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Title: Needlework Economies - A Book of Mending and Making with Oddments and Scraps
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's Notes: Bold text is surrounded by =equal signs= and
italic text by _underscores_. Some patterns use a spaced "d c" for a
double-crochet stitch while another uses "dc."]


NEEDLEWORK ECONOMIES


    EDITED BY
    FLORA KLICKMANN

    A Book of
    Making and Mending
    with Oddments
    and Scraps



“A _Live_ Magazine for Women.”

    “No praise can be too high for this Magazine. Each article
    is written with knowledge and insight, and in a practical
    spirit.”
                                              —_Morning Post._

    =1/-
    NET
    Monthly=

[Illustration: THE GIRL’S OWN

& WOMAN’S MAGAZINE

EDITED BY FLORA KLICKMANN.]

    “It is a treasure-house of story and article, as well as
    being an infallible guide to arts and crafts of various
    kinds.”—_Lady’s Pictorial._

    “It is brimful of brightly-drawn stories, together with many
    household hints.”—_Daily Telegraph._

    “It blends fiction with fashion, and the decorative with the
    domestic.”—_Pall Mall Gazette._

    “It concerns itself with any and every interest which a girl
    may have, or ought to have.”—_Westminster Gazette._

    =Published at 4, Bouverie Street, London, E.C. 4.=

    =On Sale
    EVERYWHERE.=



RICKARDS

“_Sylvan_”

Artificial Silk

EMBROIDERY THREADS

are the closest imitation of Pure Silk made in Rickard’s SYLVAN. The
requirements of needleworkers have been carefully studied. Its colours
are unsurpassed for brilliancy, silk lustre and finish.

SYLVAN Threads should be used for all rich colour embroidery effects.

[Illustration]

    Manufactured by
    C. A. RICKARDS, LTD., Bradford.



A GOOD HOME RULE

    The Finest
    MEDICINE
    IN THE WORLD
    FOR ALL
    CHILDREN’S
    AILMENTS.


[Illustration]

    “GIVE YOUR CHILDREN
    PERRY’S·POWDERS”

    Sold Everywhere at 1/3
    per box of 3 dozen,
    _or Post Free from_
    PERRY’S POWDERS, Ld.,
    LEEDS.



[Illustration:

PEACOCK QUALITY

REGISTERED.]

It is essential suitable material should be used for the work selected.
The undermentioned wools are highly recommended and will not cause
disappointment. All the brands should be procurable at any Needlework
Repository. In the event of any difficulty in obtaining a supply please
write to

FAUDEL’S LTD., Newgate Street, London, E.C.1

  =A.A. PEACOCK FINGERING,=                 The best quality Wool for
    The long length Wool,                     General Knitting and
      2,000 yards more in the 6 lb.           Crochet purposes, in 2,
      Spindle than in ordinary                3, 4, 6 ply.
      yarns.                                4 ply kept in 150 Colours
                                              and Fancy Mixtures.

  =PEACOCK SHETLAND WOOL,= Best             For Shawls, Opera Hoods,
        English make.                         Wraps, Fascinators, etc.,
                                              in all leading colours.
                                              Natural and Clerical.

  =PEACOCK ANDALUSIAN,= Best                For Socks, Stockings,
        English make.                         Mittens, Gloves, Cuffs,
                                              Gaiters, Wraps, Bonnets,
                                              and Shawls.

  =PEACOCK DOUBLE KNITTING=                 For Golf Jerseys, Hats and
    For some years we have                    Norfolk Jackets, Shooting
     been trying to introduce a               and Cycling Stockings,
     Yarn with the Wearable                   Tams, Scarves, Sweaters,
     characteristics of the best              Football and Golf
     Worsted, combined with                   Stockings.
     the Soft, Strong and Elastic
     qualities of the best
     Fingering. We claim in the
     “Peacock Double Knitting”
     to have been eminently
     successful.

  =PEACOCK VEST WOOL,= Unshrinkable.        Specially prepared for all
                                              Underwear in 2, 3, 4 ply.

  =PEACOCK LADY BETTY,= A Pure Wool.        For softness and warmth,
                                              used largely for Baby’s
                                              first Vests, Shawls, etc.,
                                              and all useful garments
                                              where the best soft wool
                                              is needed.

  =PEACOCK OSTRICH WOOL,= In 1 oz Balls.    For making, Boas, Capes,
                                              Hoods, Muffs, Ruffles,
                                              etc.

  =PEACOCK SPANGLED WOOL,= With             For Shawls, Vests, Hoods,
        Mercerised Thread.                    Children’s Gloves, Bonnets,
                                              etc. A very pretty wool.

  =PEACOCK ABERDEEN FINGERING,=             A good fingering for all
        Made in 2, 3, 4 ply.                  purposes requiring
                                              softness, strength and
                                              warmth.

  =PEACOCK HOMESPUN,= or Wheeling          A yarn for Deep Sea Mission
         Yarn.                                 and Charity purposes.

  =PEACOCK ROYAL SHETLAND FLOSS            For Boas, Ruffles, and Shawls,
         OR BOA WOOL.=                         for working on Boa frame.



    NEEDLEWORK
    ECONOMIES



A New Edition (The Fifteenth) now Selling. Price =7/-= net.

    (by post 7/6).

The Flower-Patch among the Hills

By FLORA KLICKMANN,

_Editor of the “GIRL’S OWN AND WOMAN’S MAGAZINE,” etc._

With Photogravure Portrait of the Author.

    “Your delightful book charms me.”—=Miss Marie Corelli.=

    “Fun peeps out from almost every page.”—=Mrs. Florence L.
    Barclay.=

    “I have read it with great pleasure.”—=Sir Wm. Robertson
    Nicoll.=

    “I have found it infinitely more interesting than a
    novel.”—=Mr. Coulson Kernahan.=

    “A truly beautiful piece of work.”—=Mr. Jeffery Farnol.=

    “Miss Klickmann has quite a sense of humour.”—=The Times.=

    “It transports the reader into a haven of peace, which is
    quite unfaked.”—=The Daily Telegraph.=

    “This is a cheerful book.”—=The Athenæum.=

    “It is full of sunshine and gaiety.”—=The Sphere.=

    “It is charming alike in title and text.”—=The Graphic.=

    “It is indeed a charming book.”—=The Guardian.=

    “We have nothing but praise for this charming volume.”—=The
    Record.=

    “No one can come to ‘The Flower-Patch’ without feeling
    delighted and refreshed.”—=The Life of Faith.=

    “There are chapters that brace the spirits in these trying
    days.”—=The Yorkshire Observer.=

    “It is a piece of work as charming as it is clever.”—=The
    Field.=

    “The fun, pathos, and deeper thoughts of their owner suit
    our every mood.”—=The Church Family Newspaper.=

    “This is a book to take up when one is worried and
    out-of-sorts.”—=The Western Mail.=

    “An orderly review of such a book would seem like using
    firstly, secondly, and thirdly to describe the song of the
    lark.”—=The Sword and the Trowel.=

    “We have seen no other book of its kind equal to this, and
    none more likely to bless its readers.”—=The Christian.=

    “It is a delightful book, the humour is gay and
    infectious.”—=The Methodist Recorder.=

    “The book is a very genial companion.”—=The Christian World.=

    “It is a volume of well nigh unique charm, breezy,
    scent-laden and eminently delightful.”—=The Western Morning
    News.=

    “One element in the book’s charm is the waywardness of a
    humour which does not allow the author to be long without a
    change of mood.”—=The Scotsman.=

    “It is a capital story.”—=The Sheffield Daily Telegraph.=

    “It is just the book for a leisure afternoon.”—=The
    Gentlewoman.=

    “It is emphatically a book for the times.”—=The Western
    Daily Press.=

[Illustration: The Flower-Patch Among the Hills

By FLORA KLICKMANN

A Book of Cheerfulness: you just smile your way right through.]


London: 4, Bouverie Street, E.C., 4.

    _And at all Bookshops
    and Bookstalls._

    =Price SEVEN SHILLINGS net (by post 7/6).=



The Home Art Series

Needlework Economies

    A Book of
    Mending and Making
    with
    Oddments and Scraps

    EDITED BY
    FLORA KLICKMANN
    _Editor of “The Girl’s Own Paper and Woman’s Magazine.”_


    London:
    The Office of “The Girl’s Own Paper & Woman’s Magazine”
    4 Bouverie Street & 65 St. Paul’s Churchyard, E.C. 4.



[Illustration]

That Baby Girl sitting on the ground will soon be as big and strong as
her sister in the swing if mother feeds her regularly upon Robinson’s
“Patent” Groats. Made nicely with milk, and sweetened with a little
sugar or syrup, it has that delicious flavour which the little ones
enjoy.


Robinson’s “Patent” Groats

Possessing valuable flesh and bone-forming properties, it is extremely
nourishing and easily digested.

It is also a valuable diet for NURSING MOTHERS, providing the nutriment
that enables mothers to nurse their babies. INVALIDS and the AGED find
it an ideal breakfast and supper food.

_Send for Free Booklet “ADVICE TO MOTHERS,”_

=Dept. N.E., KEEN, ROBINSON & Co., Ltd., LONDON, E.1.=



[Illustration: NEEDLEWORK ECONOMIES.]

Edited by FLORA KLICKMANN



Preface.


War is a hard, stern teacher, and its lessons are bitter in the
learning; yet some of its teaching we badly needed—and not the
least important of its many lessons is the one it inculcated on the
criminality of waste.

To so many of us “waste” was a word with a comparative meaning. What
was waste in one woman was not necessarily waste in another, we argued.
It was wrong for the factory girl to let her skirts drop off her for
lack of mending; but not wrong for better-off women to discard their
clothes directly they showed the least sign of wear, because they
could afford to buy more, we said; and, besides, it made it good for
trade—that was a favourite argument used by the extravagant to excuse
their wanton waste.

But we have all learnt the value of economy of recent years: and
we have seen how the saving and thrift of individuals may mean the
salvation of the State. It will be a long time before we can ever
return to that condition of easy-going plenty that we knew before the
war. In any case the cost of all commodities will remain higher in
price. The woman who can utilize oddments and make things with her own
hands is the woman who will be making money, as she will be supplying
one of the most expensive items of modern times—personal labour. The
hints in this book are intended as suggestions, which can be developed
in many new directions.



Part I.

Dress Economies.



The Brassiere.


The Brassiere, or bust bodice, is an essential garment for those who
wish to keep the form neat in appearance now when the low cut corset
is so much in vogue. It has the great advantage of correcting round
shoulders in those who are inclined to stoop when walking, and prevents
that ugly ridge so often seen in the back of the coat or blouse caused
by the top of the corset.

[Illustration: The Crochet Trimming gives a pretty finish.]

They are so very easily made that every woman and girl should make as
many as she requires, for they are expensive articles to buy, and the
garments one makes for one’s self are likely to outlast three or four
of the bought kind and this, too, at about one-third the cost.

[Illustration: This Section of the Front shows the actual size of the
Crochet.]

The pattern for the Brassiere shown here is in three parts, the front,
side-front and back. Half a yard of 36 inch wide linen or cambric is
sufficient. The material used must be strong but fine, and linen is, of
course, the best for wearing qualities.

Having cut out the sections, join all seams with a row of stitching
less than a quarter of an inch from the edge, open out the seams flat
and cover each with a casing made by a strip of the linen with the edge
turned inwards, each should then be half an inch wide. Stitch close to
the edge at each side. The three centre casings have buttonholes worked
in the centre of the casing, in an upward direction, each an inch in
length. These are to admit of a strip of whalebone, eight inches in
length and which can readily be removed for washing.

Turn in a narrow hem at each side of the shoulder section and stitch in
place. Make the insertion and place in position on the front, mark the
lines at each side, cut the material along the centre where the various
strips are to be, turn in a narrow hem and stitch all round. Then turn
a hem all round the edge and stitch.

[Sidenote: With an Irish Crochet Insertion.]

With the crochet hook, put a row of 8 ch 1 d c into the edge of the hem
from the lower edge of the back round to the opposite point and around
each armhole. Into each loop put 7 ch 1 d c twice, with 5 ch 1 d c from
loop to loop.

Sew a patent fastener to the top edge of the back, and a long strip of
tape to the lower edge. The tapes are crossed at the back and brought
round to the front to regulate the fit of the brassiere.


The Insertion.

This is the pretty Rose beading in Irish crochet, and is made with
Manlove’s Irish lace thread, No. 50, with a No. 6 crochet hook.

Form 6 ch into a ring.

_1st Row._—6 ch 1 tr into the ring, 3 ch 1 tr into the ring 4 times, 3
ch 1 s c into the 3rd of the 6 ch.

_2nd Row._—1 d c 7 tr 1 d c into each loop.

_3rd Row._—5 ch 1 d c into the d c between the petals in last row.

_4th Row._—1 d c 10 tr 1 d c into each loop.

_5th Row._—Same as 3rd, but 6 ch instead of 5.

_6th Row._—1 d c 12 tr 1 d c into each loop.

_7th Row._—8 ch, picot 5 of them, 3 ch 1 d c into the 3rd tr on 1st
petal in last row; 6 ch, picot 5 of them, 1 d c into the 9th tr on same
petal; 6 ch, picot 5 of them, 1 d c into the 3rd tr on next petal; 6
ch, picot 5 of them, 1 d c into the 9th tr on same petal.

_8th Row._—Turn with 8 ch and repeat the 4 picot loops as in last row,
for 8 rows of the 4 loops.

_16th Row._—Turn with 5 ch, 1 tr into 1st loop, 2 ch 1 tr into each of
the others, turn.

_17th Row._—10 ch 1 d c into the 2nd of the 5 ch at the turning of last
row.

_18th Row._—Repeat the 4 picot loops over the 10 ch and form 5 rows.
Then repeat the 16th and 17th rows and form 8 rows more of the picot
loops.

Make another rose and join to the picot loops in the last row to
correspond with the joining of the first one.

When the front strip is of sufficient length, make the strip for each
shoulder and the front piece, joining each to the loops in the straight
strip.

Make the straightening rows at each side with 1 tr 2 ch into each loop
and petal along the sides, placing the trs so that the chs may form a
straight line.

Work a 2nd row of 2 ch 1 tr into each space of 1st row, then finish
with 3 d c into each space.

Now top-sew the insertion in place and join the shoulders with a flat
“run and fell” seam.

Sew a piece of tape ending with a loop on the point of the front to
fasten the Brassiere to the corset.


Beautiful Crochet on Household Linen

Edited by FLORA KLICKMANN

    This is full of beautiful ideas for table cloths, toilet
    covers, curtain tops, sideboard cloths, tea cosies, dressing
    table runners. Uniform with this volume in style and price,
    and issued by the same publishers.



A Camisole Yoke of Embroidered Filet Net and Crochet.


Machine-made filet net was used in making this pretty yoke, on which
the trefoil is worked in darning stitch with Tenax embroidery silk in
a moss-rose shade of pink. Other lovely shades can be had in the Tenax
silk, and blue, green, or mauve will answer quite as well. The shape is
cut out from the net, allowing two meshes for a margin at all edges.

[Illustration: From this diagram the Shamrock Design can be worked in
darning.]

Using No. 70 Peri-Lusta crochet cotton, overcast the two rows of meshes
left as a margin with an overcasting through each mesh, then with a No.
5 crochet hook work a row of d c all round the edges, 2 d c into each
mesh.

Around the edge of the sleeve part, neck, and fronts of the yoke, work
a row of 9 ch loops, 1 into every 4th d c.

Then into each loop put 7 ch 1 d c twice.

The trefoil is then worked in simple darning stitch. Have the wrong
side turned towards you while doing the embroidery, as all fastenings
of the thread must be made on this side.

The trefoil can readily be copied from the diagram.

[Illustration: This kind of trimming would also be pretty for a Blouse
or Jumper.]



A Pretty Camisole Yoke.


Use No. 70 Peri-Lusta Crochet for this pretty yoke.

Form 5 ch into a ring, into which put 8 d c, and close the row with a s
c into the 1st d c, 6 ch 1 tr into next d c, 3 ch 1 tr into each d c, 3
ch 1 s c into the 3rd of the 6 ch to close a row of 8 spaces.

_3rd Row._—5 d c into each sp.

_4th Row._—7 ch, 1 long tr into the 1st ch (thread 3 times over the
needle)—the 7 ch stands for a long tr—work off the loops of the long
tr, two at a time, but retain the last on the needle; make another long
tr through the same ch stitch, work off as before, then work off all
the loops together. Make 7 ch, and repeat the 2 long tr through the
1st of the 7 ch, 1 ch, 1 d c into the d c over the next tr in the row
below, repeat this long tr loop into the d c over each tr (8 loops).

_5th Row._—6 ch, bring these up behind the 1st loop and fasten with a d
c on centre of the loop, 10 ch 1 d c into centre of each loop.

_6th Row._—12 d c over each 10 ch.

_7th Row._—10 ch, 6 triple tr into the d c on centre of 1st loop below,
3 ch between the trs, * 10 ch, 1 d c over the d c on centre of next
loop, 10 ch 6 triple tr with 3 ch between into the d c over centre of
next loop, and repeat from *.

_8th Row._—12 d c over each 10 ch, over each 3 ch put 1 d c 7 ch 1 d c.


To Join the Motifs.

[Illustration: Twenty-three motifs are required for this yoke.]

Work the last row to the 3rd group of picots, form 2 of the picots as
before; for the 3rd picot make only 2 ch, join to the 3rd picot on
preceding motif with a d c, make 2 ch, then continue on to next picot
on the motif in hands, and join the next two in the same way; 12 d
c over next 10 ch, 6 ch 1 d c into the d c between the two bars on
preceding motif after the joining, come back on the 6 ch with 2 ch, 1 d
c over the centre of the 6 ch, 3 ch, 12 d c over next chs on the motif,
then join next 3 picots as before and finish off the motif.

The extension of the front at each side is formed of a motif and the
point. For the point, make the ring as in the centre of the motif, then
6 ch 1 tr into the 1st d c, 3 ch 1 tr into each of next 2 d c, turn.

_2nd Row._—9 d c into 1st loop, 5 d c into each of next two, turn, and
put three of the long tr loops into the d c’s over the trs in the same
manner as in the motif.

_4th Row._—Turn, 10 ch, 1 d c into top of long tr loop; put the 6
triple trs into the d c’s as before with the 3 ch between and the two
10 ch loops.

_5th Row._—Make the picots and d c’s as in the motif, joining to the 2
lower groups of triple trs as before.

There are 23 motifs in all required, 4 for each front, 5 for the back,
4 for each shoulder and the two extensions.



To Re-sole Cashmere Stockings.


Stockings re-soled according to the following directions can be worn
with slippers, and will be found comfortable.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

Place the stocking as shown in Fig. 1, cut off the sole at the dotted
line a—b; then cut off the toe at the line c—d. As the heel of the
sole piece will not lie flat it must be slit, until, when laid out, it
resembles fig. 2. Cut pieces to these patterns from the leg of another
stocking, allowing turnings as follows:

Fig. 1, the toe piece, ½-inch at c—d where it joins the stocking;
fig. 2. ½-inch all round except at the lines a—b, c—b, where ¼-inch
only must be allowed. If the stocking is short this can be remedied
by leaving the extra length required at fig. 1, a, and fig. 2, d, in
addition to the turnings previously mentioned.

Machine the new toe piece to the stocking at c—d (fig. 1), open and
press the seam. Machine a—b to b—c, of the sole piece (fig. 2), open
and press the seam. Machine this new sole to the stocking, open and
press the seam. Fasten down all seams with small slip stitches.

It is advisable to use mercerised cotton or silk, and to leave the
tension of the machine rather slack.



Three Pretty Aprons.


In a Christmas parcel sent to me from Italy this year, I found two of
the dearest little aprons I have ever seen—much less owned.

[Illustration: AN EASILY SLIPPED-ON APRON.]

They were so very unusual and yet so simple of make, that I feel every
girl who is fond of aprons would love to have one. To these two I have
added one other, equally simple, and which costs but a few pence all
told.


An Easily-Slipped-on Apron.

The first one of the three is one of the Italian ones, and is made of
two yards of ordinary kitchen roller towel. This particular one is made
from unbleached linen, utterly free from coloured stripes or borders.

From a two yard length of towelling, cut off a strip ten inches long,
which will be used for the waistband.

At one end of the long length make a three inch hem, this being the
front.

Now lay this strip on the table, and measuring 39 inches from the hem,
make a dot with a lead pencil, and take this dot as the centre of a
circle 33 inches in circumference, which also mark out with the pencil
with the help of a compass. Next cut out this circle and neatly turn
in the raw edge, making a tiny hem. At the back of the apron, that is
the end unhemmed, make three pleats—one box pleat in the centre and two
outward turning ones on either side of the centre pleat.

Cut the ten inch strip into two 5 inch ones, and join in the middle to
form a long band. Fold this neatly in the middle and point one end,
letting the other end be straight.

Join to the back of the apron and stitch on firmly by machine. Put a
fastening in the form of a button and button-hole, or hook and eye, or
patent fastener, on each end of the belt, to complete the apron.

Slip the head through the circular opening and let the apron fall on to
the shoulders, and join the waistband in the front, and there you have
the simplest and quickest made apron one could possibly imagine.

The decoration on my little apron consists of a design of three
conventional red roses with green leaves and stalk, separated by 5
graduated dots, the largest being in the middle. This occurs across the
foot of the apron, about half an inch from the front hem, and again
around the neck, but three inches from the edge of the circle. Right
round the circle is a line of stitching in brown silk, then a row of
green French knots, and then another line of brown, making a narrow
band.

In the centre of the belt is a large button covered in linen, and a
single red rose, minus the stalk, worked on it.


An Apron with Smocking.

[Illustration: AN APRON WITH SMOCKING AND RICHELIEU EMBROIDERY.]

The second apron is also Italian, but this one is more suitable for
needlework or knitting, when one’s frock is apt to pick up pieces of
thread or fluff from the wool. It is easily made from a piece of white
alpaca, 22 inches long by 27 inches wide. A straight piece of material
is used, and the edges are scalloped in three inch wide scallops. Down
both sides and along the bottom there is embroidered in white silk, a
design of leaves, with a centre flower worked in Richelieu openwork,
and the effect of this on the alpaca is really very beautiful.

At the top the apron is narrowed by means of three groups of honeycomb
or diamond smocking, terminating in points. A tiny pocket on the right
hand side has also a little smocking at the base to correspond. This
pocket is made from a 6 inch square of the material and is fastened to
the apron by means of feather-stitching.

The band consists of a piece of alpaca, one yard long and about an inch
wide. This band is stitched all around by machine.


A Pleated Work Apron.

[Illustration: A PLEATED APRON.]

Last of all comes the little odd apron, but I should not be at all
surprised if many of you did not prefer it to either of the others.

For this, one yard of zephyr is needed in a pretty check or plaid
design, and a quarter of a yard of plain zephyr to match or tone in
colour. One of the many that I have made was of white zephyr, with a
plaid design of pale blue and brown. To go with this I chose a plain
chocolate brown, and it really looked exceedingly pretty when finished.

From the yard of check material cut a strip three inches wide along the
selvedge. Then from the remaining piece, cut a strip six inches wide on
the width of the material. This will leave a piece 27 inches wide and
30 long. Most zephyrs run 30 inches wide in the single width.

Lay the material flat on the table and turn down a narrow hem, where
the selvedge has been cut off, also making a hem the selvedge side as
well. Then take two corners of the square and join them together to
form a mitre, being very careful to match the design of the material.
This forms a pocket, which is useful for holding anything. Next cut the
plain material into three strips of 3 inches each, and join into one
long piece. Then the 6 inch piece of checked zephyr should be cut into
two pieces, each measuring 3 inches wide, and also joined into one long
strip.

This leaves you with one long strip of plain, one middle-sized piece of
check, and one shorter strip of check.

Take the short piece of check, which measures just a yard long, and cut
off a piece of plain one inch shorter. Lay the plain material on top
of the check, and tack them together with a line of thread down the
centre. Fold the check material over the plain to form a narrow border
either side, and stitch with machine. Leave one end of this band rough,
and the other end round off, continuing the little border the same as
the sides.

From the 60-inch strip of check, cut off a yard length, and the same
from the plain, proceeding exactly as before, only finishing off one
end quite straight. This makes the shoulder straps and band of the
apron, and should leave two strips of material, one check measuring
24 inches and one plain measuring 18 inches. This latter cut into two
strips one-and-a-half inches wide, and join into one strip again. Turn
down either side of this strip to make a band, and sew along the top
edge of the pocket, slanting each end to make a pretty finish.

When this is done, take a stitch with a needle through the centre of
the pocket and the apron, and this prevents it from gaping.

Take the top of the apron next and lay in twelve half inch tucks, six
going one way and six the reverse, but both facing in towards the
centre of the apron. Before doing this, turn down the rough edge to
make a neat heading. Sew on the two straps at either end of the top.
From the remaining piece of zephyr, cut a strip one-and-a-half inches
wide and the length of the top of the apron bib. Turn in each side and
both ends, and stitch across the bib top to cover the straps.

To finish the apron, work a buttonhole in the rounded end of one of the
strings, and sew a button on the other strap. Then take an iron and
pleat the whole apron from top to bottom in half-inch pleats, using the
stitched pleats of the bib as a guide.

When wearing the apron the straps should go over the shoulders and
cross at the back, and come round the waist and button in the centre
front.

The description of this apron may sound a little difficult, but it is
really simplicity itself, and very quickly made, besides being very
inexpensive.


