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Title: Journal of Entomology and Zoology, March 1917
Author: Various
Language: English
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  VOLUME NINE                                                   NUMBER ONE
  ========================================================================

                                 JOURNAL

                                   OF

                               ENTOMOLOGY

                                   AND

                                 ZOOLOGY


                               MARCH, 1917


                         PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY
                 POMONA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT _of_ ZOOLOGY
                     CLAREMONT, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A.

  ========================================================================


                               CONTENTS

                                                                      Page

  Another Record of a Small Whip-Scorpion in California--_M. L. Moles_   1

  Notes on Chalcid Flies, Chiefly From California--_A. A. Girault_       8

  The Rose Flea-Beetle--_G. F. Moznette_                                13

  Notes on Birds of Laguna Beach and Vicinity for 1916--_H. H.
    Nininger_                                                           20

  Solpugids From the Claremont-Laguna Region--_J. Nisbet_               22

  Record of Two Pseudoscorpions From Claremont-Laguna
    Region--_Winifred T. Moore_                                         26

  The Central Nervous System of a Sipunculid--_Wm. A. Hilton_           30

  Littoral Ascidians Collected at Laguna Beach                          36

  Summer School at Laguna Beach                                         38

  Courses Offered at the Summer School of the Laguna Beach
    Biological Laboratory, 1917                                         41

  ========================================================================
    Entered at Claremont, Cal., Post-Office Oct. 1, 1910, as second
         class matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879



                   Journal of Entomology and Zoology

            EDITED BY POMONA COLLEGE, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY


_Subscription_ $1.00 to domestic, $1.25 to foreign countries.

This journal is especially offered in exchange for zoological and
entomological journals, proceedings, transactions, reports of
societies, museums, laboratories and expeditions.

The pages of the journal are especially open to western entomologists
and zoologists. Notes and papers relating to western and Californian
forms and conditions are particularly desired, but short morphological,
systematic or economic studies from any locality will be considered for
publication.

Manuscripts submitted should be typewritten on one side of paper about
8 by 11 inches. Foot notes, tables, explanations of figures, etc.,
should be written on separate sheets. Foot notes and figures should be
numbered consecutively throughout. The desired position of foot notes
and figures should be clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Figures should be drawn so that they may be reproduced as line cuts so
far as possible. An unusually large number of half tones must be paid
for in part by the author. Other more expensive illustrations will be
furnished at cost. Figures for cuts should be made to conform to the
size of the page when reduced, that is, 5 by 7½ inches or less. The
lettering should be by means of printed numbers and letters pasted on
the drawings, in most cases.

Authors of articles longer than a thousand words will receive fifty
reprints of their publications free of cost. If more than this are
desired, the order should be given with the return of the proof sheets.
Extra copies and special covers or special paper will be furnished at
cost. Authors of short contributions will receive a few extra copies of
the number containing their articles.

Manuscripts should be sent by express or registered mail.

Address all communications to

                 The Journal of Entomology and Zoology

                                            William A. Hilton, Editor

Claremont, California, U. S. A.



         Another Record of a Small Whip Scorpion in California

                              M. L. MOLES


In April, 1916, Dr. W. A. Hilton collected some small whip-scorpions
in the Pomona College Park at Claremont. These creatures were without
eyes and yet they seemed to avoid forceps. They were able to run
backwards or forwards with equal ease. On examination it was found
that there were long hairs on the legs such as shown in the figure.
Other specimens were afterwards found in one of the nearby canyons,
and two specimens in the college collection were marked "C. Metz, in
the mountains near Claremont."

Upon looking through the literature the species was determined to be
_Trithyreus pentapeltis_ Cook. In 1899 Dr. Hubbard collected some at
Palm Springs under stones in the canyon near the stream. Those which
we have found this year were under the dried oak leaves some distance
from water. Cook gave the generic name _Hubbardia_ which has not been
sustained.

The following are the measurements of two types of the twenty or more
specimens found.

  _Measurements_--supposed Male:
      Length of whole body, 7.5 mm.
      Length of cephalothorax, 2 mm.
      Length of abdomen, 3 mm.
      Length of tail, 2.5 mm.
      Length of first leg, 8 mm.
      Length of maxillæ, 1.5 mm.
      Width of abdomen, 1 mm.
      Width of cephalothorax, 8 mm.

  _Measurements_--Supposed Female and Juvenile, Fig. 1:
      Length of whole body, 4.5 mm.
      Length of cephalothorax, 1.5 mm.
      Length of abdomen, 2 mm.
      Length of tail, 1 mm.
      Length of first leg, 5.5 mm.
      Length of maxillæ, 2 mm.
      Width of cephalothorax, 6 mm.
      Width of abdomen, 1 mm.

_Color of supposed Male_--Cephalothorax and maxillæ, dark reddish
brown. Abdomen and legs light yellow brown.

_Color of supposed Female and Juvenile_--All parts bright yellow brown.

Cephalothorax suboval, upper margin strongly concave at the sides and
tapering to a point at the median line. Sides convex at upper edge;
lower margin strongly convex. The cephalothorax is strongly chitinized,
showing two small oval spots. The small suboval area between the
chitinized cephalothorax and the abdomen is soft with five chitinized
plates.

On the dorsal surface of each abdominal segment are two muscle
depressions, while on the ventral surface the fourth, fifth and sixth
segments have dark colored plates near the segmental divisions which
are used for muscle attachments; besides the two muscle depressions.

The book-lungs openings are found on the ventral surface of the first
abdominal segment, as is also the epigynum.

The caudal appendage of the juvenile and female is made up of three
small joints tapering to a blunt end. It is held in an upright position
above the abdomen. Cook in his description supposed this form to be a
female or juvenile; Krayselin considers it a different species, but
upon close study of the rest of the organs of this form it was finally
decided that it was a juvenile and probably a female, the supposition
being held that the juvenile took the form of the female, as is often
the case, until the last few molts. The epigynum of this form was
extremely undeveloped, having only a small epigastric furrow with
depressions at either end.

The caudal appendage of the supposed male is made up of two stout
joints to which is attached a heart-shaped body tapering to a blunt
apex. This body has deep pits both on the dorsal and ventral sides near
the base.

On the tibia of the first pair of legs are two long special sensory
hairs set in little pits. On the second, third and fourth legs one hair
was found, also on the tibia. These hairs are three-fourths as long as
the leg.

The mouth parts consist of a pair of strong mandibles and labium.
The labium is placed between the two coxæ of the maxillæ. The long
process of the coxa clothed with its long simple hairs seems to have
some performance in the work of the mouth parts. The labium is suboval,
clothed thickly with simple short hairs, the upper margin having a
single row of long heavy straight hairs with many long single curved
hairs covering them.

