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Title: A Guide to the Mount's Bay and the Land's End - Comprehending the topography, botany, agriculture, - fisheries, antiquities, mining, mineralogy and geology of - West Cornwall
Author: Paris, John Ayrton
Language: English
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[Illustration: _Drawn by F. Tonkin._]



  Western Cornwall.


  _To which is added_, _for the information of Invalids_,


  "Auditque suis _tria_ littora campis."



  The Royal Geological Society of Cornwall,


This little volume has been republished, at the earnest solicitation
of numerous friends and applicants, and with such additions and
improvements as the present extended state of information appeared to
render necessary. In obeying this call, the author trusts that he may,
in some degree, remove the prejudice to which the carelessness of his
provincial compositor must, on the former occasion, have exposed the

Since the publication of the first Edition, PENZANCE, and the District
of the Mount's Bay, have become objects of greatly increased interest;
the successful establishment of the Geological Society,--the erection
of commodious Sea Baths,--the growing confidence of the Public, and of
the medical profession, in the superior mildness of the climate,--and
the general amelioration of every thing connected with the wants and
comforts of a winter residence, have powerfully operated in augmenting
the influx of strangers and invalids, into this formerly obscure,
and comparatively neglected district. Such considerations, it will
be acknowledged, were quite sufficient to sanction the propriety
and expediency of the present undertaking, but the author must in
candour allow, that they would scarcely have prevailed, had not
another powerful motive been in silent but effectual co-operation--the
"_Antiquæ vestigia Flammæ_,"--a secret lingering after the pursuits of
Geology have, for once at least, seduced him from a resolution he had
formed on quitting Cornwall,--that of abandoning a science which can
never be pursued except with enthusiasm; but which, from its direction
and tendency, is wholly incompatible with the duties of an anxious and
laborious profession.

As the work is calculated for the guidance of those who may seek the
shores of the Mount's Bay, for its genial atmosphere, the introduction
of some general observations upon the subject of Climate, appeared
essentially necessary. For this purpose, the form of a Dialogue
has been preferred to that of a Didactic essay; by which much
circumlocution is avoided, while the only interesting parts of the
question are thus made to appear in a more prominent and popular point
of view.

The Cornish Dialogue, introduced in the Appendix, for the sake of
illustrating the provincial Dialect, has been composed after the
model of the well known "_Tim Bobbin_," which was written for the
accomplishment of the same object, with reference to Lancashire. From
the direction in which it came into the hands of the author, he is
inclined to consider it as an hitherto unpublished production of the
celebrated Dr. Walcott.----VALETE.


  (_Page_ 1.)

  _THE MOUNT'S BAY--Its Topography and Scenery, 1.--Northern
  Shores, their aspect cheerless but interesting, 3.--Minerals and
  Antiquities, 4.--The Climate of Mount's Bay, 5.--Meteorological
  Records, 5.--Vegetation, 6.--Tender Exotics flourish in the
  open air, 7.--Proofs of superior mildness from the animal
  kingdom, 9.--Coolness of the Summer, 10.--Rain; Storms,
  11.--Hurricane of 1817, 14.--Encroachments of the Sea,
  16.--The Bay formerly a woodland, 17.--Causes of the Sea's
  inundation, 18.--Rapid decomposition of the Cornish hills,
  19.--PENZANCE--an eligible residence, 22.--Its situation most
  beautiful.--Extraordinary fertility of the neighbouring lands,
  23.--Corporation--Pier--Chapel--Meeting Houses, 24.--Penzance a
  Coinage Town, 25.--Public Dispensary, 25.--ROYAL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY
  OF CORNWALL, 26.--Its Cabinet of Minerals, 27.--Laboratory,_
  _29.--Accidents from explosion in Mines prevented by the scientific
  efforts of the Society, 30.--Mineralogical Collection of Joseph
  Carne, Esq. 31.--Penwith Agricultural Society, 32.--Penzance
  Market, 33.--Wild fowl and fish abundant and cheap,--Newlyn
  Fish-women remarkable for their beauty, 33.--PUBLIC HOT AND
  COLD SEA BATHS, 34.--Beautiful prospect from the waiting room,
  35.--Packet to Scilly, 35.--Ancient Customs--Festivities at
  Midsummer, 36.--Penzance remarkable in history from having been
  burnt by the Spaniards, 38.--Tobacco first smoked in this town,
  39.--The birth place of Sir Humphry Davy, 40.--LIST OF INDIGENOUS

