
    10th, 1852, or from Ten till Twelve on Monday, April 12th,
    1852, to VOTE FOR THE PENNY RATE, instead of the Sixpenny Rate.

    Go to the Poll Early, and VICTORY IS CERTAIN!!

    _Committee Room, Swan Hotel, Dudley._

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE CHURCH RATE CRISIS!

    "Coming events cast their shadows before."--_Cato._

    Yea, and the fangs of an Ecclesiastical Court will attest their
    realities in the pockets of unfledged Anti-Church Rate victims.

    BROTHER DISSENTERS,

    The last two months has witnessed a vigorous and legitimate
    opposition on our part to that detestable of all Taxation,
    the Church Rate. Our triumphant success at the poll in St.
    Thomas's district has incontestably proved to all parties, that
    the imposition of this tax _rests alone with the Ratepayers_,
    and that, as hitherto, a mere _vestry coterie_ shall not tax
    the conscientious Dissenter without _first_ giving him the
    honest and Englishman-like opportunity of ascertaining for what
    purpose he is to be taxed.

    The fact having now been fully established, the staff having
    now been really placed in the hands of the Ratepayers, it
    becomes a question of the most _vital pecuniary_, as well as
    _public_ and _legal, consideration_, how far we are morally
    justified in further resisting the _claims of a Church
    Established by Law_; after we have lately testified that those
    claims shall first receive our sanction and approval at the
    tribunal of a parish poll.

    Fellow Christians, lose not sight of the fact that success has
    often intoxicated the victorious, thrown them off their guard,
    and given the enemy vantage ground. Beware of placing implicit
    confidence in the opinion of that class of agitating law-givers
    who deceive you by propounding to your ignorance _what they and
    you would wish the law to be, keeping from you what it really
    is_. Recollect, Ah! and enquiry will convince you, ye unfledged
    sons of popular opinion, that the laws were made for the Church
    at a time when _ignorance was bliss, and it is now even a folly
    to be wise_ to the tune of an Ecclesiastical enquiry, viewing
    with Argus eye the value and extent of your goods and chattels
    from Westminster Palace Yard. _Resist the law according to
    law_, but for the sake of him whose name we all bear, "render
    to Cæsar the things that be Cæsar's," and lend not your
    conscientious sufferings, either to elevate a meanless party
    into public notoriety or compromise that brotherly love, which
    we profess to render even to our enemies.

    Enquire of your elder brethren _how fared the dissenters in
    the notorious Wood Case, and the echo will be defeat and
    payment_. Let us not again enact a folly that inevitably shall
    constrain us to appeal to strangers in the flesh, but brothers
    in the faith, for pecuniary assistance in the midst of our
    never-to-be-forgotten consternation and alarm. Nay! let us
    rather weigh the matter honestly over in our own breasts, and
    consider whether it is not better to pay honestly (and leave
    the ignominy to those who receive it) the demands that we now
    believe to be illegally demanded at our hands, and save our
    money, _not to feed the jaws of D.C.L.'s_, but to legally
    contest and maintain our rights for the time to come.

    Petition the Imperial Parliament for the repeal of the
    vexatious Tax. It is known that many honourable sons of the
    Church will join us, for they bleed and feel acutely for us,
    who are men of like attributes to themselves--Reject the
    election of any man who refuses to assist us in his place
    in St. Stephen's to get rid of our burden; and, above all,
    whilst the Church Rate Enactment lasts, be careful to elect
    such Churchwardens as shall faithfully perform their unpleasant
    duties, observe scrupulous economy in the expenditure of our
    money, be open and candid in their transactions with the
    public; neither given to bolster up obsolete customs and
    practices of the Church, used only in the middle ages, nor yet
    inclined to accede to the rapacity of a once popularity-seeking
    Vicar, at once a misfortune, by example and precept, to the
    Church, and no great love of those who dissent from his
    unproductive teaching.

    Henceforth, let peace and vigilance be our watchword, and the
    Poll Book our bulwark against oppression and injustice.

                                                AN OLD DISSENTER!

    And one who had to pay the piper to a heavy tune in the
        celebrated Wood case.

    _Dudley, May 20th, 1852._

The result of this severe Parochial Contest was that the 1d. Church
Rate was carried by a majority of 98 votes. This contest was the death
warrant for Church Rates in Dudley.

April 21st, 1852. A cab stand was established in the Market place (by
Mr. William Beddard, of the Castle Hotel), a long wanted convenience.

The two parsonage houses of St. John's and St. James' Churches were
built this year by subscriptions; Lord Ward giving the ground and £100
donation to each house.

May 28th, 1852. The Churchwardens of St. Edmund's Church (Messrs. C. F.
G. Clark and Thomas Danks) called a Vestry Meeting of the inhabitants,
for the purpose of adopting the most efficient means for erecting a
Parsonage House for St. Edmund's parish. A very handsome subscription
list was commenced at this meeting, which ultimately ended in the
erection of the present St. Edmund's Parsonage House, at a cost of
upwards of £1,600. Mr. C. F. G. Clark exerted himself very zealously in
this necessary business.

June, 1852. The state of the political horizon in London, and the
distrust and uneasiness which prevailed amongst all classes, and
more especially in reference to the veiled intentions of the Emperor
Nicholas in Russia, to conquer and add the Turkish Empire to his
already vast dominions, pointed to the necessity of an appeal to the
constituents, to ascertain how the British pulse beat upon these
momentous questions.

The following address of Mr. Benbow to his constituents shews that he
thought "coming events cast their shadows before them:"

    TO THE ELECTORS OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    As a dissolution of Parliament is now very near it becomes my
    duty to inform you of my intention to seek a renewal of the
    generous confidence which you have on two former occasions
    reposed in me.

    My political principles are well known, and I need not repeat
    them.

    During the eventful period I have had the honor to enjoy a
    seat in Parliament, I have never blindly attached myself to
    any Minister; but have, as the Representative of an important
    constituency, uniformly supported those measures which seemed
    best calculated to maintain the honour of our great country,
    and to promote the comforts of the people: at the same time I
    have been equally solicitous for the advancement of those great
    interests which are so closely identified with the prosperity
    of your populous and industrious locality.

    In the present position of political parties it seems to me
    to be necessary that all Friends of Conservative Principles
    should unite in supporting the Ministry of LORD DERBY, and I am
    prepared to give them my independent aid, except on any measure
    which may have for its object the re-imposition of a Duty on
    Foreign Corn, to which the general feeling of the Country
    appears to be opposed.

    At the Termination of the Session I shall avail myself of the
    earliest opportunity of personally assuring you that I am, with
    feelings of gratitude and esteem,

                           Your faithful and obliged Servant,
                                                        JOHN BENBOW.

    _Mecklenburgh Square,
              21st June, 1852._

This Political (snug) Meeting followed--

    At a Meeting of the Electors of Dudley friendly to the
    re-election of JOHN BENBOW, ESQ., as Member for the Borough,
    held at the Hotel in Dudley, on Thursday, the first day of
    July, 1852.

    Present:--Thomas Badger, Esq., Isaac Badger, Esq., Thomas
    Fereday, Esq., The Rev. Dr. Browne, Rev. E. H. L. Noot, Rev. A.
    G. Davis, Messrs. Bateman, Best, Bourne, Barrows, W. Bourne,
    Bishton, Brettell, Capewell, Henry Coldicott, Cox, E. Dudley,
    England, J. Haines, Homer, William Haden, John Jones, jun.,
    Kendrick, Maughan, Passmore, Reynaud, R. Smith, E. F. Smith,
    Self, Tilley, Vanes, Walker, and others. THOMAS BADGER, ESQ.,
    in the Chair.

    The Address of Mr. Benbow to the Electors of the date of the
    21st June last having been read--

    Resolved unanimously:--That in the opinion of this Meeting, Mr.
    Benbow has a fair claim to the suffrages of the Electors, and
    that as there is generally throughout the Country a difference
    of opinion on the subject of Free Trade, Mr. Benbow should
    be left unfettered and at liberty to exercise his unbiassed
    judgment on that point.

    Resolved:--That the Gentlemen attending this Meeting be a
    Committee for conducting the Election of Mr. Benbow, with power
    to add to their number.

    Resolved:--That these resolutions be printed and published, and
    a copy thereof transmitted to each Elector.

                                             THOS. BADGER, Chairman.

    Resolved:--That the best thanks of this Meeting be given to the
    Chairman for his conduct in the Chair.

Then came the tug of political warfare.

    FREEDOM IS EVERY MAN'S BIRTHRIGHT.

    AN APPEAL TO THE CONSCIENTIOUS ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH DUDLEY.

    The political torpor in which you have been lying has been
    partially aroused; a sense of the opprobrium you incur by
    your ignoble apathy, has spurred you to action; the spirit of
    tyranny displayed by the Church's iniquitous attempt to impose
    an unjustifiable tax, has awakened your just indignation, and
    contempt of their mercenary spirit, that cloaks itself under
    the pretext of honourably supporting their institution for
    the welfare of the poor man, whom they would rob of that, of
    which the honest sweat of his brow has been productive; but
    this attempt has been foiled, the concocters of the tyrannous
    rate have been successfully defeated, you have with success
    combatted and effectually resisted the attempt of overbearing
    and rapacious Churchmen.

    It is but fair to presume that now the public spirit has
    once been excited, no inconsiderable barrier will stem its
    course: one object has been achieved and a second will, with
    an accession of strength, be attempted. Your feelings of
    execration are excited against a system of representation so
    corrupt, as that professing to be by the voice of the majority
    of Electors, when, at the same time, it is merely by the
    influence of one, who in consequence of his position, wields a
    despotic rule over you,--vaunted free and independent Electors.

    Let us boldly assert our independence, and scorn to be
    swayed by the interested views of one, whose only title to
    consideration is the fact of his being an extensive Landowner,
    who seems to be lamentably deficient of that benevolence and
    philanthropy, of those elevated sentiments and disinterested
    views, which should characterize one in his position. Is a
    man whose silence would bespeak a mind insensible to the
    responsibility, under which he is lying, as the representative
    of an enlightened people, is such a man calculated to express
    the voice of this free, independent and extensive Borough? Is
    not the name of one of the most industrious and enterprising
    of the free towns of England almost buried in oblivion in the
    proceedings of that highly venerated body which is the glory of
    every English Patriot?

    Alas! such is the painful fact!

    Ye, who are foremost and most interested in these momentous
    affairs, hurl defiance at the unjustifiable assumption of
    power, which the landed proprietor will again endeavour to
    employ to further his own views. Act like free men. Boldly
    face the current, which by one united effort you will be able
    effectually to resist.

    FREE MEN OF DUDLEY, abhor that monopoly of influence, that
    has so long characterized your past elections; by your own
    strenuous exertions send as your legislator one who shall
    advocate the principles of enlightened progress. If the attempt
    be not made, nothing will be achieved, devote your energy to
    the one grand object of obtaining a faithful representative,
    and success will inevitably crown your noble magnanimity,

                                           Yours earnestly,
                                                       A PATRIOT.

    _July 12th, 1852._

It became apparent at once that Mr. Benbow would again be called upon
on the hustings to give us some incoherent account of his stewardship,
for the Liberal and Independent voters were determined to bring out a
thorough Radical against him. The Anti-Church party being also very
wrath at the result of the recent Church Rate contests.

A Mr. James Baldwin, Paper Merchant, of Birmingham, was the chosen
champion honoured with the privilege of doing battle on this occasion,
and the wondering and peace-loving denizens of the town were one
morning startled with the rapid drive into the town of a pair of
high-bred steeds, with a light waggon laden with hand-bills, announcing
the candidature of Mr. James Baldwin, "Free Trade and no Church Rates."
Our feeble old member could be seen "taking his walks abroad" daily in
our midst, consulting with his old friends, Tom, Isaac, and Richard,
on the ugly look out upon passing events, bitterly complaining of
the ingratitude and desertion of some once loving friends and ardent
supporters. Canvassing in those days was undertaken by gentlemen and
tradesmen, not by "Loafers and hangers on," called canvassing agents;
and in those days some certainty could be arrived at as to the result
of the poll. Our old erratic friend, Samuel, was up early and late
using his loquacious eloquence amongst the ignorant and thoughtless
voters, whilst Church and Dissent strained every nerve to bring its
quota of "Free and Independent Voters" to the poll.

    TO THE "INDEPENDENT" ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    The Member has at last spoken--the nominee of my Lord Ward has
    opened his mouth--and his lordship's lump of Political Capital,
    Mr. JOHN BENBOW, of Mecklenburgh Square, is prepared to shew
    to all comers that a cypher in St. Stephen's may at least be
    somebody in the Borough of Dudley.

    And should we not be grateful to our "Right Honourable" for the
    legislative present he has made and is still willing to make
    us? When we consider that his Lordship, if he so willed it,
    would make the "calling and election sure" of his groom in this
    _Independent_ Borough, ought we not to be grateful that our
    degradation is no deeper? Should we not rather rejoice that our
    political Jupiter, instead of giving us a Stork, has, in the
    plenitude of his condescension, kindly thrown us a "Log?"

    And is it not delightful to contemplate the Honourable
    Gentleman's Parliamentary career?--his exemplary discharge of
    his duties--his punctual attendance in the House--the undying
    eloquence of his speeches--the constancy of his name in the
    Division List?--Indeed, so admirable is his conduct in these
    respects, that it may be said they form the exact measure of
    his political ability.

    How kindly too has our "worthy member" cooked his address
    "To the Electors of Dudley?" With what delicate tact has he
    avoided the usual term "Independent?" This would, indeed, have
    been severe, and in our present abject state the "unkindest
    cut of all:" but he goes through the farce with an amiable
    make-believe which is really refreshing to behold. "His
    political opinions are well known to us"--God help us; so
    they are. He "will not seek to re-impose a Duty on Corn." How
    magnanimous!--a return to protection is impossible, therefore
    Mr. BENBOW won't attempt it. How thankful we ought to be! Mr.
    BENBOW will support Lord Derby's administration--but where are
    the political opinions of the noble Earl?--Echo answers--where?
    They have been stifled in the atmosphere of Downing Street!
    Once "the Rupert of Debate"--bold, fiery, impetuous, but
    without a stain on his honour--he has, since the advent of his
    present official career, condescended to become the "Artful
    Dodger" of politics; carried to power as a Protectionist, and
    treacherous to the principle by which he obtained it--his
    subsequent career has betrayed a succession of miserable
    expedients. Firm, even to obstinacy, when "Stanley was the
    cry," the "great" Earl of Derby is now the veriest political
    weathercock of modern times--in fine, he has done more in the
    short space of a single session to destroy confidence in public
    men, than all the political Apostates of the present century.

    With these facts before us--can it be really true that the
    political influence of an important manufacturing town like
    Dudley, lies prostrate at the feet of a man, who appears to
    feel as much interest in the moral and social well-being of the
    district from which he derives his immense wealth, as he does
    for the natives of Timbuctoo. Is the decay of public spirit so
    manifest that not a blow can be struck for the emancipation of
    the Borough? Are there not a few good men to be found in this
    political Nazareth who, for the honour of human nature, and the
    sake of human progress, will come forward and manfully assert
    the principle of political independence? With such men I should
    be proud to combine; and though we might be only leading the
    forlorn hope of a better state of things--we should at least
    discharge our duty amid circumstances disgraceful in an age of
    feudalism, but a perpetual reproach to the institutions of the
    nineteenth century.

                                                        AN ELECTOR.

    _Market Place, Dudley, June 30, 1852._

Mr. Baldwin's subjoined address was considered somewhat "peppery hot
and strong," but "not sweet," for it lacked some of those nice turned
sentences about "Civil and Religious Liberty," and "Church and State,"
which catch the eye and please the fancy.

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    Having been solicited to offer myself as a Candidate to
    represent you in the next Parliament, I have deemed it my duty
    to comply with the request. In offering myself to your notice,
    I think it right to state my views, with which I believe many
    of you will be acquainted, as they are views which I have
    entertained and avowed for many years. I am an advocate of FREE
    TRADE to the utmost extent.

    I am an advocate for the Shortening of the Duration of
    Parliaments, Complete Suffrage, _Protected by the Ballot_,
    and an appropriation of Members in proportion to Population.
    I am for the ABOLITION OF CHURCH RATES! and entire Religious
    Freedom. I am an advocate for the greatest economy in our
    national expenditure, and strongly opposed to our interfering
    in the affairs of other Nations; and believing the Military
    Bill passed by the present Government an ill-advised and
    unnecessary measure, if elected I will vote for its repeal!

    I am an advocate of EDUCATION, and I think the best means to
    obtain it would be to remove from the Press all taxes which
    would reduce the price of Newspapers and Literature generally,
    so as to bring it within the reach of the whole of the People.

    GENTLEMEN, the above are in substance my political principles,
    which I shall be happy more fully to explain when I appear
    before you as a Candidate for your suffrages, and shall be glad
    to give, on that occasion, whatever further information you may
    require.

                             I remain, Gentlemen,
                                       Your obedient Servant,
                                                     JAMES BALDWIN.

    _Committee Room, July 6th, 1852._

The nomination day arrived in due course, and each side marshalled
its force of electors and non-electors to hear the speeches, see the
farce, and join in the banter and fun of the day. This election,
however, was different in respectability from the last miserable show
of Chartistism; because both candidates were gentlemen, and in their
individual position men of high moral character and standing, which
cannot always be reported about Dudley candidates for Parliamentary
honours.

The election came off July 8th, 1852, with a few black eyes and damaged
hats, and the result was,--

    Mr. Benbow, Conservative          400
    Mr. Baldwin, Liberal              231
                                     ----
          Majority for Mr. Benbow     169

Thus it was that Mr. Baldwin trotted back to Birmingham (rather
crest-fallen) with his paper waggon and fiery steeds, whilst Mr.
Benbow, the member (_not of the electors of Dudley_), returned to his
books and his papers in Mecklenburgh Square, London.

Died July 22nd, 1852, Mr. John Holland, Builder and Contractor, Dudley.
This melancholy death took place suddenly in a fit at a gipsy party.
Aged 58 years.

Died August 18th, 1852, Sergeant Paine, an old Peninsular soldier,
having hung himself in a fit of insanity. Aged 64 years.

September 15th, 1852. Died at Walmer Castle, that most illustrious
commander and hero, the great Duke of Wellington, of an epileptic fit,
in the 84th year of his age, universally regretted by the whole world.
The nation gave the Duke a public funeral on November 18th, 1852. His
remains were laid in St. Paul's Cathedral.

    TO THE INHABITANTS OF DUDLEY.

    Thursday next, the 18th instant, being the day appointed to
    inter the remains of the late illustrious DUKE OF WELLINGTON, I
    respectfully request that the tradesmen of Dudley participating
    in the general national feeling, will testify their respect for
    the memory of that distinguished individual by the CLOSURE OF
    THEIR SHOPS.

                                          E. L. CRESSWELL, _Mayor_.

    _Dudley, November 15th, 1852._

This Great National Burial was observed in Dudley with due solemnity,
all the shops being closed.

Died November 11th, 1852, Mr. Thomas Marsh, Fender and Fire Stove
Manufacturer at the Burnt Tree Works, greatly esteemed and respected by
both his numerous workmen and a large circle of friends. Aged 75 years.

December 20th, 1852. The Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway
was opened this day, from Wolverhampton _via_ Dudley to Evesham (41½
miles in length), on the Broad Gauge. A public dinner took place at the
hotel to celebrate the occasion.

1853. The former Church Rate heat and fever had subsided into sober
reason at this time; hence this humbled and subdued appeal to the
parish.

    TO THE RATE-PAYERS AND INHABITANTS OF DUDLEY.

    We are about to ask at your hands a Rate of Three Pence in
    the Pound, for the requisite Annual Expenses of the Parish
    and two District Churches, (St. John and St. James). As it is
    anticipated that the Government will set this question at rest
    in the next Session of Parliament, we trust that no unkind
    feeling will be entertained towards us on this, we hope, FINAL
    occasion of appealing to our friends and fellow parishioners.
    We are equally anxious to do our duty, and to preserve the
    peace of the Parish, and, whilst we solicit the assistance
    of our friends, we deprecate the hostility of those parties,
    who, if placed in our position, would find themselves legally
    compelled to adopt the same line of conduct.

                                  J. C. BROWNE, D.C.L., Vicar.
                                  SAMUEL PRICE,  }
                                  DANIEL JORDAN, } Churchwardens.

    _May 10th, 1853._

March, 1853. The Small Tenements' Act of the 13th and 14th Vict. had
for some time received serious consideration at the hands of some of
the most thoughtful ratepayers as to its adoption in this Parish. A
public meeting was held recommending the immediate adoption of the Act,
when it was shewn that £2,500 per annum would be saved to the poor
rates by such a procedure. The poor rates for Dudley parish during the
_last three years_ had been four shillings in the pound, for 2,347
houses _were excused payment_, and, as the general trade of the town
and district was in a shockingly depressed state, _we had 1,536 houses
void_. Under this Small Tenements' Act, all houses rated to the poor
and highway rates (and rated at under £6 per annum) were to be paid for
by the owners not occupiers as hitherto. The owners of small tenements
had previously held properties which paid no rates at all, inasmuch as
their tenants were too poor to pay them, and got put themselves upon
the excused list; but it was found out that _the rapacious owners_
reaped the benefit, by compelling the poor tenants to pay them a bigger
rent, because they were excused paying rates. When the large employers
of labour became incensed at this unfair taking the burden from off
the backs of landlords and placing it upon them, or anyone else who
grumbled and paid, it soon became a settled opinion that the Act must
be adopted, so that we had a _three days' poll_ of the whole parish on
March 22nd, 23rd, and 24th, held in the Vestry at St. Thomas' Parish
Church, to determine this vexed contest.

    What is the Meaning of the Small Tenements' Rating Act?

    A FEW FACTS--FOR POOR WORKING MEN!

    A Bill has been circulated by Gentlemen opposed to the
    introduction of the Small Tenements' Rating Act, _many_ of them
    Owners of Small Houses, all of them being desirous of being
    considered "_The Poor Man's Friend!_"

    In what does their Friendship consist?

    They say Small Houses are not profitable;--they assert that
    they never get half their Rents. Is this true--or is this
    _Libel_ upon our honest character the best proof they could
    offer that they are the Poor Man's _Foes_?

    When sickness or distress has overtaken you, or trade been bad
    and employment scarce, so that you have been prevented meeting
    their demands for Rent, which in most cases yields them, from
    10 to 15 per cent. upon their outlay--how do they show their
    _Friendship_ towards you? A small voice says, by sending the
    _Bailiffs_,--meaning, no doubt, the "Poor Man's Friends."

    Again, ask them to improve--nay, even to limewash your
    ill-ventilated and miserable dwellings,--like the "Poor Man's
    Friends" in general, they reply, _they can't afford it_.

    Ask them for a supply of that all-important blessing, "good
    water" and like "Poor Man's Friends," though you tell them it
    will not cost them _a penny_ a week, they feelingly reply, "Oh,
    yes! you can have it, by allowing me to put _twopence_ a week
    on your Rent!"

    They are about to _feel for you_ in reference to the
    introduction of the Small Tenements' Act. The present law
    _compels_ the Overseers to summons you before the Magistrates
    for the non-payment of every rate granted, consequently putting
    you to serious trouble and expense.

    The New Tenements' Act _compels them, instead of you_, to pay
    the Poor and Highway Rates, and allows them to compound for
    _half_ the amount rated; thus again showing their _friendship_
    for you, knowing that the adoption of the Small Tenements'
    Rating Act will injure their interests, but benefit yours.

    But turn a deaf ear to their _Hypocritical Friendship_, for,
    like Shylock, they will have their "pound of flesh."

    A few words to the _Operative Classes_, that are now, and,
    probably have been for years past, Ratepayers. You have, with
    that forethought which characterises the operative classes
    of this country, succeeded in making provision for sickness,
    old age, and death, by joining Provident Societies, and other
    Institutions of which this country abounds; consequently, you
    never expect to partake of that fund which the present law
    makes you pay to, in the shape of Poor Rates.

    Then, I ask, is there not something required, when thousands of
    the labouring classes of your parish, equally as able were they
    only prudent and careful, who, when out of employment or sick,
    fall back upon a fund that the present unequal law compels you
    to subscribe to.

    No appeal is necessary to make the fact apparent to you, that
    the introduction of the Small Tenements' Rating Act will tend
    to operate to the benefit of the Rate-paying interest of this
    over-taxed Parish.

    Again, there is nothing visionary in the matter, it is plain
    and simple; evidences of its true benefits are visible right
    and left--Rowley and Sedgley.

    Therefore, be prepared to attend the Poll at the Vestry of St.
    Thomas's Church, on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday next; and
    honestly, fearlessly, and independently register your votes in
    favour of the Small Tenements' Act, that must materially tend
    to benefit the _poor_ and _industrious_ of the Parish of Dudley.

                                                       A RATEPAYER,

    One who has always cared for the Industrious Working Man!

This parish contest was not fought without much acrimony and
ill-feeling, for the owners of small houses were not numerous in
residence in the town, and those residing away took no interest in the
matter. Result of the three days' poll:--

    For the Adoption of the Act      559
    Against    "         "           276
                                    ----
    Majority for                     283

In concert with the action taken upon the introduction of the Small
Tenements' Act, it was deemed expedient that a new and more liberal
Board of Guardians should be selected to manage our Poor Law business.
Hitherto very little interest had been taken by the ratepayers in the
administration of the Poor Laws in Dudley; and so long as Mr. Thomas
Griffiths, a retired shoemaker and chairman of the board, chose to rule
the too obsequious guardians with an ignorance of the real meaning
and intention of the Poor Law Acts, it became evident that no real
improvement or amelioration was likely to take place unless a new board
of guardians was elected. It was also shewn that this gentleman was
in the receipt of £30 a year as assistant overseer, a scandal which
provoked much indignation at the time, and caused his ejection from the
board at the next election.

As politics did not happily in those days enter into our parochial
contests, change of public opinion resulted in change of our rulers,
and the following candidates were presented for election:--

    ELECTION OF GUARDIANS.

    TO THE RATEPAYERS OF THE PARISH OF DUDLEY.

    FELLOW RATEPAYERS,

    In a few days you will be called upon for your vote in the
    appointment of a new Board of Guardians for the next year, and
    it is of the utmost importance that useful and efficient men
    should be chosen.

    It is an undeniable fact that the Poor Rates of Dudley are
    considerably higher than in any other neighbouring Parish,
    and more than double what they are in Wolverhampton; and this
    renders it absolutely necessary that you should choose for your
    Guardians men who are qualified and determined to carry out the
    principles of _economy and retrenchment_ with a due regard for
    the _comfort and welfare of the poor_.

    Vote for the following Candidates, and thereby clear the way
    for a Reduction of Expenditure:--

    Mr. Thomas Wood
     "  Thomas Lester
     "  Elliott Hollier
     "  G. Thomson, (Corngreaves)
     "  James Evers Swindell
    Mr. John Finch
     "  Josiah Collins Cook
     "  C. F. G. Clark
     "  S. H. Blackwell
     "  Alexander B. Cochrane

                                                    A RATEPAYER.

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE RATEPAYERS OF THE PARISH
    OF DUDLEY.

    FELLOW RATEPAYERS,

    Two Handbills have been circulated through the Parish by Order
    of the Anti-Small Tenement Rating Committee, of a nature which
    the Committee for the _adoption_ of the Act consider most
    disgraceful, and such as no honorable persons would have given
    the sanction of their name to.

    Both these Handbills charge those who have proposed the
    adoption of this Act with a desire to rob the Poor, by throwing
    their fair share of the Poor Rate upon those less able to bear
    it than themselves; and in one of these Handbills a "_Curse_ is
    denounced upon those who rob the Poor to enrich themselves."

    Now, on behalf of themselves and those who are acting with
    them, the Committee for the adoption of the Act distinctly
    allege this _charge_ to be _false_; _and they as distinctly
    allege that those who have made it, have done so knowing it to
    be false_.

    Their reasons for wishing the adoption of this Act are the
    following:--

    1.--They regard the Poor Law itself as one of the great
    bulwarks upon which the social condition of England rests,--and
    as one of the principal causes why England stands so
    pre-eminently high in general Freedom and Liberty amongst the
    Nations of the World.

    2.--So far, therefore, from doing anything which would tend in
    the slightest degree to lessen the almost reverential feeling
    which the Committee consider that all should entertain for this
    most important means of provision for those who are unable to
    support themselves, they would rather widen, by every means in
    their power, the basis upon which this provision rests.

    3.--While to effect this, they desire _all Property_ to be
    liable to its fair amount of contribution to this great and
    important fund, at the same time they also desire to give
    relief _legally_ to _that portion_ of society who are really
    _unable_ to contribute thereto, without subjecting them to the
    harassing and vexatious annoyance of _Summonses_. This can
    _only_ be done by the introduction of THE SMALL TENEMENTS' ACT.

    4.--Under the present system, out of 6,106 assessments, only
    2,223 pay rates; under the Small Tenements' Act _all Property_
    will pay, but the lowest class of houses need only be rated in
    the proportion of ONE-HALF the amount at which they are now
    rated.

    5.--Under the present system the poor occupier who is unable
    to pay, can only be excused after having been summoned and
    appearing before the Magistrates, at a _loss of time_ which
    generally more than equals the amount _excused_. This system of
    _summonsing_ must become more and more oppressive to the _poor
    ratepayer_, and more and more expensive to the Parish, under
    every rate, while the present system continues.

    6.--Under the Small Tenements' Rating Act, the poor ratepayer
    will be saved all this trouble and expense. _No summonses will
    be required._

    7.--Under the Small Tenements' Rating Act, the poor ratepayer
    will _always_, and under every circumstance, be relieved to an
    extent not exceeding ONE-HALF of the amount at which he is now
    rated, and that without any loss of time or annoyance whatever:
    and, this will be the case to the amount named, even where the
    _Landlord_ charges upon the weekly rental the entire amount of
    the rate which _he_ will have to pay.

    8.--Under the Small Tenements' Rating Act, a better class of
    houses than that now existing amongst us will be introduced;
    for it will be only by attention to the comforts of the Tenant
    that the Landlord will be able to obtain any additional weekly
    charge, to repay the amount of the rate which he will have to
    pay. This will be one of the results of the adoption of this
    Act, which the Committee regard as most important, and as
    bearing materially upon the comfort of the working classes.

    9.--Under the Small Tenements' Rating Act, no encouragement
    will be held out to the _idle and dissolute_, at the expense of
    the _industrious and sober_ workmen, which is the case under
    the present system, undermining that independent, truthful, and
    manly character which the Englishman should ever be most proud
    of, since it is that _one_ of his national characteristics
    which has given to him the proud position which he now holds.

    These, Fellow Ratepayers, are the reasons which induced the
    Committee to propose the adoption of this Act, and which lead
    them still to believe that while it will be to the advantage
    of _all_ classes, it will be of the greatest advantage to the
    _poorer classes_. You _ought_ to decide for yourselves as
    to the claim which these reasons for its adoption have upon
    your judgment and support, from their own intrinsic merit or
    demerit alone, and not from _personal_ considerations having
    reference to the character of those who support or oppose the
    introduction of this Act.

    If, however, the Parish is to be insulted by such disgraceful
    Handbills as those to which allusion has been made, the
    Committee will not shrink from the challenge thus given, and
    they call upon you to declare by your Vote, whether you place
    the greatest confidence in the integrity of purpose, the
    disinterestedness of motive, and the honour of the _Gentlemen_
    whose names were attached to the Requisition to the Ratepayers,
    advising the adoption of the Act--or in _those_ who thus
    endeavour to raise the bitterest feelings of animosity and
    hatred, by assertions, as disgraceful in their object as they
    are false in fact.

    The Committee have no other motive to influence them than an
    earnest and faithful desire, firstly, that the Poor Rates
    shall be collected upon a principle of justice, including all
    _Property_, but relieving to a great extent that property which
    is of the lowest class. Secondly, that the administration
    of the Poor Rates, both in their collection and subsequent
    distribution, shall be governed by that true English feeling
    which, whilst it willingly alleviates the suffering of the
    destitute, yet honours most of all the self-supporting workman
    who disdains the relief sought for by the idle and improvident:
    and lastly, that that state of things shall be put a stop to in
    this Parish, which has brought upon it the fearful notoriety
    of being described by the Board of Health as "_the Town in
    which the work of human extermination is carried on more
    successfully than in any other part of England and Wales_."

    They do not hesitate in expressing the conviction that the
    adoption of this Act must lead to the erection of a better
    class of houses, to greater attention on the part of the
    _Landlord_ to the comfort of the _Tenant_, and to a higher
    tone of character in the people; and they are confident that
    when its operation has been fairly tested, the best thanks of
    the Parishioners will be awarded to them for the course they
    have now adopted, and which they are resolved to carry out, in
    defiance of the prejudices and narrow views of their opponents.

                     Signed on behalf of
                  THE SMALL TENEMENTS' RATING COMMITTEE,
                                             S. H. BLACKWELL,
                                                          Chairman.

    _Dudley, March 23rd, 1853_.

April 5th, 1853. This unprecedented severe contest for the Election of
Guardians took place with the following results--

Elected. Mr. Isaac Badger, Messrs. E. Hollier, S. H. Blackwell, Thos.
Lester, A. B. Cochrane, Thos. Wood, G. B. Walker, Jos. Guest, J. E.
Swindell, J. C. Cook.

May 9th, 1853. A very heavy fall of snow this morning, with intense
cold weather, which did a vast amount of harm to vegetation and health
in the land.

Died, May 11, 1853, Mr. Chas. F. Hewitt, Wine and Spirit Merchant, a
gentleman who took a strong lead in politics on the Tory side, and was
universally respected. Aged 50 years.

May 14th, 1853. An awful loss of life was occasioned this day at one
o'clock by the explosion of the engine boiler belonging to Mr. Davis,
Fender Maker, in the Minories. Four men were taken out of the ruins
dead, many more were severely maimed and wounded, and the unfortunate
Engineer was blown above one hundred yards into the air, and fell
through the roof of a house near, smashed to pieces. At the Coroner's
inquest much blame was attached to the owner, "for working at too high
a pressure an old boiler, acknowledged to be in bad repair."

Whitsuntide. Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, the Dudley Lime Stone
Caverns were again lighted up with gas, proving another pecuniary
success.

Government School of Art, 1853. There was no district in the United
Kingdom at this period which needed the establishment of a branch of
the Government School of Art more than Dudley. Surrounded as we are
by almost every kind of mechanical art, it had long been felt that
a technical training in drawing, designing, and the general art and
engineering culture, was a desideratum much needed. The town and
district were greatly indebted at this time to the efforts made to
secure these advantages by Dr. Browne, Vicar, S. H. Blackwell, Esq., A.
B. Cochrane, Esq., Edwin Dudley, Esq., and others, who speedily raised
a handsome subscription to enlarge the King Street National School
Rooms, and established a most valuable and flourishing Government
School of Art. Long may this excellent institution maintain its high
reputation and prestige. The first appointments were, Lord Ward,
the President, Dr. Browne, Vice-President and Chairman, Samuel H.
Blackwell, Esq., Hon. Secretary, First Master Mr. Robert Cochrane.

The Sanitary Board having been imposed upon this Borough, _nolens
volens_, necessitating the extinction and oblivion of the Old Town
Commissioners, who had become quite incompetent to deal with the
shamefully unsanitary condition of the Borough, caused quite a
commotion and flutter amongst all classes of the inhabitants. _The
scare_, alleging the enormous increase of the Rates in the Parish,
which would be the result of this dreaded movement, induced many people
to use their utmost influence to endeavour to secure such a Board as
would make its stringent and sweeping Clauses harmless and inoperative.
Men of property in the Parish looked with alarm upon any interference
with the rights of property; although the recent enquiry before Mr.
Lee had incontestably shewn the immediate necessity for a Sanitary
Reform in the Parish. That startling enquiry and inspection of the
Parish had taken place in August, 1851, yet the application of the Act
had been staved off till now, June, 1853; and had not some of the most
intelligent and independent ratepayers insisted upon its introduction
in the Parish, the disgraceful, filthy, and insanitary state of things
would have continued to an indefinite period.

The first thing to be done was the election of a Local Board of Health,
and to the common sense of the ratepayers and the credit of the Town,
be it recorded, that the _first elected Board_ was composed of fifteen
of the most clear-headed, independent, and true friends of the Parish
that could possibly have been selected. As a matter of course, this
novel and important Election could not be allowed to take place,
without the usual exhibition of the "Curiosities of Dudley."


DUDLEY LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH.

    _To the Ratepayers of the Parish of Dudley._

    FELLOW RATEPAYERS,

    The Public Health Act being extended to the Parish of Dudley,
    you will in a few days be called upon to elect proper persons,
    as a Local Board, to carry out its provisions.

    As it will necessarily entail a very heavy expense on the
    Parish, it is of the utmost importance that those persons
    should be elected who will faithfully discharge the weighty
    duties of their office, with a due regard to ECONOMY IN THE
    EXPENDITURE OF THE PARISH FUNDS.

    _Vote_, then, for the following Fifteen Candidates (nominated
    by Messrs. Blackwell and Cochrane), who, if elected, will
    carefully guard the interests of the Ratepayers, and carry out
    the provisions of the Act at the least possible expense:--

    Mr. Samuel Holden Blackwell
     "  Elliott Hollier
     "  Thomas Wood
     "  Josiah Collins Cook
     "  Alexander Brodie Cochrane, Jun.
    The Rev. Dr. Browne
    Mr. Thomas Lester
     "  Alexander Patterson
    Mr. John Finch
     "  William Chrysostom Wood
     "  William Timmins
     "  Richard Smith
     "  Edward Dixon, the younger
     "  James Evers Swindell
     "  George Thomson (Corngreaves)

                                                   A RATEPAYER.

    _Dudley, 13th June, 1853._

    N.B.--_As_ ONLY _Fifteen persons can be elected, any Ratepayer
    Voting for more than that number_ WILL LOSE THE WHOLE OF HIS
    VOTES. The Voting Paper must be carefully preserved by the
    Voter, as no second Paper will be given. When filled up it must
    be kept ready for delivery to the Distributor, who will call
    for it on TUESDAY, the 21st Instant, and who is the only person
    authorised to receive the same.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH.

    TO THE RATE-PAYERS OF DUDLEY.

    FELLOW RATEPAYERS,

    The most important Suffrage since the passing of the Reform
    Bill has lately been conferred upon the Rate-Payers of Dudley,
    by the introduction of the "HEALTH OF TOWNS ACT;" _and you are
    now called upon to Elect Fifteen fit and proper Persons_ to
    carry out the provisions of this salutary Measure. This day you
    have had 40 Names submitted to your notice, as parties wishful
    to have the management of the affairs of this Parish confided
    to them, and _it now behoves you carefully to consider who and
    what class of masters shall rule over you_! A cursory glance
    at the List of Names nominated for your approval, clearly
    shows that some are incapacitated from age and non-residence
    to attend to your interests, and others want the _essential
    qualities_ of a _practical knowledge of the working of the Act_.

    Recollect, fellow Rate-payers, that £25,000 may shortly be at
    the disposal of your elected Rulers, and this sum, too, will
    have to come out of the pockets of the Rate-payers!

    Improvements we want, but we must be careful _to whom, we trust
    these large powers_ to make those Amendments. Let us then elect
    a Class of Commissioners whom we know to be of _honest purpose,
    independence of character, quickness of perception, mindful
    of the judicious improvements of the Town, as well as of the
    Pockets of the Rate-payers_, and possess a _conscientious
    determination to attend personally to the duties of this
    important office_.

    Beware, then, of committing yourselves to party
    purposes,--political tendencies--family cliques--or honorary
    and never attending members. Bear in mind that it is a very
    common practice to escape from one set of inefficient Rulers
    into the arms of another, often professedly more liberal but
    usually more tyrannical and inadequate to the duties they
    profess to fulfil,--past experience, in Dudley, teaches the
    necessity of this caution to the Ratepayers. Have practical,
    honest, business-like men, who will be fearless and judicious
    in the discharge of their duties, and _spend your money as
    carefully as though it were their own_. Recollect, that men
    who have something tangible to lose are the most likely to be
    careful about the spending of that fund which they will have
    heavily to pay to.

    On Tuesday next you will be called upon for the Voting Paper
    left at your houses, _write your Initials at once opposite
    the following names on the Voting Paper_, and you will
    thereby elect such a Board of intelligent and responsible
    Commissioners, as will improve the Town and save your Pockets.

    VOTE FOR

    Mr. S. H. Blackwell, Iron-Master, High Street.
     "  Elliott Hollier, Chemist, High Street.
     "  J. C. Cook, Ironmonger, High Street.
     "  Thomas Wood, Spirit Merchant, High Street.
     "  A. B. Cochrane, Iron-Master, Woodside.
    Rev. Dr. Browne, Vicar, Vicarage.
    Mr. Thomas Lester, Spirit Merchant, Queen Street.
     "  C. F. G. Clark, Druggist, Queen Street.
     "  Edward Terry, Jun., Tea Dealer, Market Place.
     "  Richard Smith, Agent, Priory.
     "  James Evers Swindell, Iron-Master, Woodside.
     "  William Haden, Iron-Master, Dixon's Green.
     "  Edward Grainger, Draper, Market Place.
     "  John Renaud, Glass-Master, Tower Street.
     "  W. C. Wood, Grocer, High Street.

                                      A FREEHOLDER AND RATEPAYER.

    _Dudley, June 16th, 1853._

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH.

    _To the Ratepayers of Dudley._

    GENTLEMEN,

    The Clerk of the Quackery establishment, with his usual
    "_quickness of perception, honest purpose, and independence
    of character_," has thought proper at this particular season
    to address you on "the _essential qualities_ and _practical
    knowledge_ of the Public Health!" IT NOW BEHOVES YOU CAREFULLY
    TO CONSIDER "what class of Quackery you ought to support, so
    that YOUR MONEY MAY BE SPENT AS CAREFULLY AS IF IT WERE YOUR
    OWN." Recollect, THAT MEN WHO HAVE SOMETHING TANGIBLE TO LOSE
    are the men most likely to be careful of the same.

    £25,000 will have to come out of your pockets shortly (so says
    the Clerk), for "the _judicious improvements of the Town_," and
    fifteen _conscientious and determined_ Commissioners must be
    chosen.

    Beware, then, of self-interested partisans,--political
    turncoats, and troublesome quacks--"past experience in Dudley
    teaches the necessity of this caution to Ratepayers."

        "O that estates, degrees, and offices,
        Were not derived corruptly;--that clear honour
        Were purchased by the merit of the wearer."

                                                       A LOOKER-ON.

    _Dudley, 16th June 1853._

The Unitarian Chapel, 1853. This Chapel is situated in a retired
arched gateway, in Wolverhampton Street, adjoining the old Post
Office. It was originally built in 1701; but that structure unhappily
shared the fate of many other Nonconformist Chapels, destroyed under
Dr. Sacheverell's fanaticism against Dissenters, for in 1714, it was
burnt down by a lawless mob, but was shortly afterwards re-built by a
Parliamentary Grant of £500. This comfortable and commodious chapel
has been much improved and ornamented since that period, and it now
seats 450 worshippers. There is also an excellent school attached
to this denomination, known as Daniel Parsons' Foundation School,
having 150 children therein, under the able tuition of Mr. and Mrs.
Lewis. The life of Dr. Sacheverell reveals the impression that he was
a learned madman, whose craze was to preach "the Church in Danger,"
and that dissent ought to be stamped out by fire and persecution. He
was appointed preacher at St. Saviour's Church, Southwark, London, in
1705, where he preached his violent crusade against Dissenters, which
commanded much attention at the time. For his intemperate language,
both in and out of the pulpit, he got impeached by the House of
Commons, and was suspended preaching for three years, but through some
powerful Court influence, he eventually managed to get appointed to the
valuable Rectory of St. Andrew's, Holborn, London, where he died in
1724. During this period of our history, the Rev. John Palmer, B.A.,
of Trinity College, Dublin, was appointed on February 18th, 1833,
the minister of this highly intelligent and wealthy congregation.
Mr. Palmer was a gentleman of great mental power, and was a good
and pleasant preacher, and during the nineteen years he held this
appointment he secured the esteem and regard of all good citizens. Mr.
Palmer, like many of his countrymen, was a very energetic politician,
and his often expressed Radical opinions at times shocked the nervous
sensibility of his friends. However, after 19 years of great zeal and
energy in the sacred cause he had undertaken to uphold and propagate,
we find him suddenly transformed into an officer of the Crown, for
in 1853, he was appointed Crown Treasurer in the Island of Dominica,
whither he departed, being succeeded after a time by the Rev. Richard
Shaen, M.A., who only remained a few years as minister. Some of our
"oldest inhabitants" are in possession of relics and curiosities of the
old burnt chapel, in the form of oaken stands and curious boxes made
from the ponderous oak timbers, which were not entirely consumed in the
conflagration of the chapel. The Rev. Mr. Gibson is the present genial
and courteous minister. The Election for the _first Local Board of
Health_ took place on June 23rd, 1853, with the following results:

    DUDLEY LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH.--The election of this board was
    brought to a close on Thursday last, and the result is as
    follows, the first fifteen being elected:--Dr. Browne, 1,227;
    S. H. Blackwell, 1,161; E. Hollier, 1,135; A. B. Cochrane,
    981; R. Smith, 974; T. Lester, 951; J. C. Cook, 887; J. E.
    Swindell, 872; I. Badger, 870; W. O. Wood, 848; E. Dixon, 844;
    A. Patterson, 841; G. Thompson, of Corngreaves, 812; T. Badger,
    jun., 801; J. G. Walker, 793; J. Finch, 754; E. Feny, 725; W.
    Haden, 676; T. Griffiths, 671; W. Timmins, 633; W. Harrison,
    625; E. F. Smith, 615; E. L. Cresswell, 586; J. Renaud, 504;
    C. Cartwright, 495; J. Marsh, 491; J. Bagott, 485; T. Danks,
    471; J. Owen, 466; T. Fereday, 374; J. Guest, 246; W. Harper,
    121; D. Lloyd, 117; C. F. G. Clark, 113; W. Sheppard, 105. From
    an inspection of the list elected, it will be seen that, with
    few exceptions, the ratepayers have chosen the board from the
    most active and intelligent members of the Board of Guardians
    and the late Board of Highways and Town Act Commissioners, and
    we hope to see the "Health Act" now carried out in Dudley in
    its integrity, with advantage to the general social condition
    of the inhabitants, and with due regard to the pockets of the
    ratepayers.--_Birmingham Journal._

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH.

    TO THE INHABITANTS OF THE PARISH OF DUDLEY.

    The Board, in entering upon the important duties entrusted
    to them by the Ratepayers, have earnestly to request the
    co-operation of their fellow parishioners in carrying out
    the objects for which they have been appointed. They invite
    suggestions, and solicit information, and their Officers will
    give immediate attention to any subject directly or indirectly
    connected with the Public Health.

    OFFICERS.

    MR. WILLIAM HENRY BROOKE, Solicitor, Wolverhampton Street,
    has been appointed Clerk to the Board, and all general
    communications should be addressed to him.

    MR. JOHN BATEMAN, Wolverhampton Street, has been appointed
    Surveyor,--and

    MR. JOHN CASTREE, Railway Parcels Office, Wolverhampton Street,
    Inspector of Nuisances.

    All communications respecting these two departments of the
    Board should be addressed to these Officers respectively.

    THE BOARD take this opportunity of announcing that in
    enforcing the large and searching powers and directions of the
    PUBLIC HEALTH ACT, they shall be always desirous of avoiding,
    as much as possible, any compulsory interference with the
    management of property, and any unnecessary intrusion on the
    privacy of the parishioners. But that extensive inspection
    and inquiry will be unavoidable, since the state of drainage
    of every house must be ascertained, in order to be rendered
    perfect. Interference, however, and compulsion will, in
    every case, be less in proportion as the parishioners shall
    themselves kindly co-operate in bringing about that better
    state of sanitary arrangement which the Act requires, and which
    is so essential to the public health and welfare.

                   By Order of
                       The Local Board of Health, Dudley;
                                   W. H. BROOKE,
                                         _Clerk to the said Board._

    _Dudley, August 2nd, 1853._

The following appeal to the Churchmen in this town was attended with
success--

    DUDLEY, JULY 8th, 1853.

    SIR,

    The adjourned Meeting of the Inhabitants of this Parish to
    take into consideration the best means to be adopted for
    the liquidation of the Salaries of the Officers, and other
    debts, (amounting according to the accounts presented at the
    last meeting to nearly £800), due in respect of the Churches
    of St. Thomas, St. John, and St. James, will be held in the
    Vestry of St. Thomas's Church, on Wednesday morning next,
    the 13th instant, at Eleven o'clock, when your attendance is
    respectfully and particularly requested.

                             Signed,
                                       T. FEREDAY,} Ex-Wardens
                                                  }   of
                                       E. HOLLIER,} St. Thomas's.

Died, November 3rd, 1853, Mr. Geo. Bailey, Senior, formerly a Grocer
and Provision Dealer, in New Street. Aged 79 years.

Died November 18th, 1853, Mrs. Henry Parkes, of Wolverhampton Street.
Aged 44 years.

December 26th, 1853. A very heavy fall of snow took place this day, and
continued at intervals until January 11th, 1854. All train and road
traffic was suspended, and the snow drifts were 16 feet deep in many
localities. The privations and sufferings amongst the poor were very
great.

1854. Died January 20th, Mr. John Rann, of Hall Street, Printer. This
wonderful and active old man was known to be the oldest man in Dudley,
having attained the age of 98 years.

January, 1854. A new Organ was erected in St. Edmund's Church, at a
cost of £360. This sum was raised by public subscription, and the
highly-esteemed Rev. Jno. Davies, M.A., was the Incumbent of the Church
at the time.

January, 1854. The Metropolitan Association for the Improvement of the
Dwellings of the Poor, was adopted in Dudley with much _eclat_. Dr.
Browne was appointed Chairman, and Mr. Wm. Barns, Solicitor, Secretary,
with a powerful and influential Committee. February 1st, 1854. This
day a deputation of Church attendants at St. Edmund's Church presented
the Rev. A. Kerr Thompson, M.A., Master of the Dudley Grammar School,
with an address from the congregation thanking him for his services as
Evening Lecturer in that Church.


SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE ELECTION!!!

February 11th, 1854. A very sharp contest took place this day for South
Staffordshire, betwixt Lord Paget and Lord Ingestre, which ended in
a majority of 1568 votes for Lord Paget, the Liberal Candidate. Lord
Ward, a Conservative by induction, who can command this constituency,
by some unexplained reason, threw the whole of his weight and influence
into the hands of the Liberals, hence the result of the election. We
had again another pitiable exhibition of territorial influence in
Dudley and elsewhere, ordering to "do as you are bid," leading the
liege vassals to do battle in a cause which it was too well-known that
all utterly abhorred.

    LOOK ON THIS PICTURE.

    Once upon a time there lived in Staffordshire a noble Lord.
    Among other possessions he held the lordship of a Manor close
    by his residence; it was, however, but a barren dignity, as the
    Manor was all common and waste land. However, he got an act of
    Parliament for enclosing the waste lands, and inserted a clause
    _reserving all Mines to himself_, should there prove to be any.
    Well, in time this Manor became built over. Many working men
    _out of their savings_ put up houses for themselves, and the
    place became very populous. The old lord died; and the next
    Lord, who was very young, thought Staffordshire a very nasty
    place, so he went to Italy and foreign parts to enjoy himself,
    and there revelled in luxury and extravagance. Fortunately for
    this Lord, his Agents found Mines under nearly all that Manor,
    and as their master's wants were great, they opened all the
    Mines they could. _But the Working Men, who had built their
    houses upon the surface?_ Row after row of houses split and
    cracked, and became ruins; some houses sank into the earth--it
    seemed as if some convulsion of nature had passed over this
    manor. Many poor workmen were ruined, for they had borrowed
    money to assist them in building their houses, and when the
    mortgagees found their value was destroyed, they sold them for
    what they would fetch. Others went to his Lord's Agents and
    begged of them to leave ribs and pillars under their houses,
    _but they would not_. Some begged the Agents to patch their
    houses up--but no: _not a day's labour! not a barrow of mortar!
    not a brick! not a tile!_ would this Lord's Agents give them!
    And the Miners kept enlarging their circle like an encroaching
    sea, and those, whose dwellings were not ruined, were kept in
    daily dread of their little property, around which clung so
    many pleasant memories; where, after years of toil and care,
    they had fondly hoped for tranquillity in old age!

    Well, this Lord with all his wealth was unhappy, _he coveted
    an Earldom_! The Election came on, and "Which Candidate,"
    said the noble Lord to himself, "shall I support? Why, I'll
    support the one who will support Ministers, and if they win,
    why, my Earldom is safe!" So this Lord had an interview with
    LORD ABERDEEN, and _he turned his Coat_ (for before he was a
    Conservative), and his Agent went round and _commanded_ all his
    Tenants _to turn their Coats_. "But," said the Tenants, "we
    surely cannot support Ministers, FOR THEY HAVE TRUCKLED TO THE
    RUSSIAN INFLUENCE, and for the first time in History, _England
    has shown the White Feather_!" But the Agent said--"Leave the
    Country to the noble Lord. Has he not the largest stake in it."

    LOOK ON THIS PICTURE!

    _Well, in Staffordshire there lived another Lord, not very
    rich. He was much younger than the Lord we have been speaking
    of. When he left school he went into the Army. Being a
    thoughtful lad he sat down, as it were, by the roadside of
    life: before him two paths branched off--the path of Luxury and
    the path of Duty. And Pleasure said to him--"Enjoy yourself."
    But Duty replied--"Remember your poor Fellow Countrymen. Are
    not you one of their natural guardians? What were rank and
    wealth given you for?" Well, this young Lord listened to the
    call of Duty, and he vowed that his life should be useful._

    So he began by devoting the time he could spare from his
    military duties to visiting the poor and wretched. By way of
    a start he got together a subscription of _Three Thousand
    Pounds_, and fitted up a large house in London, in which poor,
    houseless creatures, of whom there are thousands in London,
    who sleep in the streets and cellars, or whatever shelter
    they can find, might have a comfortable and clean bed, at a
    very trifling charge. He was now about _twenty years of age_.
    His occupation had become a real pleasure. He travelled much
    about England, and went through our large towns, and over
    factories, and got together all _the facts_ he could about
    the state of the Working Classes. Whilst thus employed, the
    Engineers on the railways struck. The Directors wanted to
    increase their Dividends, and took away from the Engineers some
    privileges they had always enjoyed; but the Engineers would not
    stand this, so they stood out. Unskilful Engineers were set
    on--accidents happened; there was great confusion and alarm.
    Well, the Engineers looked round for an Arbitrator, and they
    chose one. Whom? THIS YOUNG LORD; for they had heard of him and
    his kind heart.

    Soon after the death of the Duke of Wellington, a large sum
    of money was subscribed to erect a lifeless monument to his
    Grace. But this young Lord Ingestre proposed that the money
    should be spent in securing to the poor of London free Water,
    and their share of the light of Heaven, the common property
    of us all--and other Sanitary improvements, necessary to the
    health and strength of the working man. It was for this that
    the "Times Newspaper" fell foul of the young Lord, and called
    him a silly young medler. But many simple folks, and especially
    hardy sons of toil, are still of the young Lord's opinion. I
    think that the Great Duke would have wished so too, could he
    have spoken from the tomb. But the "_Times_" owed Lord Ingestre
    a "grudge" for supporting the Engineers against the Railway
    Directors, and the opportunity was taken of venting their
    spleen.

    But our young Lord had too much pluck to be set down by a
    Newspaper, so he just went on as before, and tried to get at
    the truth respecting the Working Classes, and the way to make
    them better off. After seeing things in England, he went to
    America on the same errand. Whilst there his Friends sent
    for him to return to England, to contest the representation
    of his native County against the Candidate brought forward
    by the Lord above spoken of, and other Lords and great folks
    like him. Well, when they heard he was coming, they told the
    poor folks all sorts of lies about the young Lord: that he was
    for a little loaf--that he was all for the rich--that he was
    against Free Trade; but, fortunately, the young Lord had time
    to go through the County, to see and speak to the people. And
    he asked them--"_Is it likely that I, who have all my life been
    working for the Labouring Man, to secure him and his children
    comforts and blessings_, that I am so foolish and wicked as to
    take away from him his bread?" And the people looked round upon
    the houses in ruins, and it seemed to them strange that a noble
    Lord should have ever thought, except at an election, of the
    Working Man's good.

    MEN OF STAFFORDSHIRE! ARE YOU ENGLISHMEN? If so, why do
    you permit yourselves to be dictated to? Your FATHERS were
    Free MEN! Were you animated by my spirit (and I am a plain
    Englishman like yourselves), you would never hear of a Lord
    _commanding_ the Votes of a _free_ people.

    The law says, if a poor man takes a shilling, or accepts of a
    glass of beer at an election, IT IS AN HEINOUS CRIME.

    The law says if a noble Lord, though to secure an Earldom for
    himself, _commands_ his Tenants to vote his way, IT IS NO CRIME
    AT ALL.

    _February 1st, 1854._

       *       *       *       *       *

    SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE ELECTION.

    TO RICHARD SMITH, ESQ. (MINERAL AGENT TO LORD WARD),
    PRIORY, DUDLEY.

                                    _Tipton, February, 2nd, 1854._

    Sir,

    You will, I trust, pardon me, for presuming to address you upon
    a matter touching the present contested Election for South
    Staffordshire. I refer to the _public_ part which you are
    taking with regard to it. You cannot, I think, complain that
    your proceedings should be criticised, or that they should be
    brought to the bar of public opinion.

