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Title: Memoirs of the Duchesse De Dino - (Afterwards Duchesse de Talleyrand et de Sagan) 1841-1850
Author: Dino, Duchesse de
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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    (_Afterwards Duchesse de Talleyrand et de Sagan_)


    _Edited, with Notes and Biographical Index, by_






_Printed in England_




  Rochecotte, January 1, 1841--M. Molé--European Politics--The
    Fortifications--Politics in Paris--Forged Letters--French
    Politics--Correspondence--M. Lacordaire--Lady Holland--A Court
    Ball--Sir Francis Baring--Mlle. de Lespinasse--Future
    Plans--Lady Palmerston--Hypnotism--Diplomatic Changes--M.
    Royer-Collard--Talleyrand's Letters--Baptism of the
    Prince--Mannheim--Frankfort--Berlin--The Manœuvres--Dresden
    and Prague--Vienna--Vienna Society--Letters from
    Paris--Hohlstein--Günthersdorf--News from Paris--Country
    Life--A Royal
    Changes--Spanish Affairs--Departure for
    Nice--Menetou-Salon--Journey to Nice--Life at Nice--The College
    of Jesuits--Mgr. De Quélen                                         1


  Nice, January 1, 1842--Life at Nice--A Reception--A
    Quadrille--Spanish Affairs--News from Paris--The Carnival--M.
    de Salvandy--Nice during Lent--An Entertainment--An
    Excursion--Departure from Nice--Journey Home--Politics in
    Paris--The Academy--Family News--A Railway Accident--Society
    News--M. Dupanloup--Son-in-law's Illness--Departure from
    Aubijou--Randan--The Elections--Death of Duc d'Orléans--The
    Funeral--Court Mourning--Politics in Paris--Queen
    Victoria--Guizot in England--Return to Rochecotte--At
    Rochecotte                                                       106


  Rochecotte, February 21, 1843--Return to Paris--Politics in
    Paris--The Duchesse d'Orléans--Fashion--Cardinal Consalvi--Case
    of Hydrophobia--A Bazaar--Relations with Prussia--Memories of
    Russia--The Rhine--Brunswick--Berlin--A Royal Gardener--Life
    in Berlin--Visit to Muskau--The Beauties of Muskau--Return
    to Berlin--Departure from Berlin--Polnisch-Wartenberg--
    Balzac--Vienna                                                   171


  Vienna, January 4, 1844--Society at Berlin--Three Years            224


  Sagan, December 12, 1847--The State of Italy--France and Russia    228


  Sagan, January 4, 1848--Thoughts of Death--King of
    Denmark--Weimar--Revolution--Disturbances--Agitation at
    Berlin--Disquietude--Affairs at Vienna--General
    Uneasiness--Affairs in Berlin--Teplitz--Anxiety at
    Sagan--Provincial Disorder--The Austrian Cabinet--Prussian
    Affairs                                                          232


  Sagan, January 11, 1849--The Political Situation--The State of
    Germany--Negotiations--Position of Prussia--Eisenach--The
    Orléans Family--Feeling at Berlin--Madame de Krüdener--The Duc
    de Noailles--The Orléans Dynasty--Proposed Coalition             265


  Sagan, January 3, 1850--Crisis in Berlin--Austrian
    Affairs--French Politics--Austrian Politics--Rumours of
    War--Affairs at Paris--M. de Persigny--The Danish
    Question--Congress of Princes--Attack upon the
    Politics--Menace of War--Military Preparations--Negotiations     289

  APPENDIX I: Mademoiselle Rachel                                    337

  APPENDIX II                                                        342

  BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX                                                 347





_Rochecotte, January 1, 1841._--Yesterday passed by uneventfully. In
the morning I had mass said in my chapel for the late M. de Quélen,
and shed heartfelt tears during the service. In the evening my son
Alexander, my son-in-law and Pauline gave us some music. They sang
vaudevilles and mimicked characters with a vivacity which delighted
me, as I am always afraid that they may be bored here, though I admit
that their frame of mind was in complete contrast to my own. On the
stroke of midnight punch was served; some tears fell into my glass
when I thought of those with whom I had so often spent this

_Rochecotte, January 2, 1841._--M. de Salvandy writes to me as follows
concerning the reception of M. Molé at the Academy: "M. Molé spoke to
a magnificent audience. He was seated between M. de Royer Collard and
M. de Chateaubriand; on this occasion the latter broke his usual
custom of avoiding public appearances. It was a special honour, either
to M. Molé or to the memory of the late archbishop. The highest
society from the Faubourg Saint Germain were there, in fact all the
special friends of M. Molé and everybody who can be called anybody
nowadays. M. Molé was continually applauded, and his cleverness, his
taste and courageous speaking well deserved this reward. He gave a
fair and respectful account of this pure and noble character and
spoke of M. de Quélen without concessions or reticence or
consideration for his own position. His ambition seems to have burnt
its boats, with such enthusiasm did he speak of old time manners and
society and so warmly did he emphasise the ideas and principles of
good order. He only touched upon present times to utter a eulogy upon
the King, and you know that present times are not agreeable to him. I
was especially struck by the vigorous approval of the audience; it was
a public rehabilitation of the persecuted Prelate and the canonisation
of his memory by a layman before a public which was not entirely
sympathetic or legitimist; for there was a lively manifestation of
approval at certain passages in Dupin's reply, opposing the
Restoration and the Englishman. Dupin's answer was quite
characteristic, and I need say no more of it. M. Guizot and M. Thiers
seem to have foreseen the success of M. Molé, for they did not appear
and their absence was widely commented upon. In short, this session
has greatly raised M. Molé in the opinion and esteem of right-minded
people, but it has been in particular a great day for the memory of
the Archbishop, for his family and his friends, and for those who felt
his blessing as he was at the point of death. For this reason I
hasten, Madame, to give you an account of it, as by this means I can
realise its meaning more exactly and more deeply than if I had merely

"M. Guizot has informed me of the nature of the despatches received
from St. Petersburg, from Vienna and from London, which are in all
respects excellent. There is a desire to bring France back to the
concert of Europe, a readiness to make advances and to seek means and
opportunity. Peace is restored and I should be inclined to say, more
than peace."

I am delighted at M. Molé's success which I foretold to him when he
read me his speech at Paris in September; and am delighted not only on
his account, but also because he has done something to restore the
reputation of this holy Archbishop, who was so misjudged during his

_Rochecotte, January 3, 1841._--Yesterday I received many letters from
Paris which repeat practically what M. de Salvandy wrote concerning M.
Molé's speech at the Academy. M. Dupin seems to have been quite
unspeakable, and in short, entirely himself; M. Royer Collard grumbled
throughout his speech and said, "This speech is sheer carnage." In
fact the dead lay in heaps beneath Dupin's destroying charge.
Noticeable were the thunders of applause when he inveighed against the
revelation of state secrets, a direct thrust at M. Molé; but a most
dramatic point, I am told, was Dupin's gesture in recalling the fact
that a Molé, as an alderman of Troyes, had helped Charles VII. to
drive out the English. His gesture and pose called forth repeated
bursts of applause. Fortunately the diplomatic body were not present.
It is a strange sight to see Dupin inveighing against the coalition of
which he was a member.

M. Molé should be fully satisfied with his triumph, which has been
complete, striking, brilliant and unusual. On this question M. Royer
Collard writes as follows:--"No doubt more than one correspondent has
told you of M. Molé's triumph, for such was the nature of his success,
before a numerous and brilliant audience. I was glad to hear the
speech which you and I have known for some time. If it is not an
artistic production, it is the work of a clever man who has known
better times than these and who has retained good traditions. The
defects were not obvious; his courage appeared so natural that it was
unnoticed; the beauties of it, which were by no means small, were
understood and fully appreciated. M. de Quélen has shared the honour
of the day, in truth it is he who has really triumphed, to such an
extent did the audience share this solemn work of rehabilitation. I
saw the most hard-hearted shedding tears. As M. Affre did not think of
his predecessor, no one thought of him. M. de Quélen has carried the
archbishopric of Paris to his tomb; there is not and will never be
another archbishop; this striking and mournful glory is his."

I am extremely delighted at this posthumous triumph, as I have every
reason to be, for I honoured, supported, cared for and perhaps even
consoled the subject of it during his lifetime.

M. Molé's speech contains some admirable lines referring to the
Cardinal of Périgord.

Before sessions of the Academy are held, speeches are by rule examined
by a committee of members who act as censors and decide whether any
passages should be struck out. M. Dupin did not conscientiously carry
out this arrangement and his speech in public was not that which left
the hands of the committee. It is expected that next Thursday when
there is a special meeting of the Academy, explanations of the fact
will be demanded. Mignet, who was present at the public session, is
said to have been in a very bad temper and the newspapers of M. Thiers
are preparing to fulminate against Dupin.

It is said that Mgr. Affre has proposed to change his cathedral
precentors without calling a meeting of the Chapter; that the Chapter
met to discuss the question; and that Mgr. Affre, when he heard of it,
made a great uproar and forbade any meeting unless authorised by
himself. New Year's Day then arrived. The Chapter have been accustomed
to meet to send congratulations to the Archbishop: his prohibition was
positive; they therefore did not meet, and have not congratulated the
Archbishop. The result will be some new storm, for Mgr. Affre is a
stormy character. The Sacré Cœur had much difficulty in securing
permission to say a mass for Mgr. de Quélen at the end of the year;
however, permission was granted, and there was a suffocating crowd.

_Rochecotte, January 5, 1841._--For twenty hours snow has been falling
steadily. We are absolutely buried under this thick shroud. One might
be living in the north with all its horrible cold, and it is
impossible to go out. All communications will be cut off, though the
storm should last only a few hours. What a winter it is!

_Rochecotte, January 7, 1841._--Yesterday I had a letter from Madame
de Lieven, in which the main points are as follows: "Things in general
seem to me to be going better, though security is not absolutely
certain. Have I written to you since the news from St. Petersburg
arrived? Do not believe the exaggerations of certain newspapers on the
point, but believe what is true, that the tone of the last
communications is quite proper; that Russia is sincerely anxious to
see France return to the concert of Europe, and is hoping that the
present Ministry will remain in office. This demonstration, which
experts consider to be more friendly than any that has been made at
St. Petersburg, has caused much pleasure here and some anxiety to the
English. There is no further development at present. At London
attempts are being made to find a point of junction with France which
is everywhere desired. Can you think of one? Jerusalem. Jerusalem
delivered from the yoke of the infidels! Jerusalem, a Christian town,
open to all Christian worship; a free town guaranteed as such by
Christianity! What do you think of this? I should much like to see it.
Is it likely that so simple an idea and so easy to perform could be
rejected, for if ever the idea is carried out, it could be to-day.
Lord Melbourne will probably laugh at it and Lord Palmerston too.

"The opening of Parliament has caused much discussion. It is said that
Peel and the Radicals will easily overthrow the Ministry, but I see no
reason for it at this moment. Time will show.

"The Academy meeting caused a twenty-four hours' sensation. M. Molé
enjoyed a great triumph. I was unable to hear his speech and it reads
to me a trifle forced; such is also the impression of many people, and
it has even been called somewhat insignificant. About M. Dupin's
speech I have nothing to say. From the point of propriety it speaks
for itself, but it amused me. My taste, however, is not particularly

"I hope you will make no mistake about the conclusion of the Egyptian
question. Whatever happens, Mehemet Ali will preserve the pashalik as
hereditary in his family; but what a conflict of opinions among the
sailors, the Ambassador and the Minister of Foreign Affairs!

"I am told, my dear Duchesse, that the King of Prussia is a little
strange in his conduct, that the fact is remarked among his people,
that his popularity is rapidly declining, and that the old King is
more regretted every day."

_Rochecotte, January 12, 1841._--M. de Salvandy writes as follows: "I
think that the Powers are seriously looking for an opportunity and an
excuse to bring us back to the concert of Europe. The declarations of
Prince Metternich; the Russian despatch with its unusual expressions
concerning the wisdom of the King and his services to Europe, the
desire to come to an understanding with his Government; and the
sentiments, too, of Prussia, which are more French and less Russian
than ever, are providing food for reflection in England. Lord
Palmerston is finding his course more difficult than he expected. The
Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel will propose amendments; it is
said that these amendments will be in favour of France and will pass,
and the Tories seem certain on the point. I cannot believe it. It is
impossible to think that the real successes of Palmerston throughout
the Asiatic continent from St. Jean d'Acre as far as China, should
mark the date and the reason of his fall. In any case it is certain
that England, both as a government and as a nation, is concerned with
the question of our isolation and of our liberty of action.

"Here the question of fortifications takes precedence of everything
else. It has been simplified by M. Thiers' resolution to make no
proposal without the approval of the Government. He abandons or
modifies his amendments according to the desires of the Cabinet and so
the struggle will not be in that direction. Victory or failure will be
shared by MM. Thiers and Guizot. However, by a strange change of
opinion M. Guizot seems to be threatened at the outset of this
proposed plan. MM. de Lamartine, Passy and Dufaure, forty votes on the
Left, together with Tracy and Garnier-Pagès, in short, fifty votes at
least will be against the proposal. People are also asking whether
Marshal Soult is not against the idea. His position seems somewhat
obscure. People wonder whether the objections which he offered to the
detached forts in 1833, to the compromise and the continuous circuit
walls proposed in 1840, are not more prominent in his mind than any
other interest; whether he does not expect to advance his views by
rejecting half the law which might easily end in the overthrow of the
whole, and also of the oratorical party in the Cabinet, bound as they
are to support their project in its entirety. People are also
wondering whether this last result is not the object which the
parliamentary strategy of the Marshal has in view. The Prince Royal,
whom I saw yesterday, seems uneasy on the point. But what then can be
the idea in the background? Can it be a combination of Passy and
Dufaure, with Passy as the Minister of Foreign Affairs? This would be
to restore the Ministry of May 2, which would not act upon the first
occasion and will be no more possible now that it is dead. A
combination of Soult and Molé is very unlikely; and finally, will M.
Molé come forth from his ruins? All this is very obscure. M. Molé is
very touchy. There are too many people who would regard adherence as
an honourable confession of error. In any case it is certain that M.
Guizot's prospects are impaired and that even at the Tuileries the
chances of his overthrow are regarded as more probable than they would
formerly have been. It is noticed that he makes no mention of London.
Can he have reached the point when he begins to doubt of success,
though he never doubted it before, and to consider the possibilities
of a retreat?

"Rambuteau yesterday held a house-warming in his new rooms in the
Hotel de Ville. They are magnificent and are characterised by
splendour, luxury and good taste: the paintings, the ornaments and the
furniture are admirable; it is pleasant to see an object worthy of
praise and since we are now under the electoral _régime_ I am glad to
see that it can produce something at least that is earmarked by good
taste and a certain grandeur. It is curious to see the town of Paris
treat its Prefect in this way. Let us hope that this will pave the way
for the kings.

"M. Pasquier has been greatly disappointed that he has not been
elected to the Academy in place of M. Pastoret. He had great hopes,
but the candidature of M. de Sainte Aulaire was too well supported. He
is keeping himself for the place held by the Bishop of Hermopolis.[1]
Is it not remarkable, Madame, that at his age a man should think of
inheriting anything, and should still have ambition, holding the rank
he does?"

  [1] The Duc Pasquier was, in fact, elected member of the French
  Academy on February 17, 1842, in place of Mgr. Frayssinous,
  Bishop of Hermopolis (1765-1841), high master of the University,
  who was very ill in January 1841.

_Rochecotte, January 18, 1841._--Madame de Lieven writes from Paris as
follows the day before yesterday: "Madame de Nesselrode is full of the
great men of France, and has certainly come to Paris chiefly to see
them. M. Eynard of Geneva has them on show; he invites Madame de
Nesselrode to dinner with each of them alternately. I do not think he
has missed one so far, except Garnier-Pagès.

"The Queen of England's speech is awaited here with some curiosity.
People are wondering whether she will say anything suitable in view of
the situation here. There is no inclination in Paris to diverge from
the line of conduct that has been decided upon; an armed peace, quiet
expectation and isolation, threatening no one, neither disturbed nor
disturbing. Our neighbours, however, are anxious, and would like to
see this state of suspense at an end. Lord Palmerston's obstinacy
drives them to despair, for it is but too true that he is the real
governor of Europe. Some means of forming a connection for France must
somehow be found, and an intermediary has not yet been discovered. It
is certain that the Pasha's position will be made hereditary.

"France has made peace with Buenos Aires, and Rosas, the tyrant of
this republic, has been appointed ambassador here and will arrive in
the spring. England will arrange the difference between Spain and

"Conversation is concerned with nothing but fortifications; it is not
quite clear whether the Chamber is in favour of them. The King on the
one hand and M. Thiers on the other, are taking infinite trouble over
the question. The Ministry will support the proposals but will not
die of grief if they fail to pass.

"M. de Barante has been ordered to remain at St. Petersburg; some
inclination to coquetry has been obvious in that quarter, but time
alone will show whether any definite result will follow. M. de
Lamartine had an audience of the King which lasted two hours and a
half and is said to have been much impressed. He talks a great deal
about it. The question of diplomatic changes will not arise until the
matter of the fortifications has been settled."

I have the following news from Madame Mollien: "There is every
readiness to support the law concerning the fortifications in the
Tuileries, but considerable reluctance in the Chamber. The château is
greatly obliged to M. Thiers for joining the general opinion in his
report; he is anxious to reassure the Chamber as to his position. It
is said that he is greatly wearied by his partisans of the Left and
has had a lively scene with Odilon Barrot which reached the point of
insults and in which he termed the journalists of the party
"ruffians." The fact is that if this law does not pass, the thirty
millions already expended, the works that have been begun, the private
property that has been bought up, destroyed and ruined and the
devastation of the Bois de Boulogne, would place him in a terrible
position; and so he is as gentle as a lamb and sends his wife to the
Tuileries. The Ministry would be content with what would cause him
embarrassment; the château, on the other hand, is making common cause
with him; thus the position is very complex. The Duc d'Orléans is in a
bad temper: the recall of Marshal Valée which was issued in the course
of two hours without any previous notice to himself, has greatly
wounded his feelings; he does not like the idea of the Marshal's
return because he is one of his personal enemies and he fears for the
safety of Africa in the hands of Bugeaud. However, he is retiring
somewhat more into the background in adherence to the wishes of the
King, who is growing anxious about his successor, as Louis XIV. was
about the Grand Dauphin. All our princes live like the Infantas of
Spain, in loneliness and obscurity. The Pavilion Marsan is nothing
more than a wearisome convent; on the ground floor there is very
little vivacity and equally little on the first floor. The King
retains his imperial confidence in his star. He thinks less of M.
Guizot than he did some time ago, and does not so much dread a change
of Ministry."

_Rochecotte, January 17, 1841._--The Duc de Noailles who came here
yesterday, read this morning in the drawing-room half of the article
which he has written upon Jansenism, which is to be inserted in the
work he is preparing upon Madame de Maintenon.[2] This part of the
book is written cleverly and clearly; at the same time I can criticise
it for an excessive partiality to the Jansenists and a failure to
observe a proper moderation of tone.

  [2] The publication which appeared in 1848 under the title _The
  History of Madame de Maintenon and of the Principal Events of the
  Reign of Louis XIV._

_Rochecotte, February 1, 1841._--Yesterday I received this bulletin
from M. de Salvandy: "Our Ministry is the feeblest, the most
diminished and the most elusive that ever was seen. I do not know,
Madame, whether I have told you what I have often told them, that
there is only one danger for them; not the danger of supporting views
which might be defeated, but of having no opinion at all, or even
worse, of having two opinions. They have run straight upon the rocks
with sublime carelessness, in consequence of Guizot's speeches and
with utter foolishness in consequence of Marshal Soult's speech, while
the general attitude and language drive them along most miserably. The
truth is that as a matter of principle they brought forward their
proposed law concerning the fortifications in defiance of the
Marshal's opinion and opposed their military expert because they
thought that public opinion was on their side. Since that time the
position assumed by M. Thiers as a supporter of the bill has kept them
awake and though they agreed with him in committee they were
attempting to secure some means of checking him when he was with us in
the Chamber. Schneider's amendment has been proposed with their
support in opposition to M. Thiers and in agreement with the Marshal
against M. Guizot, with the support of another combination which is
more or less public property. Thus M. Guizot has suddenly revised his
opinion and after asking us to pass the law in his great speech with a
significant phrase, he went round to the members three days ago and
solemnly told us that he was opposed to it. The great success of M.
Dufaure has again produced a change in these views, as people fear
that the real strength of the opposition may lie in that quarter.
Yesterday evening Thiers demanded that they should explain themselves.
They asked for a night to think over the matter, but reflection will
tell them nothing that can make such conduct worthy or politic. No
question was ever so badly managed. They have succeeded in securing
the protectorate of M. Thiers, in exasperating him by their obvious
treachery and in separating MM. Passy and Dufaure, while also wounding
the feelings of the Conservative party, the majority of which is ready
to reject the great bulwark of M. Thiers. In any case, they are
defeated, for they have conspired against all in turn. What will be
the result of all this? Great discredit and deep divisions, if nothing
else. I am going to the Chamber where I will try and write a
postscript to describe the tone of the Cabinet and the vote of the
Assembly, but I expect storms, and as I am acting as President in
place of M. Sauzet, I must keep my hand upon the bag of Aeolus.

"_Postscript from the Chamber._--The Marshal has made a speech of
coarse and obvious duplicity which is setting the Chamber on fire. I
have only time to send you my kind regards with this letter."

_Rochecotte, February 2, 1841._--Yesterday's letters say nothing; the
newspapers announce that Schneider's amendment has been rejected and
that the forts and the continuous circuit wall will probably be
adopted, notwithstanding the most inconceivable speech from Marshal
Soult which was counterbalanced by the really clever speech of M.

_Rochecotte, February 4, 1841._--It was very cold yesterday but quite
clear and I went for a walk with my son-in-law in the woods where
there is always shelter in spite of the absence of leaves. To-day it
is snowing as if we were in Siberia. Last night the thermometer fell
more than ten degrees. Winter has indeed begun again.

The newspapers tell us that the fortifications have been voted; even
those who voted for them did not want them and it is difficult to know
who has been duped in the whole business. One of the jests current in
Paris is no longer to refer to Marshal Soult by his long-standing
title of the Illustrious Sword, but to speak of him as the Illustrious
Scabbard. This is not bad and tickled my fancy.

_Rochecotte, February 5, 1841._--The following is the chief passage in
a letter from the Comtesse Mollien: "So we are to have fortifications.
In this very complicated question every one has been taken in and it
is difficult to see who has gained an advantage apart from M. Thiers,
whose delight, however, is largely qualified by the success of M.
Guizot, for it is generally admitted that the Chamber of Deputies was
carried away by his last and most admirable speech. It now remains to
deal with the Chamber of Peers, which might show some obstinacy,
according to rumour. This Chamber is quite in favour of outer forts at
a greater or less distance in connection with one another, etc., but
there will be some trouble in passing the proposal for a continuous
circuit wall through that Chamber. You have doubtless seen from the
articles in the _Journal des Débats_ that this newspaper supported the
law. The truth is very different; the real supporter is Auguste de
Veaux, the son of Bertin de Veaux, who alone supported this view with
such warmth that he outraged the policy of the newspaper against his
father and uncle, who were no less warm supporters than himself of the
contrary opinion, but eventually yielded to his youth and to his
position as deputy. At the château there is general delight, but I
think that too little trouble is taken to conceal the fact that the
circuit wall is only the passport for the rest. M. Bertin de Veaux was
saying the day before yesterday that this circuit wall was the tomb of
Parisian civilisation until it became the tomb of the monarchy. It has
certainly already become the tomb of general conversation; people are
wholly absorbed by it. Men and women, young and old, talk of nothing
else and it is most wearisome and ridiculous.

"There has been a monster ball at the Tuileries. There will be no
others: no select ball, but one concert and nothing else; only on the
Monday festival there will be a small masked ball confined to the
family and the households; the young people alone will be masked and
ladies who are not dancing will wear white to distinguish them from
the rest."

_Rochecotte, February 7, 1841._--The Chamber of Peers seems far from
favourably impressed by the proposal for fortifications and wishes to
oppose it. I doubt if it has the energy to do so. Mdlle. de Cossé is
to marry the Duc de Rivière. She will be very rich and wishes to be a
duchess; he has very little money. Old Madame de la Briche is quite in
her dotage. This does not prevent her from following her social
inclinations and saying and doing extraordinary things.

_Rochecotte, February 9, 1841._--My son-in-law hears that the
disagreements about the fortifications and the manner in which the
whole business has been conducted is likely to place every one in a
false position; the Council, the Chamber and every one are at cross
purposes; the Chamber of Peers is excited and exasperated and wishes
to propose an amendment, in which direction it is urged by Marshal
Soult, Villemain and Teste, but is held in check by Guizot and

Amid all these disturbances the vote for the Secret Service Fund will
pass without difficulty. Then there is no other serious question
during this session and M. Thiers is said not to be in a position to
give battle on the latter point.

The situation in general, according to the statement of M. Guizot is
good, for the Left, he adds, is reduced to impotence for a long time.
He seems to be more and more pleased with the state of foreign policy,
with the advances which are made to us, and of which he boasts a great
deal. He goes so far as to say that the union with the four Powers has
been broken, though this statement seems to me a trifle premature.

_Rochecotte, February 11, 1841._--I find the following in a letter
from the Duc de Noailles: "I have been studying the question of the
fortifications, since this ridiculous law is thrust upon us. I cannot
stomach it, and will not let it pass without raising my voice against
it. The Duc d'Orléans shows great energy in the matter: he goes every
day to the Chamber of Peers, even when we have nothing before us but
petitions; he makes notes and observations with our grand referendary,
M. Decazes, who hangs about the Chamber with a pocket-book, upon all
the peers who are for or against and adds up the votes beforehand.
Yesterday he sent some one during the session to M. de Vérac who
rarely appears in the Chamber, to learn his opinion. He said that if
there was any want of water to make mortar for the buildings, he would
rather give his blood than that they should be interrupted. He told M.
de Mornay who spoke on the opposition side of the Chamber of Deputies,
that he had spoken as a marquis and not as a patriot. In short, he is
canvassing all the peers, sending them invitations, asking them to
dinner and using every possible means. It is true that almost all the
Chamber will vote for the law, to such an extent have they been
crushed by the revolutions which have harrowed our country. As you are
deeply attached to the Duc d'Orléans, you will be sorry to hear of the
unseemly and revolutionary remarks which this law has evoked from him
and which are in circulation everywhere. M. Molé is working his
hardest to oppose the proposal, but he will probably not be bold
enough to speak against it openly; M. Pasquier is no less furious and
will probably be equally silent.

"We have had a charming evening's entertainment at the house of Madame
Récamier,[3] on behalf of the sufferers from the conflagration at
Lyons. I was in charge of the arrangements and the platform at the
back of the room was most suitable for the music and the recitals. The
professional musicians performed admirably; the little Rachel came
late because the committee of the _Théâtre Français_ had forced her,
with their usual inconsiderateness, to play Mithridate the same day.
She arrived at eleven o'clock with a grace, an eagerness to help and a
simplicity which charmed every one. She gave the _Dream of Athalie_
and the scene with Joas with excellent effect; it will be even better
on the stage, as stage effects are lost in a drawing-room. Her
conversation and manner caused equal satisfaction. The result was
excellent--five thousand francs. Two hundred tickets were sent out at
twenty francs a ticket, but nearly every one paid forty, fifty or even
a hundred francs a ticket. It is a very pleasant way of collecting
money. M. de Chateaubriand, who usually goes to bed at nine, stayed
until midnight. M. de Lamartine was also there and two abbés to
represent the convent; the Abbé Genoude and the Abbé Deguerry."

  [3] Madame Récamier, at the outset of the Restoration and after
  her husband's ruin, settled at the Abbaye au Bois. All the famous
  men of the age struggled to secure admission to her salon, which
  apart from politics was a sort of nineteenth-century Hotel de
  Rambouillet, with Madame Récamier as Julie.

The Duc is devoting himself to art no less than to politics.

_Rochecotte, February 12, 1841._--Several Legitimist newspapers have
published so-called letters written during the period of exile by King
Louis-Philippe to the Marquis d'Entraigues, and a long letter written
to the late M. de Talleyrand by the King, while M. de Talleyrand was
ambassador at London. The Cabinet considers that the newspapers should
be seized, the editors arrested and a charge of forgery brought
against them before the courts. I sent for the newspaper containing
the letter which was supposed to have been written to M. de
Talleyrand. I am convinced that it is an absolute forgery. M.
Delessert, prefect of police, has asked my son, M. de Valençay, to
write to me and inquire whether I knew if any papers had been stolen
from M. de Talleyrand at London; whether it was possible for any one
to have abstracted them at Paris during his illness and at the time of
his death; and finally, whether I knew a woman who was concerned in
the whole business[4] who says that she had lived at Valençay and even
in the château; in short, he wishes to know my recollections and my
opinion of the whole story. I talked over the matter with my
son-in-law, and we concluded that we would be bound to reply. I
therefore gave M. de Valençay a reply, telling him to read my letter
to M. Delessert but not to leave the letter in his hands. In it I said
that I had never known this woman or heard of her, which is exactly
true; that all M. de Talleyrand's important papers had been deposited
by him in foreign countries in sure hands and in places which would
render theft quite impossible, and that no papers could have been
found at his house in Paris, if any attempt had been made to abstract
them, of which I had no recollection; that, in short, all my
recollections and impressions contributed to convince me that the
letter in question was a forgery. As a matter of fact, it is a very
long letter upon European affairs which was never written by the King;
moreover, neither the King nor Madame Adélaide in their letters to M.
de Talleyrand ever expressed the thoughts, the opinions, or the
projects expounded in this letter. It appears that the Abbé Genoude
and M. de la Rochejaquelein, in the course of a journey to England,
bought the King's so-called letters from this woman and came to
publish them in France under the deception of animosity and party
spirit. However, the whole business is very unpleasant for the King
and the trial very wearisome to follow; these men assert that they
have originals in the King's handwriting, which are no doubt
forgeries, though proving them to be so is a hateful business.

  [4] This woman, Eselina Vanayl de Yongh, under the name of Ida de
  Saint-Elme, was a famous adventuress. The supposed letters of
  Louis-Philippe had been entirely invented by her.

The Legitimist newspapers also publish some fragments of a diary, or
rather some memoirs of Madame de Feuchères; the forgery here is
obvious to myself, who am well aware of the relations which existed
between her and the Royal Family, and are totally misrepresented by
these fragments. Her family and the executors of her will have
published an absolute denial of the existence of these supposed
memoirs. However, the Legitimist newspapers proceed as before to
publish instalments of this absurdity, and there are idiots or
ill-disposed persons who still persist in believing them authentic.

_Rochecotte, February 15, 1841._--I have been asked a question about
Madame de Salvandy, who corresponds with the Austrian Minister to the
United States; her maiden name was Mlle. Ferey, and she was a niece of
the Oberkampf family; she is thus connected with the Jouy oilcloth.[5]
She is not a distinguished person, though not vulgar; she is not
pretty and not exactly ugly; she is not pleasant, but not badly
brought up; not clever, but no fool; and after this I think it must be
admitted that she is not a nonentity. I should add that she has been a
good daughter, a good wife and a good mother; that she bores her
husband and wearies her children by her continual efforts to be
correct; and in conclusion that she is a thorough-going Protestant,
always scattering little French Bibles about without her husband's
knowledge, who is a good Catholic.

  [5] An allusion to the painted cloth manufacture founded in the
  eighteenth century by Oberkampf at Jouy-en-Josas, in the
  department of Seine-et-Oise, not far from Versailles.

A summary of my correspondence is as follows. I found it here when I
returned from Tours, where I had gone for a few hours to be present at
a charity lottery.

Madame de Lieven writes: "Enthusiasm is rising once more at the
Tuileries on behalf of the fortifications at Paris, and is said to
have reached Dumouriez. The fortifications are desired and will be
secured, for it is thought that the Chamber of Peers will show a
majority in their favour, notwithstanding the Legitimist conspiracy of
Molé and Pasquier. England will be obliged to make advances to France,
as Parliament is urging it in that direction and society also.
Notwithstanding the outward success of the English Cabinet, the
Ministry is growing weak and it is even said that it will fall. Lord
Palmerston alone retains full confidence in his fortune. The whole of
Europe shows great confidence in M. Guizot, especially Prince
Metternich, who asks of him only one thing--namely, that he will
continue in office. I think he is as safe as any one can be in France.
I think the proposal regarding Jerusalem will not pass unnoticed."

The Duchesse de Montmorency writes: "I told you a few days ago that
Mgr. Affre had forbidden the Chapter to meet, and that the Chapter had
strictly carried out his orders by offering him no New Year's
congratulations, as a meeting would have been necessary for that
purpose. The result has caused a disturbance among the clergy which is
now at its height. Even at the Tuileries they are beginning to repent
of the unfortunate choice that was made in M. Affre, as he had a
violent quarrel with M. Guillon, Bishop of Morocco, the Queen's first
almoner, and a great favourite at the château. M. Guillon, though he
had been entirely hostile to Mgr. de Quélen, went to the King to
complain of Mgr. Affre. Unfortunately he cannot be removed. He has
turned M. de Courtier, the very popular priest of the foreign
missions, out of his parish, and he has only his masses to live upon.
The canons of Notre Dame no longer say mass at the high altar, as to
do so would be a means of meeting, and similarly at matins and the
other offices. Things are almost as if the cathedral was under an
interdict. Mgr. Affre is so hot-tempered that when his secretary, a
young and innocent abbé to whom he had dictated some extraordinary
letters, ventured to remark upon the fact, he was immediately
dismissed without notice. How Christian, pastoral and evangelical such
conduct is!

"M. Demidoff has sent back the secretary, the butler and the servants
that he had here; it is not yet known whether he has reached Russia,
or whether the Emperor Nicholas will allow his wife to come with him;
the possibility is doubted.

"The affairs of the Duc Decazes are in fearful disorder and his
servants are leaving him; he is also said to be very ill."

M. Raullin writes: "Yesterday at Notre Dame we had a sermon from the
Rev. Father Lacordaire, who wishes to restore or to establish in
France the Order of Dominicans with their beautiful white cloaks. The
whole of Paris was there and the church was crowded. The sermon
provoked much criticism, both favourable and adverse. It was a
harangue in the style of Peter the Hermit preaching the Crusade to the
people, except that in this case the Crusade was directed against no
one, but was to support Catholicism. It was Rome and France marching
together since the time of Clovis to the conquest of true liberty and
of civilisation. In all this there was a mixture of papacy and of
nationalism, of spiritual monarchy and of universal liberty which was
thundered forth in a style that might shake the pillars and the very
foundations of every Gallic church. I hope that similar attempts will
not often be made, but for once in a way such outbursts do no harm. I
was especially struck by the vast concourse of people and the close
attention with which they followed all the words of this Dominican
revivalist. As to the result of his attempt, I am afraid that
imagination and a sense of the picturesque are all that will be
stimulated. I do not like attempts to start new movements by something

The Duchesse d'Albuféra writes: "Madame de Rambuteau, in order to
avoid the terrible crowd which invades the rooms of the Hotel de
Ville, declared that she would only ask those of her new acquaintances
who were introduced to her on Tuesday mornings. Such was the reply
that she sent to a note from Madame d'Istrie, who asked permission to
introduce her sister, Madame de La Ferronnays. The idea of
introduction as an excuse from Madame de Rambuteau to Madame de La
Ferronnays has been considered ridiculous; it has become a jest and a
byword and many people in high society decline to visit the Hotel de

"Madame de Flahaut is entirely absorbed in the task of attracting the
Faubourg Saint-Germain to her house; the Duc d'Orléans is distinctly
angry in consequence; but as princes no longer go to salons, Madame de
Flahaut says that she will not continue to sacrifice her tastes to the
whims of the Duc d'Orléans. Emilie, her daughter, who keeps house for
her, is influencing her in this direction. On Thursdays there is
dancing at Madame de Flahaut's house: some one was saying before the
Marquise de Caraman that these entertainments were balls for young
people, to which the marquise replied, 'And for young women too, for I
have been invited,' upon which remark it was remembered that her
baptismal certificate does not seem to agree with this claim."

Finally, M. de Valençay writes that Madame de Sainte Elme, the author
of the _Contemporary Memoirs_, is deeply implicated in the affair of
the pretended letters from the King. The prefect of police is still
busily occupied in the task of getting to the bottom of this intrigue.

M. de Valençay went to hear Father Lacordaire and says that he looks
like a fine Spanish picture. His sermon was very republican and his
mode of expression very different from that hitherto employed in the
pulpit, but he has much talent and vigour.

He adds that M. de Chateaubriand is reading his Memoirs at Madame
Récamier's house; Madame Gay swoons with admiration and Madame de
Boigne makes faces. These two tendencies were especially brought out
by a very striking portrait of the Duc de Bordeaux. The Duchesse de
Gramont Guiche was present and was not remarkably pleased with the
passage in which her name was mentioned, in which M. de Chateaubriand
said: "Madame de Guiche, who has been a great beauty."

There is nothing else in my letters which seems worth quotation, and
even what I have extracted is chiefly trivial.

_Rochecotte, February 23, 1841._--Some time ago I was advised to read
a novel by M. Sainte-Beuve and not to be alarmed by the title of it,
which was "Pleasure." I read half of it yesterday; though it wanders
from the point in a manner more metaphysical than religious, and
though the affectation and ruggedness of the style is obvious, I have
been deeply touched by the book, which displays a profound knowledge
of the human heart, a true sense of good and evil, and generally
speaking, a loftiness of thought which is unusual in modern authors.

My son-in-law hears from Paris that the Chamber of Deputies was much
disturbed by the report of M. Jouffroy concerning the secret service
funds. The Chamber seems to have been living in a profound calm which
has been disturbed by this report. It has revived all quarrels and
severely criticises all past Ministries, while it speaks of the policy
of the present Cabinet in terms which are unacceptable to many of its
supporters. In short, it is an unfortunate incident, which is
important in so far as it strengthens the arms of that important
fraction of the Chamber known as the Dufaure-Passy party.

_Rochecotte, February 24, 1841._--In the _Friend of Religion_, a
little magazine which I take in to lend to my priest, I have found a
long extract from the famous sermon of M. Lacordaire, which recently
caused so much sensation at Paris, and which fortunately seems to have
met with strong disapproval. As a matter of fact what I read is quite
inconceivable, though there are many passages full of vigour and
talent; but these are overwhelmed by strange assertions which reach
the point of the scandalous and the dangerous. As his subject he took
the duty of children to parents and from thence proceeded to an
enthusiastic eulogy of the democracy: he said that Jesus Christ was
above all things a member of the middle classes, and that France is
supported by God because it breathes democracy. The late Mgr. de
Quélen was quite right in his refusal to allow M. Lacordaire to preach
unless he were himself present to keep an eye upon him. He mistrusted
these strange doctrines which had long before been derived from his
connection with M. de Lamennais, and though M. Lacordaire has remained
a Catholic, he is largely affected by this evil teaching, which he
received in his youth.

Prince Pierre d'Arenburg writes to say that on the day of the
collection at Notre Dame Mgr. Affre summoned the ladies who were
collecting to the sacristy, but he did not speak to them or give them
a word of thanks, which they expected, as they were always accustomed
to it from Mgr. de Quélen, who invariably thanked them with perfect
grace; that Mgr. Affre then sent them into the church with a most
abrupt "Now then, start," which was received with murmurs on the part
of the ladies, according to my letter.

M. de Valençay writes to say that he has heard from a reliable source
that overtures from the English Cabinet are still awaited and that it
is believed that they will be forthcoming. He had met Madame de Lieven
who had commissioned him to send me news of the fact and to add that
M. Guizot is on the best of terms with the German courts. It appears
that this week will decide the fate of the English Cabinet, which will
be vigorously attacked.

The law upon the fortifications will not be put to the vote in the
Chamber of Peers for a fortnight. It will be fiercely attacked by M.
Molé, by the Chancellor and by the Legitimists. The court is very
angry with the two first named. What the fate of the law will be is
absolutely unknown as yet.

Madame de Nesselrode has left Paris full of enthusiasm for Parisian
life, for Parisian things and people. I admit her goodness of heart
and her generosity, but I think very little of her judgment.

_Rochecotte, February 26, 1841._--I hear from Paris that a very select
ball was given by Madame Le Hon and that she and Madame de Flahaut are
now trying to refine their salon and to attract the Faubourg
Saint-Germain; that in this respect a kind of reaction is expected;
that every one is anxious to be counted a member of high society; that
those who were formerly sought are now disdained and those are
flattered who were formerly rejected.

I hear from Vienna that the daughter of the Prussian Minister Maltzan,
a pretty young girl of twenty-four, is to marry Lord Beauvale, the
English Ambassador; in age he could easily be her father; he has been
a great rake and is eaten up with gout. However, she has preferred him
to several possibilities, because he is an English peer, ambassador
and brother of the Prime Minister. She has decided to make a brilliant

_Rochecotte, February 27, 1841._--Yesterday my daughter had a long
letter from young Lady Holland of whom she had seen a good deal at
Florence. This little lady is now at London. I have asked my
daughter's permission to select the interesting passages from this
letter: "I doubt if any one, whatever trouble he took, could discover
a more painful situation than ours, because I think that no one could
find such a woman as Lady Holland, my mother-in-law. She surpasses
everything that could be imagined in the way of rapacity and
selfishness, and in a novel her character would be thought exaggerated
and impossible. As you know, she became possessor of everything from
my father-in-law, but that is not enough for her. She wishes to pull
down Holland House where she spent forty years of her life and to
build and to sell; in fact, Heaven knows what she does not wish, for
the other day she was anxious to make an arrangement with her son
which would deprive us of our small income which was arranged at our
marriage, so that if the Ministry were to change to-morrow it is quite
possible we should be reduced to live upon the interest from my dowry.
Fortunately she cannot destroy Holland House without my husband's
consent and he says he would rather cut his hand off than consent to
sacrifice the smallest part of it, even of the park. Similarly she
cannot sell the other estate of Ampthill without his consent. He would
willingly give his consent to pay off the large mortgages with which
she has burdened the property, which was immense and free from debt at
the time of her marriage with Lord Holland, if she on her side would
do something. She has so much of which she can unfortunately dispose
that my husband has been advised to ask something in return for his
consent. He only asked her to leave the house as it was during his
father's lifetime, whom he worshipped, and whose memory is most dear
to him. He told her that the library and papers which his father left
behind were a hundred times more precious to him than the real
property and the silver of which she can dispose. Well, she declines
to do anything. She has consulted all her friends, who have pointed
out the truth and asked her to do the right thing. The result is
scenes and quarrels, while we must look on at everything and not offer
a complaint. It is a difficult position and sometimes I feel my blood
boil, but I restrain myself for my husband's sake and follow the
example of his sons and his daughter whose patience towards her is
angelical and who show a delicacy, a tenderness and reserve which she
certainly does not deserve at times. In short, we must hope that a day
will come when we shall be able to live in peace and return to that
dear house which we have not been permitted to approach since our
arrival. At present we must start as soon as we can and return to
Florence by way of Paris.

"Fanny Cowper is not to marry Charles Gore. She cannot yet decide what
she will do, and remains very pretty.[6] The chief beauty of the
moment is Lady Douro. The Duke of Wellington has recovered but commits
such imprudent acts that it is impossible to rely upon him. Lord
Cardigan has been hissed in the theatre, which is very unpleasant for
those who go there. I went to his trial which interested me
greatly.[7] He is a handsome man, pale and interesting, and we
peeresses were all so pleased that he was acquitted; but it was a
somewhat theatrical business and I am afraid that in these days of
reform and discontent it may cause some outcry against the House of
Lords. My husband clearly pronounced the words 'Not guilty, upon my
honour,' but they were delivered best of all by my cousin, Lord Essex.
Towards evening the robes of the peers, the red tapestry and the
presence of the ladies made a striking effect. The ladies chiefly
admired were Lady Douro, Lady Seymour, Lady Mahon and my cousin,
Caroline Essex.

  [6] The daughter of Lady Palmerston by her first marriage and a
  niece of Lord Melbourne. Lady Fanny was to marry Lord Jocelyn a
  few months later.

  [7] Young Colonel Cardigan had several quarrels with officers in
  his regiment, and after a duel with Captain Harvey Tuckett, whom
  he wounded, he was summoned before the House of Lords in its
  judicial capacity in 1841; he was acquitted, and his trial was
  merely a necessary concession to the law of the land against

"Our dear aunt, Miss Fox, of whom we are very fond, since she has been
a real mother to my husband, has given us much anxiety. She has been
very ill, but I hope that she is out of danger; she regrets her
brother whom she loved for himself alone. There is no sense of vanity,
no regret for loss of position, and no ambition in her grief, while
everything that she has seen or heard since his death has shocked and
pained her. We have also been alarmed for my poor cousin, Lady
Melbourne; an illness after a miscarriage was nearly the death of her,
but I now hope and trust that she is out of danger; these, however,
are incidents which hurt and leave their marks. She thought she was
dying and left all that she loved with calmness, submission and
tenderness, forgetting nothing that could conduce to the happiness of
her husband whom she was leaving.

"We spent a week at the beginning of the year at Windsor; it was a
picture of perfect happiness; our dear little Queen, handsome Prince
Albert and the little Princess, a pretty and good-tempered child,
ready to do anything with a smile, a certain sign of good health. The
Queen is said to be with child again. We were dining there four or
five days ago and the Queen seemed to me to be not quite well, though
she danced a good deal two evenings later, but in any case she is so
strong that one cannot judge by appearances."

_Rochecotte, March 1, 1841._--My last month of Rochecotte is now
beginning, much to my regret. I have been as well here as I can be at
present. I live free from fatigue, agitation, trouble and constraint;
all these I shall find at Paris, but there would be a certain
affectation if I stayed away altogether; and before starting for
Germany I have a number of little things to do and some preparations
to make which can only be done at Paris, so I have resolved, though
with much reluctance, to start in April.

Yesterday I had a letter from Madame Mollien, which seems to me
amusing from beginning to end: "I must say a word to you of this fancy
dress ball, a carnival ball which will form an epoch in the annals of
the Tuileries, because for some hours it has brought back to its
walls, which are usually so sad, the frank, simple and unrestrained
cheerfulness which can only be seen in the simplest salons. The
success of the entertainment was due to the Prince de Joinville; no
one could withstand his impetuosity. The costumes were varied,
generally rich and tasteful with a few exceptions; there are
exceptions everywhere. The Queen, the old Princesses and the old
ladies who were not wearing costumes went in succession to the gallery
of Louis-Philippe. All in costume, ladies and gentlemen, met in
another part of the château and made a solemn entry about half-past
eight to the sound of an appalling band, composed of all kinds of
more or less barbarous instruments which the Prince de Joinville has
collected in his travels. He himself, in true Turkish costume, carried
an enormous drum of a most oriental kind, on which he made a
tremendous noise. A magician preceded the procession as a herald, and
the company was conducted by the Duchesse d'Orléans. She was splendid
with a dignified air: her costume was that of Marie of Burgundy, black
velvet richly embroidered with gold and trimmed with ermine; the tall
pointed cap which forms part of this costume was ornamented at the
front with a velvet bow embroidered with enormous stones; the cap
itself was of cloth of gold surmounted by a veil of tulle embroidered
with gold. Two ladies and two gentlemen, alike in costumes of the age
of Louis IX., escorted the Princess. The two ladies, whose costumes
were like hers though not so rich, were Mdmes. de Chanaleilles and
Olivia de Chabot; the men were M. Asseline, her Secretary of private
commands, and M. de Praslin, who looked very well in a long cloak of
brown velvet and marten fur, and called himself Philippe de Commines.
Poor Princess Clémentine was not a success: she wore a Turkish costume
which the Prince de Joinville had brought back from Syria; it was
handsome but heavy and ungraceful, and her supple and charming figure
was not shown off until after supper when she took off the enormous
headdress which was crushing her, to be able to dance more at her
ease. The Duchesse de Nemours, on the other hand, was charming: she
had copied a portrait of the wife of the Regent, whom she is supposed
to resemble. The outer dress was of red velvet, very short, with a
skirt standing out and trimmed with rubies and diamonds all round,
upon a skirt of white satin trimmed with two rows of broad green
fringe and garlands of pearls; a small velvet cap with one little
feather standing upright was put on the side of her head and touched
her forehead, leaving her head almost bare upon one side. Her very
fair hair slightly powdered, curled, fluffy, turned up on one side and
falling down on the other, gave her a coquettish appearance and an
apparent want of care which was charming. I have never seen her so
pretty, and so every one said. The others are not worth mentioning. At
the same time there were some pretty dresses, including ladies of the
time of the Ligue, of the Fronde, of Louis XIII., of Louis XIV., some
Spanish costumes, and also a vivandière of the time of Louis XV.,
which caused quite a sensation. Madame de Montalivet and Madame de
Praslin each appeared as Mlle. de Hautfort, in rivalry. Many of the
ladies were powdered. The Duc d'Orléans did not return from Saint Omer
as he had said he might do, to the great vexation of the Princesse; I
think his absence rather spoilt her evening. The Prince de Joinville
speedily rid himself of his Turkish costume; his two young brothers
first appeared in military costumes of the last century. After the
first dance they all three went away and soon came back again; the
Prince de Joinville and the Duc d'Aumale as _débardeurs_ and the Duc
de Montpensier as a _fifi_ of the time of the Regency. If you happen
to have a neighbour who is accustomed to go to fancy dress balls (I do
not think M. de Castellane is), you can ask him for explanations of
these costumes. Their chief merit and probably the reason for their
choice, is that they are an excellent support in themselves to
revelry, as they authorise and even require a cheerful manner. The
quadrilles were formed only in two rows; as there was plenty of room
they were able to stand without crowding. As the couples at each end
would have had too much space to traverse, each figure was repeated
only twice instead of four times, and thus without rest or relaxation,
ever in movement, each dance finished by a general galop to music
played in much quicker time for that purpose. This went on till
half-past three in the morning with a vivacity which I could hardly
believe possible. The Queen was greatly amused, and the King himself
seemed to find some pleasure in all this gaiety. He stayed till
supper, which was served in the Galerie de Diane at little round
tables, as at small balls. The Infants and Infantas of Spain were all
in costume, excepting their father and their mother. She only danced
the English dance, which concluded the ball. Her partner was an
_Incroyable_ of the Revolution, and they looked sufficiently
incredible. However, she excused herself from the last galop which
ended this dance and was more uproarious than all the rest. The Prince
de Joinville had the Duc de Nemours as his page, and he took a very
cheerful part in all these gaieties throughout the evening. He made
some attempt to imitate his brother, but the Prince de Joinville with
his wild spirits coupled with his grave and handsome face, his
alertness and originality, was in every respect inimitable. I have
forgotten to mention M. and Madame de Chabannes: she appeared as a
lady from the Court of Charles IX.; her costume, which was said to be
designed by Paul Delaroche, was exactly correct, and made her
absolutely hideous. He was wrapped from head to foot in those waves of
white muslin in which the Arabs are dressed; this was not an
imitation, for the whole thing came from Algiers--the costume, the
dagger, the pistol, and also an enormous gun which he had captured at
Blidah or at Milianah. He was on duty, and in this costume he preceded
the King and Queen when they came from their apartments to the
ballroom. In my opinion he showed not the least proof of courage in
this campaign.

"There was a continuation of these festivities the next day. All those
in costume who cared to do so met at the house of M. de Lasalle, the
King's ordnance officer, and the _Incroyable_ of the Infanta. His wife
had a splendid costume, said to represent Mlle. de Montpensier. The
Duc de Nemours, the Prince de Joinville and the Duc d'Aumale appeared
at this improvised meeting, which went on until five o'clock in the
morning, and is said to have been extremely gay. It was Shrove
Tuesday, when everything is permitted. There was also some amusement
in the morning: Madame Adélaïde gave her children's breakfast as
usual; the King and Queen always attend it as well as the Princesses;
it is held in the Palais Royal in Madame's own rooms. Several tables
are placed in three rooms, at one of which the Royal Family sits and
is served with all kinds of dainties. This table is the most amusing
point. This year Madame had added a little performance to amuse the
King; a piece from the theatre of varieties was played, the
_Chevalier du Guet_, which may perhaps have amused the King but
certainly not the children; of that I am certain. My two nephews were
with me, for Madame had invited them with a kindness which would not
allow me to refuse. I stayed there from three o'clock till seven and
then went back to spend the evening at the Tuileries, as I was on
duty, so that by Ash Wednesday I was nearly dead with weariness.

"There has been not a word spoken to-day about the fortifications, or
of the secret service fund, though to tell the truth certain statesmen
would not be entirely out of place amid these Carnival disguises."

_Rochecotte, March 2, 1841._--M. de Valençay writes to say that he
dined yesterday, which was Thursday, with Marshal Soult, a large
dinner-party to forty guests. The Aylesburys, the Seafords, Lady
Aldborough, the Brignole and Durazzo parties, and the Francis Barings
were there. My son sat near Francis Baring, a clever and agreeable
man, of whom he had seen a great deal at M. de Talleyrand's house,
especially in England, and who seems to retain a warm regard for his
memory. They had much talk. Sir Francis told him that a large number
of M. de Talleyrand's letters had recently passed through his hands,
as he had been going over and arranging all the correspondence of his
father-in-law, the Duke of Bassano. He added that after reading these
letters his impression was that my uncle had right upon his side in
his differences with the Duke of Bassano concerning the policy of the
Emperor Napoleon. In the course of this conversation Francis Baring
gave him a piece of information which might be useful to us, telling
him that one of his friends came to him a short time ago and said,
"You are not aware that Thiers professes to have found, while turning
over certain papers, some documents which compromise M. de Talleyrand
in the affair of the Duc d'Enghien." My son then went into certain
details to show Baring that the information which M. Thiers professes
to have acquired could only be erroneous, that my uncle had never
known anything of the Emperor's projects or his secret opinion
regarding the Duc d'Enghien, and every one who knew Napoleon was not
astonished at the fact.

I am glad to know what M. Thiers professes to disseminate as
information, with the object of giving an appearance of authenticity
to the _History of the Consulate and the Empire_, which he is now

When you have returned from your exile,[8] I shall ask you to request
Francis Baring to lend you the letters of which he has spoken to my
son. These letters might very well form a part of our great work, in
my opinion.[9]

  [8] M. de Bacourt, to whom this letter was addressed, was still
  acting as French Minister at Washington. This incident explains
  the coolness which arose between the Duchesse de Talleyrand and
  M. Thiers.

  [9] This great work consisted in copying and classifying papers
  which were collected under the title, _Memoirs of the Prince de

The discussion upon the secret service funds has been much more
prolonged than was expected. In any case the vote is a matter of

Yesterday's news was the scanty majority by which the English Ministry
carried Lord Morpeth's bill--five is indeed a small number; possibly
it indicates the approaching fall of the Cabinet.[10]

  [10] The Irish Registration Bill had been proposed by Lord
  Morpeth in the House of Commons, where it met with considerable

It is impossible as yet to say what the fate of the bill concerning
the fortifications of Paris will be in the Chamber of Peers. The Duc
de Broglie is one of the most vigorous supporters of this law.

The newspapers announce the marriage of the old King of the Low
Countries with the Comtesse d'Oultremont.[11] The aunt of the King of
Prussia, the old Electress of Hesse has just died. The poor woman had
led a sad life with many trials and reverses; her wretched husband is
marrying the lady with whom I have so often seen him at Baden.

  [11] On February 16, 1841, King William I. of the Low Countries
  contracted a morganatic marriage with the Comtesse d'
  Oultremont-Vegimont, after abdicating in 1840, in favour of his
  son, King William II.

_Rochecotte, March 3, 1841._--The Duc de Noailles writes telling me
that M. de Flahaut is assiduously paying court to M. Guizot on every
possible occasion and in particular every evening at Madame de
Lieven's house, where his attentions begin as soon as he has passed
the door. In short, he seems as devoted to him as he was to M. Thiers;
however, he will not secure the Vienna post unless Sainte-Aulaire goes
to London, which he will only do if M. de Broglie who is urged to
accept London, should continue to refuse it.

The Duc also says that the King regards the question of the
fortifications as a peace problem, and declares that war need only be
made more difficult to become more unusual; that Germany is quite
right to fortify herself; and that we should fortify ourselves,
because in this way we shall check our impetuosity and each raise
obstacles which will prevent mutual attacks. The Duc d'Orléans, on the
other hand, regards the question from a revolutionary point of view;
he says that Europe will never permit his dynasty to continue or
recognise the principle of the Government which triumphed in 1830.
Some day or other Europe will attack him, and he should prepare for
defence even to-day. The Duc de Noailles himself seems to be preparing
a speech, for which he claims a great deal.

_Rochecotte, March 5, 1841._--The following is a passage from a letter
which I received yesterday from M. Molé: "The coalition has prevented
the powers of good from triumphing henceforward; power can only be
exerted now at the price of concessions, which I will never make, so I
consider my political or rather my ministerial career as terminated.
When any question seems to be worth the effort, I shall do my duty to
the Chamber of Peers, but neither more nor less than that. On that
point I am irrevocably decided. Blindness is everywhere paramount, and
in particular where clear-sightedness should reign. This reason makes
me doubt the future, which I regard in the darkest colours and with
many apprehensions of approaching disaster."

M. de Salvandy writes saying that he has to go to Toulouse this month
on family business and will ask me to put him up on his way. He adds,
"The campaign upon the question of the secret service funds has been
waged as mercilessly as that upon the fortifications question. M.
Thiers emerges defeated and without prospects; M. Guizot triumphant
in word but weakened in reality, for the majority are disturbed by the
observations of M. Dufaure. The session seems to be concluded, but the
vote of credit will arouse it to fresh life at the expense of M.
Thiers, and the discussion upon the law of the fortifications, if it
should end in the Chamber of Peers according to the wishes of M. Molé,
which seems unlikely, would complicate the situation more than ever."

The newspapers announce the death of M. de Bellune, who received the
sacraments from the hands of my cousin, the Abbé of Brézé, in the
presence of M. de Chateaubriand, the Marquis de Brézé and M. Hyde de
Neuville. No one could come to an end as a more thorough-going Carlist
than he. M. Alexandre de La Rochefoucauld has also died, but not in so
Legitimist a fashion.

M. Royer-Collard is sad, depressed and ill, and is angry that M.
Ancelot should have been elected to M. de Bonald's seat in the Academy
instead of M. de Tocqueville.

_Rochecotte, March 7, 1841._--I am delighted to hear that you like the
letters of Madame de Maintenon,[12] and am deeply flattered by the
likeness that you find between the nature of her intellect and of
mine. However, the Duc de Noailles has several times made the same
observation to me. I wish I were more capable of living up to the
resemblance. Apart from her mental qualities and a certain weakness
due to her position and to the time in which she lived, she had a
loftiness of soul, a firmness of character and a purity of principle
and of life which raised her very high in my esteem and provided a
better explanation of the astonishing fortunes which followed her,
than her beauty, her grace and her lofty thoughts can do.

  [12] Extract from a letter.

_Rochecotte, March 8, 1841._--Yesterday evening my son-in-law read us
a delightful article upon Mlle. de Lespinasse in the _Revue des Deux
Mondes_ of March 1. The article is well written and reminds me of
several incidents which M. de Talleyrand told me of this personage,
who was no favourite of his. He thought that she was wanting in
simplicity, for one of the best features of M. de Talleyrand's taste
was his respect and liking for simplicity. He admired it in every
case, in mind, manner, language and feeling, and only a strange
conjuncture of circumstances or a very strained position could ever
prevent this noble instinct of simplicity from influencing his own
character and actions. Exaggeration and affectation he always hated.
My own failings in this respect were corrected in a remarkable degree
by my intercourse with him. At the time of my marriage I was somewhat
to blame in those directions, though I hope that is not the case now.
The improvement is due to him, as are many other things, for which I
cannot sufficiently thank his memory. To return to Mlle. de
Lespinasse, I well remember reading her _Letters_ which appeared
shortly after those of Madame du Deffant. I was not greatly attracted
by them; affected enthusiasm is by no means the same as real feeling,
and passion is not tenderness. In view of the want of principle that
characterised the eighteenth century, the one safeguard for the
individual was the yoke imposed by society with its customs and
demands. If one were ever so little outside that circle, there was no
check, and imagination carried people very far and very low. Mlle. de
Lespinasse, having neither family nor fortune, was not obliged to
consider a society to which she only half belonged, and led the life
of a clever man who is also a lady-killer. But now I seem to be
writing an article on the subject myself and what we read yesterday is
much better than this.

_Rochecotte, March 9, 1841._--The following is an extract from a
letter which I have from the Duchesse de Montmorency: "People here
think only of fortifications: those who usually trouble but little
about politics are full of them and society looks very askance upon
those who are supposed likely to vote in support of the law. My
husband says that he has not yet been _enlightened_; our family
interprets this to mean that the King has won him over. The fact is
that he is influenced by my son who has been commissioned by the
Château for this purpose, all of which vexes me exceedingly.

"M. Gobert, treasurer of the fund for the orphans of those who died
of cholera, was very devoted to the memory of the late Mgr. de Quélen,
and had a terrible scene with Mgr. Affre at a meeting of the
committee, when the Archbishop wished to dismiss him. M. Gobert
replied that he would not stir; in short, the whole business was very
scandalous and it is impossible to understand how these scenes of fury
and abuse of authority will end.

"The Duc de Rohan is marrying his daughter to the Marquis de Béthisy,
a very suitable match.

"In the newspapers you will see the filial comedy that has been played
by the Prince de la Moskowa. M. Pasquier is praised for not having
allowed him to speak. I am told that the Duc d'Orléans induced the
Prince de la Moskowa to enter the House of Peers in order that he
might vote for these stupid fortifications. It is also the Duc
d'Orléans who influences the _Journal des Débats_. Old Bertin and the
chief editors are strongly opposed to the fortifications, but young
Bertin, orderly officer to the Duc d'Orléans and M. Cuvillier Fleury,
private secretary to the Duc d'Aumale, insert what they please in the
newspaper, or rather what the Château pleases. I know that Bertin de
Veaux said the other day to one of my friends, 'Pray do not think that
I am inclined to support so fatal a measure.'"

_Rochecotte, March 14, 1841._--It was so fine yesterday and I had owed
a call so long to the wife of my sub-prefect,[13] that I resolved to
go to Chinon with my son-in-law between lunch and dinner. The road
from this house to Chinon is pretty and easy. At Chinon itself I
visited the great and noble ruins of the castle which overlook the
rich and smiling valley of the Vienne: the room where Joan of Arc
offered her holy sword to Charles VII.; the tower where Jacques Molay,
the grand master of the Templars was long confined; and the
subterranean passage leading to the house of Agnes Sorel; all these
things can still be seen and one regards them with the eye of faith,
which is the most important element in archæology. If this ruin were
restored as that of Heidelberg has been, the result would be most
picturesque. I stayed for a quarter of an hour at the office of the
charity organisation where the Sister Superior now is who spent
fourteen years in the household of Valençay and who had several times
expressed a desire to meet me. She is a thoroughly good person and
liked everywhere, and her departure was much regretted at Valençay.
When I rang the bell a sister came to tell me that the Mother Superior
was at the point of death and had received the last sacraments a few
hours before. However, I asked her to tell the invalid that I was
there and she insisted upon seeing me. I was much saddened by the
interview which cheered the failing life of this excellent person. She
told me, as the late Mgr. de Quélen once told me, that from the first
day when she had seen me to the day of her death which was now at hand
she had never passed a day without praying for me. It is good to be
loved by Christian souls and their loyalty is to be found nowhere

  [13] The Sub-Prefect of Chinon at that time was M. Viel.

When I returned from Chinon I found two letters which will influence
my movements during the summer; one was from the King of Prussia who
had heard of my travelling proposals and asks me to go and see him at
Sans Souci. This induces me to go to Berlin about May 12 and so one
point is settled. The other letter is from my sisters who tell me that
they will remain at Vienna until July 1, and that I ought to carry out
the proposal I had formed to go and see Madame de Sagan there if she
had lived. I am anxious that the tie between my sisters and myself
should be maintained. This is only as it should be and it is also a
comfort; we are now reduced to a very small group and the tie of blood
has a strength which one is surprised to find persisting in spite of
all that should naturally destroy it or at any rate weaken it.

_Rochecotte, March 16, 1841._--Yesterday I had a letter from Madame de
Lieven who says: "The Firman conferring heredity seems sheer humbug;
such was the opinion of the Pasha and even more so the opinion of
Napier, the English admiral. He has advised the Pasha to refuse it,
which he has done very politely. While these events were in progress
in the East, we here received a very polite invitation from London to
rejoin the concert of Europe in order to settle the Eastern Question
in general, and this invitation was preceded by a protocol announcing
that the Egyptian question was entirely settled. As the terms of
invitation seemed to be suitable, there was a disposition here to open
negotiations. Your Government has proposed some verbal changes which
were immediately accepted, and the matter was almost concluded when
the news that I have just told you arrived. M. Guizot immediately
brought the matter to a standstill, for the Egyptian affair, instead
of being terminated, is beginning again, and the Sultan and the Pasha
are as far from an understanding as ever. The Firman was dictated by
Lord Ponsonby and the other three representatives opposed it. The
English at Paris are ashamed of this despicable trick; every one
regards it as an act of bad faith, and there is some small amusement
at the embarrassment which will be caused to the northern Powers, as
the document will have to be drawn up again unless the whole quarrel
is to be reopened as if no Treaty of July 15 had ever been made.
Meanwhile the Germans are yearning to see the isolation of France come
to an end, as this position forces them to undertake great expense in
the way of armaments, while France will not hear of any understanding
as long as the difference with Egypt persists.

"And what of America? Lady Palmerston writes to me every week and says
in her last letter, 'We are very pleased with the news from America,
and everything will be settled.' This means that poor MacLeod will be
hung and the English territory will be seized. If this will satisfy
them, all well and good.[14] In China, English affairs are also going

  [14] During the Canadian rebellion in 1837 and 1838, the
  steamship _Caroline_ had been burnt on the Niagara River, and an
  Englishman, Mr. Amos Durfee, was killed. Mr. Alexander MacLeod, a
  United States citizen, was accused as his murderer, but Mr.
  Gridley, judge at Utica succeeded in proving his innocence.

"Bresson will certainly return to Berlin. M. de Sainte-Aulaire has
recently arrived. He will go to London, when, I cannot say, probably
when you send an ambassador there. I do not know who will go to

"Lord Beauvale had an attack of gout during the celebration of his
marriage;[15] he told the priest to hurry up, and was taken home very
ill. The next day he was in bed and his wife had dinner at a small
table at his bedside. They will come to Paris on their way to England.

  [15] _See_ p. 22 for the announcement of the marriage of Lord
  Beauvale with Mlle. Maltzan.

"Adèle de Flahaut is dying; her father is behaving like a madman, but
her mother shows a man's courage.

"I have decided to send you Lady Palmerston's letter so that Pauline
may read the details that interest her."

The following is Lady Palmerston's letter to the Princess: "I must
tell you that my daughter Fanny is engaged to Lord Jocelyn. He is a
charming young man of twenty-eight, handsome, cheerful, loyal, clever
and pleasant, and he has travelled in every part of the world. He has
just come back from China, of which he gives very interesting
accounts. We are all very pleased with the marriage, which is quite
romantic. He sent his proposal in writing from Calcutta a year and a
half ago but could not wait for an answer as he was obliged to start
for Chusan; so he has been nearly two years wavering between hope and
fear and reached Liverpool without knowing whether he would not find
her married to some one else, for in the English papers which he
sometimes saw he occasionally found announcements of Fanny's marriage
with some other person. Lord Jocelyn's father is Lord Roden, a great
Tory, but that, you know, is a trifle which does not disturb us, as
Fanny's happiness is our first object, and love and politics do not go
together. Moreover, he is not a fanatic like his father, but very
reasonable and steady in his ideas.

"The news from America is pretty good upon the whole: it is all a
matter of talk and party spirit; the out-goers wish to make the
position difficult for the in-comers, almost in European style."

I now propose to copy a little romance which was composed by Henry IV.
and which I have found in the _Memoirs of Sully_. It seems to me full
of elegance and charm, and to be even more graceful than _Charmante

        Dawn of day
        Come, I pray,
    Gladden thou mine eyes;
        My shepherdess
        My heart's distress
    Is redder than thy skies.
        She is fair
        Past compare;
    See her slender form,
        Eyes that are
        Brighter far
    Than the star of morn.
        Though with dew
        Touched anew,
    Roses are less bright,
        No ermine
        So soft is seen
    Nor lily half so white.

How pretty it is! Henry IV.'s letters are also charming; in fact his
figure alone lends interest to this extraordinary work which is as
heavy and diffuse as possible, though interesting to any one who has
the patience to delve in it.

_Rochecotte, March 27, 1841._--My son-in-law hears that the speech of
M. Molé against the proposed fortifications has not answered the
general expectation; that the speech of M. d'Alton Shée, which was
said to have been written by M. Berryer, sparkled with wit and clever
mockery and delighted the Chamber of Peers, which is really as much
opposed to the law as the Chamber of Deputies was, though it will
probably vote as the other Chamber has done.

_Rochecotte, March 29, 1841._--I have now reached my last week of
country life which will be filled with a thousand details,
arrangements, accounts, and orders to be given. I shall greatly miss
my solitude, my peace, the regularity of my daily life, the simplicity
of my habits, the health-giving work without fatigue or agitation,
which profits others and therefore myself. I cannot help feeling some
anxiety at leaving the protecting haven where I have been taking
shelter to set sail again. Society is a troublesome and stormy sea to
sail, for which I do not feel in the least fitted. I have no pilot and
cannot steer my ship alone, and am always afraid of running upon some
reef. My wide experience has not given me cleverness, but has merely
made me distrustful of myself, which does not conduce to the
possibility of a good passage.

_Rochecotte, April 2, 1841._--I see a notice in the newspapers of the
death of the Vicomtesse d'Agoult, mistress of the robes to the
Dauphine. The loss of so old and devoted a friend must be a severe
blow to the Princess, especially during her exile. There are few
griefs and trials through which she has not passed.

_Rochecotte, April 3, 1841._--The newspapers announce that the
amendment which would have sent back the law upon the fortifications
to the Chamber of Deputies, has been rejected by the House of Peers by
a considerable majority. This means that the law will pass in its
original form. The Château will be delighted.

The Duchesse de Montmorency tells me that I shall find hypnotism again
the rage in Paris: every one has his own medium, and little morning
and evening parties are given at which experiments are performed. This
fashion was introduced by Madame Jules de Contades, the sister of my
neighbour, M. du Ponceau. Her brother, who has been three months in
Paris, has obtained a woman of Anjou who is very susceptible to
hypnotism. She was with him at Benais[16] last autumn, and Dr. Orye
tells me wonderful things about her. He was formerly very incredulous,
but what he has seen of this woman has shaken his unbelief.

  [16] Benais, the country residence near Rochecotte, then belonged
  to M. and Madame de Messine, the parents of Madame du Ponceau.

_Rochecotte, April 4, 1841._--Certainly Paris is now to have its
fortifications. The Duc de Noailles writes me a letter upon the
subject which is very politic and probably very judicious, but which I
found very wearisome. He adds, "I may tell you as a piece of news
that the Princesse de Lieven is giving dinners; she has very fine
silver and china, and invited me last Monday with M. Guizot, Montrond,
M. and Madame de la Redorte, Mr. Peel (brother of Sir Robert Peel) and
Mrs. Peel. This was the second dinner she has given. The first was to
her Ambassador and his niece Apponyi. She also gave an evening
reception for the Duchess of Nassau, the widow and the daughter of
Prince Paul of Würtemberg, who came to spend a fortnight in Paris to
see her father who has been at death's door and is still very ill. The
Duchess of Nassau is deaf but she is very pleasant and agreeable. She
did not wish to call at the Tuileries but her father insisted. The
whole of the Royal Family, except the King, called upon her the next
day. Three days later she was invited to dinner and refused, saying
that she was obliged to go to Versailles on that day. She refused
before mentioning the subject to her father, who is certainly not a
supporter of the Philippe party, but felt the unpleasantness of the
refusal. He has insisted that she should make an appointment with the
Queen for her farewell call: the Queen replied that she was very
sorry, but that the engagements of Holy Week would not allow her to
receive her. As soon as she arrived, the Court placed its theatre
boxes at her disposal; she refused, saying that she would not go to
the theatre at all, though she has been to the Opera in the box of the
Duchesse de Bauffremont. In our faubourg people are delighted with
this conduct, which seems to me utterly stupid and in bad taste." I
also think such pranks are ridiculous.

As you are reading the little Fenelon,[17] remember that I especially
recommend the third and fourth volumes; I consider it is equal to
Madame de Sévigné and La Bruyère. The whole work is pervaded with the
inimitable grace and the fine and gentle austerity of the Christian
bishop, an aristocrat, a man of God and of the world, whose intellect
was terrifying, as Bossuet said.

  [17] Extract from a letter.

I was starting in an hour and am very sorry to go. When and how shall
I return? The unforeseen plays too large a part in the life of each of

_Paris, April 6, 1841._--At length I am in this huge Paris and my
impressions are by no means favourable.

_Paris, April 9, 1841._--Madame de Lieven wrote asking me to come and
see her, and I asked her to a quiet dinner with myself. She accepted
the invitation and appeared in full dress, less thin than before, and
in good spirits. She told me that her Emperor is as unsociable as
ever; that the little Princess of Darmstadt cannot endure the climate
of St. Petersburg and that the cold has given her a red nose; the
young heir is by no means in love with her, but will marry her. The
Princess assures me that nothing has been settled as regards
diplomatic changes; that Sainte-Aulaire will go to London and Flahaut
to Naples and the rest remains a matter of chance. It is thought that
Palmerston is secretly encouraging the strange actions of Ponsonby, as
the Eastern Question is by no means settled. Lord Granville has been
obliged to resign on account of his health. Lady Clanricarde is very
anxious to come to Paris, but the little Queen and Lady Palmerston do
not like her; however, she has been reconciled to Lord Palmerston,
whom she used to hate. It is said that the Queen would like to appoint
Lord Normanby to Paris, as he is a weak member of the Cabinet.

M. Decazes is so ill that people are thinking of his successor. Some
mention M. Monnier as a possibility, and I have heard other names
which I do not remember.

_Paris, April 10, 1841._--I should be glad to have something
interesting to say of Paris, where the clash and strife of interests
is so strong, but I have nothing and seem to be more vacant and
listless even than at Rochecotte. Many words buzz about my ears and
leave no impression and merely prevent the quiet course of my

Yesterday after lunch I called upon Madame Adélaïde. She had heard
through a third person that I was at Paris and had asked me to come. I
had not proposed to appear at the Château until after Easter. I found
her ill and strangely changed; thin, bent, tired and grown old. She
was very pleasant, but really harassing with her interminable
discourse upon the fortifications. I think she must have sent for me
to discuss this subject, as if I had any opinion upon it or as if my
idea could be of any importance. I was more interested by the portrait
of Queen Christina of Spain which she showed me and which is an
agreeable picture. This Queen did not go to Naples because her brother
would not receive her. She should now be at Lyons, and it is thought
that she will come back here where the Court seems to be favourably
inclined to her. For the stout Infanta there seems to be less liking,
and she has not increased her popularity recently by sending her three
eldest daughters into a convent for no obvious reason. Since her
arrival here she took the three Princesses to balls and other social
functions, and now shuts them up in this way.

M. Molé came to see me towards the end of the morning, and is very
depressed upon the subject of politics. The fact is quite clear that
no one has gained either power or reputation. The Court seems to have
been so entirely committed to these wretched fortifications which no
one wants, not even those who have voted for them, that the
consequences have been almost ridiculous. Many people's feelings have
been hurt on this question and all who did not promise their vote were
ridiculed and insulted point blank. It is said that the Prince Royal
has not spared himself in the matter. I am very sorry, as I shall
always be about anything that may injure his position. At the present
moment he is at St. Omer.

_Paris, April 12, 1841._--Some one has just come in to tell me a sad
piece of news. The pretty Duchesse de Vallombrose, who was quite
young, was confined of her second child a few days ago and was
attacked with puerperal fever two days later. The servant whom I sent
to inquire for her was told that she died last night. It is very
dreadful. The little schoolmistress of Rochecotte was cured of this
same disease by country doctors, while the Duchesse de Vallombrose,
with the whole of the faculty about her, dies in spite of their
supposed science. Life indeed realises but little of what it promises.

_Paris, April 13, 1841._--The death of the Duchesse de Vallombrose
was yesterday a general subject of conversation. The unfortunate woman
seems to have had no suspicion of her danger. A priest was fetched
who, fortunately on this occasion, was a capable man (the Abbé
Dupanloup), and was obliged to prepare her mind for this terrible
conclusion. Deaths of this kind in the time of Louis XIV. would have
produced sudden conversions, but nothing can effect the worn-out
emotions and the dead consciences of our age, where everything is flat
and dull, at home and abroad.

_Paris, April 14, 1841._--M. de Sainte-Aulaire came to lunch with me
yesterday to ask some questions concerning the nature of the London
Embassy and its social position, as he is preparing to move thither.
M. Royer-Collard came in before he had gone and they talked of the
French Academy and of a new Book which M. Nodier is preparing, _The
History of Words_. People say that it will be a curious and serious
work, excellently written by a clever man, and a book of real

M. Royer-Collard told me that on the day of his daughter's death his
study door opened three times in a quarter of an hour to admit M.
Molé, who was quite simple; M. Thiers, who was less so; and M. Guizot,
who was nothing of the kind. Their meeting made the incident stranger
still. M. Guizot fell upon the neck of M. Royer-Collard, pale and in
tears, and the bereaved father felt too weak to keep him back, and I
think he was quite right. Two of M. Guizot's children had been
dangerously ill, and had been saved by the care of M. Andral.[18] M.
Royer-Collard had called upon M. Guizot to congratulate him upon their
recovery, and since that time when the two men met in the Chamber,
they have shaken hands and exchanged a few words. As I am a supporter
of peace in general, and think that the more we advance in life the
more we should incline in that direction, I told M. Royer-Collard more
than once that I was glad of the reconciliation.

  [18] Dr. Andral was a son-in-law of M. Royer-Collard.

My children came to dinner with me and after they had gone I went to
bed. I might go into society if I pleased, or give receptions here,
but I have an invincible dislike to these functions, and the hour
during which I am at home to friends seems to me the longest in the
day. Our dear M. de Talleyrand, whose insight was so profound and who
spoke more truly of every one than I realised at the time, told me
very correctly that when my children were married I should fall out of
society. As a matter of fact I can no longer endure it. My priest, my
White Sisters, my garden, my poor people and my workmen, are enough
for me. What one knows as friends in society are quite uninteresting
compared with them. Madame de Maintenon said, "My friends interest me,
but my poor people touch my heart." I have often applied this phrase
to my own case and understand its meaning fully.

_Paris, April 16, 1841._--Yesterday the eldest daughter of the Duc de
Rohan-Chabot, with whom we are connected, was married to the Marquis
de Béthisy. It was a fine wedding, and all the high society of the
Faubourg Saint-Germain were there. I was invited to the celebration.
The Church of St. Thomas d'Aquin could hardly contain the crowd; the
throng in the sacristy was overwhelming; people were elbowing one
another on the steps, while the driving rain increased the confusion,
far from diminishing the haste of the visitors to return home. The
Abbé Dupanloup who daily baptizes, confesses, buries or marries some
one from our quarter, uttered a discourse which was somewhat long,
though it touched those who listened to it. But nearly every one was
thinking of such wholly mundane affairs as dress and display. At
Paris, and in our society, marriage is rarely an event of any
solemnity, and the words of the priest are the only serious utterances
amid the extreme frivolity, in which the marriage service can scarcely
be heard. It was a sight which evoked more than one sad reflection,
especially for those who remembered that in the same church the
evening before the last prayers were said over the coffin of the young
and beautiful Duchesse de Vallombrose.

_Paris, April 17, 1841._--Yesterday I took advantage of the kindness
of the Comte de Rambuteau, who offered me his box for the last
performance of Mlle. Mars. There was a crowded audience and every one
worth knowing was there, including the whole of the Royal Family.
Mlle. Mars exhausted all the artifices of her dress with surprising
success and all the resources of her talent with even greater success.
Her voice was in no need of training or study: it was always fresh and
perfectly modulated; if she would avoid parts that are too young for
her and change her style she might have continued on the boards for a
long time to come. Her farewell performance was a brilliant event and
she was overwhelmed with flowers and applause. The _Misanthrope_ was
disgracefully murdered by the poor company and Mlle. Mars alone
respected Molière. In _les Fausses Confidences_, there was more unity
and vigour and Mlle. Mars was a triumphant success.

_Paris, April 25, 1841._--M. Royer-Collard in the course of his last
visit but one to my house told me that he had some twenty of M. de
Talleyrand's letters which he would give me if I cared to have them. I
accepted his offer, as I am glad to have as many of M. de Talleyrand's
autographs as possible. He brought them to me the day before
yesterday; yesterday I read them through and some are excellent for
the gracious and studied simplicity which was peculiar to his style.
Among them I found what I had long been seeking for, though I had
never been able to put my hand upon it; a copy of the letter which M.
de Talleyrand wrote to Louis XVIII. when the memoirs of the Duc de
Rovigo on the subject of the Duc d'Enghien[19] appeared. I knew that
he had written it, but I had confused the dates and was under the
impression that this letter had been addressed to Lord Castlereagh
instead of to the King. M. de Talleyrand sent a copy of it to M. de
Royer-Collard, which copy I am now delighted to find again.

  [19] This letter from M. de Talleyrand to King Louis XVIII. and
  the reply sent to him by M. de Villèle in the King's name, may be
  found in the appendix of the third volume of the _Memoirs of the
  Prince de Talleyrand_.

M. de Villèle, who has not been at Paris since 1830 is now there. This
is an event for the Legitimist party. They are keenly anxious that he
should be reconciled to M. de Chateaubriand, and yet the two
gentlemen have not met hitherto, simply for the reason that neither of
them will make the first call, though both declare that they would be
delighted to see one another again and to forget the past.

_Paris, April 26, 1841._--Yesterday before the benediction I said
good-bye to all my good friends of the Sacré Coeur. All these ladies
are very proper and Madame de Gramont is quite an exceptional
personage for her cleverness, her kindness and her graciousness
combined with firmness. She is very kind to me and I am more at my
ease with her than with any society personage. The fact is that I am
out of touch with society and realise the fact daily; society not only
disgusts me but irritates and displeases me. I am disturbed, wounded
and agitated by it and go out less every day: the mental peace and
balance which I have recovered with such difficulty in my retirement
are lost here. I am dissatisfied with myself and by no means satisfied
even with those concerning whom I have no complaint to make.

_Paris, April 29, 1841._--Yesterday at the end of the morning I had an
infinite number of callers who came to say farewell and all seemed
equally tiresome; I can only make one exception in the case of the
good and excellent Russian Ambassador,[20] who proposes to spend part
of the summer at Carlsbad. His Sovereign is certainly not going to
Ems; it appears that the courts of St. Petersburg and of Berlin are
not upon good terms and that the King of Prussia sent his brother
William to be present at the wedding of the Hereditary Grand Duke
merely in order to avoid an open breach. The strained relations
between these two Courts are due to an opposition of commercial
interests, to the unpopularity of the Russians in Germany which the
Governments cannot overlook and especially to the behaviour of the
States in the Grand Duchy of Posen and to the liberty there granted
for the use of the Polish language. The Emperor Nicholas flew into a
temper and said that he might as well be living next to the Chamber of
French Deputies. These details are quite official. I have them from
the King himself whom I saw for a long time yesterday at his sister's
house, to whom I went to say good-bye. I found both of them much
disturbed by the sentence of acquittal pronounced a few days ago in
the notorious case of the false letters attributed to the King.[21]
The verdict is in fact wrong and unjust, for no one knows the
foolishness of these letters better than myself. On this occasion we
talked of many matters which prove that no one can ever write too
little, that hardly anything should be entrusted to paper and that
letters should above all be destroyed. I went home feeling really
terrified on this question.

  [20] Count Pahlen.

  [21] _See_ p. 15 (February 12, 1841). A judicial inquiry had been
  begun against M. de Montour, the manager of the newspaper _la
  France_, which had published the false letters. The matter was
  long delayed by the defence, and did not come before a jury until
  April 24. M. Berryer cleverly pleaded good faith on the part of
  M. de Montour, who had thought the letters authentic, though he
  had taken no pains to verify his belief. In the result the
  manager of _la France_ was acquitted by six votes to six.

_Paris, May 1, 1841._--Yesterday I called upon the Duchesse d'Orléans
to receive certain messages for Berlin. She showed me her two
children: the eldest, the Comte de Paris, is the very image of his
grandfather, the King, though he is shy and delicate; the second is
like his mother and seems to be livelier than his brother.

_Paris, May 3, 1841._--The weather has grown cooler in consequence of
a storm during the night, which fortunately did not break soon enough
to disturb the fireworks and the illuminations in honour of the
baptism of the young prince.[22] The ceremony at Notre Dame passed off
very well and was entirely noble and dignified. The little Prince was
delightful. Every one noticed the admirable bearing of the Duchesse
d'Orléans, her reverent bows and the care with which she crossed
herself after entering the church. I should like to have gone, and the
kindness of Madame Adélaïde had given me an excellent opportunity, but
I was anxious about my daughter and did not go, as I did not wish to
miss the doctor's visit.[23]

  [22] The Comte de Paris, born on August 24, 1838, was privately
  baptized at the Tuileries on his birthday. He was not admitted
  into the church until nearly three years later, when the ceremony
  took place at Notre Dame with great splendour.

  [23] The Marquise de Castellane was then seriously ill with
  quinsy, from the effects of which she suffered for a long time.

_Paris, May 5, 1841._--M. Bresson, who came to say good-bye yesterday,
seems destined to return to Madrid and is by no means pleased at the
prospect. He evidently expected to go to Vienna. The King proposes to
send Montebello to that capital, but M. Guizot, who is influenced by
Madame de Lieven, wishes Vienna to be given to M. de Flahaut. Rumours
are in wide circulation that Madame de Lieven is making the
appointments to ambassadorial posts, and there is a violent outcry
against her in the French diplomatic body.

Pauline is better, but not well enough to accompany me to Berlin. I am
sorry to leave her, and the long journey weighs upon my mind. It is
real isolation. I shall be truly glad when I find myself once more in
Touraine; I feel that my real home is there, where I have my strongest
interests, duties and a useful centre of work. Anywhere else I exist
but do not put out roots.

_Metz, May 6, 1841._--I am now far from Paris and regret nothing in it
except my daughter, and have no great hopes that my journey will be a
relaxation. I dread the annoyance of it and the wearing life of high
roads and inns.

_Mannheim, May 8, 1841._--I left Metz at midday, after a good rest. I
then came on here without stopping, arriving at ten o'clock in the
morning. I was not searched at the frontier, but a terrible storm in
the night almost made me lose courage. However, I literally made head
against the storm, and am now at Mannheim. The inevitable
Schreckenstein was waiting for me and wished to take me to the castle
where a room was ready for me. I declined, and think that I pleased
others as much as myself by so doing. After dressing I called upon the
Grand Duchess Stephanie who had placed a carriage at my disposal. She
looks better than she did at Umkirch when she was suffering from her
terrible illness, but she can hardly move her left arm and remains a
little lame. It is whispered that what she considers to be rheumatism
is something much more serious; the doctors wish to send her to
Wildbad; she talks quite as usual. Princess Marie has grown rather
heavy and is somewhat faded, not to any great extent, but there is no
prospect that she will marry.

I called upon Baroness Sturmfeder, who is outwardly a great lady, and
upon old Walsch, who was beguiling her old age with the _Charivari_,
the _Wasps_ and the _Ready Made News_, lampoons which are now
fashionable; from such sources she derives her ideas and her kindly
sentiments. After leaving the castle I was driven to the Duchess
Bernard of Saxe Weimar whom I had seen in England; her husband is the
loving and beloved uncle of the Duchess d'Orléans. This was a mark of
respect upon my part, the more advisable as I am bound to meet them
before long at dinner at the castle. I have now returned and am
resting until dinner-time, which is at half-past four.

Since leaving Paris I have been reading a great deal, first a novel by
Bulwer, _Night and Morning_; it is not uninteresting, but not equal to
the early works of the same writer; then a short but delightful book,
_The Letters of the Princesse de Condé_, sister of the last Duc de
Bourbon, who died in the Temple as a nun. These letters were written
in her youth to one who is still living, and of whom she was very
fond, and quite unselfishly so. This was M. Ballanche, the friend of
Madame Récamier, who published the letters without appearing as the
hero of them. They are authentic, marked by simplicity, tenderness and
loftiness of thought, full of devotion, delicacy, sentiment, reason
and courage, and written at a time and in a society when the author,
her style and her sentiments were quite exceptional. The book is most
delightful.[24] Finally I have a small work by Lord Jocelyn, now the
husband of Fanny Cowper, concerning the English campaign in China. I
was attracted by the author's name, but found the book quite

  [24] These letters are addressed to M. de La Gervaisais, a young
  Breton gentleman, an officer of carbineers of Monsieur's
  regiment. The Princesse de Condé had made his acquaintance in
  1786 at Bourbon l'Archambault, where she had been to take the
  waters, and her feeling for him was both deep and pure.

_Mannheim, May 9, 1841._--Yesterday I dined with the Grand Duchess,
who afterwards showed me over the castle, which I pretended to see for
the first time. She told me so many things that I can hardly remember
any of them. One point has remained in my mind, the fact that
Princess Sophia of Würtemberg, who married the Hereditary Prince of
the Low Countries, is on very bad terms with her mother-in-law, who
will not even see her son's children. This Queen has introduced the
strictest etiquette and an infinite variety of Court dress.

I also learnt that the King of Prussia had passed a law making divorce
very difficult in his states. It certainly was scandalously easy to
procure; but the Grand Duchess, who was expecting the divorce of
Prince Frederick of Prussia, was greatly vexed by this disappointment.
The fact is that poor Prince Frederick, whose wife is mad, ought to be
provided with some means of breaking so sad a tie. The first use he
would make of an opportunity would be to marry Princess Marie.

The Duchess of Weimar told me that her sister, the Dowager Queen of
England,[25] had lost the use of one of her lungs and that the other
was very delicate. The sight of the Duchess of Weimar reminded me of
London, Windsor and the best time of my life. Her likeness to her
sister, which extends even to her voice, though this was not their
best feature, quite overcame me, as it reminded me of those years that
are now so far away.

  [25] Queen Adelaide.

_Mannheim, May 10, 1841._--I am about to leave Mannheim after a very
kind reception. The poor Grand Duchess constantly talks of her death,
though this does not prevent her making many plans. I wish she could
realise her idea of marrying her daughter. She took me for a drive
yesterday along a pretty part of the bank of the Rhine. A port has
been made at Mannheim which attracts commerce and brings some life to
this town where life has long been dormant. On the whole, I think the
town preferable to Carlsruhe. I had a letter from my son-in-law
written the day after my departure from Paris. Pauline was going on
fairly well, though her nerves were still shaken and she was very
weak. He also says: "At the Prince's baptism the register was signed
in the following order: the King and his family, then the Cardinals,
the President and officials of the Chamber of Peers, then the
President of the Chamber of Deputies. Then came the turn of M. de
Salvandy, the vice-president, who publicly refused to sign on the
ground that the Chamber of Deputies should not be represented as
inferior to the Cardinals. He wishes to make a public matter of it,
which will produce a bad effect, the more so as the Chamber, with
reference to the law concerning secondary education, showed itself
quite unfavourable to the religious reaction which is obviously in
progress; moreover, such susceptibility might easily cause an
unpleasant outburst."

_Gelnhausen, May 11, 1841._--I travelled faster than I had thought
possible, and instead of sleeping at Frankfort as I had intended I
went ten leagues further, and am now lodged in a little inn which at
any rate is clean; this will allow me to reach Gotha to-morrow without
spending part of the night in my carriage. I had lunch at Darmstadt.
Frankfort aroused many memories as I passed through it, for it is a
town that I have crossed at different times, and in very different
circumstances. The first of these was the most important, for at
Frankfort I was married. Afterwards I saw my good friend Labouchère
there for the first time; he has often reminded me of the incident

The Grand Duchess Stephanie has given me a book which has just been
published at Stuttgart; obviously the publication was inspired by
Austria, for the documents which the book contains seem to me to come
from Vienna, and probably from the study of Prince Metternich or its
neighbourhood. This little volume contains notes in French by Gentz
upon several political questions, all treated in a spirit of great
opposition to France. Their publication at this moment and the
editor's preface seem to me to show that they have been produced with
a purpose. The most interesting part of the book to me is the journal
of Gentz kept during his stay at the Prussian headquarters the week
before the battle of Jena. He was a close observer and a lively
writer, and the result is quite interesting. There are also
commentaries upon a correspondence between Mr. Fox and M. de
Talleyrand at the time when the peace of Amiens was broken. The book
can certainly offer several forms of attraction.

_Gotha, May 12, 1841._--I had proposed to arrive here yesterday
evening but the outskirts of Fulda and Eisenach are so complicated
that I had to sleep at Eisenach, where I naturally dreamt of St.
Elizabeth. I am staying here for a few hours to see the Dowager
Duchess who was a great favourite of my mother and was quite vexed
with me last year because I left Germany without paying her a visit
here. Apart from this, my monotonous travels are proceeding without
incident and in fairly fine weather.

_Wittenberg, May 13, 1841._--The Dowager Duchess of Gotha received me
with the utmost kindness, asked me to dinner and hurriedly invited
five or six people from the town who had known me in my youth. She
dines at three o'clock and at six o'clock I asked leave to continue my
journey. I would have stayed longer if the poor duchess had not grown
so deaf that the honour of replying to her questions was literally
exhausting. I preferred to spend the night in my carriage, for if I
had slept at Gotha, I should certainly have had to spend the evening
at the Castle. I am therefore going to take my rest here that I may
not reach Berlin entirely exhausted. I have borne the journey very
well so far and my little halt at Mannheim was a pleasant interruption
to the monotony of my life on wheels.

For the last two days I have been reading a life of Queen Blanche of
Castile by a certain lady whose work was well reviewed; the facts are
interesting but the style is poor and the tone of the work is very
anti-Catholic. While I am reading I cannot help conducting a silent
course of refutation against the author; silence is very appropriate
here at Wittenberg, the old cradle of the Reformation. From the
convent of the Augustine monks, the ruins of which are now before my
eyes, Luther launched his first firebrand, and he was buried in the
church by the side of the inn.

_Berlin, May 15, 1841._--I arrived here yesterday evening but have
seen no one yet except my business man, Herr von Wolff. At midday I
called upon the Countess of Reede, the Queen's chief lady and an old
friend of my mother, and then upon the chief lady of the Princess of
Prussia, to deliver the numerous parcels which the Duchesse d'Orléans
had asked me to take to this Princess. I then went to the Werthers, to
Countess Pauline Neale and Madame de Perponcher and I found no one at

_Berlin, May 16, 1841._--No one would guess who gave me his arm to the
mass from which I have just come. It was Peter von Arenberg who has
come to ask that his property on the right bank of the Rhine should be
made an hereditary fief for one of his sons.

_Berlin, May 17, 1841._--To-day is a day of sad and grievous memories,
being the third anniversary of the death of our dear M. de Talleyrand.
It is a day which always arouses many recollections and I am sure that
these will not be without their influence upon others. I wish I could
spend it in quiet thought, but that is impossible here.

Yesterday was an unusually busy day for me and I am quite wearied.
Mass was followed by the necessary calls upon the great ladies of the
country; dinner with the Wolffs; tea with Princess William, the King's
aunt; a _prima sera_ with the Radziwills; while I spent the latter
part of the evening with the old Prince of Wittgenstein. Besides all
this I had a long call from Humboldt who is starting for Paris in a
few days. It was impossible to breathe. The worst part of it is that
everything here begins so early and that the day is divided in an
unusual and very disagreeable manner.