  (_Page_ 45)

  _An object of the very first interest--Excursion by water--By
  land, 45.--The Eastern Green celebrated as the habitat of some
  rare plants, 46.--MARAZION, or MARKET JEW, 47.--Its origin and
  Charter, 47.--Chapel Rock, 48.--ARRIVAL AT SAINT MICHAEL'S MOUNT,
  49.--Conical form of the hill--Its dimensions--Town at its
  base--The Pier--Interesting as a geological object, 50.--Why--Its
  scenery most magnificent--Geological structure, 51.--Militates
  against the Wernerian doctrines--De Luc's improbable explanation,
  51.--Dr. Berger's gratuitous assumption, 52.--Plutonian views,
  52.--Western_ _base of the Mount--Beds of Granite, 53.--Quartz
  veins--Interesting contents of the veins, 55.--Pinite discovered
  in this spot, 55.--Other minerals, 56.--Lodes of Tin and
  Copper--Remains of a Tin Mine--Veins of Mica, 57.--The Tamarisk,
  57.--Ascent to the Castle, 57.--Ancient Fortifications--The
  Chevychace room, 58.--The Chapel, 59.--Mysterious discovery in
  the Chapel, 59.--More Discoveries--Ascent to the top of the
  tower--Prospect hence of the grandest description, 60.--Saint
  Michael's Chair--Its origin and supposed mystic powers--A
  remnant of Monkish fable, 61.--The modern Apartments, 62.--THE
  NATURAL HISTORY OF THE HILL--Formerly cloathed with wood--Its
  old Cornish appellation, 62.--Once at a distance from the sea,
  63.--ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY--Monkish Legends of the vision of
  Saint Michael, 63.--Saint Keyne's Pilgrimage to the Mount in
  the fifth century, 64.--The Confessor's Endowment, 65.--Ancient
  instrument A.D. 1070 found amongst its registers, 65--Annexed to a
  Norman Priory at the Conquest, 66.--The Nunnery--Its establishment
  broken up--The connection of the Priory with Normandy destroyed,
  67.--Granted by Henry the Sixth to King's College Cambridge,
  67.--Transferred by Edward IV. to the Nunnery of Sion in Middlesex,
  68.--Bestowed upon Lord Arundel at the Reformation, 68.--Its
  PRIVATE HISTORY continued, 69.--MILITARY HISTORY.--Pomeroy's
  Treachery--Monks expelled--Monks restored, 70.--The Mount is again
  reduced by the Earl of Oxford, 71.--who in his turn is compelled
  to surrender to the forces of Edward the Fourth, 71.--The Lady_
  _Catherine Gordon, wife of Perkin Warbeck, flies to the Mount
  for safety, 71.--Besieged by the Cornish rebels in the reign of
  Edward VI., 71.--Reduced by Colonel Hammond during the Civil war
  of Charles the First, 72.--The Mount supposed by Sir Christopher
  Hawkins and Dr. Maton to be the ICTIS of Diodorus Siculus, 73._

  (_Page 74_)