    It is due to the Conservative party which you have
    abandoned--and to those servants and others who are under your
    influence and control--that you should publicly state the
    reasons why you have changed your _colours_.

    It is due to the first, because they believe that the change
    involves political _apostasy_, and an undue regard to political
    _morality_. An opportunity is now afforded you of justifying
    the change if you can. You may give us a new chapter on
    _Ethics_, headed thus:--"a change of principles proved to be
    morally wrong, but politically right."

    It is due to those who are under your influence and control.
    You may be enabled to give a reason for them, inasmuch as they
    cannot give one for themselves.

    But you, doubtless, had your instructions from a certain Lord,
    who it is said, has subscribed a large sum to the fund to
    defray the expenses of the Radical Candidate.

    Were your instructions _imperative_? If so, did you remonstrate
    with his Lordship? Did you not urge _one plea_ in behalf of
    yourself, and another for those who _must_ act upon your
    bidding. Had you not sufficient independence to tell the Lord
    that you _had been, and that you were, a Conservative_; that
    all the influence which your office gives you had previously
    been thrown into the Conservative scale; that you had taught
    those over whom you had been placed, and those with whom
    you were connected, _Conservative Politics_; that you could
    not stoop so low as to undo all that you had done; that you
    could not ask them to act contrary to their antecedents and
    convictions; and that your situation was at his Lordship's
    disposal. If, Sir, you had done this, you would have been
    honoured in your last days, and you would have been spared the
    reproach that has now, I regret to say, fallen upon you.

    But you may say my Lord is a Peer of the Realm, that his
    Lordship could not act so unconstitutionally, and that you
    ALONE are responsible. Be it so. Then it will make your case
    so much the worse. You may add that you took it upon yourself
    to canvass his Lordship's Agents and Tenants, and that his
    Lordship did not wish to INFLUENCE them in giving their
    Votes, then the conclusion must be that you have EXCEEDED HIS
    LORDSHIP'S WISHES AND INTENTIONS.

    Can you deny the part you have taken in this matter? Can you
    gainsay the charge that those who do not CHANGE WITH YOU MERIT
    YOUR HIGH DISPLEASURE; and that in one instance you have shewn
    it so unmistakeably that one of his Lordship's Agents, who has
    held his situation for a period of 16 years, with a character
    unsullied, has thought it due to his honour and self-respect to
    give up his situation rather than lick the dust?

    _The names of those Clergymen who are under his Lordship's
    patronage_, and those Gentlemen connected with his Lordship's
    Estates, _who have boldly stood forth and declared their
    principles, notwithstanding your solicitations, will be ever
    mentioned with regard, respect, and esteem. The reproach will
    not fall upon them that in an hour of temptation they fell_
    away _from those principles which they had professed, and to_
    which _they do honour_.

                Waiting the favour of your public reply,
                             I am, Sir,
                                   Your obedient Servant,
                                                    A NON-ELECTOR.

       *       *       *       *       *

    SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE ELECTION SONG.

    TUNE.--"_All the Blue Bonnets._"

    March! march! Bromwich and Wednesbury;
      Handsworth and Smethwick, march forward in order;
    Tipton and Rowley, Kingswinford and Sedgley,
      Drive the young Tory Lord over the border.
    Brown Hills and Cannock Chase, march at a steady pace:
      Walsall and Lichfield from you will not sever.
    Brave Wolverhampton boys, shout with your mighty voice--
      "Free Trade, Reform, and LORD PAGET for ever!"

                        CHORUS.

        March! march! march to the poll my boys;
          Reformers and Free-men, march forward in order:
        March! march! conq'ring Free Traders all;
          Drive the young Tory Lord over the border.

    Come from the forge, where your metals are heating:
      Come from the mines, where your minerals abound:
    Come from the workshops, where hammers are beating:
      Come from wherever a voter is found.
    Bilston and Willenhall; Darlaston, one and all,
      From Tory dominion our country deliver;
    Formed in one noble band, shout--join'd in heart and hand--
      "Free Trade, Reform, LORD PAGET for ever!"

                                  March! march! &c.

    Too long has our county in bondage been lying;
      Too long has our voice in the Senate been lost.
    Then up boys and work; there is nothing like trying;
      Resolve to be free at whatever the cost.
    Will you for Tory pelf, basely degrade yourself?
      Shall we be slaves again? never! O never!
    Rouse up Electors then, vote for--like honest men--
      "Free Trade, Reform, and LORD PAGET for ever!"

                                  March! march! &c.

    Often of old have our sires bled for glory;
      But we will be wiser though worthy as they.
    We will stand for the right; and Old England's proud story
      Shall tell of our conquest in bloodless affray.
    Then for freedom and worth, we will boldly go forth,
      And rush to the poll like a stream to the river;
    Making, in mighty sound, from hill and dale rebound,
      "Free Trade, Reform, and LORD PAGET for ever!"

                                  March! march! &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A RADICAL'S REAL CHARACTER.

    A RADICAL'S Character's easy to draw:
    He hates to obey, but would govern the law;
    In manners unsocial, in temper unkind.
    A rebel in conduct, a tyrant in mind;
    Malignant, implacable, enviously sour,
    He hates every man who has riches or power;
    So impoisoned himself, he would gladly destroy
    The comforts and blessings which others enjoy.

       *       *       *       *       *

    SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE ELECTION, 1854.

    SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 11TH.

    FINAL CLOSE OF THE POLL.

    Polling Districts.    PAGET.  INGESTRE.
    Bilston                 280       94
    Brewood                  37      271
    Handsworth              448      197
    Kingswinford            930      373
    Lichfield                83      130
    Penkridge               129      310
    Rugeley                  84      111
    Sedgley                 323      115
    Tamworth                 36       45
    Tipton                  183       84
    Walsall                 223      194
    Wednesbury              355      191
    Westbromwich            573      329
    Wolverhampton           641      313
                           ----     ----
                           4325     2757
                           ----     ----
                        Majority for PAGET, 1568.

Sunday, February 19th, 1854. The new organ, erected in St. Edmund's
Church, was opened this day with great preachings. The sum of £54 15s.
9d. was collected on the occasion. The organ, which was considered
by competent judges to be a first-rate one, cost £360, and great
praise was awarded to Messrs. C. F. G. Clark and Thomas Hughes,
the Churchwardens, for their exertions in collecting the amount by
voluntary subscriptions.

March 13th, 1854. Died, Mr. Justice Talfourd, at Stafford Assizes. He
dropped down dead from his judge's seat whilst addressing his charge
to the grand jury. He was a humane judge, and an eminent and popular
writer.

Easter, 1854. A very close and vindictive contest took place in this
Parish for the election of the Board of Guardians, without either
rhyme or reason. The new Liberals of the previous year's election had
secured many useful and sensible reforms in Poor Law Distribution; had
introduced and carried the Small Tenements' Act, which had given mortal
offence to the Tory party, and their former dogmatical and illiterate
chairman. Under such revengeful feelings, not a stone was left unturned
to seek out "cause of offence," shortcomings, etc., of the Liberal
Guardians. The Tory party managed to obtain the proxy votes of the
non-resident voters of _the small freeholders_, lately brought into
the list of voters by the imposition of the Small Tenements' Act, and
thereby secured the election by over-reaching and unfair tactics.

The result of this unfair and unjust Election was a reversion of last
year's parochial decision, the Liberal Guardians were thrown out, and
the old "let us rest and be thankful" Tories were elected to do further
mischief.


    ELECTION OF GUARDIANS.

    To the Independent and Enlightened Ratepayers of the Parish of
    Dudley.

    Fellow Ratepayers,

    It is very likely that in the course of a few days you will
    again have the opportunity of Electing your part of the
    Board of Guardians for this Union for the coming year. As
    far as I can understand, an effort is to be made, and which
    has been in contemplation for some months past (by means of
    owners' proxies, obtained in some instances I believe by not
    over-scrupulous means, and which in many others would never
    have been given to be employed in such a manner) to unseat
    the majority of those parties who received your support at
    the last election. Let us then examine for a few moments
    what these gentlemen have done during the past year of their
    Stewardship to forfeit the confidence we then reposed in them.
    First, they advocated and brought about the publicity of the
    proceedings of the Board, which had previously, notwithstanding
    the praiseworthy exertions of two or three of its members to
    the contrary, partaken somewhat of the character of a secret
    conclave. Secondly, the usual weekly checks for this Parish
    only for out-door relief has gradually diminished during the
    year, on an average, I should imagine from the now regularly
    published newspaper reports, of not less than £8 or £10
    per week--next--I believe that the in-door expenses of our
    Workhouses are actually less at this time than when provisions
    were only half their present price, and less by a considerable
    amount per head per week than they were five or six years ago,
    and that the poor, both in and out, not the less cared or
    provided for. Fourthly, I observe that several of the gentlemen
    against whom this opposition is principally to be directed
    are amongst the most intelligent, active, business-like men
    of the whole Board, that they are gentlemen using their best
    exertions to promote the success and prosperity of the Town,
    anxious for its improvement, and desirous of its progress;
    witness their endeavours for the establishment of the Model
    Lodging Houses--the promotion of the scheme for the erection
    of a Public Hall--the alteration of the Post Office and
    improvement of postal accommodation--their support of the
    School of Design and Mechanics' Institution, and extension of
    general Education--the erection of a proper Workhouse in place
    of our present disgraceful building, by which I doubt not our
    expenses will be lessened, and the comforts of its aged and
    infirm poor inmates at the same time increased, and by their
    generally evidenced desire to improve the condition of our
    poorer brethren, both socially and morally--thus preventing
    crime, obviating disease, and diminishing pauperism. Having
    during the past year made a continued advance in the right
    direction, should you be again called upon I trust that you
    will encourage their endeavours, and show that you appreciate
    their attention to your interests, by not only supporting the
    seven gentlemen[33] I now allude to, but also any others with
    whom their names may be connected in any list proposed for your
    sanction, by placing their names triumphantly at the head of
    the poll.

                 I am, Fellow-Ratepayers,
                              Yours faithfully,
                                        A QUIET OBSERVER OF FACTS.

    _March, 1854._

       *       *       *       *       *

    ELECTION OF GUARDIANS.

    To the Ratepayers of the Parish of Dudley.

    You are respectfully requested to Vote for the following Ten
    Persons (the last on the List,) Nominated by Thomas Badger,
    Esq.--

    Isaac Badger, Coal and Ironmaster.
    Thomas Griffiths, Gentleman.
    Joseph Griffin Walker, Nailmaster.
    Joseph Guest, Gentleman.
    Edward Fisher Smith, Mine Agent.
    William Harrison, Draper.
    John Aston, Mine Agent.
    John Renaud, Glass Manufacturer.
    Matthew Dennison, Chemist, &c.
    Francis Northall, Ironmaster.

    IMPORTANT NOTICE.--As only Ten Persons can be elected, any
    Ratepayer Voting for more than that number will lose the Whole
    of his Votes. Write your Initials, at once, opposite the above
    Ten Names only, (which are the last Ten upon the Voting Paper,)
    and sign your name at the foot thereof; and then carefully
    preserve it (as no second paper will be given you) and deliver
    it to the person who left it, when he calls on Saturday, the
    8th of April. If the Voting Paper is not then given, send it as
    early that day as possible to Mr. Shorthouse, the Clerk to the
    Guardians, at the Poor Law Offices, in Upper King Street. Any
    person qualified to Vote who shall not have received a Voting
    Paper, may do so on applying to Mr. Shorthouse, at his Offices
    as above, (not later than Saturday, the 8th of April,) and then
    and there fill up the same in his presence, and deliver it to
    him.

    _March 9th, 1854._

       *       *       *       *       *

    ELECTION OF GUARDIANS.

    TO THE RATE-PAYERS OF THE PARISH OF DUDLEY.

    A Handbill having been circulated through the Parish, evidently
    the production of one of the "ACTIVE AND INTELLIGENT" Members
    of the present Board, calling upon you to elect them again
    as Guardians for the Parish; permit another Quiet Observer
    to submit a few FACTS for your consideration. You are
    told something about Owners' Proxies having been obtained
    by unscrupulous means. Does the Gentleman allude to the
    hundreds of those statements, which he and his Friends by
    MISREPRESENTATION AND CAJOLERY obtained six months previously
    to the Election of the Board of Health, for the purpose of
    securing THEIR OWN ELECTION, or to those hundreds of similar
    statements which were given to the Overseers a few weeks ago by
    the same party! Perhaps he and some other of these active and
    intelligent Guardians will admit that they gave unquestionable
    proof of their activity, if they would kindly state the number
    of miles they travelled last year, in running about from street
    to street, and house to house to fill up the Voting Papers,
    which by so doing, and imposing on the Rate-payers, they
    Elected themselves. Having carefully watched the conduct of
    these parties during the last year, I find amongst the most
    conspicuous of their performances, the decision of the question
    of a Huge Union Bastile, to separate Man and Wife, Children
    and Parents; to a Man they have ever Voted in favour of this,
    and the Dudley Union will now have to pay, at the very least,
    £20,000 for it.

    And look at what these same ACTIVE INTELLIGENCES have done
    for you by the Board of Health! That Board has already made
    and signed a Rate of ONE SHILLING AND TENPENCE in the Pound,
    which in a very short time you will be forced to pay; and an
    additional Rate is also in contemplation, which, together
    with two twenty-penny Poor Rates, will make 5s. 8d. in the
    Pound for Levies alone to pay. Among other items of reckless
    extravagance, the following Salaries:--Clerk to the Board, £165
    per annum; Surveyor, £150 per annum; Doctor, £75 per annum;
    Collector, £75 per annum; Inspector of Nuisances, £120 per
    annum, lately increased from £40 to £120; making a total of
    £585; with additional extra allowance which has been paid to
    others to assist; and further, I am informed that to carry out
    the projects for Drainage, Plans, Surveys, &c., £50,000 will
    be required and borrowed, and the interest must be paid by
    draining your pockets. Next, is it fair that these SEVEN ACTIVE
    INTELLIGENCES shall take to themselves the credit of what the
    labours of the whole Board have effected in the diminution of
    the Expenditure, and I would ask HOW IS IT that in a time of
    good trade, nearly £7,000 has been spent during the past year;
    and WHY IS IT that under the operation of the Tenement Rating
    Act, from which so great things were promised us, that the
    Dudley Overseers have been compelled to borrow £500, and to pay
    the interest out of their pockets? As to Model Lodging-houses,
    Public Hall, School of Design, Mechanics' Institute, &c., of
    which they make such boast; all very well, I reply, provided
    they are paid for by private enterprize, and not by PUBLIC
    RATES.

    FELLOW RATEPAYERS.--Have your payments been less during the
    last year?

    OWNERS OF SMALL PROPERTIES.--Have you not been compelled to
    pay the Rates for your tenants, in addition to your own usual
    Rates? and to whom are you indebted for this increase of your
    burdens? It is a fact, that every one of the SEVEN ACTIVE
    INTELLIGENCES did vote for the imposition of this additional
    Tax on you to relieve themselves, for I believe not one of them
    pay a Shilling on small Property in this Parish. Improvements
    we want, but do not be deceived; be careful to whom you trust
    the Power of Local Taxation. Vote for Guardians who have a
    stake in the Parish, who will spend your money as carefully as
    they would their own. Vote NOT for those who merely seek the
    office to gratify their own private vanity, and serve party
    purposes at the Cost of the Poor hard-working Ratepayers.

    Vote like I intend to do, for the TEN LAST NAMES on the List,
    for the men nominated by your most respected Fellow Townsman,
    Thomas Badger, Esq.; he has long been a tried and true friend
    to the Town of Dudley, and would not deceive you by nominating
    improper ones.

                   Fellow Ratepayers, Your Faithful Servant,
                                           ANOTHER QUIET OBSERVER.

    _Dudley, March 30th, 1854._

       *       *       *       *       *

    ELECTION OF GUARDIANS.

    TO THE RATEPAYERS OF THE PARISH OF DUDLEY.

    "Another Observer" has thought proper to intrude some remarks
    upon your notice. To this there could be no objection, so long
    as _truth_ was adhered to; unfortunately, the truthfulness as
    well as the reason of his remarks are about "as two grains of
    wheat in two bushels of chaff, you shall search all day ere you
    find them, and when you have, they shall not prove worth the
    search!" Let me take his observations then _seriatim_--that
    Owners' Proxies have been procured, and this to some extent by
    misrepresentation, if not something worse, is beyond doubt, and
    that they will in very many instances be used contrary to the
    wishes and intentions of the Owners, is a fact which admits
    also of as little doubt. No person with any discrimination
    can suppose that if unscrupulously obtained they will not as
    unscrupulously be employed. Does "Another Observer" wish you
    to believe falsehood by proxy, or does he wish to propagate
    untruth by insinuation? He knows that with regard to the
    Board of Health proxies were not and could not be used,--and
    he is defied to prove that either "misrepresentation or
    cajolery" was employed by his opponents to gain that election.
    Notwithstanding the number of _paid_ agents employed by himself
    and others to disseminate that "misrepresentation and cajolery"
    of which he speaks so much, the good sense and independent
    judgment of the Ratepayers emphatically decided against them;
    and so also, if left to their own free and unbiassed opinions,
    will they do in the present election for the Guardians.

    In regard to the Workhouse question, the _facts_ stated by "A
    Ratepayer" are a sufficient answer; but "Another Observer" here
    again knows that _his statements are a gross exaggeration,
    and wilfully intended to mislead_. So also are his statements
    in regard to the salaries paid to some of the Officers of
    the Board of Health. Will he, however, assert that he or his
    friends would or could have procured proper and intelligent
    persons, qualified to carry out the important works which
    will be required of them, for less amounts than are now paid?
    I trow not. But why wish you to believe that these are extra
    burdens imposed upon you? _Why not tell you of the sums paid,_
    IN THE GOOD OLD TIMES OF HIS FRIENDS, _to the late Clerk to
    the Town Act Commissioners,--to the Collectors of the Town
    Rate and Highway Rate,--the Inspector of Nuisances under the
    Diseases' Prevention Act,--the Surveyor of the Highways and
    other Officers?_ and I am much mistaken if you will not find
    MORE MONEY PAID FOR LESS WORK DONE! It was either because he
    considered "discretion the better part of valour," or, "where
    ignorance is bliss, 'twas folly to be wise." Why, too, did not
    this "other Observer" tell you what either _himself_ or _his
    friend_ (?), a THRICE-REJECTED-ASPIRING-WOULD-BE-GUARDIAN!!!
    has received of the Parish money for some years before he
    pretended to pass judgment on others.

    As to the Rates made by your Local Board of Health, what are
    they? Why a _Shilling_ Town Rate instead of an _Eighteen-penny_
    one as it was last year, and _Two Shillings_ a year or two
    ago; and a tenpenny Highway Rate which has been its amount for
    many years--thus actually shewing that you are paying from
    Sixpence to One Shilling in the pound _less_ than when under
    the old rulers. As to the expenses of Survey, Plans, Drainage,
    and other improvements, what has necessitated their adoption
    but the neglect of those who held the power in your parish
    years ago. Will this "Observer" assert that there is no need of
    them? Will he assert that there are many places in this kingdom
    worse off than Dudley in these respects? Can he controvert the
    fact that the average duration of life in Dudley is almost the
    shortest, if not quite so, of any place in England? or, in
    other words, that whilst in some places of all the people born,
    the average duration of their lives is 40 years, in Dudley it
    is only about 19--or that during this past year there have been
    more deaths in this parish, from fevers and other preventable
    causes, than during the years of the Cholera--and these, too,
    principally, if not entirely, caused by bad drainage, imperfect
    ventilation, and improper sanitary regulations. _Your present
    high Poor Rates are only a portion of the short-comings left by
    those to whom you entrusted your interests in past times. Your
    payments now are but a legacy of that mismanagement which this
    "Observer" would desire you to perpetuate._

    What does he mean by his allusions to the projected Model
    Lodging Houses, Public Hall, School of Design, Mechanics'
    Institute, &c.? as being provided for out of the Public
    Rates--insinuations as utterly false and groundless as they are
    base and malicious, and which could only originate in a mind
    incapable of a good action in itself, and therefore suspicious
    of others. "Have your payments been less during the past
    year?" he asks. I would answer there is the undeniable fact,
    that in the past year the cost of out-door relief to your poor
    has been less by nearly £500 than in previous ones. Why, I
    would retort, was not this diminution observable during former
    years, when trade was quite as good as during the past one?
    Then he enquires, why were the Overseers required to borrow
    £500 in order to provide the necessary means to meet parochial
    expenses? Why! Because they were compelled to wait the granting
    of another rate, whilst hundreds of our poor were summoned
    to appear before the Magistrates in order that they might be
    legally excused, or payment enforced, before another rate could
    be made; because such as this "Observer" would not compound for
    the payment of their rates, and, without the introduction of
    the Rating-of-Tenements' Act, this must have been done at the
    close of every rate,--a fact alone sufficient to counterbalance
    any disadvantages which from its introduction may arise, and
    which will ultimately be as great a benefit to the Landlord as
    to the poor Tenants themselves.

    "Another Observer" says "Improvements we want!!" Out upon
    such cant! why have we not had them before? why have they not
    been projected long ago? why, when anything has been proposed
    for the good and prosperity of the town, have not our men of
    influence, and those having a "stake" in the Parish been the
    first to support them? why has every thing been left to be done
    by the insulted "shopkeepers?" "Talk of spending your money
    carefully!" Who were the parties _who objected to let you know
    how your money was spent_? who were the parties _who opposed
    the admission of the Press_ to your Board Room? why, the very
    friends of this "Another Observer;" and when there are those
    who would not that Dudley should be second to Stourbridge,
    Bilston, or even Wolverhampton, such as this "Another Observer"
    are found to deride and revile their "private enterprize" and
    impute interested motives.

    Finally, "Another Observer" says "Vote for those who have a
    stake in the Parish," and "who would not seek office to gratify
    personal vanity." I ask you Ratepayers, to inspect the List
    proposed by Messrs. DIXON & LESTER, and that advocated by this
    accurate "Another Observer," and I venture to affirm, that on
    examination it will be found they pay a much greater amount
    of Rates, and that THEY ALSO REPRESENT BY FAR A MUCH LARGER
    AMOUNT OF INTEREST in this Parish. In regard to experience
    in parochial affairs, in regard to a knowledge of the
    administration of the Poor Laws, in regard to business habits
    and general intelligence, in regard to their attention to your
    interests, without wishing to utter one word in disparagement
    of their opponents, I fearlessly challenge a comparison. Talk
    of a "Stake" in the Parish, indeed! Pray, how much Rates does
    this "Another Observer" pay? Be not deceived by falsehood.--Be
    not misled by misrepresentation.--Judge by facts and not by the
    words of such "Another Observer." Exercise your own impartial
    and independent opinions. Weigh all the circumstances calmly
    and impartially, and the undoubted result will be, that your
    confidence will again be placed in those who have not yet
    deceived you, and that the gentlemen nominated by Messrs. DIXON
    and LESTER will be your Guardians for the ensuing year.

       With all respect, I am, Fellow Ratepayers, yours still,
                                     "THE QUIET OBSERVER OF FACTS."

    _Dudley, March 31st, 1854._

       *       *       *       *       *

    ELECTION OF GUARDIANS.

    TO THE RATE-PAYERS OF THE PARISH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    A Handbill, headed "Election of Guardians," and signed "another
    _Quiet_ Observer," has been published, which contains a number
    of insinuations so disgraceful and false in reference to
    several public matters in which individually I take great
    interest, that however reluctant I may be to intrude myself
    personally upon you, I feel I should be wanting in a sense
    of public honor, if I were to allow it to remain without a
    distinct and indignant denial of its truth.

    Had it confined itself to the ensuing Election of Guardians
    I should not have thought it necessary to reply to its
    insinuations, because it would be an insult to the Rate-payers
    to suppose for a moment that they could be deceived by its
    one-sided statements--statements, every one of which, if not
    false in fact, are false and knowingly false in the inferences
    drawn from them. But it goes beyond the Election of Guardians,
    and insinuates that all the Public Institutions, which some
    amongst you are now endeavouring to establish and to support,
    are to be paid for by Public Rates.

    I suppose the writer of the Handbill thought that by throwing
    this paragraph into the form of an insinuation, and not a
    positive assertion, he would escape from being branded with the
    charge of _Falsehood_, but surely he cannot be ignorant of the
    fact, that to deceive by the insinuation of a Falsehood is as
    great a breach of Truth, as to deceive by an actual falsehood
    itself.

    The writer of that Handbill, whoever he may be, knows very
    well that the Model Lodging Houses--the Public Hall--the
    School of Design--and the Mechanics' Institute--are all
    supported, and supported with one exception, exclusively by
    Private Enterprise, and not by Public Rates. The exception to
    which I allude is the assistance of Government to the School
    of Design, to the extent of £10 during the first year of its
    establishment, whilst Private Enterprise alone has raised
    for its support during this time upwards of £400. I regret,
    exceedingly, that any one should have attempted thus to injure
    these Institutions, which are so much needed in this town, and
    which are so rapidly placing it on a more equal footing with
    the neighbouring Towns of the District.

    From the falsehood of the insinuations thrown out, you may
    judge how far the actual assertions which the writer of this
    Handbill ventures to make, are to be depended upon.

    The writer states that the "huge Union Bastile," as he terms
    the new Poor House about to be erected, will separate Man and
    Wife--Children and Parents.

    He knows that the separation of Man and Wife--Children and
    Parents--takes place of necessity in the present Poor Houses to
    a far greater extent than can be the case in the new House.

    He knows that _now_ the children cannot remain even in the
    _same House_ as their Parents, but that in the new Union House
    they will be under the same roof, and within the reach of their
    Parents, at all reasonable and proper times.

    He also knows that Man and Wife are invariably separated in the
    _present_ Poor Houses, and that this separation will not take
    place after sixty years of age in the new Union House.

    The writer states that the cost of the new Union House will be
    £20,000.

    He knows that the cost is limited to £12,000 by the Poor Law
    Board, and that this amount will be borrowed, and repaid at the
    rate of £600 per year, with interest at four per cent.

    He also knows that the economy of this expenditure will far
    exceed the annual amount of the instalments; or if he does
    not know this, it is because he will not take the trouble to
    examine the results attained in other Unions by the erection
    of proper Poor Houses. Upon this point Mr. Doyle has proved
    "that the pecuniary interests of the Union would be materially
    benefitted by the building of a workhouse adequate to its
    wants."

    But if the desirability of a new Poor House were not so
    evident on the ground of economy, it would be so on far higher
    grounds, since the existing Dudley Poor House is described
    in a letter to me of the 28th instant, by one of the most
    respectable of the medical gentlemen of this town, "_as the_
    FOCUS _of epidemic disease and starting point of Cholera, at
    two successive periods_."

    You, the Ratepayers of Dudley, will, I am sure, weigh well
    these words, and you will not shrink from showing the
    estimation in which you hold the writer of a Handbill who thus
    ignores the most sacred claims of Truth and Humanity.

    Nor does the writer confine himself to the Guardian
    question--he endeavours to make you believe that the Board of
    Health is administered with great recklessness of expenditure.

    As one of such Board, I am responsible only to the extent of my
    individual vote for its expenditure; but here again the writer
    endeavours only to deceive.

    The Rates under the Dudley Town Act Commissioners and the Board
    for the Repair of the Highways were during the following years
    as under:

    TOWN RATE.--1847-1848-1849, 2s. in the Pound. 1850-1851-1852,
    1s. 6d. in the Pound.

    HIGHWAY RATE, for the above Six years, 10d. in the Pound.

    Under the Board of Health the Rates already granted are--

    A GENERAL AND DISTRICT RATE, _in lieu of old Town Rate_, of 1s.
    in the Pound.

    A HIGHWAY RATE of 10d. in the Pound. These will be more than
    sufficient to meet the expenditure heretofore paid out of the
    Town and Highway Rates.

    The writer wishes to make you believe that the cost of Salaries
    is entirely additional under the present Board.

    He knows that this is not the case, and he also knows that the
    amount payable under the Board of Health, under this head, will
    be less, including Professional Charges, than under the Town
    Commissioners.

    The writer would deceive you as to the amounts to be paid for
    Drainage, &c., and the desirability of such expenditure. I
    cannot say at present what this expenditure may amount to; but
    the largest amount--efficiently expended in Drainage--will
    be the most economical to the Parish, when the saving to the
    Poor Rates, from the prevention of disease and death, is taken
    into account. Upon this point, let me again quote the words
    of the Medical Gentleman already alluded to (not the Officer
    of Health):--"_The inhabitants of this Town are ill prepared
    to withstand the onslaught of Cholera, which would be brought
    to our very doors by living in such a tainted and impure
    atmosphere as that which exists in the very centre of the
    Town._"

    The writer of the Handbill does not tell you, that whatever may
    be the expenditure of the Board of Health, it will always have
    to be audited by a Public Officer, and the Balance Sheets open
    to the inspection of any Ratepayer.

    The Handbill would deceive you again in reference to the stake
    in the Parish which those proposed as guardians on the List
    nominated by Messrs. Dixon and Lester possess.

    He again insinuates, where he dares not assert. What will you
    think of this insinuation, when I tell you that there are Four
    Persons on that List, each of whom pays separately, three of
    them as individuals, and one as Agent of a Company, a larger
    amount of local taxation, as far as the Parish of Dudley is
    concerned, than the entire Ten upon the opposite List.

    I regret exceedingly, that I should be obliged thus even to
    allude to a matter which may appear to be personal, but I am
    compelled to do so. It would be false delicacy to shrink from
    the exposure of the deceit contained in the Handbill. I am
    ready at any moment to confront the writer, and to prove, not
    only every statement I here make, but also any inference I have
    drawn therefrom.

    For myself, I can only say, that personally I have no motive
    to serve in allowing myself to be nominated as one of your
    Guardians. If you honor me by election, I shall earnestly
    strive to fulfil the duties so imposed--but how painful those
    duties are, they only know who have accompanied me over the
    Poor House in this Town, which, I hesitate not to say, is a
    disgrace to humanity, and to the intelligence of the present
    day. The hours which I have spent within its walls have been
    amongst the most painful of my life, and there is, I am sure,
    no Ratepayer who would accompany the Visiting Committee in
    their periodical inspection of it, who would not most earnestly
    labour for its removal, as a religious duty which he dared not
    neglect.

                        I am, Gentlemen,
                                  Your obedient Servant,
                                                  S. H. BLACKWELL.

    _Dudley, March 31st, 1854._

This disgraceful strangling of common sense and prostitution of all
recognised rules of decent electioneering propriety came to a close
with the following result:

    ELECTED TORIES.
                           Votes.
    Isaac Badger             1565
    Thos. Griffiths          1500
    Jos. Guest               1402
    Jos. G. Walker           1378
    Edw. Fisher Smith        1372
    M. Dennison              1290
    Jno. Aston               1223
    Jas. Harrison            1201
    Jno. Renaud              1166
    Francis Northall         1166

    REJECTED LIBERALS.
                           Votes.
    S. H. Blackwell           940
    A. B. Cochrane            876
    Thomas Wood               772
    J. C. Cook                771
    ---- Thomson              710
    Evors Swindell            707
    Alex Patterson            657
    Jno. Finch                651
    D. Lloyd                  517

    METROPOLITAN ASSOCIATION FOR IMPROVING THE DWELLINGS OF THE
    INDUSTRIOUS CLASSES.

    DUDLEY BRANCH.

    March 31st, 1854.

    In a handbill addressed "To the Ratepayers of the Parish of
    Dudley," by "Another Quiet Observer," occurs the following
    paragraph:--"As to Model Lodging Houses, Public Hall, School
    of Design, Mechanics' Institute, &c., of which they make such
    boast; all very well I reply provided they are paid for by
    Private Enterprise, and not by Public Rates."

    As this, if uncontradicted, is calculated to produce an
    erroneous impression that the Public Money is being or is to be
    applied to the furtherance of these objects, I beg to give a
    most unqualified denial that such is the case as to the Model
    Lodging Houses, the funds for which are being raised by Shares
    of £25 each, with limited liability, under the Provisions of
    the Charters of the above Association.

    Any further information respecting which will with pleasure be
    afforded by

                              WILLIAM BARNS,
                                     Wolverhampton Street,
                                                   Local Secretary.

Died April 19th, 1854, Mr. Thomas Lester, Wine and Spirit Merchant,
Market Place, much esteemed by a very large circle of friends. Mr.
Lester was a gentleman of strong common sense; he lived a great many
years in Dudley, and accumulated a handsome fortune, he was a Liberal
in politics, but of a retiring disposition, disliking extremes of
any kind. Mr. Lester was a Wesleyan Methodist, New Connexion, in
persuasion, and a most liberal giver to that especial cause. Being of
an exceedingly liberal and charitable disposition, no honest case of
accident or distress was ever turned from his door without relief, and
his open-handed contributions to all good objects in the town were at
all times most benevolent and unostentatious. At this good Christian's
death the widow and orphans lost an untold friend, and the immense
concourse of people of all shades of politics and religion who attended
his funeral bore a sorrowing testimony to his universal worth. Aged 65
years.

Died July 9th, 1854, at Handsworth, formerly of Wolverhampton street,
Dudley, Mr. Matthew Houghton, gentleman.

Mr. C. F. G. Clark, Chemist, Market Place, gave a series of Free
Lectures on popular subjects in most of the villages and towns around
Dudley, addressed especially to the rising generation.

July 14th, 1854. A Silver Inkstand and two handsome books of Music,
costing £21 10s., were presented to Mr. John H. Vanes, Currier, the
late Organist of St. Edmund's Church, by the congregation, as a mark
of respect and esteem on his leaving Dudley.

A block plan of the New Model Dwellings to be erected in the Dock Lane
was now issued by the Committee, and building operations were commenced
upon the row of fancy dwellings now standing "all alone in their glory"
in Dock Lane, but, as the Association "did not take in Dudley," all
further operations were suspended, and the houses in Dock Lane were the
only dwellings completed. Chairman, Dr. Browne, Vicar; Architect, Mr.
Wm. Wiggington; Secretary, Mr. Wm. Barns.

September 20th, 1854. The Grand Lodge of (Worcestershire) Free Masons
walked in procession this day in Dudley, to St. Thomas's Parish Church
to a special service, and then afterwards repaired to the hotel to a
Masonic banquet; H. C. Vernon, Esq., J.P., Hilton Park, Grand Master.

October 24th, 1854. Died, Old Mr. James Wilkinson, formerly an
extensive vice and anvil manufacturer of Tower Street, Dudley. This
gentleman was another true type of a Dudley man, having an exceedingly
quick and retentive memory of past events in Dudley. The Wilkinson's,
like the Finch's, are decidedly the oldest descended families in this
town, for Dudley had an Alderman John Finch in Charles II.'s reign,
and we have a second Alderman John Finch, J.P. in our present time;
and it is singular that these robust sons of the forge have ever been
connected with the nail trade, fender and fire iron trade, the anvil
and vice trade, and all kindred trades of such manufacture. Like Tubal
Cain of old, they welded molten iron into form and shape, long before
the steam hammer was thought about. Mr. Wilkinson's recital of his
early days, when, he says, we had no carts or waggons in those days to
convey our anvils and vices to the Cross, Dale End, Birmingham, for
sale to the factors, who used to come and buy our goods; we had to
travel with them in large baskets slung on horses backs, and in single
file we travelled over Bromwich Heath to Birmingham. Mr. Wilkinson
lived to the good old age of 85 years, and died esteemed and respected
by all men.

November 27th, 1854. A patriotic meeting was held this evening at
the town hall, for the noble purpose of joining in the endowment of
a national fund for the maintenance of the widows and children of
soldiers and sailors killed in this just Russian war; a committee of
willing hands was nominated, and after the town had been thoroughly
canvassed, the handsome sum of £3,282 was given for this noble object.
Hurrah! for old Dudley.

    NIL DESPERANDUM!

    "_Britons Strike Home._"

    EXTRACT FROM A LETTER

    Written in Sebastopol on the Evening of the Battle of
    INKERMANN, BY A RUSSIAN SOLDIER:

    "We are still alive although the English and French use every
    means for our destruction; but we know not how long this may
    last. _The carnage is terrible! all our efforts against the
    enemy are vain, and without result._ Although we have a
    superiority in numbers, we _cannot conquer the enemy in the
    open Country_! The terrible coolness of the English, their
    _frightful Artillery_, which _destroying entire lines of our
    Troops_, disturbed their retreat, and the Balls and Shells
    committed the greatest ravages. The Riflemen picked off _all
    our Officers_. Our Soldiers are obedient, and execute all the
    orders like machines, but they want address, intelligence,
    presence of mind, and enthusiasm."

    "The cool steadiness of the English, and the vigour of the
    attack of the French equally alarmed them."--See _Guardian_
    Newspaper, pages 919, 920, for Nov. 29, 1854.

    _The Vicarage, Dudley, Nov. 30th, 1854._

Died January 26th, 1855. Mr. Edward Dixon, Sen., formerly banker in
Dudley. The disasters and stoppage of Messrs. Dixon, Dalton & Co's.
Bank in this town a few years before is a matter of commercial history,
indelibly fixed in the recollections of many eminent firms in this
locality. Mr. Dixon never took a very active part in the bank, but
his urbanity, generosity, and kindly feeling to every one, won the
universal respect of all orders of men in the town and district; his
prompt honesty, and genuine honour and integrity in his commercial
transactions, were the means of saving many respectable people from
utter ruin, and at his death it was deemed desirable that a public
funeral should mark the wide-spread sense of sorrow and deep regret at
the loss of so good a friend and honourable a townsman. Aged 68 years.

February 16th, 1855. Mr. William Masefield's candle manufactory,
situate between High Street and King Street, was this night burnt down.
Damages £650.

Died February 26th, 1855, at Hastings, John Benbow, Esq., M.P. for
this town, aged 87 years. Mr. Benbow was a decided Tory in politics,
and a churchman in religion; his school of thought was narrow and
contracted, and he looked upon all reforms and progressions with alarm
and distrust. He was well known to be the nominee of the young Lord
Ward and his Trustees; he secured and maintained his seat as M.P. for
Dudley entirely on the sufferance of the Castle power and influence;
for the electors of Dudley would never have returned him had it not
been for quarrelling with their own bread and living. The old gentleman
never spoke in the House of Commons; he seldom favoured Dudley with his
presence; he represented us (or rather never represented us at all) for
about eleven years, and it was always keenly felt that he was of no use
to this enterprising and increasing Borough.

Died March 2nd, 1855, Nicholas, the tyrannical and ambitious Emperor
of all the Russias, aged 59 years. This wicked man caused the invasion
of Turkey, and the war in the Crimea, by which so many of our brave
countrymen fell in defence of the Turkish Empire, and the cause of
humanity.


BOROUGH ELECTION.

The death of Mr. Benbow necessitated another Parliamentary Election in
this borough, and as very little time was given (only eleven days) for
the burgesses to look around for a new member, that short time was very
adroitly occupied by the Castle wire-pullers in trimming and burnishing
up the rather raw and unsettled political ideas of a perfect stranger
to Dudley, in the person of Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bart., of the
Pynes, near Exeter. This gentleman, of great ability and good lineage
and descent, was brought out from the Priory, for our acceptance, as
a _Liberal-Conservative_, with the hope that a candidate untried (for
Sir Stafford had not been in Parliament before), who had some tincture
of Liberalism in his composition, might be made to suit all factions
in the Borough, and save the tumult and annoyance of another contested
election. This _ruse_ would not go down with the Radical electors,
for it was thought that it was high time the _Himley incubus_ should
be thrown down, once and for ever. To accomplish this intention,
our old townsman, Mr. Samuel Cook, with Mr. Wm. Insull, and other
Chartists, again prevailed upon Mr. James Baldwin, of Birmingham, to
become their champion, upon not quite such an extravagant platform as
he had appeared before us in 1852. Sir Stafford Northcote spoke both
eloquently and reasonably at his various meetings, and it soon became
evident that he would be the next member for Dudley. Mr. Baldwin, on
the other hand, with all the bluster his friends could ventilate in
his favour, had to fight a forlorn hope, for Dudley was not yet ripe
for his politics; Chartism had lately received a most sensible check,
and people were beginning to look with alarm at the uncertain end
the Charter would lead them to. Besides all this, there was a strong
belief that Sir Stafford was not the young politician to be put into
"leading strings" by anyone, for he was an independent man, and had an
inflexible will of his own, which subsequent events brought out into
strong relief.

On March 9th, 1855, this Dudley Election had to be gone through,
although Mr. Baldwin and his admirers had virtually "caved in." Close
of the poll:--

    Sir Stafford Northcote (Liberal Conservative)      346
    Mr. James Baldwin (Radical)                          3
                                                      ----
                             Majority                  343

    TO THE ELECTORS OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    It is impossible for me to suppress a feeling of pride in
    regarding the position in which you have placed me. This
    feeling, however, gives place to one of gratitude to those who
    have so generously placed confidence in me, and to a sense of
    the high responsibility which your votes have imposed upon me.

    I am not fond of making professions, and it has been one great
    drawback to the pleasure I have had in making myself known to
    you, that I have been obliged, as a stranger, to hold more of
    the language of self-recommendation than I could have wished.
    I trust that, under God's blessing, I may be able so to do my
    duty towards you that, whenever I may have occasion to ask
    a renewal of your confidence, I may be able to point to my
    actions as affording a mere satisfactory test of my inclination
    and ability to serve you than words can do.

    I thank you heartily for the kind reception I have met with,
    for the courtesy which has been shewn to me even by those who
    differ from me in opinion, and for the final mark of your
    confidence which now calls for my warm acknowledgments. I
    have but one favour more to ask. It is, that you will use my
    services as freely as I now place them at the disposal of you
    all.

                            I remain, Gentlemen,
                       Your obliged and faithful Servant,
                                            STAFFORD H. NORTHCOTE.

    _Dudley, March 9th, 1855._

Died, March 13th, 1855, Mr. James Jesson, of Victoria Terrace, a man of
isolated and penurious habits, but he left a noble evidence of his good
will to the town at his death, by bequeathing £10,000 to endow "Alms
Houses," a school known as "Jesson's School and Charity." Aged 76 years.

March 21st, 1855. This day was observed as a public day of prayer and
fasting for the success of our glorious soldiers and sailors in the
Crimean War.

May 13th, 1855. A dreadful murder was committed this morning at the
"Sailor's Return" public house, Kateshill, Dudley, by one John Meadows,
who deliberately shot his sweetheart, because he was jealous of her;
the poor girl died instantly.

May 17th, 1855. Married, Miss Elizabeth Bourn, step-daughter of Mr.
F. Pigott, Railway Contractor, of this town, at St. Edmund's Church,
to Mr. Elliott, Manufacturer, Birmingham. Great pomp and ceremony was
observed on this occasion, there being nine carriages in attendance at
the wedding.

A sad sequel happened at the Railway Station as the bridal party
started on their honeymoon. A collision betwixt two trains took place,
by which numbers of passengers were severely shaken and bruised, and
Mr. Thos. Fehr, Spirit Merchant, Market Place, was maimed for life.

May 28th, 29th, 30th, 1855. A series of fetes took place on the Castle
grounds this Whitsuntide, under the management and for the benefit of
Mr. Alfred Bunn, of the Opera House, London. Upwards of 20,000 people
came to see the "sights," and it was said that Mr. Bunn cleared £500 by
this affair, but he forgot to leave any token of his liberality to our
local charities.

Died, July 14th, 1855, Mr. Bagott, Tailor and Draper, High Street. Aged
70 years.

Died, July 27th, 1855, Mr. Joseph Haden, of Dixon's Green. This
gentleman had much to do with the building of St. Thomas's New Church
in 1816.

August 4th, 1855. Hanged at Worcester this morning John Meadows, for
the brutal and unfeeling murder of his sweetheart, Ann Mason, at
Kateshill, in May last.

September 9th, 1855. Great rejoicings all over the land at the
news: "The Russians evacuated Sebastopol after two days' desperate
bombardment by both sea and land by the Allied Forces; they blew up
their magazines, sunk their ships, and set fire to the town previous to
leaving it, and then they retired to the North side of the Harbour."
Glorious news for Old England!

Died, November 2nd, 1855, Mr. Thos. Guest, junr., Grocer, Market Place.
Aged 42 years.

Died, January 24th, 1856, Mr. Josiah C. Cook, Ironmonger, High Street.
Mr. Cook was a prominent Freemason in his time, and was universally
respected as a friend and neighbour. His remains were followed to the
grave, as a mark of fraternity and respect, by many of the leading
Freemasons of the district.


PEACE!

March 30th, 1856. A Treaty of Peace was signed at Paris this day, which
put an end to the cruel and unsatisfactory Russian War.

Six New Members of our Local Board of Health had to be elected this
spring, and the contest was again both sharp and bitter; for the old
Tory party, with Mr. Isaac Badger at its head, were determined to get
rid of all Liberals and Liberal progress in the Board; hence followed
some smart hand bills.


DUDLEY LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH ELECTION.

    ISAAC opposed all CIVIL LIBERTY!

    ISAAC opposed REPEAL OF THE CORN LAWS!

    ISAAC opposed FREE TRADE!

    ISAAC opposed PARLIAMENTARY REFORM!

    ISAAC opposed and opposes the PRESS IN THE BOARD ROOMS!

    ISAAC opposes INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE as the basis of LOCAL
    LEGISLATION!

    ISAAC and his Friends opposed ECONOMY in the Workhouse, when
    it was proved each Pauper cost 1s. 7½d. per week more than
    Birmingham and Wolverhampton; _increasing_ the Rates £422 per
    year.

    WOOD AND HOLLIER

    Reduced this Extravagance;--What ISAAC has been ISAAC will be,
    if you _Vote_ for his Nominees.

    [asterism] Vote for Hollier, Browne, Fereday, Smith, Wood, and
    England.

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH.

    THE ELECTION.

    Fellow Electors,

    Doubtless it is advisable we should Elect Men to serve on this
    Board rather than One Man and so many Looking Glasses, or
    _things_ to _reflect his_ will and pleasure simply.

    Look at the two Lists already submitted to you--First, and
    mark this--Mr. Isaac Badger proposes Messrs. J. R. Tilley,
    George Bagott, John Marsh, William Beddard, Sen., E. Whitfield,
    and W. Jacam, and no doubt he is sanguine enough to suppose
    _you will do as you are told_, and Elect his nominees. Of
    this select List you will be better able to form an opinion,
    when you have fully considered the extent to which any one
    of these Gentlemen has ever been mixed up in matters of real
    _popular service_--with how many of the People's Institutions
    or Philanthropic Schemes of this country is any one of these
    persons identified--and how much, or how little, rather,
    you have any reason to expect from them in any matter of
    wide or general bearing on _your_ interests. "Grapes cannot
    be gathered from thorns, nor figs from thistles?" so that,
    with all forbearance for the Gentlemen whose names have thus
    been dragged from their natural and proper retirement, your
    attention is now invited to the following List of WORTHY
    Candidates for your support and interest, viz:--The Rev. Doctor
    Browne, Mr. Richard Smith, Mr. Elliott Hollier, Mr. S. D.
    Fereday, Mr. W. C. Wood, Mr. George J. England.

    These are, as you know, well-tried Men! These as you know,
    have been your consistent Friends and Advocates for years;
    _not_ pandering (like others) in some _Petty_ (or even _Pig_)
    question for favours and smiles, with the view of making
    that favour and those smiles, hereafter, the excuse for
    tyrannizing over you in large questions; but who have striven
    from time to time for your welfare and the general good--ever
    resting satisfied in the midst of their efforts that time
    would enable you to see that Truth is ever consistent with
    itself--Liberality of Sentiment ever an instinct that should be
    easily traced through the entire life, political or social, of
    those who lay claim to it. And now

    1st.--Whose efforts have been the most determined to secure
    in this parish Comfortable Homes for the Poor? Who persuaded
    the Landlords, that whilst they were getting from 15 to 20 per
    cent. interest upon the miserable _dens_ they call _houses_, it
    was politic _they_ should pay the Local Rates?

    2nd.--Who have been the consistent supporters of all
    Educational Schemes, by which the employer is secured an
    intelligent and moral servant, in the place of a mere _tool_,
    without thought or respect for himself; and in opposition
    to that other _weakly_ theory that insists upon keeping the
    _people_ ignorant, lest they should discover the _ignorance_ of
    those called their "_betters_?"

    3rd.--Who have (and without ostentation) supported schemes of
    PUBLIC AMUSEMENT and RELAXATION? Those who believe that the
    "Great Unwashed" are often whiter and cleaner than those who
    sit in high places;--those who, as before stated, are anxious
    to promote the general good!

    4th.--Who have, from first to last, advocated the exposure of
    all they do to fair criticism, and voted for the ADMISSION of
    REPORTERS to Newspapers, in the very face of other gentlemen
    who desire a _secrecy_ as strict as the Inquisition of old?

    5th--Who is it--that can create any hope within you, that
    whatever of rottenness there may be, even in the rottenest end
    of Dudley, shall be cleansed in due time?--

    The answer--you have already anticipated, is that which will
    determine you to Vote for the Rev. Dr. Browne, Messrs. Richard
    Smith, Elliott Hollier, S. D. Fereday, W. C. Wood, and G. J.
    England.

    Be not deceived! These Gentlemen are recommended for your
    adoption because it is evident you may trace in _their_ past
    conduct that _openness_ and that _independence_ which must ever
    constitute true _manhood_; that intelligent persistence in
    efforts for the general good, which is the best guarantee of
    any "Trusteeship" being wisely sustained; WHO HAVE DISPLAYED
    AN INDIFFERENCE TO BE GOVERNED BY ANY ONE MAN--or even by any
    doubtful _hero_--whose chief recommendation could be, that he
    "swears heartily," and "foams" angrily when he finds any one
    near his august presence that deigns to think for himself.

    Look to it well, you men of Dudley and the District, that you
    select only such men as _can act for themselves, without first
    asking what Mr. So-and-so thinks_. Depend upon it, that in this
    case, as in many others, "it is better to bear the ills we (are
    alleged to) have, than fly to others we know not of!"

                                                    "AREOPAGITICA."

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE INTELLIGENT RATEPAYERS OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    A "Wellwisher," certainly not to the _Town of Dudley_, has
    thought proper to insult you by the publication of a scurrilous
    Handbill, reflecting upon the Gentlemen retiring during the
    present year from office in your Local Board of Health. A more
    disgraceful production, and one more calculated to serve purely
    party purposes at the expense of truth, it has seldom been my
    lot to read. The Gentlemen there alluded to have exercised no
    deception--have been guilty of no trickery. They have made
    no professions which have not been faithfully carried out in
    practice. As to recklessness and extravagance compare their
    amount of Assessment and Rates with those of the Gentlemen
    "Wellwisher" so magniloquently recommends to your notice;
    WHILST THE FORMER REPRESENT PROPERTY PAYING UPWARDS OF £650 PER
    RATE, THE LATTER, OR MR. BADGER'S NOMINEES, PAY ONLY £57--the
    best answer to any assertion as to their expending so much
    money of their own for the mere pleasure of spending yours.

    "Wellwisher" then appeals to the Ratepayers of Freebodies,
    Netherton, Woodside, and Holly Hall, evidently wishing
    to excite a hostile feeling between the Ratepayers of the
    districts and the Town itself. He asks "what has been done to
    our streets and thoroughfares?" Why, kept in as good repair
    and as well attended to as during the supremacy of his friends
    upon the old Highway Board; but doubtless "Wellwisher" wishes
    sufficiently well to the Tradesmen and "Shopkeepers" as to
    desire them not only to keep in repair the "streets, roads,
    and thoroughfares," but also to _make_ them, for the benefit
    of those who have sold and bought land at a great profit, and
    built houses in these localities, a thing always refused by the
    Highway Board as well as the Board of Health.

    Beyond this, why does not "Wellwisher" tell you what his
    immaculate saving friends are endeavouring to do at the present
    moment, _viz._--to throw the expenses of the repairs of the
    roads generally upon the rates, and which if effected will
    go far to double the payments upon the Town itself. This has
    already in part been done,--the Turnpike Commissioners have
    refused to repair (which has always before been done by them)
    that part of the street leading to Wolverhampton, situate
    between St. James's Church and the Turnpike Gate, and without
    any notice having been given to the Board or their Surveyor,
    consequently this part of your streets has not been attended to
    or cleansed for many weeks. If it be not for mere "deception
    and trickery," why does "Wellwisher" wish you to suppose that
    the Rates levied by the Local Board of Health are something
    new, and that without its establishment such payments would
    not have been required, whilst it admits of easy proof that
    the Rates paid by you during the past three years, under the
    management of the Board, have been considerably less than those
    formerly levied by the Town Commissioners and Highway Board.

    As to the salaries paid to the various officers, why does not
    "Wellwisher" [?] go back to the palmy days of the old Town Act
    Commissioners and Highway Board, and tell us of the payments
    made in secret in those times? why does he not refer to the
    appointment of the salary of the Clerk to the Guardians, which
    was fixed, in spite of the Poor Law Board, at a higher amount
    than they thought necessary? why does he not refer to the _job_
    as to the appointment of the Relieving Officer as Master of
    the Dudley Workhouse?--because, forsooth, he happened to be a
    relative of one of those who prates most and pays least. "The
    labourer is worthy of his hire," but if their salaries be too
    high, let their work be ascertained and paid for accordingly;
    but far better a good round sum at once, which is known to all,
    than allow an officer to eke it out by summonses and expenses,
    obtained from poor people before the magistrates.

    He talks about sewerage, and the probability of its being
    carried into effect, estimating its amount at an extravagant
    rate. Will "Wellwisher" have the hardihood to assert that
    drainage is not wanted, when it is a well-known fact that, with
    great natural facilities, Dudley is one of the worst seweraged
    towns in the whole kingdom; that there is not a drain in any
    street sufficient to take away the water from the various
    cellars and lower parts of the houses; and to this fact alone
    is it to be attributed its great and extraordinary mortality,
    the average duration of life here being only 19 years: or would
    he rather that these things should exist than that any attempt
    should be made to improve them. "Wellwisher" then pathetically
    alludes to the Poor Man's Pigs, very probably not only having
    a great sympathy for them, but also for the mire in which they
    wallow; but will those whose feelings he wishes to excite,
    believe that very many of his professing friends actually
    signed a memorial to the Board, calling strongly for the
    removal of Pigs from the entire of the Town District, and which
    was objected to by some of those he so harshly anathematizes.
    Doubtless, too, he approves of some of those high in authority
    keeping pigs in such a condition that the filth from their
    styes should drain into his neighbour's sitting or bed room.
    "Wellwisher" next endeavours to enlist the sympathies of
    others by allusion to the Rating of Tenements' Act, falsely
    asserting that those who were in favour of its introduction
    were themselves exempt from any effect of its operation. "Let
    the galled jade wince!" Its promoters supported it from just
    and proper motives, and not from the wish that their smaller
    dwellings should be drained and cleansed at the expense of
    other people.

    FELLOW RATEPAYERS.--"Wellwisher's" publication is nothing more
    than an impudent attempt to set Town against Country, and
    Country against Town, in order to relieve the Country part of
    the District of their fair share of the Rates at the expense of
    the heavily taxed Ratepayers of the Town. It is a disgraceful
    attack upon individuals who have devoted much valuable time
    to serve the Town, and who had the "unblushing effrontery"
    to endeavour to do right,--who have not sought either to do
    their fellow ratepayers "Brown," or "Badger" them, but to act
    independently and faithfully for their best interests, and
    which time alone will fully prove. If you still wish to have
    men to represent you, who are disposed to continue to act thus,
    do not be dictated to by Mr. Badger, but Vote for

    R. SMITH, ESQ.
    S. D. FEREDAY, ESQ.
    REV. DR. BROWNE.
    MR. ELLIOTT HOLLIER.
     "  W. C. WOOD.
     "  G. J. ENGLAND.

            I am, Fellow Ratepayers,
                       YOUR WELLWISHER, AND ALSO A LOVER OF TRUTH.

    _Dudley, March 1856._

May 27th, 1856. After twelve days trial in London, William Palmer,
Surgeon, of Rugeley, Staffordshire, was found guilty of poisoning his
racing companion, Mr. J. P. Cook, at the Shrewsbury races. Palmer
poisoned poor Cook with strychnine for the purpose of robbing him of a
large sum of money which Cook had won at the races. Palmer was hanged
at Stafford Gaol for this dastardly offence on June 14th following;
the murderous wretch maintained the most callous indifference to all
around him to the last. He was well known in Dudley.

May 29th, 1856. This day was kept as a general holiday throughout
the country in commemoration of the Peace. Old Dudley Castle, which
had "braved the Battle and the Breeze" for upwards of 800 years, was
illuminated with a grand display of fireworks.

Died, August 19th, 1856, Thomas Badger, Esq., of the "Hill House,"
Dudley. This genial, but blunt and frank old gentleman, was one of
Dudley's worthiest sons; his familiar figure daily moving in our midst,
secured the esteem of all good people, and his quiet and unostentatious
benevolence has gladdened the hearts of widows and orphans, when
none were allowed to witness the tear of the giver. Mr. Badger (like
a great many more of our Dudley worthies) began life in very humble
circumstances, and rose step by step until he became Chief Magistrate
of this Borough. He was for a lengthened period (along with his
brother, Isaac Badger) very extensively engaged in the glass trade,
the nail trade, the coal trade, and iron trades of this district, and
it is not too much to say that Messrs. Badger Brothers at all times
exercised the most potent influence upon the industries of Dudley and
neighbourhood. As a large employer of labour, he was much respected by
all his workpeople, and a cordial feeling always existed between the
head of the firm and the numerous employes both in the ironworks and
collieries. In religion he was a sound Churchman, and in politics he
belonged to the Tory party, but Mr. Badger was not a rabid politician,
for he had the honour of once being requested to stand as a Candidate
for the Borough of Dudley, on Independent principles, but he declined
the honour. He was a most shrewd and active Magistrate for many years,
and as Mr. Badger lived through perilous times his decisions on the
Bench were always tempered with a wonderful insight into the human
character, accepting Mercy and Justice as his motto. His personal
friendships created a halo of kindly feeling and generous sentiment
amongst a large circle of personal friends and acquaintances, which
will be long remembered in Dudley, and his death, at the ripe old
age of 75 years, was universally regretted. A marble monument in St.
Edmund's Church records his numerous virtues.