Hardanger and Cross-Stitch

Edited by FLORA KLICKMANN

    This shows some handsome Hardanger patterns, also Natural
    Designs in Cross-stitch for Violets, Cyclamen, Creeping
    Jenny, Nasturtiums, Daisies, Roses, Fern, Daffodils, Clover,
    Cherries, and Wild Birds. The book is uniform in style and
    price with “Needlework Economies,” and issued by the same
    publishers.



Utilizing Partly-Worn Garments.


Garments are often discarded as being of no use, just because they are
worn in certain parts, whereas a little thought and careful cutting
will often transform them into something quite useful. It is often
possible, for instance, to make garments for the little ones by using
the least worn portions of larger sized clothes. Partly worn woollen
vests can be admirably re-made into babies’ pants.

To make these take the old vest and cut along the line A B, shown on
the little diagram. This cuts away the most worn part of the garment.
Curve out at the bottom, along the lines C D and E F.

The stitches required in the little garments are very simple. Join
by seaming together the edges from D to E. Turn down a fold of about
½-inch round the curved portions, and herringbone or machine-stitch. At
the top, turn down a hem of 1 inch, and stitch in the same way. Make
two eyelet holes in the back of this, and insert a draw-string. A cosy
little garment for baby is the result.

[Illustration: The original garment and what it eventually becomes. The
lines and lettering show where the cutting is done.]


A Use for Old Stockings.

A delightfully warm pair of bloomers for a little girl of 5 or 6 can
be made from the legs of winter stockings, the feet of which are too
worn for further mending. Two pairs are needed. First cut off the legs
just above the darns on the heel, then cut up the back seam and lay
them open. Now lay your pattern on, and you will probably find that you
can just cut the four pieces, bearing in mind that the stocking will
stretch, so can be cut considerably narrower than ordinary material.
When the seams are machined up (once stitching is quite sufficient),
and a hem, wide enough for elastic to be run in, made at the waist and
bottom of the legs, you have as comfortable and cosy a garment as you
could wish for. If the legs of the stockings are hardly wide enough
for your pattern, corners can easily be cut from the ankle or front of
the foot, and joined on to each piece. This sounds very lumpy, but the
seams can be machined quite narrow (you find they don’t fray out at
all), and being of wool are perfectly soft, and will not be noticed in
the wearing.


    Grandma was cutting out new garments from old, and her
    little grand-daughter was an interested spectator.

    “Grandma,” remarked Mollie, “You do cut and contrive, don’t
    you?”

    “No,” said Grandma, “first I contrive, and then I cut.”



Collars for Cold Days.


Furs are a very expensive item at the best of times, and increasingly
so just now. Yet some additional warmth at the throat and neck is very
necessary in the cold weather. The difficulty is admirably settled in
the collars here shown. Besides being warmer, they are a change from an
ordinary scarf, and with a careful choice of colour, can give a very
stylish finish to any coat.


A Collar with very little shaping.

This nicely fitting collar is worked in plain knitting with very little
shaping, and is afterwards given a fur-like appearance by means of a
Teazle Brush.

Materials required.

3 oz. Teazle Wool. Two No. 8 Celluloid Knitting Needles. A large button
mould. Two or three dress-fasteners.

This Collar should be worked at a tension to produce about 6 stitches
and 12 rows to the inch.

Cast on 45 stitches.

Work 8 rows in plain knitting.

* _9th Row._—K 5, turn.

_10th Row._—K 5.

[Illustration: A COLLAR WITH LITTLE SHAPING.]

[Illustration: A SAILOR-SHAPED COLLAR.]

_11th Row._—K 5, lift up the stitch before the next and knit it
together with the next stitch (thereby preventing a hole), K 4, turn.

_12th Row._—K 10.

_13th Row._—K 10, lift up the stitch before the next and knit it
together with the next stitch, K 4, turn.

_14th Row._—K 15.

Continue in this manner, knitting in 5 extra stitches every alternate
row, until all the 45 stitches are on one row again *.

Knit without shaping until the shortest side measures 9 inches.

Finish at the wide edge, then repeat from * to * once.

Knit 9 rows without shaping, then repeat again from * to *.

Knit 9 inches without shaping. Repeat from * to * once more.

Knit 8 rows without shaping. Cast off.

The Button.

Cast on 3 stitches.

Knitting plain, increase once at the beginning of each row until 15
stitches are on the needle.

Knit 6 rows without shaping. Then decrease once at the beginning of
each row until only 3 stitches remain. Cast off.

Raise the surface of each piece lightly with a Teazle Brush, until a
fluffy effect is obtained.

[Sidenote: To Save the Cost of Fur.]

Cover the button-mould with the small round of knitting and sew it on
the right front. Sew dress-fasteners in place on to each front.

If required the collar can be lined with silk or sateen.

A Pretty Sailor Collar.

This sailor shaped collar is a stylish addition to any coat, while at
the same time giving the extra warmth so necessary during cold winter
days. Worked in plain knitting the shaping will be found quite easy to
follow.

Materials required.

3½ oz. Teazle Wool. Two No. 8 Celluloid Knitting Needles. A large
button mould. Two or three dress-fasteners.

This Collar should be worked at a tension to produce about 6 stitches
and 12 rows to the inch.

Commencing along the lower edge at the back of the collar, cast on 126
stitches.

Knitting plain, decrease once at the beginning and end of every 12th
row until 4 stitches have been decreased at each side (leaving 118
stitches in the row).

Then increase once at the beginning and end of every 14th row until two
increasings have been made at each side, making 122 stitches on the
needle, and 76 rows (6½ inches) from the commencement.

The stitches now require to be divided for the neck opening as
follows:—K 42, cast off 38, K 42. On the last 42 stitches, continue
for the first shoulder piece as follows:—On the outside edge continue
increasing once every 14th row, while at the neck edge, decreasing once
every 2nd row until 6 stitches are decreased, then once every following
12th row until 3 more stitches have been decreased.

Knit back to the neck edge then, continuing to decrease once (at
the neck) in every 12th row, shape for the front and shoulder as
follows:—Knit to within 5 stitches of the shoulder edge, turn and knit
back.

Knit to within 5 stitches from the end of the previous row (_i.e._, 10
stitches from the shoulder edge), turn and knit back.

* Knit to within 5 stitches of the end of the last row, turn and knit
back. Repeat from * until only 5 stitches remain in the last short row.

In the next row the stitches require to be all knitted into one row
again, but to prevent little holes from appearing at the turnings
of the short rows a loop from the row below should be lifted up and
knitted together with the next stitch above the turning.

Knit 8 rows without shaping. Cast off.

Join up the wool again at the neck where the 42 stitches were left,
then work the second shoulder on these stitches to correspond with the
first.

The Button.

Cast on 3 stitches.

Knitting plain, increase once at the beginning of each row until 15
stitches are on the needle.

Knit 6 rows without shaping. Then decrease once at the beginning of
each row until only 3 stitches remain. Cast off.

Raise the surface of each piece lightly with a Teazle brush until a
fluffy effect is obtained. Cover the button mould with the small round
of knitting and sew it on the right front. Sew dress-fasteners in place
on each front.

If required the collar can be lined with silk or sateen.



To Freshen a Last Season’s Jersey.


It is always the neck and wrist edges that show the first signs of wear
on a knitted sports coat or jersey, and often a garment is discarded as
done for just because these parts are shabby or out-of-date.

Have you ever thought of knitting an entirely fresh set of collar and
cuffs to replace the soiled parts, or to be added to a collarless
jersey or coat? The existing collar and cuffs can quite easily be cut
away and the raw edges neatly buttonholed with wool before sewing on
the new set.

[Illustration]

You will probably not be successful in getting wool the exact colour
of your jersey, so it will be best to use a striking contrast, such as
purple on a pale blue jersey, or emerald green on a white one; or if
you already have two colours in the jersey, or it is of a specially
brightly-hued tint, black makes a pleasing contrast. And this year
particularly contrasts of colour are very much in vogue, so that your
re-modelled jersey will be quite fashionable.

Here is a practical little set that you will find quite easy to make.


The Collar.

This is of the ever-popular sailor shape that will be quite easily
adapted to most garments.

“Sirdar” Sports Wool has been used for the making on No. 9 bone
needles; or a 5-ply “Sirdar” Scotch Fingering would work up at a
similar tension. Three ounces of wool will be sufficient for the set.

Abbreviations Used.

K = knit; P = purl; N = narrow (k two st together); st = stitch or
stitches.

Commence from the back edge and cast on 78 st.

K 17 rows plain.

_18th Row._—K 8, P to 8 st from the end of the row, K 8.

_19th Row._—Knit plain.

Repeat the 18th and 19th rows twice.

_24th Row._—K 8, P 4, * K 6, P 6, repeat from * 3 times, K 6, P 4, K 8.

_25th Row_—K 12, * P 6, K 6, repeat from * 3 times, P 6, K 12.

Repeat the 24th and 25th rows once.

_28th Row._—K 8, P 10, * K 6, P 6, repeat from * twice, K 6, P 10, K 8.

_29th Row._—K 18, * P 6, K 6, repeat from * twice, P 6, K 18.

Repeat the 28th and 29th rows once.

Repeat from the 24th row once, and then from the 24th to the 27th row
once. This completes the pattern.

K 24 rows a plain and a purl row [Sidenote: Other Ways of Renovating.]

alternately, always working the 8 border st plain in _every_ row.

Now to divide for the neck: K 34, and slip these st on to a safety-pin.
Cast off 14 st for the centre of the neck, and on the remaining 34 st
knit up the left front of the collar thus: Work 10 rows a plain and a
purl row alternately, knitting the 2nd and 3rd st together of every row
turned from the neck edge, and continuing the 8 plain border st.

Continue shaping in this way, decreasing also at the border side by
purling the 10th and 11th st together of every 4th row turned from the
border edge.

When you have worked off all but the 8 border st continue in plain
knitting, decreasing from the neck edge only, until only 3 st remain.

Reverse the directions for the right side of collar.

Now pick up all the loops from the neck edge and K 6 plain rows.


The Cuffs.

Cast on 50 st.

K 13 rows plain.

_14th Row._—K 6, P to 6 st from the end of the row, K 6.

_15th Row._—Plain.

Repeat the 14th and 15th rows once.

_18th Row._—K 6, P 4, K 6, P 6, K 6, P 6, K 6, P 4, K 6.

_19th Row._—K 10, P 6, K 6, P 6, K 6, P 6, K 10.

Repeat the 18th and 19th rows once.

_22nd Row._—K 6, P 10, K 6, P 6, K 6, P 10, K 6.

_23rd Row._—K 16, P 6, K 6, P 6, K 16.

Repeat the 22nd and 23rd rows once.

Repeat from the 16th row to the 19th row once. This completes the
pattern.

K 16 rows a plain and a purl row alternately, working the 6 border st
plain in _every_ row.

K 6 plain rows, cast off.


For a Collarless Coat.

Another simple way of freshening the neck of a collarless jersey coat
is to work a strip of plain knitting 4 inches wide and 12 inches long,
and stretch it along the neck edge. Cuffs can be worked to correspond.

A pretty striped effect for this style of finish can be arrived at by
using two different shades of wool, and working first four rows of one
and then four rows of the other.


The Modern Knitting Book

Edited by FLORA KLICKMANN

    If you are interested in knitting, this is the book you
    should possess. It includes a number of directions for
    garments for men and women’s wear, and some delightful
    patterns for the little ones, to say nothing of the designs
    in fancy knitting for household use. The volume is uniform
    with this series, and issued by the same publishers.



The Use and Abuse of Gloves.


Never be tempted to throw away a pair of gloves, however old. That is,
until you have decided on their utter uselessness. Because a glove has
holey fingers, or a badly torn thumb, or a split palm, it does not
signify that it is of no use except for house-work.

Our illustration will show what can be done with gloves that are
“nearly hopeless” to most people.


To Mend a Glove worn Between the Fingers.

The first part to go is, as a rule, between the fingers. This more
especially is the case with washing gloves, which have a tendency to
shrink, and wash-leathers, unless splice-seamed, will _always_ do this.

As the fingers shrink, the space between splits, and it cannot be sewn
up because it would make the hand too tight and the fingers too short.

To remedy this, take a reel of strong thread and a small fur needle
(three-sided needle) and make a fine net-work between the two fingers.

[Illustration: SHOWING THE LATTICE-WORK BETWEEN THE FINGERS, AND ALSO
HOW TO APPLY A NEW THUMB.]

Button-hole the edge of the split as you form the lattice. Insert
your needle in the edge of the hole and make one button-hole stitch;
then take your needle into the other side of the hole with another
button-hole stitch. Then two button-hole stitches, and take your needle
up to the top edge of the hole, near where you began.

This forms bars about 1/16-inch apart, and with two button-hole
stitches in between.

This completed, turn the glove and do the same thing across from side
to side, knotting the thread each time it crosses the under-threads. By
this means, a tiny net-work is made.

This net-work is elastic, and will wear and wash into shape and last as
long as the glove itself.


Making a Neat Patch.

Next to the fingers, the thumb is the worst problem.

I find that opening carriage doors has an unfortunate knack of
splitting a glove, where the thumb joins the palm.

If there is plenty of room, this split I can be neatly joined up, but
the better plan is to patch it with a tiny piece of an old glove.

[Sidenote: Taking Care of Your Gloves.]

Tack the patch in, and then with fine silk the colour of the glove,
button-hole around the edge of the tear, taking up the under-skin
as well. This keeps it firm and neat, and the patch may be cut away
underneath, just leaving a small margin for stretch.


Adding a New Thumb.

If the top of the thumb wears out, and is unpatchable, an entirely new
one can be put in with very little trouble. I have an old piece of
chamois leather, which I keep for this very thing, and it answers the
purpose beautifully.

Cut out the torn thumb _carefully_, retaining the shape as much as
possible. Split up the seam and lay it flat on the piece of leather or
kid which you are using to mend the glove.

Cut around the pattern, leaving a tiny margin, as your sewing is not as
fine as that done by an expert.

Then tack the new thumb into the glove around the base.

Button-hole this carefully in, and lastly button-hole the seam up the
thumb and across the top. This will be found _quite_ easy.

For coloured kid gloves, I buy scraps of kid from the boot maker, and
you can procure quite a nice sized piece for a small sum, large enough
to cut any size thumb and to leave a good few scraps for patching.

Always remember in putting on gloves to proceed slowly, pulling on the
fingers first and half the palm next, and the thumb last.

Be as careful in taking off as in putting on, and pull each finger and
thumb into shape.

[Illustration: A Patchwork Cloth made with “pieces” machined together
and finished with some narrow insertion.]



A Knitted Hat.


Materials Required.

For the hat illustrated a buckram shape was used with the brim slightly
curled all round, and deeper at the back than the front, and having
a tall crown; 1 ounce of purple wool, and 3 ounces of white 4-ply
“Beehive” Scotch Fingering; five No. 14 long steel knitting-needles.
The fifth needle is only required for the brim where there are too many
stitches for three needles.

Hat shapes alter, of course, from time to time, but the general
principles remain the same, and by a little adaptation, this can be
made to suit any shape of the “sailor” class.

[Illustration: The Hat is white, and the Flower Pattern is worked in
purple.]


Directions.

Commence by casting on 2 st on each of three needles. Knit 1st row
plain.

_2nd Row._—Knit twice into each st, thus—knit the st, but retain it on
the left needle, twist the point of the right needle round to the back
of the st and knit the other side of this st, then drop the st off the
left needle. Repeat into every st.

_3rd Row, and every Alternate Row._—Knit plain.

_4th Row._—* Knit 1, knit twice into next st, repeat from *.

_6th Row._—* Knit 2, knit twice into each st, repeat from *.

_8th Row._—* Knit 3, knit twice into next st, repeat from *.

Continue in this way, increasing the number of stitches in each section
by 1 st before the increase until in the 46th row, there are 24 st in
each section, that is 144 st in the row.

Knit 42 rows on the 144 st.

_89th Row._—* Knit 11, knit twice into the next st, repeat from *.

_90th Row._—Knit plain and repeat these 2 rows until the number in each
section is increased to 20, then knit 10 rows of the 240 st.

Use the spare needle to take off some of the stitches, putting 60 st on
each of the 4 needles.

Work in ribbing of knit 1, purl 1 all round for 16 rows, then cast off
the stitches on 2 of the needles, continue on the other 2 the ribbing
for the wide part of the brim, casting off 4 st at the beginning and
end of every row (composed of the stitches on the 2 needles), until
this piece measures 1½ inches, then cast off.

It will be necessary to fit the covering to the shape to see that it
fits evenly, and to add or subtract a row or two perhaps to the part
for each portion of the shape, while working.

[Sidenote: Pretty and Durable.]

Stretch the covering over the shape and tack along the line between the
crown and brim to the shape, turn the wrong side of the hat towards
you and gather up the edge of the covering to fit the shape along the
edge of the crown. Sew the knitting securely to this edge of the shape.
Headline the hat and press the brim with a warm iron, placing a damp
cloth under and over it; iron until the cloths are quite dry.


The Band.

This is made in the new floral knitting, and gives a nice finish to a
very useful and becoming hat.

Using the same kind of white wool and 2 needles, cast on 20 st and work
30 rows, 1 plain and 1 purl row alternately, so that there is a right
and a wrong side to the band.

_31st Row._—Knit 13 (using the white wool), tie on the purple wool
close up to the 13th st, and knit 4 p (purple), then finish the row
with white.

When using two or more colours in this class of knitting, one of the
wools is stretched across the fingers of the left hand just as in
crochet, and the wool for the stitch taken from this by inserting
the needle under it and drawing the loop through the stitch you are
knitting on the left-hand needle. Keep the different wools at opposite
sides of your work, so as not to tangle them, and see that the wools
on the back of the work are kept even and not pulled too tightly,
otherwise the work will pucker.

_32nd Row._—Purl 7 w (white), 1 p (purple), 12 w.

_33rd Row._—Knit 11 w (always slipping the 1st st), 1 p, 8 w.

_34th Row._—Purl 9 w, 1 p, 10 w.

_35th Row._—Knit 9 w, 2 p, 9 w.

_36th Row._—Purl 10 w, 1 p, 9 w.

_37th Row._—Knit 8 w, 1 p, 11 w.

_38th Row._—Purl 12 w, 1 p, 7 w.

_39th Row._—Knit 7 w, 1 p, 12 w.

_40th Row._—Purl 12 w, 1 p, 7 w.

_41st Row._—Knit 7 w, 1 p, 12 w.

_42nd Row._—Purl 12 w, 1 p, 7 w.

_43rd Row._—Knit 7 w, 1 p, 1 w, 2 p, 9 w.

_44th Row._—Purl 8 w, 4 p, 1 w, 3 p, 4 w.

_45th Row._—Knit 4 w, 8 p, 1 w, 2 p, 5 w.

_46th Row._—Purl 4 w, 5 p, 3 w, 4 p, 4 w.

_47th Row._—Knit 6 w, 1 p, 2 w, 1 p, 2 w, 4 p, 4 w.

_48th Row._—Purl 5 w, 3 p, 1 w, 3 p, 1 w, 3 p, 4 w.

_49th Row._—Knit 3 w, 4 p, 2 w, 1 p, 2 w, 1 p, 7 w.

_50th Row._—Purl 5 w, 4 p, 3 w, 5 p, 3 w.

_51st Row._—-Knit 4 w, 2 p, 1 w, 8 p, 5 w.

_52nd Row._—Purl 4 w, 4 p, 1 w, 4 p, 3 w, 1 p, 3 w.

_53rd Row._—Knit 3 w, 3 p, 1 w, 4 p, 1 w, 3 p, 5 w.

_54th Row._—Purl 10 w, 2 p, 1 w, 3 p, 4 w.

_55th Row._—Knit 7 w, 1 p, 6 w, 3 p, 3 w.

_56th Row._—Purl 2 w, 5 p, 4 w, 1 p, 1 w, 2 p, 5 w.

_57th Row._—Knit 4 w, 4 p, 1 w. 4 p, 1 w, 3 p, 3 w.

_58th Row._—Purl 4 w, 1 p, 1 w, 4 p, 2 w, 2 p, 1 w, 1 p, 4 w.

_59th Row._—Knit 5 w, 2 p, 2 w, 8 p, 3 w.

_60th Row._—Purl 3 w, 4 p, 1 w, 2 p, 10 w.

_61st Row._—Knit 11 w, 3 p, 6 w.

_62nd Row._—Purl 6 w, 1 p, 13 w.

Knit next 22 rows all white, then repeat from the 31st row three times
more, ending with 30 rows of white.

Press this band on the wrong side as in the brim, turn in each end to
form an angle, and secure on the wrong side with a few stitches made
with the woollen thread, press the ends flat, then place the band round
the hat in the manner illustrated and sew in place.


To Wash the Hat.

The covering and band are easily removed from the shape when it becomes
necessary to clean the hat.

Make a lather of warm soapy water, immerse the covering and press and
squeeze through the hands, but do not rub, until it seems clean, then
squeeze out all the water possible and rinse in clean warm water, again
squeeze as dry as possible, and place immediately before the fire until
nearly, but not quite, dry. Have the wrong side turned out. Press on
the wrong side with a hot iron until quite dry, pull into shape, and
replace over the buckram.

The band, or covering, if it be made with coloured wool, should have a
handful of salt added to the lather and rinsing water.

[Illustration: Design No. 8. This Stocking Top is described on page
27.]



Fancy Tops for Socks and Stockings.


Very pretty effects can be obtained for turnover stocking tops by
working in plain knitting in two or three shades of wool. The designs
illustrated are worked in grey wool, with black and white introduced
just to show the contrast, and when worked in bright colours many of
these would be very effective. For instance, saxe blue and a bright
brown would be pretty on a grey sock, and emerald green and white on
a navy sock is another combination; or the boy’s particular school
colours can be introduced, giving a uniform touch to his rig-out.

These tops are not at all difficult to work, and can be added to any
sock directions. They are best commenced with six or eight rows of
ribbing, as this makes them set well, and when the fancy design is
completed the work is turned before commencing the sock itself. Care
must be taken to see that you have the correct multiple of stitches
for the particular design chosen, and, if necessary, add the required
number to give this after the ribbing, decreasing them to the original
number again, to get the even rib before commencing the sock.

Another point that should be borne in mind is, that the wools must be
allowed to run very loosely, or the design will become contracted.
You can also quite easily prevent the wools becoming twisted together
in the working, if in changing from one wool to another you weave the
wools first over, and then under the shade previously used.

If you find you have the design contracted a little when finished,
pressing with a hot iron over a damp cloth will often relieve this. In
fact, all knitted garments are the better for being pressed in this way.

The directions given are for a sock for a boy of from six to seven
years of age, and the leg measures 11½ inches to the base of the heel
when the top is turned over; the foot measures seven inches from heel
to toe.

[Illustration: A FINISHED STOCKING SHOWING DESIGN No. 1.]


The Sock.

Abbreviations Used.

K = knit; P = purl; N = narrow (decrease a stitch by knitting two
stitches together); St = stitch or stitches.

Materials required: 4 ounces of Messrs. J. & J. Baldwin’s 4-ply grey
“Beehive” Scotch Fingering, a half ounce each of white and black wool,
and four No. 15 steel needles.

With grey wool cast on 64 st, 22 on each of two needles and 20 on the
third needle. Work in rib of K 2, and P 2 for 8 rounds. Work one plain
round, increasing your number of st to 70, then commence the fancy top,
using the three wools as follows:

_10th and 11th Rounds._—4 grey (G), 3 white (W), 4 G, 3 black (B).
Repeat.

_12th and 13th Rounds._—2 B, 2 W, 3 G, 2 W, 2 B, 3 G. Repeat.

_14th and 15th Rounds._—2 W, 2 B, 3 G, 2 B, 2 W, 3 G. Repeat.

_16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Rounds._—4 G, 3 B, 4 G, 3 W. Repeat.

_20th and 21st Rounds._—2 W, 2 B, 3 G, 2 B, 2 W, 3 G. Repeat.

_22nd and 23rd Rounds._—2 B, 2 W, 3 G, 2 W, 2 B, 3 G. Repeat.

[Illustration: Design No. 2.]

_24th and 25th Rounds._—4 G, 3 W, 4 G. 3 B. Repeat.

Work a plain round in the grey wool and decrease your stitches to 64
again.

Turn the work, and commence the sock in rib of K 3, P 1.

Work for 5½ inches, then commence shaping for the leg as follows: K 1,
N, work in rib to the four last st of the round N, K 1, P 1.

Decrease in this way four times, with 7 rows between each decreasing.

Work an inch without shaping, then divide the st, putting half on to
one needle for the heel, taking care that the decreasings made come in
the centre of the needle.


The Heel.

Make an extra stitch, so that you have an odd number on the needle (you
should then have 29 st), and knit and purl a row alternately (always
slipping the first st) until you have worked the same number of rows as
you have st on the needle, ending with a purl row.

K 16, N, K 1, turn.

P 5, Purl 2 together, P 1, turn.

K 6, N, K 1, turn.

P 7, Purl 2 together, P 1, turn, and continue in this manner until all
the stitches have been worked on to one needle again.

[Illustration: Design No. 3.]

Pick up 14 loops at each side of the heel, and commence working in
rounds again for the foot, continuing the rib on the instep needles,
but working in plain knitting for the under part of the foot.

[Illustration: Design No. 4.]

In the first round narrow at each side, by taking the two lowest
stitches picked up from the side of the heel flap together.

Repeat this decreasing three times, with 1 round between each. Continue
the foot without further shaping for 3½ inches, when you will be ready
for the toe.


The Toe.

Put half your st on the heel needle, and divide the remainder between
the other two needles. Work the toe in plain knitting all round,
decreasing at each end of the heel needle, and at the outer end of the
other needles every other round, until you have only 20 st left in
the round. Place these on to two needles, and cast off both needles
together.