  _Intermediate objects worthy of notice, 74.--Castle Horneck,
  75.--Rose Hill--Trereiffe, 76.--The country wild but susceptible
  of cultivation, 77.--Furze--Boulders of Granite, 77.--Capable of
  numerous applications in rural oeconomy, 78.--Cornish Granite,
  (provincially, Growan), when in a state of decomposition is used
  as a manure, 79.--Theory of its operation, 79.--Form of the
  Felspar crystals, 79.--State of Agriculture--The Farm of John
  Scobell, Esq. at Leha, 80.--Arish Mows, 81.--Ancient Stone Crosses,
  81.--Druidical Circle at Boscawen Un, 81.--Opinions concerning the
  origin of such circles, 82.--Chapel Euny, and its mystic well,
  82.--Caerbran Round, 83.--Other Hill Castles, 84.--Chapel Carn
  Bre--Its origin, 84.--Commands a very extensive view, 85.--Sennan
  Church-town--The First and Last Inn in England, 85.--The Village
  of Mayon or Mean, 85.--Table Mean the vague tradition concerning,
  86.--THE LAND'S END, 86.--A Spot of great geological_ _interest,
  87.--Grotesque appearance of its granitic rocks, 87.--The Armed
  Knight, Irish Lady, and Dr. Johnson's Head, 88.--Cape Cornwall, and
  Whitsand Bay, 88.--Historical recollections, 88.--The Long-Ships
  Light-house, 89.--Tradition of the Lioness, 91.--The Wolf rock,
  91.--THE SCILLY ISLANDS, 92.--Ancient Accounts--Six of the Islets
  only inhabited, 92.--Saint Agnes, 93.--The Light-house, 93.--Civil
  Government of the Islands, 93.--Present inhabitants all new
  comers, 94.--A robust and healthy race, 94.--Their employment,
  96.--Experience great distress, 96.--Curious fact with respect
  to the migration of the Woodcock, 98.--Climate and Geology,
  99.--RETURN TO THE LAND'S END--Fine rock Scenery at the Cape near
  the Signal Station, 101.--Tol Pedn Penwith, 102.--Cornish Chough--A
  Cliff Castle, 102.--Castle Treryn--Stupendous Rock Scenery--THE
  LOGAN ROCK, 103.--Its weight, 103.--How and whence it came, 104.--A
  natural production, 104.--Its appearance easily reconciled with
  the known laws of decomposition, 105.--Used probably by the Druids
  as an engine of superstition, 105.--Plants--Geological phenomena,
  106.--Rare Shells to be found in Treryn Cove, 107.--SAINT BURYAN,
  once the seat of a College of Augustine Canons, 108.--Church Tower
  commands a very extensive prospect--Remarkable ancient Monument in
  the church, 109.--Ancient Crosses, 110.--The Deanery, 111.--The
  supposed Sanctuary, 111.--Return to Penzance by a circuitous route,
  through the parish of Saint Paul, 111.--Boskenna, the romantic
  seat of John Paynter, Esq., 112.--A Druidical_ _circle, called
  the Merry Maidens, 112.--Sepulchral Stones called the Pipers,
  113.--Carn Boscawen, Pensile Stone at, 113.--Trove or Trewoof, the
  remains of a triple entrenchment at, 113.--The romantic valley of
  Lemorna, 113.--Kerris, supposed Druidical monument at, 114.--PAUL
  CHURCH, 114.--Epitaph of Dolly Pentreath, 115.--Mousehole and
  Newlyn, Colonies of Fishermen, 116.--Geological phenomena, 117._

  (_Page 119_)

  _Plan of the excursion, 119.--Nancealverne, the seat of John
  Scobell, Esq.--Poltair, of Edward Scobell, Esq.--and Trengwainton,
  of Sir Rose Price, Bart. 119.--Original Paintings by Opie,
  120.--Village of Madron, 120.--Madron Well and Baptistry; Ancient
  Superstitions attached to it, 121.--Lanyon Cromlech (represented
  in the title page of this work) known by the name of the Giant's
  Quoit, 122.--Its supposed origin, 123.--Men-an-Tol, 124.--Men
  Skryfa, or the Inscribed Stone, 125.--Chun Castle, 126.--Stamping
  Mills, Burning Houses, or Roasting Furnaces, 127.--Cavern at
  Pendeen, 126.--Pendeen Cove, 128.--Geological phenomena, 128.--The
  Gurnard's head, 129.--Minerals to be found in this district,
  130.--Axinite at Trewellard--Prehnite--Stilbite--Mesotype,
  131.--THE CROWN ENGINE OF_ _BOTALLACK--Extraordinary Scenery
  of the spot, 132.--Descent to the Engine, 133.--The workings
  of the Mine extend under the bed of the Atlantic ocean,
  133.--Mineralogical observations, 134.--CAPE CORNWALL, 136.--Little
  Bounds Mine, 136.--Its workings under the sea, 137.--Curious
  Stalactites found there, 138.--CARAGLOSE HEAD, a spot well worthy
  the stranger's notice, 138.--Portnanvon Cove, 139.--SAINT JUST
  CHURCH TOWN, 139.--Ancient Amphitheatre, where Tournaments are
  held at this very day, 140.--Botallack circles, 140.--Antiquarian
  speculations, 141._