_Berlin, May 18, 1841._--Yesterday I dined with the King and Queen who
had come to spend a few hours in town. They were both most kind and
pleasant. I saw Prince Frederick arrive from Dusseldorf, who is also
one of the old acquaintances of my youth. He still looks surprisingly
young. His wife is expected here; she seems to have become totally

I heard yesterday, while dining with the King, that one of the
unfortunate Infantas of Spain whom their mother so cruelly placed in a
convent, had escaped with a Polish refugee, but had been caught at
Brussels; a fine escapade for a princess! It seems impossible to
repress Spanish blood at the age of twenty. The King also said that
Espartero had been proclaimed sole regent and dictator in Spain.

_Berlin, May 20, 1841 (Ascension Day)._--Yesterday I went from Berlin
to Potsdam by the first train. The King had asked me to be present at
a great parade. It was a fine spectacle. The weather was propitious,
the troops splendid, and the music magnificent, but the day was
somewhat fatiguing.

The day before yesterday I dined with the Princess of Prussia and in
the evening I went to a rout given by Countess Nostitz, the sister of
Count Hatzfeldt. All that I have to do is to go about, to show good
temper, kindliness and gratitude for my many kind receptions; at the
same time, when I can return to my idle life I shall be delighted.

_Berlin, May 21, 1841._--There is a great monotony about life here;
dinners with princes, etc. Yesterday I dined with Princess Charles,
after spending an hour with the Princess of Prussia, whose
conversation is lofty and serious. In the evening I spent some time by
the arm-chair of the old Countess of Reede and with her daughter
Perponcher. I was then obliged to show myself at the Werthers, who are
at home on Thursdays.

_Berlin, May 22, 1841._--Yesterday evening I went to the Wolffs to
meet various learned men, artists and literary people. At Berlin the
upper-middle-class society provides the pleasantest opportunities for

The present King has great ideas for adorning his capital, and is
giving a remarkable stimulus to Art.

Life proceeds much as usual. Yesterday I dined with Princess William
the aunt, and spent the first part of the evening with the Princess of
Prussia and the latter part of it with Madame de Perponcher, where a
distinguished artist, Hensel, showed us his sketch-book, which was
full of strange portraits. The heat was unusual.

Princess Frederick of Dusseldorf, who is not quite right in her head
at times, was dining with Princess William. She must have been rather
pretty, and there is nothing unusual about her.

Pauline writes from Paris that she is going to Geneva for change of
air and to try her strength, and that if she feels better, she will
travel through Bavaria and meet me at Vienna.

I am returning this morning to Potsdam, where I have promised to spend
the day, and shall come back to-morrow. How pleasant it would be to
find myself once more in my little manor house at Touraine.

_Berlin, May 24, 1841._--As the evening party at Potsdam was over at
ten o'clock, I was able to return here in the evening by the last
train, after spending the day with the Queen. She improves greatly
upon close acquaintance, as is usually the case with persons who are
simple and somewhat reserved. We had a pleasant drive in the evening,
and an interesting conversation at tea-time under the portico of the
Charlottenhof, when the King talked much upon the state of Art in

_Berlin, May 25, 1841._--Yesterday I went to the manœuvres with the
Princess of Prussia, her young son and Princess Charles. The King's
staff was most brilliant, our position was excellent, the weather was
perfect, and the sight of the troops, of the spectators who had come
from the town in crowds, of the ladies' carriages, and in short of the
whole gathering, made the subject worthy of the brush of Horace
Vernet; nor did the business last long, an hour and not more. The
Princess of Prussia took me back to lunch with her and kept me talking
almost until dinner-time. Madame Perponcher came to fetch me to dine
near her mother's chair, as her gout still keeps her somewhat of a
prisoner. I then went to the Radziwills to the jubilee festival of the
Academy of Singing. The Academy is composed of four hundred and fifty
members, amateurs of every class: by their rules they are not allowed
to use any instrument but a piano and may perform only sacred music.
The institution thus resembles the Ancient Music at London, but the
performance here was infinitely better, and was marked by a unity, an
accuracy and a majesty truly remarkable. None but Germans could thus
sing the most complicated fugues without the help of an orchestra and
with such tremendous tone.

I then went to an evening reception given by the Countess Neale, where
Lord William Russell told me that his Ministry had suffered a heavy
defeat in Parliament, but he did not seem to think they would resign.
He told me that poor Mitford, whom I recently met unexpectedly as he
was leaving the diligence at Fulda to meet his wife at Wiesbaden,
found that she had deserted him with Francis Molyneux of all people.
She is not very young or very beautiful, and she has several children.

My son, Valençay, writes that the races at Chantilly were most
brilliant and fashionable. He stayed at the Château, and is loud in
his praises. He says that the Infanta who was caught and brought back,
is now staying with Madame Duchâtel, the wife of the Minister of the
Interior, as she positively refuses to return to her mother, whom she
fears would beat her. She persists in saying that she married the
Pole, but refuses to disclose the name of the priest who married them.

_Berlin, May 26, 1841._--The old King of the Low Countries, who is
here incognito as the Comte de Nassau, is in very bad health, and is
said to be attacked by senile gangrene. His wife,[26] who is very
kindly treated by the Prussian Royal Family, takes great care of the
King who cannot do without her for a moment. She never leaves his
side. People say that she is really very bored and disgusted by this
illustrious marriage which Holland will not recognise in spite of the
old King's fury. The refusal to give recognition in Holland is based
upon the fact that the marriage banns were not published, nor did any
one venture to publish them, as the most violent public demonstrations
were feared.

  [26] The Comtesse d'Oultremont.

Yesterday morning I accompanied the Wolffs and Herr von Olfers, the
Director of the School of Fine Arts, to the studio of Wichmann, to
whom I had given an order to copy a charming model that I had seen of
a nymph drawing water. It will be finished in a year.

The Prince of Prussia paid me a long and interesting visit. He talked
a great deal about the state of the country and the difficulty of
government. Difficulties there certainly are, but there is also here a
solid basis on which to rest.

_Berlin, May 28, 1841._--Yesterday morning was spent with Herr von
Wolff discussing business. Our conversation was interrupted by the
Court High Marshal, who brought me a very touching present from the
King. It is a copy in iron of a statue which I had admired last year
at Charlottenhof; a young faun upon a pillar in the midst of a basin
pouring water out of an urn upon which he is crouched. The whole work
is six feet high and very pretty. The King told me that he would ask
me to have it placed upon one of the terraces of Rochecotte, which
shall certainly be done.

I dined with Princess Albert. Her father is better, and she is
starting with him shortly for Silesia. Her husband wearied me, and she
herself is like a colt broken loose. In fact the whole household was
not to my taste. Herr and Frau von Redern, who were also dining there,
took me to their box to hear Seidelmann in the part of the Jew.[27] He
is now the fashionable actor, but he compares unfavourably with my
recollections of Iffland.

  [27] In Shakspere's _Merchant of Venice_.

_Berlin, May 30, 1841._--The Radziwills most kindly arranged a musical
matinée at their house in a pretty vaulted room opening on to their
splendid garden. Goethe's _Faust_ was performed which had been set to
music by the late Prince Radziwill, the father of the present
generation. Devrient, the first tragedian from the Berlin theatre,
declaimed certain passages to musical accompaniments, and a large body
from the Conservatoire gave the choruses. The general effect was
excellent and gave me real pleasure.[28]

  [28] Prince Anton Radziwill had been sent to Göttingen to
  conclude his studies, and while he was then staying in Germany in
  1794, he made the acquaintance of Goethe, who was already working
  at the first part of _Faust_. Prince Radziwill was profoundly
  attracted by the beauty of this work, and as he was himself a
  most enthusiastic musician he undertook to put certain scenes of
  the great poet's creation to music, and completed the work of
  composition by degrees. The Prince was on terms of personal
  intimacy with Goethe, who slightly modified the garden scene
  between Faust and Margaret at his request. The first performance
  of _Faust_ with Prince Radziwill's music was given at Berlin in
  1819, at the Palace Theatre of Monbijou, before the whole of the
  Prussian court. The Berlin Academy of Music, to which the Prince
  presented his work, has performed it almost annually since that

_Berlin, May 31, 1841._--I propose to leave here to-morrow for Dresden
and to proceed thence to Vienna.

Yesterday I went to the High Mass of Pentecost which was very well
performed and sung in the Catholic church, but the church was so
crowded and the heat so suffocating that I thought I should be ill.
However, on leaving Mass I had to appear at the farewell audiences of
the Princess of Prussia and of Princess Charles, and then to dine with
an old friend. While we were at table I received an invitation to go
to tea at Schönhausen, the summer residence of the King, two leagues
from Berlin. I was fortunately able to reach Schönhausen in time, and
after tea I stayed on to supper which was served in the open air under
a verandah lighted by lamps. Apart from the Royal Family and the
officials on duty there were the Duke and Duchess of Leuchtenberg,
Herr von Arenberg, myself, Rauch, Thorwaldsen and the chief director
of the museum, Herr von Olfers. It was an agreeable and interesting
party. Thorwaldsen has a fine head resembling that of Cuvier, but he
wears his hair in a strange manner, long white locks falling over his
shoulders. I prefer the features of Rauch which are better
proportioned, and in my opinion nobler and simpler. The Duchess Marie
of Leuchtenberg is extremely like her father, the Emperor Nicholas,
though with a very different expression: her head is classical in
form, but too long for her body which is small; she is as white as a
lily, but her finical and fantastic manners did not charm me. The
Queen had mentioned me to her, and the King introduced me to the Duke
of Leuchtenberg, who is strikingly like his sister, the Duchess of
Braganza, though his general appearance is common and does not justify
the marriage he has made. At Schönhausen I paid my last farewells.

_Dresden, June 2, 1841._--The day before yesterday I left Berlin
overwhelmed and spoilt with kindness, but wearied by the dreadful
heat. The Baron von Werther whom I saw on my last day at Berlin, told
me he feared that M. Bresson had not been entirely happy during the
last years of his stay; that his speech had caused much displeasure
and inspired great distrust; that he was ill-informed if he thought
the contrary; and that all his reliable sources of information had
been closed since the death of the old King. The Princess of Prussia
and Madame Perponcher spoke to the same effect. I also learnt that
when the treaty of July 15 was made known here, M. Bresson committed
an inconceivable outburst, drove down the _Unter den Linden_ and
shouted war in the wildest manner. I am really sorry that he should
re-enter upon a position that he has spoilt.

_Dresden, June 3, 1841._--Yesterday evening I went to the theatre to
see the new auditorium which has a great reputation throughout
Germany. It is, in fact, of considerable size, pretty and well
decorated. The boxes are convenient, the seats comfortable and there
is an air of grandeur about the whole. The decorations are fresh, the
costumes brilliant and the orchestra good, but the singers so bad that
I could only stay for half an hour.

_Prague, June 5, 1841._--Prague is not without interest for me. I
there spent the year of mourning for my father with my mother and
sisters and afterwards revisited the town upon two occasions shortly
after the Congress of Vienna. I have been spending to-day there and
think I have driven round to every object of interest: the chief
churches, the tomb of Tycho Brahé and his observatory; all the
offerings in honour of St. John Nepomucenos, his relics, the old
castle, the Calvary from whence Prague is to be seen as a panorama;
Wallenstein's war horse, which has been stuffed, and the various
traces of the Hussite war and of the Thirty Years War; the bombs
thrown by Frederick II.; the chapel where Charles X. prayed twice a
day and which was restored by him, bears the arms of France and of
Navarre. Prague, like Nuremburg, is one of the oldest towns in
Germany: the latter may be more interesting to artists, but the former
is more attractive to the archaeologist, and I am one of the latter
class. Prague contains sixteen convents, every class of monk is to be
found there, and though upon a much larger scale it reminds me of
Friburg in Switzerland. Especially characteristic are the large
residences, almost all kept by the great Bohemian lords who own them
and who are generally deserting Prague in favour of Vienna. I was
curious enough to look in at the theatre of the Leopold Stadt to see a
local farce played by a Vienna company. The auditorium which was by no
means beautiful, was crowded and the laughter was loud and long; I
stayed only a short time as it was too hot and the Vienna lazzi are
not to my taste. I do not understand them.

_Vienna, June 8, 1841._--I had a most unpleasant journey from Prague
hither. The weather had broken: it was cold, stormy, and damp; I spent
the first night in my carriage and the second in a small inn,
eventually arriving here at three o'clock this afternoon. I am staying
in rooms which my sisters had engaged for me. I have already seen my
quondam brother-in-law, the Count of Schulenburg, whom I shall make my
major-domo, for which position he is exactly suited.

It is strange to be once more at Vienna.[29] The whole of my destiny
is contained in the name of this city, and here my life of devotion to
M. de Talleyrand began and that strange and unusual association was
formed which could only be broken by death, though broken is the wrong
word; I should have said interrupted, for I have constantly felt
during the past year that we shall meet elsewhere. At Vienna I entered
upon that troublesome and attractive life of publicity which rather
wearies than flatters me. I found much amusement here and many
occasions for tears: my life became complicated and I was involved in
the storms which have so long roared about me. Of the many who turned
my head and provided me with amusement and excitement, none remain.
Old and young, men and women, all have disappeared; indeed the whole
world has undergone two changes since that time. My poor sister with
whom I was to live, is also dead. Prince Metternich alone remains; he
has sent me very pleasant messages and I shall probably see him

  [29] The author had accompanied the Prince de Talleyrand to
  Vienna for the Congress of 1815, and the Prince refers to the
  incident in his Memoirs as follows: "I also thought that it was
  necessary to destroy the hostile prejudice with which imperial
  France had inspired the high and influential society of Vienna;
  for this purpose the French Embassy must be made a social centre.
  I therefore asked my niece, the Comtesse Edmond de Périgord, to
  accompany me and do the honours of my house. Her readiness and
  tact caused general satisfaction, and were highly useful to me."
  (Vol. II. p. 208.)

I doubt if I shall sleep to-night; I am greatly disturbed by the
ghosts which haunt these scenes and which all speak with one voice of
the vanity of the things of this world.

_Vienna, June 10, 1841._--The choice of M. de Flahaut as French
ambassador here, which recent news from Paris represents as
increasingly possible, has aroused general dissatisfaction. Madame de
Flahaut wrote to Lord Beauvale, the English ambassador, to try and
disarm this opposition and said that people need not be afraid of her
husband's appointment as she would not be able to follow him for a
long time. This is certainly an unusual method of seeking popularity.

I went back to my house yesterday at two o'clock in the afternoon to
await Prince Metternich who had sent word to say that he would come at
that time. He kept his appointment and I did not find him greatly
changed. It is a real pleasure to see him again and to find him in
possession of all his freshness of mind, his power of judgment, his
wide knowledge of men and affairs and his genial kindness to myself
which has never varied. He stayed for two hours upon which I look back
with great pleasure. As a rule he never pays personal visits. His wife
sent to say that she would have come if she had not been afraid of
wearying me, as she was extremely anxious to make my acquaintance. No
one could have been kinder; I am dining with them to-day in their
suburban villa where they are spending the spring.

I hear that Schlegel, the platonic admirer of Madame de Staël, is at
Berlin to help in the publication of the works of Frederick the Great.
M. Thiers was expected there and I am glad to have missed him. It has
been decided to receive him as a member of the Academy and as a
historian, but not as a politician and certainly not as a statesman.
Meanwhile M. Guizot seems to be taking walks with the Princess de
Lieven at nine o'clock in the morning in the gardens of the Tuileries,
which is their mode of observing nature.

I found that Marshal Marmont had called when I came home yesterday
evening. I had seen him from a distance at the opera.

_Vienna, June 11, 1841._--Yesterday I dined with Prince Metternich. He
has a pretty house like a small edition of Neuilly, and has collected
many artistic objects which are tastefully interspersed with fine
flowers and many other things without any appearance of overcrowding.
There were at dinner, apart from the master and mistress of the house,
only the unmarried daughter of his first marriage, my sisters, the
Louis Saint-Aulaire, husband and wife, and the two Herren von Hügel,
who are constant visitors at the house. Princess Metternich is very
pretty, quite natural and attractive, an original character; and as
she was kind enough to be anxious to please me, she naturally
succeeded without difficulty. After dinner I called upon some members
of the Hohenzollern family who are here, and finally went to tea with
an old friend of my sisters'. There were a dozen people present who
were all unknown to me apart from Prince Windisch-Graetz, a Count
O'Donnel, a survivor of the Hotel de Ligne, and Marshal Marmont, who
did not seem to have changed.

_Vienna, June 12, 1841._--Yesterday morning I went with my sisters to
call upon their great friend Princess Amelia of Sweden, at whose house
I met her sister, the Grand Duchess of Oldenberg; she is going to
Munich with her husband to see the Queen of Greece, who has come there
in the course of a tour. I then called upon a Polish lady whom I had
known long ago at the house of Princess Tyszkiewicz at Paris, whose
niece she was. She was then called Madame Sobánska and enjoyed a
certain reputation. I found her considerably changed; she is a person
of wit and some beauty, but is rather spiteful and a gossip--a
character to be feared. I had hardly returned from these calls when
Marshal Marmont came in. He talked a great deal of his anxiety to
return to France, but I think pecuniary rather than political reasons
are the hindrance. He spends his life here at the French Embassy.

_Vienna, June 14, 1841._--Yesterday I went to hear mass at the Church
of the Capuchins, with the intention of afterwards seeing Father
Francis, who was with my sister in her last moments. I was anxious to
learn from him some details on the subject of religion which my other
sisters could not give me. I found him a pleasant and clever man, who
seemed to conceal beneath his mendicant friar's dress a considerable
knowledge of the world and a considerable power of making his way in
it. He is said to be the director here of all whose consciences are
divided between God and the world, a difficult task in which success
is not easy.

_Vienna, June 15, 1841._--Louis de Sainte-Aulaire came to see me
yesterday morning. He told me that the illness of Marshal Soult to
which the newspapers refer, is not so much connected with the law
concerning recruiting, against which the Duc d'Orléans publicly voted,
as due to an outbreak of paternal rage. He regards the nomination of
M. de Flahaut to Vienna as a slight upon his son; he threatened to
resign, and it is not yet known whether M. de Flahaut will have the
honour of dislocating the Cabinet or whether he will be obliged to
abandon Vienna. M. Bresson has started from Paris for Berlin in a very
bad temper.

_Vienna, June 16, 1841._--Yesterday I had a letter from Madame de
Lieven from Paris; she writes as follows: "Marshal Soult has caused a
small municipal crisis. The Duc d'Orléans voted against him upon the
recruiting law: the Marshal's views were rejected and he was extremely
angry; the result being a fit of palpitations with a possibility of an
apoplectic stroke; hence the threat to resign. It is very doubtful
whether he can be appeased, and his wife is most anxious about his
health. It is a great perplexity, as the two positions which he
occupied will have to be filled. M. Guizot has resolved not to become
President of the Council; however, there is some hope that the
Marshal will remain in office. In England there is a far more serious
crisis. Parliament will be probably be dissolved to-morrow, but the
electoral outlook is doubtful. Possibly a House of Commons may be
returned similar to the House now to be dissolved, in which case it
will be impossible for any one to govern the country. Meanwhile much
agitation prevails. The Eastern Question is by no means settled; on
the contrary, Turkey grows daily more disturbed.

"Lady Jersey is anxious for her daughter to marry Nicholas Esterhazy.
The young people are extremely fond of one another. Paul Esterhazy is
trying to get out of the matter which is difficult.

"The Prince de Joinville was most warmly received at the Hague. The
King and Queen overwhelmed him with marks of violence. What impression
will this make at St. Petersburg?

"M. de Flahaut has been nominated as Ambassador to Vienna. The
proposal has been accepted but with no great warmth. In any case there
can be no further changes or nominations, for the London post remains
vacant, as Lord Palmerston will not conclude the eastern problem, and
nothing will be done until Sainte Aulaire has gone to London."

_Vienna, June 17, 1841._--Charles de Talleyrand came yesterday to tell
me the latest news from Paris. Marshal Soult's quarrel has been
settled: he will remain in office, and his son-in-law will go to Rome
as ambassador; the Marshal is to receive 600,000 francs in payment of
some loan which he professes to have made to the State. The
Turko-Egyptian business is settled: the act will be ratified and sent
to Alexandria, and the five Courts will meet at London if they have
not already come to an agreement.

_Vienna, June 18, 1841._--Yesterday evening I went to hear a German
tragedy and then to tea with Prince Metternich. At the end of the
evening the Prince began to talk over a round table, and was most kind
and interesting. Except on Sundays when they are at home he sees very
little society, and his house in my opinion is the pleasanter in
consequence. Marshal Marmont is there every day.

_Vienna, June 19, 1841._--Yesterday I went with my sisters to visit
the Imperial Picture Gallery. I am surprised that it is not better
known, for it contains some most beautiful works. It lies outside the
town in a palace called the Belvedere, which was built by Prince
Eugène of Savoy. The interior is very handsome.

I dined at the house of Princess Paul Esterhazy and with Prince and
Princess Metternich and their daughter, Prince Wenzel, Lichtenstein,
Schulenburg, Lord Rokeby, Count Haugwitz and Baron von Hügel. Princess
Esterhazy was very amusing with her fear of Lady Jersey as
mother-in-law. The marriage, however, has not been definitely settled.

_Vienna, June 21, 1841._--I am delighted to hear that you like
Fenelon's Letters.[30] They explain everything in a form which
illustrates the faithful and courageous devotion paid to this kindly
and holy Archbishop by the courtiers of the great King. He is able to
give a charm and a grandeur to religion, to make it at once simple and
attractive by its loftiness. If to read the story with his intercourse
with his friends does not produce conversion, at any rate no one can
fail to derive from it a love of goodness, of beauty, and a desire to
lead a better life as a prelude to a good death.

  [30] Extract from a letter.

The _History of Port Royal_ by Sainte-Beuve is certainly interesting.
It is a great subject, but treated in a style which is neither
sufficiently serious nor simple, and cannot worthily represent the
austere and imposing figures of Jansenism.

_Vienna, June 25, 1841._--I propose to start next Wednesday and from
Prague to take the road which will bring me back to my nieces in
Saxony; from thence I shall go by Lusatia to upper Silesia to see my
sister Hohenzollern who will be there at that time, and shall
afterwards go to my own property at Wartenberg where I hope to be on
July 26.

_Vienna, June 26, 1841._--Yesterday I dined with Prince Metternich;
only the family were present. I went on to the theatre and afterwards
to the _Volksgarten_, a kind of Tivoli, where Strauss plays his
waltzes, where Styrians sing and all the good or bad society of Vienna
meets during this season. My sisters who were with me, then took me to
their house where we had tea.

Lord Palmerston rouses much discontent as he continually raises some
new obstacle when the Egyptian question is at the point of conclusion.
His conduct is strangely tactless. All kinds of conjectures are in the
air and much exasperation was displayed where I was dining yesterday.

_Vienna, June 28, 1841._--The weather here yesterday was most
remarkable: after midday a violent wind arose which raised clouds of
dust, completely shrouding the town and suburbs; the burning wind was
a real sirocco which withered and exhausted every one.

I went to mass at the Capuchin church to say goodbye to Father Francis
who gave me his blessing. I then returned home to wait for Marshal
Marmont who had asked permission to read me forty pages from the
manuscript of his memoirs which he has devoted to justifying his
conduct during July 1830. I was unable to refuse. I learnt nothing
particularly fresh, as I knew all the remarkable facts which clearly
prove that the imbecility of the Government was incomparable and that
the Marshal was very unfortunate in being called to conduct a business
both ill-devised and ill-prepared; so he needed no justification in my
eyes, but I was interested to hear full details of the scene with the
Dauphin, of which I knew nothing and the words and gestures of which
pass the powers of imagination.[31] The reading was interrupted by
various reflections and was further prolonged for the reason that the
Marshal reads slowly and continually stammers and hums and haws. His
delivery is extremely laboured.

  [31] This lamentable scene, the sad event which marked the last
  evening which Charles X. and the Dauphin spent at Saint-Cloud, is
  related at length in the memoirs of the Duc de Raguse, to which
  reference is here made (Vol. VIII. Book XXIV.), and is partly
  reproduced in a book by M. Imbert de Saint-Amand, entitled The
  _Duchesse de Berry and the Revolution of 1830_, which appeared in

I then went with my brother-in-law, Schulenberg, to dine with the
Countess Nandine Karolyi at Hitzinger, a village near Schönbrunn. I
was by no means anxious to go but as she had been so kind as to ask
me, I could not refuse. She lives in one half of a charming cottage
which belongs to Charles von Hügel, the traveller whose infatuation
for Princess Metternich drove him to spend seven years in the East. On
his return he built this house and has filled it with curiosities from
India. He lives in one half of the house and Nandine in the other. It
is prettily situated, surrounded with flowers and looks quite English.
I was by no means delighted with the dinner. The mistress of the house
is eccentric, an exaggeration of the Vienna type, and the gentlemen
about her corresponded. I went away as soon as possible and spent an
hour in farewell talk with Princess Louise of Schönburg.

_Vienna, June 29, 1841._--Yesterday at night-fall I went with my
sisters, Schulenberg and Count Haugwitz to the Volksgarten where the
whole of Vienna does its best to enjoy the dew amid clouds of tobacco
smoke. Fireworks and Strauss were the amusements provided. One
positive refreshment was the ices, of which an enormous quantity
seemed to be consumed. The population of Vienna are quiet,
well-dressed, entirely respectable and very mixed, for in these
amusements the aristocracy take part. There was no sign of a
policeman, nor were any needed.

_Vienna, June 30, 1841._--I am leaving Vienna this evening. The heat
continues to be extreme and will make my journey very unpleasant. I
shall not send off this letter until I reach Dresden; correspondence
is more certain outside the Austrian states. I do not mind people
reading my expressions of affections, but my impressions and opinions
are another matter. I trust therefore that I have been prudent in this
respect during my stay here.

_Tabor, July 1, 1841._--I left Vienna yesterday at seven o'clock in
the evening. In the afternoon I had a visit from Prince Metternich. He
was kind and confidential, and the idea that he has deteriorated is
quite wrong. Perhaps he expresses himself more slowly and vaguely
than he used to do, but his ideas are in no way confused, his opinions
are firm and decided, he remains moderate and gentle in temper, and in
short is entirely himself. He strongly advised me to return by way of
Johannisberg, whither he will go from Königswart in the month of
August and stay until September. His wife urged me to do the same and
showed me the utmost kindness. Her beauty strongly appeals to me,
though it is a style often spoilt by harshness of voice, common
manners or vulgar language. She is generally disliked at Vienna to my
astonishment, for I think she is good-hearted though unpolished.
Several people kindly came to say good-bye at the last moment. My
sisters, with Schulenburg and Count Maurice Esterhazy, who is the
smallest and liveliest of the family, accompanied me two leagues
beyond Vienna, where my travelling carriage was waiting for me. Count
Esterhazy is the same who was at Paris; he was afterwards attached to
the Austrian embassy at Berlin, where I last saw him. This post he
left a few days before I came to Vienna, as he is going to Italy,
where his mother is now lying ill. He is a close friend of my
sisters', somewhat malicious like all very small men, but a pleasant
talker and far more civilised and in better taste than people
generally are at Vienna, especially the men, who are usually very
ignorant. On the whole I prefer Berlin to Vienna society. At Vienna
people are richer and more high and mighty and their naturalness is
affected: at Berlin I admit there is more affectation, but there is
much more culture and intellectualism. Life at Vienna is extremely
free and easy: people do anything they please without being regarded
as eccentric, but though no one is surprised at his neighbour's doings
slander is as commonly current as elsewhere, and I am ready to assert
that a false good nature of a very dangerous kind is prevalent. At
Berlin life is more formal and more attention is paid to a certain
decorum: the consequence is some stiffness, but words are more
carefully weighed, and as there is less reason for backbiting there is
more real kindliness. Personally I have nothing but praise for the
hospitality of either town and remain entirely grateful to them both.
I was especially struck at Vienna by the manner in which men and women
commonly address one another by their baptismal names; however slight
acquaintanceship is, provided people belong to the same clique, family
names disappear, and to use them is thought a mark of bad taste. Women
are constantly kissing one another and invariably upon the lips, which
I think horrible. Men continually kiss ladies' hands, and at first
sight society seems to be composed of brothers and sisters. Perhaps
twenty people in speaking to me or in reference to me would say
"Dorothea;" those less familiar would say "Duchess Dorothea;" the most
formal would use the term "dear Duchess," but no one would say
"Madame" or "Madame la Duchesse." I am astonished that anything
remains of my hands; and my cheeks, which I try to substitute for my
lips, have suffered a perfect martyrdom. The coquetry of the women at
Vienna is obvious, nor is any attempt made to disguise it, though the
churches are full and the confessionals besieged; but there is no
appearance of real devotion, and the sincere and active faith of the
Royal Family has no influence upon society, which displays its
independence by habitual opposition to the Court.

_Dresden, July 3, 1841._--I have now returned to my starting point of
a month ago. I came here from Tabor without stopping, except for
dinner at Prague and for lunch this morning at Teplitz. I am never
wearied by the country between Teplitz and Dresden. It is Saxony in
all its beauty, rich and smiling and pleasantly united to the strength
and wildness of Bohemia. It is the only picturesque part of the
journey between Vienna and Dresden apart from Prague and its

At the gates of Teplitz I saw a procession of pilgrims descending from
a chapel upon a hill with rosaries in their hands, singing psalms; it
was a touching sight and I should like to have gone up to worship in
my turn but the approach of a storm obliged me to continue my journey
without stopping.

I am reading the _History of the Life, the Writings and the_
_Doctrine of Luther_ by M. Audin. It is the most learned, impartial,
interesting and Catholic study of the subject that I have come across.
As I left Vienna I finished the _Life of the Saint Dominic_ by the
Abbé Lacordaire, which is written with a view to effect and pleased me
only moderately.

I hear in the inn that M. Thiers has been expected for the last three
days. I hope he will not arrive until after my departure to-morrow. I
propose to reach Königsbruck this evening and to stay a few days with
my nieces.

_Königsbruck, July 5, 1841._--I reached here yesterday at five
o'clock. At Dresden I had a call from Duke Bernard of Saxe Weimar who
was staying in the same hotel as myself. He was coming from Berlin
where he had been spending a fortnight with his niece, the Princess of

In the same hotel I also met Countess Strogonoff, formerly Countess
Ega, whom I had seen last year at Baden and who then pleased me
greatly. She told me that as soon as I had left Baden, Madame de
Nesselrode spent every evening until she started for Paris at the
public gaming-table, playing Benacet, opposite the old Elector of
Hesse, and that she lost or won during the evening with the same
imperturbable calmness the twenty louis which she had made her limit.
What a strange person!

At Dresden during mass I saw the widow of Prince Maximilian of Saxony,
who had returned from Rome where she married her chamberlain, a
certain Count Rossi, a cousin of the husband of Fraulein Sontag. She
is obliged to return to Dresden from time to time under the terms of
her marriage settlement. Her husband accompanies her and continues to
act as chamberlain. She seems to me to be neither young nor pretty,
well made nor fashionable; he is a tall man with an imperial beard and
the air peculiar to the husband of a princess.

I also found here the Count of Hohenthal, his wife and Fanny, my two
nieces, who received me most affectionately and were full of their
travels in Italy. The weather is beautiful and the peace and silence
of the country are delightful. I have also found letters from Paris.
M. Molé writes four pages which seem to contain no news except that
Madame de Lieven reigns and governs at Paris, to say the least of her.

The Duchesse d'Albuféra tells me that the Princesse de Lieven is
giving little musical evenings to bring out her niece, Countess
Annette Apponyi. The princesse is resuming all the tastes of her youth
and happiness. It will be fortunate if the powers of M. Guizot would
also revive the destinies of France and make them flourish.

The Duchesse de Montmorency writes to say that the Vicomtesse de
Chateaubriand has gone to take up her duties with the Duchesse de
Berry. Would any one have suspected that she was a court lady? She has
sought this distinction long ago. She took with her the nurse of the
Duc de Bordeaux, the one who was only able to nurse him for three
days. It is a strange journey and I do not understand the meaning of

The Duc de Noailles writes to say that in view of Eastern events
brought about by the successive revolt of the provinces, a movement at
Paris is being prepared similar to that which took place to meet the
case of Greece some years ago. A committee is being formed for the
relief, that is to say, for the revolt of the Christian populations in
the East. This committee is composed of men from the Left and the
Centre; the Legitimists have been asked to join and have been offered
the presidency which would be given to the Duc de Noailles himself.
The question has been complicated by the Royalist party which also
wished to act in the same direction but tactlessly began upon too
small a scale.

My son, M. de Dino, informs me that a recent decree issued by the
Archbishop of Paris, orders that there are to be no doors in the
middle of the confessionals. This is said to be thought very
ridiculous. It is a somewhat humiliating precaution for the clergy and
is also quite superfluous, for the sides of the confessional boxes are
shut in so that the penitents and the confessors are always separated
and when the middle is closed the confessor can listen to the
penitents without distraction. Mgr. Affre can devise nothing that is
not ridiculous.

_Königsbruck, July 6, 1841._--I am grieved to hear the news which has
just reached me of the death of the Queen of Hanover;[32] another
figure of my London life thus disappears.

  [32] The Queen of Hanover was the Duchess of Cumberland, by birth
  a Princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She died on June 29, after
  suffering for three months from a form of consumption.

The Duchesse d'Albuféra writes that the Princesse de Lieven is leading
quite a pastoral life in her little house at Beauséjour, where she
spends the day. She has a little garden which she waters with little
watering-pots which M. Guizot was seen to bring to her door in the Rue
Saint-Florentin. He goes to dinner at Beauséjour every day. At the
funeral of M. Garnier-Pagès, the radical deputy, the crowd was so
great that the procession extended from the Bastille to the door of
Saint-Denis. The speeches delivered over the tomb were all full of
revolutionary and religious maxims in the style of _The Words of a
Believer_ by M. de Lamennais. The editor of the _Peuple_ wrote, "We
offer you our regrets, but these are not enough, we offer you also our
promises!" Such is my delightful news from Paris.

_Hohlstein, July 11, 1841._--I left my nieces the day before yesterday
after dinner and arrived here yesterday morning.[33] I crossed the
whole of Lusatia which is a fine province. The weather had cleared up
but as soon as I arrived here the rain began furiously; it has rained
all night and is now falling heavily, to the detriment of the fine
view which I ought to have from my bedroom windows which look upon the
Silesian mountains.

  [33] Hohlstein was the estate of the Princess of Hohenzollern
  Hechingen, by birth a Princess of Courlande.

_Hohlstein, July 13, 1841._--Yesterday I took advantage of several
intermissions in the bad weather to visit the park, the kitchen garden
and the surroundings. It is all pretty and well kept and sometimes
picturesque. I have a letter from Madame d'Albuféra from which I
extract the following: "Madame de Flahaut is starting to-morrow with
her daughters for Ems. She is deeply grieved concerning the talk
about her husband. Yesterday she was in tears at Beauséjour while
visiting Princesse de Lieven. It does not seem to be entirely settled
whether they will go to Vienna or not. There is a general idea that M.
Bresson will be appointed to Vienna and that the Marquis of Dalmatia
will take his place at Berlin. Turin and Madrid will then remain
vacant. Madame de Flahaut told me that if either of them were offered
to her husband, she would be inclined to refuse but that the decision
would lie with him. I know that his friends would advise him to
accept. He is staying at Paris to see the end of the business and
hides his agitation better than his wife; but he is plainly ill at
ease for several reasons. Naples is out of the question, as it is said
that the King will not have them there.

"Events in England increase the depression of Madame de Flahaut. The
triumph of the Tories appears certain and the overthrow of the Whigs
inevitable. The Granvilles are at La Jonchère[34] awaiting the result.
Lord Granville cannot move and can only speak with difficulty, but his
mental powers are unimpaired."

  [34] La Jonchère was the property of M. Thiers at La Celle

_Hohlstein, July 21, 1841._--The newspapers give official news of the
date when the plenipotentiaries of the five Courts signed the joint
protocol referring to the East.[35] I imagine that this will enable
the final rearrangement of the French diplomatic body to be made.

  [35] This protocol, which concluded the Egyptian question, was
  signed on July 13, 1841, by England, Austria, Prussia, Russia,
  and Turkey. The Straits Convention, which was signed at the same
  time, added the signature of the French plenipotentiary to the

I have a long letter from M. de Chalais which speaks only of his
private life and gives me no news except that the Princesse de Lieven
has written a long letter to the Duc de Noailles asking that she might
be allowed to appoint him her executor in her will, as she says that
she has an intuition that she will die at Paris. Meanwhile she seems
to be excellently well.

M. Royer-Collard writes as follows in reference to the speech before
the Academy of M. de Sainte-Aulaire: "I must say a word concerning the
reception of Sainte-Aulaire; the newspapers flatter him; the audience
was very brilliant but the speech of the new member colourless and
cold. M. Roger's speech was more successful than it deserved to be; so
much the worse for the public." M. Royer-Collard also told me that
after paying a visit to Versailles with his daughter, he had another
attack of the fever which nearly carried him off a few years ago at
Châteauvieux. It is obvious that his system then received a shock from
which it will never recover.

_Günthersdorf, July 27, 1841._--I left Hohlstein the day before
yesterday in the morning and reached Sagan at two o'clock. After
dinner I went to the castle to select certain family portraits of
which I wish copies to be made for Rochecotte. I then went to the
church to decide the place and the form of the little monument which
is now to be erected in memory of my father. It is time that this was
done, as he has now been buried in the church for forty years, and
apart from tradition no one knows the place of his burial. Yesterday I
went at an early hour to the little church which is picturesquely
situated at the end of the park of Sagan, in the vault of which the
remains of my late sister have been laid. Mass was said there at my
request for the repose of her soul. The church was filled with
beautiful flowers and rare plants brought by the castle gardener; a
considerable number of people were also present. I then set out for
Deutsch-Wartenberg which belongs to me and came on here in the evening
with Herr von Wolff who is staying for two or three days, to meet Herr
von Gersdorf whom I expect. They have to settle between them the legal
questions which have arisen between my sons and my sister
Hohenzollern, concerning the allodial claims of the latter to the
greater part of Sagan.

I found that some improvements had been made here; the garden is well
kept and everything perfectly neat.

I have several letters. Madame de Lieven writing under date July 15
tells me that Queen Victoria is paying a round of visits to the Whig
Ministers, a proceeding which is thought very inadvisable in the
present situation and that no one would be astonished if she began a
_coup d'état_ rather than endure a Tory Ministry. It is also possible
that to avoid Sir Robert Peel she may summon Lord Liverpool, a measure
not likely to meet with success. It is said that the eldest son of
Lady Jersey is to marry the daughter of Sir Robert Peel; that Lady
Palmerston is quite revolutionary in her sentiments and more furious
than any one because she is obliged to leave the Ministry. All these
rumours are extremely vague.

The Duchesse de Montmorency tells me of the marriage of Mlle.
Vandermarck, daughter of the stockbroker, with the Comte de Panis,
owner of the fine château of Borelli near Marseilles.

_Günthersdorf, July 31, 1841._--A letter from M. Bresson from Berlin
tells me that he is expecting General de Rumigny to stay from the 15th
to the 20th of August, as the King of Prussia has invited him to the
manœuvres in Silesia and at Berlin. He tells me that M. and Madame
Thiers are to arrive at Berlin at the same time. The Duc de Noailles
writes that Lady Clanricarde will spend the next winter at Paris and
that Lord Cowley's nomination in place of Lord Granville is expected.
He adds that the little Rachel has just arrived at Paris; that only
Marshal Soult's triumph in England could be compared to hers; that he
had letters from her in London in which she showed the utmost delight
over her success, though remarkable to relate, her head was not turned
by it. I think that the Duc's head would be less steady under such

_Günthersdorf, August 1, 1841._--Madame de Perponcher tells me that
the King of Hanover is quite overwhelmed by the death of his wife,
over whom he seems to have watched most admirably. For a long time he
was under a delusion concerning the state of her health and when the
doctors told him that there was no hope, he was completely crushed.
However, as soon as he recovered his spirits he went to the Queen and
spoke of her religious duties as well as a Catholic could have done.
The Queen heard the terrible news with the utmost firmness and
received the communion with the King, her daughter, the Duchess of
Anhalt and poor Prince George. The despair of the latter was
heartrending; as he could not see his mother, he could not be
persuaded that she was dead and insisted that he should be allowed to
touch her body. As soon as the father put the mother's cold hand in
that of her son, the poor blind man was overcome with a kind of
madness. He has since been sent to the seaside. These details are
cruel and really most heartrending.

_Günthersdorf, August 6, 1841._--My sisters have been here since the
first of the month and seem to enjoy themselves in spite of the
terrible weather.

Yesterday I had a letter from M. Bresson who says: "There is no
positive news from Paris: M. de Flahaut has refused Turin and declines
to commit himself concerning the offer of Madrid. He says that he
maintains the fact that Vienna was offered to him, which M. Guizot
will not admit. Whether it was offered or not, he is doing his utmost
to secure it and Madame de Flahaut is watching from Ems for the
arrival of Prince and Princess Metternich at the Johannisberg. I
remain in an attitude of expectation and am resolved only to leave
Berlin for Vienna or London.

"Herr von Werther has resigned the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. His
place will be taken by Count Maltzan, but who will replace him at
Vienna is not yet known. The King has given Werther the Order of the
Black Eagle and has made the title of baron hereditary in his family;
hitherto it had been only a personal title. Arnim of Paris has been
made a count.

"The Toulouse disturbance is causing me more anxiety;[36] no other
town in France has followed this bad example. The July festival has
been celebrated in an orderly manner. The whole of the loan will not
be required; the financial deficiencies are being repaired and we
shall find that France has recovered her strength and reorganised her
military power. My ardent desire is that all this may make for peace."

  [36] On July 9 and 10 the inhabitants of Toulouse were disturbed
  by the question of the census. The agitation seemed to have died
  away when a serious rising broke out upon the 12th. Large bodies
  of people marched about the streets, and barricades were raised,
  and the 13th was a very threatening day. The town was saved by
  the wisdom of the temporary mayor, M. Arzac, who was able, by
  means of tact, to restore tranquillity.

Such is the prose, or if you prefer it, the poetry of M. Bresson.

_Günthersdorf, August 7, 1841._--I have a letter from M. Molé who
complains of his health and refers to the disturbance at Toulouse and
the general condition of France with as much gloominess as M. Bresson
showed satisfaction in the letter which I quoted yesterday.

The Duchesse de Montmorency writes saying that Mgr. Affre prohibited
M. Genoude from preaching. The latter then went to learn the reason
for this prohibition: the Bishop replied that it was due to his
anti-governmental opinions; M. Genoude angrily replied that if the
Bishop persisted in maintaining his prohibition, he would print the
whole of Mgr. Affre's writings of a few years ago, in opposition to
the July monarchy, the original signed documents being in his
possession. The Archbishop thereupon relented and M. Genoude will
preach. This is an attitude truly worthy of a bishop! The incident
naturally induces me to draw comparisons with the past and strengthens
my conviction that Mgr. de Quélen was the last real Archbishop of
Paris. The present age seems unable to produce any great or noble
lives. There is a dead level of hopeless mediocrity.

_Günthersdorf, August 16, 1841._--As I write this date I cannot but
remember with deep regret an anniversary which will always be dear and
sacred to me; this is the day of Saint Hyacinthe, the patron saint of
the late Mgr. de Quélan. I am certain that mass is being said for him
at the Sacré Cœur. For many years a shrub was taken to him from me on
this day. Two years ago, when he was still ill at Conflans, he called
my servant into his room, who then brought him an orange tree and
asked Madame de Gramont to write a note saying that of all the flowers
he had received mine had given him the greatest pleasure. Now I can
do no more than pray to him in heaven. I often think that he is united
with Him to whom he has so often prayed himself, and that both
intercede before God on my behalf, to gain me the blessing of a good
death, and especially a Christian life, for rarely does the one come
to pass without the other; and if God sometimes shows His mercy at a
late hour, we have no reason to be idle or to omit any effort to
deserve it. These true and heartfelt words I often repeat to myself,
but do not derive a full measure of comfort from them. The worldly
spirit, the old enemy, is difficult to eradicate.

At Wartenberg I inspected the Protestant school. Last year I was
present at the examination of the Catholic children, and I can say,
without prejudice, that the latter school is infinitely superior to
the former.

The post brought me a letter from the Court Marshal, giving me an
official announcement from their Majesties of their proposal to pass
here on the 31st of this month.

_Günthersdorf, August 18, 1841._--I have a letter from M. Bresson. He
had announced his visit to me long ago, and now asks me to transfer it
to the 31st of this month, so that he may stay here on that day to see
the King and leave on the 1st. He tells me that when the King learnt
of his proposal to come here, he told him at his last audience that he
hoped he might meet him at my house; he also tells me that the
diplomatic nominations will not be made until the Tory Ministry comes
into office, which the Queen of England is unable to avoid.

He adds that M. and Madame Thiers are at Berlin and are arousing keen
curiosity; crowds gather as they pass. M. Thiers seems anxious not to
give his journey any political meaning and is showing great
circumspection. He has asked to see the King. M. Bresson was awaiting
at the time when he wrote to me an answer to this request from Sans

_Günthersdorf, August 20, 1841._--Yesterday I took a long drive
through my estates on the other side of the Oder. The weather was very
fine and this morning is also quite clear. I trust it may be as fine
for the King's visit.

_Günthersdorf, August 21, 1841._--In Germany birthdays are even more
important festivals than baptismal days,[37] so since yesterday,
compliments and bouquets have been coming in. All the Catholic priests
came yesterday to offer their good wishes and have promised to say
mass for me this morning. Yesterday evening all the masters of the
Catholic schools, of which there are twelve upon my estates, came
together, though some of them live twelve leagues away, to sing to me
in detachments with the best pupils of their schools; simple and
touching verses very well written and thought out, with no
instrumental accompaniment; it was very pretty and kind; any mark of
affection is always deeply felt by me and I was therefore greatly

  [37] The Duchesse de Talleyrand was born on August 21, 1793.

_Günthersdorf, August 22, 1841._--Yesterday I had a numerous company
to dinner and took them to the shooting competition arranged in the
pheasant preserves. All the gamekeepers, farmers and servants were
there. There was music in the copses, flowers everywhere and a
beautiful sunny day. I offered three prizes, a sporting rifle, a
hunting knife, and a game bag. The two Prefects in whose department I
have property, came in after dinner and took tea. It was so fine that
in spite of nightfall, the company did not separate until my bedtime.

_Günthersdorf, August 25, 1841._--Yesterday I had a letter from the
Princesse de Lieven, the chief news of which is as follows: "It is
said that the society of Vienna will receive M. Bresson very coldly.
Prince Metternich has hinted as much here. He has no great liking for
any of the competitors for this post, and less liking for Bresson than
for the others. Apponyi says so without constraint. I think that Lord
Cowley will take Lord Granville's place. Lady Palmerston is greatly
distressed at losing Downing Street:[38] Lord Palmerston puts a better
face upon the matter; his address to the electors of Tiverton marks
the end of his career in French opinion. Much ill feeling on the
matter remains here and we part with him upon distinctly bad terms."

  [38] Where the Foreign Office is situated.

I propose to leave Silesia in a week from to-day and should like to
see my dear Touraine again on October 1. The local newspapers contain
no news except that the King received M. Thiers, not at Sans Souci,
but at Berlin in a private audience which lasted twenty minutes. M.
Thiers wore his academician's dress and the orders of Belgium and
Spain. Throughout his journey he has been the object of curiosity
which was rather keen than kindly, and if he understood German he
would have heard more than one caustic remark.

I have made arrangements with my gardener and an architect for the
decorations for the day when the King is to stay here. The decorations
will consist of numerous garlands, pyramids, festoons and arches of
dahlias of every colour which will decorate the King's path from the
avenue to the house. There is nothing magnificent or imposing about
this place: there is no view, but it is fresh and green; the trees are
beautiful and the garden well kept. The house is large but not
striking, without architectural beauty and surmounted by a heavy ugly
roof, so that only by means of flowers can any daintiness be given to
the whole. The hall is to be turned into an orangery and, in short,
the whole will appear in holiday though unpretentious dress, which
will at any rate show my good intentions.

_Günthersdorf, August 30, 1841._--My niece, Hohenthal, arrived here
yesterday. She told me that Madame Thiers had been so ill at Dresden
that she had been taken from her hotel to the doctor's house. M.
Thiers told some one who repeated it to my niece, that his audience
with the King of Prussia was short and cold and that the King talked
of nothing but Art; his attitude seems to have been well advised.
General de Rumigny, on the contrary, is most kindly treated.

_Günthersdorf, August 31, 1841._--Yesterday after dinner I set out
with my nephew Biron and we went to Grünberg to await their Majesties
at the house of the Queen's chief lady, who had gone in advance of
her. A prodigious number of triumphal arches, deputations, addresses
and cavalcades made their Majesties so late, that they did not reach
their resting-place until half-past ten at night, though this hour
was very suitable for the illuminations and fireworks at our chief
centre. Many of the principal landowners in the district were there.
The King and Queen first received me alone and then the rest of the
company was admitted. Their Majesties wished to keep me to supper, but
as I still have a great deal to arrange here, I asked permission to
withdraw and reached home at half-past one in the morning. Fortunately
it was a beautiful moonlight night.

I found General de Rumigny at Grünberg. He is following the King to
the manœuvres and will arrive here this morning. The weather is
magnificent and I should like to kneel down and send up a prayer of
thanks to the sun for his kindness.

_Günthersdorf, September 1, 1841._--Yesterday passed off very well.
Their Majesties were in excellent spirits and most kind. The weather
was perfect, flowers were abundant and there was a good lunch suitably
served; the population in holiday attire came in large numbers and
behaved excellently. I drove after the King with my nephew to the
first village where horses were changed. This village is on my estate
and His Majesty was again greeted with a triumphal arch by my keepers
and with country receptions of every kind. The King, who did not know
that I was following, as I had not told him, was quite surprised to
see me. He got down from his carriage and made me take his place as
the Queen wished to embrace me once more. In short they seem to have
been quite satisfied, which is a great pleasure to me.

General de Rumigny started immediately after the King, M. Bresson
after dinner and the Birons after tea. My niece, Hohenthal, went away
last night and so I am here alone.

_Günthersdorf, September 2, 1841._--I have decided to start this
evening and before I go I am designing a new addition to the garden,
which will make it truly magnificent, and I have commissioned the
architect to replace the heavy rotten roof with gables and a flat

_Berlin, September 3, 1841._--I reached here after covering fifty-four
French leagues in seventeen hours. In this country where one cannot
arrange for relays, this is excellent travelling.

M. Bresson told me that no one could be more surly or disagreeable
than Madame Thiers: she has been ill, or pretended to be ill, and
declared that she would die if she stayed any longer in Germany, which
seemed to her like Siberia.

_Berlin, September 5, 1841._--Yesterday I went to the Werthers who are
soon to exchange their diplomatic post for one at Court. Werther
himself, like a good courtier, suggested this change at the proper
time and has thus spared himself possible mortification and obtained
an excellent post. Frau von Werther and Josephine regret the change.

_Berlin, September 6, 1841._--I am going to entrust myself to the
railway as far as Potsdam. At Potsdam I shall dress and dine with
Princess Charles of Prussia at Klein Glienicke at the gates of the
town. I shall then resume my journey and spend the night in my
carriage in order to reach Leipzig to-morrow morning. There I shall
find the Hohenthals who are bringing my niece Fanny Biron, whom I have
promised to take with me to France. A winter in Saxony is thought to
be too much for her health, which is delicate.

_Leipzig, September 6, 1841._--I left my Berlin hotel yesterday
morning. I had chocolate with Madame de Perponcher and learnt from her
the sad news of the sudden death of my young and charming neighbour,
Princess Adelaide Carolath, who was married under the most dramatic
circumstances a year ago to her cousin and died in a few hours of an
attack of suppressed measles. She was quite an ideal character and I
have been deeply affected by this sudden death.

From Berlin to Potsdam I travelled with Baron von Arnim, master of the
ceremonies, who was also dining at Glienicke. The Princess drove me
round the park in her pony-chaise. After dinner I went for a walk and
then said good-bye.

_Weimar, September 9, 1841._--We parted from the Hohenthals at Leipzig
yesterday morning. The two sisters were much depressed at their
separation; however, the open air and the pretty country through which
we have been travelling enabled Fanny to recover her spirits.

Here I found a letter from the Princess of Prussia who is staying at
Kreuznach on the Rhine and asks me to go and see her while I am at
Johannisberg. I shall certainly do so, though it will prolong my
journey by an additional day.

_Frankfort-on-Main, September 11, 1841._--I arrived here this morning
in fine weather. My niece proposes to spend a few days with her former
governess at Bonn, to see her brother who is in garrison there and is
now ill. We shall meet again at Mayence on the 15th. I am starting for
Johannisberg to-morrow.

_Frankfort, September 12, 1841._--Yesterday at tea-time Count Maltzan
came in. He is taking the baths at Kreuznach and came over to see his
niece Fanny. He is very pleased with his position as Minister of
Foreign Affairs. I doubt if he will suit the King of Prussia in the
long run, for he is vehement, irascible and impetuous, and though the
King is angelically good he is very quick tempered. However, it is no
business of mine. The Count is a kind and pleasant drawing-room
talker, and when he has got rid of his habit of gossiping, which he
contracted at Vienna, he will be a pleasant person, except for those
who have to transact business with him.

_Johannisberg, September 13, 1841._--I arrived here yesterday at two
o'clock, the weather being extremely hot. I had known this place in
past years and few changes have been made. There is an extensive and
beautiful view, though I prefer the view from Rochecotte, which is
similar, because of the forest which crowns my house, and also because
of the vegetation along the Loire and the hillsides opposite me, which
make the valley grander and more beautiful. Here the vines cover
everything. The house is very large and the rooms spacious but
somewhat poorly furnished. I was most kindly received, not only by
the master and mistress of the house but by many other acquaintances:
my cousin, Paul Medem, who would as soon go back to Stuttgart as
Minister as to Vienna to the post of Chargé d'Affaires; Tatitscheff,
who is almost entirely blind, and Neumann who is returning to London

I have no news; Prince Metternich says there is none. He is very
pleased to hear of the Whig downfall in England and very well disposed
to M. Guizot; he is sorry that the Duc de Montebello is not to be sent
to him at Vienna. He has very humble letters from M. de Flahaut, and
begins to think that a minister who writes confidential platitudes
beforehand should be easier to manage than any other. However, nothing
is as yet officially known concerning the movements of the French
diplomatic body. Apponyi and his family are expected to-day on their
way from Paris. They are to stay here before proceeding to Hungary on
leave. Let us hope that they will bring some positive news concerning
the nomination of the French Ambassador to Vienna.

_Johannisberg, September 14, 1841._--I have accomplished my excursion
to Kreuznach, which occupied the whole of yesterday: I did not return
till half-past eight in the evening and was obliged to cross the Rhine
in the darkness, which I did not find particularly pleasant, in spite
of the beauty of the scene; the lights of the steamboats from the
banks reflected in the river, and the masses of the rocks increased by
the darkness of the night made an imposing scene which I only half
enjoyed as I was somewhat afraid. At Kreuznach I spent several hours
with the Princess of Prussia who was as kind as ever. I was sorry to
find her considerably changed, uneasy concerning her health, and tired
by taking the waters, from which so far she had experienced no other
result. I dined with her, and Count Maltzan was present.

Prince Metternich yesterday received an official intimation that M. de
Flahaut had been appointed to the Vienna embassy; he is not greatly
pleased at this news. The other changes in the French diplomatic body
were not then known.

M. de Bourquency is very fashionable here; though the Prince does not
know him personally, he was full of praises of his behaviour at
London; at the same time he added that a diplomatist, who was also a
contributor to the _Journal des Debáts_, was one of the curiosities of
the age.

_Johannisberg, September 15, 1841._--Yesterday I did not go out all
day though the weather was beautiful. I was very glad to rest;
moreover, so much time is spent here in receiving a succession of
callers that country life properly so called is impossible.

_Mayence, September 16, 1841._--I left Johannisberg yesterday and was
much touched by all the kindness of the master and mistress of the
house, and very glad that I had been able to pay them a visit. I
arrived here in good time, and found Frau von Binzer, Paul Medem and
Baron Zedlitz awaiting me. The baron, who is a well-known poet, has
now taken the place of Gentz with Prince Metternich on account of some
political publication. While I was dining with these people, three
cannon shots announced the steamboat by which the Princess of Prussia
was travelling up the Rhine on her way to Weimar through Mannheim. The
boat stopped here for ten minutes, and as it put in some thirty yards
from the hotel I went to spend these ten minutes on board with the
Princess; she was not expecting me, and showed the utmost satisfaction
at this small attention.

The evening was warm and beautiful and we drove round the town, the
outskirts of which are pretty, and went to see the statue of Gutenberg
by Thorwaldsen, which is a handsome piece of work. On our return we
heard that a courier from the Rothschilds had arrived from Paris,
bringing the news of a small rising in Paris during which a pistol
shot had been fired at the Duc d'Aumale, who, however, was not

  [39] The revolutionary factions which were still seething,
  pursued their plan of destroying the Royal Family. On September
  4, 1841, a pistol-shot was fired at the Duc d'Aumale as he was
  going down a street of the Faubourg Saint Antoine at the head of
  his regiment, the 17th Light Horse. The horse of
  Lieutenant-Colonel Levaillant, who was by the side of the Prince
  was killed by the ball.

_Metz, September 18, 1841._--I arrived here yesterday evening in a
torrential downpour of rain, which makes travelling extremely
unpleasant. At the hotel I found General d'Outremont, who was in
command at Tours for a long time. He is at Metz for inspection and
asked to see me. He told me that the disturbances at Clermont were
even more serious than those at Toulouse, in fact the newspaper that
some one has lent me regards them as very serious.

_Paris, September 20, 1841._--I have now returned to the great
Babylon. The good and excellent Barante was awaiting my arrival. He
has spent the evening here and given me the following news: the
disturbances in Clermont seem to have been of the most serious
character, a real Jacquerie and the most disquieting demonstration
that has taken place in France since 1830.[40] Barante who has been
absent for three and a half years, was astonished and horrified by the
general degradation, especially in political morality, which is
obvious here. He wittily said that he had not yet come across a man in
Paris who had a good word for another. He proposes to spend six weeks
at his house in Auvergne and will then stay here for the winter and
not return to St. Petersburg till the spring. Sainte-Aulaire started
forty-eight hours ago for his new post in London. His wife will not
follow him until February and Madame de Flahaut will not go to Vienna
until she has married her daughter, Emilie, for whom no suitor has yet

  [40] The census at Clermont-Ferrand, as at Toulouse, was a
  pretext for disturbances which broke out on September 13, 1841,
  and continued the whole of the next day. The rioters attacked the
  armed force, and many soldiers were killed or wounded; the gates
  of the town were burnt, and a desperate combat ensued. It became
  necessary to send considerable military forces to the town to
  overwhelm the rebels and restore order.

Bertin the elder is dead and Bertin de Veaux is suffering from a fresh

_Paris, September 21, 1841._--Madame de Lieven routed me out yesterday
at a very early hour. She came to ask questions and told me nothing:
she can repeat to all Europe what I have told her concerning the
corner of the world known to me; I persisted in speaking kindly of
every one, which vexed her, and eventually told her that people were
thinking and saying everywhere that it was she who made and unmade
ambassadors, at which she was considerably embarrassed. Moreover, what
I was saying was quite true; it is believed everywhere and I think
with reason. She asked me to dinner on Thursday at Beauséjour.

Humboldt also called; I told him my Silesian news. Finally M. de
Salvandy arrived, delighted to be ambassador at Madrid and prepared to
return for the session of the Chamber of Deputies and to retain his
vice-presidency. My son, Valençay, came to dinner with me and told me
of the death of old Hottinger, which I am sorry to hear. He was a most
honourable man, deeply attached to the late M. de Talleyrand and a
friend of Labouchère. Many recollections of the past are disappearing
outwardly with terrible rapidity.

There is some small continuous agitation in the distant quarters of
Paris; I do not understand the reason for it; it seems to be the
normal state of Paris. A return to the great outbursts of 1831 would
be to restore our youth but not our strength, at a time when we should
grow old in order to grow greater. Fortunately the troops are in
excellent spirits everywhere, but are also required everywhere. The
authorities are determined and even anxious to make vigorous use of
them. This is all very well and it is fortunate for them that they
have the power and have no foreign war upon their hands in addition to
these internal disorders.

My letters from Auvergne[41] are not satisfactory. Pauline shall
certainly spend her winter in the south at Rome, if I do not go to
Nice. She is so anxious to see me that I am deciding for Nice, where I
shall go in the month of December and return in March. I hope the
change will also do my niece Fanny good. For me personally it is a
great sacrifice. I should like a long rest and to shut myself up at
Rochecotte, but Pauline is really ill and warmly expresses a desire to
see me, and her husband joins in supporting her wish with such
persistence that I cannot hesitate.

  [41] The Marquis and Marquise de Castellane were now resident in
  Auvergne at their estate of Aubijou.

_Paris, September 22, 1841._--Yesterday evening I went with my son
Valençay to Saint-Cloud, where I was able to see the whole Royal
Family together, including even their Belgian Majesties. All are
starting for Compiègne. The Queen had news of the Prince de Joinville
from Newfoundland. He is proceeding to Halifax.

_Paris, September 23, 1841._--Yesterday I saw the Abbé Dupanloup who
told me that he had in his possession a series of letters which had
passed between M. de Talleyrand and Cardinal Fesch, of the greatest
interest, and others which had passed between M. de Talleyrand and the
Chapter of Autun at the most difficult and troublesome time: he is the
better pleased by these discoveries as they confirm his opinion of M.
de Talleyrand and in general do him great credit.

Yesterday I went to dinner at Beauséjour with Madame de Lieven and
took Barante who was invited. The other guests were the Duc de
Noailles, M. Guizot and Mr. Bulwer. The conversation was animated and
varied, while Barante talked much more naturally and agreeably than
any one. Of news I heard none.

_Paris, September 26, 1841._--Yesterday I went to Champlâtreux with
Baron Humboldt. The weather was very unpleasant and spoilt our
excursion. I had known Champlâtreux long before: time has in no way
destroyed its beauty; on the contrary, for M. Molé has laid it out
magnificently. His improvements are excellent but should be continued
and especially the little panes of glass should be removed from the
windows in the large rooms, as they spoil the general effect. On the
whole it is a noble mansion, not a feudal, but a parliamentary
building, as befits a descendant of Mathieu Molé, of whom memorials
are everywhere to be found and very properly so. Particularly
excellent is the portrait of the grandmother, the daughter of Samuel
Bernard, in the large room; with her dowry M. Molé's grandfather built
the present residence. The park is beautiful and finely laid out,
while M. and Madame Molé are most kind and pleasant hosts.

The fortifications are in their most advanced state from Paris to
Saint-Denis, but for the moment the state of affairs is simply
frightful and looks like chaos.

Yesterday's event, for every day brings an event in this country, was
the truly scandalous acquittal of the _National_;[42] it must be
admitted that we cut a very poor figure here.

  [42] The _National_ had published a correspondence concerning the
  disturbances at Clermont, full of falsehoods and invectives
  against the monarchy, and was accused of attacking the King's
  majesty and brought to trial. On September 24, 1841, a verdict of
  "Not Guilty" was passed by the jury of the Seine.

_Paris, October 1, 1841._--Yesterday I saw M. Guizot at my house. I
was anxious to say a word to him on behalf of Charles de Talleyrand
who, I hope, will soon join M. de Sainte-Aulaire at London. M. Guizot
told me that Lord Cowley would certainly be the ambassador at Paris
and his appointment is desired here. Sir Robert Peel refused court
appointments to Lord Wilton and the Duke of Beaufort, saying that
people with more depth of character and less doubtful morality were
required about the person of a young Queen. The Duke of Beaufort has
refused the embassy of St. Petersburg, and the Marquis of Londonderry
the embassy of Vienna. Both wished for Paris and were greatly
exasperated by their failure to secure it. They are now forming the
nucleus of a small opposition party.

M. Guizot gives the following explanation of the two somewhat unusual
nominations of M. de Flahaut as ambassador to Vienna and of M. de
Salvandy to Madrid: he says that he thought it advisable to deprive M.
Thiers of the one and M. Molé of the other. An admirable explanation
and of course entirely in the interests of the country!

_Courtalin, October 3, 1841._--I arrived here yesterday evening after
dining and sleeping with Madame Mollien. I am now in the midst of the
Montmorency family, many of whom are here.

_Rochecotte, October 7, 1841._--Once more I am back at my little
Palazzo where I arrived in the morning to my great delight and have
been most interested to see the arrangements and improvements that
have taken place during my absence.

_Rochecotte, October 12, 1841._--I have spent the last few days in
arranging my new library and putting the books in order. It is
a tiring business but has absorbed me greatly. My son and
daughter-in-law Dino have arrived and also my niece Fanny and her
governess, who spent a few days at Paris after my departure.

Yesterday I had a call from the Lady Superior of the Daughters of the
Cross from Chinon. She is the one who received the communion last
spring when I went to see her. She asserts that she began to get
better from the moment of my visit. She brought me some rosaries and
wished to pray in my chapel. She also brought me my lithographed
portrait from a room where she found it and persuaded me without much
trouble to add an orphan's place to the establishment which she
administers. I have thus secured the right of sending an orphan from
the village of Saint Patrice of which Rochecotte is a part, to receive
a Christian education from these excellent women, and I shall make my
choice to-day.

_Rochecotte, October 14, 1841._--The changed situation in Spain has
occupied all minds at Paris, for war has really broken out again. It
is a dreadful business and will end in the massacre of the innocent
Isabella.[43] Queen Christina is by no means anxious to leave Paris,
where she finds life pleasant. She is terrified by the idea of
returning to Spain of which she speaks with disgust and scorn. All who
know her regard her as clever, kind and courageous in time of need,
but naturally idle, pleasure-loving and devoting herself to amusement
as far as she can, as she is obliged to despair of ever playing a part
in politics again. She is very fond of her children by Muñoz and she
has little affection for her royal daughters.

  [43] On October 7, 1841, at eight o'clock in the evening,
  Generals Leon and Concho took advantage of the fact that a
  regiment, formerly commanded by the latter, had arrived at
  Madrid. As the regiment was devoted to him the two Generals
  proposed to make a sudden attempt to carry off the Queen and the
  Infanta. They went to the palace at the head of a squadron of the
  Royal Guard, and while the regiment surrounded the palace they
  mounted to the Queen's apartments; these were fortunately guarded
  by halberdiers who offered a vigorous resistance, received them
  with rifle-shots, and drove them back several times. Espartero
  crushed this military plot, and had General Diego Leon shot on
  October 15.

_Rochecotte, October 24, 1841._--Yesterday I had some letters
containing news. Madame de Lieven writes: "England is obviously
disturbed about the news from America and speculators in every country
are greatly alarmed. It is difficult to think that war will not be the
consequence of the complication in the case of Grogau[44] added to
that of MacLoed. The newspapers are full of Spain; attempts at
insurrection are everywhere a failure. Espartero does his duty in
punishing the guilty, but it is piteous to see the most cultured and
brilliant figures in Spain falling. The death of Diego Leon, the idol
of the army and of Madrid, made Queen Christina shed floods of tears.
I do not know how she will escape the consequence of Olozaga's
publications; she disavows them but no one believes her. Demands are
issued that France should send Christina back; the government
naturally refuses and will continue to offer hospitality to the niece
of the French Queen. I do not think that Salvandy will start
immediately for his post in Madrid: Sainte-Aulaire has secured the
favour of Aberdeen; Flahaut is starting for Vienna shortly."

  [44] On September 20, 1841, Colonel James W. Grogau, a citizen of
  the United States, was surprised during the night in the house of
  a certain Mr. Brown within the frontiers of his own country, by
  brigands in English uniform, who carried him away as a prisoner
  to Montreal in Canada. Mr. Richard Jackson, the Governor of
  Canada, immediately liberated him, and punished an English
  officer, Mr. Jackson, of Colonel Dyer's regiment, who had taken
  part in this attempt.

The Duchesse d'Albuféra tells me that the Duchesse de Nemours is with
child, to the great delight of the Queen and that the household at
Compiègne which has been so long disturbed seems to be in perfect

_Rochecotte, October 25, 1841._--Yesterday I had a letter from M. de
Salvandy, of which the following is an extract; "It is not impossible
that I may receive orders to start within the next twelve days. You
will have seen what has happened at Madrid: the insurrection with its
sudden outbreak and its sudden ending. We have undergone all kinds of
deceptions here and have proclaimed them and published them in our
public and private deeds, in our relations with the Spanish
Government, with its Minister and with every one. The Minister has
demanded that Queen Christina should be sent back and has been justly
and vigorously refused, but so vigorously that what the Madrid
authorities will say or do no one can conjecture. Hitherto relations
have not been entirely broken off; nothing will be known for another
ten days. At present we are much disconcerted by our foolish actions
and are trying to avoid the consequences as gently as possible. At the
first favourable moment my departure will be urged. In this
undignified position mine is the only bearable situation, because I
have shared none of these delusions; I have contradicted them, as
every one knows and Spain is thankful to me. Spain asks that I should
start. I have pointed out two or three matters upon which I should
like satisfaction; they will be granted and we shall thus be able to
put a better face upon the matter, but I am astounded at this method
of conducting the business of the world."

M. de Salvandy tells me that he will come here on his way to Spain.

_Rochecotte, November 6, 1841._--I hear that the Russian Ambassador at
Paris has just received orders from his Sovereign to start for St.
Petersburg in a week. Every one is attempting to conjecture the

_Rochecotte, November 11, 1841._--The Duchesse d'Albuféra writes to
say that the real reason for the sudden recall of the Russian
Ambassador, Count Pahlen, by the Emperor Nicholas in the midst of
winter, is to secure that he shall not be the spokesman of the
diplomatic body before the King on New Year's Day when congratulations
are offered. It is even said that, in order that the Russian
Ambassador may be the youngest ambassador at Paris, Pahlen's place
will be taken by M. de Bouténieff, but this is only a rumour.

_Rochecotte, November 16, 1841._--Yesterday when we were about to sit
down to dinner I saw M. de Salvandy arriving. I thought that he was on
his way to Madrid. Nothing of the kind. Exhausted by the continual
questions concerning his reasons for delay and the time of departure,
he resolved to pay a round of visits in the country to avoid
inquisitive people: he then came from Pontchartrain and is going on
from here to Madame Maillé and to others of his friends. He says that
the session of the Chambers at Paris will be stormy and that the
ministerial rivalry of MM. Dufaure and Passy will cause difficulty.

_Rochecotte, November 18, 1841._--M. de Salvandy went away yesterday
after lunch. The evening before he had had dreadful news from Spain
where anarchist massacres are proceeding; Espartero seems to be at
last anxious for the presence of the French Ambassador and M. de
Salvandy assumes that he will soon be crossing the Pyrenees. Before he
went away he related a somewhat amusing incident; a few days ago he
met the Demidoffs at the house of the Duchesse Decazes; there were
only three or four persons in the room and the conversation was almost
general. They were speaking of a story which is now going round Paris,
to the effect that Mlle. Rachel had sold herself to M. Véron for two
hundred thousand francs; whereupon M. Demidoff, in a manner impossible
to imitate cried, "See the power of money!" Those present, after an
involuntary glance at Madame Demidoff, preserved a solemn silence,
which was fortunately interrupted in a moment by another caller.

Yesterday I had a letter from Madame de Lieven. She says that the
Queen of England was disappointed that she had not been confined of
twins; she was hoping that the Prince of Wales would be accompanied by
a Duke of York.[45] England has presented a Note requesting an
explanation of the concentration of French troops near the Pyrenees,
and announcing that she would not permit France to carry war into
Spain. She has thus stopped a strongly marked inclination to support
the friends of Queen Christina with cannon shot; and this Queen is in
great despair that people should wish to use her as a pretext.
Speaking of herself, she says that her chance is over and that no one
should think of her as a possibility; that she would never return to
Spain or she would certainly meet the fate of Marie Antoinette.

  [45] King Edward VII. was born on November 9.

Yesterday evening in the drawing-room we read a eulogy upon Madame de
Rumford, written by M. Guizot, who had sent it to me. I thought it
rather dry and the sentences too long; in short it wants grace, though
not thought.

_Rochecotte, November 27, 1841._--I have had letters from my
son-in-law from Carrara, dated the 17th. To-morrow they were to have
reached Florence, but they encountered a storm for eighteen hours in
the Gulf of Spezzia: the ship was damaged and they were in some
danger. At length they fortunately came into harbour and are now in a
pony trap, for it was impossible to disembark their carriage. He gives
a dreadful account of their journey. Poor Pauline was exhausted and
entirely worn out; she had a presentiment that the crossing would be a
bad one, for she wrote to me from Genoa saying that she was very
reluctant to take this route.

_Rochecotte, November 28, 1841._--I have a letter from Pauline from
Lucca which adds some serious details to those related by her husband.
They nearly foundered and were themselves obliged to gain the coast in
a small boat. My son-in-law was almost drowned; in short, it was a
regular disaster. I long to hear that my dear Pauline is resting for a
few weeks at Florence. During the terrible time that they spent at sea
two ships were lost and all on board perished, off Livorno.

_Rochecotte, December 2, 1841._--Yesterday I concluded my round of
farewell visits in weather which really gave these attentions some
value. After dinner M. de Salvandy came in; this time he was
definitely on his way to Madrid and is starting this morning.

Yesterday I had letters from Pauline written at Florence and dated the
22nd. She is living on the kindness of friends, as she has not yet
recovered either her trunks or her carriage. She reached the town like
a heroine in a novel, with her jewel box under her arm and not a
single garment in her possession.

_Rochecotte, December 3, 1841._--Yesterday morning a huge flash of
lightning and a clap of thunder followed by a waterspout bursting over
Rochecotte, made us rush hurriedly out of our rooms; there were two
inches of water in the dining-room and four in the kitchen. Madame de
Podenas arrived shortly afterwards with her son from the house of her
mother, the Duchesse des Cars, who has a country house on the other
side of Tours. I had known Madame de Podenas very well in times past
and am always glad to see her again. I had even intended, as I thought
she was in Italy, to make a journey from Nice to Genoa to see her, as
she has been settled for the last few years in a villa near that town.
The villa which she has bought is called Il Paradiso and was built by
Michael Angelo. She is greatly changed but is as cheerful and pleasant
as ever. She boldly resumed her journey in the course of the evening.
M. de Salvandy started yesterday morning for Madrid; Alava, who was
here, went to Tours, Vestier to Chinon, and my son to Valençay, so
that Fanny and myself will be alone until we shortly start for Nice.

_Rochecotte, December 5, 1841._--Yesterday my time was entirely
devoted to preparations for departure. My niece's health does not
improve, I am not very well myself, and the weather is frightful.

Yesterday I had a very kind and obliging letter from the Duc
d'Orléans; he writes to bid me farewell before my departure, and to
offer me his congratulations on the escape of the Castellanes from the
dangers of the sea; he had heard of their adventures from the Duchesse
d'Albuféra. He seems very uneasy at the general state of public
opinion, and by no means satisfied with the policy of the authorities.

_Saint-Aignan, December 7, 1841._--I left my pleasant little
Rochecotte yesterday morning to resume the monotonous life of
high-road travel, which is the more unpleasant in consequence of the
dreadful weather. We lunched at Tours with the Prefect, Alava and
Vestier. As we passed by Chenonceaux I paid a half-hour's call, which
I had been owing for years, upon Madame de Villeneuve. We then
continued our journey here in a furious downpour of rain. When the
road leaves the department of Indre-et-Loire and enters that of
Loir-et-Cher it deteriorates; moreover the rain and the inundations
from the Cher have spoilt the road, and we travelled through a kind of
lake. I will not conceal the fact that I screamed several times. We
were very kindly received by M. de Chalais, his brother and the Baron
and Baronne de Montmorency: these are the only inhabitants of the
residence apart from the architect who is working at it; a
considerable amount of building is in progress, which is solid and
even rich as far as construction goes, but unfortunately in a style
which does not seem to me sufficiently akin to that of the original
building; for instance, there is a heavy Saxon tower by the side of
the pointed turrets of Louis XI. The castle is very cold: the
hot-water pipes, the double windows, the hangings, the door curtains
and the draperies at Rochecotte make any other home impossible to me,
and everywhere else I am frozen.

Yesterday at Chenonceaux I saw a very pretty portrait of Queen Louise
de Vaudémont and a large coloured window of modern construction which
the King had just sent to the Villeneuves. The Duc de Montpensier came
over to Chenonceaux from Amboise this summer and to his influence this
attention is due. It is enough to show that the young Prince did not
enter the bedroom of Madame de Villeneuve as I did, where the portrait
of the Duc de Bordeaux, presented by Berryer, is hanging at her
bedside, so that the mistress of the house can see it morning and

_Valençay, December 8, 1841._--I arrived here yesterday evening. I am
going to hear mass with the Sisters at the tomb of our dear M. de
Talleyrand. To-morrow morning we are to start again and to dine and
sleep with Madame d'Arenberg at Menetou-Salon.

_Menetou-Salon, December 10, 1841._--The Prince and Princesse
d'Arenberg were so kind as to keep us a day longer, the weather being
abominable. Fanny and my son Valençay, who joined us here yesterday,
so strongly urged this additional delay, that I have resolved to
remain here the whole of to-day. Yesterday it was impossible to go
out of the house. We barely had the energy to go round the château
which M. d'Arenberg has restored from a state of ruin to a vast and
noble mansion. It has the characteristics of the hunting châteaux that
I prefer, severe in style, simple and convenient, and placed in the
middle of very fine forests. I much prefer Menetou to Arlay, their
château in the Franche-Comté. My cousin's three children are well
brought up, pleasant and cheerful. The whole of the household is very
happy and everything is done upon a large scale.

The arrangements at the end of the house are not yet complete, but
with handsome forests, plenty of space and money, all can easily be
finished and of these three conditions the d'Arenbergs can avail
themselves. The only point at Menetou that I can criticise is the
horrible red, white and orange paint with which the outer walls are
daubed. M. d'Arenberg says that it is in Flemish style, but I think it
is hideous. The kennel is a perfect little jewel. Sporting influences
are everywhere predominant and everything is done to the blast of
horns and the barking of dogs; the children know the different blasts
by heart and can instantly distinguish the blast which means the
quarry is sighted from that which proclaims that it has broken cover
and the blasts which denote an old or a young boar.

_Lyons, December 14, 1841._--The day before yesterday, which was
Sunday, we were escorted after mass by my son Valençay and M.
d'Arenberg, to Bourges, where I visited the curious house of Cujas and
the very interesting one of Jacques Coeur; then we saw the normal
school which was formerly the house of Jacques Coeur's brother; after
that we saw the old palace of Charles VII. which has now become a
convent for the Blue Sisters and went to the cathedral. The funeral
oration was being given for M. de Villèle, the last Archbishop of
Bourges. Don Carlos,[46] his wife and his children were duly present
at this honour paid to the prelate whose charity and whose care had
alleviated their sad captivity. Don Carlos is less ugly and
insignificant than I thought: his wife was so hidden by her hat that I
could not make out her face; the hat and the shawl were those of a
woman of poverty, which I was sorry to see. I passed by the sad little
house which has been assigned to them and which was surrounded by
soldiers on guard and policemen.

  [46] After long struggles between the Carlists and the
  Christinos, which caused much bloodshed throughout the Peninsula
  until 1839, Don Carlos at this date was obliged to take refuge in
  France. He was ordered to reside at the town of Bourges, where he
  was kept under strict supervision, and not until 1847 did he
  obtain permission to leave for Austria.

In order to change horses at Bourges infinite formalities are
necessary, an authorisation from the Prefect and visas, which are
invariably troublesome. After surviving these vexations, we had lunch
and parted from M. de Valençay and M. d'Arenberg. We hoped to reach
Moulins the same day but the weather became so frightful that we took
refuge in a horrible little inn where the smoke was blinding. At
daybreak yesterday we started off again and reached Lyons to-day at
midday. Lyons impressed me as always, and it is the fifth time I have
seen it, by its original and picturesque position; but I found it
sadly changed, since I was here, fifteen years ago, in consequence of
the enormous quantity of steam engines which have come into use, as
the coal which they burn has blackened all the buildings. The fog
common at this time of year is as black as that of London and from the
general colour and the smell I could almost have thought myself in
England. Lyons has greatly deteriorated in consequence and even the
pretty square of Bellecour seems to me no longer to justify its
reputation, since it has been coloured dark grey.

_Aix-en-Provence, December 17, 1841._--Fortunately I have no accident
to relate and unfortunately no interesting descriptions to give. The
sky even of Provence is by no means beautiful at this moment; the
ground as usual is dry and bare, the olives are wretched little trees,
while we have not yet entered the zone of orange-trees. When I first
visited the south my ideas of the country were very illusory and every
later visit has confirmed me in the conviction that apart from the
view over the Mediterranean when one has reached it and the colour of
the sky when it happens not to be clouded as it now is, there is
nothing beautiful to be expected from this district. We spent some
time in visiting Avignon. I had known it long ago, but Fanny was
curious and we had lunch there this morning. We explored the old
castle of the popes which is now a barracks and the church of La

_Nice, December 20, 1841._--We have now reached the end of our journey
which has lasted a whole fortnight. We left Aix the day before
yesterday, after my niece had satisfied her archæological curiosity
and started in sunshine which would have been delightful had it not
been accompanied by the mistral. At nine o'clock in the evening we
reached Brignoles, but were horrified by the dreadful filth of the inn
and resolved to continue our journey. When we had fairly entered the
mountains of the Esterel, which involve an ascent of four hours and a
descent of three, the cold became cruel. At dawn the summits of the
mountains showed themselves covered with snow. At the highest point,
where the post house is situated, twenty mountaineers of wild
appearance, all armed with guns were starting in pursuit of the wild
boars and wolves which inhabit this rough district. This band of
mountaineer hunters were accompanied by some policemen and customs'
house officers and were firing trial shots which made the rocks
re-echo; they formed a picture worthy of a painter, but we had no
thoughts of the picturesque, so intense did the cold of the night
seem. When we reached the valley the temperature suddenly changed; the
sun was warm, the sea blue, the olive-trees tall and covered with
fruit, the orange-trees laden with their golden balls and the hedges
of rose-trees in flower. The town of Cannes overlooked by its old
castle, stood out delightfully as a background to the landscape upon
the rough mountains which we had just left; the island of St. Margaret
floated peacefully upon an azure sea and was an excellent completion
to a view which we badly needed to thaw our minds and recover our
taste for the south, which we were much inclined to abuse. Before
entering Cannes we saw on the right hand the villa Taylor and on the
left the villa Brougham; these looked like country houses belonging to
retired stockbrokers. Lord Brougham's villa is shut off from the road
by a great iron railing, each point of which is surmounted by a large
gilded fleur-de-lis.

From Cannes we had only nine leagues to cover to reach Nice and as it
was only nine o'clock in the morning, we hoped we might be able to
dine here yesterday, but misfortune came upon us. When we reached
Antibes, the last station before Nice, at midday, there were no horses
to be had and we were emphatically told none would be forthcoming
before four o'clock, after which hour there is no driving to Nice
because the bridge of the Var is broken down and the passage is
impossible after nightfall. We were therefore obliged to remain at
Antibes and sleep there; but where to sleep was a question. The inns
in this town are indescribable and travellers never stop there; there
are muleteer public-houses of the most disgusting appearance. A meal
was served to us which revolted us so far that we ate nothing but dry
bread, and instead of sleeping in beds which, after the previous
night, would have been very pleasant, we returned to our carriages.
Shut up in these boxes and bestowed in a stable which was half a barn,
we watched for dawn which came very late. Cats were mewing all round
us[47] and then a storm burst with as much fury as though we were in
the midst of summer; thunder, lightning and rain threatened our
miserable shelter. At last, at seven o'clock in the morning we were
delivered from our prison and started to Saint Laurent du Var. There
we were obliged to leave our carriage and embark in a little boat
which brought us after much tossing to the Sardinian customs house,
where two carbineers allowed us to warm ourselves at their fire. Our
carriage went three-quarters of a league up stream and passed the
river by a ford which was almost impracticable and very dangerous.
Meanwhile we soaked a little dry bread in the very sour wine of the
country and opposed our umbrellas to the gusts of wind and rain. At
length we reached Nice at one o'clock, amid driving rain and by a
furious sea. The hurricane continues and the waves are loudly roaring
and rising so high that they almost reach the summit of the terrace on
which stands the house where Fanny and myself occupy the second floor.
Our windows look directly on the sea and before us to the right and to
the left there is nothing else. On sunny days the reflection will be
frightful and in times of rain a vast grey sheet is confused with the
sky and forms the saddest possible outlook; the roar of the waves is
also most dismal. We have an enormous room and though it has a
fireplace, it is very cold. My room is small and might be warm but the
chimney smokes; everything is very dirty, as the old houses in Nice
generally are. I cannot describe the general impression of sadness and
desolation which comes over us. The better side of the situation which
consoles us for all the rest is to see Pauline, who is neither better
nor worse than when I left her seven months ago, as she is still
suffering from her throat; she is thin and looks feverish, but her
illness has not been aggravated. She and her family are at one end of
the quarter which is known here as _La Terrasse_, while I am at the

  [47] The Duchesse de Talleyrand had an innate and instinctive
  fear of cats which she was never able to conquer.

_Nice, December 22, 1841._--Yesterday I called upon the Grand Duchess
Stephanie between lunch and dinner; she is spending the winter here
with her daughter. She took me for a drive in her carriage upon the
jetty in weather which reminded me of the Chain Pier at Brighton. The
Grand Duchess has excellent rooms at some distance from the sea in the
midst of a charming garden, with a beautiful view of the mountains;
the house is well furnished, cheerful and clean, exactly the contrary
to mine and very little more expensive. The Grand Duchess is
infinitely better since she took the waters of Wildbad, but her
restlessness and the fidgety and flighty nature of her conversation
which her disease had checked have reappeared with an emphasis really

I had no letters from Paris yesterday: a rise in the river has carried
away the boats and made the ford impassable, so that was impossible to
pass the Var two hours after the time when we crossed it.

_Nice, December 24, 1841._--Yesterday I met a large number of
acquaintances at the house of the Grand Duchess, but few worth
mentioning apart from the de Maistre family. She puts on her cards,
_la comtesse Azelia de Maistre, née de Sieyès_. The two names look
strange side by side; however, she seems a very pleasant person, while
he has the wit of that particular kind which his name implies.

_Nice, December 25, 1841._--Yesterday after lunch I took my niece and
the Castellanes to Saint Charles, in the most beautiful weather. The
sun was almost too warm and the short walk threw one into a
perspiration; the sky was magnificent and the view beautiful, and the
smell of the roses, the violets and the orange flowers intoxicating.
On returning to the town I left a few cards, and went home to rest,
for the burning sun and the keen sea air were most fatiguing.

There is a strange custom here. On Christmas Eve and Christmas Day and
throughout the intervening night, cannons are fired every half-hour;
bands of sailors and country people go about the streets singing and
howling and making the most horrible din; for twenty-four hours this
uproar has never ceased for a moment and I should think no one has had
a wink of sleep.

_Nice, December 27, 1841._--I can remember the time when we went to
Mannheim to pay our respects to the Grand Duchess Stephanie on Saint
Stephen's Day. The same day here is being kept as a festival. At ten
o'clock she went to hear mass at the College of the Jesuits: the
Father Rector, who is kind and polite, had invited a dozen people who
were intimate with the Grand Duchess, and my daughter and myself were
included. The choral mass was very well given and we were then allowed
to follow the Grand Duchess round the whole of the establishment, an
exceptional privilege, and the ladies saw everything, even the cells
of the Fathers. In each class one of the pupils made a little speech,
simple and suitable to the occasion. We then found coffee, chocolate
and sherbet with cakes and sweets in the rector's parlour. There he
offered the Grand Duchess a reliquary containing a relic of Saint
Etienne. As she professes a great admiration for Silvio Pellico, he
added a copy of this writer's poetry, nicely bound with an autograph
letter by Pellico. The Father Rector was the support and consoler of
Pellico's mother while he was in prison, and afterwards strongly
influenced him to lead a Christian life. He is now said to be living
in unusual sanctity. This little attention which was most tastefully
offered was entirely successful. Before leaving the college we went
into the physical laboratory where we were shown some electrical
experiments. When we went away all the Fathers and pupils drew up in
line and the youngest offered the Grand Duchess a bouquet of the kind
only procurable in this country where flowers are abundant and where
their colour and perfume are incomparable. The whole morning's visit
was admirably arranged; there was no pedantry, nothing was too long,
the tactfulness and common sense of the Jesuits were quite obvious.
The pupils looked very healthy and were polite and well mannered.

After dinner we went with Fanny and the Castellanes to the Grand
Duchess. Princesse Marie had invited some fifty persons to take part
in a game of proverbs given in rhyme, which had been specially
arranged by several Russian and Italian society people and proved
quite successful.

_Nice, December 29, 1841._--Yesterday I called upon several people,
including the Comtesse Louis de Narbonne, the widow of the friend of
M. de Talleyrand and mother of Madame de Rambuteau. She is pleasant
and cheerful, but it is obvious that she has lived a great deal in the
provinces and very little with her husband. By birth she is Mlle. de
Montholon, cousin of the first husband of Madame de Sémonville.

_Nice, December 30, 1841._--Yesterday was Pauline's twenty-first
birthday and to celebrate the double anniversary of her birth and her
majority, she came to lunch with me with her husband and her little
girl. She found some small presents and a German cake with as many
candles as she had lived years. This little surprise pleased her. In
the morning I went with Fanny and her former governess to visit a
garden on the hillside protected by wooded slopes from the wind, with
a view of the mountains and the sea which is reputed to be extremely
pretty. The villa in the centre was closed, but the garden, which
contained a large number of rare flowers and is more carefully tended
than usual here, was open. We met the owner, a merchant of Nice, at
the end of a walk where he was giving instructions to his workmen. He
was very polite, loaded us with flowers and promised me some seeds for
Rochecotte; his villa is called St. Helena. We returned very pleased
with our walk, although the weather was by no means kind.

_Nice, December 31, 1841._--The Grand Duchess called yesterday when I
was finishing lunch and carried me off to see a country house near
Nice which is very well situated and remarkable for the surrounding
woods of pine-trees and holm oaks and arbutus. The shade of trees is
not often to be found here, as the gardens are usually built in
terraces looking southward and leading more or less towards the sea;
any variety of style is therefore not to be despised. Moreover
yesterday's walk reminded me of one which I had projected in the woods
around Rochecotte and pleased me for this reason. The owner is a
retired merchant and an old bachelor. He is very polite, and,
according to the custom of the country, loaded us with flowers and
gave us orangeade to drink. I thought this refreshment cold under the
circumstances, for it was by no means hot and driving had certainly
made us no warmer. I therefore walked home from the house of the Grand
Duchess to restore the circulation; the distance is about that from
the Louvre to the Arc de Triomphe in the Champs Elysées.

This is the last day of a year of which I am not sorry to see the end:
it can count as two years in my life by reason of its length; however,
it has not been entirely unfortunate; the months spent at Rochecotte
were quiet and the time while I was in Germany was not without
interest and satisfaction.

This is also the second anniversary of the death of Mgr. de Quélen. It
could not pass unnoticed by me, for he was a great loss to me, and his
regular and protecting kindness left one of those gaps which can never
be filled, for nothing can take the place of that which has been
consecrated by time.



_Nice, January 1, 1842._--Yesterday I made a very beautiful excursion
with my son-in-law. We drove to the foot of a crag on which a convent
for men is built. The church is pretty, especially by reason of a
projecting portico from which there is a beautiful view of the sea
including Nice, the Fort of Saint Elmo, and of the chief points of the
landscape in a delightful setting. We walked up to the convent which
is called Saint Pons: the religious order there established is
comparatively new, and is called _gli oblati della santissima
Virgine_; young ordained priests from the time when they are allowed
to say Mass, and until they can perform the holy office of confession,
or in other words receive the cure of souls, spend a year here in
preparation. This institution seems to me to be peculiar to Nice, and
in my opinion is a very wise idea.

_Nice, January 2, 1842._--Yesterday evening I went with the
Castellanes to the official reception given by the Governor of
Nice.[48] It is customary here that on New Year's Day every native who
has been presented at Court and all foreigners should attend this
reception, the men in uniform and the women in full dress. The idea is
that in this way one congratulates the King and Queen of Sardinia. The
ceremony somewhat resembles a London Drawing-room, or one of the great
diplomatic routs at Paris. There were some curious figures, but on the
whole the society was unexceptionable and the crowd suffocating. Some
games were made up in the last reception-room where it was not so
hot, and refreshments went round, while flowers, which are never
wanting here, were to be seen everywhere in profusion, and the light
was brilliant. The whole scene looked very well. I went round the
rooms twice, once on my son-in-law's arm and the second time with the
Duke of Devonshire, who pays me much attention. The Grand Duchess was
covered with diamonds but not with beauty, for she had no head-dress,
which made her look old. The Princesse Marie also looks better when
she is not so over-dressed.

  [48] Comte de Maistre.

_Nice, January 3, 1842._--The churches here are most displeasing. It
is very difficult to sit down and one is surrounded by dirty and
unpleasant people who spit and are verminous. The architecture is also
spoilt by wretched rags of gilt and silken material, worn out and
torn, which make the most unpleasant effect. The singing of the
penitents, who are here organised as brotherhoods, is by no means
melodious. Apart from what I saw of the Jesuit college, nothing in the
way of religion edifies me here. In the streets you are attacked by
the most hideous beggars; all the staircases are crowded with them and
are so filthy that one's skirts are only fit to throw away when one
gets home.

_Nice, January 4, 1842._--It is grey damp weather, and one might think
oneself at Brighton; it has lasted now for three days and makes one
think one is being swindled. When the weather was bright there was
always the possibility of catching some inflammation of the chest,
because the bitter wind counteracts the heat of the sun and therefore
becomes the more dangerous. When the sun goes down the wind certainly
falls, and then we are confronted by the great grey expanse of the sea
which looks like a shroud prepared for our burial. We might still be
at Paris or London.

I hear from Paris that the condemnation of Dupoty will probably be
attacked by an appeal to the Chamber of Deputies upon grounds of
illegality.[49] However, the nomination of M. Sauzet to the Presidency
by a great majority is a good omen for the Ministry. It is not yet
known what will be the consequence of Salvandy's return from Madrid;
he declined to hand the letters accrediting him as ambassador to
Espartero; the Ambassadors at Paris consider that he was quite right,
and quote as a precedent a similar case under Louis XIV.

  [49] Dupoty, an ardent republican, had vigorously opposed the
  July Government in certain newspapers under his management. When
  Quesnel made his attempt upon the life of the Duc d'Aumale in
  1841, Dupoty was prosecuted and brought before the Chamber of
  Peers on a charge of moral complicity. He was condemned to five
  years imprisonment, and did not recover his liberty until the
  amnesty of 1844.

_Nice, January 4, 1842._--I hear from Paris that the second trial
before the Chamber of Peers will not be protracted or complicated. The
revelations made by the accused, who have been condemned to death
though they will not be executed, have made it possible to arrest some
sixty individuals, all from the same class; only four or five of them
will be brought up for sentence, who are somewhat above the working
class and are most deeply compromised. It is said that the most
important result of this second trial will be to show the ties
existing between the Communists, the party of equality and the reform
party, to which M. Arago and others belong, and of which M. Dupoty was
the secretary.