[Sidenote: For the Small Boy.]


Design No. 2.

For this pattern the number of st used must give a multiple of 8.

_1st and 2nd Rounds._—3 G, 5 B. Repeat.

_3rd and 4th Rounds._—1 B, * 1 G, 7 B. Repeat from *.

_5th and 6th Rounds._—4 G, * 3 B, 5 G. Repeat from *.

_7th and 8th Rounds._—1 G, * W, 2 G, 1 B, 1 G, 1 B, 2 G. Repeat from *.

_9th and 10th Rounds._—3 W, 5 G. Repeat.

_11th and 12th Rounds._—1 G, * 1 W, 2 G, 1 B, 1 G, 1 B, 2 G. Repeat
from *.

_13th and 14th Rounds._—4 G, * 3 B, 5 G. Repeat from *.

_15th and 16th Rounds._—1 B, * 1 G, 7 B. Repeat from *.

_17th and 18th Rounds._—3 G, 5 B. Repeat.


Design No. 3.

For this pattern the number of stitches used must give a multiple of 6.

[Illustration: Design No. 5.]

Commence the border by working 2 plain rounds in the black wool, then 2
plain rounds in the white.

_5th and 6th Rounds._—1 B, 5 W. Repeat.

_7th and 8th Rounds._—1 W, * 3 B, 3 W. Repeat from *.

_9th and 10th Rounds._—2 W, 1 B. Repeat.

_11th and 12th Rounds._—1 W, 3 B, 1 W, 1 B. Repeat.

_13th and 14th Rounds._—1 W, * 3 G, 3 W. Repeat from *.

_15th and 16th Rounds._—5 G, 1 W. Repeat.

_17th and 18th Rounds._—White.

_19th and 20th Rounds._—Black.


4th Design.

For this pattern the number of stitches used must give a multiple of 10

_1st and 2nd Rounds._—White.

_3rd and 4th Rounds._—Black.

_5th and 6th Rounds._—1 B, 1 W. Repeat.

_7th and 8th Rounds._—White.

[Illustration: Design No. 6.]

[Illustration: Design No. 7.]

_9th and 10th Rounds._—1 W, * 2 B, 3 W, 2 G, 3 W. Repeat from *.

_11th and 12th Rounds._—4 B, 1 W, 4 G, 1 W. Repeat.

_13th and 14th Rounds._—1 W, * 2 B, 3 W, 2 G, 3 W. Repeat from *.

_15th and 16th Rounds._—White.

_17th and 18th Rounds._—1 B, 1 W, Repeat.

_19th and 20th Rounds._—Black.

_21st and 22nd Rounds._—White.


Design No. 5.

For this pattern the number of stitches used must give a multiple of 11.

_1st and 2nd Rounds._—White.

_3rd and 4th Rounds._—Black.

_5th and 6th Rounds._—3 G, 1 W, 2 B, 2 W, 2 B, 1 W. Repeat.

[Sidenote: Effective Patterns.]

_7th and 8th Rounds._—1 W, 1 G, 1 W, 2 B, 1 W, 2 G, 1 W, 2 B. Repeat.

_9th and 10th Rounds._—1 B, * 1 W, 2 B, 1 W, 4 G, 1 W, 2 B. Repeat from
*.

_11th and 12th Rounds._—3 B, 1 W, 6 G, 1 W. Repeat.

_13th and 14th Rounds._—1 B, * 1 W, 2 B, 1 W, 4 G, 1 W, 2 B. Repeat
from *.

_15th and 16th Rounds._—1 W, 1 G, 1 W, 2 B, 1 W, 2 G, 1 W, 2 B. Repeat.

_17th and 18th Rounds._—3 G, 1 W, 2 B, 2 W, 2 B, 1 W. Repeat.

_19th and 20th Rounds._—Black.

_21st and 22nd Rounds._—White.


Design No. 6.

For this pattern the number of stitches used must give a multiple of 8.

_1st and 2nd Rounds._—4 B, 4 G. Repeat.

_3rd and 4th Rounds._—4 G, 4 B. Repeat.

_5th and 6th Rounds._—Black.

_7th and 8th Rounds._—3 G, 5 B. Repeat.

_9th and 10th Rounds._—2 G, * 2 W, 3 B, 3 G. Repeat from *.

_11th and 12th Rounds._—2 G, * 1 B, 3 W, 1 B, 3 G. Repeat from *.

_13th and 14th Rounds._—1 G, * 3 B, 2 W, 3 G. Repeat from *.

_15th and 16th Rounds._—4 B, * 3 G, 5 B. Repeat from *.

_17th and 18th Rounds._—Black.

_19th and 20th Rounds._—4 B, 4 G. Repeat.

_21st and 22nd Rounds._—4 G, 4 B. Repeat.


Design No. 7.

Only two colours will be needed for this design, and the number of
stitches used must give a multiple of 8.

_1st and 2nd Rounds._—Black.

_3rd and 4th Rounds._—Grey.

_5th and 6th Rounds._—1 B, 2 G, 4 B, 1 G. Repeat.

_7th and 8th Rounds._—1 B, 2 G, 1 B, 4 G. Repeat

_9th and 10th Rounds._—1 B, 2 G, 1 B, 4 G. Repeat.

_11th and 12th Rounds._—7 B, 1 G. Repeat.

_13th and 14th Rounds._—3 G, 1 B, 2 G, 1 B, 1 G. Repeat.

_15th and 16th Rounds._—3 G, 1 B, 2 G, 1 B, 1 G. Repeat.

_17th and 18th Rounds._—4 B, 2 G, 1 B, 1 G. Repeat.

_19th and 20th Rounds._—Grey.

_21st and 22nd Rounds._—Black.


Design No. 8.

This border works out a good deal wider than the others, and would
perhaps be more suitable for a man’s stocking; or to reduce the width
the stripes from each edge could be omitted. Stitches giving a multiple
of 8 will be required.

_1st and 2nd Rounds._—Black.

_3rd and 4th Rounds._—White.

_5th and 6th Rounds._—Black.

_7th and 8th Rounds._—Grey.

_9th and 10th Rounds._—5 G, 3 B. Repeat.

_11th and 12th Rounds._—6 G, * 1 B, 7 G. Repeat from *.

_13th and 14th Rounds._—2 G, * 1 W, 7 G. Repeat from *.

_15th and 16th Rounds._—1 G, * 3 W, 5 G. Repeat from *.

_17th and 18th Rounds._—3 W, 4 G, Repeat.

_19th and 20th Rounds._—2 W, * 4 B, 1 G, 3 W. Repeat from *.

_21st and 22nd Rounds._—3 W, 5 G. Repeat.

_23rd and 24th Rounds._—1 G, * 3 W, 5 G. Repeat from *.

_25th and 26th Rounds._—2 G, * 1 W, 7 G. Repeat from *.

_27th and 28th Rounds._—6 G, * 1 B, 7 G. Repeat from *.

_29th and 30th Rounds._—5 G, 3 B. Repeat.

_31st and 32nd Rounds._—Grey.

_33rd and 34th Rounds._—Black.

_35th and 36th Rounds._—White.

_37th and 38th Rounds._—Black.



Making a Child’s Overall from a Narrow Skirt.


Good quality washing materials for making children’s everyday frocks
are now so very much more expensive than in pre-war days, that the
economical woman who happens to have a number of washing skirts of the
narrower type so popular a few years ago, would be wise to make some
good use of them.

While it is a comparatively simple matter for the woman who makes
her own clothes to remodel a full skirt into a narrow design quite
successfully, it is not so simple to adapt a narrow design to a wider
pattern. Even if one could match the material, it is never wise to use
new fabric with old, and the freshness of the new material would only
give emphasis to the fact that the other parts were slightly worn.

Here is a suggestion that may not have occurred to everyone. Have you
ever thought what really excellent little garments for the children can
be made from the best parts of a cotton skirt? As an example, we are
showing how the child’s overall illustrated can be cut from a two-piece
skirt of quite the narrowest type (this design only measures 1⅜ yards
round the hem) without even cutting into the parts that are likely to
be the most worn.

[Illustration: THE OVERALL THAT CAN BE CUT FROM A NARROW SKIRT.]

Whether the skirt used is made of linen, piqué, casement cloth, or
any of the stouter washing fabrics, it would serve admirably for
making this little frock that can either be worn as an overall over
another frock, or as a little summer play frock without another dress
underneath.

The skirt made use of in this instance is a two-gored design, with a
seam at each side, and to cut the pattern as shown on the diagram, the
hem of the skirt should be unpicked, also the side seams from the waist
to just below the hips, or just far enough to allow of the skirt being
laid flat out on the table.

[Sidenote: Easy to Make and to Slip On.]

Take care to see that you have the skirt placed so that there is
an even fold at centre back and front, and the side seams back one
another, then lay on your pattern. You will see that in placing the
sleeve portion it comes over the side seam of the skirt, giving you
two seams in the sleeve instead of one, but the second seam will come
on the under-arm so that it will not in any way spoil the appearance
of the garment. The collar and cuff portions will need to be lined in
order to neaten them, and you will probably find sufficient from the
cuttings to cut these out again, or if not, a small piece of white
calico could quite well be used for this.

[Illustration: A DIAGRAM FOR CUTTING OUT THE OVERALL FROM A SKIRT.]

The back of the overall is cut down from neck to hem, and finished with
a hem at each side, and fastened with buttons and buttonholes.

Many varieties of trimming could be used for a little overall of this
description. French knots worked in a contrasting colour along the
hem and round the collar and cuffs would be effective, or some simple
cross-stitch animal designs would look well.

Use Clark’s “Anchor” Coton à Broder, No. 12.

A frock for a two-year old has been used as an example, but it would be
quite possible to cut a larger size in a like manner, though it might
be necessary to put a false hem of some other material.


Stitchery.

    If you are interested in Needlework, you will like the
    magazine “Stitchery” that is being edited by Flora
    Klickmann. It deals with practically every form of
    Needlecraft, plain and fancy, including Crochet. It is
    a high-class publication, printed in the same style as
    “Needlework Economies.”



Re-footing made Easy.


[Illustration: A Hand-knit Sock showing the replaceable foot sections,
and the method of reinforcing the heel.]

This method of knitting hose renders it an easy matter to repair the
heel and toe when these parts become worn. By simply undoing the end
stitch of a row of crochet chain stitches, the sole, heel, or toe part
can be almost instantly removed by pulling the thread and undoing the
crochet. The chain stitches are used to join the different parts, which
are worked separately and then joined together.

When the worn part is removed, a piece exactly the same size is knitted
and joined to the remainder of the sock with the row of chain stitches.
In this way the leg and instep portions, which seldom wear out, may be
made to serve for two or three renewals of the parts exposed to wear.

It is just as easy to knit a sock or stocking in the new way as in the
old, and the saving effected by the new way is great, especially now,
when woollen thread is both scarce and expensive. The same may be said
about cotton thread.

The sock or stocking is begun in the usual way, and may be made either
plain or ribbed.

The sock illustrated is a full-size man’s sock, and the joinings are
shown in the dark line round the heel, along the side of the foot, and
across the instep at the beginning of the front toe part.

These joinings were made in black thread on the white sock in order to
show the joinings, but in making a sock they must all be worked with
the same thread as in the sock. Then the joinings are not visible on
the outside, nor is there a seam on the inside, as the row of chain
stitches forms a flat line.


Working the Leg.

In the sock shown here 80 st were cast on three No. 12
knitting-needles. On these were worked 4 inches of ribbing—1 plain, 1
purl. Then 5 inches of plain knitting with a back seam.


The Instep.

Divide for the heel, putting 20 st at each side of the back seam, all
on one needle. Divide the 39 remaining st on to the two needles, and
continue knitting on these (leaving the heel needle for the present),
knit and purl alternate rows until the piece is 6 inches long. Put the
39 st on one needle, and leave this part aside for the present.


The Heel.

Cast on 41 st on a needle in “slip loops,” that is, wind the thread
once round the top of the thumb, and take over the loop so formed on
to the needle.

[Sidenote: Renewing Worn Portions.]

Knit the 41 loops, purling the 21st for the back seam, which is
preserved for the entire heel.

Purl the next row, then knit and purl alternate rows until there are 24
rows in all.


Closing the Heel.

_1st Row._—Knit to the 9th st after the back seam, slip the 10th st, k
next stitch, pull the slipped stitch over, k 1, turn (leaving 8 st).

_2nd Row._—Slip 1st st and pull back to the 10th after the back seam,
purl 10th and 11th together, purl next st, turn and repeat these 2 rows
until all the stitches at each side have been taken in. Cut the thread,
leaving a short end attached.


The Sole.

There should now be 24 st at each side of the heel, and 23 along the
top of it. Cast on a number equal to these, 71, with the “slip loops.”
K and p alternate rows for 4 rows. Then decrease in every plain row
in the 3rd and 4th st from each end, thus:—k 2, sl 1, k 1, pass the
slipped st over, k to the 4th st from the end, k 4th and 3rd together,
k 2.

Continue until the stitches are reduced to 39, to correspond with the
stitches on the instep.

Knit this piece until it is exactly the same length as the instep
portion.

[Illustration: How the new Toe and Heel for a Machine-knit Sock are
worked.]


The Toe.

Take two additional needles, cast on 20 st on one, and 19 on the other,
following after those on the sole needle, making the “slip loops” as
before. Join round, and k 2 rows plain.

Decrease in the next round thus:—k first 2 on the sole needle, sl 1,
k 1, pass the slipped st over, k to the 4th st from the end of this
needle, k 3rd and 2nd together, k 2.

Knit first 2 st on next needle, sl 1, k 1, pass the slipped st over, k
remainder of needle, k next needle to the last 4 st, k 4th and 3rd st
together, k 2.

Knit 6 rounds. Decrease as before.

Knit 5 rounds. Decrease. Knit 4 rounds. Decrease.

Knit 3 rounds. Decrease.

Knit 2 rounds. Decrease.

Decrease in every 2nd round until there are 11 st remaining on the sole
needle. Put back and front needles together, and taking a corresponding
stitch from each needle, cast off 2 together. Draw the thread through
last loop and cut it, leaving a short end.


The Method of Joining.

Commencing at the back part of the leg portion, place the heel in
position, having the wrong sides turned towards you.

With a No. 1 steel crochet hook, make a chain on the end of the thread,
insert the hook through the 1st st on the heel, and through the 1st st
on the needle of the leg portion, draw a loop through these 2 together,
and through the chain on the hook, insert the hook through the next
st on the heel, slip off the joined st on the needle, insert the hook
through the next st on the needle, draw a loop through the 2 st and
the loop on the needle, repeat to the end of the needle, then take up
the foot part, and put it in place on the heel. Join in the same way,
inserting the hook through corresponding stitches. Continue up the
side, across the instep and along to the heel again. Fasten the thread,
leaving about an inch of it. Work the end into the following stitches
to conceal it.

It can be readily seen that when any part is worn and requires to
be renewed, the joining thread can be cut and unravelled as far as
required.


To Renew the Toe Portion.

Undo the chain stitches along the front, cut the sole part in a line
with the front, unpick the threads to get an even line of stitches,
pick these up on a needle, and knit the toe piece exactly like the
first one. Join to the front in the same manner.


To Reinforce the Heel and Toe.

It is not generally known that these parts can be so reinforced that
their durability is prolonged two or three times. The best method of
doing this is shown in the sock illustrated.

“Star Sylko” No. 5, matching the colour of the sock, is worked into the
lines of knitted stitches, using a darning needle for the purpose.

Take up one side of each st on the needle, draw the thread through,
working in perpendicular rows, come back on the other side of the
stitches down to where the 1st row was commenced, and so on. In this
way the cotton thread is all on the outside of the woollen knitting,
and receives all the friction from the shoe, while it never comes next
to the skin. The dark strip down the heel shows where the strengthening
stitches have been worked in.


To Re-Knit a Heel and Toe into a Machine-Knit Sock.

In the machine-knit sock the heel and toe are not made in the same
way as in most of the hand-knit variety, but usually on the lines of
the illustration at bottom of page. In the case of the heel, a portion
of the leg has been worked to show how the heel is made straight on to
this.

[Sidenote: Repairing Machine-made Socks.]

Cut away the heel at its base to the 1st decreasing st. Make a cut
across the sole next the heel in a line with the 3rd decreasing at each
side.

Turn back 3 rows under the sole, where they must be secured with a flat
seam, using a piece of the same kind of thread and a darning needle.
Pick up the stitches at the base of the heel on to a knitting needle.
Fasten the thread and knit a row. Then purl and knit alternate rows,
taking the first 2 st together in every row until the st are reduced to
one-third of those in the 1st row.

Continue working a plain and a purl row alternately on these stitches,
increasing by picking up a loop at the end of each row from the side
of the flap just worked, until you have closed the heel, and have the
original number of stitches on the needle. Join to the sole part with a
row of crochet chain stitches.


The Toe Part.

This is worked exactly like the heel, picking up one-half of the st
round the foot part. Knit the toe part as in the heel, working back to
close the toe in the same way, then join to the front part with a row
of chain stitches.

[Illustration: Band boxes covered with chintz to match the hangings
give a pretty touch to a room. A large bow of plain colour serves to
lift the lid. The waste paper receptacle matches the box.]



How to Re-heel a Worn Sock.


When the heel only becomes worn out in a hand-knitted sock or stocking,
it is an easy matter to replace the worn-out portion and the adjacent
weak parts.

If possible, let the mending thread be a little finer in texture than
that used in the stocking, and when not possible to match the thread in
colour use white—in fact, many people prefer white heels and toes in
their hosiery.

We are illustrating a grey sock re-heeled with white to show clearly
how the work is done. Run a coloured thread through each stitch at the
base of the heel in a straight line from side to side. In the same way
run another piece of thread through the stitches at the top of the sole
where it adjoins the heel “closing” portion, that is from the first to
the last stitch on the centre of the heel to where the stitches at each
side of the heel were raised.

Now count the number of rows in the heel before the “closing” was
begun, and the number of stitches at each side of the back seam after
the closing was finished. Take a note of these, as the piece re-knitted
must fit exactly.

Cut away the worn part that you wish to replace from the second row
_inside_ the marking thread, and the second row from each side where
the side stitches were taken up. Pick out the cut threads from each
side of the heel until you come to the “raised” stitches, which you may
leave for the present as they cannot ravel.

Pick out the cut threads from the rows inside the marking threads in
the same way. The marking thread should be through every stitch so that
they cannot ravel.

Take up the stitches at the base of the heel and re-knit exactly as it
was before and close it in the same way. Tie the thread when the last
row in the heel closing is done, cut it and work the end in through the
stitches.

Thread a darning needle with a length of the same kind of thread and
fasten the thread to the beginning of the heel at the right side. * Run
the needle behind the next of the “raised” stitches on the sole at the
base of that stitch, bring it back to the heel, and running it inwards
through the first stitch where it was brought out bring it out through
the next heel stitch and repeat from * up to the stitches on the needle
which are connected to those on the thread in the same way, slipping
off each stitch when joined. Work down the other side in the same way,
fasten off the thread and cut it. Work in the end of the thread through
a few stitches. Remove the marking threads. This heel will have no seam.

[Illustration]



Slippers you can Make.


Footwear, like everything else, is exceedingly high-priced at present,
and to know how to economize in this direction is a serious problem.
But have you ever thought of making your slippers? This is really
quite possible. Indeed, there is no reason why very presentable
shoes and slippers cannot be made at home. In nearly every household
the materials are already at hand. Pieces of velvet, tweed, felt or
cloth are all suitable, and to show what can be done in this way we
illustrate here two pairs of comfortable slippers made from oddments.

The first is a neat pair made from a piece of left-over dress material,
in black and white woollen check, a bit of red flannel for lining and
some navy serge coating for the soles, which are formed over the usual
cardboard. Then the pair of men’s slippers were built up on a pair of
leather soles with fleecy lining. Grey tweed left over from making a
boy’s suit was utilised, and a scrap of blue flannel shirting forms the
lining.

[Illustration: A PAIR OF MEN’S SLIPPERS.]

[Illustration: SLIPPERS MADE FROM CHECK MATERIAL.]

You will probably see the advantage of making these at home, and any
comfortable old slipper can be cut up for a pattern.

They are made in the same way if you make the soles yourself, but with
the purchased slipper sole there is a slight difference in the manner
of attaching the upper.


The Check Slippers.

In cutting the upper, no turnings will need to be allowed for the upper
edge, but allow a margin of a quarter-inch around the side which comes
next to the sole. Cut both lining and material the same size.


The Sole.

Cut this out in stiff cardboard, then cut a covering for it from the
lining material, allowing a half-inch margin all round. Place the
cardboard on the centre, and draw the edges of the lining together
from opposite sides with crossing stitches, using stout linen thread
for this purpose and a coarse sewing needle. The cardboard must be
covered smoothly and securely with the flannel and gatherings made at
the heel and toe parts. The upper side of this sole is the inside of
the shoe, and the stitching underneath. Now lay this sole on another
piece of cardboard, and cut out the shape again just one-eighth of an
inch larger all round. Lay this on the felt or piece of tweed intended
for the outer sole and cut out the shape. Take the cardboard pattern
for this sole and cut away a quarter-inch margin around. This smaller
shape is put between the inner and outer soles when making up the shoe.
Stitch up the side seams in material and lining. Press both seams out
flat, place opposite to each other and tack the lining along the top
edge to the check material. Now bind the edges together with a strip of
ribbon or narrow tape. It is as well to stiffen the back of the slipper
a little with an interlining of thin cardboard or tailor’s canvas.

Now take up the flannel covered sole and place the upper over it,
having the smooth side of the sole turned from you; sew the edge of the
upper very securely to the wrong side of the sole, putting the stitches
into the flannel only, and about an eighth of an inch from the extreme
edge. Lay the small cardboard sole over the one just put in and secure
it with a couple of stitches, place the tweed sole on top of it with
its edge overlapping evenly all round. Using thick black thread, the
stronger the better, slip-stitch the sole through the inside edge to
the upper where it turns in under the first sole. It is necessary to
notch the edge of the cardboard stiffening where it overlaps the sole,
in order to make it lie flat.


The Men’s Slippers.

The same directions apply to these with the exception of the mode
of attaching the ready-made sole. Turn in both edges of the uppers
and tack securely around, then top-sew together, place over the sole
and stitch the sewn edges to the middle section of the sole, turning
back the leather edge for this purpose. No binding was used for this
slipper, but the lining had its edge turned in as well as the material,
then the lining was tacked with the turned in edge coming a little
above the material so as to form a narrow piping around the top.


Artistic Crochet

Edited by FLORA KLICKMANN

    Contains beautiful designs in Crochet for useful and
    decorative purposes. It is uniform with this volume, and
    issued by the same publishers.



Mending a Man’s Shirt.


[Illustration: CUFFS FOR ATTACHING TO WHITE SHIRTS.]

One of the many expensive necessaries in these expensive days is a
man’s white shirt. In many cases the finished article is treble the
price it was in 1914. This is partly due, of course, to the increase
in the cost of labour, as there is a considerable amount of skilled
work entailed in the cutting out and putting together of a man’s
white shirt. And the high price is partly to be accounted for by the
increased cost of materials.

But with all the care in the world, shirts will still wear out, and
must somehow be replaced. Fortunately this difficulty is not such
a serious one as it at first appears; a shirt can quite easily be
renovated—and without having that amateurish look that so often just
spoils things.


Repairing Shirt Tails.

The first parts to go, very often, in a man’s shirt are the tails.
Well, the simplest way to deal with this is to cut them off right
across, above the weak places. This is really far more satisfactory
than patching. A piece of calico or longcloth from another discarded
article is not difficult to get. Measure the same size as the portion
cut off. Hem round three sides. Run and fell the fourth side to the
shirt itself.

Perhaps you did not know, as I did not myself until recently, that
many of the essential details which go to make up the shirt, can be
purchased separately. In this way a weak front or collar, or the cuffs
can be removed, a new one substituted, and you have a new shirt without
its cost.

[Illustration: TWO KINDS OF COLLAR BANDS.]

Cuffs are parts that soon show signs of wear, and frayed cuffs gives
the shirt—and the man—a weary look. In this case, unpick the cuffs if
possible, if not, cut them off close up. The new cuffs can be bought
into which the sleeve is inserted, and the shirt regains its sprightly
appearance. At the time of writing, the price of these cuffs is 6½d.
and 8½d. per pair, and the result is well worth this small expenditure.

[Illustration: A FRONT FOR A SHIRT FASTENING AT THE BACK.]

Another method of repairing the cuffs is to cut off the frayed cuff,
and put on a narrow band. In this case, separate cuffs would be worn.
You do not even need to make these bands yourself. They can be bought
ready for use.


About Collar Bands.

Most women have, at one time or another, struggled with the shirt
collar-bands of their menfolk. When it is your first one, you start
off quite happily. After all, you say, it is a simple matter to cut
such a band, and will only require a small piece of material. But
you soon find out that it is not so simple as it looks, and, being
shaped, needs more material than you had thought for. And when you have
finished it, you have neither satisfied yourself, nor the owner of the
shirt. Men often assume a superior indifference to clothes, but there
are certain things about which no indifference is visible, one being
the collar band of their shirt. Collar-bands are cut in a scientific
manner, and even experienced workers, knowing that they are not very
easy to make, will probably be as thankful as less advanced workers,
to buy them shaped and stitched, ready for applying to the shirt.
These collar-bands can be bought singly or in half dozens, and can
be supplied opening at the front or back, according to the fastening
of the shirt for which they are needed. The present price of these
collar-bands is 3d. each. They are made in white calico, also in sateen
for coloured shirts.