  (_Page_ 143)

  _Embowered Village of Gulval--Kenegie the seat of J. A. Harris
  Arundel, Esq.--Rosmorran, the retired cottage of George John,
  Esq., 143.--Ascent to the great Granite ridge, 143.--Castle an
  Dinas, 144.--Atmospheric Phenomenon, 144.--SAINT IVES, 145.--THE
  PILCHARD FISHERY--Confusion and bustle which are occasioned
  on the appearance of a shoal, 146.--Natural History of the
  Pilchard, 147.--Period of its appearance, 148.--How discovered
  by the Huer, 149.--Necessary outfit for the fishery, 149.--The
  Great Net, or Stop Seine--How shot, 150.--The quantity of fish
  usually secured--Tucking, a beautiful sight, 152.--Driving Nets,
  153.--Fish_ _brought to the cellars and cured--lying in bulk,
  153.--Packed in hogsheads, headed up, and exported, 154.--The
  great importance of this fishery to the county, 155.--Refuse fish
  used as manure, 155.--Their fertilizing powers increased by lime,
  156.--THE HERRING FISHERY, 156.--Tregenna Castle, the seat of
  Samuel Stephens, Esq.--Knill's Mausoleum, 157.--Quinquennial Games
  instituted, 158.--Hayle Sands--The Port of Hayle, 159.--Desolate
  appearance of the district, 161.--Sand-flood, 162.--RECENT
  FORMATION OF SANDSTONE, 163.--Investigation of the causes which
  have operated in consolidating the sand, 166.--Huel Alfred
  Copper-mine, 169.--The Herland Mines, 170.--Saint Erth--Trevethoe,
  171.--Tin Smelting, 173.--Ludgvan Church--The tomb of the venerable
  and learned Dr. Borlase, 174._

  (_Page_ 176.)

  _The country uninteresting to the traveller in search of the
  picturesque, but affording a rich and instructive field of
  Mineralogical inquiry, 176.--Antiquity of the Cornish Tin Trade,
  177.--Stannary Courts--Copper Ore of comparatively modern
  discovery, 178.--Lead, Cobalt, and Silver ores, 180.--Average
  width of the metalliferous veins--Depth of the principal mines,_
  _181.--North and South veins, or Cross Courses, 181.--Heaves of
  the Lodes--A remarkable instance in Huel Peever, 182.--Costeening,
  the meaning of the term--METHOD OF WORKING THE CORNISH MINES,
  183.--Blasting the rock with gunpowder, 186.--DESCENT INTO A MINE,
  186.--Interior of a Mine, 187.--Temperature of Mines, 189.--Mines
  considered as property, 190.--Various processes by which the
  ore is rendered marketable, 191.--Spalling, 191.--Stamping,
  192.--Dressing, 193.--Vanning, 194.--Burning, 194.--The Standard
  Barrow, 195.--Names of Mines, whence derived, 196.--Number of
  Mines, 196.--STREAM WORKS, 197.--Gold found there, 197.--Clowance,
  the seat of Sir John St. Aubyn--Pendarves, the seat of E.
  W. W. Pendarves, Esq.--Tehidy Park, the mansion of Lord de
  Dunstanville, 198.--DOLCOATH COPPER MINE, 198.--COOK'S KITCHEN,
  199.--REDRUTH--The Great Steam Engine at Chacewater, 200.--The
  Consolidated Mines--Huel Unity--Poldice, 202.--Hints to the
  Collectors of Cornish Minerals, 202.--Mineralogical Cabinets--That
  in the possession of Mr. Rashleigh, 203.--Of Mr. Williams's
  Collection, 206.--Saint Agnes, 208.--CARN-BREH HILL--The supposed
  grand centre of Druidical worship, 209.--Imaginary monuments of the
  Druids--Their true nature developed, 209.--Cleavelandite found in
  the porphyritic granite on the summit of the hill, 212.--Carn-breh
  Castle, 213._

  (_Page_ 214.)