The question of etiquette which hindered Salvandy in Spain is largely
occupying men's minds. M. Guizot said that he sent precise
instructions to Salvandy to return if Espartero persisted in his
refusal to allow him to present his letters to the little Queen. His
return was expected. It is somewhat derogatory to France that her
Ambassador should be allowed to depart because he claims a natural
right. When Cellamare and some other ambassador came to Paris, they
handed their letters of credit to Louis XV. who was then six years of
age and not to the Duc d'Orléans who was acting as Regent. This has
been constantly repeated but produces no effect at Madrid.

_Nice, January 6, 1842._--Yesterday it snowed for several hours in
succession, at Nice, of all places. An icy wind was blowing which
froze us though we were sitting close round the stove in which I am
burning an enormous quantity of fir-cones and sticks of olive wood
which are sold here by the pound, and though my extravagance in this
respect is ruinous I cannot get warm.

_Nice, January 7, 1842._--Yesterday it snowed nearly all day and the
snow remained so long upon the ground that on the terrace which
divides my house from the sea, and which is a public walk, all the
street boys of Nice gathered and made large snowballs which they
hurled with savage and animal yells at every passer by. I watched this
strange spectacle from my windows as I did not go out all day.

My huge room reduces me to despair for two reasons; in the first place
because it cannot possibly be heated and in the second because it has
brought down upon me a demand for an evening reception, issued by the
Grand Duchess. I gave in, though with some regret, for it is always
more or less of an inconvenience and I am extremely lazy. I have
therefore handed over the room to Princesse Marie, to Fanny and to
Pauline: I have ordered my son-in-law to make all the necessary
arrangements and have declared that I will have nothing to do with it
except pay the bills and receive the visitors. It is well for youth to
be at work. The Grand Duchess wishes to get up a quadrille and is
stirring Nice to its foundations for that purpose. The reception is to
take place on Monday next, the 10th. There are a hundred and fifty
people on my list: it will be called a tea with dancing; the quadrille
will be given by twelve ladies representing the months of the year and
four children representing the seasons; these details may not be quite
accurate as I am not interfering in the business. The Grand Duchess
and Pauline, who is more vigorous now than I have seen her for a long
time, together with Comte Eugène de Césole, settle all these matters
at the house of the Grand Duchess; I shall only abandon my room upon
the morning of the day.

_Nice, January 11, 1842._--My reception took place yesterday. It was
not exactly a ball but a tea with a little music, after which there
were several figure dances, a mazurka and two waltzes. It was all over
by one o'clock.

When Count Pahlen left Paris, our embassy at St. Petersburg received
orders not to appear at Court on St. Nicholas' Day and the ambassadors
pleaded illness as an excuse. M. de Kisseleff and all the Russians
were then ordered not to appear at the Tuileries on New Year's Day. On
this subject Barante writes as follows: "I had been expecting for some
time that the strange idea of showing some personal feeling, apart
from Cabinet policy, would oblige the Emperor to form a definite
resolution. I think, however, that at present he will try to make his
action as little resolute as possible. Probably the return of Count
Pahlen will be indefinitely delayed."

Apart from this our Ministry has a majority and seems well content.

_Nice, January 13, 1842._--I hear from Paris that M. de Salvandy has
been ordered to return with all his attachés; his embassy will have
been of very short duration. Thus we are on as bad terms with the
extreme south of Europe as with the extreme north. Every one is agreed
in saying that Espartero's demands were inadmissible and that he was
urged to them by England.

_Nice, January 16, 1842._--At St. Petersburg invitations have been
withdrawn which had been sent to Casimir-Perier[50] for several
parties, while the boxes at the theatre to the right and left of his
own have been vacated by orders of the authority. What will be the end
of all this?

  [50] Then French Chargé d'Affaires at St. Petersburg.

_Nice, January 17, 1842._--Yesterday I spent the latter half of the
morning with the wife of the governor, the Comtesse de Maistre, who
was at home with her family. Her sister-in-law[51] who is unmarried,
is a clever person. M. de Maistre is an excellent talker and Madame de
Maistre seems a most pleasant woman; I have spent the most enjoyable
visits here, as regards conversation, that Nice can offer.

  [51] Afterwards Madame de Terray; she was born in 1787.

_Nice, January 19, 1842._--Yesterday was a charming day and I went for
a walk for two hours with my son-in-law, strolling by the sea,
watching the poor galley slaves at work in the harbour; observing the
effects of the sunlight on the sea and the brilliant reflections upon
the mountains, the upper parts of which were covered with snow;
watching also the ships with their lateen sails, and from time to time
exchanging a few words with acquaintances who were attracted by this
charming day to follow our example.

Madame de la Redorte writes from Paris that an unparalleled ovation
has been given by the Carlist party to the Russian Chargé d'Affaires,
M. de Kisseleff, after the outburst of personal feeling: he was
triumphantly received at their club without any suggestion on his
part. However, he has been invited to the great hall at the Tuileries
and I presume he will appear there. She also says that the intimacy
between M. Guizot and Madame de Lieven has become of such a character
as to arouse public feeling, and that reference will probably be made
to it in the Chamber of Deputies. The newspapers apparently take no
notice of the matter.

_Nice, January 20, 1842._--I spent yesterday morning in preparing the
decorations for a quadrille which has been entrusted to my care. After
dinner I dressed the hair of my four ladies; their entrance to the
ball with their four gentlemen was most successful; Pauline and Fanny
in blue and black, Madame de Césole and an Italian lady in rose and
black, all four covered with diamonds and wearing the Spanish mantilla
very gracefully. M. de Césole and Frederick Leveson, the son of Lord
Granville, were the blue knights, while Lord Aston and a young Russian
were the knights in rose colour. It was a pretty ball, excellently
lighted, with a large number of tasteful and fashionable costumes, but
I thought our quadrille was the prettiest of all. Madame de Césole and
Pauline were the queens of the entertainment. Madame de Césole has a
very Spanish face, and though worn by the cares of six children in
immediate succession, she is still very pretty with the help of a
little adornment; she is a very nice and pleasant person. Pauline
looks quite beautiful: she is, moreover, very fashionable, much sought
after, and takes the lead, more or less, everywhere. She seems to
please every one, even the most serious, and her success makes her the
more beautiful.

_Nice, January 21, 1842._--I have a letter from the Duc de Noailles
announcing the marriage of his daughter to their cousin Maurice. He
then devoted four pages to eulogising the talent of Mlle. Rachel and
told me that he is advising her to play Célimène, and that the chief
advice he has given is to be deeply in love, as the whole secret of
the part consists in that.

Yesterday the weather was very fine and I took advantage of it to
ascend with my son-in-law, on foot, an imposing mountain which
separates old from new Nice; a winding path has been made by which the
ascent is comparatively easy. From the summit the view over the sea at
certain times discloses not only the island of Sainte Marguerite, but
also Corsica; to right and left the old and new town are spread out as
in a panorama, while at the back one sees a circle of hills which shut
in Nice from the north; these hills are covered with villas, churches
and convents and stand out against a background of fine rocks which
are over-topped by snow-covered peaks. The variety and extent of the
view make this walk interesting. On the top of the mountain upon a
wide expanse are to be found the remains of an old ruined fort.

_Nice, January 24, 1842._--Yesterday after dinner I went to the Grand
Duchess Stephanie, to hear a new play by Scribe read; it is making
some stir in Paris and is called _The Chain_. It was read to us by M.
de Maistre, who is a good reader. The play is in five acts; the
dialogue is witty, the plot well developed and the stage management
perfect, in short it is distinctly interesting, but to me the
triviality of style characteristic of the author was obvious and an
excessive complication of incident spoils the rapidity of the action
and fatigues the spectator for the moment. On the stage it should go
very well.

Barante writes: "Our little quarrel with Russia seems to be composed;
pinpricks have been answered by pinpricks. The Emperor is pleased to
let the matter drop and perhaps will behave more carefully in future.
It is said that Count Pahlen may be back in six weeks. The fears of
all the Russians here that they may be recalled from their dear Paris
are quite amusing.

"M. de Salvandy is to arrive to-day, after an extraordinary experience
as ambassador. The result would have been the same with any one else,
but I am assured that his language, his attitude and his despatches
have been something unheard-of in the annals of diplomacy. I am sorry,
for he is an upright and excellent man of talent and sound judgment."
So much for Barante. I have also a letter from Salvandy himself dated
January 16 and written from Tours on his way back to Paris: "For six
weeks I have lived in the midst of constant annoyance and
apprehension, and continual work, with more despatches than any
energetic and permanent embassy ever produced, has filled my days and
my nights. I have encountered difficulties which I pointed out and in
the face of which I received the strongest reassurances, but hateful
intrigues rendered them insurmountable. For sixteen days no written
message reached me and even ordinary couriers have been stopped. I
protracted negotiations as long as possible, and cut them short when I
was bound either to flee or to be driven away. Now what is to be done?
One point I will guarantee, that France can do what she wishes in
Spain; Spain has offered me full satisfaction for the insolence
suggested to her authorities. At Bayonne I found an excellent note
from Lord Aberdeen, hoping that English influence was not to be found
in this matter and pronouncing in favour of the principles supported
by France. At Paris I shall learn what will be the result of the

_Nice, January 26, 1842._--The Duchesse d'Albuféra writes telling me
that M. de Salvandy has returned to Paris and says that a large number
of ridiculous observations are attributed to him; for instance, he is
said to have written from Tolosa, "The French Embassy is touching the
Pyrenees and to-morrow will pass the Bidassoa." At every stage he sent
his attachés one after the other, riding headlong to Paris to announce
his progress. He has left the young son of M. Decazes at Madrid as
Chargé d'Affaires. The unanimous assent of the Cortes to Espartero's
demands further complicates the question.

The new _Stabat_ by Rossini is now the rage at Paris; it is said to be
superb but by no means religious, and I hear that secular words would
suit the composition quite as well. In any case it is enough to show
that this fine musical genius is not dead, as might have been feared
in view of his long silence. Grisi is said to be admirable in the
solos of this _Stabat_; her head has been turned by the singer Mario;
her husband wishes to separate from her but she declines for some
reason unknown, while the refusal obliges her at this moment, for some
reason unknown to me, to pay her husband eight hundred thousand
francs, which by no means pleases the lady. She expressed her grief to
Lablache who advised her, with his inimitable Italian accent, to have
the separation rather than to pay and said, "But what does it matter
to you? Everybody knows that you are a bad lot!" In view of so
excellent a quotation, I make no further comment.

_Nice, January 28, 1842._--Yesterday I called upon Princesse Marie who
is confined to the house by indisposition. She told me of several
royal marriages: that of Princess Marie of Prussia, the king's cousin,
with the Crown Prince of Bavaria; this is a mixed marriage, but all
the children will be brought up as Catholics. One of the young
princesses of Bavaria is to marry the Hereditary Archduke of Modena;
the Crown Prince of Sardinia will marry one of the daughters of the
Archduke, who is Viceroy of Milan; while the Princess of Nassau, the
half-sister of the reigning duke, is to marry the Prince of Neuwied. I
wish that some husband could be found for poor Marie herself. I think
this would be the best remedy for her mother's terrible attacks of

Madame de Lieven writes as follows: "Salvandy has been wanting in
tact, Aston in goodwill, and the Spanish Government in common sense;
for all this is obviously against its interests. Attempts have been
made to point this out through other powers. Recent events at Madrid
regarding the point of etiquette remove all possibility that
Espartero's regency will be of long duration. The English Cabinet has
espoused the cause of France, but somewhat late, for Salvandy had then
gone, while Aston had previously supported the claims of Espartero.
However, English opinion has been noted and will have full weight.

"I need say nothing further concerning the so-called indisposition of
Périer and Kisseleff, as it has come to an end. My brother tells me
that our Ambassador will shortly return here.

"The King of Prussia has actually gone to England.[52] Imagine that
when he reached Ostend the English ships had not arrived. In general,
people think that the King of Prussia has been more than obliging;
certainly no great Sovereign ever did as much. Lord Melbourne will be
present at the baptism, the Palmerstons have been invited for another
day, and Lady Jersey I should think not at all. She has not seen the
Queen since her husband was chief equerry. I do not know why King
Leopold is not to be present at the baptism. It is strange."

  [52] King Frederick William went to England for the baptism of
  the Prince of Wales, to whom he stood godfather.

_Nice, February 2, 1842._--This is a day which used always to be kept
as a festival in our house; M. de Talleyrand was born on February 2,
1754; he would now be eighty-eight years of age, and has been dead
nearly four years. As one advances in life these painful anniversaries
which mark progress with bitter memories become more frequent.

Yesterday I paid a visit to France with the Grand Duchess and a fairly
numerous company, that is to say, we crossed the Var and went to the
castle of Villeneuve which belongs to M. de Panis, a Provençal
gentleman of considerable wealth and importance. I had met him before
at the house of one of his cousins. He spends his winters at this
residence near the Var: he has restored it and if he had not daubed
the old walls and the great towers with yellow paint, it would be as
remarkable for its architecture as it is for its position and the

_Nice, February 7, 1842._--Yesterday in consequence of a headache I
missed one of the chief amusements of Italy, the battle of confetti,
which takes place on the Sunday before Ash Wednesday. Everybody was
upon the promenade throwing handfuls, and I met people in the evening
who had thrown so energetically that they could not raise their arms.
This festival is a great delight to all the street boys who yell so
loudly that I could hear them in my bed. A little French warship is in
the harbour here: the crew disembarked and came on to the promenade
and the sailors in holiday attire danced a special dance of their own.
It was said to be very pretty. My son-in-law has invited the officers
of the brig to be present at an entertainment given at his house this

There is a strange custom in force here during the carnival: in the
morning all the streets are full of masks and gaiety reaches the
height of insanity, but at nightfall the masks disappear and every
member of a confraternity assumes the dress of a penitent; men and
women alike with candles in their hands follow processions which
emerge at the same moment from every church, to the sound of bells;
the priest bearing the holy sacrament under a canopy concludes the
procession. Wherever these processions go they produce a strange
effect: there are penitents in grey, white, black and red and every
one in the streets falls upon their knees; the penitents sing and wave
their candles and the general spectacle is rather gloomy than
edifying. When these processions are over the masked balls begin. The
processions are intended to expiate or counterbalance the excesses of
the carnival.

_Nice, February 8, 1842 (Shrove Tuesday)._--Yesterday morning was
spent in preparing Pauline's costumes. The Grand Duchess lent her some
diamonds and these with her own and mine looked very well. She was
very pretty and gave an excellent reproduction of the difficult part
of the Duchesse de Chevreuse in _A Duel under Richelieu_, which is a
high-flown melodrama: this was followed by a duo-bouffe sung by two
Italians and then came a little piece, _The Heirs_, in which my
son-in-law took the part of Alain most creditably. The whole company
acted very well, the room was pretty and all the accessories perfect.
The actors came to supper at my house and the Grand Duchess surprised
me by appearing. She insisted that my health should be drunk, as the
entertainment was given for my birthday which was on the 6th of
February but was put off to avoid falling upon a Sunday. The party did
not break up until two o'clock in the morning; it was somewhat tiring
but they all showed such kindness to me that I could not but be duly
grateful and have an agreeable recollection of it.

_Nice, February 9, 1842 (Ash Wednesday)._--Yesterday I was able to
take part in all the carnival absurdities in progress. First there was
lunch with dancing at the house of a great Russian lady, which is
situated in one of the finest gardens in Nice. We then went to Corso
where the battle of confetti had already begun. I was with the Grand
Duchess, Princesse Marie and Fanny: after driving round we halted upon
a reserved terrace from which we were able to throw our handfuls upon
the passers by; they replied from below and the most fashionable threw
little bunches of violets or roses instead of confetti or sweets.
Sweets are thrown with a kind of spoon with which they can be sent a
long way; the women wear masks of iron wire, for if these sweets are
thrown vigorously they can hurt when they strike the bare flesh. What
is remarkable but real, is the kind of fury which comes over the
coolest, and people lose their heads sooner or later. Pauline was more
excited than any one in the Corso. I was told that the late Emperor of
Austria, Francis II., who was certainly anything but a lively
character, happened to be at Rome in carnival time and took part in
the contest like a madman. Members of fashionable society show the
greatest vigour; the common people only think of picking up the
sweets. The military band was playing at the end of the promenade, the
weather was superb and we stayed out of doors until nightfall without
feeling cold. At half-past eight there was a ball given by some other
foreigners, which was by far the prettiest, the best arranged and the
most cheerful of all that have been given here.

The Grand Duchess has told me a piece of news which vexes her:
Princess Alexandrina of Baden is to marry the Hereditary Prince of
Coburg; it is hard for her to see possible husbands passing her
daughter by, seeing that Princesse Marie is far pleasanter, more
distinguished and richer than her cousin. The Grand Duchess is anxious
to know what will become of her daughter after her, especially in view
of the death of the Queen Dowager of Bavaria. She is also uneasy
concerning the Wasa family, whose affairs are terribly involved.

_Nice, February 10, 1842._--The weather yesterday was incomparable and
the month of May is not more beautiful at Paris, so after hearing the
office of the Ashes and lunching, we took advantage of the weather.
The Castellanes in their little carriage drawn by two Corsican ponies,
Fanny, Count Schulenburg, my brother-in-law, who had come from Milan
to pay me a short visit, and myself, went to Villefranche, a
picturesque little seaport; the road thither was not very easy, but
the view was admirable. A Sardinian warship was leaving the harbour
and from the top of the fort which serves as a state prison, we saw
her setting sail and making the necessary manœuvres to catch the
breeze before she left the harbour and entered the open sea. The slow
and measured movements of the fine ship gliding over a sea of marble
and diamonds, with the white sails shining in the southern sun, formed
one of the most beautiful sights conceivable and one which strikes the
mind even more than the eyes.

_Nice, February 17, 1842._--Yesterday I received the following letter
from poor Salvandy; "Since my return I have been overcome with a
constant sense of deep depression, disgust and weariness; an attack of
gout has come rather as a help than as an additional burden, as it has
excused me from going out or seeing people; only for the last few days
have I been in communication with the salons. I should need volumes to
tell you all that has astonished or saddened me upon my return. My
action has received entire approval, except as concerns my long delay
before leaving Madrid; whereas society accuses me of acting with
undue precipitation. In the comparatively narrow circle where I
thought I had my friends, I have encountered most unwelcome
malevolence. I find that my period of delay by which I hoped to
facilitate the adoption of a policy, if any were possible, has been
used to poison public feeling against me; society ladies can repeat
numberless quotations from my despatches, naturally imaginary or
distorted; ladies, moreover, whom I thought would be most likely to
take my part, as they are those who are in closest touch with the
chief officials of the department. However, as I have been obliged to
send all my despatches to the great Courts, marks of flattering
approval have been returned. Saint-Aulaire writes to say that they are
imperishable memorials of public right, and Bresson sends me a similar
message from the Prussian Court.

"The Ministerial position here seems to me very precarious. You will
see the amount of our majority yesterday; only eight votes upon the
question of incompatibility. I am inclined to think that we may do
better upon the electoral question, but MM. de Lamartine, Passy, Dupin
and Dufaure will speak against the Ministry; supposing that we are
successful in spite of this effort, a shock remains which we shall
probably not survive. What will happen then? A Cabinet without Thiers
or Guizot is difficult to form and even more difficult to maintain in
office, and if the one was not possible the other will not be yet; but
I am entirely outside this movement. On the day of my arrival when I
had an attack of gout, I hastened to pay my respects to the King, the
Prince Royal, Queen Christina and M. Guizot, being convinced that I
should not be able to do so the next day, and in fact I have been
confined for several days to my armchair."

Madame de Lieven writes to-day as follows: "The King of Prussia has
won golden opinions at London; he pleased the Court, the town, the
clergy, the journalists and the people. Even that which we from a
distance are inclined to think too sentimental has been successful in
England; I mean his acts of worship with Mrs. Fry,[53] &c. He is said
to be seriously meditating a union of the Anglican and Lutheran
churches, and it is thought that something will come of his journey to
England from this point of view. I do not think that the idea will
please his subjects and at Paris it is received with much opposition."

  [53] Mrs. Fry was a Quakeress, well known at London for her
  charity. The King of Prussia had been anxious to see her, and in
  the course of this visit she asked him to give his subjects the
  fullest liberty of conscience.

"The entertainment given to the King by the Duke of Sutherland was
fairy-like; he is said to have been greatly struck by it. Some sign of
boredom with Court life on his part is thought to have been perceived.
The Queen's evening receptions do not amuse him nor is he interested
by her conversation, or by her handsome husband playing chess like an

"Sainte-Aulaire pleases the English as much as ever and his wife will
soon start to rejoin him. Barante is awaiting the return of Pahlen.
Some people think that he will not return, but we shall see.

"The carnival was magnificent and the ball given by the Duc d'Orléans
more magnificent than any ball under the Empire or the Restoration.
People are now occupied with domestic matters; the Ministry combats
all reforms and the reformers are fairly strong.

"Lehon will not return here as ambassador. The Cowleys open their
house next week."

It is true that the King of Prussia's journey to London caused much
displeasure at Berlin. It was thought that a great Sovereign was going
to too much trouble and expense and showing too much courtesy to a
Queen so distantly related. National pride and avarice were wounded.
The presents brought by the King were magnificent and his fortnight's
tour during which he was the Queen's guest in England, is said to
have cost him a million crowns, which is an enormous sum for
poverty-stricken Prussia. Moreover the religious reunion to which
Madame de Lieven refers is exactly what Prussia does not want; the
late King, who was greatly honoured, nearly brought confusion upon
his country by interfering too constantly with religious practices and
dogma, and the seeds of ill-temper still remain in the country to the
inconvenience of the Government. If these should be restored to life,
men's minds and, what is worse, their consciences will be in a ferment
and an additional cause of discord will be introduced into a country
where religious feeling is already very sensitive.

_Nice, February 21, 1842._--Yesterday I went to the convent of Saint
Barthélemy. It is customary here to go every Sunday during Lent to
hear vespers in one of the many convents by which Nice is surrounded.
The whole population goes out, eats and drinks in front of the
churches, where toys and flowers are sold. Music and dancing are
forbidden during Lent, and popular pleasures are therefore reduced to
eating. The crowds of people, the carriages, the donkeys, and the
riding horses of strangers make the scene animated and pretty.

_Nice, February 23, 1842._--I have just heard of the death of poor
Pozzo di Borgo. It was best for him and for his family that his life
should end, as he merely vegetated. He leaves an income of four
hundred thousand francs; half to his nephew Charles, the husband of
Mlle. de Crillon, with his residence in Paris and his villa at Saint
Cloud, and the remainder to his relatives in Corsica.

_Nice, February 25, 1842._--Yesterday there was a heartrending scene
in front of my windows; a terrible storm arose which has not even
to-day sunk to rest; the unfortunate ships were struggling with the
fury of the waves the whole day, and we sat for a long time watching
their fate. Fortunately none were lost.

In spite of the terrible weather I went out to take my offering to a
collection which was being made for the Sisters of Saint Vincent de
Paul, at the hospice which they conduct. There I saw Mlle. de Maistre,
the eldest daughter of the Governor, who is twenty-one years of age
and is spending her novitiate as a Sister of Charity in the hospice.
She has a definite call to the work, and seems happy; she is said to
be clever and well educated, as all the family are; she has a
pleasant face, intelligent and calm.

M. Pasquier, I am told, is being complimented on his nomination to the
French Academy. M. Molé will introduce M. de Tocqueville, and M. de
Barante will do the same for M. Ballanche; I do not know who will
introduce M. Pasquier. M. de Tocqueville is taking the place of M. de
Cessac, formerly director of the Ministry of War under the Empire, and
not a promising subject for a eulogy; indeed, it will be difficult for
any one to treat it, and especially so for M. de Tocqueville, who does
not belong to that time either in point of age or mental habits. He
mentioned his difficulty to M. Thiers, who told him that he might
perhaps be able to help him and would give him some interesting
information, as he possesses letters from the Emperor to M. de Cessac
which he would send him. M. de Tocqueville, in fact, received the next
day, in an envelope, a letter from Napoleon to M. de Cessac, which
began as follows: "My dear Cessac, you are a fool." M. de Tocqueville
himself related this amusing incident to his cousin, the Marquis
d'Espeuil, who is here. M. d'Espeuil married Mlle. de Chateaubriand, a
near relation of M. de Tocqueville.

_Nice, February 27, 1842._--I have a letter from M. de Barante who
seems less certain concerning the return of Count Pahlen to Paris;
probably the return will be indefinitely delayed until some incident
settles the matter one way or the other. Meanwhile Périer is at St.
Petersburg and his official position is quite correct, but society
continues to regard him as an outcast, wishing to show that its sense
of patriotism and self-respect has been wounded.

Barante gives me better news of the domestic situation. The majority
of forty-one seems to be really important, as the opposition, which
combined every shade of opinion, had set all their hopes upon this
discussion. The Minister himself hardly expected so large a majority.
The speeches of M. Dufaure and M. de Lamartine were received by the
Centres with the strongest censure; every word which seemed to
conform to the doctrines of the Left aroused opposition; in short,
there is a certain reaction in favour of order and conservatism. We
have now to see if it will have any influence upon the elections. If
this hope were realised, France would be in a better position than for
the last ten years. Such at least is the idea of Barante, though he is
rather optimistic.

He also tells me that M. de Chateaubriand, whom he met at Madame
Récamier's house at the Abbaye-au-Bois, has grown surly, taciturn and
displeased with everybody and everything. Madame Récamier has a
difficult task, as her business is to soothe the touchiness of wounded
pride and to provide a series of the successes for which alone M. de
Chateaubriand cares to live. I could never feel the smallest sympathy
for this barren and vain character.

_Nice, March 3, 1842._--This evening we are to celebrate Mid-Lent by
an entertainment from which I would gladly be excused, not that I
anticipate any bad results, but because I think pleasure of this kind,
if it is not to result in a fiasco, demands more time and trouble than
it is worth. Moreover the Castellanes have given me the task of
sending out the invitations, and my fingers are worn out with writing
addresses: further, I myself and none other have to make the four
costumes of Pauline and those of Charles de Talleyrand: then they want
me to coach them in their parts; I am to receive the company; I have
also to play in a wretched little scene in the second piece, which is
trifling, but I have to learn my part and repeat it, and finally I
have to provide supper for the actors. This is too much. However, I
have spent my life in being tyrannised over by somebody, and to give
way is, I think, a part that I have least forgotten in my past life,
and I have sometimes obeyed more reluctantly than now.

_Nice, March 4, 1842._--I feel somewhat stupid this morning:
yesterday's performance was too long, and the supper which followed it
prolonged the evening still further. I think people were amused. The
prettiest part of the entertainment was the prologue composed by my
son-in-law. It was a clever criticism of the previous performance, in
which a handsome young boy satirised the different actors and
suggested a young débutante to take the place of the prima donna, who
was supposed to be suddenly indisposed: then two boys dressed as
lacqueys of the last century brought in a little sedan chair, gilded
and surmounted by a crown of lighted candles; from this chair came out
my little girl, Marie, in full dress of the time of Louis XV.,
powdered wig, long dress and many diamonds. Nothing could have been
prettier, more dignified, more stately and gracious. On leaving her
chair she went round the stage exactly like a great lady. The prologue
was charming and was greatly appreciated; I foolishly began to weep
with emotion on seeing the gracefulness of this dear child. The
melodrama was very well played: the _Malade Imaginaire_ was not
sufficiently well known or taken sufficiently briskly; moreover it
made the entertainment much too long. The costumes of the melodrama
were magnificent, and in the _Malade Imaginaire_ were precisely those
of Molière's age. To conclude, the three couplets at the end, composed
by the Grand Duchess, were charming and in the best of taste.

_Nice, March 14, 1842._--Prince Wasa arrived here yesterday from
Florence, where he has left his wife, to pay a few days' visit to his
mother-in-law, the Grand Duchess Stephanie. I think she would have
been glad to avoid this attention. She took him about everywhere as
soon as he arrived, and we met them on the French schooner, commanded
by M. de Clérambault. A party of us, including the Castellanes, Fanny,
Charles de Talleyrand and myself, paid a visit to this vessel and to
the yacht of Lord Ranelagh, which is also at anchor in the harbour at
Nice. M. de Clérambault was a comrade of my son, M. de Dino, when he
was serving in the Navy. I was much impressed to see in his cabin,
round his mother's portrait, a rosary and a little crucifix which had
been given him by the Pope on the condition that he would hang them up
in his cabin, which he scrupulously does. This young officer greatly
distinguished himself at the capture of Saint Juan d'Ulloa[54] and
was decorated in consequence at the age of twenty-eight. What a pity
my son did not follow the same career.

  [54] High-handed action in Mexico to the detriment of French
  residents obliged the French Government to raise claims in 1837,
  which produced no result. A French fleet then blockaded the fort
  of Saint Juan d'Ulloa, which commands the entrance to Vera Cruz.
  The fleet, under the command of Rear-Admiral Baudin, captured the
  fort on November 27, 1838, after a resistance of several months,
  and then obliged the Mexican Government to sign a treaty at Vera
  Cruz on March 9, 1839.

_Nice, March 15, 1842._--Yesterday morning was devoted to the open
air. The Grand Duchess had arranged a picnic of twenty people,
including ourselves. We drove, each from our own starting-places, to
an inn situated at the top of a mountain which rises between the bay
of Nice and that of Villefranche; then returning by another mountain
we went to Beaulieu, where we lunched under great olive-trees. After
this we mounted donkeys and followed a rather narrow path round the
bay of Saint-Soupir and reached Saint-Hospice, where Lord Ranelagh's
yacht was lying. The weather was so fine, the sea so calm and the
distance so short that even I was persuaded to venture. However, far
from being contrary, the wind was so light that we hardly moved, and
spent an hour and a half in returning to Nice, a journey usually made
in half an hour.

_Nice, March 18, 1842._--Madame de Lieven writes that Sainte-Aulaire
is giving great satisfaction, both at London and at Paris, but there
is and will be, none the less, a certain amount of friction between
the two Cabinets. The King of Prussia will go to St. Petersburg at the
end of June.

M. Bresson writes that Count Maltzan is not likely to take the
portfolio of Foreign Affairs, and it is not yet known whether the King
will decide to replace him with Kanitz or Bülow. The two men represent
divergent views. Kanitz is a pietist and legitimist, while Bülow is
neither one nor the other.

_Nice, March 21, 1842._--For some days I have been feeling distinctly
ill, and the day before yesterday my feverishness became so pronounced
that I was obliged to go to bed, and was soon afterwards covered with
an eruption all over my body. It is an epidemic which has been
prevalent here for the last fortnight, and is called in Italian
_rosalia_; it is a medium between scarlatina and measles, and is less
malignant than either of these diseases, though at the same time it
makes the patient feel very ill.

_Nice, March 24, 1842._--People here are very kind, and every one
shows more interest in me than I deserve on account of my illness. The
Grand Duchess came to see me as soon as her daughter was attacked by
the same disease, and her fears of carrying infection were removed.
The Comtesse Adèle de Maistre, a sister of the Governor--a kind,
clever, and benevolent saint, who has taken a fancy to me--nurses me
as if I was her sister, for which I am deeply grateful. The good prior
of the Récollets de Cimier heard from his mendicant brother, who
brings me flowers in exchange for what I put in his wallet, that I was
ill, and came to see me; I was very glad to see him. The doctor
assures me that my convalescence is in sight, and that in a few days
he will allow me to go into the open air. In this climate eruptive
sicknesses are not as serious as they are elsewhere.

_Nice, March 27, 1842._--Society here is about to disperse. However,
some foreign families remain at Nice even during the summer; the
climate and the cheapness of living induces many people to stay, if
not permanently, at any rate for several years in succession.

This morning I was suddenly aroused by cannon-shots, announcing Easter
Day. These, with the rattles of the street boys and the guns of the
garrisons, made an appalling uproar. Yesterday all the houses, and
every room in every house, were blessed by one of the parish priests,
who sprinkles all the dwellings with water, and is followed by a

A letter from Germany, which I have just received, gives me some news
of considerable importance to my personal interests. My nephew has
definitely refused to agree to the arrangement proposed by his mother,
and my sister has sold me the whole of the allodial part of Sagan, or
the part which she claimed to be subject to this condition. This will
considerably complicate my business, and will absolutely force me to
travel to Prussia next year.

_Nice, March 29, 1842._--Yesterday I went for a drive, and left cards
upon all who had inquired for me during my illness. I feel that the
open air did me much good.

M. de Barante writes to say that M. de Rémusat is giving readings from
a work called _Abélard_;[55] he speaks of it as a singular production
in dramatic form, the reading of which will occupy three sessions of
three hours each--a very long period.

  [55] This work by M. de Rémusat eventually appeared in 1845; it
  contains a masterly exposition of Abélard's teaching and his
  scholastic philosophy.

_Nice, March 30, 1842._--I hope soon to leave this town, and I shall
write more freely as soon as I am on French territory; for in the
Sardinian states before a letter arrives or leaves its starting-place,
it has generally been opened several times. The traces are obvious,
and this knowledge has often paralysed my pen.

_Nice, April 1, 1842._--Yesterday evening I went to a great ball given
by the Duke of Devonshire, as a conclusion to the season at Nice. Like
everything that he does, it was magnificent; the lighting of the hall
was especially novel and beautiful; there were no chandeliers, but
three great arches formed of palm branches and surmounted with a row
of candles; each of these arches was placed upon the pillars at each
side of the hall, a most novel and tasteful device. I there said
good-bye to all the company present. I leave Nice fairly well
satisfied with my stay. There have been some drawbacks, but the good
side outweighs the bad, and my general recollections will be pleasant.

_Aix-en-Provence, April 3, 1842._--I left Nice yesterday and was very
sorry to part from the Castellane trio. They are no less sorry at my
departure. The weather was superb, the sea a deep blue, the flowers
abundant and the road admirable as far as Cannes. The hills of the
Esterel were still somewhat rough. I came on here without stopping,
hoping to find the Abbé Dupanloup and to have a talk with him. I only
missed him by an hour. He has been forced to go forward without
stopping, owing to the regulations of the postal service; he left me a
little note expressing his regret. I am now starting for Nîmes and
shall go by way of Arles, a road which I do not know. Nîmes I visited
during my first journey to the south, in 1817, a terribly long time

_Nîmes, April 5, 1842._--I arrived here yesterday evening. It was
raining when we passed by Arles and I was unable to visit the points
of interest. I was especially struck by the new and magnificent road,
full of works of art, which crosses the most frightful country in the
world and leads here from Aix. First of all it crosses a district
called the Crau, which is horribly sterile and is composed of nothing
but pebbles. Water has been drawn from the Durance to irrigate this
accursed land by an infinity of little canals. It can only be hoped
that these measures may evoke a little vegetation. From Arles onwards
the country is less ugly, though the Camargue is not beautiful, and
apart from some wild oxen I saw nothing curious. The girls of Arles
have a great reputation for their beauty and their pretty costumes.
Here I was unfortunate, for I saw nothing but very ugly faces and very
dirty and slovenly dresses.

My travelling companions, Fanny, her governess and Charles de
Talleyrand are starting to see the Pont du Gard which I saw a long
time ago. On their return we shall visit the curiosities of the town
and go on together to Montpellier.

_Montpellier, April 6, 1842._--Yesterday we visited the antiquities of
Nîmes, which I was glad to see again. They are well preserved, and I
can remember that some years ago they made me understand the charm of
real proportion. Unfortunately the weather is wretched and it is very
vexing to encounter rain in a country which constantly suffers from

_Toulouse, April 8, 1842._--We left Montpellier the day before
yesterday at the end of the morning. I gave lunch to the Rector of the
Academy[56] and to his eldest daughter who is my goddaughter, for her
mother, who died of the cholera, had been brought up with me, and I
have always kept up my connection with this very estimable family.
Then we went to see the Fabre[57] museum which is poor, and the better
chosen and better arranged museum of the Marquis of Montcalm. Finally,
under umbrellas, we went round the famous promenade of Peyrou. In good
weather, which we did not enjoy yesterday, the sea, the Pyrenees, the
Cévennes and the Alps, can be seen from a certain point. All that we
could see was the castle, the aqueducts and the equestrian statue of
Louis XIV.

  [56] At that time M. Gergonne, officer of the Legion of Honour.

  [57] The museum of Montpellier is now one of the best of
  provincial museums. It was founded in 1825 by Fabre, who returned
  to his native town after a stay of forty years in Italy, and
  brought with him a fine collection of pictures, some of which
  came to him from Alfieri, several works of art and a valuable
  library, which he bequeathed to the town of Montpellier on his

_Bordeaux, April 10, 1842._--We came on here from Toulouse without
stopping. The weather was better but a bitter wind succeeded the rain,
and I am now taking care of myself by the fire while the others
explore the town. I have repeatedly visited the south of France and
can now afford to take my travelling duties easily. To-day we shall
start again, and the day after to-morrow, if God wills, we shall sleep
at Rochecotte. I am longing to be at rest in my own dear home.

Letters from Berlin say that Bülow is really to succeed Maltzan. He
owes his triumph to the fact that he is the opposite of Kanitz.
Maltzan is in a sanatorium at Charlottenberg.

Madame de Lieven has fallen a victim to influenza: M. Guizot does not
leave her bedside; both are absolute devotees to music. M. Guizot will
talk of nothing else and professes inability to sleep after visiting
the opera. He is the subject of much ridicule in consequence.

The military manœuvres this summer will extend from Alsace to
Champagne. Such towns as Châlons, Vitry, &c., will be attacked. The
Duc d'Orléans will lead the forces.

_Rochecotte, April 13, 1842._--At last I am at home again!

At Bordeaux while we were at lunch I had an unexpected call from the
Abbé Genoude. I have often met him on different occasions, but never
in my own house. He was staying in the same hotel, had just been
preaching, and so paid me this unexpected attention. He is a clever
and even an agreeable man, and is anxious to be gracious and
insinuating. I was extremely polite, as he is not a good subject for
rebuffs, but I went no further. As he went out he drew Charles de
Talleyrand aside; he often used to see his mother in times past, and
told him that his newspaper was entirely at my orders[58] if at any
time I wished to insert anything. This is very strange and very
characteristic of the age.

  [58] The Abbé Genoude was manager of the _Gazette de France_.

_Rochecotte, April 16, 1842._--I have a letter from Toulouse from the
Castellanes. They are waiting until the sea will allow them to cross
to Corsica; however, if the weather does not moderate in two days they
intend to go to Perpignan by land. I hope I shall find that they have
executed this latter idea.

_Rochecotte, April 17, 1842._--The Castellanes have decided for

  [59] The sight of the Corsican coast and the reading of Mérimée's
  novel, _Colomba_, which had just appeared in the _Revue des Deux
  Mondes_, stirred the enterprising character of the Marquis de
  Castellane to anxiety to make this journey, which he carried out
  with his family, and the excursion, which was somewhat
  adventurous at that time, lasted nearly two weeks. On his return
  to France he went to Perpignan, where the commandant was his
  father, the Comte de Castellane, who had been appointed
  Lieutenant-General after his return from the siege of Antwerp.

Sainte-Aulaire writes to me from London as follows: "I have not left
my most troublesome task to the end of my labours: the failure to
ratify the treaty, the controversy concerning Algiers, and more than
all the Anglophobia which our press maintains and proclaims, has made
my political position somewhat difficult. Beneath all this friction,
however, there is a desire and a necessity upon either side to avoid a
breach. Upon this I am attempting to work and it will eventually have
its effect. I am very kindly treated by society. The Court is cold but

M. de Salvandy writes from Paris; "Politics are pervaded by a cold
and morose spirit. M. Guizot's influence is now predominant. Questions
concerning the right of visitation are causing him much trouble and
perplexity. The King is very busy with the Spanish question and that
of marriage; the mission of M. Pageot is bearing fruit; the vetos
which I have advised and secured have obviated resolutions which would
have been disgraceful and dangerous. Only a Bourbon will reign over
Spain. Meanwhile M. Molé is turning to literature: on Thursday he will
introduce M. de Tocqueville to the French Academy; if fortune favours
him, this will be an event, for he is gaining ground and strengthening
his position by absence and retirement. Of the three rivals, Thiers
loses ground whether he is in action or repose: M. Guizot is likely to
lose by action what he gains by speech; M. Molé is strengthening his
position by inaction and silence after improving it in the struggle."

_Rochecotte, April 21, 1842._--There is to be an entertainment to-day
at the Tuileries. _Polyeucte_ and _Richard Cœur de Lion_ will be

The Queen is to take a seat in the Academy this morning for the
reception of M. de Tocqueville by M. Molé; these formalities are
becoming quite fashionable.

Public opinion in Paris is rising against England and shows some
exasperation concerning the right of visitation. We are assured that
the electors will require from the deputies undertakings in their
manifestoes not to yield upon this point. Madame de Lieven, who is
generally optimistic, is said to be much depressed and to be repeating
that things are going wrong. At London the one topic is a fancy dress
ball for May 12 which has thrown the ladies into great excitement;
they are sending to Paris for pictures and models.

Pauline writes to me from Ajaccio that she is very pleased with her
expedition and she has already forgotten the thirty-six hours'
seasickness and is on her way to Sardinia with her husband. This news
arouses considerable misgivings in my mind, but her energy shows that
she is strong again and at any rate it keeps her away from the cold of
Auvergne; moreover, if she is interested and happy what more can be

_Rochecotte, April 22, 1842._--Barante writes on the evening before
the session of the Academy, to which I have referred: "The session
will be very fine: both speeches are quite remarkable; it will be a
grave but courteous tournament on the questions of the Revolution, the
Empire and the Democracy. M. Royer-Collard is delighted by the
prospect; public opinion is quite eager and the Academy pleased to
find itself so fashionable. I fear that when I introduce M. Ballanche
next week I shall not come off so well, for the work of the subject of
my speech obliges me to give a philosophical address which is perhaps
a little too solemn both for the occasion and the audience.

"Politics are entirely preoccupied by questions of railway
construction, and how the deputies will disentangle these matters I do
not know."

_Rochecotte, April 24, 1842._--My letters from Paris and the
newspapers are full of the speeches of M. Molé and of M. de
Tocqueville: they agree in saying that the former was quite successful
and the latter extremely wearisome; what I have read myself in the
_Journal des Débats_ leaves me with the same impression.

The newspapers report the death of Marshals Moncey and Clausel.

_Rochecotte, April 25, 1842._--So far as I can hear the methods of
amusement adopted by young ladies of the present day are quite
unparalleled; the clique known as the _lionnes_ devise forms of
entertainment worthy of the Regency. On this question I remember the
answer of M. de Talleyrand to a young lady who replied somewhat rudely
that during his youth people were just as bad; "that may be," said M.
de Talleyrand, "but not in the same way."

Madame Mollien sends me an account of the entertainment at the
Tuileries. She says that the room when every one had taken their
places was a fine sight, but that order was preceded by a period of
utter chaos. The authorities had resolved that everybody should make
their way to the drawing-room and follow the Royal Family. The result
was that the last princess was followed by a general rush of all the
ladies, without any respect for rank or position: the crowd grew
denser as it advanced, and the rush degenerated into a battle; Madame
de Toreno lost her mantilla, and this part of the proceedings was
perfection of its kind. The dramatic performance was dull: although
the King set the example by applauding, he was not imitated; a want of
harmony between the audience and the stage was obvious. M. Thiers went
sound asleep.

Paris is raised to universal enthusiasm by a portrait of the Duc
d'Orléans which Ingres had just painted and which is said to be

_Rochecotte, April 17, 1842._--The castle of Coblentz is being rebuilt
as a royal residence: eight hundred workmen are now occupied in making
it habitable for next autumn, as the King of Prussia proposes to spend
September and October there.

The following is a copy of M. Royer-Collard's opinion of the session
of the Academy: "M. Molé carried off the honours and overshadowed M.
de Tocqueville, in my opinion, unjustly. I had read the speeches and
was keenly interested by M. de Tocqueville's, although I could foresee
that it would not rouse the sympathies of the audience. Elevation of
thought, some admirable passages and fine ideas, did not
counterbalance the accuracy of the criticism. I then learnt that the
Emperor and the Empire have a greater influence over men's minds than
I was aware. M. Molé had realised the fact more clearly than myself
and had turned it to excellent account: to considerable talent and an
infinite power of dissimulation he adds a sprightliness of delivery
which will never be surpassed. The laudation of the Empire and the
blackening of the democracy were the vengeance which he took upon the
superior speech of M. de Tocqueville." M. Royer-Collard has announced
that he will no longer come forward as a candidate for election;
probably one of his nephews will take his place in the next Chamber.

Here is an extract from Madame de Lieven's letter; as always, I give
it word for word: "There is very little prospect of seeing Pahlen back
at Paris. People think that Gourieff will possibly be sent: he is a
clever man and immensely rich; his wife is still pretty and inclined
to flirtation, so these qualities will suit Paris very well. You will
be sorry to hear of the misfortune which overtook M. Humann this
morning; he has just had an apoplectic stroke and there is no hope of
his recovery. You used to see him often at Baden as I sometimes did,
and both of us liked him. He was a figure of some importance, and it
will be difficult to find any one to take his place. Queen Victoria is
wholly occupied with her fancy dress ball: she will appear as Queen
Philippa and insists that her Court should wear costumes of that age;
Lord Jersey is obliged to agree, much to his consternation. His
married daughter has arrived at Vienna[60] and Prince Paul Esterhazy
wishes to go to London in order to prevent Lady Jersey from following
her daughter. It is even said that he wishes to retain his post, but
Metternich asserts that the ambassador does not reside at Vienna. Paul
Medem is in high favour with the Metternich household. Arnim is going
away on leave and Bernstorff will take his place meanwhile. I am
astonished that Bülow should have sent him here; I have an idea that
Bülow will endeavour to be a very interfering Minister. Queen
Isabella's marriage occupies the attention of every Cabinet, including
that of Vienna, but no one knows what the end of the affair will be."

  [60] On February 8, 1842, Prince Nicolas Esterhazy had married
  Lady Sarah Villiers, daughter of Lord and Lady Jersey.

I am sorry to hear of M. Humann's death: he was kind and obliging, and
was a man of original and distinguished talent; only a week ago he
spoke very kindly of me to the Duchesse d'Albuféra, and a kind
character will always be regretted. The _Journal des Débats_ also
reports the death of Bertin de Veaux. I feel it to be sad news, though
he had fallen out of our society for some time. He had a remarkable
mind and was very good-hearted; he remained most affectionate to
myself and to the memory of M. de Talleyrand. For twenty years he had
enjoyed our intimacy, shared our family habits and our confidence; and
thus the ranks are thinned and one's loneliness grows apace.

_Rochecotte, April 28, 1842._--The Cabinet has wisely completed its
numbers without delay[61] and has forced M. Lacave Laplagne to take
the vacancy on the refusal of M. Passy, but the loss of M. Humann is
none the less real and the perplexity of the Ministry has
correspondingly increased. Yesterday's newspaper relates a somewhat
amusing remark by Marshal Soult, who said when he heard of several
deaths during the last week, "Indeed! Apparently they are beating the
roll-call in the next world."

  [61] By filling the place of M. Humann.

_Rochecotte, May 2, 1842._--I have heard from the Castellanes from
Bonifacio at the moment when they were about to cross to Sardinia.
This unusual expedition, thank Heaven, has been a great success. They
should now be on their way from Toulon to Perpignan. I shall be glad
to hear that they have returned to the Continent, if only because I
shall have news of them more constantly and more regularly.

The successful confinement of the Duchesse de Nemours and the birth of
the Comte d'Eu has naturally caused much delight among the Royal

_Rochecotte, May 5, 1842._--I have heard from Pauline from Toulon; she
gives no details, as she was disembarking, but I know that she is on
dry land and am relieved.

The Duc de Orléans wished to hear the _Abélard_ of M. de Rémusat and
spent three evenings at the house of Madame Récamier for that purpose.
A dozen members of the Opposition were also there, including M. and
Madame Thiers.

_Rochecotte, May 6, 1842._--The Castellanes are now at Perpignan and
are delighted with their tour in Corsica and Sardinia. Pauline rode on
horseback with a dagger in her waist-belt: she slept in the house of
the bandits and supped with Orso della Robbia, the hero of
Colomba;[62] she took shelter beneath the rock where the two gunshots
were fired and accepted, as a token of admiration, a dagger stained
with blood shed in the vendetta. The best part of it is that she had
the strength to go through these wanderings, that she is perfectly
happy and interested, that her husband is delighted with the
accomplishment of so original an enterprise, while their little Marie
is as healthy and cheerful as ever.

  [62] _Colomba_ is a striking picture of a Corsican vendetta,
  which has remained a famous and popular book. Mérimée first
  published it in the _Revue des Deux Mondes_, where it appeared
  during the winter of 1842.

The Carlist party is dividing more and more. The Duc de Noailles is at
the head of the moderate faction, which grows stronger. Berryer
remains at the head of the other, which is little more than a group,
and is steadily drifting towards the left.

_Rochecotte, May 10, 1842._--I have had good news from the
Castellanes. I miss them greatly. The pleasant company of Pauline, the
infinite resource of Henri's conversation and the pretty ways of
Marie, are a great help to me: I can trust myself to them and never
feel tired, and in their society I can unbend; they have become quite
necessary to me; they form part of all my projects and plans for the
future, and I cannot conceive my old age separated from them. I
flatter myself that I too have a real part in their life. Yesterday I
had a charming letter from Henri, full of confidence and tenderness,
saying what I was to them and to himself in particular. As soon as his
eccentricities have been forgotten, his good qualities become a real
tie of affection; he is entirely upright, loyal and sincere, of high
moral dignity and perfect nobility of heart. Louis, my son, is also a
pleasant companion and perfectly reliable; Alexandre has his good
points, but his position embitters his character and destroys the
equability of his temper. I am sometimes very sorry for him, as
financial reasons do not allow him to take the position he would
prefer. He is fond of his children, for which I do him full justice: I
also am fond of his granddaughter, who is sweet and pretty, and I grow
sad at the thought of what her future may be. At one time I was able
to do without children quite easily, but now I am entirely changed,
and I feel that something is really wanting when one or more of these
little people are not about me. I can give them my time with real
earnest and feel greatly drawn to these weak little beings for whom
Providence may have such great and strange destinies in store. It is
strange how age changes one's character, and it is a great blessing
granted by Providence which thus enables us to avoid many a thorn in
our paths.

_Rochecotte, May 11, 1842._--Newspapers yesterday told us of the
dreadful accident that happened on the railway on the left bank from
Versailles to Paris: the details are appalling. _Galignani_ gives them
in full, though the exact number or the names of the dead are not yet
known. The bodies, especially those which suffered from fire, are so
disfigured as to make identification impossible. Since the railways
were opened, this is the greatest, the most complicated and dreadful
accident which has occurred. I think the damages should be enormous;
the authorities will then be more careful, for accidents only happen
from want of precaution and attention.

_Rochecotte, May 15, 1842. (Whit Sunday.)_--M. de Barante arrived
yesterday at the end of the morning, pleasant, kind and affectionate
as ever. The people he found here are something of an obstacle to
conversation. He told me no news of any importance and his own future
remains very uncertain. If the health of M. de La Tour Maubourg
remains as deplorable as it is, he will be obliged to retire and
Barante will then go to Rome. The question of St. Petersburg may
remain open for a long time.

The only topic of conversation at Paris is the lavish magnificence of
Mr. Hope's residence and the entertainments given there. They are said
to equal nothing less than the drawing-rooms of Versailles under Louis

  [63] William Hope, a Dutch financier of English origin,
  son-in-law of General Rapp and the owner of a vast fortune,
  settled in Paris in a house in the rue Neuve des Mathurins, which
  became a social centre. When this house became too small for his
  numerous entertainments, Mr. Hope built the large residence at
  No. 57 Rue Saint Dominique, which was bought after his death
  by Baron Seillière. He bequeathed it to his daughter, who
  became Princesse de Sagan by her marriage with Boson de
  Talleyrand-Perigord, Prince de Sagan and grandson of the Duchesse
  de Talleyrand.

_Rochecotte, May 16, 1842._--Yesterday as I was driving to mass at the
parish church, the coachman insisted upon taking a wrong turning
through the woods in spite of my remonstrances. He upset the carriage
and broke his right leg. Madame de Sainte-Aldegonde and myself were
sitting at the back of the carriage, Madame de Dino and M. de Barante
in front, while Jacques was on the seat behind. He jumped in time and
suffered no harm: Barante and my daughter-in-law were also unscathed;
as I was sitting on the side towards which the carriage overturned,
Madame de Sainte-Aldegonde fell upon me and I was thus crushed by my
neighbour and the hood of the carriage. We were rescued by some people
who were going to mass. Madame de Sainte-Aldegonde wrenched the
muscles of her neck in trying to hold herself back; but the only real
subject for pity was the coachman. The rest of the day was spent in
recovering from the shock of this event and in the various little
cares necessitated by it.

_Rochecotte, May 17, 1842._--I am still shaken by the fall of the day
before yesterday and feel some pain from the bruises which were caused
by it. It will be several days before the effects of this accident
have entirely worn off. The coachman is going on as well as can be

Yesterday I spent almost the whole of the morning sitting in the open
air in charming weather. There is no news of any kind, nor did
anything happen of the least interest during the day. Barante's
interesting and charming conversation is a great resource for me
during the few days that he is spending here. It is a long time since
such a piece of good luck fell to my share. I am enjoying it
infinitely, and with the more satisfaction because my belief in him is
as complete as my pleasure is real. He is upright, trustworthy and
kind to such an extent that he can be entirely relied upon. He is a
deeply pious character and his intellect is neither exhausted nor

_Rochecotte, May 30, 1842._--Yesterday we went to the parish church
for the Fête Dieu. We followed the procession in a blazing sun to the
resting-place where the little Clémentine de Dino had been carried.
The priest placed the holy sacrament upon her head; this is said to
bring children good luck. The little girl, who is very sweet and
pretty, behaved herself delightfully. She was in the arms of her
nurse, a pretty woman on her knees, in the midst of the people, the
incense, the flowers and the beauties of nature, and the spectacle was
delightful; it affected me to tears and I earnestly prayed from my
grandmother's heart that the little girl might become a good and
honourable Christian.

_Rochecotte, June 1, 1842._--The Duc d'Orléans proposes to make a long
tour of military inspection as a preliminary to the manœuvres. It is
said that he will have an interview with the King of the Low Countries
at Luxemburg. Duke Bernard of Saxe-Weimar is coming to Paris, and Duke
Gustavus of Mecklenburg, the other uncle of the Duchesse d'Orléans, is
already there. The Emperor of Brazil is to marry the last sister of
the King of Naples.

The Ministry has experienced some checks in the discussion upon the
budget; rumours are spreading that it may suffer a defeat during the

Lord Cowley has invited the Princes to be present at a ball to be
given on the 24th, Queen Victoria's birthday; they have declined.
England thus appears not to be in the fashion. I am astonished that
the Prince de Joinville and the Duc d'Aumale should choose this moment
for a journey to England.

The _Charivari_ contains two articles which are said to libel Madame
de Lieven and M. Guizot; one is called "Two Pigeons," the other "A
Drive in a Pony Chaise by Moonlight."

Queen Christina has ostensibly hired Malmaison as a summer residence.
The truth seems to be that she has bought it through a third person.

The Prince de Polignac is at Paris for the marriage of his son with
Mlle. de Crillon, and walks about the streets without arousing the
smallest curiosity. The Legitimists who have a violent grudge against
him, decline to notice him.

I hear from Nice that the Grand Duchess Stephanie, when her daughter
was cured of the rosalie, felt some premonitory symptoms of the same
malady which she neglected, with her habitual imprudence, and went for
a sail against her doctor's advice. The vessel was delayed and she
returned home very ill. On the 25th her condition was serious, and the
doctor of Nice had called in other doctors from Marseilles for a
consultation. I am sorry to hear it, for I feel deeply attached to the
Grand Duchess.

I have good news from Pauline. My son-in-law paid a visit by himself
to Madame Adélaïde and was warmly welcomed. He was thrown from his
horse and returned home quite lame.[64]

  [64] The Marquis de Castellane never recovered from this
  accident. He endured constant suffering with the greatest courage
  for five years and died in 1847 as a consequence of this fall,
  which the surgery of that day was unable to cure.

_Rochecotte, June 4, 1842._--Our young princes who proposed to travel
to England have postponed their departure indefinitely. Under existing
circumstances the journey would have been inopportune.

_Rochecotte, June 7, 1842._--I have a very sad letter from Pauline.
Her husband returned from Randan quite ill, either in consequence of
the fall from his horse or owing to an attack of rheumatic fever.
Whatever the cause may be, the results are serious. He is feverish and
delirious, has attacks of nervous trouble, terrible pain and fainting
fits. All this happened in the middle of the mountains and it was
necessary to carry him home on a stretcher with his wife riding beside
him. Such are the perils of life in the country. There is no doctor in
the neighbourhood. I do not like this mode of life which is unsuited
to Pauline's delicate health. Love and duty make everything beautiful
in her eyes, but when the moment of trial comes, she feels herself
very lonely in the midst of a wild country. Her husband was better
when she despatched her letter. I am very anxious to hear later news.

_Rochecotte, June 11, 1842._--I hear from Paris that Barante will
certainly not return to St. Petersburg, because no Ambassador will be
sent. The post will be filled by an ordinary Minister; I have not
heard who will be chosen. Immediately after the elections there will
be a short session of the Chambers for a fortnight during the month of

_Rochecotte, June 14, 1842._--The newspapers say that M. Dupanloup has
delivered a strikingly successful course of lectures on pulpit oratory
at the Sarbonne. We shall also see the course suddenly terminated; it
has given rise to much talk at Paris. M. Royer-Collard tells me that
he thinks the Abbé Dupanloup was wrong to quote Voltaire in his
lectures, though we may imagine how the quotation was made. He reminds
me that under the Restoration the clergy sent Voltaire through
eighteen editions by their attacks. At present he is hardly read, and
therefore should not be quoted. The Abbé himself wrote to tell the
Dean of the Faculty that to avoid any further outbreaks he would bring
his course of lectures to an end. The Dean communicated the letter to
the Minister of Education, who took the Abbé at his word without
proposing any preventive measures to avoid the scandal which, as
usual, was caused by a very small and very noisy minority.

Madame de Lieven tells me of the death of Matusiewicz, but gives no
details. The poor Conference of London is rapidly disappearing: M. de
Talleyrand, the Prince de Lieven, and now Matusiewicz. The Princess
also tells me that poverty in England is extreme. The customs union of
Germany has greatly damaged English commerce. Sir Robert Peel is
extremely powerful, and seems likely to remain in office; every one
else is overshadowed by him. Queen Victoria showed much courage and
good sense in her last adventure. Her would-be assassin will not be
executed, as the bullet has not been found.[65]

  [65] About the beginning of June 1842 an attempt was made to
  assassinate the Queen of England at almost the same place and in
  almost the same manner as in 1840.

M. Guizot is, as usual, delighted with the session which has just come
to an end, and with the prospect of the coming elections. Barante is
pleasantly employed at London, and writes very nice letters. He was
very kindly received at Windsor: he tells me that he did not find Lady
Holland greatly changed, though he has not seen her for fifteen years;
her rigid and imperious expression apparently remains unaltered. At
the mention of her husband's name her eyes fill with tears, which does
not suit her general expression; she shows such general want of
amiability that her grief in this respect has become almost a subject
of jest in society. Lady Clanricarde is very bitter against Russia.
Lord Stuart has returned suffering from apoplexy, and his brain is
said to have been slightly affected; it is not likely that he will
return to St. Petersburg.

Regarding the general attitude of England to France, Barante writes as
follows: "From a political point of view, I think there is a real
desire to live upon good terms with us, and the manifestations of our
Chambers and our newspapers have aroused regret and uneasiness. Every
one knows that these were caused by ill-temper, and not by any desire
for war; but if these demonstrations and opinions should continue to
increase, it is impossible to foresee the result."

_Rochecotte, June 16, 1842._--M. and Madame de La Rochejaquelein, my
neighbours from Ussé,[66] came to spend part of the day here
yesterday. She has been very pretty and pleasant, and retains both of
these qualities. Her husband is a kind of wild huntsman from the
Vendée who has been wounded in the handsomest possible fashion; the
scar crosses the whole of his face, but does not disfigure it.

  [66] Ussé, situated upon a hill opposite Rochecotte upon which it
  looks, was occupied in 1842 by the Comtesse de La Rochejaquelein,
  who was the widow of the Prince de Talmont and had married for
  the second time, her husband being the youngest brother of the
  hero of _la Vendée_. The castle of Ussé was added to at different
  times, as is obvious from the picturesque originality of the
  building. The work was begun by Jacques d'Epinay, Chamberlain
  under Louis XI. and Charles VIII., in 1415 that he might be
  nearer to the Court. Ussé afterwards passed to the family of
  Bennin de Valentinay, one member of which married the eldest
  daughter of the Marshal of Vauban. He often visited the place,
  and to him are attributed the arrangement of the terraces and the
  building of the bastion which bears his name.

_Rochecotte, June 17, 1842._--When I came home after returning Madame
de La Rochejaquelein's call, I found a letter from Pauline. After
reading it I resolved to start at once to help the poor child. As it
is a toilsome journey, difficult and almost dangerous through the
mountains, and as I shall probably be obliged to travel on horseback
for the last day, while the presence of a man may be useful to
Pauline, I resolved to accept the offer of the good Vestier, who knows
the country, and who is devoted to the Castellanes. They are also fond
of him, and he will accompany me. He will sit on the box with Jacques,
and his presence will be a great support. I shall go through without
stopping; I am leaving all my servants here, and the house will go on
as if I were not absent. It is a hard trial. God is great. Let us bow
the head and adore, and remember that happiness is not to be found in
this world.

_Aubijou, June 22, 1842._--I left Rochecotte on the 18th in the
morning. As I took no luggage in my carriage, had four horses on level
ground, six in the mountains, and was preceded by a courier, I did not
stop, and arrived here in forty-eight hours, which is wonderfully
rapid travelling. I found my son-in-law terribly changed. The
condition of his thigh, which was the primary cause of his illness,
has improved, and gives no cause for alarm, but the nervous shock
which it has produced causes me great anxiety. He is better, but by no
means convalescent yet. I shall not return home until he reaches that
stage, and as soon as he can be moved he will go to take the waters at
Néris. Pauline is not ill, but she is growing very tired by reason of
constant agitation and anxiety; she has shown great devotion. The
presence of Vestier, who was a real support to me in these wild
districts, greatly pleases my son-in-law. I thank Providence that he
was so kind as to think of coming with me, for he is by far the most
acceptable visitor to the invalid.

The roads here are frightful; the country for the last three leagues
is not picturesque, but bare, dismal, and wild; the climate is
disagreeable, and the temporary house in which we are encamped amid
disorder is disgusting, especially for an invalid. It is a wooden
house, swarming with fleas and mice; neither windows nor doors will
shut, so that draughts have full play, and the noise is horrible. We
are six leagues from a chemist's shop, and there is nothing to be had;
I am horrified that they should think of building in such a country.
Everything has to be made, even the level space of ground upon which
to build the house. It will not be finished for years, but the
Castellanes hope they may be able to live in a quarter of it next

_Aubijou, June 23, 1842._--My son-in-law is much easier. The weather
is abominable, and yesterday it thundered and rained in torrents the
whole day; it is a horrible country, and I am not over-estimating its
deficiencies, and am quite in despair at the idea of building a house
here. It is quite possible to live here for nothing if people will
live as the natives do, but any attempt to introduce civilisation is
very expensive, and I fear my son-in-law will regret his attempt to
take root here, for reasons both of health and money. No one could be
more reasonable or gentle than Pauline, or show greater resignation
and devotion; her conduct is admirable throughout this illness and the
infinite number of troubles and vexations it involves; during all
these she has shown both spirit and good sense, and is generally held
in the highest esteem. All their servants are quite devoted to them.
Here we are half enveloped in the clouds; the inhabitants are very
uncivilised; in September they bake a six months' supply of bread;
in October they shut themselves up with their cattle and
intercommunication ceases; they then remain buried in the snow, which
sometimes does not melt even in the month of May. Some parts of
Auvergne are very picturesque, but not on this side; the mountains are
too round and their summits too flat and bare; there is no fine
expanse of water, and the whole outlook is most monotonous. The ruins
of the old castle of Aubijou alone give a little character to the
countryside; these have been wisely covered with climbing plants. My
son-in-law is also planting on a large scale to improve the
surroundings of the house and the view from the windows, but it will
be a long time before his plantations grow; meanwhile the general
aspect is dismal and I think the climate is very trying.

_Aubijou, June 24, 1842._--My son-in-law had refused every proposal to
move him, but after a very restless night he suddenly declared that he
would stay here no longer. We immediately fell in with his desire for
flight, ordered horses and packed our things, but we cannot start
until to-morrow. Henri will travel lying down, and by very short
stages. The doctors declare that to stay here would be the worst
possible thing for him, and of this I am firmly convinced. It is a
most fatal spot in which to be ill. He will rest for a few days at
Clermont and then go to take the waters at Néris which have been
prescribed, and are, I think, the best in the world for nervous
rheumatism. I shall travel for some distance in company with them to
see how he bears the journey, and will then go in advance of them. I
shall turn aside at Néris to find them a good lodging, and then
proceed to Rochecotte, where I shall be very glad to return, for I am
dreadfully tired and I feel that if I were to stay longer here I
should fall ill. My poor daughter is worn out; at any rate, both at
Clermont and Néris she will be in a civilised country, within reach of
help and away from the terrible loneliness in which she lives here.

To please my son-in-law I made a long and curious excursion yesterday
in the valley overlooked by his new buildings. I found some fine
pieces of water and splendid trees, but there is no means of approach
and paths must be cut with an axe.

_Longueplaine, near Tours, June 29, 1842. At the house of M. de la
Besnardière._--We left Aubijou on the morning of the 25th. It was not
an easy journey. My son-in-law was laid upon a mattress in their large
travelling carriage, which is fortunately very roomy. Then came the
question of leaving the mountains. Apart from the carriage of the
Castellanes, which contained them with their doctor, their
chambermaid, their child, and two lacqueys on the box, there was my
carriage, with myself, a chambermaid, M. Vestier, and Jacques on the
box; then came a little tilbury, drawn by Corsican horses, in which
were the cook and an Auvergne jockey. On horseback was the estate
agent, a keeper, and a negro, whom my son-in-law had brought back
from the south and who is called Zéphir, blowing a horn. It was a
strange spectacle, and resembled a scene from the _Roman comique_. The
road, however, was by no means cheerful, with its rocks, its
precipices, and its dangers, but by going gently and holding in the
carriages, we came through without mishap. I will admit, to my shame,
that I so far yielded to my fears as to leave my large carriage and
take the cook's place in the tilbury, which proceeded with less
danger, as it was lighter and narrower. Night came upon us before we
had left the region of precipices, and my cowardice was then displayed
in the most disgraceful manner and I wept. The Castellanes spent the
night at Massiac. I left them there, feeling content with the effect
of the open air upon Henri's nerves. I proceeded in advance, and
reached Clermont on the morning of the 26th. I saw the doctor who had
already been called in to Henri, and gave him an account of the
invalid's progress. After announcing that he would arrive the same
evening, I went a few leagues further from the town and visited
Randan. I was very curious to see it, and I also knew that my visit
would be a compliment to Madame Adélaïde. I admit that I was greatly
undeceived: only three things justify the reputation of the place--the
view, which is admirable, the fine old trees, and the kitchens and
out-buildings, which, are, indeed, too handsome and entirely out of
proportion to the rest of the establishment, which lacks distinction.
A very poor avenue of poplar-trees, crossing a wretched village, leads
to a paling of painted wood; through a gate one enters a kind of
quincunx, at the end of which another turn leads to the narrow
courtyards of the château. The entrance is very poor, though it would
have been easy to cut a great avenue through the woods leading
straight to the château. The château itself is built partly of brick,
with painted roofs, and partly of white stone abutting upon the old
part of the building, and forming a dreadful contrast of styles. The
rooms are low, the decorations heavy and mean, the furniture without
style or harmony, neither simple nor magnificent, and the apotheosis
of bad taste. The hall and the ante-chamber are extremely narrow and
inconvenient; there are no artistic objects, the sculptures are
plaster and the paintings, which chiefly consist of family portraits,
are bad copies. In the salon, which is called the family room because
the whole of the present generation are there gathered, I was glad to
see the portrait of Madame de Genlis. Madame Adélaïde's room is very
small and, in my opinion, very ugly. The corridors on the first floor
are dark, narrow, and inconvenient. The library is in the principal
reception-room, where there is also a billiard-table; I do not think
there were more than a thousand volumes. A wide terrace, which covers
the kitchens, leads from the castle to the chapel. The terrace, which
is well-adorned with flowers, is a fine point of view, but an iron
trellis-work, which covers half of it, is so narrow and low that it is
quite spoilt. The chapel is large, but in no particular style, and the
decorations within are ugly. There are some very poor modern windows,
a confessional-box, painted and coloured like a screen, holy water
stoups of gilded cardboard, and, I repeat, a general want of dignity,
gracefulness, and taste. The dining-room is the best preserved
apartment; it is vaulted and painted with frescoes in extremely varied
colours, and is too low. Some people praise it highly, but it is not
to my taste.

I returned to Clermont at the moment when the Castellanes were
arriving at the town and my son-in-law had borne the journey well. The
doctor said he would be able to start for Néris at the end of
twenty-four hours. I left them on the 27th, satisfied with the
positive assurance that the doctor gave me, that there was no danger,
though convalescence would be a slow and painful process. I went to
Néris to engage rooms for them, a necessary precaution as there were
many people in residence, and I had some trouble in finding a suitable
house. The doctor at Néris whom I had known for a long time, is an
excellent and careful man and I gave him full information concerning
the case. I only stayed at Néris for dinner and to select rooms for
the Castellanes, and after spending the night in my carriage I arrived
here yesterday evening at the house of M. de la Besnardière. It has
involved a detour of only two leagues and allowed me to pay a
long-standing debt. They were considerably vexed that I had not paid
them this visit earlier. The house is pretty, clean, convenient and
almost fashionable, and full of little comforts which aroused my
astonishment. It was the sight of Rochecotte which induced him to put
this house in repair and for this purpose he employed Vestier, whose
efforts were very successful. I shall lunch here, call at the
Prefecture of Tours and reach my own house in time for dinner. I
greatly need rest.

_Rochecotte, June 30, 1842._--I stopped for an hour at Tours yesterday
to call on the d'Entraigues. Every one was busy with the elections. I
found all in good health except Alava, who had returned during my
absence and was so changed during these few weeks that I think his end
must be near.

_Rochecotte, July 3, 1842._--The newspapers announce the death of M.
de Sismondi. Notwithstanding his pedantry, he is a man to be
regretted, a kind and very learned character.

The young people here are busy studying motets which are to be sung
to-day in my chapel on the occasion of a solemn benediction which the
priest will pronounce this evening at five o'clock. An association of
girls has been started in this parish which has existed for a long
time in neighbouring provinces, and will be called an association of
the Daughters of the Virgin. It is a secular organisation and no
renunciation of marriage is required. The members merely undertake to
avoid bad company, to live honourable lives, to repeat the little
office of the Virgin, to attend the sacraments regularly and to set a
good example. At church and in processions they are dressed in white
with blue sashes. I was asked to give them a banner and their blue
sashes which I have done. They will be instituted to-day to the number
of fifteen. As my chapel is dedicated to the Virgin and as a mark of
gratitude for my gifts, they propose to go there in procession with
their banner unfolded. For this occasion the Grand Vicars have allowed
the performance of a choral benediction. This is a great event in the
parish. Fortunately the weather is very fine. Pauline would have been
very glad to be present and I regret her absence deeply.

_Rochecotte, July 4, 1842._--Yesterday's ceremony was most edifying,
bright and picturesque. Fanny, Alexandre and their music master sang
extremely well. The girls were in white and blue and the chapel was
decorated with flowers. There were at least five hundred people on the
terrace to receive the blessing which was given from the altar which
faces the chapel door opening on the terrace.

_Rochecotte, July 7, 1842._--I have a letter from the Princesse de
Lieven. She tells me that the Bishop of Orléans[67] has been appointed
Archbishop of Tours and she adds from M. Guizot that I shall find this
prelate very satisfactory. A letter from Pauline tells me that her
husband is rapidly recovering.

  [67] Mgr. Morlot, born at Langres in 1795, and Bishop of Orléans
  since 1839.

_Rochecotte, July 10, 1842._--M. de la Besnardière came yesterday to
spend a few hours here in the interval between the formation of
committees and a vote of the electoral college of Tours. This
department, which is generally so peaceful, has never been in such a

_Rochecotte, July 11, 1842._--The great news of the district is that
M. Crémieux, a Jewish lawyer, has been elected by a majority of
thirty-five votes. M. Crémieux is a stranger to the district with
which he has no connection. The result is really inexplicable unless
it is due to his oratorical powers, for like a true lawyer he has
talked so many hours on end that he filled the country people with
admiration. If a similar result occurs at Loches, our department will
be represented entirely by the Left. The Ministry, which will not
admit its total neglect of the Prefect's requirements, will then blame
M. d'Entraigues and perhaps we shall lose him, which would grieve me
greatly. Moreover, these elections were thought likely to strengthen
the Conservative reaction and if this expectation is falsified, the
outlook will be extremely gloomy.

_Rochecotte, July 12, 1842._--I have had a call from Dr. Orye and from
M. de Quinemont. Both gave me a description of the disgraceful
electoral scenes at Chinon, where M. Crémieux was carried shoulder
high by the scum of the populace, who were unfortunately joined by
Legitimists from the left bank of the Loire, in which district they
are very numerous. The country electors were also largely influenced
by the fact that they heard M. Crémieux speak for three hours on end
without blowing his nose, spitting, or coughing, which they thought
magnificent. I am very anxious to learn the general result of this
reaction, which may have grave and serious consequences.

_Rochecotte, July 14, 1842._--Alava came back here yesterday, and is
full of election stories from Tours. Many disgraceful incidents took
place. According to the newspapers, however, it seems that upon the
general result of the elections the Ministry will have gained a few
votes, and it is much that they have lost none. I must confess that I
am very anxious to learn the final figures.

_Rochecotte, July 15, 1842._--M. de Chalais had just arrived yesterday
when I was expecting the Prefect, but instead of him a courier rode up
whom he had sent to bring me the terrible news which has overwhelmed
me, the news that the Duc d'Orléans was dead, in consequence of a fall
from his carriage. I know no details except that he died at Neuilly on
July 13, the day before yesterday, at half-past four in the afternoon.
The accident took place the same day at midday at Sablonville. My
thoughts are entirely occupied with this sad event, both as a matter
of personal loss and as a public disaster. How will a long Regency be
possible in a country so disturbed as France now is? Personally, I
have to regret the friendship of which the young Prince had given me
such honourable and flattering proofs. It is also a loss for my son
Valençay. I really do not know whether the Prince's wife and mother
will survive this terrible blow.

_Rochecotte, July 16, 1842._--M. de Chalais went away yesterday at the
end of the morning, and I accompanied him as far as Langeais. When I
returned I found the house full of neighbours who had come to learn
the details of this disastrous death. It seems to me more unfortunate
and more likely to produce serious consequences at every moment. The
details in the _Journal des Débats_ formed the only complete and
official account. I am also told that passers-by saw the Prince stand
up in his carriage and look in the front of him to see if the horse
which had bolted would meet any obstacle upon the road. There was
nothing in the way and the same spectators saw the Prince calmly
resume his seat, then lean out of the carriage and look behind him, as
though to speak to the servant who was on the seat behind; he,
however, had already jumped down, as the seat was empty. Probably the
Prince thought that the servant had fallen and wishing with courageous
kindness to help him, he then jumped from the carriage, for he did not
make his spring until he had seen that his servant was not in his

_Rochecotte, July 18, 1842._--No one writes to me from Paris where I
have but few correspondents at this moment; moreover, everybody is
overwhelmed by consternation, but the newspapers are interesting and I
search with painful eagerness for every detail touching our poor
Prince and his unhappy family.

I am sorry to see that each newspaper, according to its political
opinions, classifies the newly elected deputies upon different
principles. The _Journal des Débats_ announces a majority of
seventy-three for the Ministry; others reduce the majority to three,
and some even say that the Ministry is in a minority.

I also see that the press is already beginning to discuss the
different forms of Regency, though the terms of the law in which the
Government is preparing to deal with the question are not yet known.
When the first shock has passed we shall see many sad results.

_Rochecotte, July 19, 1842._--Yesterday I received a heartrending
letter from Madame Adélaïde. It is very good of her to have written so
clearly. I had sent her a letter but did not expect any reply. M. de
Boismilon, the secretary of the Duc d'Orléans, has also written a
letter containing many details. No one as yet can think or speak of
anything but the death of this unhappy young Prince.

M. d'Entraigues arrived here to-day; he will leave me to-morrow, for
at the present moment every official is anxious to be at his post. He
is very despondent on many accounts. The radicals of Tours have
already given a banquet and did not scruple to express their delight
at the death of the Duc d'Orléans.

_Rochecotte, July 21, 1842._--Every one is agreed in predicting the
fall of the Ministry as likely to occur immediately and M. Molé's name
is in every mouth.

The Council wished the Duc d'Orléans to be buried at Saint-Denis, but
the Queen has insisted upon Dreux. I think she is wrong.

_Rochecotte, July 22, 1842._--I can think of nothing but the gloomy
palace of Neuilly. The Queen is sublime; she spends days and nights in
the chapel on her knees by the coffin. The King's time is divided
between business and mourning. The Duchesse d'Orléans derives strength
from her undaunted Methodist principles. The will of the poor Prince
is said to be an admirable document: it treats the question of the
Regency in full and the solution is in favour of the Duc de Nemours.
The Duc d'Orléans had no very high opinion of his brother and he
therefore showed an entire preference for the male sex and the right
of primogeniture. At the same time the Duc de Nemours should be given
his due: when the doctor Chomel met him and told him the details of an
event of which he only knew the terrible telegraphic summary, he
fainted and could not be brought round for a long time. His grief does
him honour and is entirely justified by this dreadful loss; for the
Duc d'Orléans whom I knew very well, was distinguished both as a
Prince and as a man upon the whole, in spite of certain faults of mind
and character. His good and striking qualities were numerous: for
instance he had a profound respect for the responsibility which had
fallen to him; his clear insight had taught him the necessity of a
dignified bearing and he would have sacrificed at no price what he had
gained in this respect; his judgment, if somewhat restless, was broad,
rapid and fruitful in result; his habits of mind were marked by a
certain depression, though he would never be discouraged; constantly
thinking of the future, he was always preparing for it, though he had
little real belief in it; his generosity was with him a point of
pride, as also was the certainty and loyalty of his friendship; though
by no means an emotional character, his courtesy made people forget
his want of sensitiveness which was not a dominant feature in him and
was only visible upon rare occasions; he was most courteous to those
in whom he recognised any outstanding quality; for such qualities he
was ever in search and deferred to them with his accustomed good
taste. His reign would have displayed many features which are now
wanting; there would have been vigour, stimulus and enthusiasm. When
once engaged upon a task he would never have retreated: that, indeed,
would have been the great danger, but he would have learnt prudence by
means of the circumspection which was already obvious in him, and
there was every reason to believe that notwithstanding his
impetuosity, he would have learnt upon the throne to resist rash
impulses. At the present moment every one seems to understand that
with the loss of this link in the royal chain we have lost the
guarantee of our security, and that our heads and our property are
worth less than they were before; so profound is this impression that
the Ministry hopes to find in it a means of continuing in office, but
this is not my opinion. When the first days of astonishment are over,
political feeling will make its way once more into the Chamber of
Deputies, and will pass votes in accordance with the trend of opinion
which has been manifested in the elections. People are generally
agreed that M. Molé's chances are good; M. Guizot and M. Thiers are
out of the question for the moment.

My niece Fanny and her governess started for Paris yesterday where I
shall follow them in a few days.

_Rochecotte, July 23, 1842._--I spent yesterday in making some
preparations for departure. The King is described as looking very ill,
with his features contracted and his complexion ashen. The Duchesse
d'Orléans has had the dead man's uniform, sword and scarf placed upon
the bier now lying in the chapel of Neuilly. When the King first saw
these emblems on the fifth day after the event, he burst into sobs so
loud as to drown those of the mother and sisters. It is said that the
Queen's grief almost deprived her of consciousness. The sorrow of the
Duchesse d'Orléans is gentler or as some say calmer. The Duc de
Nemours is said to be so upset as to be hardly recognisable. The
painter Scheffer is painting a picture which will show the room in the
inn where the terrible disaster of the 13th was concluded. The Queen
continually says to any one she sees, "Pray for him." Her despair is
greatly increased by the thought that her son died before he could
fulfil his religious duties. Not a single carriage enters the court of
Neuilly and everything there seems to be walled up as if in a tomb.

_Rochecotte, July 24, 1842._--My letters say that nothing was more
mournful than the reception of the visits of condolence. The King
sobbed as one who could not restrain himself. The political horizon is
already growing dark with clouds. I shall certainly start for Paris
to-morrow morning.

_Paris, July 27, 1842._--I have already seen a large number of people:
first of all Valençay and Fanny, as they were coming back from the
royal reception, where the King's sobs rent everybody's heart. Every
one is talking of the infinite grief of the Royal Family and the
unpopularity of M. Guizot; however, M. Molé does not think he will be
overthrown in the short session of the Chambers now impending.

_Paris, July 28, 1842._--Yesterday morning was a very painful time:
most of it I spent at Neuilly and stayed more than an hour with Madame
Adélaïde who deeply touched me with her kindness. She treated me as
the one who regretted the poor Prince most profoundly apart from her
own family. She took me into the little chapel which is almost
entirely filled by the bier and is entered by very few people, to pray
and sprinkle holy water. This mark of kindness is largely due to the
fact that in the will of the dead Prince, very honourable reference is
made to myself, to judge from the words of his aunt, while a souvenir
which he has left me is also mentioned. Madame gave me no other
details because, as she said, the Duchesse d'Orléans wished to give me
them herself. I am to see both her and the King and Queen after the
funeral. The sadness at Neuilly is impossible to describe. It is a
vast tomb and a visitor would think himself in a mausoleum. By the
Queen's desire the psalms of the priests are continued day and night:
they can be heard in every part of the castle with terribly gloomy
effect; every face is downcast and tear-stained.

When I returned home I found M. de Barante, the Duc de Noailles and M.
de Salvandy who were waiting for me. I heard no news from them except
that M. Thiers, who wishes to secure his position and his favour with
the King, is exhorting the Left to a mild and moderate attitude. There
is an official despatch from M. de Flahaut who says that in
consequence of his fall last year the Duc de Bordeaux is not only
permanently lame but that an abscess has formed in his thigh which
will not allow him to go to Trieste for the sea bathing and that he
has countermanded the house which he had taken there. Berlin and
Vienna have displayed a very correct attitude on receiving the news of
the death of the Duc d'Orléans.

I then had a long interview with poor Boismilon who is overwhelmed by
the death of his Prince. The evening before the accident the Duc
d'Orléans, who was preparing for camp, said to his old German valet
who has never left him, "My dear Holder, you are getting worn out;
come with me this time only and then I know a position where you will
be able to rest without leaving me; I will ask the King to appoint you
_keeper of the vault of Dreux_." Such were the actual words, for
Boismilon was there and heard them.

Sainte-Aulaire came to talk to me to-day. He has a great admiration
for England but regrets the bad relations subsisting between the two
Governments and says that ours is absolutely in the wrong. He says
that if things go on as they have done the Embassies of London and
Paris will be occupied only by Chargés d'Affaires.

The Duc de Noailles is wearing mourning and receiving letters at
Neuilly on grounds of cousinship. He believes that the Duc de Poix has
written to the King on the occasion of this sad event. The Legitimist
party is greatly shattered and disunited, and had it not been for the
death of the Duc d'Orléans, which has shaken all confidence in the
stability and permanence of the present state of things, most of the
Legitimists would have rallied. As things are, unless the condition of
the Duc de Bordeaux becomes worse, and this seems to be possible, I
see little chance of an agreement, although the Legitimists do not
follow any definite system or direction. It is simply another element
of anarchy.

_Paris, July 30, 1842._--M. Royer-Collard came to see me yesterday. In
character I think him precisely what he has been in recent years, but
physically he is greatly changed. This he feels himself and thinks
chiefly of the life beyond.

To-day the remains of the Prince Royal were solemnly carried to Paris.
It was a quiet, grave and calm ceremony in which the clergy took a
very large part; the first time for twelve years that the clergy have
appeared in public. The experiment produced no bad result. All the
shops were and are closed.

Yesterday I heard that M. de Zea has lost all credit and favour with
Queen Christina. The Infanta Carlotta has so attracted her niece
Isabella, that Espartero is becoming anxious; he wishes to send this
formidable Infanta away from Madrid, and the ladies concerned in this
intimacy have already been removed from the neighbourhood of the young

The Duchesse d'Orléans shows not the smallest regret at the loss of
the Regency: her thoughts are entirely occupied with her position as
guardian of her children and with her rights as mother; she wishes to
have full liberty of action on both of these accounts and to smooth
down beforehand any difficulty or controversy on this matter, both for
the present and for the future, which the King's death will complicate
and make more important.

_Paris, August 1, 1842._--Yesterday I called upon the Marquise de
Jaucourt whom I found in a poor state of health. She had heard
yesterday evening from the Prefect of the Seine that the brothers of
the Prince Royal had run great risks during the transference of his
remains to Paris: barrels of gunpowder had been placed in position to
blow them up, but the matter was discovered in time and no sensation
will be made. The poor Queen daily receives anonymous letters which
state that assassins are dogging the King to a greater extent than
ever. What dreadful monsters!

_Paris, August 2, 1842._--The King has had a somewhat lively interview
with M. Molé, and reproached him with bringing disunion and discord
upon the Conservative party: M. Molé replied that he was sorry to
displease the King, but regretted that he could not obey him, as the
immediate safety of France depended upon the fall of M. Guizot. Madame
de Lieven is embittered by this reply, and is even less
self-restrained than before.

The Duchesse d'Orléans causes some astonishment by her anxiety
concerning her position. She shows no wish to be the Regent of the
minority, but seems anxious to hold that position when the majority is
attained, which will be fixed or has been proposed at the limit of
eighteen years. There are many intrigues in progress and all minds are

The Dauphine was to go to Vienna for the birthday of the Emperor as
usual, but on learning of the death of the Duc d'Orléans she wrote to
excuse herself, and to say that in such circumstances she could not
appear at any festivity and would stay in the country. I think she has
shown excellent dignity and good taste.

_Paris, August 4, 1842._--The ceremony at Notre Dame was magnificent,
splendid, simple and imposing. There was no untoward incident except
the noisy chattering of the deputies; and M. Laffitte, whose duty it
was as the oldest member of the Chamber to sprinkle holy water on the
bier, bowed neither to the Archbishop, from whom he took the
sprinkler, nor to the coffin. The Duc de Nemours looked very handsome
and bowed most gracefully. The same is true of the Prince de Joinville
also, but not of the other two princes. Visconti had decorated and
arranged Notre Dame most successfully, and the black drapery increased
the effect of the noble architecture instead of hiding it. The
plain-song, far from spoiling the effect, was more suitable than any
other form would have been, so well was it performed. There was indeed
nothing to criticise, and if every one did not feel the same degree of
emotion, emotion was at least visible in every case.

My niece Hohenthal writes from Teplitz to say that the Duc de Bordeaux
is receiving much benefit from the mineral waters and the baths, but
people were disagreeably surprised to see him at the play on the very
evening when the news of the death of the Duc d'Orléans arrived.

_Paris, August 5, 1842._--Yesterday I went to the Sacré Cœur to say
farewell to Madame de Gramont. She had just received letters from
Kirchberg[68] which told her that the day after the news of the Duc
d'Orléans' death had arrived a black mass was said at which the
Dauphin, the Dauphine and Mademoiselle had both been present and had
communicated, in prayer for the soul of the deceased. I have heard of
nothing more touching or more Christian.

  [68] Kirchberg an Wald, a château occupied by Charles X. after

From the Rue de Varennes I went to say good-bye to the Princesse de
Lieven at Beauséjour. I found her greatly agitated by the Ministerial
crisis which is in the air, very angry with M. Molé, and delighted
because the King was exasperated with him. She also asserted that M.
Guizot will not retire until he has induced the Chamber to pass a
definite vote expressing what is known as his unpopularity: she also
says that he will not retire when an opposition President has been
nominated; that he will oppose the Address and the law upon the
Regency; that he will then demand explanations from the Chamber, and
that the Chamber will only dissolve when he has been directly and
clearly rejected. The King wishes that such shall be the course of

M. Royer-Collard came to see me this morning; he was tired, spoke of
his approaching death, and gave me the impression that he felt it to
be at hand. This was depressing, and I was not in good spirits at
Maffliers where, in company with M. de Valençay, I dined with the poor
Périgords, whose household has been greatly saddened by the failing
health of Madame d'Arenberg.

_Paris, August 7, 1842._--Yesterday at two o'clock I went to Neuilly
in accordance with the orders of Madame Adélaïde. I took my leave of
her, and as the King was kind enough to wish to see me, he came into
his sister's rooms. I found him looking very ill, and was the more
moved to compassion as his grief is manifested most naturally.
Sometimes he will speak of indifferent subjects, and then a word will
recall his loss and he weeps bitterly. The Queen's grief is said to be
the most vehement. She was so good, as was also the Duchesse
d'Orléans, as to send very kind messages and regrets that she could
not see me, but they feared, and with reason, that many other ladies
might also ask an audience of them if they made any exception. Since
her misfortune the Queen has seen no one except her family, her
household and the Ministers.

After leaving Madame I went to see Mesdames de Dolomieu and de
Montjoye. The former was out, but the latter was at home. She showed
me a copy of a letter written to the Queen by one of her
chaplain-bishops which was admirably consoling, and touched me
greatly. The Queen is growing calmer upon this terrible question, the
more so as a few weeks before his death, when the Duc d'Orléans was
alone with his mother one day, he told her that she was wrong if she
thought him indifferent upon religious matters and could be assured
that his ideas in that respect had greatly changed.

The King has just received news from St. Petersburg from M. Périer.
His despatch says that the Emperor Nicholas has assumed mourning
without waiting for official notifications, and that he had sent Count
Nesselrode to M. Périer with his condolences, telling him he was
ordered to write a despatch to M. de Kisseleff, which the latter would
convey to M. Guizot, containing the same compliments. Similar forms
were observed upon the occasion of the death of the Duchess of
Würtemberg. Apart from this no special notifications have passed
between the two Courts. This breach of etiquette was begun by Russia
at the time of the death of the Grand Duke Constantine, the first
event of the kind since 1830, and one which the Russian Court did not
notify to ourselves according to the old forms adopted in such

_Jeurs, August 9, 1842._--I left Paris yesterday after lunch. The heat
was great but it is cooler here. M. and Madame Mollien are as kind as
ever, but I found him greatly changed.

_Maintenon, August 11, 1842._--I arrived here yesterday in time for
dinner, after leaving the good Molliens in the morning, who had showed
me their invariable hospitality. Before my departure letters from
Neuilly had reached Jeurs stating that the Royal Family would spend
the month of September at the town of Eu.

There is an ancient celebrity here in the person of Madame Récamier,
who cannot speak in consequence of a neuralgic affection in her face.
She wears a perpetual smile which is somewhat wearying. M. Ampère, a
distinguished professor and a great favourite of Madame Récamier who
takes him about with her, is a witty and lively character, though with
no distinction of manner. M. Brifaut, a pale member of the Academy and
also a satellite of Madame Récamier, is here reading old tragedies of
his own composition. There are also here M. de Vérac who is growing
very deaf, and Madame de Janson, sister-in-law of the Bishop of Nancy
and sister of the Duchesse de Noailles, intellectual and clever but
shy and reserved.

_Rochecotte, August 16, 1842._--I left Bonnétable the day before
yesterday after the Sunday service and Tours yesterday after the mass
of the Assumption, and lunched at the Prefect's house. I thought I
should arrive roasted. I can never remember being so hot in my life.

I hear from Vienna that Prince Metternich has gone to Königwarth, that
he has then to reach the banks of the Rhine at the same time as the
King of Prussia, but that he is by no means well, looks ill and has
grown very thin. Barante writes as follows: "I have some further
details concerning the impression produced upon the Emperor by the
death of the Duc d'Orléans. It was very keen. Horace Vernet, who
arrived the other day from St. Petersburg and who was formerly on
intimate terms with him, told me of some assertions remarkable even
from the political point of view. I am not greatly surprised at his
narratives; at other times and on other occasions the Emperor has
expressed himself in nearly the same terms, but he has adopted a
position, established it by certain forms without any consequent
inconvenience to himself and so will not change. However, he does not
wish to aggravate matters, and a mutual return of ambassadors will be

_Rochecotte, August 23, 1842._--The Regency law has been passed by an
imposing majority. The peers will confirm it, and in this respect at
least we can be at rest.

_Rochecotte, August 25, 1842._--Yesterday I had a letter from Paris
which seems to give a fair summary of the present position. "The
debate upon the Regency was fine and also curious: M. de Lamartine
went over to the Left in exasperation with the Conservatives who did
not appoint him President; M. Thiers broke his ties with the Left, as
he wishes to become a possible candidate; M. Odilon Barrot who had
begun the same manœuvre, did not speak at the last moment for fear of
losing his popularity with his party. The Legitimists took an
inopportunely high tone and were trampled under foot. Such was the
drama. It was performed for the benefit of the Ministry, which would
have secured no advantage from this little session if it had followed
the advice of M. Thiers, for in that case all would have passed off
without a struggle. Instead of that he has been used to win battles
for the Presidency and the Regency law. This is a first instalment of
the real session which will begin with extreme vigour, but the Cabinet
has always some chances of success, doubtless uncertain chances, for
much depends upon the difficulty of forming another combination and
the inclination of the Conservatives to unite against the Left. The
attacks will be furious and severe; there is danger, but also hope."

_Rochecotte, August 29, 1842._--I heard yesterday of your
disembarkation[69] at Liverpool. Welcome to our old Europe which, in
spite of its unpleasantnesses, is better than the New World.

  [69] Extract from a letter to M. de Bacourt.

I hear from Paris: "The Queen is pale, thin and despondent, but calm:
she no longer struggles against her grief, and seems now to have
accepted it as a necessary element in the whole of her life, though
less poignant than it was; she can talk of other things. So I spoke to
her of your tears and regrets, at which she cried, 'Oh, I know it and
was sure of it: the King and my sister have been deeply touched by all
that she has said to them and by the real sorrow she has shown; my
poor boy had great confidence in her and was really one of her
friends.' All this was said in a manner which you would have been glad
to hear. The Duchesse d'Orléans has returned from Dreux, where she had
insisted upon going before the journey to Eu. She seems to have had
some inclination to settle at the Elysée with her children, but this
idea was so definitely rejected that she did not propose it again. The
million voted by the Chambers to the Prince Royal falls to the Comte
de Paris: his mother, as guardian, has the use of it, while she has
also her settlement of a hundred thousand crowns, so that during the
minority she will be rich. She has made many minor reforms, but
preserves her household of honour and is keeping up all the military
household of the late Prince for her son. There is some fear that she
may not be quite competent to manage her income: her husband used to
settle all details of expenditure, to which she is not accustomed and
which she does not understand. Now that the first outburst of grief is
over, many little cliques are advancing their claims upon all sides;
political intrigues, family jealousies and court rivalry are all
obvious, and if the King does not interfere there will be an Orléans
party and a Nemours party."