[Sidenote: Fronts that you can Buy.]


When Buttonholes are Torn.

“But,” says someone, “buttonholes are my trouble. You can’t, surely,
buy new buttonholes to replace the broken ones?” True, but the case
is by no means hopeless. If this is your difficulty two courses are
open to you. Either refront the shirt, or else an additional front
can be worn outside the white shirt. This latter plan would perhaps
be too warm in the summer, though an extra front is a useful addition
in the winter. The use of separate fronts and cuffs help to solve the
ever-present laundry problem, as these can be sent to the laundry for
stiffening and polishing, while the unstiffened shirts can be washed at
home, thus effecting a very considerable saving in expense.

[Illustration: A FRONT FOR A SHIRT FASTENING IN FRONT.]

If, however, the separate front is objected to, you can buy fronts
for letting into worn shirts. There are two kinds, the front in one
piece for shirts fastening at the back, and the dividing front for
shirts fastening in front. These are supplied square, as shown in the
illustration. There are two qualities, price 9½d. and 1/-.

To apply the new front, first tack it on to the old front, then cut
it to the shape required, allowing sufficient margin to turn in a
fell. Then cut away the unnecessary material at the back from the
shirt, leaving here sufficient to turn in a fell. In this way you have
practically a new shirt again.

These are the portions that are most likely to show signs of stress and
wear. Should any rents occur elsewhere, a little patch must be added.


A Patch may be Necessary.

It is hardly necessary to remind you that it is better to mend and
patch with material that is not quite new. Very often a pillow-case
that is worn in one part will supply a sufficient amount of sound
material for re-tailing a shirt.

In looking through the shirts of your menfolk, you will probably find
one wants a new collar-band, another new cuffs, another a front, and
so on. They will not all need repairing in every direction. But even
if they did, and you had to get several new portions for one shirt, it
would be well worth your while, as the cost of these portions is very
slight.



Mending a Collar.


Men’s collars are among those articles that one had come to regard as
useless as soon as they are torn or worn, and therefore at the first
sign of disrepair to be replaced by new ones. Yet collars nowadays are
a far more expensive item than they were a few years back; a frequent
supply of new collars means a considerable outlay. Before discarding
the torn collar, therefore, it is well to see if it is not possible to
repair it, and it nearly always is possible.

[Illustration: A FLAP TEAR AND HOW TO MEND IT.]

[Illustration: A BUTTONHOLE TEAR AND HOW TO MEND IT]

The tear usually occurs in the little projecting flap for the
buttonhole, either where this piece joins the main part of the collar,
or the buttonhole itself. Two such tears are illustrated. Now either
of these can be very easily mended with a piece of tape. First of all,
wash all the starch out of the collar. When quite dry, tack a small
piece of tape over the tear, as illustrated, and machine it in place.
This makes a perfectly neat mend, and is quite easy to do. Moreover
when the collar is starched again, the tape does not show.



The Wisdom of Preventive Mending.


We do not, nowadays, spend long hours bending over fine stitchery that
is destined for no really useful purpose. To efficiently understand how
to mend and how to make is our more practical aim. A distinctive and
imperative branch of this knowledge is the art of preventive mending.

From the gracious days of our grandmothers, or our even more remote
ancestors, comes a lavender-scented remembrance of patiently executed
needlework, almost unbelievably fine; wonderful samplers were made and
monumental pictures depicting Bible scenes were toiled over until the
last of the innumerable stitches was filled in, and the triumph ready
to be framed and hung up on the wall of the best parlour.

Some of us possess examples of these forgotten arts, bead necklaces
so finely constructed that, entirely handmade and needle-threaded as
they were, they altogether surpass the pretty ornaments of the present
day, made upon apache looms. Samplers, too, we fondly cherish, if we
are fortunate enough to have had one or two handed down from mother to
daughter in our family.


The Day of the Ready-Mades.

But life to-day is more strenuous; the pride of the needlewoman must,
in the majority of cases, have a more practical aim. We do not despise
the lavender-scented sweetness and tranquility—sometimes we even
sigh for the qualities that can only come to perfection in days of
unhurried calm—but we recognise the every-day usefulness of the modern
needlewoman and applaud the sanity of her methods.

Microscopic stitching is a delightfully interesting pursuit for the
woman of leisure. The busy girl or the house-mother, harassed with
many cares, would not find such sewing a sedative for tense and weary
nerves; but the capable woman with quick, deft fingers and mind alert,
finds it both interesting and exhilarating, in its practicality, to sit
down and either make or mend something.

[Illustration: Children may be taught that darning is really quite an
interesting occupation.]

Mending and altering are two branches of the great art of Needlecraft
which no woman can afford to despise in these days of ready-made
frocks and shop-bought costumes. Turnings may be insufficient, buttons
sewn on with too scant stitches, hooks and eyes trembling to fall
off, but these deficiencies very easily can be put to rights. And the
business girl would find herself sorely pressed for time to do the
necessary shopping, matching trimmings, and the travelling to and
from the dressmaker for fittings-on, while not her time alone but her
pocket also would seriously suffer if the ready-to-wear gowns and
walking-suits were suddenly to be banished from our drapery stores.

A shop-bought costume that doesn’t fit, however, isn’t cheap at
any price. Learn, therefore, how to make alterations in the most
common-sense and practical fashion, and take preventive measures,
before the garment is worn for the first time, to overcome the little
deficiencies that we may expect to discover in the “ready-mades.”


Tools for the Practical Needlewoman.

Chief among the aids for the practical needlewoman, taking first rank
among her valuable assistants, comes the sewing-machine. For hard
wear and every-day use machine-stitching is generally much neater and
stronger than hand sewing, and the pace, of course, is far quicker. Her
sewing-machine is a good friend to the busy woman who has most need to
practise the art of preventive mending, for strength and speed are two
of her chief demands.

It pays to understand one’s sewing-machine, and to treat it with
tender care. Rough usage, or careless handling through ignorance of
the rightful functions of the different delicate pieces may lead to
dire disaster. A handbook of instructions is always given when the
machine is purchased: cherish this book, for if it is mislaid you are
at sea without your chart. The inexperienced girl who makes her early
attempt to fathom the mysteries of the sewing-machine will find that
a little personal instruction (which may be had at the depôt of her
own make of machine) will be more helpful than an hour spent in trying
to solve intricate problems by the aid of the printed page. Later on,
however, the printed directions will read lucidly enough when her
mind is conversant with the everyday workings of the machine, and an
intelligent glance at her useful little handbook will disclose to her
the cause and the remedy of the defective action.

Keep the machine scrupulously clean and thoroughly well oiled. To
do this is again to recognise the wisdom of preventive measures. An
un-oiled, dirty machine will always cause trouble in working, for
when the parts do not run smoothly, dropped and uneven stitches are a
frequent embarrassment.

[Illustration: Open and turn back, so that when the oil has soaked
through the clogged dirt it may be carefully cleaned away.]

[Sidenote: The Sewing Machine.]

Oil in every part, and open and turn back so that when the oil has
soaked through, the clogged dirt may be carefully cleaned away.

A capacious mending basket is a necessity for the practical worker, and
it is all the more convenient if it stands upon legs, table height, and
can be carried about to be stationed just within comfortable reach of
the mender’s right hand.

[Illustration: Her sewing-machine is a good friend to the busy woman
who practises the art of preventive mending.]

Keep always some tailor’s canvas for use as stiffening, buckram for
millinery, white leno, and fine black lining, rolls of old linen and
flannel for patching, stray pieces of lace, and left-over lengths of
embroidery or insertions. Roll up all oddments in soft, clean muslin
with tape or label attached, on which is written a list of the trifles
to be found within your treasury.

If you frequently find your tape measure mislaid, try this plan, and
thus prevent the long searching that interrupts your sewing. Cut as
long a piece off your tape as will stretch from end to end of your
machine, and paste it along the front edge of the stand. It thus will
be _always_ at hand when required, and will serve at any rate for all
the shorter measurements required.

It is a good plan to assemble your hooks and eyes on safety pins. Slip
the opened pin through the separate hooks and eyes, then when they are
all securely dangling, firmly close your safety pin, and they are ready
for use when needed and will not get tangled and twisted together as so
often happens if they are kept in a box.

Keep odd buttons in glass bottles. No more hunting in the dark and
dust! You can see the button for which you are searching, and by
shaking the bottle can bring it near to the top, where it can be easily
reached. Bone or pearl buttons for underwear, or any others that
are not affected by exposure, may be securely fixed upon a hairpin.
Straighten out one of the long hairpins, bend back one end about a
quarter or half an inch, run the point through the holes, and when your
buttons are neatly crowded together turn up the other end to hold them
securely.


Aids to Strength and Durability.

We have heard that in China it is the custom to pay the family doctor
to keep his patients in good health rather than to call him in only
after illness has laid the sufferer low. Many of us applaud this
system, but have neither the opportunity nor, perhaps, the courage, to
defy conventions in England.

But why not pursue the same wise course in dealing with household
mending? It works admirably.

Take that proverbial stitch that “saves nine” in very good time, even
before there is any apparent need for for it, and you’ll find it will
work miracles.

[Sidenote: Preventive Mending.]

Stockings, for instance. The toes and heels of children’s stockings
may be neatly darned before they are worn for the first time, for
this purpose using crochet silk or mercerised thread, which is less
bulky and clumsy than wool. Insist on frequent change of hosiery, and
forbid the wearing of any stocking that shows even the tiniest hole.
To prevent those long running ladders which are almost impossible
to mend, sew a band of silk or cotton, or a border cut from an old
stocking, round each hem of the new pair. Hose supporters (chief cause
of these destructive ladders) will seldom cut through this double band.
Or another excellent plan may be adopted. Take a round brass ring and
double crochet closely over it to make a soft, firm covering. Sew
this securely into position upon the stocking top with neat, strong
stitches, and always insert the clip of the suspender within this ring.
You will thus make it impossible for the tension to strain the stocking
beyond the area enclosed by the ring.

In the knees of children’s stockings small shields may be placed,
pieces cut from other stockings and fastened in so neatly that they are
quite inconspicuous and not at all uncomfortable.

The “ready-mades,” whether visiting frocks, walking suits, or
underwear, as was hinted in a previous paragraph, cry out loudly for
preventive mending. For instance, sleeves should be stitched in by
machine, for on ready-made clothes the machine stitching is not always
carefully done, and a weak place in the sleeve seam will quickly give
way under strain and start an ugly tear.

Embroidery with scalloped or pointed edging should be machined strongly
all round the extreme edges, the machine needle patiently following
the circuitous course of the pattern. This will double the life of
embroidered lace, preventing frayed untidiness and breaks, gaps and
tears.

To prevent an embroidery flounce from ragging out before the petticoat
itself is any the worse for wear, neatly hem the edge as soon as it
threatens to fray or gets torn by an accidental mis-step, and add a
bordering of Valenciennes or fine Torchon lace.

Buttons should receive careful attention when any ready-made garment is
bought. The trimness of effect and the general prettiness of coat or
costume may be entirely spoilt if one of a set of distinctive buttons
is allowed to drop off and get lost. Therefore sew on all buttons at
the time of your purchase. Stitch carefully with a strong thread; when
you have sewn through and through the button half a dozen times, wind
your thread round and round the strands which hold the button, between
the button and the cloth, making a sort of shank. Treat boot and shoe
buttons in the same way.

It is wise to strengthen bed-linen with broad tape laid on at the
corners, inconspicuously stitched into position, so that an added
firmness is given to the sheets where the clothes-pegs might do most
damage.

Look closely into the wool-worked buttonholing at your blanket ends.
You may, with advantage, stitch fresh buttonhole edgings that will keep
the neat turn-over, when the blanket is in use, for a longer time than
if the shop-bought edging were left to suffice.

Remember that half-an-hour spent weekly in preventive mending, will
save the busy housewife hours of darning and patching later on.



For Keeping out the Wind.


The value of old Kid Gloves.

With furs advanced 80 per cent. in price in some cases, and every sort
of leather and skin at a premium, it is evident that many who would
like new furs, and a leather waistcoat for motoring, will have to
forego these for a while, now that such items have become so expensive.

Those who are studying economy, however, will find an excellent
substitute for the leather, and the fur skins, in the old kid gloves
that have got beyond even the cleaner’s kindly aid. It is always
the fingers and thumb that go; the remainder of the glove will be
a serviceable bit of kid. These pieces can be used in a variety of
ways, and since they are impervious to wind, they may save you many
a chill—or more serious illness,—if you find a new thick winter coat
beyond your purse in these hard times.

Cut off the fingers and thumb, remove the fasteners, cut the glove
up to the top at the front opening, and spread it out flat—as you
see in the small illustration. There will be a little fulness at the
thumb-pieces, but this can be doubled over and stitched down flat.

[Illustration: Here is the piece of Glove with the fingers cut off.]

[Illustration: This shows some of the gloves stitched on the flannel
inter-lining.]

Perhaps your thickest coat is not nearly thick enough for the piercing
east winds that come to us in the early part of the year, finding out
our weak spots.


For an Under-coat or Waistcoat.

If you wish to avoid the cost of a new big coat, why not make a small
sleeveless coat, or a waistcoat to wear under your outdoor coat? For
this you will need about 1½ yards of silk for the outside, some thin
flannel for the interlining, and some more silk, or other suitable
material for the lining. I suggest silk, because this slips on so
easily, and the outer coat, in turn, slips on easily over the silk
waistcoat. It takes so little material that in all probability you can
get enough out of the silk lining of some discarded coat or underskirt.
Then of course there are the old gloves. Cut out the silk, outer and
lining, and the flannel, by the same pattern. Deal with the flannel
first. Onto this stitch the pieces of glove—they merely want pinning
in place first of all, and then run the machine round each fragment.
Put them on as they will best cover the flannel, it doesn’t matter how
irregular it all is, so long as the flannel is completely covered. It
doesn’t look elegant, as you are doing it; that again, is unimportant,
as it is all hidden by the silk. If you have not enough gloves for
your needs, a few bits of chamois leather will help you out.

Then make up the little undercoat, with the glove-covered flannel as
interlining, the kid against the lining, and you will find you have
something that keeps out the wind in a way a woollen hug-me-tight could
never do. And the glove-lined garment takes up so little room that it
does not add to one’s bulk; in addition, it is very light in weight—a
great advantage.

The idea is capable of various developments. A velvet stole edged with
a little fur could be interlined in the same way. It would be light and
warm, and a real comfort on cold days. It is quite surprising how the
kid interlining adds to the warmth of a garment.

A chest protector, like the one we illustrate, is invaluable for the
girl who has a weak chest, and is out in all weathers. This again is
quite easy to make.

In a garment like this, or any large surface, it is as well to run the
machine down the material after the pieces are all joined up; this
“quilts” it and holds it together.

[Illustration: The back portion is a little longer than the front.]

[Illustration: Showing the front of the Chest Protector.]


For Men’s Waistcoats.

Many men complain that they feel cold at their back, even though they
are wearing the thickest of vests. This is probably due to the fact
that the material used in making the back of the waistcoat is many
degrees thinner than that used for the fronts. The defect can be easily
remedied, however, if you have three or four old pairs of gloves.

Cut out a piece of stout black lining, the size of the back piece of
the waistcoat. Stitch the portions of the gloves to the wrong side
of this lining. They will not need to come below the strap at the
waist-line. Then turn in the edges, and apply this to the inside of the
waistcoat (glove pieces inside of course), and run it neatly all round,
taking care that it does not show above the top of the waistcoat at the
back. It will keep it better in place if you run a line of stitching
down the centre of the back, from top to bottom, after the lining has
been run on all round.

You will have a perfectly neat looking garment that simply looks like a
waistcoat with black lining at the back.

I advise this lining being put on by hand rather than by machine.



An Apron you can make from a Summer Skirt.


The attractive little apron illustrated on this page has been
made with the expenditure of very little time and trouble, from a
straight-gathered cotton voile skirt.

The simple gathered full type of skirt has been very popular for the
summer frock during the last two or three years, and when this has lost
its freshness for dress wear, the material will often be found to be in
quite good enough condition to turn to account in the manner suggested.

At the top of the page the skirt is shown before its transformation;
the two lower figures give the front and back views of the apron when
finished, and you will see that it is quite a becoming little garment
of the fashionable button-on-the-shoulder style, with straps crossing
at the back.

To make the apron, first take your skirt and rip the gathers away from
the band at the top, measure 30 inches from the centre front of the
skirt folded together, and cut away the extra fulness from the back.
The larger portion you have then forms the apron. If the skirt you are
using happens to be one that fastens with a seam at the centre front,
it will be best to use the back of the skirt for the centre front of
the apron, to avoid a seam down the centre.

[Illustration: The Gathered Skirt which was used for the making of the
Apron.]

[Illustration: The back and front views of the finished Apron.]

Unless the skirt is a very short one, you will find it will be quite
long enough without making any alteration in the hem, but as most
skirts have a fairly deep hem, it would be quite possible to let this
down if necessary.

To form the curved sides for the under-arm, measure 12 inches along the
top edge from the centre front, and cut a half-circle 7 inches deep and
12 inches across in each side of the apron.

Now take the piece you cut away from the back of the skirt, and from
this cut a straight double strip 12 inches long and 4 inches deep for
the front yoke band, and two further double strips each 17 inches long
and 4 inches wide for the shoulder straps. Mitre one end of each of
the shoulder straps and slant the other ends, taking 2 inches off the
length for the outer edge of the strap. If your skirt should not be
full enough to give sufficient material for the double straps, they
could quite well be lined with some other material, or could even be
made a little narrower.

Finish the back edges of the apron with narrow hems, also the armholes.
Gather the front and place between the double yoke band. The backs are
also gathered and placed between the slanting ends of the shoulder
straps, putting the shortest part of the strap towards the back.

Cross the straps at the back of the apron, and fasten the mitred ends
to the yoke band with buttons and buttonholes. Your little apron is
then complete.

[Illustration: SPINNING WITH A DISTAFF IN BRITTANY.

   _Photo by
    M. Parsons._]



Knitting Your Own Woollen Spencers.


Provided you are fond of knitting and can work fairly quickly, you will
find it a great economy to make your own woollen spencers.

If you are careful to select wool of good quality, you will be well
rewarded for the time spent in making, as hand-knitted woollens can
always be relied upon to show less shrinkage with constant washing than
even the most reliable makes of all-wool woven underwear.

Here is a practical little design that is very easily made, and
very comfortable for wearing, the cross-over front giving a double
protection over the chest.


Materials required.

7½ ounces of 4-ply white A.A. “Peacock” Fingering, and 4 No. 13 steel
needles.


Abbreviations used.

=K= = knit; =p= = purl; =st= = stitch or stitches.


The Back.

The body section is worked in one piece, and is commenced from the back.

Cast on 100 st.

Knit 20 rows of ribbing, 1 plain and 1 purl alternately.

Now commence working a plain and a purl row alternately, knitting plain
the first 4 st and the last 4 st of both the plain and the purl rows.
These plain stitches prevent the edges of the work from curling up, and
give a flat under-arm seam.

Work 60 rows in this way, increasing 1 st in the 6th st from each end
of every 15th row. Continue for 5 more rows, which will bring you to
the armhole.

_86th Row._—Cast off 12 st, p to 4 st from the end of the row, k 4.

_87th Row._—Cast off 12 st, k to the end of the row.

Cast off 1 st at the commencement of each of the next 4 rows. This
should leave you with 80 st on the needle.

Now work 49 rows, a plain and a purl row alternately, slipping the
1st st of every row. In these rows purl the return rows right across,
omitting the four plain st at each end.

N.E. D

[Illustration: The Cross-over Front gives a double protection over the
chest.]


The Front.

To divide the st for the fronts, k 34 st on to a spare needle, cast off
12 st for the back of the neck, and on the remaining 34 st work one
front as follows:

_1st Row._—Cast off 2 st, k to the end of the row.

_2nd Row._—Slip 1, p to the end of the row.

_3rd Row._—Cast off 2 st, k to the end of the row.

_4th Row._—Slip 1, p to the end of the row, then cast on 6 st to form
the front border.

On these 36 st work 30 rows, a plain and a purl row alternately,
working the 6 border st plain in every row, and slipping the 1st st
when turning from the armhole edge.

In the next row increase 1 st in the 7th st. Work 35 more rows, and
increase 1 st in the 7th st from the border edge in every 6th row.

Now in the next 4 plain rows increase 1 st in the 2nd st from the
armhole edge, and after working the next plain row cast on 12 st for
the front of the armhole.

Now work 60 rows, a plain and a purl row alternately, continuing the
increasings from the front edge, with 5 rows between, and working 4
plain st in every row to form the seam from the armhole edge. In the
31st and 51st rows, k the 6th and 7th st from the armhole edge together
to decrease a little to shape for the waist. Work 20 rows of ribbing;
cast off. Reverse the directions for the right front.

[Illustration: The Body Section when ready for joining up.]

To finish the neck, pick up the back of the 6 st, cast on for the
border, k 80 rows; cast off. Stretch this strip round the back of the
neck, and sew into position. Sew up the

(_Concluded on page 52_).



A Child’s Knitted Petticoat.


This little petticoat is made to fit a child of from four to five
years, and measures 20 inches from the neck to the lower edge of the
skirt.


Materials Required.

Five ounces of Messrs. J. & J. Baldwin’s White “Beehive” 4-ply Scotch
Fingering, 1 pair of long No. 10 bone needles, and a set of No. 11
steel needles.


Abbreviations Used.

K = knit; P = purl; O = over (put the wool over and make a stitch); N =
narrow (knit two stitches together); st = stitch or stitches.

Cast on 291 st.

_1st Row._—Plain.

_2nd Row._—Purl.

_3rd Row._—K 2, * O, K 4, K 3 together, K 4, O, K 1, repeat from * to
the end of the row, ending with K 2.

_4th Row._—Plain.

Repeat the 3rd and 4th rows 32 times, or until the skirt is the length
required.

_69th Row._—K 6, K 3 together, * K 9, K 3 together, repeat from * to
the end of the row.

_70th Row._—Purl.

_71st Row._—K 5, K 3 together, * K 7, K 3 together, repeat from * to
the end of the row.

_72nd Row._—Purl.

_73rd Row._—K 4, K 3 together * K 5, K 3 together, repeat from * to the
end of the row.

_74th Row._—Purl.

You should now have 147 st on the needle. Make a row of holes for the
ribbon by repeating K 4, O, N, all the way along and purling a return
row.

[Illustration: This will fit a child of 4-5 years.]

[Illustration: It measures 20 inches from neck to lower edge.]


The Bodice.

Knit 48 plain rows, purling the 6th st from each end of the row on the
right side of the work.

Now divide for the armholes thus: K 36 st on to a spare needle, K 75,
and slip the remaining 36 st on to a spare needle.

On the 75 centre st continue as follows: K 1, N, K plain to the end
of the row. Repeat this row 21 times, then work 40 plain rows without
decreasing.

This brings you to the neck of the petticoat. To form the shoulder
sections, K 15, cast off 23 st (or up to 15 st from the other end of
the row), 1 on the remaining st, K 36 rows. Cast off. Work up the other
shoulder in the same way.

Now on the 36 st at each side of the work, knit up the backs to
correspond with the front, forming the armhole slopes by decreasing
1 st in the first 9 rows turned from the armhole edge in each case.
When working the backs, cast off all the st when the neck is reached.
Sew the shoulder strap from each side of the front to the 15 cast-off
st from the armhole edge of each back, and finish the neck by picking
up all the loops along the edge and working 6 rows of ribbing, making
holes for threading ribbon in the third row.


The Sleeves.

Pick up on to the No. 12 needles all the loops round the armhole edge,
and work 20 rounds, a plain and a purl round alternately, in every
other round decreasing 2 st; these decreasings should be made over the
top of the armhole slope at each side, thus forming a gusset for the
under-arm. Finish with 6 rows of ribbing.


Woollen Spencers

(_Concluded from page 50_).

under-arm seams, leaving a half-inch opening above the ribbing in the
right-hand seam.


The Sleeves.

Pick up the loops round the armhole edge on to 3 needles. Put 18 st
from each side of the under-arm seam on to 1 needle (36 st in all), and
divide the remaining loops on to the others.

Work 5 rounds, then in the next round decrease 1 st at each end of the
under-arm needle. Repeat these 6 rounds twice.

Work for 8 inches without decreasing, then for the next 4 inches
decrease 1 st at each end of the under-arm needle in every 6th row.
Finish with 30 rows of ribbing, and cast off.

If you wish to have elbow sleeves, finish the sleeve with 15 rows of
ribbing after working the 8 inches without decreasing.

The bodice crosses over at the front, and fastens with ribbon ties at
the neck and waist. Thread the ribbon from the left front of the waist
through the opening in the right-hand seam, and make a slot over the
left seam, to correspond by knitting a small strap (12 rows on 4 st),
and sewing it on to the seam just above the ribbing; thread the ribbon
from the right front through this, and tie the ends together at the
back.



A Practical Way to Teach Girls Dressmaking.


Some of the ladies who have headed sewing parties, or collected
garments for the soldiers and sailors, during the past few years, could
a tale unfold of the mysterious articles that many very willing workers
have produced in their anxiety to help. No sooner was war declared than
hundreds of women, from every grade in society, stepped forward, ready
to make something; but what of the shirts 6 ft. long, the neckbands
made of flannel—not ones, nor twos, but dozens of them, calling forth a
special warning from the daily Press?

And it must be borne in mind, that many of these needlewomen must
have passed through our schools—elementary or secondary—and have
spent a couple of hours every week, for six or seven years, “learning
needlework”; likewise, the garments required were not novelties, they
are worn by men in time of peace as well as war.