Died, suddenly, August 23rd, 1856, Mr. Joseph Pitchfork, Master for
30 years of Baylies's School, Tower Street. Mr. Pitchfork was a man
of very deep and extensive intellectual acquirements, and a more
kind-hearted and genial soul never lived. Through his assiduity and
zeal, for he was a real lover of his work, his educational training
in Baylies's School has bequeathed to this town and locality some of
the foremost and most eminent commercial men in our midst, and it is
a source of great pleasure to the author of these lines to witness
and observe in his walk in life so many evidences of the estimable
teaching of the late Mr. Pitchfork. So soon as his lamentable death
became known, the following letter was issued, and a public meeting
was convened at Baylies's School Room, expressing condolence and
sympathy with Mrs. Pitchfork and her family. A Committee of upwards
of 60 gentlemen, many of them old pupils, was formed "for the purpose
of raising a fund in grateful recognition of his valuable services
rendered to the cause of education."

                          SARACEN'S HEAD INN, DUDLEY,
                                              _August 24th, 1856_.

    DEAR SIR,

    At a Meeting held this morning, at the above Inn, of a few
    Friends of the late MR. JOSEPH PITCHFORK, most of whom were
    educated by him in their youth, the following Resolutions were
    adopted:--

    "That considering the very great and valuable services
    rendered to the cause of Education by the Deceased, who held
    the appointment of Master of Baylies's School, in Dudley, for
    upwards of thirty years, it is desirable that a Subscription
    be entered into for presentation to his family, as a suitable
    Memorial of the gratitude of his Friends, Pupils, and Admirers,
    and in recognition of his eminent public services."

    "That Messrs. John Finch, John Castree, John H. Smith, James
    Worley, William Insull, Frederick Stokes, William Timmins, and
    Edmund Long, all of Dudley, do form themselves into a Committee
    for effecting the above purpose."

    "That a Meeting be held at the School Room, in Tower Street,
    on Friday next, the 29th instant, at Eight o'clock p.m., when
    arrangements will be made and Subscriptions received, and that
    Subscribers and Friends be respectfully requested to give their
    attendance on the occasion."

    Should you be prevented attending the Meeting, you or your
    Friends will oblige by paying or remitting Subscriptions to any
    Member of the Committee, or to myself at any time.

    I am also requested to state that such Pupils and Friends as
    may be desirous of showing their respect to the Deceased's
    memory, and of accompanying his body to the grave, will
    assemble at Baylies's School, next Sunday morning at Ten a.m.

                  I am, dear sir,
                         Yours respectfully,
                                  JOHN H. SMITH, HON. SEC.
                                               Kate's Hill, Dudley.

A very successful appeal was made on this very worthy occasion, and the
following friends assisted in the cause:--


PITCHFORK TESTIMONIAL FUND.

    COMMITTEE:

    Rev. William McKean
    W. E. Johnson, Esq.
    Mr. Edward Grainger
     "  C. F. G. Clark
     "  Peter Wright
     "  Edward Wood
     "  Charles Tyler
     "  W. Sheppard
     "  John Owen
     "  Thomas Roberts
     "  Alexander Patterson
     "  George E. Horton
     "  John Williscroft
     "  James Smith
     "  Henry Silvers
     "  Thomas Crew
     "  T. E. Beesley
     "  W. Meese
     "  Joseph Beddard
     "  R. W. Vanes
     "  Geo. T. Patterson
     "  William Davies
     "  Samuel Boden
     "  Thomas Haynes
     "  George Wood
     "  George Stevenson
     "  Thomas Morris
    Mr. John Finch
     "  John Castree
     "  John H. Vanes
     "  John H. Smith
     "  James Worley
     "  William Insull
     "  Frederick Stokes
     "  William Timmins
     "  Edward Long
     "  Edward Wood, jun.
     "  William Bunch
     "  John Baugh
     "  G. H. Deeley
     "  Richard Meredith
     "  John Newey
     "  Charles Russell
     "  Alfred Patterson
     "  Frederick Timmins
     "  Elijah Smith
     "  Edward Pratt
     "  Thomas Jones
     "  William Glaze
     "  James Powell
     "  George Pitt
     "  George Blunt
     "  David Davies
     "  Simeon Davies

    _Treasurer_, Mr. J. Finch.

    _Honorary Secretary_, Mr. J. H. Smith.

    A Meeting will be held at Baylies's School, Tower Street,
    Dudley, on Friday, August 29th, 1856, for the purpose of
    raising a Fund in grateful recognition of the valuable services
    rendered to the cause of Education by the late Mr. Joseph
    Pitchfork, who was Master of that School for a period of 30
    years.

    The Committee earnestly appeal to the Public, the Friends, and
    the Pupils of the deceased in furtherance of this desirable
    object, it being the last mark of respect they can pay to the
    memory of one who has long and unweariedly laboured for the
    intellectual advancement of the rising generation, and whose
    sudden decease has left so much to pity and deplore.

Mr. Pitchfork was a Radical in politics, and, in his early days, a
friend and unswerving supporter of Sir John Campbell, Bart. He died at
the early age of 51 years, respected and beloved by a very large circle
of scholars, old pupils and acquaintances, leaving a blank in the town
which was long unfilled.

September 9th, 1856. The Grand Lodge of Freemasons of Worcestershire,
clothed in their regalia, walked in procession through the town, and
dined together at the hotel.

September 10th, 1856. Mr. James Worley, the Collector of the Income
and Property Tax and Assessed Taxes for this Parish suddenly absconded
with upwards of £2,000 belonging to the Crown Treasury; he afterwards
underwent imprisonment in Worcester Gaol for the offence, the town
being compelled to make up the deficiency.

Died, September 19th, 1856, having dropped down dead in the street, Mr.
John Shedden, Tailor, Stone Street, aged 74 years.

December 10th, 1856. The new Parsonage House of St. Edmund's Parish was
occupied at this time by the respected incumbent, the Rev. John Davies,
M.A., the land and a handsome donation was given by Lord Ward, the rest
of the funds having been raised by voluntary subscription amongst the
congregation and friends of the church.

December 17th, 1856. The ladies of St. Edmund's Congregation this
evening presented to Mrs. John Davis, at the new St. Edmund's
Parsonage, a purse containing £100, as a mark of respect and esteem.
Mr. Churchwarden C. F. G. Clark was mainly instrumental in securing the
erection of this Parsonage House.

On December 22nd, 1856, a large public meeting was held in the old
town hall, Mr. John Renaud, the Mayor, in the chair, to take into
consideration the very great injustice of the Income Tax, and to adopt
such measures by a petition to the legislature as will lead to its
immediate and total repeal. The town having recently been compelled
to pay over again James Worley's defalcations, had sorely vexed all
parties on the imposition of this tax, but alas, the Exchequer did not
like to part with an easily collected tax; so it would look as if we
were doomed to have this imposition in perpetuity; for it is 25 years
since that meeting was held, and we see the Income Tax gatherer, as
heretofore, "taking his walks abroad" amongst us, book in hand.

March 12th, 1857, the borough was greatly astonished and surprised
this morning at the publication of the following hand bill, announcing
the resignation of our highly esteemed representative, Sir Stafford
Northcote, Bart., M.P. A variety of supposed reasons were rapidly
floated in the borough for this sudden determination of the honourable
baronet to sever his connexion with Dudley; but it was well understood
that Sir Stafford's vote on Mr. Cobden's motion against the odious
"China opium trade" had given mortal offence to his noble friend, who
had withdrawn his countenance and local support from him in these
critical times.

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    I hasten to inform you that I have been induced to offer myself
    as a Candidate for the Northern Division of my own County,
    both the representatives of which are about to retire from
    Parliament. This circumstance will lead to the termination of
    my connection with your Borough, a connection to which I shall
    always look back with pleasure, and with a sincere feeling of
    gratitude for the uniform kindness I have received at the hands
    both of my political supporters and my opponents among you.
    Should it ever be in my power at any future time to render any
    service to my late constituents, they may freely command me.

              I remain, Gentlemen,
                       Your faithful and obliged Servant,
                                            STAFFORD H. NORTHCOTE.

    _Pynes, Exeter, March 12th, 1857._

This announcement caused a deputation to start off at once to induce
Sir Stafford to withdraw his determination, but it returned with the
unpleasant news that "the die was cast," and that our honourable member
would not withdraw his resignation, nor sit any longer under a local
dictatorship.

Swift and decisive was the action of all the political elements in the
Borough at this momentous period. The old Tory party, with Mr. Isaac
Badger at their head, was highly enraged at the Castle influence over
our esteemed member. The Radical party was equally furious at this
wanton interference in high quarters; and the more sober thinking
electors began to feel that it was absolutely necessary, now at this
juncture, and for ever, to break the neck of that galling dictation
which had so long existed in the Borough. The strife began at once in
earnest, and bitter indeed was that contest which shook the political
House of Himley to its base, and sent the Castle Nominee back to his
friends.

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    The Independent Electors of the Borough of Dudley are earnestly
    requested to withhold any pledge upon the forthcoming Election
    until a Deputation which is about to wait upon SIR STAFFORD H.
    NORTHCOTE returns from the interview with him.

                     By Order of the Council of Snobs,
                                      I. SNUBB, ESQUIRE, CHAIRMAN.

    _Brandy Row, March 16th, 1857._

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION!

    All Persons desirous of Redeeming the Political Independence
    of Dudley, are requested to attend a Meeting at the Castle and
    Falcon Inn, this afternoon, Thursday, March the 19th, at three
    o'clock precisely.

    _Castle and Falcon Inn, Wolverhampton Street, March 19th, 1857._

Whilst these angry elements were getting ventilated amongst the
irritated electors, it was known to a chosen few that the wire-pullers
were at work, and that a ready cut and dried candidate "was bottled up
not far from the Priory," ready to be let off at any moment, hence, at
the fitting time, out came his address.

    TO THE INDEPENDENT ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    The retirement of SIR STAFFORD NORTHCOTE having created a
    vacancy in the Representation of your Borough, I venture
    to offer myself as a Candidate for your suffrages at the
    approaching Election.

    In doing so, I am anxious to state, with perfect candour, the
    political views I entertain on some of the important questions
    of the day.

    I am in favor of that system of progressive Legislation
    which has for its object the Reform of all existing abuses,
    without having recourse to violent and organic changes in the
    constitution of Church and State.

    During the period I had the honour of a seat in Parliament,
    at a time when the policy of Free Trade was much questioned,
    I felt it my duty to support and advocate the system of
    Commercial Freedom introduced by the late Sir Robert Peel.

    I rejoice to think that this policy has tended to promote the
    comfort and welfare of the People, to inspire confidence in
    the justice of Parliament, and to augment to such a wonderful
    extent the Trade and Revenue of the Country.

    While the partial diminution of the Income Tax is a matter of
    congratulation, I am strongly of opinion that it is the duty of
    the Government, by means of well-considered reductions in our
    expenditure, to make provision for the final extinction of a
    Tax, valuable in time of war, but unjust as a permanent burden
    on the energies and property of the Country during a period of
    Peace.

    With respect to the vote on the Chinese War, which has led
    directly to the present appeal to the Country, while I
    deeply regret that hostilities should have been carried to
    such an extent without the knowledge of the Government, I am
    nevertheless strongly of opinion that it was necessary for the
    honor of the Country, as well as for the security of the lives
    and property of our fellow-subjects in that distant quarter of
    the Globe, that the Government should uphold and defend, with
    that courage and determination which has ever characterized
    Lord Palmerston on such occasions, the conduct of its Officers,
    until the adjustment of the points in dispute shall have been
    obtained.

    Subjects connected with the reform of many social evils must
    shortly engage the attention of the Legislature--the extension
    of the blessings of Education--the Reformation of Juvenile
    Offenders, and the Policy to be pursued towards those under
    sentence of Penal servitude.

    To all these measures I will give my best attention, believing
    that they are the questions which touch most nearly the
    best interests of the Country at the present moment--the
    consideration of which can no longer be delayed, and for the
    speedy carrying out of which it is necessary, in my opinion, to
    strengthen the hands of the present Ministry.

    Gentlemen,--Having no mere Party or personal motives to
    gratify, my conduct, should I have the honor of being returned
    to Parliament as your Representative, will ever be governed by
    the best judgment I am able to form of what is conducive to the
    honor, welfare, and commercial prosperity of the Country.

    I may be permitted to add, that it will always be my wish to
    attend to your Local interests, and to forward those measures
    which you may think necessary to the prosperity of Dudley and
    its neighbourhood.

                 I have the honor to be, Gentlemen,
                                Your most obedient Servant,
                                                      J. SANDARS.

    _15, Eaton Square, March 18th._

Mr. J. Sandars' address was read with a good share of criticism by
both parties, but as it was hatched at the Priory it would not go
down the throats of the ultra Tories, and as for the ultra Radicals
they were determined to fish out a candidate of their own liking.
Mr. J. Sandars (it came out on investigation) had represented Great
Yarmouth for a short period as a Palmerstonian supporter, that he had
been rejected for Bewdley, and was willing to do the "Ward Trick" for
Dudley, if elected. Just at this juncture of events the Earldom of
the house of Himley was looming in the distance, and any support that
could be given to Lord Palmerston's government was of moment to the
interested parties; but another strong element was also engaging the
minds and inclinations of some of the most active politicians in Dudley
on both sides of the question, and it was determined to make a bold
and resolute effort to shake off the "unhallowed incubus" which had so
long sat upon the backs of the Dudley so-called free and independent
electors. This extreme measure was successfully effected by a "Public
Coalition" between the ultra Tories, lead on by Mr. Isaac Badger, Mr.
Wm. Haden, Mr. J. G. Walker, &c., and the ultra Radicals, headed by
Messrs. T. Wood, G. Wood, Wm. Insull, Samuel Cook, and others. After
this "happy family" had been wrought into working condition, its first
business was to fraternize after Dudley fashion, and then bring out
an "Independent Candidate that could lick Lord Ward." The greatest
desideratum believed to be advisable was to secure a local man, one who
knew something about the iron and coal trades. Three or four highly
eligible gentlemen hereabouts were interviewed without success, so that
there was no alternative but sending up to London for an enterprising
young gentleman willing to stand for Dudley.

On March 21st, 1857, a supple candidate to suit both parties was
brought down from London, equipped for any emergency, in the person of
(_a time-honoured name_) Mr. Henry Brinsley Sheridan, Barrister-at-law,
the Inner Temple, London.

Mr. Sheridan's address appeared at once, and as it smacked a good deal
of the learned lawyer, and promised to abrogate questions which both
the Tories and the Radicals were anxious to see expunged from the
Statute Book, its appearance was hailed with a jubilee of satisfaction,
and the crowning period of Dudley's Political Freedom was foreshadowed.
Strenuous efforts were made to induce Mr. Charles Shaw, of Birmingham,
Merchant, to come forward on moderate Conservative principles, which
was thought by some might conduce to heal the Tory breach in the
Borough; but Mr. Shaw was too shrewd a gentleman to be dropped betwixt
two stools, so he declined the honour with thanks, and left the
Electors of Dudley to fight the battle of political freedom in the
candidature of Mr. J. Sandars and Mr. H. B. Sheridan.

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    In pursuance of a Requisition, I offer myself to the Electors
    of Dudley as a Candidate for the honor of representing you in
    the forthcoming Parliament, and my desire is to assist you
    in the assertion of your right to choose for yourselves the
    man who is to represent your views in the House of Commons.
    I take this step the more readily from an inherent desire to
    be independent myself, and to co-operate with men animated
    by similar views. If I am fortunate enough to be returned to
    Parliament by your votes, I will submit to neither blandishment
    nor dictation, but will think for myself on the great
    questions of the day, and in thus doing, I shall be imitating
    the manly characteristics of the Electors of Dudley, who are
    neither to be unduly influenced, interfered with, or dictated
    to. Impressed with these views, I will be open and candid
    with you in reference to those articles in the Political
    Creed, which at the present hour are the principal subjects of
    discussion.

    INCOME TAX.--I am a staunch advocate for its entire and
    immediate abolition.

    CHURCH RATES.--I am in favor of their Repeal, but am willing
    to substitute, if practicable, some equivalent that will
    preserve our magnificent National Edifices from decay, and at
    the same time secure to our Protestant Church the alliance and
    protection of the state.

    FRANCHISE.--I am in favor of gradually and carefully extending
    the Franchise, to meet the wants arising from the advancement
    and progress of the age, and in furtherance of this view, am
    willing to place the County Voter upon an equality with the
    Borough Voter by giving him a £10 qualification.

    ARMY AND NAVY.--I am decidedly in favor of a thorough and
    searching Reform in both these departments of the National
    Service, and particularly of introducing, as a chief feature of
    such Reform, the practice of granting Commissions and giving
    Promotion to merit.

    SHIPPING AND SOUNDING DUES.--I am determined to use every
    constitutional means to obtain the entire removal of these
    obstructive imposts, believing that no Corporate Funds ought to
    be increased by Taxes that amount to a restriction on Trade,
    and which press with peculiar severity upon industry and
    manufacture.

    EXTRA PAROCHIAL PROPERTY.--All property should and must be made
    to bear its equal share of local burdens.

    THE WAR WITH CHINA.--I am not in favor of delegating to
    individuals the power to declare War in the name of Great
    Britain, or the right to bombard Cities and destroy life and
    property. I deprecate at all times the unnecessary shedding of
    human blood; but the Chinese War having now commenced and the
    interests involved being so enormous, I am in favor of adopting
    every legitimate means for bringing the conflict to an end, a
    jealous regard being had for the honour of English Policy, and
    the power of English might.

    EDUCATION.--This I am desirous of extending to its utmost
    limits, totally irrespective of Sectarianism, firmly believing
    that to Education we must look for the ultimate happiness and
    prosperity of the country.

    THE BALLOT.--I am not disposed to adopt the Ballot, believing
    that the reasons at present urged in favour of secret voting
    will rapidly and altogether pass away with the growing
    intelligence and progress of the age.

    FREE TRADE has my unqualified support.

    LOCAL INTERESTS.--I am anxious to identify myself absolutely
    with the views and interests of your Borough, and in the event
    of my Election, I will spare no opportunity of proving to you
    practically the earnestness and sincerity of my professions.

    Gentlemen, These are my political views, and I believe that
    if honestly advocated and carried out with purity of purpose,
    under the blessing of Providence, they will conduce to the
    happiness and welfare of the millions of our native land.

                        I am, Gentlemen,
                                Your most obedient Servant,
                                          HENRY BRINSLEY SHERIDAN.

    _Inner Temple, London, and Bellefield House, Fulham, Middlesex.
    March 21st, 1857._

       *       *       *       *       *

    To Enterprising Young Men in Search of Employment, Stump
    Orators, and Others.

    WANTED, for the Borough of Dudley, a CANDIDATE for PARLIAMENT!
    to Represent the "Badger" Interest.

    He must be a man with plenty of "Jaw," and one who will not
    stick at trifles, but can turn himself round as a Weathercock.
    One who has formerly been a Conservative, but is now an extreme
    Radical, will be preferred.

    [asterism] None need apply except they have both "jaw" and
    credit, as many of those who would otherwise do, as regards the
    former, are excluded by want of the latter.

    Apply by Letter only, W. Rattlebrain, Pig street.

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    Mr. SANDARS, the Candidate for the Representation of this
    Borough, will address the Electors at the Old Town Hall, on
    Friday, the 20th instant, at Three o'clock in the Afternoon.

    _Dudley, 19th March, 1857._

       *       *       *       *       *

    Found! Found!! Found!!! The "Enterprising Young Man for the
    Borough of Dudley." He has both "Jaw and Credit," and can
    Represent the Badger Interest, but Alas! Alas!! Alas!!! When I
    advertised for him I did not think he would so soon have made
    his appearance.

                                             Signed, HONEY MERRY.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    TO THE FREE AND INDEPENDENT ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    Withhold the Promise of your Votes to Mr. Sandars, as Charles
    Shaw, Esq., of Birmingham, is expected in Dudley this Evening.

                                                      AN ELECTOR.

    _Dudley, March 20th, 1857._

       *       *       *       *       *

    At a Meeting of the Non-Electors of Dudley, held at the
    Lancasterian School Room, Stafford Street, the 25th day of
    March, 1857. Mr. William Gilbert, Jun., in the chair, it was--

    Moved by Mr. Longhurst, and Seconded by Mr. Oakley, and
    carried unanimously:--"That this Meeting of Non-Electors of
    Dudley welcomes the present favourable opportunity which now
    offers itself of freeing the Borough of Dudley from Political
    Vassalage, Nomineeism, and Lordly Dictation."

    Moved by Mr. Wallwork, seconded by Mr. Ginder, Jun., and
    carried unanimously:--"That the Non-Electors of Dudley,
    hereby pledge themselves to support the Political Freedom and
    Independence of this Borough, by using all legitimate efforts
    to ensure the triumphant return of the Independent Candidate,
    Henry Brinsley Sheridan, Esq."

    Moved by Mr. Wallwork, seconded by Mr. Parsons, and carried
    unanimously:--"That the best thanks be given to the Chairman,
    for his conduct in the Chair."

                                      W. GILBERT, Jun., Chairman.

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE INDEPENDENT ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    We, the undersigned, request the Independent Electors of the
    Borough of Dudley to meet at the Old Town Hall, to-morrow, at
    One o'clock, to consider what steps can be best taken to secure
    the Independence of the Borough, and to enable the Electors to
    exercise their free and unbiassed judgment in the choice of
    their Representative.

    Isaac Badger
    W. Robinson
    W. Haden
    J. Renaud
    Thomas Badger
    J. G. Walker
    J. Beddard
    J. Owen
    J. Walker
    Thomas Steedman
    W. Wilkinson
    G. Smith
    Joshua Wilkinson
    Gilbert Shaw
    Thomas Shaw
    Joseph Owen
    James Darby.

    _March 23rd, 1857._

The Political ball had now been set rolling by both parties in this
unnatural contest, but men in Dudley had learnt the old adage--"that
misfortune makes men acquainted with strange bedfellows," therefore
they had accepted their dubious lot at all hazards, and it soon became
evident that Mr. Sheridan was the idol of the Non-Electors, whose
potent influence was brought to bear with great persistence upon the
thousand Electors. Mr. Sheridan was found to be free and pleasant and
spoke well on the platform; he was admirably schooled in political
knowledge, and he knew how to please the wives as well as the voters.
Meetings by both Candidates were held almost hourly, for there was no
time to lose, and the screw that was put on at head-quarters was both
unmanly and ungenerous, causing a large number of former Conservative
voters to declare their intention to support Mr. Sheridan, the
Independent Candidate. However, before the Nomination day arrived,
(March 28th) Mr. Sandars had found out that his cards had been seen
by his opponents and that he was playing a losing game, calculated to
damage his aspirations at some more acceptable Borough, he therefore
issued the following address, which promoted H. B. Sheridan, Esq., to
the distinguished position of being elected the Independent Member for
the Nominee Borough of Dudley.

    TO THE ELECTORS OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    The aspect of this Election has assumed a character of a purely
    personal nature, in which Politics are entirely forgotten.

    While I feel my own individual claims to the honor of
    representing you in Parliament have not even been called in
    question, and am deeply sensible of the kind manner in which
    I have been generally received, I cannot disguise from myself
    that in the present state of feeling in the Borough, arising
    from misrepresentation, and a disinclination on the part of the
    Electors to calmly consider the actual facts of the case, the
    result of a direct appeal to the Constituency would be doubtful.

    Under these circumstances I have resolved to retire from the
    contest, persisting in which would occasion an unusual amount
    of ill feeling, and be painful to those, who, having hitherto
    acted together during the whole of their Political life, would
    on this occasion be found ranged in opposition to each other.

    Time, I trust, will convince you, that I came forward on purely
    Independent grounds, as a supporter of the energetic policy of
    Lord Palmerston, to uphold which I believe to be the real wish
    of the Electors of Dudley.

                     I have the honour to be,
                              Gentlemen,
                                  Your most obedient Servant,
                                                       J. SANDARS.

    _Dudley, 27th, March, 1857._

       *       *       *       *       *

    NOT WANTED! "THE WEAKLY PRESS-GANG!"

    URGENTLY WANTED!! A GOOD LEADER THERE FOR!

    Must be a Leader of _principal_ wherewith to prop the LOCAL
    BUTTER Paper _interest_!!! _Local_ Cockney Correspondents,
    Castle Toadies, Priory Vassals, Quibbling Quacks, Old Women,
    Lazy Printers' Devils, and Industrious Nonentities, especially
    needed, as the Butter Paper Press, _alias_ the "Weakly Times,"
    is in feeble health!!!

    By order of the Society for the prohibition of useless
    knowledge, the protection of the Queen's English, and the total
    suppression of the Public Traffic in Cheap Composition, Cant,
    Cabbage, and Castle-toadyism.

                  _Address_--
                        COBBLEM & MACKEMTIRE,
                                  Little Castle Alley!!!
                         A FRIEND OF ONE THAT HAS BRAINS TO RATTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    What causes Electors to wish for the Ballot?

    What causes Electors to remain neutral?

    What causes Chartism?

    Through Lords or their Agents to exert authority or power in an
    Insolent, Arbitrary, or Tyrannical manner.

    Down with such, and we, as Englishmen, had ought to enjoy that
    Charter which was given to us by King John.

    Stick true to those liberties you have, and not be slaves to
    any one. Use your own opinion and fear no one.

                                                       AN ELECTOR.

       *       *       *       *       *

    STOP.

    ELECTORS OF DUDLEY be _Men._--_Think_ for yourselves.--_Vote_
    for yourselves.--Do not allow any Lord to rob you of your
    franchise.

    If you vote for Sandars you sanction the right of Lord Ward
    to choose your Representative.--You abandon your right of
    selecting one that is independent.

    If Sandars be elected he dare not vote in opposition to his
    Lordship's will, if he did he would soon cease to be Member for
    Dudley, under such circumstances he will be Lord Ward's and not
    your Member.

    How has Lord Ward treated Sir Stafford H. Northcote? Most
    shamefully; there is proof in this town that Sir Stafford did
    not go to North Devon as a matter of choice.--He abandoned
    Dudley because Lord Ward abandoned him for Voting honorably
    on the China question in opposition to the Ministry which has
    the support of Lord Ward, on that ground his Lordship sent us
    Mr. Sandars.--Now this Gentleman told us at his first Meeting
    that he had his Lordship's support, that his Lordship spent a
    quarter of a million annually in 'this Borough' (we suppose
    this was a mistake, and that he meant 'the world') and that
    therefore his Lordship had a right to be represented.

    The meaning of this could not be mistaken, but let us ask why
    does not his Lordship act and vote for himself in the House of
    Peers? Let him use his hereditary privileges for the protection
    of his rights and not rob us of ours.--We would not ask by what
    means his ancestors became entitled to the Estates the income
    whereof enables so large an expenditure; but we will tell his
    Lordship that were he alone upon those Estates, and had not the
    assistance and labor of the surrounding inhabitants, he would
    have no income to expend--Thus it is clear that his Lordship
    is indebted to the people, and not the people to him. Shall
    he then hold us in hereditary bondage with the very means the
    people create for him? Shall he put a veto on the use of our
    intellects and nominate _his_ as _our_ Representative without a
    struggle on our part? Could our ancestors arise they would be
    ashamed of us, they would weep to see us licking the dust upon
    the heels of power without an effort to be free.

    This nominee tells us he is a supporter of Lord Palmerston on
    the China question, which means that he, Sandars, will back
    the _murder and wholesale butchery_ in China of thousands of
    innocent men; he will support the Government in burning and
    destroying the houses of the rich and poor at Canton; he is
    the man to aid and abet the breaking out of war on the part of
    the English, without the knowledge or assent of the people, or
    of the Parliament: he is the man to uphold the Government in
    setting the vote of the Peoples' Representatives at defiance:
    he is the man who talks of assisting in the reduction of the
    Income Tax, and yet will afford facilities for the expenditure
    of our money in war without our knowledge or consent: he is
    the man who on the hustings at Bewdley alleged that he was a
    follower of Earl Derby, and now comes here in opposition to
    that Nobleman on the very question which has broken up the
    present Parliament.

    ELECTORS "awake, arise, or be for ever fallen." Men of all
    shades of Politics, Whig and Tory, buckle on your armour, go
    hand in hand, beat back the foe that would rob you of your
    franchise. Shew your independence, let cowardice be distant. It
    is not a question between Whig and Tory that we have to decide,
    (Sandars is neither Whig or Tory,) but between Independence
    and Mental Slavery. The days when Lordlings treated Villagers
    as Serfs and Vassals have passed, and it is only history that
    should remind us that such things were.

    Shall we return to serfdom and vassalage?--No.

    Is the Lord of our manor to nominate our man, and say as of old
    "to hear is to obey"?--No.

    Stir yourselves, put an end to your lethargy, rally round
    the standard of the worthy, independent, and intelligent Mr.
    SHERIDAN; go forth to the battle determined to defend your
    rights, even as our ancestors would have done with their blood,
    and Victory shall be yours.

                                                       AN ELECTOR.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION--

    The Rival Candidates--Which is the True and Consistent one?

    BROTHER ELECTORS,

    Be not deceived! Look at the member for Yarmouth's policy at
    Bewdley--examine well his opinions upon that occasion, and then
    turn to his address to you--can you call this man Consistent?
    Is he one that you can trust? Common-sense men will tell you
    NO! And we trust that you will echo and repeat this answer
    No!--to the poll--and prove to everybody that you will not
    have a man who comes under false colours, or who is a mere
    Weathercock to suit the several constituencies to whom he may
    offer himself. A Derbyite to the Electors of Bewdley, and a
    Palmerstonian to Lord Ward, whom He deems to be the "Borough of
    Dudley" itself. Ponder this and you will then plump for the man
    who has so nobly responded to your call--the man who bears the
    time-honoured name of HENRY BRINSLEY SHERIDAN.

              Brother Electors, do not be deceived!
                                            AN INDEPENDENT ELECTOR.

       *       *       *       *       *

    A FEW LINES TO THE PRAISE OF THE CASTLE BLOATER!

    SHERIDAN, the brave has come to the scratch,
    And in him the BLOATER will find a good match;
    When back'd by a BADGER and "Marine store,"
    The BLOATER will find his existence is o'er!

                      CHORUS.

    So ye voters of Dudley, now come to a man,
    And vote for the _honest_ H. B. SHERIDAN.

    Mr. Stoke-em, and Bed-em, Insult-em, and all,
    Declare that the power of the Castle shall fall!!
    And prove to his Lordship, and also his men,
    We'll have for our M.P.--H. B. SHERIDAN.

                    So ye voters of Dudley, &c.

    ISAAC BADGER with honor has left all the knaves
    Who stick to his Lordship because they're his slaves;
    For Dick Smith and T--r have tried all they can,
    But BADGER has stuck to us like a true man.

                    So ye voters of Dudley, &c.

    For the power of his Lordship we don't care a straw,
    And we'll show him in Dudley his _will_ is not law!
    At his Lordship and Dickey we'll level a reef,
    Not at Christmas to rob his poor men of their beef

                    So ye voters of Dudley, &c.

    But sure with poor Dickey I don't want to quarrel,
    Although to us he was sent pack'd up in a barrel!
    The barrel was pierc'd with holes very fine,
    If they'd found him out, he'd been hung with a line.

                    So ye voters of Dudley, &c.

    Just arrived, a few Barrels of choice YARMOUTH BLOATERS, 7 a
    1d., stirred up fresh from the bottom.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    The Tories and Radicals, strange though it be,
    Have banded together for "Libertie,"
    In the famous Borough of old Dudley;
    Singing fiddle de diddle, diddle de dee,
    Oh, for his Lordship's Nominee!
    So away they go, with a hop and a jump!
    Fish, flesh, and fowl, to find if they can,
    An ornithorincus kind of a man!
    Singing fiddle de diddle, diddle de bump,
    Whig, Tory, and Radical all in a lump;
    There's Badger, and Walker, and Cookee, and Stokes,
    And the devil knows how many capital folks!
    And they all are resolved, though they love bread and butter,
    To tickle his Lordship's respectable crupper:
    Singing, go it, ye Britons, three cheers for the three,
    Lord Ward, Isaac Badger, and Sammy Cookee,
    The Radical, Whig, and jolly Tory;
    And good luck to the man who will purchase of me.--B.B.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    FELLOW ELECTORS,

    By way of adding injury to the insult which Lord Ward and his
    party have already inflicted upon you, it is now currently
    reported that the Workmen of the Ward and Black-Cock interest
    have been made to understand that they must surround the
    hustings to-morrow morning, and prevent your own Candidate,
    SHERIDAN, from getting a hearing; so much for Liberty and
    Freedom of Speech! Let me advise you, at least to give a
    hearing to Sandars; don't do him an injustice or yourselves.
    If Lord Ward's Interest demands that you shall not hear Mr.
    Sheridan, the Public Press will contain a faithful report of
    all he will say in reply, and will be published on Saturday
    morning.

                                                      IMPARTIAL.

       *       *       *       *       *

    To be Sold Cheap!--a Yarmouth BLOATER, none the worse for
    unsuccessful exposure for sale on the stalls of Bewdley and
    Dudley. For terms of Sale apply to The Priory!

    N.B.--The above Bloater is well cured!

1840-1. The bad trade at this time, and the disturbed state of the
working classes, arising in a great measure from the poisoned seeds
of anarchy and distrust which was then sown broadcast by the Chartist
leaders amongst the idle, ignorant, and dissolute, made it incumbent
upon the public authorities in Dudley to erect a safeguard against any
sudden surprise to life and property; thus it was that a day and night
patrol of the roads and streets was established to maintain the peace
and keep order in the town, and the following respectable townsmen
formed a section of our guardian angels--


DUDLEY CONSTABULARY FORCE:

_John Roberts_, Commandant.

_Seventh Division._

ISAAC BADGER, Superintendent.

E. CRESSWELL, Deputy Superintendent.

    Ed. Cresswell, jun.
    William Beddard
    H. Addenbrooke
    John Bent
    Samuel Edwards
    William Cole
    Daniel Parker
    Jeremiah Parker
    Thomas Berry
    William Fellowes
    Stephen Dunn
    William Cooper
    James Wood
    Stephen Hodgetts
    Peter Minty
    Moses Hughes
    Richard Stokes
    William Deeley
    George Cardo

INSTRUCTIONS.--When summoned, to attend instantly; and when assembled
on duty not to depart or absent themselves without permission from
the Magistrates or their respective Superintendents. The ringing of
the small and large bells of St. Thomas's Church will be the signal
for the immediate assembling of the whole Constabulary force. Every
one disobeying these instructions will have the full penalty of the
Law enforced against him. Fortunately for the comfort of these brave
volunteers no bells were rung, neither did any dreaded Chartists appear
to oppose their pot-valiant authority, but the capers which some of
these "Specials" occasionally cut, and the midnight orgies at certain
favoured houses of public resort, kept by many a "hearty good fellow,"
where ale was strong and protection sure against all assaults upon the
body, made these persons on special public duty memorable, and afforded
food for scandal and amusement to many in after years.


BEN BOUCHER,

_The Dudley Poet and Rhymist_.

    "Oh! rare Ben Boucher, Boucher Ben;
    The best of Poets, but worst of men."

[Illustration: BEN BOUCHER. _THE DUDLEY POET, 1847._]

This extraordinary old man was truly a "curiosity" in himself; for
many years he enlivened the Black Country with _distiches_ of the ins
and outs of life, in all its varied phases, by his peculiar doggerel
poetry or songs, which the old man used to compose on any public event
which struck his fancy or provoked his wrath. He then sallied out to
the wondering public, and sold his songs at one penny per sheet, and
familiar indeed was the figure of the old poet, daily in our streets
vending his singular wares. He took up all sorts of sad, grim, and
pleasurable subjects, from the hanging of some wretch at Stafford
Gaol, to a dog, or cock fight at Sedgley, or Tipton. Ben Boucher was
a Collier by trade, and was born at Horseley Heath, in the year 1769,
but the greater part of his singular and irregular life was spent in
Dudley, at certain favourite public house haunts, where his talents
were appreciated, and his songs admired and read by the curious.

The following is a sample of some of his effusions:--On the death of
Dr. Booker, away from Dudley.

    St. Luke is dead--a Poet and Divine--
    I hope his spirit doth in glory shine.
    To save expense, and the roads being ugly,
    Or the Doctor would have come to Dudley.

           *       *       *       *       *

    In Dudley town there lives a man
    Who deals in silk and clothes, sir;
    If you trust him your mutton to Cook,
    He'll be sure to spoil your broth, sir.

A certain tailor kept a horse for amusement in those days, not in the
best condition, so we have the horse described:--

THE HORSE.

    His back it is both long and thin,
    His belly has got no corn therein;
    He looks both naked and forlorn,
    And takes the whip instead of corn.

Mr. Jno. Williams a highly respectable draper in the town, having
altered his political opinions in those days, fell in for Ben's
animadversions on that occasion.

    Where is big John the draper gone,
    Chairman at last election,
    The Bowling Green, that source of spleen
    Which led to his detection.

Written on the pulling down of the old St. Thomas's Parish Church:--

    The seats and the windows, ah, and the clock too,
    Were sent on to Gornal, to their Gornal crew;
    For the sand men and asses, for to go to church,
    And the people of Dudley were left in the lurch.

LINES ON DUDLEY MARKET, 1827.

    At Dudley Market, now I tell,
    Most kind of articles they sell;
    The women take the greatest care
    To buy up crocks and earthenware,
    Milkpans, and colliers' tots,
    Coloured cups and chamber-pots.
    Old shoes to sell, there stands close by,
    With shabby strings--the same they tie;
    If in those shoes you walk about,
    The bottoms soon will tumble out--
    Hats, caps, and bonnets blue,
    And trowsers wide enough for two.--
    If you pop round the market place
    There you may buy a farthing lace;
    Besides penknives, for Jack and Jim,
    And razors for the daddy's chin--
    Rocking-chairs and children's cradles,
    Porridge-pots and wooden ladles.--
    Kash from Walsall, kills the worms;
    Judas brings a salve for corns;
    Mind these men or you'll be bitten--
    Black Jack's wife brings salve from Tipton--
    At the top of the Shambles Sally stands,
    She holds the basket in her hands:
    "Now my good people don't be lacking,
    Here you may buy the best of blacking."
    Just below, the butchers there you'll find,
    With shows of meat to please the mind;
    From most parts these butchers come;
    Mind the steelyard--twig the thumb.--
    There's hares, rabbits, and partridges, and pheasants, too,
    Some are shot by sportsmen, and some are hung by the neck, too--
    There's butter, bacon, cheese, and eggs,
    Sold by old Giles with crooked legs--
    More than that if you just turn round,
    There's gingerbread eightpence a pound!
    Besides plum pudding, both rich and nice,
    On the next stall twopence a slice.--
    In Stoney Street there stands the swine,
    Both right and left all in a line;
    They sell these pigs so much per score,
    So on that street I'll say no more.--
    Come, to a tavern let us go,
    There's some above and some below;
    There's one that keeps good ale and pop,
    He also keeps a liquor shop;
    He sells roast beef down in Queen Street,
    His house is always clean and neat--
    Old Nanny Mason comes in with her nuts,
    And on the floor her basket puts;
    A curtsey drops, "Kind sirs," says she,
    "Mine age is nearly eighty-three."--
    Old Timms comes in, "All hot," did cry,
    And you may either toss or buy.--
    There's one-arm'd Joe among the lot,
    With mutton pies all smoking hot.

    Please to remember what I have said:
    You will never hear the like again.

When Mr. Thomas Hawkes defeated Sir John Campbell at the election:--

    Hawkes to Cape--ll gave a note,
    And for five pounds bought his vote;
    He therefore thus did change his coat
    And to the Tories gave his vote.

ON A WATERLOO VETERAN

    Charley was young and in his prime,
    A courting went to widow Pincher;
    She was shy, and fair, and fine,
    He was constant and no flincher.
    The time arrived when they got married,
    She had houses, and cows, Sirs, four,
    But Charley soon them all did swallid,
    And left her in an evil hour;
    He went and drank just like an ass,
    Then came home as you may guess
    And found her dead; but was not wise,
    So he'd make her do the exercise;
    The women did not like such jokes,
    So they sent off for T. Pitt Stokes--
    Who neck and crop to the Workhouse took him
    And in the dungeon they did hook him.
    This madman told the gentlemen,
    That he would fetch her back again,
    So they kept him there till she was buried,
    When he got home he was most worried.

Many hundred comical verses by this singular man have perished from
memory since his death, but _Ben_ was a great Tory in his time, and
his latter days were sustained by political association and sympathy.
The old man at last became houseless and very poor, and was eventually
removed to the Workhouse, where he died in 1851, being upwards of
eighty years of age.

    TO THE FREE AND INDEPENDENT ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    The proceedings of this morning at the Hustings having through
    your united generous efforts resulted in my being elected as
    your Representative in the ensuing Parliament, I hasten to
    tender you my most heartfelt acknowledgments for the honour
    you have conferred upon me in placing me in the proud position
    which it is now my privilege to occupy.

    I abstain from referring to the contest, which during my
    canvass appeared to be before me, and I cheerfully congratulate
    you on the peaceful and successful termination of the struggle
    in which we have been engaged.

    To you, Gentlemen, the victory is due; a more enlightened,
    faithful, and zealous body of supporters never rallied round
    a Candidate, even to vindicate the great right of Municipal
    Independence.

    Gentlemen, my political principles are now well known to
    you, they have been unreservedly communicated, and have your
    unqualified approbation. Believe me, it shall be my study
    vigorously to aid in giving effect to them in the House of
    Commons, and also to further all measures of local improvement
    or general principle which have the approval of my Constituents.

    I trust, Gentlemen, I shall ere long have an opportunity
    of renewing my personal acquaintance with you, and by
    interchanging those sentiments and feelings which have animated
    and sustained us in the contest now happily at an end.

    Till then I bid you farewell; and once more offering you my
    grateful acknowledgements,

                I have the honor to be,
                           Your most obedient Servant,
                                           HENRY BRINSLEY SHERIDAN.

    _Bush Hotel, Dudley, March 27, 1857._

This contest, so abruptly brought to a close by the resignation of Mr.
Sandars at the eleventh hour, proclaimed the Political Independence
of the Borough of Dudley _for all time_. The pointed pen of squibs
and banter was more liberally used at this election than on former
occasions, but it must be recollected that the 25 years past had
brought new literary blood into the town; that our old sedate fashion
of conducting an election had died out, and we had now entered upon a
new path of fame and progression, which our grandfathers never dreamt
about. However, "the horse-play" at the time was taken in good part,
"a Roland was now and then given for an Oliver," and there was not a
few of our liege subjects who were more pleased than offended at being
placed in the mirror of these stirring days. Mr. Sheridan received
a truly public ovation on his leaving the town for London, and old,
excited Dudley soon resumed its wonted quietude.

Died, April 18th, 1857, in lodgings in Birmingham, Mr. T. H. Naracher,
a retired Chemist and Druggist from this town. Mr. Naracher had
passed through a very eventful life. He was a native of Zurich, in
Switzerland, and, in early life had travelled the continents of Europe
and America, and became a famous linguist. In the exciting, gambling
Railway mania of 1844-5-6, poor Mr. Naracher invested his comfortable
income, which was all swept away, and he died in poverty and indigence,
aged 56 years.

Died, May 12th, 1857, Mr. Charles Lester, Wine and Spirit Merchant,
Market Place, the last surviving son of the late Mr. Thomas Lester,
aged 36 years.

June 2nd, 1857. The Dudley Castle Fetes took place this day, when two
large siege guns, taken at Sebastopol from the Russians, were drawn
up to the rampart of the Castle Keep, and inaugurated as trophies
with great pomp and acclamation by the Dudley Troop of Worcestershire
Yeomanry.

July 20th, 1857. The Odd Fellows of the Manchester Unity walked in
procession with their regalia through the town this day, and dined at
their various Lodge rooms.

Died, July 22nd, 1857, Mr. Benjamin Leadbetter, a noted Querist.

August, 1857. Upon the appointment to the important situation of
Organist to the Parish Church, much uncharitable feeling was generated
in the parish by the Vicar, Dr. Browne, refusing the use of the vestry
to arrange and discuss this parochial business; ultimately, the Vicar
gained his especial point, and all that the Churchwardens could do was
to bottle the affront offered to them and the parish, and publish the
following correspondence to tell its own tale.


APPOINTMENT OF ORGANIST.

    TO THE SUBSCRIBERS TO THE ST. THOMAS'S CONGREGATIONAL FUND.

    GENTLEMEN,

    The Vicar, having refused the use of the Vestry Room for the
    Meeting appointed to take place this morning, and published
    the communication referring thereto, we beg to lay before you
    the whole correspondence that has passed between us, and part
    of which Dr. Browne chooses to say was so unsatisfactory as to
    induce him, and the Churchwardens, somewhat hastily to appoint
    an Organist; after the Meeting of the 14th we called upon the
    Vicar to consult him on this business, and it was arranged and
    distinctly understood that we should immediately advertise the
    vacancy, and appoint by umpire or otherwise, to be subsequently
    decided on, Mr. Woodall continuing until the end of this
    month, and, if unsuccessful as a Candidate, to be paid for his
    services. We leave it for your consideration whether we have
    merited the extraordinary treatment we have received from Dr.
    Browne.

    The Office you kindly appointed us to being now at an end, we
    have to thank you very sincerely for your confidence in us,

                             And remain, Gentlemen,
                                         Yours faithfully,
                                                    DANIEL JORDAN,
                                                    SAMUEL PRICE.

    _Dudley, August 24th, 1857._

       *       *       *       *       *

                          The Vicarage, Dudley, 14th August, 1857.

    Messrs. JORDAN & PRICE,

    DEAR SIRS,

    "The unanimous and satisfactory decision of the Meeting having
    this day committed the same routine of duty to your especial
    care and attention, I have to request that you will make the
    formation of a Male Choir and the distinct prohibition of
    Female Singers one main feature in your negociations with any
    party or parties respecting the appointment of Organist, and I
    am inclined to the idea that you should revert, as suggested,
    to another advertisement; some two or more individuals should
    be selected from whom the Vicar and Warden or Wardens should be
    empowered to appoint one, by this means I trust all unnecessary
    clashing of Local and Official authority will be effectually
    avoided."

    "I shall feel obliged by sufficient parchments being forwarded
    for the copying some 1,800 Baptisms and about two-thirds that
    number of Burials, for the years 1855 and 1856; each sheet
    contains 32 copies, the numbers would be 56 of the former and
    40 of the latter; this, you will observe, does not include the
    present year 1857, which will require a moiety of the above,

    viz.             } 84 Baptism Sheets, and
    _in toto_        } 60 Burial ditto

                              I am, dear Sirs,
                                    Yours very faithfully,
                                                  JAMES C. BROWNE.

    P.S.--There is half-a-year due for Surplice washing to Mrs.
    Clayton.

       *       *       *       *       *

                                    _Dudley, August 15th, 1857._

    TO THE REV. DR. BROWNE,

    DEAR SIR,

    "In reply to yours of yesterday, we shall be happy to comply
    with your requests so far as agreeable to the wishes of the
    congregation, we hope to succeed in forming a Male Choir when
    an Organist is appointed, giving him the power of making
    choice of Singers; we shall proceed at once to advertise for
    an Organist, and deem it desirable to call a General Meeting
    of the Congregation for the purpose of selecting a fit and
    proper person to that office. We do not agree to provide you
    with parchment sheets for the purpose of copying Registers
    for several years, the Meeting yesterday agreed to an item of
    Register Book if required."

    "We paid Surplice Washing for the year ending 25th March last,
    and shall be happy to pay the same this year. We have no desire
    to clash with Official Authorities, we can have but one object
    in view, and that is for the comfort and happiness of the
    Church, Pastors, and People."

                                      We are, yours truly,
                                                    DANIEL JORDAN,
                                                    SAMUEL PRICE.

       *       *       *       *       *

                                   _Saturday, August 22nd, 1857._

    To the Rev. Dr. Browne.

    DEAR SIR,

    "It is reported in this day's Birmingham Journal that you have
    made the Organist, will you please inform us if the statement
    is correct."

                                      We are, yours truly,
                                                    SAMUEL PRICE,
                                                    DANIEL JORDAN.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DR. BROWNE to Messrs. PRICE & JORDAN.

                                  The Vicarage, August 22nd. 1857.

    "The Vicar in reply to a note this day received, signed
    by Messrs. Price and Jordan, herewith transmits a Copy of
    the Circular[34] issued two days since, of which he fully
    understood they had each previously received a copy in common
    with all the other Subscribers."

       *       *       *       *       *

    To The Rev. Dr. BROWNE.

    DEAR SIR,

    "We beg to hand you a Copy of Notice for a Meeting of St.
    Thomas's Congregation, to be holden (by your permission), at
    the Vestry room, on Monday Morning next."

                                             Yours truly,
                                                  JORDAN & PRICE.

    _Dudley, August 22nd, 1857._

       *       *       *       *       *

                          The Vicarage, Dudley, 22nd August, 1857.

    [35]"The Vicar has to acknowledge the receipt of a note signed
    by Messrs. Jordan & Price wherein he is requested to sanction
    a Meeting "Relating to the Appointment of Organist," in his
    Church Vestry-room, on Monday, at 10 o'clock a.m."

    "The above question having been definitely settled by the
    Churchwardens and himself, he, the Vicar declines the use of
    his Vestry room for such an already decided purpose."

September 3rd, 1857. Married, at St. Edmund's Church, by her father,
Miss Emily Mason Davies, eldest daughter of the Rev. John Davies,
M.A., the Vicar, to Mr. Charles Cochrane, Ironmaster, of Middlesboro',
Yorkshire.

September 11th, 1857. Miss Emma Saunders, a very popular Dudley
Vocalist, this day sailed for Adelaide, South Australia, to be married
on her arrival.

A "Practical Joke," was at the time played upon our worthy Mayor, Mr.
John Beddard, which caused the following rejoinder from his Worship.

    COMPLIMENTARY DINNER TO H. B. SHERIDAN, ESQ., M.P.

    The MAYOR having had his attention called to an Advertisement
    in the Birmingham Journal of to-day, announcing that he will
    take the Chair at the intended "Complimentary Dinner" to H. B.
    Sheridan, Esq., on Thursday next, begs to state that such an
    announcement is entirely without his knowledge or sanction, he
    having, at once, when applied to, explained the improbability
    of his being able to attend.

                                              JOHN BEDDARD, Mayor.

    _Dudley, September 12th, 1857._

September 15th, 1857. H. B. Sheridan, Esq., M.P. came amongst us to
attend a "Complimentary Dinner," but a good deal of the fire of the
late election had gone out, and he was received rather coolly by some
of his recent ardent supporters.

    MR. SHERIDAN'S RECEPTION IN DUDLEY.

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY WEEKLY TIMES.

    SIR,--During this week the _Free and Independent Electors_ of
    Dudley have had the opportunity afforded them of receiving
    at the hands of their representative an account of the
    trust placed in his hands in March last; and the meagre and
    insignificant attendance at the Lancasterian School room in the
    afternoon, and the more important (especially to Dudley men)
    dinner attendance at the Hotel, too plainly tells the tale of
    the _altered opinions_ and _dubious proceedings_ of those _very
    vociferous supporters_ who figured so prominently at the last
    election. Now, Mr. Editor, most men of anything like probity
    of character and honesty of purpose, more especially those who
    have a little fame to sustain, usually manifest some decent
    regard for their public actions and motives; but in this case,
    a _more political case of apostasy_ (and upon a large scale
    too), has not disgraced the annals of our local political
    traditions. We well know that six months ago influential
    electors of all shades of opinion were lustily crying out for
    freedom, denouncing in unmeasured terms the lordly interference
    with their political rights, proclaiming the day of Dudley's
    political emancipation at hand; and using the most strenuous
    exertions to support their _new born ideas_ by placing Mr.
    Sheridan in the proud position of representing _their views_
    and sentiments in parliament. Such, Sir, were the doings of
    the past; but alas! to what more genial atmosphere has that
    rampant spirit of personal antagonism and offended dignity
    taken its aerial flight? Is the once powerful coffee room still
    the abode of its blinded ambition and political inconsistency?
    Has not the recent disseverment plainly told us that party
    purposes, not political liberty, were the sole objects of that
    unnatural alliance. Was it to be expected that ultra Toryism on
    the one hand, and exploded Chartism on the other, were elements
    likely either to sustain a six months' political union, or
    awaken anything but a spirit of derision and contempt? Such,
    however, were the incongruous elements with which Mr. Sheridan
    obtained his seat in parliament, and as the M.P. for Dudley
    he is entitled to that respect and courtesy which belong to
    his office, and the position of a gentleman. Why then this
    shameful lukewarmness and public apathy on behalf of his recent
    supporters? Has the honorable gentleman _altered_ his political
    sentiments, thereby bringing down the offended ire and silent
    estrangement of his once eager listeners? Well, truly may _he_
    apologise for their non-attendance, _at the proper place_, to
    hear the exposition of his political stewardship, for truly
    a more insignificant demonstration never graced the public
    reception of a public man. If, Sir, the _present_ elective
    franchise _can thus_, by interested partisans on the one hand,
    and political demagogues on the other, be made the sportive
    instrument of demoralising all consistency of conduct in the
    virtuous, and can thus be dragged forth to inflame the unholy
    passions of the blind and vicious, what must be its operations
    when the long anticipated Reform Bill extends its privileges to
    a more extensive, uneducated, but not less dangerous class of
    _such like free_ and independent electors? If the past should
    unhappily contain the germ of the future waywardness of spirit,
    and vindictiveness of action, displayed by the head and front
    of the promoters of the last Dudley election, we may indeed
    expect marvellous acts of pitiable abandonment of reason and
    reflection, and the future M.P. for Dudley _may pray to be
    delivered_ from his friends.

                                        Your obedient servant,
                                                       AN ELECTOR.

    _Dudley, September 18th, 1857._

Died, September 29th, 1857, Mr. Edward Terry, Grocer, Market Place, a
very upright and honourable gentleman, who twice served the office of
Mayor, and had a handsome service of Silver Plate presented to him.
Aged 70 years.

An important and influential Public Meeting was held at the Old
Town Hall, under the presidency of John Renaud, Esq., the Mayor,
to remonstrate with the Local Railway Companies, at the very
unsatisfactory accommodation afforded to the public at our Dudley
Railway Station.

    INCOME-TAX COLLECTORS.

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY AND MIDLAND EXPRESS.

    SIR,--Your lengthened remarks in your last publication of the
    _"Express"_ on the anomalous position existing betwixt the
    local commissioners of income and property-tax, the tax-payers,
    and the unhappy delinquent in Worcester Gaol, must necessarily
    have awakened much reflection upon this important subject; and
    if I should not be considered trespassing too much upon your
    valuable space, I would offer a few observations with a view
    to elicit some well-digested opinions upon the most salient
    parts of your important address. Ere your strictures appeared
    in public, the local commissioners had, it was found, exercised
    that power in appointing a successor to Mr. John Leadbetter
    which the Act of Parliament gives them, and it would appear
    somewhat irregular in a local press, cognisant of that fact,
    to recommend a vestry meeting to consider a question _that
    ought to have been urged upon the rate-payers at an earlier
    date_, backed by such _legal information_ as is well known to
    exist in the editorial staff of your acceptable journal. You
    are, doubtless, aware, Mr. Editor, that income-tax collectors
    can be appointed either by the rate-payers in public vestry,
    or the local commissioners in private; but an appointment made
    by the rate-payers must have the confirmation of the local
    commissioners _before it can be received at the Treasury_;
    hence the very little importance, in my opinion, of agitating
    a parish on the merits of a question which, after all, must
    be the result either of favouritism, or true appreciation
    of the local commissioners. In the event of a local board
    of commissioners making a selection decidedly obnoxious to
    a parish, then it is competent for any five rate-payers to
    object to the appointment, by showing to the Treasury why such
    nomination should not take place; but in the event of no such
    objection being made by the rate-payers, as illustrated in
    both Mr. Worley's and Mr. John Leadbetter's appointment, the
    nomination stands good in law, and the collectors (by the tacit
    consent of the parish) are the _bonâ fide collectors of the
    rate-payers_, as well as the commissioners. In this view of
    the case it becomes apparent that the parish of Dudley _cannot
    legally object_ to pay the defalcation rate that most assuredly
    will be exacted from us; nay, the local commissioners can
    legally claim it at our hands, on the acknowledged principle
    that Mr. Worley was as much the appointment of the parish as by
    them, _inasmuch as that parish very graciously acquiesced in
    their selection_!

    Such being the fact, the general question is often asked,
    "What is to be done with that miserable man now incarcerated
    in Worcester Gaol?" As he has been placed there under a warrant
    issued by the local Commissioners, he most assuredly is their
    prisoner; and the ratepayers of Dudley can have no legal
    process against a defaulter abstracting money which is the
    property of the Crown. If the Commissioners are at all doubtful
    about their right or power to prosecute the delinquent, why
    place him in durance vile, and institute _most vigilant legal
    proceedings_ against his _supposed sureties_, bringing the
    terrible powers of the law to _annihilate_ the innocent and
    unoffending; whilst the main delinquent is kept as a sort of
    savage appendage to every man's vision, who occasionally
    refers to his cash book to ascertain the status of its taxable
    page?