_Rochecotte, August 31, 1842._--I have the following letter from Paris
referring to the life of the Royal Family before their departure for
the town of Eu: "The officers on duty do not enter their room or take
meals with them: the King receives in the billiard room people who
come to see him or to pay their respects; the Queen, Madame Adélaïde,
Princesse Clémentine and the Duchesse de Nemours spend the evening in
work at the round table. Now they have started for Eu, and we must
hope that the change will do them some good. The little Duc de
Chartres gave rise to some anxiety for a short time. The Duchesse
d'Orléans lives in some retirement with the Grand Duchesse of

Madame de Lieven after spending a week at Dieppe, was so bored that
she came back hurriedly to her little Beauséjour, from whence she
writes: "Thiers has definitely broken with the Left and is coming
forward as the immediate successor to M. Guizot, a move which is not
likely to please M. Molé. The Chambers will be convoked for January 9.
There is no news concerning Pahlen or Barante. The whole of September
will be spent at Eu and they will then return to Saint-Cloud. The
Queen of England is taking her husband to Scotland to console him with
grouse shooting for the fact that she would not allow him to go to the
manœuvres on the Rhine. The journey will be made quite quietly, in
fact too quietly. Lord Aberdeen accompanies her."

_Rochecotte, September 8, 1842._--One of our friends who is now in
England writes as follows from London: "I have seen one of our friends
here, the excellent Dedel, the minister of the Low Countries who is
sincerely attached to us. We talked a great deal together of past
times, and he told me some curious details which may perhaps seem to
you somewhat like ancient history but which appear to me to be not
without interest. At the accession of Queen Victoria, even before the
members of the diplomatic body had had time to receive new letters
accrediting them, the Queen wished to see them at Kensington Palace.
They were all introduced one by one by Lord Melbourne and Lord
Palmerston. When the first three, namely Prince Esterhazy, General
Sébastiani and Baron Bülow had been introduced, Lord Melbourne took
them aside and said, 'Well, what do you think of _my little_ queen? Is
she not excellent? She is admirably well disposed to all foreign
sovereigns and I can assure you that she will live in peace with every
one. There is one, however, for whom she has an extraordinary hatred:
it is childish and foolish and I hope that we shall overcome her
antipathy, but she has a violent dislike for the King of the Low
Countries.' It is even more difficult, said Dedel, to imagine such
language in the mouth of an English Prime Minister. He then went on to
say that since Sir Robert Peel had been at the head of affairs, the
Queen no longer interferes and leaves him entirely to himself. She had
taken a keen interest in Lord Melbourne's Ministry, as the precarious
condition of his Cabinet kept her in a continual state of excitement.
Now she knows that nothing can shake Sir Robert Peel for a long time
and her interest in state affairs is gone. This change has been
unfortunate for Prince Albert, to whom she devotes her entire
attention: she holds him in, does not give him a moment's freedom, and
actually tyrannises over him; and the poor Prince sometimes finds it
difficult to conceal his disgust and weariness of this treatment. The
Queen, moreover, has retained some affection for Lord Melbourne who
used to amuse her, and was the first to initiate her in affairs of
state. Her hatred for the King of the Low Countries can be explained
by the influence which the King of the Belgians long exerted over her,
but the antipathy seems to have grown much weaker of late. Dedel says
that the diplomatic body at London cuts a very poor figure now, that
it has no social standing or consideration. The Russian Minister,
Baron Brunnow, is an extremely clever man and a business man of high
capacity: he is false to the point of trickery, a true Russian-Greek,
and a dangerous person with whom to do business. Dedel admits that
Brunnow's diplomatic success in London has been great. General
kindness has been shown to M. and Madame Sainte-Aulaire; she is
reputed courteous and he amusing. M. de Barante has made a good
impression on those who have talked with him. On the whole, said
Dedel, General Sébastiani was the most successful of the three
ambassadors who followed M. de Talleyrand at London: his judgment was
excellent; his early impressions in business were invariably good; his
great disadvantage was his inability to develop his ideas clearly. He
had a sound understanding of the Eastern problem and would have
settled it suitably if he had been left at his post. M. Guizot
committed constant mistakes at London and clearly showed his profound
ignorance of diplomacy: he thought himself at Paris where everything
goes on by means of parliamentary intrigue, and attempted to detach
Lord Holland, Lord Clarendon and Lord John Russell from Lord
Palmerston, forgetting that the latter was the brother-in-law of Lord
Melbourne, the ultimate master; he also tried to overthrow the
Cabinet, a very imprudent and dangerous attempt for a Foreign Minister
to make; he also tried to stir some Radical members of the House of
Commons to rebel against Lord Palmerston, and was even so imprudent as
to dine with them privately at the Star and Garter at Richmond. Lord
Palmerston once said to Bülow, 'M. Guizot should be obliged to me for
not making use of the evidence in my hands, which clearly shows his
attempts and intrigues to overthrow the Cabinet; they are of such a
nature that they would authorise the Queen's Government to hand him
his passports.' The journey of Madame de Lieven to England also
damaged Guizot's credit in a large degree. Lord Palmerston, who knew
Madame de Lieven's hatred for himself, regarded her arrival as a
further blow at himself, and his vengeance then knew no bounds. On the
whole, France, the French and their Government have been in very bad
repute in England for the last two years, and it is considered that
the present French Embassy is not likely to bring about a change in
feeling. The present English Cabinet which blames Lord Palmerston's
conduct, thinks that it has taken every possible step since it has
been in power to restore good feeling with France. The Cabinet
recognises its failure with regret, but it has decided to do nothing
more but to await results and to be in readiness for any eventuality.

"Affairs are going badly in Holland, where the House of Orange is
becoming more and more unpopular. The old King is not forgiven for his
rapacity, for the manner in which he has made money out of the country
for the last twenty-five years, and further, for his marriage with a
Belgian Catholic, while for two years he had condemned the country to
support conditions that were at least as burdensome as war without any
of its glory or profit, and all for the aggrandisement of his own
family. The new King is fickle, inconsiderate, and imprudent; people
criticise him for throwing himself into the arms of France, which is a
new and adventurous policy for Holland; he is also blamed for his
obstinacy in maintaining an army upon a war footing which is ruinous
to the country. The Budget remains at an enormous height: eighty
million florins for a population of less than three millions. The
nomination of Baron Heskern as Minister of the Low Countries at Vienna
has caused a great scandal in Holland, and revived unpleasant

_Rochecotte, September 11, 1842._--Yesterday I had a letter from M. de
Salvandy, of which the following is an extract: "Thiers has plunged in
extraordinary style; apologies to the Government have been complete,
and he has kissed hands. I should have thought him clever if he had
been more dignified, but such things often happen. I do not think that
he has thus opened a road for his immediate return to power, but by
the mere fact that he seems to have done so, the advance becomes more
difficult for any one else. One of the consequences of this great
flattery is to make the King unmanageable. M. de Lamartine has never
been anything more than a meteor; he writes to M. Villemain that he
will form part of 'the great opposition': the only great thing about
him will be his powerlessness and his fall."

I propose to start for Valençay in a few hours, and to spend a month
with my son in fulfilment of a long-standing promise.

_Valençay, September 24, 1842._--I have been deeply grieved to hear of
the death of my poor and excellent cousin, Princesse Pierre
d'Arenberg. Both she, her husband, and all that branch of my family
have been very kind to me, and I am deeply attached to them all. The
Sister of Charity who nursed Madame d'Arenberg heard her say
immediately after receiving extreme unction, "Oh, God, Thy will be
done!" I am convinced that she was fully aware of her danger during
the last forty-eight hours of her life, and that she did not speak
more clearly of her death from strength of mind, and because she would
not deprive those about her of the consolation of thinking that she
was still under a delusion. She was one of the elect.

_Valençay, September 27, 1842._--I did not know that the question of a
marriage between the Prince de Joinville and one of the Brazilian
Princesses had been discussed. I was under the impression that these
Princesses could not leave Brazil unless their brother, the Emperor,
who is not yet married, should have children. I am also astonished
that the French Queen does not feel some misgivings concerning the
breeding and education of these Princesses. Moreover, what reason is
there for such extreme haste in marrying a young man who is a sailor
by profession, and has three brothers and three nephews already? The
only result will be a number of collateral branches which the division
of inheritances and the increasing stinginess of the Chambers will
reduce to poverty, so that they will soon become a burden upon the
head of the family.

_Valençay, October 5, 1842._--I have some reason to believe that
Princess Marie of Baden is to marry the Marquis of Douglas; at any
rate, the newspapers do not know the whole truth.

I shall leave here on the 15th, dine at Tours with the unfortunate
d'Entraigues, who have just lost a daughter in very sad circumstances,
and shall reach Rochecotte for the night. I prefer a long day's
travelling to the fatigue and the cold of the inns at this time of
year. M. Royer-Collard, whom I could not possibly have gone to see at
Châteauvieux in consequence of the bad state of the roads, has been so
kind as to come here; this attention at his age, and with his feeble
health, has touched me deeply. He spoke to me of his domestic life,
and of his nearest interests, and seems to care little about anything

_Rochecotte, October 16, 1842._--I reached here yesterday evening to
pass the night. There is always a special delight about home which is
not to be found elsewhere. At the same time I am sorry to leave
Valençay. They were most attentive to me, and the whole neighbourhood
is always kind. I am very fond of my son and his society, and nowhere
are remembrances so numerous and so powerful as at Valençay.

A surprising and wonderful event has taken place at Nice, in which
all the parties are known to me: their truth, their uprightness, their
faith and enlightenment are incontestable. The eldest daughter of the
Comte de Maistre[70] had been crippled for months by a twisted leg,
and suffered desperate pain, screaming night and day; the doctors were
in despair, and spoke of gangrene and amputation. She has just been
entirely cured by ten minutes' fervent prayer in the presence of
twelve people who were in the room, and to the knowledge of the whole
town of Nice. The prayers were offered by Mlle. Nathalie de Komar, who
has been a great mystic for some years. The cure is complete, and the
malady was desperate. The young invalid is herself a saint, and
intends to be a Sister of Charity. Such an event confuses and
overwhelms the mind; it can neither be explained nor disputed under
the circumstances which occurred. One can but be silent, and bow the
head in adoration.

  [70] Francesca de Maistre.

_Rochecotte, October 17, 1842._--I am somewhat wearied by my journey
of yesterday. The priest came to tell me that he had been awaiting my
return to place the stations of the Cross in his church. One of the
Grand Vicars of Tours had just arrived to perform the ceremony at
which I was obliged to be present. It was pretty and touching but the
procession especially was tiring: then the church is a long distance
away; it is a bad road to drive and too long to walk and, in short,
the whole affair left me exhausted.

I have heard from Pauline on the 8th from the villa Melzi and on the
10th from Milan. She is quite delighted by everything that she sees,
astonished at the tasteful splendour of the villa and touched by the
gracious and kind welcome of the family. I am delighted that my
daughter should find this journey pleasant, as it has cost her a good
deal to undertake it.

_Rochecotte, October 19, 1842._--Yesterday I had a letter from Berlin
which says that the ex-King of the Low Countries, the Count of Nassau,
will very probably return to the Hague. It is thought that he will
take his daughter with him,[71] as a means of extricating her quietly
from her false position with reference to her husband and the whole
Court. She was allowed to appear at the marriage celebration of
Princess Marie of Prussia with the Grand Prince of Bavaria, but her
husband, Prince Albert, excused himself on the ground of illness, did
not put in an appearance and declines to see his wife again. I know
that Princess Marianne is regarded as flighty, but on my last journey
to Berlin she was supposed to be on better terms with her very
disagreeable husband. Something must, therefore, recently have

  [71] Princess Albert of Prussia, _née_ Princess Marianne of the
  Low Countries.

_Rochecotte, October 27, 1842._--At Berlin I had heard some mention,
not of a huntsman of Prince Albert but of a Stallmeister or whipper-in
who used to ride alone with the Princess on her excursions in Silesia,
but I can hardly believe this story, though it seems to have gained

_Rochecotte, November 3, 1842._--English aristocracy is greatly
disturbed by the story of Prince George of Cambridge and Lady Blanche
Somerset. What will become of her? A daughter of a private individual,
whatever his rank, could not marry a prince who might be called to the

  [72] This marriage, which all the English newspapers announced as
  likely to take place, was not performed, as the Queen absolutely
  refused her consent and was supported by the Privy Council.
  Prince George of Cambridge, through a letter from his solicitor
  to the _Observer_, gave a formal denial to the slanderous rumours
  in circulation, and Lady Blanche Somerset, daughter of the Duke
  of Beaufort by his second marriage, afterwards married Lord
  Kinnoul in 1848.

It is said that Lady Harriet d'Orsay was so grieved by the death of
the Duc d'Orléans that she turned for consolation to religion and she
is to become a Catholic. Princess Belgiojoso is also in a great state
of religious excitement, and as she is always devising some novel
feat, she is wearing a nun's dress.

The Indian Prince who is in Paris[73] at the present time has been to
the opera. He was taken behind the scenes where he was told that he
would find the chorus girls very affable: when there he began to kiss
them all with such vigour that he had to be taken out by main force
amid the general laughter of all present.

  [73] This Indian Prince was a rich banker, Duwarkanout Tayore,
  who was then travelling in England and France.

_Rochecotte, November 4, 1842._--M. Bresson writes from Berlin to say
that the re-union of the states and of the railways which now have
termini in this capital, has largely increased the animation of the
city. He also says Count Maltzan is very ill and that his life is in
danger; he thinks Bülow the pleasantest Minister of Foreign Affairs
with whom he has had to deal.

_Rochecotte, November 12, 1842._--Madame de Lieven tells me that Lord
Melbourne has had an attack which has left him very weak and ended his
political career, which is a drawback for the Whigs. The marriage of
Princess Marie of Baden is officially announced: her position will not
be entirely agreeable to the English court which has resolved to treat
her only as the Marchioness of Douglas. The poor Grand Duchess has
negotiated the whole business with her usual carelessness.

I hear from Vienna that Prince Metternich is in feeble health and that
he is no longer at home to the diplomatic body in the evening, as he
spends his mornings only in business and avoids any excitement before
going to bed.

_Rochecotte, November 24, 1842._--The English seem to me to have a run
of luck: they have successfully concluded their affairs in China and
the United States;[74] are predominant in Spain and Portugal; have
overcome all domestic disturbances and display a preponderant
influence everywhere, which makes us ashamed of ourselves. We cannot
even conclude a wretched little treaty with Belgium which will fall
into the arms of Prussia.

  [74] After an expedition in China the English had just concluded
  the treaty of Nankin, which opened new ports to European commerce
  and allowed foreigners to settle in Canton. The treaty with the
  United States had been signed on September 9, and settled the
  long debated question of the frontier line between Canada and the
  State of Maine.



_Rochecotte, February 21, 1843._--I have a letter from M. de Salvandy,
breaking a long silence, which he explains as due to his political
perplexities. He says that M. Guizot showed him very unworthy
treatment but is now courting his favour upon the eve of a serious
struggle, while M. Molé, on the other hand, thinks that his help may
be useful, and has changed disdainful indifference for extreme
attention. Salvandy himself is not anxious either to hurt the King by
voting and speaking against M. Guizot, or to support an unpopular and
incompetent Ministry. He thinks that the twenty votes which he can
sway would be decisive in either direction. He seems to think that the
Ministry is greatly compromised, and that even if it should emerge
victorious from the struggle upon the secret service funds, it could
hardly exist until the end of the session. Meanwhile M. Guizot is
giving a monster rout to-morrow, followed by an Arabian Night's
supper, to use the romantic expression of Madame de Meulan.[75] The
struggle in the Chamber will begin next week, and is likely to be very
keen. M. Molé is full of ardour and confidence; his party will include
Marshal Vallé, MM. Passy, Dufaure, Dupin, Bignon (of Nantes), de
Carné, Laplagne, Salvandy, and Admiral Mackau. M. Thiers declares that
he will stand aside for the moment. Such is the gist of M. de
Salvandy's letter, which is very long and very literary. I have
translated it into ordinary prose.

  [75] Mother-in-law of M. Guizot.

I hear from Vienna that Frau von Reichenbach, wife of the old Elector
of Hesse Cassel, has just died and left a large fortune to her
daughters, one of whom is a sister-in-law of Princess Metternich. The
Flahauts have given two very fine balls, at one of which _he_
attempted to waltz with Princess Paul Esterhazy, but as their strength
respectively failed, they both fell at full length, apparently with
ridiculous effect.

_Rochecotte, February 23, 1843._--The leading articles in the _Journal
des Débats_ are becoming very attractive. It is a point of style to
refer to the Intrigue as a person; to say the Intrigue does, or
speaks, or wishes, or refuses so and so, which is amusing; but I can
guess what it means; that M. Molé wishes, or refuses, or demands. It
is really somewhat contemptible, and gives rise to actual anxiety, for
nothing spoils theatrical effect so much as constant entrances and
exits on the part of the actors.

M. d'Arenberg relates a somewhat amusing remark of M. Thiers. At a
concert given by the Duchesse de Galliera, the Princesse de Lieven
reproached M. Thiers for his want of attention; he told her that he
would be more attentive when she had left the Ministry. Another saying
of his is also quoted: he is said to have declared that his return to
power was by no means a forthcoming event, and that he would wish it
to be preceded by the presidency of the Chamber.

_Rochecotte, February 25, 1843._--Yesterday I took from the library a
volume of memoirs, entitled _Memoirs of Gaston d'Orléans_, attributed
to one of the officers of his household, Aglay de Martignac. I found
there this clever and witty observation by Gaston: "During a short
stay that the King made at Paris, Monsieur met the Queen when she had
just completed a nine days' fast in prayer that she might have
children; he said to her in a jesting tone, 'Madame, you have been
arousing the sympathy of your judges against myself; I will allow you
to win your case if the King is sufficiently strong to secure your

Barante writes to say that the ambassador Pahlen is to go to Germany
this summer, and that he would like to do the same, that he might see
from this meeting what his chances really are. He also says that the
prospects of M. Guizot are somewhat doubtful; that the agitation set
on foot by M. Molé has lowered his prestige and compromised him; that
Thiers is manœuvring with renewed cleverness, and that falsehood is
becoming so habitual with every one that the general spectacle is
revolting and depressing.

_Rochecotte, March 1, 1843._--Prince Pierre d'Arenberg, who has been
here for two days, brought Madame de Ludre's book,[76] from which he
read some chapters yesterday evening in the drawing-room. The poor
woman has lost her way in the mazes of metaphysical hair-splitting,
and has produced the most extraordinary and incomprehensible jumble
that any one could conceive. The ideas of the book and the divisions
of it are amazingly eccentric, nor has it any merits of style, and
what the object of it may be no one can tell. By way of a rest after
this reading we played at nonsense verses, and infantile as this
amusement is, it is infinitely more reasonable and intellectual than
the sublunary theology of Madame de Ludre.

  [76] _Etudes sur les idées et sur leur union au sein du
  Catholicisme_, two volumes in 8vo, Debécourt, 1842.

_Rochecotte, March 2, 1843._--I have come in from a long walk in
incomparable weather; it is one of those days which help one to live
and which are so enjoyable in the country and so rarely suspected at
Paris. The advance of vegetation is surprising; all the shrubs are
showing their opening leaves with the light and tender green of
spring; the jonquils and narcissi are in flower, and we could strew
the ground with violets. Why should I change all this for the mud and
foggy atmosphere of Paris?

_Paris, March 12, 1843._--I am again submerged in Paris, and have
heard a considerable amount of news since my arrival. Here are some
details which have at least the merit of being amusing. A lady who met
the Duc de Noailles on the evening of the day when he made his speech
concerning the right of visitation, complimented him, adding,
"Unfortunately, M. le Duc, you are like the fowl which lays only one
golden egg in the course of the year." The Marquise de Caraman called
upon the Duchesse de Poix on Tuesday when there were a number of
people in the room; the Duchesse de Gramont called her over and asked
her to sit down at her side, and said to her aloud, "Is it true,
Madame, that you married Marshal Sébastiani?" Madame de Caraman
immediately replied, calmly and in an equally loud voice, "I know that
many people say so, but hitherto I have not met any one sufficiently
tactless to ask me the question."

_Paris, March 14, 1843._--It is said that the monument which is to be
placed in the memorial chapel for the late Duc d'Orléans, is an
admirable piece of work. It represents the poor young Prince at the
moment of his death, in the dress that he was then wearing. The
expression is beautiful and touching: above the head is placed the
angel, the last work of Princesse Marie, the Prince's sister; the
angel is placed as though to receive the Prince's soul and carry it to
the skies, a beautiful idea which goes to the heart at once. A
bas-relief represents the genius of France leaning upon an urn and
weeping, with the national flag at its feet. Triqueti was commissioned
with this fine work. The whole of the Royal Family went to see the
monument: the Queen burst into sobs, the King nearly fainted and had
to be taken out; the Duchesse d'Orléans wept much, but spoke for a
long time to the artist who executed this beautiful work.

The Duc de Doudeauville, better known as the Vicomte Sosthène de La
Rochefoucauld, has written a character portrait of Mlle. Rachel who
does not seem to be satisfied.[77] He asked Madame Récamier to read it
to her. She replied "I will ask M. de Chateaubriand." The latter said
that it would weary him, to which Sosthène answered, "As you are so
anxious to hear it, I will begin," and immediately read his
composition without stopping.

  [77] _See_ Appendix.

_Paris, March 16, 1843._--M. de Montrond asserts that the King told
him that he did not wish M. Molé to be minister; he would prefer that
M. Thiers would come to an agreement with M. Guizot and that they
should act together. "Molé is entirely perfidious" the King is said to
have declared, "and could never act with any one, whereas Thiers and
Guizot are made to co-operate. They have no reason for mutual reproach
or envy, are both men of letters, distinguished historians, members of
the Academy, &c.; in short they are made to act in agreement."

_Paris, March 17, 1843._--M. Thiers dined the other day with M. Chaix
d'Est-Ange, president of the corporation of barristers; MM.
Odilon-Barrot, Sauzet, d'Argout, Berryer, Dupin, Martin du Nord, the
guardian of the seals[78] and M. de Peyronnet, the former Minister of
Charles X., were also there. M. Walewski was asked to guess in whose
house so strange a meeting could have taken place, as most of the
actors were members of the Intrigue, and said: "It could only be at
the house of M. Molé." This incident took place in the salon of M.
Thiers and gave rise to many remarks at M. Molé's expense and the poor
figure he will cut after he is overthrown.[79]

  [78] The Duc Pasquier.

  [79] In 1843 the existence of Guizot's Ministry was endangered by
  the question of the secret service funds. M. Molé, whose Ministry
  had been overthrown in 1839 by the Thiers-Guizot coalition,
  thought that the moment was advisable to organise a league
  against his two adversaries. He went to work secretly by means of
  conversations in drawing-rooms and passages, and entered into
  relations with MM. Dufaure and Passy, who abandoned him at the
  critical moment. The debate on the secret service funds began in
  the Chamber on March 1 and turned in favour of the Cabinet, M.
  Guizot gaining one of his most brilliant successes on this

_Paris, March 18, 1843._--The King has shown himself greatly touched
by the eulogy which M. Guizot delivered upon him in his last speech in
the Chamber of Deputies, during the discussion upon the secret service
fund. The same evening he wrote to M. Guizot that he would have come
to thank him in person if he had not been prevented. The next day M.
Guizot called upon the King at an early hour and the Queen came in
with all the Royal Family, and many warm words of thanks were
addressed to the triumphant Minister.

_Paris, March 20, 1843._--M. Molé has declared that he will retire
from politics and will have nothing more to do with them, as he is an
unacceptable minister to the King. He speaks of withdrawing into
private life and devoting himself to the pleasures of friendship and
of the intellect. Two months earlier this project would not have been
undignified; to-day it seems to be dictated by spleen and will deceive
no one.

The extreme calm of the Duchesse d'Orléans has caused some surprise,
as also has the improvement in her health in the midst of her grief.
She devotes herself ardently to the education of her children, makes
this the chief object of her life and is not careful to hide the fact.
The Queen, after a heartrending and passionate outburst of grief, has
recovered her calm and the approaching marriage of Princesse
Clémentine[80] is a useful means of diverting her attention. Princesse
Clémentine is simply delighted, not so much because of her husband,
who is said to be an ordinary and insignificant character, as with the
idea of becoming independent, gaining full liberty and escaping from
the round table in the family room at the Tuileries, which has been
the despair of the King's children from all time. Princesse Clémentine
is to be married immediately after Easter at Saint-Cloud. She will
then start upon a tour to Lisbon, England, Brussels and Gotha, and
return to Paris where she will live in the Tuileries. She is to
receive an income of only sixty thousand francs, while the Prince her
husband will have only a hundred and eight thousand, a very moderate
income. The Duchesse de Nemours, a pretty and docile child, obedient
to the Queen in all respects, is her special favourite. The Duc de
Nemours is said to have relapsed into his taciturnity.

  [80] With Prince Augustus of Saxe-Coburg Gotha (1818-1881),
  brother of the Duchesse de Nemours. One of the children of this
  marriage is the present King of Bulgaria, Ferdinand I.

_Paris, March 23, 1843._--At the Chamber of Deputies reference was
made to the illness which had suddenly attacked M. Dupin the elder,
and which was said to have especially affected his face; upon which
words M. Thiers observed aloud with his usual imprudence, "It is a
face much more suitable for another sort of stroke."

All who have to deal with the Tuileries seem to think that some clouds
have already arisen between the Pavillon Marsan and the rest of the
palace.[81] The Queen whom I have seen, told me with more surprise
than satisfaction that the Duchesse d'Orléans was actually better than
before her loss, which no one would have supposed she could survive.
She added, "No doubt her love for her children has inspired her with
so much courage." The Queen is pleased with her grandsons but regrets
that they resemble the Weimar rather than the Orléans side of the
family. She is also satisfied with the marriage of Princesse
Clémentine, as it will be a weight off her mind, and says very
reasonably that Princesse Clémentine is twenty-five years of age and
can well judge for herself, while the religious aspect of the matter
and the desire to secure a protector in future, make her ready to
accept the marriage which the late Duc d'Orléans had arranged before
his death with the King of the Belgians. The Queen further said that
the chief establishment of the Princesse would be at Coburg but that
she would travel a good deal and often come to Paris.

  [81] The Pavillon Marsan was occupied by the Duchesse d'Orléans.

_Paris, March 27, 1843._--It is widely said that the Duchesse
d'Orléans shows the greatest preference for the Duchesse d'Elchingen,
the wife of one of her _aides-de-camp_; they are bosom friends. Some
one ventured to point out to the Duchesse d'Orléans that a preference
of this kind, if unduly marked, might cause some ill-feeling in those
about her and among the members of her household who were by their
position her more natural intimates: she replied with some bitterness
and with a touch of sentimentality which has been characterised as
truly German, to the effect that every one is free to devote himself
unreservedly to the pure enjoyment of a friendship based upon

Though the Duchesse d'Orléans is legally the guardian and chief
protector of her children, she is not to be left in full enjoyment of
her rights. The King has to some extent appropriated the rights of
guardian and leaves his daughter-in-law nothing but the user of the
hundred thousand crowns of her settlement which are assured to her by
law. The income of the Comte de Paris goes through the King's hands,
who pays all expenses and demands an account of everything. The same
is true with regard to the Duc de Chartres, the second son.

It is also said that the Duchesse d'Orléans had some difficulty in
realising that she was bound to live in complete retirement during the
period of full mourning. She had been giving a large number of
audiences. The King observed somewhat drily that she saw too many
people for one in her position, and her door is therefore open only to
members of her household. People also think that she has been a little
too generous in giving away portraits of her husband and autographs;
even M. Gentz de Bussy, the military intendant has been thus favoured.
Those most deeply in her confidence declare when she is pitied that
she has the highest and most important position in the country and is
called to play a most exalted part, and she herself cherishes this

_Paris, March 30, 1843._--The Comte d'Argout was saying yesterday at
the house of Madame de Boigne that the Abbé de Montesquiou, when
Minister of the Interior in 1814, obliged the Council of State to
resume the former dress and short cloaks: when these gentlemen were
received by Louis XVIII. with the other bodies, their unusual costume
aroused great curiosity and the soldiers who were present were
especially surprised and said among themselves, "These must be the new

_Paris, April 2, 1843._--At dinner with the Princesse de Lieven the
other day there was much talk concerning the United States of America,
and little to their credit was naturally said. On this subject M. de
Barante recalled a saying of the late M. de Talleyrand, "Do not talk
to me of a country where every one I saw wanted to sell me his dog."
There was much pleasant conversation at this dinner which was very
well assorted. The disaster of Guadeloupe[82] and the comet were not
the sole topics, as they are everywhere else: these subjects, however,
had their turn and reference was made to an amusing caricature in
which M. Arago, the chief of the Observatory is represented not as
observing but as observed by the comet.[83] From the pleasant subject
of M. de Noailles on Saint Cyr,[84] the conversation turned to Louis
XIV., the Grande Mademoiselle and the collection of curious portraits
existing at the castle of Eu. M. Guizot was glad to be able to tell us
that he had slept on the ground floor in the room of M. de Lauzun and
that he went upstairs to have an audience with the King by the same
staircase which had conducted this insolent husband to the Princess,
whose room the King now uses. What a coincidence.

  [82] On February 8, 1843, at half-past ten in the morning, an
  earthquake shock which lasted seventy seconds caused great damage
  at Guadeloupe, destroyed the town of La Pointe à Pitreand, almost
  the whole of this French colony, and engulfed thousands of dead
  and wounded. A great deal of damage was also done in the English

  [83] In 1843 a Frenchman, M. Faye, discovered a periodic comet,
  whose orbit he calculated, and which bears his name. This
  discovery made some stir. M. Faye was awarded the Lalande prize
  of the Academy of Sciences and was appointed Knight of the Legion
  of Honour.

  [84] A remarkable fragment upon Saint Cyr was printed and
  published in 1843 for private circulation. It may be regarded as
  the basis of the work of the Duc de Noailles on _Madame de
  Maintenon and the Chief Events of the Reign of Louis XIV._ The
  fragment appears at the beginning of the third volume of this
  work, which was to open the doors of the French Academy to the
  Duc de Noailles.

_Paris, April 3, 1843._--Yesterday I called upon Madame de Rambuteau
at the Hotel de Ville. She was coming back from service at Notre Dame
and had just heard the Abbé de Ravignan preaching against feminine
luxury and the want of decency in feminine fashions. He used the word
"low-cut" and in speaking of low-cut dresses, he went so far as to say
"Where will they stop?" and asserted that excess in this direction was
not even pretty. Father de Ravignan is by temperament grave, simple
and austere and such expressions were regarded as particularly daring
in his mouth. However, his criticism is only too true. Women are far
too extravagant: our toilets are complicated by a thousand
accessories, which double the expense without producing any better
effect, and young women or those who wish to be fashionable, are
hardly dressed. My late uncle M. de Talleyrand, when I began to take
Pauline into society, advised me most seriously to respect the
decencies of dress and said to me on this subject, expressing almost
the same ideas as those of M. de Ravignan, "If people show what is
pretty, it is indecent, and if they show what is ugly, it is very ugly
indeed." He also said of a very thin woman who disdained to wear the
lightest gauze, "No one could disclose more and show less."

_Paris, April 5, 1843._--Some one who ought to know told me yesterday
that at the time of the coalition which discredited M. Guizot so
greatly, his constant presence at the house of the Princesse de Lieven
displeased and embarrassed the diplomatic body. Eventually Count
Pahlen, the Russian ambassador, spoke to the Princess upon the subject
in friendly terms and said that he and his colleagues would have to
refrain from coming to her house in the evening if they were forced to
meet M. Guizot there upon every occasion. She replied that she was so
anxious to preserve her good relations with her ambassador that she
would limit M. Guizot's visits. As a matter of fact she simply related
to him her conversation with Count Pahlen and while assuring him of
the value which she placed upon his friendship, she begged him to be
less constant in his evening calls: M. Guizot replied with some
bitterness, "As you please, madame, it is understood that I will see
you no more in the evening until I become Minister of Foreign Affairs,
when the diplomatic body will ask to be invited to your house in order
that they may meet me." No prophecy could have been more exact.

_Paris, April 14, 1843._--The day when General Baudrand, who had been
appointed Governor to the Comte de Paris, came to pay his respects to
the King, he made some modest observation concerning the weight of his
responsibilities: the King interrupted him and said, "Make your mind
easy, my dear general; it is understood that the governor of Paris is
myself": I think that the Duchesse d'Orléans has been induced to agree
to this choice because she too intends some day to say to poor General
Baudrand, "I am the governor."

Yesterday evening at the house of Madame de Boigne, where I went with
M. and Madame de Castellane, who have returned from Rome, the
conversation naturally turned upon Cardinal Consalvi, whom I knew very
well. He was kind, keen-sighted, witty and agreeable as a man of the
world; there was nothing clerical about him except his dress. The
Chancellor[85] who was also with Madame de Boigne, related that when
the whole weight of governmental responsibility rested upon the
Cardinal at Rome, he still took pains to send out theatre tickets and
to perform all the politenesses and duties of social life. At the
Congress of Vienna where he was instructed to defend the interests of
the Holy Chair and to obtain the restoration of the legations if
possible, I heard him one day vigorously and cleverly advancing the
rights of the Pope. M. de Talleyrand was discussing this question with
him: after several arguments for and against, the Cardinal suddenly
cried with inimitable Italian gesture and accent, "But why can you not
give us a little territory here on earth; we will give you as much as
you like in the world above"; with which words he raised his hands and
his eyes to Heaven with wonderful energy.

  [85] The Duc Pasquier.

Madame de Boigne, who is generally as reserved as she is restrained,
went so far as to quote a somewhat frivolous remark which Pozzo had
made to her at the time of the Queen of England's marriage. Madame de
Boigne had asked Pozzo whom the Queen of England was to marry and he
replied, "Another scion of royalty": thus he designated the Coburgs.

_Paris, April 15, 1843._--Yesterday the Abbé Dupanloup preached upon
the Agony, at Saint Roch, and showed much cleverness and emotional
power, but his voice was somewhat too artificially modulated, he was
at times wearisome and repeated himself, and the long passage about
the mother's grief felt by the Virgin would have been more effective
if it had been shortened by half. As he was almost speaking to the
Queen, who was with the Princesses in a pew opposite the pulpit, he
should have spared her some of the analysis of maternal grief and its
horrors, which renewed the tortures of the poor Queen: she burst into
tears, and some of those present had the bad taste to rise in their
places in order to see her weep.

The dress which Prince Augustus of Saxe Coburg is to wear upon his
marriage day caused some perplexity,[86] but the King of Saxony, his
cousin, solved the difficulty by at once appointing him a general.

  [86] His marriage with the Princesse Clémentine.

_Paris, April 16, 1843._--Dr. Cogny reminded me yesterday of M. de
Talleyrand's reply to some one who had said before him that the wise
man should live his life in secret: "I see no necessity for secrecy or
for ostentation; a man should be simply what he is, without
forethought or affectation." M. de Talleyrand was, in fact, so natural
in every respect and laid such stress upon the truth in matters of
life that I have constantly known him to say, to write and to repeat
even by way of exclamation, as if he were replying to his own
thoughts, "What a fine thing simplicity is."

M. de Barante, during his embassy at Turin, convinced himself that
Matthioli, whom some historians have supposed to be the famous Iron
Mask, died at Piedmont, and could not possibly be identified with that
celebrated personage. Louis XVIII. was so curious concerning this
mystery, the truth of which was ultimately known only to Louis XVI.,
that upon the very day when he saw his unhappy niece, the Duchesse
d'Angoulême at Mitau, he questioned her to learn whether Louis XVI.
before his death had entrusted her with this secret. The Princess
replied that he had not. Louis XVIII. himself told this to the Duc
Decazes. It is an incident which does more honour to his curiosity
than to his good feeling. On this subject another point occurs to me
which I have often heard related by my late uncle, M. de Talleyrand,
who never quoted it without expressing his profound astonishment. When
he was Minister of Foreign Affairs a courier came to him one evening
bearing news which might have disturbed the equanimity of Louis
XVIII.: he therefore postponed the communication of it to the King
until the next morning, and coming before the King at an early hour,
he said to him, "Sire, as I was afraid of spoiling your Majesty's
rest, I postponed bringing these papers until this morning." The King
in surprise replied, "Nothing disturbs my sleep, as you may see from
this instance: the most dreadful blow of my life was my brother's
death; the courier who brought this dreadful news arrived at eight
o'clock in the evening; for several hours I was quite overcome, but at
midnight I went to bed and slept my usual eight hours."

_Paris, April 20, 1843._--The different people in attendance upon the
Duchesse d'Orléans yesterday received a letter from the Princess
saying that the mourning for the Duc d'Orléans was too serious a
matter to be interrupted by any incident, and that consequently no one
in her service would be able to suspend his mourning for the marriage
of Princesse Clémentine. The letter concluded with these words, "Such
is my intention." Some people wish to regard this letter as a decided
criticism of the fact that Princesse Clémentine's marriage is to be
celebrated before the year of mourning for the Prince has expired. It
is not the first instance which has shown a certain divergence between
the Duchesse d'Orléans and the Royal Family.

_Paris, April 22, 1843._--The Dowager Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg,
the mother-in-law of the Duchesse d'Orléans, told a lady with whom she
is on confidential terms and who repeated the remark to me, that she
was greatly grieved at the restraint in which the King keeps the
Duchesse d'Orléans in every respect. It is said that the Princess
proposes to wear mourning for the rest of her life.

_Paris, April 29, 1843._--Some months ago Princesse Belgiojoso
produced a book which is rather pedantic than serious, entitled _The
Formation of Catholic Dogma_. The work is simply a catalogue of the
different heresies which appeared in the early centuries of Church
history. It presupposes researches so long and arduous that it is
difficult to think that a young society woman could have written it
unaided: the style is simple and strong, and the book is clearly
marked by want of orthodoxy; indeed it has already been placed upon
the Index by Rome. There has been much surmise as to who could have
collaborated with the Princesse. M. Mignet and the Abbé Cœur, who are
both intimate with her, have been mentioned. On this occasion some one
in whose hearing reference was made to the book said, "It is a good
instance of the saying, the style is the man."

The Duc de Coigny, knight of honour to the Duchesse d'Orléans, is a
somewhat brusque and unpolished character: he had a small quarrel with
the Princesse on the question of General Baudrand, as governor to the
Comte de Paris, saying that it was hardly worth while to press forward
a choice so poor and mean, and that people had expected the Duc de
Broglie or some marshal or notable person. The Duchesse d'Orléans
replied, "If the choice is a bad one, I alone am responsible for it,
for I earnestly pressed it upon the King." The Duc de Coigny then
became really angry, and asked an explanation of this preference.
"What can you expect?" was the reply, "you know that we do not care to
have about us people who are burdensome." M. de Coigny replied, "So
your Royal Highness only wanted a man of straw? It is pitiable!" And
the conversation then finished.

The Prince de la Moskowa, the eldest son of Marshal Ney, is a great
musician, and conceived a plan for promoting a taste for sacred music
at Paris; such music is strangely unknown and little appreciated. He
has taken great trouble to gather a few amateurs, and attempts to
arouse some interest in the association among certain ladies by asking
them to become patronesses. I am one of the number. The day before
yesterday the first performance took place in the salon of Hertz. The
attempt was laudable but the result only moderately successful,
notwithstanding the great talent of Madame de Sparre and another
female voice. But in Paris people cannot sing austere and sacred
numbers of religious music with due simplicity and gravity and without
dramatic action. It is a new art in this country, and can only be
acclimatised at the expense of time, but the attempt is none the less
interesting. I told the Prince de la Moskowa that he ought to secure
the support of the Paris priests, of whom I saw two in the room.

A sad accident has just happened to a family of my acquaintance. A
young man of eighteen, Henri Lombard, the pride and joy of his
parents, the honour of his school and beloved by his comrades, died on
the 24th of this month after an illness of three days; the illness in
question was hydrophobia. Last November he found one of his sporting
dogs surly and depressed: the same day his hand was scratched by the
animal's teeth, which died a short time afterwards of madness. His
master, who was very fond of the animal, was so bold as to wipe away
the foam from the dog's mouth while he was tied up, with his sponge:
he afterwards washed out the sponge and used it as before; but he
could not forget the scratch upon his hand of which he had not at
first spoken; not until three months after the dog's death did he tell
his old nurse that for several weeks he had been anxious and uneasy,
but that lapse of time had entirely reassured him and that he now felt
quite confident. A quiet and studious youth, he was by no means lively
and communicative and spoke very little of his inner feelings: thus,
no member of his family knew how assiduously he had followed for
nearly a year the religious instructions given at Saint Louis d'Antin
by M. Petetot, the clever and respected priest of that parish. Henri
Lombard's parents were by no means accustomed to attend such
exercises, and he had probably been afraid of displeasing them by
displaying habits in contradiction with theirs. Such was the state of
affairs on Friday, April 21, when he felt very ill, and experienced a
marked repugnance to liquids; he immediately recognised the hopeless
nature of his condition and begged M. Petetot to come and speak to
him. He fulfilled all his religious duties not only with exemplary
regularity but with such fervent faith and such remarkable resignation
that the priest and all present were both astonished and edified.
During the dreadful attacks of this horrible malady, in the terrible
grip of the strait-waistcoat, covered with the disgusting foam of
mania, racked by the disease, for which no remedy can even be tried,
Henri Lombard thought only of heaven: the solemn parting of soul and
body seemed to have taken place even before the moment of death; the
soul long buried in silent meditation was thus revealed and fled from
its earthly bonds; it found language and expressions supernatural in
character. When he was able to speak he exhorted every one with
strange appropriateness and authority, especially his mother, whom he
knew to be in the wrong towards a respected member of his family. He
said to her with words of inspiration, "Mother, from my death-bed I
send you to ask pardon and to repair the wrong you have done." When
Madame Lombard returned to him he said, "I know you will weep over my
grave and think you draw nearer to me in going to my tomb, and you
will not know or feel that I am no longer there. You will not raise
your eyes to the place where I shall be above. I shall be better off,
for I shall be where I can intercede for you." The schoolboys who were
boarders at the Hospice de la Charité, whom the uncle of Henri
Lombard, M. Andral, had placed near him, and who did not leave until
all was over, were so overcome by the scene that their agnostic ideas
were entirely changed. M. Andral himself, though accustomed to the
most heartrending sights, was depressed and consoled at the same time.
The funeral of the youth was remarkable for the fact that it was
attended by the whole of the school to which he belonged and by the
general eulogy and regret which was expressed upon all sides.

_Paris, April 30, 1843._--The charity bazaar for the benefit of the
victims in the earthquake at Guadeloupe produced more than a hundred
thousand francs net. Those of us who acted as saleswomen had a
laborious but not uninteresting task; each of the lady patronesses had
some small adventure to relate. The following was mine: A man of some
age came and asked me the price of a little porcelain goblet. I
replied, "Twenty francs." "Is it French porcelain?" "No, sir, it is
Saxony porcelain from the Dresden factory." "From Dresden!" replied
the gentleman, "I have unpleasant memories of Dresden, for I am an
artillery officer, and during the wars of the Empire I blew up the
bridge at Dresden, acting under orders from my superiors." "Well, sir,
then you do not know that you are speaking to a German lady?" "You
will be generous, madame, and pardon wrongs committed in time of war."
"Yes, sir, if you are generous to our poor people." "Give your orders,
madame; I will buy anything you like, or at any rate anything I can,
for I am not rich." With these words he emptied his purse upon the
counter. It contained thirty francs. I was preparing to add a
cigar-holder to the goblet when he asked me to give him something of
my own make. I substituted some worked slippers for the cigar-holder.
The officer took them and said to me very gracefully, "Madame, has
peace been made?" "Certainly, sir, signed and ratified."

A provincial lady who came to our stall during the last three days of
the sale told us upon the last day that she had been so touched and
overcome by our zeal and by our polite and obliging energy that she
asked us to accept a little souvenir. She then offered the Comtesse
Mollien and myself, who were at the same stall, a pair of lace
mittens. We thanked her in the name of the poor, as we thought she
intended the lace work for our stall, but she clearly explained that
it was for ourselves. She would not tell us her name, and with great
difficulty we induced her to accept from us in memory of our stall a
cup which we presented to her.

_Paris, May 5, 1843._--Yesterday I called upon Queen Christina. She
has intelligent eyes, beautiful skin, a cheerful smile, is pleasantly
dimpled and is a ready talker with a slight accent that animates her
every observation. She will discuss any subject without embarrassment.
A free and easy life is her preference, and I think she is greatly
relieved to be far from the throne and political business. The freedom
and to some extent the obscurity of her life at Paris suit her to
perfection. She has not a single lady-in-waiting, and the number of
chamberlains about her are somewhat surprising. Only upon great and
unavoidable occasions is Madame de Toreno requested to accompany the
Queen. Muñoz is here: he lives quietly in the Queen's house, and is
regarded as her husband. Their five children are being brought up at
Grenoble. It is confidently stated that he is a sensible man and that
his influence over the Queen's mind is supreme. Though not so
enormously fat as the Infanta Carlotta, the Queen is much too stout,
and her deficiency in this respect is the more obvious as she will not
wear stays; besides, she is short of stature. She spoke to me of her
Spanish daughters, and said that Queen Isabella had a very dignified
bearing, that she was a clever and decided character, entirely made
for the difficult part which she is called on to play; that her health
had been restored and that she was even strong and robust. She added
that unfortunately those about her made no attempt to induce her to
study, lest they should lose her favour, and she remained very
ignorant. The Queen also told me that the news of her daughters that
came to her was reliable, because she had other than official sources
of information. She spoke a great deal of the late Duc d'Orléans with
extreme regret, saying that his death was a loss not only to France,
but even to Spain. "Not that the King," she added, "has been
ill-disposed to Spain, but there was in the Prince Royal a youthful
ardour and an enterprising spirit which would have been very useful to
my daughter."

On the day when the Rouen railway was opened, while the Duc de Nemours
was in the tent upon the platform, a lady and gentleman who were also
travelling, attempted to come in. The official allowed the lady to
pass while the gentleman stopped to talk with some one. When he wished
to follow the lady, the official said to him, "You cannot pass here."
"But I am a deputy." "No matter." "But you have allowed my wife to go
through." "Very likely!" "But there she is, talking to the Prince."
"All the more reason why you cannot go through." This answer, which
was heard by several people, caused general delight.

The Duc de Nemours is taking every trouble to fulfil the
responsibilities of his new position without omission,[87] but this
work is obviously an effort to him and he does not show the easy grace
which distinguished his elder brother. He goes fairly regularly to the
Chamber of Peers and even expresses very correct and reasonable
opinions to his neighbours upon the questions before the House, but he
speaks coldly and in an embarrassed style and as briefly as possible.
Then he may be seen leaving the Chamber on foot and alone with a cigar
in his mouth, and thus returning to the Tuileries.

  [87] After the death of the Duc d'Orléans in 1842 the Chamber of
  Deputies passed a law nominating the Duc de Nemours as Regent of
  the Realm during the minority of the Comte de Paris in the event
  of the death of the old King. From this time the Prince sat in
  the Chamber of Peers and made official journeys of inspection
  through the departments.

_Paris, May 10, 1843._--The Comte de Paris, though hardly five years
old, has been definitely handed over to male guardianship. His tutor
will sleep in his room. His nurse, however, will still look after him.
The arrangement seems to be due to the King's wishes. The Duchesse
d'Orléans is vexed by it. Since her widowhood she had not returned to
her own bedroom and had slept in the nurse's bed in the room of the
Comte de Paris.

_Paris, May 12, 1843._--I had a long interview yesterday with the
King. He spoke of Prussia, whither I am to make a journey, and
expressed his dissatisfaction at the fact that the King of Prussia
went to England last year and afterwards came to Neuchâtel,[88] but
went along the whole frontier of France from Ostend to Bâle without
touching French territory. However King Louis-Philippe had asked the
King of Prussia to come by way of Compiègne where they would have met.
The King of Prussia declined the invitation, replying that his
shortest journey was through Belgium and that his time was fully
engaged. It seems that His Prussian Majesty was anxious to avoid a
meeting, even with the King of the Belgians, but as the latter had
gone to Ostend for that purpose, he was obliged to give way. The
greatest ill-feeling was caused by the remark of the King of Prussia,
in reply to some one who expressed his astonishment at His Majesty's
refusal to travel through France: "What can you expect; we have
promised not to offer any isolated act of politeness to King
Louis-Philippe." The French King, deeply wounded, has since ordered
his diplomatic officials to refuse passports to foreign princes who
might wish to come to Paris incognito, in order to save himself the
necessity of meeting them, as the Princes of Würtemberg have done and
as the Grand Duke Michael of Russia was inclined to do. Orders have
been given upon the frontiers to exercise the strictest supervision in
this respect.

  [88] The country of Neuchâtel had been ceded to Frederick I.,
  King of Prussia, in 1707, and became French territory from 1806
  to 1814. The treaties of Vienna had restored it to Frederick
  William III., though it remained within the Swiss Confederation.
  The state of things was to continue until the revolution of 1848,
  when the mountaineers expelled the Prussians. Frederick William
  IV. did not finally abandon his rights until 1850, and a
  convention signed on May 24, 1852, secured the independence of
  Neuchâtel while reserving to Prussia her rights.

Madame Adélaïde seems to be quite in despair at the marriage of
Princesse Clémentine which will not provide her with a brilliant
position, while the Prince is a nonentity. Madame told me it was very
embarrassing and "even worse than the Duke Alexander of Würtemberg."
Madame and the King explained their consent to this marriage on the
ground that it was impossible to refuse to a daughter aged twenty-six
a marriage which was not absolutely unsuitable, when no other
prospects were in view. Madame and the King are astonished at the
delight which the Princess shows at the prospect of going to Coburg,
after her first travels, for there she will find very few social
resources, while her position as a Princess of Orléans and a Catholic
may prove a source of trouble and embarrassment amid all the little
Courts of Germany; but this young and amiable Princess is delighted by
the prospect of change and novelty.

_Paris, May 15, 1843._--Yesterday I had the honour to receive
commissions from the Duchesse d'Orléans to be performed by me in
Prussia. She is especially intimate with her cousin, the Princess of
Prussia, whose distinction of mind and lofty character please all her
intimate friends and deepen their attachment to her. The Duchesse
d'Orléans seemed to me more despondent yesterday than she was the
first time that I saw her after her widowhood had begun. She seems to
feel more and more profoundly her cruel desolation. Many
circumstances have also contributed to embitter her temper for some
time. She expresses herself in gentle and measured terms, but with
less restraint. The departure of the Dowager Grand Duchess of
Mecklenburg has left her very lonely, and I found her at one of those
moments when the mind cannot suffice for itself, when the power of
resistance is yielding, and when confidence became an imperative need.
Relying upon my sympathy and my loyalty to the memory which she
adores, the Princess threw off restraint and opened her heart in a
manner which touched me profoundly. She spoke with bitterness, for
which she was the first to reproach herself, of her feelings when the
Duc de Nemours was obliged to perform in public those duties which the
late Prince performed so admirably; the opening of a railway, a race
meeting, or a public function of the kind, are so many wounds to her.
She spoke naturally, with perfect choice of language. Her conversation
was also deeply marked with religious feeling. She referred briefly to
the marriage of Princesse Clémentine, and her impressions seemed to
coincide with those of Madame Adélaïde. In short, I stayed two hours
with the Duchesse d'Orléans, who seemed to find some relief in
talking, an unusual pleasure for her, as her life is confined within
somewhat narrow limits. She talks remarkably well, and shows a
shrewdness of observation and a constant desire to please. Perhaps all
this is too good to be true, and so I was somewhat relieved to see her
lose her self-command for the first time. In order to admire her as
she deserves, I was waiting for her emotion to become predominant, and
I was not disappointed.

_Paris, May 18, 1843._--Yesterday I met Father de Ravignan at the
house of the Abbé Dupanloup. I was delighted by his noble face and the
gentle gravity of his talk. The domination which he exerts in the
pulpit disappears in conversation; he is grave and gentle, speaks
slowly and in a low tone; the depth of his melancholy gaze is in
consonance with a smile that is benevolent, but in no sense lively. He
speaks of God with love, of man with forbearance, of the interests of
the clergy with moderation, of the triumph of religion with ardour,
of himself with modesty, and of the situation in general with wisdom;
in short, he inspires confidence and esteem. He hardly ever leaves
Paris, and his chief task is now to keep together by constant efforts
the young people whom he has attracted and gathered by his brilliant
lectures; he hears confessions practically only from men, but they
come to him in crowds, and last Easter Day the number of young men who
were present at the Sacrament was prodigious. Twelve pupils from the
Polytechnic School in uniform were observed. Two years ago a rosary
was found in one of the corridors of the school: the pupils seized it,
fastened it to the end of a pole, which they set up in the courtyard,
and amid much laughter and mockery shouted, "Let us see if the loser
of this rosary will dare to claim it." One of the pupils then advanced
and said firmly, "The rosary is mine and I wish to have it back." He
spoke with such simplicity and courage that no one replied to him by a
light word. From that day several followed his example, and now there
are a dozen openly professing Catholics in the school.

I am assured that the King has spoken with some vehemence against the
Protestants and that he expressed his fear of them. The Duchesse
d'Orléans, moved by prudence, diplomacy or conviction, has repeatedly
said to the King since her widowhood began; "You may be certain, Sire,
that I shall never become the female pope of the Protestants."

M. Guizot, who came this morning to say farewell to me, told me that
the King would no longer be satisfied by the return of the Russian
Ambassador to Paris; that he had resolved not to resume the equivocal
relations with the Emperor Nicholas which had subsisted since 1830 and
that an interchange of ambassadors would only take place if the
Emperor wrote and addressed him as "brother." M. Guizot takes to
himself the honour for the new step adopted by the King with reference
to the European courts. He spoke to me at great length of the Duchesse
d'Orléans and the tenor of his remarks which I believe to be correct,
was as follows: he thinks her very clever, self-restrained, dignified,
graceful and a good manager; but she has a restless imagination,
feels the need for action and the desire to produce an effect, while
her judgment is sometimes ill-balanced; she has also a certain tinge
of German affectation and a tendency to preciosity of language, while
her liberal tendencies are due to her Protestant sympathies and her
desire for popularity. As she feels herself cleverer than the Duc de
Nemours and knows that he is not ambitious, she has no fear of him,
but she is afraid of the King, who also mistrusts her mental attitude.
Her relations with the Queen are by no means intimate and grow cooler
every day. She is on better terms with Madame Adélaïde and has one
friend in the family, the Prince de Joinville, who is truly an heroic
nature, brilliant, undaunted, independent and bold, while he is very
fond of his sister-in-law. The Duc d'Aumale, who is a capable and
courageous soldier, is behaving excellently in Africa and showing
every qualification for the position of Viceroy of Algeria which is in
store for him. The Duc de Montpensier, perhaps the cleverest of the
King's sons, is still very young and is of no account at present.

_Clermont-en-Argonne, May 21, 1843._--My journey has passed off
without accident, but the weather is damp and unpleasant and the
country looks very dreary; however, from this point onwards, it is
more diversified and wooded and corresponds to the description of the
Argonne which I read at Baden some years ago. Travelling in a pretty
country with some friend, in fine weather, with curiosity aroused and
satisfied, may certainly be charming, but to be transported in a box
on wheels without interest or attraction is the most foolish of all
imaginable occupations.

_Metz, May 22, 1843._--The church of Meaux is being restored and the
houses about it are being pulled down. Had it not been for the damp
and for a slight indisposition which I feel, I should have gone in: I
have been anxious for so long a time to see the pulpit where Bossuet
preached. I have finished the second volume of Walckenauer on Madame
de Sévigné and prefer it to the first; it is cleverly written and the
interest is well sustained; new information is given upon a theme
which seemed to be exhausted, information that has been collected with
great trouble and is cleverly expounded. I gained a better
understanding of the great trial of Fouquet from this book than from
any other.

_Saarbrück, May 23, 1843._--I am travelling terribly fast, am now
beyond the French frontier and shall soon cross another frontier in
the shape of the Rhine. Every stage that I pass saddens me and even a
post painted black and white, or a brook is too much.

I have read the first half of the first volume of M. de Custine's work
on Russia.[89] The preface is too metaphysical, though there is a
passage on Protestantism and the so-called national and political
churches which is clever and striking; further there is a faithful
portrait of the Hereditary Grand Duke of Russia. I was especially
struck by two chapters composed of letters to the late Madame de
Custine, the author's mother. A short account is given of this amiable
woman's heroic life: she was one of my friends and I have deeply
regretted her; in point of age she might have been my mother and
retained very little of her beauty when I knew her, but she had great
charm and every attractive quality. I have been constantly told that
she was a great coquette and I daresay this statement is true; she was
left a widow so young and was so pretty and so unguarded that such
behaviour was natural and excusable. The same behaviour was attributed
to her at the time when I knew her; the fact may have been true, but
her manner was reserved and quiet, she spoke modestly and her
appearance was absolutely respectable. I saw her die without a murmur;
in consequence, I am favourably, even indulgently disposed towards M.
de Custine and his books, which are always clever, sometimes talented,
and are very true when he writes of Russia. I do not think, however,
that he should publish so much truth when gratitude should order him
to be silent, but men of letters will do anything. They are a class of
whom I think very little.

  [89] M. de Custine had collected the memories of his journey in
  Russia in a work in four volumes, entitled _Russia in 1839_.

_Mannheim, May 24, 1843._--My slight indisposition makes me annoyed
with everything I do. M. de Custine's book is the only thing which
seems to suit me; in spite of the affectation of the style and the
brilliancy which is obvious even where it rather diminishes than
heightens the effect, and a constant attempt at display, the book
amuses and interests me. I do not know enough of the places or the
facts to check the accuracy of the narrative or descriptions, but by
tradition or from my Russian acquaintances I am well enough informed
to consider the resemblances perfect. His story, for instance of the
thousands of workmen who were sacrificed in order to rebuild the
Imperial Winter Palace at St. Petersburg with undue rapidity, was
related to me at Berlin. The plague of vermin at St. Petersburg,
especially of bugs, was also well known to me and the following
instance was told me by the Prince of Prussia at the marriage of his
niece:[90] he said that the newly built palace was dried by excessive
artificial heat and was so infested with vermin that the bride was
devoured the first night that she slept there and was obliged to
appear at the entertainments covered with red marks. She changed her
rooms the next day, but I am assured that the plague was very general,
and that the best-kept houses are not exempt from it. This is to be
explained by the superheating and the way in which houses are
hermetically sealed for nine months in the year.

  [90] The reference is to the marriage of the Hereditary Grand
  Duke of Russia, afterwards Alexander II., with the daughter of
  the Grand Duke of Hesse Darmstadt, which was celebrated at St.
  Petersburg on April 16, 1841.

The following message reached me from the Grand Duchess Stephanie and
is very characteristic of her. It was a kind and even tender note in
which she told me that she would call at ten o'clock and bring me back
to lunch with her at eleven, after a drive to take advantage of the
fine weather; and this though she knew that since Metz I have been in
the open air without a break. However, one must take people as they
are and I should not care to show reluctance for the single day that I
am here. Further, the weather is really very fine.

_Mannheim, May 25, 1843._--The Grand Duchess came for me yesterday
morning at ten o'clock. I found her much older and depressed. The same
people are with her; old Walsch, clever and tactless, who appears in
the evening, the Baroness Sturmfeder who gives a good appearance
to the household, the excellent little Kageneck, the modest
Schreckenstein and the old almoner. At dinner there were also Prince
Charles of Solms, son-in-law of the Queen of Hanover and a Count
Herding, of whom I have nothing to say. I was overwhelmed with
questions but I also allowed myself to ask a few. Princess Marie, or
rather the Marchioness of Douglas is travelling in Italy and is deeply
in love with her handsome husband who appears to answer all her
wishes. I had full details of the wedding, the presents, the splendour
of it and the settlements, etc. It was all very magnificent. The
couple are soon to come this way on their road to England and
Scotland. Princess Marie is thought to be with child. Lord Douglas
took her from Venice to Goritz, where she was very kindly received by
the illustrious exiles: while there she wrote to her mother saying
that the Duc de Bordeaux has a handsome face and is a pleasant talker,
but his figure is terribly heavy and he limps a great deal.
Mademoiselle, though very attractive, was too small and lacking in
distinction. The Grand Duchess will shortly pay a visit to her
daughter, Princess Wasa, who is living in the castle of Eichorn, two
leagues from Brünn in Moravia. Prince Wasa insists upon a divorce: the
Princess will not consent and the Grand Duchess, who has every reason
to fear a trial, wishes to induce her daughter not to run the risk and
to come back to Mannhein here, though she is not personally enchanted
with the prospect, as she fears the unbalanced and troublesome
character of her daughter Louise. Prince Wasa has behaved very rudely
to his mother-in-law and is, moreover, almost ruined. All this is a
great anxiety to the Grand Duchess. She has given up the castle of
Baden to the Grand Duke and bought his town house which she proposes
to enlarge, to decorate and to beautify generally.

_Cologne, May 26, 1843._--I embarked this morning at Mayence where I
arrived yesterday morning in fine sun-light but also in a violent
wind. Rain and hail soon alternated with the hurricane and the waves
of the Rhine rose and became unpleasantly maritime in character. The
Grand Duchess Stephanie told me that she thought the reputation of the
Rhine scenery exaggerated, and I am inclined to agree with her. The
river is beautiful and magnificently framed: the villages, the
churches, and the ruins surround it with historical recollections, it
is true, but the lack of vegetation gives an unpleasant aridity to the
country; however, the journey is interesting and even poetical if
anybody is so minded. The castle of Stolzenfels, as seen from the
boat, is pretty but by no means grandiose; this is a castle which the
King of Prussia has just restored and enlarged so that he was able to
stay there with sixty people on his last visit; the interior is said
to be charming and to command an excellent view. As for Rheinstein
which Prince Frederick has laid out, it is quite a small place: it can
only be approached on horseback, whereas it is possible to drive up to
Stolzenfels. The several communes which owned old ruined castles on
the Rhine have presented them to different princes of the house of
Prussia: thus, apart from Stolzenfels, which belongs to the King, and
Rheinstein, which belongs to Prince Frederick, the Prince of Prussia
has received a castle, as also has Prince Charles, and even the Queen
has her own. They are all on the left bank and the King has ordered
the new owners to restore them and make them habitable. The castle of
Hornbach, where Young Germany held its revolutionary meetings, before
the establishment of the Commission of Mayence, is on the right bank
and in the Bavarian states: the King of Bavaria has just presented it
to his son, the Prince Royal; he has changed its name and it is now
called Maxburg.

I made some progress to-day with the second volume of M. de Custine.
He reports conversations which he had with the Emperor and Empress,
which are graceful and lively, but were inspired by the idea that they
would be printed. As I read all these I wondered if a traveller who
owes his magnificent entertainment to the fear of his judgment as an
author, to the desire that he may show his hosts kindness in his book,
and avoid any partiality in his descriptions, is bound by the same
degree of gratitude as the traveller who is well treated from
disinterested motives, merely because his character happens to please.
I admit that my judgment in this respect wavers a little and though in
any case I should think a delicate discretion preferable, I cannot
help finding some excuse for a man who thinks himself less entirely
bound by interested politeness than he would be by spontaneous
kindness. In any case the imperial conversations are described in a
sufficiently laudatory style: the most unfettered and critical mind is
always more or less influenced by marks of condescension from a crown.
None the less this work will cause profound dissatisfaction in Russia
and the welcome given to travellers will certainly be colder and more

_Iserlohn, May 27, 1843._--I left Cologne this morning without
regretting the inn of Rheinsberg. All these inns on the banks of the
Rhine are nicely situated. They contain furniture of inlaid wood, and
stuffed sofas with pretty coverings; but their proximity to the water
and their exposed position make them very cold. The want of fireplaces
is displeasing, as wind and damp have an easier entrance owing to the
lack of shutters and blinds. In the month of May the double windows
have been removed, and I really regret them. Daylight, which arrives
before four o'clock, and cannot be excluded, leads to untimely waking,
and is an inconvenience at which I grumbled the more as the noise of
forty-five steamboats, the bells which announced their departure and
the clatter of the stokers, make an uproar which lasts for nearly
twenty-four hours; then there is the noise made by people coming and
going in the inn, and the combination is enough to make one ill. Had
it not been for the rain, I should have gone this morning to the
Cathedral to see how far our subscriptions--for I have also
subscribed--have advanced the work upon this fine monument during the
last three years; but the weather was so bad, and I felt so worn out
by the most execrable little German bed in all its Teutonic purity,
that I had no courage to get wet in order to satisfy my curiosity,
and re-entered my carriage in a bad temper.

_Cassel, May 28, 1843._--It rained hard all last night, and is raining
still. The outlook is melancholy and depressing. To-day I am going to
Göttingen, to-morrow to Brunswick, and the day after to-morrow to
Harbke. I shall be interested to see Brunswick, which I do not know,
and Göttingen, whose turbulent students and liberal professors have so
often roused the wrath of the King of Hanover.

I am still immersed in M. de Custine. In the third volume there is a
letter concerning Princess Trubetzkoi,[91] who followed her husband to
the mines of Siberia with noble devotion. The effects are so striking
that no rhetoric is required to make them impressive. Conscious of
this fact, the author has increased the impressiveness of this
terrible drama in its last phase by simplifying his style. The scene
which concludes this unusual story of misfortune moved me deeply. In
my youth I heard many stories of Siberia from my father, and for that
reason, I suppose, I feel a keen sympathy with the unfortunate
wretches who are there buried alive.

  [91] Prince Sergius Trubetzkoi, when very young, had taken an
  active part in a conspiracy which broke out at St. Petersburg in
  1825 with reference to the right of the Emperor Nicholas to the
  throne of Russia. He was accused of usurping the crown from his
  brother Constantine. Condemned to death by the Supreme Court of
  Justice, the punishment was commuted to perpetual exile in
  Siberia. There he was obliged to work in the mines as a convict.
  The Emperor Nicholas remained inflexible throughout his life, and
  would never pardon the conspirator against his person, who was
  not released until 1855 by Alexander II. on his accession to the
  throne. Princess Trubetzkoi, urged by passionate devotion,
  followed her husband into exile, and her action was regarded as
  the more heroic, as the married couple had previously lived on
  somewhat cold terms.

_Brunswick, May 29, 1843._--Nothing but rain with occasional bursts of
hail, and by way of diversion a miserable ray of sunlight which steals
shamefully forth to announce a new storm. Brunswick is an old and
rather ugly town, with large and gloomy houses, an old church in full
Gothic style, and a town hall even more Gothic. It is a great relief
to find something really old after a succession of little capitals
rebuilt without character or historical memory, with their tawdry
modern ornamentation. I noticed a magnificent breed of post horses
and draught and military horses; they are splendid, strong and
vigorous animals; I do not know whether the district produces them or
if they are brought from Mecklenburg.

When any one's memory is as full of your stories of the United States
as mine is,[92] and when one reads the stories of M. de Custine
concerning Russia, it is difficult to say which of the two countries
seems the more objectionable, as their bad points are so precisely in
contradiction; but with regard to the Russians, I think I forgot to
tell you an incident which might very well find a place in M. de
Custine's quotations. When I was recently in Paris for the last time,
I called upon my niece, Madame de Lazareff, to say good-bye. She said
to me, "You have quite an imperial countenance this morning, aunt." I
did not understand, and told her so. "Oh," she replied, "at St.
Petersburg, when any one looks particularly well, that is what we
say." Is not that excellent?

  [92] Extract from a letter.

_Harbke, May 31, 1843._--I left Brunswick yesterday morning, but the
journey here took a great deal of time, and caused me many screams of
terror. To begin with, even the highroads in the Duchy of Brunswick
are far from admirable, while Harbke is at the end of a horrible
cross-road. The terrible rains of the last few days have ruined the
roads to such an extent that I really thought we should stick fast.
When I arrived, I found the poor old master of the house[93] ill, and
his wife in great anxiety. I was anxious to start again at once in
order not to embarrass them at such a time, but neither Frau von
Veltheim nor the invalid himself would hear of this plan; so I shall
start to-morrow very early, and reach Berlin, if God wills, in the

  [93] Count Veltheim (1781-1848).

This place is very well arranged for a German château. It is of
considerable extent, and would have some style if the old building had
not been modernised instead of being left as it was. The garden is
well kept and adjoins beautiful woods. The mistress of the house has
no children, and is devoted to flowers and birds, even to some noisy
cockatoos; she is scrupulously neat, and is aged sixty-two: a tall,
thin, pale figure, she is always dressed in white muslin: and her
lace caps and her shawls, all tied with white ribbons, give her a
somewhat ghostly appearance. The Veltheim family is most noble and
ancient, and the members are well aware of the fact; she is a Bülow.
Count Veltheim's first wife, from whom he is divorced, is now Countess
Putbus, the mother of Countess Lottum, and of the young Putbus who
died at Carlsruhe. The Veltheims are very wealthy, and a certain note
of opulence prevails in the house where, however, the useful and the
agreeable are in very close conjunction. There is no view, as the
castle is built in a hollow and overlooked by wooded hills. From the
top of one of these hills the Hartz mountains can be seen distinctly
on the horizon, while the Brocken, where Goethe placed the
supernatural scenes of _Faust_, stands out very clearly.

_Magdeburg, June 1, 1843._--A most annoying incident has just
happened; I have missed the train for Berlin which I hoped to reach
this evening, and I ought to be very satisfied that I have got so far
safe and sound; to cover thirteen leagues, the distance from Harbke to
this town, I was obliged to spend ten hours on the road. The
continuous deluge of the last few days and the waterspouts which have
burst over the country, have devastated everything, swollen the
streams, carried away the dykes, swept away earth, &c. Nothing can
describe my anxiety.

_Berlin, June 2, 1843._--At length I have reached the first
halting-place on my long and tiresome journey. I have arrived
literally at the end of my resources, with a ragged dress, reduced to
my last crown and so exhausted that I feel as if I had spinal
curvature. The railway from Magdeburg here is very well managed and
the journey is accomplished in eight hours, though the line is not
direct, as the railway passes through Dessau and Wittenberg. I did as
I have done on board the steamers and remained in my own carriage:
this seemed to me the most suitable plan, as I had no male companion
and a very mixed number of people were travelling.

_Berlin, June 3, 1843._--The Duchesse d'Albuféra writes to say that
Princesse Clémentine went to Brest to embark for Lisbon and Brittany
where she was excellently received; while good news has arrived from
the Prince de Joinville and the Duc d'Aumale is distinguishing himself
in Algeria. The Duchesse de Montmorency tells me of an extraordinary
incident: Madame de Dolomieu has sold for thirty-five thousand francs
certain autograph letters by living writers in which there are some
that could only be circulated with unpleasant consequences. The King
of France bought back his letters for twenty-five thousand francs.
Really impudence at the present time knows no bounds! General Fagel
forced Madame de Dolomieu to buy back for eight hundred francs a
letter from the King of the Low Countries which he had given her and
which she had sold with the collection.

The author of the tragedy of _Lucrèce_, M. Ponsard, and the author of
the tragedy of _Judith_, Madame Emile de Girardin, whose plays have
met with such different receptions, came across one another at the
house of the Duchesse de Gramont. Madame de Girardin was bursting with
rage, in a manner said to be absolutely grotesque.

_Berlin, June 4, 1843._--Yesterday I saw the Countess of Reede. The
old and agreeable lady, who always treats me as her daughter, received
me with open arms and soon put me in possession of all current news.
She is at the head of the faction hostile to Princesse Albert, who has
gone to Silesia. Her position here is abominable, and though the King
has so far supported her as not to allow his son to divorce her, the
Princess feels herself entirely out of place in society and at the

I went to tea with the Princess of Prussia. Her husband was there and
has grown stout, and I am sorry to see how she has changed, as the
beauty of which I thought so much has disappeared. As she is young and
strong, I hope that her freshness will return.

_Berlin, June 5, 1843._--Yesterday was a day of hard work. First came
Sunday mass; then I went home for a long business talk with Herr von
Wurmb and Herr von Wolff, and then went to Madame de Perponcher, and
then to the Werthers; they are to see their son again to-day who is
Prussian Minister at Berne. I then called upon Lady Westmoreland, who
had just heard that one of her sons, whom she had left in England, was
seriously ill. Finally, I went to the Radziwills.

I dined with the Princess of Prussia. The other guests were the Prince
and Princess William, the uncle and aunt, their son who has come back
from Brazil, the Werthers, Countess Neale, the Radziwills, Prince
Pückler-Muskau, and Max von Hatzfeldt. It was a fine and splendid
dinner in the prettiest palace in the world, but the stormy weather
made every one ill. I did not know Prince Pückler, who has been able
to recover favour at Court,[94] at any rate to some extent, in the
following way: The Prince of Prussia was anxious to improve his park
at Babelsberg in Potsdam, and told his gardener to write to the
gardener of Muskau, requesting him to obtain a few weeks leave from
his master to come and lay out the garden of Babelsberg. The Prince of
Prussia then received a letter from Prince Pückler, telling him that
the real gardener of Muskau was himself, and that he was starting
forthwith for Babelsberg for a consultation with the Prince's
gardener. When he arrived he undertook the whole of the gardener's
business and began to lay out walks, clumps of trees, &c. Some days
afterwards the Prince of Prussia found him hard at work, and naturally
thanked him, asked him to dinner, and now he has become quite the
fashion. He told me that he was starting to-day for Muskau, asked me
to pay a visit to his park when I was at Sagan, and offered his help
in laying out the park of Sagan.

  [94] Prince Pückler in his works had shown an independence and
  boldness of judgment which, in conjunction with his liberal
  ideas, seemed far too advanced for so retrograde a court as that
  of Prussia, and had obliged him to absent himself.

M. and Madame Bresson called for me later on and took me to the opera,
where _Robert le Diable_ was performed, and conducted by Meyerbeer
himself. The performance was excellent, but the heat was frightful.
Many people came into our box, including Maurice Esterhazy, who seemed
to me somewhat depressed.

_Berlin, June 6, 1843._--I have had a call from Humboldt, who said
that two years hence there would be a national representative assembly
sitting at Berlin, that it would be at first consultative and
afterwards deliberative.

I am struck by the animation of Berlin since it has become a railway
centre. The population has increased by fifty thousand people and the
development of manufacture and luxury is very marked. The following is
a curious little anecdote: Upon the death of the Duc d'Orléans the
Empress of Russia and the Prince of Prussia, who were at St.
Petersburg, attempted to persuade the Emperor to take the opportunity
of writing directly to King Louis-Philippe; he refused, but told the
Empress that he would authorise her to write to the Duchesse
d'Orléans. The two Princesses had known one another formerly in
Germany, and were on such intimate terms as to speak in the second
person singular; the Empress wrote in German, using this form; she
received a somewhat cold answer in French from which it was absent.
The Empress was much hurt, and complained to her aunt, the Princess
William of Prussia, sister of the Dowager Grand Duchess of
Mecklenburg; the Empress asserts that it is very rude to reply in
another language than that used by the first correspondent, and that
if the Duchesse d'Orléans thought it her duty to use only the language
of her children's country, she, the Empress, would do the same next
time and would write in Russian.

I have seen M. Bresson, who told me that recently, in a club at St.
Petersburg, the Emperor spoke to the French Chargé d'Affaires, and
asked, "When is M. Barante coming back?"

I dined with the Wolffs. There were also present, Count Alvensleben,
Finance Minister; Herr von Olfers, Director of the Museum; Huden, the
Councillor of State; and Barry, who is the first doctor in Berlin
after Schönlein. I then went to Lady Westmoreland, whom I found very
old and much changed, but witty and pleasant as ever. She told me that
Lord Jersey was inconsolable on account of Sarah's marriage with
Nicholas Esterhazy, who, however, is happy so far. Old Lord
Westmoreland has treated his son as badly as possible in his will,
and Lady Georgina Fane, far from showing her brother any kindness, as
has been said, insisted upon the prompt execution of the will with
such severity that the Westmorelands would be in serious difficulty
were it not for their post in Berlin. When I left Lady Westmoreland I
called on Countess Neale, one of my oldest acquaintances in this
world; I found her alone, and we spent a long time talking of our
young days.

_Berlin, June 9, 1843._--Yesterday I dined with the Princess of
Prussia; she is really a very interesting character, and her regular
kindness to myself and her increasing confidence, make me ever more
attached to herself and her fortunes. I am anxious for her health, and
I fear that she is right in regarding it as seriously affected. There
was a numerous company at her dinner: Princess Charles, her sister; my
two nephews Biron; the Prince of Wurtemberg, the youngest of the
brothers of the Grand Duchess Helena; the latter told me that the
Grand Duke Michael was shortly to reach Marienbad, and from thence
would go to England. The King of Hanover was taken ill in the course
of his journey to England, and was unable to reach London for the
baptism; he is said to be in a very bad state and overcome with the
idea, which is probably correct, that he is going to die. This notion
has taken a strong hold of his mind, as a prophecy was made to him
that he would die in the year in which his son was married.

_Berlin, June 11, 1843._--Yesterday I went to Charlottenburg to visit
the mausoleum of the late king, by the side of the late queen's tomb.
The chapel has been enlarged, but the general effect is lost and I was
not pleased, although the altar of black and white marble is one of
the prettiest things I have ever seen. The walls are covered with
Bible texts which the present King himself chose, painted in golden
letters upon sky-blue scrolls; the effect is somewhat Moorish; the
general appearance is by no means Christian. Protestant architecture
is certainly dry both in outward form, in its general worship, and in
the essence of its mutable doctrines.

_Berlin, June 14, 1843._--Yesterday, after dining by the chair of the
Countess of Reede, her daughter, Madame de Perponcher, took me round
the grand rooms in the castle to show me the Rittersaal which the King
has just restored. Some curious portraits and some furniture dating
from the Great Elector give a certain interest to these rooms though
upon the whole they are very moderate. We left the Countess to go to
the German Comedy Theatre where we saw an excellent performance of
_Mademoiselle de Belle-Isle_,[95] for translations from the French
stage are continually played in Germany.

  [95] This play, by Alexandre Dumas père, was then given at the
  Theatre Royal of Berlin (Schauspielhaus) from the German
  translation by L. Osten.

A historical novel has just appeared which is quite the rage here,
called _The Moor_,[96] and deals with the period of Gustavus III. The
author, who has been many years in Sweden, had access to the archives
of the realm, and the documents which he quotes are authentic. People
here say that a negro actually lived at the court of Queen Ulrica and
that most of the characters and incidents of the novel are true. I am
reading it with much interest; as I knew the Baron of Arnfelt in my
youth (in fact, he taught me to read) I am particularly interested in
anything relating to him. M. de Talleyrand also spoke to me often of
Gustavus III., of whom he saw a great deal at the time of his second
visit to Paris when he was returning from Rome. The King of Sweden at
that time had gained the ear of the Pope to such an extent that he
thought he could easily obtain the cardinal's hat for one of his
friends. He suggested that M. de Talleyrand should present his
request, but the favour was declined, as the equivocal reputation of
Gustavus III. would have given the request an unpleasant
colouring.[97] At the same time the Princesse de Carignan,[98] the
grandmother of the present King of Sardinia, who was strongly
attracted by M. de Talleyrand (at that time he was Abbé of Périgord,
before he became Bishop of Autun), thought herself also sufficiently
influential at Rome to secure the necessary dispensations which would
have enabled my uncle to marry her if he became a layman. M. de
Talleyrand has often told me as one of the strangest incidents of his
life that he was thus simultaneously involved in two contradictory
projects, both requiring the sanction of the court of Rome; he also
told me that Gustavus III. was a very clever and agreeable character.

  [96] This novel, _Der Mohr oder das Haus Holstein-Gattorp in
  Schweden_, which appeared anonymously, takes as its hero a negro
  named Badin, who is said to have been actually brought from
  Africa to Sweden during his youth in 1751.

  [97] William III., who had been at Rome in 1771 as Crown Prince,
  returned to that city after his accession in 1783. Pius VI. was
  then Pope, and received the King with the greatest kindness. In
  June 1784 Gustavus III. came to Paris to revisit Queen Marie
  Antoinette, to whom he was greatly attached.

  [98] The Princesse de Carignan, the grandmother of King Charles
  Albert, was a Princess Joséphine of Lorraine and a sister of the
  charming Princesse Charlotte, the Abbess of Remiremont, for whom
  M. de Talleyrand felt so profound an affection.

_Berlin, June 15, 1843._--M. de Talleyrand arrived here the day before
yesterday. We dined at the house of the Radziwills with M. Bresson who
told me of the marriage of the Prince de Joinville. He is marrying a
Brazilian princess who is pretty and lovable with a dowry of four
million francs.

We spent the rest of the evening with the Princess of Prussia who was
alone with her husband. I am sorry to think that this kind Princess
will not be here on my return on the 23rd: she is starting for Weimar
on the 20th and is to spend the summer with her mother. I feel very
anxious about her health and spirits which are greatly depressed.

_Berlin, June 16, 1843._--Yesterday I went with the Countess Neale to
Potsdam by railway, to dine at Glienicke with Princess Charles of
Prussia. The weather was rather cold but dry and clear. Prince
Adalbert of Prussia who has just come back from Brazil was also there.
He had seen the Princesse de Joinville at Rio de Janeiro and spoke of
her as very pretty and pleasant; for the sake of the young Prince I am

In the evening I saw Madame Chreptowitz, _née_ Nesselrode, who is
coming from St. Petersburg on her way to Naples where her husband has
been appointed Chargé d'Affaires. She says that M. de Custine's book
is quite the rage at St. Petersburg, and rage is the correct term, for
the book rouses the Russians to fearful wrath. They assert that it is
full of falsehoods. The Emperor reads it attentively, speaks of it
disdainfully, and is really disgusted with it. An amusing incident in
reference to this subject, is the statement of Madame de Meyendorff,
the wife of the Russian minister at Berlin, who loudly declares that
the book is as true as it is amusing and says she hopes that it will
teach the Russians to be less conceited.

Herr von Liebermann, Prussian Minister at St. Petersburg, who is also
here on his way to Carlsbad, told me yesterday that his health and
spirits had suffered severely at St. Petersburg and that he would be
dead if he had not obtained leave of absence. The fact is that he
looks very ill, in spite of his bloated appearance, and seems to be
quite disgusted with Russia.

The King of Denmark has announced that he will visit the King of
Prussia in the island of Rügen.

_Sagan, June 17, 1843._--I arrived here this morning. I am staying in
a pretty house opposite the castle where my father's chief agent used
to live. I found a courier there who had come over from Muskau, asking
me to go there and meet the Prince of Prussia. I shall therefore
return to Berlin by way of Muskau and spend a day there.

In company with Herr von Wolff I drove round part of my new
acquisition, including the forest, and was delighted by the stags and
roe deer which came round the carriage.

_Sagan, June 19, 1843._--Yesterday was Sunday and I went to high mass
in a very pretty church in the town. The service was choral and was
very tolerably performed. Then I went to the castle to examine the
books and other objects which, however, are by no means valuable and
which I have bought with the rest of the fief. This transaction
somewhat confuses my position towards my nephew the Prince of
Hohenzollern, and produces a very disagreeable mixture of meum and
tuum, which I shall bring to an end as soon as possible.

This morning I went to the little church where my sister is buried and
had mass said on her behalf. I explained to an architect the
restoration which I desired to make in this church. On leaving it I
paid a visit to the schools, the shelters and the factories. I then
returned to dinner with the officers of the artillery battery and
garrison here; they had invited the Prefect and several other persons
from the town.

_Muskau, June 20, 1843._--I could write a long account of this
household and can say at once that it has an individuality of its own.
I left Sagan this morning at about nine o'clock and arrived here at
one o'clock. The road is not bad, though near Muskau a sea of sand
begins which reduces speed almost to the point of immobility. It is
therefore a double surprise to drive through the freshest and greenest
of parks, as full of flowers and as carefully tended as can be
imagined. It is quite like England, with all its care and comfort
expended both without and within the castle. A very noble flight of
stairs bordered by fine orange-trees leads to the castle court which
would be modern in style if it were not for the towers crowned by
belfries, which give it an imposing aspect not to be found in modern
edifices. At the foot of the stairs I found Prince Pückler surrounded
by footmen, lacqueys, Arabs and negroes, a very strange and motley
troop. He immediately conducted me to my room which is most luxurious;
a sitting-room full of flowers, a bedroom draped with white muslin,
and a dressing-room in a tower; even my servants say they have never
been so well lodged. The Prince of Prussia has been detained at Berlin
on business and will not arrive until to-morrow. Princess Carolath,
step-daughter of Prince Pückler, came to apologise for the absence of
her mother, Princess Pückler, who was not quite well and had not yet
finished dressing. Shortly afterwards she came in: she is very
pleasant, extremely distinguished and talks most admirably upon every

Among the strange inhabitants of this castle is a very tiny little
dwarf,[99] no taller than a child of four, perfectly proportioned and
dressed as a Pole. He is nineteen years of age and is much petted and
dressed up; he seems happy, though he made a very sad impression on

  [99] The famous "Billy," as the Prince's friends called him.

_Muskau, June 21, 1843._--The close of yesterday was spoilt by a cold,
sharp and gusty wind which suddenly arose to sadden the country and
freeze poor mortal frames after three days warm weather. After dinner
I looked over the rest of the house. Everything is very nice, though
the proportions within are by no means upon a vast scale: flowers have
been very artistically used for decoration and give a special beauty
to the rooms; the Princess's room resembles a hothouse and an aviary
at the same time. I was especially struck by a portrait of the Prince
fastened to the Princess's desk round which laurel branches were
artistically placed: they belong to two laurels which stand in pots on
either side of the desk; a little vase of forget-me-nots was placed
between the portrait and the writing pad. This is one of the thousand
details in this union which was broken off and restored and which is
quite unparalleled; for though in society one may often meet people
who have separated but have not been divorced, it is much more unusual
to meet divorced people who have not been separated.[100]

  [100] Princess Pückler was divorced in 1817 by Count Charles von
  Pappenheim and married Hermann Pückler in the same year. They
  were divorced in 1826 because Prince Pückler, who was almost
  ruined by his wild extravagance, wished to marry a rich English
  woman, a Miss Harriet Hamlet. This project failed, and the Prince
  and his wife, though legally divorced, began life again very
  happily under the same roof, though they were not remarried.

In spite of the disagreeable cold and the bitter wind which would have
excused a fire, we went for a drive round the park in an open
carriage. Prince Pückler sat by my side, to act as showman to this
extraordinary estate. In England it would be fine and here it is
marvellous. He has created not merely a park but a country: sandy
plains, white and dusty hills, have been changed into verdant slopes
and fresh green lawns; superb trees rise upon every side, clumps of
flowers frame the castle; a pretty stream brightens the whole and the
town of Muskau gives interest to the landscape which is rich,
diversified and full of beauty; yet, throughout this drive which
lasted for two hours, Prince Pückler would talk of nothing but his
desire to sell this fair creation. He would like the Prince of Prussia
to buy it: he says that as he has finished his work, he feels no more
interest in it, and like a painter who has finished his picture, he
would like to begin another in a better climate; he tells me he is
thinking of South Germany about the Black Forest and the confines of
Switzerland. The Princess does not hide her sorrow at this idea and I
can understand her feelings, for she has lived here for twenty-five
years and the interior of the castle is her work; moreover, she has
discovered a mineral spring on the spot, which has suggested the
erection of a watering establishment. This idea has been carried out
and the building in the park looks charming.

To return to Prince Pückler, he is not what I had expected him to be:
he speaks but little, in a low voice, and whether he feels that I am
ill-inclined to gossip and scandal, or whether he reserves his own
powers in this direction for his writings, his conversation shows no
trace of them. He rather gives me the idea of a man who is tired and
bored than of a bad character.

_Muskau, June 22, 1843._--I had proposed to start this morning, but
the Prince of Prussia told me so graciously that he could not allow me
to leave Muskau before himself, that a refusal would have been
churlish, the more so as Princess Pückler seemed very anxious that I
should stay. Here one is allowed to remain in one's room in sloth
until midday, which suits my habits excellently. When I went
downstairs yesterday to the drawing-room, the Prince of Prussia, who
had arrived at nine o'clock in the morning, was already coming in from
a walk. After lunch the Princess displayed many curiosities which her
husband had brought home; books, frames, models of the Holy Sepulchre,
rosaries and crosses in mother of pearl beautifully worked in
Palestine, Arab paintings, arms and instruments of all kinds. In the
library we were shown a manuscript on vellum with painted vignettes of
_Froissart's Chronicle_. Something of everything is to be found in
this curious house, which is full of contrasts. In the afternoon the
men went out again for a long excursion and the ladies walked about
the gardens, which well deserve to be examined in detail, so
marvellous is the labour expended upon them, though attention to
detail has in no way destroyed the general effect. Afterwards we
entered a carriage and reaching a large field covered with people, we
stopped to see the Arab and Egyptian horses of Prince Pückler
parading, curvetting and galloping. They were ridden by men in
Oriental dress, and it was a bright and pretty spectacle. Tea was
served in one of the lounge rooms of the bathing establishment.

_Berlin, June 24, 1843._--On arriving here I found letters which will
further modify my movements. My sister Acerenza is ill, and her doctor
has insisted so strongly upon Carlsbad that she is going there with my
other sister on July 1; so, on leaving here I shall go to Carlsbad,
together with my son, who has been ordered to take the waters.

I must say another word concerning the conclusion of my stay in the
fairyland of Muskau. On Thursday, the 22nd, after lunch, every one
went up to see Prince Pückler's rooms: there are four of them, full of
pictures, sculptures, engravings, books, manuscripts, heathen and
Christian curiosities, curiosities from Asia, Barbary and Egypt; a
pretty model of the foot of his Abyssinian woman[101] is on his desk
by the side of his wife's portrait; a model of the Holy Sepulchre
hangs by a stuffed crocodile; a portrait of Frederick the Great is
confronted by that of Napoleon, and the picture of M. de Talleyrand is
side by side with one of Pius VII. There are inscriptions on all the
doors in the style of Jean Paul. Amid all this miscellany there seems
to be some attempt at order, in which the hand of the master of the
rooms is apparent; in any case they contain interest of every kind.
After this inspection we went to tea in a shooting-box in the midst of
a most beautiful forest. The Prince of Prussia had a shot at a stag,
which he killed. We returned after nightfall, and after supper the
Prince of Prussia was present at a torchlight parade of the military
reserves. This was followed by a walk through the park, which was
illuminated by Bengal lights, so cleverly placed behind the trees and
the clumps of flowers, that the fires could only be inferred from the
effect which they produced; these effects were really magical, and I
had never seen anything of the kind. The Prince of Prussia left Muskau
the night before last at two o'clock, and I followed him yesterday

  [101] This Abyssinian woman was called Machbouba. Prince Pückler
  had brought her back with him from his travels. She could not
  bear the northern climate, and died at Muskau after embracing the
  Catholic religion at Vienna through the influence of Princess
  Metternich, who took a keen interest in Machbouba.

_Berlin, June 25, 1843._--Yesterday I went to an evening party given
by the Radziwills. There I met Humboldt who had just returned from the
island of Rügen, concerning which he was most enthusiastic: he also
spoke very warmly of the residence of Prince Putbus, who was able to
receive the two Kings of Prussia and Denmark without any necessity for
himself or his wife to change their usual mode of life.[102] The King
of Denmark seems to be greatly disturbed as to what will become of his
kingdom after his death. His son is such a bad and even insane
character that his succession is practically impossible; moreover, he
ill-treats his wife dreadfully and has no children. Hence there is an
idea that Denmark will be divided; that the islands and Jutland will
go to a Prince of Hesse-Cassel, and that claims for Holstein and
Schleswig will be raised from very different quarters; Russia will
raise claims, and as Germany is especially anxious to see that Russia
gains no footing there, the two Kings have apparently been trying to
avoid any invasion of the kind. An attempt will be made to overthrow
all claims by marrying a Prince of Holstein-Glücksburg with one of the
Grand Duchesses of Russia.

  [102] On June 17, 1843, the King of Denmark, Christian VIII.,
  disembarked at Putbus, where the King of Prussia was awaiting

_Berlin, June 26, 1843._--Yesterday I dined with the Russian Minister
together with M. de Valençay, and saw in full detail my old
house,[103] which is much improved; but it was very pretty in its
original form, and if I had it now nothing would induce me to sell it.

  [103] The house of Courlande at Berlin, No. 7 _Unter den Linden_,
  formed part of the fortune which the Duchesse de Talleyrand
  received on her father's death. The Duchesse sold this house,
  through her architect, in 1839, for ninety-five thousand thalers.
  The Emperor Nicholas bought it, and as the proprietor he gained
  the title of Honorary Citizen of Berlin. Apartments for the
  Emperor and his family were reserved in it, and it was then
  appropriated by the Russian Legation, which is still there.

_Berlin, June 29, 1843._--Yesterday M. de Valençay and myself
travelled to Potsdam by the railway, and the King's carriage took us
to Sans Souci. The King came in for dinner after a Council which had
lasted five hours and was concerned with the increasing difficulties
in the states of the Rhine provinces. Apparently the King could not
agree with his Ministers upon the policy to be adopted; in any case he
must have been greatly pre-occupied, for he was by no means in his
natural humour. Besides M. de Valençay and myself the guests included
the Ministers, the officers on duty, an old gentleman, one Pourtalès
of Neuchâtel, Humboldt and Rönne, but the dinner was very slow. The
King has grown stout, which was not necessary in his case; he is also
changed by age and his colour is too high; I did not think he was
looking by any means so well as I could wish. After dinner all the
guests returned to Berlin except my son, Humboldt and myself. We were
asked to stay for a drive. I was given a room which the King has just
fitted up and which looks as though it belonged to a novel of the date
of Frederick II. The strange feature of the room is that in 1807 when
the King was a child at Memel he dreamt one night of a room in this
style, and as he remembered his dream he has realised it. The wood is
painted in very light green: all the mouldings, which are in the style
of Louis XV., are gilded, as also are the frames of the mirrors and
pictures; the bureau and the curtains are red; the table and wardrobe
are of rosewood, inlaid and decorated with beautiful Saxony porcelain,
as also is the mantelpiece of black marble. At seven o'clock I went
out with the Queen in her carriage, while the King entered the phaeton
with his favourite Minister, Count Stolberg, who is a very pleasant
man; my son was in the third carriage with Humboldt. The King led the
way and we followed him over very beautiful roads carried through a
forest which he has added to the great park of Potsdam; he was then
kind enough to drive us back to the railway, and the last train
brought us to Berlin where I was anxious to appear at the house of
Frau von Savigny, who had arranged a musical evening for us. This was
a very pleasant entertainment; her nieces, her son and two other
gentlemen sang delightfully, and a certain Passini played the violin
infinitely better than I have ever heard any violinist play. I thought
him far superior to Paganini and Bériot.

_Berlin, July 1, 1843._--This new month really should bring us summer,
but it does not look like doing so. The weather is cold, damp and
abominable. However, I went yesterday with the Radziwills, my son and
Herr von Olfers to see the frescoes which are being executed in the
museum under the direction of Cornelius. They are very beautiful
compositions in point both of design and idea. I also went to the
Kunstverein to see the portrait of Tieck by Styler, who is at present
the most famous portrait painter in Germany and I think deserves his

_Berlin, July 3, 1843._--Yesterday we went to Potsdam to a military
fête to which the Emperor of Russia had sent a deputation; in
consequence all the Russians in residence here were invited. The whole
of the royal family and several of the chief noblemen of the country
were there; Princess Adalbert, who has returned from Silesia, was also
there. She has grown much older, is greatly changed, and in my opinion
is extremely ugly; she seemed to be in no way conscious of the fact.
Dinner was given in a large gallery, after which we went to see the
troops dining in the open air. They were continuously exposed to a
fine and very unpleasant rain which entirely spoilt the sight. After
dinner came the theatre, then supper and then the railway.

_Königsbruck, July 6, 1843._--I arrived here yesterday at the house of
my nieces. The castle is almost full, but only relations are there:
the Count and Countess of Hohenthal, Madame de Lazareff, and her three
children, Fanny Biron, her two young brothers, Pierre and Calixte, the
two daughters and the little boy of poor Count Maltzan, who are
cousins-german of my nieces, and then a number of governesses, &c.
Every one seemed very happy and welcomed me warmly.