Such a result of “learning needlework” gives one “furiously to think.”
Has the training in the schools fitted the girls for making and mending
garments for themselves and others—remodelling old ones, and generally
using the needle as a help towards comfort and economy in the home?

This brings us to a very pertinent question. _Is_ it possible to give
the girls at school such a training in the cutting out and making of
garments that the work loses it terrors, and comes within the grasp of
them all? Experience has proved that cutting out paper garments from
elaborate diagrams, bristling with “inches in” and “inches down,” is of
very small _practical_ value. The secret of success lies in getting the
girls to measure a real wearer, and then to make a pattern, which they
can properly “try on” for themselves, from these measurements.

[Illustration: A GIRL WEARING THE FROCK SHE HAS MADE.]

Take, for example, the making of a frock, such as the girl is wearing
in the picture. This child of twelve or thirteen, was one of a class of
thirty or forty, in which every girl made a similar dress for herself.
All measuring, making of patterns, cutting out of the material, fixing
and sewing—everything in fact, from beginning to end, was done by the
girls themselves.

To begin with, they arranged themselves in pairs, and each girl cut a
yoke, cuff and sleeve pattern for her companion. It was not necessary
to make a paper pattern of the skirt of the frock. No material was cut
until the patterns were satisfactory.

A yoke is an exceedingly useful and necessary part of many garments,
but it is not, as a rule, considered an easy thing to cut a pattern of
one to fit a particular wearer; but these girls found it simple enough,
by working on the following plan.

The illustration shows one girl taking the neck [Illustration: THE
FIRST MEASUREMENT FOR THE YOKE.]

measurement of her friend; this is the only one required for cutting
the pattern. It should be found, by holding the tape loosely around the
neck, so that the head moves easily with it in position.

[Illustration: TESTING THE YOKE PATTERN.]

An oblong piece of paper—newspaper will serve quite well—measuring the
neck length one way and one-and-a-half times the same the other, was
then cut out. Thus, if the neck is 12 in., the paper will be 12 in. by
18 in. (See Fig. 1). The method adopted of getting the yoke from this,
will be seen by following each step in the sketches. The two shorter
sides were folded together as in Fig. 2, forming a double piece. The
two top corners were brought over until they met in the middle, as in
Fig. 3, and then the triangular pieces cut off, leaving a double piece,
as in Fig. 4. Care must be taken in the next step to bring the slanting
edge (A) next to the two _open_ straight edges, over to the bottom
edges D; thus A and D lie exactly over each other, and the second
slanting edge B covers the fold C.

[Illustration: GETTING THE WIDTH OF THE SLEEVE.]

[Sidenote: Taking the Measurements.]

The pattern begins now to look something like a yoke, and is soon
complete. Two pieces must be cut off, one to form the neck and the
other the shoulder. Fig. 6 shows clearly how this is done, and when
it is finished a yoke pattern, as in Fig. 7, is the result. The
illustration gives some idea of the “fit” of a yoke cut in this way.
The girls were very critical about the neck and shoulder curves, and
the width across the back and front; many little alterations were made
before the pattern was considered satisfactory, and good enough to cut
out the material from.

[Illustration: THE UNDER-ARM LENGTH OF THE SLEEVE.]

Having made a satisfactory yoke pattern, the next thing to tackle was
the sleeve. An oblong piece of paper was again necessary, and its
dimensions were found in the manner shown in the two pictures. The
measure was slipped loosely around the top of the arm, and three or
four inches added to allow for the arm movement. This gave the width
required, and the length was found by holding the measure on the top
of the shoulder, as the girl is doing in the illustration, and then
carrying it around the bent elbow to the wrist.

[Illustration: FINDING THE LENGTH OF THE SLEEVE.]

[Illustration: TAKING THE WRIST MEASUREMENT.]

When this oblong was folded in half, lengthwise, it faintly resembled
a sleeve, but, to shape it properly, two other dimensions were
necessary. The next two photographs show the girls getting them. The
length of the under-arm sleeve is about three quarters of the full
length, and the wrist the same fraction of the width at the top of the
arm. The girls discovered these things for themselves, and marked with
the rounded end of the scissors, a slightly curved line from the wrist
to the under-arm position. This double piece was then cut away.

The shaping of the top of the sleeve requires a little more judgment
and care. The pattern was opened out flat, and a convex curve made from
one side to the top, joining a slightly concave one starting from the
other. Thus they obtained the foundation of any sleeve pattern. It can
easily be made wider or narrower, longer or shorter, according to the
dictates of fashion.

As the frock the girls made on this occasion had sleeves with cuffs,
two or three inches deep, the pattern was shortened accordingly, before
the material was cut.

The girls were only beginners, so they cut patterns of the collar and
cuffs in paper, and fitted all the parts on the material before cutting
out.

The cuff and waistband were straight pieces of material cut to the
required sizes.

[Illustration: MAKING THE YOKE PATTERN.]

[Sidenote: Cutting out the Pattern.]

For the collar pattern, the neck length was taken, as for the yoke
pattern, and an oblong piece of paper cut out, this length one way and
half of it the other. (See Fig. 1). This was folded in half to form a
square, and creased across the middle, as in the diagram. One of the
two open corners was folded over to the crease, and the triangular
pieces thus formed were cut off, as in Fig. 3. A curved line was next
marked, connecting one end of the slanting edge, A, with the bottom
end, C, of the fold. By measuring the length of the slanting edge A, B,
along the fold, a new point D was found, and a curve was made parallel
to the first curve, connecting B and D (See Fig. 4). The double paper
was cut along the curves, and thus the pattern of half the collar was
obtained.

[Illustration: MAKING THE COLLAR PATTERN.]

It was found that the collar for the frock fitted better when made in
two parts and in double material. Thus, in cutting out the cloth, four
pieces, the size and shape of the pattern, were required.

The length required for the skirt was found by fitting on the yoke
pattern, and then measuring from the middle of the front straight down,
adding two or three inches for the hem.

The frock in the illustration was made from double width serge, and
it was found practicable to get the skirt from one-and-a-half widths,
the other half serving for the yoke. The pair of sleeves came out of a
full width. This planning and arranging involved no end of simple but
interesting calculation, and the reality of it all made a strong appeal
to the girls.

One point of supreme importance was most carefully impressed—that
was—“the way of the cloth”; certainly, if this goes wrong, the garment
is ruined, and just as certainly it is a thing that will never be
mastered “theoretically”—it _must_ be learnt by actually cutting out of
material.

The cutting of the sleeves from one pattern is another bit of
“practical politics” which arises when a garment such as this is being
made. There is no reason why the pair should not be cut together, so
long as the two right, or two wrong sides are placed together. The use
of French chalk for marking out the pattern on the cloth was encouraged.

The making up of the frock afforded many opportunities for practice
in neat, strong stitching, combined with beauty. Suitable cottons and
needles were used, nothing finer than No. 40 cotton will stand the wear
and tear of every-day life. Where possible, the sewing machine was
used, but the parts sewn with it were first carefully tacked.

The question of decoration aroused no end of discussion and interest
the whole time the frocks were being made, and urged many a slow worker
on to greater efforts. The yokes, cuffs and collars were stitched
with contrasting coloured thread, and the variety of decoration was
delightful. Simple hand-worked stitches are generally more effective,
as well as more economical, than bought trimmings.

Of course, any difficult stitch or piece of fixing—for example, the
placing of the box pleats—was always practised on a piece of “scrap”
material or paper, before the frock was tackled; but when the young
needlewomen realised they were “trying” a stitch or a piece of fixing,
because they needed to use it in the making of the frock, they put a
good deal more zest into the work than if it was a mere “needlework
exercise.” No new material was ever torn up for these practices—odd
bits of any shape or size were used, and a bag of such pieces was
always at hand, in sewing lesson, for this purpose.

On the score of both economy and efficiency, one would plead that the
tearing up of good flannel and calico for the “sewing lesson” should
be rigidly tabooed. Probably no other subject offers such unique
opportunities in our schools for inculcating habits of thrift and
economy, with increased efficiency in the teaching.

The distress of nations, with its awful promise of misery and poverty
in the future, gives this branch of a girl’s education an added
importance. Surely we must neglect no opportunity of improving it!


Books of Cheerfulness

By FLORA KLICKMANN

THE FLOWER-PATCH AMONG THE HILLS

AND

BETWEEN THE LARCH WOODS AND THE WEIR

    Overflowing with humour, bubbling with smiles, yet never
    out of sound of the soughing of the pines, the scold of the
    squirrel, the call of the birds, and the delicious pungent
    scent of wood-smoke. Books to laugh over, to think over, and
    to be thankful for.



The Art of Blouse Making.


With an up-to-date pattern and good material, the making of one’s own
blouses is but a delightful pastime, as well as a very profitable one.
The material for the blouse shown here cost very little, just a few
shillings would, in fact, pay for the paper pattern, two yards of the
material, a dozen little bone rings and two yards of narrow velvet
ribbon for the lacings, but the cost of a similar blouse ready-made
would be at least four times as much.

The various pieces were all cut out by a paper pattern, which was
pinned on the material, and on which there was an allowance of a
quarter inch margin. The collar, cuffs, and yoke were cut double. The
last three items had their edges all turned inwards, to the depth of
the margin allowed, then both pieces of each were tacked together with
their edges perfectly even.

The little turned back cuff had the two pieces stitched together on the
wrong side on the outer edge and sides, then turned inside out and the
edges tacked flat. The inside edge was tacked in between the two pieces
of the large cuff and secured with a row of stitching.

[Illustration: The Blouse is fastened with eyelet holes and ribbon
velvet.]

The sleeves were joined with a French seam, then both ends were turned
into a narrow hem, which was tacked carefully. The edge at the lower
end was gathered to fit the cuff with top stitch set evenly, and for
this the same kind of thread as used in the faggoting was employed.

The fronts had the edges cased with a piece of the material for a depth
of two inches. The back was joined to the fronts in the underarm seam
by a French seam as in the sleeve, then the entire top portion of back
and front and the armholes were turned into a narrow hem, and tacked
securely, the front edges gathered as in the sleeve, to fit the yoke.

Narrow strips of stiff paper were tacked underneath the lines where the
different parts were to be joined, and then the faggoting was commenced
by beginning at the right front edge, as shown on this page.

Bring out the thread through the edge of the yoke, carry it down in a
straight line to top front edge, and insert the needle down through the
material, bring it out above the stitch just formed, which you draw up
evenly, now repeat this stitch through the edge of the yoke one-eighth
of an inch from the first stitch, and so on from one side to the other.
Make all joining in the thread on the back of the hem.

When the faggoting is finished, the hems are worked with a row of stem
stitch, which keeps them in place and gives a neat finish.

The eyelet holes were next worked, and the method is shown in the
diagram. Quarter-inch bone rings are used. Place each in position
on the material and tack around, then work over in close buttonhole
stitch, having the top of the stitches resting on the material. The
centre of the eyelet hole is cut away on the back. The front and cuffs
are laced through these holes, which are set opposite each other, with
narrow velvet.

At the waist line there is a narrow casing of muslin on the inside,
to take the tape, tie-string or elastic, and the lower end is neatly
hemmed. The edges of the collar, cuffs, etc., may have a row of
machine, or hand stitching on the right side, or they may be joined by
stitching on the wrong side and then turned out.

[Illustration: This shows the method of faggoting, the stem-stitched
hem, and the raised eyelet hole.]



Decorative Stitches for Children’s Clothes.


How to decorate the simple garments made at home is a question one
frequently meets.

[Illustration: SOME PRETTY EFFECTS IN TACKING STITCH.]

Children’s overalls and frocks, little boys’ tunics, and blouses for
the elder girls, usually need some trimming or decoration, and it is
often difficult to find just the right kind. This is especially the
case with coloured garments, and those for which lace is unsuitable.
Many people like a little embroidery, but it is not always easy to get
an entirely suitable pattern. Some require more time than the home
worker is able to give, and some are more elaborate than is desirable
for the garment.

A simple kind of stitchery is usually resorted to, and very often meets
the case, and one may see little frocks and tunics of inexpensive
materials, with quite a note of distinction given by the pretty
stitching on the hems and bands.

The favourite and most frequently seen among the stitches so used, are
the French knot, stem stitch and feather stitch. It is with the idea
of suggesting other stitches and arrangements, that these diagrams
and illustrations are given, and with attention to a very few simple
directions, the most diffident worker may be sure of a good result.

One feature of decorative stitchery of this kind, is that it may also
be constructional, that is, that where a hem is to be decorated, it
need not first be stitched with the machine, the decoration does the
work of the machine. This point is not always realised by the home
worker, who usually makes the garment with the sewing machine, and then
proceeds to decorate it, adding French knots and perhaps stem stitch to
hide the machining.

Some machining is often necessary, but much can be dispensed with,
without detriment to the garment, and this makes it possible to do, at
any rate, part of the home dressmaking, away from the noise and busy
atmosphere almost inseparable from a room dominated by a sewing machine.

[Illustration: EFFECTIVE BORDERS FOR CHILDREN’S FROCKS.]

In making a little magyar overall, like that illustrated, for instance,
the side seams and opening may be sewn with a machine, the hems and
neck prepared as if for machining, and then the decoration applied.
The home worker, whose husband has a rooted objection to having a
sewing machine at work when he comes home in the evening, cuts out and
machines part of her work during the day, and has only the pleasant
part to do by hand in the evening, while she is free to talk, or listen
to the day’s news.

[Sidenote: The Belt and Sleeves.]

The value of the simple tacking stitch as a trimming is not fully
realised. On another page are shown some very distinctive effects
in this stitch, and in the frock illustrated the stitch is used in
conjunction with the Y stitch which is shown and described.

The worker who has not yet used the tacking stitch as a decorative
stitch must be careful on a few points, however. The stitch must not be
too long, and the length and spacing must be as even as possible.

A novice might make an experiment on a little garment of brown calico,
holland or écru-coloured casement cloth.

[Illustration: HOW THE HEM AND SLEEVES ARE FINISHED.]

[Illustration: THE STITCHES USED FOR THE BELT OF THE CHILD’S FROCK.]

Turn up the hems on the _right_ side of the garment, and with
turkey-red embroidery cotton of medium thickness, make the first row
of tacking about where the hem would be machined. The first row is the
most important and needs the most care.

[Illustration: To show method of working.

Y stitch.

THE STITCH THAT IS COMBINED WITH TACKING STITCH ON THE FROCK BELOW.]

As a general rule no tacking stitch used as a decoration should be more
than half-an-inch in length, and the space between proportionately
less. The space between may be equal to the stitch, or may be half or a
quarter its length, but neither stitch or space should be longer than
half-an-inch, or the result may be a series of long threads, apt to
become loops if suddenly caught.

For the experiment, make the stitches about one-third of an inch, and
the space between either the same or very small—about one-tenth of
an inch. An inch measure at hand to test the first few stitches will
quickly help the eye to guess the correct length of the remainder
without effort. After the first row, the most difficult part is over,
as the second and succeeding rows will be exactly the same length.

[Illustration: A CHILD’S FROCK DECORATED WITH TACKING STITCH AND Y
STITCH.]

Three rows of stitching close together will result in a pattern of red
oblongs, with regular spaces between them. These may become squares if
more rows are added.

All the illustrations on pages 61 and 62 are based on the tacking
stitch, and may be applied to the decoration of a hem, or the border of
belt or neck.

[Sidenote: Pretty Fancy Stitches.]

An illustration on page 63 shows the treatment of the two-inch hem on
the child’s frock. The vertical bar repeated at regular intervals round
the hem is filled with a variation of the Y stitch, the working of
which is shown in diagrams A, B and C on page 64.

The pattern should be arranged on the sleeves, neck and belt, as shown
in the sketch.

The position of each vertical bar should be accurately measured, and
marked with a pencil, and a line drawn down the centre of each bar will
help to keep the stitch equal on each side.

[Illustration: SOME VARIATIONS OF THE Y STITCH.

The working of this stitch is shown on page 70.]



Part II.

Household Economies and Fancy Finishes.



The Nursery Casement Curtain.


A very delightful little casement curtain is shown on page 95. This
would be eminently suitable for the Animal and Bird Nursery, and will
appeal to a child; and these little muslin curtains with filet crochet
tops are so very effective both from inside and outside the window.

As will be seen, the crochet presents no difficulty, but it must be
done evenly to look well. A diagram is given for working the strip,
from which the open and solid meshes can be counted.

The heading on the curtain shown is worked in Ardern’s No. 36 cotton.
This measures 15½ inches wide by 3 inches deep. To make this a little
longer or deeper, a coarser cotton could be used, though, of course,
much depends on the individual worker as to the size it actually works
out. But filet crochet is best done as closely as possible.

Two of these little curtains would be wide enough for some windows, but
it will be quite easy to repeat the design, or part of it, if required.
Double crochet is worked along the top and bottom of the curtain strip
to give a nice firm edge.

If quite a narrow curtain strip is preferred, the insertion showing the
two ducks and the rabbit repeated, would be good. Or this insertion
could be used at the bottom of a little curtain, providing there is
little or no fulness in the curtain. If used at the bottom of a full
curtain, the design would, of course, be completely lost.

This narrower insertion would also look very pretty to trim a white
cloth for the tray or table, and it could either be let in round the
sides of the cloth, or a strip would look well let in across each
corner.

The cock and duck insertion is one that would be very effective where
a strip is wanted to hang lengthwise down the sides of a curtain, or
for any other purpose where a lengthwise strip is required. A separate
diagram is not included for this, as this is merely a different
arrangement of the birds, and the illustration is sufficiently large
for the number of meshes between each pattern to be counted.

[Illustration: An Insertion that can be used lengthwise on a Curtain.]



The Advantage of Coloured Knitting Cottons.


Many people do not care for all-white quilts and bedspreads,
considering them cold-looking, even though they undoubtedly give a look
of freshness to a bed, when they are first put on.

And there can be no doubt but what there is a need for colour in our
furnishings no less than in our dress, in our dull climate. White
bedspreads look charmingly cool and refreshing on a hot, sunny July
day—but alas, so few of our days, even in July, are hot and sunny; and
there are all the other months of the year to be provided for.

Hence the vogue of the coloured bedspread, with its splashes of pink,
or blue, or heliotrope flowers and green leaves on a white ground.

Now that knitting has returned to us, and will undoubtedly stay, we
find a revival of the knitted quilt of our grandmother’s day. But
once more the objection is raised that the all-white quilt, while
undoubtedly handsome, looks chilly, and shows every slightest mark.

Few people know what pretty effects can be obtained from white knitting
combined with colour. Strutt’s “Milford” Knitting Cotton comes in
several dozen very pretty shades, all guaranteed to wash well.

[Illustration: A BEDSPREAD IN BLUE AND WHITE.]

[Sidenote: A Leaf Cluster Pattern.]

The counterpane here illustrated is in pale blue and white, and is
quite a feature in a pale blue bedroom.

Other colours you can obtain are various pinks, greens, pale cream,
with the intervening tones right up to full orange, heliotrope, salmon,
half-a-dozen different blues, from palest forget-me-not to navy blue,
crimson, fawn, and various tints of brown.

But, undoubtedly, for bedspread purposes, there is nothing like the
pinks or the blues.

It is best to use patterns that are worked in separate diamonds or
squares, and joined later on. This saves a tanglement of various balls,
as is inevitable if several colours are all going at once on a large
piece of work. When the work is in squares, each alternate square can
be in colour; when the work is in diamonds, that begins with one stitch
and increase each row till the widest point, and then decrease to the
opposite point. Half the diamond is worked in white, and when the
widest point is reached the cotton is broken off and the coloured ball
joined on, the remaining half being worked in colour.

The pattern here illustrated is the old fashioned leaf-cluster so often
seen in ancient knitted counterpanes.

The bedspread is worked in small diamonds, which are joined together by
over-sewing.

Use Strutt’s “Milford” Knitting Cotton No. 8, in white and in pale blue
(or any other colour required), and a pair of No. 14 steel needles.


Abbreviations Used.

K = knit a plain stitch; P = purl; O = over, that is, bring the thread
forward and pass it over the right hand needle, in order to make an

extra stitch; N = narrow, that is, knit two stitches together.

With the white cotton, cast on one stitch.

_1st Row._—K 3 stitches into the one stitch cast on.

_2nd Row._—O, K, O, K, O, K.

_3rd Row._—O, K, P 3, K 2.

_4th Row._—O, K 3, O, K, O, K 3.

_5th Row._—O, K 2, P 5, K 3.

_6th Row._—O, K 5, O, K, O, K 5.

_7th Row._—O, K 3, P 7, K 4.

_8th Row._—O, K 7, O, K, O, K 7.

_9th Row._—O, K 4, P 9, K 5.

_10th Row._—O, K 9, O, K, O, K 9.

_11th Row._—O, K 5, P 11, K 6.

_12th Row._—O, K 11, O, K, O, K 11.

_13th Row._—O, K 6, P 13, K 7.

_14th Row._—O, K 7, cast off one (_i.e._, slip a stitch on to the right
hand needle without knitting it, knit the next stitch, draw the slipped
stitch over the knit one), K 9, N, K 7.

_15th Row._—O, K 7, P 11, K 8.

_16th Row._—O, K 8, cast off 1, K 7, N, K 8.

_17th Row._—O, K 8, P 9, K 9.

_18th Row._—O, K 9, cast off 1, K 5, N, K 9.

_19th Row._—O, K 9, P 7, K 10.

_20th Row._—O, K 10, cast off 1, K 3, N, K 10.

_21st Row._—O, K 10, P 5, K 11.

_22nd Row._—O, K 11, cast off 1, K, N, K 11.

_23rd Row._—O, K 11, P 3, K 12.

_24th Row._—O, K 12, knit 3 stitches together, K 12.

_25th Row._—O, K to end of row.

_26th_, _27th_, _28th_ and _29th Rows_.—Like 25th Row. Break off white
cotton at end of 29th Row, and join on the blue cotton.

_30th Row._—Knit the whole row; end with the last 2 stitches knit
together.

_31st Row._—Purl, ending with the last 2 stitches purled together.

_32nd Row._—Like 30th.

_33rd_ and _34th Rows_.—Like 31st.

_35th Row._—Like 30th.

_36th Row._—Like 31st.

_37th Row._—Like 30th.

Repeat from 30th Row twice over, making 3 times in all. Then continue
working the purl and plain knitting for alternate rows till you have
only one stitch left. Break off the blue cotton and cast off.

In joining the diamonds, use white cotton when uniting the white
portions, and blue cotton for the blue portions.

[Illustration: Y STITCH AND LOOP STITCH AND THEIR VARIATIONS.

See the article on page 61.]



The Cynthia Knitted Stripe.

Suitable for a Toilet Runner.


Abbreviations Used.

K = knit a plain stitch; P = purl; O = over, that is, bring the thread
forward to the front of the work, and pass it round over the right hand
needle, in order to make an extra stitch; N = narrow, that is, knit two
stitches together; S = slip a stitch.

Use Strutt’s Knitting Cotton, No. 8, 3 threads, and a pair of No. 12
steel needles.

Cast on 91 stitches for a runner, about 12 inches wide, or 118 for a
runner 16 inches wide. If something wider than this is needed, cast on
multiples of 27, with an extra 10 stitches.

[Illustration]

Notice that after the first piece of plain knitting, each alternate row
is like the 19th.

Knit 18 rows plain.

_19th Row, and each alternate row._—* S 1, K 9, P 17. Repeat from *
till only 10 stitches remain on needle. Knit these 10 plain.

_20th Row._—* S 1, K 10, O, N, O, N, K 4, O, N, O, N, K 4. Repeat from
*, K 10.

_21st Row._—Like 19th.

_22nd Row._—* S 1, K 11, O, N, O, N, K 4, O, N, O, N, K 3. Repeat from
*, K 10.

_24th Row._—S 1, K 12, O, N, O, N, K 4, O, N, O, N, K 2. Repeat from *,
K 10.

_26th Row._—* S 1, K 13, O, N, O, N, K 4, O, N, O, N, K 1. Repeat from
*, K 10.

_28th Row._—* S 1, K 14, O, N, O, N, K 4, O, N, O, N. Repeat from *, K
10.

_30th Row._—* S 1, K 15, O, N, O, N, K 4, O, N, K 1. Repeat from *, K
10.

[Sidenote: The Cynthia Knitted Stripe.]

_32nd Row._—* S 1, K 10, O, N, K 4, O, N, O, N, K 4, O, N. Repeat from
*, K 10.

_34th Row._—* S 1, K 11, O, N, K 4, O, N, O, N, K 5. Repeat from *, K
10.

_36th Row._—Like 20th.

_38th Row._—Like 22nd.

_40th Row._—Like 24th.

_42nd Row._—Like 26th.

_44th Row._—Like 28th.

_45th Row._—Like 19th.

Then knit 19 rows plain knitting. Go back and repeat from the 19th row.



The Economy Quilt.


Bedclothes become an expensive item when there are several beds for
young people to be made up, as well as those for their elders. Yet
warmth is essential, if their health is to be maintained.

In the winter, there usually comes a night of sudden cold, so raw and
so intense, that it seems next to impossible to put too much on the
beds. Every spare blanket is turned out, and every eider-down, and
still there is not enough! Next morning someone is sure to say they
never got warm all night!

Of course, eider-downs are ideal. They are warm without being heavy.
But real eider-downs are expensive. Here is a substitute that was
popular in our grandmothers’ day. It is simply a quilt formed of small
bags, sewn together like patchwork, each bag containing a certain
amount of snippets and clippings. Very simple, isn’t it? And yet these
quilts, that cost practically nothing, are invaluable in the cold
weather. Put one of these over the outside of the bed, and the sleeper
keeps as snug and warm as though under a couple of down quilts.