    If, again, the object of incarcerating the collector was
    intended to secure his detention until the embezzled money was
    re-levied, pray Mr. Editor, by what reasoning powers have those
    highly-respectable gentlemen come to the determination _to
    delay that unpleasant duty_ to the latest possible period of
    propriety, or, perhaps, public safety? Now it must be apparent
    to all that changes are daily being made in trade incomes and
    value of property in such an important town as Dudley; and it
    would be manifestly unjust to charge the moiety _upon an income
    of £400 a year now_, when at the time the robbery was committed
    such income was assessed _at only £300 a year_. Such cases
    as these, Mr. Editor, would awaken no small degree of alarm
    and anxiety as to the course the commissioners and collectors
    intend to pursue; for I would opine that your editorial skill
    and staff of management would feel themselves somewhat startled
    to find that 2¼d. in the pound had been levied upon them,
    for the recovery of a moiety of income-tax abstracted by a
    previous defaulting collector at a lapsed time, when your
    editorial vision had not looked into the fame of your future
    greatness, or dreamt of the honours that awaited your advent
    into this region of physical smoke and mental darkness.

    Such, however inadvertently, may be the case, and against such
    errors and mal-practice it behoves both the rate-payers and the
    press to exercise a vigilant eye; for it is well known that
    our gracious Queen cannot afford at this particular juncture
    to lose any portion of her allotted supplies, and _the living_
    most assuredly will have to pay for the dead in this vexatious
    case. It is much to be regretted that the minor officers of
    the public service do not appear to receive that reward for
    their services commensurate with the labour and responsibility
    entailed upon them; nevertheless, we must not lose sight of the
    fact, _that_ the _present order of the day is retrenchment_ in
    all branches of the paid civil service; and that the salary
    accorded in these cases _is fixed in London_, _not_ by the
    local commissioners. In the particular case referring to
    Dudley, whilst the stipend is only about 100_l._ a year for the
    collection of the property and income-tax, _the collector is
    also_ the recipient of the poundage derived from the collection
    of the assessed taxes and house duty; making his income amount
    to about 150_l._ a year; and really, Mr. Editor, we are not to
    have so little faith in the integrity of poor human nature,
    as to believe that no respectable townsman can be found to
    faithfully fulfil that office, _without_ entrenching upon
    the region of venality on the one hand, or pandering to the
    inordinate vices of cupidity or meanness on the other.

    If such an one cannot be found in Dudley, sufficiently sensible
    of his responsibility and power, we may indeed humble ourselves
    "in dust and ashes," at the depravity of human nature in
    general, _and the want of worth and honesty in Dudley in
    particular_.

                                  I am, your obedient servant,
                                                        INQUISITOR.

    _Dudley, October 14th, 1857._


THE INDIAN REVOLT.

October 24th, 1857. A General Subscription was entered into in Dudley,
on behalf of the Indian Relief Fund for sufferers by the dreadful
Military Revolt, which took place in Delhi and the surrounding
Districts. The handsome sum of £831 6s. 8d. was raised for that
laudable and urgent object.


THE OXFORD, WORCESTER, AND WOLVERHAMPTON RAILWAY STATION AT DUDLEY.

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY AND MIDLAND COUNTIES EXPRESS.

    SIR,--Scarcely three months have rolled over our heads, since
    the leading officials of the above line did penance on the
    stool of public opinion, erected at a town's meeting held in
    the Old Town Hall, Dudley, "to consider the disgraceful state
    of the Railway Station in Dudley, and the want of railway
    accommodation afforded to the town generally."

    On that occasion a considerable amount of _special pleading_
    was resorted to by the parties complained of; and much _stress_
    was placed upon _their intentions for the future_, promising to
    mend their ways (and the station also) if the indulgent public
    would only continue to pay their money, take their trips, and
    cease grumbling.

    Such, in June last, was the _promise given_; now, Mr.
    Editor, let us see how the _performance_ has tallied with
    that pledge of amendment. Report, with her thousand tongues,
    runs rife in our busy streets and gossiping saloons, saying
    that the good people located at Queen's Cross, in the
    densely populated streets surrounding the Gas Works, and the
    industrious community at Netherton, are to have _their station
    accommodation increased_ (when they wish to go to Stourbridge,
    &c.) like the Yankee fashion of _progressing backwards_; for
    it is said, that the Netherton station is doomed to be blotted
    out of the fair features of this eccentric line, by being
    knocked off the line for passenger traffic altogether. If such
    be correct, this false economising system seems fitted to make
    those inhabitants _pay an extra fare_, and stretch their aged
    or rheumatic limbs, by walking to and from their domiciles down
    to the Dudley station; besides giving the timorous the benefit
    of an unnecessary fright in our waterproof tunnel.

    Doubtless, Mr. Editor, you can furnish the public with some
    _official contradiction to this rumour_; otherwise we must be
    up and doing, ere our contested rights (hardly fought for,
    and fairly won in 1845-6) are wrested from our hands by some
    mistaken system of cheeseparing and illiberality.

    If the aged, lame, infirm, or timid railway traveller casts
    his anxious eye towards the Dudley station, expecting to find
    _any improvement_ effected at that delightful arena of decorum
    and propriety, (more especially on a wet Saturday night), he
    will be most woefully deceived. For can it be supposed, Mr.
    Editor, that a railway company, already prolific in blunders,
    misunderstandings, and broken promises, could be so egregiously
    foolish as recently to remove their ticket office at the
    Dudley Station from its legitimate ground-floor platform to
    the extreme entrance of that _highly artistic wooden tunnel_,
    spanning its unwieldy proportions across the domain of two
    important railway companies!! To passengers starting from
    Dudley _the boon_ is offered, we presume, as being highly
    convenient to take your ticket before you take your choice of
    _standing_ upon that spacious gallery. In warm weather it may
    be thought pleasant to cool one's heels in a mighty torrent
    of wind and dust, usually generated in that elegant ladies'
    waiting room (?); but pray, Mr. Editor, are our shivering limbs
    to be subjected to the piercing winds of a severe winter's
    night,--_sans fire, sans doors, sans seats_--yea, _sans
    everything_ that ought to be afforded to an important town like
    Dudley?

    This, truly, may suit the economy of the O. W. and W. R. Co.,
    but surely the sensible, well-thinking, and comfort-loving
    people of Dudley _will not tamely submit to this additional_
    indignity. To the casual traveller (more especially the infirm,
    aged, and children) who may be so unlucky as to require
    _rebooking from an in-coming train_ on the South Stafford line,
    the amount of annoyance and physical exertion cannot fail to be
    intolerable. Fancy, sir, some poor aged traveller, or a lady
    with children (_not an O. W. and W. Railway Director_) arriving
    by a late train on the South Stafford line, and having to
    hobble or rush up and down two pairs of slippery stairs, then
    along that precious gangway, for another ticket, occupying some
    considerable time at the present spacious ticket office, ere
    they can arrive at the object of their solicitude, the waiting
    train below.

    Such scenes would appear decidedly improbable in this our day
    of tidy railway accommodation; but, Mr. Editor, if you or the
    proper officials connected with the line are at all doubtful
    of the truthfulness of the same, pray let me induce both to
    witness (on any coming dark or rainy Thursday or Saturday
    evening) the arrival of a South Stafford train, laden with its
    living freight of young and old, halt and timid--and I venture
    to predict that you will think that my remonstrance and call
    to duty are not overcharged, but that we live in times when
    the honour, integrity, and liberality of a railway company can
    be summoned legitimately to the bar of public judgment _for
    neglect of duty and broken promises_, viz., for committing
    a positive and palpable deviation--thereby breaking faith
    with the public--from the offered accommodation intended to
    be secured to the inhabitants of Dudley when its promoters
    originally _solicited that public_ to give it their preference
    to a competing line in 1844-5-6.

                               I am, your obedient servant,
                                                   C. F. G. CLARK.

    _Dudley, Oct. 27, 1857._

    [In our first number we drew attention to the disgraceful
    state of the station accommodation of this town. Unless strong
    measures are adopted we think little will be done.]

A long-suffering period of twenty-two years passed over our heads
before the London and North Western Railway Company could be prevailed
upon to erect a decent Railway Station for Dudley.


LORD WARD'S COURT LEET.

The result of the Parliamentary Election in March last was not allowed
to slumber, for Mr. Wm. Haden, a County Magistrate, and a member of the
Court Leet, got his back up at some of the proceedings, and as he was
out-voted by the majority of the Liberal gentlemen present, he must
needs vent his spleen upon Mr. Bourne, the Clerk to the Court Leet,
which brought forth the following correspondence:--

    _To the Editor of the_ BIRMINGHAM DAILY PRESS.

    SIR,--In your report of the proceedings at Lord Ward's Court
    Leet on Friday last, you state, "Mr. Haden returned to the room
    and apologised to Mr. Bourne for any hasty expression which
    may have escaped from him on his first entering the room, he
    assured Mr. B. that what he had then said was not intended as
    personal."

    This is altogether incorrect, the words "apology" or "hasty
    expression" I certainly did not use; what I did say to Mr.
    Bourne was, "That I feared from something I heard after leaving
    the room, he thought my first remarks were intended to be
    applied to him. I assured him I had no such intention, as I
    felt satisfied the proceedings had not originated with him."

    I must request that you will publish this note in one of
    your earliest editions, as your report will lead the public
    to believe I had apologised to Mr. Bourne for some hasty
    expression which I was anxious to withdraw.

                                  I am, sir,
                                      Yours respectfully,
                                                   WILLIAM HADEN.

    _Dixon's Green, Dudley, November 2, 1857._

       *       *       *       *       *

    LORD WARD'S COURT LEET.

    _To the Editor of the_ BIRMINGHAM DAILY PRESS.

    SIR,--In your publication of this day we are favoured with a
    letter from Mr. William Haden, of Dudley, one of the uninvited
    to the late Court Leet Dinner, in explanation of what he
    alleges to be a misinterpretation of his very un-called-for
    remarks at the Court Leet meeting on Friday last. As I was
    present on that occasion, I deem it but just to the merits
    and acknowledged truthfulness of your general reports to aver
    that Mr. Haden assuredly made use of the expressions referred
    to, and in such an excited state of mind, too, as to leave
    no doubt upon the minds of the gentlemen present that he came
    there brim-full of indignation and chagrin (at witnessing
    the "good time coming" manifestation), at what he and the
    deputation who indorsed his expressions with "Hear, hear,
    hear," seemed to believe was intended as a personal slight to
    those worthy townsmen who have so often eaten Lord Ward's roast
    beef, and then lampooned his lordship for his hospitality and
    courteous welcome.

    The Court Leet meeting of the manor of Dudley, being dependent
    upon the manorial rights of the barony of Ward, becomes by such
    ancient right a self-constituted body of that barony, hence
    the perfect right of Lord Ward to invite whom he may please to
    attend his Court Leet. This private right could not have been
    more scrupulously observed last week than has been witnessed
    the last thirty years at former Leet meetings, for it cannot
    be denied that a certain "clique" has at that Leet exercised
    an amount of domination unbearable to honourable minds, arming
    themselves with a species of presumptuous authority, most
    unmistakeably uncongenial to the known liberality and courteous
    bearing of Lord Ward; dictating the terms of political
    subserviency and social local dependency that should fit any
    townsman to be eligible for that festival of local celebrity.

    Pitiable indeed must be the status of that spirit of
    independence engendered in the minds of intelligent Englishmen
    who can present themselves where they are not invited, and
    condescend to interrogate the legal authority of the Lord of
    the Manor upon a question beyond their right of inquiry.

    Mr. Wm. Haden may, if he thinks proper, characterise the
    last Court Leet meeting "as a contemptible proceeding," but
    we remind Mr. Haden that the influx of new life and liberal
    thoughts into the elements of the late Court Leet augur well
    for the onward progression of both political and social
    advancement in Dudley. We believe, sir, that the contracted
    neck of Toryism and the conclusive and bigotted favouritism of
    partizanship is broken thereby, and that Lord Ward has hitherto
    been deceived in his estimate of the lingering political
    vitality of the borough of Dudley. We furthermore hail this
    last local excitement as foreboding days of enlightenment,
    and liberty of thought and speech to the good old town of
    Dudley; and we accept the proceedings of the last Court Leet
    as the act of a liberal, benevolent nobleman, conscious of his
    immense responsibility, alive to the approaching signs of the
    times, and fully sensible of the patent fact that local cliques
    and self interests, rigidly exercised in the management of
    affairs in Dudley, have retarded its commercial enterprise, and
    contracted its social and political usefulness.

                                            Yours respectfully,
                                                           VERITAS.

    _Dudley, November 6th, 1857._

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE DUDLEY COURT LEET AGAIN.

    We are happy to find that our strictures a fortnight ago, on
    the subject of the Dudley Court Leet, have met with the general
    approval of this district. Nor could it well be otherwise.
    To say nothing of the principles of common justice, an error
    in tactics so glaring as that perpetrated in connexion with
    the late Court Leet meeting could not but meet with general
    condemnation.

    It will be seen, however, from a letter under the heading
    of "Our Open Platform," that a gentleman who signs himself
    "Investigator" has undertaken to investigate the facts
    connected with the invitations to the Court Leet, and to
    present himself as the champion of its proceedings.

    This letter is couched in the best possible spirit; and though
    our correspondent takes strong exception to many of our views,
    we shall always bid him and others welcome to the use of
    our pages, so long as they can express their differences of
    opinion from us or from each other with so much freedom from
    acrimonius feeling. Had the argument of "Investigator" been as
    sound as the tone of his letter is satisfactory, we should have
    passed it over without a single observation. We shall have no
    difficulty in proving, however, that his remarks are open to
    that very charge of misleading the public which he attempts to
    fasten upon ourselves.

    He says he has the list of invitations to the Court Leet
    before him, and on that ground he claims to be regarded as the
    champion of those by whom it was supplied. Of course we have no
    objection to accept the gauntlet. He then says that there were
    82 gentlemen invited to the late Court Leet, and that of this
    number 38 have attended former meetings, and the remaining 44
    were townsmen of various opinions.

    Now, the only inference which any man of ordinary powers of
    mind can draw from these figures, is that 44 out of the number
    of persons accustomed to attend former Courts Leet have this
    year been rejected, and that 38 of that number have been
    retained. But why reject the 44 and retain the 38? Simply
    because the political preferences of the former at the last
    election happened to differ from those of the parties who
    issued the invitations. To any other answer than this, the
    voice of public conscience would at once demur.

    But "Investigator" has made a discovery which completely
    falsifies our own statement of this matter. He has discovered
    that many of Mr. Sheridan's supporters were amongst the
    persons attending the late Court Leet. How many do our readers
    think? One half.--Guess again. One quarter.--Guess again. A
    half quarter.--Guess again.--You give it up. Then, thoughtful
    reader, let us tell thee there was the astounding number of
    four. One of these was the late mayor, who was known to have
    long before abandoned Mr. Sheridan's cause;--two others were
    gentlemen connected with the press, and who were supposed to
    be changing sides before the meeting took place--and the fourth
    was a kind and amiable man, whose presence in such company has
    not yet been accounted for.

    So far, then, from our correspondent disproving our statement
    respecting the invitations to the Court Leet, we find that his
    statements confirm substantially every word that we have spoken
    upon that subject.

    We may, however, here state once for all, that it is not a
    question between Mr. Sheridan and his political opponents,
    but between those opponents and such of the inhabitants of
    this district as think proper to vote for a candidate of
    their own selection. That Mr. Sheridan happens to be that
    candidate is the mere accident of the hour. The question is
    simply this:--Shall the electors of Dudley vote for whom they
    will?--or are they to be subject to pains and penalties for the
    free and independent exercise of their electoral rights?

    Nor is "Investigator" more successful in his attempt to
    vindicate the right of the Lord of the Manor to do what he
    likes with his own. He says the Barony of Ward is a private
    institution, and that therefore Lord Ward has a right to invite
    whom he likes to transact his own business. As well might he
    say that the Borough of Dudley and the Monarchy of England are
    private institutions, and that, therefore, the Mayor of the one
    and the Monarch of the other have a right to employ and discard
    whom they will. We deny that the Barony of Ward is, in the
    sense spoken of by "Investigator," a private institution; and,
    of course, we deny the possession of the right he claims.

    We are actuated by no feeling of hostility to Lord Ward, but as
    public Journalists it is our duty to watch over the interests
    of the public, and to see that Senator and Plebeian are alike
    protected in the exercise of the privileges they enjoy. As an
    evidence of our desire for the most perfect fairness in the
    discussion of questions such as this, to which we have now for
    the third time been compelled to advert, we may state that in
    an article on "A Royal Charter for Dudley," in our last issue,
    the word "charge" instead of the word "complaint," is used
    either by our mistake or by that of our printer. As, however,
    it has been represented to us by one of our friends, that some
    readers may possibly suppose, from the construction of the
    sentence in which this word occurs, that we impute bribery and
    coercion to Lord Ward, or to his agents, or both, we feel it
    to be due to ourselves, to Lord Ward, to his agents, and to
    our readers generally, to state that nothing could possibly
    have been further from our intention. What we meant to have
    said, and what we think our words clearly convey, is this--that
    the right of the Lord of the Manor to invite whom he would to
    his Court Leet had been so exercised, as that, by inviting a
    great many gentlemen to his annual dinner who were known to
    have supported Mr. Sandars, but who had not been accustomed to
    be invited, it was liable to be construed into a species of
    bribery to one class, and to operate as a kind of punishment to
    the other, and so we have reason to believe it is popularly
    regarded. But any intention or idea of imputing bribery to Lord
    Ward or his agents, either expressly or by implication, we
    distinctly and absolutely disavow. And this disavowal we make
    as spontaneously and promptly as we can. It is as painful to
    us as it is contrary to our inclination to have to discuss the
    public conduct of public men. When, however, duty impels us
    to the task, we trust that we shall never be found wanting in
    those proprieties towards those from whom we differ, which the
    commonest courtesy requires at our hands.

    To the most amusing part of our correspondent's letter we
    have, however, yet to come. After having occupied nearly
    half a column of our space in endeavouring to prove that the
    agents of Lord Ward have not acted with partiality in the late
    Court Leet affair, he goes on to show that they have always
    acted with partiality; that they have done on the present
    occasion--only to another set of parties--what they have always
    been accustomed to do--to one side or the other;--that those
    who have now been rejected ought not to have given utterance
    to a single murmur, on the simple principle that they had now
    received a Roland for an Oliver.

    He speaks of "respectable and sensible men, who have never
    hitherto been favoured with his Lordship's smile," of the
    chagrin and personal insult experienced by many of our worthy
    townsmen, and of the bygone bigotry, political domination and
    petty clique of the last thirty years. The agents of Lord Ward
    may truly say, "Save us from our friends."

    If one-half of what "Investigator" says be true, it is high
    time that the management of Dudley Court Leet be reformed. But
    it is a curious incident in this controversy, and one which
    strikingly illustrates the narrowness of men's minds, and their
    ignorance of the very first principles of genuine liberty,
    and there should be men of professed education in the town of
    Dudley who can look upon the mere transfer of an exclusive
    privilege from the hands of one set of men to those of another,
    as an evidence of real progress. If there exists anywhere
    powers such as those to which our correspondent refers, and
    which can be used for purposes of oppression or intimidation,
    it is manifest that these powers ought not to exist; and
    however much their transfer from the hands of one political
    party to another may gratify men's vanity and assist in the
    advancement of their personal purposes, the only evidence
    of real progress will be found in such powers being taken
    altogether from the hands of those who hold them, and being
    vested in others who cannot employ them for purposes of their
    own.--_The Dudley and Midland Counties Express._

December 1st, 1857. This present period was one of great distress and
misery in the town and neighbourhood, occasioned by the suspension
and failure of many Iron Masters hereabouts. The serious commercial
consequence was, that fifty-seven Blast Furnaces were stopped, and
upwards of 10,000 men were thereby thrown out of employment. This
depression of our local trade had a most serious effect upon the
tradesmen of the town, and many lamentable bankruptcies amongst us was
the result.

Died, December 17th, 1857, Mr. Joseph Morris, of the Miner's Arms; Mr.
Morris had gone through a great diversity of trials in life, and was
deservedly much respected by all parties. Aged 73 years.

Died, December 17th, 1857, at Westbromwich, Mr. Richard Bond, formerly
Parish Clerk of St. Edmund's Church; he was a close-fisted old
gentleman, and died very rich.

    THE SEBASTOPOL GUNS.

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY WEEKLY TIMES.

    SIR,--Our last Castle Fetes were heralded forth to the
    pleasure-seeking public with more than ordinary pomp and
    significance, by the _prominently announced fact_, that those
    mighty engines of death and destruction (the Sebastopol
    Trophy Guns), were to be ushered into the far-famed Castle
    Court-yard, amid the din of arms, the plaudits of the people,
    the beating of the heart-stirring drum, and the merry peals of
    our excellent parish church bells. Being one of the admirers
    of that march of pomp and day of _local exultation_, and
    heartily concurring in the sentiments uttered by our public
    functionary (the Mayor), I naturally anticipated that _some
    suitable site would ere this_ have been found, _whereon to
    permanently fix_ those trophies of our sanguinary struggle
    with the great Power of the North; but no! Dudley like! the
    famed Sebastopol guns, like the crumbling walls with which they
    are surrounded, _seemed destined to be left alone in their
    glory_. Anon the hobby-horses whereon the juvenile warriors are
    daily wont to practice the art of cannon riding, and the more
    matured admirers of naval glory, are accustomed to ruminate
    upon the mighty events of _their departed lustre_, under the
    consoling influence of that soother of the "ills and woes
    that flesh is heir to" a pipe of the genial Virginian weed.
    Such being the humiliating fact, I maintain, Mr. Editor, on
    the ground of _public sympathy alone_, that these precious
    relics of the famed Sebastopol should _immediately_ be taken
    under the _protecting wings_ of the Mayor, on behalf of the
    liege burgesses of this ancient city of the renowned Dodo,
    or consigned to the fostering care of the popular president
    of the Mechanics' Institute. Surely £50 would suffice to
    provide proper gun carriages, and fix them on solid masonry
    in front of the magnificent Keep, protected by a suitable
    _chevaux-de-frise_, with an adequate _elevated_ covering to
    protect them from the inclemency of the weather! Did not the
    Committee of the last Castle Fetes _derive more additional
    "grist to the mill"_ by the fact that the guns were to be
    seen _under their auspices alone_? Hence the reasonableness
    of that Committee taking proper care of those trophies, _as
    showing more decent acknowledgement_ to the sightseeing public
    for _the additional proceeds_ received to their funds by the
    opportune presence of those national trophies. If it was worth
    the trouble _to depart_ from the ordinary routine of official
    propriety to receive the guns at the hands of Government,
    surely it is but reasonable to hope that the sanguinary
    admirers of national prowess should provide (like other towns)
    a suitable place to deposit them on. Such being the public
    belief, let the Committee of the Mechanics' Institute perform
    their duty, by endeavouring to convince that public that
    they are not _insensible_ to _the very exclusive and liberal
    support_ they have from time to time received at the hands
    of an hitherto silent but observant public, but at once make
    a suitable provision for those interesting objects of public
    curiosity, which are properly intended to be the enduring
    evidences of a nation's triumphal prowess and valour, under
    difficulties and privations unsurpassed in the annals of
    warfare.

                    I am, your obedient servant,
             ONE WHO LIKES TO SEE EVERYTHING IN ITS PROPER PLACE.

    _Dudley._

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY MECHANICS' INSTITUTION.

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY WEEKLY TIMES.

    SIR,--Permit me a small space in the _Times_, in reply to the
    letters of Mr. Sluter, "A Schoolmaster," and "One who likes
    to see everything in its proper place," which appeared in
    your last. I feel the more pleasure in noticing them, from
    the courteous spirit in which they appear to be written,
    contrasted with that of a leading article in the columns
    of your contemporary, upon (in some respects) a somewhat
    similar subject. Right glad am I to find an interest taken
    in the matters to which they refer, sufficiently strong to
    develop itself by directing public attention to them through
    the pages of your paper. The offer of affording gratuitous
    adult instruction to a class or classes in connection with
    the Mechanics' Institution, so kindly made by Mr. Sluter and
    his coadjutors, was the subject of many conversations, and
    occupied much attention of myself and its committee; the great
    obstacle, however, appeared to us to be the want of proper
    accommodation, the Old Town Hall being occupied for so many
    purposes, and at such varied hours, that we feared it could
    hardly be rendered properly available for such a purpose.
    Again too, we entertained the hope that long ere this we
    should have been in possession of rooms and building of our
    own, in which, suitable accommodation, not only for this but
    every other purpose connected with the Mechanics' Institution
    or the public, would have been provided--the exertions to
    obtain which, notwithstanding the sneers of the writer in
    the _Express_, are pretty well known to most. The effort
    to establish adult evening schools may, perhaps, unhappily
    not be supported, either by those requiring them on the one
    hand, or by public countenance on the other, but it is worth
    a trial, and the offer of Mr. Sluter, and others of the
    Schoolmasters' Association connected with him, is a noble one,
    evincing a feeling on their parts which ought to be thankfully
    and heartily responded to. What, Mr. Editor, even the most
    enlightened, is the education of our youth, compared to that
    more mature knowledge we acquire in after years? It is but,
    as it were, the outlines of the map then laid down, to be
    filled in by ourselves at leisure at a future time. I trust,
    therefore, now the matter is again mooted, the subject will not
    be allowed to drop without a trial being made regarding it. To
    argue as to the necessity or propriety of the establishment of
    such classes or schools, were but to insult the understanding
    of those most likely to render them efficient support.

    As to the Sebastopol guns, I also should like to see them
    in their proper place, and the consideration of the _proper
    place_ has not been lost sight of. My idea of this _place_ is,
    as your correspondent suggests, in front of the Keep--others
    think somewhat differently; at any rate their position and
    state, it must be acknowledged, is not the most suitable one,
    and ere long, with the assistance of our worthy Mayor, I hope
    to see them placed upon a spot which for appropriateness of
    situation will be second to none in the kingdom. They were
    worthily received, and they ought to be worthily esteemed, as
    trophies of the prowess and valour of our countrymen. The Fetes
    Committee are perfectly willing to render all the assistance
    in their power towards this object, but I am sure that your
    correspondent would not desire that their funds should furnish
    the necessary amount. The Committee, at considerable expense
    and with no little trouble, obtained them _for_ the town;
    surely then the town should not be wanting to see they are
    properly bestowed and kept, now they do possess them. This I
    know is the desire of the Mayor, and others in authority; I
    therefore trust ere long to see them in their proper position.

    In regard to the remarks of the writer in the _Express_, I
    would observe that it is a very much easier thing to sit at
    home at ease and write an article for a newspaper, sneering at
    the efforts of others, which most probably they did but little
    to aid, than to get up funds for a building, requiring, if
    it be done properly, some three or four thousand pounds. The
    efforts of many on behalf of the Dudley Mechanics' Institution
    are well known, and I think need no attempt to be written down
    by the _Express_, for the purpose of elevating Mr. Sheridan. I
    have already occupied sufficient of your space, or should not
    hesitate to break a lance with its writer as to what the Dudley
    Mechanics' Institution has been, is, or may become. I trust
    that it has already been "productive of some real and permanent
    advantages," and that it will continue to exist to furnish more
    "for posterity."

                             I am, Mr. Editor,
                                        Yours respectfully,
                                                       E. HOLLIER.

January 25th, 1858, was a royal day in Dudley, it being the Wedding Day
of our first young Princess, the Princess Royal of England, and the
Crown Prince of Prussia. Dudley had never lagged behind its neighbours
in its genuine loyalty to the throne, and on this occasion all hands
were willing to add lustre, and a pleasurable remembrance, to this
interesting event. A public subscription was at once inaugurated to
give a treat to the school children, and tickets for meat to the
indigent poor. The day was propitious, and upwards of 4,000 school
children walked in procession to the Castle Court, led on by two bands
of music; after a short suitable address had been delivered, they
all returned to their various school rooms, and enjoyed a good "tea
drinking." The poor old men and women enjoyed their beef and plum
pudding at their own homes, whilst the well-to-do townsmen dined at the
hotel, under the presidency of the Mayor, Mr. John Beddard. The town
was decidedly _en fete_ this day, for the merry peals of our parish
bells, the jingling of the friendly glass, and the hearty good wishes
for the happy pair, made old Dudley decidedly "jolly" on that memorable
day. These two royal personages will in due course of time become the
Emperor and Empress of Germany. Long may they live to enjoy their
exalted and responsible station in life.

N.B.--Whilst I am writing these lines their eldest son, Prince William
of Prussia, is also entering into the tangled web of holy matrimony.


THE CELEBRATION OF THE PRINCESS ROYAL'S WEDDING IN DUDLEY.

    On Monday last, John Beddard, Esq., the Mayor of this town,
    issued bills stating that he should be very happy to meet,
    at Smith's Hotel, in the Market Place, that evening at seven
    o'clock, any of the inhabitants disposed to support some public
    demonstration on the marriage day of the Princess Royal.

    At the time appointed for the meeting to take place, our
    reporter attended and found only the Mayor present. During
    the next half-hour or so a few gentlemen looked into the room
    to see what sort of a meeting there was, and having satisfied
    their curiosity withdrew. About half-past seven o'clock,
    however, the Mayor remarked that business had better be
    proceeded with. The number of loyal subjects present then was
    very few, and during the entire meeting did not exceed a score.
    We have no difficulty in subjoining a complete list of their
    names. They were the Mayor, the High Bailiff (Elliot Hollier,
    Esq.), Mr. W. H. Brooke, Mr. S. Rudge, Mr. R. Houghton, Mr.
    W. Wigginton, Mr. Waring, Mr. G. B. Lowe, Mr. Masefield, Mr.
    Walker, Mr. William Haden, jun., Mr. Minty, Mr. Laskey, Mr.
    Wainwright, Mr. E. Sanders, Mr. Denison, Mr. J. Cartwright, Mr.
    Clark, Mr. J. Renaud.

    Mr. JOHN RENAUD moved that the Mayor should take the chair.
    (Hear).

    The MAYOR in doing so, said he was very glad to tell the
    gentlemen present that Mr. Smith, at the Priory, would be very
    happy "to fall in with whatever was done there." In proceeding
    to open the business of the evening, the chairman said they
    were met to take steps towards getting up a treat of some kind
    or other so that the inhabitants of this town may remember the
    day on which the Princess Royal was married. He thought they
    ought to do something on this occasion, so that the event might
    be signalized and remembered by their children for some time to
    come. (Cheers). So far as regarded the poor in the Workhouse,
    he should have very great pleasure in affording them a treat
    himself. (Hear, hear). Mr. Clark had been suggesting that the
    children belonging to the various Sunday Schools should also
    have a treat. He should like to hear what he had to say upon
    the subject.

    Mr. C. F. G. CLARK, chemist, of High street, thought it only
    right that the young people and the inhabitants of Dudley
    generally should have an opportunity of participating in some
    kind of rejoicing on the occasion of the marriage of the
    Princess Royal. His Worship the Mayor had been kind enough to
    promise--as the highest recognized authority in this place--a
    treat to the poor in the Workhouse; and he (Mr. Clark) was of
    opinion that they could not do less than give a treat also to
    the Sunday School children of the parish. He would, therefore,
    at once propose that they should enter into a subscription that
    night, and communicate as soon as possible with the trustees
    and ministers of the schools to solicit their co-operation in
    giving the children a treat, and that they should award to each
    establishment a certain sum out of the funds (to be regulated
    by the number of scholars they had) for that purpose.

    The proposition met with several objections. It was stated, in
    answer to questions, that a tea might be had for the children
    at fivepence per head, and that the total number of Sunday
    Scholars in Dudley was about two thousand. This being so, it
    was hinted that the subscription might not be large enough to
    pay these schools fivepence per scholar for a treat, and to
    meet this it was suggested that fivepence should be given,
    and any deficiency which might arise should be made up by the
    congregations at each place of worship.

    A Gentleman in the meeting asked if the people of Netherton
    were to be included in the arrangements? He believed it was the
    general opinion that Netherton participated in anything of this
    sort with the people of Dudley.

    The MAYOR did not think that they could do anything with the
    Nethertonians. "Dudley proper," he thought, was enough for them
    to deal with.

    Mr. CLARK said so far as own feelings were concerned in this
    matter, he should very much like to have seen an ox or two
    roasted and distributed amongst the poor in the neighbourhood,
    after a good old English fashion.

    Mr. RENAUD recommended the appointment of a deputation to
    confer with the school authorities as to the best mode of
    giving a treat to the children. He had no doubt that the
    people belonging to the several places of worship would see to
    treating their own children, and that each would meet their own
    expenses in the event of a deficiency in the amount awarded
    them out of the public subscription.

    Mr. CLARK said if they were to give a treat at all, let them
    do it as it ought to be done. For his own part, he did not
    like the idea of proposing a treat and then calling upon other
    people to pay for it. He disapproved of the shabby generosity
    which wanted to give a tea to children, and, doubting whether
    they could do it or not, called upon the congregation to make
    up any deficiency. In such a case he (Mr. Clark) very much
    questioned whether the parties belonging to the churches and
    chapels would comply with, such a request. Some might: others
    might not. At any rate, they could do as they liked, and it
    would be left to each of them to act independently in the
    matter.

    Mr. RENAUD remarked that it was just that spirit of
    independence amongst the people which he wished to acknowledge.

    Mr. CLARK: Well, don't let us do the thing in a spirit of
    niggardliness. If such a proposal is carried out, I think it
    will be very much like a sectarian treat.

    Mr. RENAUD: I wish to abolish that word "sectarian" in this
    matter. I don't want us to have a sectarian, but a general
    treat.

    The MAYOR: Well, I think somebody had better move the
    appointment of a deputation to wait upon the ministers of the
    churches and chapels in the town upon the subject.

    Mr. W. H. BROOKE: I would suggest, Mr. Mayor, that, as a matter
    of order, you should first decide whether a committee of that
    sort is to be appointed. (Hear, hear.)

    The MAYOR: Just so. Will any gentleman move a resolution to
    that effect?

    Mr. W. H. BROOKE: I will move, if you please, then, "That the
    gentlemen present form themselves into a committee for the
    purpose of carrying out any arrangements that may be considered
    advisable for celebrating the marriage of the Princess Royal in
    Dudley."

    Mr. HOUGHTON: And I second that motion.

    The MAYOR put the proposition to the vote, and it was carried.

    Mr. RENAUD: I will next move then, "That the said committee
    wait upon the ministers of each chapel and church in the town,
    to ascertain if they are willing to co-operate in giving a
    treat to the Sunday School children on Monday next, the 25th
    instant, in honour of the Princess Royal's wedding, and to use
    the best means of carrying this into effect."

    Mr. E. HOLLIER: I will second that motion.

    The Mayor put the proposition to the vote, and it was carried
    unanimously.

    Mr. MINTY inquired if the Castle guns were to be fired?

    Mr. RENAUD replied that the guns in the Castle yard were
    spiked, and could not be used. They did not want to have
    another earthquake. (Laughter.)

    Mr. CLARK moved that a public subscription should be entered
    into.

    Mr. W. WIGGINGTON suggested that the committee should report
    to a meeting to be held the next night. This proposition was
    received.

    The MAYOR said he should propose that there be a dinner at
    Smith's Hotel, on Monday, precisely at half-past three o'clock.

    Mr. WARING, on behalf of the Garrick Club, one of whose
    performances is to take place next Monday evening, requested
    that the dinner should not interfere with that entertainment.

    The MAYOR promised that it should not.

    Several gentlemen inquired what sort a dinner they should have.

    Mr. CLARK proposed they should have a half guinea dinner, and
    the suggestion was received.

    Mr. RENAUD reminded the meeting that they ought to do something
    for the poor in the neighbourhood. It was well to treat the
    inmates of the workhouse, but at the same time he could not
    lose sight of the fact that there were many, very many, poor
    people who were as badly, if not worse off than the poor in the
    workhouse, who ought to be treated also. (Hear, hear).

    Mr. G. B. LOWE quite coincided with every word which had fallen
    from the lips of his friend Mr. Renaud. There were many very
    poor workpeople in the neighbourhood for whom a treat of some
    sort ought to be provided, and he should be very sorry indeed
    if they were remiss or neglectful in this part of their duty.
    Many of the labouring classes were out of work, and must have
    something to eat. If they could not get anything fairly they
    might depend upon it they would get it other ways. The people
    hereabout had behaved themselves very well lately during the
    great depression of trade, and they ought to have a treat by
    way of encouragement. For his (Mr. Lowe's) own part, he had no
    idea of feasting himself up whilst other people were wanting,
    and would readily forego his half guinea dinner to provide
    something for people in poorer circumstances. (Cheers.)

    The MAYOR: I am sorry to say that I cannot agree to such a
    proposal. You see we are treating the workhouse people, and I
    think that will be as much as we can do.

    Mr. RENAUD said there were hundreds of people about the
    town who were quite as deserving of a treat as those in the
    workhouse.

    The MAYOR: There are hundreds walking about with their hands in
    their pockets. We pay enough, I think, in poor rates. I say it
    without ill nature, I have not much sympathy with the working
    classes in this neighbourhood, for it is very often the case
    that when they have work to do they won't do it.

    Mr. W. H. BROOKE: I say that it would be a disgrace to the
    town if something is not done for the poor. That is my decided
    opinion.

    Mr. LOWE: We shall lay ourselves open to public censure.

    Mr. RENAUD: The Dudley Workhouse is only calculated to contain
    103 people.

    The MAYOR: Well, we pay poor rates enough. The subscription you
    see might not be so large as to enable us to do this.

    Mr. LOWE: Well, I for one would rather pay my 10s. 6d. for a
    treat to the poor than for a dinner at the hotel for myself,
    and be aware at the same time that many of our poorer fellow
    creatures were suffering from poverty.

    Mr. CLARK: Oh! but I expect the Mayor is going to treat us with
    the dinner at the hotel?

    The MAYOR: I never promised anything of the sort.

    Mr. CLARK: Well, I fully expected you were going to pay for it,
    Mr. Mayor? (Roars of laughter.)

    The MAYOR: Oh, no, I never said that I should.

    Considerable merriment ensued. Order having been restored,

    Mr. RENAUD renewed his proposal for a treat to the necessitous
    poor in the neighbourhood.

    The MAYOR again expressed his opinion that the funds would not
    permit of anything of the sort.

    Mr. WARING, on behalf of the Garrick Club, very generously
    stepped forward and guaranteed a donation of £10 in aid of the
    object from that body.

    Mr. RENAUD said he would guarantee another £10 for the same
    purpose.

    The Mayor intimated that the further consideration of the
    subject of giving a treat to the out-door poor had better be
    adjourned until the next meeting. This was agreed to.

    The MAYOR then resumed the discussion as to the providing of
    a dinner at the hotel, and it was agreed that a dinner should
    take place in Smith's hotel, at three o'clock next Monday, to
    celebrate the marriage of the Princess Royal, and that the
    tickets for the same might be had at the bar of the hotel,
    price 10s. 6d.

    The several gentlemen on the committee for waiting upon the
    ministers and managers of the different Sunday schools then had
    their duties apportioned to them, and the meeting was adjourned
    until seven o'clock on Tuesday evening, to be held either at
    the Hotel or at the Old Town Hall, when the report of the same
    was to be received.

    THE ADJOURNED MEETING

    of the inhabitants of this Borough, for the purpose of
    taking further steps towards perfecting the arrangements for
    celebrating the marriage of the Princess Royal, was held in
    the Old Town Hall, on Tuesday evening, in accordance with a
    resolution passed at the first meeting on Monday. Owing to a
    misunderstanding, two or three people met at the hotel where
    the meeting was first held, and others at the Town Hall, where
    it was known by many that the next gathering would take place.
    The second meeting, like the first, was very thinly attended,
    and the loyalty of the inhabitants seemed to be at a very low
    ebb. The Mayor, JOHN BEDDARD, ESQ., intimated on the previous
    evening that other engagements would prevent him being present
    to-night; in his absence, therefore, the High Bailiff, ELLIOTT
    HOLLIER, ESQ., was called to the chair. The number of people in
    attendance was 23, the majority consisting of gentlemen who had
    attended on the first night. Amongst the fresh people were the
    Rev. John Davies, Dr. Davison, Mr. Z. P. Smith, and the Rev.
    Thomas Mills.

    The meeting was to have commenced at seven o'clock, business,
    however, did not begin until about a quarter to eight.

    The HIGH BAILIFF, in opening the proceedings, said he was
    extremely sorry to see so few of his fellow townsmen present
    on an occasion like this. He read over the Mayor's notice
    convening the first meeting, and then in order read over the
    minutes of the same. As one of the committee appointed to wait
    upon some of the school authorities, Mr. Hollier stated the
    result of the same to the meeting, and finished by calling upon
    other of his two brother committee-men to report their success.

    Several gentlemen then laid before the meeting, at considerable
    length, the result of their interviews with parties connected
    with the different schools in the place, upon the subject of
    giving a treat to the scholars next Monday, and the best mode
    of paying for it. In some instances the scholars had recently
    been treated or were going to be, and whilst some societies
    could afford to treat, others feared they could do but little,
    and would have to be indebted to the fund very much. A
    desultory discussion ensued upon the subject, in the course of
    which it was stated that the total number of the scholars to be
    treated in all probability would be 4,000--(double the number
    supposed at the meeting last night)--and the cost of treating
    that number to tea, reckoning at sixpence per head, would
    require a fund amounting to £100. Doubts were expressed as to
    the realisation of this sum, and it was suggested that each
    school should see to giving a treat of its own.

    Mr. C. F. G. CLARK remarked upon this that it would just be
    giving no treat at all. He understood that the object of the
    meetings upon this subject was to take into consideration the
    best means to be adopted for making a public demonstration on
    Monday next, in honour of the Princess Royal's wedding. Now
    if each school, or each religious denomination in the town,
    was left to do as it liked in the matter--to give a treat or
    not--where was the _public_ demonstration in the matter? There
    would be none at all. The demonstration, or what they might
    call it, would be, as he said before, quite of a sectarian
    character. He would suggest that a public subscription should
    be raised, and that whatever amount might be realised, should
    be equally distributed amongst the schools. (Hear, hear).
    He (Mr. Clark) should be very glad to co-operate with his
    respected pastor (Mr. Davies) in collecting subscriptions for
    a treat for St. Edmund's school. He knew they would have a
    treat, and a good one too, let the other places have one or
    not. He was also still of opinion that something ought to be
    done for the able poor of the parish out of the Workhouse.
    (Hear, hear). He did not like the idea of giving a treat to
    the children and then requiring the congregations of the
    places of worship to pay for it. There must be a public
    subscription, and the treats should be paid for out of it. It
    would be very unfair if he (Mr. Clark) for instance, was to go
    round and solicit subscriptions in St. Edmund's district to
    pay deficiencies which might arise in other places after the
    people of that neighbourhood had paid for a treat for their
    own school children. He (Mr. Clark) did want to see a liberal
    demonstration, he did not like to see a contracted one. He
    thought Dudley could give a liberal demonstration. It was a
    queer thing if it could not. Look at the neighbouring towns
    and let them notice what they were doing in Wolverhampton and
    Birmingham, and even Lichfield, small a place as it was. And
    here was Dudley which was considered the centre of the iron
    district, and what was it going to do? People always said that
    there was plenty of money in Dudley--that it was a wealthy
    place; and, if so, it ought, he thought, on this occasion, to
    show its loyalty.

    Mr. WIGGINTON enquired if anything was to be done for the
    Blue-coat School and other Charities. Were they to have any
    demonstration at all?

    Mr. CLARK replied, according to the present proposal none at
    all.

    The Rev. J. DAVIES: Would that follow?

    Mr. WIGGINTON: It must follow.

    The Rev. J. DAVIES: I quite agree with Mr. Clark's
    observations. If each denomination takes the management of its
    own school there can be no public demonstration. I suppose that
    there are some schools who could not afford to give a treat?

    Mr. RENAUD: There are.

    Rev. J. DAVIES: How can we best arrange the matter then?

    Mr. CLARK: By a public subscription to be divided amongst them.

    After a desultory discussion,

    Mr. CLARK proceeded to move "That a general subscription be
    entered into by the inhabitants of Dudley to raise a fund for
    the purpose of affording an entertainment for the children of
    the schools connected with the several churches and chapels
    in this town next Monday, in honour of the marriage of the
    Princess Royal."

    The Rev. J. DAVIES seconded the proposition with pleasure.

    It was also agreed that any surplus should be devoted towards
    providing something in the shape of a treat for the necessitous
    poor in the town.

    It was finally resolved that the meeting should be further
    adjourned until Friday evening, when the canvassers to the fund
    should attend and report progress.

       *       *       *       *       *

    MARRIAGE OF THE PRINCESS ROYAL.

    At a PUBLIC MEETING of the Inhabitants of Dudley, held by
    invitation of the Mayor, on Tuesday last, it was resolved, that
    a General Subscription should be made in order to form a fund
    to provide an entertainment for the children attending the
    SUNDAY AND DAY SCHOOLS of the town; the amount subscribed to be
    apportioned to each school according to the number of scholars;
    the surplus, if any, to be applied on behalf of the aged and
    necessitous poor. The earnest co-operation of the Clergymen,
    Ministers, and others, having the charge of the schools, is
    respectfully solicited, as well as their attendance at an
    adjourned Public Meeting, to be held at the OLD TOWN HALL, on
    FRIDAY Evening next, the 22nd inst., at 7 o'clock, when the
    report of the amount of subscriptions will be received.

    A PUBLIC DINNER will also take place at the HOTEL, on MONDAY
    next, the 25th inst., in commemoration of the above event.
    Tickets, including wine, 10s. 6d. each. Gentlemen intending to
    be present are desired to signify such intention to Mrs. Smith,
    at the bar of the Hotel, not later than Friday next. Dinner on
    the table at Three o'clock.

                                          Signed,
                                               J. BEDDARD, MAYOR.

    _Old Town Hall, Jan. 19th, 1858._

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE "PRINCESS ROYAL'S MARRIAGE," AND THE "MASONIC BALL."

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY EXPRESS.

    SIR,--How is it the Committee of the forthcoming Masonic Ball
    should have so lacked "foresight" as to have lost all idea
    of the marriage of the Princess Royal? Here is a "fact" well
    known for months, and here is a Ball for "charitable purposes,"
    got up within a few weeks, and fixed to take place FOUR days,
    before the great event named. Would you not suppose, Sir, that
    _common sense_ would have dictated, at once, the proper day
    for the holding this annual affair? Would you not have thought
    it a glorious opportunity to blend the two objects, and by
    so blending, to secure a very large attendance of visitors,
    and a great increase to the funds hoped to be obtained by the
    Committee for the charities of the town?

    If the _common sense_ of the Committee could not have suggested
    this course, it would have been as well if they had drafted
    into their councils one or two men of

                                                _UN_-COMMON SENSE.

    _Dudley, Jan. 14, 1858._

    P.S.--I have seen an advertisement of this Ball in a
    "Birmingham" paper, but, though it is a "Dudley" Ball, got up
    by "Dudley" men, and for the Charities of "Dudley," I have
    looked in vain for an advertisement of it in any one of the
    three "Dudley" papers. Can you tell a wondering reader (though
    of _un_-common sense) why this is, for _un_-common sense is
    unable to solve the mystery.

       *       *       *       *       *

    "UNCOMMON SENSE _VERSUS_ THE LATE MASONIC BALL COMMITTEE."

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY EXPRESS.

    SIR,--A letter in your last week's "Open Platform" contains
    some crude remarks on the proceedings of the Dudley Masonic
    Ball Committee, written to show that its want of foresight
    "Omitted the glorious opportunity to blend two objects
    together"--viz., "The Princess Royal's Marriage with the
    Masonic Ball."

    As Chairman of the Ball Committee, sir, I beg to inform
    your anonymous scribbler, that the propriety of holding the
    Masonic Ball on the evening of the Royal Marriage received the
    _due consideration_ of the Ball Committee _at its earliest
    sittings_, and had your "Uncommon Sense" correspondent
    possessed the same amount of "foresight," good feeling, and
    _gentlemanly intention_ evinced by another writer in your
    columns, signed J. H. M., he would not have so foolishly rushed
    into print, but would have anticipated with the Ball Committee
    that the _proper officials_ of Dudley would, ere now, have
    suggested such a mark of public demonstration of loyalty on
    that joyous occasion as to leave no room for complaint by
    any of your correspondents on that particular head. Under
    these impressions, the Masonic Ball Committee _avoided_ the
    possibility of clashing with other hoped-for demonstrations in
    the town; so that the 21st was deemed the most appropriate day
    for holding this time-honoured and benevolent assembly.

    As to the propriety of "drafting one or two men of uncommon
    sense" into the councils of the Ball Committee, I should first
    be glad to know whether the _animus_ and _diction_ of "Uncommon
    Sense" were to be taken as a _specimen of his fitness_ to sit
    on that committee, and as an evidence of his capability of
    discerning approaching events with prophetic eyes? If so, I
    opine that, as his present qualifications do not appear to be
    up to the mark, his presence must be respectfully declined.

    Touching the non-appearance of any advertisement of the ball in
    the Dudley newspapers, I can assure you that such an omission
    was far from being made with an intention of disrespect to the
    worthy efforts of the Dudley press to enlighten the horizon of
    this darkened locality. And when I inform you that the Masonic
    Ball Committee, for some years past, has deemed it advisable to
    bring the notices of the ball _immediately_ into the presence
    of every respectable family in this locality _by circular_,
    it will at once suggest the inutility, in some degree, of
    expending so much of its funds in public advertisements. As
    the peculiar objects of this ball ever have been to render as
    much seasonable assistance to the indigent as possible, it
    becomes imperative upon its promoters to avoid that spirit of
    _over-doing things_ which the present age unfortunately seems
    to foster.

    By kindly admitting this letter to your "Open Platform," you
    will oblige,

                     Your obedient servant,
                                   C. F. G. CLARK,
                           Chairman of the Masonic Ball Committee.

    _Dudley, January 19th, 1858._

This Easter, we had another parish election of the Board of Guardians.
No description of Guardians seemed to satisfy the whims and fancies of
the "Irreconcilables," so there was no way of squaring the captious
ideas of some large ratepayers but having a friendly fight for it, with
the usual attendant compliments to and about one another.


ELECTION OF GUARDIANS.

    BROTHER RATEPAYERS,

    MONOPOLY HAS PASSED AWAY--The death fang of ignorance,
    political and social oppression, has been broken in the
    Abortive Doings of the Past; and the sunbeam of enlightenment
    and knowledge is once more permitted to dawn upon the horizon
    of Dudley's political and social degradation.

    RATEPAYERS TO ACTION!!

    The tocsin of opposition has been sounded loud and clear
    in the corners of our streets, and the hand of Liberty is
    once more held out to uphold and maintain your expiring
    rights! Will you once more embrace it, or again allow it
    to be shrivelled up in the unholy flame of party purposes,
    cupidity, and self-interest? Shake off, then, the torpid
    inaction of the past, and awaken the dormant energies for
    the opening future. Reflect upon the two last years of
    Guardian Mismanagement,--Guardian Intolerance,--Guardian
    Ignorance,--Guardian Cupidity,--and Guardian
    Retrogression,--principles that have invariably marked the
    proceedings of the present Board, during this humiliating
    period; and ask yourselves whether these are the persons who
    shall constantly rule over you?

    Fellow Ratepayers! Are you still determined to be gagged by
    decrepid imbecility, and non-age, arrogance, and vanity?
    Are you willing that your expiring social and parochial
    privileges shall be immolated upon the altar of a bigotted and
    unprogressive Board Conclave? Do you think and feel that the
    present Board represents the wishes of the ratepayers, and are
    the proper persons to spend your hard earned money, take charge
    of your aged Poor, and bring up and nurture, in the paths of
    frugality and prudence, our rising generation?

    Reflect upon these questions, before you give your vote; for,
    if the Past is to be taken as an answer to these plain facts,
    the reply must be, NO!!

    Act, then, like Englishmen, and remove all obsequious toadies
    from the stool of office, exercise the vote, which the law and
    reason has placed in your hands, with honesty and justice; and
    spurn from your presence, as you would a viper, those dastardly
    serfs who try to take away your birthright when attempting to
    fill up your voting papers, or tamper with your freedom of
    thought and action. Put the old tried friends of just economy,
    truth and consistency, into their proper places, and VOTE for

    Richard Smith, Mine Agent, Priory.
    J. Renaud, Glass Master, Dixon's Green.
    Thos. Griffiths, Gentleman, Wellington Road.
    J. Whitehouse, Gentleman, Oakham.
    E. Hollier, Chemist, Market Place.
    W. C. Wood, Grocer, High Street.
    Joseph Guest, Gentleman, New Street.
    M. Dennison, Chemist, Market Place.
    E. F. Smith, Agent, Trindle.
    R. Houghton, Draper, High Street.

    These Gentlemen have before watched over your interests, and
    are now ready to assist you again to proclaim and sustain your
    social privileges.

                                                       HARD TIMES.

    _Dudley, March 29th, 1858._

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE MINERS' STRIKE!

    THE IN'S AND THE OUT'S.

    FOUR IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION.--

    1--Which are the _most Prudent_?
    2--Which are the _most Politic_?
    3--Which are the _most Philosophic_? And
    4--Which are _the Wisest_?

    The Miners on the West of Dudley who are _in Work_, or, the
    Miners on the East who are _out on Strike_?

                                                      SAMUEL COOK.

       *       *       *       *       *

    IMPORTANT MEETING.

    INCOME TAX RE-ASSESSMENT.

    WORLEY'S DEFALCATIONS.

    The adjourned meeting to receive the report of the committee,
    with the opinion of counsel, will be held in the Old Town Hall,
    on Wednesday Evening next, the 31st March, 1858, at half-past
    Seven o'clock p.m. precisely.

                                             Signed,
                                                J. BEDDARD, MAYOR.

    _March 29th, 1858._

       *       *       *       *       *

    ELECTION OF GUARDIANS.

    BROTHER RATEPAYERS,

    "Hard Times" came a little too early, and has proposed names of
    parties to you _who have resigned_! If that is his way of doing
    business--jumping so hastily to conclusions, and reckoning upon
    his chickens before they are hatched--it augurs badly for the
    list he has proposed to you.

    Brother Ratepayers, put your shoulders to the wheel, and
    get rid of "Hard Times" and some of his lot, as speedily
    as possible. Depend upon it "Hard Times," is by no means a
    safe or congenial companion. Choose men who have stuck to
    your interests when the "times" have indeed been "hard,"
    men who have fought for your welfare, and ever had in view
    the interests of those small ratepayers who are not at all
    represented in the present Board, but who _must_ and _shall_
    be represented in future. Great Ratepayers can take care of
    themselves--and the great ratepayers _only_ were represented
    in the old Board. You, therefore, that are sneeringly called
    by certain gentlemen "small" ratepayers, and whose interests
    are thought to be nothing, take care and see that in the
    present contest _your interests are not overlooked_. Prove to
    these dogmatic, would-be despotic individuals that "small"
    as are your interests individually, yet that when united you
    can break down the opposition of such men; and as you have
    before accomplished your own object, and gained freedom of
    representation in Parliament, so now prove to the world that
    you can be fairly represented in the humbler Board-room of your
    Poor House.

    Brother Ratepayers, look to your interests! Be not deceived!
    Choose your men by those principles of Independence which they
    have not only _avowed_ but always endeavoured to _carry out_.

    VOTE FOR

    Edw. Grainger,
    Thos. Griffiths,
    G. B. Lowe,
    W. C. Wood,
    W. Wigginton,
    J. Whitehouse,
    W. Cooper,
    W. Harrison,
    Edw. Wood,
    W. Washington.

    These are tried men, and although some of them have not had
    a seat at your Board, place them there triumphantly. Let not
    "large" men fill up your Voting papers, or allow them to sell
    the interests of

                                            THE SMALL RATEPAYERS.

    _Dudley, March 31st, 1858._

       *       *       *       *       *

    ELECTION OF GUARDIANS.

    BROTHER RATEPAYERS,

    Be not deceived: _a new and specious enemy_, with a very
    apparently humble name, "The Small Ratepayer," has recommended
    you a List of Guardians, for whom _decency must blush and
    virtue must tremble_.

    Fellow Ratepayers, enquire for yourselves, and you will be
    easily able to unmask this Small Ratepayer and find him an
    _enemy to morality_, and a _promoter of Mormonism_ in its most
    disastrous and hideous form. _He blushes not to recommend for
    Guardians_, men whose lives are not regulated by the paths of
    virtue and morality, but tainted with _noon-day adultery and
    heartless debauchery_.

    RATEPAYERS, AWAKEN! _Let not naked Adultery stalk through our
    streets, unabashed_, without manifesting your _manly disgust_
    at the _audacity of the attempt_ to seat men of vice upon
    the same benches with men of honour and integrity at that
    Board, whose most painful duty too often is to admonish the
    _unfortunate daughters of sin_ for burdening our parish with
    the results of such vice, from which their judges should be
    free and unpolluted.

    We grieve for the honourable names that have been _made to
    stand godfather for the vicious and intolerant_ aspirants,
    dictated by the organ of a _dangerous, maligning local
    newspaper_. But we know that there is enough regard for virtue
    and morality in the Ratepayers of Dudley to discriminate
    betwixt the _evil_ and the _good_ men; and we again call upon
    you to _exercise your votes_ _with care, honesty, and justice_.
    The Times are _Hard_, indeed, when the town is subjected to
    such _daring insults_.

    Resent it like men, by Voting for

    Richard Smith,
    Jno. Renaud,
    Thos. Griffiths,
    Jno. Whitehouse,
    E. Hollier,
    Ed. Fisher Smith,
    W. C. Wood,
    Jos. Guest,
    M. Dennison,
    Robt. Houghton.