_Carlsbad_, July 11, 1843.--On the 7th we had a terrible storm at
Königsbruck with hail, a waterspout and a flood. A child in the
village was drowned, and everybody was terror-stricken. My poor nephew
Hohenthal lost his hay and his harvest. I started on the 8th in good
time to dine at Pillnitz, where their Majesties received me most
kindly. On the 9th I heard mass at Dresden in the early morning and
started after lunch for Teplitz. Yesterday I made a start in stormy
weather, the horses were frightened and inclined to shy; on one
occasion they started to one side of the road, and if they had not
stuck in some heavy earth we should have been upset. It was an
unpleasant experience, for the danger was real. However, as it is
over, one can but thank God for safety and think of it no more. I
found my sisters very kind and affectionate, but the second is much
changed, yellow and withered.

_Carlsbad, July 13, 1843._--Yesterday I had several callers: Prince
Paul Esterhazy came in first and we talked of many old memories. Then
the Ambassador Pahlen came; he knows as little of his future career as
Barante knows of his. Afterwards I and my son went to dinner with
Prince Paul Esterhazy: among the guests were Princesse Gabrielle
Auersberg, lady-in-waiting to the Emperor Alexander during the Vienna
Congress; Princess Veriand of Windisch-Graetz, a pretty woman of the
same period, and her daughter, the Ambassador Pahlen, Herr von
Liebermann and Count Woronzoff-Daschkoff. After dinner I made several
calls and went to tea with my sisters; several people came in,
including the Count of Brandenburg, son of the stout William and of
Countess Doenhoff. We had met long ago at Berlin and were glad to meet

_Carlsbad, July 15, 1843._--I spend almost the whole of my days with
my sisters. Here people live in the street, wander about and spend
their money in the shops, in which they are constantly looking. I was
asked to tea yesterday with the Countess Strogonoff whom I had met at
London at dinner with Madame de Lieven. I stayed for half an hour,
but it was a meeting of St. Petersburg society, and I was quite lost.
I saw Marshal Paskewitch who is known, I think, as the Prince of
Warsaw; his manner is by no means pleasant, and certainly not

_Breslau, July 24, 1843._--I am making only a flying visit here as I
wish to dine with my nephew Biron at Polnisch-Wartenberg, and I have
no time to lose. I saw nothing striking on the road from Dresden here,
and Breslau is an old town which is rather stolid than interesting.

_Polnisch-Wartenberg, July 26, 1843._--I found a regular family
meeting here the day before yesterday and a pressing invitation to
dine the next day with the Radziwills. I therefore accompanied my
nephew yesterday morning to Antonin, a shooting-box of the Radziwills
in the grand duchy of Posen. The weather was abominable and the Polish
roads extremely bad. Six horses harnessed to a light carriage dragged
us through dark forests, over deep sand through which we jolted over
the roots of trees. The grand duchy of Posen which begins two leagues
from here, has a generally depressing appearance; the population, the
houses and the cultivation are all in a poor state. I was received
very kindly by the good Radziwills, who are living in a curious castle
which is rather original than comfortable. Near this castle their
parents are buried; I was taken to the family vault to pray over the
tomb of their late mother, Princess Louise of Prussia, who was my
godmother, and what is more, was a really motherly friend to me.

_Polnisch-Wartenberg, July 27, 1843._--My nephew took me for a drive
yesterday morning to see part of his estate. We spent the rest of the
time examining old family papers and memorials of our grandparents
which are collected here. Prince Radziwill dined here in the course of
a round of inspection which he was making.

_Günthersdorf, July 29, 1843._--I have come here from
Polnisch-Wartenberg. I stayed at Breslau for a few hours to visit the
churches, the old town hall, and some shops which are better stocked
and in better taste than those of Berlin. I also wished to pay my
respects to the Prince Bishop[104] and ask his blessing. He received
me with affecting sympathy. My nephew who had accompanied me
everywhere, left me in the cathedral and went to ask the Bishop if he
could receive me; he immediately came to fetch me, notwithstanding his
eighty-two years, and took me to his palace which he showed me. It is
a fine residence, and I was obliged to accept an invitation to a meal.
The traditions and character of Breslau pleased me greatly.

  [104] The Prince Bishop of Breslau was then the Viscount Melchior
  von Diepenbrock, a cardinal (1798-1853).

_Günthersdorf, July 31, 1843._--I do not know Princess Belgiojoso well
enough to say whether I should be flattered or not by the comparison
which M. Cousin has given you of her mind and mine;[105] but I am
quite certain that M. Cousin cannot possibly judge my character,
seeing that I have never spoken with him nor in his presence. His
statements therefore are based upon hearsay and are, in consequence,
unreliable. In any case my learning which is confined to the
seventeenth century will humbly strike its flag before a mother of the
church. I do not write books, I am ignorant and grow more ignorant
every day, as I am entirely occupied with personal interests, and if I
were obliged to make researches into any subject, it would be into the
law concerning fiefs.[106] This reminds me that I was startled this
morning by the trumpet blast of a postillion which seemed to me to
announce some courier sent to Germany for a definite answer. However,
it was Herr von Wolff who had come with a new proposal concerning the
Sagan affair. In a fortnight the business will either be ended
satisfactorily or broken off altogether; so another fortnight of
uncertainty must follow many months of suspense. The late M. de
Talleyrand, who was always right, said that a long distance separated
the agreement and the conclusion of any piece of business.

  [105] Extract from a letter.

  [106] An allusion to the business connected with the Fief of
  Sagan, concerning which negotiations were then in progress.

_Günthersdorf, August 3, 1843._--I am sorry to hear of the death of
General Alava, though he was not a character who held any high place
in my esteem. With him more recollections of the past have
disappeared; and at Rochecotte I had also looked after him and had
grown accustomed to the sound of his stick upon my inlaid floors.
Death is a very serious matter and when it begins to thin the ranks of
one's intimate friends, as has been the case with me for several
years, it is impossible to avoid serious reflections upon death. It
comes nearer and nearer to my heart and sometimes it seems to me that
I have no time to lose before I make all my preparations for the great
and final journey.

_Günthersdorf, August 10, 1843._--I spent nearly the whole of
yesterday at Wartenberg: I propose to found a little hospital there
and am greatly occupied by the preparations and arrangements for it, a
task entirely after my own heart. I spent the beautiful evening
sitting on my balcony, surrounded by flowers, reading and thinking;
but if thoughts are to be pleasant the heart must be free from all sad
and painful cares, otherwise meditation turns inevitably to

_Günthersdorf, August 16, 1843._--My sisters arrived yesterday morning
and my son Louis yesterday evening; my nieces and their children have
been here for some days with Count Schulenburg, so that my little
house is almost full.

_Günthersdorf, August 21, 1843._--Yesterday I went to mass at
Wartenberg. When I came back I found Herr von Wolff who told us the
terrible news of the fire in the Opera House at Berlin and the panic
and danger which menaced the charming palace of the dear Princess of
Prussia.[107] She was then indisposed and the fright seems to have
made her quite ill. The young Archduke of Austria who was then in
Berlin, seems to have behaved marvellously well.[108] Yesterday
evening at tea time the Countess de le Roche-Aymon called here on her
way to her niece, Madame de Bruges, who lives in Upper Silesia. She
has decided to spend a few days with us: German by extraction, she
has lived in France for a long time and is now returning to settle in
her native land; she is cheerful and lively in spite of her
seventy-three years. She told us that the will of Prince Augustus of
Prussia, who has just died, was scandalous to the last degree,[109]
and gave a full account of his mistresses and bastard children. The
latter amount to a hundred and twenty, but have not all survived their

  [107] The two buildings were opposite one another, and the wind
  drove the flames towards the palace of the Prince and Princess of

  [108] A reference to the Archduke Stephan, son of the Archduke
  Joseph, Count Palatine of Hungary, who was then staying at Berlin
  on his way to Hanover.

  [109] Prince Augustus of Prussia, the younger brother of Prince
  Louis Ferdinand, who was killed in 1806 at Saalfeld, and the son
  of Prince Ferdinand, the last brother of Frederick the Great, was
  never married. He possessed a considerable fortune which he had
  increased by unscrupulous methods at the expense of his
  relations, and made a will by which the property of which he
  could not dispose reverted to the crown of Prussia, while the
  rest was bequeathed to his numerous natural children; so that he
  thus deprived his sister, Princess Radziwill, of the inheritance
  which should have gone to her. This scandal led to a famous law
  suit, which was lost by the Radziwills and attracted much public
  attention in Berlin.

_Hohlstein, September 6, 1843._--I arrived at Hohlstein the day before
yesterday. Unfortunately the weather remains unpleasant and trying.
Apart from my sisters there is no one here now except Fanny and myself
and life is very quiet, which suits me entirely.

Yesterday my sisters took me to Neuland, three leagues from here. This
is a large estate with a small castle which the ex-King of the Low
Countries bought eighteen months ago from the Count of Nostitz. It is
said that he proposes to settle it upon his wife. Some building is
going on and the garden is being laid out, but on a restricted scale
and in poor taste. The site is very ordinary; the fields alone are
beautiful, but a man of taste might do a great deal. The appearance of
the whole did not please me.

_Berlin, October 11, 1843._--I can understand that the town of Berlin
would not suit everybody's taste: though handsome it is too monotonous
and too modern. Prague is much more imposing and Dresden more lively.
The real importance of Berlin is entirely political and military, and
it always gives one the impression of being at headquarters.

Herr von Humboldt is extremely kind, but a little spice of malice is
invariably perceptible in his acts of politeness, and it is well to be
on one's guard. He amuses the King with numberless stories in which
charitable feeling is not the most striking motive.

A rumour is widely circulated that the bullet shot fired at the
carriage of the Emperor Nicholas at Posen is a little Russian comedy
arranged to provide an excuse for further severity in Poland and to
justify German severity towards the grand duchy of Posen.[110]

  [110] The Russian Emperor, after a stay at Potsdam, barely
  escaped assassination as he was returning to his kingdom. As he
  passed through Posen on September 19 the people were mourning the
  death of General von Grolman, who had died of heart disease on
  September 15. A great favourite with every class of the
  population, the General had been buried on that same day,
  September 18, amid a great crowd of people. Advantage of the
  crowd was taken a short time afterwards to fire upon the carriage
  of the _aides-de-camp_, which was mistaken for the carriage of
  the Czar. Several bullets were found in the carriage and in the
  cloaks of the officers, but the event was never cleared up.

_Berlin, October 16, 1843._--Yesterday I received at last the ratified
agreement with my nephew the Prince of Hohenzollern, concerning the
tenure of Sagan, duly signed, initialled and attested. The kindness of
Herr von Wolff, to which this result is largely due, makes this final
solution of the question doubly valuable in my eyes.

The official date for taking possession is April 1, though I am
allowed to supervise the workmen from this moment. We have now to
regularise the deed by a family agreement securing the concurrence of
the agnate relations; then to abandon the allodial rights to the fief
to satisfy the Crown and to reconstitute as one whole that which is
now divided into several parts. When this has been done, the king must
re-invest me and receive my oath of vassalage.

Here we have with us the agreeable Balzac who has just returned from
Russia: he gives as unpleasant accounts of the country as M. de
Custine, but he will not write a special book of his travels; he is
merely writing some _Scenes from Military Life_, several of which will
deal, I think, with Russia. He is a heavy and vulgar character: I had
already seen him in France, but he left me with a disagreeable
impression which has now been strengthened.

The day before yesterday we went to dinner, saw the play and had
supper at the new palace. The play was Shakspere's _Midsummer Night's
Dream_, translated by Schlegel. The staging was very fine. At supper I
sat by the side of the Archduke Albert, who is a natural and
well-educated character. He is to marry Princess Hildegarde of Bavaria
who is said to be very pretty.

I am to go and dine at Babelsberg with the Princess of Prussia. She is
to be so kind as to take me in the evening to Sans Souci, where the
King told me to come and hear Madame Viardot Garcia quite privately.

_Berlin, October 18, 1843._--The little concert at Sans Souci was very
agreeable. Madame Viardot sang very well and was very attractive in
spite of her plainness. She has just started for St. Petersburg.

I informed the King that the treaty between my nephew and myself had
been concluded. He was extremely gracious upon this occasion and seems
to me to have abandoned all his prejudices in favour of the elder
branch of my family.[111] I was really touched by his kindness.
Yesterday I had a long conference with the Prince of Wittgenstein who
has to deal with all questions touching the crown fiefs, as chief
minister of the King's household.

  [111] The Hohenzollern-Hechingen.

_Sagan, October 28, 1843._--The Duchesse Mathieu de Montmorency writes
complaining of obstinate bronchitis; I should be sorry if she were to
die, for I should lose in her a Christian friend; she and Mgr. de
Quélen taught me what a friendship could be that was always equable
and kind, in which self-love played no part, for they are friends not
merely for time but for eternity. To-day I have also a letter from M.
Royer-Collard. His handwriting is greatly altered: I feel that my
happiness is threatened in the person of my best friends, and since M.
de Talleyrand's death I have been terribly tried in this respect.

Sagan, which I am examining in detail, is a town of seven thousand
people with six churches, five of which are Catholic and all of which
are interesting: there are also several charitable foundations in the
town founded by the Dukes at different times; some are six hundred
years old and were founded by the Dukes of the house of Piast.[112]
It is touching to see these works still standing when all purely
secular monuments so rapidly decay. I have been received here with
marks of great attention. For four years everything has been left in a
state of utter abandonment and even longer than that, for my sister
had moved to Italy and took no interest in her estates.

  [112] The Polish dynasty founded by Piast, which proceeded from
  842-1370. A branch of the Piast family retained the Duchy of
  Silesia until 1675.

_Vienna, November 14, 1843._--I have been here for some days. The day
before yesterday I had the honour of paying my respects to the
Archduchess Sophie, whom I had known before her marriage: she received
me most kindly, nor could any one be more gracious, more amiable, more
animated or easy in every way. She asked me many questions about our
Royal Family and spoke of them in very suitable terms and with tact
and kindness. I was delighted with the interview.

_Vienna, November 24, 1843._--Life here is very much more peaceful
than at Berlin. The Court does not appear and all the fashionable
people are still shooting in the country. Parties will not begin
before New Year's Day. I have been four times to the theatre which is
over by half-past nine, and three times to the house of Prince
Metternich; his parties go on till nearly midnight but there are only
five or six regular visitors. I have also visited Louise Schönburg;
several people regularly stand round her long chair from nine o'clock
to eleven. Medem, M. de Flahaut, Paul and Maurice Esterhazy and
Marshal Marmont often call upon me at the end of the morning.



_Vienna, January 4, 1844._--I am packing up, saying goodbye and making
the thousand little arrangements which precede departure. I shall
leave Vienna very well satisfied with my stay and very grateful for
the extreme kindness and courtesy that every one has shown me.

_Sagan, January 24, 1844._--The day before yesterday I went out in a
sledge to a shooting-party; two hundred and eighty head of game were
killed. Yesterday I visited a very fine reformatory which is the chief
house of its kind for this part of Silesia. It is in Sagan itself, in
a house which was formerly a Jesuit convent. It is a well-arranged
establishment conducted upon Christian principles by Baron von
Stanger. He is a widower; in grief at the loss of a wife whom he
adored, he was impelled by his religious feelings to devote himself to
this work of redemption. The clergyman subordinate to him is a
converted Jew, a kind of Abbé of Ratisbon, most zealous and
conscientious and imbued with the missionary spirit. The results so
far obtained are most satisfactory.

My life here is simple, quiet and I trust useful. I have also good
news of all to whom I am sincerely attached, and no more physical
trouble than I can well bear. To feel oneself entirely useless, to
have no serious object in life, or to be paralysed by excessive
physical suffering, are I think, the only conditions under which
complaints to God are justifiable. I do not mention the pain of
surviving those whom one loves whole-heartedly, for that is above all
things a matter of feeling, to use the admirable expression of Madame
de Maintenon. Besides, the continuous exercise of one's whole energies
in relieving others or helping one's kith and kin is a great means of

_Berlin, February 23, 1844._--The sect of the Pietists which is the
scourge of Prussia, is doing more harm here than even atheists could
produce. There is no doubt that Prussia, like the rest of Europe, is
agitated by revolutionary feeling and that Silesia is in particular
disturbed by these movements, the consequence of a mixture of
populations. These hostilities and rivalries are fomented by the
Pietists in a most unchristian way.

I have seen Princess Albert of Prussia again. She looks better since
her tour in Italy. I was surprised to see her sprightly and cheerful
air, as her position is the more difficult, since her father's death
has deprived her of her strongest support.

I hear from Vienna that Madame de Flahaut is patronising the young
Hungarians who are causing trouble at the Diet of Pressburg; that she
praises their opposition speeches and encourages them to come to her
house. At Vienna the authorities are surprised, but their feeling will
soon pass that stage. Really, this woman has not a single diplomatic
fibre in the whole of her dry anatomy.

_Berlin, March 19, 1844._--In honour of the Mecklenburg and Nassau
families and of the Hereditary Grand Duke of Russia, we have had some
carnival festivities upon a small scale which have caused me a certain
amount of trouble and weariness and left me rather tired. The Duke of
Nassau is a most dismal looking person and I think an unpleasant
person in every respect; he looks like a regimental surgeon. The young
Duchess has an admirable figure and beautiful arms and complexion, but
she has red hair, with the coarse chubby face of a doll; she is simple
and very kind. The Hereditary Grand Duke of Russia is better in health
but by no means improved in looks. Princess Augustus of Cambridge, who
married the Crown Prince of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, exactly resembles
what her aunt the Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg must have been at her
age. In a few days we shall assume mourning here for the King of
Sweden who is certainly dead.

_Berlin, March 24, 1844._--I was in possession of the information
which you have sent me[113] with regard to the fact that Charles X.
always did justice to M. de Talleyrand in reference to the interview
between them during the night of the 16th and 17th of July, 1789. The
King had said as much to the old Duchesse de Luynes, and I was with my
uncle when she came to repeat the words of Charles X. to him. Since
1830 M. de Vitrolles has become so entirely a stranger to me that I do
not quite see how I could ask him to testify to the nature of this
interview, though he repeats his facts as he had them from the mouth
of Charles X. himself.[114]

  [113] Extract from a letter.

  [114] The Memoirs of the Prince de Talleyrand contain an account
  of the scene to which these memoirs here allude. In the Appendix
  to this volume the reader will find the story, the truth of which
  is attested by M. de Vitrolles himself, as it is given in the
  Appendix to the second volume of the _Memoirs of M. de

_Berlin, March 30, 1844._--I am busy with farewell visits and the
usual preparations and troubles of departure. I shall spend the
greater part of April at Sagan, and shall start for Paris about the
20th, as I wish to be there for my daughter's confinement. I shall
then spend a few days at Rochecotte and return to Germany about the
end of June.

I have been very busy of late and have been obliged to leave several
letters unanswered. Wide separation enables action to be taken which
close neighbourhood would make difficult. The late M. de Talleyrand
used to think a great deal of this system, and with every reason. He
used to reproach me for the want of skill which I displayed in
referring and replying to every statement, in my extreme fondness for
argument and discussion, my inability to pass over difficult points,
and my excessive insight into indiscretions and requirements. I used
to tell him that in his position and at his age silence in certain
respects was taken as a hint or a warning, and therefore permissible,
but that I was too young and by no means sufficiently independent to
adopt such habits. At that time I was right, but as youth is a fault
which can be cured every day, in spite of itself, I have found for
some time that the moment has come when I may treat as non-existent
that which troubles or wearies me.

       *       *       *       *       *

Here the memoirs are interrupted for three consecutive years. The
Duchesse de Talleyrand started for France in the month of April 1844,
to be with the Marquise de Castellane when she was confined of her
son. The journey did not prove satisfactory, as she encountered
difficulties with her French relations when she wished to secure their
consent to the establishment of the fief of Sagan in favour of her
eldest son. M. de Bacourt also disapproved of her proposal to settle
in Germany, and the correspondence which has provided material for
these chronicles became much less frequent. It was not resumed with
any regularity until the end of 1847, after Rochecotte had been given
to the Marquise de Castellane, and the Marquis de Castellane, the
Duchesse de Talleyrand's son-in-law, had died. In consequence of this
event the Duchesse de Talleyrand returned once more to France.



_Sagan, December 12, 1847._--I am delighted to learn that your
nomination to the Embassy of Turin has been settled, since you desire
the post.[115] I hear from Berlin that the Emperor Nicholas is angry
with Paul Medem for leaving his post without leave, and that he is
therefore not receiving the treatment to which he is accustomed and to
which he has a right. Count Nesselrode and his numerous friends are
doing their best to disperse these clouds, and will doubtless be
successful. At Berlin men's minds are full of Switzerland, the past
history of which is a disgrace, while the present is an anxiety and
the future a menace, especially in the south of Germany.[116] M.
Guizot, however, seems to go forward courageously with or without the
concurrence of England, and at Berlin there is general satisfaction
with his frankness and his decision. I have this from a high

  [115] Extract from a letter to M. de Bacourt.

  [116] After the fall of the Empire the department of Neuchâtel,
  which had belonged to Prussia since the time of Frederick II.,
  joined the Swiss Confederation as its twenty-first canton, though
  it remained under the suzerainty of Prussia. This ambiguous
  position led to a series of disturbances and struggles. In 1847
  Neuchâtel refused to take part in the war against the Sonderbund,
  and was condemned to pay an indemnity of nearly half a million to
  the Confederation.

_Sagan, December 18, 1847._--I hear upon good authority that the small
states of Switzerland are in a great ferment, especially among the
peasants, and that the heavy indemnities laid upon the unfortunate
victims of the Sonderbund will probably drive them to a general
revolt. Colleredo and Radowitz were to leave Vienna to-day for
the Congress, at which the affairs of Switzerland are to be

  [117] Various anti-liberal attempts had been made between
  1839-1840 in the Swiss Cantons of Tessin, Argovie, Valais, and
  Vaud. The Grand Council decreed the suppression of the convents.
  The Catholic Cantons protested and formed a league among
  themselves called the Sonderbund for the defence of their rights.
  The radical party regarded this movement as a violation of the
  constitution and declared war upon the Sonderbund, which was
  defeated in a desperate battle on the frontiers of the canton of

Yesterday I had a visit from Prince and Princess Carolath. I had seen
them in London in 1830 when Prince Carolath was sent by the King of
Prussia to congratulate William IV. on his succession. Through his
mother, Prince Carolath is cousin german of the Dowager Queen of
England.[118] By birth the princess was Countess Pappenheim, a
granddaughter of the Chancellor Hardenberg; after her mother had been
divorced from Count Pappenheim, she married Prince Pückler-Muskau. She
is very kind and charitable to the poor, writes charming verses, reads
a great deal, and speaks several languages.

  [118] The mother of Prince Heinrich Carolath-Beuthen was by birth
  Duchess Amelia of Saxe-Meiningen and was the aunt of Queen
  Adelaide of England.

_Sagan, December 24, 1847._--The Empress Marie Louise is dead. A year
ago this event would hardly have been noticed, but it now adds a
further complication to the state of northern Italy, which was
certainly not required in a district that is threatened upon every
side. The people of Parma are said to be trembling lest they should
fall under the government of the wretched Duke of Lucca, and are
thought to be on the point of revolt.[119] The Grand Duke of Tuscany,
disturbed by the liberal movement, is harassing the Court of Vienna.
The Papacy is said to be in the same position as Tuscany. It seems
impossible that Piedmont should escape all this ferment, and this is
the fact which interests me most in the whole affair. Apparently there
are many assassinations in Italy. I know that the members of the
diplomatic body are not greatly exposed, but crimes about one, even if
not aimed at oneself, make life difficult and sad. At Vienna society
is said to be restless and touchy and inclined to duelling. For this
there are several reasons. The first and chief is the extraordinarily
tumultuous Diet of Hungary, where the young and untamed nobility of
liberal ideas spends its time during the week, and returns from
Pressburg on Saturday to spend the Sunday at Vienna and to shout its
defiance in the chief casinos, until clubs have been formed. The party
opposed to Metternich (I refer to the conservatives, many of whom are
very hostile to him) regard Austria's attitude upon the Swiss question
as deplorable.[120] It is loudly asserted that Prince Metternich is
being deceived by Lord Palmerston, and that instead of issuing clever
notes he should have made armed demonstrations, and that if he has
sufficient intellect remaining for the first he has not the energy for
the second alternative. I am therefore assured that this winter will
be unpleasant at Vienna, and that there have already been lively and
disagreeable scenes. Madame de Colloredo is the only cheerful person;
resplendent in the magnificent jewels which her new husband has given
her, dressed in youthful and coquettish style with roses in her hair
as a girl of fifteen, she is totally indifferent to the mockery aimed
at her, which she is enabled to bear by the attentions of Count
Colloredo, who seems to be deeply in love and fully satisfied. Such is
the gossip from Vienna which my brother-in-law brought back yesterday.

  [119] On the death of the Empress Marie Louise, in virtue of an
  arrangement made at Paris in 1817, Charles Louis of Bourbon, Duke
  of Lucca, took possession of the duchies of Parma and of
  Placentia. The duchy of Guastalla passed to the Duke of Modena
  who ceded the duchy of Lucca to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. In
  1848 the new Duke of Parma abdicated in favour of his son,
  Charles III., who had married Mademoiselle, the daughter of the
  Duc de Berry.

  [120] Throughout the period of struggle in Switzerland, the
  Powers had constantly sent warnings to the radical party. France
  in particular threatened armed intervention, but the events of
  1848 caused the abandonment of this project.

_Sagan, December 28, 1847._--I fear that Italy must be bristling with
domestic and diplomatic difficulties. I am assured that the Duke of
Lucca will not assert his rights over Parma, and will abandon them to
his son. He has shown such want of tact, and has committed such
blunders in England, that Queen Victoria requested the Austrian
Ambassador to induce the Prince of Lucca to leave England at once, as
she would otherwise be obliged to command his departure herself. It
is very sad for Mlle. de Rosny, his wife,[121] who is said to be
charming and distinguished.

  [121] Mademoiselle, daughter of the Duc de Berry.

M. de Radowitz is a clever and learned man, who thinks a great deal of
himself and is a great talker. He leads the Catholic mystical party in
Prussia, and is therefore entirely in the King's good graces and

Barante writes to me from Paris, assuring me that the relations
between Russia and France are by no means so near a revival as people
said; he seems to me rather to aim at succeeding the Duc de Broglie as
Ambassador at London than at following Bresson in the Embassy at



_Sagan, January 4, 1848._--I am quite overwhelmed by the death of
Madame Adélaïde.[122] It is a misfortune for the King, for the poor
and for my children. In her I lose a friend who regretted daily the
loss of M. de Talleyrand, whose death I have also every reason to
deplore. And thus the sad year of 1847 has come to an end with this
sudden blow, and I can quite understand that the King's private
friends begin the year 1848 under gloomy auspices. The political
horizon seems very dark. I do not maintain that the turn of the north
will never come, but at the present moment the south is in a very
feverish condition.

  [122] Madame Adélaïde died rather suddenly on December 31, 1847.

_Sagan, January 6, 1848._--There is some truth in Madame de Lieven's
remarks concerning Humboldt: I do not assert that he is absolutely
radical, but his liberalism is of a very advanced type and at Berlin
he is thought to be urging the Princess of Prussia along the path
which she does not always follow with sufficient prudence. However,
Humboldt is too clever to compromise himself and though he may make
himself conspicuous to some extent, he is at bottom a remnant of the
few disappearing elements of the eighteenth century.

I know enough of King Louise Philippe to be convinced of his courage
and his presence of mind: when therefore I saw the submission of
Abd-el-Kader in the newspaper, I at once considered that the King
would regard this event as counterbalancing his grief in some
degree.[123] The ties of affection which united him to his sister were
so strong that he probably will not feel his loss most deeply at the
first moment, but as life resumes its usual course, when he finds that
she is not present to listen to him and to share his thoughts at the
time when he used to visit her and give her his confidence, his
isolation will be felt and sadness will begin. The Queen is
undoubtedly no less devoted and loyal to him, but she is to some
extent preoccupied by family cares and her mind does not run in the
same direction; she is not always in the King's room awaiting the
royal pleasure at every moment, while her religious tendencies are in
advance of those of the King. In short she may be much but she cannot
be everything. However, it is much better that the King should survive
his sister than that he should have died before her, for such a shock
would have killed Madame forthwith, I am perfectly certain.

  [123] Notwithstanding the victory of General Bugeaud at Isly,
  Abd-el-Kader, an energetic character, had contrived to continue
  the struggle in Algeria. In a final engagement, however, his most
  devoted adherents fell, and in 1847 he was obliged to surrender
  to General Lamoricière. Abd-el-Kader was kept a prisoner in
  France until the proclamation of the Empire. After Napoleon III.
  had set him at liberty he lived in Syria as a faithful and
  devoted friend of France.

_Sagan, January 10, 1848._--Though I am not free from care when I am
in good health, it must not be imagined that I have a terror of sudden
death, the occasion of which I cannot foresee, though of its certainty
I have no doubt. I have no wish to die, but I have no pleasure in
life. My life's work has certainly been done and all my tasks are
accomplished. What remains affects me but little. It is but a matter
of filling up the time and it is hardly worth the little daily efforts
which it costs. However, I refuse to be overcome by depression. I have
made up my accounts and settled my affairs, and have therefore no
reason for sadness, and as long as I am alive my energy will continue;
but I can never grow resigned to the idea of finding myself useless,
and I trust that God will be so gracious as to leave me the power of
sympathy with the wants of those about me until the last moment. If I
did not love the poor I should think myself more miserable than they.
Fortunately I feel more drawn towards them every day and they
compensate for many losses.

_Sagan, January 12, 1848._--I have been invited to the funeral
ceremonies of Madame Adélaïde at Dreux. The King is greatly depressed
and feels very lonely. I am very anxious as to what this year 1848 may
have in store for me.

It seems that the Duc de Montpensier has been commissioned to arrange
his aunt's private papers.

_Sagan, January 18, 1848._--I am carefully reading the debates in the
French Chambers and have been delighted by the noble answers of the
Chancellor[124] and the clever replies of M. de Barante to this M.
d'Alton Shée who carries his tactlessness too far.[125] The general
prospect seems dark and there is no point upon the horizon to which I
can look with satisfaction.

  [124] The Duc Pasquier.

  [125] In the session of January 10, at the Chamber of Peers, M.
  de Barante, reporter to the committee, had read the proposed
  Address in reply to the speech from the throne. The proposal was
  vigorously attacked by the Comte d'Alton Shée who spoke for the
  dynastic party and had suddenly joined the opposition from the
  outset of the agitation for reform which preceded the revolution
  of February 1848. The Comte d'Alton Shée did not hesitate to
  express opinions entirely revolutionary, even while speaking in
  the Chamber and in this session he fulminated with all his
  eloquence against the foreign policy of M. Guizot, piling up
  accusations haphazard with reference to Portuguese, Swiss, and
  Italian affairs.

_Sagan, January 20, 1848._--I have been attentively reading the speech
upon the Address in the Chamber of Peers, and was charmed by the clear
and noble speech of the Duc de Broglie, while I was reduced to tears
by the brilliant oration of M. de Montalembert on the affairs of
Switzerland, as he spoke with such sincere emotion, with such
cleverness and resource, and exposed so entirely the intrigues of the
abominable Lord Palmerston.[126] I really do not know why every one
should be so ready to consider that intermediary who is the curse of
the age: it seems quite obvious to me that M. Guizot has been duped
by him in the matter of Switzerland; in his place I should have been
better inspired, and I cannot imagine how any one can cease to
distrust him after the many experiences of his bad faith.[127]

  [126] In the session of January 14, the Chamber of Peers resumed
  discussion of the seventh paragraph of the Address referring to
  Switzerland, and M. de Montalembert obtained one of his finest
  oratorical triumphs when he stigmatised in the loftiest terms the
  iniquitous and barbarous abuses of the revolutionary tyranny of
  which Switzerland was providing sad and grievous instances.

  [127] The policy of Lord Palmerston who had returned to the
  Foreign Office in 1846, had once more resumed a revolutionary
  character; particularly in the affair of the Sonderbund he was
  seen to be supporting Ochsenbein and Dufour against the Catholic
  Powers. He tricked M. Guizot who was negotiating to secure armed
  intervention with the help of Prussia and Austria and to oppose
  the English policy at a time when the submission of the seven
  cantons was already accomplished.

_Sagan, January 26, 1848._--So you are leaving Paris to-day to begin a
new phase of your existence.[128] I could wish that your latest news
from Turin might be satisfactory, but I doubt if this will be the
case. The most important point is that the health of the King of
Sardinia should be restored and fortified; he seems to be a clever and
enlightened Prince, quite aware of the necessities of the age, though
disinclined to make unnecessary concessions to them. I trust that he,
yourself, and Italy in general may have a long and glorious existence.

  [128] Extract from a letter addressed to M. de Bacourt who had
  just been appointed French Minister at Turin.

I have a long letter from my daughter Pauline full of regret at your
approaching departure, which she regards as another severe trial.

The news of the death of the King of Denmark has just reached us; this
will further complicate the state of affairs in the North, and
apparently Europe[129] will not escape any resulting difficulty. The
King of Denmark was a learned and enlightened monarch and enjoyed an
excellent reputation; I had the honour of seeing him and of knowing
the Queen fairly well, a most saintly person;[130] her mother and mine
were intimate friends, and among my mother's papers I have found
letters from the Duchess of Augustenburg.

  [129] King Christian VIII. of Denmark was suddenly taken ill on
  January 6, 1848, and died on the 20th of the same month.
  Frederick VII., his son by his first marriage, succeeded him.

  [130] By birth Princess of Schleswig-Holstein.

_Sagan, January 29, 1848._--Yesterday we saw a remarkable meteor: for
twenty minutes a column of fire seemed to connect heaven and earth;
the sun appeared to be about a third of the way up the sky, and from
the lower part of its disc depended this luminous column which seemed
to be supported by the horizon of the earth.[131] It was a beautiful
and imposing spectacle. Some centuries ago astrologers would
have drawn many horoscopes based upon this event. I draw my
prognostications from newspapers, and I dare not hope that this
phenomenon portends any good.

  [131] The same meteor was seen in France a few days previously
  above Doullens: a sheaf of luminous rays extended horizontally
  from north to south, giving off light denotations comparable to
  those produced by a rocket.

_Sagan, February 10, 1848._--On the 5th of the month I was very
agreeably surprised by the arrival of the Prince Bishop of
Breslau.[132] In spite of the unpleasant weather and his bad health he
was anxious to wish me many happy returns of the day and to say mass
here in person on St. Dorothea's Day. He was accompanied by several
ecclesiastics and the chief Catholic lords of the province. The Prince
Bishop proposed my health at dinner in a charming speech, dealing with
the signification of the name of Dorothea and with the arms of
Sagan,[133] which he was good enough to term a speaking coat of arms.
He trembled with emotion and spilled a few drops of wine from his
glass, whereupon he made an end, saying to me, "When the heart speaks,
the hand trembles."

  [132] Cardinal Diepenbrock.

  [133] The arms of Sagan were an angel upon a golden background.

The typhus fever which is devastating Upper Silesia threatens to
appear here, though we hope that it may be less deadly than it is upon
the other side of Breslau. The extremes of want and hunger have been
more successfully met here than in other parts of the province. In
Upper Silesia this disease has caused dreadful ravages. The doctors
have succumbed to it, and were it not for the Brothers of Charity sent
by the Prince Bishop, the people would be without relief. Four
thousand orphans are wandering about. Mgr. Diepenbrock, following the
example of Mgr. de Quélen after the ravages of the cholera in 1833,
proposes to open a place of refuge for them to which the Catholics of
the province are to devote their time and energy. The plan has been
elaborated here.

_Weimar, February 18, 1848._--We have had a succession of festivities
here in honour of the birthday of the reigning Grand Duchess. The day
before yesterday an excellent performance was given of an opera which
has made much stir in Germany, called _Martha_, by the composer
Flotow. The libretto and the music are very pretty, and the orchestra
was admirably conducted by Liszt. He is Capellmeister to the Weimar
Court, with definite leave of absence for nine months in the year. Of
this he recently took advantage to make a tour in Constantinople and
Odessa, in the course of which he made much money. This evening he is
to play to us privately at the house of the Grand Duchess, after
Prince Pückler-Muskau has read some extracts dealing with his stay
with Mehemet Ali. There is to be previously a little dinner at the
young Court of the Hereditary Prince. Attempts are made here to
cherish the sacred fire of art and literature, which for sixty years
or more has gained for Weimar the title of the Athens of Germany. The
Grand Duchess, in order to perpetuate the tradition, has devoted a
certain number of rooms in the castle to the memory of poets,
philosophers, and artists who have made the district famous. Fresco
paintings recall the various subjects of their works, and the rooms
are decorated with busts, portraits, views of the historical scenes
and curious sites, and pieces of furniture of different periods. The
Grand Duchess enjoys a considerable private fortune, which she expends
very nobly upon charitable foundations, and in the decoration of her
residences. For a hundred years the Court of Weimar has been very well
divided among various Princesses; the grandmother of the present Grand
Duke was the patroness of Schiller, of Goethe and Wieland, and under
her patronage the classical literature of Germany was able to
flourish; her daughter-in-law, the mother of the present Grand Duke,
was the only Princess of Germany who was able to overawe Napoleon. She
saved the kingdom for her husband, the Duke, by her courage and
firmness. M. de Talleyrand often took pleasure in describing the
scenes in which this Princess confronted the conqueror. The
daughter-in-law of the present Grand Duchess, the Princess of the Low
Countries, is also clever and well educated; she has a charming voice,
great tact, and a simple manner which increases the effect of her good
qualities; everything shows that she will be worthy to continue the
tradition of the remarkable Princesses who have reigned over the Court
of Weimar. Among them one might almost include the Duchess d'Orléans,
as her mother was a sister of the reigning Grand Duke.

_Berlin, February 28, 1848._--The day before yesterday I was far from
thinking that an interval of forty-eight hours would have brought such
vast changes of the situation. The telegraph has successively
announced a series of events, though without details, none of which,
however, prepared us for the startling news of the abdication of Louis
Philippe, and of the regency of the Duchesse d'Orléans.[134] We had no
knowledge of the causes or exigencies of the situation, nor can we say
what events can be ascribed to prudence or to weakness; but apart from
the historical value of these events, which we shall learn later, the
simple fact is sufficiently crushing to cause general consternation
here, which is equally widespread among all parties from the highest
to the lowest. The considerations which throng upon the mind are the
same in every case, and there is only one way of regarding the
question and its probable results. These results will affect not only
all Governments, but also all private rights. The Princess of Prussia,
who is united to her cousin by the keenest sympathy, is quite
overwhelmed; she thinks that my presence may help her to bear the
weight of anxiety, so that I have spent many hours with her in
conjectures upon all these dreadful events, and in lamentations
concerning the mystery which still veils the greater part of this
drama, or, rather, of this sad tragedy. These grievous events will be
re-echoed more quickly and more loudly in Italy than anywhere else;
the rest of Europe will then follow, for the respite momentarily
granted cannot be long. The fact is that it is impossible to find a
single part of Europe where undisturbed peace and quiet is certain.
Even America does not seem to me to be secure from disintegrating
elements; such is the general tendency of the age, and we must learn
to endure it in the positions in which Providence has naturally placed
us. I am thankful, however, that I had induced Pauline to leave Paris
on February 23 for Le Délivrande.[135] I had disapproved of this plan
in view of the coldness of the season, but I am now tempted to think
it quite providential. This poor child's nerves have already been so
shaken that they would have been overstrained by the sight and uproar
of the city in tumult.

  [134] King Louis Philippe who had resolved too late upon
  electoral reform and the dissolution of his ministry, was
  surprised by the massacre of the Boulevard des Capucines on
  February 23. On the 24th the whole of Paris was in a ferment, the
  revolution was triumphant and the King resolved to abdicate. He
  left the Tuileries and took refuge at first in the Castle of Eu
  and was under the delusion that his grandson, the Comte de Paris,
  might succeed him, but on the 25th he learnt that the Republic
  had been proclaimed and was forced to take refuge in England.

  [135] The Marquise de Castellane had gone with her children to La
  Délivrande, a village near Caen, which owes its origin to a
  famous pilgrimage of the Virgin. Mgr. de Quélen had there uttered
  ardent prayers that M. de Talleyrand might die a Christian death.

Poor Madame Adélaïde died at the right time and God has rewarded her
affection for her brother by sparing her this bitter grief. This is
also true of M. de Talleyrand; I cannot say the same of the Duc
d'Orléans, who might have been able to turn these terrible events in
another direction if he had been alive.

Considerable excitement is beginning in Russia, but it is true to say
that the health of the Emperor Nicholas is very bad. He has an
eruption at the knee-joints which makes it difficult for him to walk,
and the want of exercise consequently increases the sluggishness of
the liver to which he is subject; in short, his health gives cause for

_Berlin, March 2, 1848._--Since February 28 the most frightful news
has arrived every hour with despairing rapidity. To-day a rumour is in
circulation which seems to indicate a tendency to a counter-revolution
at Paris; I admit that I put no faith in it. My last direct news is
dated the 24th, and was written during the quarter of an hour for
which the regency of the Duchesse d'Orléans lasted. Letters of the
same date have arrived at Berlin, and we have the _Moniteur_ of the
25th, but nothing more. These messages have not been delayed, and so
we must withhold our judgment upon events and upon the people who have
figured in this tragedy until we know the combination of events which
induced the King to yield, and has, so to speak, paralysed his action
and that of his family. These unfortunate people are already the
objects of disapproval and criticism; I think it would be better to
suspend any final judgment. Appearances, however, are very strange,
and incline one to think that M. Guizot and the Duchesse d'Orléans
have both shown courage and firmness in their several spheres of
action. The English post which arrived yesterday evening gave no news
of Louis Philippe or his family; they are said to be all at London,
but on this subject there is no official or certain news, and the
movements of individuals are marked by extreme uncertainty. The
Marquis de Dalmatie[136] is playing a strange part here; thirty-six
hours ago he sent away his servants, has been selling his furniture
and his diamonds, complaining of his poverty, and going from door to
door saying that he is a poor _émigré_, and cursing the Sovereign whom
he represented six days ago. He does not thereby improve his position.
It is thought that as long as the Duchesse d'Orléans and the Comte de
Paris are on French territory he ought to maintain his official
position and adopt the attitude which it requires; moreover, it is
known that his father is very rich, and it is improbable that
confiscation would take place except in cases of actual exile. I shall
therefore advise my children not to become _émigrés_, as I remember M.
de Talleyrand's constant advice against this course.

  [136] He was then French Minister at Berlin.

The excitement here with regard to the European consequences of the
days of February may easily be imagined. The Belgian Minister, M. de
Nathomb, told me yesterday that a strong anti-French movement was
becoming manifest in Belgium. Herr von Radowitz started for Vienna
last night, and Prince William, the King's uncle, has gone to

  [137] Herr von Radowitz was then sent to Vienna to try and
  arrange some co-operation between the two courts in view of the
  revolutionary storm which seemed to be threatening. Prince
  William, who had been governor of Mayence from 1844, returned to
  his post in view of the course of events.

The telegram which has just come in officially announces the arrival
of the Duchesse d'Orléans and her two children at Deutz, on the
outskirts of Cologne.[138] The district of Baden is being overcome by
excitement, and there is much anxiety as to the possible course of
events. People say that there have also been disturbances in
Cassel.[139] May God have pity upon this poor old world and those
members of it in particular who are dear to me!

  [138] In the confusion which prevailed during the unhappy day of
  February 24, at Paris, when every one fled as best he could, the
  Duchesse d'Orléans and her two children, after escaping the
  perils which they had run at the Chamber of Deputies, took refuge
  with M. Jules de Lasteyrie at the Hôtel des Invalides, which they
  left secretly during the night. From Paris to Aix la Chapelle,
  the Princess travelled in a public conveyance accompanied by the
  Marquis de Montesquiou and M. de Mornay. She then took the
  railway to Cologne, and after spending the night at Deutz, she
  went to Ems to ask refuge of the Grand Duke of Weimar who placed
  the castle of Eisenach at her disposal. It was not until June
  1849 that she went to England to visit the Royal Family at St.
  Leonards, near Hastings, where the King and Queen had gone in
  view of their health.

  [139] The old district of Franconia, that is to say, part of
  Baden, Wurtemberg and Hesse, was then the scene of a movement
  akin to the Jacquerie: the peasants rose in a body and committed
  deplorable excesses; castles were burnt and plundered, and
  several landowners were killed or barbarously ill-treated. On the
  10th of March serious disturbances broke out at Cassel under the
  pretext that the newly nominated ministers were the objects of
  popular disapproval. The arsenal was stormed and plundered of
  weapons; resistance was offered to the troops; the Life Guards
  retreated, but the populace held the barracks until the regiment
  was disbanded and the officers put upon trial.

_Berlin, March 14, 1848._--The whole country between the Rhine and the
Elbe is in commotion. Even here the troops are confined to barracks
to-day and popular disturbances are expected. If the King had been
willing to convoke the Diet a few days ago difficulties would have
been greatly decreased. The best chance here is to follow
constitutional forms openly and promptly; delay, hesitation, or
intrigue will produce a crisis, the extent of which cannot be
foreseen. Hence the present week is likely to be very critical here;
the burgomasters of the great towns have arrived with terrifying
petitions; revolution is more or less avowed everywhere, and it is
impossible to say what will be or can be done. Meanwhile the poverty
and the typhus fever are increasing.

The Duchesse d'Orléans is at Ems with her two children, travelling as
the Marquise de Mornay: she is anxious to remain entirely incognito
and her confidants therefore deny the fact of her presence at Ems. She
is, however, certainly there, for I have seen people who have talked
to her.

_Sagan, March 24, 1848._--Serious events have taken place at Berlin;
precious time has been lost, and after hesitation half-measures have
been reluctantly begun. Further action has been extorted only by fear,
after two days, March 18 and 19, the horror of which I shall never
forget. Highly disturbing symptoms proceeding from Breslau have
affected Silesia; attacks have been made here upon the town hall and
the garrison; so far the castle has been spared. My servants thought
that my presence might calm the excitement and I hastened to the spot.
So far I have had no reason to regret my action, but as the
neighbourhood of the Russians is a source of extreme and increasing
bitterness, my brother-in-law thinks that I should not stay here and
is sending me back to Berlin, where, however, the atmosphere is by no
means calm. He proposes to stay at Sagan to make head against the
storm and to save what can be saved. Meanwhile the financial crisis is
at its height: there is no money in the country, no one can pay,
bankruptcies are declared on every side, while panic and agitation are
paramount. Pandora's box has been overturned upon Europe. I have just
heard that the Grand Duchy of Posen is in a ferment and as my estates
touch the frontier, I have a further cause for alarm, but I trust in
the mercy of God, am entirely calm, resigned and resolved to bow my
head without murmuring to the decrees of Providence. I only ask from
Heaven the life and health of those whom I love. The uproar at Vienna
has quite amazed me. We advance from peril to peril.[140]

  [140] On March 13 a formidable insurrection broke out at Vienna:
  the population rose in a body; the railways were torn up and the
  air resounded with cries, "The constitution and the liberty of
  the Press."

_Berlin, March 30, 1848._--I have now returned here, where the
agitation is far from appeased. Prince Adam Czartoryski arrived
yesterday from Paris, and I need not point out the nature of this new
complication.[141] Complications, however, follow one another with
appalling rapidity. The situation of individuals who have anything to
lose is hardly better than that of the kings whose thrones are
tottering to their fall. For the moment, at any rate, we are all
penniless and neither the war in the east nor the communism of the
west offer any better chances for us in the future, for we are crushed
between these two colossi.

  [141] Prince Adam Czartoryski, who retained his delusions, was
  inspired with fresh hopes by the disturbances which prevailed on
  every side, and from which the Poles were trying to derive some
  advantage for themselves. The Prince arrived at Berlin where
  disorder was general and proclaimed with considerable effrontery
  that Lord Palmerston and M. de Lamartine had promised to
  support him by land and sea, if Prussia would declare the
  re-establishment of Poland. The presence of Prince Czartoryski at
  Berlin was regarded with such disfavour by the Emperor of Russia,
  that he informed his Minister, Baron Meyendorff, that he would be
  withdrawn from Poland, if the Prince prolonged his stay in that

It is said that the Prussian Diet will be open on April 2, that is in
two days, though this is not yet certain. In any case the meeting will
be short, as it will only deal with the electoral law.

_Berlin, April 1, 1848._--The Diet which is to open to-morrow will
form a new act in the drama.[142] It is impossible to estimate the
results, and I have lost all interest in forecasts and also in
proposals for a long time. Paul Medem, who is here still, is very
uncertain what his future will be. The news from Vienna does not seem
to me to be particularly reassuring. In general it is scarcely
possible to find a peaceful point on the whole of the globe and the
sole consolation is the remembrance of sure and tried affection which
can defy revolution and absence and everything that walks abroad
throughout this vale of tears.

  [142] On April 2, 1848, at midday the second general Diet was
  opened at Berlin in one Chamber without any distinction of rank
  or representation. The commissary of this Diet, Herr von
  Camphausen, the President of the Council, accompanied by all the
  Ministers, opened the Diet in the King's name. He delivered a
  speech, at the conclusion of which he brought forward proposals
  for a law concerning elections for the purpose of bringing into
  force upon a wide basis the constitution which the King had
  granted to his people after the events of March 18.

_Berlin, April 8, 1848._--The effects of the revolution in Paris have
been felt here and the consequences have been violent, far-reaching
and irremediable. Everything is still in a ferment and the impetus,
far from being exhausted is still proceeding, though not in an upward
direction. The peasants' rising in the provinces is a most disastrous
element in the situation: I am obliged to remain in the town in
consequence, though here the continuance of popular excitement
disagreeably breaks the monotonous and profound melancholy of this
capital. The Metternich family are in Holland preparing for their
crossing to England.[143]

  [143] After a collision between the troops and the people at
  Vienna on March 13, 1848, and after the insurrection in Venice,
  Prince Metternich, who was too prone to overrate his capacity for
  resistance, was forced by an infuriated mob to resign and to flee
  from Austria with his wife. At first they stayed in Dresden, but
  the unpopularity of the Prince was so great that they were
  obliged to proceed to Holland and thence to England. In 1849 they
  settled at Brussels.

_Berlin, April 12, 1848._--Life is very sad and all classes of society
in great agitation. The members of the Diet all left Berlin yesterday
to seek re-election by their constituents. The fate of the country
depends upon the manner in which this constitutional assembly is to be
composed; it is therefore the duty of all right-minded people to
attempt to secure a seat, and such is the general opinion; but many
things may happen between now and May 22. A net-work of clubs enfolds
the capital and the provinces ever more closely in its toils;
outbreaks are of constant occurrence in every direction; the temper of
the militia is doubtful; the audacity of the agitators, foreign
complications and the infectious examples which have been set in the
west and south and in certain disaffected quarters in the north and in
the east, are enough to make any one lose his head; while the
hesitating attitude of the Government and the absolute abandonment of
any repressive measures are not calculated to restore confidence. The
fifty little tyrants established at Frankfort will certainly do their
best to turn the balance of things; no one has given them any mandate
and yet every one obeys them.[144] The state of affairs, as we see
it, is utterly inexplicable; forecast is impossible. We must live from
hand to mouth and be satisfied when every twenty-four hours have
passed without some unusual shock. We see many bands of police passing
through the town on their way to Posen or Cracow. The Polish
landowners are giving their peasants full liberty, to avoid the danger
of massacre at their hands. The Polish nationality is in arms against
the German and no one can see which of the two will emerge triumphant,
if attempts at reconciliation should fail.[145]

  [144] This assembly was spontaneously convoked at Frankfort to
  provide the country with a centre of action in case the Princes
  declined to support the movement for amalgamation which was then
  in progress among the Germanic races. It was dissolved on April
  2, after securing from the Princes at the Diet the promise that a
  German parliament should meet. A commission, however, was
  appointed by the army consisting of fifty members, to secure the
  execution of this promise, and these members were ordered to
  convoke a national parliament within one month, assuming that a
  parliament had not been already elected by the different states.

  [145] The news of the Paris Revolution had produced a great
  sensation in the Grand Duchy of Posen. A revolt broke out at
  Posen itself, where Mieroslawski, who was released from prison on
  March 19, formed an army and prepared for war. At Cracow when the
  news of the Vienna disturbances came in, seventy thousand Poles
  went to Count Deyne, the civil commissary, and demanded the
  liberty of four hundred of their compatriots.

_Sagan, April 20, 1848._--The state of public feeling remains
disquieting. If the rebels confined their objections merely to the
moneyed classes, the best of all possible courses would be to let them
take what they want. People have so little money in hand that they
would not get much: but in their frenzy they are ready to attack
archives, titles, contracts, and in short anything that determines and
settles landed tenure. They are also greatly inclined to ill-treat
individuals and to set fire to barns and buildings, whether they are
opposed or not. The position here has grown a little calmer although
emissaries from the Jacobin club at Breslau appeared two days ago and
are attempting to secure the adherence of the wretched little lawyers
who are known in Germany as _Die obskure Literatur_. We heard that
these agitators under pretext of holding a preliminary electoral
meeting were attempting to raise a mob from the lowest of the people
and to show them the quickest and easiest way of disarming the civil
guard. Fortunately precautions have been taken and I have no doubt
that if a demonstration should take place, it would be dispersed
without bloodshed.

The wirepullers of the Berlin clubs are agitating against the form of
election by two stages and are organising a great popular
demonstration to offer a petition in favour of direct election, to the
castle and the Ministry. I do not know whether they will be able to
get many workmen together on this political question: possibly they
might be successful, as the workmen are already greatly disturbed on
the question of pay; from what I hear they are continually parading
the streets. The other day there were serious disturbances directed
against the bakers who were selling bread by fraudulent weights and
who certainly deserved a lesson in consequence, though it was not the
business of the people to give it to them. Meanwhile the workmen are
contracting idle habits and learning to lounge in public: the
workshops where they desire to work are closed by the wirepullers, and
the tailors, for instance, are involuntarily on strike. I do not think
there is any imminent danger of violence, but the general tendency of
things is bad and may well lead to violence. The Poles have sent their
ultimatum to Berlin.[146] They declined to lay down their arms or
separate until their demands had been conceded. The authorities are
busy deliberating and find themselves in a difficult position between
these two peoples, for the Poles decline to consider the demands of
the Germans who insist upon remaining German, and demand that a line
of demarcation should be drawn, making Posen a German capital and
giving Gnesen to the Poles.

  [146] There was no ultimatum properly so-called; this was only a
  newspaper report. The Polish National Committee merely published
  a manifesto proclaiming that until the independence of Poland was
  re-established, the Poles would consider any arbitrary division
  of their national districts as a new partition of Poland, and
  threatened to protest against any such violation before Europe as
  a whole. This protest was eventually made on April 26 by two
  letters from Prince A. Czartoryski, addressed to M. de Lamartine,
  the Minister of Foreign Affairs at Paris, and to Baron Arnim who
  held the same position at Berlin.

Nobody knows what to believe of Italy, as the news from that quarter
is so contradictory. Letters from Vienna are sad and depressing:
England offers another spectacle, very different and very glorious for
herself, but I must say that I am furious to see Lord Palmerston, who
has so largely contributed to this European upheaval, boasting of the
comfort, of the glory and of the wealth of the English, which
naturally increases with continental distress.

_Sagan, April 24, 1848_.--The following is a letter from Vienna sent
to me by the Russian Minister, my cousin Medem: "Vienna is in a state
of complete depression: there are no social gatherings; the Prater is
deserted and the Opera is closed, as the public will not allow the
Italians to play. Wallmoden has come to us from Italy; he is said to
be here in the hopes of arranging a scheme with the Government, if not
for resuming the offensive in Italy upon a large scale,[147] at any
rate for regaining possession of Venice and the part of Frioul which
is in rebellion. Communications with the army under arms continue to
be confined to the Tyrolese passes. People are properly indignant at
the conduct of F. Zichy, of Count Palfy at Venice and Count Ludolf at
Treviso, who capitulated disgracefully without adequate reason.[148]
Dissatisfaction and uncertainty of the future is general: every day
the unpardonable sluggishness of the old administration, both civil
and military, becomes more obvious. Their incompetency is quite
incredible unless one has a knowledge of certain details. The peace of
Vienna has not been seriously disturbed of late, but unpleasant
demonstrations have taken place: these are provoked by unwise people,
generally from abroad, who harangue the people in public meetings, in
the Odeon or in similar places; publications and inflammatory notices
appear everywhere and foment uneasiness in the more sensible part of
the nation, especially among the upper classes. It is quite time that
this came to an end, and if it goes on the situation will become
complicated. For the moment, at any rate, the state of affairs is much
better here than in the capital or the Prussian monarchy, but what
guarantee is there for the future?"

  [147] The noble and chivalrous Charles Albert, desiring to throw
  off Austrian influence, had formed a highly organised army
  and proclaimed a constitution. On him the hopes of Italian
  independence were set. Taking advantage of the insurrection which
  had broken out at Milan on March 18 and which had been followed
  by the defeat of the Austrian army and the flight of the Archduke
  Reynier, the King had declared war upon Austria on March 20. At
  first he rapidly carried the positions of the enemy as far as the
  Adige, but he was attacked by superior forces and afterwards (in
  August) he lost the murderous battle of Custozza and was obliged
  to evacuate Milan.

  [148] After Milan, Venice revolted in turn. On March 20 the
  Arsenal was captured by the insurgents. The civil governor, Count
  Palfy, placed his authority in the hands of Count Zichy, the
  military governor, who hesitated before the prospect of bloodshed
  and finally surrendered to the municipality and made a
  capitulation with the provisional government on March 22; Venice
  was thus freed from the Austrians. On March 21 Treviso had also
  been forced to capitulate and the Austrian garrison had left the

_Sagan, April 30, 1848._--We have now reached the end of the second
month of this upheaval, the shocks of which are, I fear, far from
reaching their conclusion. At the present moment Europe is divided
between electoral passion and the flames of civil war. Human passion
is displayed in all its hideousness during the rivalry aroused by the
elections: citizens fight with citizens blindly and furiously, while
anarchy, disorder, restlessness, poverty, despondency and despair is
the picture to be seen everywhere, with a few slight differences.
Those people are only too happy who are but touched by a reaction
which has spent its power and contrive to pass the day without
personal risk, if not without anxiety. Here we shall see what the
elections, which begin to-morrow, will bring forth, and what the
attitude of the country will be during the voting and the counting.
Meanwhile the Press and the clubs are working furiously. Every little
town has its newspaper and every hamlet its orator. The audiences for
the most part do not understand what they hear, but they obey like the
sheep of Panurge. The working classes propose to lay down the law to
the factory directors, who can sell nothing and therefore cannot
increase or even maintain their output or improve the prospects of
their employees. As for the poor people who work upon the land and the
more prosperous class which finds employment on the railway, their
labours have come to an end, and one really does not know what to do
for them. People are dividing with them the last farthing and the corn
from the barns, as they are the objects both of pity and fear.

_Sagan, May 5, 1848._--The Grand Duchy of Posen is at present the
scene of the greatest atrocities; civil war is in progress with
unheard of refinements of cruelty. The French newspapers do not know
these facts or decline to state them, but the details which I have
from first hand evidence are enough to make one's hair stand on end.
On May 1 the Prussians were utterly defeated by the insurgents who,
armed with scythes, disembowelled the horses.[149] Several Polish
lords have been massacred by their peasants, and they can only secure
their personal safety by instigating the peasants against the Prussian

  [149] The Prussian troops commanded by General Blum, had marched
  upon Miloslaw which they captured after a desperate combat; but
  an advance guard which was pursuing the Poles when approaching a
  wood, was received by so sustained a fire, that the Prussians
  fled, rushed upon their own infantry which was following them,
  broke their ranks and swept the whole force away in rout. The
  Poles pursued the Prussians in turn, drove them out of Miloslaw
  and captured two of their guns.

_Sagan, May 8, 1848._--To-day the electors chosen a week ago are to
appoint the Prussian representatives. I think that undue hopes are
being set upon constitutional assemblies, and I fear the result may
show a general state of delusion. At Vienna the resignation of Count
Ficquelmont was one of the most unpleasant incidents in the whole
drama:[150] some students entered his house, declaring that they would
no longer have him as Minister; he obeyed and would have run great
risks as he walked to his son-in-law's house if Prince Clary and two
students had not acted as his protectors.

  [150] On May 4 Count Ficquelmont, Minister of Foreign Affairs at
  Vienna, was forced to resign by a tumultuous demonstration of the
  students who regarded him as a pupil of Metternich.

_Sagan, May 21, 1848._--The scenes at Paris on the 15th were
frightful.[151] May Heaven grant that the Moderate Party will use its
triumph energetically, and that it may not be too often called upon to
celebrate such victories.

  [151] For several days manifestations in favour of Poland had
  been proceeding at Paris. On May 15 a band of insurgents attacked
  and invaded the National Assembly, but order was quickly

To-morrow the constitutional assembly at Berlin is to open. It is so
strangely composed that any beneficial result will be truly

_Sagan, May 25, 1848._--My mind is full of Rome and of the Pope;[152]
I can think of nothing else. I think that if I had been the Holy
Father I should have set sail for America with a few faithful
cardinals, the poor persecuted monks and nuns and all the money and
holy vessels that could be collected: I should have founded a
settlement upon the model of that in Paraguay and could thence have
governed European catholicism in full independence, just as the
American Catholics have been governed for so long. I think the Romans
would speedily have cried out for the recall of the Pope; in any case
he would be at least sheltered from actual indignity and would not be
obliged to sacrifice innocent people and the property of the church.
Possibly my idea is absurd, but at all events there would be something
magnificent about it; whereas the present scenes display nothing but
humiliation and degradation.

  [152] On May 1 a revolutionary movement broke out at Rome, caused
  by the Pope's refusal to declare war against Austria. The
  Ministry resigned: the Pope was threatened with a provisional
  government, and declared in a manifesto that as chief Pontiff he
  could not declare war but that he left the power of declaring war
  as a temporal prince to his Ministry. On May 5 Pius IX. was
  forced to accept a Ministry composed wholly of laymen which was
  constantly in opposition to him.

I have read with interest and horror the stories of events in Paris on
May 15 and my opinion is that the work of the deliberative assemblies
will produce no good effect. I greatly fear that this will be the
consequence at Berlin, while at Frankfort the assembly is a perfect
babel. The Prussian newspapers already contain Jacobin outcries
against the constitution and I doubt whether the King will be able to
carry through the two-Chamber system, especially with the small
fragment of hereditary right he is anxious to maintain. Breslau is a
horrible centre of communism.

I hear from England that at Claremont domestic quarrels increase the
painful nature of the situation. The sons, disgusted with their forced
inactivity, reproach their father with the loss of his party; he is
wondering what posterity will think of him; and this is all very
unpleasant for poor Queen Amélie whose pride and joy have so long been
the touching unanimity of her whole family. She is also in a very poor
state of health. Their financial position approaches poverty.[153]

  [153] The little exiled court lived very quietly at the seat of
  Claremont in England which belonged to King Leopold who had
  kindly placed it at their disposal.

_Sagan, May 28, 1848._--The Duchesse d'Orléans has settled at the
court of Eisenach: she lives very quietly with her stepmother and the
tutor[154] of her children, but no other attendants. Her pecuniary
resources are very strained. The castle of Eisenach belongs to the
Duke of Saxe Weimar, the uncle of the Duchesse d'Orléans, who has
placed it at the disposal of his niece.

  [154] M. Boismilon.

I hear from Vienna that all the Hungarians are breaking up their
establishments and withdrawing either to the country or to Buda or to
Pressburg; the Bohemians are going to Prague. In short, the pretty
town of Vienna, once so cheerful and lively and so aristocratic, is
becoming a desert and is as depressing as one vast village. Princess
Sapieha and Madame de Colleredo have been deeply compromised in the
recent disturbances; they have been forced to go into hiding. The
Archduke Francis Charles has written from Innsbrück to Lord Ponsonby,
asking him in the Emperor's name to join the court in Tyrol with all
his colleagues.

Mr. Bulwer has come back from Spain; he had fomented a revolt at
Seville against the Montpensiers who have been obliged to flee to
Cadiz; the proverb, "Like master, like man" is certainly applicable to
Palmerston and Bulwer.

Great excitement continues to prevail in the streets of Berlin, and
the return of the Prince of Prussia who is expected daily at Potsdam,
will probably produce an explosion.[155] Meanwhile Berlin is
practically surrounded by a force of sixteen thousand men who can be
used if necessary.

  [155] It was thought that the Liberalism of Herr von Camphausen
  had sufficiently calmed the popular excitement to allow the
  Prince of Prussia to return to Berlin. At the outbreak of the
  disturbance he had been forced to take refuge in England.
  However, no sooner had the Prince arrived than the Camphausen
  Ministry was overthrown on June 20, after the capture and plunder
  of the Arsenal and the Ministry of Auerswald came into power.

I hear from Paris that Madame Dosne is dying with rage to think that
the revolution could have taken place without being aimed at her
son-in-law. This information may be taken as literally true, as she
was having her third attack of low fever. I also hear that M. Molé and
M. Thiers are both coming forward as deputies and that M. de
Lamartine seems greatly apprehensive that the latter may be

The atrocious scenes at Naples[156] have produced a bad effect at
Berlin and street excitement is said to have become menacing once
more. The citizens have seized the arsenal.

  [156] An insurrection had been broken out at Naples. After six
  hours' desperate fighting the royal troops retained possession of
  the town, though they lost three or four hundred men. The Chamber
  and the National Guard were dissolved and a new Ministry was
  formed under the Presidency of Signor Cariati.

_Sagan, June 7, 1848._--Mental equanimity depends upon a thousand
petty circumstances in every case. Only those who are very young and
know nothing of mental trouble, are able to avoid the thousand and one
influences of times, places, things, and even of details apparently
most trivial. I think that Saint Evremond says that the less people
are amenable to pleasure the more they are afflicted by trouble.

Paris seems to be peaceful but at what a price has this result been
obtained? Terrible refinements of cruelty have been committed.

_Sagan, June 12, 1848._--The state of Berlin and Breslau grows
steadily worse. The provinces are correspondingly affected and I
expect to see civil war break out any day. The country populations are
ready to join the revolutionary movement against their overlords and
their priests, but they detest the towns. The peasants do not like the
citizens and are royalists and supporters of the military, though they
are against the nobles and the priests. The result is a strange
confusion which heaven alone can disentangle. The assembly which has
met at Berlin has been hitherto marked by no character except
ignorance and disturbance.

_Sagan, June 18, 1848._--The newspapers and my letters tell me that
Germany is resuming its republican tendencies. Hecker has been elected
for Frankfort. Confusion is thus inconceivable, especially in view of
the increasing dislike which France shows for the deplorable
government under which she placed herself four months ago. She must be
reduced to extremities indeed to turn to the Bonapartist flag, so
miserably represented by Louis Napoleon who is known to be a very poor
figurehead. And what can be said of the frightful scenes at Prague,
and the assassination of poor Princess Windisch-Graetz.[157] I have
also been very anxious on account of Berlin, where the pillage of the
arsenal and the opposition to the Ministry in the Chamber have
diminished the prospect of a peaceful solution; three Ministers,
Arnim, Schwerin and Kanitz, have resigned.

  [157] After a bombardment and some street fighting which lasted
  from the 12th to the 17th of June, Prince Windisch-Graetz was
  able to overcome the insurrection at Prague. During these
  struggles his wife was treacherously shot near the window of her
  drawing-room, while standing between her sisters, from the other
  side of the street.

_Potsdam, June 23, 1848._--I reached here yesterday after staying for
half a day at Berlin. Medem writes from Vienna to his colleague Herr
von Meyendorff and speaks very mournfully of the vacillation and
uncertainty that have prevailed at Innsbrück since the Baron von
Wessenberg has been in power. I am not surprised; Wessenberg is a
kind, clever and good-hearted man, but even from London days I thought
him muddle-headed and this is a terrible hindrance to the conduct of

I have news of Prince Metternich: he is sending his sons to a Catholic
college in England as he finds no one who will join his fate and act
as tutor; he is also troubled by pecuniary embarrassments.

The reigning Grand Duke of Mecklenberg-Schwerin has increased the
settlements upon his stepmother, in order that the Duchesse d'Orléans
and her children may gain indirectly a means of greater comfort in
life; a noble and tactful action.

The ministerial crisis here is still in progress and the street uproar
has been thus succeeded by a political disturbance which is no less
dangerous, when a Chamber is composed of ill-assorted elements as that
of Berlin. There was a rumour yesterday evening that a telegram from
Frankfort stated that the assembly in that town had elected a
dictator for Germany in the person of the Archduke John.[158] Here
there was a wish for a triumvirate. Rumour consequently arose that
Prussia had replied to this news by a protest.

  [158] In the National Assembly at Frankfort the Committee of the
  Fifty had been tempted several times to form a triumvirate as a
  centre of power. Eventually a commission of eleven deputies was
  elected in June. This commission appointed Archduke John for
  Austria, the old Prince William for Prussia, and Prince Charles
  for Bavaria. The combination was ironically known as the
  directory of the three uncles, these princes being the uncles of
  the kings of their respective countries. The proposal was
  vigorously opposed, and the Session of June 23 eventually elected
  the Archduke John as sole director. A deputation offered the
  dignity to the Archduke who accepted it, and appeared in the
  National Assembly on the following 12th of July.

_Sagan, June 28, 1848._--I have returned to my domestic hearth. Though
I have hitherto had no great reason to complain of my own corner of
the world, I none the less feel that the earth is mined and is
trembling beneath my feet. The district that I have just left seems to
me to be terribly unsafe. At Paris blood is flowing.[159] For some
days our knowledge of events there has been confined to telegraphic
news from Brussels and is very uncertain. I merely know that my
children are not in the town.

  [159] When seven thousand workmen had been dismissed from the
  national workshops, a further outbreak caused much bloodshed in
  Paris for four days. On that occasion the Archbishop, Mgr. Affre,
  was killed upon one of the barricades where he was attempting to
  pacify the people.

_Sagan, July 6, 1848._--The struggle in Paris has kept me in a state
of great alarm; fortunately none of my intimate connections have
suffered anything beyond terror and panic. At present the country
districts are becoming dangerous, and so my daughter Pauline has
returned to the city with her son.

Here we are very little better off than in France, and when I consider
the many centres of communistic doctrine in this part of Europe, I
cannot close my eyes to the dangers that threaten us; the less so, as
I am far from thinking that they can be crushed in the manner employed
by Prince Windisch-Graetz at Prague and General Cavaignac at Paris. I
propose to betake myself to Teplitz in a few days and am only awaiting
an assurance that that part of Bohemia has been pacified.

_Teplitz, July 18, 1848._--My journey here from Sagan passed off
without incident, but poverty and restlessness are everywhere
prevalent. The little kingdom of Saxony is, however, less disturbed
than Prussia or than the Saxon Duchies of Thuringen, where the feeling
is pre-eminently republican. At Dresden the Ministry is so Radical
that revolutionaries could hardly wish for anything more. There is
also an idea that the Saxon duchies would be united under the single
and by no means monarchical sceptre of the good King of Saxony, who
retains hardly a shadow of his royal power. Hitherto he has been saved
by the fact that his Minister of the Interior wears no hat or
gloves.[160] He is simply a rustic but is said to be honourable enough
not to betray his master. Teplitz is almost empty and no one thinks of
travelling. Apart from the Clarys and the Ficquelmonts, there is no
one here except a few obscure paralytics. Herr von Ficquelmont regards
the prospects of the Austrian empire in a very gloomy light and seems
to disbelieve any possibility that the Archduke John may save it or
that he may improve the future of Germany. His dealings with the
Vienna students are either hypocritical or are prompted by unworthy or
speculative ambition. At Frankfort he will soon have to struggle
against the separatist tendencies, which are continually becoming more
obvious in Prussia, not merely in high places where they might well
come to nothing, but to an even greater extent among the masses, who
have been wounded in their interests and their pride.

  [160] Herr von Pfördten.

_Teplitz, July 22, 1844._--We hear that there is still some
disturbance at Prague, though it is sternly repressed by the iron hand
of Prince Windisch-Graetz. Vienna remains in a complete state of
anarchy. Herr von Ficquelmont told me yesterday that the population of
Berlin was more tumultuous and more vicious than that of Vienna and
that the governmental and administrative machinery was in far better
order at Berlin than at Vienna. On the whole, they are two centres of

_Eisenach, August 8, 1848._--The Duchesse d'Orléans whom I have come
to see is much changed and complains that she grows steadily weaker.
However, she remains calm and reasonable and is not so disinclined as
she was at first to open connections with the older branch of the
family. However, the possibility of forming any such project seems
remote. There is a feeling that dignity must be maintained, while at
the same time no stone should be left unturned to improve the chances
of the future. She is entirely without prejudice; her insight is clear
and her judgment seems to be more direct and to have been fortified by
the great lessons of recent events. She was quite open and kind
towards me; remembrances of the Duc d'Orléans give us a real interest
in one another, and she expressed this fact very graciously by telling
me that for her I stood outside all family questions. She called her
sons and said to them, "Kiss your father's most faithful friend."

_Berlin, August 13, 1848._--Every evening there is some small
excitement in the streets which is fomented by the deplorable
proceedings of the assembly; moreover, the financial Minister, Herr
Hanseman, is proposing laws destined to conclude our ruin. Claims are
being laid by the former provinces which may degenerate into revolts
and lead to civil war. The Pan-Germanic party and the Prussian
separatists, between whom the country is divided, are already
confronting one another in a hostile temper which makes the conflict
imminent. No one can tell what the future may bring forth.

_Sagan, September 9, 1848._--The ministerial crisis at Berlin seems to
make a catastrophe imminent.[161] Civil war or foreign war may be
expected and also a breach between the two constitutional assemblies
of Frankfort and Berlin. In short, numberless eventualities present
themselves and meanwhile private life becomes more and more

  [161] The discussions concerning the proposal of a deputy, Herr
  Stein, with reference to the army and to the control which the
  Ministry should exert upon the political opinions of officers,
  were concluded in the Chamber against the desires of the Cabinet.
  The Auerswald Ministry therefore resigned on September 11; on the
  22nd of the same month the King appointed a new Cabinet of which
  General Pfuel was President.

_Sagan, September 16, 1848._--There are no Ministers at Frankfort[162]
and none at Berlin. There is a total want of energy at Sans Souci and
unfortunately the troops are showing symptoms of disaffection. Use was
not made of them at the proper time, and agitators have been allowed
to seize the opportunity for shaking their fidelity. The absence of
all legal authority has again aroused the arbitrary greed of the rural
populations, while the Chambers have failed to satisfy their anxiety
for a definite settlement with the overlords: thus burning and pillage
have been begun once more in Upper Silesia. Rothschild of Vienna who
had a fine estate there has just seen it utterly ruined. The fact is
that another bad outbreak is in progress and I am more anxious now
than I have ever been, seeing that the loyalty of the troops has
become doubtful.

  [162] It will be remembered that the populations of Schleswig and
  Holstein, who wished to be united with Germany, had revolted
  against Denmark, and that the Prussians had come to their help.
  After several bloody conflicts an armistice was concluded between
  Denmark and Prussia at Malmæ on August 26, but the National
  Assembly at Frankfort refused to assent to this armistice on the
  ground that Prussia did not ask its authorisation. The council of
  Ministers and all the Ministers of the Empire had thereupon

_Sagan, October 1, 1848._--Things here are going from bad to worse.
The other night some evil-minded persons exploded bombs near the
castle. Our precautions have been taken; my army of defence has been
organised and if we are to perish it will not be without a struggle. I
shall not run away, for I have no personal fear, as I am totally
indifferent on my own account; and then people are always overawed by
courage and determination.

_Sagan, October 5, 1848._--The château of Prince Hatzfeldt has been
attacked by peasants;[163] four of his farms have been burnt, and he
has been obliged to flee. Here everything is comparatively quiet so
far, but the morrow belongs to no one.

  [163] The Château of Trachenberg, not far from Breslau.

_Sagan, October 9, 1848._--The post and the Vienna newspapers have
failed to reach us since the day before yesterday. Current rumour
ascribes this absence of direct news to sanguinary causes which are
only too probable at the present time. Every day brings some fresh
horrors.[164] Last week we heard of the massacre of Count Lamberg at
Buda;[165] the hanging of poor Eugène Zichy[166] who was so happy and
so great a favourite at Paris ten years ago; he was hung by these
barbarians in the island where robbers are executed. Yesterday we
heard of the murder of the Comte de la Tour, Minister of War at
Vienna, and of General Brédy.[167] The Black and Yellow party is
fighting in the streets against the Hungarian party. If the Anarchist
party triumphs at Vienna[168] it will be all up with Berlin and
Breslau where people are living upon a powder-mine.

  [164] In the morning of October 6 a number of the population of
  Vienna opposed the departure of the troops which were marching
  upon Hungary to reinforce Baron Jellachich, and a bloodthirsty
  struggle broke out. The residence of the Minister of War was
  captured by assault, and the Minister, the Comte de la Tour, was
  stabbed, hung to a lamp-post, and riddled with bullets. The
  troops retired, were driven back at every point and forced to
  evacuate the town. The Emperor and the Imperial Family, who had
  returned to Vienna in the month of August, were obliged to retire
  once more and went towards Olmütz. There the emperor abdicated on
  December 2 in favour of his nephew, Francis Joseph I.

  [165] General Count Lamberg had been appointed Commander-in-Chief
  of the Hungarian troops on September 25: the National Assembly at
  Pesth refused to recognise this nomination and declared all
  guilty of high treason who should obey him, and on his arrival at
  Pesth put him to death on the bridge which unites Buda and Pesth.

  [166] When Hungary was in a state of insurrection, the insurgents
  seized Count Eugène Zichy, accused him of communicating with the
  Austrian Army and of distributing copies of the emperor's
  proclamation. He was tried before a court presided over by
  Georgei and was condemned to death and shot in the island of
  Czepel and not hung, as the first rumour related.

  [167] General Brédy was killed at Vienna on October 6, 1848,
  during the struggle between the people and the National Guard in
  the suburb of Leopoldstadt, a few hours before the insurgents
  seized the residence of the Minister of War.

  [168] By the Black and Yellow party is meant the Imperial party,
  the members of which wore these colours.

_Sagan, October 25, 1848._--Everything here is in suspense and
everything is being settled at Vienna. Hitherto it seems that the
loyal army will dictate laws, but we dare not trust to these gleams of
hope. In Austria, at any rate, an honourable struggle is in progress,
and if failure should come honour will not be lost. As much cannot,
unfortunately, be said of Berlin, and even if the side of right should
triumph at Vienna will the victory be final? I doubt it and I fear we
shall be living for a long time on a volcano.

_Sagan, November 4, 1848._--A revolutionary outburst has just taken
place at Liegnitz, comparatively close to me. It was necessary to use
military force to quell it. At Berlin there is a riot almost every
day; audacity and weakness daily increase. Yesterday the Ministry was
at last changed: this might indicate a desire to revive energy; I fear
that it is too late. The Assembly has been besieged, the Deputies and
the Diplomatic Body imprisoned and threatened with hanging; the
National Guard has been betrayed by its leader, while Sans Souci has
been completely paralysed in the face of these events; and yet people
ask if there is still any room for hope.[169] The successful measures
at Vienna have not succeeded in inspiring Potsdam with any energy, and
have greatly exasperated the anarchists who wish to deliver some
striking blow to recover their power and to form a centre at Berlin
for spreading their influence throughout Germany. The part played by
M. Arago, the Minister of the French Republic, during recent days at
Berlin, has been extremely ambiguous,[170] and any self-respecting
Government would have sent him his passports, and lodged an official
complaint at Paris. My wishes for Vienna have at length been realised.
Windisch-Graetz has shown infinite patience and kindness, and only
when the capitulation of the 30th was treacherously violated did he
rage as he was bound to do, and as the infamy of the native
authorities in Vienna deserved. We are still without details, but the
main facts are official and we must regard them as providential. God
grant that this may be the starting-point of a new era. Meanwhile
anarchy, disorder, the want of repressive measures, and poverty are
ruining the provinces. Orators are preaching murder and pillage
unpunished to their popular meetings, and the results of these
incendiary harangues may soon be expected. Really the state of things
is frightful.

  [169] On October 16 a further and bloodthirsty outbreak took
  place at Berlin, ending in a collision between the National Guard
  and the workmen. The result was to revive the agitation which had
  prevailed in this town with short intermissions since the month
  of March.

  [170] M. Arago, the French Minister, showed himself to the crowd
  which was cheering him before his residence. He uttered a few
  words in French and held out his hand to the people who were
  nearest to him.

_Sagan, November 19, 1848._--I think it would be advisable for Austria
to add to such determined warriors as Jellachich, Radetzky, and
Windisch-Graetz a younger and stronger politician than Wessenberg. It
is said that such a man would be found in Prince Felix of
Schwarzenberg; he has good friends, and has often been the object of
great admiration. I saw him pretty frequently at Naples two years ago,
and he showed me much kindness. He was a man of distinguished manner,
clever, dignified, and cool, and his opinions and his speech were well
weighed; but I do not know him well enough to say whether he will be
equal to the heavy task which seems likely to fall upon him. Stadion,
who is to share it with him, has been a friend of his youth, and their
unanimity may produce fortunate results. I see nothing of the kind in
prospect for Prussia, where warriors and writers, men of eloquence and
action, appear to be utterly wanting in the present crisis. Every
attempt now made is marked by a certain tactlessness which is far from
inspiring me with confidence.[171] They are sheltering themselves
behind Frankfort, and looking there for refuge, support, and
protection. It is undignified, and makes no impression upon the enemy,
while I think that this bulwark will prove to be futile. We must hope
that the army is loyal, but we cannot help recognising that it is
without enthusiasm, while its ardour is allowed to cool and disappear.
The soldiers who are bivouacking in the streets of Berlin are
suffering from the bad weather and are greatly depressed, so persons
say who write to me and who are busy distributing soup and beer to
support their strength and encourage their loyalty.

  [171] A new Ministry, of which Count Brandenburg was President
  and Herr von Manteuffel was Minister of the Interior, had been
  appointed at Berlin on November 8. Its very first administrative
  act ended in a defeat: an ordinance of the King countersigned by
  the Count of Brandenburg transferred the National Assembly to the
  town of Brandenburg; the Assembly decided against this
  transference by a vast majority, and as the Government could not
  continue amid this increasing anarchy, it resolved upon vigorous
  action. On November 10 a considerable number of troops were
  drafted into the capital and occupied the entrance to the
  Assembly room. The Assembly protested against this violence, and
  an ordinance of the King then declared the civil guard disbanded;
  another ordinance issued on the 12th proclaimed Berlin to be in a
  state of siege. General Wrangel commanded the military forces and
  every measure was taken to avoid a collision.

_Sagan, November 26, 1848._--The last week has been a very difficult
time; since Berlin was proclaimed to be in a state of siege all
disaffected elements have fallen back upon Silesia; my workmen have
been fired upon, and the red flag has been carried about. In fact, the
situation looked menacing; but now that thirty thousand troops are
sweeping the province we can breathe again, and if I can believe my
last letters from Berlin, we are to enter upon a new era. On this
subject I admit my incredulity, and I fear that it will not be
dispelled for a long time; but the fact remains that disturbances have
ceased for the moment, and for so much we ought to be grateful, for
the feverish state of tension was becoming unbearable.

The death of Madame de Montjoye has filled the cup of misfortune for
poor Queen Marie Amélie, whose only and most intimate confidential
friend she was. As a result of drinking poisoned water at
Claremont,[172] I hear that the King's teeth have become black.
Relations between the King and his children are not invariably
satisfactory, nor are the children agreed among themselves. Providence
is subjecting these _émigrés_ to every kind of hardship; possibly it
is an expiation for the vote of the father and the usurpation of the

  [172] In November 1848 the whole of the Royal Family had suffered
  from poisoning in consequence of the leaden pipes through which
  the water was carried.

_Sagan, December 1, 1848._--To-day the newspapers announce the
programme of the new Austrian Cabinet,[173] which was very well
received at Kremsier and has produced a rise in Austrian stocks. May
God give us a strong and clever Cabinet, at any rate in that quarter.
The Cabinet which ought to govern in Prussia, and which appeared ready
to assume the iron glove, seems to me to show nothing but weakness,
while the glove is distinctly rusty. All good Catholics will be
greatly moved by the fate of Pius IX. Notwithstanding the fact that
with greater zeal than prudence he ran to liberal extremes, he remains
the head of our church, the priest of God and a kind man, and his
danger should stir our hearts to pity and to fear.[174] I hear from
Berlin that Herr von Gagern has failed in his proposed object, and
that the King was stronger than was thought, for he has thrust aside
the show of Imperialism which Gagern had offered him on the condition
that for this occasion only he would submit to the laws of the
Frankfort Government.[175]

  [173] The Austrian Diet had been sitting since November 15 at
  Kremsier in Moravia, in the beautiful castle of the Archbishops
  of Olmütz. The new Ministry was composed as follows: Prince Felix
  of Schwarzenberg, President of the Council and Minister of
  Foreign Affairs; Stadion, Minister of the Interior; Krauss,
  Financial Minister; Bach, Legal Minister; Gordon, Minister of
  War; Bruck, Minister of Commerce; Thinnfeld, Minister of
  Agriculture; Kulmer, unattached.

  [174] The Pope had given his subjects a constitution on March 14,
  and after changing his Ministry several times he had at length
  decided on December 15 to appoint as his Prime Minister,
  Pellegrino Rossi, formerly French Ambassador to His Holiness and
  a personal friend of M. Guizot. Rossi undertook to establish a
  regular parliamentary government in the Papal States, relying
  upon the middle classes and intervening between the parties in
  opposition. He was not given the time to carry out his proposals:
  on November 15, as he was going to a Cabinet Council, he was
  stabbed in the throat by a militiaman and fell dead. This deed
  was a signal for a republican rising. The Pope confined himself
  to appointing a new Minister who was out of sympathy with the
  people, upon which the mob and the troops made their way to the
  Quirinal and ordered the Pope to change his Ministers. Pius IX.,
  who was supported by the diplomatic body, declined to accede, and
  popular exasperation then reached its height. A desperate
  struggle broke out between the people and the guards, and the
  bullets even reached the interior of the palace. Eventually the
  Pope yielded under protest and consented to accept as his
  Ministers Sterbini, Galletti, Mamiani, and the Abbé Rosmini. But
  on November 25, dressed as an ordinary Abbé, he left Rome and
  sought the protection of the King of Naples at Gaeta, from which
  town he sent a protest to the Romans against recent events.

  [175] Herr von Gagern, who had undertaken to draw up a
  constitution for the Empire at Frankfort and to settle the
  central power upon a permanent basis, had come to Berlin to
  examine the situation and to learn whether the King of Prussia
  would be inclined to place himself at the head of the German
  Empire in the event of a rupture between Austria and Germany. The
  King absolutely declined this proposal, which was afterwards
  brought before him once more with more official authority in
  March 1849.

_Sagan, December 6, 1848._--Rumour here very generally asserts that
the worst of the storm has passed. I am by no means sure of the fact;
electoral excitement will soon begin when the attempt is made to work
the constitution that has been granted, and the results seem very
uncertain. Anything, in truth, is better than this state of decay and
confusion in which we are here perishing, but though the danger may
assume new forms, it will not pass so quickly. The country is
certainly becoming somewhat enlightened and growing weary of the state
of things which reduces every one to utter misery; some better
instincts are asserting themselves. On the twenty-fifth anniversary
of the King's marriage there was a favourable display of feeling, but
too many elements of disaffection are still powerful and the
Government cannot make itself respected. In Southern Germany,
especially in Bavaria, people still seem to be in love with the
proposal for sharing the power among three, particularly since Austria
has concentrated her members to form one great monarchy. The old
Prince William of Prussia who was nominated as a possible member of
the triumvirate, has fallen into a state of mental weakness which
would make him incapable of undertaking this task. Moreover, his son,
Prince Waldemar, is dying at Münster of a spinal disease; it is a sad
business, for he is a distinguished Prince and his death will be a
final blow to his poor father. I doubt if the central power will last
very long, as the King of Prussia mercifully persists in his refusal
to accept the burden. It is said that the Princess of Prussia would
have liked to see Herr von Gagern at the head of a new Prussian
Cabinet. I do not think that this haughty character would have been
willing to take so uncertain a position or to confront a Chamber so
little amenable to parliamentary eloquence. In any case the King has
rejected all insinuations, direct or indirect. It would indeed have
been both foolish and utterly ungrateful on his part to dismiss the
only Ministry which has had the courage and the capacity to raise the
prestige of the Crown in some small degree and to turn events in the
direction of conservatism.

Italy is in a pitiable condition. M. de Broglie will doubtless be
deeply grieved at the death of M. Rossi, as it was he who brought M.
Rossi to France, introduced him to politics, raised him to the
peerage, and finally advanced him to the Embassy at Rome. I saw a
great deal of him in the salon of Madame de Broglie, and afterwards at
Rome; he seemed to me to be an astute and unpretentious character,
less noble but cleverer than Capo d'Istria.[176] Their assassination
was due to the same cause; both attempted to play the part of
Richelieu without due preparation.

  [176] Like Pellegrino Rossi, Capo d'Istria suffered a violent
  death. He was accused by the Greeks of acting merely as the tool
  of Russia, and of using arbitrary methods to secure governmental
  power. He was assassinated in 1831 by the brothers George and
  Constantine Mavromichali, who wished to take vengeance upon him
  for the unjust imprisonment of their father and brother.

_Sagan, December 30, 1848._--The calm amid which Napoleon has assumed
the chief power in France would tend to show that a desire for order
and peace is rising in the country. Rumours are abroad of the
abdication of the King of Sardinia and of a new and warlike Sardinian
Ministry.[177] I hope that Radetzky will bring the rest of Italy to
reason as he has done in Lombardy. Windisch-Graetz is before Raab, and
it is hoped that he will have no great difficulty in entering the
town. Great cold delays his march, and he is also hampered by the
necessity of reorganising the civil government in the districts which
he occupies.[178] Jellachich has been carried away by his impetuosity
and captured temporarily by the Hungarians.[179] He was rescued by his
soldiers. Windisch-Graetz has bitterly reproached him for his blind
rashness which might have compromised the fate of the army, and the
vital question of the Government. The Archduchess Sophie gave her son,
the young Emperor, as a Christmas present a frame containing the
portraits of Radetzky, Windisch-Graetz, and Jellachich. It is well to
remind Sovereigns by outward signs of the duty of gratitude, which, as
a rule, they find somewhat burdensome. And so the disastrous year of
1848 comes to an end! Heaven grant that 1849 may bring some
improvement in our lives!

  [177] King Charles Albert did not abdicate until after the battle
  of Novara on March 23, 1849.

  [178] About December 15 Prince Windisch-Graetz at the head of the
  Austrian troops drove the Hungarians out of one position after
  another, until they retired behind the bastions of Raab, under
  the command of Georgei. As the great cold prevented their
  reinforcements from coming up, the Hungarians were obliged to
  abandon this position, which the Austrians captured without
  striking a blow, on December 27.

  [179] On September 29, 1848, near Veneleze, twelve miles away
  from Ofen, Jellachich was utterly defeated by General Moga. His
  army took flight and Jellachich was taken prisoner. He succeeded
  in escaping, however, and made his way through the forests to
  Mor, Risber, and at length to Raab.



_Sagan, January 11, 1849._--M. Arago has at length left Berlin, where
he is detested. There seems to be some idea that the Prince of the
Moskowa will come as French Minister, though it is not thought likely
that he will make a long stay. The Grand Duchess Stephanie is going to
Paris, but will probably do no more than make a hurried and agitated
visit to her cousin, the President of the Republic, and obtain some
small reflection of his Imperial grandeur. However, Princess Mathilde
will not leave him the pleasure of doing the honours of the
Presidency, which she seems to have reserved for herself. The whole
business can hardly be taken seriously.[180]

  [180] Prince Louis Bonaparte had been nominated President on
  November 10, 1848. M. Molé related that on the morning of that
  day General Changarnier, the commander of the troops who were to
  take the President to the Elysée, after he had taken the oath,
  came to M. Molé and asked for directions, and said as he went
  out, "Well, supposing I take him to the Tuileries instead of to
  the Elysée!" to which M. Molé replied, "Mind you do nothing of
  the sort; he will go there soon enough of his own accord."

_Sagan, January 18, 1849._--The meetings preliminary to the Prussian
elections give no great hope of a definite result. The Brandenburg
Ministry, lest it should be accused of reaction, is pursuing the
barren paths of Liberalism. The Grand Duchess Stephanie, who seems to
have been aroused from long unconsciousness of my existence, writes in
great depression and anxiety concerning the fate of the German Rhine
provinces. Apparently the Grand Duke of Baden has threatened to
withdraw her settlements if she spends them in France. I have also a
letter full of dignity and affectionate trust from the Duchesse
d'Orléans. I propose to go to Dresden next week, to spend a few days
there with my sister.

_Dresden, January 28, 1849._--At Frankfort the future head of Germany
was refused hereditary rights and even life tenure of power, and it
therefore seems impossible that the King of Prussia could undertake a
position of this kind.[181] This was a clever Austrian intrigue to
disqualify the King, and to overthrow the whole of this ridiculous and
abominable invention, which has produced nothing but ruin and
disorder. The Prussian elections are not very hopeful, not so
unfavourable as those of last year, but very far from giving rise to
any real hope. What could be expected from the electoral law which has
been granted here? We have mad Chambers, which no one can govern and
no one dare dissolve. I found the Saxon Court very sad. Dresden is
full of people, but it is difficult to meet any one.

  [181] The greatest confusion prevailed in Frankfort as soon as
  the question arose of providing a definite head to the German
  Empire, and realising the fine promises of union by means of a
  practical conclusion. Austria pretended to adopt a waiting
  attitude which would enable her to stand apart from all details,
  as though she had no idea of entering into relations with Germany
  until Germany became a constituted state. Her intention, in
  short, was to take no steps with reference to her union with
  Germany until the choice of the head of the empire and of
  pre-eminence was decided in her favour or against her.

_Sagan, February 12, 1849._--I passed through Berlin on my return
journey. The town is now swarming with little German princes, asking
for mediatisation as the only means of safety; they offer themselves
to Prussia, who refuses them for scrupulous reasons of every kind.
Prussia thinks it dangerous to set such an example; tradition and the
historical past of the monarchy are also influential forces; in short,
these poor princes will all go as they have come, and in spite of the
somewhat vague promises of protection which they have received as a
crumb of comfort, they will probably be driven out of their homes some
day or other and reduced to beggary. Count von Bülow, Prussian
Minister at Frankfort, is inclined to support the Frankfort Assembly;
Charlottenberg takes the contrary view; the result is an unpleasant
hitch in proceedings, while the relations between Kremsier and Berlin
are characterised by marked coldness, to the great displeasure of the
King. I know nothing of this M. de Lurde who is taking the place of M.
Arago as French Minister at Berlin, but he may easily appear to
advantage in comparison with his predecessor, who could speak only of
the great-heartedness and the noble soul of Barbès!

_Sagan, March 1, 1849._--If I am to believe letters from Paris, there
is a general revival in progress, and a complete reaction in favour of
order and prosperity. Praises of the new President are general. M.
Thiers said of him, "He is not Cæsar, but he is Augustus." The
Legitimists throng his rooms, and after the ball nothing could be
heard but the shouts of servants--"The carriage of Madame la Duchesse,
of M. le Prince," &c. The President is addressed as _Monseigneur_, a
title anything but Republican. I am told that this practice is
followed in the provinces. I must say that I rather distrust these
sudden changes, but the present moment seems satisfactory.