The mandibles are provided with three distinct kinds of hairs or
spines. The large subquadrate proximal joint was clothed with long
barbed spines, the movable finger having on its median surface a row of
fifteen back curved barbed spines. In the space between the movable and
stationary finger were long hairs, enlarged in the center and tapering
off to a fine point, the tapered portion being barbed. The mandibles
are set well down in the sephalothorax.

The sexual openings were found in the usual place; the ventral surface
of the first abdominal segment, this being enlarged so as to do away
with the second abdominal segment. The epigynum consists of a long
epigastric furrow with a large lip-like opening near its median line.
Just above this opening and on either side were small longitudinal
creases.

Prof. Dr. Friedrich Dahl places the external sexual organs of this
family on the legs and in the Thelyphonidæ which is closely related.
They are found in the second joint of the tarsus of the first legs.
Careful study failed to find any trace of secondary sexual organs in
_Trithyreus pentapeltis_.

  _Krayselin, Karl_                                               1899
      Das Tierreich. Scorpiones und Pedipalpi.

  _Cook, O. F._                                                   1899
      Hubbardia, a new genus of Pedipalpi, Entomological Society
        Proceedings, vol. 3.

  _Comstock, John Henry_                                          1911
      The Spider Book, pp. 17-18.

  _Banks, Nathan_                                                 1900
      Synopsis of North American Invertebrates. Am. Nat. Vol. 34.

  _Dahl, Dr. Friedrich_                                           1913
      Vergleichende Physiologie and Morphologie Der Spinnentiere.
        Jena, Verlang N. G. Fischer.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College._)


                         EXPLANATION OF FIGURES


  Fig. 1. Drawing of the upper side of a young Trithyreus pentapeltis
            Cook ×10.

  Fig. 2. Lower or ventral view of T. pentapeltis ×10.

  Figs. 3, 4, and 5. Various views of the caudal end of an adult T.
            pentapeltis. Much enlarged.

  Fig. 6. Labium. Much enlarged.

  Fig. 7. Maxilla. Much enlarged.

  Fig. 8. Mandible of Trithyreus. Much enlarged.

  Fig. 9. One jaw of mandible. Much enlarged.

[Illustration: 1]

[Illustration: 2]

[Illustration: 3]

[Illustration: 4]

[Illustration: 5]

[Illustration: 6]

[Illustration: 7]

[Illustration: 8]

[Illustration: 9]



            Notes on Chalcid Flies, Chiefly From California

                             A. A. GIRAULT


The following descriptions are chiefly from specimens sent by the
Department of Zoology of Pomona College.


                   _Eusandalum californicum_ n. sp.

_Female_: Similar in every respect to _coquillettii_ Ashmead except as
follows: The hyaline cross-stripe between the fuscous cross-stripes of
the forewing is distinctly narrower than either fuscous cross-stripe
(broader than either in the other); the stylus of the abdomen is a
little shorter than the ovipositor valves (their extruded portion),
both equal in length in _coquillettii_. Otherwise the same. Antennæ
11-jointed, tapering, the club single and no longer than the pedicel,
funicle 1 quadrate, 2 longest, elongate, somewhat compressed, over
thrice the length of the pedicel. Types compared.

A female from Claremont (C. F. Baker).

_Types_: Catalogue No. 20357, U. S. National Museum, the female on a
tag, a fore wing antenna and hind leg on a slide.

In the U. S. National Museum a female from the Santa Cruz Mountains,
California, part of the type of _coquillettii_ (now a single female
from Los Angeles).


                      _Eusandalum obscurum_ n. sp.

The type is one female from Easton, Washington (Kincaid). Catalogue No.
20358, U. S. National Museum, the female on a tag. See table.


                       _Eusandalum alpinum_ n. sp.

The type is a part of the type of _coquillettii_ from the Santa Cruz
Mountains, California; Catalogue No. 20359, U. S. National Museum, the
specimen on a tag. See table.


                       _Eusandalum georgia_ n. sp.

One female, pinned, Georgia, Catalogue No. 20369, U. S. National
Museum. A second female from Washington, D. C. See table.


                       _Eusandalum arizona_ n. sp.

A female, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona (Schwarz), May 27. Catalogue
No. 20361, U. S. National Museum, tag. See table.

Synopsis of the North American Species of _Eusandalum_. Females. (From
the types.)

  1. Wings bifasciate, the distal fuscous band at apex. Legs red
       except the coxae, the antennae wholly concolorous. Ovipositor
       extruded for over half the length of the abdomen. Scutellum
       longitudinally lined.

     Hyaline band of fore wing distinctly narrower than either fuscous
       band (one on each side of it); stylus a little shorter than the
       ovipositor.                                  _californicum_ Girault

     Hyaline band of fore wing somewhat broader than either fuscous
       stripe; stylus and ovipositor equal.         _coquillettii_ Ashmead

  2. Wings unifasciate or wholly embrowned or with a large unbroken,
       fuscous area. Wings wholly infuscated. Scutellum densely
       punctate like the scutum (in the first species). Propodeum with
       a lateral sulcus.

     Ovipositor much extruded.

     Legs reddish except the coxae and the first and third femora
       _ventrad_; more slender than usual, the ovipositor about as in
       _californicum_ but the abdomen is longer, hence the ovipositor
       is so. Fore wing with a longitudinal white streak caudad of
       middle.                                        _acmaeoderae_ Rohwer

     Ovipositor extruded for less than a fourth the length of the abdomen,
       the stylus subobsolete.

     Fore wings indefinitely slightly stained; legs reddish except the
       coxae; scutellum long-lineolated.                _obscurum_ Girault

     Wings infuscated from the bend of the submarginal vein to apex or
       nearly. Antennæ concolorous (compare _obscurum_).

     As in _californicum_ but the scutellum finely punctate differs
       from _acmaeoderae_ in being more robust, the first and third
       femora are not metallic ventrad, the costal cell is broader, the
       tip of the fore wing is hyaline for a short distance.
                                                         _alpinum_ Girault

     Legs wholly concolorous except the knees and tips of tibiae narrowly
       and the tarsi; as in the preceding but stylus and ovipositor
       subequal.                                         _cyaneum_ Ashmead

  3. Wings hyaline or subhyaline. Antennæ concolorous except at
       extreme base.

     Ovipositor extruded for about half the length of the abdomen, the
       stylus slightly short.

     Middle legs except coxae, all knees narrowly, tips of tibiae and the
       tarsi reddish brown. Postmarginal vein subequal to the stigmal.
                                                       _hubbardii_ Ashmead

     Ovipositor extruded for less (or not more) than a third the length of
       the abdomen, the stylus subequal.

     Postmarginal vein subequal to the stigmal.

     Legs reddish except the coxae and cephalic femora and tibiae.