    All of whom have pledged themselves to stand.

                                                    HARD TIMES.

    _Dudley, April 3rd, 1858._

       *       *       *       *       *

    ELECTIONEERING TRICKERY!

    RATEPAYERS OF DUDLEY,

    Be proud of your country! Local Self-Government is a privilege
    peculiar to Englishmen. This day you are called upon to select
    for the coming year the Guardians of your Poor.

    Do not neglect to Vote! Do not Vote at random! Do not let
    others Vote for you!!! Vote for the Men who will be kind to
    the Poor, and at the same time careful of the pockets of their
    constituents.

    "Observer," in a long rigmarole about nothing, has proposed
    a list of the whole of the members of the old Board for
    re-election. It is well known that many of these have proved
    themselves incompetent for their office, and that others have
    rendered themselves obnoxious to the Inhabitants of the Town.
    The weekly expenses of Out-Door Relief have Increased during
    the whole year of the present Board!

    Shew your Independence and Reject that List!

    "Hard Times," in a bombastic and senseless address, has
    submitted a list of names of Gentlemen, many of whom are
    unquestionably as amiable in their private character, as they
    would prove themselves utterly incompetent for the office of
    Guardian of the Poor.

    Shew your Discretion and Reject THAT List!

    One of "The Small Ratepayers" has selected another list of
    new, and altogether untried men. You do not want to turn out
    indiscriminately all the members of the old Board. You only
    want to get rid of the obnoxious and incompetent ones!

    Shew your Independence, your Discretion, and your good
    Common-Sense, by Rejecting that List, and Vote only for

    Richard Smith, Agent,
    Edward F. Smith, Agent,
    Isaac Badger, Coal Master,
    Joseph G. Walker, Merchant,
    Elliott Hollier, Chemist,
    Thomas Griffiths, Gentleman,
    Edward Grainger, Draper,
    George Burn Lowe, Solicitor,
    William Harrison, Draper,
    William Wigginton, Architect.

    Please to remember that Ten Names only can be selected. Write
    your Initials on the Voting Paper opposite the Ten here
    enumerated, and see at the next election if you have not reason
    to feel obliged to

                                                     DISCRIMINATOR.

    _Dudley, April 5th, 1858._

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    I have received several communications to the effect that a Mr.
    Locock is, or has been, by himself and his agents, canvassing
    you with a view to displace me in the event of a dissolution
    of Parliament. Now I beg to say that, if this be true, the
    circumstance of a man soliciting your suffrages behind my back,
    without any notice to me or my supporters, without publishing
    any address to the Electors, or in a word, without adopting
    any of the usual proceedings of fair play, is a sufficient
    indication of your would-be representative. On first hearing
    this intelligence, I gave no attention whatever to the
    circumstance, feeling convinced that men who know so well how
    to stand up like Englishmen in a fair political fight, were
    not likely to listen to the whisperings of a person who thus
    stealthily presented himself to their notice.

    I can no longer, however, remain silent, when I find that these
    persons are circulating statements with reference to me and my
    intentions, which are utterly false and unfounded. One of these
    statements is to the effect that I have announced (of course
    confidentially) that it is not my intention to offer myself
    again for the representation of Dudley. This I need hardly tell
    you is a wicked invention of the stealthy candidate or his
    agent. I therefore hasten to place you on your guard against,
    what our friend Louis Napoleon would call "false intelligence,"
    for you may be assured that it is in your hands alone I shall
    place my resignation, in the same open and straightforward
    manner in which I trust I have always met you, when the time
    for such a proceeding arrives.

    Should the present crisis terminate in a dissolution I shall
    lose no time in committing my political interests to the
    care of those friends to whom I am indebted for the honor
    of representing your Borough, and whose confidence I am not
    conscious of having in any way either betrayed or forfeited.

       I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, yours faithfully,
                                                  H. B. SHERIDAN.

    _House of Commons, May 15th, 1858._


THE QUEEN'S VISIT TO BIRMINGHAM.

June 15th, 1858. Her Majesty the Queen this day opened the "People's
Park," at Aston, a suburb of Birmingham. This being _the_ _first time_
a monarch had visited, in state, the Radical town of Birmingham, the
good people of that busy town received their Queen in a right royal
style. The Corporation, however, having a strong plebeian tendency, was
much stirred within its Radical proclivities, as to how far it could
sustain the cordiality and loyalty to the Sovereign, befitting her
exalted station, without losing the smiles of its elective body. It
meant one thing to shout "God Save the Queen," and another thing to say
"God preserve the People." However, the procession was most imposing to
the plebeian idea, and everything passed off very creditably, for the
"Rough Brums" have stout, but tender hearts, and they were determined
not to be behind other towns in shewing their loyalty to the Throne. It
was said that the Queen was highly pleased with the reception accorded
to her, and she did not forget to confer the handsome dignity of
knighthood on the then Liberal Mayor of Birmingham, Mr. John Ratcliffe,
who rose from his knees as the first belted knight of Birmingham. This
gracious and courtly act was the source of much kindly feeling in the
town, for the constant presence of "Sir John" in their daily walks
helped to remind the liege burgesses of a most virtuous and gracious
Queen, and the exaltation of their chief citizen to honour and dignity
on a most memorable occasion.

June 26th, 1858. One hundred and fifty pounds was just now expended in
cleaning, adorning and beautifying St. Edmund's Church. This sum was
raised by subscription amongst the congregation.

Died, July 1st, 1858, Mrs. W. C. Wood, High Street, very suddenly. Aged
58 years.


THE DUDLEY GRAMMAR SCHOOL PRIZES.

    _To the Editor of the_ DAILY POST.

    SIR,--The omission at this Midsummer vacation of the usual
    distribution of prizes to the boys, and the circular issued
    by the head master (the Rev. R. Harper,) announcing a very
    important alteration from the hitherto practised mode of
    rewarding the industry and stimulating the energy of the lads
    in this public school, cannot fail to have awakened the minds
    of the parents and public in this town and neighbourhood, as to
    the reasons which have induced the trustees of the Prize Fund
    to alter their mode of action in this particular department of
    the school scheme.

    It is stated, Sir, and generally understood, that a certain
    sum of money was left by the founder of this excellent school,
    to be appropriated periodically for the reward of deserving
    scholars; and that from time immemorial these rewards have
    been represented by suitable historical and scientific books,
    adapted to the attainments of the fortunate recipients. But at
    the present time we find that one gold medal and two silver
    medals are for the future to be substituted for the former
    valuable book prizes, thus at once narrowing the chances of
    the deserving junior boys from ever obtaining a prize, and
    fixing the amount of scholastic knowledge at such a classical
    elevation as is not reasonable to expect that boys who usually
    attend country Grammar Schools are ever likely to remain long
    enough to obtain.

    It may suit, Mr. Editor, the unadorned ambition of plebeian
    thought to fancy its creative genius can raise up a Moloch
    of tinselled gold and burnished silver to be the absorbing
    deity of juvenile innocency, and the great object henceforth
    striven for; but while the eye is fascinated with this new-born
    idea, knowledge--that incalculable element of the present
    day, intended to be conveyed in all schools--is thus kept
    back from the enquiring mind, and the immortal writings of
    such authors as Milton, Mills, Bickersteth, Macaulay, Alison,
    Hume, Davy, Strickland, and Longfellow, are henceforth to be
    shelved in the bookseller's store-room, to gratify the maudlin
    fancy of some ill-digested mental conception, or afford us an
    opportunity of witnessing another concession to neighbouring
    exploded theories. The "breaking-up day" of the schoolboy
    frequently operates upon the action of the after-man; for the
    modest consciousness of carrying off the prize in his own class
    before the eager eyes of his aspiring competitors, creates
    a most beneficial effect upon the younger branches of the
    school, for whilst it recognises the Reward of Merit at all
    ages to the good, it stimulates the ambition and energy of the
    aspiring, and publicly condemns the conduct of the indolent
    and disobedient boy. The dissatisfaction already produced
    amongst the lads, by keeping from them, this Midsummer, their
    dearly cherished prizes, and the evil to be anticipated from
    the intended practice of giving only three prizes, (and that
    to senior boys), when hitherto at least a dozen junior boys
    have been the grateful recipients of useful books, are reasons
    calculated to produce much mischief amongst the minds of the
    industrious boys, besides arousing a feeling of distrust and
    suspicion amongst the parents and the public, as to the objects
    intended to be gained by such a movement. If it is good and
    advisable to reward the senior classes, surely it is just and
    right to encourage the junior classes also. This intrusion
    amongst your correspondence will oblige your obedient servant.

                                                   "INVESTIGATOR."

    _Dudley, June 22nd, 1858._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _To the Editor of the_ DAILY POST.

    SIR,--I should not under any circumstances reply to an
    anonymous correspondent, but for the sake of the inhabitants
    of Dudley, and of the parents of pupils in my school, I am
    anxious to state what I know in respect of this prize fund.
    This fund was collected chiefly through the instrumentality of
    my predecessor, Dr. Thompson, about seven years ago. It has for
    some years been suggested that a gold or silver medal would be
    a better mode of giving these prizes than any other, and more
    in accordance with the wishes of the original subscribers of
    the fund. The chief reason that the present time was decided
    upon for the change was a hope that a gold medal given under
    the conditions imposed, would furnish the school with at least
    one pupil yearly, who might be able successfully to pass the
    examinations which are now instituted by the two Universities
    of Oxford and Cambridge for the benefit of the middle classes.
    It is not intended to award all the medals to the higher
    forms, and there is nothing in my circular which could lead
    to such a conclusion. The gold medal will be the only one so
    appropriated, whilst it is intended to give the other medals
    to the best boys of the lower forms of the school. You will
    also observe, from the circular which I enclose, that only in
    the case of the gold medal are the subjects for examination
    strictly defined; and I cannot conceive that the amount of
    scholarship required for such a prize is too extensive, or
    more than might fairly be expected from a well educated lad
    of 16 years of age in any Grammar School. In fact there was a
    desire rather to limit the subjects than to extend them, as it
    was thought that a few subjects well taught would be a better
    training for the middle class examinations than a superficial
    knowledge of a larger number. It ought to be recollected that
    the prizes of books awarded in this school at Christmas will
    not be affected in any degree by the new arrangements with
    respect to the prize fund.

    No one can regret more than I do the circumstance that the boys
    are deprived this Midsummer of their usual prizes; but, owing
    to the expense of the dies for the medals, this was unavoidable.

                     I am, Sir, yours, &c.,
                                     ROBERT HARPER,
                          Head Master of the Dudley Grammar School.

    _Grammar School, Dudley, June 23rd, 1858._

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE DUDLEY GRAMMAR SCHOOL PRIZE FUND.

    _To the Editor of the_ DAILY POST.

    SIR,--I am sure that the inhabitants of Dudley will duly
    appreciate the prompt and straightforward manner in which
    (Mr. Harper) the head master of the Dudley Grammar School has
    replied to my letter of Monday last, respecting the omission of
    awarding prizes to the boys this midsummer; but, whilst I fully
    agree with him that the reception by a boy of a gold medal at
    his hands may be looked upon as a presumed assumption that
    the holder will be able successfully to pass the examinations
    which are now instituted at Oxford and Cambridge for the middle
    classes, yet I maintain that hundreds of boys will pass that
    elevated mental examination without being the gold medallist of
    their school; besides the fact that any youth is eligible for
    that ordeal, whether he has been educated at a public school
    or merely received private tuition; neither do I still see
    any valid reasons why a dozen excellent book prizes should be
    withdrawn from the junior classes at that school to be the
    means of elevating the classical and scholastic standing of one
    or two youths, probably much better fitted, both by position
    and capacity, to battle with the difficulties and mental toils
    attendant upon the earlier training of youth.

    As an ardent promoter of education, sir, I rejoice with others
    to see that the great, nay, almost once irreproachable,
    Universities have at last opened their hoary portals to that
    class of society for whose benefit and interest those seats
    of learning were originally instituted; but I cannot but
    feel that there is great danger in store for the lads of any
    independent grammar school lurking under this expanded mental
    promotion offered by the Universities, of the chances of the
    master devoting an overdue attention to the senior classes,
    with the view of coaching them up to the required altitude, at
    the risk of neglecting the important ground-work of tuition
    indispensably required by the junior classes. Apart from this
    temptation to elevate the fame of a school at the risk of
    damaging its productive qualities, a paralysing effect is sure
    to be produced upon the younger boys, when they feel and know
    that years of mental toil have yet to be gone through ere a
    prize is likely to be won, or an encouraging smile awarded by
    the dreaded Dominies.

    It is very gratifying to find that the Head Master of this
    school is so truly anxious for the welfare of this important
    institution; and as an inhabitant of this town, having children
    to educate at that school, I would respectfully claim with him
    my share of anxiety for its continued usefulness, and onward
    progress. But institutions, Sir, like the Dudley Grammar
    School, were never, in my opinion, intended to be the grinding
    schools for the aspirants for classical honours; neither am I
    persuaded that the class of parents who usually send their sons
    to that school will, as a rule, be disposed to keep them there
    up to a period of youth (16 years,) with the idea of bettering
    their commercial position by becoming an associate of one of
    our Universities.

    Rugby, Shrewsbury, Birmingham, and the like, are the public
    schools that will most benefit by this recent relaxation; but
    the ordinary Grammar Schools of this period are not required
    to promote boys (not students) to a comprehensive knowledge of
    Latin authors, algebraic lore, and mathematical expositions,
    attainments which do not come within the scope of the class
    intended to be benefited by such institutions, for it is too
    often the case that a superficial exterior is made to suffice
    for an empty ground-work; and I fully concur with the Rev.
    Master, "that a few subjects well taught would be a better
    training for the middle classes than a superficial knowledge of
    a larger number of subjects."

    Having reasons to suppose that the Head Master has had very
    little to do with this important alteration, I trust, for
    the welfare of both boys and the town, that he will use his
    professional and scholastic influence to induce the trustees
    of the Prize Fund to rescind their resolution of awarding
    medals instead of books, believing that a persistence in this
    unwise step will not only alter the acknowledged character
    of the school, by producing a pecuniary loss to the funds
    of the same, but inflict an uncalled for injustice upon the
    minds of parents in this neighbourhood, who have an undoubted
    right to the best-devised advantages that can be derived from
    that heirloom of knowledge handed down to us for the last two
    centuries.

    If, Sir, an annual gold medal prize can be of any use in
    elevating the ancient renown of this Grammar School, pray let
    the trustees appeal periodically to the parents of the boys
    attending the school for the funds for that specific object,
    and rely upon the well-known generosity of a Dudley public;
    rather than inflict an ungracious discouragement upon the
    junior classes of the school.

                                                     INVESTIGATOR.

    _Dudley, June 25th, 1858._

September 14th, 1858. The Provincial Grand Lodge of Freemasons of
Worcestershire was held in Dudley this day, but, contrary to usual
custom, there was no walking in procession or prayer sayings at Church,
but nevertheless the usual dinner was celebrated with due solemnity at
the Hotel. "So mote it be."

September, 1858, we had a very miserable and unwise "strike" for
an advance of wages amongst the "colliers" in this district, which
extended to a period of sixteen weeks; adding great deprivations and
distress to that already existing through the bad state of trade in
the neighbourhood. The stoppage of the usual daily supply of coal to
furnaces and mill forges, &c., became a source of serious inconvenience
to the completion of contracts in manufactured iron; and had not a
limited supply of coal been obtained from Wales and Leicestershire, the
iron trade would have been suspended also; fortunately, this additional
evil was averted, and although we had to pay an increased price for our
coals, yet a sufficient supply was secured to keep the works in motion.
The misguided colliers were compelled from sheer want to give in at
last, and resumed their labour at a reduction of one shilling a day in
their wages.


THE SEBASTOPOL GUNS.

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY TIMES AND EXPRESS.

    SIR,--Your many readers will recollect that (at Midsummer,
    1857) Dudley was the scene of much rejoicing and loyal
    demonstration, on the event of the Sebastopol Guns being drawn
    into the Castle Court Yard, amid the din of drums and flourish
    of trumpets.

    On that joyous occasion, loud and lofty promises were made, and
    official dignity was pledged to make some _decent arrangement_
    for fixing those famous trophies on a suitable basis; but alas,
    Mr. Editor, the promises of public men are often short lived;
    for _fifteen eventful months_ have passed over our heads, and
    the famous Sebastopol guns are still all alone in their dirt
    and ignominious glory, silent evidences of broken pledges and
    lukewarm loyalty, giving us another proof of the truth of
    the oft repeated remark, "that Dudley is always behind her
    neighbours in everything _but a feed_."

    It cannot fail to be grievous to the mind of a Dudley man to
    visit either Lichfield, Bridgnorth, or Kidderminster, and
    see there Sebastopol guns properly fixed on some prominent
    locality: and yet know and feel that the Dudley guns were
    doomed to sink into the limestone caverns beneath them, unless
    some friendly hand speedily removes them from their present
    unsightly position.

    The worthy Mayors of Dudley, sir, have each in their time
    of office done _something_ to immortalise their mayorality
    in the annals of historic lore; and here we have a charming
    opportunity for our present high functionary to add his name
    to the list of past dignitaries, by inaugurating these Russian
    trophies in a manner suited to the condition and importance
    of the town. It is said that £50 will mount them in a proper
    manner, and surely the dignity of that important office will
    not have been obtained at too high a bidding, if its possession
    were acknowledged by such a public act of grace and liberality.

    Their present position cannot but be admitted by all parties
    to be very different from that entertained for them by Lord
    Panmure at their presentation, for they now stand as objects of
    shame and disgrace to the town and inhabitants, but unless the
    proper officials of the town are willing to look to such public
    matters (pertaining as they do to their tenure of office),
    pray, sir, who can be expected to take the initiative?

    Trusting that these few remarks may awaken the public attention
    to this subject,

                                   I am, yours respectfully,
                                                        "SCRUTATOR."

    _Dudley, October 5th, 1858._

Died, October 10th, 1858, Miss Badley, eldest daughter of John Badley,
Esq., Surgeon of this town, a truly benevolent and kind hearted lady,
aged 46 years.

Died, October 15th, 1858, Mr. Hartill Dudley, Nail Master, Dudley, aged
79 years.

October 29th, 1858, at the Court Leet annual meeting, held this day,
Mr. Elliott Hollier, Chemist and Druggist, was elected Mayor, and Mr.
Theophilus Tinsley, Nail Master, the High Bailiff. This election was
the subject of much comment in the town; inasmuch as the office of
Mayor, had been annually conferred upon gentlemen, vegetating amongst
the upper phases of our local society. Besides this, the old Tory
exclusiveness had been assailed by the Liberals on this occasion, and
a townsman had been elected to the important office, who had got the
brains and ability to conduct our public business in the manner which
was creditable to the town. The election of poor Mr. Tinsley proved to
be a very unfortunate one in the long run.

November 8th, 1858. Died, Mrs. Alice Bogle, Bookseller, Wolverhampton
Street, widow. Mrs. Bogle was universally respected for her gentleness
and suavity; she had the distinguished honour of once being elected
Churchwarden for the parish. Aged 53 years.


THE OLD TOWN HALL AND THE SEBASTOPOL GUNS.

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY TIMES AND EXPRESS.

    SIR,--It will be in the recollection of the gentlemen who
    attended the late Court Leet dinner in Dudley, that amongst a
    variety of anticipated improvements and amendments that were
    required for the social, moral, and architectural advancement
    of our good old town of Dudley, "that another public effort
    should be made to get rid of that unneccessary building, the
    Old Town Hall." Now, sir, we have great veneration for the
    doings of the past, and believe that our forefathers meant
    well in all their undertakings; but when that building was
    erected more than one hundred years ago, standing as the "head
    and front" of two narrow streets called Queen street and High
    street, it necessarily made a finish to that angle of the block
    of buildings then existing, known as the "Middle Row," and was
    not an inappropriate object from the "Over Church."

    But our grand-dads are gone to their rest, and peace be
    with them, and the times are changed, also, sir; for their
    scions, feeling the rapid advance made in trade, commerce,
    civilisation, and sanitary improvements, have long since deemed
    the "Middle Row" an encumberer of the ground, have demolished
    its once ancient visage, and secured to us our fine open Market
    Place (save the neck end of it) as a suitable spot in which the
    people may congregate, and the trader expose for sale his wares.

    The noble owner of the Old Town Hall (Lord Ward) would appear
    to have anticipated long ago the removal of that building,
    from the fact that, with his Lordship's accustomed liberality,
    he erected at his own cost the New Town Hall, for Magisterial
    and other public purposes required by this important town.
    Surely, then, its removal need not now be considered as an act
    of sacrilege to the feelings of even the oldest inhabitants;
    for the Board of Guardians will shortly quit its hoary portals
    for their new and more suitable Board room at the New Union
    Workhouse.

    Irrespective of these reasons, sir, its acknowledged nuisance
    as a public urinal, its shameful use as a hiding place for
    juvenile obscenity and adult immorality, and its general
    inutility, demand at the hands of public morality its speedy
    removal. Let, then, our newly elected, energetic Mayor
    inaugurate his year of office by instituting some mode of
    acting by which public opinion may be brought to bear upon
    this local nuisance; and whilst the Old Town Hall removal
    question is brought to the bar of public investigation, _let
    it not be forgotten_ that the Russian guns, (those emblems of
    our sanguinary strife with the Great Power of the North), _are
    still unmounted, uncared for_, and left "all alone in their
    fallen glory."

    The Russian gun-mountings in neighbouring towns point with the
    finger of shame to the prolonged lukewarmness with which Dudley
    has followed up the lofty demonstrations exhibited when those
    guns were publicly escorted into the Castle Court Yard, amid
    the din of arms and the enthusiastic plaudits of the people.
    If there is some doubt as to whether these trophies can be
    _publicly mounted_ in the Castle grounds, pray let that doubt
    be dissipated at once, by the proper authorities initiating the
    necessary steps to obtain a subscription, and then petition
    the Lord of the Manor for permission to mount the guns in a
    handsome style in the centre of the Market Place, at once an
    object worthy of the site, and as a lasting memento of our
    national sympathy for the oppressed and heroic.

    Were there no sons of Dudley, or the neighbourhood, sir, who
    fell gloriously battling for the cause of liberty and the
    rights of nations in that memorable campaign, whose names might
    not with great justice be appropriately handed down to our
    children's children, as objects for their especial regard, and
    subjects for our local pride and approbation?

    Trusting that these matters may not be allowed to slumber on
    in their present unsatisfactory condition, and craving a space
    amongst your list of correspondents,

                             I am, your obedient servant,
                                                   C. F. G. CLARK.

    _Dudley, Nov. 24th, 1858._

1858. The New Town Hall was built about this time by Lord Ward, to
secure the necessary Magisterial accommodation for the administration
of justice for the Borough, arising from the demolition of the Old
Town Hall, situate in the Market Place. On November 18th, 1870, the
Corporation bought the New Town Hall for the sum of £2500, and utilised
it in such a judicious way as to make the Police force arrangements
most complete.

    THE MAYOR begs to apprize his fellow-townsmen that the remains
    of their formerly much respected Member, THOMAS HAWKES, Esq.,
    will be conveyed through the Town for INTERMENT AT HIMLEY, on
    FRIDAY Morning next, and, as he thinks it may be desirable that
    some mark of respect should be shewn towards his memory by
    the PARTIAL CLOSING of their respective Establishments on the
    Morning of that day, he will be happy to meet those who accord
    with this desire at the OLD TOWN HALL, on THURSDAY Evening
    next, at SEVEN o'clock, to arrange accordingly.

                                          _Signed_,
                                              E. HOLLIER, MAYOR.

    _Dudley, Wednesday, December 8th, 1858._

This request of the Mayor was very generally observed on this
melancholy occasion, for Mr. Hawkes was very much esteemed by a large
circle of friends, and his early death and many (both political and
commercial) misfortunes had always awakened great sympathy for him;
for in his early days he had been a large and liberal employer of a
lucrative labour in this town in the glass trade.

    INDIAN MUTINY FUND.

    In compliance with a communication from J. RENAUD, Esq.,
    Treasurer, I respectfully invite the attendance of the
    Subscribers to the above Fund at the OLD TOWN HALL, this
    TUESDAY Evening, the 21st instant, at 7 o'clock, to decide upon
    the appropriation of the Money left in the Bank, in accordance
    with a resolution of their former meeting.

                                                E. HOLLIER, MAYOR.

    £810 collected for this fund.

    _Dudley, December 21st, 1858._

       *       *       *       *       *

    CHRISTMAS, 1858, ST. THOMAS'S CHURCH.

    PARISHIONERS interested in the complete RESTORATION of the
    PARISH CHURCH are respectfully requested to meet the VICAR and
    WARDENS on FRIDAY next, at Twelve o'clock, in the Vestry, in
    order to Nominate a Committee to see the above work properly
    carried out.

                                     J. C. BROWNE, D.C.L., VICAR.
                                     W. WIGGINTON, } CHURCHWARDENS.
                                     W. MILLWARD,  }

Died, December 24th, 1858, Mr. Benjamin Dudley, Silk Mercer, High
Street. Mr. Dudley was descended from a very ancient Dudley family, and
he was very much esteemed for his honourable and strictly conscientious
principles. He was a most zealous supporter of the Church, and had not
a loving liking for the Romanists. Aged 78 years.

A very numerously attended public meeting was held on December 29th,
1858, under the presidency of Elliott Hollier, Esq., Mayor, to take
into consideration and determine as to the propriety of carrying into
effect, or of memorialising the Poor Law Board to rescind, an order
under their hand and seal of office, made and published by them, and
dated the 7th day of December, 1858, such order applying to and putting
in force forthwith within the said Parish the whole of a certain Act
(13th & 14th Victoria, chapter 57), entitled, "An Act to prevent the
holding of Vestry or other meetings in Churches, and for regulating the
appointment of Vestry Clerks," and under which order the annual salary
of the Vestry Clerk for the time being has been fixed at £120, payable
out of the Poor Rates. This meeting was very boisterous, severely
censuring the action of the Poor Law Board, but it was no use, as the
law had to take its unpalatable course.


THE DUDLEY NEW UNION WORKHOUSE.

1859. This long wanted and extensive Poor Law Establishment, was
occupied early this year. The cost of the New Union House and Land,
was upwards of £26,000; which had to be provided for by the four large
Parishes, Dudley, Sedgley, Tipton, and Rowley Regis. The population
of these four Parishes was estimated to be 130,000 souls; and the
in-door paupers connected with each Parish had, up to this very
necessary change, been confined in four wretched habitations, called
Poor Houses, which were a thorough disgrace to the Union. The absence
of all sanitary provisions and the immorality attending the benighted
system of management and control, became a burning shame, and a stain
upon our then local authorities. This was all happily removed when the
old dens were pulled down, and a modern and more enlightened system of
management was inaugurated at the New Union Workhouse. The Poor Rate
at that date was two shillings in the pound; now we have to luxuriate
on paying four shillings and sixpence in the pound, with our rateable
assessment value increased upwards of £50,000. "Blessed are the poor in
spirit, for they shall see the Workhouse." The New House was built to
contain six hundred inmates, but it has been enlarged since then, and
now contains seven hundred and sixty-eight souls. Mr. Thomas Shorthouse
was then the Clerk to the Dudley Union, and Mr. and Mrs. Stillard were
elected the first Master and Matron in the New House.

    TO THE INDEPENDENT ELECTORS OF THE EASTERN DIVISION OF THE
    COUNTY OF WORCESTER.

    GENTLEMEN,

    A vacancy having occurred in your Parliamentary Representation,
    I have acceded to the request of many influential friends that
    I would allow myself to be placed in Nomination.

    I cannot but share, as a Worcestershire man, the feelings that
    have been expressed to me on all sides, that the successor of
    Colonel Rushout ought to be, not only connected with, but a
    resident in the County.

    Whatever my private principles may be, I cannot, under the
    circumstances of the moment, resist this appeal. I therefore
    venture to ask your confidence and your support.

    To many of you I am personally known, and I shall take the
    earliest opportunity of endeavouring to become acquainted with
    you all.

    While my Political Principles are Conservative, no man can be
    more sincerely desirous than myself to promote Progressive
    Improvement, both Social and Political; and as I believe these
    to be the sentiments of the present Ministry, I should, as your
    Representative, give to the Government of Lord Derby a general
    but independent support.

    I am firmly attached to the Protestant Church of England, and
    anxious for the proper maintenance of her venerable fabrics,
    but, at the same time I am opposed to the compulsory exaction
    of Church Rates from those who conscientiously object to them,
    and I would support this principle in any measure which may be
    brought forward with the hope of settling this long-disputed
    question.

    In the same spirit I would be willing to give my support to any
    measure which, having for its object the Improvement of our
    Representative system, will combine a just desire to extend
    popular rights with due regard to the maintenance of the
    Constitution.

    I also attach great importance to the amendment of our Laws,
    and would promote any well considered attempt to effect that
    purpose.

    I shall be ready to avail myself of every occasion to give you
    that explanation of my opinions upon the leading questions of
    the day, to which you are entitled from a Candidate for your
    Suffrages; and in the meantime I confidently anticipate a
    successful issue to the struggle in which I feel myself thus
    compelled to engage.

                     I have the honor to be, Gentlemen,
                Your faithful friend and obedient servant,
                                           JOHN SLANEY PAKINGTON.

    _Westwood Park, Droitwich, January 28th, 1859._
                 Committee Room at Dudley, Swan Hotel.

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE EASTERN DIVISION OF THE COUNTY OF
    WORCESTER.

    GENTLEMEN,

    During a most successful canvass, I have so frequently been
    requested to express my views upon the leading Topics of the
    day, that I believe it will be satisfactory to state more fully
    my opinions, which it is impossible to do personally to each
    Elector of so extensive a Constituency.

    I unhesitatingly pledge myself to Vote for the Total Abolition
    of Church Rates, the only practical solution of this irritating
    Question.

    I attach great importance to the Amendment of our Laws, but
    do not hesitate to say, that "Consolidation must precede
    Amendment."

    I am disposed to Vote for a thorough Reform in the Assessment
    of the Income Tax, believing it to press severely upon
    Industry, and to be unjust in its mode of application.

    As a friend of Education, I am most anxious that every facility
    should be given for its more general advancement, and most
    assuredly will vote for the Repeal of the Duty on Paper, a Duty
    most obnoxious, and the greatest impediment to the diffusion of
    learning.

    Unshackled by Party ties, _and entirely independent of any
    individual influence_, I earnestly solicit your Suffrages, and
    though confident of the result of this Contest, I trust the
    friends of the Liberal cause will not relax their exertions.

    I shall continue my endeavours to become personally acquainted
    with each of you.

             I have the honor to remain,
                        Your obedient Servant,
                                    FREDERICK H. W. G. CALTHORPE.

    _Perry Hall, January 31st, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    EAST WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION.

    MR. PAKINGTON AND PUSEYISM.

    The father of Joey Grimaldi, the famous clown, was an Italian,
    who bore the name Delpini and followed the avocation of a
    dentist, in London, where it was his lot to reside in 1780, the
    year of Lord George Gordon's "No Popery" riots. All foreigners
    then fell under suspicion as Papists and cut-throats, and the
    harmless tooth-drawer, when the infuriated mob were firing
    the dwellings of known or suspected Romanists on all sides of
    him, followed a custom which obtained in those days of terror,
    of labelling your house with an inscription signifying either
    devotion to Protestantism or hatred of Popery. So Delpini
    chalked upon his door, in the best English he could command,
    "Good people all take notice, dis house is a true Protestant."

    Mr. Pakington hoists the same signal, and makes proclamation,
    "Good people all, Electors of East Worcestershire, take
    notice, dis house"--_videlicet_, the Pakington house--"is a
    true Protestant, and don't believe any insinuations to the
    contrary." Delpini's label, it is related, saved his premises
    from conflagration; Mr. Pakington's will not, I imagine
    save him from defeat. I propose to offer a few remarks in
    illustration of what Mr. Pakington's true Protestantism means,
    and what it has led to in his instance.

    Mr. Pakington says, "Having reason to esteem the excellent
    private character and charitable exertions of Mr. Liddell,
    and consequently disapproving the abuse of which he has been
    the object, I could not do otherwise than vote against Mr.
    Westerton's election." I esteem the excellent private character
    and the charitable exertions of Mr. Pakington for the promotion
    of education and morality, but I shall certainly do otherwise
    than vote for him at the coming Election. The Pope of Rome
    bears an excellent private character, and is well reputed for
    charitable exertions. He has also been, I dare say, improperly
    and undeservedly abused. Recognising all this, does it furnish
    any reason why I should tender my adhesion to the Pope, or any
    excuse for my adhering to him, or favouring his religion? Mr.
    Westerton was put forward as Churchwarden by the party in the
    Church who were adverse to Mr. Liddell's Romanising practices.
    As a candidate he represented the true and wholesome Protestant
    element in religion, as opposed to the representative of the
    doctrines of Auricular Confession and a Semi-Popish form of
    worship, just as Mr. Calthorpe represents the Liberal element
    in politics--the principle of progress; and Mr. Pakington the
    Conservative, or rather the Tory element--the principle of
    keeping in office by being the "humble servants to command" of
    the House of Commons. The contest between Mr. Westerton and Mr.
    Davidson was a contest between Protestantism and the Romanistic
    party. It was watched throughout Great Britain with the deepest
    interest, for it was felt that the result would be to ensure
    the victory of religious truth, or give a disastrous triumph to
    the defiled and adulterated pseudo-Protestantism--the "mongrel
    church," as the Hon. and Rev. F. Baring truly called it--of
    Mr. Liddell and his backers. At that election the fate of the
    Protestant Church in England was weighed in the scales against
    the false doctrine, heresy, and schism of the Tractarians. Most
    happily for the country, most fortunately for the interests of
    mankind, the good cause preponderated. Tractarians kicked the
    beam, and all of us felt that a great mercy had been vouchsafed
    to the afflicted Church. But no thanks to Mr. Pakington.
    He flung his weight into the scale along with auricular
    confession, crosses, flowers, candles, images, and other
    play-things of Puseyism, and so far as by his voice he could,
    comforted and favoured the partisans of Romish observance as
    opposed to the purity and simplicity of Protestant Worship.

    In that day--the day when Mr. Westerton was doing battle for
    Protestant interests with spirit and resolution worthy of a
    martyr--where was Mr. Pakington? Every one felt that a great
    crisis was impending in the history of the Church, and never
    was the Scriptural adage, "He that is not with me is against
    me," brought more closely home to Protestant breasts than at
    that moment. But where was Mr. Pakington? Not merely was he not
    with us; he was arrayed openly against us, and it might have
    been his vote, for aught he knew,--for the numerical difference
    between the candidates was trifling--that would have given a
    heavy blow and serious discouragement to Protestantism, by
    placing in the ascendent that party in the Church, whose sole
    end and aim is to bring back England to the bosom of the Roman
    fold, from which, as they conceive, she has ignorantly and
    perversely strayed.

    And what is the excuse Mr. Packington offers--for he feels
    bound to make some apology--for having thus turned his back
    upon Protestantism? By alleging Mr. Liddell's excellent private
    character, his charitable exertions, and the abuse of which he
    has been the object. In the same way any good and charitable
    and abused individual, though of Red Republican principles,
    might obtain Mr. Pakington's vote, the consideration with
    him being, not whether he agrees or differs with a man's
    principles, but that a man--to entitle him to support--should
    be of excellent private character, and equally distinguished
    for charitable exertions and immense obloquy. When the vital
    interests of Protestantism are at stake, it is not the time
    to allow minor considerations to influence the mind and to
    sacrifice them to the private character of any individual,
    however excellent or however improperly abused. When the enemy
    is in front and the battle joined, it would be base to slink
    out of the ranks from consideration for a private friend
    engaged with the opposite party.

    The vote for or against Mr. Westerton I am disposed to
    make a touchstone of sincerity, as regards attachment to
    Protestantism, or the reverse. Mr. Pakington may write up
    and call out as much as he pleases, "Good people all, take
    notice dis house is a true Protestant;" but he must excuse
    my saying that, after his vote against Mr. Westerton for
    the churchwardenship of Knightsbridge, I can attach no
    confidence to his professions. True Protestantism may have
    his lip-service, but false Protestantism, with its depraved
    doctrines and soul-sinking mummeries, had his countenance and
    his vote.

    On the other hand, Lord Calthorpe--the father of the Liberal
    candidate--has uniformly and signally distinguished himself
    by his zeal on behalf of evangelical religion, and his
    steadfast resistance to the insidious aggressions of the
    Tractarian faction. His son--early trained in the same
    principles--is animated with the same feelings and convictions,
    which will produce the same fruit; and, when such a man
    invites my suffrage, as a candidate for the Legislature, I
    cannot doubt--even without regard to politics--that I ought
    unhesitatingly to prefer him to Mr. Pakington, or I feel that I
    should have small claim to subscribe myself

                                                      A PROTESTANT.

    _February 4th, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    EAST WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION!

    Mr. CALTHORPE has much pleasure in tendering his best thanks to
    the Electors of Dudley for their very decided and flattering
    support. He regrets the impossibility of personally canvassing
    all the Electors, and respectfully invites them to meet him at
    the LANCASTERIAN SCHOOL ROOM, DUDLEY, on MONDAY Evening next,
    the 7th day of February, at seven o'clock.

    _Mr. Calthorpe's Committee Room, Old Bush Inn, 5th February,
    1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    EAST WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION.

    BROTHER ELECTORS,

    Mr. PAKINGTON asks who is Mr. CALTHORPE, and how dare
    he presume to intrude himself upon the Electors of East
    Worcestershire? I would reply by asking what claims of
    pre-eminence Mr. PAKINGTON possesses in thus questioning your
    right to select for yourselves that person you consider most
    fitted to represent you, and upon what ground does he base his
    expectations of obtaining your support? Certainly not upon
    the exhibition he made at the Lancasterian School on Monday
    Evening, when he either had no principles to explain, or they
    were so antiquated that he lacked the power or ability to
    make them understandable to his audience! Can it be upon his
    desire to _dole_ out to you the very smallest modicum of Reform
    which may be possible, or that you must be pleased to wait
    a little longer, until you are more capable of appreciating
    it? I am quite willing to give Mr. PAKINGTON all the credit
    he so eloquently pleaded for on Monday Evening, to which his
    efforts on behalf of education fairly entitle him; but I
    cannot understand how it is that he should deny to the people
    a fair participation in those rights and privileges which that
    education so properly qualifies them to exercise. Is it that
    he would continue that animosity and those heart-burnings
    which the exaction of Church Rates has so long occasioned,
    or does he still desire the dominance of an Ecclesiastical
    authority which, since the reformation, the Protestant spirit
    of the people of England has declared shall not exist in this
    country? Does he think that you will support him on account of
    the resistance of himself and his party to the establishment
    of those great commercial principles which have tended so
    largely to develop the prosperity of this Country, and so
    materially to increase your own happiness and comforts? How
    dare Mr. PAKINGTON sneer at Staffordshire men representing
    you, when all so well recollect the insidious attempt of Sir
    John to transfer you to that County, and which, had not your
    timely and generally expressed indignation prevented, Mr.
    PAKINGTON would not now have had the honour of soliciting
    your suffrages; Mr. CALTHORPE is a progressive, consistent
    Liberal--one whose principles are adapted to the spirit of
    the times in which we live; he comes fairly before this great
    County constituency with stated opinions, and soliciting from
    it a Seat in Parliament. He does not attempt to get there by
    the exercise of an influence Mr. PAKINGTON so magniloquently
    talked about, and which we all know is so kindly exercised in a
    Borough with which he is connected. Is it not that Mr. JUNIOR
    PAKINGTON is put forth as a feeler against the time when, very
    probably, that Borough may find itself in Schedule A of a New
    Reform Bill, and your votes may then be asked for a Senior
    member of the family? I will venture to answer that as Free and
    Independent Electors of East Worcestershire you will not thus
    be dictated to, but will return Mr. CALTHORPE TRIUMPHANTLY AT
    THE HEAD OF THE POLL!

                                      I am,
                                         Yours respectfully,
                                                     A FREEHOLDER.

       *       *       *       *       *

    ELECTORS BEWARE OF TORY TRICKS!

    MR. CALTHORPE is against opening the Crystal Palace, Theatres,
    and such other Places of Amusement on Sunday.

       *       *       *       *       *

    EAST WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION.

    TO THE ELECTORS AND NON-ELECTORS OF EAST WORCESTER.

    GENTLEMEN,

    I regret that the friends of Mr. Pakington have thought it to
    their interest to resort to open misrepresentation, and in the
    vain hope of injuring me in your good opinion are industriously
    circulating a report that I am "in favor of opening the Crystal
    Palace and Theatres on Sunday."

    This is wholly untrue. I never made or approved of such a
    statement.

    I am not in favor of opening the Crystal Palace, or Theatres,
    or any such places of Amusement on Sunday.

                           I am Gentlemen,
                                Your faithful Servant,
                                    FREDERICK H. W. G. CALTHORPE.

    _Central Committee Room, February 11th, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    MR. PAKINGTON'S LAST.

    "Nothing extenuate, nor
    Aught set down in malice."--_Shakespeare._

    Brother Electors and Friends of the eastern division of the
    county of Worcester, _my_ kind friend Lord Ingestre could not
    do _me_ a greater kindness than that which he has now done
    _me_, namely, that of addressing you in his usual eloquent,
    terse, and pointed style, to introduce to you _my_ humble self,
    the present candidate on the Conservative interest, and of
    expressing as he has so forcibly done the political views which
    _I_ entertain in common with him. _I_ am engaged, gentlemen,
    as you are all of you well aware, in a most vigorous, a most
    determined, and, from what _I_ hear on all sides of the county,
    anything but a desperate contest. _I_ am carrying it through
    with vigour, and _I_ will win if _I_ can. Gentlemen, as you
    must be well aware, labour of all kinds, whether of the body
    or the mind, involves considerable fatigue. That is the case
    in regard to every kind of labour, but when you find a crisis
    like the present at a time when from accidental circumstances
    _I_ had to undergo on other grounds and for other purposes a
    most severe week of mental labour, and when at the end of
    that week _I_ had to commence this battle, which, from certain
    reasons to which _I_ will not now further allude, required
    in _my_ particular instance a tremendously oppressive amount
    of energy and exertion both of body and of mind, under these
    circumstances it is a great kindness on the part of _my_ friend
    Lord Ingestre that he should take one half _my_ duties himself,
    in stating as he has done what are _my_ personal qualifications
    and _my_ political views. You all know what _my_ father's
    political views are, and if you want to know _mine_, gentlemen,
    they are contained in _my_ address, which has been circulated
    throughout the county. But _I_ tell you that, important as _I_
    consider political matters to be, at this present crisis and
    in this present battle, politics with _me_ are as nothing.
    _I_, however, know all electioneering dodges very well; _I_
    know where _I_ am and whom _I_ am now addressing; _I_ am going
    to win. But politics, as _I_ said, are now second with _me_.
    _I_ am not fighting a political battle so much as one of
    high-minded independence as a Worcestershire country gentleman.
    God forbid that _I_ should boast of anything like an ancient
    family. The _Pakington_ family have been for three hundred
    years residing near here, and in the very centre of the county.
    _They_ have been Worcestershire people to the backbone. _I_
    am now residing near Worcester, where _I_ am endeavouring to
    do _my_ duty in that station of life to which _I_ am called.
    _I_ am trying in various ways to exert around _me_ that kind
    of homely influence which kind and homely thoughts and actions
    will always produce by whomsoever exercised. _I_, for _my_ own
    part, have no ambition for Parliamentary life. If _I_ wanted a
    seat in Parliament for its own sake _I_ know where to get one.
    _I_ have been asked over and over again, by gentlemen of the
    highest influence, to stand for this or that place, to go here
    and to go there, in different parts of the country, and have
    been regarded as a likely candidate for a seat in Parliament.
    But _I_ have said "No, _I_ don't want to be a Parliament man,
    _I_ have no desire to go to Parliament myself, but if ever
    _I_ represent a place it shall be, not a town in the north or
    south of England, but some town or division of a county that
    has some claim upon _me_, and where _I_ have as a country
    gentleman some kindly feeling entertained towards _me_ and _my_
    family." These, gentlemen, are _my_ private feelings. You will
    see that in the address _I_ have published _I_ have made use
    of the expression "Whatever _my_ private preferences may be."
    These are the circumstances to which _I_ allude. But now _I_
    am ready to state briefly what are _my_ principles. _I_ need
    hardly repeat that _I_ am a true Conservative, because _I_
    believe true Conservatism to consist in aiding social progress
    and the reparation, when necessary, of those institutions of
    our country to which England owes its present greatness. As
    your representative, it will be _my_ duty to support that
    Government which is to give the greatest stability to the
    nation at large, and the greatest amount of happiness to the
    community. So far as _I_ am able to judge, the Government of
    Lord Derby fulfils these requirements, and _I_ believe they
    will not waver. _I_ am fighting in three different capacities.
    Firstly, as the son of a Worcestershire man, _I_ won't have
    two Staffordshire members; secondly, _I_ am a Conservative,
    not one of the stiff old Tories of the old school. _I_ am a
    Conservative of the present day, of this very hour. _I_ am
    unpledged by any past political measures. As a Conservative and
    as a politician _I_ should object to having another gentleman
    of strong Liberal opinions to represent the agriculturists
    of the Eastern Division of the county of Worcester, the
    majority of whom are, _I_ believe, eminently Conservative. _I_
    must, therefore, as a Conservative, strongly object to Mr.
    Calthorpe. Thirdly, _I_ object to Mr. Calthorpe, and this is
    _my_ strongest point of all, casting aside politics, that which
    is the strongest objection _I_ feel, and which is now the key
    to _my_ actions, is that _I_ am an independent man, and _I_
    will not see _my_ county represented by a comparative stranger
    without offering _my_ services to the electors. That is the
    keystone to _my_ movements. _I_ know whom _I_ have got to deal
    with. _I_ know where Mr. Calthorpe comes from. It is a matter
    to _me_ of no consequence who wrote the letter requesting him
    to come forward as a Candidate, but _I_ know his supporters
    right and left, every one of them. Gentlemen, _I_ object to
    Mr. Calthorpe coming here. He may be a Staffordshire man, or a
    Warwickshire man, but he certainly is not Worcestershire. His
    father, Lord Calthorpe, is a man whom all persons must respect
    and justly respect. He is a friend of _my own_ father, and _I_
    know him well. Mr. Calthorpe himself was a school-fellow of
    _mine_, but, as he tells you himself, he has since been almost
    round the globe, and _I_ have not seen so much of him as _I_
    could have wished. _I_ like him personally very much, but he
    appears to have picked up some very funny notions. The last
    time that _I_ spoke to him he was an out-an-out no end of a
    hog man, and no mistake about it; but he was then just about
    starting for Timbuctoo, China, or some other distant place,
    and _I_ have not seen him since. (Laughter). His property is
    just of that kind that might occasion a mistake. It is situate
    near the confines of Worcestershire. The bulk of it is away
    from this county, and neither Lord Calthorpe nor his son have,
    _I_ verily believe, so much land in the county as you can
    stick your hat on. (Renewed laughter). Where does he date his
    address from? Perry Hall. Where is Perry Hall? (A voice, "It is
    a garden down at the bottom of the town," and great laughter).
    _I_ am very glad to hear it, and if the hon. gentleman who
    gave _me_ the information can tell _me_ of his own knowledge
    that Mr. Calthorpe was there when he wrote his address, _my_
    argument is at an end. We know where Westwood Park is, and
    we know where Witley Court is, but where is Perry Hall? (A
    voice, "It is Mr. Calthorpe's _villa_.") But, gentlemen, Mr.
    Calthorpe's first address is a puff of smoke; it's a blind,
    and he finds it is so. (A voice, "Not he.") He does. Why does
    he not attend public meetings? (A voice, "He's a-coming.")
    Let him come; _I_ am ready to meet him anywhere he pleases.
    _I_ say that Mr. Calthorpe's first address is a sham; that he
    finds it so himself, and therefore he is obliged to publish a
    second, which _I_ now hold in _my_ hand. (A voice, "There's a
    third coming out.") _I_ am glad to hear it; let it come. (Great
    confusion.) As _I_ was saying, Mr. Calthorpe's address is all
    moonshine. His friends got frightened; the views he expressed
    were not satisfactory, and therefore he has published another,
    stating stronger views. _I_ am a man of business, and when
    _I_ write _my_ views in one letter _I_ don't write a second,
    still less a third for that purpose. _My_ occupation now as
    a candidate is a matter of business, and _I_ am not going to
    write a second address; _I_ don't need it. Here (pointing to
    his first address) are _my_ views, _my_ opinions, and all about
    _myself_; _I_ don't require a second address. As _I_ said, _I_
    don't enter now on political differences at all but there is
    one question to which _I_ must allude. As _I_ have told you,
    _I_ am playing a deep game; and with _me_ it is a determined
    one. Those who know _me_ privately, and _I_ am surrounded by
    kind friends, know that when _I_ make up _my_ mind as _I_
    have done in this contest, _I_ carry _my_ object through if
    possible, so _I_ am going on determined to fight this battle.
    _I_ am fighting a good fight, and when a move is made in this
    game of political chess between _me_ and _my_ adversary, be
    he who he may, _I_ will meet it if _I_ can by a good move of
    _my_ own. Mr. Pakington then referred to the following attack
    upon him in the _Morning Advertiser_:--"Mr. Pakington, his (Mr.
    Calthorpe's) opponent, is, on the contrary, a bigoted Puseyite,
    and one of the most prominent partisans of the Hon. and Rev.
    Mr. Liddell, in the parish of Knightsbridge." On which Mr.
    Pakington, among other things, said--_I_ wish to explain that
    _I_ merely resided in that parish, subscribing to the schools
    and attending divine service at the church; but having now
    ceased to reside there, _I_ have nothing further to do with
    it, and _I_ indignantly deny the charge made. He concluded by
    saying--_I_ see that some of you are getting a little fatigued,
    and _I_ am tired myself. _I_ am very glad to have had this
    opportunity of meeting you, and _I_ hope to do so many more
    times. We cannot do so too often. As _I_ said before, _I_ will
    come again if _I_ am wanted; but _I_ have duties of a like kind
    elsewhere, for which duties _I_ now go to prepare. _I_ am very
    much obliged to you for your kind reception.

    _Note_,--The "Printer's Devil" has exhausted his stock of _I_'s.

    QUERY--Why is Mr. PAKINGTON like a Peacock?--Because his _tale_
    is full of I's.

       *       *       *       *       *

    EAST WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION.

    TO THE ELECTORS AND NON-ELECTORS OF THE EASTERN DIVISION OF THE
    COUNTY OF WORCESTER.

    GENTLEMEN,

    The friends of Mr. Pakington having failed to injure Mr.
    Calthorpe, by the false statement that he is the Nominee of
    Lord Ward, have resorted to another falsehood which has led to
    the following correspondence.

        "EAST WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION."

                         "_Teddesley, February 13th, 1859._

        "MY DEAR INGESTRE--

        "I take the liberty, to which I am sure you will not
        object, to publish my letter to you, and your answer.

        "I remain yours sincerely, "HATHERTON.

        "The Viscount Ingestre, M.P., &c."

       *       *       *       *       *

                          "_Teddesley, February 11th, 1859._

        "MY DEAR INGESTRE--

        "My attention has been called to a paragraph in the _Daily
        News_ to the following effect:--

        "'Lord Ingestre, and Mr. Lygon, and Mr. Dowdeswell,
        formerly M.P. for Tewkesbury, addressed an assembly
        of farmers from a window opposite the Corn Exchange,
        Worcester, on Saturday afternoon. In the course of Lord
        Ingestre's observations, he said the idea of bringing
        forward Mr. Calthorpe as a representative for the Eastern
        Division of Worcestershire was hatched by Lord Hatherton,
        at his seat at Teddesley, and then communicated to Lord
        Ward, who gave a ready acquiescence to the suggestion.'"

        "What purely accidental conversation I may have had with
        Lord Ward about East Worcestershire Election, at a visit he
        paid here--just after Lord Northwick's death--in pursuance
        of an engagement made a fortnight before, it is unnecessary
        for me to relate. But the statement that 'the idea of
        bringing forward Mr. Calthorpe as a representative of
        East Worcestershire was hatched by me at this place,' or
        anywhere else, is without a shadow of foundation.

        I never was consulted or likely to be about the choice
        of a candidate: and except one letter from a customary
        correspondent conveying to me the information that Mr.
        Calthorpe's friends had resolved to bring him forward, of
        which I then heard for the first time, I never had with any
        one any kind of communication respecting his election.

        "I am sure that after this statement, you will pardon my
        enquiry whether you have been correctly reported in the
        above paragraph--and if so--on what authority you have made
        such a statement?

                                   "I remain yours sincerely,
                                                       "HATHERTON.

        "The Viscount Ingestre, M.P."

       *       *       *       *       *

                          "_Ingestre, Stafford, February 12th, 1859._

        "DEAR LORD HATHERTON,

        "The report of what I said at Worcester is substantially
        correct with this exception:--

        "What I said was 'the scheme was hatched _at_ Lord
        Hatherton's, at Teddesley,' &c. Not _by_ Lord Hatherton.
        You ask me on what ground I made that statement.

        "I reply, I knew Lord Ward had been at Teddesley, I
        believed that Mr. Calthorpe met him there, and knowing the
        interest you take in political matters as evinced during
        the last Stafford election, I thought it probable that the
        idea of starting Mr. Calthorpe for East Worcestershire was
        hatched at your house. If I have made any mis-statement
        in this matter, I much regret it, but I believe the
        probabilities were sufficient to bear me out in the
        assertion that I made at Worcester.

          "Believe me, dear Lord Hatherton, sincerely yours,
                                                         "INGESTRE."

    The reply of Lord Ingestre reduced to plain language, says a
    writer in the _Daily Post_, amounts to this, "I knew that Lord
    Ward had been at Teddesley, therefore I imagined the rest, and
    what were suspicions only I affirmed as facts."

    Notwithstanding Mr. Calthorpe's repeated denial of his ever
    having expressed a wish that Theatres, the Crystal Palace, and
    such like places of amusement should be opened on Sundays, Mr.
    Pakington's friends have repeated the calumny,--Mr. Calthorpe's
    Central Committee beg to inform the Electors of the Public
    Meeting held at Stourbridge, on Monday last, that Mr. Calthorpe
    not only contradicted this false and calumnious statement, but
    emphatically declared that he is OPPOSED to the opening of
    Places of Amusement of any kind on Sundays.

    _Central Committee Rooms, Stourbridge, February 15th, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    EAST WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION!

    THE INCOME TAX!

    At PERSHORE, on Monday last (see _Times_ report), Mr. CALTHORPE
    stated, "that he would not pledge himself to vote for a repeal
    of the INCOME TAX!"

    After this, what do you think of the would-be _Liberal_
    Candidate?

    Is Liberal or Illiberal the proper term for such a Candidate?

    Think, and judge for yourselves!

    DOWN WITH THE INCOME TAX!

       *       *       *       *       *

    EAST WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION.

    Mr. CALTHORPE'S COMMITTEE earnestly request all their friends
    to refrain from any allusion, much less retort, to the
    scandalous and malicious production issued by the other side.
    The party who can thus, for electioneering purposes, malign
    and insult their neighbours and fellow-townsmen, and what is
    infinitely worse, their townsmen's wives and daughters, may
    be safely left to the contempt of all right-minded men of all
    parties, which cannot fail to be their natural reward.

    _Mr. Calthorpe's Committee Room, Old Bush Inn, Dudley, 17th
    February, 1859._


EAST WORCESTERSHIRE ELECTION.

February 22nd, 1859. This was considered to be the most severe contest,
for a single seat, which had ever taken place in this division of the
county. There had not been a contest at all during the last 22 years
in this division; and it had become a matter of doubtful speculation
as to which party, Tory or Liberal, could carry the day. The Tories
had from almost time immemorial held possession of Worcestershire,
both East and West, and it required a stout heart and a willing hand
to engage in this political strife. The new coming Reform Bill was
selected as the battle ground for the Liberals, and the Tories stuck
to their old traditions, and relied upon their usual coercion, and
their alleged doings for the county in the past. So far as Dudley was
concerned, we had to fight under manifold and peculiar conditions, for
the "head and front" of the old Tory party had but recently forsaken
their old love and "gone over into the camp of the rabble herd," to
help the Radicals in the two last Borough Elections to defeat the hated
and intolerable territorial influence; so that the county electors in
Dudley, both Liberals and Tories, were all sailing in the same boat
against the Tory county influence. Men had to decide upon voting for
the pocket or the conscience; and singular indeed was this mixed medley
of Tories, Liberals, Conservatives, old Whigs, hot-heated Radicals,
and seditious Chartists, hurrying with bated breath to the same Poll.
There was much satisfaction felt on this occasion that we had two
highly respectable gentlemen as our candidates; the Honourable F. H. W.
G. Calthorpe coming forward as the Liberal candidate, whilst the Tory
interest was endorsed by the candidature of Mr. John Slaney Pakington,
son of Sir John Pakington, a Worcestershire man. The freeholders in
Dudley were placed on the horns of a dilemma, by the fact that the
Tory, or Badger party as it was called, on this occasion adhered to the
traditions of their party, although at two recent Borough elections
they had renounced their political opinions, and joined hand and glove
with Mr. Sheridan, and the Radicals and Chartists.

The Liberals, the Whigs, and the Liberal Conservatives, energetically
espoused the cause of Mr. Calthorpe, and were successful, with the
county, in placing him at the head of the poll by a majority of 321
votes.