  _Fundamental Rocks of the Lizard Peninsula, 215.--Alternate
  beds of Slate and Greenstone at Marazion--Cudden Point--Acton
  Castle--Pengerswick Castle, 216.--Tregoning, Godolphin, and
  Breage Hills, 217.--Huel Vor, a great Tin Mine, 218.--Portleven
  Harbour--HELSTON, 219.--Its Borough--The ancient and singular
  festival of the Furry commemorated in this town, 220.--The
  Furry-day Tune, 222.--Penrose, the seat of John Rogers, Esq.,
  223.--The Loe Pool, an extensive fresh-water lake, 224.--Interior
  of the Lizard Peninsula, 225.--Gunwalloe Cove--Bolerium--Mullion
  Cove--Geology of this line of Coast, 226.--Serpentine
  Formation--Goonhilly Downs--Erica Vagans, 227.--SOAP ROCK,
  228.--Copper found in this district, 229.--KYNANCE COVE--Asparagus
  Island--The Devil's Bellows, 229.--Explanation of the phenomenon,
  230.--LIZARD LIGHT-HOUSES, 231.--Geology of the Eastern Coast of
  the Peninsula, 232.--Frying Pan Rocks near Cadgwith, 233.--Diallage
  Rock--Mr. Majendie's researches in this district, 233.--Coverack
  Cove, a spot of the highest geological interest, 234.--Professor
  Sedgwick's Observations thereon, 235.--Tregonwell Mill, the habitat
  of Menacchanite or Gregorite, 236.--CONCLUDING REMARKS, 237._


  _A Dialogue, between Dr. A. a Physician, and Mr. B. an Invalid, on
  the comparative merits of different Climates, as places of Winter
  residence_ _p._ 239


  _An Account of the First celebration of the Knillian Games at Saint
  Ives_ _p._ 260

  _A Cornish Dialogue_ 267

  _Carn Breh--An Ode hitherto unpublished, by Dr. Walcot_ 271



_Of the Mount's Bay, and the Land's End District._

At the most western extremity, and in the lowest latitude of Great
Britain, is situated this delightful and justly celebrated Bay. It is
bounded by an irregularly curved outline of many miles in extent, the
extreme points of which constitute the well known promontory of the
"_Lizard_," and the singular headland, "_Tol-Pedn-Penwith_," near the
"_Land's End_."

From the Lizard, the shores pass northward and westward, and gradually
losing, as they proceed, their harsh and untamed features, swell into
sloping sweeps of richly cultivated land, and into hills glowing with
the freshest verdure. As the coast advances, and at the same time
spreads itself southward, it unites to its luxuriant richness a bolder
character, and, rising like a vast amphitheatre, it opposes a barrier
to western storms, while it presents its undulating bosom to the sun,
and collecting his rays, pours them again with multiplied effect, upon
every part of the surrounding country. The shores now pass westward,
and extend to the _Land's End_, in their approach to which they become
more rocky and precipitous, and occasionally exhibit some of the finest
cliff scenery in the island, displaying by splendid natural sections
the exact structure and relations of the rocks of which the country is

The western shores are sprinkled with picturesque villages, churches,
cottages, and villas; and near the eastern margin of the bay, a pile
of rocks, supporting a venerable chapel on its summit, starts abruptly
from the waves, and presents an appearance of a most singular and
beautiful description--this is _Saint Michael's Mount_, an eminence
equally celebrated in the works of the poet, the naturalist, the
antiquary, and the historian.