     Scutellum somewhat more distinctly lineolated longitudinally,
       punctate. Ovipositor short.                  _hyalinipenne_ Ashmead

     Postmarginal vein distinctly longer than the stigmal. Legs
       concolorous except knees, tips of tibiae and the tarsi. Stylus
       somewhat shorter than the ovipositor which is a third the length
       of the abdomen.                                   _georgia_ Girault

  4. Wings subhyaline. Antennæ with the basal fourth of the cape
       honey yellow.

     Postmarginal vein distinctly much longer than the stigmal, twice
       longer. Ovipositor extruded for nearly half the length of the
       abdomen, the stylus a little shorter. Legs honey yellow except
       fore and hind coxae.                              _arizona_ Girault

     All the species have the postmarginal vein shorter than the stigmal
       or no longer, save where noted; the parapsidal furrows are
       distinct, but very short, joining before the middle of the
       scutum from cephalad. The club is usually single, the antennae
       11-jointed, tapering-filiform.


                       _Dialinus begini_ Crawford

One female, Santa Clara County (C. F. Baker).


                       _Elachistus coxalis_ Howard

One pair, San Mateo County, California, the male; and Laguna Beach,
Southern California, the female (C. F. Baker).

The following species is an _Eudecatoma_ (there being no distinct
substigmal spot but only a very minute one) but for the present I
include this segregate within the older one.


                     _Decatoma subimmaculata_ n. sp.

_Female_: Length, 2.00 mm. Of the usual habitus and sculpture, the
punctation not coarse.

Honey yellow, the wings hyaline, the following black markings: Ocellar
dots obscurely, upper margin of occiput (a crescent), median channel
nearly to apex and cephalic margin of the propodeum (except laterad);
abdominal petiole and the median line of abdomen dorsad narrowly,
from just before apex of segment 2 nearly to the apex of segment 4.
Abdomen compressed, segments 2, 4 and 5 subequal, longest, the abdomen
glabrous, its petiole about twice longer than wide. Propodeum openly
rugoso-punctate, the median channel single, distinct, no median basin.
Pedicel black above, nearly twice longer than wide, a little longer
than funicle 1, the other four funicle joints subequal, subquadrate.
Club 2-jointed, the first joint shortest.

One female, Claremont, California (C. F. Baker); on oak.

_Type_: Catalogue No. 20400, U. S. National Museum, the female on a
tag, the antennae and a caudal leg on a slide.

Differs from _catesbaei_ Ashmead (types compared), in being larger,
the median channel of the propodeum is distinct for its whole length
and does not consist principally of two large foreae, the cross-carina
passing _profimad_ of it has an area on each side of the meson which
runs at first nearly parallel to the channel (the forking) but in the
Florida species, this carina continues more or less parallel with the
cephalic margin of the propodeum.


                        _Scutellista cyanea_ Mots

One female, Claremont, California (C. F. Baker).


                     _Cleonymus californicus_ n. sp.

_Female_: Length, 4.00 mm.

Dark metallic green, the tegulae, antennae (except the club and
pedicel) and the legs (except the concolorous coxae, the apex of caudal
femar lateral and the last two pairs of tibiae dorsad more or less),
reddish brown, the venation fuscous, the fore wings bifasciate, the
first stripe from the base of the marginal vein and broken distad of
the middle, the second from the postmarginal vein, obovate in shape,
twice the width of the first. The (triangular) head, the thorax and
abdomen, scaly punctate, the propodeum and abdomen 2 subglabrous,
the distal margins of the abdominal segments glabrous. Propodeum
foreolate along the cephatic and caudal margins, and along the median
carina on each side, the lateral carina represented by a distinct,
curved, foreate sulcus, the spiracle large, subreniform. Scutellum
simple. Antennæ inserted near the clypeus, a little below the eyes,
11-jointed, the club pointed ovate, acuminate at apex, embraced by the
long projection from one side of the apex of the distal funicle joint
which reaches to distal three-fourths of the club. Funicles 1 and 2
narrowest, grading into 3, all subquadrate, 4 longest, a little longer
than wide and subequal to the pedicel; 8 wider than long. Postmarginal
vein a little longer than the slender, curved stigmal, about a third
the length of the marginal. Stigmal vein parallel, in general trend,
with the costal margin.

Two females, mountains near Claremont (C. F. Baker).

_Types_: Catalogue No. 20348, U. S. National Museum, the females on
tags, a fore wing and an antennae on a slide.

The abdomen is subpetiolate; it was distinctly, quadrately petiolate in
a male specimen of _cleonymus depressus_ in the U. S. National Museum.


                     _Entedon occidentalis_ Girault

Several specimens, Claremont, California (C. F. Baker).


                         _Isosoma grande_ Riley

One winged female, mountains near Claremont, California (C. F. Baker).


                    _Metapleura spectabilis_ Westwood

One female, Claremont, California (C. F. Baker).



                          The Rose Flea-Beetle

                        (_Haltica probata_ Fall)

                             G. F. MOZNETTE,

          ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIST, OREGON AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,
                            CORVALLIS, OREGON


                              INTRODUCTION

From a careful perusal of the literature it is apparent that scarcely
anything but the original description of _Haltica probata_ Fall
appears in print. As this species has at various times been reported
on several of our cultivated plants, and as there is some possibility
of its becoming destructive to our cultivated roses, observations have
been made from time to time and this paper brings together, so far as
possible, the recorded facts concerning the species.


                 HISTORY AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES

The species was first described by Dr. H. C. Fall in 1910.[A] Mr.
Arthur Gibson[B] mentions it as attacking leaves of strawberry plants
at Nelson, British Columbia. The species is referred to as _Haltica
evicta_ Lec., but after a comparison with specimens in the writer's
collection and later in Dr. Fall's collection at Pasadena, California,
I am led to believe that the species reported by Mr. Gibson as _evicta_
is not _evicta_ but _probata_. It has been reported from Spokane,
Washington, on strawberries, and at various times has been reported
feeding on cultivated crops in Oregon.

The species is distributed along the Pacific Coast from British
Columbia to California. It has been reported from Nelson in British
Columbia; Everett and Spokane in Washington; from Corvallis, Pamelia
Lake, Mary's Peak, the Three Sisters, and Josephine County in Oregon;
and from Santa Rosa, Belmont, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties in
California.

[Footnote A: Transactions of the American Entomological Society of
America, Vol. 36, pp.]

[Footnote B: Canadian Entomological Circular No. 2. 152-159.]