_Sagan, March 31, 1849._--The political horizon causes me much
anxiety. Clouds seem to be rising once more, instead of dispersing.
This unfortunate proposal of an Imperial Crown does not tempt the
King, but pleases those about him, the young officers of the
bureaucracy, whose petty pride finds matter for self-satisfaction. The
Left, perfidiously supporting the proposal, are well aware that the
so-called Imperial dignity would subject the King to the orders of the
democratic professors of Frankfort. The bad weather and the abominable
state of the roads delay the subjugation of Hungary.[182] The only
consolation is the success of Radetzky, and this has been gained at
what a price! We have no details yet of his last two victories, and
have only heard of the abdication of Charles Albert. The actual names
of the victims are unknown.[183]

  [182] This war, which began upon the accession of Francis Joseph
  to the Austrian throne, lasted for three years. Hungary
  eventually yielded before the overwhelming force of Austria in
  alliance with Russia.

  [183] As France and England had offered to intervene between
  Austria and Sardinia, the armistice between these two powers,
  which was signed on August 9, 1848, was tacitly prolonged to the
  end of the negotiations. As the negotiations came to nothing,
  Sardinia at length denounced the armistice on March 12, 1849, and
  hostilities began again upon the 20th of the month. On March 23
  the Sardinian army performed prodigies of valour in the decisive
  battle of Novara, but the commanding officer, the Polish General,
  Chrzanowski, made deplorable mistakes and Austria was once again
  successful. King Charles Albert asked Marshal Radetzky for a
  further armistice, but the conditions offered were so harsh that
  the King refused to accept them, abdicated in favour of Victor
  Emmanuel, and went into exile. On the 27th the new King went to
  Marshal Radetzky's headquarters, and after a long conversation,
  signed an armistice which lasted until the eventual conclusion of

_Sagan, April 13, 1849._--Kind Lady Westmoreland gave me the pleasant
surprise of a two days' visit; she arrived yesterday to my great
delight. She is a clever, lively, affectionate, and really charming
friend, with warm memories of the late M. de Talleyrand, and talks of
the past and the present with keen interest and intelligence. We
discussed pleasant memories in England; tried as we both are by the
sadness of the present time, we prefer to avoid melancholy
contemplation of so deplorable a subject and to look backwards,
recovering some of those precious memories which I should be inclined
to style "the savings of my heart." Thus I take refuge in the past as
I dare not question the future.

_Sagan, April 21, 1849._--Yesterday I received letters from Paris
which say that, notwithstanding the efforts of the Union in the Rue de
Poitiers,[184] communism is making great progress in France.

  [184] The Electoral Union or the famous committee of the Rue de
  Poitiers, was formed at the beginning of 1849 by the conservative
  right to guide the elections and to oppose the democratic
  socialistic committee.

It is thought at Berlin that the Frankfort parliament will pursue a
wholly revolutionary course and form an executive committee and a
committee of public safety. In that case it would bring troops from
Baden and Nassau in the certainty that the garrison of Mayence would
not be led against Frankfort, and able thus to profit by the continual
vacillation of Prussia.[185] The asserted adherence of twenty-eight
little German governments is sheer effrontery, as their agreement is
only conditional: they will only join the Prussian banner if,
following the example of these little governments, Prussia submits to
the constitution drawn up at Frankfort. The four kings of Saxony,
Bavaria, Hanover, and Würtemberg refuse their assent.

  [185] The King of Prussia had been elected on March 28 as Emperor
  of the Germans at the Frankfort Assembly, and a deputation
  immediately started to offer him this title. The deputation was
  received by Frederick William IV. on April 3, who replied that he
  would only accept the position when the kings, the princes, and
  the free towns of Germany had given their voluntary assent. After
  long negotiations the mission of the Frankfort deputies proved a

Were it not for the affairs of Denmark, Prussia would be able to
fortify herself at home, a necessity which she is far from meeting at
present, and make head against the Frankfort storm; but General von
Pritwitz has submitted to the so-called Frankfort government.[186]
Denmark would not be likely to treat with a Government so irregularly
constituted. The solution of the difficulty is not easy to see. The
King, who is at bottom kindly disposed towards the King of Denmark and
is afraid of Russia,[187] continues to oppose the occupation of

  [186] General von Pritwitz had taken command of the federal army
  in Schleswig-Holstein, after the appointment of General Wrangel
  as Commander of the Berlin troops.

  [187] Nicholas I. had threatened to declare war upon the Germanic
  Confederation if the German troops did not evacuate the duchies
  and retire beyond the Elbe.

_Sagan, April 30, 1849._--The state of Germany does not improve. The
King of Würtemberg has now yielded because his troops declared that
they would not fire upon the people.[188] The Frankfort parliament is
also adopting the most revolutionary means to force the sovereigns to
submit to its laws.[189] The parliament insists that governments shall
not dissolve their Chambers without the permission of the so-called
central government. This wonderful decree reached Hanover and Berlin
six hours after the dissolutions had been officially announced.
General von Pritwitz wishes to be relieved of his command against the
Danes because he is unwilling to obey orders from Frankfort and cannot
command all the little German princes who severally wish to pose as
masters. Denmark has already captured a large number of Prussian
merchant-ships. At Copenhagen, however, there is a desire for peace;
Russia and England are also anxious for peace and so is Prussia,
though Berlin cannot find courage to recall the twenty thousand men
now stationed in Holstein and Schleswig. Frankfort is utterly opposed
to peace, with the object of depriving the German princes of their
troops and thus leaving them defenceless against the hordes of
revolutionaries. In short, confusion is at its height and I think the
state of Germany is far worse than it was four months ago. However,
the dissolution of the Prussian Chamber which had become urgent since
the Red Republic was proclaimed from the Tribune, will perhaps do some
good.[190] It is especially necessary that the Austrian operations in
Hungary should come to an end. Our fate will be decided there. Russia
has entered Transylvania with a hundred thousand men: this number is
regarded at Olmütz as unnecessarily large, but the Emperor Nicholas
has declared that he will run no risks of a second failure such as
that of Hermannstadt,[191] and that he will either hold aloof
altogether or insist upon sending an imposing force. He also feels
that he is fighting his personal enemies, the Poles, upon Hungarian
soil. Twenty thousand Poles are said to follow the standards of Bem
and Kossuth.

  [188] Yielding to public opinion and to avoid a catastrophe, the
  King of Würtemberg eventually adopted the Constitution voted by
  the Frankfort Assembly, including the article dealing with the
  head of the Empire, which he had previously persisted in

  [189] In the session of April 26 the Frankfort Assembly had
  declared that the King of Prussia could not accept the proposed
  position as head of the Empire if he did not also accept the

  [190] On April 26 great agitation was produced in the Prussian
  Chamber among the Left by a letter found under the seats of the
  deputies. In this letter a large number of signatures from the
  Red faction proclaimed the sovereignty of the people and
  announced that all their efforts were being aimed at the
  formation of a great Polish republic. The same evening the King's
  ordinance dissolving the Chamber appeared.

  [191] General Bem, of Polish origin, who had distinguished
  himself in the defence of Warsaw in 1831, joined the Hungarians
  who revolted against Austria in 1848 and won some great successes
  in Transylvania, especially at Hermannstadt.

_Sagan, May 10, 1849._--Storms are breaking in every direction and
Germany is in a state of conflagration. There has been fighting at
Dresden and at Breslau.[192] The Russians have used the Prussian
railways to invade Moravia; they have been warmly welcomed, for
anything which will check the Hungarian struggle or bring it to an end
will be a blessing not only for Austria, but for the whole of Europe,
for the proceedings in Hungary encourage the disaffected, and foment
insurrection in every direction.

  [192] On May 3 the King of Saxony absolutely refused to recognise
  the constitution of the empire. His palace was immediately
  surrounded by the crowd, a defence committee was formed and the
  arsenal was attacked. The people seized the town hall and hoisted
  the German Tricolour. The Royal Family and the Ministers fled to
  Königstein. Had it not been for the Prussian intervention and the
  arrival of General Wrangel, the republic would have been
  proclaimed. The contagion of this revolt spread to Breslau,
  where, on May 7, the bands of insurgents paraded the streets with
  the red flag, which they brought before the town hall and
  proclaimed the republic. The military authorities stormed the
  barricades after a vigorous fusillade.

_Sagan, May 17, 1849._--To-day is a solemn date which I keep whenever
it comes round with heartfelt and painful emotion.[193] The nearer the
years bring me to a final reunion, the more do I feel the serious and
decisive nature of the event that happened eleven years ago. May God
bless each of those who bore themselves as Christians should on that
occasion. This I ask of Him amid my misery with a fervour which will,
I trust, make my poor prayers acceptable.

  [193] The anniversary of the death of M. de Talleyrand.

_Sagan, May 25, 1849._--It is a real misfortune for the Prussian
Government to have Bunsen at London. He is there playing an
inconceivable part. Radowitz, whose intentions are excellent, but who
is quite misled, is also complicating the situation at Berlin itself
and is preventing the desirable and speedy solutions of certain
questions. The King of Prussia has sent General von Rauch to Warsaw,
to try and sooth the Emperor Nicholas, who is angry that the Prussians
should have entered Jutland in spite of the promise given.[194]

  [194] The German troops had entered Jutland after a battle
  between Wisdrup and Gudsor. The Danes, however, retired behind
  the ramparts of Fredericia which was bombarded by the Prussian
  troops, while negotiations for peace between Denmark and Prussia
  were proceeding at London under the auspices of Lord Palmerston.
  Some days later a Russian fleet left Cronstadt to help Denmark
  against Prussia, for the Emperor Nicholas maintained that Prussia
  was fomenting among her neighbours a spirit of revolt against the
  legitimate sovereign, and was doing all that she could to make
  herself mistress of the movements of Germany. The note which
  General von Rauch brought pointed out to the Czar that Prussia
  was only making war against Denmark at the orders of the central
  power and that no one was more anxious to see the end of these
  complications than the Prussian Cabinet.

_Sagan, May 31, 1849._--With regard to the negotiations opened at
Berlin, I have the following upon excellent authority:[195] Four days
ago a protocol was signed at Berlin between Prussia, Saxony and
Hanover stating: (1) Everything that has been done to grant a
reasonable and satisfactory Constitution to Germany; (2) That Hanover
and Saxony in their desire to maintain order in their states,
recognise and accept the military superiority of Prussia in the case
of any measures that may become necessary to maintain peace within
their states. Herr von Beust none the less makes the following
reservations in the name of the Saxon Government: (1) That Saxony does
not claim by this arrangement to infringe the rights of Austria as a
member of the Germanic Confederation; (2) That if the great states in
Southern Germany decline to adhere to the Constitution appended to the
protocol, Saxony shall have the right to withdraw; (3) That this
Constitution is to receive the sanction of the Saxon Chambers. Hanover
has handed in a note containing identically the same reservations. The
new Constitution has been explained in a circular note addressed by
Prussia to all the German governments, inviting them to adhere. The
Bavarian Minister, Herr von Lerchenfeld, has also signed the protocol,
but only as a member of the conference and in the hope that his
Government will find some means or other of adhering to the
arrangement. Herr von Prokesch has been present only at the first
conference, as Radowitz then declared from the outset that he could
not treat with governments which would not recognise the general
superiority of Prussia as a basis of negotiation. The haughty conduct
of Radowitz is undoubtedly the cause of this deplorable want of
unanimity among the crowned heads, at a time when indissoluble union
is so necessary. With a little cleverness and without putting forward
the question of supremacy as preliminary, he might have done great
services to his King and to his country, for the other states would
then have unanimously requested Prussia to take the leading position,
whereas now they are inclined to regard these dictatorial claims as
the expression of views more ambitious than any that are really
entertained. The result is jealousy and distrust which drown the voice
of reason and blind men's eyes to the necessities of the times.
Notwithstanding the presence of a new Danish envoy in Berlin, even an
armistice seems very far distant. The last Danish concessions, though
supported by Lord Palmerston, were haughtily declined by Prussia,
which is making impossible claims and asserts that these alone can
satisfy her honour.

  [195] The Prussian Cabinet had invited the other German Cabinets
  to a Congress at Berlin with the object of settling the
  difficulties raised by the refusal of the Frankfort Assembly to
  make any change in the constitution which it had voted.

_Sagan, June 12, 1849._--Cholera has again broken out almost
everywhere in this part of Germany; at Breslau, Berlin, and Halle the
inhabitants have been decimated. In short, the state of the human race
is most deplorable. My correspondents tell me that Lord Palmerston
told Bunsen that he was tired of the Prussian demands, which required
increasingly large concessions from Denmark, and that he proposed to
abandon his position as mediator and become an active ally in
conjunction with Russia for the protection of Denmark. Bunsen in
relating this conversation to his Court added that the threat was not
seriously intended. In this he is wrong, and is also deluding his

_Sagan, July 9, 1849._--I have had a visit from Baron von Meyendorff,
Russian Minister at Berlin. He was going to Gastein by way of Warsaw,
which is not the shortest route. His forecast of the situation was
very gloomy, and more gloomy with reference to the north than to the
south of Germany--I mean to say that he felt more forebodings
concerning the nature of the Prussian destinies than of the Austrian.

_Sagan, September 3, 1849._--General Count Haugwitz has been staying
here for a few days; he came from Vienna where Radetzky was expected.
The young Emperor, in order to receive the old Ajax, had delayed his
departure for Warsaw, where he is going to thank his powerful ally.
The latter is behaving most loyally and nobly towards his young friend
and ward, for thus he considers the Emperor Francis Joseph. Paskewitch
asked for mercy for Georgei which was immediately granted to
him.[196] Austria is anxious that a few Russian regiments should
prolong their stay in Galicia for the moment.

  [196] Georgei had capitulated with twenty-two thousand combatants
  at Vilagos, where he handed his sword to the Russians. He was
  given up to the Austrians after a short confinement, at the
  request of Paskewitch.

_Hanover, November 5, 1849._--Yesterday morning was spent in calling
upon several acquaintances in the town and paying my respects to the
Crown Princess. She is kind and gentle, and I saw her two children
with her. The third is expected this month. The Crown Princess showed
me several very interesting portraits of her family. I was especially
struck by those of the Electress Sophie, the patroness of Leibnitz and
the ancestress of the Royal Family of England. She must have been very
pretty, with the somewhat long and noble features of the Stuarts. I
also saw a charming portrait of the sister of the Crown Princess, the
Grand Duchess of Russia, wife of the Grand Duke Constantine, a clever,
lively and striking face; her character is said to correspond with her
expression, which fact makes her more suitable for the Court of St.
Petersburg than she would be here, where her elder sister seem to have
been expressly made to fulfil her sad duties.[197] There was a great
dinner given by the King. I sat between him and the Crown Prince. I
never saw a blind man eat more cleverly without any help except that
of instinct or habit. At nine o'clock I went back to tea with the
King, which was taken privately with him and the person known here as
the Countess Royal (Frau von Grote), my brother-in-law and General
Walmoden. The King lives upon oysters and ices, a strange dietary,
which seems to suit his eighty years marvellously. While we were with
him a despatch arrived from Vienna, which he asked the Countess to
read aloud.[198] It stated that Austria had sent a note to Prussia in
most serious language, protesting against the convocation of the
so-called Imperial Diet, and that at the same time the movement of the
army towards the frontiers of Bohemia and Silesia was rapidly
proceeding; some sixty thousand men were said to be there
concentrated. Prince Schwarzenberg replied to the questions of Count
Bernstorff, the Prussian Minister at Vienna, stating that the
convocation of the Diet at Erfurt had aroused democratic agitation
which threatened the realm of the Duchess of Saxony, and that these
troops were consequently intended for their protection and their
defence in case of necessity.

  [197] An allusion to the blindness of the Crown Prince of

  [198] The Vienna Cabinet, which was invariably jealous of
  Prussia's position in Germany, strove by every means to destroy
  Prussian influence. The Vienna Cabinet worked upon Hanover to
  withdraw that State from alliance with the King of Prussia, and
  pointed out that a federal State when confined by the terms of
  federation, was likely to advance the cause of democracy, and
  that Prussia by transforming the provisional central power into a
  permanent institution, would become supreme in Germany.

The Archduke John had looked forward to a quiet unostentatious meeting
with King Leopold;[199] instead of this he was received with great
solemnity. Frau von Brandhofen and the little Count of Meran had no
part in the ceremonies, and were sent to make a railway tour in
Belgium incognito. When they reached Brussels they made an unexpected
entry into Metternich's drawing-room, which was the more remarkable,
as the relations between Prince Metternich and the Archduke John had
always been cold and strained. The politeness of Metternich simplified
the matter.

  [199] The Archduke John, who possessed large properties in Styria
  which he wished to develop, had come to Belgium to examine the
  iron and steel factories. On October 24 the King of the Belgians
  met him at Liège, and visited with him Seraing and the
  establishments of the Vieille Montagne at Angleux. The Archduke
  had contracted a morganatic marriage with Mlle. Plochel who was
  made Baroness of Brandhofen; their only son had received the
  title of Count of Meran.

_Eisenach, November 7, 1849._--I left Hanover yesterday morning and
arrived here in the afternoon. I sent word of my arrival immediately
to Madame Alfred de Chabannes, who at once came to my hotel. We talked
for a long time about the little _émigré_ Court, of which she at
present forms part; I use the term _émigré_, although the Duchesse de
Orléans is doing her utmost to avoid obtruding the anomalous nature of
her position. At the same time inconsistencies cannot be entirely
obviated, and arise from the nature of the situation: for instance,
the opposing parties are represented among those about her; there is a
coalition and a separatist party. She declines to belong definitely
to either, and does not like people to say that she is opposing
coalition though she will not take the first steps towards it. At the
same time she has not allowed any one to declare hitherto that she
would not be opposed to it. She fears that the first step to coalition
would disgust her adherents in France, whom she thinks, in my opinion,
to be more numerous than they really are, and this though she sees
that her truly reliable adherents are growing less every day. The
names which seem to cause her the most despondency from this point of
view are those of Molé and Thiers. I saw the Duchesse d'Orléans alone
for half an hour before dinner; we were interrupted by the Duc and
Duchesse de Nemours. I found the Duchesse d'Orléans in no way
outwardly changed, except that her features may have lost something of
their refinement; her spirits were more despondent, though she showed
the same placidity and even dignity, but her energy has decreased and
she is inclined to feel herself overwhelmed by unpleasant incidents,
which are due to people rather than to things. She is humiliated by
the degradation which has overtaken France, and shows much insight
into the state of Germany, characterising the so-called central power
and the parody of imperialism at its true worth. The Nemours, who are
strong supporters of Austria, refer to Lord Palmerston with much
bitterness. They are really coalitionists, and are on their way back
to Claremont from Vienna; she is fresh and pretty, and ventures to
assert her opinions, which are positive; he has grown stouter and much
more like the King, especially in his way of speaking, as he has at
last found the courage to express himself; he speaks sensibly, but
with no style or distinction, and in this respect he was always
wanting. The letters of his brothers which have been published are not
approved by him in any way. He fears that the law may be adopted which
may recall his family to France, and he does not wish to see his
brothers hastening back again.[200] This is all very well, but I
repeat he is wanting in the spirit of energy. He will never be of any
account, and will never take any practical part, and remains a
distinguished nonentity. The Comte de Paris is much grown and fairly
good-looking, as his shyness had disappeared, but he has a squeaky,
disagreeable intonation of voice. The Duc de Chartres has become much
stronger and very noisy. The three Nemours children seem quite nice.
After dinner, which began about seven o'clock, we stayed talking until
nearly eleven o'clock. Boismilon is a strong separatist; Ary Scheffer
was also there, and seems to me to be one of the zealot party, an
attitude which M. de Talleyrand used to distrust.

  [200] On October 24 M. Creton had proposed to the National
  Assembly the abrogation of the laws proscribing the Bourbons.
  This question aroused a keen debate. Prince Jérôme Napoléon
  quoted the letters written in 1848 by the sons of Louis Philippe
  protesting against their banishment and asking permission to
  return to their native land on recognising the sovereignty of the
  people. M. Creton's proposal was rejected by 587 votes.

The Princesse de Joinville has been confined of a still-born child and
was in considerable danger. The child's body was taken to Dreux by my
cousin, Alfred de Chabannes, who gave no notice of his intention. It
was laid in the family vault, mass was said, and only when all this
had been done did M. de Chabannes inform the Mayor of his actions. The
ceremony was very properly conducted. Madame de Chabannes also told me
that when her husband went to visit Louis Philippe at Claremont for
the first time after February, the King said, almost as soon as he saw
him, "What would you expect; I thought myself infallible." The
observation seemed to me strikingly true and to be a remarkable

The Duchesse d'Orléans proposes to return to London in the spring to
take the Comte de Paris to his first communion, for which he is being
prepared by the Abbé Guelle, who frequently instructs him at Eisenach.

_Berlin, November 8, 1849._--On my return here I found my
brother-in-law, who had come back from Dresden, where the state of
public feeling is said to be going from bad to worse. The Ministers
have been unable to obtain from the King of Saxony any decree for the
capital punishment even of the most guilty, much to the indignation
of right-minded people and to the exasperation of the troops who
fought so admirably last May. The arrogance of the rebels has greatly
increased in consequence. The King's prestige has sunk so low that his
salutations are not even returned in the streets.

Yesterday was the anniversary of the installation of the Brandenburg
Ministry, and there was a great entertainment in the rooms of Kroll in
the Tiergarten: all the Ministers were present, and a feeling of great
loyalty is said to have been manifested. However, in another part of
the town a so-called religious celebration was in progress of another
anniversary, the shooting of the famous Robert Blum.[201] There was
thus entertainment to suit every taste, and I fear that the taste for
red ruin is by no means blunted.

  [201] Robert Blum assumed the leadership of the Saxon democracy
  in 1848. He was sent to the Frankfort Assembly and showed some
  oratorical talent, but in taking part in the Vienna revolt, he
  was captured and shot by the Austrians.

A letter from Paris which I find here tells me that the situation in
France is entirely in the hands of the army which is divided between
Cavaignac and Changarnier. The former is entirely republican and the
latter will listen to nobody. Since Louise Philippe wrote his letter
to Edgar Ney[202] at Rome Changarnier is said to have appeared less
frequently at the Elysée. The President is therefore inclined to
transfer the command of the Paris troops to General Magnan.

  [202] The following is the well-known letter to Edgar Ney, which
  France interpreted as a future programme:

    _Paris, August 18, 1849._

  "MY DEAR NEY,--The French Republic has not sent an army to Rome to
  crush Italian liberty, but on the contrary to regularise it by
  saving it from its own excesses and to give it a solid basis by
  placing on the pontifical throne the Prince, who was the first to
  take the lead courageously in all useful reforms.

  "I am sorry to learn that the well-meant actions of His Holiness,
  as well as our measures, have been nullified by passions and
  hostile influences which wish to base the Pope's return upon
  proscription and tyranny. Kindly tell the General from me that he
  should in no case allow any act to be committed under the
  tricolour flag which could give a wrong meaning to our
  intervention. I interpret the temporal power of the Pope
  as follows: a general amnesty, the secularisation of the
  administration, the Napoleonic code and a Liberal government.

  "My feelings were wounded when I read the proclamation of the
  three cardinals in which no mention was made of France or of the
  sufferings of her brave soldiers. Any insult to our flag or to our
  Union cuts me to the heart. Advise the General to make the fact
  clear that, though France does not sell her services, she demands
  some sense of gratitude for her sacrifices and her intervention.

  "When our armies traversed the whole of Europe, their passage was
  everywhere marked by the destruction of feudal abuse and the
  sowing of the seeds of liberty. It shall not be said that in 1849
  a French army could act with any other object or produce any other

  "Ask the General to thank the army for its noble conduct in my
  name. I am sorry to learn that as regards the necessaries of life,
  it did not receive the treatment it deserved. I hope that he will
  be able to bring this state of affairs to an end forthwith. No
  pain should be spared to secure the comfort of our troops.

    "Believe me, my dear Ney,
    Faithfully yours,

  We reproduce this letter from the text given by the _Journal des
  Débats_ of September 7, 1849. M. Edgar Ney was orderly officer to
  the Prince President who had sent him on a mission to the Papal
  Government. Marshal Bugeaud was then in command of the French
  troops at Rome, but as he was suddenly carried off by cholera, his
  place was taken by General Oudinot who conducted all the military

Madame de Lieven is delighted to return to Paris, and paints England
in the blackest possible colours. She wears a bonnet in the style of
Deffand, praises the president of the republic, and does her best as
formerly to attract every shade of political colour to her house. She
seems to have succeeded so far as to be frankly astonished that no one
makes any mention of M. Guizot, whom she is expecting in December.

_Berlin, November 12, 1849._--I spent almost the whole of yesterday at
Sans Souci with the King and Queen, who received me as kindly as ever.
Prince Frederick of the Low Countries, who arrived from the Hague,
gave a very bad account of the situation in that direction.
Resignation, abdication, and regency are words openly pronounced. The
young King is despised, and the young Queen is not popular or the
Dowager Queen either. In short, their position is quite precarious.
The King of Prussia is expecting the proclamation of the Empire at the
Elysée and all eyes are turned upon France.

A letter from Vienna which I received yesterday, tells me that beneath
all the military display, some new causes of anxiety are obvious. The
peasants are very displeased with the new system of land taxation, by
their obligation to redeem the tithes and to pay indemnities by way of
compensation for all that they expected to wrest from their overlords.
The nobility consider the equality of taxation to which they are
subjected is a hardship and a hateful innovation. The hodweds[203] who
have been drafted into the regiments, are disseminating very bad
ideas. The young emperor is rather short and arbitrary with his old
generals; in a word, if our neighbours have not to confront the same
difficulties that prevail here, they have many reasons for

  [203] The reserve militia of Hungary.

_Sagan, November 21, 1849._--A letter from Paris dated the 14th says:
"An amnesty has been proclaimed by the President to seven hundred and
fifty very undesirable people: this bid for popularity may cost the
author of it dear, for these people will return in a state of
exasperation and will have to be made targets of some day or
other.[204] Underneath all the leanings to imperialism, which seem to
be spreading, there is one question which is very undecided, at any
rate where I am concerned: this is the future action of General
Changarnier,[205] for though he is on excellent terms at present with
the president, I doubt if he will adhere to him in a time of
transition, and such a time would then become an inevitable crisis."

  [204] On November 12, M. Barrot, Minister of the Interior,
  announced to the National Assembly at Paris that the President,
  in virtue of the rights conferred upon him by the decree of June
  18, 1848, had ordered the liberation of the majority of the
  insurgents detained at Belle-Isle.

  [205] General Changarnier was then in command of the troops at

_Sagan, December 2, 1849._--The tall Theresa Elssler, who for several
years has been the mistress of Prince Adalbert of Prussia, is to
become his wife under the title of Frau von Fischbach, a title derived
from the estate which the old Prince William holds in the Silesian
mountains. There the late Princess William was laid in the odour of
sanctity, and it is somewhat shocking that this name of all others
should be conferred upon a quondam theatre dancer.[206] At Sans Souci
this marriage has caused considerable displeasure, but with the
habitual weakness which is there characteristic, consent has been

  [206] The King of Prussia refused to give T. Elssler the name of
  Fischbach, but gave her the title of Baroness of Barnim.

Another scandal is about to appear at Berlin of more import. This is
the probable acquittal of Waldeck whose trial has been attracting the
general attention for a long time.[207] They have been so entirely
foolish as to choose as President of the assizes a weak-minded
magistrate, the father of a barricade hero, who shows the most
brazen-faced and clumsy partiality for Waldeck. The jury are
constantly receiving anonymous letters, and their verdict will be
given under stress of intimidation. It is deplorable, for the
consequences might be very serious.

  [207] Waldeck was arrested and imprisoned in May as an accomplice
  in the great revolutionary conspiracy. After a long trial he was
  acquitted on December 5 by a court which was not regarded at
  Berlin as entirely impartial.

_Sagan, December 6, 1849._--The ovation given to the ruffian Waldeck
after his acquittal seems to have been scandalous enough to
necessitate military interference. I have no details as yet, but the
post will doubtless bring them to-day. I am of the opinion that we are
about to enter a period of outbreaks, and this opinion is strengthened
by the fact that the Poles are beginning their processions again, and
whenever they appear, one may be sure that there is a snake in the
grass, to use a vulgar expression.

I have just finished reading the life of Madame de Krüdener. She was
quite a peculiar character, but the story of her life is somewhat
tiresome and my own conclusion is that Madame de Krüdener, who was
always deluded by her own vanity, was frivolous for that reason during
her youth; that vanity afterwards led her to literature and finally to
missionary work; but vanity has an honesty of its own, and precisely
for that reason can display prodigious credulity. As a mystic Madame
de Krüdener has not the loftiness of Saint Theresa or the quiet grace
of Madame Guyon; her would-be clever letters are heavy, and when she
tries to soar aloft the leaden structure of her wings is obvious.
There must have been some force of attraction in her speeches and
addresses, for without some special gift she could never have
produced results which contain a certain amount of humbug and on many
occasions some reality.

_Sagan, December 10, 1849._--I was very sorry to read the day before
yesterday in the newspapers the announcement of the death of Queen
Adelaide of England. The news carried me back to that pleasant time
when I had the honour of seeing her, and was treated by her with a
kindness which I shall never forget. She was a noble woman who bore
herself with grand and simple dignity in positions that were difficult
for several reasons.

There is some small excitement at Sans Souci, on account of the
concentration of the Austrian forces upon the Saxon frontier. It would
seem that General Gerlach, who at this moment has considerable
influence with the King of Prussia, has been sent to Dresden to bring
matters to a conclusion. If these troops are only intended to clear
Saxony of the Reds in case of necessity, who are more audacious there
than anywhere else, this intervention would be regarded as equivalent
to Russia's action in the Grand Duchy of Baden, and nothing would be
said; but certain would-be clever people wish to regard the movement
as a veiled threat against the Diet of Erfurt.[208] In this case it is
probable that it will not pass without comment.

  [208] Driven from Frankfort, the remnants of the National
  Assembly collected at Stuttgart, and the Revolutionary party,
  giving the signal for open insurrection in Germany, took up arms
  in Saxony, in the Rhine Palatinate, and in the Duchy of Baden,
  overthrowing governments and securing victory everywhere until
  the Prussian troops established order. Saxony and Hanover then
  agreed with Prussia upon a new Constitution, and concluded the
  so-called alliance of the Three Kings; but Austria, who desired
  to become predominant in Germany, opposed the Prussian views and
  induced Saxony and Hungary to withdraw. Frederick William IV.
  then organised the Union with the remainder of his adherents and
  opened the Diet of Erfurt where the new Constitution was
  accepted. Then Austria, to prevent the recurrence of any similar
  project, induced the German States to re-establish the old
  Germanic Confederation, and this plan was executed in spite of
  Prussian opposition.

_Sagan, December 12, 1849._--I have read the speech delivered at the
admission of the Duc de Noailles to the French Academy.[209] It is
written in very fine language with real loftiness of style and
thought, and is marked by a correctness and purity worthy of the best
epochs of taste and literature: the ideas are noble and both prudent
and dignified; some passages especially please me, notably those
concerning Pascal and Voltaire, with a clever transition, bringing the
subject back to M. de Chateaubriand. However, the speech has one
defect in my opinion, that it places its subject upon too high a
pedestal, and that if it does not exaggerate his talent it certainly
gives too high an estimate of his character. The Duc de Noailles
with very correct taste touched but lightly on the _Mémoires
d'outre-tombe_, for this gloomy legacy reveals the writer's barrenness
of heart, excessive vanity and acrimonious character, while his talent
often disappears beneath the exaggerations and bad taste for which
clumsy imitators of this school are often blamed. However, all
eulogies before the Academy are prone to exaggerate the merits of
their subjects; as they are condemned to draw a portrait without
shadows, the truth of their colouring suffers in consequence, and the
real features are often obscured. These faults are due rather to the
accepted style of oration than to the orator, and for them he cannot
be blamed. Yesterday I began the sixth volume of the _Mémoires
d'outre-tombe_. This contains a sketch of Napoleon's history with
which M. de Chateaubriand padded his own _Mémoires_ in reference to
himself; the whole is written with a view to effect, but with no great
feeling for truth. I was greatly struck to find a passing eulogy upon
M. Caulaincourt in spite of the Duc d'Enghien; in other respects the
same malevolence towards the human race is obvious, and the same
hatred for M. de Talleyrand.

  [209] The Duc de Noailles had been elected to the Academy in the
  place of Chateaubriand. He, with M. de Broglie and M. Pasquier,
  there formed a small clique, known as the dukes' party.

_Sagan, December 14, 1849._--I hear from Paris that Madame de Lieven
sometimes lays aside her Deffant bonnet in favour of a toque of black
velvet with white feathers, which is the last word of fashion. She
goes into society and is seen everywhere; she has even procured an
introduction to Madame de Circourt where the ultra-Catholic society
meets; she is trying to find recruits there for her salon, and is
especially anxious to attract M. de Montalembert.

To judge by an article in the _Friend of Religion_, our dear Bishop of
Orléans[210] has gained another triumph at Notre Dame, a triumph for
the faith by which he is inspired and for the friendship of which he
is the object. I expect a hymn of praise from my good Pauline on this

  [210] The Abbé Dupanloup had recently been appointed Bishop of
  Orléans under the Ministry of Falloux, then Minister of Worship
  and Education.

_Sagan, December 16, 1849._--A letter from Berlin of yesterday's date
says: "The German question is more confused than ever, and no one can
foresee the issue. The only decided point seems to be that of the
elections for Erfurt, in spite of Austria, whose language, though
moderate, none the less shows a strong determination not to give way.
From this you may deduce the probable consequences, none of which I
should care to guarantee."

My perusal of the sixth volume of the _Mémoires d'outre-tombe_ brings
on a succession of nervous shocks. M. de Talleyrand appears at every
moment, and is treated with a fury which of itself counterbalances the
author's malicious tendencies, though of these a good proportion
survive; in any case in which M. de Talleyrand really acted, the
author is silent: where his influence was small, he attacks him with
furious invective, and all this because he is trying to prove that his
pamphlet, _Bonaparte and the Bourbons_, brought about the restoration
of 1814. For instance, when he is driven into a corner a cry of grief
escapes him, and he says: "My poor pamphlet was crushed by the foul
intrigues of the Rue de Florentin." In this outcry we see the true
explanation of his furious rage. Vanity of vanities! I trust for the
sake of this hero of vanity that he seriously asked pardon from God
before he was taken to the rock of St. Malo, which his vanity again
has chosen as his last resting-place. As he could not choose his
cradle, for which he would doubtless have selected an eagle's nest, he
has been careful to ensure that his tomb should be a picturesque point
of pilgrimage. But who will say that while tied to this rock he is not
devoured by the vulture of conscience? I would not deny that my poor
uncle has been a great sinner, but I would prefer to stand with his
feeble conscience before the Throne than with this mind full of anger,
malice, gall and enmity, the revelation of which now permits us all to
judge and to condemn him.

Salvandy has paid a visit to Claremont, and reports that some words of
wisdom were spoken. Apparently the inhabitants have learned by
experience and now recognise the value of right. Young and old say
that they are ready to lower their flag to this principle, and to
serve it. I fear that those at Eisenach are by no means so advanced as
yet, for I have had a letter from Madame de Chabannes; on leaving
Eisenach she went through Brussels and spent two days there to see the
Queen. When at length she returned to Versailles, she found her
husband was also returning from Claremont. She writes to me as
follows: "To my great regret I found the Queen of the Belgians
extremely anxious for coalition. England wishes to maintain the
_status quo_ in France in order that this poor country may plunge
deeper in the mire. Hence Lord Palmerston is intriguing in every
possible way to avoid the possibility of regeneration. King Leopold
simply echoes Downing Street[211] upon French but not upon German
questions, and Queen Louise is of her husband's opinion. A snare has
been spread for the Duchesse d'Orléans by inviting her to consider a
new combination--a proposal to induce the Duc de Bordeaux to abdicate,
to which he will certainly never consent. In this you may recognise
the punic faith of the modern Carthage. My husband has been
commissioned by Claremont to give the password to our leaders here,
and I know that the Legitimists have been informed of Louis Philippe's
conciliatory attitude; but parties are broken in the numberless
factions. The Legitimists are no longer drilled as they were, and some
would prefer the Comte de Montemolin to the Comte de Paris. I often
think of your prophetic words at Eisenach, to the effect that this
desirable coalition, which might have produced such great results six
months ago, has now missed its opportunity, and that every day's delay
diminishes its possible importance and utility. But how is one to
destroy such inveterate prejudices, in which self-esteem is so
powerful a factor and petty subordinate ambition so energetic?"

  [211] Lord Palmerston's residence in 1849.

The following is an extract from a letter which I have written to the
Duc de Noailles to thank him for his speech before the Academy: "My
dear Duc, you have gained a brilliant success before a great and
sensitive audience. I propose to offer you one less brilliant and more
remarkable from the depths of my solitude. I was busy reading
_d'Outre-tombe_ when the _Journal des Débats_ brought me a report of
your magnificent speech; I admired it, although it contains nothing
but praise of a man against whom my instinct has always revolted, and
who has become the object of my deep aversion on account of the
persistent jealousy manifested in his acrimonious confessions. But as
I read your speech I had only to consider yourself, and I understood
that you were not allowed to be a judge, but were forced to be a
eulogist. I can therefore honestly say that my applause is the
greatest triumph that your words can have gained, and perhaps also the
greatest proof of my friendship. I am also convinced that precisely
because you were thinking of me, it must have been difficult for you
to draw a portrait without shadow, and to deprive it of truth
precisely as you have added to its lustre. Disregarding the question
of truth, I have been keenly delighted by the purity, simplicity, and
taste--unfortunately now so rare--of your language which has given me
infinite pleasure. The elevation of thought corresponds to the
delicacy of feeling; political prudence has nowhere infringed literary
dignity, while supporting it with a tactfulness alike clever and

_Sagan, December 21, 1849._--A letter from Paris, which I received
yesterday, contains the following passage: "Political conditions are
calmer for the moment, but the majority of the Assembly are divided by
several class divisions, and apparently the dangers of the street
alone can force them to unite. This is no great guarantee of security,
and gives a touch of bitterness and sadness to all conversations. The
best of friends entertain opposite ideas, and argue vehemently, so
that social relations become difficult and unpleasant. Madame de
Lieven alone seems perfectly contented, and quite delighted with her
stay in Paris; she continues to make as many new acquaintances as she
can, and is especially attentive to people in power, and sorry that
she cannot go to the Elysée."

_Sagan, December 26, 1849._--An incident which I regard as very
vexatious has struck me--the discussion proceeding in the daily Press
concerning the advantages, the inconveniences, the forms and
conditions of the coalition, so long desired by all the true friends
of France. It seems to me that nothing could be more fatal to the
chance of a successful issue than thus to bring discussion before a
public which is partial, prejudiced, ill-informed and often both
malicious and ignorant. I fear I was correct at Eisenach, when I said
that I feared it might be already too late to take a step which should
have been burst upon the public unexpectedly, and have made the
impression of an accomplished fact. Such a step would then have
produced its full effect--would have decided waverers, gathered
together all right-minded people, united the recalcitrants, and apart
from a few courageous spirits, a vast number of timid minds would have
been soon gathering round this one standard. Now, if it should be
unfurled, it will appear shattered and torn by the missiles of
journalists and the invectives of the wretched subordinate intriguers
whom I was sorry to see about the Duchesse d'Orléans.

Apparently Vienna wishes to make some social effort to please the
young Emperor. Last year the Emperor was greatly attracted at Olmütz
by his cousin, the Archduchess Elizabeth, who has just lost her
husband: though the Emperor consoled himself, it is said that some
sparks of his early ardour remain to him and that very possibly the
young Archduchess, who can easily be consoled, might become Empress
when her mourning is over. She is nineteen years of age, is pretty and
has one child.[212]

  [212] The Archduchess Elizabeth had lost her husband, the
  Archduke Ferdinand Charles Victor of Este, on December 15, 1849:
  in 1854 she married the Archduke Charles Ferdinand. She was the
  mother of Queen Marie Christina of Spain and the Archdukes
  Frederick, Charles Stephen, and Eugène.

_Sagan, December 30, 1849._--In France the conflict of opinion is
obvious. One party are confident that they will secure the empire
within a month; the other party are equally certain that the principle
of legitimacy is immutable and universally recognised, so that their
triumph is assured; the merchants say that they would prefer the
family of Orléans, while the Socialists mock at all these dreams and
regard their own accession to power as certain. As the parties would
only unite in order to combat the Socialists, these last may very well
find a favourable opportunity eventually.

In two days we are to begin a new year and to begin also the second
half of the nineteenth century. What a half-century this last has
been, and what catastrophes have marked the conclusion of this epoch
of disturbance and madness! During the first years of this
half-century we were emerging from chaos, and in chaos the last years
of it have plunged us. Heaven alone knows to what depths we shall
fall. May we at least be able to die peacefully in our beds; desires
and hopes can go no further than that wish, although to desire even so
much may seem excessive.



_Sagan, January 3, 1850._--The weakness of the Prussian Ministry is
inconceivable and so is the utter confusion which the new laws,
whether proposed or granted, produce throughout the administration of
the country. It is a case of quoting:

    Laws lost their forces and right and wrong their meaning,
    Or, to speak truth, a Valois reigned no more.[213]

  [213] From the "Henriade," Canto I.

There is an ancient prophecy in Prussia dating from the reign of the
father of Frederick II. which says that his fourth successor will be
the last Hohenzollern to reign over Prussia. There seems to be really
some reason for believing this prediction. It is proposed to establish
uniform laws from the banks of the Rhine to the Carpathians: this is
sheer foolishness, as manners, civilisation, and interests are utterly
different. The Landwehr which is now very loyal will be retiring next
year and will be replaced by a new levy of very disaffected character;
in short, wherever we look, nothing but decay is to be seen and
uneasiness spreads apace. However, the Danish negotiations have been
vigorously resumed at Berlin and are said to be safe in the hands of
Herr Usedom.

I hear of a curious fact from Paris; all the factories are in full
swing, but business can only be done for ready money; bills at three
months simply cannot be discounted; the bank has just as many coins
and as much bullion in its cellars as it has notes in circulation.
This fact, perhaps unexampled hitherto, demonstrates mathematically
that there is not the smallest confidence in the near future and that
the people are living from hand to mouth.

_Sagan, January 9, 1850._--I hear from Paris that M. de Persigny has
arrived at Berlin,[214] with many proposals and with the fixed idea of
forming a triple alliance between France, England, and Prussia. This
idea, however, does not originate with him, but with that infernal
Palmerston. Vienna was informed of the proposal at the outset and
Prince Felix Schwarzenberg made it public through the newspapers, but
in spite of this publicity it is said that the proposal has not been
abandoned. Prussia will be offered Saxony and Thuringen and prospects
will be held out with regard to Hanover after the death, which is
probably not very remote, of King Ernest Augustus: in exchange Prussia
would be asked to cede the Rhine provinces; Prussia replies that
France should be contented with the Bavarian parts of the Rhine which,
in the views of the Elysée, are sufficient. Such is the point which
this intrigue has reached, for we cannot dignify it with the title of
a negotiation. M. de Persigny tells himself that if he is successful
he will make certain of the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs for
himself, to which he aspires, and also secure the empire for his
master, who is equally ambitious in this direction. Another
correspondent from Paris writes to me: "Those who were liberated under
the amnesty and have been restored to their families by the President
are doing more harm in one day than all the scoundrels of Paris in
concert. They are so full of gratitude that they threaten to kill the
President. Many of these men are convinced that their wives brought
about their arrest and they are therefore searching for proof to rid
themselves of their better-halves."

  [214] M. de Persigny, aide-de-camp to the Prince President and
  elected representative to the Legislative Assembly in 1849, was
  occupied at Berlin upon a temporary mission, with no great

_Berlin, January 12, 1850._--A parliamentary crisis is now in full
progress here. The King has been unwilling to take without some
reservation an oath which he desires to keep but which is repugnant
to his political conscience.[215] The Ministry absolutely required a
law from the Chambers concerning the Press and the clubs if it was to
govern, and therefore urged the King to take the oath to the
Constitution, as otherwise he could expect nothing from the Chambers.
Such was the dilemma. Violent scenes took place between the King and
his Cabinet. The latter was determined to resign and to force the King
to yield. When matters were in this situation two very influential
personages, General Rauch and Baron von Meyendorff,[216] intervened.
The Ministry was informed that its exploits hitherto had been so
glorious that it could afford to act in a high-handed manner, and that
to put pressure upon the King in order to endow the country with a
detestable Constitution, was unworthy of it. The Ministers were
directly informed that their weakness had aroused general disgust,
that they had shown no comprehension of their duty and that when the
danger of riots was passed they had distinguished themselves only by
their incapacity; they were obliged to hear some very stern truths. On
the other hand attempts were made to soothe the King's feelings by
attributing a firmness to him which is thought to be due to the
Queen's influence. The result of all these comings and goings is the
royal message which does not reform everything that is bad, but places
certain landmarks in the country by which people can guide their
steps. The Ministry has frankly adhered to the King, I am told, who
has now emerged from his period of obscurity. The next question is
whether the Chambers will accept the arrangement. It is thought that
they will agree, because the Cabinet asserts that it will resign upon
refusal, and the Chambers know that a purely reactionary Ministry
would take its place immediately. The Second Chamber, which is
anxious to avoid a dissolution, is terrified by this combination, and
it is hoped that it will yield before this menace which may become

  [215] A royal message, which had been expected for several days,
  had been presented to the Prussian Chambers in the session of
  January 9. The formation of a hereditary peerage was then
  announced, while the introduction of financial measures was to be
  the privilege of the Second Chamber, and the King was to take an
  oath of fidelity to the Constitution. Numerous modifications were
  introduced for the purpose of restriction, but the King did not
  make his oath a condition _sine qua non_, but thought he was
  fulfilling a conscientious duty in thus submitting his scruples
  to the Chambers.

  [216] Russian Minister at Berlin.

_Berlin, January 17, 1850._--Your observations concerning women who
interfere in politics and concerning the dangers which they may run in
consequence, are perfectly correct.[217] I think it may be said in
justice to myself that at no time have I meddled with such matters and
that I have never taken part in politics except against my will. Far
from attempting to satisfy my self-esteem by such means, I have always
been terrified by my responsibility. If, in consequence of my
exceptional position, I have been well informed and have even been
asked for my advice and have exerted some influence upon the decision
of important matters, I have at any rate not lent either my name or my
energies to an intrigue, nor do I ever desire to play the part of a
political woman; in this respect I have always been ready to yield to
others who were more anxious and probably better fitted for such an

  [217] Extract from a letter.

Here public opinion is absorbed by the parliamentary crisis which has
not yet been settled, while much doubt and great difference of opinion
prevails concerning the result and its consequences. The King has been
so harassed and tormented that after a struggle of several hours the
day before yesterday, he was quite exhausted, sent for his cloak at
nine o'clock in the evening, and went for a walk in the park of
Charlottenburg alone and on foot through the snow, to refresh himself
and recover his spirits in the open air. He was inclined to dismiss
the Cabinet, dissolve the Chambers, and summon those who are here
called the reactionaries. General Rauch prevented this move: no doubt
he was right, because energetic measures can only succeed in the hands
of those who will shrink from none of the consequences of vigorous

I spent an hour yesterday with the Countess of Brandenburg, where Herr
von Meyendorff showed us a letter which he had just received from
Madame de Lieven. Her letters are always pleasant reading as she
writes with sprightliness, is quite natural, and always has plenty to
say. In this letter she said that Lord Normanby is undisputed monarch
at the Elysée where he is doing his best to promote the imperial
movement; that the President has broken with the bigwigs and devotes
himself entirely to his evil counsellors; that the Assembly is more
divided than ever, for the leaders defy one another in no measured
terms, Molé calling Broglie a respectable nonentity, Thiers calling
Molé an old woman and the latter replying by "cad." In short,
confusion in France is complete, but is it not so everywhere,
unfortunately? In such general turmoil it is very difficult to
preserve any clearness of view or definite opinions; when insight is
clouded it becomes weakened and only the heart can remain a certain
guide at a time when all calculations are deceptive and when instinct
alone can provide the guiding clue through the labyrinth.

_Berlin, January 19, 1850._--The present moment here is an interesting
time by reason of its critical nature, and if I took the same interest
in mundane affairs as I used to do, I should now be all ears.
Yesterday rumours of concession suddenly came to an end; a large
number of Conservative deputies and important persons in the town
outside the Chambers, signed a petition to the King begging him not to
yield. Bethman-Holweg, who is not a deputy, took this petition to
Charlottenburg yesterday evening.

_Berlin, January 24, 1850._--Apparently Radowitz has arrived here and
is less energetic in urging the King to concessions than had been
feared: he also seems to have brought many letters from Gagern to
influential members of the Chambers, urging them to obey the King for
the reason that their refusal would probably endanger the whole
constitutional edifice of Germany. Next week will bring us a final

_Berlin, January 25, 1850._--Yesterday evening I went to a concert at
Charlottenburg where hardly any one listened to the music, as all
present were preoccupied with the probable events of to-day. The
parliamentary battle is opened this morning.

I hear from a good source that M. de Persigny is secretly intimate
with a somewhat disreputable band of politicians, and that as he
cannot find a welcome in any _salon_, he spends his time with a circle
by no means suitable for one in his official position, either from
ill-temper or from boredom or from instinct. In this way he has been
carrying on a series of petty intrigues for some time. His proposals
are being considered and he is given hopes of success; but no serious
negotiations are begun with an official and with a Government, neither
of whom can be taken seriously.

_Berlin, January 26, 1850._--Yesterday evening at a ball given by
Count Arnim-Boitzenburg, the Meyendorffs told me that M. de Persigny
had paid them a long visit the evening before and had explained to
them his Bonapartist and Imperialist theories, asserting that they
alone aroused popularity in France. By way of proof he concluded with
the statement that in the villages of France whole families could be
found on their knees before the picture of the Emperor Napoleon,
asking for the return of the Empire. This is a most audacious
invention. He came up to me at this ball and asked after my daughter,
saying that he had had the honour of making her acquaintance at the
house of M. de Falloux, with whom he asserts that he has been intimate
for the last eighteen years.[218]

  [218] This statement was true.

_Berlin, January 27, 1850._--Yesterday at eleven o'clock in the
evening the debate upon the royal message was not concluded. There was
every prospect that Arnim's amendment would be adopted. He proposes to
postpone for two years the law concerning the organisation of the
Chamber of Peers and to make this Chamber in any case composed solely
of life members and not hereditary: this two-fold concession would
make the measure entirely illusory and would merely confirm the
uncertain nature of the provisional arrangements. It is sad, serious,
and fatal.

The Austrian Minister Prokesch, after being snow-bound for six days,
and the Prince of Leiningen, the brother of Queen Victoria, have
arrived from Vienna. The former is staying at Berlin and the latter
proceeding to Frankfort-on-Main; both are delighted with the young
Emperor. They say that if Prussia is not loved at Vienna, England is
particularly hated and France entirely disregarded.

The real leader of the Austrian army is the young Emperor, and his
chief of the staff, General von Hess, is his clever instructor. All
the orders to the troops and all military measures proceed directly
from the Emperor without any intervention or counter-signature on the
part of the Ministry. This is a fact of some importance. Leiningen was
also greatly struck by the attitude of Prince Felix Schwarzenberg; he
spoke of him as the firmest and even the boldest Minister to be found

_Berlin, January 28, 1850._--Arnim's amendment passed by a small
majority which it would not have had if fifteen Poles had not
abstained from voting. The paragraph in the royal message referring to
the _fidei commissum_ was rejected because several deputies on the
Right went away, as they were hungry and sleepy! This fact will show
the kind of parliamentary customs that prevail. The Ministry, who
merely wished to patch the matter up, has been satisfied, but is so no
longer. The King expresses himself as displeased, but I am afraid that
he will eventually swear to this deplorable Constitution, as soon as
the first Chamber sanctions the work of the second.

Some one tells me from Paris that he has seen M. Guizot and found him
in no way exasperated or disappointed, but calm and firm. In speaking
of the feeling in the Assembly and in what is still called society, he
says that people are not sufficiently uneasy, but too depressed.

_Berlin, January 29, 1850._--A person who recently came from Vienna
told me that Prince Schwarzenberg was steadily pursuing a proposal for
a commercial treaty with the Italian States, to the great wrath of
Lord Palmerston. The Vienna Cabinet declares that as long as England
entrusts her diplomacy to this Minister, it will disregard English
representations upon continental matters and go its own way. The chief
point of dissatisfaction at Vienna is the Pope with his weakness and
vacillation; and Rome has thus become the most disquieting point in
Italy. Here people are gloomy and uneasy, and their minds are occupied
with the numerous intrigues of recent days which produced the
vote of the day before yesterday. A curious fact is that Count
Arnim-Boitzenburg now tells any one who will listen, that the famous
amendment is not his but was arranged by Radowitz and that he has
merely lent his name to it. The fifteen Polish deputies say that the
reason they abstained from voting was because the Government has
promised them unheard-of concessions for the Grand Duchy of Posen if
they refrained from voting on this very amendment which the Cabinet
declared the evening before that it would never admit. Other deputies
have been persuaded by references to the wish and desires of the King.
The King declares that he has been misrepresented; in short, it is an
abominable and disgraceful state of confusion. The Left are highly
delighted. This deplorable comedy is, in my opinion, the last stroke
which will overthrow the tottering edifice; when no one has any
confidence in his neighbour, and when no one knows upon what to rely
or where to find sincerity and firmness, people soon lose the courage
of their opinions, remain as though paralysed, and even lose the
instinct of personal defence. Thus they slowly descend towards the
abyss which yawns to receive its prey.

_Berlin, January 31, 1850._--Yesterday there was a rumour that the
King would come to the town on Sunday and take the oath to the
Constitution of 1850 in the great white room of the council where the
Diet of 1847 sat. There will be stands for the spectators. I certainly
shall not swell the number of the curious.

_Berlin, February 2, 1850._--If my uncle had lived he would have
attained his ninety-sixth year to-day. God showed him great mercy in
taking him away before the beginning of this new phase of revolution,
so profound, so destructive, and so final; a revolution which at his
death had lasted fifty years, according to him. I think that we can
now see the end of it, so near are we to the bottom of the abyss, but
I doubt if we shall have time to rise again to the upper air. The
newspapers yesterday mentioned February 6 as the day fixed for the
King to take his oath.

_Berlin, February 4, 1850._--A reliable informant who has arrived from
Frohsdorf says: "There is at Frohsdorf a sincere desire for
reconciliation and reunion, but not in France. The old Conservative
party, led by M. Guizot, are asking for union, and would obtain it,
were it not for the obstinacy of the pure Orléanists, who are
represented by the members of the former Opposition. They include some
very influential men in their ranks, among others the Duc de Broglie.
Recently, in a meeting of journalists, M. de Rémusat spoke very
strongly against the coalition, basing his arguments not upon any
dynastic dislike, but upon the unpopularity of the nobles and the
priests, who made legitimacy, according to him, hateful and deadly.
This is a fatal attitude to adopt. The divisions which are rising
deprive the Orléanist party of all strength, and every one seems to be
playing the game of Louis Bonaparte, or, what is worse, that of the
Red Socialists." Another letter, also from a very reliable source,
which I received yesterday from Paris, dated January 31, says: "The
French Government is much more reasonable than I had expected with
reference to the communication which it has recently received
concerning the Swiss affair.[219] The matter will be decided _ad
referendum_. Probably no final attitude will be adopted on this point,
but no support whatever will be given to Switzerland, from whence the
wind of Socialism blows over France, and also upon Germany and Italy.
Finally, no engagement will be made with England, a point of primary
importance. In the Assembly, the side of the Montagne is about to
create a stir; possibly there will be an armed demonstration at Lyons
under the influence of the Socialists, who are there numerous; no
apprehension in consequence is felt here, and perhaps even no
resentment will be shown. At London they will be furious. Ellice, as
he left here yesterday, said that Lord Palmerston was going to do all
the mischief he could. Ellice, Whig as he is, seemed very uneasy on
account of the bad disposition of his friend of Downing Street."

  [219] At the time of the violent reaction which proceeded after
  1849 in several European States, following the suppression of the
  revolutionary movement, thousands of proscribed Germans,
  Italians, and French, took refuge in Swiss territory. Their
  presence provided certain governments with a pretext for
  presenting claims to the Federal Government, which produced
  diplomatic difficulties.

As I have thus begun to repeat political gossip, I may also say that a
prompt resumption of hostilities over the Danish affair is expected.
The people of Schleswig are allowed to arm themselves and make
preparations, and before long there will be a general rising which may
have serious consequences. Negotiations do not advance. The haughty
language of Radowitz upon questions affecting Germany daily adds fuel
to the fire, and so embitters the relations between the Courts of
Vienna and Berlin that one has more reason to expect war in the near
future than the continuation of peace, although a conflict between the
two great German Powers would be utter madness in the eyes of the most
far-sighted. The Emperor Nicholas has recently said that he thought an
almost universal war in Europe was inevitable next spring. It is said
that Austria proposes to promulgate a new tariff law, so widely framed
as to produce great political advantages to itself, which will be a
crushing blow to Erfurt and will give Lord Palmerston an epileptic

_Berlin, February 7, 1850._--Yesterday was a remarkable day in the
annals of Prussia; the King took the oath to the new Constitution.
There were no stands, or spectators, or court officials present, and
no princes or princesses. The King is said to have been greatly moved,
and to have delivered a very touching speech which he had not
communicated to his Ministers. He did not regard himself as a
constitutional monarch until he had taken the oath, and the speech was
the last echo of the old _régime_. The King and some of the Princes
dined with the gentlemen of the Chamber and certain well-worn toasts
were given. All the Polish deputies have resigned in order to avoid
taking the oath; Count Hochberg-Fürstentein-Pless, a rich Silesian
lord, has done the same. Twenty-six other Deputies stayed away under
pretext of illness. And such has been the day and the deed which is to
lay the cornerstone of the new edifice.

_Berlin, February 12, 1850._--Herr von Meyendorff had a letter
yesterday from Madame de Lieven. She says that the scene on the 4th at
Paris during the removal of the trees of liberty,[220] a foolish act
of provocation on the part of the police, was enough to bring about a
revolt, armed intervention and the introduction of the Empire, of
which the Elysée continually dreams, though Changarnier seems to have
pronounced against it.

  [220] On February 4, numerous meetings took place to prevent the
  proposal to overthrow the tree of liberty planted in the Rue du
  Carré-Saint-Martin at Paris. It was necessary to send troops to
  secure the performance of the order given by the prefect of
  police. Some people were killed and wounded. General de
  Lamoricière, who happened to be upon the spot, was in great
  danger and was only saved by escaping through an attic window on
  to the roof of a house, where some citizens had dragged him to
  protect him from the fury of the people.

I hear that Herr von Bernstorff, who was puffed up with Prussian
haughtiness two months ago, has changed his tone; that the despatches
which he writes from Vienna are all inspired by great fear of war, and
beg people here to avoid it at any cost. Herr von Schleinitz is
disgusted, and is impatiently awaiting an opportunity to ask for the
post at Vienna in exchange for the Ministry to which Bernstorff will
probably be called. Radowitz had promised Schönhals and Kübeck, the
Austrian plenipotentiaries at Frankfort, to sign, in company with
them, the decree referring to Mecklenburg. However, he left Frankfort
without performing this promise, and attempted to excuse himself upon
different pretexts. Schönhals then sent him word that if he did not
sign within three days he himself and Kübeck would leave Frankfort,
and that the last bond would be broken. Radowitz then hastily left
Erfurt to give the required signature; such, at least, is the story
that I heard yesterday.

_Berlin, February 13, 1850._--Yesterday the King presented to the
Second Chamber a law authorising the borrowing of eighteen millions of
thalers for military preparations. The Chamber considered the matter
and appointed a commission. There is doubt that this authorisation
will be obtained. The First Chamber also made its nominations for
Erfurt yesterday; the choice fell upon the democrats. Herr von
Meyendorff has no doubt that his Sovereign will regard Lord
Palmerston's recent action as a further piece of impertinence, when he
accepted the intervention of France in the affair with Greece[221] and
ignored the offers of Russia. England is asking for a new armistice
between Denmark and Prussia, and as the armistice now in force was
largely disregarded by Prussia, who has decidedly encouraged and
supported the insurrection, the Danes are not inclined to fall into a
new trap. Prussia has not only failed to recall General von Bonin, but
actually lent him to the insurgent government of Schleswig-Holstein,
where he publicly wore his Prussian uniform. The Danish envoys here
can get no reply from the Government; Herr von Usedom will not see
them and negotiates only with their adversaries.

  [221] The case of Pacifico had then reached its most critical
  point. This Portuguese Jew, who was under Prussian protection,
  claimed a considerable sum from the Greek Government in
  compensation for the pillage of a house on April 4, 1847, during
  a demonstration in the streets of Athens, at the time of a
  procession. The sum also included compensation for personal
  outrage. In order to obtain this indemnity Lord Palmerston
  blockaded the ports and coasts of Greece in 1850; on the
  intervention of France and the payment of the sum in question the
  blockade was raised. The French ambassador at London, M. Drouyn
  de Lhuys, left England, and this trivial incident nearly led to a
  general war.

_Berlin, February 14, 1850._--I admit that every Government has its
difficulties, and that the number and diversity of the complications
should be guarantees against violent means of settling them. In a
word, I agree that if war should break out it will be the most
irrefutable symptom of madness upon one side, of weakness upon the
other, and of bewilderment in general; but unfortunately these
aberrations are contagious and make such progress before my eyes that
any one who, like myself, can observe all the inventions of bad faith
and haughtiness, speedily grows anxious for the future. If we can get
through April and May without the sound of the cannon I think that
peace might last between the great powers, at any rate for a year or
two; this would give people time to breathe, to turn round and to get
their affairs in order; but I am sadly afraid that between this date
and May 15 at the latest we shall once more be in the midst of a
conflagration. My own opinion is that the latter part of the month of
April will definitely settle the possibility of war or peace. At the
present everything points to a general conflagration in the near
future. Lord Palmerston is doing his best to promote it, and M. de
Persigny, with his eyes upon the right bank of the Rhine, is also
working vigorously. Here, with marvellous stupidity, people run into
every snare and take a delight in alienating their natural allies.

_Berlin, February 23, 1850._--I spent the evening with the
Meyendorffs, the house where the most authentic news is oftenest to be
obtained. Yesterday's news was more peaceful. Two incidents serve to
calm in some degree the warlike ideas in progress here: in the first
place an individual has returned who has been sent to inquire into the
military preparations in Bohemia, in the existence of which there was
general disbelief. His report has fully confirmed the rumours. Then M.
de Persigny has made an inconceivable blunder. Feeling hurt because
overtures were made directly to Paris through Hatzfeldt on the Swiss
question, he took umbrage and picked a quarrel with Count Brandenburg
a few days ago. He said that France would not permit the employment of
coercive measures against Switzerland, and that an opportunity of
crossing the Rhine with two hundred thousand Frenchmen and of fighting
in Germany would be all to the advantage of the President. In short,
he showed his teeth so clearly as to give rise to subsequent
reflections which might have been made a little earlier. Whether these
reflections will be sufficiently strong to induce a more prudent
attitude I cannot say. Persigny is completely done for: he came here
with proposals of peace and will probably go with the threat of which
I have spoken; his policy shows neither intention nor consistency. The
newspapers represent French domestic affairs as growing worse day by
day, and the attitude of her representative here is therefore more

_Berlin, February 24, 1850._--To-day is a serious and very tragical
date: it marks the downfall of what was called modern society, and
very falsely called civilised society, as experience has shown.

A letter from Madame de Lieven received here yesterday predicts
further catastrophes in France in the near future; the result in her
opinion will be a temporary military dictatorship in the hands of

The King of Hanover has written a letter which I have seen. He says
that he has spent some very disagreeable days and that he had a crow
to pick with his Ministers, and had much trouble in converting them to
his opinion. However, he has succeeded and has broken the last tie of
connection with Berlin to begin closer relations with Vienna.

_Sagan, February 26, 1850._--I arrived here yesterday afternoon. In
the train I met Herr von Benningsen, the Hanoverian Minister of
Foreign Affairs, who was going to Vienna for forty-eight hours to gain
information, and was then to return at full speed to his Sovereign's
side. This visit will doubtless cause much displeasure at Berlin.[222]

  [222] Benningsen had been sent to Vienna to conciliate federal
  and individual instincts by a proposed Constitution which the
  four kingdoms of Bavaria, Saxony, Würtemberg, and Hanover were
  thought to have devised in concert with Austria. The attempt
  proved a failure.

_Sagan, February 28, 1850._--Count Stirum passed here yesterday on his
way from Berlin, and told me that the Electorate of Hesse had
definitely and officially broken with Prussia. I hear that the King of
Hanover has officially announced to the Prussian Government his
secession from the Prussian _Bund_, but that he has been obliged to
yield to his Ministers, who absolutely decline any alliance with
Austria, because Austria is in favour of a Single Chamber, while the
Hanoverian Ministers want two. I suppose that Herr von Benningsen went
to Vienna to make all these explanations. The poor King of Hanover is
therefore completely isolated.

_Sagan, March 1, 1850._--We are entering upon a month that has been
notorious and fatal in the annals both of ancient and modern history.
Heaven alone knows what kind of Ides it has in store for us at this
point of the half-century. Dates and anniversaries inspire terror, and
I feel that we are standing upon ground that is undermined.

_Sagan, March 6, 1850._--Yesterday I had some letters from Paris. On
the 2nd of this month Paris was in much perplexity concerning the
approach of the elections, and news from the provinces caused some
anxiety; the Red Party was rising once more. Social pleasure and the
follies of dress are not checked in consequence, and are, indeed,
carried to an appalling degree. The Grand Duchess Stephanie has been
received by the President with the greatest honour; he gave her an
establishment apart from his own, in order that her movements might be
quite free, and summoned the Diplomatic Body in uniform to be
introduced to her. She received the introductions seated in a chair of
state, which was a strange sight at the house of the President of the
Republic, and provoked some caustic remarks. She is to spend a month
at the Elysée, and will then live with her daughter, Lady Douglas, who
will arrive at Paris in a few weeks. As the Grand Duchess was ready to
receive people of every shade of opinion while she was at Baden, many
people who do not visit the President have asked permisssion to call.

_Sagan, March 7, 1850._--Letters truly alarming have reached me from
Paris. Those who see everything in a favourable light flatter
themselves that there will be a change in the English Cabinet, and
that this will produce an immediate effect at the Elysée, where Lord
Normanby's influence is more powerful than ever on questions of
domestic as well as foreign policy. His advice is far from excellent,
and is usually given in the evening at the house of the President's
mistress, amid the petty amusements which fill the Presidential hours
of leisure. On the Swiss question Lord Palmerston will again direct
the President's action; his instincts are warlike, whereas those of
his Ministers are pacific; but the Ministers have no authority over
Prince Louis or over the Assembly, which distrusts them and distrusts
the President yet more. The President's attitude, again, upon the
Greek question is even more Palmerstonian than upon the Swiss
question; in a word, every problem which arises in Europe, whether
involving a conflict or mere rivalry, will be treated with
inconsistency and certainly concluded in confusion. France is also
greatly distracted. I am told that the President has definitely
decided to grasp the first opportunity of breaking with the Assembly
and of crushing it. In short, his 18th of Brumaire and his Imperial
cloak have been prepared; he is waiting his opportunity, champing the
bit meanwhile. Probably his struggle against the Reds will give him an
opening, and he believes that the public danger will secure him the
public support. All eyes are turned upon Changarnier, who is the great
puzzle of the moment; no one can divine his intentions, and he
maintains so impenetrable a reserve as to lead observers to infer that
he thinks himself master of the situation; there is, in fact, no doubt
that he will check the _coup d'état_, but in the excitement of civil
war some popular movement might be begun which would sweep away even
Changarnier himself. Everything will thus depend upon the extent of
this struggle and of popular excitement. Will the Reds fight? People
seem inclined to think that they will, and the outbreak is even
expected this month, while the news from the provinces is most
serious. The provinces threaten to overthrow Paris, and to deprive her
of the long power of initiative which she has exercised upon politics
and revolutions. It is certain that the President is not the man to
meet this decisive crisis; for the last six months he has sunk in the
opinion of all reasonable people; he is surrounded by advisers of the
worst possible colour, imbued with absurd and dangerous ideas. But in
spite of all this and even more, the conclusion seems inevitable that
there is no one at present to take his place, and that he must be
endured as he is. Obviously France could only be saved by a military
dictator who would overthrow universal suffrage, the Press, the jury,
the National Guard--in short, everything that poisons France and
infects Europe with its contagious miasma. If the Comte de Chambord or
the Comte de Paris were to return to France to-morrow, I doubt if they
could do what is necessary; such action seems only within the
competence of an exceptional and irregular power. Hence the wish for a
military dictatorship with full power, which, when the present crisis
is over, would return the regular power to the hands of a Government
sanctioned by tradition. But is this the view of God's providence, or
is the old world to fall asunder in blood? Will ferocious hordes
quarrel over our remains? Who can say?

_Sagan, March 11, 1850._--I hear from Berlin that M. de Persigny
thinks that he has done an excellent stroke of business by inveighing
against Prussia before the Austrian Minister, to whom he said that two
thousand Frenchmen would soon make an end of the propensities of
Neuchâtel. Thereupon Prokesch, who is a somewhat rough and violent
character, turned white with rage, and trembling with fury, told the
little favourite that he would endure no such language at his own
house, and that in spite of the coolness between the Courts of Vienna
and Berlin, he would assure M. de Persigny that when the first French
soldier had crossed the Rhine in hostility to Prussia, the whole of
the Austrian forces would come and help their old ally to stem the
revolutionary flood. On this vigorous outburst the little man beat a
hasty retreat. He is said to have begun intrigues with the Prussian
demagogue party, feeling that he has not sufficient influence over the
Brandenburg Cabinet. The latter body, unfortunately, is a perfect
weathercock, continually doing and undoing, beginning and abandoning,
advancing and retiring with the most deplorable ineptitude that can be

_Sagan, March 12, 1850._--The people of Schleswig say that if they are
not sent a million and a half of crowns they will attack the Danes
alone on April 1. The Danes reply that if they are attacked they will
immediately seize all the German ships, and upon this occasion there
will be no question of restoration. Thereupon Rauch was sent to
Schleswig with the most vigorous instructions to dismiss Bonin, and to
recall all the Prussian officers; but three hours later the Cabinet
was terrified by its own unusual display of energy, and sent fresh
instructions after Rauch by express messenger, so much milder in
purport that no definite result can be expected.

_Sagan, March 14, 1850._--General von Rauch sent back his son to
Berlin to ask for more definite instructions, as those which he bore
could not command obedience. However, the Minister of War[223] is
afraid to send orders for the recall of the Prussian officers serving
in Schleswig-Holstein, for the reason that a crowd of Poles are ready
and waiting to take their places. This fact gives rise to a fear that
the scenes at Baden of last year may be repeated,[224] when it was
necessary for the Prussians to send a force into the provinces.

  [223] Herr von Stockhausen.

  [224] Serious disorders had broken out in the Grand Duchy of
  Baden, where the Government of the Grand Duke Leopold I. had been
  strongly opposed by the Liberals, and had been struggling against
  unpopularity for years. This insurrection, which broke out in May
  1849, was led by Mieroslawski. Leopold was obliged to leave
  Carlsruhe and his States, and was unable to return to them for a
  month, by which time the Prussians had intervened: their
  occupation of the country continued until 1850.

_Sagan, March 21, 1850._--General von Rauch has returned from Holstein
without securing any result. The people of Holstein are penniless, but
they propose to maintain their army by authorising pillage, and as the
said army is composed of bandits, the prospects are cheerful.

The Duchesse d'Orléans is staying with her nephew Schwerin at
Ludwigslust.[225] This is a farewell visit. It is thought that the
parting will be long, if not final, for the Princesse has sent for a
large supply of jewels, boxes, pins, rings, bracelets, &c., from
Paris, which she is scattering round her family circle before starting
for England.

  [225] In Mecklenburg.

M. de Persigny apparently thinks himself more remote from the pleasant
little combat to which he looked forward at Paris, for it has been
noticed for several days that he is less cheerful and boastful.

_Sagan, April 9, 1850._--Herr von Meyendorff writes from Berlin: "The
policy of Radowitz and Bodelschwing which was rejected by the majority
in the Council of the Ministers, has entered upon a new phase, and it
is now a question of cutting down to the size of a dwarf the coat
which was originally cut for a giant on May 29, 1849.[226] The idea of
a Constitution for the Empire has been abandoned and there is simply
to be a union of States reduced to its most simple form, that is to
say maintained within the limits of Prussia's natural sphere of
influence where common material interests prevail." The King was the
first to start this new policy, and one of his chief supporters was
General Stockhausen: Prokesch thinks that the prospects of the
Government have improved, in which case the improvement must be very
obvious indeed. Bernstorff, however, who is always stiff and
narrow-minded, is unable to bring about the necessary understanding.
At Vienna there is no great feeling in favour of Prussia, so that
heaven knows how much time will be wasted.

  [226] An allusion to the union between Prussia, Hanover, and
  Saxony, who had been ready to sign the Constitution in May 1849.
  The proposal came to nothing, as Hanover refused her adherence at
  the last moment under the influence of Austria.

_Sagan, April 23, 1850._--Lady Westmoreland arrived here yesterday
with her daughter. She brought no very encouraging political news: she
expects armed intervention on the part of Russia at a near date upon
the Danish question. A Russian fleet with troops ready for
disembarkation is preparing to watch the Duchies; whether Lord
Palmerston will leave the glory or the trouble of the affair to Russia
or whether he will decide to join her will be known in a few days.

Lady Westmoreland had a letter from the Queen of the Belgians saying
that her father was much tired and changed and had grown a good deal
older after a violent attack of influenza; she was proposing to make a
journey to England to see him.

_Sagan, May 1, 1850._--The reply expected from London upon the Danish
question reached Berlin on Saturday evening. The simultaneous and
identical proposals of Meyendorff and Westmoreland are fully approved
and the latter is authorised to give vigorous expression to them, as
indeed he is doing; but it seems that the strongest words have little
effect and that acts will be required to change the attitude of the
Berlin Cabinet. Reedtz and Pechlin, the two Danish plenipotentiaries,
are at the end of their patience and complain of the snares that have
been spread for them; all are growing bitter and exasperated and the
most clear-sighted believe that some violent outbreak is in near

_Sagan, May 3, 1850._--The Congress of Princes[227] which was to
assemble at Gotha, is now to meet at Berlin on the 8th of this month;
for this reason the marriage of Princess Charlotte of Prussia with the
Prince of Meiningen has been postponed to the 18th which will hardly
please her, for though young she is deeply in love and in a great
hurry.[228] She is a charming person of whom I am very fond and who is
very fond of me, but I think that Meiningen is too small a theatre for
her extreme energy, and that her future husband is too milk-and-watery
to suit the electrical vivacity which she has inherited from her
mother. This tendency has been restrained by an excellent education.

  [227] This Congress had been convoked by Prussia upon the
  dissolution of the alliance of the Three Kings, from which
  Hanover and afterwards Saxony had withdrawn. The King of Prussia,
  asserting his desire to work for the unity of the German nation
  with all his power, convoked this Congress to oppose the
  ambitious ideas of Austria. The Princes answered the appeal, and
  the Congress was opened at Berlin on May 12.

  [228] This marriage in fact took place at Berlin on May 18, 1850.

_Sagan, May 7, 1850._--Humboldt tells me that as England has delegated
all her powers to Russia upon the Danish question, and that as
Meyendorff's language was threatening and very decided, Berlin has
resolved upon pacific measures. Heaven grant that it may be so! He
also says that he does not think that the Congress of Princes at
Berlin has been fully attended, and that in any case it will lead to
no great result, and that the convocation of the old Diet at Frankfort
by Austria daily becomes a more formidable danger.

Madame de Chabannes writes telling me that she is very displeased with
the Orléanist party, even more than with the party that is opposed to
it. She says that the most acceptable proposals are forthcoming from
the Comte de Chambord; that the young Orléanist princes are all in
favour of a family compact; that Louis Philippe, who has grown much
weaker, is vacillating; that the Queen of the Belgians, under English
influence, is hostile; and that the Duchesse d'Orléans, who receives
but incomplete information from Paris, will give no definite reply.

_Sagan, May 8, 1850._--Lady Westmoreland writes to me from Berlin
under yesterday's date: "The castle at Berlin is being prepared for
the stay of the princes invited to the Congress; it has been possible
to arrange seventeen separate sets of rooms; if these should prove
inadequate, the extra princes will be lodged in private houses at the
King's expense, but probably not so many as seventeen will come;
hitherto the only certainties are the Duke of Coburg, the Duke of
Brunswick, the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, the Grand Duke of Baden, and
the two Grand Dukes of Mecklenburg. As for the Elector of
Hesse-Cassel, he has sent word that he will come and explain to the
King in person why he could enter the restricted union. General von
Bülow is starting for Copenhagen to-day; he is commissioned to treat
for a separate peace between Prussia and Denmark, and not to touch the
questions of the Duchies, or Germany, or mediation; when I say 'treat
for' peace, I mean that he should make proposals to this end, as the
negotiations are to be carried on here. It has been decided to send a
plenipotentiary to Frankfort, and it is supposed that Herr von
Manteuffel, the Minister of the Interior, will go. The important
question is whether he will appear as the Russian plenipotentiary or
as representing the restricted union by himself; in the former case
there will be a great retreat on the part of Prussia, and in the
latter, Austria will decline to join."

_Sagan, May 12, 1850._--Yesterday I had a letter from Berlin of which
the following is an extract: "You will see the list of the princes who
have arrived, as it is in the _Gazette_. They are all here except
Nassau and Hesse-Darmstadt, but it is not to be supposed that they are
all agreed. The Duke of Coburg wished to have a preliminary
conference in his own rooms with the other princes before to-day's
session at the Castle, whither they were invited by the King to hear a
speech and afterwards to dine. The Duke of Coburg was astonished and
vexed to find that every prince has his own way of regarding the
question, and that they will not submit to his proposals.
Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Hesse and Oldenburg declared themselves entirely
opposed to the Prussian tactics, and the Duke of Brunswick, though
favourable to the _Bund_,[229] has views of his own upon the subject,
which are not those of Coburg. Manteuffel is not going to Frankfort,
and this question remains unsettled."

  [229] The _Bund_ was the alliance of all the German Sovereigns
  against a foreign enemy. It lasted until the war of 1866.

M. de Persigny, who has returned from Paris, declares that all parties
have gathered to the support of the President, that they propose to
take the most energetic measures, and that all danger is passed.
Prokesch has been appointed to Constantinople; it is said that his
place here will be taken by General Thun.

_Sagan, May 13, 1850._--I have received two letters from Berlin, one
in German; the following is an extract from it: "The Congress of
Princes is proceeding admirably; little business is done, but there is
plenty of occupation. Military displays are unending, and are varied
by monster dinners, while in the evening there is the opera, _The
Prophète_, parties, and balls. To-day a reception is given by
Meyendorff, to-morrow by Redern, on Monday by the Prince and Princess
of Prussia, on Tuesday by the Westmorelands, on Wednesday by their
Majesties; and then, thank heaven, the conference is closed. The
Princess Regent of Waldeck arrived here on Thursday for the great
dinner in the White Hall, which was a fresh cause of joy to the
spectators. As Princess Regent she has been given precedence of all
the princes. The King shows extreme politeness towards his guests:
instead of giving his arm to the Queen and leading the way for the
other princes, he took in the Princess of Waldeck and the Queen was
taken in by the Grand Duke of Baden. The Princess looks very well, is
admirably dressed in black on account of her widowhood; but
unfortunately, in respect of loftiness of bearing, she in no way
yields to General von Neumann and seems even to have borrowed some of
his ill-timed affability; I fear that this evening she is likely to
become unduly lively at the Meyendorffs' reception, where the support
of the Court will be lacking. The ladies will certainly forget the
Regent, and will regard her only as a Princess of Waldeck. The Duke of
Brunswick was not present at the dinner, as his claim of precedence
over the Duke of Coburg was disputed. Yesterday dinners were given by
Prince Charles and Prince Albert of Prussia, that the King and Queen
might have a breathing-space. In the evening the Opera Hall was
magnificent, and the large drawing-room which approaches the royal box
was beautifully decorated and illuminated; the boxes for the
foreigners had been thrown into the royal box, and proved hardly large
enough for the princes and their suites; the audience was so absorbed
by the sight of them, that they turned their backs on _The Prophète_
during most of the performance and devoted their attention to the
German Union; their interest was naturally increased by the appearance
of the King in the large box, where he took the third place by the
side of the Princess Regent of Waldeck. The Queen remained alone in
her little box, where she was not even in full dress; after the first
act the King took the Regent for a few minutes to see the Queen.

"The speech addressed to the Princes by the King is said to have been
most dignified. He begged them to consider whether they could follow
in loyalty and faithfulness the path which he had taken, adding that
if they were of a different opinion, they need only follow another
road and diverge from himself, in which case he would feel no
vindictiveness; but if they preferred to follow him they must march
loyally wherever he carried his flag. Yesterday evening in a session
of the Ministers, differences, disputes and quarrels were only too
obvious: the Administrative Council was present to listen; Hassenpflug
immediately protested against their presence, and eventually it was
necessary to close the session almost as soon as it had begun. The
result was an interchange of letters in anything but polite tone
between Brandenburg and Hassenpflug, but no session; in short, the
first attempt at a session made an end of the union."

The other letter is from Lady Westmoreland: "The Princes met in
private in the rooms of the Duke of Coburg, who is anxious to take the
lead and would like to dominate the rest: offence has already been
taken in consequence, by the Duke of Brunswick in particular. The
Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who is represented by his eldest
son and the Elector of Hesse-Cassel, speaking for himself and for the
Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, declared their inability to consent to
any act which might bring about a Prussian Union, until the Frankfort
Assembly had decided the great question which is there under
discussion; all the other Princes declared themselves devoted to the
Union and to the Prussian policy; they were, however, far from
unanimous among themselves, and while they made the same profession of
faith, every one wished to interpret it in a different manner; some
were anxious to attack the political question in the reply to be
presented to the King's speech the next morning, but it was decided
only to send a polite and formal reply. Yesterday the Ministers of the
Princes held their first meeting and discussed their course of action.
To their great astonishment they saw Herr von Radowitz arrive with all
the members of the _Verwaltungsrat_.[230] Thereupon the Minister of
Hesse, who is violently opposed to all Prussian tactics, as you know,
rose and declared that these gentlemen had no concern with the
discussions of the Princes' Ministers who could not possibly continue
a frank discussion in the presence of men whose acts they would
probably have to criticise, and the acts of Herr von Radowitz more
than any others: he is then said to have declared that he was there to
support the friends of the Union, and that were it not for him the
Prussian Government would probably yield beneath the attacks of the
hostile Princes; a fine compliment, you see, to Herr von Brandenburg
and his Cabinet. The result was great confusion and an interruption of
the session before anything had been settled. Such has been the
beginning of the Congress. There were some interesting episodes: the
Duke of Oldenburg and his son in particular are such enthusiastic
partisans of Radowitz and Gagern, &c., that the father delivered some
remarks before the meeting of the princes which were generally
regarded as far too emphatic. The next day his son happened to be at
the house of Meyendorff and delivered so unseemly a tirade against
Austria, that Meyendorff was forced to take him to task. The King saw
each of the princes separately upon their arrival. He listened very
patiently to everything that the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
said to him and replied, to the great astonishment of the latter, that
he was quite of his opinion, especially with reference to the proposal
that nothing should be done until the result of the Frankfort Assembly
was known. I am afraid he may have told every prince that he shared
his opinions. In any case nothing will be decided by his opinion,
whatever that may be."

  [230] Administrative Council of the Federal State.

_Sagan, May 5, 1850._--Letters received give me details concerning
Claremont, precisely coinciding with what I already knew: no overtures
or suitable measures may be expected from a family which will never
pardon the elder branch for becoming its victim, when the younger
branch has usurped the rights of the legitimate orphan. As the elder
branch has no reason for self-reproach with regard to the Orléans
family, it is much more conciliatory and more ready to hold out the
hand than the other branch is to offer the little finger. Only great
souls or minds of a really high stamp can pardon those whom they have

The entertainment at the Opera at Berlin seems to have been
magnificent, but at the supper, by some inconceivable carelessness,
no one remembered M. de Persigny: in a fury he left the theatre-hall
where the invitations had been sent round. The next day an
aide-de-camp was sent to him with apologies.

The Prince of Prussia and the Duke of Wellington will be godfathers to
Queen Victoria's last son,[231] who is to be called Arthur William
Patrick, the last name being a compliment to Ireland.

  [231] The Duke of Connaught born at Windsor on May 1, 1850.

It appears that the two Mecklenburgs, the two Hesses, the Grand Duke
of Baden, and the three free towns have withdrawn from the Union. No
positive statement has been issued, as the conference was still in
progress, but the rumour seemed highly probable. On this question the
Duke of Coburg is in such a fury that he said he would like to
strangle the recalcitrants with his own hands. The question of the
presence of Radowitz at the meetings has been settled by the King's
formal desire that he might have a seat at the meetings _in order that
he could offer the assembled Princes the advantage of his talents_.

_Sagan, May 16, 1850._--A letter from Berlin dated yesterday says: "At
a long conference yesterday the princes patched up some sort of a
reconciliation and the refractory members consented to withdraw their
proposals for leaving the Union, in view of the fact that they have
all resolved to send their plenipotentiaries to Frankfort under
certain conditions; they have also decided to form a provisional
government for two months. The majority seem well pleased that they
have thus avoided a rupture which would have deprived the Union of so
many members. On the other hand Prokesch is furious and declares that
Austria will never consent to the conditions of the princes. The
calmer spirits on the contrary believe that Austria would be well
advised to let them all go to Frankfort and not to force a dissolution
which the nature of the situation will inevitably bring about. As the
mission of the princes is thus practically finished, they will take
their leave to-morrow and the next day, except the Duke of Meiningen
who is staying for his son's marriage. Sir Henry Wym, the English
Minister at Copenhagen, has arrived for a consultation with Lord
Westmoreland and Meyendorff concerning Danish affairs. I have no doubt
that a conclusion will be reached."

_Sagan, May 23, 1850._--Herr von Meyendorff writes to me from Berlin
under date the day before yesterday: "I have this morning received
news of an attack upon the King's life which was committed yesterday
and full details of which you will see in all the newspapers,[232] but
the following is a curious fact which naturally will not appear in any
newspaper. The King said to some one present who repeated his words to
me exactly, 'I was warned of this attempt; it is a plot which also
threatens other Sovereigns.'"

  [232] On May 22, 1850, Sefeloge, a retired artillery sergeant,
  shot at the King as he was starting for Potsdam to spend the
  summer there. The King was tripped up by one of his spurs, and as
  he stumbled the bullet missed his head and merely grazed his
  right arm between the wrist and the elbow.

_Sagan, May 25, 1850._--From a large number of letters which I have
received from Berlin I can confidently infer, in spite of the
inexplicable efforts which the Government has made hitherto to
represent the assassin as a madman acting on his own initiative, that
he is simply an emissary from that frightful association of regicides,
which has its headquarters at London, and which makes a business of
procuring wild fanatics who are given arms and known as "the blind."
The Government had received warning of the attempt. There are said to
be five of these emissaries in Berlin. Meyendorff and Prokesch rushed
to Herr von Brandenburg and Herr von Manteuffel, urging them to take
advantage of this providential miracle and of the warning which it
provides to close the clubs, adopt strict measures and terrorise the
faction meetings; but weakness and cowardice are at their height and
the Government think only of saving the criminal. Alarm is reasonably
felt in view of the possibility of similar incidents at Warsaw and

  [233] The Czar had then gone there.

_Sagan, May 29, 1850._--The King is better, though his arm causes him
much pain, but that is said to be a sign of cure. The Queen is pale as
death, gentle as an angel and courageous as a lion. It seems that the
evidence which shows the assassin to have been affiliated to demagogue
societies is so complete and so obvious that the theory of insanity
has been gradually abandoned, and that a more serious attempt is being
made to penetrate these bloodstained mysteries. The plot is growing
clearer: the authorities think that they have more than one clue, but
we are not energetic, nor are we capable of seizing the right
opportunity. It is God alone who can help us, for certainly we do not
help ourselves.

   The two correspondents then met at Baden-Baden and their
   correspondence was interrupted until the month of August, when
   they again separated. When the Duchesse returned from her journey
   she had with her companion, Fräulein von Bodelschwing, a lady of
   Courlande, who was most loyal to her, and remained with her until
   her death.

_Stuttgart, August 4, 1850._--After leaving the platform of Carlsruhe
I slept in my carriage as far as Pforzheim, though I sometimes opened
an eye to admire the beautiful country in the intervals of sleep. I
arrived here at five o'clock amid fresh and smiling valleys. I drove
in an open carriage to visit Schiller's monument which pleased me, and
through the splendid park which adjoins the castle we then mounted to
the little palace of Rosenstein. The situation and the view are
splendid, but the palace is very poor. The pictures and statues are
quite ordinary and the proportions insignificant. We returned by way
of Canstadt and stopped at a mineral spring to taste the water, which
I thought detestable. All this neighbourhood is very pretty and far
superior, I think, to modest Carlsruhe. We were not allowed to see the
Wilhelma, a Moorish garden and palace built by the reigning King, but
as we went along the outer wall I was able to catch glimpses of it
which consoled me for my inability to cross the threshold.

_Ulm, August 5, 1850._--This morning, before leaving the capital of
Würtemberg, I visited the chapter church which is interesting, as it
contains the tombs of the first Counts of Würtemberg. I then went to
the castle: the only part shown is that intended for receptions; we
visited the stables and the royal riding school where some Arab
horses, newly arrived from their native sand, were being broken in.
The heat was such that they might easily have thought themselves in
their native climate. I was roasted by the time we reached the villa
of the Prince Royal: it is not yet finished, but it will be delightful
in the most beautiful renaissance style; it is admirably situated with
splendid views, but there is no shade, the garden is badly laid out,
and the scene is one of despairing sterility. A messenger from the
King arrived bringing us written permission, for which we had not
asked, to see the Wilhelma. We accordingly made our way there. There
is a Moorish bath and hothouses for tropical plants which took my
fancy. The garden is not entirely satisfactory. Generally speaking the
Stuttgart gardeners do not seem to me to be very clever. The railway
then took us through a fertile country well watered and wooded, full
of ruins, churches and villages. Here we have come upon the
_Sänger-Vereine_,[234] composed of thirteen hundred singers who
blocked up the railway and the little winding streets of the old city
of Ulm. We visited the cathedral which is very imposing, the town hall
and the Gothic fountain, which are not without interest.

  [234] The _Sänger-Vereine_ are two choral societies founded
  centuries ago in Germany.

_Augsburg, August 7, 1850._--I arrived here yesterday and saw nothing
of the town except the part through which we passed. It seemed
somewhat curious by reason of its old character as an imperial town in
past times. The bronze fountains are very beautiful: there are Roman
remains, a prison and a chapel, the scene of the martyrdom of Saint
Affre. The hotel in which I am staying, the Three Moors, is the oldest
in the whole of Germany, and I am on historical ground. I have seen
the chapel in which Charles V. heard mass; the fireplace in which the
rich weaver, Fugger, burnt the Imperial receipts, and in short
everything that my head, which is swimming in the heat, can take in.

_Münich, August 8, 1850._--I arrived here yesterday in the afternoon.
I have visited the church of Saint-Louis which reminds me of one of
the side chapels in St. Peter's at Rome. I spent the rest of the day
visiting the statues of Tilley and Wrede, the Street of Saint-Louis
with all its buildings, and the castle garden which is surrounded by
arcades painted in fresco. To-day at nine o'clock in the morning we
started off and first went to the _Frauenkirche_ where we heard mass,
the sound of which came into my room, and was made irresistibly
beautiful by the organ with its fine harmonies. We then hastened to
the Leuchtenberg Gallery which is only open on special days at certain
hours. I was attracted only by a very expressive portrait of
Petrarch's Laura, painted by Bronzino; she is depicted half turning in
a severe widow's dress, with noble and slightly sharp features and
speaking eyes wide open and pure. I then saw an admirable picture by
Murillo representing a monk kneeling before an angel who is conferring
the bishop's mitre upon him: this is a marvellous composition, both
for colouring and design, and as I have always had a great liking for
Murillo, I was pleased by this further confirmation of my tastes. From
the Leuchtenberg Palace I then went to the Basilica and was struck by
the beauty of the frescoes, the richness of the marble and with the
perfection both of the materials and of the workmanship. The Basilica
has not yet been consecrated. The convent which King Ludwig has built
for the Benedictines and which is joined to the Basilica by the crypt,
is ready to receive the monks, but is not yet inhabited: the money has
been all carried off by the wretched Lola Montes. As I came back I
revisited the Church of Saint-Louis with its fourteen beautiful
Stations of the Cross, each denoted by a fresco full of religious
feeling: the Stations of the Cross in the open air are quite to my
taste, and I greatly prefer them to those set up in the interior of
churches which form an unpleasant interruption to the lines of pillars
and columns. I was delighted to find that certain churches here, the
new ones at least, have no chairs as in France and no pews as in
Prussia. The Italian churches compel the congregation to kneel upon
the flags, a more humble and picturesque position and infinitely more
favourable to the architectural effect. Before coming in I saw the
church of the Theatins, the parish church for the Court: its rococo
style of architecture is so rich as to attain a certain beauty. The
church of Saint Michael is very ugly and decorated or rather degraded
by horribly tawdry ornaments; but the carved tomb of Prince Eugène of
Leuchtenberg[235] by Thorwaldsen interested me. Thus, I think I did a
good day's work.

  [235] This monument was erected in memory of Eugène Beauharnais,
  who was made Duke of Leuchtenberg by King Ludwig of Bavaria, his

_Münich, August 10, 1850._--Yesterday I made further explorations
among the curiosities of Münich: I visited the Treasury, the chief
rooms in the castle, the Hall of the Beauties, who are not beauties at
all and look as if they were taken from fashion plates; the fine
statues of Schwanthaler in the throne-room delighted me greatly. From
the castle I visited the Artists' Tavern: there they meet every
evening and drink together and discuss art. The tavern has been
arranged in a special way recalling the fifteenth-century Guilds:
every artist has contributed some original decoration to the place
which, though small in size is most original in appearance; the
drinking cups, with each member's name and arms, are neatly arranged
upon brackets and shelves modelled and carved from their designs; on
several objects the names of Cornelius, Kaulbach, Schwanthaler may be
read; in fact the place is quite interesting. I also visited the
porter and the tinsmith who make the beer jugs and vessels well known
to Bavaria; the most original designs are to be seen, both graceful
and grotesque. I also saw the chapel dedicated to All Saints which
adjoins the castle, a handsome, noble building, slightly Oriental in
style which seems to have been constructed and decorated on the model
of St. Mark at Venice. We then drove outside the town to the
_October-Wiese_, in the middle of which rises the great monument of
Bavaria, a colossal bronze statue by Schwanthaler, surrounded on three
sides by a splendid marble colonnade, above which the statue towers
for thirty feet; the scaffolding has not yet been removed, but what I
could see is gigantic. As the weather was fine we went two leagues
further in the direction of the Isar which flows down from the
mountains to water the plain of Münich. A pretty wood led us to the
foot of a Gothic castle which Schwanthaler had just finished building
when death provided him with a more impregnable defence.

To-day I have visited the Glyptothek, the library and the beautiful
palace of the Wittelsbach,[236] the winter residence of King Ludwig
and Queen Theresa which was only completed last winter. We propose
also to see the Pinacothek and the studio of Schwanthaler which his
cousin carefully preserves and which is said to be interesting. This
evening I shall see a fragment of Norma; and my visit to Münich will
then be over. My expectations have been surpassed, my curiosity
satisfied and my energies exhausted.

  [236] The name of the Royal Family of Bavaria.