If we pursue the coast, and, turning round the western extremity of
our island, trace its outline as it proceeds northerly, and then
easterly to the _Bay of St. Ives_, a very different country presents
itself; instead of the undulating curves, and luxuriant herbage of
the southern shores, the land is generally high,--the vallies short,
narrow, and quick of descent, and the whole landscape affords a scene
of incomparable cheerlessness; on the summit of almost every hill the
granite is to be seen protruding its rugged forms in the most fantastic
shapes, while the neighbouring ground is frequently covered for some
distance with its disjointed and gigantic fragments, tumbled together
in magnificent confusion; scarcely a shrub is seen to diversify the
waste, and the traveller who undertakes to explore the more desolate
parts of the district, will feel as if he were walking over the ruins
of the globe, and were the only being who had survived the general
wreck; and yet Ulysses was not more attached to his Ithaca, than is the
Cornish peasant to his wild and cheerless dwelling.

  "Dear is that shed to which his soul conforms,
  "And dear that hill which lifts him to the storms."

Nor let the intelligent tourist despair of amusement, for he will find
much to interest, much to delight him. There is not perhaps a district
in Great Britain which presents greater attractions to the mineralogist
or geologist; and there is certainly not one which, in so small a
compass, has produced so many species of earthy and metallic minerals,
or which displays so many geological varieties. At the same time the
antiquarian may here occupy himself with the examination of the rude
relics of antiquity, which lie scattered on all sides--nothing is more
pleasing than that sacred enthusiasm which is kindled in the mind by
the contemplation of the faded monuments of past ages, and surely no
spot was ever more congenial to such sensations. But to return from the

THE CLIMATE of Mount's Bay is the circumstance which has principally
contributed to its celebrity, and is that which renders its shores
so beneficial to invalids. Its seasons have been aptly compared
to the neap tides, which neither ebb nor flow with energy; for,
notwithstanding its southern latitude, the summer is never sultry,
while the rigour of winter is so ameliorated, that thick ice[1] is
rarely seen; frost, if it occurs, is but of a few hours duration; and
the snow storms which, coming from the north and east, bury the fields
of every other part of England, are generally exhausted before they
reach this favoured spot, or their last sprinkling is dissolved by the
warm breezes which play around its shores.

The records lately collated and published by Dr. Forbes, from the
meteorological journals of Messrs. Giddy, eminent surgeons at Penzance,
afford abundant proof that this neighbourhood enjoys a mean summer
temperature _under_, and a mean winter temperature greatly _above_,
the mean of places similarly situated as to latitude, but differing in
the latter being placed at a distance from the sea; for the mass of
water held in the vast basin of the ocean preserves a far more even
temperature than the atmosphere, and is constantly at work to maintain
some degree of equilibrium in the warmth of the air; so that in the
summer it carries off a portion of the caloric from it, while in the
winter it restores a part of that which it contains.[2]

The same registers have, moreover, recorded a fact with respect to
the Penzance climate which renders it still more acceptable to the
invalid,--the comparatively small annual, monthly, and daily range
of its temperature. Nor are the indications of the thermometer
the only test upon which we need rely,--the productions of nature
will furnish striking elucidations, and amply confirm the justness
of our meteorological observations. From the vegetable kingdom we
derive conclusive evidence of the mildness of our winter, since all
green-house plants may be preserved with far less care and attendance
than in any other part of England; myrtles[3] and geraniums, even
of the tenderest kind, and many other exotics, are here constantly
exposed during the winter, and yet they flower most luxuriantly in the
summer. The _Hydrangea_ attains an immense size in our shrubberies,
as does also the _Verbena Triphylla_. The great American aloe (_Agave
Americana_,) has flowered in the open air at Mousehole, at Tehidy park,
and in the Scilly islands. To these we may add a long list[4] of tender
exotics, all of which are flourishing in the neighbourhood of Penzance,
and it has been justly remarked that were ornamental horticulture to
become an object of attention in this neighbourhood, as it is in many
other parts of England, this list might be very considerably extended.
Amongst the rare _indigenous_ plants of this district, the _Sibthorpia
Europæa_ may be particularised as affording a remarkable proof of the
mildness of our winter. This elegant little plant when transplanted
into the midland counties is killed even in the most sheltered gardens.
Nor must we pass over unnoticed the more substantial proofs of the
same fact, as furnished by our winter markets, for at a season when
pot-herbs of all kinds are destroyed by frost in the eastern counties,
our tables are regularly supplied in abundance;[5] and so little is the
progress of vegetation checked during the months of winter, that the
meadows retain their verdure, and afford even a considerable supply of
grass to the cattle.