             SEASONAL LIFE-HISTORY AND HABITS OF THE SPECIES

With the approach of warm weather in the spring, when the buds of
the wild rose are showing their green, the little bronze beetles
(Pl. I, Fig. 2) come from their winter quarters, about the middle
of April or earlier depending on the spring weather conditions, and
commence feeding on the tender small leaves of the expanding buds. The
beetles possess a very brilliant lustre and when approached manifest
a saltatorial habit, and may leap for a considerable distance. The
insect passes the winter in the adult stage and during that time may
be found concealed in convenient places. The writer has taken numerous
individuals from beneath the moss of the scrub oak, which grows
abundantly along the creeks in the Willamette Valley in Oregon. The
first individuals were taken on April 11, 1913, feeding on a species of
wild rose, _Rosa nukatana_ Presl. near Corvallis, Oregon. The adults
were at the time resting in the sun on the dried fruits of the rose and
also on the moss which covered the oaks. In 1915, the first beetles
were out on March 19 or somewhat earlier. Sometimes the March weather
is too severe so that the beetles do not appear until later, and the
inclement weather frequently puts a stop to the activity of the beetles
and retards oviposition.

After emerging from their hibernating quarters, the beetles jump or
fly to the nearest rose bush and soon begin to satisfy their appetite
after the long winter's fast. At this time the tender bursting rose
buds seem to be the favorite food, and the beetles engorge themselves
with bites from the prospective crop of leaves, then locked up in the
buds. The beetles seem to be most active during the warmer sunshiny
portions of the day, when they may be seen jumping and flying about the
rose bushes. When touched or jarred, they at once drop quickly to the
ground, where they feign death for a short time, later returning to the
foliage. Their shining bronze color renders it easy to discover and
watch them at their destructive work. They begin gnawing an unsightly
hole into either the side or top of the bursting leaf bud, often boring
into the bud so far as to be almost hidden from view. It usually takes
the beetles a few days to satisfy their vigorous spring appetites; then
they turn their attention to the propagation of their kind. The later
emerging adults feed voraciously on the foliage (Pl. I, Fig. 5) eating
out irregular places in the leaves.

Many individuals were found in copulo on April 12, 1913, and on April
14, 1915. Eggs were laid in great numbers April 15, 1913, but not until
the first of May in 1915, due to a long stretch of cold wet weather. By
May 18 many eggs were to be found but usually no larvae. The eggs are
laid in masses (Pl. I, Fig. 3) of from two to fifteen in a cluster with
an average of between seven and nine. They are deposited usually on
the lower surface of the leaf. No eggs are deposited until the foliage
is well along usually, as this is the food of the larvae. The writer
observed a female during oviposition. She thrusts out the egg and by a
mucilagenous substance causes the egg to adhere fast to the leaf. She
decorates the egg, as it were, with a fluid which later turns black and
appears as a streak across the ova. The adults do not live long after
egg deposition, usually about a week and a half. A number of females
were observed to lay from forty to fifty eggs each.

The length of the egg stage was found to vary considerably even in the
insectary, due no doubt largely to the weather conditions. In indoor
observations it ranged from seven to fifteen days, with an average of
twelve. In the open, eggs under screen cloth were deposited on May 24,
1913, and hatched June 10, 1913, a duration of seventeen days. By June,
1913, practically all of the egg masses had hatched and scarcely an
adult could be found anywhere. The larvae are at first yellow, changing
over to a black after a short period of time (Pl. I, Fig. 7). The eggs
split at the side when the young emerge and the larvae remain quiet for
some time apparently feeding first on the remaining egg juices. After a
while they begin to move about for convenient feeding spots. The larvae
moult three times, and after each moulting appear yellow, soon changing
to a black. Several of the grubs usually work on the same leaf,
continuing to eat small irregular holes, through, or nearly through,
the leaf until it appears skeletonized (Pl. I, Fig. 7), when they seek
new pastures.

When full grown the larvae drop to the soil and after burrowing to a
depth of about an inch or less, they construct soil cells of earth (Pl.
I, Fig. 6), not unlike the cell of the common cherry and pear slug, in
which they pupate. By July 3, 1913, many larvae were falling to the
soil. The length of the larval stage varies from fifteen to twenty-five
days with an average of twenty days. By July 10 many pupae (Pl. I, Fig.
4) were found in the soil. The writer neglected to ascertain the exact
length of the pupal stage, but from the meager observations made up
to this time ventures the opinion that it is about eighteen days. By
the first of August many adults could be found. They are a beautiful
metallic color when just emerged. The writer bred from the adults a
species of Diptera a _Tachinid_ but has not been able to ascertain the
species. Subsequent observation revealed no eggs, so undoubtedly the
species is single brooded. The life-cycle is calculated to last about
fifty-five days from eggs to adults, but this is greatly influenced
by the weather conditions. The length of the adult stage is about ten
months, depending, of course, upon the time the warm days approach in
the spring and upon the cold stretches which intervene, conditions
which influence emergence from their hibernating quarters.


                    DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIOUS STAGES

The Eggs (Pl. I, Fig. 3) are of an orange color, oblong oval or
bean-shaped. The egg has a delicate covering by which it is attached
to the leaf. Nearly every egg has a sort of spine-shape structure
attached, although it is not exactly a spine but a part of the
egg covering, which, when it has dried, gives it a black streaked
appearance at that point. The egg measures 1 mm. in length by .25 mm.
in width.

The Larvae (Pl. I, Fig. 7) when full grown have the body wider at the
anterior end, tapering gradually to the anal segment and covered with
many hairs. They are covered with an oily substance in which they often
collect their excrement as they feed and travel. The entire larva is
black and the segments of the body possess numerous tubercles bearing
setae. Each segment of the abdomen has a group of tubercles on a side
above the spiracles. When full grown the larvae measure from 6 to 8 mm.
in length.

The Pupa (Pl. I, Fig. 4) is yellow, 4 to 6 mm. in length, with the
wing pads and legs of a paler yellow to nearly white. Two setae are
located on the vertex and two on the occupit of head. The prothorax,
mesothorax, and metathorax bear spines varying in number. The abdomen
possesses three rows of setae on each side above the spiracles.

The Adult (Pl. I, Fig. 1) is green bronze, entire upper surface
polished and strongly shining sculpture throughout, nearly as in
_Haltica ignita_. Antennæ piceous, slightly more than half the length
of the body, joints 2-3-4 gradually increasing in length, the fourth
very nearly three times as long as wide. Eyes rather small and not very
prominent, their width as seen from the front distinctly less than half
the interocular distance. Prothorax two-thirds wider than long, sides
parallel in basal half, convergent anteriorly. Elytra fully two-thirds
as wide as long, and nearly three-fourths wider than the prothorax.
Body beneath piceous; abdomen alutaceous, rather coarsely punctate and
transversely rugulose. Length 3.7 mm. to 4 mm.


                          EXPLANATION OF PLATE

Figure 1. The adult beetle (greatly enlarged).

Figure 2. The adult beetle (natural size).

Figure 3. Eggs in situ on leaf greatly enlarged.

Figure 4. Pupa greatly enlarged.

Figure 5. Rose leaves showing work of adult beetles.

Figure 6. Pupal soil cell.