One great advantage of this quilt is the ease with which it can be
made. A child can always run up a little bag; a child can also cut up
snippets, if it is old enough to be allowed to use a scissors. Mother
can run round a few bags with her sewing machine, just before putting
it away after doing needlework. In this way the bags accumulate in a
surprising manner; and joining them together, a few at a time, either
by hand or with the machine, is not laborious or brain-wearing work.


The Method I Always Adopt.

For some years now, I have made it a rule always to have one of these
quilts on hand. If I do not need it myself, when it is finished, I
always know someone who can put it to good use. Any woman who has an
elastic family and a non-elastic purse, is glad of one for a gift.

I save every scrap of material that would otherwise be wasted. If it is
not new, I have it washed and _thoroughly_ dried. All this waste goes
into a bag that I keep hanging up in a cupboard in my bedroom. I never
allow a large amount to accumulate, lest moth should get at it. I have
seldom more than a couple of handfuls at one time waiting to be dealt
with.

On my chest of drawers I keep a box. In this there is always a pair
of sharp scissors. When I have a few moments idle—between the lights
when it is too dark to see much else, or when my eyes are too tired to
do work requiring close attention—I cut up a few of the scraps from
the bag into snippets about an inch square sometimes smaller, never
larger. I put these in the box.

[Sidenote: Worked in. Sections.]

Then again, whenever I have any bits from dressmaking, or mending, or
darning, it has become second nature with me to cut them up there and
then into snippets, and put them in the box. In fact, I always have the
snippet box on the table beside my work box when I am sewing, and the
bits go in as a matter of course as I go along. It keeps me so tidy.
Everything comes in useful, even fragments of darning wool, ravellings
and basting threads!

I save any scraps of material large enough to make the bags; a useful
size is five or six inches by three inches. I run up three sides of
these when I have a spare moment; put in a small handful of snippets,
and close up the end. These I put in a drawer till I have time to join
them together.

I always machine mine together, as it is the quickest way.

Do not fill the bags anything like full, or the quilt will be
impossibly heavy. If you fill the bag about a third full, or at most a
very loose half-full, that will be quite enough. Each little bag just
wants a slight thickness inside, to give the extra warmth, much the
same as we sometimes line quilts with a layer of cotton wool between
two cotton covers.

[Illustration: SECTION OF THE ECONOMY QUILT.]

The reason we put the clippings in little bags, instead of into one
bag, is to keep the stuff evenly distributed over the surface of the
bed. Otherwise, every time the sleeper turned over, or disarranged
the coverings, there would be the chance of all the clippings slipping
over, and collecting themselves on the one side or the other of the
bed, or possibly all falling to the foot of the bed.

A quilt made of the bags, not too full, can be shaken and kept
thoroughly aired.

Almost any sort of material can be used for the bags, provided it is
not too delicate in colour, as one does not want to have a quilt of
this sort frequently going to the cleaners. Strong stuffs are best,
such as cretonne, serge, stout print, sateen—anything in fact that will
stand some wear.

Mix cotton clippings with wool clippings in each bag. Obviously the
quilt will not need any lining, as the back will be fairly neat. If
you like, you can finish the edge with a cord; but I myself always
aim to get the outside bags all of one colour scheme; this in itself
makes a certain finish—a kind of border—and I just leave it at that.
After all, these quilts are not for ornament so much as stern utility;
nevertheless, they can be made to look really pretty, if a little care
and taste is expended on the placing of the various colours and designs.



To Finish the Hems of Blankets.

[Illustration]


Turn down a hem a little more than ½ an inch, having a ball of wool
ready (Andalusian or 3-ply white will do), fasten in the end with a
darning needle. Having the working end of wool out at the top of hem,
ready for the crochet hook (a coarse steel hook is best), catch up a
chain stitch with the hook and * bring the wool across the hook as for
doing a stitch, insert the hook at the bottom of hem, catch wool on
opposite side, the opposite way to lifting the thread as in crocheting,
that is hooking the wool in a downward movement from right to left,
draw loop through and up level with the top of line. Take out the hook
and make one loop, just drawn up to lie in two straight lines and slip
through loop on needle, afterwards doing a chain stitch, and repeat
from *. A little practice will soon show that done in this way the
stitches are not twisted but lay flat, like the machine finish.



Doing up an Eiderdown.


In the days of our grandmothers, eiderdowns were considered a luxury,
things to be taken care of and kept well covered. At the present time,
however, they are found on nearly every bed, varying from those made of
sateen and chintz to those made of satin and silk.

I suppose it is because “familiarity breeds contempt” that we do not
take the care of ours that our grandmothers did of theirs, and that
therefore they became so much sooner soiled and worn out. If your
eiderdown is getting shabby, why not clean it and re-cover it yourself?

If anybody is not willing to give up a little time and trouble to the
success of this venture, let them not so much as contemplate cleaning
and re-covering an eiderdown at home, for though quite easy it is a
little tiresome, and the only two things really needed outside a few
yards of chintz are patience and common sense. To explain: patience
will be needed, for an eiderdown takes some time to dry when once wet,
and common sense to choose the right day on which to do it.

The first thing to do is to choose a hot day, as the eiderdown must be
dried out-of-doors, and the brighter the day the quicker it will dry,
added to which the sunshine fluffs up the down better than any fire
does.


[Illustration: A NARROW INSERTION FOR A NURSERY CASEMENT CURTAIN.

See the article on page 67.]

After well brushing and shaking the quilt, whip it well with a little
cane to loosen the feathers and to get out whatever dust you can. Have
ready a bath half full of warm—not hot—water, into which dissolve a
small packet of Lux. Be sure before putting the quilt in that the
soap is well melted, as otherwise it is apt to stick in lumps to the
covering, whatever it may be.

Dip half of the quilt in first and souse it up and down before dipping
in the rest. You will be surprised at the amount of dirt that “pours”
out. It seems incredible that an eiderdown could be so dirty without
showing it plainly.

When the whole quilt is wet, continue to dip it up and down in the
water for some time, gently squeezing it between your hands. It does
not matter if the colour runs, as the dye will not affect the down, and
as you are re-covering it, why, the streaky case will not be seen.

Let it soak in the water for about an hour, occasionally stirring it
in the bath, kneading and squeezing it so as to loosen the dirt. When
you think it is clean, empty the bath and refill with hotter water, but
no soap. Rinse well and continue in fresh waters until the soap is
completely rinsed out.

Wring out thoroughly and hang over the edge of the bath to drain. At
the end of twenty minutes wring out again, and it is much better if
you can get another person to help with it, as it is much too big to
do alone. Next, take it out into the garden and hang it on a line, the
higher the better, but anywhere where the wind can blow through it.

And here is needed the patience; for it will take two days—probably
three days, and possibly a _week_—to dry in the open, for an eiderdown
is very thick, and the down being close it is difficult for the air to
penetrate. Never let it stay out after the sun is off it, as it quickly
absorbs the damp and only delays the process of drying. Frequently turn
it while hanging on the line, and shake it well to loosen the feathers.

I generally find that three days is enough to dry my quilts thoroughly,
but I always leave them spread out on the grass on a clean sheet
for one whole day in the sunshine after the drying to fluff up the
feathers. It is wonderful how the heat makes them swell and become
light and fluffy.

[Illustration: A DIAGRAM FOR THE CASEMENT CURTAIN SHOWN ON PAGE 95.]

When all this is finished, take your little cane and whip it all over
hard, as though you were beating a carpet. Turn it often as this helps
to loosen the down inside.

This completes the cleaning process, which is simple but complete, and
then you are ready for the re-covering.

The new cover, needless to say, depends entirely upon individual choice
whether it is to be satin, silk, sateen or chintz.

I always use a pretty chintz corresponding to the curtains and hangings
of the bedroom the quilt belongs to. One side I cover with this, and
the other side I use a self-coloured sateen or casement cloth to tone.

It is impossible for me to give the amount of material necessary, as
eiderdowns vary tremendously in size. There are many different widths
in what is called a double-bedded quilt, as also in the single-bedded
ones. For large-sized ones you will have to have a seam down the
centre, as no material is wide enough to cover it completely; but, for
a single-width quilt, a forty-inch goods will be wide enough.

[Sidenote: Re-covering the Quilt.]

The last quilt I covered was for a brown room with a china-blue carpet
patterned in white, and so I chose a willow-pattern chintz with
a reverse side of brown sateen, and it was really one of the most
successful I have done.

First of all, machine-stitch the two widths of material together, being
careful to match the design on the right side, and carefully press the
seam flat. Then spread out on the floor the sateen—also seamed—and,
laying the eiderdown upon it, run a tacking thread all round the edge,
being careful to stretch the quilt to its fullest, so as not to make
the cover too tight. After this run a line of stitching around each and
every little eyelet, of which there are many; these hold the cover in
position for the next step.

Taking a long thread of a bright-coloured cotton, carefully follow out
the design of the quilting, which, in my particular case, was a very
elaborate scroll, tacking the stitches right through the quilt to the
new piece of material. If the design is very complicated this needs
patience; but nowadays eiderdowns are more often quilted in straight
lines, with perhaps a diamond centre.

Always tack your pattern on the plain side of the material, as it is so
much easier to stitch on the machine later on if there is no pattern to
dazzle your eyes.

I would impress on whoever tries this re-covering to be _very_ careful
about keeping exactly to the quilting pattern, as on this altogether
depends the success of the whole undertaking. It would be most
disappointing if, after having finished, you should find that owing to
careless tacking the covering was crooked or cramped or drawn. It takes
patience and care, but is quite easy and most satisfying.

When you have completed the outlining, lay the quilt on the floor again
and tack on the chintz, doing exactly as you did with the sateen, only
omitting to outline the quilting, as it is not necessary to have it on
both sides.

Next, where the threads outline the eyelets take a stiletto and punch
the holes through both sides and button-hole them all round through
the double materials. In doing-this use silk the colour of the
plain-coloured side, as it looks so much nicer than the reverse way.

And now all is ready for the machine. If your quilt is in two colours,
thread the machine with the silk matching the sateen and use a bobbin
threaded with a shade to match the reverse. Carefully follow out the
design which you have outlined, spreading the quilt as wide as possible
so as not to get it puckered.

When all the stitching is finished you will be delighted to see that
both sides of the quilt are stitched in their own respective colourings.

Take out the tacking threads around the edge, and turning down the edge
of the “right side” of the quilt insert a narrow piping cord and sew in
by machine. Next turn in the edges of the other side, and hem by hand
down to the edge of the cord. This gives a very nice finish as well as
a very neat one.

To anybody who desires a frill, though these are not always the
prevailing fashion—there being fashions in eiderdowns as in other
things—after taking out the tacking thread around the edge of the
quilt, insert the frill instead of the cord and stitch firmly by
machine. In using a frill be sure to have it made of the two materials
the same as the cover, putting the plain to the plain and the fancy to
the fancy. Then hem down as with the cord.

A very handsome edge can be made if a thick cord be used similar to
those used in upholstery work, but covered tightly with material before
sewing to the cover. The pulling tightly of the material covering the
cord gives a sort of “cable” effect, and is really very pretty.

When completed I feel sure you will be pleased with the look of your
new eiderdown. It costs so little—not more than a few shillings at the
outside.

[Illustration: SUGGESTIONS FOR CURTAIN BORDERS.

See the article on page 61.]



Patchwork Quilts.


That useful branch of oldtime needlework, the patchwork quilt, has been
revived, and this revival is due to the exigency of economy during
war-time. The price of all kinds of materials being so very high, and
the need for economy so great, have led to many useful devices, in
order to maintain a reasonable amount of comfort during these trying
times, and not the least of these is the patchwork quilt.

[Illustration: To form the sides of the padded quilt illustrated on the
next page.]

The smallest scraps of cotton, silk, or other material can be utilised
and made into coverings, which in many cases may be made very artistic,
and durable. In order to carry out the colour scheme of the bedroom for
which it is intended, it is necessary to combine only those colours
which are found in the other furnishings.

The usual size of a quilt for a double bed is 6 ft. by 5 ft., or if the
bed be very large, 6 ft. by 6 ft. The single bed size is 5 ft. by 4 ft.
For a child’s cot, 4 ft. by 3 ft. is the average size.

[Illustration: A simple pattern showing triangles in three colours.]

Many of the more artistic kind are made up into bedspread size, which
is longer than the quilt, and allows for a fall over each side. The
size of a bedspread is usually from 72 to 90 inches, by from 90 to 100
inches.

[Illustration: An effective design for silk patchwork: black and white
squares, machined or quilted diagonally in green.]

The pieces of material, which are all of the same kind in each quilt,
are cut up into triangles, squares, points, circles, etc., and care
must be taken to have the sizes of the different shapes exactly alike.
The edges are turned in, then the various pieces topsewn together on
the wrong side according to the pattern. It is a good plan to make the
quilt in sections, then unite all together.

[Illustration: To form a padded quilt.]

A quilt of this kind must have a lining, and if wanted to give
additional warmth an interlining of some kind. Cotton wadding, strips
of old white flannel, or any colour which will not run in the washing,
sewn together. Old woollen underwear _thoroughly_ washed and with worn
pieces cut away, can be made use of, as well as light colour tweeds,
etc., but all pieces must be lightly sewn together with flat seams,
then tacked on the lining. See that this lining fits the quilt exactly,
turn in the edges of both, tack together, then machine stitch or sew
the edges together. Blanket stitch may be worked over the edge with
coarse coloured silk, embroidery thread, or No. 5 “Peri-Lusta.”

[Illustration: A diagram showing a two-colour star design.]

The quilt is now ready for the “quilting,” without which it would
not be complete. This is done on the sewing machine if one be at
hand, otherwise hand-sewing with coloured thread, matching or
contrasting with the work, is done in running stitch, with here and
there a backstitch to make it secure. Use a long sewing needle with
“Peri-Lusta” thread, any required colour, No. 8. The lines of sewing
can be formed into diamond shape, squares, herringbone shape, zig-zag,
or any other form liked.

[Sidenote: About Quilting.]

The following designs are easily made, and will only require scraps of
material found lying idle in most households. Old sheets can be made
use of for the lining, or perhaps faded casement curtains, which can be
washed and bleached, or tinted to match.

[Illustration: An appliqué design to border a plain bedspread. This was
carried out in two shades of blue.]


Triangles in Three Colours.

This is intended for scraps of silk too small to allow of variety in
the shape. They are all cut into triangles, and the colours arranged to
form hexagonal shapes. There are only three colours, and of each you
will require two triangles to form the hexagonal shape. Place the six
triangles with a point of each in the centre, no two of same colour
coming together, turn in and topsew the edges of each of two sides
together. Make several of this shape before joining together, then
topsew all the hexagonals, which will be found to fit into each other.
Finish in the manner already directed.


A Variety of the “Star” Shape Design.

The design shown on page 82 is a variety of the “star” shape design,
and three colours are used. Each star has a plain six-sided figure in
the centre. In the design this centre is green. Then each of these
six sides has a triangle in white. The space between the points being
filled with pink, the outer edge of which is, of course, twice as long
as one side of the centre.


Suitable for Silk Patchwork.

The design at the bottom of page 79 is the very latest design, and is
suitable for scraps of silk, the fashionable colours of black and white
being combined in the sample. Blue and white, pink and white, green
and white, or any other colours can be substituted. The border has an
appliqué of roses cut from cretonne. Each motif has its edges turned
under, then tacked to the quilt or bedspread when the quilting is
finished. The edge is worked over with green “Peri-Lusta” of the same
shade as that with which the “quilting” was done, using outline stitch.


To Form a Padded Quilt.

The design at the bottom of page 80 is intended for forming a padded
quilt out of small pieces of silk, sateen, or other material. The
hexagonal shape is used here, and the lining of contrasting colour is
cut to the same size, then five sides of the shape are sewn together,
and the little bag so formed is stuffed with vegetable down, then the
other side sewn up. One side of this can be silk and the other cotton.

The long narrow strips for the sides are formed of the principal
material in strips of the required length, and double the width the
band is to be. Sew the edges together, then stuff with the down through
one end, sew the corners together, and these must be cut at right
angles, so as to give a nice corner. When all the padded pieces are
sewn together, a pretty effect is obtained by going over all the seams
with black cotton in feather-stitch. Vegetable down is cheap, and about
three pounds will be ample for a large size quilt.

[Illustration: A three-colour design for a patch-work quilt, in
diamonds, triangles, and hexagonals.]


Patchwork Appliqué Bedspreads.

Another economical bed-covering is found in the patchwork appliqué. In
this bedspread there is no lining required, and cheap cotton material
serves for the foundation, or old sheets, casement curtains, bolton
sheeting, etc., that have served their purpose can be utilised. They
can be tinted any shade desirable and, of course, must contrast with
the colours chosen for the appliqué. A deep border turned up on
the foundation in the form of a hem is attractive, as seen in the
“Fleur-de-lis” design on page 81. Here the foundation is cream sateen,
and the appliqué with border cut from similar material, but in a deep
shade of pink. The motif is simply outlined with black “Peri-Lusta” in
stem stitch, when attaching to the bedspread.


Repairing Table Linen.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Plain Darning.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Twill Darning.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Darning for a Straight Tear or Gash.]

Now more than ever is it absolutely necessary to preserve our linen
household napery, for the price asked for new linen is enormous, owing
to its scarcity, and it is said that in the near future it will be
almost impossible to obtain it at any price.

It may not be generally known that linen is liable to the attack of
minute insects, which bore through it, just as the moth does through
wood, and so weaken it that it soon wears into holes, if precaution is
not taken to prevent them. When storing linen, camphor, lavender, cedar
wood, etc., are just as necessary for its preservation as they are for
woollen goods, and it is said that an apple, hung up till quite dry,
then studded all over with cloves, stuck in up to the head, is very
potent when attached to the top of the drawer of the chest, or hung on
the inside of the door, if the chest be made in this way. All linen
should be well aired before putting away. The repairs should be made
before sending the linen to the laundry, and if it has been stiffened
and glazed, the part requiring mending should be steeped in warm water
to take out the starch, and then dried.

When a part becomes threadbare, the best method of repairing is to
darn it neatly with fine linen thread, obtained by ravelling a piece
of the material. In the case of a table cloth this thread can be got
by ripping the hem at one end and unravelling the edge for a few rows.
Wind the thread on a reel and keep for the repairing of this cloth,
then remake the hem.

Fig. 1 shows the method of doing plain darning, and Fig. 2 shows the
twill darning or plain damask stitch.

Insert the part to be darned in the embroidery tambour with the wrong
side turned towards you, as all darning must be done on this side of
the material. The darning should go well up into the sound part of the
surrounding material, and the stitches should be small and even.

[Sidenote: Repairing Table Linen.]

Run in the lengthwise stitches first, taking care to have them a little
loose, as they will shrink when washed, and leave a small loop of the
thread at each turning, to allow for the taking up of these threads
when working across them. Run the stitches according to the thread of
the material in perfectly straight lines, taking up only two or three
threads and skipping the same number. In alternate rows take up those
threads skipped in the preceding rows.

When the weak portion is covered with the lengthwise stitches and about
half an inch beyond it at each end, work across in the same way, taking
up and leaving alternate stitches, and having the same space between
the rows as at first.

[Illustration: These specimens show some of the patterns that are to be
met with in damask.]

[Sidenote: Darning and Patching.]

When there is a hole in the linen, it is necessary to cut away the worn
edges and make the sides even, then darn as in the preceding case, but
have the threads much closer together, continue each lengthwise thread
across the hole and darn down below it, leave the loop at the end when
turning. (See Fig. 1). The darn when finished should have the threads
so close together as to replace the original piece.

For twilled linen fabric Fig. 2 shows the method of proceeding. Begin
by working the darning stitch lengthwise across the hole in the same
manner as before, then study the material to see how many threads of
the fabric are crossed over to form the twill, and proceed to make the
crossing stitches, passing over two or three threads and taking up one
or two according to the pattern. In each succeeding row advance one or
two threads in the same direction.

Even coloured borders can be very successfully repaired, and a correct
copy of the original design be obtained in this way, using thread
matching in colour with those of the border.

Fig. 3 shows how to repair a rent in the material, or a gash made by a
knife, when the edges fit close together. Place a strip of stiff paper
underneath the opening and tack securely all round. Darn across the
rent, drawing the edges close together, and picking up the threads in
each row which were passed over in the preceding. Leave the small loop
at each turning as before.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. A Hemmed and Stitched Patch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5. A Top-sewn Patch.]


Patching the Linen.

When the piece to be repaired is too large for darning, it must be cut
out and replaced with a patch of the same material and, if possible,
the patch should be cut from linen which has been in use about the same
length of time as that requiring the mending. If new material must be
used, then let it be somewhat thinner in texture than the other, for
if the same material in a new piece be used the patch would be very
conspicuous.

[Sidenote: Repairing Table Linen.]

Use fine linen thread and a fine sewing needle when patching. Cut the
edges of the hole to a thread of the material, taking away the worn
parts completely, cut the patch to fit over the hole and about an inch
beyond it each way. Turn in the edges of the hole, making a diagonal
slit at each corner, to get a perfect angle and flat seam. Turn in the
edges of the patch and tack on the wrong side evenly over the hole,
turn to the right side and hem the patch to the edge of the hole with
neat small stitches, then backstitch on this right side to the outside
edge of the patch, keeping the lines straight and the angle at each
corner acute. See Fig. 4.

Fig. 5 shows the inset patch which is less noticeable than the
preceding, and suitable for articles which do not have to stand very
frequent use and washing. The edges of the hole are arranged as in the
preceding, the patch is cut to fit it exactly, with its edges turned in
a seam of the same width as that in the hole. Both edges are topsewn
together on the wrong side, then the seam opened out and pressed quite
flat. If neatly done and the pattern evenly matched, a patch of this
kind is scarcely noticeable. The raw edges of the material should be
neatly overcast to prevent ravelling.


Darning Damask Table Linen.

When darning damask linen it is quite possible to imitate the design so
closely as to render the mending invisible. A close study of the design
is necessary to see the number of threads taken up and passed over. In
all cases the best thread to use is the ravelling obtained by picking
out the threads from the edges of the material.

The illustration page shows the most common damask patterns and the
method of darning them. In all cases the lengthwise stitches are worked
as in Fig. 2. The pattern is worked by the crossing stitches, taking up
and passing over a certain number of threads in each successive row.

The samples are worked with two coloured threads, so that the stitches
forming the design can be easily copied.

When doing drawn thread work wind all the pulled threads on a reel, and
keep them for mending linen of all kinds, they are the best threads for
the purpose.


When Cloths are frayed at the Laundry.

Table cloths and serviettes are usually sent to the laundry, even when
the bulk of the washing is done at home, as it is so difficult for the
amateur to get the evenly glazed surface that the professional worker
gives the cloths. The result is that tablecloths soon show signs of
wear and tear, and invariably “go” first down the edges.

As soon as holes and fraying appear at the sides or ends, cut the strip
right off, unless it is quite a small rent and can easily be mended.
As a rule, when the edges once start to go, they do the job pretty
thoroughly. And the best way is to cut off the weak part, before it
tears far into the material, and turn a new hem.

If the cloth is then too narrow to use on the dining table, it can be
widened or lengthened, by applying a deep hem, which can be joined with
fagotting to the cloth. It will be necessary to tack both the cloth
that has been cut and re-hemmed, and the new hem on stiff paper to keep
it even as you work the faggoting.



Mending a Sheet.


Nowadays, when economy must be the watchword with most of us, a great
saving can be effected in our household by paying attention to the
requirements of the contents of the linen chest and remembering the old
proverb, “a stitch in time saves nine.”

When a piece of bedroom or table-napery shows signs of wear in any part
by becoming thin, patching can be avoided by carefully darning the spot
with soft cotton or linen thread, running the stitches well up into the
sound portion surrounding the weak. But when, as in the case of sheets,
a large portion gets thin all over, patching must be resorted to.

The best way to repair a sheet that has become well worn in the centre
is to cut it right up the middle and turn the selvedged edges to the
centre. Tack these in a flat seam, overlapping the edges for somewhat
less than the quarter of an inch (do not turn in the selvedge edge for
there must not be a thick seam), using fine sewing cotton of a soft
make, stitch along the extreme edge of the seam at both sides, or use
the machine if one be handy; in the latter case do not have the tension
tight. If the part now turned to the sides shows any holes or any
portion of it be very thin, it is better to cut this portion out and
replace by a patch.

The piece for this patch should be lighter than the material of the
sheet, but of the same kind, and it is always well to keep pieces of
the old sheets which can no longer be used for this purpose.

[Illustration: Showing the centre of the sheet with selvedge edges in
overlapping seam, and hem-stitching reworked over the seam.]

Cut the patch to the required size by a line in the threads of the
material, allowing two or three inches beyond the weak edges in the
sheet. Turn in the edges neatly along the three sides of the piece
which come in on the sheet, tack the two edges together and spread the
patch in place on the sheet, making it perfectly smooth, now tack round
the three edges. Hem down this side of the patch.

[Illustration: Showing the patch set into the side of the sheet before
hemming, with method of cutting away the worn part under the patch.]

Turn the other side of the sheet and cut away the portion over the
patch, leaving half an inch margin, turn in the edges of the margin,
snipping the corners to make an angle, tack the seam, then hem or
machine-stitch along the edge. The sheet is now ready for hemming the
sides, turn in a half inch hem at each side and sew in place. If the
sheet has been hem-stitched at both ends a few stitches of this hemming
must be undone at each side of the centre seam and then reworked so as
to preserve the pattern and give a neat finish to the work.