_Salzburg, August 16, 1850._--I arrived here the day before yesterday
after crossing a most beautiful and picturesque district in charming
weather. I propose to plunge yet deeper into the mountains which shut
in the town of Ischl. I have seen the cathedral, the Nonnenberg, with
its old church and its noble convent, the fortress on its inaccessible
rock, and the rooms which are being restored. I have visited Aigen
where Cardinal Schwarzenberg is fond of retiring and which he left
only ten days ago with great regret. I have seen the castle of
Mirabelle and that of Heilbrunn, the beautiful and curious Anif, and
finally the very original cemetery of St. Peter.

_Ischl, August 17, 1850._--I am not particularly delighted by my stay
here. The place upon my arrival seemed pretty enough while the air
from the mountains which rise high and give excellent shelter on the
north, must be delightful, but Ischl is full of people and,
unfortunately, of people whom I know and who exact attention.

I hear from Paris that a crowd of legitimists are going to Wiesbaden
to see the Comte de Chambord, and among others M. de La Ferté,
son-in-law of M. Molé, who is said to have been specially sent by the

I have seen Louise Schönburg who is less uneasy on political subjects
and readier to accord fair treatment to her brother, Felix
Schwarzenberg. She fears, however, that the Minister Bach is a traitor
who is cutting the ground from beneath her brother's feet. This
Minister Bach is the abomination, primarily of the Austrian lords, but
also of all landowners whatever their rank. Countess Schönburg, chief
lady to the Duchess Sophia, came to bring me an invitation to dinner
to-morrow with her Imperial Highness. As it is the Emperor's birthday
there will be a family dinner and I shall see them all, or nearly all
of them, to-morrow.

_Ischl, August 19, 1850._--I hear from Berlin that Potsdam has treated
the Duc de Bordeaux with the most flattering attention and the most
marked kindness, to the general and complete delight.[237] General
Haynau and Mlle. Rachel have divided public attention:[238] the
General is envious of the place given to the actress, and it is said
that this rivalry has produced somewhat comical scenes; in any case
people are much more quickly weary of military vanity than of stage

  [237] The Duc de Bordeaux passed through Berlin, where his
  arrival caused much stir, on his way to Wiesbaden, where the
  question of the coalition between the two branches of the House
  of Bourbon was to be discussed. The King of Prussia, who was then
  at Potsdam, received him with great distinction. The Prince
  arrived on August 6 and stayed in the New Palace. He was
  accompanied by the Duc de Levis, the Marquis de La Ferté, M.
  Berryer, and by several other distinguished Frenchmen. During his
  stay _Polyeucte_ was performed, and acted by Mlle. Rachel, who
  was at Berlin.

  [238] The Austrian General Haynau had become famous for his
  severe repressive measures in Italy during the bombardment of
  Peschiera and by his reprisals upon the inhabitants of Bergamo
  and Ferrara, by the sack of Brescia and the massacre of the
  insurgents. Afterwards, during the Hungarian war, he showed the
  same severity in the executions carried out at Pesth and Arad in
  October 1849; he was even said to have had women flogged. The
  General was staying at Berlin at that time.

At dinner with the Archduchess yesterday I was the only stranger apart
from the Royal Family and the officers on duty. The young Emperor
looks very handsome; his brother Max, my neighbour at table, is very
talkative, witty and agreeable. The old Archdukes are all very polite,
and the Archduchess Sophia, as usual, is most pleasant and attractive.
The Emperor's health was drunk, a salvo of guns was fired and the
military band played the National Anthem which was immediately taken
up by the people assembled under the windows. At night the summits of
the mountains and the town were illuminated with bonfires, with
charming effect.

_Ischl, August 21, 1850._--I have just come back from Aussee where the
Binzer and Zedlitz families are settled in a most idyllic spot;
beautiful situation, fresh meadows, picturesque lake, luxuriant trees
and a neat, simple and convenient house of rustic form. The mother and
the daughters superintend the small estate which the father cultivates
himself, while Zedlitz writes verses, and while the armies of Italy
and Hungary send him addresses and pieces of gold plate. One son draws
beautifully and two of his friends carve and paint; they work at the
decoration of this pretty abode, on the walls of which graceful
frescoes represent the chief scenes from the poems of Zedlitz. In the
evening young and old row about on the lake, singing Tyrolese and
German ballads, French romances and Spanish boleros. Their residence
is shut in by a valley, difficult to reach and rarely penetrated by
echoes of the outer world. It is a dream, or better, a fiction within
the sphere of reality.

_Vienna, August 23, 1850._--I arrived here two hours ago literally
roasted and overwhelmed by twelve hours on board a steamboat in
African heat. The little boat was crammed, and though the banks of the
Danube are sometimes picturesque and populous, I did not think them as
interesting as the Rhine between Mayence and Cologne.

_Vienna, August 25, 1850._--The extent of human folly is
inconceivable: the King of Denmark has now made a large addition to it
by his ignoble morganatic marriage. Yesterday brought the news of his

  [239] Frederick VII., King of Denmark, married on August 7 a
  milliner named Lola Bosmussen, called the Danish Lola, who was
  made a Countess for the purpose. A rumour then spread from
  Hamburg that the King had abdicated in favour of his natural
  heir, the Duke of Oldenburg, in order to simplify the question of
  succession, but this news was without foundation.

I have a number of letters to-day from every direction. Madame de la
Redorte writes from the Pyrenees where she seems to be mistaking
boredom for depression, two very different things. Madame Mollien
writes from Claremont to say that she will soon return to France; she
seems to think that Louis Philippe will not last much longer as he is
at the end of his strength. There was a proposal to take him to
Richmond, but the Duchesse d'Aumale has had a miscarriage which has
delayed their removal: apparently every member of the family is now
asking what he is to do, what path he can pursue, or what policy he
can adopt upon the passing away of the old leader, who is said to have
become as irritable in temper as he is weak in health. This is a sad
end to a career of contrasts, on which history will probably pronounce
a severe judgment as a whole. The man who takes an orphan's place
should either be able to hold it, or should perish in defending it.
Queen Marie Amélie is said to be more saintly, more resigned, more
courageous, and more admirable than ever.

There is little political talk here; even revolution has not destroyed
a certain frivolous habit of gossip which is not displeasing when it
is not overdone. However, people are generally satisfied with the
unusual vigour which the Dresden Cabinet has displayed for the last
few months: this is attributed to the Minister, Count Beust, who has
adopted energetic measures and has expelled twenty malcontent
professors from the university of Leipzig at one stroke.[240]

  [240] Count Beust became Minister of Foreign Affairs in the
  Dresden Cabinet in 1849, a post he had already held in 1841, and
  at the same time became responsible for the Ministry of Public
  Worship. He took an active part in the alliance of the Three
  Kings and attempted, with the concurrence of Austria, to bring
  about an alliance of the four Sovereigns.

Yesterday I visited the Lichtenstein palace, so fabulous for its
magnificence. At the same time whatever income may be forthcoming,
to spend eighty thousand florins upon a single chandelier is
unpardonable. However, there is more to admire than to criticise in
this fine work of modern luxury.

_Vienna, August 31, 1850._--A rumour is in circulation here that King
Louis Philippe is dead. I have not heard whether the news is authentic
or not.[241] Vienna, notwithstanding recent catastrophes, has taken
remarkably little part in political life, and the Prater, the theatre,
and gossip are the dominant occupations now as formerly. I went to see
the church of St. Stefan again which always makes a great impression
upon me. I also looked in at the graceful and remarkable church of
Maria Steig, adjoining the Convent of the Ligurians who were driven
out by the Revolution of 1848.

  [241] King Louis Philippe died on August 26.

_Sagan, September 5, 1850._--I have made an excursion by way of
Dornbach which belongs to Princess Lory Schwarzenberg, and through
Felsberg and Eisgrub which belongs to the Lichtensteins. Princess Lory
Schwarzenberg does the honours of her delightful villa most agreeably;
the site and the view are alike charming. Felsberg is a winter
establishment, shut in, warm, sheltered and rather gloomy; there is
plenty of room, but the apartments are ill-proportioned and the garden
is insignificant. There is a fine chapel, a pretty theatre room, many
family portraits, and some old furniture of curious form and date. The
most striking part of the house is the rooms of Prince Eugène of Savoy
which he occupied when he went hunting with his friend Prince
Lichtenstein. Eisgrub is a dainty, gay, and well-cared-for estate,
with a large park which adjoins the woods, in a country covered with
lakes and full of every kind of game. The kennels, the stables, and
the riding-school are all arranged in English style.

We nearly had a serious accident on the railway: it was dark, and a
peasant's horse escaped from his field and lay down across the rails;
the train passed over it at full speed and killed the animal; the
consequence was such a shock in our carriage that we were thrown from
one side to the other. The train was stopped and help was brought, but
we eventually came through without further disaster, apart from a
great fright.

_Sagan, September 12, 1850._--I am glad to hear that the newspaper
reports were once more false which said that the Duchesse d'Orléans
had summoned Thiers to her.

The newspapers relate a terrible scene of demonstration against
General Haynau at London, which is hardly consistent with the much
boasted hospitality of mighty Albion.[242]

  [242] Popular feeling had been greatly aroused against General
  Haynau, on account of the repressive methods which he had used in
  the Italian and Hungarian wars in 1848 and 1849. In September
  1850 he made a journey to London, and as he was visiting the
  brewery of Barclay and Perkins the workmen hooted him, mobbed
  him, tore out his moustaches, and threatened to throw him into
  their barrels.

_Sagan, September 16, 1850._--I have just received a letter from M. de
Salvandy dated from the Hague on the 10th of the month. He says that
he is on his way from London to Frohsdorff to perform a mission. From
his letter I should think that he is a somewhat important figure in
the negotiations which he seems to have undertaken officiously and
officially; which is the more correct adverb I cannot discover from
his complicated account.

The Queen of the Belgians is dying.[243] Poor Queen Marie Amélie, she
has been indeed a _mater dolorosa_.

  [243] Queen Louise died at Ostend on October 11, and was buried
  on the 16th at the Church of Laeken.

_Berlin, October 15, 1850._--The political horizon in Berlin has grown
no clearer, but things have reached so critical a point that the
clouds must necessarily disperse a few weeks hence, either under a ray
of sunlight from Warsaw[244] or by the detonation of cannon. The
matter will be decided by the will of the autocrat. Herr von
Brandenburg is going there to-morrow: he is taking his wife who was a
friend of the Empress in her youth, and has remained on intimate terms
ever since; much reliance is here set upon female effusions and
emotions to which the Emperor is very amenable. Prince Schwarzenberg
is reaching Warsaw on the 20th, and the Austrian Emperor will be there
two days later. The diplomatic body here is glad to see Radowitz at
the Ministry, as he seemed to be playing a yet more dangerous part
behind the scenes. It is thought that he will repudiate official
responsibility for his acts, and it is hoped that the report he will
be obliged to give the Chambers will make him timid. At any rate, we
shall know much sooner and much more definitely upon what we can rely,
and anything seems better than the state of suspense in which Germany
is gradually being worn out in every direction.

  [244] The struggle between Austria and Prussia had reached a
  critical point and provided the Emperor Nicholas with the
  opportunity of arbitrating between these two Powers, under
  pretext of preventing war. He went to Warsaw and there summoned
  conferences between the young Emperor of Austria and Prince
  Schwarzenberg, the President of the Austrian Council and the
  Count of Brandenburg representing Prussia. All eyes were turned
  in this direction, and assurances were given that every question
  which then disturbed Germany, the problems of Hesse, Schleswig,
  and of Austrian or Prussian supremacy, would be decided. The
  exasperation which the Count of Brandenburg experienced in
  consequence of the concessions then made by Prussia, was believed
  to be the cause of his death which occurred at the beginning of

_Sagan, October 2, 1850._--Madame Mollien writes to say that the
sainted Queen Marie Amélie said after her daughter's death, "I have
only been placed in this world to send souls to God." She thinks
nothing of herself, and disasters great or small do not affect her;
she thinks only of encouraging, consoling and strengthening those
about her. She is indeed a saint.

Humboldt tells me that he saw Salvandy for a moment; he was delighted
with Frohsdorff and exasperated with Claremont.

_Sagan, October 26, 1850._--As long as the Warsaw meeting continues no
correct idea can be gained of the probable results. Brandenburg and
Paskewitch have been received with great attention.

General Changarnier has been devoted to the Duchesse d'Orléans for a
long time, in my opinion. From the outset of her exile she took
particular pains to win him over by correspondence addressed to a
third person but intended for the General, who invariably read it. By
this means the Princesse succeeded in gaining his adherence, and he
may certainly be regarded as a pure Orléanist. The success of Salvandy
at Claremont and Frohsdorff means nothing so long as the Duchesse
d'Orléans is in any way opposed to coalition; as long as she can rely
upon Thiers, or thinks that she can count upon Changarnier, she will
stand aloof, in spite of the fact that the death of the Queen of the
Belgians has removed her chief supporter in that family. I have
ventured to send her a letter of condolence upon this loss; it affects
her much more deeply than the loss of her father-in-law, for the
latter was of no importance to her; on the whole I am almost inclined
to believe that Queen Marie Amélie herself is even more heartbroken by
the loss of her daughter than by the death of her husband, who must
have been a considerable source of perplexity on many occasions since
February 24, 1848.

_Sagan, November 4, 1850._--Yesterday's newspapers announce an
important event, the resignation of Radowitz, which was offered and
accepted, after a long council following upon the conference at
Warsaw: his retirement offers every prospect of peace, and may Heaven
grant that those prospects continue. If Radowitz, Bunsen, and the lame
Arnim had not been members of the King's council, many miseries and
calamities would have been avoided. I have always been afraid of
Bunsen, as his action in conjunction with Lord Palmerston can never be
anything but mischievous.

_Sagan, November 6, 1850._--Here we have been lashed by a tempest
which has threatened to overwhelm us for the last two days. At Berlin
tempests of another sort have terrified every one. The retirement of
Radowitz which, alas! I cannot yet regard as positive, the serious,
and perhaps fatal illness of Brandenburg, the resignation of
Ladenberg, the appeal of Bernstorff, the ill-temper of the Prince of
Prussia, the King's agitation, the general uneasiness, the meeting of
the Chambers on the 21st, and the continued military preparations both
here and in Austria are events quite sufficient to produce utter
despondency or feverish excitement in every mind.

_Sagan, November 8, 1850._--We are passing through dark days. Just at
the time when Count Brandenburg had gained a hearing for his pacific
views he fell ill and died. Radowitz is certainly going to Erfurt, but
Ladenberg is returning to the council, and orders are published to
make every preparation for war. The Prussian railway of Kosel has
received orders to carry no more Austrian troops from Cracow to
Troppau. Bernstorff, who had been summoned to Berlin to take the place
of Radowitz, has received orders not to come; and Erfurt is very near
Sans Souci! Dresden is delighted by the possibility of war, as it
hopes to reconquer the parts of Saxony which were acquired by Prussia
in 1814. Silesia will be the first province invaded by the Austrians
or occupied by the Cossacks. Count Brandenburg died in consequence of
overstrain during the last two years of the acrimonious scenes through
which he had to live at Warsaw, of the very stormy discussion which
took place in the council on his return, and also of a chill which
followed this hurricane. An important despatch came in during the
night and he got up to reply to it: he was immediately taken with a
shivering fit and was carried off with a gastric fever complicated
with gout; he was bled and given an emetic most inadvisedly, so people
say. It is possible, but doctors seem to me to be nothing but the
agents of Providence; they cure or kill according to the completion
which the sick man's task has reached. This death deprives the King of
one of his most loyal and disinterested servants. The hand of Fate is
obvious in all these events and produces general despondency and

_Sagan, November 11, 1850._--Every hour brings us nearer to a decision
by bloodshed. We thought that peace was at hand and suddenly the army
is mobilised. The Landwehr has been called out, to the great
disturbance of civil administration, agriculture, manufacture, and
private life; several of my workmen, servants, and keepers have been
obliged to go off; horses have been requisitioned and my stable has
just been decimated. I hear from Berlin that war is not yet
inevitable, but every hour makes it more probable, and for what
reason, in Heaven's name? Because those who relied upon boasting and
trickery have at length been caught in their own snares. The end of
the week must see the final solution of the question. Heaven grant
that the wind of peace may blow in this direction.

_Sagan, November 13, 1850._--The first collision between the Prussians
and the Austro-Bavarians has already taken place near Fulda.[245] The
official or Ministerial gazette _die_ _Deutsche Reform_, which
appears twice daily at Berlin, brought me the news. It says that the
Prussians were the first to fire; that the Austrians had not even
loaded their guns, so that several were wounded and were unable to
defend themselves; that a misunderstanding was the cause of the
conflict; and that after this skirmish the Prussian General, von
Gröben, fell back beyond Fulda. The account is preceded by a very
pacific leading article. Meanwhile it seems that Bernstorff has
actually gone to Berlin, but only for the purpose of refusing the
Ministerial post which had been offered to him. Confusion is thus
complete. Since the trumpet-blast of war resounded, every one is
absorbed by the thoughts, the predictions, and the arrangements which
so engrossing an occurrence naturally produces. However, I have
decided not to stir from here; I think it is bad policy to abandon
one's home in the hour of danger, and a course of action which is
almost always regretted.

  [245] The Prussian and Austro-Bavarian troops had in fact come
  into conflict on the road of Fulda, near the village of
  Brounzell, and five Austrian soldiers had been wounded in this
  outpost struggle.

_Sagan, November 15, 1850._--My brother-in-law came back yesterday
from Berlin where he had left a state of peace. The King had visited
the Austrian Minister; a long explanation took place which began with
some temper and afterwards grew calm. Eventually they separated in
mutual satisfaction. I can only pray that nothing but good may result
from this explanation and that no further clouds will come to obscure
the horizon. Radowitz has so infuriated the Prince of Prussia that in
a council held upon the return of the Count of Brandenburg from Warsaw
in which Radowitz preached peace, the Prince accused him of treachery
to his country in no measured terms. The poor Count felt this reproach
so deeply that it is generally thought to have been the cause of his
death. The fact remains that in his delirium this scene was
continually before his mind and caused him the greatest uneasiness. It
reminds me of the quarrel between the Dauphin and Marshal Marmont at
Saint-Cloud in the month of July 1830.

Austria is willing to regard the attack near Fulda as due to chance
and not as inspired by any premeditation. Both sides seem anxious to
pursue peace, and Austria is sensible enough to lend herself to
anything that will shield Prussian pride during this forced retreat.
The Austrians have resolved to send twenty-five thousand men to
Schleswig-Holstein to finish the difficulties there. The most
troublesome point between Vienna and Berlin is Hanover. Austria wishes
that Hanover should give free passage to her troops, while Berlin is
anxious that Hanover should not grant this concession. I think this is
the only outstanding point which could throw us back into the anguish
of war.

I am very curious to know what impression Madame Swetchine has made
upon you.[246] She is old and ugly but clever and well educated,
pleasant and insinuating, and entirely suited for the profession she
has followed for the last thirty years. I have been always surprised
that those who are religious by profession and who should always be
considering their own consciences, should yet find so much time to
deal with the consciences of others.

  [246] Extract from a letter.

_Sagan, November 18, 1850._--For several days the chances have been in
favour of peace. Apparently the conferences which are to settle the
fate of Germany will be begun at Dresden on December 1, and Russia
undertakes the guarantee which Austria and Prussia simultaneously
claim, while the disarmament of the two Powers will go on
simultaneously, if agreed upon.[247] At the same time, we cannot
absolutely deny every possibility of war. The Democratic party, for
instance, which is fairly strong in the Chambers to be opened on the
21st; the personal ambitions of those who do not belong to this party,
but who are foolish enough to think that if they join its shouts for
war they will be able to muzzle it afterwards; personal hatred,
foolish vanity, patriots with their silly love of glory and all that
is most inappropriately termed the national honour, are influences now
working, and Manteuffel is obliged to maintain the struggle alone. He
is accused of having already sold himself to Russia and to Austria!
Perhaps the forces which France, according to the newspapers, is
sending to the banks of the Rhine, will provide food for reflection.

  [247] The conferences were held at Dresden in the greatest
  secrecy and were prolonged throughout the winter. They ended in a
  second Olmütz in May 1851.

_Sagan, November 29, 1850._--The Minister, Manteuffel, left Berlin
yesterday to keep an appointment with Prince Schwarzenberg;[248] there
is no reason to suppose that this interview will further the cause of
peace. It is also said that the Chambers will be prorogued. Whatever
solution may be attained, every one must be prepared.

  [248] This interview took place at Olmütz, not far from

_Sagan, December 1, 1850._--All the railways are crowded by troop
trains, and in spite of this military energy, which continues to
increase, people are still betting that peace will be secured. Baron
Manteuffel passed near here a few hours ago in a special train for
Berlin; in this railway carriage our destinies are contained.[249]
Baron von Meyendorff was present at the interview, and doubtless his
influence was weighty and helped to turn the scale. I have also been
told that the Elector of Hesse is helping to simplify the matter by
declaring that he has no wish for either Austrian or Prussian help,
and is capable of reducing his subjects to obedience unaided.

  [249] Herr von Manteuffel, who undertook temporarily the office
  of Minister of Foreign Affairs on the death of Count Brandenburg,
  secured a point of agreement between Austria and Prussia at
  Olmütz by consenting to the re-establishment of the Germanic
  Diet, by offering to support the abolition of the constitutional
  rights of the electorate of Hesse, and by handing over
  Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark. This policy of peace at any price,
  caused profound despondency in Prussia.

The castle court is full of waggons, carriages, and horses; the castle
is full of officers of high rank, and the villages are full of
soldiers; everything is in a bustle; drums are beating, trumpets
sounding, and yet the whole may be nothing more than a military parade
at once ridiculous and burdensome.

_Sagan, December 3, 1850._--Letters and newspapers from France have
not come in for several days; this delay is doubtless due to the
movements of the troops, which have delayed and disorganised both the
regularity and the safety of the railways. Such irregularity in the
delivery of letters is a misfortune which I feel deeply at this
moment, which is a serious time for me in every respect, as my house
has just been the scene of a tragedy. One of the officers of high
rank--a talented man, and much esteemed in the army, rich and
respected--has blown out his brains in consequence of some service
dispute. He had dined with me a few hours previously, and gave no sign
that he had determined on the fatal act. He has left a letter in which
he explains his motives for this action, and the arrangements he
desires to be made. In it he thanks me for my kindly welcome, and
apologises for the act which he was proposing to commit under my
hospitable roof. This event has affected us all deeply. The poor man
has just been buried amid the universal regret of the detachment; the
funeral was not carried out with military honours on account of the
suicide, but it was honoured by the tears of all those who had served
with and under the deceased man.

To-day we shall know how the Chambers have welcomed the arrangement
which Manteuffel and Schwarzenberg have agreed upon; the matter must
have been discussed yesterday. A stormy and hostile feeling prevailed,
and in any case the contest will have been keen. Herr von Ladenberg
had offered his resignation, as he declines peace at any price. If the
Chambers show themselves too intractable, will the authorities have
the courage to dissolve them, and exercise the rights of making peace
and war which the Constitution guarantees to the King, or will they
yield before the outcries of the democracy and their dupes who fill
the Prussian Chambers? That is the question. One might bet with equal
certainty upon either issue, so impossible is it to rely upon a
consistent or regular policy when definite resolutions are required.

I have a letter from Potsdam, dated November 30, from which the
following is an extract: "Our excellent Sovereign has seemed greatly
depressed during the illness and the death of Count Brandenburg, the
fall of Radowitz, the keen discussions with the Prince of Prussia, and
the determination to mobilise the army; but he has shown keen
repugnance for the Gerlach party,[250] and for Herr von Manteuffel,
and great exasperation at the insulting threats of Russia to occupy
the eastern province as Hesse is occupied. Then, after a terrible
inward struggle, the King has recovered his calm with reference to the
arrangements for peace, and has become almost affectionate towards
Herr von Manteuffel; he has also resolved to send him with the Prince
of Schwarzenberg. The King _hopes_ to preserve peace."

  [250] Herr von Gerlach was one of the editors of the _New Gazette
  of Prussia_, and the avowed chief of the so-called Kreuz party,
  often known as Gerlach's party.

I have also another letter which says: "The Russian Court has
officially notified the other Courts of its strict neutrality in
purely German affairs, though this does not apply to the Holstein
affair. On this question the reserve is made that if any one Power
should claim to prevent the passage of Federal troops, Russia would
oppose such claim by force. The London and Paris Cabinets had
recognised the same right in the case of Denmark, and have undertaken
to leave Russia a free hand. The King of Denmark asked the Emperor
Nicholas for twelve thousand men, and the Emperor replied that he
would send a hundred and twenty thousand."

_Sagan, December 5, 1850._--The following are some details which
reached me from an authentic source: Baron Manteuffel arrived on
Thursday, November 28, at five o'clock in the evening, at Olmütz, and
the conference between himself and Prince Schwarzenberg immediately
began and lasted till half-past twelve. The first interview led to no
result, and Manteuffel declared his intention of leaving the place an
hour later by the night train; Prince Schwarzenberg made no offer to
detain him; on the contrary, he rang the bell and ordered the carriage
to take the Baron back to the station; at that moment Herr von
Meyendorff intervened, and begged the two diplomatic champions to make
trial of a second interview the next day. Schwarzenberg and Manteuffel
consented, and their conference was resumed the next morning at nine
o'clock and continued till five in the evening. The former had spoken
in the course of the previous evening with such frankness concerning
the equivocal policy of Prussia, that Herr von Manteuffel was obliged
to tell him that he could not listen to such language. During the
second interview he showed more self-control and more readiness to
make concessions, and eventually the conference ended in the following
result: Prussia will occupy the military road in Hesse, but will allow
the Austrian troops to make use of it for the pacification of the
country; Cassel is to have a garrison composed partly of Austrians and
partly of Prussians; the domestic affairs of Hesse are to be arranged
by two Commissioners appointed by Austria and Prussia; the question of
Schleswig will also be discussed by two Commissioners, representing
each of the great Powers; Denmark and Holland will be requested to
reduce their military forces by two-thirds, and if it should be
necessary to bring up troops to secure this result, Austria declares
herself indifferent upon the question as to which Power is to
undertake the operation; in such an event she will allow Prussia to
take the matter in hand alone or to entrust the task to one of the
other Powers in the Germanic Confederation. The general interests of
Germany are to be discussed in the free conferences held at Dresden.
Prince Schwarzenberg had given no clear explanation of the basis upon
which he will regard these interests as established, but he has
consented that the Frankfort Diet should be suspended while the
Dresden conferences are in progress. Stipulations have also been made
that Prussia should set the example of disarmament, but that the
moment when disarmament is to be begun shall depend upon the will of
the King of Prussia. This latter article is, I think, kept strictly
secret. The King has shown great satisfaction with these results;
however, he could not help saying aloud at table that Manteuffel had
only secured what Radowitz, the most German of all his Ministers, had

In the Prussian Chambers discussion had been marked by strong and
violent feeling. The result has been an adjournment till January 3.
Embarrassment will arise in Parliament on the question of money. Will
the Chambers vote the money which has been expended in preparations
now found to be useless? It is thought that they will not. There is
talk of a direct appeal from the King to the Powers and to the
goodwill of his subjects. We shall see what effect will be produced
upon the provinces and the country at large by the return of the
Deputies to their homes during the month of adjournment. This period
will probably be spent in every kind of intrigue and in stirring
public feeling, and as such efforts can be complicated by representing
the pecuniary sacrifice as pure loss, very unpleasant incidents may be
the consequence. We are thus entering upon a new phase.

_Sagan, December 9, 1850._--At the present moment all eyes are turned
to Dresden. In five days the conferences are to be opened, and as
these poor provinces have been exhausted by the concentration of the
troops, it is of urgent importance that the disarmament should be
quickly begun; they can no longer maintain the troops upon a war
footing, as they will be literally ruined by them if they are not
turned into an enemy's country.

_Sagan, December 11, 1850._--Count Stolberg, the son of the former
Minister, who is stationed at a neighbouring hamlet and has just
arrived from Berlin, came to dine here and spend the evening. He is
well informed of the course of events at Sans Souci. He has assured me
that the authorities have decided to carry matters to extremes with
the Chambers if they do not show themselves tractable upon their
return. A dissolution will then take place, and as a more amenable
Chamber is not probable under the present detestable electoral law,
there is an idea of modifying this law by a _coup d'état_, or an
attempt will be made to do without the Chambers by means of a
temporary dictatorship, or by an appeal to the people. I must confess
that I have great doubts whether the authorities have sufficient
courage to carry matters with so high a hand; at the same time, I
must admit that things have reached the stage at which we must either
pass under the pitiless yoke of the democracy or take the bull by the

_Sagan, December 18, 1850._--The Dresden conferences have been
adjourned to the 23rd, and there is no idea of disarmament upon any
serious scale until their decisions are known. The state of war
continues with disastrous results. Those who complain are told that
effective remonstrance can only be made under arms. However, to soothe
the feelings of Austria, the newspapers publish announcements that the
disarmament is beginning, which is only true to a very small extent.

_Sagan, December 22, 1850._--I hear from Berlin that the Cabinet has
been completed and strengthened with Conservative elements; a good
sign, but I shall require twelve signs, like those of the Zodiac, to
give me any confidence in their consistency.

_Berlin, December 28, 1850._--News from Berlin is entirely peaceful.
Schwarzenberg has been received with many marks of distinction, though
the troops are still kept under arms. The officers now say that the
war footing is continued in agreement with Russia and Austria in order
to reduce the little recalcitrant States who look for French support.
We shall see.




From _Sketches and Portraits_ by M. DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, Duc de
Doudeauville, _vol. ii. p. 307 ff, edition of 1844_

You have asked me for your portrait, Rachel; do you really wish to
know yourself, or have you yielded only to the desires of Madame
Récamier? In any case your request is a challenge, and I am too French
to be able to decline it; but do not accuse me of foolish presumption
or of cruel frankness. There is sadness and melancholy in the depths
of your heart, but you prefer to delude yourself concerning its needs.
You might be the most accomplished and the most remarkable character
of our age, or leave your true friends under a sense of profound
regret; that choice is before you. The most exquisite polish of manner
is as essential a part of your character as talent. Talent and
yourself are inseparable, but in return for these superior powers,
have you any thought, any fervour, any gratitude to the Eternal who
has given them to you? It was impossible for a poor observer like
myself to meet you without studying you with extreme interest. I would
have laid aside my pen, but you order and I must obey and my pen will
chronicle good and evil, perfections and deficiencies. I could wish
you were perfect, Rachel, in every respect, and that you would trample
beneath your pretty feet all that could stain your lofty nature. You
are your own work and no one can boast of what is your success. The
true and the beautiful have been your only masters. No one knows you
well, child as you are, thrown into the world without experience and
feeling everything with an intensity that is with difficulty
repressed. You are one of those chosen natures which sometimes come
down to earth by sudden transition; a creature of instinct that knows
without learning and understands without study. You study little, but
you think deeply and feel more deeply. You have a power of energy and
enthusiasm which sometimes frightens you: to great loftiness of mind
you add a charming lack of restraint which is sometimes not
sufficiently repressed. You can dominate yourself, but you have not
yet learnt how to conquer yourself. You have nothing to learn, for you
have understood the world as clearly as the theatre and are perfect
upon either stage; but when you are tired of putting constraint upon
yourself, you sometimes forget the spectators who observe you. Not
without anxiety do your admirers see your heart and soul expand too
freely. For you the stage is a passion, and glory is your sole object.
Your mind is unduly refined, your character vastly distinguished, and
exquisite taste is native to you. Greater nobility and dignity cannot
be seen at the theatre than you display; you are more than an
admirable actor, you are the character in person as it is felt and
imagined to be. You then rise to the full height of your fine talents,
and your simple and expressive gestures are never exaggerated. Those
who criticise you unjustly should rather be astonished by the height
of perfection and truth which you have been able to attain since the
outset of your career, and should leave to your admirable instinct the
task of correcting the slight imperfections which are due to your
inexperience of passion. Your soul is an abyss into which you fear to
descend: your head is aflame with feeling, your heart is a touchstone
which tries every sentiment; you fear danger without attempting to
avoid it, and if excitement wears you out, it pleases you. Your
beliefs are restricted, and you take men only for what they are worth.
You are trustful but not blindly so, and you can be carried away
without conviction. You can please, but can you love? It is to be
feared that those who feel only the passions of others, for that very
reason never attain the passion that they so perfectly express, and
which in the world as in the theatre lasts so short a time. Thus
privileged you might be sublime. Be not content to remain the most
perfect actor that the stage and the world have ever produced.
Vexation stirs you, obstacles disgust you, and constraint wearies you,
but the trick of counterfeiting feeling has become so natural to you
that we rather divine than see your impressions. In your face, as in
the whole of your being, there is a delicacy and certainty of
expression full of charm. Greater daintiness of bearing, greater
distinction of manner, greater tact in conversation or greater
soundness of judgment, no one could possess: to invincible
perseverance you add an iron will and are able to attack great
difficulties by force of character as well as by originality. Every
new part is for you the material for a triumph, of which you are happy
without being proud, and your modesty justifies your success. When you
cannot solve a problem, you outflank it with admirable skill; you are
a perfect improvisor, and though we never know what you will say, you
always say what should be said. An opinion of you formed in society
from first impressions would quote you as the model of all women; but
be not content to become an admirable actress, become a perfect model
in all respects. To restore the dignity of the theatre by showing that
passions can be expressed but need not be felt, would be a true glory
and one which you are worthy to claim. Insensible to vulgar sentiment,
you can appreciate deserved praise. You have an excellent judgment of
those who speak to you and can follow good advice. You read the minds
of others with exquisite tact: flattery would leave you untouched but
passion stirs you; sincere praise arouses in you the ambition to
deserve it, unjust criticism shocks you and you prefer to ignore it.
Lively, impressionable, and even imperious, you are nervous,
changeable and irascible under your outward calm, and rather
passionate than capable of deep feeling. Your genius is as great as
your instinct and you will always remain yourself without attempting
to imitate any one. Sublime is a great word, Rachel, and to deserve it
you must reach perfection. The term has been justly applied to you
when you play certain parts in which you are inimitable. Desire that
that term should be applicable to your life, and if any obstacle
should check your path to sublimity, take breath and resume your
progress to the pinnacle of glory. Neglect no tendril of your crown as
a woman, and if it is your pleasure to collect wreaths of laurel,
disdain not the spray of lilies which contrasts with them so finely. I
am no prophet and even less a flatterer, but of all those who have
met you, I am perhaps the one who has best understood your position,
and my frankness is the irrevocable proof of my esteem. You will be
astonished by these words and perhaps be angry, but you will feel no
grudge against me, for your mind is too great not to love the truth.
But you will think that I am not every one, and that is indeed a valid
argument when I am confronted by you who resemble no one. Your genius
is depicted on your expressive countenance, and to see you is to know
you, for those at least who can study you. Complete frankness is
difficult towards one who must be ever self-observant. Your look is
piercing and attempts to read the depths of the heart, but if your
words are sweet your thoughts are often bitter. What might you be if
you had the courage to abandon all these delusions and to seek
realities? Ever the perfection of grace upon the stage, you are no
less graceful in society, nor does any one appear there with greater
charm, distinction and simplicity. You are welcomed and noticed
wherever you go; all seek your society, but you have too much pride
and real dignity to desire a fleeting success. Your look sometimes
expresses madness, passion, extravagance and delirium, and when you
feel this, your eyelids droop and immediately restore the greatest
calm and sweetness to your face. You are a most exceptional person,
difficult to know and yet more difficult to explain. Too much severity
towards you would be an injustice; we may be afraid of the dangers
which surround you, but your destiny alone can be blamed for them. Who
else in your place would have been what you are? And how many
obstacles must you not have overcome to attain so fair a result?
Everywhere around you are flatterers, admirers, courtiers, adorers,
and no support, no real friend. How can you safely avoid these many
rocks and reefs? If, however, you understand the high and noble
mission to which you are called by the world and by your surprising
success, you will never be unequal to your task however difficult it
may appear. Talent is all that is usually asked from an artist, but
more is asked from you. We wish you to be worthy of your renown,
worthy of yourself, and, in short, to be that which you must be to
justify the esteem which you inspire. Such demands are entirely an
honour, for they show that you are appreciated. Remember that if you
do much for the world, the world has done much to support you against
envy, at the beginning of your career. Do not fall beneath its hopes
and your destiny will be truly great, your life worthy of envy, and
you will hold the fairest place in the whole of dramatic history, for
the historian will be able to say: Rachel has shown that purity of
heart and soul are the food of genius and the best source of real
talent. Yes, Rachel, it is my real belief that you will offer the
world that has adopted you nobility and generosity of conduct in
return for its benefits. As you are endowed with so much energy, can
you lack energy in well-doing? No, for you portray virtue too
eloquently not to love it. At twenty years life is beginning and your
life must be unparalleled. Live, therefore, so that you can always
meet the severest eyes and never be like those debtors who do not pay
their debts. Continue, in short, to be one of those brilliant
personages of whom our country is proud, but whom it has the right to


_Note by M. DE BACOURT on the conversation of the COMTE D'ARTOIS and

(_"Memoirs of Prince Talleyrand," vol. i. Appendix to the first

We wish to add to this passage[251] certain details which M. de
Talleyrand had omitted or perhaps forgotten. It is certain that at the
time to which this passage refers[252] M. de Talleyrand had several
interviews with the Comte d'Artois in which he tried to convince the
Prince of the necessity for vigorous measures; while supporting the
concessions which the King had already made, he urged the energetic
repression of the popular agitations which were of daily occurrence
and had already stained the streets of the capital with blood. The
most important and the last of these interviews took place at Marly on
the night of the 16th and 17th of July, 1789, a few hours before the
Prince left France. When M. de Talleyrand appeared at the house of the
Comte d'Artois the Prince was already in bed, but none the less urged
him to come in. The conversation lasted for more than two hours, and
M. de Talleyrand again explained the dangers of the situation and
begged the Prince to communicate them to the King. The Comte d'Artois
in much agitation rose and went to the King, and after a lengthy
absence he came back to tell M. de Talleyrand that nothing could be
done with the King, who had resolved to yield rather than to shed a
drop of blood by resisting the popular demonstrations. "As for me,"
added the Comte d'Artois, "I have made up my mind that I shall leave
France to-morrow morning." M. de Talleyrand vainly urged the Prince to
abandon this resolution, pointing out the difficulties and dangers in
which it might involve him and showing how it might prejudice his own
rights and those of his children in the future. The Comte d'Artois
persisted and M. de Talleyrand eventually said, "Then, my Lord, it
only remains for each of us to think of his own interests, as the King
and the Prince are deserting theirs and those of the monarchy."
"That," replied the Prince, "is precisely what I should advise you to
do. Whatever may happen I shall never be able to blame you, and you
can always rely upon my friendship." The Comte d'Artois left the
country the next day.

  [251] An allusion to pages 123 and 124 of vol. i. of the _Memoirs
  of Prince Talleyrand_ in which he referred to his interviews with
  the Comte d'Artois, without giving details of them.

  [252] June 1789, after the famous session of the 17th, when the
  Third Estate had proclaimed itself to be the National Assembly;
  M. de Talleyrand was at that time one of the clerical Deputies.

In the month of April 1814, M. de Talleyrand, who had become President
of the Provisional Government, was able to tell the Comte d'Artois,
who was then at Nancy awaiting events, that Louis XVIII. had been
called to the throne, and that the Prince had been invited to go to
Paris to take the post of Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom. He
commissioned the Baron de Vitrolles with this message; when the Baron
was on the point of departure, while the Prince's despatch was being
sealed, M. de Talleyrand walked about with him in the hall of his
residence in the Rue St. Florentin and told him the story of the
interview of July 16, 1789. He then said, "Oblige me by asking the
Comte d'Artois if he remembers this little incident."

M. de Vitrolles, after delivering this important message, asked the
Prince M. de Talleyrand's question and received this reply: "I
remember the incident perfectly, and M. de Talleyrand's account is
entirely correct."

As we were informed that M. de Vitrolles had related this anecdote to
several people, we thought it our duty to appeal to his memory and his
loyalty; to justify this expression of loyalty it must be said that
after the revolution of July 1830 M. de Vitrolles had broken off his
relations with M. de Talleyrand and had criticised his actions very
severely. Hence the tone of hostility and bitterness which is
perceptible in the letter from M. de Vitrolles which we propose to
insert here; we think that this hostility will be nothing but a
guarantee both for the reader and for ourselves, of the sincerity
with which M. de Vitrolles has made his declaration, and of the
authenticity of the passage in the _Memoirs of M. de Talleyrand_. The
slight differences which will be noticed in the story as given by M.
de Talleyrand and as it appears in the letter from M. de Vitrolles can
be naturally explained as the result of lapse of time which has
affected the memories of the two narrators. The fact, however, remains
certain that M. de Talleyrand in July 1789 believed that the
revolutionary movement could be stopped, was strong enough to say what
he thought and bold enough to undertake the task of checking it. He is
not, perhaps, the only man who boasted of it later, but we think that
we have shown at least that he did not boast wrongly. The following is
the letter from M. de Vitrolles:


    _Paris, April 6, 1852._

   Sir,--As you have placed some value upon the testimony which I
   can give with respect to a special incident in the life of M. de
   Talleyrand, I think that I cannot better satisfy your wish than
   by copying here what I wrote many years ago in a narrative of the
   events of 1814.

   "When the Emperor of Russia and the Prince de Talleyrand had
   realised that the presence of the King's brother invested with
   power as a Lieutenant-General of the Realm became necessary, and
   when I started to induce Monsieur to come to Paris, I had several
   interviews on this subject with the President of the Provisional
   Government (the Prince de Talleyrand). In the last conversation
   at the moment of departure we discussed the forms and conditions
   under which Monseigneur was to be received: after a moment's
   silence the Prince de Talleyrand continued with his gentle smile
   and in a tone which was intended to be careless and almost

   "'I beg you to ask the Comte d'Artois if he remembers the last
   opportunity that I had of seeing him. It was in the month of July
   1789, and the Court was at Marly. Three or four of my friends had
   been startled like myself by the rapidity and violence of the
   movement which was sweeping men's minds away, and we resolved to
   inform King Louis XVI. of the real state of affairs of which the
   Court and the Ministers seemed to be ignorant. We requested His
   Majesty to be so kind as to receive us. We were anxious that this
   audience should be kept secret in his interests as well as our
   own. We were informed that the King had commissioned his brother,
   the Comte d'Artois, to receive us, and an appointment was given
   us at Marly in the residence which the Comte d'Artois occupied
   alone. We arrived there at midnight.'

   "M. de Talleyrand told me the precise date and the names of the
   friends who accompanied him; they were members of the National
   Assembly and of that minority of nobles who had joined the Third
   Estate, but I have forgotten both the date and the names.

   "'When we came before the Comte d'Artois,' continued M. de
   Talleyrand, 'we told him with full frankness the state of affairs
   and of the country as we saw it. We told him that it was a
   delusion to suppose that the movement that had begun in men's
   minds could be easily laid to rest. Procrastination, negotiation,
   and a few concessions were not the means of averting the danger
   which threatened France, the Throne, and the King. The true means
   were a strong display of the royal authority wisely and prudently
   exerted. We knew the ways and means, and our position allowed us
   to undertake the task and to guarantee success, if the King's
   confidence called us to act. The Comte d'Artois listened very
   carefully and fully appreciated our representations, perhaps with
   the idea that we were exaggerating the danger of the situation
   and our own powers of improving it; but, as he told us, he had
   been ordered by the King only to hear us and to bring to him the
   information which we wished to impart; he could give us no answer
   and had no power to pledge the King's will or word. At that point
   we requested the Comte d'Artois to tell the King that if the step
   we were taking in all good conscience and good faith was not
   appreciated, if it had no consequence and led to no result,
   Monseigneur must not be astonished if we followed the new current
   of national progress, in impotence to stand against the torrent
   which threatened to sweep everything away. Ask Monsieur, if you
   please,' repeated M. de Talleyrand, 'if the conversation of that
   night has remained in his memory; it was just before the time
   when he left France.'

   "I admired the cleverness of the man who could find in one of
   these recollections an explanation an excuse and almost a
   justification for the whole of his revolutionary life. He would
   have found many other similar excuses to justify different and
   even contrary circumstances. When I heard this story, which was
   related with a kind of indifference and childlike simplicity, I
   ventured to doubt whether the recollections of Monsieur would be
   in complete correspondence with the words I had just heard.
   However, when I performed M. de Talleyrand's commission at Nancy,
   Monseigneur told me without going into details that he had not
   forgotten the incident and that my reminder of the circumstance
   was in entire harmony with the truth."

   I trust, Sir, that this testimony will fulfil your requirements.
   I thank you for giving me this opportunity of presenting my
   compliments, and I beg to remain,

    Faithfully yours,



   [The names followed by an asterisk (*) are those which have been
   already given with more details in the Biographical Index to vol.
   I.; those followed by two asterisks (**) have been given in vol.


  ABERDEEN, Lord* (1784-1860). Diplomatist and English statesman.
    Prime Minister from 1852-1855.

  ACERENZA, the Duchesse d'** (1783-1876). Third daughter of the
    last Duke of Courlande, and sister of the Duchesse de

  AFFRE, Denis Auguste** (1793-1848). Archbishop of Paris from 1840;
    successor to M. de Quélen. On June 25, 1848, in an attempt to
    stop the bloodshed which had been proceeding for four days in
    Paris, Mgr. Affre went to one of the barricades of the Faubourg
    St. Antoine, and was struck by a bullet and died of the wound.

  AFFRE (Saint). She lived in the time of Diocletian; after leading
    a very scandalous life at Augsburg she was converted by the
    preaching of Saint Narcissus, and received baptism. She
    underwent martyrdom and death in 304 A.D.

  AGOULT, the Vicomtesse d'.* Died in 1841 at Goritz in exile, where
    she had followed the Dauphine, whose Mistress of the Robes she

  ALAVA, Don Ricardo de* (1780-1843). Lieutenant-General of the
    Spanish army.

  ALBUFÉRA, the Duchesse d'** (1791-1884). _Née_ de Saint Joseph.

  ALDBOROUGH, Lady.* Married Lord Aldborough in 1804.

  ALTON SHÉE DE LIGNÈRES, the Comte** (1810-1874). Peer of France in

  ALVENSLEBEN, Count Albert of. Born in 1794. He was Minister of
    State in Prussia for many years.

  AMPÈRE, Jean Jacques* (1800-1864). Distinguished literary man.

  ANCELOT, M. (1794-1854). Author of tragedies and comedies, and
    member of the French Academy.

  ANDRAL, Dr. Gabriel (1797-1876). Learned French doctor and
    son-in-law of M. Royer Collard.

  ANGOULÊME, the Duc d'** (1775-1844). Eldest son of King Charles X.

  ANHALT-DESSAU, the Duchess of (1796-1850). Frederica of Prussia,
    daughter of Prince Ludwig of Prussia and of the Princess of
    Mecklenburg-Strelitz, sister of Queen Louise, married the Duke
    of Anhalt Dessau in 1818.

  APPONYI, Count Antony** (1782-1852). Austrian diplomatist,
    Ambassador at Paris from 1826-1848. He married a daughter of
    Count Nogarola.

  APPONYI, the Countess. _Née_ Benkendorff, niece of the Princesse
    de Lieven.

  ARAGO, François Dominique (1786-1853). Celebrated astronomer and
    one of the greatest scientists of the nineteenth century.
    Formerly a pupil of the Polytechnic School and a member of the
    Academy of Science. In 1830 he entered upon a political career:
    as a deputy of the Pyrenees he sat on the extreme Left, and was
    the orator of the Opposition; at the revolution of 1848 he
    formed part of the Provisional Government, and directed the
    Ministries of War and of the Navy.

  ARENBERG, Prince Pierre d'* (1790-1877).

  ARENBERG, Princesse Pierre d'* (1808-1842). Daughter of the Duc
    and Duchesse of Périgord.

  ARGOUT, the Comte d'** (1782-1858). French politician and

  ARNFELD, Baron Gustavus Maurice of (1757-1824). A Swede, born in
    Finland. He followed a military career, and was rapidly promoted
    by Gustavus III., who was very fond of him. He incurred the
    disfavour of the Prince Regent during the minority of Gustavus
    IV.; was forced to go into exile, and lived in Russia for
    several years; eventually restored to his old position, he was
    appointed Swedish Minister at Vienna in 1802. After the cession
    of Finland to Russia he was made Governor of Finland in 1813.

  ARNIM-BOITZENBURG, Count Adolphus of (1803-1868). Minister of
    State in Prussia. In 1830 he married Countess Caroline of

  ARNIM-HEINRICHSDORF, Baron Henry of** (1789-1861). Prussian
    diplomatist, Minister at Paris from 1840-1848, then Minister of
    Foreign Affairs at Berlin in 1848 for a short time.

  ASSELINE, Adolphe (1806-1892). Private secretary to the Duchesse
    d'Orléans; he retired after 1848.

  ASTON, Sir Arthur Ingram. Born in 1798. An English diplomatist,
    and Secretary to the Paris Embassy in 1833, and Minister at
    Madrid in 1840.

  AUDIN, J. M. W. (1793-1851). Historian and founder of the famous
    collection of _Guides Richard_, which proved very lucrative.

  AUERSPERG, Princess Gabrielle of (1793-1863). _Née_ Princess
    Lobkowitz. She lost her husband, Prince Vincent of Auersperg in

  AUGUSTENBERG, the Duchess of (1795-1867). Louise Countess of
    Daneskjold married in 1820 the Duke of Augustenberg. She was the
    mother of Queen Caroline of Denmark, wife of Christian VIII.

  AUMALE, Henri d'Orléans, Duc d'** (1822-1897). Fourth son of Louis
    Philippe, and distinguished for his military talent.

  AUMALE, Duchesse d'. Caroline, daughter of the Prince of Salerno,
    married the Duc d'Aumale in 1844 and died in 1869.

  AUSTRIA, the Archduke John of (1782-1859). Son of the Emperor
    Leopold II. and of Princess Louise of Bourbon, daughter of
    Charles III., King of Spain. He was elected Vicar of the Empire
    in 1848 by the Frankfort Assembly, in which he played a somewhat
    insignificant part.

  AUSTRIA, the Archduchess Sophia of* (1805-1872). Daughter of
    Maximilian I., King of Bavaria, and mother of the Emperor
    Francis Joseph I.

  AUSTRIA, the Emperor Francis Joseph I. of. Born in 1830. Son of
    the Archduke Francis Charles (1802-1878), and of the Archduchess
    Sophia, and nephew of the Emperor Ferdinand I., who abdicated in
    1848 at Olmütz. Francis Joseph I. ascended the throne before the
    abdication of his father, which took place immediately
    afterwards. In 1854 he married his cousin, Princess Elizabeth of
    Bavaria, who died in 1898.

  AUSTRIA, the Archduke Max of (1832-1867). Second brother of the
    Emperor Francis Joseph, and Governor of Lombardy until 1859; he
    accepted in 1864 the Imperial Crown of Mexico, where after many
    grievous disappointments he was shot by his subjects who had
    appointed him their ruler. This unfortunate Prince married in
    1857 Princess Charlotte, daughter of Leopold I., King of the

  AUSTRIA, the Archduke Albert of (1817-1895). One of the most
    renowned military figures during the reign of the Emperor
    Francis Joseph I. In 1844 he married Princess Hildegarde of

  AUSTRIA, the Archduchess Elizabeth of (1831-1903). Daughter of the
    Palatine of Hungary. She married in 1849 Ferdinand Charles
    Victor, Archduke of Modena Este, who died in 1849; in 1854 she
    married the Archduke Charles Ferdinand.

  AYLESBURY, Lord (1773-1856). Charles Bruce, made Marquis of
    Aylesbury in 1821.

  AYLESBURY (Lady). Died in 1893. Maria, daughter of the Hon.
    Charles Tollemache, second wife of Lord Aylesbury, whom she had
    married in 1833. She was very popular in London society.


  BACH, Alexander, Baron (1813-1870). Austrian statesman, Minister
    of Justice in 1848, Minister of the Interior in 1849,
    afterwards appointed Ambassador to the Pope, which office he
    held until 1867.

  BADEN, the Grand Duchess Stephanie of (1789-1860). _Née_ de
    Beauharnais.* Her husband, the Grand Duke Charles of Baden, died
    in 1818.

  BADEN, the Grand Duke Leopold of** (1790-1858). He succeeded his
    brother Louis in 1830.

  BADEN, the Grand Duchess Sophia of (1801-1865). Daughter of the
    King of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus IV. She married in 1819 Prince
    Leopold of Baden, who died in 1852.

  BADEN, Princess Alexandria of. Born in 1820. She married in 1842
    the Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg Gotha.

  BALLANCHE, Pierre Simon (1776-1847). Philosopher and mystic;
    director of a large publishing house at Lyons. He settled in
    Paris, where he was welcomed by illustrious friends. He
    published several books marked by real learning, which secured
    him a place in the French Academy in 1844.

  BALZAC, Honoré de** (1799-1850). French man of letters.

  BARANTE, the Baron Prosper de.* Diplomatist and French historian;
    for a long time Ambassador at St. Petersburg.

  BARBÈS, Armand (1809-1870). French politician and representative
    of the people in 1848, nicknamed the "Bayard of the Democracy."
    He was imprisoned in 1849, released in 1854, but went into
    voluntary exile and died in Holland.

  BARING, Sir Francis (1796-1866). Made Baron Northbrook a short
    time before his death. He had been a Member of Parliament for
    Portsmouth from 1826-1865; Chancellor of the Exchequer from
    1839-1841, and First Lord of the Admiralty from 1849-1852.

  BARING, Lady Arabella (1809-1884). Daughter of the Count of
    Effingham. She married Sir Francis Baring in 1841, and was his
    second wife.

  BARROT, Odilon* (1791-1873). French politician.

  BARRY, Dr. Martin (1802-1855). Of Scotch extraction, he had
    studied in England, France, and Germany, and took his doctor's
    degree in 1831. He was a great friend of Alexander von Humboldt.

  BASSANO, Hughes Maret, Duc de* (1763-1839). Held important
    military and political posts under the Empire and the July

  BATTHYÁNY, the Countess (1798-1840). By birth Baroness of
    Ahrenfeldt. She married as her second husband in 1828 Count
    Gustavus Batthyány Strathmann.

  BAUDRAND, General, Count* (1774-1848). Served with distinction
    under the Republic, the Empire, the Restoration, and the July

  BAUFFREMONT, the Duchesse de.** Born in 1771. _Née_ de la
    Vauguyon. She married in 1787 the Duc Alexandre de Bauffremont.
    She was a friend of Prince Talleyrand.

  BAUFFREMONT, the Princess de** (1802-1860). Laurence, daughter of
    the Duc de Montmorency, had married in 1819 Prince Théodore de

  BAUSSET, Cardinal** (1748-1824). Bishop of Alais and member of the
    French Academy.

  BAUTAIN, the Abbé** (1796-1867). At first a pupil of the Normal
    School, he was appointed Vicar-General of the diocese of Paris
    in 1849.

  BAVARIA, King Louis I.** (1786-1868). Ascended the throne in 1825,
    and abdicated in 1848.

  BAVARIA, Queen Theresa of** (1792-1854). Daughter of Duke
    Frederick of Saxony Altenburg, she married in 1810 Louis I. of

  BAVARIA, the Crown Prince of** (1811-1864). Son of Louis I. He
    succeeded in 1848 to the throne under the name of Maximilian II.
    He had married in 1842 Princess Maria of Prussia.

  BAVARIA, Princess Hildegarde of (1825-1864). She married in 1844
    the Archduke Albert, by whom she had a daughter who afterwards
    married a Duke of Wurtemberg.

  BEAUFORT, Duke Henry of (1792-1848). He first married in 1814 a
    daughter of the Hon. Henry Fitzroy, and in 1822 Emily Frances
    Smith, of the Wellesley family on her mother's side. Her
    husband inherited her father's title in 1835.

  BEAUVALE, Lord (1782-1852). Frederick Lamb.* English diplomatist,
    brother of Lord Melbourne, to whose title he succeeded in 1848.

  BELGIANS, the King of* (1790-1865). Leopold I., Prince of

  BELGIANS, the Queen of** (1812-1850). Louise, Princesse d'Orléans,
    daughter of King Louis Philippe.

  BELGIOJOSO, the Princesse Christine** (1808-1871). Remarkable for
    her beauty, her wit, and her eccentricity. She became famous for
    her liberal ideas. In 1846 she published an _Essay on the
    Formation of Catholic Dogma_ which aroused much discussion.

  BELLUNE, Victor, Duc de (1766-1841). Marshal of France.

  BELOW, General von (1783-1864). A Prussian general who commanded
    the Federal Fortresses from 1843-1847.

  BEM, General Joseph* (1795-1850). A Pole, he first saw service in
    the Polish Artillery in 1812, and covered himself with glory in
    the insurrection of 1830, and at the time of the defence of
    Warsaw in 1831. On his defeat he took refuge in France, and
    reappeared in Vienna in 1848, at the time of the insurrection,
    when he joined the Hungarians, who had revolted against Austria.
    He afterwards embraced Mohammedanism, and took service in

  BENACET, M. (1773-1848). Director of the Baden gambling houses,
    and successor to M. Chabert. He paid six thousand florins a year
    for the privilege; his son, who succeeded him, paid forty-five
    thousand. On the death of the latter in 1868, his nephew, M.
    Dupressoir, obtained this inheritance. To them Baden owes its
    theatre, its hospital, and part of its prosperity.

  BENNINGSEN, Count Alexander von. Born in 1809. A German statesman,
    son of the famous Russian general. He had studied in Germany,
    entered the Financial Chamber, and became chief overseer of
    taxes in Hanover. In 1848 he was President of the Council and
    Minister of Foreign Affairs. He resigned in 1850.

  BÉRIOT, Charles Auguste de (1802-1870). Famous Belgian violinist,
    and one of the most remarkable virtuosos of his time. He married
    Madame Malibran.

  BERNARD, Samuel (1651-1739). Rich financier and famous contractor.
    He made a noble use of his immense fortune, and came to the help
    of Kings Louis XIV. and Louis XV., with whom he was in very high
    favour. Chamaillard and Desmaret borrowed considerable sums of
    him for State purposes.

  BERNSTORFF, Count Albert von (1809-1873). Prussian diplomatist and
    successively Minister Plenipotentiary at Munich, Vienna, Naples,
    and London; Minister of Foreign Affairs for Prussia and
    Ambassador at London.

  BERRYER, Antoine* (1790-1868). Celebrated lawyer and Legitimist
    orator, member of the French Academy and several times deputy.

  BERTIN DE VEAUX, M.* (1771-1842). Founded the _Journal des
    Débats_, was Councillor of State and Deputy.

  BERTIN DE VEAUX, Auguste (1799-1879). Cavalry officer and attaché
    to the staff of the Duc d'Orléans. He was a deputy from 1837 to
    1842 and then peer of France. He was appointed brigadier-general
    in 1852 and chief officer of the Legion of Honour in 1867.

  BETHMANN-HOLLWEG, Moritz Augustus von (1795-1877). German lawyer,
    a friend of Savigny, and an authority on jurisprudence. He held
    the post of Minister of Public Worship in Prussia in 1848 and
    showed unusual competence as Minister of Education. He resigned
    in 1852.

  BÉTHISY, the Marquis de (1815-1881). Peer of France till 1848. He
    married a daughter of the Duc de Rohan-Chabot.

  BEUST, Count Frederick Ferdinand of (1809-1886). Saxon statesman
    and Minister of Foreign Affairs in Saxony in 1849. Summoned to
    Austria after the war of 1866, he became President of the
    Austrian Council with the title of Chancellor of the Empire. He
    cleverly reconciled Austria with Hungary and secured the
    coronation of the Emperor Francis Joseph, King of Hungary, at
    Pesth on June 8, 1867. In 1871 he was appointed Austrian
    Ambassador at Paris and afterwards at London, where he died.

  BIGNON, François (1789-1868). A business man of Nantes. Knight of
    the Legion of Honour, and appointed deputy in 1834. His business
    capacity gave him a certain position in the Chamber.

  BINZER, Frau von** (1801-1891). Wife of a German man of letters.

  BIRON-COURLANDE (Prince Charles of).** Born in 1811.

  BIRON-COURLANDE (Princess Charles of). Born in 1810 as Princess of
    Lippe-Biesterfeld, and married Prince Biron in 1833.

  BIRON-COURLANDE, Princess Fanny of** (1815-1883). Sister of the
    Countess of Hohenthal. She married General von Boyen.

  BIRON-COURLANDE, Prince Calixtus von (1817-1882). He inherited in
    1848 the seniority and the lands of his brother Charles. After
    spending some years in the Prussian military service, he
    afterwards held a high position at the Prussian Court. In 1845
    he married Princess Helena Mertschersky.

  BIRON-COURLANDE, Prince Peter of (1818-1852). Cuirassier officer
    in Prussia.

  BLUM, Robert (1807-1848). Famous German revolutionist. He was
    first known as the editor of several newspapers, and in 1848 he
    was appointed Deputy to the Frankfort Parliament. He was one of
    the most ardent promoters of the rising at Vienna; was taken
    prisoner and shot by the victorious troops of the Government.

  BODELSCHWINGH, Charles von (1800-1873). Prussian Minister of
    State, who twice held the post of Financial Minister, from
    1851-1858, and from 1862-1866.

  BOIGNE, the Comtesse de* (1780-1866). Born Adèle d'Osmond. Her
    salon was one of the most important at Paris from 1814-1859.

  BOISMILON, M. de. At first private secretary to the Duc d'Orléans
    and afterwards tutor to the Comte de Paris.

  BONALD, the Vicomte de (1754-1840). The most famous representative
    of the monarchical and religious doctrines of the Restoration.
    Exiled in 1791, he did not return to France until the
    proclamation of the Empire. From 1815 to 1822 he was a Deputy,
    and was made a peer of France in 1823, and afterwards member of
    the Academy. He devoted his pen and his oratorical powers to the
    maintenance of the Crown and the Church, thus contributing to
    facilitate the return of religious ideas to France.

  BONAPARTE, Lucien* (1773-1840). Third brother of Napoleon I.; made
    Prince of Canino by Pope Pius VII.

  BONAPARTE, Prince Louis** (1808-1873). Son of Louis Bonaparte and
    of Hortense de Beauharnais. After an adventurous youth he took
    advantage of the events of 1848 to secure his nomination as
    President of the Republic, and re-established the Empire to his
    own advantage in 1852, taking the name of Napoleon III.

  BONIN, General Eduard von (1793-1865). At the head of a body of
    Prussian troops in 1848, he was ordered to occupy the duchies of
    Schleswig and Holstein, where he afterwards organised a national
    army. In 1852 he took the place of General Stockhausen as
    Minister of War at Berlin.

  BORDEAUX, the Duc de* (1820-1883). Son of the Duc de Berry and
    grandson of Charles X.; he also bore the title of Comte de

  BOURQUENEY, the Comte de* (1800-1869). French diplomatist;
    appointed Ambassador at Constantinople in 1844 and at Vienna in

  BRAGANZA, the Duchess Amelia of* (1812-1873). Daughter of the Duke
    Eugène of Leuchtenberg and second wife of Pedro I. Emperor of

  BRANDENBURG, Count Frederick William of (1792-1850). A son of the
    morganatic marriage of King Frederick William II. with the
    Countess Dönhoff. He entered the army at an early age: in 1848
    he took the place of Herr von Pfuel as leader of the Prussian
    Cabinet, and in November 1849 was sent to Warsaw to negotiate
    with Russia concerning the conflict between Austria and Prussia.

  BRANDENBURG (the Countess of). _Née_ Massenbach, she married the
    Count of Brandenburg in 1818. For several years she was chief
    lady to Queen Elizabeth of Prussia.

  BRANDHOFEN, Frau von. _Née_ Anne Plochel in 1802; she married
    morganatically in 1827 the Archduke John of Austria; she then
    received the title of Baroness of Brandhofen which was changed
    in 1845 to that of Countess of Meran.

  BRAZIL, the Emperor Dom Pedro II. of (1825-1891). Succeeded his
    father under the regency in 1831 and became ruler in 1840. In
    1843 he married Princess Theresa of Bourbon, daughter of Francis
    I. King of the Two Sicilies. The revolution drove him out of
    Brazil in 1890.

  BREDY, Hugo von (1792-1848). Austrian officer of artillery:
    major-general in 1846. He was killed in the Vienna Insurrection
    on October 6, 1848.

  BRESSON, Comte* (1788-1847). French diplomatist.

  BRESSON, Comtesse. _Née_ de Cominge-Guitaut, of a noble Burgundian

  BRIFAUT, Charles (1787-1867). Poet and French man of letters;
    member of the French Academy. He wrote with the same enthusiasm
    upon the birth of the King of Rome and the return of Louis

  BRIGNOLE-SALE, the Marquis Antoine de (1786-1863). Born of an old
    illustrious family of Genoa, he was first reporter to the
    Imperial Council of State, then Prefect of Savona, and in 1814
    Plenipotentiary Minister for the town of Genoa at the Council of
    Vienna. He supported the Monarchy in Savoy and became Chief of
    the Royal University in 1816, Ambassador at Rome in 1839, and
    afterwards Ambassador at Paris where he remained for many years.

  BRIGNOLE-SALE, the Marquise de. _Née_ Durazzo. She was the mother
    of the Duchesse Melzi and of the Duchesse de Galliera.

  BROGLIE, Duc Victor de* (1785-1870). Chief of the Doctrinaire
    Party and several times Minister under Louis-Philippe. He had
    married Albertine de Staël, who died in 1840.

  BRONZINO, Angiolo (1502-1572). Italian painter, born at Florence.

  BROUGHAM, Lord Henry* (1778-1868). English politician.

  BRUGES, Madame de. Died in 1897. _Née_ Emilie de Zeuner. She had
    married as her first husband the Comte de Bruges, a French
    _émigré_ in Prussia, while her second husband was General von
    Berger of the Prussian service.

  BRUNNOW, Baron (1796-1875). A Russian diplomatist. Minister at
    Darmstadt in 1839. He was appointed London Ambassador in 1840
    after negotiating the marriage of the Hereditary Grand Duke, who
    became Alexander II. He took a large share in the negotiations
    which led to the conclusion of the treaty of the quadruple
    alliance on July 15, 1840, in which French politics received so
    severe a check. Accredited to the Germanic Confederation in 1855
    he was nominated, together with Count Orloff, to represent the
    Russian Government at the Congress of Paris in 1856.

  BRUNSWICK, Duke William of (1806-1884). This Prince took the reins
    of government in 1825, after the flight of his brother Charles,
    and became definite ruler of the duchy from 1837.

  BUGEAUD DE LA PICONNERIE, Marshal (1784-1849). Entered the army in
    1804 and served with distinction in the campaigns under the
    Empire; he then withdrew to his estate of Excideuil in Dordogne
    after the fall of Napoleon. Recalled to active service in 1830
    he loyally supported the new monarchy, energetically repressed
    several insurrections at Paris and was sent to Algiers in 1836,
    where he defeated Abd-el-Kader and forced him to accept the
    treaty of Tafna. In 1840 he was appointed Governor of Algeria
    and showed fine administrative powers, defeated the forces of
    Morocco in the battle of Isly and consolidated the French
    possessions in Northern Africa.

  BÜLOW, Baron Henry von* (1790-1846). Prussian diplomatist. He was
    Minister in England and afterwards Minister of Foreign Affairs
    in Prussia.

  BÜLOW, Count Hans Adolphus Charles of (1807-1869). Prussian
    statesman, who was commissioned to undertake several
    negotiations in Hanover, Oldenburg, and in Brunswick. From 1850
    to 1858 he directed the affairs of Mecklenburg.

  BULWER, Sir Henry Lytton** (1804-1872). English diplomatist.
    Minister Plenipotentiary in Spain from 1843-1848; Ambassador at
    Constantinople in 1858.

  BUNSEN, the Chevalier Christian Charles Josias von (1791-1860).
    German diplomatist. He spent twenty years at Rome as Secretary
    to the Prussian Legation and negotiated the question of mixed
    marriages. He was very intimate with the Prince Royal of Prussia
    who became King Frederick William IV. in 1840. He was appointed
    by this ruler Ambassador at London, where he remained until the
    Crimean War in 1854.

  BUTENIEFF, Apollinaire de. Russian diplomatist, Minister at
    Constantinople and afterwards at Rome. He married as his second
    wife Marie de Chreptowicz.


  CAMBRIDGE, Prince George of. Born in 1819. Son of Duke Adolphus
    of Cambridge and of Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel; he became
    Duke of Cambridge in 1850 on the death of his father, and held
    a high position at the head of the English Army.

  CAMBRIDGE, Princess Augusta of. Born in 1822, and sister of Prince
    George. She married in 1843 the Grand Duke of
    Mecklenburg-Strelitz, at that time Hereditary Prince.

  CAMPHAUSEN, Ludolf (1802-1890). President of the Prussian Ministry
    in 1848, afterwards Minister Plenipotentiary to the Central
    Germanic power, where he proposed a confederation in which
    Prussia was to have the controlling influence.

  CAPO D'ISTRIA, Count* (1776-1831). Native of Corfu.

  CARAMAN, the Marquise de.** _Née_ Gallard de Béarn; widow of the
    Marquis de Caraman after 1836.

  CARDIGAN, James Thomas Brudenell Bruce (1797-1864). General and
    peer of England; of an old family in which the family of the
    Marquises of Aylesbury originated. After several differences
    with the officers of his regiment, he had a duel with a captain
    and wounded his adversary. He was then tried before the House of
    Lords in its judicial capacity in 1841 and was acquitted.

  CARIGNAN, Princesse Joséphine de (1753-1797). Grandmother of King
    Charles Albert of Sardinia, daughter of Louis Charles de
    Lorraine, Duc d'Elbeuf, Prince de Lambesc, Comte de Brionne. She
    married in 1768 Prince Victor Amédée II. de Carignan, who was
    settled at Paris.

  CARLOTTA, the Infanta* (1804-1844). Daughter of the King of the
    Two Sicilies and sister of Queen Marie Christina of Spain.

  CARNÉ, the Comte Joseph de (1804-1876). Entered the office of the
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1825 and joined the July
    Government. He was elected Deputy and took an active part in
    parliamentary work. He entered the French Academy in 1863.

  CAROLATH-BEUTHEN, Prince Henry of** (1783-1864). General of
    Prussian cavalry and chief royal huntsman.

  CAROLATH-BEUTHEN, Princess Adelaide of (1797-1849). Daughter of
    the Count of Pappenheim, she married Prince Henry Carolath in

  CARS, the Duchesse des. Died in 1870. Her maiden name was
    Augustine du Bouchet de Sourches de Tourzel. In 1817 she married
    Duc Amédée François des Cars.

  CASTELLANE, the Comtesse de* (1796-1847). _Née_ Cordelia
    Greffulhe, mother of the Marquis Henri de Castellane.

  CASTELLANE, the Marquis Henri de** (1814-1847). Eldest son of the
    Marshal de Castellane and Deputy for Cantal.

  CASTELLANE, the Marquise Henri de (1820-1890). _Née_ Pauline de
    Périgord,* grandniece of the Prince de Talleyrand and daughter
    of the author of these memoirs.

  CASTELLANE, Marie de. Born in 1840. Daughter of the Marquis and
    Marquise Henri de Castellane and granddaughter of the author of
    these memoirs. In 1857 she married at Sagan Prince Antony
    Radziwill, who died in 1904.

  CASTLEREAGH, Viscount* (1769-1822). English statesman and an
    embittered enemy of the French revolution and of Napoleon I.

  CAULAINCOURT, Armand Augustin Louis, Marquis de, Duc de Vicence
    (1772-1827). French general and the business-man of Napoleon I.
    at the Congress of Châtillon and one of his most faithful

  CAVAIGNAC, General Louis Eugène (1802-1857). After gaining
    practically all his military experience in Algiers, he was
    appointed governor of this province after the revolution of
    1848. On the _coup d'état_ of December 2, 1851, he was arrested
    and transported to Ham. On his liberation he requested to be
    retired and entered private life.

  CELLAMARE, the Prince of (1657-1733). Was appointed Spanish
    Ambassador to the Court of France in 1715. He became, in concert
    with the Duchesse du Maine, the instrument by which Alberoni
    worked against the regent. His correspondence was intercepted
    towards the end of 1718 and he was himself arrested and
    conducted to the Spanish frontier.

  CÉSOLE, the Comte Eugène de. Lived at Nice and was very popular in
    society by reason of his cheerful disposition and his talents as
    a violinist.

  CÉSOLE, the Comtesse de (1812-1892). _Née_ de Castellane. She
    lived at Nice to the end of her life.

  CESSAC, the Comte de (1752-1841). Jean Gérard Lacué de Cessac was
    on duty when the revolution broke out. He was a member of the
    Council of the Anciens in 1775. A supporter of the 18th
    Brumaire, Cessac was summoned to the Council of State and
    became Minister of War in 1807 and remained faithful to the
    Emperor till his death. In 1831 Cessac entered the Chamber of

  CHABANNES LA PALICE, the Comte Alfred de* (1799-1868).
    Brigadier-General and Aide-de-Camp of Louis Philippe, whom he
    followed into exile.

  CHABANNES LA PALICE, the Comtesse Alfred de (1802-1891). Of
    English origin; her maiden name was Miss Antoinette Ellice.

  CHABOT, Philippe de, Comte de Jarnac** (1815-1875). French
    diplomatist. Deeply attached to the Orléans family.

  CHABOT, Mlle. Olivia de. Married in 1844 the Marquis de Lasteyrie,
    who died in 1883.

  CHAIX D'EST ANGE, Gustave (1800-1876). Famous legal authority,
    magistrate and French politician. Grand officer of the Legion of
    Honour and Senator in 1864.

  CHALAIS, the Prince Elie de** (1809-1883). Eldest son of the Duc
    de Périgord.

  CHANALEILLES, the Marquise Stéphanie de. Second daughter of the
    Duc de Crillon. She married Sosthène de Chanaleilles in 1832.
    She was a sister of Countess Pozzo.

  CHANGARNIER, General (1793-1877). After taking part in the Spanish
    war in 1823, he won distinction in the Algerian campaigns. He
    was exiled after the _coup d'état_ of 1851, returned to France
    in 1859 and served in the army of Metz.

  CHARTRES, Robert d'Orléans, Duc de. Born in 1840. Second son of
    the Duc de Orléans and Princesse Helena of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
    He married in 1863 his cousin-german, Françoise, daughter of the
    Prince de Joinville.

  CHATEAUBRIAND, the Vicomte de* (1768-1848). One of the most famous
    French writers of his time.

  CHATEAUBRIAND, the Vicomtesse de (1775-1845). _Née_ Celeste de la
    Vigne Buisson, she had married in 1792 the Vicomte de
    Chateaubriand with whose sisters she had been intimate since her

  CHEVREUSE, the Duchesse Marie de (1600-1679). Widow of Duc Albert
    de Luynes; she married Claude de Lorraine, Duc de Chevreuse and
    played a part in the Fronde and in the plots against Mazarin.

  CHOMEL, Dr. (1788-1859). Doctor to King Louis-Philippe and the
    Duchesse d'Orléans. He was the first to begin a regular clinical
    practice at the Hospital of la Charité. He was a pupil of

  CHREPTOWICZ, Countess Helena.** Died in 1878. A daughter of Count
    Nesselrode, chancellor of Russia. She married Count Michael
    Chreptowicz, a Russian diplomatist.

  CIRCOURT, the Comtesse de (1808-1863). _Née_ Anastasie de
    Klustine. She married in 1830 the Comte Adolphe de Circourt and
    held a very remarkable salon at Paris. She was an intimate
    friend of Count Cavour and they maintained a highly interesting
    correspondence; several of the letters from Count Cavour to
    Madame de Circourt have been published by the Comte Nigra.

  CLANRICARDE, Lady,* died in 1876. She was the only daughter of the
    famous George Canning.

  CLARENDON, Lord* (1800-1870). Diplomatist and English politician.

  CLARY-ALDRINGEN, Princess (1777-1864). By birth Countess Louise
    Chotek, she had married in 1802 Prince Charles Clary Aldringen,
    her cousin-german.

  CLARY-ALDRINGEN, Prince Edmund (1813-1894). Son of Prince Charles
    Clary. He was chamberlain at the Austrian Court. He married in
    1841 a Countess Ficquelmont, who died in 1878.

  CLAUSEL, the General, Comte** (1772-1842). Governor of Algiers in
    1830 and Marshal of France in 1831.

  CLÉREMBAULT, the Vicomte Jean Nicolas Adolphe de. Born in 1810.
    Son of the Comte de Clérembault and Consul General for France in
    Prussia in 1809; he served in the navy and became lieutenant. In
    Belgium he married Mlle. Valerie Desœr; he was a knight of the
    Legion of Honour.

  COBURG, Duke Ernst II. of Saxe- (1818-1893). He succeeded his
    father, Ernst I., in 1844 and married in 1842 Alexandrina of

  COBURG, Prince Albert of Saxe- (1819-1861). Brother of Duke Ernst
    II. He married in 1840 Queen Victoria of England.

  COEUR, the Abbé** (1805-1860). A talented pulpit orator. He was
    made Bishop of Troyes in 1848.

  COGNY, Dr.** Doctor at Valençay.

  COIGNY, the Duc Gustave de** (1788-1865). Peer and Marshal of

  COLLOREDO, Count Francis of. Born in 1799. Austrian diplomatist;
    Ambassador at London and afterwards at Rome.

  COLLOREDO, the Countess of. _Née_ Severina Potocka. She married as
    her first husband Sobanski. Count Colloredo became her second
    husband in 1847.

  COMMINES, Philippe de (1445-1509). Chronicler and author of the
    _Memoirs_ of the reigns of Louis XI. and of Charles VIII., and a
    historian of first-rate capacity.

  CONDÉ, the Princesse Louise Adélaïde de (1757-1824). Daughter of
    the Duc de Bourbon Condé and of Charlotte de Rohan Soubise. She
    was appointed Abbess of Remiremont by Louis XVI. in 1784, but
    did not take the veil. Deep feeling for a simple commoner
    induced her to leave the world. She lived in the Benedictine
    Order at Turin, at Warsaw, and even at Nieswiez in a convent
    founded by the Princes Radziwill. There she heard of the death
    of her brother, the Duc d'Enghien. On her return to France the
    Princesse de Condé founded the monastery of the Temple.

  CONSALVI, Cardinal Hercule (1757-1824). He enjoyed the patronage
    of the Princesses of France, the aunts of Louis XVI., and of the
    Cardinal of York, the last of the Stuarts. He occupied important
    posts at the Papal Court of Pius VI., and was the chief agent in
    the election of Pius VII., who made him Cardinal and Secretary
    of State. In 1801 he came to France and signed the famous
    Concordat, but Napoleon in order to remove him from business
    kept him in France in practical exile, and he was unable to
    return to Italy until 1814. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815
    the Cardinal not only obtained the restoration to the Holy See
    of the Marches and of Beneventum and Ponte Corvo, but also
    secured the supremacy of the papal nuncios in the diplomatic

  CONTADES, the Vicomtesse Jules de (1793-1861). Adèle Alexandrine,
    daughter of Gabriel Amys du Poureau. She married Vicomte Jules
    de Contades; after his death in 1844 she married the Duc de
    Luynes whose second wife she was.

  CORNÉLIUS, Peter von** (1787-1867). Famous German painter.

  COSSÉ-BRISSAC, Mlle. Stéphanie Marie de. Daughter of Comte Arthur
    de Cossé-Brissac, married in 1841 Louis Marie de Riffardeau, Duc
    de Rivière.

  COURTIER. An ecclesiastic who enjoyed great popularity.

  COWLEY, Lord (1804-1884). Son of Lord Mornington and nephew of the
    Duke of Wellington. He entered upon a diplomatic career at an
    early age and was accredited to the Germanic Confederation in
    1841; in 1852 he was appointed Ambassador at Paris to take the
    place of Lord Normanby, and took part in the Congress of Paris
    in 1856 with Lord Clarendon. He retained his post in France
    until 1867. In 1833 he had married Olivia FitzGerald of Ross.

  COWPER, Lady Fanny. Died in 1880. Daughter of the first marriage
    of Lady Palmerston and niece of Lord Melbourne. She married in
    1841 Lord Robert Jocelyn (1816-1854), M.P., eldest son of Lord

  CRÉMIEUX, Adolphe (1796-1880). A lawyer and politician who was
    elected Deputy for Chinon in 1842. He joined the government of
    National Defence with Gambetta in 1870 and was appointed
    permanent Senator in 1875.

  CRILLON, Mlle. Marie Louise Amélie de. Daughter of the Marquis de
    Crillon, peer of France. She married in 1842 Prince Armand de
    Polignac, son of the last President of the Council of King
    Charles X.

  CRILLON, Mlle. Valentine de. Sister of the foregoing. She married
    the Comte Charles Pozzo di Borgo.

  CUJAS, Jacques (1520-1590). Famous legal authority of Toulouse,
    nicknamed the Papinian of his age.

  CUSTINE, the Marquis de (1770-1826). Delphine de Sabran, daughter
    of the first marriage of Madame de Boufflers. She married in
    1787 M. de Custine who perished on the scaffold with his
    brother, General de Custine, in 1793. Madame de Custine was a
    friend of Chateaubriand.

  CUSTINE, the Marquis Astolphe de (1790-1857). Son of the
    foregoing. Traveller and French man of letters.

  COUVILLIER-FLEURY, Alfred** (1802-1887). French man of letters.
    Tutor to the Duc d'Aumale, and afterwards his secretary. He was
    elected member of the French Academy in 1866.

  CZARTORYSKI, Prince Adam* (1770-1861). Friend and Minister of the
    Emperor Alexander I. of Russia; he settled in Paris after 1839.


  DALMATIE, the Marquis de (1802-1857). Hector Soult, son of the
    Marshal, general staff officer. He entered the diplomatic
    career in 1830 and was Minister Plenipotentiary at the Hague,
    at Turin and Berlin. For a long time he sat as Deputy for Tarn
    and always supported the Conservative policy. He became a duke
    in 1850 after his father's death.

  DECAZES, the Duc Elie* (1780-1846). Peer of France and Minister
    under Louis XVIII.

  DECAZES, the Duchesse.* _Née_ de Sainte Aulaire.

  DEDEL, Solomon* (1775-1846). Danish diplomatist.

  DEGUERRY, the Abbé (1797-1871). Distinguished preacher and
    chaplain to the Sixth Regiment of the Guard. Under Charles X. he
    was in succession canon of Notre Dame, incumbent of Saint
    Eustache and afterwards of the Madeleine at Paris. During the
    Commune of 1871 he was arrested and shot with Mgr. Darbois and
    President Bonjean. He had been religious director to the Prince

  DELAROCHE, Paul (1797-1856). Famous French painter, pupil of Gros.
    He married at Rome in 1835 Mlle. Louise Vernet, the only
    daughter of Horace Vernet who died in 1845.

  DELESSERT, Gabriel (1786-1858). An officer who distinguished
    himself in the defence of Paris in 1814 and became
    brigadier-general in 1831. He was then prefect of Aude and
    afterwards of Eure-et-Loir from 1834 to 1836; finally he was
    prefect of police from 1836 to 1848; afterwards he retired to
    private life.

  DEVRIENT, Daniel Louis (1784-1832). Famous German actor of French

  DEMIDOFF, the Count Anatole (1813-1870). Anatole Demidoff, Prince
    of San Donato, married in 1841 Princess Mathilda, daughter of
    King Jerome of Westphalia. His father had made a great fortune
    in the Siberian mines and was the first to acclimatise French
    vines in the Crimea.

  DENMARK, Christian VIII., King of (1786-1848). Formerly Prince
    Christian of Denmark,** son of the Hereditary Prince Frederick
    and of the Princess Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; he
    succeeded Frederick VI. on December 3, 1839. His first wife,
    whom he married in 1806, was Charlotta Frederica of
    Mecklenburg-Schwerin, by whom he had a son, afterwards King
    Frederick VII.

  DENMARK, the Queen of (1796-1881).** Caroline Amelia, daughter of
    the Duke and Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein Sondersburg
    Augustenburg, second wife of King Christian VIII., by whom she
    had no children.

  DEVONSHIRE, the Duke of. Died in 1858. By name William Cavendish.

  DIEGO LEON. Died in 1841. Spanish general, highly renowned for his
    bravery. He belonged to the moderate Conservative party which
    supported Queen Maria Christina at the time of her Regency. When
    Espartero wished to dethrone her, Diego Leon headed a conspiracy
    in 1841 for the purpose of abducting the young Queen Isabella
    and taking her to a provincial town, in order to remove her from
    the influence of Espartero. A combat took place in the palace of
    Madrid; Diego Leon was captured and shot in 1841.

  DINO, the Duc de** (1813-1894). Known until 1838 as Comte
    Alexandre de Périgord, second son of the Duchesse de Talleyrand.

  DINO, the Duchesse de (1820-1891). _Née_ Marie Josephine de Sainte
    Aldegonde. She had married in 1839 Duc Alexandre de Dino.

  DINO, Clémentine de. Born in 1841, daughter of the Duc and
    Duchesse Alexandre de Dino. She married in 1860 at Sagan Count
    Alexander Orlowski.

  DOENHOFF, Count Augustus Hermann. Born in 1797. After undertaking
    various diplomatic missions, he became Prussian Minister to the
    Diet of Frankfort in 1842, and in 1848 Minister of Foreign
    Affairs in Pfuel's Cabinet, but he soon resigned. Count Doenhoff
    was a Member of the House of Lords.

  DOENHOFF, Sophia Juliana Frederica, Countess. Died in 1834. A
    favourite of King Frederick William II., by whom she had two
    children, who took the title of Counts of Brandenburg.

  DON CARLOS DE BOURBON* (1788-1855).

  DOLOMIEU, the Marquise de* (1779-1849). Lady of Honour to Queen
    Marie Amélie.

  DOUGLAS, the Marquis of* (1811-1863). Succeeded his father as Duke
    of Hamilton in 1852. In 1843 he had married Princess Maria of

  DOURO, Lady Elizabeth. Daughter of the Marquis of Tweeddale. She
    married in 1839 Arthur Richard Wellesley, Marquis of Douro, who
    became Duke of Wellington after his father's death in 1852.

  DREUX-BRÉZÉ, the Abbé de (1811-1893). Third son of the Marquis of
    Dreux Brézé and Chief Master of the Ceremonies under Louis XVI.
    He became Vicar General to Mgr. de Quélen at Paris in 1835 and
    in 1849 was appointed Bishop of Moulins. He never attempted to
    hide his ultramontane and legitimist opinions.

  DREUX-BRÉZÉ, the Marquis de (1793-1845). Scipion de Dreux-Brézé
    first entered a military career which he left in 1827; in 1829
    he became peer of France on his father's death. He was one of
    the leaders of the opposition to the Government of Louis

  DUCHATEL, the Comte Charles Tanneguy.* French politician.

  DUCHATEL, the Comtesse Eglé. Daughter of M. Paulée, who made a
    considerable fortune as contractor to the French army during the
    Spanish war of 1823.

  DU DEFFANT, the Marquise (1697-1780). _Née_ Marie de
    Vichy-Chambord. Married at an early age to a man for whom she
    did not care, she was separated from him, and when her widowhood
    began opened her salon to the lords and philosophers of her age.
    At the age of fifty-four she became blind, and substituted
    friendship for coquetry and wit for beauty, though she never
    lost her imperious desire for amusement. Her correspondence with
    Voltaire and Horace Walpole has been published and shows
    remarkable certainty of judgment.

  DUFAURE, Jules Armand Stanislas** (1798-1881). Lawyer and French

  DUMOURIEZ, Charles François (1739-1824). Field-Marshal when the
    revolution broke out, he adopted revolutionary principles and
    became Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1792. He declared war on
    Austria but as he had incurred the disfavour of the Girondists,
    who had raised him to the Ministry, he resigned and re-entered
    the service as commander of the army of the north. He won the
    victories of Valmy and Jemmapes and conquered Belgium; but after
    a defeat at Neerwinden, he was exposed to the attacks of the
    Convention and opened negotiations with the enemy, to whom he
    soon fled. He then led a wandering life and eventually settled
    in England where the King gave him a pension.

  DUPANLOUP, the Abbé** (1802-1878). Appointed Bishop of Orléans in
    1849, he entered the French Academy in 1854.

  DUPIN, André Marie* (1783-1865). Lawyer and French magistrate; he
    was a Deputy for many years.

  DUPOTY, Michel Auguste (1797-1864). Publicist and violent
    republican, he opposed both the July and the Bourbon monarchy.

  DUPREZ, Gilbert-Louis** (1806-1879). Famous French tenor.

  DURHAM, John Lambton, Lord* (1792-1840). English politician.


  ELCHINGEN, the Duchesse d'. Born in 1801. Marie Josephine,
    daughter of the Comte de Souham, had married the Baron de Vatry
    as her first husband. After she had been left a widow she
    married the Duc d'Elchingen in 1834; he was aide-de-camp to the
    Duc de Orléans, and eldest son of Marshal Ney who died in 1854.

  ELLICE, the Hon. Edward* (1787-1863). English politician.

  ELSSLER, Theresa** (1806-1878). Famous dancer and morganatic wife
    of Prince Adalbert of Prussia. She was given the title of
    Baroness of Barnim.

  ENGHIEN, Louis Antoine Henri de Bourbon, Duc d' (1772-1804). Son
    of the Prince de Condé and of Louise Thérèse Mathilde d'Orléans.
    He followed his parents into exile, and showed brilliant courage
    in the army of Condé. He was settled at Ettenheim in the Grand
    Duchy of Baden with the young and beautiful Charlotte de Rohan
    Rochefort, to whom he was said to be secretly married. He was
    arrested in violation of international law by the orders of the
    First Consul who suspected him of conspiracy; he was judged by a
    military commission and shot in the trenches of the château of

  ENGLAND, Queen Adelaide of* (1792-1848). _Née_ Princess of

  ENTRAIGUES, the Marquis Emmanuel Louis d' (1755-1812). At first an
    officer in the army, he went into exile in 1790, and became
    Councillor of the Russian Legation at London, where he was
    assassinated with his wife.

  ENTRAIGUES, Amédée Goveau d'.* Born in 1785. Prefect of Tours from

  ESPARTERO, Joachim Baldomero (1792-1879). A Spaniard and a
    brilliant soldier, Espartero took a keen part in the hostilities
    when civil war broke out upon the succession of Isabella II. to
    the throne. In 1840, when the Queen Regent Maria Christina had
    abdicated, the Cortes transferred the powers of Regency to
    Espartero. In 1842 he was overthrown and withdrew to England,
    but returned to Spain in 1847 and resumed his seat in the
    Senate, where he continued to exert a controlling influence.

  ESPEUIL, Antoine Théodore de Viel Lunas, Marquis d'. Born in 1802.
    He became Senator in 1853, and married Mlle. Jeanne Françoise
    Louise de Chateaubriand, niece of the Vicomte de Chateaubriand.

  ESSEX, Arthur Algernon Capell, Lord (1803-1892). He had succeeded
    his uncle as Lord Essex in 1839. He was three times married:
    first, in 1825, to Caroline Janetta, daughter of the Duke of St.
    Alban's, who died in 1862; secondly, in 1863, to Louisa Caroline
    Elizabeth, daughter of Viscount Dungarvan, who died in 1876; and
    thirdly, in 1881, to Louise, daughter of Charles Heneage, and
    widow of Lord Paget, the General.

  ESTERHAZY, Prince Paul* (1786-1866). Austrian diplomatist.

  ESTERHAZY, Prince Nicolas (1817-1894). Son of Prince Paul. He
    married in 1842 Lady Sarah Villiers, daughter of Lord and Lady
    Jersey; she died in 1853.

  ESTERHAZY, Count Moritz (1805-1891). Austrian diplomatist;
    Ambassador at Rome in 1855; and a Minister without a portfolio
    from 1865-1866. He took a large share in the events which
    preceded the war of 1866, as he objected to all concessions
    which might have secured an understanding between Vienna and
    Berlin. He was a member of the old Hungarian Conservative party.

  EU, Gaston d'Orléans, Comte d'. Born in 1842. Eldest son of the
    Duc de Nemours and of the Princesse de Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He
    married, in 1864, at Rio de Janeiro, Princess Isabella of
    Braganza, eldest daughter of the Emperor of Brazil.

  EYNARD, Jean Gabriel (1775-1863). A rich merchant whom the
    revolution had driven into exile at Genoa, where he had stayed.
    Deeply attached to the cause of Greece, he worked energetically
    for the liberation of this country.


  FABRE, François Xavier* (1766-1837). French painter and a pupil
    of David.

  FAGEL, General Robert.* Ambassador from the King of the Low
    Countries to France under the Restoration.

  FALLOUX, Comte Alfred de (1811-1885). French politician and member
    of the Academy; he was Minister of Education under the
    Presidency of Prince Louis Philippe, and gave his name to the
    law concerning the organisation of education.

  FANE, Lady G. J. Georgiana (1811-1874). Daughter of Lord
    Westmorland, who was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from 1790 to
    1795, by his second marriage with Miss Jane Saunders. She was
    never married.

  FESCH, Cardinal** (1763-1839). Maternal uncle of Napoleon I.

  FEUCHÈRES, the Baronne Sophie de (1795-1841). Known for her
    intimacy with the last Duc de Bourbon, from whom she obtained
    the rich estates of Saint Leu and of Boissy and the sum of a
    million. It was she who induced the Prince to leave the
    remainder of his fortune to the young Duc d'Aumale, his cousin,
    to escape the danger to which she would have been exposed if she
    had taken it for herself. An object of general contempt, she
    lived in England after the death of Prince de Condé, who was
    found one day hanging to the cross-bar of a window in his Castle
    of Chantilly in 1830.

  FICQUELMONT, Count Charles Ludwig von** (1777-1857). An officer
    and afterwards a diplomatist in the Austrian service; Minister
    of State at Vienna in 1840, and for a time Minister of Foreign
    Affairs in 1848.

  FLAHAUT, the General Comte Auguste Charles Joseph de* (1785-1870).
    Peer of France and Ambassador.

  FLAHAUT, the Comtesse de* (1788-1867). Margaret, Lady Nairn and
    Keith, had married in 1817 the Comte de Flahaut.

  FLAHAUT, Emily Jane Mercer Elphinstone de. Eldest daughter of the
    Comte de Flahaut and of Lady Nairn and Keith. She married in
    1843 Henry, Marquis of Lansdowne (1816-1866), M.P.

  FLAHAUT, Adélïde Elizabeth Joséphine de, died in 1841. Fourth
    daughter of the Comte and Comtesse de Flahaut.

  FLOTOW, Count Frederick Augustus von (1812-1883). Composer of
    German music and author of a great number of operas.

  FORBIN-JANSEN, the Marquise de. _Née_ Rochechouart Mortemart.

  FOUQUET, Nicholas (1615-1680). Financial Minister under Louis
    XIV.; condemned, after a famous trial, for embezzlement, and
    confined at Pignerol, where he died after nineteen years'

  FOX, Miss. Died in 1840. Caroline Fox, daughter of Stephen Fox,
    the second Lord Holland.

  FRANCIS I., Emperor of Austria (1708-1765). Eldest son of Duke
    Leopold of Lorraine; he inherited the Duchy of Lorraine in 1729,
    but exchanged it, in 1738, for that of Tuscany, where the family
    of the Medicis had just become extinct. He married Marie
    Thérèse, daughter of Charles VI., and was appointed Regent on
    the death of Charles in 1740.

  FREDERICK I., first King of Prussia (1657-1713). Son of Frederick
    William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg.

  FREDERICK II., the Great,* King of Prussia (1712-1786). A famous
    soldier and a friend of the philosophers of his time. He
    ascended the throne in 1740.

  FREDERICK WILLIAM II., known as the Fat, King of Prussia
    (1744-1797). Nephew of Frederick the Great and his successor;
    ascended the throne in 1786.

  FREDERICK WILLIAM III.,** King of Prussia (1770-1840). Son of
    Frederick William II., whom he succeeded, and husband of Queen

  FREDERICK WILLIAM IV.,** King of Prussia (1795-1861). Son of
    Frederick William III., whom he succeeded; ascended the throne
    in 1840.