Figure 7. Larvae at work skeletonizing leaf.

[Illustration]



          Notes on Birds of Laguna Beach and Vicinity for 1916

                             H. H. NININGER


In addition to the work done by Mr. Leon Gardener and others on the
distribution of birds in the vicinity of Laguna Beach I noted the
following species in the summer of 1916:


                   70. _Sturna hirundo_ (Common Tern)

This species was found occasionally about the muddy flats at Balboa.


                  74. _Sturna antillarum_ (Least Tern)

The Least Tern is much more common than the former. They were often
seen in small flocks diving for fish along the coast from Laguna to
Balboa. They probably nest along the sandy shores; but none of their
nests were taken by the writer.


             95. _Puffinis griseus_ (Dark Bodied Shearwater)

These birds were found ten to twelve miles from shore, in flocks
feeding over schools of fish. They are called by the fishermen
"Barracuda Birds."


              210. _Rollus obsoletus_ (Calif. Clapper Rail)

Found in the swampy tracts about Balboa.


                   214. _Porzana carolina_ (Sora Rail)

A specimen of this Rail was taken at one of the lakes in Laguna Canyon
in the latter part of July.


            421. _Chordeiles acutipennis_ (Texas Night Hawk)

Either at dusk or at dawn these birds could be found abundantly, in
certain localities, feeding over fields, pools and streams to which
they came at dusk, from the hills where they spent the daylight hours.
Mr. C. C. White found a pair of young almost ready for flight on one of
the hills bordering on Laguna Canyon, July 7, 1916.


          425. _Aeronautes melanoleucus_ (White-throated Swift)

Mr. Charles A. Keeler in "Bird Notes Afield" (1889) records this
species from Capistrano. To one accustomed to meeting with this bird
only among the high and almost inaccessible cliffs of the mountains it
is no little surprise to find it in a district so nearly level as the
region about this old mission settlement. But surely it is there. A
visit to the place in the latter part of July revealed the fact that
they are, seventeen years since Mr. Keeler's writings, still using the
same broken walls as a retreat. I think they are nesting at the time we
visited the place, for upon the entrance of an adult into one of the
crevices there came cries of young birds which seemed to be coming from
birds that were being fed.


     530a. _Astragalinus P. hesperophilus_ (Green-backed Goldfinch)

Common around Laguna and the neighboring hills. Nests with eggs were
found, probably the second brood for the season.


                   634. _Vireo vicinior_ (Gray Vireo)

Found along the streams near Capistrano.


         685a. _Wilsonia pusilla pileolata_ (Pileolated Warbler)

Fairly common in trees along streams near Capistrano.


         364. _Pandion haliaetus carolinensis_ (American Osprey)

One of these magnificent birds was found on the rocky cliffs bordering
the shore between Laguna and Balboa. It was seen several times and was
reasonably tame.


                             BREEDING NOTES

In addition to the nests of the more common birds the following were
noted:

Several Raven nests on the cliffs bordering the shore and are in Boat
Canyon about a mile from the sea were found deserted, but feathers of
their owners and the remains of their food betrayed their identity.

A brood of Ruddy Ducks was seen on one of the lakes in Laguna Canyon
several times.

Coots were found breeding about the lakes in abundance.


(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)



               Solpugids From the Claremont-Laguna Region

                                J. NISBET


The following list of solpugids represents a collection obtained by
students and others during the past four or five years. Drawings are
given of one large specimen and top and side views of the head region
of several others. The determinations are by Dr. N. Banks.


                      _Eremobates formicaria_ Koch

This species has been taken from our region although such large
specimens have been reported only from dryer regions. This specimen, a
male is from Brawley, Cal. (Figs. 1 and 2). Figs. 3 and 4 were taken
from a young specimen collected at Claremont.

The movable finger of the cheliceræ of the male has two large teeth.
Anterior margin of rephalothorix straight. Hind tarsi one segment.


                      _Eremobates californica_ Sim.

The drawings are from a specimen taken at Laguna Beach (Figs. 5 and 6).
Specimens were also taken at Claremont. Movable finger of the cheliceræ
with a large tooth. This is not so marked in the female. Hind tarsi one
segment.


                    _Hemerotrecha californica_ Banks

Specimens were obtained at Claremont. Upper finger of cheliceræ without
teeth or many small teeth. Male has an elongated flayellow of two
parts on the upper finger of chalicera. Hind tarsi with three joints.
Specimens obtained were about evenly divided between this and the
previous species (Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10).


(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)


                         EXPLANATION OF FIGURES

Figure 1. _Eremobates formicaria_ Koch. ×2.

Figure 2. _Eremobates formicaria_ Koch, side view of cheliceræ. ×2.

Figures 3-4. Cheliceræ from young _E. formicaria_. ×2.

Figures 5-6. Cheliceræ from _E. californica_ Sim. ×2.

Figures 7-8. Cheliceræ from _Hemerotrecha californica_ Banks, views of
    the cheliceræ. ×2.

Figures 9-10. _H. californica_ views of cheliceræ, another specimen. ×2.

[Illustration: 1]

[Illustration: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]



       Record of Two Pseudoscorpions From Claremont-Laguna Region

                            WINIFRED T. MOORE


                      _Garypus Californicus_ Banks

Description: Fig. 1. Length 5 mm.

Color: Cephalothorax and pedipalps dark brown, abdomen and legs light
yellow; each abdominal scutae with a dark central spot; anterior
ventral scutae also with dark spots. Cephalothorax emarginate; four
eyes; femur of pedipalps longer than cephalothorax, tibia hardly convex
on inner side, hand about as long as tibia, fingers longer than hand;
legs long and slender.

Habitat: Specimen found under rocks near ocean at Laguna Beach,
collected by Walter Sturgis.


                       _Chelanops pallipes_ Banks

Description: Fig. 2. Length 2 mm. including mandibles.

Color: Cephalothorax light reddish brown, pedipalps darker, abdomen and
legs pale yellow.

Similar to C. dorsalis, but fingers a little longer than hand; no eye
spots, clavate hairs found on all parts of two types, on legs and
pedipalps more clavate on one side (Fig. 3) on body evening clavate
(Fig. 4). Simple hairs found on under surface of tarsus. All parts
covered with small chiton plates.

Habitat: Specimens taken from under stones in wash near Claremont.


(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)


                         EXPLANATION OF FIGURES


Figure 1. _Garypus Californicus._ ×20.

Figure 2. _Chelanops pallipes._ ×20.

Figure 3. Hair from legs and pedipalps of _C. pallipes_ much enlarged.

Figure 4. Hair from body of _C. pallipes_ much enlarged.