Books for Little Girls

Edited by FLORA KLICKMANN

    “The Little Girl’s Sewing Book” is unlike any other
    needlework book that has ever been published, and is
    overflowing with pictures and little poems, just the sort
    that a child enjoys. “The Little Girl’s Knitting and Crochet
    Book” contains instructions for making many articles—easy,
    attractive, and useful—that a small girl will love to knit
    or crochet.



A Patchwork Toilet Runner.

[Illustration: Strips of pretty Cretonne are joined together, and the
hem is of blue print.]


The illustration on this page shows a very effective way of using
pieces of cretonne to make a toilet runner. Runners are expensive items
to buy, but if you have some pretty pieces of material by you, you can
make one with very little trouble and expense.

The one shown is composed of 18 pieces of pretty coloured cretonne,
each measuring about 2¼ × 8¼ inches. These are joined together to make
a long strip, and the whole is finished with a 1¾ inch hem of blue
print, which is machined on.

The border can be of any pretty shade that will tone well with the
pieces. Or, if they are of a delicate shade, a hem of unbleached calico
would make a delightful finish. This washes excellently, and the soft,
creamy tint looks exceedingly well with the pale-coloured pieces.

In selecting the pieces of cretonne to be used, it is essential to
employ only those that will launder well. Otherwise with the first wash
the whole thing will be spoilt through the colours “running.”

This runner when finished measures 44 inches long by 12 inches deep,
but a cloth of any size or shape can be made in this way, and with a
little thought and trouble really delightful results can be secured at
little or no expense.

If you do not happen to have any fancy cretonne by you, there is no
reason why plain coloured pieces should not be used. So long as they
are carefully and tastefully blended, quite a pretty cloth or runner
can be made. Oddments of casement cloth, linen, cotton poplin, print,
can all be saved, and a real economy can be effected by this method of
using them.



Modern Bead Work.


Beaded motifs as dress trimmings were never more in vogue than at the
present time. Beaded bags, hat-bands, belts and ornaments are all
expensive articles to purchase, but they are quite easy to make, and
the materials cost but a little.

There are two modes of making the hand-made trimmings and bags, and, of
course, this kind is worth much more than that made by machinery, as
well as being more lasting and artistic.

In beaded crochet a coloured mercerised cotton, fine enough to pass
easily through the beads selected, is used with a crochet-hook
corresponding in fineness to the thread. The beads are first put on
the thread, using a fine sewing needle for the purpose, or waxing the
thread end; the beads are then worked into the design with the usual d
c.

In the needle-made variety, which we are illustrating in this issue,
each bead is attached to the bead immediately below it, and to the one
following it. A very fine sewing needle, with fine linen or glazed
cotton thread, is necessary.


The Rose Design.

[Illustration: A Needle-made Beaded Rose Motif.]

This beautiful design is suitable as a single motif for dress trimming,
or as a repeat for tops of bags, etc.

Delft-blue china beads compose the background for the rose, which is of
a deep pink colour, with small green stem.

Use fine linen thread and a very fine sewing needle. Thread 29 of the
blue beads (or any other colour selected for the groundwork), run the
needle back through the 28th bead (that is, insert the needle through
the 28th bead, between the 28th and 29th, and bring it out through the
28th between that and the 27th), thread a bead, bring this bead over
the 28th, and run the needle back through the 28th, as you did before,
but run it through the 27th also; thread another bead, place it over
the 27th, and run the needle back through the 27th and 26th beads;
repeat with every 2 beads to the end. Turn.

_3rd Row._—Thread a bead, run the needle back through the last bead in
the 2nd row, thread a bead, run the needle back through the last bead
again, in the same manner as before, and through the following bead;
thread a bead, and continue as in the 2nd row, introducing the rose
beads. After working 7 blue (b), there are 5 pink (p), 3 b, 3 p, 10 b.

_4th Row._—9 b, 5 p, 1 b, 6 p, 7 b.

_5th Row._—7 b, 6 p, 1 b, 5 p, 9 b.

_6th Row._—8 b, 2 p, 8 b, 4 p, 6 b.

_7th Row._—6 b, 1 p, 2 b, 1 p, 1 b, 6 p, 2 b, 2 p, 7 b.

[Sidenote: Needle-made Motifs.]

_8th Row._—7 b, 1 p, 1 b, 2 p, 2 b, 5 p, 2 b, 2 p, 6 b.

_9th Row._—7 b, 2 p, 1 b, 2 p, 7 b, 1 p, 1 b, 2 p, 5 b.

_10th Row._—5 b, 1 p, 1 b, 1 p, 5 b, 1 p, 1 b, 4 p, 2 b, 3 p, 4 b.

_11th Row._—3 b, 5 p, 1 b, 4 p, 1 b, 2 p, 4 b, 1 p, 1 b, 2 p, 4 b.

[Illustration: A Needle-made Star Design and a Bird Motif.]

_12th Row._—4 b, 1 p, 1 b, 1 p, 4 b, 2 p, 1 b, 5 p, 1 b, 6 p, 2 b.

_13th Row._—2 b, 1 p, 1 b, 1 p, 4 b, 5 p, 1 b, 2 p, 4 b, 1 p, 1 b, 1 p,
4 b.

_14th Row._—4 b, 1 p, 1 b, 4 p, 1 b, 2 p, 1 b, 4 p, 2 b, 6 p, 2 b.

_15th Row._—3 b, 6 p, 1 b, 4 p, 3 b, 4 p, 1 b, 1 p, 5 b.

_16th Row._—3 b, 2 p, 1 b, 1 p, 4 b, 3 p, 1 b, 3 p, 1 b, 6 p, 3 b.

_17th Row._—4 b, 5 p, 1 b, 1 p, 3 b, 8 p, 1 b, 2 p, 3 b.

_18th Row._—3 b, 3 p, 1 b, 9 p, 2 b, 5 p, 5 b.

_19th Row._—7 b, 2 p, 2 b, 1 p, 1 b, 7 p, 2 b, 2 p, 4 b.

_20th Row._—6 b, 2 p, 1 b, 6 p, 1 b, 3 p, 9 b.

_21st Row._—8 b, 3 p, 3 b, 1 p, 4 b, 4 p, 5 b.

_22nd Row._—4 b, 4 p, 1 b, 4 p, 1 b, 1 p, 1 b, 5 p, 1 b, 1 green (g), 5
b.

[Illustration: The Rose diagram. The Star diagram is given below.]

_23rd Row._—4 b, 1 g, 2 b, 5 p, 1 b, 2 p, 1 b, 7 p, 5 b.

_24th Row._—5 b, 6 p, 2 b, 3 p, 1 b, 3 p, 3 b, 2 g, 3 b.

_25th Row._—3 b, 1 g, 5 b, 5 p, 4 b, 3 p, 7 b.

_26th Row._—24 b, 1 g, 3 b.

_27th and 28th Rows._—All blue.

The bead at each turning is not included in the number given at the
beginning of each row; this is the “turning” bead, and must be used in
every row as in the 1st and 2nd rows.


A Needle-made Star Design.

[Illustration]

This lovely design can be extended each way. It is made with 2 shades
of blue, but any other combination will prove equally attractive if the
shades are well chosen.

Light and dark blue were used in the sample, and, of course, the beads
are all of the same size and shape.

Thread 4 dark blue (d b), 7 light blue (l b), 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 2
l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 7 l b, 4 d b. Turn. In this
design the “turning” bead is omitted.

_2nd Row._—Thread 1 d b bead, run the needle through the last bead in
1st row at the side next to the 2nd last, draw out the thread, now run
it through the 1st bead in this row towards the 2nd bead in 1st row,
and put it through that bead; thread another d b and continue on with 2
more d b, then 8 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 3 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b,
8 l b, 4 d b.

_3rd Row._—2 d b, 11 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d
b, 11 l b, 2 d b.

_4th Row._—2 d b, 12 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 12 l b, 2
d b.

_5th Row._—10 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 3 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 10
l b.

_6th Row._—10 l b, 2 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 2 d b, 10
l b.

_7th Row._—10 l b, 3 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 3 d b, 10 l b.

_8th Row._—10 l b, 4 d b, 7 l b, 4 d b, 10 l b.

_9th Row._—10 l b, 5 d b, 5 l b, 5 d b, 10 l b.

_10th Row._—10 l b, 6 d b, 3 l b, 6 d b, 10 l b.

_11th Row._—4 l b, 6 b d, 1 l b, 5 d b, 3 l b, 5 d b, 1 l b, 6 b d, 4 l
b.

_12th Row._—1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 1 l b, 4 d b, 3 l b, 4 d b, 1 l b, 6 d
b, 4 l b, 1 d b.

_13th Row._—1 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 1 l b, 3 d b, 3 l b, 3 d b, 1 l
b, 6 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b.

_14th Row._—2 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 1 l b, 2 d b, 3 l b, 2 d b, 1 l
b, 6 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b.

_15th Row._—1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 1 l b, 1 d b, 3 l b, 1 d
b, 1 l b, 6 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b.

_16th Row._—1 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 5 l b, 6 d b, 4 l
b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b.

[Sidenote: A Swallow Design.]

[Illustration: A Diagram for working the Bird.]

_17th Row._—2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b. 10 l b, 3 d b, 10 l b, 1 d b,
2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b.

_18th Row._—1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 9 l b, 3 d b, 9 l b, 1 d
b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b.

_19th Row._—2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 10 l b, 3 d b, 10 l b, 1 d b, 2
l b, 1 d b, 2 l b.

_20th Row._—1 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 5 l b, 6 d b, 4 l
b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b.

_21st Row._—2 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 1 l b, 1 d b, 3 l b, 1 d
b, 1 l b, 6 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b.

_22nd Row._—2 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 1 l b, 2 d b, 3 l b, 2 d b, 1 l
b, 6 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b.

_23rd Row._—1 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 1 l b, 3 d b, 3 l b, 3 d b, 1 l
b, 6 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b.

_24th Row._—1 d b, 4 l b, 6 d b, 1 l b, 4 d b, 3 l b, 4 d b, 1 l b, 6 d
b, 4 l b, 1 d b.

_25th Row._—4 l b, 6 d b, 1 l b, 5 d b, 3 l b, 5 d b, 1 l b, 6 d b, 4 l
b.

_26th Row._—10 l b, 6 d b, 3 l b, 6 d b, 10 l b.

_27th Row._—10 l b, 5 d b, 5 l b, 5 d b, 10 l b.

_28th Row._—10 l b, 4 d b, 7 l b, 4 d b, 10 l b.

_29th Row._—10 l b, 3 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 3 d b, 10 l b.

_30th Row._—10 l b, 2 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 2 d b, 10
l b.

_31st Row._—10 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 3 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 1 d b, 10
l b.

_32nd Row._—2 d b, 12 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 12 l b, 2
d b.

_33rd Row._—2 d b, 11 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1
d b, 11 l b, 2 d b.

_34th Row._—4 d b, 8 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 3 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d
b, 8 l b, 4 d b.

_35th Row._—4 d b, 7 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d
b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 7 l b, 4 d b.

Repeat from the 2nd row.


The Bird Motif.

This is worked with two shades of blue beads—light and dark—bright
yellow, and any colour chosen for the ground-work.

It is a beautiful design for a beaded bag intended for a gift. If
used for this purpose there must be a larger number of beads in the
first row for a foundation, as the number shown in the diagram (52)
only gives a width of 4 inches. Allow 14 beads for each extra inch
required. Be sure to keep the bird design exactly in the centre of the
background, the depth of the design as worked is 3¼ inches, therefore
more rows before and after the bird design will be necessary to
increase the depth.

Using a fine linen or glazed sewing cotton, thread 53 beads for the
groundwork foundation, turn, run the thread back through the 52nd bead,
and, working as directed for the rose design, form the 2nd row of
groundwork, which, in the illustration is white. The “turning” bead is
not included in the numbers composing the design, but it must be used
at the beginning of every row.

_3rd Row._—30 white (w), 2 dark blue (d b), 20 w.

_4th Row._—21 w, 2 d b, 2 yellow (y), 27 w.

_5th Row._—26 w, 2 y, 1 d b, 1 light blue (l b), 1 d b, 21 w.

_6th Row._—21 w, 3 l b, 3 y, 25 w.

_7th Row._—25 w, 2 y, 4 l b, 21 w.

_8th Row._—15 w, 6 d b, 5 l b, 2 y, 24 w.

_9th Row._—22 w, 2 l b, 1 y, 12 l b, 3 d b, 12 w.

[Sidenote: A Nursery Casement Curtain.]

_10th Row._—11 w, 2 d b, 14 l b, 1 y, 4 l b, 20 w.

_11th Row._—17 w, 3 d b, 21 l b, 2 d b, 9 w.

_12th Row._—8 w, 1 d b, 25 l b, 2 d b, 16 w.

_13th Row._—14 w, 2 d b, 6 l b, 1 d b, 20 l b, 2 d b, 7 w.

_14th Row._—6 w, 2 d b, 22 l b, 1 d b, 7 l b, 2 d b, 12 w.

_15th Row._—11 w, 1 d b, 8 l b, 1 y, 6 l b, 2 w, 10 l b, 1 w, 1 l b, 1
w, 3 l b, 2 d b, 5 w.

_16th Row._—5 w, 1 d b, 2 l b, 6 w, 1 l b, 2 w, 1 l b, 2 w, 1 l b, 5 w,
5 l b, 1 y, 9 l b, 1 d b, 10 w.

_17th Row._—9 w, 1 d b, 9 l b, 1 y, 6 l b, 19 w, 2 l b, 1 d b, 4 w.

_18th Row._—3 w, 1 d b, 2 l b, 21 w, 5 l b, 2 y, 9 l b, 1 d b, 8 w.

_19th Row._—7 w, 1 d b, 8 l b, 3 w, 1 y, 5 l b, 23 w, 1 d b, 3 w.

_20th Row._—2 w, 1 d b, 25 w, 5 l b, 1 y, 2 w, 1 l b, 1 w, 7 l b, 1 d
b, 6 w.

_21st Row._—5 w, 1 d b, 6 l b, 1 w, 1 l b, 4 w, 5 l b, 27 w, 1 d b, 1 w.

_22nd Row._—29 w, 6 l b, 7 w, 5 l b, 1 d b, 4 w.

_23rd Row._—3 w, 1 d b, 4 l b, 8 w, 7 l b, 29 w.

_24th Row._—29 w, 3 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b, 9 w, 2 l b, 1 d b, 3 w.

_25th Row._—2 w, 1 d b, 1 l b, 11 w, 1 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b, 1 d b, 4 l b,
29 w.

_26th Row._—29 w, 4 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 1 l b, 11 w, 1 l b, 2 w.

_27th Row._—1 w, 1 l b, 12 w, 3 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 1 d b, 2 l b, 29 w.

_28th Row._—29 w, 2 l b, 1 d b, 3 l b, 1 d b, 3 l b, 13 w.

_29th Row._—14 w, 2 l b, 1 w, 2 l b, 1 d b, 3 l b, 29 w.

_30th Row._—29 w, 1 l b, 1 w, 1 l b, 1 w, 1 l b, 18 w.

_31st and 32nd Rows._—All white.

[Illustration: A CASEMENT CURTAIN WITH A FILET CROCHET TOP.

See pages 67, 75 and 76.]



Crochet Ribbons for Underwear Beadings.


A very pretty and economical substitute for the silk lingerie ribbon
is found in the new crochet ribbons for this purpose. Fine mercerised
cotton, or crochet silk thread is used with a fine hook.

[Illustration: The above illustration shows ribbons No. 1, 2, 3 and 4.]


No. 1.

12 ch, turn, miss next ch, 5 d c into next 5 ch, 3 d c into next ch, 5
d c into last 5 ch, * turn with 1 ch, miss 1st d c, 5 d c into next 5 d
c, 3 d c into next d c (that is the centre d c of the 3 d c into 1 ch),
5 d c into next 5 d c, miss last d c, and repeat from *.


No. 2.

This is a corded design, and is worked over a single stout cotton
thread, such as No. 10. Form a knot on the end of the No. 10 cotton,
over the cord put 8 d c, keep the cord gently pulled, to have the
stitches close together and the line perfectly straight. Turn, miss
1st 3 d c, 15 d c over the cord into the 15 d c *, 3 d c over the cord
alone, 15 d c into the 15 d c; * repeat.


No. 3.

11 ch, turn, miss 1st ch, 1 d c into next ch, 3 ch, 2 tr into same ch
as last d c, 1 d c into next 3rd ch, 3 ch, 2 tr into same ch, 1 d c
into next 3rd ch, 3 ch, 2 tr into same ch, 1 d c into last ch, * turn,
1 ch, 1 d c into last d c, 3 ch, 2 tr into same d c, 1 d c, 3 ch, 2 tr
over each 3 ch except the last, where you put only the 1 d c; repeat
from *.


No. 4.

13 ch, 1 tr into the 10th ch, over the tr put 1 d c, 4 tr, 1 tr into
the 7th ch, over the tr put 1 d c, 4 tr, 1 tr into the 4th ch, over the
tr 1 d c, 4 tr, 1 tr into the 1st ch, * turn, 4 ch, 1 tr into the space
between the groups of tr with 1 d c, 4 tr over each, 1 tr over the 4
ch, at the turning 1 d c, 4 tr over this tr; * repeat.


No. 5.

14 ch, 1 d c into the 11th ch, 3 ch, 1 d c into every 2nd ch, * turn, 4
ch, 1 d c, 3 ch into each loop; * repeat.

[Sidenote: Designs that will wear well.]



No. 6.

10 ch, turn, 3 long tr into the 5th ch, retaining last loop of each
on the hook until working off the 3rd, then work off all the loops
together, and put 1 d c around the top, 3 ch, 3 long tr into same ch as
last trs, 3 long tr into 1st ch, 3 ch, 3 long tr into same ch, 1 long
tr beside last group, turn, * 5 ch, two groups of long trs with 3 ch
between into each 3 ch space, 1 long tr between last trs and following
chs; * repeat.


No. 7.

13 ch; into the 10th and 7th, 4th and 1st ch put 2 tr with 2 ch
between, 1 tr beside last tr, * turn, 3 ch, into each 2 ch space put 2
tr with 2 ch between, 1 tr between last tr and next chs; * repeat.


No. 8.

15 ch, turn, into the 10th ch put 1 d c, 5 ch, 1 d c, 3 ch, into the
7th ch, 1 d c, 5 ch, 1 d c, 3 ch, into the 4th ch, 1 d c, 5 ch, 1 d c,
3 ch, 1 d c into the 1st ch, * turn, 5 ch, into each picot 1 d c, 5
ch, 1 d c, 3 ch between the picots, 3 ch, 1 d c into the 3rd ch at the
turning; * repeat.

The illustrations show the actual size of the crochet ribbons, so
the worker can easily gauge what width pattern she wishes to work.
These are so varied in design as to give plenty of choice. If a firm,
close pattern is preferred, either No. 1 or No. 2 would be suitable,
the latter being particularly strong, the padding cord giving extra
durability.

For an easily and quickly worked pattern, it would be difficult to find
anything to beat design No. 5. This has the very even flat appearance,
which renders it particularly suitable for ribbon purposes. Similar in
appearance, though somewhat different in the working, is No. 7.

No. 8 is a very lacy pattern, particularly suitable for finer kinds of
underwear.

[Illustration: Above are shown ribbons 5, 6, 7 and 8.]

These crochet ribbons will launder excellently.



Bead Fancies.


The fashion of the present day runs towards beads in every colour and
design, and although the making of beads is not exactly a needlework
economy, it is a dress economy, and that is very nearly related to
needlework.

I have been very successful in making all sorts of articles for
ornamentation—from beads, sealing-wax, broken china, a little
gold paint and some glue, not to mention a little grease and a
knitting-needle.

I began my home-made bead-making from necessity, because I was unable
to find any beads to match a particular frock I very much wanted a
string for. Also, in hunting everywhere for them, I found that the
really artistic and barbaric ones ran into a great deal of money,
especially if they were large.

Now I wanted an odd shade of blue, which was really no shade at all,
because the material was old and had faded to the beautiful tint which
it now possesses. I could not procure any that were even remotely like
it, and so my idea of making some for myself was born.

To begin with, I bought for sixpence a large box of assorted beads,
such as are sold for children to string at kindergarten.


Sealing-wax is an Essential.

At a stationer’s I bought up a whole lot of broken sealing-wax for a
very little money, purchasing at the same time two good sticks, one of
gold and one of silver. These I carried home and sorted as best I could
into shades of different colouring.

You will be surprised to find what a lot of different tones there are
to be had in sealing-wax, though, when buying, be careful not to be
taken in by the outside of the stick! I bought what I thought was a
beautiful shade of lavender, but fortunately was told by the assistant
that it was really a dark blue, which had been in the window and faded!
Blues will often fade mauve, and reds will become pink. But you will
easily avoid mistakes by looking at the box which gives a description
of its contents.


Broken China the next Requisite.

Having secured what I wanted at the stationer’s, I next looked through
the china pantry and kitchen cupboards to see what I could find in the
way of broken china and glass.

I turned out quite a nice little heap from here, and then went to the
tool-house, where I had a little store, which I had dug up out of the
garden.

I never can understand where all the broken china comes from which is
always to be found in every garden when the earth is turned up. I have
a small basket full of all sorts, of odd pieces in bright blues, reds,
and yellows, which appear to be chips from plates or saucers. I should
think it would take a generation of families, and their tea, dinner and
breakfast services, to account for the quantity and colouring I have by
me.

All this china I washed carefully in soapy water, rinsing in very hot
clear water, and drying whilst still hot. By this means the china and
glass keeps its shine, and if set in the sun for a little while it will
greatly improve the lustre.

Next I sorted the colours, and then, with the aid of a wooden hammer
and a piece of felt, I cracked the china into tiny pieces. Be careful
in doing this to put the coloured side of the china downwards, and lay
on a piece of felt, with another piece on top. Hit gently, but firmly,
and where the piece is cracked insert a nail or strong pin in the crack
and hit with the hammer. The cracks will split and will leave a nice
edge, which is very useful for sticking in the sealing-wax. Break the
pieces as small as possible, but leaving the colour to show on one
side. If you smash at the pieces they will powder and be of no use at
all.

[Illustration: A Diagram for working the cross-stitch design on the Bag
illustrated on page 107.

This is worked on one side in green, and on the other side in purple.]

Whatever odd beads you have, or old pieces of coloured paste and
imitation stones—which are often to be had in old buckles—spangles
and bugles, all are grist to the mill. I have also used broken pieces
of pebbles and stones which I found among the gravel, and which were
broken by the roller, and which, when chipped very fine, displayed
really brilliant colouring. Pieces of flint with a sparkle of mica look
beautiful.


Making the Beads.

Having completed this collection, I turned my attention to the
bead-making, and I began in this manner:—

I started with a set of six large beads in blues for my chain. I
chose the largest beads in my assorted box, irrespective of colour
and shape. Taking one of these I slipped it over the end of a steel
knitting-needle, using one large enough to hold the bead tightly. This
needle I first greased with a rag on which a little lard had been
rubbed. This prevents the sealing-wax adhering to anything but the bead.

Next I lit a taper, and, using blue wax, I covered the bead roughly
with it, turning the knitting-needle in my hand, so that the hot liquid
ran round it. This I plunged into cold water.

Before proceeding, I would like to say that great care must be taken
not to smoke the wax when a taper or candle is used; if you will heat
the wax in the centre of the flame, you will find that the colour does
not become blackened.

As soon as the blue wax had cooled, without hardening, I splashed on
some of the gold, and, turning the bead rapidly in the flame itself,
the gold mingled with the blue, so forming a sort of marbled effect.
This I also plunged into the cold water.

Then I chose a brilliant yellow wax, and, heating it in the candle
flame, I squeezed the tip into a sharp point.

This, in turn, I heated, and dabbed it in regular intervals round the
bead to form spots. While the spots were still soft, I pushed into the
centre of each one a tiny piece of broken china, in a pure turquoise
shade, pinching the wax to cover the rough edge.

Do not use the fingers to the sealing-wax more than can be possibly
helped, as touching it takes away the glaze.

I made three beads similar to this design, and three in a paler shade
of blue, with the same yellow spots, but using pieces of dark red china
instead of the turquoise. These I strung with a three-inch length of
small yellow beads (which I bought at the same shop as the box of beads
came from, and which were also sold for children’s kindergarten work)
between each large one, and the chain, when finished, looked truly
beautiful. It certainly enhanced the beauty and value of the frock for
which it was made.


Making Fancy Buttons.

To match the chain I made four buttons, used to fasten the
shoulder-pieces of the bodice, in the same colours and the same design.

To make these, any old buttons that have shanks to them will do, but
have shanks they must, as there is no other means of fastening them. I
had four old brass buttons, with flat, shiny tops. With an old knife
I scraped the face of each so as to make it rough, as the wax adheres
better to a rough surface.

[Sidenote: Pretty Uses for Beads.]

I used a piece of cardboard—piece of an old box—and cut four small
slits in it large enough to slip the button-shanks through. On the
other side I slipped a burnt match into the shank of each, and by this
means the buttons were quite firm and did not wobble about.

Then I covered two with dark wax, and two with light wax similar to the
beads, scraping away any wax which had overflowed on to the cardboard.
Before it was cold I pressed a tiny ring of the small yellow beads
round the immediate edge, finishing off with a spot of the yellow wax
in the centre of each, and a scrap of broken china in the centre of
that, again.

I found the buttons a little rough on the edge, but, with the aid of a
nail file, I rubbed them fairly smooth, and they did not notice when
sewn on the frock.