  FROISSART, Jean (1337-1410). Famous French chronicler.

  FRY, Mrs. Elizabeth (1780-1865). Born of a family distinguished
    both for wealth and culture, she married at the age of twenty
    Mr. Joseph Fry, a Quaker. She then devoted her life to pious
    works, especially to prison visiting, and secured a great
    improvement in the treatment of prisoners.

  FUGGER, Ulrich (1441-1510). Famous German merchant who lent
    considerable sums to the Emperor Maximilian.


  GAGERN, Baron Heinrich von (1799-1880). German statesman and one
    of the most ardent supporters of German unity. He was President
    of the National Assembly of Frankfort in 1848.

  GALLIÉRA, the Duchesse Marie de (1812-1888). Eldest daughter of
    the Marquis de Brignole Sale, she had married a Genoese, the Duc
    de Galliéra, who left her an immense fortune, of which she spent
    almost the whole in works of charity.

  GARNIER-PAGÈS (1801-1841). Politician and leader of the Republican
    party under Louis Philippe.

  GAY, Madame Sophie (1776-1852). Daughter of the financier La
    Vallette, she married, when very young, a stockbroker, from whom
    she was divorced in 1799. She then married M. Gay,
    Receiver-General for the Department of Roër under the Empire.
    The salon of Madame Gay was soon a meeting-place for the most
    brilliant society, and in 1802 she made her first appearance in
    the world of letters. She was a poet and a good musician, and,
    apart from her novels and her dramatic works, wrote poetry which
    she set to music, and her songs were very popular. She was the
    mother of Delphine Gay (Madame de Girardin).

  GENLIS, Madame de (1746-1830). Governess to the children of the
    Duc d'Orléans (_Philippe Egalité_) and author of several works
    upon education.

  GENOUDE, the Abbé Eugène (1792-1849). French publicist who became
    editor of the _Gazette de France_ in 1823, in which he
    consistently supported the cause of the monarchy. He was
    married, and when he was left a widower he took orders in 1835.

  GENTY DE BUSSY, M. Pierre de (1793-1867). Military Commissioner,
    he became Governor of the Invalides; took part in the Spanish
    War, and was sent on a diplomatic mission to Greece in 1828. In
    1844 he was elected Deputy, joined the Conservative party, and
    supported the foreign and domestic policy of M. Guizot.

  GENTZ, Frederick von (1764-1832). A Prussian publicist and an
    ardent enemy of the French Revolution; in 1814 and 1815 he was
    secretary to the Congress of Vienna and helped to draw up the
    compact of the Holy Alliance.

  GERLACH, General Leopold von (1790-1861). Entered the Prussian
    military service at an early age; became aide-de-camp to the
    Prince of Prussia and Infantry General. His ideas were very
    reactionary. He was an intimate friend of Frederick William IV.

  GERSDORFF, Baron Ernst von** (1781-1852). Saxon diplomatist.

  GERSDORFF, Baron** (1800-1855). Manager of the estates of the
    Princess of Courlande.

  GIRARDIN, Madame de (1805-1855). Delphine Gay. Married, in 1831,
    M. Emile de Girardin. She wrote poetry and novels which showed
    much talent.

  GOBERT, M. Treasurer of the charitable fund for the orphans of
    those who died from cholera.

  GEORGEI, Arthur, born in 1818. A famous Hungarian General who took
    an active part in the Hungarian War of 1848. At first he
    displayed the highest military talent and afterwards capitulated
    and surrendered the Hungarian army to the Russian General

  GORE, Charles Alexander. Born in 1817 and son of Sir William Gore.
    He was Commissioner of Forests.

  GOURIEFF, M. de. Russian diplomatist, Minister at The Hague, and
    then Financial Minister in his own country. He was the
    father-in-law of M. de Nesselrode.

  GRAMONT-GUICHE, the Duchesse de (1802-1882). _Née_ Anna de Grimaud
    d'Orsay, Countess of the Holy Empire. She married the Duc de
    Guiche, who was afterwards Duc de Gramont and
    Lieutenant-General, and obtained the Grand Cross of the Legion
    of Honour. He died in 1855.

  GRAMONT, Madame de. Antoinette Cornélie de Gramont, aunt of the
    Duc de Gramont in the Aster branch of the family. A nun in the
    Sacré Cœur and Mother Superior of the Paris house.

  GRANVILLE, Lord* (1775-1846). English diplomatist, for a long time
    Ambassador at Paris.

  GRANVILLE, Lady.* Died in 1862. She was a daughter of the Duke of

  GREECE, Queen Amélie of (1818-1867). Daughter of the Grand Duke of
    Oldenburg, she married Otho I., King of Greece, in 1836.

  GREY, Lord* (1764-1845). English politician.

  GRISI, Giulia* (1812-1869). Famous Italian singer.

  GROEBEN, Count Charles of, the General (1788-1876). Aide-de-camp
    to King Frederick William IV., Knight of the Order of the Black
    Eagle and Member of the House of Lords.

  GROTE, the Countess of (1799-1885). Baroness Caroline von
    Schachten, married, in 1825, Count Adolphus von Grote,
    Hanoverian Ambassador at Paris. In 1841, after her husband's
    death, she returned to Germany and accepted, with the Countess
    of Wedell, the post of first lady at the Court of King Ernst
    Augustus of Hanover. She retained her position until the King's
    death in 1851. She did not marry him morganatically, as has been

  GUELLE, the Abbé Nicolas Auguste (1799-1881). He took orders in
    1825, and was curé at the Madeleine in Paris; he administered
    his first communion to the Duc d'Aumale, and, in 1849 at London,
    to the Comte de Paris. He was then attached to the person of
    King Louis Philippe, and was present at his death. He became
    chaplain to Queen Marie Amélie, and was present also at her
    deathbed in 1866. He then retired to Paris.

  GUILLON, Mgr. (1760-1847). Preacher and theologian; he had been
    chaplain to the Princesse de Lamballe, and refused to take the
    oath of citizenship at the time of the revolution. Under the
    patronage of Lucien Bonaparte he accompanied Cardinal Fesch to
    Rome, and on his return to France obtained the Professorship of
    Sacred Rhetoric in the Faculty of Theology. From 1818 he was
    chaplain to the Duchesse Marie Amélie d'Orléans, afterwards
    Queen of France. Louis Philippe secured for him, in 1833, the
    title of Bishop of Morocco _in partibus_. Mgr. Guillon
    invariably supported the principles of the French Church.

  GUIZOT, François Pierre Guillaume* (1787-1874). French statesman
    and historian.

  GUSTAVUS III., King of Sweden (1746-1792). A great lover of
    France, which he visited upon several occasions. Throughout his
    reign he was opposed by the Swedish nobility, in spite of the
    fact that he waged several successful wars against Russia. A
    conspiracy broke out at the moment when he was preparing to
    march to the help of Louis XVI. who had been arrested at
    Varennes. He was shot by an assassin named Ankarström, at a
    masked ball.


  HANOVER, the Electress Sophia Dorothea of (1667-1726). Daughter
    of George William of Celle, second son of the Duke of Brunswick
    and of Eleanor of Olbreuse. She became the wife of King George
    I. of England, who treated her cruelly and kept her practically
    in captivity for several years.

  HANOVER, King Ernst Augustus of (1771-1851). At first Duke of
    Cumberland,* he ascended the Hanoverian throne in 1837.

  HANOVER, Queen Frederica of. Duchess of Cumberland* until 1837.

  HANOVER, the Crown Prince of. Afterwards King George V.

  HANOVER, the Crown Princess of. Born in 1818. Marie Wilhelmina,
    daughter of Duke Joseph of Saxe-Altenburg, married in 1848
    Prince George of Hanover, who became King in 1851.

  HANSEMANN, David Justus Ludwig (1770-1864). An important merchant
    of Aix la Chapelle, he became well known for his constitutional
    leanings, and in 1848 received the portfolio of Finance in the
    Ministry of Camphausen; he was afterwards director of the
    Prussian Bank and founded a flourishing mutual benefit society.

  HARDENBERG, Prince Charles Augustus of (1750-1822). As Minister of
    the King of Prussia in 1791, he signed the peace of Bâle with
    France, but boldly opposed Napoleon I. after Jena and the
    Russian Campaign, and strove actively to secure the opportunity
    for a counter stroke. He was one of the signatories to the
    treaty of Paris and was present at the Congress of Vienna in

  HASSENPFLUG, Hans Friedrich von (1793-1862). Minister of the
    Elector of Hesse-Cassel, he afterwards spent several years in
    the Prussian service and pursued a reactionary policy.

  HATZFELDT, Count Max von (1813-1859). Younger brother of Prince
    Hermann of Hatzfeldt. He married in 1844 Mlle. Pauline de
    Castellane; on her widowhood she re-married the Duc de Valençay.
    Count Max von Hatzfeldt was Secretary to the Prussian Legation
    at Paris and afterwards Minister accredited to the Emperor
    Napoleon III.

  HAUGWITZ, Count Eugène von, the General (1777-1867).
    Field-Marshal, Chamberlain, and Privy Councillor to the Austrian
    Court. He took part in almost every war in the first half of the
    nineteenth century.

  HAUTEFORT, Marie d' (1616-1691). Lady of Honour to Marie de
    Médicis and Lady of the Robes to Anne of Austria. She married in
    1646 the Duke of Schomberg, Governor of Metz.

  HAUTEFORT, the Comtesse d'. _Née_ Adélaïde de Maillé in 1787.
    Married the Comte d'Hautefort in 1805.

  HAYNAU, Baron Julius Jacobus von (1786-1853). Son of the Elector
    of Hesse, William I., by his morganatic marriage with Fraulein
    von Lindenthal: he entered the Austrian military service, and in
    1847 took part in suppressing the revolutionary movements in
    Italy, where he became notorious for the cruel methods he
    employed. He pursued a similar course of action in Hungary in

  HECKER, Friedrich Karl Franz (1811-1881). A German lawyer and
    politician, he loudly declared himself a social democrat in 1848
    and became one of the leaders of the Mountain at the Diet of
    Frankfort; he stirred up all the little states in the south of
    Germany to a general insurrection and was obliged to flee to
    Switzerland and afterwards to America, where he died.

  HANSEL, Wilhelm (1794-1861). He was first known as a writer of
    comedies and afterwards as a painter and designer, and was a
    constant figure in Berlin society. He married Fanny Mendelssohn
    Bartholdy, who died in 1847.

  HERDING, Herr von. A native of Mannheim and a great favourite at
    the Court of the Grand Duchess Stephanie of Baden. His sister,
    the Princess of Isenburg, also lived at Mannheim after she
    became a widow. She was the mother of the Countess of Buol

  HERZ, Henri (1806-1887). Celebrated pianist and piano dealer.

  HESKERN, the Baron de. Dutch diplomatist.

  HESS, Baron Heinrich von, the General (1788-1863). Chief of the
    Austrian staff of the forces in Lombardy, in 1824; he
    distinguished himself under Marshal Radetzky, when the national
    Italian movement broke out in 1848. He entered the House of
    Lords in 1861.

  HESSE-CASSEL, the Elector William of (1777-1847). He was married
    three times: to Princess Augusta of Prussia, daughter of
    Frederick William II.; to Countess Emilia of Reichenbach; and to
    Fraulein Caroline of Berlepsch, who received the title of
    Countess of Bergen.

  HESSE-CASSEL, the Electress of (1780-1840). A Princess of Prussia
    by birth, she married the Elector of Hesse in 1797.

  HESSE-HOMBURG, the Landgravine of (1770-1840). Elizabeth, daughter
    of King George III. of England, married in 1818 the Margrave
    Frederick VI. of Hesse Homburg.

  HOCHBERG-FÜRSTENSTEIN, the Count of (1806-1855). Afterwards Prince
    of Pless.

  HOHENTHAL, Count Alfred of.** Born in 1806 and Chamberlain to the
    King of Saxony.

  HOHENTHAL, the Countess of* (1808-1845). _Née_ Princess Louise of

  HOHENZOLLERN-HECHINGEN, Princess Pauline of** (1782-1845). _Née_
    Princess of Courlande and sister of the Duchesse de Talleyrand.

  HOHENZOLLERN-HECHINGEN, Prince Constantine of** (1800-1859). Son
    of the Princess Pauline of Courlande. He abdicated in 1849 his
    rights over the Principality of Hohenzollern in favour of the
    King of Prussia, and received the title of Royal Highness in

  HOLLAND, the Dowager Lady.* Died in 1840. She was Lady Webster by
    her first marriage, and her drawing-room at London was famous.

  HOLLAND, Lady Maria Augusta (1812-1890). Daughter of the Earl of
    Coventry. In 1833 she married Henry, the eldest son and the
    successor in 1840, of the third Lord Holland; a nephew of Fox.
    Lord Holland (1802-1859) was for some time Minister
    Plenipotentiary to the Court of Tuscany. He died at Naples,
    leaving no children, and the title is now extinct.

  HOTTINGER, Baron Jean Courd (1764-1841). A Swiss by birth and the
    founder of important business firms. He was made a baron in
    1810. In 1815 he was elected Deputy, and became Governor of the
    Bank of France.

  HUDEN, Henri. Born in 1810. Legal State Councillor and Professor
    at Jena.

  HÜGEL, Baron Ernest Eugène von** (1774-1849). Würtemberg General.

  HÜGEL, Baron Karl von. Born in 1796. Famous traveller and German
    naturalist and Minister Plenipotentiary for Austria to the Grand
    Duke of Tuscany from 1850-1859.

  HÜGEL, Baron Karl Eugène von (1805-1870). Würtemberg diplomatist
    and for a time Minister of Foreign Affairs in his own country.

  HUMANN, Jean Georges* (1780-1842). Financier and French statesman.

  HUMBOLDT, Alexander von** (1769-1858). Famous German naturalist.

  HYDE DE NEUVILLE, the Baron** (1776-1857). French politician and a
    strong legitimist.


  IFFLAND, Augustus Wilhelm (1759-1814). A German actor who made
    his first appearance at Gotha and Weimar and was appointed
    theatrical manager to the Court of Berlin. He was the author of
    many dramatic works.

  INGRES, Jean Auguste Dominique (1780-1867). French painter who was
    distinguished for the perfection of his drawing.

  ISABELLA II., Queen of Spain* (1830-1904).

  ISTRIE, the Duchesse Mathilde d'. Daughter of the Comte Joseph de
    la Grange, General in the French Army and Peer of France. She
    had married Napoleon Bessières, Duc d'Istrie and Peer of France.
    He died in 1856.


  JACQUES COEUR (1400-1456). Silversmith to Charles VII., whom he
    provided with means to carry on a war against England.

  JAUCOURT, the Marquise Charlotte de* (1762-1848). _Née_ de

  JELLACHICH OF BUZIN, General. As _Ban_ of Croatia, when the
    Hungarian revolution broke out in 1848, he took Vienna from the
    rebels, but was defeated in 1849 by Bem at Hegyes.

  JERSEY, George, Lord (1773-1859). Twice Chamberlain to King
    William IV. and twice Master of the Household to Queen Victoria.
    He married in 1804 the eldest daughter of the Duke of

  JERSEY, Lady Sarah* (1787-1867). Daughter of the Duke of

  JOCELYN, Lord Robert (1816-1854). Eldest son of Lord Roden.
    Viscount Jocelyn first followed a military career; he
    accompanied Lord Saltoun to China as Secretary in 1841 and
    entered Parliament in 1842. He was Secretary to the War Office
    under Derby's Ministry, and died of cholera.

  JOINVILLE, François d'Orléans, Prince de** (1818-1900). Third son
    of King Louis Philippe.

  JOINVILLE, the Princesse Françoise de (1824-1898). _Née_ Princess
    of Branganza, daughter of the Emperor of Brazil, she married the
    Prince de Joinville in 1844.

  JOUFFROY, M. Officer of the Legion of Honour, Member of the
    Institute and of the Royal Council of Education and Deputy for


  KAGENECK, Countess Fanny of (1799-1861). Lady of Honour to the
    Grand Duchess Stephanie of Baden.

  KANITZ-DALWITZ, Baron von, the General (1787-1850). After taking
    part in all the wars of Prussia against France, he was appointed
    professor at the military school of Berlin, and in 1827 Minister
    Plenipotentiary to Constantinople; afterwards he was sent to
    Hanover and to Vienna on different missions.

  KANITZ, Count Augustus von, General (1773-1852). Minister of War
    in Prussia in 1848. He married the Countess Louise Schulenburg,
    who died in 1830.

  KAROLYI, the Countess (1805-1844). Daughter of Prince Louise of
    Kaunitz-Reutberg, she married in 1823 Count Louis Karolyi. The
    Countess was known at Vienna under the nickname of Nandine.

  KAULBACH, Wilhelm von (1805-1874). One of the most famous German
    painters of the nineteenth century.

  KISSELEFF, Count Nicholas. Died in 1869. Represented Russia at
    Paris under the reign of Louis Philippe. He was Minister to the
    Holy Chair and afterwards at Florence. He was a brother of
    General Kisseleff, for a long time Ambassador at Paris under the
    Second Empire.

  KOMAR, Nathalie de (1818-1860). Sixth child of Stanislas of Komar
    and of his wife, _née_ Orlowska. She married in 1850 an Italian,
    the Count of Medici Spada, who had led a very adventurous life.
    She was the sister of the Countess Delphine Potocka and of the
    Princesse Charles de Beauvau.

  KOSSUTH, Louis (1802-1894). Leader of the Hungarian Revolution in
    1848: he was born of a noble but poor Croatian family, seventeen
    members of which had been prosecuted for high treason by the
    Austrian Government. After the events of 1848 he was obliged to
    take to flight, and took refuge first at London, where, with
    Mazzini and Ledru-Rollin, he formed a kind of democratic
    triumvirate, and afterwards at Turin where he died.

  KRÜDENER, the Baroness of** (1764-1824). Of Russian origin and
    known for her mystical ideas.

  KÜBECK DE KUBAU, Karl Friedrich (1780-1855). Austrian statesman
    and member of the Council of State from 1814; he was especially
    active in organising the Lombard-Venetian Kingdom and the Tyrol.
    In 1839 he was appointed president of the General Financial
    Directory. After the events of 1848 he retired.


  LA BESNARDIÈRE, J. B. Goney de* (1765-1843). At one time a French
    politician, he had withdrawn to Touraine after 1819, and was a
    friend of the Talleyrand family.

  LABLACHE, Louis (1794-1858). Famous Neapolitan singer of French

  LABOUCHÈRE, Henry* (1798-1861). Member of the English Parliament,
    afterwards Lord Taunton.

  LA BOULAYE, the Vicomte J. B. de (1781-1836). French man of
    letters and publicist, who remained consistently loyal to the
    monarchy and to Charles X., whose secretary he had been.

  LACAVE-LAPLAGNE, Jean Pierre** (1795-1849). At first officer,
    afterwards magistrate and several times Minister under Louis

  LACORDAIRE, Henri** (1802-1861). A great Dominican preacher, he
    restored the Dominican Order in France. A member of the French

  LADENBERG, Adalbert von (1798-1855). Prussian statesman, twice
    Minister of Education and Public Worship: in 1850 he was made
    Privy Councillor and President of the Financial Chamber.

  LA FERTÉ, the Comte Hubert de (1806-1872). An ardent legitimist;
    one of the most devoted servants of the Comte de Chambord. He
    had married the daughter of the Comte Molé.

  LA FERRONNAYS, the Comtesse de. She was a daughter of Comte Joseph
    de la Grange, General and Peer of France.

  LAFFITTE, Jacques** (1767-1844). French financier who took an
    active part in the revolution of 1830.

  LAMBERG, Count Franz Philip von, General (1791-1848). In 1848 he
    was appointed Commissioner of the Realm of Hungary and chief of
    the Hungarian troops by the Austrian Emperor, but the National
    Assembly at Pesth refused to recognise his nomination, and he
    was put to death by the people.

  LAMENNAIS, the Abbé de (1782-1854). A Catholic but revolutionary
    writer, whose opinions were condemned by the Roman Court, which
    excommunicated him.

  LANSDOWNE, the Marquis of* (1780-1863). English politician.

  LA REDORTE, the Comte de.* French officer and afterwards

  LA REDORTE, the Comtesse de. Died in 1885. _Née_ Louise Suchet,
    daughter of the Marshal d'Albuféra. She had married M. de La
    Redorte, Ambassador and Peer of France in 1841.

  LA ROCHE-AYMON, the Comtesse de (1787-1858). Widow of the General,
    the Marquis de La Roche-Aymon, _aide-de-camp_ to Prince Henry of
    Prussia, younger brother of Frederick the Great.

  LA ROCHEFOUCAULD-DOUDEAUVILLE, the Duc Sosthène de** (1785-1864).
    A French man of letters, he was a strong Legitimist throughout
    his life. His first wife, whom he married in 1807, was Elizabeth
    de Montmorency Laval (1790-1834).

  LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, the Comte Alexandre de (1767-1841). An _émigré_
    during the revolution, he returned to France under the
    Consulate, and supported Napoleon. His wife, _née_ de Chastulé,
    and a relative of Josephine, became Lady of Honour to the
    Empress. M. de La Rochefoucauld entered a diplomatic career, and
    was Ambassador at Vienna and in Holland. He was elected Deputy
    in 1822, and entered the Chamber of Peers in 1831.

  LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, the Comte Wilfrid de. Born in 1798. Son of the
    foregoing, whom he succeeded as Duc d'Estissac in 1841.

  LA ROCHEJAQUELEIN, Auguste du Vergier, Comte de (1784-1868).
    Officer under the Empire, he also took part in the Spanish
    campaign of 1823. Louis XVIII. had given him the rank of
    Field-Marshal in 1818.

  LA ROCHEJAQUELEIN, the Comtesse Felicie de. Daughter of Amédée de
    Durfort, last Duc de Duras. She had married as her first husband
    Léopold de la Trémouille, Prince of Talmont; and in 1819 she had
    married the Comte A. de La Rochejaquelein.

  LA ROCHEJAQUELEIN, Georges du Vergier, Marquis de (1805-1867). He
    was made a peer of France by Louis XVIII., but did not take his
    seat in the Upper Chamber, as he refused to take the oath to the
    July Government. He supported the revolution of 1848, and then
    became estranged from the Legitimists and became Senator under
    the Empire.

  LASALLE, Louis Théodore de (1789-1846). Major of cavalry and
    orderly officer to Louis Philippe. He was elected Deputy in

  LA TOUR, Theodore Baillet, General, Comte de (1780-1848). Austrian
    Field-Marshal. Minister of War in 1848, he exasperated the
    people of Vienna by his severity and was slaughtered.

  LA TOUR-MAUBOURG, the Marquis de (1781-1847). French diplomatist,
    Chargé d'Affaires at Constantinople, and Minister
    Plenipotentiary to Würtemburg under the Empire. Under the
    Restoration he was Minister in Hanover and Saxony, Ambassador at
    Constantinople and Naples. In 1831 he was made Ambassador at
    Rome and entered the Chamber of Peers.

  LAUZUN, the Duc de (1633-1723). One of the favourites at the Court
    of Louis XIV. He married the Grande Mademoiselle.

  LAZAREFF, Madame de (1813-1881). The Princesse Antoinette de
    Biron-Courlande married General Lazareff, who was in the Russian

  LE COURTIER, François Joseph (1799-1885). A distinguished preacher
    and priest of foreign missions, chief priest and canon of Notre
    Dame, he was appointed Bishop of Montpelier, and resigned in
    1873. He was then made Archbishop of Sébaste _in partibus_, and
    Canon of Saint Denis in 1875.

  LE HON, the Comte** (1792-1868). Belgian Minister at Paris for
    many years.

  LE HON, the Comtesse. Died in 1880. _Née_ Mathilde de Mosselmann,
    she had married the Comte Le Hon in 1827.

  LEIBNITZ, Wilhelm (1646-1716). A famous philosopher and German man
    of science, born at Leipzig, and a leader of the Optimist

  LEININGEN, Prince Charles of (1804-1856), or Prince of Linange.**
    Son of the first marriage of the Duchess of Kent, mother of
    Queen Victoria.

  LERCHENFELD, Count Gustavus Anton von (1806-1866). A Bavarian
    statesman who acquired a great reputation on financial
    questions, and formed part of the Ministry of 1848.

  LESPINASSE, Mlle. de (1732-1776). In her _salon_ the most famous
    encyclopædists used to meet, as they were admirers of the wit of
    Mlle. de Lespinasse.

  LEUCHTENBERG, the Duchess Augusta of (1788-1851). A daughter of
    King Maximilian I. of Bavaria. She married in 1808 Prince Eugène
    de Beauharnais, son of the first marriage of the Empress
    Josephine; he was Viceroy of Italy and Duke of Leuchtenberg.

  LEUCHTENBERG, Prince Max of* (1817-1852). Son of Eugène de

  LEVESON, George (1815-1891). English diplomatist. At first Member
    of the House of Commons, he came into the title of Lord
    Granville at his father's death; in 1856 he was sent as
    Ambassador Extraordinary to Moscow for the Coronation of
    Alexander II. His Parliamentary attitude was well known for its
    conciliatory character, and he finally retired with Mr.
    Gladstone in 1886.

  LICHTENSTEIN, Joseph Wenzel, Prince of (1696-1773). General and
    Austrian statesman. A great friend of Prince Eugène of Savoy
    with whom he conducted the wars of 1716 and 1718 against the

  LICHTENSTEIN, Prince Wenzel of. Born in 1767. Major-General in the
    Austrian service.

  LICHTENSTEIN, Prince Ludwig of (1796-1858). Head of the family of

  LICHTENSTEIN, Princess Louisa of (1810-1881). The Countess Frances
    Kinsky had married in 1831 Prince Ludwig of Lichtenstein.

  LIEBERMANN, Baron A. of.** Prussian diplomatist.

  LIEVEN, the Princesse de* (1784-1857). _Née_ De Benkendorff.

  LISZT, François (1811-1886). Famous Hungarian pianist and

  LIVERPOOL, Cecil Jenkinson, Lord (1784-1851). He married Julia
    Evelyn Medley, who died in 1814 leaving only daughters, and thus
    the Earldom of Liverpool became extinct in 1851. The baronetcy
    passed to his cousin, Sir Charles Jenkinson (1879-1855), M.P.

  LOLA MONTES, Maria Dolores Porris y Montes, so-called (1818-1861).
    Famous adventuress, who completely turned the head of King
    Ludwig I. of Bavaria; he gave her in succession the titles of
    Baroness of Rosenthal and Countess of Lansfeld. The scandal was
    so great that the Ministry resigned, and the King was forced to
    abdicate in 1848.

  LOMBARD, Henri (1825-1843). Nephew of Dr. Andral.

  LONDONDERRY, Lord (1778-1854). Officer and French diplomatist.

  LOTTUM, the Countess Clotilde (1809-1894). Eldest daughter of
    Prince Wilhelm of Putbus. Married in 1828 Count Friedrich
    Hermann of Wylich and Lottum, Chamberlain at the Prussian Court,
    and Minister at Naples for several years.

  LOUISE DE LORRAINE, Queen of France (1554-1601). Daughter of
    Nicholas of Lorraine, Count of Vaudémont. She married King Henry
    III. in 1575.

  LOW COUNTRIES, King William I. of the (1772-1848). Son of the
    Stathouder, William V. of Nassau. He first married Princess
    Frederica of Prussia; then the Comtesse d'Oultremont
    morganatically, and abdicated in 1840.

  LOW COUNTRIES, King William II. of the (1792-1849). He married
    Anna Paulowna, daughter of the Emperor Paul of Russia.

  LOW COUNTRIES, the Hereditary Prince of the (1817-1891). He
    married in 1839 Princess Sophia of Würtemberg, and became
    William III. on his accession to the throne in 1849.

  LUCCA, Charles Louis de Bourbon, Duc de. Born in 1799. Son of the
    Infanta Maria Louisa of Spain, formerly Queen of Etruria. He
    married in 1820 Princess Maria Theresa, daughter of the King of
    Sardinia Victor Emanuel I., and was already Duke of Parma when
    he inherited the Duchy of Lucca in 1848. Expelled from his
    estates, he abdicated in 1849 in favour of his son, Charles
    III., born in 1825, who had married in 1845 Louise de Bourbon,
    daughter of the Duc de Berry. He was assassinated in 1854.

  LUDOLF, Franz, Count of (1784-1863). Austrian Field-Marshal.

  LUDRE, the Comtesse de (1800-1886). _Née_ Girardin. A very
    distinguished woman in whose _salon_ were to be met M. de
    Falloux, Mgr. Dupanloup, MM. de Coriolis, de Montmorency, &c.

  LURDE, Alexis Louis de. Born in 1800. Set out for Spain as a
    volunteer in 1823, and became Captain of the Guard to the King
    of Spain. In 1827 he entered the French diplomatic service. In
    1833 he was appointed Secretary at Lisbon, and in 1838 at Rome.
    He then became Minister Plenipotentiary to Buenos Ayres until
    the revolution of 1848. In 1849 he was accredited to Berlin for
    several months.

  LUYNES, the Duchesse Elisabeth de (1753-1830). _Née_ de
    Montmorency Laval, she had married in 1768 the Duc de Luynes,
    and was Lady-in-Waiting to Queen Marie Antoinette. Of very
    liberal opinions, very intelligent and original, the Duchesse
    often wore men's dress. She was an intimate friend of the Prince
    de Talleyrand, and died suddenly in her castle of Esclimont.


  MACAULAY, Thomas Babington, Lord (1800-1859). English historian,
    Member of Parliament and of the Privy Council, Minister of War
    from 1839-1841.

  MACLEOD, Alexander. An English subject, MacLeod was tried in 1841
    at New York for presumed complicity in the burning of the
    steamboat _Caroline_ on the Niagara in 1837. He was acquitted
    after a narrow escape from the gallows.

  MACKAU, Baron Armand de, the Admiral (1788-1855). Peer of France
    in 1841, he was Naval and Colonial Minister in 1843, in place of
    Admiral Roussin, but resigned in 1847. He entered the Senate in

  MADEMOISELLE Louise, daughter of the Duc and Duchesse de Berry
    (1819-1864). Often also called Mlle. de Rosny after the exile.
    She married in 1845 the Duc de Parme, who was assassinated in
    1854. She acted as Regent during the minority of her son, Duc

  MAGNAN, Bernard Pierre (1791-1865). Made Marshal of France by
    Napoleon III.

  MAHON, Lady Emily. Died in 1873. Daughter of General Sir Edward
    Kerrison. Married in 1838 Philip Henry Stanhope, Viscount Mahon
    (1805-1875), who became Lord Stanhope on the death of his father
    in 1855. He was a historian and a distinguished diplomatist.

  MAILLÉ, the Marquise de. _Née_ Mlle. Baudon, she had married in
    1831 the Marquis de Tour Landry.

  MAISTRE, the Comte Rodolphe de (1789-1865). Son of Comte Joseph de
    Maistre. He was Governor of Genoa afterwards of Nice.

  MAISTRE, Adèle de. Born in 1787. Sister of Comte R. de Maistre,
    she married the Baron de Terray very late in life.

  MAISTRE, the Comtesse Azélia de (1799-1881). Eldest daughter of
    the Marquis de Plan de Sieyès, retired naval officer, she
    married at Valence in 1819 the Comte R. de Maistre.

  MAISTRE, Francesca de. Born in 1821. Daughter of the Comte
    Rodolphe de Maistre. In 1842 she entered the Order of the
    Daughters of Saint Vincent de Paul.

  MALTZAN, Count** (1783-1843). Prussian diplomatist.

  MALTZAN, Countess Alexandrina von (1818-1894). Daughter of the
    foregoing, and married in 1841 Lord Beauvale, who was then
    English Ambassador at Vienna. After his death in 1853, she
    married in 1856 George Wild Forrester.

  MANTEUFFEL, Baron Otho von (1805-1879). Home Secretary in 1848 in
    the Brandenburg Cabinet; Leader of the Cabinet and Foreign
    Secretary in 1851; Plenipotentiary Minister at the Paris
    Congress in 1856.

  MARIA CHRISTINA, Queen** (1806-1878). Daughter of King Francis I.
    of Naples, and third wife of Ferdinand VII., King of Spain.

  MARIE LOUISE, the Empress (1791-1847). Daughter of the Emperor of
    Austria, Francis II.; she married Napoleon I. in 1810.

  MARIO, Joseph, Marquis of Candia (1808-1883). Italian singer. Born
    at Turin, he first entered the Sardinian Cavalry as an officer.
    He then deserted, and came to Paris in 1836. He made his first
    appearance at the theatre in 1838, and was afterwards most

  MARMONT, Marshal, Auguste Frederic Louis, Duc de Raguse
    (1774-1852). Took part in all the wars under the Republic and
    the Empire, and enjoyed high favour under the Restoration, when
    he became peer of France. Louis Philippe, however, struck him
    off the Army List for accompanying Charles X. to England, and
    from that time the Marquis lived abroad.

  MARS, Mlle. (1778-1847). Famous French actress. One of the
    first-rate actresses who restored the glory of the French

  MARTIN DU NORD, Nicolas Ferdinand* (1789-1862). French politician.

  MASSA, the Duchesse de.* Born in 1792. Daughter of the Duc de
    Tarente, and widow of Régnier, Duc de Massa.

  MATTHIOLI, Count Girolamo. Born in 1640. Minister to Charles III.,
    the Duke of Mantua, he was commissioned to negotiate the secret
    Treaty with France, but he sold the secret. The French
    Ambassador was informed of this treachery, enticed him to
    French territory, and had him arrested and confined at Pignerol;
    for a long time he was supposed to be the "Man in the Iron
    Mask." In 1681 he was taken to Exiles with the "Man in the Iron
    Mask," and in 1687 one of the two died. The dead man was thought
    to be Matthioli.

  MATUSIEWICZ, Count* (1790-1842). Russian diplomatist.

  MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN, the Dowager Grand Duchess of** (1771-1871).
    By birth a Princess of Hesse-Homburg, and stepmother to the
    Duchesse d'Orléans.

  MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN, Duke Gustavus of* (1781-1861). One of the
    sons of the Grand Duke Francis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

  MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN, Duke Albert of (1812-1842). Son of the Grand
    Duke Frederick Francis and of the Princess Caroline of
    Saxe-Weimar, and brother of the Duchesse d'Orléans.

  MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN, the Grand Duke Frederick of (1823-1883). His
    mother was a Prussian Princess. He was a good soldier, and
    fought with distinction. He was thrice married.

  MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ, the Grand Duke George of** (1779-1860). He
    married in 1817 a Princess of Hesse-Cassel.

  MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ, Hereditary Grand Duke Frederick William of
    (1819-1904). Succeeded his father in 1860. He became blind at an
    early age, and married the eldest daughter of Adolphus, Duke of

  MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ, Duke George of (1824-1876). Younger brother
    of the foregoing. He entered the Russian service, and married
    the Grand Duchess Catherine, daughter of the Grand Duke Michael
    of Russia.

  MEDEM, Count Paul* (1800-1854). Russian diplomatist and cousin of
    the Duchesse de Talleyrand.

  MEHEMET ALI (1769-1849). Viceroy of Egypt. In two wars against the
    Porte, in 1832 and 1839, his son Ibrahim was his lieutenant. He
    entirely reformed the Egyptian army and was recognised by the
    Government as hereditary Pasha.

  MELBOURNE, William Lamb, Lord* (1779-1848). English politician.

  MELBOURNE, Lady. Died in 1828. _Née_ Lady Caroline Ponsonby and
    daughter of Lord Bessborough, she had married in 1805 Lord
    Melbourne. She obtained a certain literary reputation. Notorious
    for her intimacy with Lord Byron, she was soon divorced by her

  MELZI, Duke Ludovico (1820-1886). A rich lord of Milan, he married
    as his first wife a daughter of the Marquis de Brignole Sale. In
    1869 he was left a widower, and in 1876 married his cousin, the
    Countess Josephine Melzi, _née_ Barbo, herself the widow of the
    Count Jacques Melzi, who had died a year previously.

  MELZI, the Duchess. Died in 1869 at Geneva. Louise de Brignole
    Sale had married in 1842 Duke Melzi.

  MERAN, the Count of (1839-1892). Son of the morganatic marriage of
    the Archduke John with the Countess of Meran.

  METTERNICH, Prince Clement* (1773-1859). Austrian statesman.

  METTERNICH, Princess Melanie of (1805-1854). Third wife of Prince
    Metternich and daughter of Count Francis Zichy Ferraris.

  MEULAN, Madame de. Wife of a superintendent of Taxes to the Paris
    Corporation and mother of the first Madame Guizot.

  MEYENDORFF, Baron Peter of (1792-1863). Russian diplomatist and
    for a long time Minister Plenipotentiary at Berlin, and
    afterwards at Vienna; at a later date he was Minister of the
    Imperial Domains and Appanages at St. Petersburg and Member of
    the Council of the Empire.

  MEYENDORFF, the Baroness of. Born in 1800. Wilhelmina Sophia of
    Buol Schönstein, married in 1830 the Baron of Meyendorff. She
    was an exceedingly clever woman of very independent character.

  MIGNET, François Auguste Marie* (1796-1884). French historian and
    member of the Academy.

  MITFORD, John (1781-1859). English writer and scholar, who
    published several learned works and some poems.

  MODENA, Duke Francis V. of (1819-1875). Archduke of Austria Este,
    he married in 1842 the Duchess Aldegonde of Bavaria, and
    succeeded his father in 1846. His duchy was added to the estates
    of the King of Sardinia in 1860.

  MOLAY, Jacques de. Last Grand Master of the Order of Templars; he
    entered this Order in 1265. He was arrested and condemned upon
    unjust charges which Philip IV., the Fair, levelled at his
    Order, the riches of which he coveted. Molay was burnt alive in

  MOLÉ, Guillaume, died in 1459. He was a squire who, acting in
    conjunction with his brother-in-law, Jean l'Esguisé, drove the
    English from Troyes under Charles VII.

  MOLÉ, Mathieu (1584-1656). A Councillor in the Paris Parliament,
    afterwards chief Financial Minister and first President; during
    the disturbances of the Fronde he attempted to reconcile the
    parties and always showed much firmness and dignity. He was
    appointed Guardian of the Seals in 1650.

  MOLÉ, the Comte Mathieu* (1781-1855). Peer of France and member of
    the Academy. Politician under the Empire and the July monarchy.

  MOLLIEN, the Comte Francois (1758-1850). Financier and Peer of

  MOLLIEN, the Comtesse* (1785-1878). Lady-in-Waiting to Queen Marie

  MOLYNEUX, Hon. Francis George (1805-1886). Third son of William
    Philip, Lord Sefton; he was Secretary to the English Embassy at
    the Germanic Confederation. He married, in 1842, Lady Georgina
    Ashburnham, whose marriage with H. R. Mitford had been
    dissolved, and who died in 1882.

  MONCEY, Marshal Adrien, Duc de Conegliano (1754-1842). Son of a
    lawyer in the Parliament of the Franche Comté, he enlisted at
    the age of fifteen, and took part in almost all the campaigns
    under the Republic and the Empire. In 1814 he defended Paris
    heroically, and was appointed Governor of the Invalides in 1834.

  MONTALEMBERT, the Comte Charles de** (1810-1870). French publicist
    and politician and one of the most brilliant defenders of
    liberal Catholicism.

  MONTCALM, Paul de Saint Veran, Marquis de (1756-1812). As a naval
    officer he took part in the War of Independence in America, and
    became a Member of the States-General in 1789. In 1790 he went
    into exile in Spain, and afterwards went to Piedmont, where he

  MONTEBELLO, Napoleon Auguste Lannes, Duc de (1801-1874). Son of
    the Marshal Lannes and Peer of France. He followed a diplomatic

  MONTEMOLIN, Carlos Luis Maria Fernando de Bourbon, Count of
    (1818-1861). Infanta of Spain; a Son of Don Carlos, who
    abdicated his rights in his favour in 1844. He made several
    attempts to recover his rights, but unsuccessfully.

  MONTESQUIOU-FEZENSAC, the Abbé François Xavier de (1767-1832).
    Agent-General for the clergy in 1785, Deputy in the
    States-General in 1789, and President of the Constituent
    Assembly in 1790. After the ninth of Thermidor he was one of the
    many agents appointed by Louis XVIII. to defend his cause in
    France. The First Consul sent him into exile therefore to
    Mantua. In 1814 he was a Member of the Provisional Government,
    and on May 13 was appointed Minister of the Interior; under the
    second Restoration he remained a Minister of State and was made
    a Peer of France.

  MONTJOYE, the Comtesse de. Died in 1848. Sister of the Marquis de
    Dolomieu; appointed Lady-of-Honour to Madame Adélaïde, sister of
    Louis Philippe, she never left this Princess from the time of
    her youth. She died in England, where she had accompanied the
    Royal Family into exile.

  MONTMORENCY, the Duchesse de* (1774-1846). Mother of Raoul de
    Montmorency, of the Princesse de Bauffremont, and of the
    Duchesse de Valençay.

  MONTMORENCY, Baron Raoul de* (1790-1862). Became Duc on his
    father's death.

  MONTMORENCY, the Baronne de (1787-1858). _Née_ Euphémie de
    Harchies: she married, as her first husband, Comte Thibaut de
    Montmorency, and as her second Baron Raoul de Montmorency.

  MONTMORENCY, the Duchesse Mathieu de (1774-1858). _Née_ Hortense
    de Chevreuse Luynes.

  MONTPENSIER, Antoine d'Orléans, Duc de (1824-1890). Youngest son
    of King Louis Philippe; he married in 1846 the Infanta Louise of
    Spain, sister of Queen Isabella II.

  MONTROND, the Comte de* (1757-1843). A friend of M. de Talleyrand.

  MORNAY, the Comte de* (1803-1878). Peer of France and Ambassador.

  MORPETH, George William Frederick, Earl of Carlisle* (1802-1864).
    Secretary of State for Ireland from 1835-1841, Commissioner of
    Woods and Forests from 1846-1850, Chancellor of the Duchy of
    Lancaster from 1850-1852, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from
    1855-1858 and from 1859 to 1864; he was one of the most popular
    Governors that Ireland ever had, but ill-health forced him to
    resign and he died shortly afterwards. He was never married, and
    his title passed to his brother William George, who became the
    eighth Earl of Carlisle.

  MOSKOWA, the Prince de la* (1803-1857). Eldest son of Marshal Ney.

  MOUNIER, the Baron** (1784-1843). Financier and Peer of France.

  MUÑOZ, Fernando** (1810-1873). Born of an obscure family, he
    secured the favour of Queen Maria Christina, who contracted a
    morganatic marriage with him three months after the death of
    Ferdinand VII. He never showed any personal ambition, aspired to
    be nothing more than the Queen's husband, and merely accepted
    the title of Duke of Rianzares.


  NAPIER, Sir Charles (1786-1860). Admiral Napier distinguished
    himself in 1810 by several feats of arms; in 1833 he did good
    service to the cause of Doña Maria, Queen of Portugal, by
    defeating Dom Miguel. In the expedition against Syria he
    supported the Turkish forces, and signed the treaty enforced by
    England upon Mehemet Ali.

  NARBONNE, the Comtesse Louis de. _Née_ Marie Adélaïde Montholon,
    she had married Lieutenant-General the Comte de Narbonne,
    youngest son of the Comte Jean François de Narbonne Lara.

  NASSAU, the Duchess Pauline of (1810-1856). Daughter of Prince
    Paul of Würtemberg. She married Duke William of Nassau, whose
    widow she became in 1839.

  NASSAU, Duke Adolphus of. Born in 1817. His first wife, whom he
    married in 1844, was the Grand Duchess Elizabeth of Russia. In
    1851 he married the Princess Adelaide of Anhalt-Dessau.

  NEALE, Countess Pauline** (1779-1869). Lady-of-Honour to Princess
    Louise of Prussia and wife of Prince Antoine Radziwill.

  NEIPPERG, Countess Marie of (1816-1890). Daughter of King William
    I. of Würtemberg. She married in 1840 Count Alfred of Neipperg,
    formerly the husband of the Countess of Grisoni. He was born in
    1807, and was the eldest son of Count Albert of Neipperg,
    chamberlain of the Archduchess Marie Louise, the Duchess of
    Parma, by his first marriage with Countess Theresa Pola, by whom
    he had had five children, and who had procured a divorce from
    Count Trento in order to marry him.

  NEMOURS, Louis Charles d'Orléans, Duc de* (1814-1896). Second son
    of Louis Philippe.

  NEMOURS, the Duchesse de (1822-1852). Victoire, daughter of Prince
    Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. She married the Duc de Nemours
    in 1840.

  NESSELRODE, Count* (1780-1862). Russian diplomatist and afterwards
    Chancellor of the Empire.

  NESSELRODE, Countess.* Died in 1849. _Née_ Gourieff.

  NEUMANN, Baron. Austrian diplomatist and several times Ambassador.
    In England he married a daughter of the Duke of Beaufort, by
    name Charlotte.

  NEUWIED, Prince William of (1814-1864). Major-General in the
    Prussian service.

  NEUWIED, the Princess of. Born in 1825. Princess Marie of Nassau
    married in 1842 Prince William of Neuwied.

  NEY, Marshal* (1769-1815). Known to Napoleon as "the bravest of
    the brave."

  NEY, wife of the foregoing, Duchesse d'Elchingen, Princess de la
    Moskowa. _Née_ Aglae Auguié, her mother, Madame Auguié, had been
    chambermaid to Queen Marie Antoinette. She married General Ney
    in 1802.

  NEY, Edgard (1812-1822). Prince de la Moskowa, orderly officer to
    Napoleon III., who gave him a commission to the Papal
    Government. He took part in the Italian War of 1859.

  NOAILLES, Viscomtesse Alfred de* (1792-1851). Daughter of the
    marriage of Charles de Noailles, Duc de Mouchy, with Mlle.
    Nathalie de Laborde. She married her cousin, the Vicomte de
    Noailles, who died at the age of twenty-six at the Bérésina.

  NOAILLES, the Duc Paul de* (1802-1885). Peer of France and member
    of the Academy.

  NOAILLES, the Duchesse de (1800-1887). _Née_ Alicia de Mortemart.

  NODIER, Charles (1780-1844). Man of letters and collector of
    books; member of the Academy from 1834.

  NORMANBY, Constantine Henry, Marquis of (1797-1863). English
    politician who belonged to the Whig party and was
    Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland for several years. In 1846 he became
    Ambassador at Paris and held that post till 1854, when he was
    transferred to Florence; there he became very unpopular by
    reason of his Austrian leanings, and was recalled in 1858. He
    became a Member of the House of Lords in 1831 on the death of
    his father, Lord Mulgrave, whose title he bore till 1838, when
    Queen Victoria made him a Marquis. He married in 1818 the Hon.
    Maria Liddell, daughter of Lord Ravensworth, who died in 1882.
    By her he had an only son, who succeeded to his titles.

  NOSTITZ, Count Augustus of (1777-1866). Prussian infantry General.

  NOSTITZ, Countess Clara of, died in 1858. A daughter of Prince
    Hatzfeldt-Trachenberg, she married in 1809 Count Augustus of

  NOTHOMB, Baron J. B. de (1805-1881). At first a lawyer, he strove,
    by writing in support of Belgian independence, to bring about
    the Revolution of 1830, and was appointed a deputy at the
    National Congress under Leopold I. He was several times Minister
    and afterwards diplomatist to the Berlin Court for many years.


  OBERKAMPF, Christophe Philippe (1738-1815). The famous
    manufacturer, the first to introduce the manufacture of
    oilcloth into France. Louis XVI. made him a noble and Napoleon
    gave him the Cross of the Legion of Honour. He founded the
    factory of Jouy-en-Josas and started at Essonnes the first
    French cotton-spinning mill.

  O'DONNELL, Count Maurice, General (1780-1843). An Austrian
    Field-Marshal; he married Mlle. de Ligne.

  OLDENBURG, the Grand Duke Augustus of (1783-1853). Succeeded his
    father in 1829.

  OLFERS, Franz Werner (1793-1871). Born in Westphalia, he studied
    medicine at Göttingen and then entered a diplomatic career. In
    1839 the King of Prussia appointed him General Director of the
    Berlin Museums. He resigned in 1869.

  OLOZAGA, Don Salluste (1803-1873). Spanish statesman. He began
    life as a lawyer and was implicated as a member of a secret
    society in a conspiracy against Ferdinand VII.; he was
    imprisoned and escaped, and after the King's death he was
    appointed Deputy to the Cortes. As he was a rival of Espartero,
    the latter had no sooner obtained the power than he sent him to
    Paris as Ambassador in 1840. In 1843 Queen Isabella, on
    attaining her majority, commissioned Olozaga to form the
    Cabinet; then Court intrigues overthrew him, and forced him to
    flee to Portugal and afterwards to England. He did not return to
    Spain until 1848. In 1854 he was again appointed Ambassador at
    Paris. He died at Enghien.

  ORÏE, Dr.** Died in 1846. He practised at Bourgueil, in Touraine.

  ORLÉANS, Gaston d' (1608-1660). Brother of Louis XIII. This
    Prince, known as Monsieur, spent his life in intrigues and
    revolts against Richelieu and Mazarin. He first married the
    Duchesse de Montpensier, who died in 1627; in 1632 he contracted
    a secret marriage with Marguerite of Lorraine, and was forced to
    suffer many humiliations to secure recognition of this union. On
    the death of Louis XIII. he was appointed Lieutenant-General of
    the Kingdom.

  ORLÉANS, the Duc d'* (1810-1842). Eldest son of King Louis

  ORLÉANS, the Duchesse d' (1814-1858). _Née_ Princess Helena of
    Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She married in 1837 the Duc d'Orléans,
    eldest son of King Louis Philippe, whose widow she became in
    1842. Her children were the Comte de Paris and the Comte de

  ORSAY, Lady Harriet d' (1812-1869); only daughter and heiress of
    Charles John Gardiner, Lord Blessington. She married Comte
    Alfred d'Orsay* in 1827. In 1852 she was left a widow, and
    married in the same year the Hon. Charles Spencer Cowper
    (1816-1879), third son of the marriage of Lord Cowper with
    Amelia, daughter of the first Lord Melbourne who afterwards
    married Lord Palmerston.

  OULTREMONT ET DE VERGIMOND, the Comtesse Flore d'. Born in 1792.
    Morganatic wife of King William I. of the Low Countries.

  OUTREMONT DE MINIÈRES, General d'. Died at Tours in 1858. He
    married in 1819 Marie Albertine de la Ribellerie, widow of Baron


  PAGANINI, Niccolo (1784-1840). Celebrated Italian violinist.

  PAGEOT, Alphonse. French diplomatist who began his career in 1819.
    In 1831 he became First Secretary to the United States. He was
    envoy to Madrid in 1840 and to Washington in 1842. He resigned
    in 1848.

  PAHLEN, Count Peter.* Born in 1775. Russian General and

  PALFFY OF ERDOED, Count Aloys (1801-1876). Chamberlain and Privy
    Councillor in the Austrian Service and Governor of Venice until
    1848. He married in 1831 Princess Sophia Jablonocka.

  PALMERSTON, Lord Henry John* (1784-1865). English statesman and on
    several occasions Minister of Foreign Affairs.

  PALMERSTON, Lady* (1787-1869). Amelia, daughter of Peniston, first
    Viscount of Melbourne. She married in 1805 Lord Cowper
    (1778-1837), by whom she had five children, and married in 1839
    Lord Palmerston.

  PANIS, the Comte de. Landowner of Borelli near Marseilles, he
    married in 1841 Mlle. de Vandermarcq, daughter of the

  PARIS, the Comte de** (1838-1894). Eldest son of the Duc
    d'Orléans, representative of the French Royal Family after the
    death of the Comte de Chambord.

  PASKEWITCH, Ivan Fedorovitch (1782-1856). Russian General who
    defeated the Persians in 1826 and 1827; in 1828 he conducted the
    campaign against Turkey and forced the Porte to sign the treaty
    of Adrianople in 1829, and was rewarded by the rank of
    Field-Marshal. He suppressed the Polish Insurrection in 1831,
    was appointed Prince of Warsaw and Governor-General of Poland.
    He took part in the subjugation of Hungary in 1849 and in the
    Turkish War in 1853.

  PASQUIER, the Duc.* Peer of France and Lord Chancellor.

  PASSY, Hippolyte. French politician who took the place of the
    Prince de Talleyrand in the Academy of Moral and Physical

  PASTORET, the Marquis de (1756-1840). An exile during the
    Revolution, he did not return to France until 1795. He was
    deputy in the Council of the Five Hundred, was proscribed as a
    Royalist and took refuge in Switzerland. On the Restoration he
    was raised to the Peerage and entered the Academy in 1820. Louis
    XVIII. made him guardian of the children of the Duc de Berry in
    1821, and Charles X. gave him the rank of Minister of State in
    1826; made him Vice-Chancellor in 1828 and Chancellor in 1829.
    After 1830 he retired to private life.

  PEEL, Sir Robert* (1788-1850). One of the most distinguished of
    English orators and statesmen. He married in 1820 Julia, the
    youngest daughter of General Sir John Lloyd, by whom he had
    seven children.

  PEEL, the Right Hon. William Yates (1789-1858). Brother of Sir
    Robert Peel, Member of Parliament and of the Privy Council. In
    1819 he married Jane Elizabeth, second daughter of Lord
    Mountcastle who died in 1847. She had eleven children, of whom
    four were boys.

  PELLICO, Silvio (1788-1854). Italian poet and man of letters who,
    in conjunction with Manzoni, Sismondi, Romagnosi, Gioja, founded
    a Liberal newspaper, _Il conciliatore_, which became an object
    of suspicion to Austria who suppressed it in 1820. He was
    condemned to death in 1822, but his penalty was commuted to
    fifteen years' imprisonment in the Spilberg; in the course of
    the ninth year he was pardoned and went to Piedmont where he
    afterwards lived in retirement. The story of his captivity "My
    Prisons," which he published in 1833, became popular in Europe.

  PERIER, Auguste Casimir (1811-1877). Eldest son of the celebrated
    Minister of Louis Philippe. He first pursued a diplomatic career
    and abandoned it in 1846 to enter the Chamber of Deputies. He
    retired on the _coup d'état_ of 1852, of which he disapproved.
    In 1871 he was elected to the National Assembly and gained a
    high reputation for his knowledge of financial matters. He
    became Minister of the Interior under the Presidency of M.

  PÉRIGORD, the Duc Charles de (1788-1879). A noble of Spain of the
    first class. He married in 1807 Marie Nicolette, daughter of
    Comte César de Choiseul Praslin who died in 1866 at the age of

  PÉRIGORD, Boson de.** Born in 1832, he afterwards became Prince de
    Sagan and was the eldest son of the Duc de Valençay.

  PERPONCHER, the Comtesse Adélaide de.** _Née_ Comtesse de Reede
    and wife of the Minister of the Low Countries at Berlin.

  PERSIGNY, Fialin de (1808-1872). A great friend of Louis
    Bonaparte, he took part in the disturbances at Strasburg and
    ardently supported the cause of Napoleon in the Assembly after
    the Revolution of 1848. Napoleon III. made him Count, afterwards
    Duke and Senator. He was twice Ambassador at London and twice
    Minister of the Interior.

  PETETOT, the Abbé Louis Pierre** (1801-1887). General Superior of
    the Oratory. At Paris he had previously held the incumbency of
    Saint Louis d'Antin and of Saint Roch.

  PEYRONNET, Pierre Charles, Comte de** (1778-1854). Minister of
    Charles X. He signed the Ordinances.

  PIUS VII., Pope** (1742-1823). He signed the Concordat with

  PIUS IX., Count Mastai Feretti, Pope (1792-1878). He held the
    Papacy for thirty-six years, and saw the loss of the Pope's
    temporal power, after a tenure of office greatly disturbed by
    political events.

  PODENAS, the Marquise Adélaïde de. Born in 1785. Daughter of the
    Marquis de Nadaillac; she married in 1813 the Marquis de
    Podenas, Prince of Rome. Her mother had married as her second
    husband in 1816 the Baron, afterwards the Duc des Cars.

  POECHLIN, Frederick Christian, Baron of (1809-1863). First
    Secretary to the Danish Legation at Frankfort and afterwards
    Minister to the Germanic Diet; he was appointed Minister to the
    Duchy of Lauenburg from 1852-1856. He was a Privy Councillor and
    had married in 1826 the Countess Adelaide of Eyben.

  POIX, the Duc de. Juste de Noailles. Born in 1777. He had been
    Chamberlain to Napoleon I. and had married Mlle. Mélanie de

  POIX, the Duchesse de* (1785-1862). _Née_ Mélanie de Périgord. She
    had married in 1809 the Comte Juste de Noailles, Duc de Poix,
    who was Chamberlain to the Emperor Napoleon I.

  POLIGNAC, Prince Jules** (1780-1847). Minister of Charles X.

  PONCEAU, the Vicomte Adolphe du (1803-1878). A native of Anjou, he
    sold the estate which he held at Viniève and settled at Benais
    in Touraine with M. de Messine, his father-in-law. His sister
    married as her first husband the Comte de Contades, afterwards
    Duc de Luynes.

  PONCEAU, the Vicomtesse de (1821). _Née_ Marie Agathe Collet de
    Messine, she died in 1886.

  PONSARD, Francis (1814-1867). Dramatic poet; appointed member of
    the French Academy in 1855.

  PONSONBY, Lord* (1770-1855). English diplomatist.

  POURTALÈS, the Comte Louis de (1773-1848). President of the
    Council of State at Neuchâtel, he protested in 1823 against the
    conjunction of the principality with the Swiss Confederation,
    and in 1832 he induced the Council to sign an address, asking
    the King of Prussia to break the connection between the
    Principality and Switzerland; as this attempt proved a failure,
    he retired into private life.

  POZZO DI BORGO, Count* (1764-1842). Russian diplomatist.

  POZZO DI BORGO, Count Charles. Nephew of the foregoing; he served
    in the French Army until 1830 and then resigned with the rank of
    Colonel. He married Mlle. Valentine de Crillon, daughter of the
    Duc de Crillon.

  PRASLIN, the Marquis Charles de Choiseul, Duc de** (1805-1847).
    Son-in-law of Marshal Sébastiani.

  PRASLIN, the Duchess de. Died in 1847. Daughter of Marshal

  PRITWITZ, General Charles Ernest of (1790-1871). Aide-de-camp to
    King Frederick William III. and Lieutenant-General in 1844;
    Commander of the Berlin troops in 1848 and Chief of the Federal
    Army in Schleswig in 1849.

  PROKESCH-OSTEN, Baron Anton of (1795-1876). Austrian diplomatist.
    He represented Austria at Berlin from 1849-1852, and at
    Frankfort until 1857, and afterwards at Constantinople.

  PRUSSIA, Prince Augustus of (1778-1843). Youngest son of Prince
    Ferdinand of Prussia, he was the youngest brother of Frederick
    the Great, and of his wife the Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt.

  PRUSSIA, Prince William of (1783-1851). Brother of King Frederick
    William III., he married in 1814 a Princess of Hesse-Homburg. He
    was a cavalry general and Governor at Mayence.

  PRUSSIA, Prince Adalbert of (1811-1873). Son of Prince William and
    of a Princess of Hesse-Homburg.

  PRUSSIA, Prince Waldemar of (1817-1849). Second son of Prince
    William, brother of Frederick William III.

  PRUSSIA, Princess Maria of** (1825-1889). Sister of the foregoing
    and wife of King Maximilian II. of Bavaria.

  PRUSSIA, Prince Frederick of (1794-1863). Son of Prince Louis of
    Prussia,* younger brother of Frederick William III. and of
    Princess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, sister of Queen
    Louise. He married a Princess of Anhalt-Bernburg, and was the
    father of the Princes Alexander and George of Prussia.

  PRUSSIA, Queen Elizabeth of (1801-1873). Daughter of King
    Maximilian of Bavaria and wife of Frederick William IV.

  PRUSSIA, the Prince William of** (1797-1888). Second son of
    Frederick William III.; he became King in 1861 and Emperor of
    Germany in 1871.

  PRUSSIA, the Princess of** (1811-1890). Wife of the foregoing, and
    afterwards the Empress Augusta.

  PRUSSIA, Prince Charles of** (1801-1883). Third son of King
    Frederick William III.

  PRUSSIA, the Princess Charles of** (1808-1877). Daughter of the
    Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar.

  PRUSSIA, Prince Albert of** (1809-1872). Fourth son of King
    Frederick William III.

  PRUSSIA, Princess Albert of** (1810-1883). By birth a Princess of
    the Low Countries.

  PRUSSIA, Princess Charlotte of (1831-1855). Daughter of the Prince
    and Princess Albert. She married in 1850 the Hereditary Prince
    of Saxe-Meiningen.

  PÜCKLER, Prince Hermann** (1795-1871). Traveller and German man of
    letters. Member of the House of Lords from 1863.

  PÜCKLER, Princess Anna** (1776-1854). _Née_ Princess Hardenberg,
    and was first married to Count Pappenheim.

  PUTBUS, Prince William of (1783-1854). Governor-General of
    Prussian Pomerania and of the island of Rügen; Member of the
    Council of State and Chamberlain.

  PUTBUS, Princess Louise of (1784-1860). By birth Baroness of
    Lauterbach, she first married in 1803 Count Röttger of Veltheim,
    whom she divorced in 1806 in order to marry Prince G. of Putbus.

  PUTBUS, Count Malte of** (1807-1837). Son of the foregoing.
    Attaché to the Prussian Legation at Naples.


  QUÉLEN, Mgr. de* (1778-1839). Archbishop of Paris from 1821, and
    member of the French Academy.

  QUINEMONT, the Marquis of. Born in 1808. Formerly a pupil of Saint
    Cyr and cavalry officer. He resigned in 1830 and entered the
    diplomatic career; was attached to the French Legation in
    Tuscany and afterwards in Denmark. In 1863 he was appointed
    Deputy and afterwards Senator.


  RACHEL, Mlle. Elisa Félix** (1820-1858). Famous French tragedian,
    her talent contributed to revive tragedy in its full perfection
    upon the stage.

  RADETZ-RADETZKY, Count (1766-1858). Austrian Field-Marshal, who
    took part in all the wars of his time. When war broke out with
    Piedmont in 1848 he was at first beaten, but took a glorious
    revenge in 1849 with the victory of Novara.

  RADOWITZ, Joseph von, General (1797-1853). A great friend of
    Frederick William IV., who largely influenced the King's policy.

  RADZIWILL, Prince Anton (1775-1833). Second son of the Count
    Palatine of Vilna. He studied in Germany and at the age of
    eighteen married Princess Louise of Prussia, daughter of the
    youngest brother of Frederick the Great. His marriage obliged
    him to settle in Berlin. After the Congress of Vienna the King
    of Prussia appointed him the Royal Representative for the Grand
    Duchy of Posen. He there resided for ten years and his memory
    was regarded with great affection.

  RADZIWILL, Prince William** (1797-1870). Eldest son of the
    foregoing and a General in the Prussian service.

  RADZIWILL, Princess William** (1806-1896). By birth Countess
    Mathilde Clary Aldringen.

  RAMBUTEAU, the Comte de* (1781-1869). Prefect of the Seine from

  RAMBUTEAU, the Comtesse de. Daughter of the Comte Louis de
    Narbonne, she had married in 1809 the Comte de Rambuteau.

  RANELAGH, Thomas, Viscount (1812-1886). Seventh and last Viscount
    of Ranelagh. His sister Barbara married Count Rechberg, an
    Austrian officer.

  RAUCH, Christian Daniel** (1777-1857). Famous Prussian sculptor.

  RAUCH, Friedrich von (1790-1850). Lieutenant-General in the
    Prussian Army and aide-de-camp to King Frederick William IV. He
    was military attaché at the St. Petersburg Court from 1832-1848.

  RAUZAN, the Duchesse de. Born in 1820, Claire, daughter of the
    last Duc de Duras. Married in 1819 the Marquis Louis de
    Chastellux, who was made Duc de Rauzan on the day of his
    marriage by Louis XVIII., and afterwards inherited his
    father-in-law's title.

  RAVIGNAN, the Abbé de** (1775-1858). Member of the Society of

  RÉCAMIER, Madame* (1777-1849). Famous for her beauty.

  REDERN, Count Wilhelm von** (1802-1880). Member of the House of
    Lords in Prussia.

  REDERN, Countess Wilhelmina von** (1811-1875) _Née_ Bertha Ienisz,
    daughter of a Hamburg Senator.

  REEDE, the Countess of** (1769-1847). _Née_ Krusemacht.

  REEDTZ, Holger Christian of (1800-1857). Danish historian and
    statesman. He was commissioned in 1848 to negotiate the treaty
    of Malmoe with the King of Sweden for the purpose of
    establishing a new government in Schleswig-Holstein. He was
    Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1850-1851 in the Cabinet
    presided over by Count Moltke, and afterwards lived in

  REICHENBACH, Countess Emelie of (1791-1843). _Née_ Örtlöpp, the
    morganatic wife of the Elector of Hesse, William II. On her
    marriage with him in 1841, she took the title of Countess

  RÉMUSAT, the Comte Ch. de* (1797-1875). French historian and
    politician; son of M. de Rémusat, Chamberlain to Napoleon I. and
    of Mlle. de Vergennes, famous for her beauty and wit.

  RÉMUSAT, the Comtesse Pauline de. _Née_ de Lasteyrie,
    granddaughter of General de La Fayette and wife of the Comte Ch.
    de Rémusat.

  RIVIÈRE, the Duc de (1817-1890). Son of Charles François
    Riffardeau, who was condemned to death with Georges Cadoudal in
    1804 and was only saved by the intervention of Joséphine. He
    married Mlle. de Cossé-Brissac and resided upon his estate in
    the Department of Cher. In 1876 he was elected Senator.

  RODEN, Lord Robert (1788-1870). Member of the Privy Council at the
    English Court. He married in 1813 Maria Frances Catherine,
    daughter of Lord Thomas le Despencer, who died in 1861, leaving
    him with six children, the eldest of whom was Lord Robert,
    Viscount Jocelyn. In 1862 he married the widow of an officer,
    _née_ Clementine Andrews.

  ROENNE, Ludwig Moritz Peter von (1804-1875). German lawyer and
    publicist, councillor at the Court of Justice at Berlin in 1843.

  ROGER, Jean François (1776-1842). French dramatic author and
    politician, member of the French Academy in 1817.

  ROHAN-CHABOT, Fernand, Duc de (1789-1869). Aide-de-camp to
    Napoleon I., whom he accompanied during his Russian campaign. He
    also served under the Restoration and afterwards lived in

  ROKEBY, Baron Edward (1787-1847). Eldest son of Lord Matthew
    Montagu, fourth Lord Rokeby, he succeeded his father in 1831. He
    died unmarried, leaving the title to his brother Henry, who was
    the sixth Baron Rokeby (1798-1883); with him the title became
    extinct as he left female issue only.

  ROSAS, Manuel (1793-1874). Statesman in the Argentine and Governor
    of the Argentine Republic from 1828-1861. He was overthrown by
    an insurrection supported by Brazil and was obliged to take
    refuge in England.

  ROSSI, Count. Of Italian origin, he married the widow of Prince
    Maximilian of Saxony, whose Chamberlain he became. He was a
    cousin of the Count Rossi who married Fräulein Sontag.

  ROSSI, Pellegrino (1787-1848). French economist and diplomatist,
    of Italian origin, born at Carrara; he had studied at Bologna
    and was forced to go into exile in 1815. He became a naturalised
    Frenchman and was member of the Council of Education in 1840. In
    1844 he was Peer of France; in 1845 he was sent to Rome as
    Ambassador, won the confidence of Pope Pius IX. and undertook to
    guide his Ministry. He was then assassinated by a Republican

  ROTHSCHILD, Anselm von (1772-1855). Eldest son of the founder of
    this celebrated firm, he lived at Frankfort-on-Main. The Emperor
    of Austria gave him the title of Baron in 1825.

  ROTHSCHILD, the Baron Anselm von. Died in 1874. He was the son of
    Solomon Rothschild, who founded the Vienna branch of the firm,
    and joined his brother James in Paris in 1835, leaving the
    Vienna bank to his son. He was a great lover of art and
    possessed vast estates in Silesia.

  ROVIGO, the Duchesse de. _Née_ Mlle. de Faudoas.

  ROYER COLLARD, Pierre Paul* (1763-1845). French philosopher and

  RUMFORD, Madame de** (1766-1836). _Née_ Mlle. de Paulze.

  RUMIGNY, the Comte de, General** (1789-1860). Aide-de-camp to the
    Duc d'Orléans, and faithful servant to Louis Philippe, whom he
    accompanied into exile.

  RUSSELL, Lord William* (1799-1846). English Ambassador at Berlin;
    he was succeeded by Lord Westmoreland.

  RUSSELL, Lord John* (1792-1878). English statesman. He married as
    his first wife in 1835 the widow of Lord Ribblesdale, _née_
    Adelaide Lister, who died in 1838, leaving him two daughters. In
    1841 he married Lady Frances Elliot, daughter of Lord Minto, by
    whom he had three sons and one daughter.

  RUSSIA, the Emperor Nicholas I. of* (1796-1855). Ascended the
    throne in 1825.

  RUSSIA, the Empress of** (1798-1860). Charlotte, daughter of King
    Frederick William III. of Prussia and wife of the Emperor
    Nicholas I.

  RUSSIA, the Hereditary Grand Duke of** (1818-1881). Succeeded his
    father, Nicholas I., in 1855 as Alexander II.

  RUSSIA, the Grand Duke Constantine of (1779-1831). Second son of
    the Emperor Paul.

  RUSSIA, the Grand Duke Constantine of (1827-1892). Second son of
    the Emperor Nicholas I.; Admiral in the Russian navy.

  RUSSIA, the Grand Duchess Constantine of. Born in 1830. Alexandra,
    daughter of Duke Joseph of Saxe-Altenburg, married the Grand
    Duke Constantine in 1844.

  RUSSIA, the Grand Duke Michael of (1798-1849). The youngest son of
    the Emperor Paul I. and brother of Nicholas I. He married in
    1824 Princess Charlotte of Würtemberg, who took the title of the
    Grand Duchess Helena.**

  RUSSIA, the Grand Duchess Olga of (1795-1865). Daughter of the
    Emperor Paul I. She married in 1816 William II., King of the Low


  SAINTE-ALDEGONDE, the Comtesse Camille de* (1793-1869). _Née_ de

  SAINTE-AULAIRE, the Comte de* (1778-1854). Ambassador and Peer of

  SAINTE-BEUVE, Charles Augustin (1804-1869). Famous French critic,
    author of the _Causeries du Lundi_.

  SAINTE-ELME, Ida (1778-1845). _La Contemporaine_, adventuress and
    author of scandalous memoirs concerning the Revolution and the

  SALVANDY, the Comte de* (1795-1856). French politician.

  SALVANDY, the Comtesse de.** _Née_ Julie Ferey.

  SAPIEHA, Princess Hedwige (1806-1890). _Née_ Countess Zamoyska.
    She married Prince Leon Sapieha in 1825.

  SAUZET, Paul* (1800-1877). Deputy and politician.

  SAVIGNY, Frau von (1780-1863). Marie Brentano de Laroche married
    in 1809 Herr von Savigny, Prussian lawyer. She was the sister of
    the poet Brentano.

  SAVOY, Prince Eugène of (1763-1836). Known under the name of
    _Prince Eugène_, he was the son of Maurice Eugène, Duc de Savoie
    Carignan, Comte de Soissons and of Olympe Mancini. After vainly
    seeking a position in France under Louis XIV. Prince Eugène
    entered the Austrian service, and distinguished himself as one
    of the greatest Generals of his age.

  SAXONY, King Frederick Augustus II. of** (1797-1854). Succeeded
    his uncle, King Anthony, in 1836.

  SAXONY, Queen Maria of** (1805-1877). By birth a Princess of

  SAXE-COBURG-ALTENBURG, the Dowager Duchess of (1771-1848).
    Caroline, daughter of William I., Elector of Hesse. Her husband,
    Duke Augustus of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg, died in 1822.

  SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA, Prince Augustus of (1818-1881). Cousin of the
    King of Saxony. He married in 1843 Princesse Clémentine
    d'Orléans, by whom he had several children, including King
    Ferdinand I. of Bulgaria.

  SAXE-MEININGEN, Duke Bernard of* (1800-1882). He abdicated in 1866
    in favour of his son, Prince George, who became Duke George II.

  SAXE-MEININGEN, Prince George of. Born in 1826, and came to the
    throne in 1866. He was three times married: in 1850 to Princess
    Charlotte of Prussia, who died in 1855; also to Princess Feodora
    of Hohenlohe, who died in 1872; and in 1873 he contracted a
    morganatic marriage with the Baroness Helena of Heidelburg.

  SAXE-WEIMAR, the Duchesse Amelia of (1739-1807). Daughter of Duke
    Charles of Brunswick. She married in 1756 the reigning Duke of
    Weimar, and under her reign Weimar became the literary centre of

  SAXE-WEIMAR, the Grand Duchess Louise of (1757-1830). Daughter of
    the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. She married in 1775 Duke
    Charles Augustus of Saxe-Weimar.

  SAXE-WEIMAR, Duke Bernard of** (1792-1862). Infantry General in
    the service of the Low Countries.

  SAXE-WEIMAR, Princess Ch. B. of (1794-1852). _Née_ Princess Ida of

  SAXE-WEIMAR, the Grand Duke Charles Frederick of (1783-1853). In
    1804 he married the Grand Duchesse Maria Paulowna, daughter of
    Paul I., Emperor of Russia.

  SAXE-WEIMAR, the Hereditary Prince of (1818-1901). Prince Charles
    became Grand Duke on his father's death in 1853.

  SAXE-WEIMAR, the Hereditary Princess of (1824-1897). Sophia,
    Princess of Orange, daughter of King William II. of Holland,
    married in 1842 her cousin-german, the future Grand Duke Charles
    of Saxe-Weimar.

  SCHEFFER, Ary* (1785-1858). A French painter who enjoyed high
    favour from the Orléans family.

  SCHLEGEL, Augustus Wilhelm (1767-1845). Learned German critic and
    poet. He was on terms of friendship about 1804 with Madame de
    Staël, whom he followed to Paris as tutor to her children.

  SCHLEINITZ, Count Alexander of (1807-1885). At first diplomatist,
    and in 1841 councillor and reporter to the political division of
    Foreign Affairs at Berlin, and in 1858 Minister of Foreign
    Affairs. He resigned this post in 1861 to become Minister of the
    King's Household, which office he held until his death.

  SCHNEIDER, the Chevalier Antoine (1779-1847). At first officer,
    then deputy in 1834, he became Minister of War in 1839.

  SCHÖNBORN, Countess Ernestine of. Born in 1800. As Countess
    Küenburg, she married in 1824 Count Charles of Schönborn. On his
    death in 1841 she became chief lady at the court of the
    Archduchess Sophia of Austria.

  SCHÖNBURG, Princess Louise of** (1803-1884). By birth a Princess
    of Schwarzenberg.

  SCHÖNHALS, General von (1788-1857). Lieutenant-General in the
    Austrian army, aide-de-camp and friend of Marshal Radetzky.

  SCHÖNLEIN, Dr. Johann Ludwig** (1793-1864). Learned doctor of
    Zurich, in practice at Berlin.

  SCHRECKENSTEIN, Baron Maximilian of.** Chief Gentleman at the
    Court of Grand Duchess Stephanie of Baden.

  SCHULENBURG, Count Charles of** (1788-1856). Austrian
    Lieutenant-Colonel, the third husband of the Duchess Wilhelmina
    of Sagan.

  SCHULENBURG-KLOSTERODE, the Count of** (1772-1853). Austrian

  SCHWANTHALER, Ludwig Michael (1802-1848). Famous Bavarian

  SCHWARZENBERG, Prince Felix (1800-1852). Austrian diplomatist and
    Prime Minister after 1848. By his energy he re-established the
    Emperor's authority, but carried the policy of repression to

  SCHWARZENBERG, Cardinal, Prince Friedrich (1807-1885). Prince and
    Archbishop of Salzburg in 1836, he received the Cardinal's hat
    in 1842, and was appointed Prince Bishop of Prague in 1849. He
    was a Member of the House of Lords in Austria.

  SCHWARZENBERG, Princess Lory (1812-1873). A daughter of Prince
    Moritz Lichtenstein, she married Prince Adolphus Schwarzenberg
    in 1830.

  SCHWERIN, Count Maximilian (1804-1872). A Prussian statesman of
    very liberal opinions, Minister of Public Worship in 1848 in
    Arnim's Ministry. After his resignation he became President of
    the Second Chamber; he was also Minister of the Interior in

  SCRIBE, Eugene (1791-1861). French dramatic author.

  SEAFORD, Charles Rose Ellis, Lord. Born in Jamaica. He married
    Elizabeth Caroline Catherine Hervey, granddaughter of the fourth
    Lord Bristol. She died in 1803, leaving a son, Charles Augustus,
    who afterwards become Lord Howard Walden.**

  SÉBASTIANI DE LA PORTA, Marshal* (1775-1851). French General and

  SEMONVILLE, the Marquis de* (1754-1839). Chief referendary to the
    Court of Peers.

  SEYDELMANN, Charles (1793-1843). Celebrated German actor.

  SEYMOUR, Lady. Died in 1884. Jane Georgiana, the youngest daughter
    of Thomas Sheridan, Esq., son of the Right Hon. Richard Brinsley
    Sheridan, M.P., married in 1830 Edward Adolphus Saint Maur
    (1804-1885) who succeeded his father in 1855 as twelfth Duke of
    Seymour and was First Lord of the Admiralty from 1859 to 1866.
    Lady Seymour, was sister to Lady Dufferin and to Mrs. Norton and
    all three were famous for their beauty. Lady Seymour was
    popularly known as the "Queen of Beauty," a title which had been
    given her in a famous tournament held by Archibald William
    Eglinton at Eglinton Castle in Scotland. Among the knights
    present on that occasion was Prince Louis Napoleon, afterwards
    Napoleon III.

  SISMONDI, Jean Charles Sismondi de (1773-1843). Born at Geneva of
    a rich family which belonged to Pisa, he became a member of the
    Representative Council of Geneva. He made his name as a
    historian and economist.

  SOLMS-BRAUNFELS, Prince Charles of (1812-1873). Son of Prince
    Frederick William of Solms-Braunfels; his wife was a Princess of
    Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and widow of Prince Ludwig of Prussia. He
    was an officer in the Prussian army.

  SOMMERSET, Lady Blanche. Daughter of the seventh Duke of Beaufort.
    She married in 1848 Lord Kinnoul.

  SOULT, Marshal* (1769-1852). French General and politician.

  SPARRE, the Comtesse de. Daughter of the Italian singer Naldi, she
    was educated by her father and made her first appearance in 1819
    at the Italian theatre in Paris where she shared the fame of
    Judith Pasta. Well known for her beauty, she left the stage in
    1823 to marry the General, the Comte de Sparre.

  STADION, Count Francis (1806-1853). Austrian statesman; he became
    Aulic councillor in 1834, Governor of Trieste from 1841-1847,
    and Governor of Galicia from 1847-1848. He then became Minister
    of the Interior in the Cabinet of Prince F. Schwarzenberg, but
    fell ill in 1848 and died in 1853.

  STAËL, Madame de* (1766-1817). _Née_ Necker.

  STANGER, Baron Albert von. Born in 1796 and an officer in the
    Prussian service until 1829, he obtained a post in 1837 at a
    prison at Lichtenberg. In 1841 he became governor of the prison
    of Sagan; in 1845 he held a similar post at Jauer and retired to
    Hirschberg in 1871.

  STOCKHAUSEN, General von (1791-1861). Prussian Minister of War in

  STOLBERG-WERNIGERODE, Count Heinrich of (1772-1854). Prussian
    Minister of State.

  STRAUSS, Johann (1825-1899). Austrian composer.

  STROGONOFF, the Countess Julia. Countess of Ega by her first

  STUART, Sir Charles (1779-1845). English diplomatist. In 1860 he
    was sent to the Court of Portugal as Envoy-Extraordinary; he was
    then Ambassador at Paris from 1815-1830; in 1828 he became a
    Peer of England with the title of Lord Stuart of Rothesay.

  STURMFEDER, Frau von** (1819-1891). _Née_ von Münchingen.

  STYLER. German painter.

  SULLY, the Duc de (1560-1641). Minister and friend of King Henry

  SUTHERLAND, the Duchess of.* Died in 1868. Mistress of the Robes
    to Queen Victoria.

  SUTHERLAND, George Granville, Duke of (1786-1891). He entered
    Parliament during his father's lifetime (who died in 1833), as
    Lord Gower. He was Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Sutherland.

  SWEDEN, the Princess Amelia of (1805-1853). Daughter of Gustavus
    IV., King of Sweden, sister of Prince Gustavus of Vasa, father
    of Queen Carola of Saxony.

  SWETCHINE, Madame. A Russian by birth (1782-1857). Anna Sophia
    Soymonoff married General Swetchine; she settled at Paris where
    her drawing-room was very popular.


  TALLEYRAND, Charles Maurice, Prince de* (1754-1838). Prince of
    Benevento, vice-Grand-Elector of the Empire, Minister of
    Foreign Affairs, Ambassador in England, Peer of France and
    member of the Academy of Moral and Political Science.

  TALLEYRAND, Baron, afterwards Count Charles de (1821-1896). French
    diplomatist, in succession secretary to the embassies at Lisbon,
    Madrid, St. Petersburg, and London. He was Minister
    Plenipotentiary at Weimar in 1852 and at Baden in 1854; Minister
    at Turin in 1859, and at Brussels in 1861; Ambassador at Berlin
    in 1862, and at St. Petersburg in 1864. In 1868 he was appointed

  TATITCHEFF, Demetrius Paulowitch** (1769-1845). Russian

  TESTE, J. B.* (1780-1852). French legal authority and politician.

  THORWALDSEN, Bartholomew* (1769-1844). Celebrated Danish sculptor.

  THUN UND HOHESTEIN, Count Leon of (1811-1888). He held a post in
    the Aulic Chancery at Vienna until 1848; was Minister of
    Education and Public Worship in 1849; life member of the House
    of Lords in 1861, and Envoy to the Bohemian Diet. After the
    victory of the Constitutional party he left the Landtag of
    Bohemia in 1871 and was not re-elected until 1883.

  TIECK, Ludwig von (1773-1853). Celebrated German poet and man of
    letters, the translator of Shakspere and friend of Schlegel.

  TILLY, the Comte de (1559-1632). One of the most famous
    Imperialist Generals in the Thirty Years War.

  TOCQUEVILLE, Comte Alexis Clérel de** (1805-1859). French Deputy
    and distinguished historian.

  TORENO, the Countess of. Wife of Jose Maria Gueipo y Slano, Count
    of Toreno,* Spanish statesman who retired from politics in 1835
    and then settled at Paris.

  TRACY, the Marquis de (1781-1864). At first an officer, he
    resigned in 1818 to devote himself to scientific research. In
    1822 he was appointed a Deputy and took his seat on the Extreme
    Left with La Fayette. In 1848 he declared against the insurgents
    and under Prince Louis Napoleon took the portfolio of Naval and
    Colonial Affairs; he protested against the _coup d'état_ and
    retired to his estates.

  TRIQUETI, Baron Henri de (1802-1874). French painter and sculptor,
    a pupil of Hersent and by birth a native of Piedmont.

  TROUBETZKOÏ, Prince Sergius. Died in 1861. He was one of the
    leaders of the conspiracy of 1825 and was condemned to death by
    the Supreme Court of Justice. His punishment was commuted by the
    Emperor Nicholas to permanent exile in Siberia, but he was
    pardoned on the accession of Alexander II. in 1855.

  TUSCANY, Leopold II., Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke of**
    (1797-1870). He succeeded his father the Grand Duke Ferdinand
    III. in 1824.

  TYCHO-BRAHÉ (1546-1601). Famous Swedish astronomer, who discovered
    an astronomical system in advance of the Ptolemaean and
    Copernican systems.

  TYSZKIEWICZ, Princess* (1765-1834). Niece of Stanislas Augustus
    Poniatowski, last King of Poland.


  UGGLAS, the Countess (1793-1836). Eldest daughter of the
    Field-Marshal Count Stedingk, Swedish Ambassador in Russia from
    1790-1811. In 1812 she married the Lieutenant-Colonel Count
    Ugglas, who was afterwards a member of the Council of Ministers
    in Sweden.

  ULRICA, Queen (1720-1782). Wife of King Adolphus Frederick of
    Sweden whom she married in 1844, and mother of King Gustavus
    III. She was a daughter of Frederick I., King of Prussia, and a
    sister of Frederick the Great.

  USEDOM, Count Charles Louis Guido of (1805-1884). Prussian
    diplomatist and secretary to the Legation at Rome in 1835, and
    afterwards Envoy-Extraordinary in the same town. In 1850 he was
    commissioned to conclude peace with Denmark; in 1858 he was
    appointed Plenipotentiary for Russia to the Germanic
    Confederation, and in 1863 Ambassador in Italy. In 1872 he was
    appointed general director of the Berlin museums.


  VALÉE, Marshal** (1773-1846). He became Governor-General of
    Algiers towards the end of his career.

  VALENÇAY, Louis de Talleyrand-Périgord, Duc de Talleyrand et de*
    (1811-1898). Duc de Sagan after the death of his mother, _née_
    Princesse Dorothée de Courlande, author of these memoirs.

  VALENÇAY, the Duchesse de* (1810-1858). First wife of the Duc de
    Valençay. _Née_ Alix de Montmorency.

  VALLOMBROSE, the Duchesse de. Died in 1841. _Née_ Claire de
    Gallard de Brassac de Béarn, she married the Duc Vincent de

  VELTHEIM, the Countess of. Born in 1781 as Charlotte von Bülow.
    She was the third wife of Count Röttger von Veltheim.

  VÉRAC, the Marquis Armand de** (1768-1858). Peer of France and
    Governor of Versailles.

  VERNET, Horace** (1789-1863). Illustrious French painter.

  VÉRON, Dr. Louis Désiré (1789-1867). On the conclusion of his
    professional work (he had practised from 1823), he devoted
    himself to literature and to commercial enterprises. For some
    years he was director of the opera; he then undertook, at the
    instance of M. Thiers, to revive _le Constitutionnel_ of which
    he became managing director. He supported with all his power the
    candidature of Prince Louis Napoleon for the Presidency; was
    elected Deputy in 1852; sold _le Constitutionnel_ to M. Mirès,
    and then retired from public life.

  VESTIER, Phidias** (1796-1874). Architect at Tours.

  VIARDOT, Madame. Born in 1821. She was Pauline Garcia, sister of
    Malibran and married Louis Viardot. She was a famous singer.

  VICTOR EMMANUEL II. (1820-1878). King of Sardinia in 1849, King of
    Italy in 1861. He was the eldest son of the King Charles Albert
    who abdicated in his favour after the Battle of Novara. He
    overcame his difficulties by choosing clever and energetic
    Ministers. By his intervention in the Crimean war, to which he
    sent a force of seventeen thousand men, he obtained the right to
    proclaim the grievances and the rights of Italy at the Congress
    of Paris before Europe. The alliance of his daughter Clotilda
    with Prince Napoleon gave him the all-powerful support of France
    in the war against Austria in 1859, with which event Italian
    national unity began. In 1842 he married Adelaide, daughter of
    the Archduke Regnier, who died in 1855.

  VILLELE, Mgr. de** (1770-1840). He was appointed Archbishop of
    Bourges in 1824.

  VILLENEUVE, Madame de. Mlle. Guibert married under the Empire M.
    René de Villeneuve, who shared in some of the campaigns of the
    Grand Army, was made Count, and afterwards attached to Queen
    Hortense as Chamberlain.

  VISCONTI, Louis Joachim (1791-1853). A famous architect, of
    Italian nationality, who left his country in 1798 and was a
    naturalised Frenchman in 1799. In 1808 he entered the School of
    Fine Arts, and in 1825 became architect of the Royal Library. He
    designed the tomb of the Emperor Napoleon at the Invalides; and
    also designed the fountains of Molière, of Louvois, and of
    Saint Sulpice, and finished building the Louvre, the general
    plan of which was of his design.

  VITROLLES, the Baron de* (1774-1854). French diplomatist.


  WALCKENAER, Baron Charles Athanase de (1771-1852). A learned
    French geographer, entomologist, and biographer, a member of
    the Institute. He was Prefect of Nièvre in 1826, and treasurer
    of the Royal Library in 1839.

  WALDECK, Benedict Franz Löwe (1802-1870). A Prussian lawyer and
    great political agitator. In the Chambers of 1848 he joined the
    Opposition and headed a conspiracy, which ended in his arrest
    and imprisonment.

  WALDECK, the Princess Regent of (1802-1858). Emma, daughter of the
    Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaunburg, married in 1823 Prince
    George of Waldeck. On her widowhood, in 1845, she became Regent
    of the Principality of Waldeck during the minority of her son.

  WALDSTEIN-DUX-LEUTOMISCHL, the Count of (1793-1848). Austrian
    Chamberlain and major. He married in 1817 a Countess

  WALLENSTEIN (1583-1634). A famous soldier; one of the best-known
    Generals of the Thirty Years War.

  WALSCH, Countess Agatha. Chief Lady at the Court of the Grand
    Duchess Stephanie of Baden.

  WALEWSKI, the Comte (1810-1868). A French politician who supported
    Napoleon III. and became Minister of Foreign Affairs.

  WALMODEN-GIMBORN, Count Ludwig von (1769-1862). An Austrian
    officer of great capacity and unusual strength of character.
    After 1823 he commanded the Austrian forces in Upper Italy and
    held this post until 1848, when he retired.

  WASA, Prince Gustavus (1799-1877). In 1830 he married Princess
    Louise of Baden, daughter of the Grand Duchess Stephanie of
    Baden. Their only daughter married King Albert of Saxony.

  WELLESLEY, Richard, Marquis of* (1760-1842). Eldest brother of the
    Duke of Wellington. He did important service for England as
    Governor-General of India, where he defeated Sultan Tippoo and
    destroyed the Empire of Mysore. He was twice Lieutenant of
    Ireland. He married in 1794 Mlle. Gabrielle Roland, who died in
    1816; in 1825 he married the widow of Robert Paterson, the
    brother of the first wife of Jérôme Bonaparte.

  WELLINGTON, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of* (1769-1852). At first an
    officer in the Indian Army and Member of the Irish Parliament,
    he became famous for his high military talent. He was present at
    the Congress of Vienna in 1814, and at that of Aix-la-Chapelle
    in 1818; he then played an important part in English politics.
    In 1806 he married the Hon. Catherine Pakenham, daughter of Lord
    Longford, who died in 1831.

  WERTHER, the Baron von* (1772-1859); Prussian diplomatist.

  WERTHER, the Baroness von* (1778-1853). _Née_ Countess Sophie

  WESSENBERG-AMPRIGEN, the Baron* (1773-1858). Austrian diplomatist.

  WESTMORLAND, John, Lord (1759-1841). Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland
    from 1790 to 1795 under Pitt's Ministry. In 1782 he married Miss
    Sarah Child, who died in 1795, and in 1800 he married Miss
    Saunders, who survived him.

  WESTMORLAND, John Burghersh, eleventh Earl of* (1784-1859). The
    only son and successor of the foregoing. He was a highly
    talented English General and an eminent diplomatist; was
    Minister Plenipotentiary at Berlin in 1841, at Vienna in 1851,
    and one of the chief members of the Vienna Conference in 1855;
    he retired to private life shortly afterwards.

  WESTMORLAND, Lady Anne (1793-1879). Wife of the foregoing. She was
    married in 1811, and had six children. Her eldest son, Lord
    Burghersh, died in 1848 at the age of nineteen. Lady Westmorland
    was a daughter of William, Lord Maryborough, brother of the
    Marquis of Wellesley and of the Duke of Wellington above
    mentioned. She was a clever woman, with many friends.

  WESTPHALIA, Count of. Born in 1805. Minister of the Interior in
    Prussia from 1850-1858, and Member of the House of Lords from

  WEYER, Sylvan van de* (1803-1874). Belgian statesman and man of
    letters; Ambassador at London from 1846-1867.

  WICHMANN, Ludwig Wilhelm (1784-1859). Prussian sculptor. Brother
    of Karl Friedrich Wichmann, also a sculptor.

  WIELAND (1732-1813). Famous German poet and man of letters.

  WILTON, Thomas Egerton, Lord (1799-1882). Second son of the
    Marquis of Westminster. He was a naval officer, and in 1835 held
    a post at Court. In 1821 he married Lady Margaret Stanley,
    daughter of Lord Edward of Derby, who died in 1858, leaving
    five children. In 1863 he married Miss Isabelle Smith, daughter
    of an officer in the Indian Army.

  WINDISCH-GRAETZ, Prince Alfred of (1787-1862). Austrian General;
    he was commissioned in 1848, after a brilliant career, to
    suppress the insurrection in Vienna, and was rewarded by the
    rank of Field-Marshal. He afterwards conducted the Hungarian
    campaign with less success.

  WINDISCH-GRAETZ, Princess Eleanor (1796-1848). _Née_ Princess
    Schwarzenberg, she married in 1817 Prince Alfred of
    Windisch-Graetz. She was killed at Prague during the

  WINDISCH-GRAETZ, Princess Veriand of (1795-1876). _Née_ Princess
    Eleanor of Lobkowitz, she had married in 1812 Prince Veriand of

  WINTER, Herr von. Minister of the Interior in Prussia from
    1859-1860. and afterwards chief of police from 1860-1861.

  WITTGENSTEIN, Prince William of Sayn-** (1770-1851). Minister in
    the Household of King Frederick William III.

  WOLFF, Herr von.** Councillor to the Home Office in Prussia.

  WOLFF, Frau von.** _Née_ Hennenberg.

  WORONZOFF-DASCHKOFF, Count Ivan** (1791-1854). Russian

  WREDE, the Prince of (1767-1838). A Bavarian General who took an
    active part in the Wars of the Empire.

  WURMB, Friedrich Karl von** (1766-1843). Estate agent to the
    Duchesse de Talleyrand and de Sagan in Silesia.

  WÜRTEMBURG, King William I. of* (1781-1864). Ascended the throne
    in 1816.

  WÜRTEMBERG, the Prince Royal of. Born in 1823. In 1864 he ascended
    the throne of Würtemberg under the name of Charles I. He was the
    son of King William I., of his second marriage with his cousin
    Pauline of Würtemberg. He married in 1846 the Grand Duchess Olga
    Nicolaievna, born in 1822, daughter of the Emperor of Russia.

  WÜRTEMBERG, Prince Paul of** (1785-1852). Brother of King William

  WÜRTEMBERG, Prince Augustus of** (1813-1885). Distinguished
    officer in the Prussian service, where he held important posts.

  WÜRTEMBERG, Princess Sophia (1818-1877). Daughter of the King of
    Würtemberg; she married in 1839 Prince William of Orange,
    afterwards King of the Low Countries.

  WYM, Sir Henry Walthin (1783-1856). English diplomatist who for
    several years was Minister Plenipotentiary at Copenhagen.


  ZEA, Madame de.* Spanish lady, and wife of M. Zea Bermedez, a

  ZEDLITZ, Baron Joseph Christian von (1790-1862). Famous German
    poet, who was an officer in the Austrian service and held a post
    at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at Vienna.

  ZICHY, Count Ferdinand (1783-1862). Austrian Field-Marshal. When
    commander of the Fortress of Vienna, in 1848, he capitulated to
    the insurgents; tried before a court-martial, he was condemned
    to lose his rank and to ten years' confinement in a fortress. He
    was pardoned in 1851.

  ZICHY-VASONYKÖ, Count Eugène (1803-1848). He was accused as a spy
    by the Hungarian insurgents, who put him to death.

Printed by BALLANTYNE & CO. LIMITED Tavistock Street, Covent Garden,

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