[Illustration: 1]

[Illustration: 2]

[Illustration: 3]

[Illustration: 4]



               The Central Nervous System of a Sipunculid

                            WILLIAM A. HILTON


A number of specimens of the genus Phascolosoma were obtained at Laguna
Beach. These were preserved in various fluids. Flemming's fluid and
mercuric chloride, were especially valuable for study. The nerve cords
were dissected out and mounted after staining. Some were imbedded,
sectioned and stained. The stain which brought out the cells with
greatest clearness was copper haematoxylin.

The general character of the nervous system of sipunculids is well
known, and the specimens examined at this time were typical as to the
form of the brain and cord. The brain is imbedded in the proboscis just
below the tentacles. It has a similar appearance in section to the
photographs of Spengel, 1912. The brain is small. Two main branches
supply nearby tentacles and muscles. There is a pair of small branches
from the connectives. Extending from the epithelium of the tentacular
region is a pair of tubes leading into the brain, the cerebral organs.
These epithelial tubes lead to a pigmented area on each side, and these
pigmented areas in section look like simple eyes. A few irregular spots
of pigment were found near the larger masses. The epithelium at the
outer end of the tube was also deeply pigmented.

Throughout the body the ventral nerve cord kept about the same width,
although the muscle bands at the sides increased somewhat. The strands
connecting the muscles and nerves to the animal's body were more or
less regularly arranged. In specimens with the proboscis drawn in, the
nerve cord is of course doubled back on itself. In the specimen drawn
at the junction of the two parts, that of the proboscis and that of the
ventral body-wall, there is a lack of lateral branches, as shown in the
upper portion of the second line of the drawing. Towards the caudal end
the lateral branches come off more irregularly.

When the animal is contracted the nerve cord seems to be segmented, but
sections show that this appearance is due to the slight folding of the
nerve cord within the muscle bands; the nerve tissue does not seem to
be elastic.

Very little has been written on the histological structure of
sipunculids. Haller, 1889, discusses a number of points, especially in
_sipunculus nudus_, relating to the ventral cord only. I find a number
of differences in this form. I did not find any very clear evidence
of special neuroglia cells, such as described and figured by Haller,
such elements may be present, but at least they are not evident, not
so evident as in many other invertebrates which I have examined. Nerve
cells may anastomose with each other as shown in Haller's figure, but
of this I can not be sure. If fibres do not unite they are in very
intimate contact.

In the ventral cord no small fibrils were seen only rather small fibers
which may have been fibrils. The lack of connective material in part at
least, perhaps because the nervous system is often extended and folded,
shows the cell processes with great distinctness. This may be why a
clearer picture than usual is presented of the relationship of cells.

Cells are abundant on the ventral side of the cord, especially in the
middle line. The more dorsal fibrous region is practically without
cells of any kind. No very marked tracts of fibers are evident, the
fibers are about equally distributed in all directions and may be
subdivided as follows:

1. Fibers which enter the fibrous mass from cells and run short
distances up and down.

2. Fibers which pass from cells to other cells near by in the cellular
area.

3. Fibers which leave the ganglion laterally from ventral cells.

4. Fibers which enter from the lateral nerves to end in the fiber area
or in among the cells.

There are no indications of long fibers, either ascending or
descending. After the examination of the cord of this animal one is
impressed with the suggestion that many cells of similar sort act
alike, that is groups of cells, not individuals are involved in the
simplest transmissions of impulses. This general suggestion which, of
course, is not new, comes to mind with great clearness after the study
of thin sections of the cord of this animal. Whether the cells actually
anastomose or not is a question hard to decide, but in the numerous
contacts of naked fibers there is, I believe, ample opportunity for the
transmission of complex changes from cell to cell, to all parts of the
nervous system. In this form there is no particular localization of
definite centers.

The brain differs in structure from the cord, the central fibrous mass
is more dense, the cells are very much smaller and more numerous. Some
cells of the brain send their fibers out directly without the common
pathway of a distinct nerve trunk. No special features of the brain
were determined except the cerebral organs already described.

  _Andreae_                                                       1882
      Beitrag zur Anatomie und Histologie des Sipunculus nudus.
    Zeit. f. Wiss. Zool. t. xxxvi.

  _Andrews, E. A._                                                1887
      Notes on the anatomy of Sipunculus gouldii Pourt. Studies Biol.
    Lab. J. H. univ. vol. iv.

  _Delage et Herouard_                                            1897
      Traite de zoologique concrete. Les vermidiens. vol. v. Paris.

  _Haller, B._                                                    1889
      Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Textur des Central nervensystem
    Hoherer Wurmer. Arb. des Zoolog. Inst. Wien Tom. viii.
    Heft 2.

  _Marcel, A. Herubel_                                            1907
      Recherches sur Sipunculides. Chap. iv. Le system nerveux.
    Mem. soc. d. France. t. xx.

  _Melalnikoff, S._                                               1900
      Zeit. Wiss. Zool. Bd. lxviii.

  _Herubel, A._                                                   1902
      Sur le cerveux du Phascolosome. Ac. d. Paris, cxxiv.

  _Spengel, J. W._                                                1912
      Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Gephyren. Zeit. Wiss. Zool. Bd.
    xxxiv.

  _Ward, H. B._                                                   1891
      Some points on the anatomy and history of Sipunculus nudus.
    Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard College.


(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)



                         EXPLANATION OF FIGURES

  Figure 1. Central nervous system of Phascolosoma ×15. The cord is shown
      in three separate pieces. The lower end of the first or left-hand
      drawing should join with the second and so on. The central nerve
      band is shown with the lateral branches of muscle and nerve. The
      brain is shown attached to the first segment at the left. The
      pigment spots, cerebral tubes and chief nerves are shown. The brain
      is drawn from reconstructions made from serial sections.

  Figure 2. Cross section of the nerve cord. ×75.

  Figure 3. Longitudinal section of the nerve cord. ×75.

  Figures 4 to 6. Drawings of sections taken through the brain at various
      levels, only one-half is shown in each case. ×75.

[Illustration: 1]

[Illustration: 2]

[Illustration: 3]

[Illustration: 4]

[Illustration: 5]

[Illustration: 6]



              Littoral Ascidians Collected at Laguna Beach


The specimens reported upon are from a collection made by P. A. Lichti
during the summer of 1915, and from a small collection brought in
during the summer of 1916. The determinations of all but the fifth were
kindly made by Prof. W. E. Ritter.


                _Ascidia californica_ Ritter and Forsythe

These simple forms were found quite abundantly under stones and in kelp
holdfasts. The form of the body was determined largely by the position
the animal took on the stone or seaweed.


                 _Styela barnharti_ Ritter and Forsythe

The specimens obtained were young, simple, of a redish-brown color and
about 4 mm. high. They were found under stones at low tide but not as
commonly as some others.


                       _Styla montereyensis_ Dall

A single specimen of this large, simple species was taken just off
shore. It was slender at the base, expanded near the openings and of a
redish-brown color.