As to the fitness and mental qualifications of the two candidates,
there could not be one moment's doubt of the superiority of the
Liberal candidate's claims upon the electors, for Mr. Calthorpe was a
clear-headed business man, whereas Mr. Pakington was a young, docile
gentleman, little acquainted with the rough usages of political life,
and was feared to be a mere passive instrument in the hands of an
unscrupulous political faction; and what made matters worse for his
success, was his utter inability to talk and deliver himself of the
political opinions he was credited to possess.

On February 22nd, 1859, this election came off, with the following
results at all the polling places:--

                       CALTHORPE.   PAKINGTON.
    Dudley                343          176
    Stourbridge           553          244
    Halesowen             326          131
    Kings Norton          329          289
    Bromsgrove            248          228
    Droitwich             163          220
    Evesham               118          251
    Pershore              137          310
    Shipton                67          114
                         ----         ----
                         2284         1963
                         ----         ----

    Majority for Mr. Calthorpe, Liberal, 321.

This was considered a great victory against the then Tory Government
and the Lygon interest, which had always ruled this division of the
county.

There was more political fun, chaffing, and coat turning on this
occasion than had ever occurred in this Borough since the excitable
days of the first Reform Bill, and the plentiful crop of political
squibs plainly shewed that both parties were made sensibly alive to the
importance of the contest. We had the straightforward Saxon practice of
open voting in those days, so that it was well-known to what political
opinion a voter gave his allegiance.

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE EASTERN DIVISION OF WORCESTERSHIRE.

    GENTLEMEN,

    After so severe and protracted a contest, allow me to
    congratulate you on the great and glorious triumph you have
    obtained for the Liberal cause.

    The victory is yours. I am the representative of it. I feel
    deeply the proud position in which you have placed me, and
    I hope to prove my gratitude by a zealous attention to your
    interests and by a faithful service in that cause which you
    have sent me to the House of Commons to maintain.

    I would fain hope that many of those who have in this contest
    been opposed to me, will on future occasions be numbered among
    my friends, and I trust that now the battle is over, all
    unpleasant feeling may cease.

                       Gentlemen,
             I remain, with heartfelt thanks,
                          Your obedient Servant,
                                      FREDERICK H. W. G. CALTHORPE.

    _Central Committee Rooms, Stourbridge, February 23rd, 1859._

The vote on the New Reform Bill having caused a dissolution, the
following addresses were issued:--

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE EASTERN DIVISION OF THE COUNTY OF
    WORCESTER.

    GENTLEMEN,

    Six weeks have not elapsed since you did me the honour to elect
    me as one of your Representatives. Grateful for the favour
    conferred, I am again a Candidate for your suffrages.

    The Government has announced a dissolution on the question
    of Reform, and in my opinion they were quite right, first,
    in accepting the vote of Thursday, March 31st, as a vote of
    want of confidence, and secondly, in referring the question of
    Reform to the Constituencies and to public opinion at large.

    I feel confident the result will be a good and durable measure
    of Reform, calculated to satisfy those classes who are as
    yet unrepresented, and to allay those feelings of discontent
    excited by the feeble, unjust, and insufficient Reform Bill
    recently introduced by the Government.

    During the brief period I have been your Representative, I have
    neglected no opportunity of recording my vote in favour of the
    principles you sent me to Parliament to maintain, and which I
    shall ever feel it my duty to support.

    I have, I believe invariably agreed with my colleague, and I
    trust that all those who intend to record their votes in my
    favour, will extend to him the same support and influence.

    I hope that I have proved attentive to your interests, and have
    shewn every courtesy to those of my constituents who have done
    me the honour to correspond with me.

               I am, Gentlemen,
                    Your faithful and obedient Servant,
                                    FREDERICK H. W. G. CALTHORPE.

    _33, Grosvenor Square, London, April 7th, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE EASTERN DIVISION OF THE COUNTY OF
    WORCESTER.

    GENTLEMEN,

    A dissolution of Parliament having been announced, I beg to
    declare my intention of offering myself as a Candidate for the
    honour of being one of your representatives for the fourth time.

    I trust that you have found me acting consistently with the
    principles of civil and religious liberty, which I have
    always professed, and I hope that my earnest endeavours to be
    attentive to your interests may have met with your approval.

    I am well aware of the great inconvenience, and interruption to
    business, caused by frequent dissolutions of Parliament, and I
    would gladly have supported any moderate measure of progressive
    Reform, brought forward by Lord Derby's Government, rather
    than have incurred such a result, could I have done so without
    depriving a number of my Constituents of their ancient right
    of voting, which the bill introduced would have unjustly taken
    from them.

    On referring to the Division Lists, I am happy to see that my
    Colleague, and I, have on all occasions supported the same
    measures, so that the votes of your Members are no longer
    neutralised by being given in opposition to each other; under
    these circumstances, may I venture to hope that all those who
    do me the honour of supporting me, and to whom I may have been
    longer known, will kindly extend the same to my friend, Mr.
    Calthorpe.

              I have the honour to remain, Gentlemen,
                         Your faithful and obliged Servant,
                                              J. H. HODGETTS FOLEY.

    _Prestwood, April, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    The Ratepayers are respectfully requested to attend early
    to-morrow (Friday) and record their Votes for Mr. MAURICE.

    DUDLEY VESTRY CLERKSHIP.

    Close of the first day's Poll:--

    For Mr. Maurice      135
    For Mr. Brooke        73
    For Mr. Dingley       39
    For Mr. Coulton       17

    Majority for Mr. Maurice over the highest Candidate, 62.
    Majority for Mr. Maurice over ALL the 3 Candidates, 7.

    _April 15th, 1859._

March, 1859. The new Reform Bill, introduced by the Conservative
Government,--Earl Derby's--was discussed for eight nights in the House
of Commons, and defeated by a large majority, which caused the Tories
to dissolve Parliament, and appeal to the electors.

Singular Winter. March 29th, 1859. A heavy fall of snow took place this
day and night, it being _the first snow_ we had had during all the
winter, 1858-9.

    TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE CHARLES STANLEY MONCK, VISCOUNT MONCK.

    MY LORD,

    We, the undersigned, Electors of the Borough of Dudley,
    respectfully invite your Lordship to become a Candidate for the
    Representation of the Borough, at the next vacancy, and pledge
    ourselves to use every legitimate means to secure your return.

    We have the honour to be,

    My Lord,

    Your Lordship's obedient Servants,

    George Stevenson
    Hy. P. Skidmore
    A. B. Cochrane
    Edwd. Bowen
    Robert Houghton
    J. E. Swindell
    Thomas Morris
    J. H. Smith
    John Williscroft
    Thomas Stevenson
    J. F. Watkins
    Chas. Russell
    John Finch
    John Whitehouse
    James Cartwright
    C. F. G. Clark
    Chas. E. Swindell
    Frank Evers
    W. H. Brooke
    Fras. Sanders
    John Cochrane
    Sam. C. Davison, B.A.
    Thomas Oakes
    Edward Wood
    W. C. Wood
    Geo. Thompson
    Solomon Woodall
    Danl. Jordan
    Thomas Roberts
    Henry Cartwright
    Joseph Russell
    Samuel Golding
    David Round
    William Cooper
    Saml. Woodall
    Solomon Higgs
    David Pearson
    James Griffiths
    William Coley
    Jos. Griffiths
    Jos. Willetts
    Abner Smith
    Matthew Troman
    James Smart
    Joseph Brownhill
    William Stagg
    Benjn. Horton
    Charles Hill
    John Dawson
    Thomas Sheppard
    Henry Wood
    David Lloyd
    John Meese
    Joseph Pitt
    John Smithyman
    Henry Skidmore
    James Miles
    Joseph Rowley
    Charles Stamps
    Charles Nicholls
    Robert Matthews
    Ferdinando Rollason
    John Dutton Phillips
    Joseph Hingley
    John Hingley
    Thomas Round
    &c., &c.

    _March 30th, 1859._


BOROUGH ELECTION.

April, 1859. No sooner had our political elements settled down, after
the severe county contest of the preceding February, but we were called
into agitation again by the sudden dissolution of the Conservative
Parliament, and Dudley was taxed to its utmost to so trim its political
sails, and put square men into round holes, in order that its former
political triumphs might not have been won in vain. Mr. H. B. Sheridan,
the sitting member, sought re-election again, backed by the Radicals
and Chartists, and supplemented by a contingent of sturdy old Tories,
who felt they had not a shadow of a chance of carrying a man of their
own liking; so they determined to keep alive the resentment against the
influence which had so recently assailed their cherished dignities,
and swept from under their feet all the political power their party
was ever again destined to weald, both in the Borough of Dudley and
County of Worcester. These offended old townsmen convened a sort of
meeting at the Hotel, which was designated "a meeting of Conservative
electors," and after some tall talk, with closed doors, it was decided
to throw their Tory interest into the Radical Camp, and support the
sitting member, Mr. Sheridan; for their political chief publicly
asserted his determination to vote for "hog, dog, or devil, in order to
spite Lord Ward." Nothing could have ended more suicidically than this
repetition to thwart the castle influence. They must have known that as
a political party they were impotent; for the recent county election
unmistakeably pronounced Dudley to be Liberal; and the Tory interest,
with Lord Ward at its back, could not turn the tide of Liberalism in
the Borough, so that again to support a trimming, wary candidate, who
first came amongst us as a Conservative, and now declared himself to
be an Independent candidate, sitting below the gangway in the House,
was to entirely abrogate their long-life cherished Tory opinions and
support Mr. Sheridan, because they could not bring forward a candidate
of their own choice.

Whilst these manœuvres were in hand, the Liberal party were in
negotiation with the Reform Club in London to send us down a candidate,
and the Honourable Viscount Monck, an Irish gentleman of good family
and undoubted administrative qualifications, came down to the Bush
Hotel, and after a lengthened interview, he was selected to be run
against the Radical-Tory party as a Liberal-Conservative.

A perusal of the Requisition to Lord Monck and the names of those who
formed his committee, shews that the thinking portion of the electors
were desirous, if possible, of removing a political stigma from the
Borough, and throwing over that dubious "incubus" which had sat too
long upon purity of motive and action, which Dudley electors had ever
been wont to endorse. Mr. Sheridan complained that he had all along one
lord to fight against, and now he had two lords in the field; that the
charges alleged against him in the Albert, European, and other shady
speculations, were matters of mere business, and did not concern the
electors of Dudley, and that his promises at the last election had been
literally fulfilled. Lord Monck, on the other hand, came amongst us as
a stranger, not only to our locality, but he had also enjoyed a seat in
the last Parliament where his votes were recorded.

Great efforts were made on this occasion to defeat the old member, Mr.
Sheridan, and the narrow majority of 71 votes, aided by all the Tory
influence that could be brought to bear in his support, clearly showed
that if the Badger element had not been severely pressed into the cause
Lord Monck would have been elected.

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    Her Majesty's Ministers have announced an immediate dissolution
    of Parliament, and the duty of choosing a Representative in the
    House of Commons has therefore devolved upon you. Encouraged
    by the very flattering requisition I have received from an
    influential portion of your body, I venture to solicit your
    suffrages at the approaching election.

    Having sat in the House of Commons during the entire of the
    last Parliament, my opinions on most of the questions of the
    day stand recorded in the votes.

    During the last thirty years great improvements have been
    effected in reference to our Parliamentary Franchises,
    our Municipal Institutions, and our commercial and fiscal
    condition. I have been long connected both by official and
    personal ties with those who, for the greater part of the
    period referred to, have been the leaders of the great Liberal
    party by whose exertions these changes have been effected. The
    principles by which they have been dictated, I desire to see
    extended in their application.

    The question upon which the country will have to decide at
    the approaching election is that of Parliamentary Reform. I
    am in favour of a bona-fide extension of the Franchise, both
    in Counties and Boroughs, which would, by a lowering of the
    present qualification for the suffrage, admit within the pale
    of the Constitution an adequate representation of the labouring
    classes; and I desire to see a portion of their present
    representation transferred from the smaller and less important
    Constituencies, to those larger communities which the growth of
    trade and wealth has produced.

    I am opposed to the proposition for taking Votes at Elections
    for Members of Parliament by Ballot, because I think under its
    operation corruption could not be detected, and I do not wish
    to destroy the influence of the Non-Electors, which would be
    the case under a system of secret voting.

    In reference to Taxation, I am desirous of taking off, as the
    necessities of the State will permit, all those taxes which
    press upon trade, or impede the springs of industry, and I
    desire to see judicious economy and retrenchment carried into
    every branch of the public service.

    I consider the Income Tax in its present form presses unjustly
    upon incomes derived from trade and industry.

    I have always in Parliament voted for the abolition of Church
    Rates, because, as a member of the Church of England, I think
    the pecuniary gain to the Establishment is not a compensation
    for the ill will and odium which the enforcement of the claim
    produces.

    I am in favour of the most complete freedom of trade, and have
    always voted for every measure which tended in that direction.

    I desire to see Government aid to Education extended to all
    classes of my fellow subjects, without distinction of sect, or
    creed.

    Should I have the honour of becoming your Representative, the
    local interests of your important Borough shall always command
    my best attention.

    I hope before the Election to have the pleasure of calling upon
    each of you, and shall be happy to explain my opinions more in
    detail.

                       I have the honour to be, gentlemen,
                                    Your most obedient Servant,
                                                           MONCK.

    _Bush Inn, Dudley, April 5th, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE INDEPENDENT ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    Her Majesty's Ministers having decided on appealing to the
    country, a dissolution of the present House of Commons may be
    expected in about fifteen days.

    I hasten to inform you that it is my intention to present
    myself as a Candidate for the honour of again representing your
    Borough in the important Parliament about to be assembled.

    Unconnected with, and influenced by, any party considerations
    whatever, I have watched with much anxiety the recent struggle,
    having in view the redemption of my pledge to support any
    Government which would give to the Country such a measure of
    Reform, as would secure to the people an increased share in the
    representation, believing that the Educational progress of the
    Working Classes entitles them to be dealt with in a fair and
    liberal spirit.

    In all other matters connected with the interests of this great
    Country, I confidently refer to the Votes I have given, as
    your Member; and I shall immediately ask you, both by public
    Meeting and by personal Canvass, whether I am not entitled to a
    continuance of that confidence which so triumphantly returned
    me at the last Election.

                                     Your faithful Servant,
                                                    H. B. SHERIDAN.

    _House of Commons, April 6th, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE ELECTORS OF DUDLEY.

    Mr. H B. SHERIDAN will arrive in Dudley this evening, to meet
    the electors!

    Reserve your promises for the man who has won your political
    independence, and served you, as your representative,
    consistently.

    _Dudley, April 6th, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    Copy of Letters from CAPTAIN BENTON to H. B. SHERIDAN, Esq.,
    M.P.:--

                                        Dudley, April 7th, 1859.

    DEAR SIR,

    The words made use of to Mr. LOCOCK by Mr. SMITH, when in
    London, are as follows:--

    That LORD WARD paid Five Thousand Pounds away in Dudley per
    week for wages, and that, unless the Electors of Dudley and its
    neighbourhood voted which way he pleased, he would shut up his
    Pits for two years,--therefore, stop those wages. Moreover,
    that many of the Tradesmen were under obligation to the Bank,
    and their circumstances should be exposed, and that they should
    have no further accommodation.

                                         Yours obediently,
                                                    JOHN BENTON.

    To H. B. Sheridan, Esq.

       *       *       *       *       *

                       3, Charles Street, Oxford Road, Islington,
                                  April 8th, 1859.

    DEAR SIR,

    Having received a letter after I had the pleasure of meeting
    you and your friends at Dudley, from Mr. LOCOCK, requesting
    me to return to town, I was unable to see you prior to my
    departure, and regret it is not in my power to meet you this
    evening. I have made you acquainted with certain facts,
    relative to the influence of the Priory, and the threats made
    use of relative to the Electors of Dudley. I assert such has
    been the fact, and beg to say, I will on any occasion publicly
    declare that the contents of my former note to you are most
    strictly true.

    With my best wishes and respects to your Committee and Friends,
    believe me,

                                   Yours, very faithfully,
                                                      JOHN BENTON.

    To H. B. Sheridan, Esq., M.P.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DEAR SIR,

    In consequence of a Letter from a Mr. BENTON containing
    erroneous statements having been read by Mr. SHERIDAN, M.P.
    at a Public Meeting held last night in Dudley, I beg to send
    a copy of the Letters I have this day addressed to those
    gentlemen on the subject.

                        I remain, dear Sir, yours faithfully,
                                                    RICHARD SMITH.

    _The Priory, April 9th, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    Copy of a Letter addressed by RICHARD SMITH, Esq., to H. B.
    SHERIDAN Esq., M.P.:--

                              The Priory, Dudley, April 9th, 1859.

    SIR,--I have seen a copy of the letter addressed to you by Mr.
    Benton, which you read at a meeting of the Electors of Dudley,
    held last night at the Lancasterian School-room, and cannot
    but regret you should have allowed yourself to give such a
    letter to the world, with your comments thereon, without first
    ascertaining, by communication with me, whether the statements
    made therein upon hearsay were true.

    The statements which Mr. Benton has made are entirely without
    foundation, and I unhesitatingly give them an unqualified
    denial.

    I send you a copy of a letter I have written to that gentleman,
    and I rely on your giving it an equal degree of publicity with
    Mr. Benton's communication. Whatever differences of opinion
    may exist between us politically, I confidently appeal to your
    sense of what is due from one gentleman to another to comply
    with this request without delay.

                           I remain, Sir,
                                    Your obedient servant,
                                                     RICHARD SMITH.

    H. B. Sheridan, Esq., M.P.

       *       *       *       *       *

    Copy of a letter addressed by RICHARD SMITH, Esq., to Mr.
    BENTON, referred to in the letter to Mr. SHERIDAN, M.P.:--

    The Priory, Dudley, April 9th, 1859.

    SIR,--I have learnt with surprise that a letter addressed by
    you to Mr. Sheridan, having reference to certain statements
    said to have been made by me to Mr. Locock, was read and
    commented on by Mr. Sheridan, at a meeting of the Electors of
    Dudley, held at the Lancasterian Schoolrooms last night. I beg
    most emphatically to deny that I ever used to Mr. Locock (or
    any other person) the words, or any such words, you have been
    pleased to put forth.

    I never said to that gentleman, "that Lord Ward paid five
    thousand pounds away in Dudley and its neighbourhood per
    week, and that unless the Electors of Dudley voted which way
    he pleased that he would shut up his pits for two years, and
    therefore stop those wages;" "or that many of the tradespeople
    were under obligations to the Bank, and their circumstances
    should be exposed, and that they should have no further
    accommodation;" or any words to that effect.

    I cannot but regret you should have permitted yourself to
    make such unfounded statements which are not only unjust and
    injurious to me, but are a libel on the Tradesmen and Bankers
    of the town.

    I add for your information that I am in no way connected with
    either of the Banks here, that I have no knowledge whatever, or
    the means of acquiring knowledge, as to the obligations of the
    Tradesmen of Dudley to their Bankers, nor any power to regulate
    or affect the amount of accommodation that their Bankers may
    afford them.

    As your letter has been read at a meeting, I think it right to
    publish this also.

                               I am, Sir,
                                     Your obedient servant,
                                                    RICHARD SMITH.

    John Benton, Esq., London.

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    BROTHER ELECTORS,

    Mr. Smith (Lord Ward's Agent) has appeared before the Public
    on his own account, not only by letter, but by various
    illegitimate means. Let us, as Electors, enquire who this Mr.
    Smith is? or what reliance can be placed on his veracity? and,
    as every man ought to speak from his own personal knowledge,
    allow me, as an Elector, to state some facts which have more
    specially come under my notice, that is--

    That he has been seen driving out with Mr. Benton on several
    occasions.

    That he is known to have dined with him.

    That he has written a letter denying what that gentleman made
    public.

    That he has been up to London, and seen Sir C. Locock and his
    son.

    That he dares not publish the conversation which took place at
    that interview.

    That he has on many occasions tried to coerce the Inhabitants
    of Dudley--I. Naylor, Esq., to wit.

    That he has deprived Tradesmen of his Lordship's support,
    because they had consciences and dared to use them.

    That he has not been a very good friend to the Widows and
    Orphans one family who once resided in Sedgley can prove.

    That he never was over particular about the rights or feelings
    of any one, when his own interests were in the scale.

       *       *       *       *       *

    The above individual may give an unqualified denial to the
    exact wording of Mr. Benton's letter, but I defy him to prove
    the sum and substance is not there.

    In reference to this _Pit Bank_ case, there is an old adage
    very applicable, viz.--"That we should believe every man honest
    until we find him a rogue!"

    "An Elector" in the Daily Post (_proper name "Post"_) talks
    of a _Firebrand_ being in the town. I admit it, we have had
    one in the town many years; it has tried to burn down our
    _Independence_. Our common honesty, our very _liberty_ have
    been brought to the stake; but I beg to inform Mr. Smith and
    his _esteemed_ friends, that we shall come out _scatheless_,
    and that his "quack" supporters may save their _Goose Oil_ for
    their own scorched backs!

                              I am, Gentlemen,
                                       Yours respectfully,
                                                      AN ELECTOR.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    TO THE CONSERVATIVE ELECTORS OF DUDLEY.

    At a meeting of Conservative Electors of the Borough, held at
    the Hotel, Dudley, on Wednesday the 20th day of April, 1859, it
    was resolved:--

    "That under existing circumstances, it is deemed expedient that
    the Conservative Electors should support the sitting Member, H.
    B. Sheridan, Esq., and this meeting therefore pledges itself to
    use all proper means and exertions to secure his re-election.

    Ordered, that the above resolution be printed and circulated.

                                        Signed,
                                           THOS. BADGER, Chairman.

    _The Hotel, Dudley, April 20th, 1859._

It was always considered that the decision of the Conservative party at
this meeting secured the re-election of Mr. Sheridan; although he was
well known to be in bad odour with many of the leading Conservatives
in the Borough. The recent opposition in the county election, where
many of the Conservatives supported Mr. Calthorpe against young Mr.
Pakington; had so soured the rigid old Tory party in the Borough, that
they became reckless about the future consequences of their shameful
political delinquencies; the result was, that these very resolute
disclaimers of the Priory influence, spited their own cause by again
returning a candidate they did not appreciate, and unwillingly helped
to ring the death knell, not only of the Priory veto, but also of
future Tory dictation; and placed this Borough in the advance guard of
full blown Liberalism, with Mr. Sheridan as its Member still.

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    TO THE CONSERVATIVE VOTERS.

    FELLOW TOWNSMEN,

    An appeal is now made to you to record your Votes for Mr.
    Sheridan. Let us see _what claim_ Mr. Sheridan has upon our
    support on the present occasion, _before_ we assist _again_
    to return a man to Parliament who has so shamefully violated
    his profession and principles. Was not Mr. Sheridan returned
    for Dudley, at the last Election, _as a Liberal Conservative_,
    of the most _independent kind_, supposed to be _above_ the
    influence of any section of the Electors; and has he not,
    at the dictation of a few Radicals, _invariably_ voted in
    Parliament for all Radical Measures, and opposed Lord Derby's
    Government to the utmost of his power? Did he not pledge
    himself _to vote against the Ballot_, and has he not _voted in
    favour of the Ballot_? Did he not promise to vote against the
    Repeal of Church Rates (unless an equivalent was given), and
    did he not vote for their total unconditional Repeal? This,
    then, is the man, _on whose promises_, you are again called
    upon to rely; to send to Parliament again, as an _advocate of
    anything_ which his _varied_ supporters may suggest.

    If, brother Conservatives, the sacred cause of Conservatism
    is worth upholding in its national integrity, _reflect_,
    _consider_, _and forbear_ to commit yourselves to such a
    humiliating course, as to vote for a man whose _practices and
    principles_ you have so often _condemned_ since he has been
    in Parliament. At some future period our cause will be on the
    ascent, and you will then regret _having assisted_ to hand over
    the Borough of Dudley to Radicalism and Faction. Mr. Sheridan,
    you are told, has _again promised_ your rash and indiscreet
    leaders, that _he will this time_ support Lord Derby's
    Government. How will _that new arrangement_ meet the views of
    his Liberal supporters, for they _will not_ be found "_to blow
    hot and cold_;" and pray ask him, what kind of Government he
    will support when Lord Derby's rule is over? Why the natural
    inference is (taking the past as evidence) that Mr. Sheridan
    will support _any Government_ which will please _his next
    best_ supporters in Dudley! He has proved himself _unstable_,
    _unsettled_, and _wavering_ in his political convictions, the
    "_Shuttlecock_" of any party that will promise him support; and
    as such, totally unfit to represent the intelligence and wealth
    of the Conservative interests; and a miserable guide for the
    Radical faction.

    Are you determined to belie your Conservative principles and
    vote for a "_Shilley Shalley Radical_," the man who has branded
    your honoured townsmen (the Bank Directors) with a breach of
    that trust which many of us (as Shareholders) have placed in
    their hands, in betraying to the public the state of your
    private affairs? Is such an _unscrupulous Weathercock_ entitled
    to the support of the Constitutional Conservatives in Dudley,
    who have ever been ready to uphold and maintain, the honour of
    their townsmen, and the sacred principles of Constitutional
    Monarchy? _Reflect_, brother Conservatives, before you place
    your sacred trusts in the hands of such _an uncertain leader_;
    for _the past has proved_ his political infidelity to our cause
    and interests, and your recorded votes in his favour will
    assuredly prove your political inconsistency. If you cannot
    conscientiously support Lord Monck, the Conservative Liberal
    Candidate, then stand aloof from this _attempted unnatural_
    compact; and calmly watch Mr. Sheridan's "_New Dodge_," with
    a few of the young and heated Conservatives; become again,
    _another evidence_ of his own falseness, and a lasting monument
    of his supporters' political blindness and folly.

    Ask yourselves what _political sympathy_ this man can expect at
    your hands, after the broken pledges that he has committed.

    Reflecting Conservatives, let not _the shade_ of our departed
    Conservative chiefs _darken the path_ of the present crisis;
    and God forbid that the sons of our venerated townsmen should
    become the leaders and promoters of Radicalism, Inconsistency,
    and Confusion; for the Voter for a Conservative Pakington, six
    weeks ago, surely will not be found voting for a _nondescript_
    Sheridan at this coming Election.

                                              AN OLD CONSERVATIVE.

    _Dudley, April 21st, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE ELECTORS OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    During the time I have been absent in London, _i.e._, since
    Thursday, I find that my political opponents have been
    indulging in the same tricks, with the view of prejudicing me
    in your eyes, which characterised the anonymous communications
    to the _Birmingham Daily Post_.

    I allude to a paper which has been sent to the Electors of
    the Borough, purporting to be a history of the "Times" Fire
    Insurance Company, by which they seek to have it inferred that
    I have done some act in connection with that Company which
    would damage me in your estimation.

    Instead of replying in detail to the _abominable falsehoods_
    which are therein contained, I shall content myself by saying--

    That I never was Secretary to the "Times" Insurance Company.

    That I am still a Director of that Company, which has
    amalgamated with the "State" Office.

    That I am the largest Shareholder in the Company.

    That I am paying calls at the rate of six or seven hundred
    pounds every few months.

    That I have lent to the Company, at various times, about eight
    thousand pounds, most of which is still owing to me.

    That for the last two years, we, the Directors, have not
    received fees for our weekly attendance, or any other
    remuneration for our services.

    I may add, that the losses by fire, have, for some years past
    been very disastrous to this and all other similar Companies,
    and the greatest sufferers by these losses are the Directors,
    of whom I am one.

    The whole affair is an Electioneering artifice, as appears on
    the face of it; and one which I treat with the contempt it
    merits.

    The fact of neither the writer nor the printer of this
    absurd tissue of slanders having dared to give their names,
    is sufficient evidence of the utter worthlessness of this
    so-called _Cambridge_ effusion.

                         I am, Gentlemen, Yours faithfully,
                                                  H. B. SHERIDAN.

    _April 21st, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE COMMITTEE'S SUPPLICATION.

    _Air_--"_Oh! Susannah, don't you cry for me._"

    You've come down here from Rochdale, our Member for to be,
    'Tis hard that we should stand the shot, and you get off scot free;
    No doubt you are a mighty man, with potent powers of speech,
    But still we didn't ask you here to bleed us like a leech.
          Oh! John Bright, wont you find some tin,
          We fear 'twill be expensive work for us to get you in.

    Your name is printed in large type, while ours are printed small,
    The printers and the bill stickers are paid to daub the wall;
    And 'tis a shame, and does somewhat of shabbiness betray,
    That you should have the dance, John Bright, and we the piper pay.
                                    Oh! John Bright, &c.

    The honour's great to us, John Bright, to serve so great a man;
    We cringe, and worship your great name as humbly as we can--
    But let us not in vain, great man, your ample pocket sue,
    For we all think it very hard, John Bright, to pay for you.
                                    Oh! John Bright, &c.

    We puff you off as liberal, and hope you may be so,
    And by some deeds, as well as words, that you are liberal shew;
    And let it not be said you wouldn't find a five-pound note
    To pay for cabs and cars to take the people up to vote.
                                    Oh! John Bright, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    Having completed my Canvass of the Borough, and endeavoured
    personally to pay my respects to every Elector, I am desirous
    to express to you my sense of the kindness and courtesy with
    which I have been received by the whole Constituency, and my
    sincere thanks for the very large amount of support with which
    I have been honored.

    If I should have omitted through accident or inadvertence to
    call upon any Elector, I trust such omission will be attributed
    to its true cause, and not to any intentional disrespect on my
    part.

    The result of my Canvass inspires me with a full assurance that
    I shall be returned as your Representative, and I have only to
    beg that those who have favored me with the promise of their
    support will kindly attend early at the Poll, at which I pledge
    myself they shall have an opportunity of recording their Votes
    in my favor.

                      I have the honor to be, Gentlemen,
                                         Your obedient servant,
                                                             MONCK.

    _Committee Rooms, Bush Inn, April 21st, 1859_.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    Mr. Sheridan's Committee having heard that the Canvassers of
    Lord Monck have, with the view of prejudicing Mr. Sheridan's
    position with the Liberal party, FABRICATED STATEMENTS to
    the effect that he has recanted his Political opinions and
    compromised that party by pledging himself to a course hostile
    to their views, in a letter written to THOS. BADGER, ESQ., beg
    to assure the Electors that SUCH STATEMENTS ARE ENTIRELY UNTRUE.

    Mr. SHERIDAN will read the letter at the Meeting at the
    Lancasterian School Room, on Tuesday Evening next, and refute
    the unwarrantable reports which have been circulated respecting
    it.

                                                          BY ORDER.

    _Committee Room, Swan Hotel, Dudley, 23rd April, 1859._

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION, 1859.

    POLLING DAY, FRIDAY, APRIL 29th.

    Hours of Polling from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.

                                    Lord Monck's Committee Room,
                                           April 27th, 1859.

    DEAR SIR,

    It is exceedingly desirable that every Canvasser should
    strictly attend to the following instructions:--

    The Canvass Books should be made up correctly, showing the
    Returns up to this day; and any Canvass Book not so made up
    should be immediately taken to the Committee Room for the
    purpose.

    Each Canvasser to-day or to-morrow at the latest, will please
    give notice at the Committee Room, stating what Cab or Car
    accommodation he may require, so that proper arrangements may
    be made for supplying it.

    On the morning of the Poll each Canvasser is earnestly
    requested to proceed to his district with all speed, securing
    the doubtful Voters first, and continuing his labours until
    every Voter who has promised, or is inclined _favorably_, has
    voted.

    It is very desirable that each Canvasser should attend
    frequently at the Committee Room, to ascertain what Voters
    have not polled, and for this purpose he may enquire for
    any particular Voter by name or number, or as to any number
    of unpolled Voters in any particular street or place,
    and arrangements will be made for this information being
    immediately supplied.

    Information must be immediately given at the Committee Room as
    to any wavering Voter, so that any aid may be rendered that may
    be necessary.

    Any additional Cab or Car accommodation must be applied for as
    required.

    LORD MONCK earnestly requests that every Canvasser will
    zealously continue his labours until every Voter that can
    possibly be secured has voted, and afterwards attend at the
    Committee Room to aid in any other way that may be requested.

                                            W. C. WOOD, Chairman.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY ELECTION.

    TO THE ELECTORS OF DUDLEY.

    I beg to thank you for the overwhelming expression of your
    confidence at the NOMINATION this morning.

    I beseech you not to relax your exertions on behalf of myself
    and your Political Independence.

    Be early with your Friends at the Poll, and our Success is
    certain.

                         I am, Gentlemen,
                                    Your faithful Servant,
                                                 H. B. SHERIDAN.

    _Committee Room, Swan Hotel, Dudley, April 28th, 1859. One
    o'clock p.m._

       *       *       *       *       *

    April 29th, 1859. Close of the Poll:--

    Mr. H. B. Sheridan, Independent           432
    Viscount Monck, Liberal-Conservative      361
                                             ----
              Majority for Mr. Sheridan        71

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE ELECTORS OF THE BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    GENTLEMEN,

    The state of the Poll at its close shows a result unfavourable
    to my desire to represent you in Parliament, and my opponent
    has been returned as your Member.

    It therefore only remains for me, in the same spirit of good
    feeling and good humour in which I have endeavoured to carry on
    the contest, to return my sincere and heartfelt thanks to those
    amongst you who have honoured me with their support at the Poll.

    I deem it, however, only an act of justice to myself and my
    Committee to state that, had the promises of support which were
    made to me in the course of my Canvass been fulfilled, I should
    now be your Member.

    Into the causes which have led to the failure of these
    engagements, I do not mean now to enter; but I consider it
    an unwarrantable act wantonly to involve a Constituency in
    the turmoil of a Contest, and I therefore desire to leave
    upon record the fact that my Committee had good grounds for
    expecting a different result of the Poll.

    I now take leave of you, I cannot say without some feelings of
    disappointment, but with none of irritation or annoyance.

    To the gentlemen of my Committee who have laboured so
    assiduously in my cause, I beg to tender my most grateful
    acknowledgments, and to the whole Constituency my thanks for
    the courtesy and kindness with which I have been treated since
    I came amongst you.

                   I have the honour to be, Gentlemen,
                                         Your obedient Servant,
                                                              MONCK.

    _Committee Rooms, Bush Inn, April 29th, 1859._

October 28th, 1859, Mr. Theophilus Tinsley was elected Mayor, and Mr.
C. F. G. Clark, High Bailiff, of the Borough of Dudley for the ensuing
year.


DUDLEY RIFLE CORPS.

November 23rd, 1859, a requisition, signed by upwards of 120 of the
leading inhabitants of the town, was presented to the Mayor, T.
Tinsley, Esq., requesting him to convene a public meeting, to take into
consideration the expediency of forming a Volunteer Rifle Corps in this
Borough. Mr. Henry Money Wainwright, Solicitor, was elected the first
captain, which honourable appointment he held with great dignity and
efficiency for a number of years. A public subscription was originated
to raise funds for a suitable equipment of the corps, when upwards of
£150 was received for that object.

Died, November 29th, 1859, Edward Dixon, Esq., Jun., only son of the
late esteemed Mr. Dixon, Banker of this town.


DUDLEY GARRICK CLUB.

Some of my readers may be pleased to see a re-print of one of the
earlier Play Bills of this enterprising Volunteer company of our
younger townsmen, who founded one of the most enjoyable entertainments
ever held in the town. Too much praise cannot be accorded to these
young gentlemen for the assiduity and care they always manifested in
placing upon the boards some of the most exciting as well as highly
finished dramatic pieces of the day. These theatrical performances were
liberally patronized by all parties, and gave universal satisfaction
to all concerned, and their proceeds were liberally given to our local
charities.

    DUDLEY GARRICK CLUB.

    POPULAR ENTERTAINMENT,

    Assisted by Miss ISABEL ADAMS, Miss BELLAIR, Miss HINTON, and
    Miss HOLMES.

    The Entertainment will commence with

    THE READING OF AN ADDRESS.

    After which will be produced the latest Metropolitan successful
    Comedy-Drama, in three acts, entitled

    MIRIAM'S CRIME!

    DRAMATIS PERSONÆ.

    Bernard Reynolds               Mr. W. ATKINS.
    Scumley (a reprobate)          Mr. S. WARING.
    Huffin (a lawyer)             Mr. A. SHEDDEN.
    Daniel                           Mr. C. PAIN.
    Biles (a clerk)               Mr. H. WOODALL.
    Miriam West                Miss ISABEL ADAMS.
    Mrs. Raby                        Miss HINTON.

    SONG                            Miss BELLAIR.

    To conclude with the evergreen popular Haymarket Comedy, in
    three acts, of

    PAUL PRY!

    Colonel Hardy                    Mr. A. SHEDDEN.
    Frank Hardy                        Mr. RICHARDS.
    Witherton (an old bachelor)       Mr. S. WARING.
    Harry Stanley                      Miss BELLAIR.
    Grasp (a steward)                   Mr. C. PAIN.
    Doubledot (an innkeeper)          Mr. W. GORTON.
    Simon                             Mr. GEO. PITT.
    Mr. Stanley                      Mr. C. RUSSELL.
    Paul Pry                         Mr. H. WOODALL.

    (Servants, &c., by Members of the D.G.C.)

    Mrs. Subtle                         Miss HINTON.
    Phœbe (with a song)           Miss ISABEL ADAMS.
    Eliza                            Miss W. HOLMES.

    A FULL THEATRICAL BAND IS ENGAGED.

    Hon. Sec.                         Mr. JAMES WOOD.
    Stage Manager                     Mr. H. WOODALL.
    Prompter                            Mr. T. NEATH.
    Perruquier                      Mr. JAMES FOSTER.

    Doors open at half-past Six--Curtain to rise at Seven o'clock.
    Reserved. Seats, 3s.; Unreserved Seats, 2s.; Back Seats, 1s.

    Children in arms not admitted.

    Tickets may be obtained from Mr. LAXTON, Bookseller, High
    Street (where a Plan of Reserved Seats may be seen on and after
    Wednesday, January 27th); Messrs. WARING, Wolverhampton Street;
    Mr. EVAN ROBERTS, Stone Street; or from any Member of the
    Committee.

    Carriages may be ordered for half-past Ten, and will set down
    with horses' heads facing Snowhill, and take up, horses' heads
    facing the Town.


THE EARLDOM OF DUDLEY.

February 13th, 1860. The Right Honourable Lord Ward was created "Earl
of Dudley and Viscount Ednam." This important event was received with
great satisfaction, both in the town of Dudley and the surrounding
villages and hamlets, and the ancient town of Dudley was especially
aware of marked consideration, in having the new elevation in the
Peerage of the House of Himley called after our loyal and trusty old
Borough. Deputations of congratulations to the noble Earl poured in
upon him from all quarters, and the most notable must be claimed, the
"Great Deputation," which in much pomp and state emanated from the
then Mayor, Theophilus Tinsley, Esq., and the principal inhabitants of
Dudley, who were most graciously received by the new Earl of Dudley, at
Himley Hall, on February 18th, 1860. The following is a report of these
congratulatory deputations.

    PRESENTATION OF AN ADDRESS TO THE EARL OF DUDLEY.

    Thursday was the day named by the Earl of Dudley as the day
    when he should be happy to receive the deputation who had
    expressed a wish to wait upon his lordship, to present to him,
    on behalf of the town of Dudley, an address, upon his recent
    elevation to the title of Earl of Dudley. Himley was named as
    the place where his lordship would receive the deputation,
    and, accordingly, between one and two yesterday afternoon,
    the following gentlemen assembled at Himley Hall:--The Mayor
    (T. Tinsley, Esq.), the High Bailiff (Mr. C. F. G. Clark),
    Rev. Dr. Davison, Rev. G. Lewis, Captain Bennitt, Messrs. A.
    B. Cochrane, J. E. Swindell, W. Haden, S. D. Fereday, J. G.
    Walker, J. S. Bourne, Williscroft, Renaud, Grainger, Rudge,
    Hollier, Jordan, S. Price, Aston, Sanders, H. M. Wainwright, W.
    S. Wood, and Danks.

    His Lordship received the deputation in his accustomed urbane
    manner, and after the ceremony of recognition had been gone
    through, the Mayor read the following address: "To the Right
    Honourable the Earl of Dudley,--We, the Mayor, Magistrates,
    clergy, gentry, and inhabitants of the parish and borough of
    Dudley, beg to offer to your Lordship our sincere and hearty
    congratulations on the occasion of your Lordship's elevation to
    the Earldom of Dudley; and humbly pray that your Lordship may
    be long spared to enjoy that dignity, and that it may by God's
    blessing be handed down in direct succession to the remotest
    posterity. Dudley, February 16th, 1860."

    The address, engrossed on vellum in a highly decorative
    style, bore the inscription, "To the Right Honourable the
    Earl of Dudley," and was superbly illuminated in gold and
    colours, his lordship's motto, "Comme je fus," preceding the
    address. To it were added nearly 700 signatures, including the
    leading inhabitants of Dudley, Netherton, and the outlying
    districts comprehended within the borough of 40,000 inhabitants
    from which his lordship derives the title. The address and
    signatures thereto occupied twelve sheets of vellum, and the
    whole was enclosed in a handsome Russian cover, on which, in
    letters of gold, appeared the following dedication--"To the
    Right Honourable the Earl of Dudley, of Dudley Castle, in the
    county of Stafford, Viscount Ednam, of Ednam, in the county of
    Roxburgh."

    After the Mayor had read the address, and presented it to the
    Earl, the High Bailiff made a few remarks in support of the
    sentiments conveyed in that document. He said that although the
    occasion of his lordship's elevation to an earldom was no doubt
    of great importance to himself privately, still it was also of
    great importance to the borough of Dudley, and his lordship had
    paid a very high compliment to the borough in taking his title
    from it. Therefore they had considered it their duty to present
    to his lordship that address, signed, as it was, by all classes
    and all denominations of the inhabitants of the borough, and by
    those who were sincerely attached to both his lordship's person
    and house.

    The Rev. G. Lewis, in the absence of the Rev. Dr. Browne,
    (Vicar of Dudley) begged, in the name of the clergy and
    ministers of Dudley, to be allowed to avail himself of that
    opportunity of expressing his congratulations upon his
    Lordship's elevation to his new title. The title bore the
    impress of a new bond of connection between his Lordship
    and Dudley, and he (Mr. Lewis) trusted it would extend the
    connection, and still more closely cement the bond.

    His Lordship then replied to the address of the deputation
    in a few observations, which were especially remarkable for
    their felicity and the cordial feeling they displayed. The
    noble Earl stated that he need not tell them that that was
    one of the moments of his life which gave him the greatest
    pleasure, and which he should remember the longest, and, as
    they might suppose, he could not divest himself of the personal
    pleasure attendant upon the reception of such a deputation
    on such an occasion. But far beyond any gratification this
    station of rank could give him, was the fact that the town
    and borough of Dudley shared in that gratification, and spoke
    out on the subject so distinctly as it did that day. But the
    personal gratification was not all because he felt that it
    was, really and truly, a congratulation upon a matter which
    very much affected himself and his house. In these days, when
    men not only demand their right to private opinions, but also
    the right to express those opinions, it was more than ever
    difficult to obtain an unanimous opinion as to who was worthy
    of congratulation. Still it was always a great pleasure to
    congratulate another; but when a man happened to be the object
    of such congratulations, to be the object of which such a
    meeting was called as that he saw before him, and the object of
    the expressions which had been given utterance to, the pleasure
    was naturally four-fold greater. With regard to what had been
    said about the selection of the title of Earl of Dudley, his
    Lordship remarked that he could not for one moment have dreamt
    of taking any other title. He had desired that the link between
    his family and the town might be drawn together closer, and be
    stronger than ever, and to show them that such were his desires
    he had taken the title of Earl of Dudley. When he was told that
    he must take the title from some town, he took that title from
    Dudley, and in adding Dudley Castle to it he had only stepped
    in the steps of his forefathers, and taken their precedent
    for his guidance. One happened to be in Worcestershire and
    the other in Staffordshire, although few people perhaps knew
    where the division of the counties was, and his only reason for
    acceding to what was proposed to him was that he was told he
    must name a place from which to take the title, and therefore
    he followed the precedent laid down for him. It was not only,
    however, that the occasion personally affected the town and
    himself, but it was that in so large a body as that deputation,
    there was a guarantee that there was a feeling abroad of the
    mutual benefit to be derived from the town having so much
    confidence in the nearest peer who happened to reside in the
    neighbourhood, and the fact that the peer would find he could
    not do without the support of his nearest neighbours. Perhaps
    in former times there was not so much real understanding of one
    another, and intimacy with one another, as had happily existed
    between himself and the town; he had fallen upon other times,
    when men were more closely drawn together by various ties but
    at any rate, he did not know any time when any deputation,
    representing so large a body, had come to Himley to offer
    congratulations upon any event connected with the family. After
    paying a very marked and highly eulogistic compliment to those
    who represented his house in the dignified manner he was proud
    to say they did, the noble Earl concluded by stating that the
    address presented that day would be placed amongst the papers
    of his family, and in his mind would be the most valuable of
    them, because it was a guarantee that the bonds of connection
    between the town of Dudley and himself would be drawn together
    more closely than ever.

    The Dowager Lady Ward was present during the proceedings; and
    evinced a lively interest in them. Her ladyship, together
    with the noble Earl, the gentlemen composing the deputation,
    R. Smith, Esq., and G. Taylor., Esq., subsequently sat down
    to a sumptuous luncheon, and at its conclusion the deputation
    thanked his Lordship for the princely reception they had met
    with, and retired.

    His Lordship has courteously accepted an invitation to a
    banquet at Dudley, on Tuesday, the 28th inst., and on the same
    day his Lordship will supply the indigent poor of the borough
    with beef. Upon the same day the children in the various
    schools in the town will receive a treat, the expense of which
    will be met by public subscriptions.--_Birmingham Journal._

       *       *       *       *       *

    THE EARLDOM OF DUDLEY.

    Yesterday a deputation from Brierley Hill waited upon the Right
    Hon. the Earl of Dudley, at Himley Hall, to present to his
    lordship, on behalf of the inhabitants of Brierley Hill and
    the district, their congratulations on his lordship's recent
    elevation in the peerage. The deputation started from the Star
    Hotel (Mr. English's), about one o'clock, in four carriages,
    and consisted of the following gentlemen:--Rev. S. Franklin
    (incumbent of Brierley Hill), Rev.--Gray (curate), Rev. J.
    Roebuck (Independent minister), Rev. J. Williams (Wesleyan
    minister), Dr. Walker, Messrs. Ford, P. Harris, R. Plant, W.
    H. Westwood, G. Pearson, Chapman, Wheeler, Williams, Horton,
    Homer, and Cook. Upon arriving at the Hall, the deputation
    were received by the noble Earl in a very cordial manner, and
    Mr. R. Plant, after making a few eulogistic remarks, proceeded
    to read the following address:--"We, the undersigned, clergy,
    ministers of the gospel, and others, inhabitants of the town of
    Brierley Hill and district, beg to present our congratulations
    to your Lordship on your accession to your family dignities
    and honours, bestowed upon you by the act of our most gracious
    Sovereign; and that you may be spared to live long in the
    enjoyment of your revived family title, and that it may be
    handed down through succeeding generations, is our fervent
    wish, who fully appreciate your Lordship's interest towards us,
    as exhibited in your untiring efforts to promote the welfare
    and prosperity of this locality." To this address were attached
    about 1,200 signatures. In order that beauty and harmony should
    be better preserved the signatures were transcribed, and with
    the dedication and address the _souvenir_ took the form of a
    thin royal octavo volume, beautifully bound in gilt russia. On
    the outer cover appeared the following words:--"Address from
    the town and district of Brierley Hill to the Right Honourable
    the Earl of Dudley, 1860." On the frontispiece the Earl's crest
    and motto were tastefully lithographed in gold and colours,
    immediately succeeding which was the following dedication:--"To
    the Right Honourable the Earl of Dudley, of Dudley, in the
    county of Worcester, and of Dudley Castle in the county of
    Stafford, Viscount Ednam of Ednam, in the county of Roxburgh,
    1860." The dedication and address were printed in colours,
    and each of the pages containing the signatures was surrounded
    with an illuminated border. After the reception of the address,
    the noble Earl made a few appropriate remarks in reply. He
    said that an address of such a character, signed as it was by
    about 1,200 persons, was a source of great gratification to
    him, and would have been equally so if it had consisted of
    simple sheets of paper, instead of assuming the elegant form
    it had. Considering the short time occupied in obtaining the
    signatures (one day) it was extremely gratifying to find such a
    feeling exhibited towards himself and his house as was evinced
    by the 1,200 who had come forward and signed the document on
    behalf of themselves and those surrounding them. It proved
    that Brierley Hill was fast rising in all the importance due
    to a town, and he hoped it would still continue to rise, and
    be supplied with such public buildings as it required, towards
    which object he should always be happy to render a helping
    hand. With regard to supplying the requisite churches and
    chapels for the district, his Lordship took occasion to remark
    that it was almost impossible to "overtake" the work--to use a
    Scotch expression. It was also difficult to obtain ministers
    who would enter into the work with a proper spirit, and
    properly perform it, and generally it was very difficult to
    find sufficient accommodation for the wants of the place. After
    alluding to the importance of mechanics' institutions, and
    kindred sources of improvement, and remarking that they were
    also necessary in a growing locality like Brierley Hill, his
    Lordship concluded by remarking that the address presented that
    day would be treasured along with the most honoured archives of
    the house and family; and as he might not stand again before
    the same body of gentlemen, who represented 1200 inhabitants,
    and doubtless many more, he begged them to convey his thanks to
    each person who had signed the document, and participated in
    the congratulations conveyed.

    Deputations from Netherton, Sedgley, and Quarry Bank (near
    Brierley Hill) were also present. The latter address was as
    follows:--"To the Right Hon. Earl of Dudley, &c., &c., &c.
    May it please your Lordship, we, the undersigned clergy,
    churchwardens, and tenants under your Lordship in the new
    district parish of Quarry Bank, Diocese of Lichfield, and in
    the county of Stafford, take the liberty of congratulating
    your Lordship on your elevation by our most gracious Queen to
    the Earldom of Dudley, a dignity heretofore enjoyed by some
    of your Lordship's ancestors. We humbly conceive that this
    evidence of Royal favour has been most judiciously conferred
    upon a nobleman, the management of whose property throughout
    this entire district justly entitles him to be ranked amongst
    the kindest, most liberal, and best of England's landlords, in
    whom an industrious and well-conducted tenantry always find a
    protector, friend, and patron; at the same time your Lordship
    proves by great liberality your anxiety for the religious and
    moral welfare of the people of this district, granting, in
    this mining country where land is so valuable, ground for the
    erection of a church for the people, for a churchyard, for
    parsonage and gardens, liquidating the balance of mortgage
    due on parsonage to Queen Anne's bounty, defraying the
    entire cost of introducing gas into the church, subscribing
    annually towards the support and the education of the young
    in the district, and contributing towards the aid of clerical
    ministrations throughout the parish. Fervently do we pray that
    your Lordship may long be spared to enjoy every blessing, and
    that the dignity conferred upon you by our gracious Queen may
    descend (with even increased honours) to your Lordship's latest
    posterity." The gentlemen comprising the various deputations
    were subsequently entertained by the noble Earl at an elegant
    and sumptuous luncheon, after which they thanked his lordship
    for his cordial reception, and retired.

    The Dowager Lady Ward, with two or three lady friends, and G.
    Taylor, Esq. (his lordship's estate agent), were present during
    the interesting proceedings.--_Birmingham Journal._

After the several deputations had been gone through, it was deemed the
correct thing to invite the noble Earl to a grand banquet, to be given
by the Mayor, and principal inhabitants of the town and district. This
ever-to-be-remembered dinner became the source of much merriment to
those present, as well as annoyance and chagrin to two reporters to the
press, who would not accommodate themselves to the pressure that had to
be put upon the small space afforded in the Hotel Ball Room to seat 128
guests at this dinner; the consequence was, that the eloquent speeches
were not reported at all, and the whole affair resolved itself into a
semi-private dinner party.

It was an unfortunate incident that the then Mayor was neither a
moderate speaker, or well acquainted with the Queen's English, and the
mistakes and blunders that were made, under the eyes and ears of so
many distinguished visitors, were a source of much annoyance to the
better sort of people in the town, who had some sincere regard for
the fame and honour of Dudley. However, this celebrated banquet was
destined to have one Chronicler, who in the following lines records the
proceedings.

    DUDLEY CASTLE AND THE GREAT BANQUET.

    BY SOLOMON SQUIB.

    I sing in praise of our old Castle Walls,
    Its tilts and tournaments, fêtes and balls;
    Of the great Dodo, and his humble bride,
    Daughter of the far-famed Edmund Ironside,
    Whose son Athelstan its Towers erected,
    Whose successors its buildings for centuries protected;
    Of the martial achievements of great Simon Ward,
    Of his noble descendant becoming its Lord;
    Of its loyal defence in the great revolution,
    Its destruction by fire, and its sad dissolution.

        I sing of the days of chivalry,
        Of the noble spirit of rivalry.
        When every knight detested a sinner,
        And swore to be true to his fair Dulcinea.
        When each one received the accolade,
        And was dubb'd and in costly mail array'd,
        With a strippling squire to carry his shield,
        Determin'd to conquer and never to yield
        To any power but the power above,
        For the sake of his bright-eyed lady-love.
        I sing of the tournaments of old,
        When every knight with a spirit bold,
        Dash'd his gauntlet into the ring,
        Defying all comers from peasant to king.

    Strange times were these, when the Lord of the Castle,
    With bondsmen and freemen excited with wassail,
    Rush'd on their neighbours by day and by night,
    Shouting vociferously, "Might shall be right!"
    E'en in the days of our good Queen Bess,
    Ashwood and Priestwood were forced to confess
    The power of seven score madden'd with wine,
    Who stole their best oxen, their sheep and their kyne.

    These customs were past when our Earl's noble ancestor
    Fair Frances won, and the Lord of all blest her
    With children whose numerous descendants were famed
    For talents, for actions, for virtues oft named,--
    Talents acknowledged by Peel, Byron, Moore,
    Kings, Lords and Commons, by the rich and the poor--
    By Oxford and Cambridge, by linguists, by all,
    By the foes of old England, far and near, great and small.
    Actions engraved on the hearts of the people,
    And telling their story from steeple to steeple.
    Virtues in Heaven's blest mansions recorded,
    Where the vile never go, and the pure are rewarded.
    I care not for critics, 'cased in temples of marble,
    Sending forth bombshells and missiles of garble,
    'Gainst the wide reputation of Dudley's great Earl,--
    Let them come forth, and their banners unfurl,
    With their mischievous motto, "Wealth's all my eye;"
    Go back, silly mortals, and mind the small fry,
    And we'll give a shout of exuberant joy,
    For our great benefactor, that broth of a boy,
    Who never deserts us in time of great need,--
    Noble patron, we heartily wish thee God speed!
    Thy bounty has blest many a worthy civilian,
    And given enjoyment and fun to the million.
    Our Whitsuntide fêtes on the Castle to wit:
    But stay, this long metre this subject won't fit.

        Reader, with your permission,
        I'll make a short digression;
        For brevity is best, no doubt,
        When wit, fun, frolic, are about.
        The Castle Fêtes, alas! alas!
        Let them to oblivion pass,
        With the ugly Balance Sheet,
        Afraid the public eye to meet;
        We no doubt can do without it,
        Therefore say no more about it.
        Why rave, and rant, and grumble? Zounds!
        The gains exceed a thousand pounds!
        In spite of the great defalcation,
        And the costly presentation,
        Sufficient to clothe and equip a score
        Of the "Dudley Volunteer Rifle Corps."

    I now sing of the blind man's happy home,
    The Asylum for those who care not to roam,
    The magnificent gift of our patron and friend,--
    May his praises resound to the wide world's end.
    'Twas a gladdening sight, it did one's heart good,
    When he laid the foundation stone, humbly he stood,
    'Midst the ragged, and wretched, and the poor cast-away,
    The well-to-do folk, and the great and the gay,--
    Proclaiming "My worldly possessions I owe
    To the Ruler of all things above and below,
    And through life my earnest endeavour shall be
    To distribute those blessings given to me."
    Well spoken, my Lord, may your stewardship meet
    The approval of Him who knows no deceit;
    Then when titles and grandeur shall crumble to dust,
    Your soul will be found 'mongst the righteous and just.

    And now let us sing of the great Deputation,
    With address clothed in gold, a sweet gratulation.
    To Himley they journey'd without ostentation,
    Made their bows and delivered a first-rate oration.
    So flattering, so powerful, it caused quite a sensation,--
    And ended at last with the Earl's observation,
    "My friends, your respect has my warm approbation;
    "I pray you partake of a cold collation."
    Each one took his seat without hesitation,
    Eat and drank and talk'd o'er the affairs of the nation,
    And the Captain delivered a long peroration,
    So fulsome, it met with the Earl's condemnation.
    The business being o'er, and the Mayor's invitation
    Accepted, each went to his own habitation.
    And the Mayor, uplifted with such exultation,
    Sends forth the following proclamation:

    "O yes! O yes! be it known to all men,
    (We never shall see the like again),
    On the 28th instant we hold our Banquet!
    And after the 19th no seats will be let--
    A guinea a piece--'Hark! forward, boys, hark!'
    Signed, P. G. M., L. M. N. O. P., C. F. G. (Clerk)."
    'Twas a splendid affair, all the tickets were taken,
    And they sat down to fish, flesh, fowl, and bacon.
    The Mayor took the chair, and the Bailiff was Vice,--
    _Vice versa_, some thought would have been the best choice.
    The great guest was welcom'd with loud acclamation,
    And the nobles were greeted with kind adulation:
    Talented Lyttelton, "honourable" Ward,
    (Promoters of progress, stem foes to discord,)
    The great Dean of Worcester, the immaculate Paul,
    The Sheriff whom no power on earth can appal:
    These were the guests that graced the Mayor's table,
    Men full of good works, free, willing, and able
    To assist us in all things pertaining to good,
    To bodily comforts and spiritual food.
    And besides, there were present the renown'd Dr. Browne,
    The unknown Doctor D., and the _élite_ of the town,
    All the Clergy of the Established Church were there,
    Only one Chapel preacher thought fit to appear.
    Ten magistrates (bless 'em), a glorious batch,
    Like jolly good fellows, came up to the scratch;
    Exclusive of them there appear'd twenty-two,
    In the Coal and Iron trade some few good and true.
    Eight respectable lawyers, five doctors, four quacks,
    Seven victuallers, four sellers of leather and wax,
    Eight drapers and tailors, the glass-master Renaud,
    One hatter, one painter, one printer, one Howard;
    Tom and John the surveyors, fond of all things good;
    The important ex-Mayor, and the little Ned Wood,
    Tom Smart the butcher, and the millionaire Guest,
    Fourteen agents (two ticketless) make up the rest:
    Numbering one hundred and twenty and nine,
    And all pleased with their excellent dinner and wine.