I have made buttons and buckles galore from old oddments, using up
different coloured beads in an inlaid fashion.

A most effective way is to cover the surface of a button with a thin
layer of glue, and to lay the beads on in a design like a mosaic. This
is a really beautiful way of decorating buttons, and a very pretty
opaque look can be given by sprinkling the beads, while the gum is
still wet, with a little of the flitter used in pen painting.


Various Ways of Using Beads.

A very pretty way of using beads also is to hem a skirt with them,
simply tacking the hem in the desired depth, and then, with a long
cotton and needle, make a stitch through to the right side, slip on a
bead, pass the needle through to the wrong side, take a long stitch
underneath, and come up on the right side for a bead again. This is a
most effective way of finishing a hem, and has the advantage of being
much quicker done than ordinary hemming. I feel sure that, once having
tried this way, you will confess it is very much prettier than an
ordinary hem.

Tops of tassels can be made to match buttons and bead chain in the
exact manner that the sealing-wax beads are made themselves.

If a whole set, consisting of chain, buttons, tassel-tops, belt and
shoe-buckles, are made to match, you have no idea how lovely they look;
and also what a very “Parisian” look it gives to an otherwise plain and
rather ordinary frock.

Of course, if you are very industrious, and would like to complete your
outfit, I would suggest knitting one of the ever-popular bead-bags.

For this all that is necessary is a ball or two (according to the size
of the bag) of coloured knitting silk, and a bunch of small beads,
either the same or a contrasting shade. For instance, a golden brown
silk, with tiny yellow beads, would look beautiful, especially were it
lined with a daffodil lining, and finished off at the end with a bead
tassel made to match.

To make these bags you want, as I say, one ball of brown silk, and
one bunch of tiny yellow beads, and a pair of fine knitting-needles
especially made for this work, and which are about as thick as a
hat-pin.

To begin with, thread a needle (a bead needle or darner is best) with
the end of your ball of silk, then pull out one little strand of beads
and run the needle, darning fashion, into the thread on which the
beads themselves are strung. Pull your silk out of the needle, leaving
a tiny piece over where the silk and cotton are entwined. Slip the
beads along, and you will find they go easily over the joined silk, and
so pass, as it were, _en masse_ on to the knitting silk.

According to the size of the purse or bag, whichever you desire to
make, so cast on sufficient stitches for one side only, the bag being
knitted quite flat, and sewn up the sides when finished.

Having cast on your stitches, knit one row plain and then one row in
this manner—

Slip your needle into a stitch; push up a bead; knit the stitch, and so
on to the end of the line.

Next row knit plain silk with no beads, as the beads are only wanted
one side.

If you do this for about eight inches, for a small bag, and then halve
it and sew it up, you can then mount it on a piece of brown silk to
make it deeper.

Personally, I think they look much prettier when knitted on four
needles; and a very pretty purse I made I knitted first of all to a
depth of three inches in plain silk, and then four inches with the
beads.

As I came to the bottom I narrowed off as for the toe of a sock,
finishing to a point. This point I finished with a tassel of brown
and yellow beads which matched the bag itself. With a crochet-hook, I
made a tiny edge at the head of the bag, through which I passed a draw
string of silk in ordinary chain-stitch, finished at each end with a
tiny tassel.

[Illustration: No. 9 See the article on the next page.]



Some Embroidery Stitches.


No. 1.

This design in squares is suitable for working either in white or
colours. Many useful purposes present themselves for making the design
into trimmings for dresses, hats, etc., as well as for the alternate
squares in a checked cushion cover. “Tenax” is a lovely silk thread
that would be suitable for these stitches.

[Illustration: No. 8.]

[Illustration: No. 4.]

[Illustration: No. 5.]


No. 2.

Here each little diamond is worked in simple outline stitch, and each
square outlined with backstitch.


No. 3.

This design is very suitable for hat bands and is worked in two
colours. The stitch used is stem stitch, worked from left to right,
bringing the thread over two of the double threads which form a square,
then bringing it out in the centre of the two squares, that is,
half-way back on the preceding stitch, and carrying it down over next
two squares and so on. Work the crossing lines first, then fill in the
spaces, all in same stitch.

[Illustration: No. 2.]

[Illustration: No. 3.]

[Sidenote: Designs in Squares.]


No. 4.

A mosaic design, suitable for trimming sports coats, hats, belts, etc.,
also for cushion borders, and other household purposes.

[Illustration: No. 7.]

[Illustration: No. 1.]


No. 5.

This is the knitting stitch, and is also suitable for trimming, coats
and making bands for the new knitted hats. It is made with stem stitch
worked diagonally.


No. 6.

Lattice work made of stem stitch. A very beautiful design for present
day dress trimming, and easily and quickly worked.


No. 7.

Another design for dress trimming, either with cotton, silk or fine
woollen thread. It is just satin stitch combined with simple running
stitch.


No. 8.

Like No. 7, this design is used for trimming dresses, and tweed or
serge costumes, also worked with fine wool on crêpe-de-chine for
blouses, rest gowns, etc.


No. 9.

Another “alternate design” for a checked cushion cover, equally
suitable for dress, hat and other trimmings. It also makes a pretty
border for table centre, cushion cover, tunic, or curtain.

[Illustration: No. 6.]



Two Novel Bags.


A Crochet Bag Embroidered in Cross-Stitch.

Ecru “Star Sylko,” No. 8, with No. 5 in green and purple for the
cross-stitch embroidery were used in making this lovely bag. A pair of
ring handles, dark green, give a nice finish.

[Illustration: A BLACK SILK BAG WITH WHITE BEADS.]

[Illustration: A BAG IN CROCHET AND CROSS-STITCH.]

Commence with 5 ch formed into a ring into which put 6 dc.

_2nd Row._—2 dc into each dc.

_3rd Row._—* 1 dc into next dc, 2 dc into next dc, * repeat.

_4th and every alternate Row._—1 dc into each.

_5th Row._—* 1 dc into each of next 2 dc, 2 dc into next dc, * repeat.

_7th Row._—* 1 dc into each of next 3 dc, 2 dc into next dc, * repeat.

_9th Row._—* 1 dc into each of next 4 dc, 2 dc into next dc, * repeat.

_11th Row._—* 1 dc into each of next 5 dc, 2 dc into next dc, * repeat.

Continue on in this way, increasing the number of stitches before the 2
dc into 1 dc by one until there are 182 stitches around, then work 72
rounds more.

In the next 12 rows there are chs at each side.

_1st of the 12 Rows._—91 dc into first 91, 3 ch, 91 dc into next half,
3 ch.

_2nd Row._—* 91 dc, 5 ch, * repeat.

_3rd Row._—* 91 dc, 7 ch, * repeat.

_4th Row._—* 91 dc, 9 ch, * repeat.

_5th Row._—* 91 dc, 11 ch, * repeat.

_6th Row._—* 91 dc, 6 ch, 1 dc into the 6th ch below, 6 ch, * repeat.

_7th Row._—* 91 dc, 7 ch, 1 dc into the dc below between the chs, 7 ch,
* repeat.

_8th Row._—* 91 dc, 8 ch, 1 dc into the dc, 8 ch, * repeat.

_9th Row._—* 91 dc, 9 ch, 1 dc into the dc, 9 ch, * repeat.

_10th Row._—* 91 dc, 10 ch, 1 dc into the dc, 10 ch, * repeat.

_11th Row._—* 91 dc, 11 ch, 1 dc into the dc, 11 ch, * repeat.

[Sidenote: Two Novel Bags.]

_12th Row._—* 91 dc, 12 ch, 1 dc into the dc, 12 ch, * repeat.

Take up one of the ring handles and make * 24 ch, bring these across
the side of the ring and fasten to the 3rd dc with a dc, * repeat into
every 3rd dc up to the chs at the side. Fasten the thread and cut it.
Fasten again to the first dc after next chs and work the 24 ch loops
over the other handle in the same way.

The design is worked in cross-stitch—green on one side and purple on
the other. A diagram is given for this part of the work.

Finish the end of the bag with a tassel made of the combined threads.
Line the bag in the usual way with light color silk.


A Black Silk Bag Beaded in White.

This bag is very easily made and requires only one ounce of white
porcelain beads with a ball of No. 12 black “Star Sylko.” Cut out the
bag to the required size and use the corners of the silk left over to
form the four vandyke points. Turn a narrow hem at each side and the
top of each point, tack in place. Sew the beads at each side of the
point with a very fine needle and the “Star Sylko,” each bead is put
on with a “top-stitch,” going through the centre of the hem. When the
four points are worked, sew up the sides and bottom of the bag with a
French seam, and turning out the right side crease the edge all round
and tack it, then sew on the beads as in the points, around the seam.
Make a crease around the top of the bag, one and a half inches from
the top edge. Tack the points to this crease, one on the centre front
and another on the centre back, then one at each side, all with edges
overlapping. Now sew the points to the bag with the top-stitch and bead
as before.

Make the lining to fit the bag, turn in both top edges and tack in
place with the lining edge even with the edge of the bag, top-sew with
the beads to join them.

Make a line of running stitches about the quarter of an inch above to
top of the points to make the slot for the tie-strings. Turn the bag
inside out and sew the lining to the silk front along the line of beads
at the top of the points.

Now work a buttonhole at each side of the slot through which the narrow
black riband is run, one from each side. Make a small loop of the
riband and sew below each buttonhole for the purpose of pulling the bag
open when closed.


The Beaded Tassels.

With the No. 12 “Star Sylko” make 5 ch into a ring, 6 dc into the ring,
then 2 dc into each dc for two rounds, draw the thread through the last
loop and, leaving about a yard of it attached, cut it. Run the end of
the thread through the eye of the fine needle and thread 24 beads, sew
this into a loop to next dc, and repeat into every 2nd dc. Fasten a
thread on the wrong side of the disc and bring it up through the centre
ring, thread five beads, sew to a point and bring the thread back again
through the beads, fastening off underneath the disc.



A Violet Handkerchief Sachet.


There are often small pieces of canvas left over after a piece of work
is finished that are too good to throw away (especially considering the
present price of canvas) and yet do not seem large enough to make even
a tray cloth.

The little handkerchief sachet shown here suggests one way in which
such a piece may be used. The bit of canvas employed measured 12 inches
by 8 inches, but two pieces half that size would do, joined to form the
two sides of the sachet.

Single violets and leaves are worked in cross-stitch and dotted about
over the sachet. “Tenax” Embroidery Thread was used in pretty shades
of violet and green, with one stitch of yellow in the centre of each
open flower, each stitch being taken over two threads of the canvas.
White silk was used to line the sachet, but if you have a bit of
pale primrose or pale heliotrope, this would do equally well, and go
beautifully with the colour of the violets. The edge is finished with a
fine cord, and narrow violet ribbon is used to tie the sachet.

Diagrams are given here for working the nine little designs used on the
handkerchief sachet, each blackened square representing a cross-stitch
on the canvas. Or you could, if you preferred, work little rosebuds and
leaves, or daisies, instead of the violets.

One often wants to make something for a Sale of Work that does not
involve too much outlay of time or money. Little sachets of this
kind would be just the thing, and would probably find a ready sale.
Moreover, they do not entail a great deal of work, which is a big
consideration in these busy days.

[Illustration: Only a small quantity of canvas is required for this
Sachet.]

[Illustration: The diagrams above show a bud, a leaf, and an open
flower.]

[Illustration: On the left, is the diagram of a delightful little bud.]

The arrangement of the flowers on the sachet need not, of course, be
strictly adhered to. The little buds and blossoms lend themselves to
almost any form of treatment. Just two or three of the violets may be
used, repeating as desired.

One may be placed at each corner and one in the middle, or they may
be arranged in a straight or diagonal strip. The latter would be very
pretty.

[Illustration: These diagrams are for the flowers at the top right and
bottom left corner of the Sachet.]

[Illustration: Below are shown other flower, leaf, and bud
illustrations.]



A Rosebud Handkerchief Box.


Pretty boxes have a fascination for most girls. For handkerchiefs,
gloves, and the ever-accumulating stock of collars and ribbons, there
is no receptacle quite so handy as a box, and, of course, it should be
pretty.

These are expensive to buy, however, and therefore the girl who wants
one at little or no cost must make it herself. Moreover, the one you
buy is not the _only_ one of its kind, whereas the one you make can be.

The rose-box here illustrated has a little cross-stitch pattern worked
on every side, and on the lid. This gives a very pretty and original
effect. The designs are worked in pink and green “Star Sylko” on white
Hardanger canvas, and the box is lined with pale blue.

To make this box, four pieces of thin cardboard 7 inches by 5½ inches
are required for the lid and bottom of the box, four pieces 7 inches by
2½ inches for the sides, and four pieces 5½ inches by 2½ inches for the
ends. In each case one piece of cardboard is covered with the lining
material, and one piece with the canvas, both of which are cut a little
larger than the cardboard. In the case of the canvas the cross-stitch
design is, of course, worked on before the cardboard is covered.

[Illustration: A Cross-stitch Design is worked on each side of the Box.]

Having covered all the pieces, proceed to sew them together in pairs—a
canvas-covered piece to a lining-covered piece. Then seam the double
pieces together to make up the box. This wants to be done carefully to
be quite secure, and, at the same time, neat.

Before attaching the lid, the seams and edges are finished off. In the
box illustrated this was done with No. 3 white “Star Sylko,” using
three strands, and couching down at intervals with white cotton. This
is continued down the corners of the box, and completely covers the
seams.

The lid is next attached to the back of the top edge with over-sewing,
which must be neat and yet strong. Finally, the lid is edged with No. 3
“Star Sylko” in the same way as the box, making a little loop at each
corner, and a knot and ends at the back.

Diagrams for working the rosebud cross-stitch designs are given, though
some other flower can be worked if preferred.

White canvas, as shown, gives a pretty, delicate effect, but, of
course, this soils very quickly, and for a more serviceable box
it would be better to use a colour. Pale blue or pink would be
delightful, or the shades can be chosen to follow the colour scheme of
the room. If a plain material is used, of which it is not easy to count
the threads, the cross-stitch can be worked over Penelope canvas.

[Illustration: A DIAGRAM FOR THE DESIGN ON THE FRONT OF THE BOX.]

[Illustration: A DIAGRAM FOR THE DESIGN AT THE END OF THE BOX.]

Again, if time is limited, it is not actually necessary to work the
cross-stitch designs. Some figured material, such as brocade, can be
used, or anything that you happen to have by you; but a thin material
should not be employed, or it will tear away when you come to join the
pieces together.

A particular attraction about this box is that it costs practically
nothing. The outside was made from those odd pieces of white canvas
which every girl has, and which are too small for the smallest cloth.
The lining was of pieces left over from making a summer dressing-gown.
The cardboard was from a collection of old boxes and other odd bits
carefully saved, and the quantity of ‘Star Sylko,’ from balls already
possessed, was very slight.

[Illustration: A DIAGRAM FOR THE DESIGN ON THE LID.]



Contents


                                                          PAGE
  Advantage of Coloured Knitting Cottons, The               68
  Apron you can make from a Summer Skirt, An                47
  Aprons, Three Pretty                                       9
  Art of Blouse-making, The                                 59

  Bags, Two Novel                                          107
  Bead Fancies                                              98
  Bead Work, Modern                                         90
  Blouse-making, The Art of                                 59
  Blankets, To finish the hems of                           74
  Brassiere, The                                             3

  Camisole Yoke of Embroidered Filet Net and Crochet, A      6
  Camisole Yoke, A Pretty                                    7
  Casement Curtain, The Nursery                             67
  Child’s Knitted Petticoat, A                              51
  Child’s Overall from a Narrow Skirt, Making a             28
  Collars for Cold Days                                     14
  Collar, Mending a                                         40
  Coloured Knitting Cottons, The Advantage of               68
  Crochet Ribbons for Underwear Beadings                    96
  Crochet                                 96, 67, 3, 6, 7, 107
  Cynthia Knitted Stripe, The                               71

  Decorative Stitches for Children’s Clothes                61
  Doing up an Eiderdown                                     75
  Dressmaking, A Practical Way to Teach Girls               53

  Economy Quilt, The                                        72
  Eiderdown, Doing up an                                    75
  Embroidery Stitches, Some                                103

  Fancy Tops for Socks and Stockings                        23
  Freshen a Last Season’s Jersey, To                        16

  Gloves, The Use and Abuse of                              18

  Handkerchief Box, A Rosebud                              111
  Handkerchief Sachet, A Violet                            109
  Hat, A Knitted                                            20

  Jersey, To Freshen a Last Season’s                        16

  Keeping out the Wind, For                                 45
  Knitting              14, 16, 20, 23, 30, 34, 49, 51, 68, 71
  Knitting your own Woollen Spencers                        49

  Making a Child’s Overall from a Narrow Skirt              28
  Mending a Collar                                          40
  Mending a Man’s Shirt                                     37
  Mending a Sheet                                           87
  Mending, The Wisdom of Preventive                         41
  Modern Bead Work                                          90

  Nursery Casement Curtain, The                             67

  Patchwork Quilts                                          79
  Patchwork Toilet Runner, A                                89
  Partly-worn Garments, Utilizing                           13
  Practical Way to Teach Girls Dressmaking, A               53

  Quilts                                            68, 72, 79

  Re-footing Made Easy                                      30
  Re-heel a Worn Sock, How to                               34
  Repairing, Articles on                    18, 37, 40, 83, 87
  Repairing Table Linen                                     83
  Rosebud Handkerchief Box, A                              111

  Sheet, Mending a                                          87
  Shirt, Mending a Man’s                                    37
  Slippers you can make                                     35
  Socks and Stockings, Fancy Tops for                       23
  Socks, Re-footing                                         30
  Sock, To Re-heel a Worn                                   34
  Spencers, Knitting your own Woollen                       49

  Table Linen, Repairing                                    83
  Tacking Stitches, Decorative                              61
  Toilet Runner, A Knitted Stripe for a                     71
  Toilet Runner, A Patchwork                                89

  Undercoat or Waistcoat, An                                45
  Use and Abuse of Gloves, The                              18
  Utilizing Partly-worn Garments                            13

  Violet Handkerchief Sachet, A                            109

  Wisdom of Preventive Mending, The                         41



Printed for the Proprietors of “THE GIRL’S OWN PAPER & WOMAN’S
MAGAZINE,” by CURTIS & BEAMISH, LTD. COVENTRY, ENGLAND.



    THE
    HOME ART SERIES

By FLORA KLICKMANN,

Editor of the “GIRL’S OWN PAPER & WOMAN’S MAGAZINE.”


[Illustration]

FOURTH EDITION.

    BEAUTIFUL CROCHET
    ON
    HOUSEHOLD LINEN

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=120 Pages, fully illustrated.=

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[Illustration]

    THE HOME ART BOOR OF
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[Illustration]

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    THE
    HOME ART SERIES

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[Illustration]

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    CROCHET HOOK

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[Illustration]

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    SECOND
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Giving directions for Bulgarian, Catalan, Hungarian and Baro
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[Illustration]

SECOND EDITION.

    THE MODERN
    KNITTING BOOK

CONTENTS

    Things for MEN’S WEAR.
    Things for WOMEN’S WEAR.
    Things for CHILDREN’S WEAR.
    Things for BABIES’ WEAR.
    For WORKING IN WOOL.
    Designs for HOUSEHOLD USE.

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    THE MODERN
    CROCHET BOOK

    Fifth
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    THE
    MODERN HOME SERIES

Edited by FLORA KLICKMANN.


[Illustration]

    THE MISTRESS OF
    THE LITTLE HOUSE

What she should know and what she should do when she has an Untrained
Servant.

120 pages. =2/-= net (by post, 2/4).

    “It is full of practical information, pleasantly put, for
    every housewife.”—_The Guardian._

    “It is a most useful little volume.”—_The Lady._


    THE ETIQUETTE
    OF TO-DAY

120 pages. Illustrated. =2/-= net (by post, 2/4).

    Containing The Advisability of Social Customs,
    Introductions, Leaving Cards, Paying Calls, “At Homes,”
    Luncheons, Dinners, Garden Parties, “High Teas,” Town
    and Country Visits, Foreign Travel, Conversation, Letter
    Writing, In Public, Christenings, Weddings, Funerals.


PUBLISHED AT 4, BOUVERIE STREET, LONDON, E.C. 4.

Either of the above Books will be sent, by the Publishers, anywhere in
the United Kingdom, post free, on receipt of postal order (not stamps)
for 2/4.



    Hardanger and
    CROSS-STITCH

    =2/-= net

    (by post, =2/4=)

[Illustration]

FULLY ILLUSTRATED.

SHOWING HANDSOME HARDANGER BORDERS AND CORNERS, ALSO NATURAL DESIGNS
IN CROSS-STITCH FOR VIOLETS, CYCLAMEN, CREEPING JENNY, NASTURTIUMS,
DAISIES, ROSES, FERN, DAFFODILS, CLOVER, CHERRIES, WILD BIRDS, WITH
BUTTERFLIES IN HARDANGER.

    This Volume will especially please the worker who is weary
    of the old-fashioned conventional cross-stitch borders. It
    gives a series of lovely natural designs of flowers and
    birds, and fruit and leaves, such as would be a delightful
    addition to any woman’s pretty house.

    “Many beautiful modes of simple embroidery are described and
    illustrated in _Hardanger and Cross-Stitch_, edited by Flora
    Klickmann, and forming one of a series of which we have more
    than once noted the excellence.”—_The Church Times._

London: “The Girl’s Own Paper and Woman’s Magazine” Office, 4, BOUVERIE
STREET, LONDON, E.C. 4.



    Do you want to write
    for the Press?

    You will start to write the
    day you read this book.

    Third Edition called for within a month of publication.
                                  =7/-= net (by post, =7/6=).

The LURE of the PEN

A Book for would-be Authors.

By FLORA KLICKMANN,

    _Editor of “The Girl’s Own and Woman’s Magazine”; Author of
    “The Flower-Patch among the Hills,” “Between the Larch-Woods
    and the Weir,” etc._

    (1) MSS. THAT FAIL. WHY THEY FAIL.
    (2) ON TRAINING YOURSELF FOR LITERARY WORK.
    (3) THE HELP THAT BOOKS CAN GIVE.
    (4) POINTS A WRITER OUGHT TO NOTE.
    (5) AUTHOR, PUBLISHER, & PUBLIC.

It is unique in its own line, breezily written, and crammed full of
interest and information for those who read, as well as for those who
want to write. Coming from so experienced an Editor it cannot fail to
be authoritative.

    =The Bookman= says: “The fresh and original standpoint
    from which the book is penned, the innumerable new and
    entertaining stories, the humour, wisdom, expert knowledge
    and common sense, make the LURE OF THE PEN not only
    invaluable to the literary aspirant, but also a work of
    amusement, interest and information to the general reader.”

LONDON: 4, BOUVERIE STREET, E.C. 4; and at all Bookshops.



    “A pendant to ‘The Flower-Patch Among the Hills,’ and every
    whit as delightful.”—=The Graphic.=

    EVERYONE SHOULD READ
    the New Book of Cheerfulness
    BY THE AUTHOR OF
    “THE FLOWER-PATCH AMONG THE HILLS.”

    Between the
    Larch-woods
    and the Weir

    Large
    Crown 8vo,
    Cloth,
    =7=/- net.

By

FLORA KLICKMANN,

_Editor of “The Girl’s Own and Woman’s Magazine,” etc._

[Illustration]

A Joy-Book of the Hills. Overflowing with humour, bubbling with smiles,
yet never out of sound of the soughing of the pines, the scold of the
squirrel, the call of the birds, and the delicious pungent scent of
woodsmoke.

A book to laugh over, to think over, and to be thankful for.

    “We are quite glad to hear more of Miss Klickmann’s country
    holiday, her fellow holiday makers, and her neighbours,
    human and other; and of the cheerful spirit, not stifled by
    the distant sound of War.”—=The Times.=

    “Another charming book which shows a keen appreciation both
    of nature and of the oddities of Mankind. The author’s
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                                          —=The Spectator.=

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                                  —=The Methodist Recorder.=

    “Fun, humour (caustic but never unkindly), social satire
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    will find in abundance in these pages.”
                     —=Mr. Coulson Kernahan, in the Bookman.=

    “It is characterised by a delightful sense of humour, and
    it is written with a light and graceful pen.”—=The Glasgow
    Herald.=

    “The pages sparkle with humour, and the portraits of various
    country characters are entrancingly funny. There is more
    to be learned in the pages devoted to birds than in many a
    scientific volume.”—=The Sphere.=

    =THE “R.T.S.,” 4, BOUVERIE STREET, LONDON, E.C. 4.=
    _And at all Bookshops and Bookstalls._
    =PRICE SEVEN SHILLINGS NET (by post 7/6).=



[Illustration]

“It’s dood for me”

    _Fry’s_

    PURE
    BREAKFAST

    _Cocoa_

This bonny little chap is a FRY’S COCOA boy, plump and strong, with
rosy cheeks: sunny, healthy, mischievous, full of life and energy.
——————— Have you any little “pale faces” at home? Build them up with
FRY’S.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Varied hyphenation was retained.

Page 11, “Richlieu” changed to “Richelieu” (Richelieu openwork)

Page 28, “occured” changed to “occurred” (may not have occurred)

Page 43, repeated word “for” removed from text. Original read (apparent
need for for it)

Page 58, “opportuities” changed to “opportunities” (such unique
opportunities)

Page 106, “crepê-de-chine” changed to “crêpe-de-chine” (crêpe-de-chine
for blouses, rest)

Page 113, index, “Brassière” changed to “Brassiere” to match text usage
(Brassiere, The)





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