                    _Euherdmania claviformis_ Ritter

This slender species was often found in clusters under stones. They
were about 2 mm. in diameter and 10-20 mm. long, sometimes free from
sand, at other times covered with sand grains.


                         _Goodsiria dura_ Ritter

Bright red or orange masses of these were often found in bits of
seaweed from deeper water. The individuals were 2 to 3 mm. across and
often closely massed on the seaweed or other support.


                _Eudistoma diaphones_ Ritter and Forsythe

This was the common compound species found closely attached to the
lower sides of stones. It was often quite extensive but not thick or
colored.


                 _Eudistoma psamion_ Ritter and Forsythe

Great masses of this tough, pinkish or slightly colored form were
found under rock ledges. It resembles one of the sponges in general
appearance and is found in among sponges and polyzoans. This was one of
the most bulky forms which we found.


                _Glossophorum planum_ Ritter and Forsythe

Irregular masses of this species were found under rock ledges and under
stones. Our specimens are largely covered with sand grains.


              _Distaplia occidentalis_ Ritter and Forsythe

This compound stalked form was found on a rock ledge at low tide near
Salt Creek.

                                                              W. A. H.

(_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)



                      Summer School at Laguna Beach


The summer school at Laguna Beach during the past season was in many
respects the most valuable of the past five or six years. There were
more students, more teachers and fully as many visitors. The harvest
of specimens was very satisfactory. Many creatures not before gathered
here were brought from the nearby waters. Amphioxus was obtained here
for the first time, as well as many other interesting and valuable
specimens.

[Illustration]

Several new courses were offered. A course in Ecology was given
by Professor Bean. In this the local distribution of animals was
especially studied. A similar course is to be offered this summer to
those who have had some zoology. It is believed that this work will
bring greater and greater advantages to us here as we come to know the
local conditions better. In the nature of the material this will always
be to a large extent a field study.

The course in birds given by Professor Nininger was interesting and
valuable. A number of new records for this region were obtained during
the summer.

[Illustration]

For the first time Miss Hills gave a course in drawing in connection
with zoological subjects. This much-needed and valuable work will be
continued during the coming summer, not only in a special course, but
also in an optional way in connection with several of the other courses.

[Illustration]

In connection with the ecology especially, more off-shore collecting
was done than ever before. A number of longer trips were found
interesting and valuable. Laguna at all times offers attractive walks
and many short trips were taken by all classes. Some of these were for
a few miles along the coast, back in the hills or by water or land for
a considerable distance.

The rocks and coves were again explored, yet much remains unknown.
Many new specimens to the locality were found, some of these were from
deeper water, rare fish, large sea cucumbers, a large number of strange
crabs and many other smaller but no less interesting creatures.

As in the past, a number of workers from other institutions used
the private laboratories. The eight research rooms were in use most
of the time by those doing more advanced work. It is expected that
there will be a number of advanced workers from the northern and
eastern universities during the coming season. For the first time the
laboratory is provided with a satisfactory lighting system. Electricity
is now established at Laguna Beach and the laboratory and tent city are
well provided with an ample lighting system.

The tent city and dining hall will again offer accommodations at
reasonable prices. The cost of tuition is $7.50 general charge and
$3.00 an hour per hour taken. By an hour is meant the equivalent of
an hour's work in a regular college semester. There are eight private
rooms for special investigators.

For further information write to the Director, William A. Hilton,
Pomona College, Claremont, Cal. (Laguna Beach, Cal., from June 26 to
September 20.)



                  Courses Offered at the Summer School
                     of the Laguna Beach Biological
                             Laboratory 1917


To reach Laguna Beach from Los Angeles take the electric or Santa Fe to
Santa Ana. From Santa Ana a morning stage leaves at ten, an afternoon
stage at four.

Work begins June 27 and regular courses last six weeks, but the
laboratory is open all summer.

No one may register for more than six hours. By an hour is included the
equivalent of an hour's work during a regular college semester.

The staff of the Laguna Marine Laboratory for the summer will be as
follows, several others from eastern institutions may be added later.

  William A. Hilton, Pomona College, Director                _Zoology_

  Dr. R. V. Chamberlin, Harvard University Museum of
      Comparative Zoology                                    _Zoology_

  E. O. Essig, Department of Entomology University of
      California                                          _Entomology_

  Anna A. Hills                                   _Scientific Drawing_

  1.  S. B. 11.  Zoology (2 hours). A synopsis of marine invertebrates.
        Lectures and class exercises with early morning field
        trips. Prerequisite Biology A1, or open to those who are
        taking some other biological work. M. to F. at 8.

  1a. S. B. 11. Zoology. Marine invertebrates (1 hour if taken
        with 1, or 2 hours). Laboratory on typical local forms.
        Mornings 9 to 12, except Saturday.

  2.  S. B. 18.  General Entomology (2 to 3 hours). Class laboratory
        and field work in the general study of local insects.
        Prerequisite Biology A1, or Zoology B11, or may be accompanied
        by one of these. Class period M. to F. at 11. Laboratory
        and field work at hours to be arranged.

  3.  S. A1. General Biology (3 hours). A beginning course dealing
        with general principles. Open to those who have had no
        biological work and who have either entered college or are
        about to enter. Class periods M. to F. at 11. Laboratory
        and field work afternoons.

  4.  S. C. 4. Ecology (2 or 3 hours). Class, field and laboratory
        work at hours to be arranged. A study of local land and
        aquatic societies and the factors governing the distribution
        of marine, fresh water and land forms. Prerequisite, a year
        of biological work. Class periods M. W. F. at 1.

  5.  S. C. 5.  Nature Study (2 or 3 hours).  Methods and
        materials for nature study. This will be given in the evening
        when a lantern may be used. A general view of the whole
        field will be given either for those who are teaching, those
        who intend to teach, or those who desire the general not
        technical information. This is not a course for college
        credit. M. to F. evening at 7:30. Laboratory and field work
        to be arranged. This will be given by a number of teachers.

  7.  S. D. 7.  Mammalian Embryology (2 hours).  Laboratory
        work with serial sections of embryos. Prerequisite two years
        of zoological work. A review course for those in the practice
        of medicine or preparing for medical work. Hours to
        be arranged.

  8.  S. D. 8. Neurology (2 or 3 hours). Laboratory work with
        sections of the human brain and cord. A review course open
        only to those who have some knowledge of the central nervous
        system of vertebrates. Especially designed for those
        who have interest in Neurology, Psychology or Medicine.

In addition to these courses special C. or D. work for 2 or 3 hours may
be taken as follows:

  _a._  Special field and laboratory work with some group of marine
          animals, such as amphipods, isopods, decapods, gastropods,
          etc.

  _b._  Special field and laboratory work in Entomology, either with
          some single order or family, or life history work.

  _c._  Special field and laboratory work in the embryology of
          invertebrates.