    The cloth was drawn, and the plate went round,
    And in lieu of two tickets two guineas were found:
    The shorthands were call'd from the taproom below,
    By the Clerk and Committee, yet none would go;
    Inducements were offered, but all was in vain,
    The help of reporters they could not obtain,--
    They'd insulted most grossly the "fourth estate,"
    And all they could say would not compensate;
    Its reporters they forced from their usual places,
    (A thing never known e'en at prize-fights and races),
    And sent them down stairs till the stuffing was o'er,
    And then "This way, gentlemen, to the next floor."
    Why the dirtiest hole throughout all the nation
    Could not have display'd less civilization.

    Amidst great confusion, and cries of "Chair, chair!"
    The business proceeded by our eloquent Mayor,
    Proposing so brilliantly each loyal toast,
    I'm afraid he disturbed old Demosthenes' ghost.
    He came to the Bishops and Clergy at last,
    And on the great Doctor his north twinkler cast
    Up jumps the bold Doctor and spouted away,
    'Bout Dudley's great Earl, whom none can gainsay
    "Look at his acts and his kind liberality,
    "Especially confined to this favour'd locality.
    Then he spoke of St. Thomas's tottering steeple,
    And the need of a church for the Cemetery people:
    "Much money is wanted, but little is found;
    "Will you suffer God's Temple to fall to the ground?
    "Let the Town Hall and such useless fabrics be floor'd,
    "But let not my Church and your vestry be lower'd;
    "I claim your support and your very best wishes,
    "For the sake of the long lost loaves and fishes."

    And now comes the toast, the toast of the day,
    "The great Earl of Dudley"--huzza! and huzza!!!
    'Twas given by Blackwell in a splendid oration,
    Boldly deliver'd without ostentation,
    Free from all twaddle and mean adulation.
    He gained great applause from beginning to end,
    And the Earl was pleased to call him "his friend."
    (This Blackbird, so flighty, sagacious, and clever,
    In crossing a Brooke, once display'd a white feather.)
    But what said the Earl in reply to the toast?
    Magnanimous sentiments! could the town boast
    Of another like him, we'd have nothing to fear,
    All would be prosperous year after year.
    He spoke like a man of the warmest sincerity,
    Express'd his desire for Dudley's prosperity,
    Declar'd he was willing to do all he could
    Towards all things pertaining to public good.
    Improvements were wanted all over the town--
    The dirty old Town Hall he'd have taken down;
    And hop'd he should see, in a very short time,
    More refinement in all things, less ignorance and crime.

    Ye pooh-poohing puppies, ye foul-mouthed jokers,
    Contemptible cynics, and broken-down croakers,
    Your rancorous shafts can't harm or offend
    Our high-minded leader, our patriot and friend.
    Go to bed, rantipoles, your day's on the wane;
    Lie still, for you'll never be wanted again.

    The Earl in due time gave "Long life to the Mayor,"
    And the chairman responded in terms rich and rare;
    He talk'd of his "_Earlship's_ well-known _festivalities_,"
    Our local inducements, our strange nationalities.
    Of his "READING at Himley the great Deputation,"
    And his "_Earlship's_" high and magnificent station.
    The guests were astounded at language so able,
    And the Earl, overcome, dropp'd his head on the table.
    Lord Lyttelton fancied it could not last long,
    So balanced a spoon on the tip of his tongue!!
    It ended at last with a hem and a haw,
    And the Mayor sat down with immense _eclât_.
    The High Bailiff came out with his "verbalized finery",
    Inexplicable terms and unmeaning irony.
    The town and the Trade, and Squire Knight's quackery
    He prefers the year round to Dickens or Thackeray;
    He loves the black country--may nothing upset it,--
    For though he may leave it, he'll never forget it.

    Mr. Haden replied to the "Coal and Iron Trade,"
    In language concise, unadorned, unarrayed.
    Our Captain, as bold, as the heroes of Rome,
    Proposed "Lady Ward" and the old house at home.
    Our Lord Lieutenant, whom all men adore,
    Drank success to our Volunteer Rifle Corps.
    Th' intelligent Fred, whom the world scarcely knows,
    In an eloquent speech, thought fit to propose
    The health of the Sheriff, whom none can gainsay,
    His namesake and friend, and the County's mainstay.
    To the "Sports of the Field," Will Grazebrook replied
    In a humorous speech which none can deride:
    Yet, sad to relate, when this sportsman departed,
    Full of good cheer, light-headed, light-hearted,
    On his travels towards home he upset a trap,
    Which eventually proved a serious mishap.
    The coachman pull'd up, but all advice scorning,
    "Drive on," cried his master, "I'll call in the morning."
    Shame! shame! Billy Grazebrook; if a fox had been there
    You'd have been at the death, and not in the rear;
    But alas! a fond husband has now to bewail
    The loss of his lov'd one: so here ends my tale.

       *       *       *       *       *

    DUDLEY.

    EARLDOM OF DUDLEY.

    _To the Editor of the_ DAILY POST.

    Sir,--In your impression of this day's _Daily Post_ it is
    observed that your Mr. Simpson, the recognised Dudley reporter
    of the _Daily Post_, has thought fit to advert to what he
    conceives to be "an indignity" offered to the reporters of the
    press, at the dinner given to the Earl of Dudley last evening.

    As one of the Committee of Management in that matter, I would
    wish, by your permission, to rectify some of the erroneous
    impressions which your remarks are calculated to convey to the
    public.

    I beg to inform your readers that the "Press" was one of the
    "first considerations" of the committee at its meetings;
    as a proof of which your Mr. Simpson obtained, through the
    influence of the committee, the exclusive privilege to report
    the proceedings of the Himley deputation, and received that
    distinguished recognition rarely accorded to the "Fourth
    Estate."

    The unprecedented rush for tickets to do honour to the Earl of
    Dudley, and the very confined nature of the space for dining at
    the disposal of the committee, necessarily compelled that body
    to adopt "extraordinary means" for the purpose of giving as
    many of the public as possible an opportunity of "doing honour
    to whom honour is due."

    Under these pressing circumstances, the representatives of the
    press were respectfully solicited to accommodate the committee
    by dining at its expense, truly "downstairs," because there was
    "no available dining space" upstairs, with the clear intimation
    that they would be accommodated with seats, wines, and dessert
    in the dining-room as soon as the cloth was drawn. This offer
    the egotistical representatives of the press indignantly
    declined to accept, and, unfortunately for the gratification of
    the public, forgot their quota of courtesy due to the committee
    by neglecting to forward their portentous decision until it was
    too late for the committee to procure additional reporters.

    These, Sir, are the naked facts of the case, and however much
    it is to be regretted that the interests of the press should
    get into disrepute by an assumption on behalf of its reporters,
    it must now be left to the dispassionate public to determine
    whether the committee would have been justified in displacing
    a number of gentlemen to make way for the reporters of the
    "Fourth Estate" (merely at the time of dining), and whether the
    press has the right to arrogate to itself, on all occasions,
    "the chief corners in the temple."

                       I am, your obedient servant,
                                      C. F. G. CLARK, High Bailiff.

    _Dudley, February 29th, 1860._

    [In a few remote places, and in those circles of society into
    which modern notions of courtesy have imperfectly penetrated,
    we still find some lingering belief that the Press and its
    representatives are very much in the position of singers at a
    feast, to have a plate sent out to them in the corridor, and
    a chair in the windiest corner of the room when the cloth is
    drawn. But it is not often that we have the idea so honestly
    expressed. According to Mr. Clark, the accommodation of the
    Press was one of the earliest considerations of the committee,
    who seem to have balanced the profit of admitting 127 diners
    against the propriety of restricting that number to 125 and
    two reporters, by whose agency the whole of the vast district
    through which we circulate would in effect have shared in
    the honour done to the noble guest, and in the eloquence
    with which that honour was recognised. The committee, in its
    shortsightedness, deliberately chose to make room for two
    diners more, under the impression that they would manage
    the Press somehow,and the spirit of courtesy in which that
    "management" was undertaken may be inferred from the tone
    of the remarkable letter of our correspondent. It appears
    that by some gracious act of condescension our reporter was
    actually allowed to accompany a deputation to Himley Hall, "a
    distinguished recognition," quoth Mr. Clark, "rarely accorded
    to the Fourth Estate." The gentleman who can assume these grand
    airs, which the master of Himley Hall himself would be about
    the last to dream of, was very well qualified to execute and
    excuse the orders of the committee in asking the reporters to
    come in with the dessert. We quite approve of their refusal
    to submit to this servants' hall treatment. They have no
    right to expect, and as far as we know, they never lay claim
    to the chief places at feasts; but so long as their refusal
    is expressed with courtesy they have our entire approval
    when they decline to submit to treatment, the result not of
    accident or oversight--this we are sure they would be the
    first to make allowance for--but, as the "early consideration"
    shows, deliberately resolved upon. It was not until all the
    tickets were sold that this dining-down-stairs project was
    made known to our reporter, or we would have taken good care
    that he should have had such accommodation as a guinea could
    have given him. It is very droll, in the midst of all that is
    silly in this letter, to hear it charged against the reporters
    that they didn't study the convenience of these gracious
    gentlemen, so far as to allow them the opportunity of obtaining
    "other reporters." Other reporters! One would imagine these
    commodities were as easy to procure as change for a shilling.
    But suppose they were provided; we say it for ourselves, and we
    dare say the same for the majority, if not the whole, of our
    contemporaries, that the product of the "other reporters" would
    have found its way to the office waste-paper basket. As it is,
    the committee have made a pretty mess of it. They have dined
    the Earl truly, but they have contrived to rob the honour of
    half its graciousness and all its value, by denuding it of the
    crowning grace of publicity.--ED. _Daily Post_.]

       *       *       *       *       *

    _To the Editor of the_ DAILY POST.

    Sir,--There is a paragraph in your edition of to-day respecting
    the banquet last evening, given by the town to the Earl of
    Dudley, in which the writer is facetious, regarding the
    indignant treatment to which it was proposed to submit the
    gentlemen of the Fourth Estate, and their noble protest against
    such treatment. Doubtless your sense of what is just and fair
    will admit a statement on the part of the committee of that
    dinner.

    On Wednesday up to four o'clock 111 tickets had been
    sold--bought and paid for. The Mayor had been requested to
    reserve four for various parties, and six were kept for the
    invited guests, making in all 121. On Wednesday evening four
    more were issued, making 125; and on Monday evening, when the
    committee next met, a list of a dozen applications could not
    even be considered. Besides this 125, it was expected that
    some few guests might be present, and there were at least
    three (Mr. Melville, Mr. Campbell, and another); and careful
    and accurate measurement of the room had given as a result the
    utter impossibility of putting more than 128 into it. Where
    then, I ask, could the reporters be accommodated at dinner,
    being, as they might be, some six or eight? Arrangements were
    made for their dining, and as soon as space could be obtained,
    by the absence of the waiters, a table was placed for their
    accommodation in the centre of the room. We were perfectly
    willing to treat them as well as circumstances would allow, but
    we could not do what was palpably impossible.

    I have only to add that a full report of the banquet shall be
    forwarded to you for Saturday's _Journal_. The committee would
    have been best pleased to have a professional report; but in
    default of that must do the best they can to preserve a record
    of that portion of the events of the day.

                            I am, Sir, yours faithfully,
                                              ONE OF THE COMMITTEE.

    [Our reply to this is that there were only two papers
    represented, our own and the _Wolverhampton Chronicle_. The
    committee should have reserved two places for those reporters,
    no matter what the demand was. That is a prime article in the
    creed of all public dinner-giving committees, and a wise one we
    think.--ED. _Daily Post._]

Shortly after these civic proceedings were accomplished, the noble Earl
laid the Foundation Stone of the Blind Asylum in the Tipton Road, which
was built at his Lordship's entire cost, as a home and maintenance
for those unfortunate miners and stone quarry men, who are constantly
losing their sight by explosions in his Lordship's extensive mines. In
consequence of these sightless men refusing to avail themselves of this
charitable hospitality, this noble structure was tenantless for some
years, until it was so liberally given up by the Earl of Dudley to the
Trustees appointed by the late Joseph Guest, Esq., "for the purpose
of founding a hospital in Dudley," which has since that time been of
incalculable benefit to the working classes, and now assumes vast
usefulness as our renowned "Guest's Hospital." The following ceremony
took place on that occasion:--

    ELEVATION OF LORD WARD TO AN EARLDOM.

    CELEBRATIONS IN DUDLEY YESTERDAY.

    Yesterday (Tuesday) was a day specially set apart by the
    inhabitants of Dudley--having first duly consulted his
    lordship's convenience--for celebrating in some marked and
    public manner the elevation of Lord Ward, who is so intimately
    connected with the town, to the dignity and position of Earl
    of Dudley, a title which one of his ancestors had previously
    held. The day seemed to be observed as a day of festivity and
    general rejoicing, and the ordinary avocations of life appeared
    to be in a great degree suspended. From an early hour the
    bells of the various churches in the locality rang out a merry
    peal, the streets were unusually thronged with pedestrians,
    flags floated in the breeze from some of the houses, and the
    universal subject of conversation was the Earl of Dudley and
    his probable movements during the day. As we have already
    noticed in these columns the distribution of about four
    thousand pounds weight of beef, which the liberality of his
    lordship had provided, it is unnecessary to state more now than
    the fact that the beef was distributed among the poor on Monday
    last in pieces weighing 4lbs. each, the clergymen and ministers
    of various denominations in the town acting as the almoners
    of the noble Earl's bounty. The colliers on the Dudley estate
    were presented with a day's pay yesterday, in harmony with the
    practice adopted towards their fellow workmen at Brierley Hill
    on the preceding day, and we believe that Dudley was not the
    only place that participated in the distribution of beef. Five
    oxen were slaughtered for Dudley--one being apportioned to the
    Kate's Hill district, one to Netherton, one to Wolverhampton
    Street, and two to High Street. One or two bands of music
    paraded the streets of the town yesterday, and about mid-day
    everyone was on the tiptoe of expectation, and anxious to see
    his lordship pass through the streets on his way to the Tipton
    New Road, where the ceremony of

    LAYING THE FOUNDATION STONE OF THE BLIND ASYLUM

    was to take place. The asylum is intended by his lordship for
    the reception of those men in his employ who have lost their
    sight through working in the limestone caverns, which underlie
    the Castle Hill and grounds. The plan and "bird's-eye view"
    of the institution show that it is intended to accommodate
    twenty-six families, each family being furnished with a
    suite of five rooms and out-houses. There will also be an
    infants', boys', and girls' school, capable of accommodating
    together about 150 children. A schoolmaster's residence will
    be attached to the schools, and at a little distance a chapel
    and minister's house will be erected. The chapel will be
    consecrated by the Bishop of the diocese when completed, and
    the noble Earl will endow it from his own private purse. A
    laundry, sick ward, and convenience for a surgeon, form part
    of the scheme, and the sanitary arrangements are of a most
    perfect character. The block of buildings occupy three sides
    of a quadrangle, and the whole is enclosed by a low wall and
    ornamental palisadings, the entrance being through a neat
    iron gateway, to which is attached a porter's lodge. There is
    a separate entrance to the church on the south side of the
    Asylum. In the centre of the east side is a tower, in which
    is constructed a large tank for supplying the various houses
    with water, the idea being that the tank shall be supplied by
    the manual labour of the blind inmates, a pump being placed
    over a conduit in the centre of the ground for that purpose.
    Under such an arrangement it is contemplated that an ample
    supply of water will always be at hand for every sanitary and
    culinary purpose. The centre of the quadrangle is laid out
    as a greensward, with footpaths intersecting it, and in the
    rear about two acres of land are devoted to the purposes of a
    kitchen and flower garden. The South Staffordshire Railway runs
    along a short distance behind the block of buildings, and the
    Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton Railway passes in front,
    midway between the Asylum and the Castle Hill. The new turnpike
    road from Dudley to Tipton is also closely contiguous. The
    material used in the erection of the various buildings is red
    and white sandstone, supplied from his lordship's quarries,
    and the style of architecture is the early decorated Gothic.
    The whole of the expense of the erection and fitting-up will
    be borne by his lordship, and the asylum will, when complete,
    form another memento of the princely munificence for which he
    is so deservedly celebrated. About twelve o'clock yesterday his
    lordship arrived upon the ground, in company with the Dowager
    Lady Ward and the Hon. Mrs. Claughton and party. Among other
    ladies and gentlemen also present at the ceremony were the Rev.
    D. Melville and party; Rev. Dr. Browne, Vicar of Dudley; Mrs.
    E. F. Smith, Mrs. S. D. Fereday, Miss Roberts, T. Tinsley,
    Esq., (Mayor of Dudley), Mr. E. Hollier, (ex-Mayor), Mr. C. F.
    G. Clark (High Bailiff) &c. The ceremonial commenced by the
    noble earl placing in the cavity of the stone prepared for its
    reception a glass bottle containing a copy of the _Gazette_ in
    which he was declared to have been created an earl, and also
    the current coins of the realm. His lordship then proceeded
    to read the following inscription, which was engraved on a
    brass plate placed over the cavity: "The corner stone of this
    building, erected for the collecting together under one roof,
    and for the comfort and consolation of those who have lost
    their eyesight in the working of the Dudley limestone caverns,
    was laid by the Earl of Dudley, of Dudley Castle, William Baron
    Ward, of Birmingham, the 28th day of February, 1860. Richard
    Smith, mine agent of the Dudley estates, to whose suggestion
    this institution owes its origin. William Bourne, architect; J.
    Hartland, W. Walker, builders. _Dimidium cœpti qui bene cœpit
    habet._" The noble Earl then received a silver trowel from the
    Dowager Lady Ward, to whom it had been first presented, and
    the stone having been lowered to its final resting place, the
    customary formalities were gone through. It may be incidentally
    mentioned, that, at the request of a bystander a medal,
    commemorative of the erection of St. Thomas's Church, was
    also placed with the coins. The inscription on the plate was
    surmounted by the Dudley arms. After the lowering of the stone
    the Rev. Dr. Browne offered up prayer, and subsequently the
    Earl of Dudley addressed the assembled crowd. He commenced his
    remarks by reminding those present that although they had just
    seen the corner stone of the building laid the work had not to
    be begun, as the foundation has been laid for some time past,
    and everything would now go on rapidly towards completion. It
    gave him the greatest possible pleasure that he was enabled
    on an occasion like that--so soon after his accession to an
    earldom--to lay the foundation stone of a building which it was
    his prayer would last till the sons and grandsons of those by
    whom it would be tenanted should have passed away. They all
    knew what the building was intended for, but he would add one
    other word. Although a large employer of labour like himself
    was bound as a matter of duty to provide for the maintenance
    of those who by a dispensation of Providence were deprived of
    their eyesight while in his employ, the contemplated benefits
    of the asylum would extend further than that. In that building
    they might meet those with whom they had been in the habit of
    associating, and one would be enabled to comfort the other,
    and add consolation to consolation as long as life should
    last--that inward consolation which was so necessary to those
    who had lost their outward sight, and therefore could not
    look upon the beauties of earth. The inmates would thus feel
    great pleasure in knowing that those who formerly were engaged
    with them in the same occupation were sitting around them,
    praying with them, and reciprocating the same sentiments. Their
    wives--to whom they were bound by the common natural tie--and
    their children--in whom their happiness must to a great extent
    be centred--would also be near them, and around them, and would
    grow up among acquaintances who, becoming friends, would prove
    invaluable upon starting in life, as they often gave a man a
    better chance of taking his proper position in society. The
    noble Earl went on to say that he took no credit to himself for
    suggesting such an institution, as it was not his due. If he
    carried the work out it would be because, being by the gift of
    Providence the possessor of such large estates, he felt it to
    be his duty to look after those who suffered in his interests.
    But the idea did not originate with him, but with a gentleman
    who, day by day and week by week, saw with his own eyes what
    escaped his lordship's--the suffering and misery of those who
    lost their sight. The suggestion was made by a man well known
    and highly respected in this district, where he was born, and
    where he had ever maintained an unspotted name of honour and
    integrity of purpose. That gentleman having suggested the
    work, he (the noble Earl) was bound to carry it out, although
    not perhaps without some jealousy, on account of not having
    been the first to originate it. After expressing a hope that
    in a few months they would see the building rise in all its
    fair proportions, and that the day would soon arrive when they
    should see those for whom the building was intended marching in
    to take possession of it, his lordship concluded amid loud and
    continued cheers. Three cheers were also given for Lady Ward,
    the Rev. Dr Browne, and R. Smith, Esq. A number of copies of
    a view of the projected building, which was dedicated to the
    last-named gentleman, were then distributed by the noble Earl,
    and the assembly soon afterwards dispersed.

    THE BANQUET.

    Of the banquet in the evening to the noble Earl we can say
    nothing, except that we believe about 120 sat down. The Dinner
    Committee, in making their arrangements, seem to have ignored
    the existence of such an institution as the Press, and it was
    not till all the tickets were sold, and all the available space
    occupied, that they appear to have entertained the idea that
    probably the public would like to know something about their
    proceedings. Accordingly, in their magnanimity, they arranged
    that provision should be made in some room "downstairs," where
    the reporters might eat and drink by themselves, and await the
    summons to "go up higher," which happy period, it is supposed,
    would have arrived when the cloth was withdrawn, and the
    serious part of the business of the evening commenced. However,
    the representatives of the "fourth estate" present did not feel
    inclined to submit to such unusual indignities. In consequence
    of these proceedings of the committee our readers are deprived
    of a report of the speeches made at the banquet; but we may
    perhaps be allowed to remark that such a mode of conducting
    what is really public business, is alike disrespectful to the
    noble Earl they intended to congratulate, and insulting to
    every person who has a just idea of the dignity of the press.
    If the committee had informed us that the right of a reporter
    to be present was only purchaseable, we should, for the sake of
    our readers, have taken care that this right was secured for
    our representative.--_Daily Post._

June 18th, 1860. The Old Town Hall, which had stood between two and
three centuries in the Market Place, Dudley, was doomed to destruction,
and workmen commenced pulling it down this day. The noble Earl of
Dudley had previously signified his intention to erect a handsome
Italian Fountain on the site, which now adorns our Market Place.

Died, October 14th, 1860, Mr. Thomas Rudd, Jeweller and Watchmaker,
Market Place, after a very protracted illness, brought on by an
accident in his gig. Aged 52 years.

    THE COURT LEET.

    Oct. 26th, 1860. This ancient Court for the barony of Dudley
    was held yesterday at the Hotel. There were present in addition
    to J. H. Bourne, Esq., (Steward of the Manor), S. Bourne, Esq.,
    G. Taylor, Esq., T. Tinsley, Esq. (Mayor), and C. F. G. Clark,
    Esq. (High Bailiff), Messrs. S. Fereday, J. Jordan, Grainger,
    Hollier, Finch, Williscroft, E. Wood, W. Sheppard, Smart, S.
    Cook, Marsh, Timmins, Bowen, Minty, Watkins, Houghton, W. C.
    Wood, Saml. Rudge, S. Price, Patterson, D. Lloyd, D. Jordan,
    G. Stevenson, C. H. Tyler, C. Lucas, Dixon, T. Sheppard,
    Smith, Terry, and Wesley. The opening of the Court having
    been proclaimed and the jury duly sworn, Mr. G. Stephenson
    proposed, and Mr. Finch seconded, the election of Mr. Clark
    (late High Bailiff) to the office of Mayor for the ensuing
    year. There was no opposition and consequently Mr. Clark was
    declared duly elected. Upon the proposition of Mr. Hollier,
    seconded by Mr. W. H. Brooke, Mr. E. Grainger was elected High
    Bailiff. The Sergeants, Messrs. A. Patterson and J. Jordan,
    were reappointed, as were also Messrs. C. Lucas and S. Smart,
    (flesh-tasters), and Messrs. W. Minty and J. F. Watkins,
    (constables). The only alteration made in the appointment
    of ale connors was the election of Mr. W. Smith instead of
    Mr. J. Smith, who is ill, to act in conjunction with Mr. W.
    Sheppard. Mr. Samuel Cook, amid some merriment, made his
    customary annual protest against the illegal appointment of
    a Mayor of Dudley, inasmuch as Mayors were usually elected
    from the Court of Aldermen; and although he found from ancient
    documents that there was once a court of Aldermen in Dudley,
    yet as there was not such a court now, the office of Mayor must
    have become extinct. He protested most solemnly against the
    farce of continuing such elections. (Laughter). Mr. Cook was
    thanked for his protest, and the subject dropped. Mr. Clark,
    in a few words, thanked the jury for the honour conferred upon
    him that day, and expressed his hope that at the termination
    of the year of office they would find that he had discharged
    the duties incumbent upon him in a very satisfactory manner,
    and that he could allow the mantle of an office which had been
    in existence 200 years to descend upon his successor unsullied
    in the slightest degree. The various officers were then duly
    sworn to "serve our Sovereign Lady the Queen," &c., and the
    business of the Court terminated. Subsequently the whole of the
    above-named gentlemen, together with F. Smith, Esq., Messrs. T.
    Oakes, W. C. Wood, sen., Bateman, Houghton, Deely, Cartwright,
    &c., sat down to a luxurious dinner, provided by Mrs. Smith, of
    the hotel, in her accustomed good style. Amongst those who sat
    down to dinner was Mr. S. Cook, who so indignantly protested
    against the proceedings of the morning, and the fact caused not
    a little pleasantry.--_Daily Post._

Died, November 11th, 1860, Isaac Badger, Esq., J.P., aged 76 years. Mr.
Isaac Badger was the last of a section of contracted Tories who had
literally ruled this town for half a century. Tory in political faith
but Radical in practice, unlettered but audacious, this gentleman rode
over all obstacles, and died a rich man, respected by a large circle of
life-long friends. A public funeral was given to his remains, as a mark
of respect.

    FUNERAL OF THE LATE ISAAC BADGER, ESQ.

    THE BAILIFF (in the absence of the Mayor), respectfully invites
    those Persons who are desirous of paying a last Tribute of
    Respect to the Memory of the late ISAAC BADGER, ESQ., to meet
    at the DUDLEY ARMS HOTEL, on FRIDAY Morning next, at 11-30
    precisely, for the purpose of joining the FUNERAL PROCESSION
    from his late residence to St. Edmund's Church. As a further
    mark of respect the Public are respectfully requested to
    PARTIALLY CLOSE their respective Establishments on the Morning
    of the above day.

                                           EDWARD GRAINGER, BAILIFF.

    _Dudley, November 14th, 1860._

The following list of returns of the various Parliamentary Elections in
this Borough may be useful as an occasional reference:--

    A LIST OF THE DUDLEY BOROUGH ELECTIONS, SINCE THE BOROUGH WAS
    ENFRANCHISED IN 1832.

                              1832.                 Votes.
    John Campbell, Reformer                           318
    Sir Horace St. Paul, Tory                         229
                                                     ----
                                   Majority            89

                              1834.
    Mr. Thos. Hawkes, Tory                            322
    Sir John Campbell, Reformer                       254
                                                     ----
                                   Majority            68

                              1835.
    Mr. Thos. Hawkes, Tory                            327
    Mr. Forbes, Radical                               250
                                                     ----
                                   Majority            77

                              1837.
    Mr. Thos. Hawkes, Tory                            385
    Mr. Merryweather Turner, Radical                  289
                                                     ----
                                   Majority            96

                              1841.
    Mr. Thos. Hawkes, Tory                            436
    Mr. Smith, Radical                                189
                                                     ----
                                   Majority           247

                              1844.
    Mr. Jno. Benbow, Tory                             388
    Mr. Wm. Rawson, Freetrader                        175
                                                     ----
                                   Majority           213

                              1852.
    Mr. Jno. Benbow, Tory                             400
    Mr. Jas. Baldwin, Radical                         231
                                                     ----
                                   Majority           169

                              1855.
    Mr. Jno. Benbow. Died, February 26th, 1855.

                              1855.
    Sir Stafford Northcote, Conservative              346
    Mr. Jas. Baldwin, Radical                           3
                                                     ----
                                   Majority           343

                              1857.
    Mr. H. B. Sheridan, Doubtful
    Mr. Sandars, resigned, Conservative

                              1859.
    Mr. H. B. Sheridan, Radical                       432
    Viscount Monck, Liberal Conservative              361
                                                     ----
                                   Majority            71

                              1865.
    Mr. H. B. Sheridan, Radical                       526
    Mr. Francis Truscott, Conservative                275
                                                     ----
                                   Majority           251

                              1868.
    Mr. H. B. Sheridan, Radical. Unopposed.

                         February, 1874.
    Mr. H. B. Sheridan, Radical                      5149[36]
    Mr. Fred Smith Shenstone, Liberal Conservative   4181[36]
                                                     ----
                                   Majority           968

                           May, 1874.
    Mr. H. B. Sheridan, Radical                      5607
    Mr. Noah Hingley, Conservative                   4889
                                                     ----
                                   Majority           718

                              1880.
    Mr. H. B. Sheridan, Radical                      6948
    Mr. Alfred Waterman, Conservative                4163
                                                     ----
                                   Majority          2785


TRIAL OF MR. SAMUEL COOK, DRAPER OF DUDLEY.

1827. Posterity will view in very different light the public acts of
this remarkable townsman, when we consider that all the points of the
Great Charter, which he so strenuously advocated, and never failed to
bring to the front when occasion presented itself, have now, save one
or two divisions, been passed by succeeding Parliaments, and entered
upon the Statute Book of this country, as just and lawful measures to
be exercised by voters in sending "fit and proper men" to make laws
and administer the gigantic affairs and policy of this great country.
Mr. Samuel Cook's great sin was, "that he lived before his time;" his
great heart, and undying love of justice and fair play, made him a
leader amongst the people and a friend of the oppressed and friendless.
His Republican principles were based upon a well-informed insight
into the motives and actions of the governed and governing, and where
he overstepped the bounds of _what was considered proper decorum, and
enunciated political and social doctrines_, which were far in advance
of the times in which he lived, he followed the dictates of an honest
and earnest mind, burning to regenerate what he believed to be an
unnatural and vicious state of both political and social growth. Mr.
Cook was at times decidedly fanatical, headstrong, and ungovernable,
but he _held a reason for the faith_ which led him on at periods to
denounce, in unmeasured language, the perpetration of wrongs under
which society then laboured and groaned, and the oppression, and the
grinding down of the half-starved wretches who craved his protection
and claimed his care. It has often been urged that the unwise riots at
the Lye-Waste amongst the Nailers in 1827 led to the arrest and trial
of Mr. Cook at Worcester Assizes, on August 1st, 1827, "for falsely,
seditiously and maliciously writing and publishing in his shop window
at Dudley certain false, seditious, and scandalous libels, tending
to inflame the minds and alienate the affections of the people from
his majesty the King, and to excite them to traitorous insurrections
against the Government."

The fact of Mr. Cook being then an active advocate of the rights
of labour, and "a fair wage for a fair day's work," added to his
invincible courage in rooting out the oppression and injustice which
then tainted the nail trade under the manipulations of that detestable
"go-between" the Nail Fogger, made him an object of fear and dread to
the Nail Masters, whilst he became the idol of the Nailers, and a very
desirable person and agitator to be denounced, "shut up," and removed
from his chosen sphere of action; hence the persecution for the first
time of this remarkable and courageous townsman. Mr. Cook _was no paid
agent_, and what he did for upwards of thirty years was done from a
sure belief that it was his mission thus to oppose all oppression, and
assert the undeniable rights of man. He became a serious pecuniary
loser by these lengthened social and political proceedings, and died,
December 8th, 1861, at the ripe old age of 75 years.

Mr. Cook had a large host of genuine friends and admirers who had
viewed his arduous long-life labours with admiration and profound
regard. I need hardly say that Mr. Cook received no personal harm or
imprisonment for his supposed misdeeds, but was found "legally guilty"
and bound over to come and receive judgment _when required_, which
never occurred. He was ably defended by Mr. John Campbell, who was a
very rising man at the Bar, and eventually became the first M.P. for
Dudley. The public reception which awaited Mr. Cook on his return
from Worcester Assizes was of a most characteristic and demonstrative
description, for he was met near Stourbridge by a deputation with a
carriage and four grey horses, and from thence driven to old Dudley
amid a perfect ovation of men, women, and children of all classes.
A brass band discoursed sweet and patriotic music at the head of a
procession, said to number 40,000 people, who, ever and anon, continued
their welcome acclamations in honour of their triumphant friend,
patriot, and advocate. It will be a long time before we shall meet with
such another self-sacrificing life in Dudley.

       *       *       *       *       *

October 3rd, 1861. The Dudley Rifle Corps up to this date had, under the
energetic management of our highly respected and talented townsman,
Captain Wainwright, acquired great proficiency; so the Mayor (Mr. C.
F. G. Clark) offered a handsome silver cup, value £8, to be shot for,
as an absolute prize, which was won by Corporal Devall, the successful
winner of the Beauchamp Cup a short time before, who made 18 points on
this occasion at the three ranges, securing three more points than in
his former shooting.

    THE DUDLEY RIFLE MOVEMENT.

    Wednesday was a gala day with this company. The proceedings
    commenced with a rifle match for a handsome silver cup, given
    by C. F. G. Clark, Esq. (Mayor of Dudley): and Corporal
    Devall, the winner of the Beauchamp Cup (shot for last week),
    was again the victor. He made eighteen points at the three
    ranges--three more points than won the first cup. The other
    competitors who most nearly approached the winner were as
    follow:--Lieutenant Sanders, 16; Ensign Hewitt, 16; Sergeant
    Wood, 17; J. Wilkinson, 14; Albert Wood, 14; J. H. Smith,
    13; J. Bromwich, 16; Worrall, 14; G. Fellows, 12; Burton,
    14; Blackstock, 15; Dixon, 11; Wilson, 14. In the evening
    the officers of the company were entertained at a sumptuous
    dinner at the Bush Hotel (Mr. J. Cartwright's), provided by
    the non-commissioned officers and privates, intended as a
    return of a similar compliment paid to the men by the officers
    some time ago. About eighty sat down, under the presidency
    of Sergeant G. H. Deeley; Sergeant Williscroft occupying the
    vice-chair; and among the other invited guests were, Rev. J.
    Davis (hon. chaplain to the corps), Captain Woolridge (adjutant
    to the battalion), W. Haden, Esq., J. P.; C. F. G. Clark, Esq.
    (Mayor), E. Grainger, Esq., (High Bailiff), T. Tinsley, Esq.
    (Ex-Mayor), S. D. Fereday, Esq., G. Taylor, Esq., J. Renaud,
    Esq., &c., &c.--The efficient band of the corps played a
    selection of music during dinner. After the withdrawal of the
    cloth, the customary loyal and patriotic toasts were proposed
    in due order from the chair. In responding to the "Bishop and
    Clergy," the hon. chaplain defended the rifle corps movement
    against the attacks of those who said it was inconsistent with
    the profession of Christianity to be a soldier, and quoted
    various examples from Holy Writ in support of his argument.
    Among other examples he instanced Joshua, David, Goliath,
    Jehoshaphat, and John the Baptist. The rev. gentleman concluded
    by expressing a hope that all engaged in the Volunteer movement
    would understand the obligations they took upon themselves, and
    endeavour to discharge their duties properly. The health of the
    corps followed. The "Army and Navy" followed, with "three times
    three" for Captain Woolridge. The Captain on rising to respond,
    was again received with loud cheers. He said the toast of the
    army and navy was always well received, but seldom or never
    so cordially as by a company purely civilian in character,
    because those who worked at home for their own good seemed to
    have a sort of innate sympathy with soldier or sailor who
    worked hard, but not for his own aggrandizement--for they could
    hardly tell him of one who had grown rich in the service.
    They were sympathised with because they worked for the honour
    of their Queen and the safety of the country. (Cheers.) The
    Volunteer movement had been eulogised by everybody, from her
    Majesty downwards, and it was scarcely his place--if, indeed,
    it was necessary--to say anything about it then, connected as
    he was with the movement, and occupying some such position as
    an attache did to an embassy, inasmuch as he was obliged to
    perform the orders received from head quarters. As far as he
    knew about the policy of head quarters, he was sure they did
    not intend to reduce the regular army in consequence of the
    efficiency of the volunteer corps in the kingdom. He thought
    their intention was to keep up the army as it was at present,
    so that if war broke out they might be employed in defending
    our wide-spread colonies, and the volunteers, if wanted, could
    keep peace at home. After alluding to the difficulties which
    surrounded the office of adjutant, Captain Woolridge went on
    to compliment the Dudley Company upon their efficiency, and
    said that if they would only go on as they had begun, they
    ought to achieve great things. He had eleven companies in his
    district, but he believed the Dudley corps was the only one
    which was almost or entirely self-supporting. From such a
    company he should expect to see an example set to others, both
    as respect to discipline and conduct. Now that Government was
    going to provide instructors and ammunition, he should like
    to see a company out of the battalion perfectly equipped for
    service in the field, and he knew of no company possessing such
    pecuniary advantages for such a purpose as the Dudley Company.
    The gallant captain concluded, amidst loud cheers, by again
    speaking in eulogistic terms of the general character of the
    corps. The "Lord Lieutenant and Magistrates of the County" was
    responded to by W. Haden, Esq., in a brief speech, in which
    he took occasion to remark that, in discharging the difficult
    and onerous duties of their office, it was of the greatest
    importance that the Magistrates should be supported in their
    decisions by the good feeling of their fellow townsmen; and
    if they were supported in their work by such a respectable
    body of fellow-townsmen as he saw before him that night, the
    decisions and acts of the Magistrates must have far more
    importance and weight than they otherwise possibly could. The
    toast of the evening, "The Officers of the Corps," followed
    in a neat speech from the chair, to which Captain Wainwright
    responded on behalf of himself and his brother officers, and
    was received with boisterous outbursts of applause. He said
    they had been associated together in a new and difficult
    undertaking for about two years. The officers especially were
    surrounded with difficulties, inasmuch as they had to learn
    their own business before they could teach it to others, and
    to acquire the art of obtaining a certain amount of obedience
    from those who were not accustomed to obey military command.
    Looking back all this time he thought his brother officers
    would agree with him that they were very much indebted to
    the members of the corps for the attention they had always
    paid to their duties, by which great assistance had been
    rendered to the officers. To quote the expression of Colonel
    McMurdo at Worcester, they were indebted to the company for
    the "forbearance" they had shown to their officers. It was
    necessary that such "forbearance" should be shown, because
    officers had to learn their duties like the men, and they
    required a greater amount of attention, and consequently they
    might not be performed so well as they ought; but with the
    help afforded by the members of the company they would in time
    become better informed than they were. Therefore he hoped
    they would continue to help the officers for the future, and
    all act as harmoniously together as they had done that day,
    and then the corps would be a credit to the county and the
    country. Alluding to the address of the chaplain, in which that
    gentleman remarked upon the blessings of the Almighty resting
    upon those who were attempting to get possession of a land that
    was promised only, the Captain remarked how much more might
    they expect that blessing to rest upon those employed in the
    defence of a country already in possession. (Cheers.) After
    stating that he took the entertainment given to the officers
    that evening as an expression of the good feeling and harmony
    subsisting between them, the speaker referred to the assistance
    they had received from their friends and neighbours, and to
    the proposed movements for the future, including the shooting
    to come off next week for a "Lancaster rifle," presented by
    W. Haden, Esq.--The winner of the Beauchamp and Mayor's Cups
    (Corporal Devall) was then formally presented to the Mayor,
    who presented him with the cup won that day, and addressed him
    in a suitable and encouraging speech. Corporal Devall replied
    "The Mayor," with three cheers; "The High Bailiff," "The
    Chairman, Vice-chairman, and non-commissioned Officers," "The
    Lieutenants," "Quarter Master," (Mr. Johnson), and other toasts
    followed. In addition to the instrumental music of the band,
    the proceedings of the evening were much enlivened by various
    vocal performances.


DUDLEY ELECTION, 1832.

    1

      NOW Dudley boys!
      Exalt your joys,
    Nor fear the Tory faction;
      Lord Russell's Bill,
      Indeed it will
    Reduce them to a fraction.

    2

      CAMPBELL you know
      Is sure to go,
    Though all their might are using;
      HORACE'S friends
      Can't gain their ends;
    They have no chance but losing.

    3

      _Frank, Tom, and Paul_,
      _Isaac_, and all,
    Their slaves will call together;
      The SHIP REFORM
      Their puny storm
    With perfect ease will weather.

    4

      No doubt they'll try
      To place him high
    On the first day of polling;
      Then Lygon like,
      He soon will strike,
    Down like a stone come rolling.

    5

      So Parson Ned
      Gives meat and bread
    To those who will but hear him;
      With bread and meat,
      And a free seat,
    The poor folks won't go near him.

    6

      The reason's plain.
      He's short of brain,
    And wants what still is better;
      To make men slaves
      The madman raves--
    Says gold shall be their fetters.

    7

      Won't SOUP nor ALE?
      NOR GOLD PREVAIL?
    Whatever is the matter?
      The people see,
      And will be free--
    Justice demands the latter.

    8

      'Twixt Church and state,
      The wound's so great,
    It can't again be healed;
      What with the Tithes,
      And Parsons' lives,
    Poor Church her doom is sealed!

    9

      They say old Gray
      Has turned away--
    HORACE ST. PAUL preferring;
      And tinker _Dick_,
      That honest stick,
    It seems _some brass is stirring_.

    10

      Where is great _John_
      The Draper gone,
    Chairman at last Election?
      The Bowling Green,
      That source of spleen,
    Which led to his detection.

    11

      Highway Robbers,
      Church-Rate jobbers,
    And such as have a pension;
      All of one mind,
      You soon will find,
    Most prompt in their attention.

    12

      Now once for all,
      We'll have no PAUL!
    Indeed it would be folly;
      Led by the nose,
      By our old foes--
    _Rough Joe and Doctor Molly_.

As a great amount of talk and contention has of late been indulged in
by all classes of ratepayers, in reference to the proceedings of the
Dudley Town Council; more especially about the Deep Drainage, and the
Public Baths, &c., it may not be out of place in preserving a record
of the names of those gentlemen and ratepayers who, in 1864, appended
their names to the largest requisition ever signed in this town, "for
the purpose of considering the desirability of presenting a petition
to the Queen in Council, praying Her Majesty to grant a Charter of
Incorporation to this Borough."


INCORPORATION OF THE BOROUGH.

    TO SAMUEL RUDGE, ESQ., MAYOR OF DUDLEY.

    We, the undersigned, Ratepayers and Inhabitants of the Parish
    of Dudley, respectfully request you to convene a PUBLIC
    MEETING, for the purpose of considering the desirability of
    presenting a Petition to the Queen in Council, praying Her
    Majesty to grant a Charter of Incorporation to this Borough.

    James C. Browne, D.C.L., vicar
    Alexander George Davies, M.A., incumbent of St. James's
    John Davies, M.A., incumbent of St. Edmund's
    E. H. L. Noott, B.A., incumbent of St. John's, Dudley
    Robert Harper, M.A., head master of the Grammar School
    George Lewis, Presbyterian minister, Dudley
    Richard Rymer, Wesleyan minister, Dudley
    David Evans, Baptist minister, Dudley
    Matthew Gibson, Unitarian minister
    Jas. Bond, Catholic priest, Dudley
    Samuel Price, tanner and currier
    Hy. Coldicott, solicitor
    Theophilus Tinsley, merchant
    Thos. Sheppard, ironmonger
    Geo. J. England, maltster and brewer
    Ed. M. Warmington, solicitor
    John Round Tilley, tanner
    Daniel Timmins, surgeon
    R. C. Buck, chemist
    W. Challingsworth, victualler
    Reginald Unwin Dudley, silk mercer
    William Beddard, Jun., wholesale grocer
    John Finch, iron founder
    Henry Bagott, woollen draper
    C. F. G. Clark, chemist
    Thomas Price, tanner and currier
    J. O. Pearse, agent
    James Cartwright, wine merchant
    Saml. D. Fereday, surgeon
    J. H. Deakin, wine merchant
    Joseph Taylor, agent
    W. H. Laxton, bookseller
    Thos. Baker, shoe manufacturer
    John Dawson, chemist
    John Whitehouse, Dudley
    Saml. Bastick, hatter
    John S. Fisher, jeweller
    James Hemmings, shoe manufacturer
    H. Wythes, plumber
    Ed. Bowen, draper
    Joseph Sheldon, milliner
    Alexander M. Intyre, draper
    Thos. Maguire, boot maker
    Ebenezer Hutchings, news agent
    C. Cetti, furniture dealer
    Joseph Holland, pork butcher
    William Coleman, spirit merchant
    Isaac Collins, hosier
    William Hewitt, fruiterer
    George Henry Hewitt, ditto
    E. Lancey
    George Whitford, bookseller
    S. Q. Cook, draper
    Joseph Caswell, tobacconist
    J. C. Green, banker
    John Cartwright, banker's clerk
    E. Dunn, chemist
    W. Piddington, tobacconist
    Henry Woodhouse, innkeeper
    F. C. Hickling, clerk
    John Bromwich, jeweller
    Cornelius James, wire worker
    George Thorns, pork butcher
    Edwin Baker, fruiterer
    J. C. Westley, brass founder
    B. Wilcox, currier
    J. Parsons
    Alexander Barker
    Bartholomew Duffy, shoemaker
    James Frost, iron merchant
    Jos. Walker, wholesale draper
    William Palmer
    William Holland, builder
    John G Wright, auctioneer
    S. Grosvenor, M.B., Oxon.
    W. Fletcher and Sons, nail ironmongers
    William Smith, victualler
    James Grigg, wheelwright
    William Wilkinson, vice and anvil manufacturer
    James Woodall, builder
    Matthew Smith
    John Jones, shoemaker
    Charles Pardoe, victualler
    Thomas Parsons
    John Baker
    Thomas Lees, shopkeeper
    William Iles, iron dealer
    Saml. Ward, butcher
    Charles T. Sturtevant, artist
    James Henry Bourne, grocer
    Joseph Owen, broker
    John Fisher, merchant
    William Richards, draper
    Richard Coates, watchmaker
    William Insull, bookseller
    Fredk. Tandy
    Saml. Lee, baker
    Hy. Mence, shoemaker
    J. Thompson, painter
    Richard Davies, fruiterer
    J. T. Edwards, watchmaker
    Francis Garner, confectioner
    Richard Williams, shoemaker
    Joseph Watson, victualler
    Henry Bodin, builder
    George Grove, builder
    Wm. Hooper, victualler
    George Smith, engineer
    Edward Round, agent
    George Hartshorne, iron merchant
    Daniel G. Ward, iron merchant
    George Cooke, victualler
    James Wright, engineer
    H. and J. Wright and Co., engineers
    Thomas Ward, victualler
    Jesse Crompton, farrier
    John Hyslop, wine merchant
    George Ashfield, baker
    Thomas Hale, schoolmaster
    Thomas Marsh, grocer
    William Nelson, builder
    George Chaplin, hatter
    Robert Houghton, draper
    John Williscroft, hatter
    Thomas Roberts, draper
    John Evans, hosier
    C. H. Gare, chemist
    John Smart, fruiterer
    Mark Malugani, umbrella manufacturer
    Thomas Timmins, butcher
    Joseph Waterson, cabinet maker
    Mark W. Dickins, agent
    Joseph Williams, schoolmaster
    Charles W. Westley, brass founder
    Hy. Harper, coal master
    James Fisher, surgeon, Dudley
    John Tandy, Dudley
    William Gordon Coulton, solicitor, Dudley
    George Wood, wine merchant
    Joseph Stokes, solicitor, Dudley
    Samuel Mills, stationer, Dudley
    Enoch Brooks, currier
    James Shedden, stationer
    William Waring, tailor
    Samuel Waring, tailor
    Thomas Wright, ironmaster
    James Wilkins, hair dresser
    Samuel Dudley, confectioner
    Joseph Green, millinery warehouseman
    John Harris, hosier
    James Homer, butcher
    Messrs. T. and S. Davies, spirit merchants
    C. H. Tyler, cement manufacturer
    W. Morris, tailor
    John Bagott and Son, tailors
    E. Hollier, chemist
    T. L. Rutland, clothier
    Edward Smith, grocer
    John Neale, hatter
    George Morris, cab proprietor
    M. Dennison, chemist
    Thomas Willis, wholesale grocer, Market Place
    Fox Wright, commercial traveller, Rose Hill
    Thomas Stevenson, clothier
    Benjamin Guest, confectioner
    Edward Wood, woollen draper
    Thomas Reynolds, confectioner
    Thomas L. Stevenson, clothier
    James Cowden Haxeltine, butcher
    Thomas Allen, wine merchant
    James Ellis, wine merchant
    Richard Clark, haberdasher
    George Stevenson, clothier
    Edward Devall, clothier
    Joseph Stevenson, clothier
    Joseph Goodwin, printer, &c.
    John Davies, furniture dealer
    Henry Timmins, butcher
    James Brown, egg merchant
    William Pearsall, victualler
    James Smitheman, victualler
    M. Brown, agent
    Hughes and Hanson, wine merchants
    Cordy Manby, merchant, Dudley
    Henry Jennings, clerk, Dudley
    J. W. Matthews, oil merchant, Dudley
    Joseph Eld, tobacconist, Dudley
    George Edward Horton, surgeon
    John Underhill, licensed victualler
    Owen Wright, vice and anvil manufacturer, Tower-street
    J. Houghton, surgeon, New-street
    Evan Roberts, innkeeper
    Thomas Brettell, surveyor
    Thomas Davenport, innkeeper
    Thomas W. Smart, bacon factor
    Arthur Timmins, upholsterer
    John Castree, agent
    Geo. Burn Lowe, attorney at law
    Thomas Morris, chemist, &c.
    Chas. Russell, auctioneer
    John Bent, Jun., auctioneer
    Thos. Steedman, merchant
    Richard Winter, banker's clerk
    James Sackerson, cabinet maker
    Richard Wilkinson, vice manufacturer
    Joseph Skidmore, victualler
    A. Gaul, saddler
    George Bagott, Chemist, High-street, Dudley
    E. T. Terry, grocer, Dudley
    John Danes, shoe manufacturer
    William Summerland, milliner, &c.
    John Jordan, grocer
    Edward Grainger, draper
    Rudge and Griffith, drapers
    James Shedden, tailor
    Alexander Shedden, tailor
    Alfred Bowers, butcher
    Isaac Aulton, victualler
    William and Edward Thompson, maltsters
    Edward Packwood, pork butcher
    Thomas Danks, auctioneer
    William Steele, photographer
    Henry Smith, maltster
    Frederick Blunson, hosier, &c.
    George Pitt, currier
    Joseph Hillman, currier
    Thomas Harvey, general dealer
    Daniel Timmins, hairdresser
    John Roberts, watchmaker
    Henry Hayward, butcher
    James Stokes, cutler
    William Bagott, draper
    Henry Wood, grocer
    Thomas Mason, tobacco dealer
    Thomas Smith, maltster
    James Evans, butcher
    Job Thomas Hamblett, grocer, &c.
    Ann Richards, grocer
    Henry Rushton, builder
    Solomon Danby, victualler
    John Chambers, victualler
    Joshua Wilkinson, vice maker, Freebodies
    William Clarke, baker
    Thomas Westwood, slater
    Jacob Westwood, slater
    John Lloyd, victualler
    Daniel May, butcher
    Henry Beeston, butcher
    Thomas Price, pawnbroker

    And others, making a total of 717 signatures of largest
    Ratepayers.

       *       *       *       *       *

    In compliance with the above numerously signed Requisition,
    I hereby convene A PUBLIC MEETING to be held in the PUBLIC
    HALL of the NEW MECHANICS' INSTITUTE, Wolverhampton Street, on
    FRIDAY Evening, JANUARY 22nd, 1864, at half-past Six o'clock.

                                              SAMUEL RUDGE, Mayor.

    _January 15th, 1864._

       *       *       *       *       *

    [Illustration: V. R.]

    MUNICIPAL INCORPORATION

    OF THE

    PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGH OF DUDLEY.

    WHEREAS, in pursuance of the Provisions of the Act of
    Parliament passed in the 5th and 6th years of the Reign of His
    late Majesty King William the Fourth, chapter 76, entitled "An
    Act to provide for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations in
    England and Wales" and of other Acts of Parliament passed for
    the Regulation of Municipal Corporations, and of a Petition of
    the Inhabitant Householders of the Parliamentary Borough of
    Dudley, in the County of Worcester, addressed to the Queen's
    Most Excellent Majesty in Council, praying for a Charter of
    Incorporation to the said Parliamentary Borough of Dudley.

    INQUIRY has been directed to the subject Matter of such
    Petition.

    NOTICE is therefore hereby given, that on FRIDAY, the 15th day
    of JULY instant, at Eleven o'clock in the forenoon, at the
    MECHANICS' INSTITUTE, IN DUDLEY, CAPTAIN DONNELLY, R.E., the
    Commissioner appointed by the Lords of Her Majesty's Privy
    Council for the purpose:--Will proceed upon the said Inquiry,
    and will then and there be prepared to hear all Persons (being
    Inhabitant Householders within the said Parliamentary Borough
    of Dudley), or their representatives, desirous of being heard
    before him upon the subject of the said Inquiry.

                                                        BY ORDER.

    _Dated this 5th day of July, 1864._


JONAH CHILD, PORTRAIT PAINTER, AND MODELLER.

Specimens may be seen at his Residence.

          "Think not, my friend, with supercilious air,
    I rank the Portrait as beneath thy care:
    Blest be the pencil, which from death can save,
    The semblance of the virtuous, wise, and brave;
    That youth and emulation, still may gaze
    On those inspiring forms of ancient days,
    And, from the force of bright example, bold,
    Rival their worth, "and be what they behold"
          Blest be the pencil! whose consoling power,
    Soothing soft friendship in her pensive hour,
    Dispels the cloud, with melancholy fraught,
    That absence throws upon her tender thought.
          Blest be the pencil! whose enchantment gives
    To wounded Love the food on which he lives;
    Rich in this gift, tho' cruel ocean bear
    The youth to exile from his faithful fair,
    He in fond dreams hangs o'er her glowing cheek,
    Still owns her present, and still hears her speak.
    Oh! Love, it was thy glory to impart
    Its infant being to this magic art!
    Inspir'd by thee, the soft Corinthian maid
    Her graceful lover's sleeping form portray'd;
    Her boding heart his near departure knew,
    Yet long'd to keep his image in her view:
    Pleased she beheld the steady shadow fall,
    By the clear lamp, upon the even wall;
    The line she trac'd with fond precision true,
    And drawing, doated on the form she drew;
    Nor, as she glow'd with no forbidden fire,
    Conceal'd the simple picture from her sire:
    His kindred fancy still to nature just,
    Copied her line, and form'd the mimic bust,
    Thus from thy power, inspiring Love, we trace
    The MODELL'D IMAGE, and the PENCIL'D FACE."

The publication of the following celebrated Will, led to the
resuscitation of a valuable charity bequeathed to this town.


EXTRACTS FROM THE WILL OF THE LATE REV. HENRY ANTROBUS.

    "In the Name of God, Amen. I, Henry Antrobus, Rector of
    Himley, in the County of Stafford, and now living at Dudley, in
    the County of Worcester, being in perfect health, and of sound
    mind, memory, and understanding, blessed be God for it, do make
    and ordain this my last will and testament.

    "For my body, I desire it may be buried in the same grave with
    my dear mother, in the centre of the dome of St. Edmund's
    Church, in Dudley; on the right side of which I desire may
    be fixed in the wall, a small monument of marble, of an oval
    form, with this inscription:--"_Near this place lies interred
    the body of Penelope Antrobus, widow, who departed this life
    the 10th day of Aug. 1756_, aged 59, adding these words: "_She
    departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings
    and prayers night and day_." On the left side I desire
    another for myself, and of the same size and form, with this
    inscription:--"_Here lies the body of the Rev. Henry Antrobus,
    &c._" adding these words:--"_Christ Jesus came into the world
    to save sinners, of whom I am chief_." As for my worldly
    estates, which God of his undeserved goodness hath given me, I
    dispose thereof as follows:--

    "Whereas, it was my aunt Oliver's desire, that I should _buy
    Land to the value of ten pounds per Annum, to pay a School
    Mistress FOR TEACHING FORTY POOR GIRLS_, of the Parish of
    Dudley, to read, sew, and knit; that they be brought to church
    constantly when there are prayers, and to be catechised every
    Friday in Lent, by the Minister of the Parish; which Land is
    not as yet purchased. I do hereby give, devise and bequeath MY
    ESTATE AT HOKEHAM, which John Whitehouse holds of me, for that
    purpose; and desire my executrix, hereafter mentioned, to lay
    out the sum of SIX HUNDREDS POUNDS, the profits whereof to make
    a provision _for Clothing the said Girls every year, and to buy
    Books for the use of the School_.