  _d._  Special field and laboratory work in Ecology. Hours to be
          arranged.

  _e._  Special field and laboratory work in marine algæ. Hours to be
          arranged.

The following work in art will be offered by Miss Anna A. Hills:

  1.  S. A1. Art (2 hours) zoological drawing. A beginning
        course for students of Biology with marine and land specimens
        as material. This course will be an aid to any who
        may wish to prepare illustrations for scientific papers or
        books. Pen and ink, pencil and colored methods will be
        given. Tuition the same as in other courses. Students furnish
        their own drawing materials.

  2.  Outdoor sketch class with either water colors or oils--oils
        preferred.

  3.  Outdoor figure work. Especially arranged for if desired by
        those who have done out-of-door work.

Rates for two and three, 75 cents per hour. Each should be taken in
three periods of three hours each.

Miss Hills has had the following preparation: Student in Olivet
College, Art Institute, Chicago; Graduate of Cooper Union, New York
City; special work under Rhoda Holmes Nicholls and Arthur W. Dow, New
York. During four years study in Europe worked under Wilhelmina H. de
Koning in Holland, Jean Paul Laurens and William Lappara in Julian's
Academy, Paris, and in England two years out of doors under J. Noble
Barlow.

   ===================================================================



               Supply Department Laguna Marine Laboratory

                 LAGUNA BEACH, ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA


ZOOLOGICAL SPECIMENS FOR CLASS AND MUSEUM MARINE AND FRESH WATER FORMS
DETERMINED INSECTS FOR SCHOOL COLLECTIONS MICROSCOPIC PREPARATIONS OF
ALL SORTS, BOTH WHOLE MOUNTS AND SECTIONS ZOOLOGICAL CHARTS IN COLORS
ANATOMICAL MODELS AND DISSECTIONS

All orders for material should be sent in not later than August 1st


                   ATTENTION GIVEN TO SPECIAL MATERIAL

From September 15th to June 20th, address Department Zoology, Pomona
College, Claremont, California.

From June 20th until September 15th, address


                            Supply Department
                        LAGUNA MARINE LABORATORY
                        Laguna Beach, California

   ===================================================================

Living protozoa, hydroids, planarians, rotifers, frogs, lizards and
salamanders may be furnished if time is given. Enough for a class
of twelve of any one of the first four, $1.00. Frogs, lizards and
salamanders may be furnished at from $1.00 to $3.00 a dozen.

    Towings from the ocean, per bottle                   $ .25
    Simple sponges, per dozen                              .50
    Other sponges, per dozen                               .75
    Small hydroids, per vial                               .75
    Large tubularian hydroids, per dozen           .75 to 1.00
    Fresh water planarians, per dozen                      .25
    Salt water planarians, per dozen                       .50
    Small round worms, per dozen                           .25
    Sipunculid worms, per dozen                            .75
    Marine annelids, per dozen                     .75 to 1.00
    Leeches, per dozen                                     .75
    Polyzoa, per bottle                                    .25
    Starfish, small to large, per dozen            .50 to 1.50
    Sea urchins, per dozen                         .75 to 1.00
    Sea cucumbers, large, per dozen                       3.00
    Synapta, per dozen                                    1.00
    Serpent stars, small to large, per dozen       .75 to 2.00
    Mussels, medium to large, per dozen            .75 to 1.50
    Pectens or cockles, per dozen                  .75 to 1.50
    Snails, small, per dozen                               .50
    Sea hares, per dozen                                  2.00
    Salt Water Snails, large, per dozen                   1.00
    Limpets, large, per dozen                              .75
    Land slugs, per dozen                                  .75
    Chitons, medium sized, per dozen                       .75
    Chitons, large, per dozen                             1.50
    Barnacles, large, per dozen                           1.00
    Shore crabs, per dozen                                 .75
    Rock crabs, large, per dozen                          1.50
    Small lobster-like forms, per dozen            .75 to 1.50
    Ascidians, simple or compound                          .75
    Amphioxus, medium to large, each                .25 to .50
    Small fish, per dozen                          .50 to 1.50
    Devilfish or octopus, each                     .75 to 3.00

   ===================================================================

Eggs or young crabs, lobsters, starfish, etc., can be furnished either
mounted and stained for microscopic examination or in bottles.

Amphipods, isopods, etc., can be furnished at any time.

The following land animals can be furnished at from 25c to $1.00 a
dozen preserved in alcohol or formalin.

Spiders, phalangids, scorpions, centipedes, millipedes, dragon and
damsel fly larvæ, aquatic beetle larvæ, grasshoppers, crickets,
termites, bugs, beetles, etc.

  DETERMINED COLLECTIONS OF MARINE SHELLS
    A set of fifty species                                          $5.00

  DETERMINED MARINE CRUSTACEA
    A set of forty species                                          $8.00

  DETERMINED MARINE INVERTEBRATES
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                     _The_ Journal _of_
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       Twelfth edition in press. Entirely rewritten, and with many new
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This work of over 700 pages and with over 400 figures is of especial
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especially with the use of the Projection Microscope for demonstrations
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A concise account of poisonous, and disease-carrying insects and their
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                        Choice Mineral Specimens

It affords this establishment pleasure to state that though we are over
fifty years old we are still seeking with youthful energy new finds of
choice mineral specimens.

A few of our recent additions will show from what widely distributed
areas we draw:

  =Japan=:       =Chalcopyrite= in groups of sharp crystals, some of them
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                 =Hopeite=, in small groups of excellent crystals.


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                 =Kunzite=, superb gem crystals.

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                 =Greenockite= on =Magnetite=, uncommonly good.


  =Utah=:        =Willemite=, drusy masses of colorless and red crystals.

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  =Nova Scotia=: =Magnesite= in groups of small distinct hexagonal
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New lots of fine specimens are constantly arriving. Ask for price-list
No. 160.

Cheap minerals are described in No. 158.

Circular No. 170 enumerates all of our many catalogues and price-lists.


                  Ward's Natural Science Establishment
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    of the titles of the current Entomological Literature, and also
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                    for the beginner, the economic
                         entomologist and the
                             systematist.

    To new subscribers, $1.90; Renewals, $2.00; payable in advance.
                    Single copies 25 cents. Address

                          ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS
             1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

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                          CLASS WORK MATERIAL

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                             THE YEAR FROM

                       C. S. BRIMLEY, Zoologist

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  General lists of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera on application; also special
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                             Pomona College

Located in one of the most healthful and beautiful parts of the
west coast. The mountains reach an elevation of ten thousand feet
within a few miles of the college and these with the nearby ocean
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For further information, address

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Transcriber Note


The use of ligatures was standardized within each article. In the first
article about Whip-Scorpions, the genus and species names were
standardized to _Trithyreus pentapeltis_ Cook.





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