    Item.--I give, devise, and bequeath MY ESTATE which William
    Aynsworth holds of me, in the Parish of Rowley Regis, to the
    intent TO CLOTHE, (according to Mr. Oliver's will, who left
    _One Hundred and Fifty Pounds for that purpose, to which was
    added Fifty Pounds more by his Wife_, which money remains in
    my hands, and has not, as yet, been disposed of,) SIX POOR
    MEN, belonging to the Parish of Dudley, upon _every 1st day of
    November for ever_; and if the profits of the said Estate will
    bear it, to add a _seventh_ then to the above-mentioned number.

    "Whereas, my aunt Oliver had desired that FIFTY POUNDS might
    be given to erect _a GALLERY in the NEW CHURCH in Dudley_:--I
    desire my executrix, hereafter mentioned, to pay within twelve
    months after my decease, or begin the Gallery, and carry it on
    as far as the money will go, as soon as possible.

    "I do hereby appoint and nominate the said Elizabeth Perry,
    sole executrix of this my last will and testament: _CHARGING
    HER, AS SHE MUST ANSWER IT AT THE DREADFUL DAY OF JUDGMENT,
    to fulfil the Will of the Rev. Thos. Oliver, my aunt, and my
    own, as punctually as may be_; and to have all the Charities
    enrolled in Chancery, as soon as possible; THAT THE POOR
    MAY NOT BE DEPRIVED OF THEIR RIGHTS!!! To this my last will
    and testament have set my hand and seal, this 30th day of
    December, 1762."

    _Proved at London, 9th Dec. 1766, by the oath of Eliz.
    Antrobus, formerly Perry, widow, relict of the deceased._


ST. THOMAS'S PARISH CHURCH.

Much unkindly feeling and animosity was occasioned in the Parish
when this fine Old Parish Church was doomed to be demolished, more
especially when it became known that a heavy Church Rate for years to
come would be levied upon the Ratepayers, partly to meet the cost of
building the New Parish Church.[37]

On laying the Foundation Stone of the present St. Thomas's Church, on
October 25th, 1816, the following ticket was issued:--

    ADMIT THE BEARER INTO ST. THOMAS'S

    CHURCH YARD,

    On the 25th of OCTOBER, 1816.

    N.B.--This Ticket will entitle the Purchaser to a Medal.

    [Illustration: Dudley Church 1791]

As many discrepancies have often appeared in print as to the cost of
the erection of the present Church of St. Thomas, Dudley, I am enabled,
through the courtesy of Ephraim Ball, Esq., of Halesowen, to lay before
the reading public some authentic information on this head, taken
from valuable documents now in his possession, which belonged to the
Churchwardens and Building Committee at that remote period. Mr. Ball's
subjoined letter to the _Dudley Guardian_, in 1871, effectually sets
that question for ever at rest.

We have also another very pleasant evidence of the liberality and care
for the spiritual wants of the parishioners displayed at that time by
the then Viscount Dudley and Ward, in erecting a new Gallery in St.
Edmund's Church, to enable the church going inhabitants to obtain some
sitting accommodation in public worship, during the very protracted
time occupied in the erection of the New Parish Church.

                                         _Dudley, July 10th, 1815._

    MY LORD,

    The Churchwardens of Dudley beg leave most respectfully to
    inform your Lordship that, as it is found expedient to put up
    a Gallery in Saint Edmund's Church, for the accommodation of
    the inhabitants, while the Parish Church is building; that a
    space on your Lordship's Chancel being the only one for such
    Gallery, which will become your Lordship's property hereafter;
    that there is no power of applying any part of the subscription
    money, raised for the intended New Parish Church, towards the
    said Gallery; and that the parishioners having contributed to
    the utmost of their means, for the erection of the Church--we
    are emboldened by your Lordship's great liberality, on
    all occasions to the town of Dudley, to solicit your kind
    assistance to enable us to complete the Gallery, according to
    an estimate amounting to £181, which will greatly add to the
    many obligations which we owe your Lordship. In behalf of the
    parish, we are my Lord,

                 Your Lordship's much obliged,
                          And most respectful Servants,
                                          T. HILL AND EDWARD GUEST.

    The Right Honourable
         Lord Viscount Dudley and Ward,
               Park Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

    [REPLY.]

    MY DEAR SIR,

    I shall be at Himley, quite as soon as I intended, and take the
    liberty of sending the enclosed for your inspection; and beg
    that you will inform the inhabitants of Dudley, that I shall
    be happy to accommodate them with a Gallery in my Chancel, and
    will talk further on the business when I have the pleasure of
    seeing you.

                                  I am, yours sincerely,
                                                  DUDLEY AND WARD.

    _London, Wednesday July 12th, 1815._

       *       *       *       *       *

                                       Dudley, October 15th, 1815.

    MY LORD,

    A wish having been expressed by a few, that the Gallery with
    which your Lordship has had the goodness and generosity
    to present to this parish in the Chancel of St. Edmund's,
    should consist of _close pews_ instead of open benches, we
    respectfully request your Lordship will be pleased to inform
    us, whether (if deemed expedient), such wish shall be complied
    with, no additional expense falling on your Lordship in
    consequence of any deviation from the original plan. And, if
    complied with, whether any rent for the seats ought to be paid
    to the Minister of St. Edmund's for the same. The children
    of the charity schools being about 1,000 in number, we also
    beg leave most respectfully to submit it to your Lordship's
    consideration, whether, (when the new Parish Church is
    completed), the said Gallery (if thought advisable), should not
    be converted into open benches for their accommodation.

               We are, my Lord, your Lordship's
                       Most respectful obedient Servants,
                                    T. HILL,      }
                                    EDWARD GUEST, }  CHURCHWARDENS.

       *       *       *       *       *

    [REPLY.]

    To Rev. Dr. BOOKER, Dudley.

    MY DEAR SIR,

    I wish the Gallery to be so constructed as may best answer the
    wants of the inhabitants, especially the householders, while
    the Parish Church is being built. _If close pews_ will be most
    eligible for the purpose during that time, I have no objection
    to their being put up by the persons wanting them, under the
    direction of yourself and the Churchwardens, provided the pews
    be so formed as to be capable of being altered hereafter, as I
    may think proper.

                                 I am, my dear Sir,
                                        Yours sincerely,
                                                  DUDLEY AND WARD.

    _Himley, November 4th, 1815._

The following correspondence is a valuable compendium to Dudley lore--


DUDLEY DURING THE LAST SIXTY YEARS.

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY GUARDIAN.

    SIR,--In my former letters to you I have given an account of
    what took place and about the old Parish Church, in this I
    shall give some information respecting the present church,
    which is so great an ornament to the town. The foundation stone
    was laid in the year 1816, and finished building in the year
    1819, at a cost of £24,000, raised partly by rates and partly
    by voluntary contributions. The following is a list of the
    donors:--

                                                     £  s. d.
    The Right Hon. Viscount Dudley and Ward        2000  0  0
    The Rev. Luke Booker, (Vicar)                   120  0  0
    Edward Dixon                                    500  0  0
    James Bourne                                    100  0  0
    Thomas Wainwright                               150  0  0
    Elizabeth Wainwright                             30  0  0
    Whitehouse, Moore, and Guest                    100  0  0
    Richard Moore                                   100  0  0
    Edward Guest                                    100  0  0
    Cornelius Cartwright                             60  0  0
    Mary Cartwright                                  40  0  0
    Thomas Hill                                     100  0  0
    Thomas and Isaac Badger                          80  0  0
    W. O. Chinner                                    50  0  0
    Edward Terry                                     30  0  0
    John Badley, Blowers Green                      100  0  0
    John Badley, Surgeon                            100  0  0
                                                   ----------
                           Total                  £3760  0  0
                                                   ----------

    So that it will be seen that upwards of twenty thousand pounds
    were raised from the Parishioners by a rate levied upon them
    under an Act of Parliament. It would not have fallen so heavily
    upon the Ratepayers as it did but for the fact that the person
    who bought the materials of the old church never paid for them.
    The agreement with the purchaser was to pay for them when he
    fetched the last load away, but this part of the contract was
    never completed, for he either forgot it or wilfully neglected
    it. However this may be, a nice row of houses were built with
    the materials he did fetch away on the road that cuts off at
    right angles leading to Rowley from Dixons Green. The bottom
    part of the ovens which were in the brewhouses belonging to
    these buildings were laid with some of the gravestones taken
    from the old churchyard, and not unfrequently was to be seen
    upon the newly-baked loaves "Sacred to the Memory," "Departed
    this life," or "Here lie the remains," &c. The individual
    referred to was one of the leading men of the town in that day,
    and the least we can say is that he had a jolly bargain at
    the expense of the parishioners. The first Vicar of the newly
    built Church was the Rev. Luke Booker, the next the Rev. W. H.
    Cartwright, M.A., who gave up the living, and was succeeded by
    the Rev. J. C. Browne, D.C.L. The present Vicar is the Rev.
    W. R. Cosens, M.A. The magnificent organ in the church was the
    gift of the Right Hon. Viscount Dudley and Ward, and at his
    request, Mr. Richard Bourne, a very respectable inhabitant of
    the town, was appointed organist. Mr. Bourne was much respected
    by his Lordship, having been for many years his organist at the
    church close to his baronial mansion at Himley. His Lordship
    was a great patron of music, and every year at Christmas he
    was in the habit of having some of the best singers down
    from London, to spend a few weeks with him at Himley Hall.
    The party who generally visited him were the Messrs. Abram,
    Knyvett, Vaughan, Braham, and Bellamy, and during their visits
    a selection of sacred music was performed, and often a number
    of the leading families of the surrounding neighbourhood were
    invited to the hall to hear these celebrated vocalists. His
    Lordship generally selected a portion of the Messiah to be
    performed, and would often join in the choruses, especially
    "And the Glory of the Lord," and "The Hallelujah Chorus." A
    remarkable instance of his Lordship's benevolence occurred one
    occasion when these celebrities were visiting him. He observed
    Braham to be somewhat downcast, and asked Mr. Knyvett if he
    knew what was the matter with him. Mr. Knyvett did not probably
    tell his Lordship all he knew, but from what he did tell him
    he inferred that some money would be useful to Braham, and at
    length determined to have a private interview with him, and
    ask him the cause of his despondency, without Braham saying
    much on this rather delicate subject. His Lordship inquired if
    some money would be of any use to him; he replied that just at
    that time it would, and he immediately wrote him out a cheque
    for £500. His Lordship was remarkably charitable and often
    caused three or four oxen to be killed weekly to be distributed
    amongst the poor of Dudley, Sedgley, Gornal, and Himley, and
    the couplet written by the late Dr. Booker, as a tribute of
    respect to his memory, will not easily be forgotten--

    "To doomsday may the name descend
    Dudley, and the poor man's friend."

    The present Earl of Dudley has shewn much kindness towards the
    people of this town and district, and his noble gift of the
    Hospital will confer an immense benefit upon the poor of the
    town and neighbourhood, and may he long live to see some of the
    good results of this great act of benevolence.

                                         I remain, yours truly,
                                                           VERITAS.

    _October 7, 1871._

Mr. Ephraim Ball's reply to "Veritas," based as his letter is upon
absolute documents in the hands of Mr. Ball, at one time the property
of the then Churchwardens and Building Committee, removes all doubts
and conjectures about the cost of erection of our noble Parish Church,
which has been beautified and adorned twice since that period.


OLD DUDLEY DURING THE LAST SIXTY YEARS.

    _To the Editor of the_ DUDLEY GUARDIAN.

    SIR,--In reference to the letters which have appeared in the
    _Dudley Guardian_ for several weeks past signed "Veritas,"
    and "Z."--such letters containing matters which are in many
    instances preserved as historical records,--permit me to say
    that some of the statements are very vague and indefinite.
    We will take for instance Saint Thomas' Church, Dudley. Your
    correspondent states it cost the sum of £24,000, raised partly
    by rates and partly by voluntary contributions, also giving the
    list of the donors, from which your correspondent omits many
    old Dudley names. As there was more than one subscription list,
    I beg to give you a copy of one of them:--

                              "Dudley Parish Church of St. Thomas.

        _July 21st, 1814._

        "At a meeting held at the time and place aforesaid, in
        pursuance of public notice given on the preceding Sabbath
        in both churches (the Rev. Dr. Booker in the chair), the
        following resolutions were passed unanimously, to carry
        into effect the pious intentions of the inhabitants of
        Dudley, to erect a suitable parish church for the services
        of the Almighty.

        First.--That a committee be appointed, and that all
        subscribers of forty pounds and upwards do constitute such
        committee.

        Secondly.--That the following form be immediately submitted
        to the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Dudley and Ward, the
        patron, for his lordship's concurrence and subscription, as
        well as that of the inhabitants at large.

        We, whose names are hereunder written, do hereby undertake
        and promise to subscribe the several sums of money set
        opposite to our respective names; the same to be applied
        in taking down and rebuilding the Church of St. Thomas, in
        Dudley, and for defraying other expenses incident thereto.
        Which sums we do hereby severally agree to pay into the
        hands of the Treasurer hereafter to be appointed, by ten
        equal successive quarterly payments, the first quarterly
        payment to be made on the 25th of January, 1815.

        Each subscriber of twenty pounds and upwards to be entitled
        to sittings to the amount of one-half of his subscription;
        the value of such sittings to be fixed by the Commissioners
        appointed under the Act of Parliament: the other half of
        the subscription to be a sacred gift applied towards the
        erection of the church.

                      LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.                 £  s. d.

        L. Booker, vicar, who, by a plan he means to adopt
        and hopes to realize, trusts this sum will be
        augmented to not less than £200[38]              120  0  0

        The following additional Donations were subsequently added:--

        The Right Hon. Viscount Dudley and Ward         2000  0  0
        Edward Dixon                                     500  0  0
        Elizabeth Wainwright                              30  0  0
        Mary Cartwright                                   40  0  0
        Thomas and Isaac Badger                           80  0  0
        W. O. Chinner                                     50  0  0
        Edward Terry                                      30  0  0
        John Badley, Blowers Green                       100  0  0
        John Badley, Surgeon, Dudley                     100  0  0
        Thomas Hawkes                                    150  0  0
        James Bourne (his services gratis as Solicitor)  100  0  0
        Cornelius Cartwright                              60  0  0
        Whitehurst, Moore, and Guest                     100  0  0
        Richard Moore                                     70  0  0
        Edward Guest                                      70  0  0
        Thomas Onions                                     80  0  0
        Richard Powell                                    80  0  0
        Thomas Bunn                                       50  0  0
        Richard Salisbury                                100  0  0
        Thomas Wainwright                                150  0  0
        Timothy Hill                                      80  0  0
        John Jesson                                       40  0  0
        Francis Downing                                   50  0  0
        Thomas Caddick                                    60  0  0
        R. G. Shaw                                        60  0  0
        Joseph Haden                                      50  0  0
        Thomas Davis                                      50  0  0
        Joseph Cox                                        50  0  0
        Richard Lakin                                     40  0  0
        R. W. Hawkes                                     100  0  0

    As regards the church costing £24,000, your correspondent is
    quite in error, as will be seen by the following extracts
    from two letters. On the 18th of January, 1818, the Bishop of
    Worcester writes as under, from Hartlebury Castle, "and desires
    to know what further sum, beyond what has been expended or is
    in hand, is requisite for completing the new church at Dudley,
    in order that he may judge whether, consistently with other
    urgent claims on him for pecuniary aid, he can subscribe any
    sum of importance to the undertaking."

    The following statement was sent to the Bishop:--

                                                   £   s.  d.
        Church Contract                         10,670  0  0
        Bells                                      500  0  0
        Organ                                      800  0  0
        Extra expenses                           1,000  0  0
        Act of Parliament, &c.                     460  0  0
                                                ------------
                                               £13,430  0  0
                                                ------------
        Raised by subscription   £7,100  0  0
        Expected deficiency         200  0  0

                                  6,900  0  0    6,900  0  0
        Parish rate till Midsummer               1,900  0  0
        Unprovided except by Rate and Brief      4,630  0  0
                                                ------------
                                               £13,430  0  0
                                                ------------

    It also appears that the Churchwardens applied and obtained
    leave to get a brief at the Sessions in October, 1817, but
    being too late in the year they could not get it signed by the
    Lord Chancellor, therefore they could not receive any sum from
    it before 1820, and then not more than £200 to £300.

    A few other particulars regarding St. Thomas's Church may be
    interesting to your readers. Mr. Brooks, of London, was the
    architect, and Daniel Evans, London, the builder. The following
    is a statement how the builder was to be paid:--

                                                                £  s.  d.
        On laying foundation stone                             500  0  0
        When the several walls are built level with the
          second plinth                                        500  0  0
        When the walls are built up to the gallery, and the
          timbers of the gallery put on and the tower
          of Church built level with bell ringers' floor     1,500  0  0
        When walls are built up to raising plates, the
          window frames fixed in, and the tower level with
          the bell loft                                      1,000  0  0
        When the roof is wholly put on, and the gutters
          laid, the battlements and upper roof put on, the
          roof wholly finished, and the tower level with
          the base of the pinnacles                          1,500  0  0
        When the pinnacles are finished, the ground floor
          joists and small joists of the gallery are laid,
          and the ribs for ceilings are finished             1,000  0  0
        When the second coat of plastering is put on, floors
          of gallery and ground floors are laid, and gallery
          fronts are fixed up, and staircases erected        1,000  0  0
        When the whole of the said buildings and erections
          are completely finished                            1,500  0  0
        And when Architect shall have certified that the
          whole of the work is finished to his satisfaction  1,400  0  0
        Six months after completion                            200  0  0
                                                            ------------
                                                           £10,100  0  0

    The builder of the organ was Mr. Thomas Elliot, of London, and
    cost, with fixing, &c., complete, £1025. The order was given
    for the organ in 1817, and some parties were not satisfied at
    the position in which it was to be placed. Viscount Dudley and
    Ward was written to early in 1818, asking if he would allow it
    to be placed in the Chancel gallery which would prevent great
    inconvenience in going into and coming out of the Church. The
    reply of Viscount Dudley and Ward to Dr. Booker was:--

    "I beg leave to repeat to you that my mind is unaltered and
    unalterable with respect to the situation of the organ, and
    that I shall not, by any means give my consent to its being
    placed in the Chancel gallery." Dated Himley, February 5th,
    1818.

    After this letter from Viscount Dudley and Ward, Mr. Brooks and
    Mr. Elliot were consulted. The result was Mr. Elliot informed
    Dr. Booker that he would construct the movements of the organ
    so as to leave a handsome entrance through the middle of the
    organ, and if the plan was carried out Mr. Elliot considered
    the organ would have a grand appearance.

    The organ being made for the situation it now occupies, and the
    protest of the Viscount Dudley and Ward against it being put
    elsewhere, it is to be hoped a fixed determination will be made
    against any party or parties wishing it moved from its present
    situation--In fact, I have no hesitation in saying it will
    spoil the appearance of the church.

    The magnificent Altar Window, painted by Blackler of London,
    was commenced in 1818 and finally completed and placed in the
    church in Sept., 1821. The original estimate for this splendid
    window was 500 guineas, and which Mr. Blackler, in a letter,
    states was but a moderate calculation for the work. Mr. Brooks,
    however, assured him that such a sum would be considered far
    too high, he therefore undertook to execute the window for one
    hundred guineas less than his first estimate, and the expense
    of fitting up and completing the window in the church was to
    be fifty guineas extra. The window is a masterpiece, and the
    Dudley people may well be proud that they obtained the same at
    so small a cost.

        The bells, clock, and palisading cost (after
          allowing for old bells)                      £1120 0 0
        Other sundries about                             400 0 0
                                                      ----------
                                                       £1520 0 0
                                                      ----------

    Your correspondent will see by the above items that the Church
    did not cost £24,000. Your correspondent also states that a
    leading man of the town of that day had a jolly bargain at the
    expense of the parishioners, having bought the materials of
    the old church, which he was to pay for when he fetched the
    last load away. This I presume he has stated on hearsay, not
    from any foundation on fact. The person referred to could well
    afford to pay for anything he contracted for, and I do not
    think the Dudley people at the time would allow him to go scot
    free, or would they make such a foolish bargain as stated. I
    also see the party hinted at gave £50 towards the new Church.

    In conclusion allow me to say Dr. Booker at the time worked
    hard for the building of the new Church. He was a good sound
    churchman, also an author of several works on various
    subjects, his name to the present day is an household word, and
    Saint Thomas' Church remains a monument to him as first Vicar.

    I may mention that Dr. Booker's history of Dudley Castle is the
    most authentic work upon the subject that has yet been issued,
    and is now become very scarce and valuable.

                            I am, sir, your obedient servant,
                                                     EPHRAIM BALL.

    _Dudley, October 23rd, 1871._

The late Mr. Mainwaring of Dudley, an old St. Thomas's Chorister for a
many years, gave us an amusing story of a marriage at the New Parish
Church. "Soon after the New Parish Church was opened, Mr. Bourne, the
Organist, and I went into the Parish Church to have a little practice
upon the organ, after Mr. Bourne had played a voluntary, Mr. Richard
Stanley, the Beadle, came to us and said, that the Vicar, Dr. Booker,
wished us to give over for a time, as a parish wedding was about to
take place; not exactly understanding what this meant, we determined to
go and see it. As soon as we had reached the Chancel, we were informed
by Mr. Bond, the Parish Clerk, that a certain sum of money was to be
given to the young man by the parish authorities. As we had no Board of
Guardians in those days, the parties in charge of the parish funds did
pretty much as they liked with them, in this instance, and for certain
reasons, they offered the young man about to be married five pounds.
When we arrived near the altar rails we observed several young men
and women in the pews, and there was an abundance of sly winking and
laughing going on. At last, the Doctor entered from the vestry, and all
the people became orderly and quiet. The service commenced and all went
on smooth as a marriage bell, when the Doctor came to that part of the
service where he said to the man, 'Wilt thou take this woman to be thy
wedded wife, to live together after God's ordinance in the holy state
of matrimony,' &c., &c. Here Mr. Bond, the Clerk, stepped forward,
and told the man to answer 'I will!' He replied, 'I'll have the money
first.' The Doctor was indignant at this proceeding, and said, 'What
money do you mean sir?' The man said, 'Why the money they have promised
me if I will marry this young woman, and I'll have it before I answers,
I will!!' Upon this the Clerk went up to the Doctor and explained the
matter to him, Mr. Bond also told the man that it was all right, the
money was at his house ready counted, and after he was married he could
go with him and have it. The man said, 'I don't care where it is, I'll
have it now and in my pocket _before I am married_.' Upon this Dr.
Booker told Mr. Bond to go and fetch it; the service being delayed
until he came back. When Mr. Bond returned, he put the money into the
man's hands and after he counted it and put it into his pocket, he said
to the Doctor, 'You can go on now, it's all right!' and the service was
completed, and the man, woman, and money, were all united in this (let
us hope), blissful celebration."

At the earlier part of the late Dr. Browne's ministry among us, he
met with a singular amount of innocency and ignorance at the baptismal
font. A man and woman, well-known characters at Gornal Wood, thought
they should like to have their next child christened at Dudley by Dr.
Browne. In due course the child was brought to the font, and the portly
Doctor, already equipped, enquired in his usual clear and musical
voice, "Was this child born in wedlock?" "Noa, it worn't," says the
man, "it wur born in Gornall Udd!" It is needless to say that the
child got the spiritual induction, and the Doctor a homely sample of
ignorance amongst the colliers in the Black Country.

       *       *       *       *       *

This subjoined Bill is a curiosity in its way, shewing the way we did
in the Army, long, long ago.

    THE VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,

    TO R. MOORE, DR.

    1804.
    Mar. 26.   Paid for a Lock mending            0 1 4
    May 27.    Ditto        ditto                 0 0 6
    Sep. 10.   Ditto                              0 1 0
      "        Flints                             0 1 0
    Oct.       Ditto                              0 1 0
               Paid for Drink at Droitwich,
                 by order of Major Wainwright     1 8 6
               Paid for Sick Men at Worcester     1 6 6
               Paid for Mending Locks             0 4 6
               Ditto                              0 0 8
                                                 ------
                                                 £3 5 0
                                                 ------

                     Examined,
                         J. PAYTON,        W. HARRISON,
                         EDWD. DIXON,      THOS. MOORE.


A NARRATIVE OF THE REJOICINGS AT THE CORONATION OF KING GEORGE
THE FOURTH, WITH A SEQUEL, BY AN EYE WITNESS.

    On Thursday, the 19th July, 1820, the day appointed for
    the Coronation of His Majesty King George the Fourth, the
    inhabitants of Dudley entered into a subscription for the
    purpose of furnishing the poor people with a dinner, and
    also to regale the children of the different Sunday schools
    and schools of industry in the said parish, to the number
    of four or five thousand. This was a most delightful sight;
    they paraded the different streets in a very orderly manner
    indeed. Four sheep were roasted in the Market Place and
    distributed, with a large quantity of ale, to the populace.
    There assembled a very considerable number of people, the
    principal street being utterly crowded from one end to the
    other. An advertisement had been distributed announcing a
    display of fireworks which would take place in the course of
    the evening; this caused a great number of people to remain in
    the town during the whole of the day. The shops were ordered
    not to be opened during the day, and the mandate was obeyed,
    save and except the public houses, where most of the lower
    orders of people resorted to after having been plentifully
    regaled by the inhabitants. The old saying is much would have
    more, and it is difficult to satisfy such people, or even keep
    them peaceable and quiet, when a little elevated. The Himley
    and Enville troop of Yeomanry met on the morning of that day
    at Himley, and after partaking of some refreshment, proceeded
    to Wolverhampton, where they paraded the town and partook of a
    considerable quantity of wine, which, to many not being in the
    habit of drinking, must have had considerable effect, and was
    very distinguishable by one drawing his sword and threatened
    to cut a man down for crying the Queen. This act very much
    irritated the populace, and it was asserted that if they (the
    Yeomanry) had not filed off as they did, they would have been
    very roughly handled. They then bent their course to Dudley,
    where they arrived about three o'clock, not very sober; and
    after going through their exercise and firing, repaired to the
    hotel (Dudley Arms) to dinner in some of the lower apartments.
    The gentlemen of the town with the Dudley Cavalry occupied the
    assembly room. Things were going very peaceably in the town
    till between eight and nine o'clock, when the Yeomanry became
    very refractory, and proceeded to violence among themselves;
    the windows were thrown open, and one of them jumped upon the
    table which stood under the window facing the street, and
    held out a white handkerchief, and cried out "the Queen, my
    lads," which immediately caused a shout from the surrounding
    multitude. This was followed by the Cavalry commencing a battle
    royal. The tables, bottles, glasses, and furniture went to
    rack; the remains of the bottles and glasses, in part, were
    thrown through the window on the heads of the populace, which
    they took as a gross insult. The boys procured some squibs and
    threw into the room, and the noise became very loud, which
    soon reached the ears of the gentlemen above, some of whom
    came into the street very drunk, and began to assault several
    persons who had committed no offence whatever. The young
    men and apprentices had been parading the street in a very
    sober and quiet manner, not offering to give offence to any
    person or persons, but having in the course of the day worn
    white favours in their bosoms, they excited the indignation
    of some very hot-headed persons who were possessed of more
    money than wisdom, and to shew over and above loyalty, would
    go any lengths to serve the cause they had espoused. At the
    time these scuffles were taking place, the young shop men and
    apprentices, as before stated, were coming through the throng.
    Messrs. Clymer and Stokes were arm-in-arm, and Clymer was
    robbed and assaulted by one of the gentlemen who could hardly
    articulate; Stokes said "I would never suffer myself to be
    insulted in that manner, knock his red nob off," which was
    noticed by a person near and one of the party. This appeared
    a favourable opportunity for these gentlemen to show their
    loyalty to the world at large, by prosecuting these young
    men, who had done no harm to any one individual. Several of
    the runners were sent out to take any of the young men into
    custody, which they soon effected; some were confined for the
    night, and others bailed out till morning, when a Bench of
    Magistrates would sit to judge the case. On the morrow, those
    who were not apprehended on the preceding night, and who were
    seen wearing white favours, were sent for by the Magistrates,
    which summons was immediately obeyed. The examination took
    place, not by the magistrates only, but by some unknown
    gentlemen, whose word, had it been as strictly scrutinized as
    these unfortunate young men, they would e'er this have crossed
    the briny ocean; but their time is not yet come, when it does
    I have no doubt they will cut a very conspicuous figure. The
    young men were ordered to find bail or they were committed.
    Some had no bail, or would not get any one to give bail for
    them. What was the consequence; they were sent to prison to
    the Workhouse in Dudley, and were to be removed to Worcester
    Gaol on the morrow morning, but about nine o'clock at night the
    prison door was thrown open and the prisoners ordered to go
    about their business. These very men had confessed they broke
    the windows at the hotel; this is a most strange business to
    release the guilty and punish the innocent. This appears to be
    Dudley law. Stokes was not apprehended till Monday following,
    when he attended at the Public Office; as soon as he appeared
    in the room one of the Magistrates asked his father who had
    put that plaster on his son's head, and whether it was a real
    or an artificial scar. It is proper to remark here that on the
    Coronation night, when one of the young men was being taken to
    the hotel, the Constable used him very roughly, on which Stokes
    cried out "don't use him so bad, he will go gently with you
    without such rash behaviour." At this moment came up Payton
    the Constable and struck Stokes with his stick or club on the
    head and broke a hole in his hat, he again lifted his staff and
    gave him a violent blow which cut his head; this took place in
    consequence of his interceding for a friend, to one who had
    neither pity nor mercy. As soon as the Magistrate received an
    answer he took his hat and left the room, and did not return.
    Spurrier, the Attorney, was employed on the occasion, who
    immediately rose and addressed the other Magistrates, saying
    that Mr. Stokes's son had been served with a warrant, and was
    there ready to answer to any charge. If that is the case, said
    one of the magistrates, it ought to be heard, and immediately
    asked the prosecutor if he had any objections to its being
    gone into. He first said no, then said he had nothing against
    him. Spurrier then replied to the Magistrates, the warrant
    then in course must be discharged--the Magistrate answered
    assuredly so; then the matter ended as was generally supposed,
    but, a few days previous to the Sessions a fresh warrant was
    obtained, under the same charges, and Stokes was taken into
    custody on Friday, bail was taken for his appearance next
    morning at ten o'clock, which was punctually attended to; his
    father attended with him, met the Magistrate in the street, who
    shook hands with him, and said, why there is a warrant against
    your son, yes the father said, it is very strange he should be
    brought up to answer the same charges which were contained in
    the former warrant, he replied, pity but he had kept better
    company, and walked off. He was then sent after by one of the
    Constables, who brought word he would not hear it till four
    o'clock in the afternoon; the Lawyer for the Plantiff sent a
    Constable after Stokes, and put him into confinement till the
    case would be heard, which took place about five o'clock; his
    father was bound for him to appear at Sessions. In that part
    of this narrative which relates to the disturbance between the
    Himley and Enville Cavalry in the Hotel, it will be proper
    to remark what succeeded; the broken glasses, &c., that were
    thrown upon the heads of the people in the street, caused
    an immediate retaliation by the populace throwing stones,
    brick-bats, or anything they could lay their hands upon, and
    thought themselves justified, the assailants broke two or three
    dozen panes of glass; it has been said that the Riot Act was
    read, but that is very much doubted. To prevent further damage,
    someone, more wise than the rest, ordered the gas-lights and
    fireworks to be immediately lighted, which was done with all
    possible speed, and had the desired effect. The High Constable
    was, I believe, the person who furnished the fireworks, and
    his shop was generally furnished with those kind of articles,
    and exhibited for sale which is contrary to, and in violation
    of, the established laws of the land. It having been evidently
    reported that the young men had dined together at the Saracen's
    Head, on that day, for a widely different purpose than really
    was the case, the fact is that sometime previous to the
    Coronation a wager was laid among the young men that the Queen
    would be crowned with the King; not being able to decide the
    wager then, it was agreed to dine together on that day, and
    whoever lost to pay for the same. The party broke up at a very
    early hour perfectly sober, and conducted themselves with the
    greatest propriety during the whole of the evening. Had there
    been no Cavalry at Dudley that day there would have been no
    disturbance; when the first commotion took place several of the
    Cavalry came into the street and proceeded to draw their swords
    and strike several persons in the throng, who gave them the
    answer to it without delay, and forced them to go back more
    rapid than they came. One of the Cavalry fired and wounded a
    man in the face in a most shocking manner. The young man (one
    of the Himley Cavalry), who had excited the attention of the
    populace by holding out his handkerchief and crying "the Queen
    my lads," was brought to a Court Martial soon after, but not
    discharged; great numbers are ready to attest the statements
    herein contained, if it should be found necessary.


ANCIENT DUDLEY SOUP KITCHEN.

In the earlier part of this book I have had occasion to refer to the
commencement of the present Dudley Soup Kitchen, which I consider
is well supported by the town, and does an immense amount of real
good, in distributing such large quantities of excellent soup amongst
the poor and indigent classes in bad winter weather; since that was
printed I have been favoured with the following particulars of the
old Soup Kitchen, established in 1799. The establishment of this Soup
Kitchen and Relief to the poor commenced in November of that year, in
consequence of much stagnation in the then local trades of the town,
and great distress amongst the poor. A Subscription List was opened by
a few leading individuals, resident in the town, which was heartily
supported by all classes in the town from the peer to the peasant.

                                                £   s. d.
    Lord Dudley                                 63  0  0
    Edward Dixon                                50  0  0
    Edward Hancox                               35  0  0
    D. and R. Parsons                           42  0  0
    J. and B. Hodgetts                          42  0  0
    Whitehouse, Moore, and Guest                42  0  0
    James Cartwright                            21  0  0
    James Wainwright                            21  0  0
    James Bourne                                21  0  0
    Edward Cockshutt                            15 15  0
    Charles Roberts                             15 15  0
    Joseph Hill                                 12 12  0
    Richard Parkes                              15 15  0
    Luke Booker                                 10 10  0
    G. and B. Parker                            52 10  0
    Samuel and William Bennett                  42  0  0
    John Simpson                                31 10  0
    Jos. Amphlett                               25  0  0
    Exors Abiathar Hawkes                       25  0  0
    John Twamley                                10 10  0
    Thomas Wainwright                           10 10  0
    William Perry                               10 10  0
    William Penn                                10 10  0
    John Bolton                                 10 10  0
    John Hateley                                10 10  0
    Leah Parkes                                 10 10  0
    Southall & Co.                              10 10  0
    John and Edward Davies                      10 10  0
                             &c., &c.

This handsome commencement was quickly followed by 82 other subscribers
of smaller amounts, making a grand total of £804 17s. raised by the
good people of Dudley in those hard times, for the sustenance and
relief of their poorer brethren.

On November 19th, 1800, the accounts were duly examined and audited,
when the sum of £781 16s. 4d. had been expended during the year,
amongst the poor and helpless in the parish.

                          _Signed_,
                                S. BENNITT,         B. HODGETTS.
                                JOS. HATELEY,       EDWARD DIXON.
                                RICHARD MOORE,      EDWARD HANCOX.
                                B. HUGHES,          J. WAINWRIGHT.

       *       *       *       *       *

In January, 1813, it is recorded that this town and district was at
this time visited with great depression in trade, and much sickness
and distress prevailed amongst the working classes. A very handsome
subscription was at once started, with most encouraging results, for
the sum of £870 11s. 9d. was (before the end of March) raised for the
relief of the Poor by 171 subscribers, giving another evidence of the
good will and care of the rich for their poorer neighbours.

1816. This year was one of the most disastrous in our annals; an
awful wet harvest followed close upon the war, which had just then
successfully terminated, with the finances of the country in a very
disordered state, casting a settled gloom and distrust all over the
land.

The parish of Dudley unhappily shared in these hard times, for we
find that on November 30th, 1816, a Public Meeting was held at the
Public Office. Mr. Edward Guest occupied the chair. At this meeting a
Committee was appointed to collect subscriptions for a Soup Kitchen
and relief of the necessitous poor, when the appeal was equally
successful, for the sum of £831 2s. 0d. was speedily subscribed by 162
contributors, and judiciously given amongst the poor.

July 29th, 1817. At a meeting of the subscribers to the Soup Charity
held this day, it was resolved,--That the accounts produced by Mr.
Guest appear so highly satisfactory that he be requested to accept
our best thanks for his services. Resolved,--That the thanks of the
Society be also voted to Mr. Gordon, for his kind and active services.
Resolved,--That as a reward for Mrs. Stilyard's particular attention in
the management and superintending in the making of soup, the sum of two
guineas be presented to her for the same. Resolved,--That the balance,
after discharging the small debts, to remain in the hands of Messrs.
Dixon, Dalton & Co., the Treasurers appointed.

    LUKE BOOKER,       THOMAS FEHR.
    THOS. BADGER,      RICHD. LAKIN.
    TIMOTHY HILL,      RICHD. BOND.

       *       *       *       *       *

There are varied scenes near the neighbourhood of the town of Dudley,
where antiquity and picturesque beauty, art, and nature present
themselves in every wondrous form. The secrets and wonders of former
worlds are to be found in our Limestone and Silurian formations, which
are daily worked by the active miner; the very extensive employment
of manufactures and commerce are well worth an inspection by the
stranger who may visit our ancient town; for these mixed sources of
contemplation are adequately fitted to engage the attention of the
curious, and the searcher for scientific truth, and to fill the mind
of the moralist, the poet, the politician, and the philanthropist with
sentiments akin to reverence and thankfulness.

       *       *       *       *       *

My labours being now ended, I trust that this memento of many humorous
and stirring events, in the social and political life of this ancient
borough, may prove a source of amusement and happy reflection to the
aged, and lessons of instruction to the young, and the comparative
strangers in our midst; bearing in mind that we now live and move under
very altered conditions of both social and moral life, leading us to
feel thankful that we are now living in the age of national progression.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have studiously avoided commenting upon the various charities in
this town, because an abler pen than mine has recently undertaken that
most necessary illustration of the "Charities of Dudley," which I feel
assured could not be in safer hands than our highly esteemed Town
Clerk of Dudley, Edward M. Warmington, Esq., Solicitor. Let us hope
that these learned "Articles on the Charities of Dudley" may shortly
be collected and printed in a volume for local preservation. I have,
finally, greatly to thank many ladies and gentlemen, in and around
Dudley, for their courtesy and kindness, in furnishing me with copies
of many additional paragraphs which appear in this book.

                                                          C. F. G. C.

=Finis.=

[Illustration]

[Illustration: DUDLEY CASTLE _FROM THE NORTH-EAST, 1810_]



FOOTNOTES:

[1] The Lecturer cannot sufficiently express the delight he
experienced, when, at the termination of the lecture, he was informed,
that the gentleman who first applied the principle here noticed to
practical purposes was at that time in the lecture room. Under the
management of our able and ingenious townsman, MR. RICHARDSON, "the
Dudley Gas Works" consume in the furnaces this singular species
of fuel; _gas tar_ being used with the _water_ to effect its
decomposition; after three years' experience MR. RICHARDSON bears
testimony to the importance of the discovery.

[2] Formerly a banker, but at time of the Procession a bankrupt, on an
extensive scale, in the neighbourhood.

[3]
    "A low prelusive strain, to nature true."  SOUTHEY.

[4]
    "A sudden storm, with terrible ding dong,
    Swept through the streets and wash'd the crowd along."
                                                TOM THUMB THE GREAT.

[5]
    Thus fear and interest will prevail with some;
    For all have not the gift of martyrdom.  DRYDEN.

[6] An apt conjunction of lawn and black satin, we entitle a Bishop.
                                                TALE OF A TUB.

[7] He is a main scholard, Latins it hugely, and talks his own mother
tongue as well as one of your varsity Doctors. DON QUIXOTE.

[8] Video meliora, proboque. OVID.

[9] Cantabit vacuus. JUV.

[10] Post ingentia facta Decorum in tomplum receptus. HOR.

[11]
    Raro antecedentem scelestum,
    Deseruit pede, pœna, claudo. HOR.

[12]
    ----The wind sallied forth,
    And in anger or merriment, out of the north
    From the peak of the crag blew his rev'rence away. WORDSWORTH.

[13]
    Such was the wight: th' apparel on his back,
    Tho' coarse, was rev'rend; and tho' bare was black. POPE.

[14] The Poet glanceth at copper tokens, which these disinterested
tradesmen had issued in great abundance, solely with an eye to
the public good, and which by reason of their being, as was said,
recently counterfeited, were in no very high repute at the time of the
procession.

[15] He was once thought to be a great Presbyterian, if not worse.

[16] Hark ye, Sir, a word in your ear. You are a coxcomb by all the
rules of physiogonomy. But let that be a secret between you and me.
ADDISON'S DRUMMER.

[17] I know a lady in Venice would have walk'd barefoot to Palestine,
for a touch of his nether lip. SHAKESPEARE.

[18] He carries fate and physic in his eye. CRABBE.

[19]
    Good morrow, Benedick: why what's the matter,
    That you have such a February face,
    So full of frost, of storm, and cloudiness? SHAKS.

[20]
    Oh! I thought I should faint, when I saw him, dear mother,
    Feel my pulse with one hand, with a watch in the other;
          No token of death that is heard in the night
          Could ever have put me so much in affright:
          Thinks I--'tis all over--my sentence is past,
          And now he is counting how long I may last. NEW BATH GUIDE.

[21] Procul discordibus armis. VIRG.

[22]
    They were all of opinion 'tis proper to cheer,
    The stomach and bowels as well as the ear. NEW BATH GUIDE.

[23] Vivitur ex rapto. OVID.

[24] Thence from cups to civil broils. MILTON.

[25] The Vicar's live stock is said to be of the starveling family,
like the nags in the Epigram:

    "Thy nags (the leanest things alive)
    So very hard thou lov'st to drive;
    I heard thy anxious coachman say,
    It cost thee more in whips than hay."

[26] Intus et in cute novi. PERS.

[27] Our author's little anachronism, in wishing the ladies to be
mothers first, and wives afterwards, it is hoped will be pardoned as an
unavoidable sacrifice to the rhyme.

[28] Had not the pious Doctor given us his word that the Epigram was
totally unnoticed by him till Monday morning, we might have been
inclined to suspect that the following lines of Pope were descriptive
of the manner in which he spent his Sunday evening hours.

    "Swearing and supperless the hero sate
           *       *       *       *       *
    Then gnaw'd his pen, then dash'd it on the ground,
    Thinking from thought to thought, a vast profound
    Plung'd far his sense, but found no bottom there,
    Yet wrote and flounder'd on in mere despair."

[29] This vaunted concern for the glory of the church, we would
charitably hope, is real, and not like that of Rebel, in the Comedy
of the Committee-man curried by Sam. Sheppard. I laugh (says Rebel)
to think when I counterfeit a whining passion, and talk of God and
goodness, walk with a sad and mortified countenance, how I'm admired
among the brethren, and styled a man of God.

    And thus I cloke my naked villany
    With old odd ends stolen forth of holy writ,
    And seem a saint when most I play the Devil. SHAKSPEARE.

[30]
    Like will to like,--says the Proverb.
    A lizard's body lean and long,
    A fish's head a serpent's tongue. CAMELEON.

[31] Who more fit to unkennel the fox, than the honest terrier who is
part of him. HICKERINGILL.

[32] Feliciter is sapit, qui periculo alieno sapit. PLAUT.

[33] Of these I am told that our respected fellow-townsman, Mr. Lester,
retires owing to illness, but will continue to evince his interest and
good wishes by nominating his late colleagues, with some others, for
your approval.

[34] The Circular issued by the Vicar and Warden, dated August 20th.

[35] This note was received through the Post on Sunday morning in an
unstamped envelope.

[36] This large increase in the number of electors arose from the fact
that the Borough of Dudley was included in the Act of 1873, which
gave a large increase of voters to many boroughs in the country, by
embracing in their boundaries large adjacent populous villages.

[37] The reason why this account of the building of the Parish Church
does not appear at the beginning of this Book, arose from the inability
to obtain a copy of these documents until the work was nearly printed
off.--EDITOR.

[38] We have seen this item in Dr. Booker's handwriting.



                           Dud Dudley's

                       _Metallum Martis_:

                              OR,

                             IRON

                           MADE WITH

                          Pit-coale,

                          Sea-coale,

                              &c.

             And with the same Fuell to Melt and
                 Fine Imperfect Mettals, and Refine
                 perfect Mettals.

           LONDON, Printed by T. M. for the Authour.
                              1665.

N.B.--This Work is an exact reprint from the original, and the errors
in spelling and the peculiar Grammar of the Author have been faithfully
followed.


Dud Dudley's Metallum Martis.

TO THE PUBLIC.

This Work "_Metallum Martis_," first printed in the year 1665, and
written by "_Dud Dudley_," a member of the ancient and honourable
family of the Lords of Dudley, is most curious in its composition and
most valuable to the antiquarian, and all engaged in the manufacture
of iron and steel, and all their varied products, showing the
indefatigable efforts of this enterprising artificer in metals, "_Dud
Dudley_," to make iron by the liberal use of coal, so abundant in
this neighbourhood. The noble forests of timber in England were fast
disappearing from our hills and valleys to meet the demand of household
fuel; but the increased demand, yearly becoming greater, for the
purpose of smelting iron ore with charcoal, became a matter of very
serious consideration to all classes, for the King and Parliament
were loudly called upon to prevent the total destruction of our noble
forests. Acts of Parliament were ultimately passed for that object,
for Symon Sturtevant, in his "Metallica," says "That there was then in
the 12th year of King James in England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales,
800 furnaces, forges, or iron mills _making iron with charcole_." Dud
Dudley says "Now what loads of wood or charcole is spent in Great
Britain and Ireland annually? In one furnace, that makes 15 tuns per
week of pig iron for 40 weeks: I shall give you the table, and leave
you to judge of the rest of the furnaces."

                                   |  Charcole  |   Wood
                                   +------------+-----------
    15 tun per week spends         |   30 loads |   60 loads
    For 40 weeks it spends         | 1200 loads | 2400 loads

Also for one forge that makes _three tuns of bar iron weekly_ for 50
weeks.

                                   |  Charcole  |   Wood
                                   +------------+-----------
    For making 3 tuns per week of  |            |
      bar iron                     |    9 loads |   18 loads
    Per annum                      |  450 loads |  900 loads

"Yet," he says, "by this barring of iron _alone_ with pit-cole, by his
invention 30,000 loads of wood have been preserved for the general
good, which otherwayes must have been had and consumed."

This early pioneer of our _now_ immense coal and iron trade was no mean
uneducated inventor, for our "Dud Dudley" was the natural son of Lord
Dudley, of Dudley Castle. In the pedigree of the family his mother is
described as 'Elizabeth, daughter of William Tomlinson, of Dudley,
concubine of Edward, Lord Dudley.' His eldest brother is referred to
as 'Robert Dudley, Squire, of Netherton Hall,' and we are told that
all the children, though born out of wedlock, held a good position in
the neighbourhood, and were regarded with respect. Dud is frequently
alluded to in the 'History of Staffordshire,' by Plot, who always
described him as the 'Worshipful Dud Dudley.' He was held in great
respect and esteem by all contemporaries, except rival ironmasters
and political opponents. He was the special favourite of the Earl,
his father, who appointed him manager of his ironworks. From Baliol
College, Oxford, he was sent for by the Earl, in 1619, to take charge
of an iron furnace and two forges in the Pensnett Chase. It was here
that, finding difficulty on account of the exhaustion of the Woodlands,
in producing large quantities of iron by the old process, that he
commenced experiments for carrying out a method of manufacture which
had been unsuccessfully attempted by Simon Sturtevant, John Rouenzon,
and others. After patient efforts, Dud Dudley succeeded in making
iron with pit coal, and he carried on the manufacture not only at
Pensnett, but also at Cradley, from whence, having obtained a patent
of James I., he was enabled to send up to the Tower, by the King's
command, a quantity of new iron for trial. After experiments had been
made with it, and its qualities fairly tested, it was pronounced 'good
merchantable iron.' It is appropriate that the locality where this
great problem was practically solved by Dud Dudley, should be visited
by the members of the Iron and Steel Institute, and it may not be an
uninteresting fact to mention that it was near the spot at Cradley
where Dud Dudley's works stood, that the late lamented Noah Hingley,
Esq., J.P., commenced his remarkable career. There, we understand, it
was that he began life as a working chain maker; there he afterwards
rented a few chain shops, and, making progress, ultimately opened an
iron-work, and became one of the largest employers of labour in South
Staffordshire. The works at Cradley, which were under the management
of Dud Dudley, were swept away by a flood about two months after
they had been in operation. Notwithstanding the great loss he had
sustained, he repaired his furnaces and forges, and, according to his
own account, 'went on with his invention cheerfully, and made annually
great store of iron, good and merchantable, and sold it unto divers
men, at £12 per ton.' He adds: 'I also made all sorts of cast-iron
wares, as brewing cisterns, pots, mortars, &c., better and cheaper than
any yet made in these nations with charcoal.' He further states that
he was able to make 5 or 7 tons of iron a week, and to sell his pig
iron at £4 per ton, and his bar iron £12 per ton, whilst his charcoal
iron cost in pigs £6 or £7, and in bars £15 or £18. He met, however,
with strong opposition, and was at length ousted from his works at
Cradley. With his wonted energy, however, he set up a pit-coal furnace
at Himley, which is also situate near Dudley. Subsequently he erected
large furnaces at the adjoining village of Sedgley, but these were
scarcely finished when we learn that 'a mob of rioters, instigated
by the charcoal ironmasters, broke in upon them, cut in pieces the
new bellows, destroyed the machinery, and laid the results of that
deep-laid ingenuity and persevering industry in ruins, and from that
time forward Dudley was allowed no rest nor peace. He was attacked by
mobs, worried by lawsuits, and eventually overwhelmed with debts.'
To disengage his involved affairs, he married his grand-daughter
and heiress, Frances, to Humble Ward, the only son of William Ward
(jeweller to the Queen of Charles I.), who was descended from an
ancient family of that name in Norfolk, by which means the estates came
into the possession of the present noble family."

It is well known to the antiquarian and searcher after "curiosities"
that _the basement foundations_ of Dud Dudley's iron works can be
distinctly traced, laying betwixt Dudley and Pensnett, only two miles
apart, and the four ancient forges not far from the inventors dwelling,
known as Greens-forge, Swine-forge, Heath-forge, and Cradeley-forge,
were known to put in practice his invention early in 1600, and
continued making iron with coal after his death.

This persecuted and ill-requited gentleman, like many other inventors
of great and distinguished renown, "lived before his time;" his
prophetic soul saw the dawn of other days; and the incentives which men
of science and wealth put into the development of iron making, culled
from the genius this man foreshadowed, has resulted in such marvellous
proportions as to pass man's understanding, and make the coal and
iron trade the foremost industry in the land. That this ingenious and
scientific son of Tubal Cain was a persecuted, misrepresented, and
illused man, amidst all the blessings he was trying to shower upon
his fellow men, cannot be denied; and we now leave the forerunner of
the Black Country's wealth and greatness to tell the story of his own
doings, in his own language.

_Dudley, 1881._


TO THE =Kings Most Sacred Majesty=.

_May it Please Your Majesty_,

_All Your Kingdoms, Dominions, and Territories, being the happy
Subjects of Your Cares, are therefore the proper Objects of Your
View:_ Great Brittain, O Great Brittain, _Your Principal Island, here
Humbly Presents her self unto Your Royall Presence, View and Care; be
Pleased, to interpret this her Obsequiousness, to be her Duty; for
since Your Majesties safe Return, has already Graciously dayned, to
View, and often to review her Shipings, Stores, Armories, Ordnance,
Magazines, and Trade; Vouchsafe, Great Sir,_ Great Brittain _Your Royal
Patronage, and once more, at some one hour, or two, to Grace it with
Your Auspicious Aspect, in this Mite, with all Humility Presented, By,_

      A Faithful Servant, of your Sacred
               Fathers; and a Loyal Sufferer,
                          for your Sacred Majesty;
                                      And by Pattent-Servant,
                                                      _Dud Dudley_.


TO THE =honourable, his Majesties Great Council=, _The High Court of
Parliament_.

Your Predecessors in former Ages, had both serious Consultations, and
Considerations, before they made those many Wholesome and Good Lawes,
for the Preservation of Wood, and Timber, of this Kingdome, 1 _Eliz._
15. 23 _Eliz._ 5. 27 _Eliz._ 19. 28 _Eliz._ 3. 5. in whose dayes, and
since in King _James's_ Reign, Ships in most Ports and Rivers of this
Kingdom, (_Thames_ Excepted) might have been built, for forty Shillings
_per_ Tunn; but now they can hardly be built for treble the value,
wood and timber is so much decayed; therefore men of War, Trade of
Merchants, of Fishing, of Navigating, unto Plantations will decay, if
not timely prevented, which is hoped will be one of Your Principallest
Cares, seeing our Enemies have carried Timber from _England_, and the
Iron Works have much exhausted it; For the prevention of so great a
Consumption, almost incureable: First is to put the Wholesome Laws in
Execution; Secondly, not to permit Timber to be Exported. Thirdly, to
animate, as King _James_ did, and also Prince _Henry_, the making of
Iron in _England_, _Scotland_, and _Wales_ with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, and
Peate; which if the Authour (who had a Pattent for it) had not been
opposed, after he had made much good Iron with Pit-cole, it had long
since, by his Inventions, been fully perfected. The Fourth is, to stop
all the Exportation of Pit-cole, and Sea-cole (paying His Majesties
Duty) if the Cole be in a fit place, to make Iron therewith. Fifthly,
That the Authour, or his Agents may have power to preserve many
thousand Tuns of Pit-cole, which are annually destroyed, for ever in
_England_, _Scotland_, and _Wales_, which are fit to make Iron; and the
Authour in this Treatise hath demonstrated it, being moved with pitty,
seeing his Native Country decaying, Humbly offers but his Judgement,
and leaves the grave consideration thereof, to your Learned, and more
serious Consultations and Actings, praying that you may animate good
things, and new inventions, that may bring unto His Sacred Majesty,
and all Loyal Subjects, Safety, Strength, Wealth, and Honour by our
Ships, and Men of War, Fishing, Navigation, and Merchandizing, unto
Foreign Nations; but more especially, to and from the Territories
of _Great Brittain_, our _North Indies_ abounding in _Mines_ and
_Minerals_, that they that are of the Honourable Corporations of
_Mines Royal_, and _Batteries_, or any others, would lay in a Common,
or Joynt Stock, fully to set the _Mines_ at Work, by imploying our
idle, and burdensom supernumerary people therein, _Iron_, _Tin_,
_Lead_, _Copper_, _Quicksilver_, _Silver_ and _Gold_, besides many
other _Minerals_, and _Marcesit's_, _Lapis Calaminaris_, _Antimonie_,
_Maganes_, &c. also many _Mineral Earths_ and _Precious Stones_: Did
I call _Great Brittain_ our _North Indies_? give me leave to repeat a
passage till further satisfaction, of King _Josina_ of _Scotland_, a
great Phylosopher, Physitian, and Herbalist, living before Christ, 161
years, at which time, two venerable Phylosophers and Priests passing
from _Portugall_ to _Athens_, their Ship and Company, and Marriners,
all perished at _Ros_, they only saved; after refreshing, and good
Entertainment, the King desired of them what they understood by their
Science of the Nature of the Ground of _Scotland_; after deliberate
advisement, said, _There was more Riches and Profit to be gotten within
the Veins of the Earth of_ Scotland, _then above, for the winning of
Mines and Metals; They knew this by the Influence of the Heavens_: This
you may see in the Chronicles of _Scotland_.

My Dear Master, our Sacred Martyr, _Charles_ the First of ever Blessed
Memory, did animate the Authour by Granting him a Pattent, _Anno_ 14 of
his Reign, for the making of Iron, and Melting, Smelting, Extracting,
Refining, and Reducing all Mines and Metals with Pit-cole, Sea-cole,
Peat and Turf, which was Extinct, and Obstructed by reason of the War;
and had not this unnatural and unparallel'd War been, His late Sacred
Majesty himself had set at work many of His Mines, and much good had
been produced to _Great Brittain_ before this time.

At present, the Authour is in good hope, and incessantly prayes, that
the Mines be set at Work in his dayes, by the Honourable Corporation
of the Mines Royal, for he verily believeth the time to be near, when
the Omnipotent God, before he Judge the World in Fire, will shew His
Omnipotency unto the _Nations_, by revealing of the wonderful and
incredible things of Nature, of which the Learned do believe very many
to be, in the Mineral Kingdome, by working of Mines and Fusion of
Metals, gotten by honest labour under ground, profitable to Man, and
Acceptable with God.

I might here speak somewhat of Superiour Planets producing Metal,
_Saturn_, Lead: _Iupiter_, Tin: _Mars_, Iron: but these abound in
_Great Brittain_, so do the Inferiour Planets produce _Venus_, Copper:
_Mercury_, Quicksilver: _Luna_, Silver.

If God permit me health and leasure from Sutes and Troubles, not onely
to write of them, but also the manner of the Melting, Extracting,
Refining, and Reducing of them with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, &c.
In the interim to let you know that _Great Brittain_ abounds with
_Copper Mines_, much neglected, yet of great use for Ordnance, at
Land, and also at Seas, and for the making of Brass, with our _Lapis
Calaminaris_, so much Exported by the _Dutch_, which doth hinder our
manufactories of Brass, and causes the _Dutch_ and _Swedes_ to raise
the price of Copper and Brass ever since our small loss at Sea by the
_Dutch_. _Mercury_, Quicksilver is not wanting, but fe