Nor is the animal kingdom deficient in proofs of the congenial
mildness of western Cornwall. We are indebted to the _Rev. W. T. Bree_,
of Allesley, Warwickshire, for the following remarks, which were
communicated by him to Dr. Forbes of Penzance, and published by that
gentleman in his Observations on the Climate of this neighbourhood.

"One of the most remarkable instances of the mildness of your climate
is the unusually early appearance of frog's spawn: this I observed
at Gulval on the 8th of January. According to White's Naturalist's
Calendar (which was made from observations taken in Hampshire, a warm
and early county,) the earliest and latest appearances there specified,
are February 28th, and March 22d. Taking therefore the second week
in March as the average for its appearance, you should seem, in this
instance, to be full two months earlier than Hampshire."

"In this neighbourhood (near Coventry) I rarely see any of our species
of Swallow, except perhaps an occasional straggler, before the second
week in April, but in the year 1818 I was not a little gratified at
observing upwards of a score of Sand Martins, (_Hirundo Riparia_,)
sporting over the marsh between Gulval and Marazion, on March 31st. The
wind at that time was N. W. and the thermometer at 50° in the shade at
noon. The Chaffinch (_Fringilla Coelebs_,) I heard, in Cornwall, begin
to chirp his spring note the last day of December. With us he is seldom
heard until the beginning of February. The Viper, (_Coluber Berus_) a
great lover of warmth and moisture, occurs more frequently in Cornwall
than in the midland counties."

We have already stated that our summers are as remarkable for
coolness, as our winters are desirable for mildness. This circumstance
necessarily renders our fruit inferior in flavour to that which is
produced in the inland counties; indeed the grape very rarely ripens in
the open air, and the apricot tree seldom affords any fruit, except in
a few favoured spots. The tree of the greengage plum is nearly equally
unproductive. The walnut and the common hazel-nut very seldom bear
fruit. Apples for the table, however, are plentiful and good; and our
strawberries may be considered as possessing a decided superiority.

Why then, it may be asked, should not this climate be as eligible to
invalids as that which they are generally sent across the Channel
to enjoy? In reply we will venture to assert, and without the least
fear of being contradicted by those, whose experience renders them
competent judges, that it is not only equally beneficial, but far more
eligible, unless, indeed, the patient can possess himself of the
cap of Fortunatus, to remove the difficulties and discomfiture of a
continental journey. But since the present volume is, in some measure,
written for the information and guidance of those who are seeking a
winter's residence, in pursuit of health, the author has been induced
to subjoin a short essay, in the appendix, for the purpose of examining
the comparative pretensions of the several places to the reputation for
superior mildness and salubrity, which they have acquired.

From the peninsular situation of Cornwall, and its proximity to the
Atlantic ocean, over which the wind blows, at least, three-fourths of
the year, the weather is certainly very subject to rain, and it is
found that when other parts of England suffer from drought, Cornwall
has rarely any reason to complain; this peculiarity seems highly
congenial to the inhabitants, as well as to the soil; a Cornishman
never enjoys better health and spirits than in wet seasons, and there
is a popular adage, that "_the land will bear a shower every day, and
two upon a sunday_;" this, like most of our popular sayings, although
it requires to be understood with some grains of allowance, is founded
on observation and experience. The philosophical explanation of the
fact is obvious; the shallowness of the soil, and the large proportion
of siliceous matter which enters into its composition, together with
the nature of its rocky substratum, necessarily render a constant
supply of moisture indispensable to its fertility. And we here cannot
but admire the intelligence displayed by Nature in connecting the wants
and necessities of the different parts of Creation with the power and
means of supplying them; thus in a primitive country, like Cornwall,
where the soil is constantly greedy of moisture, we perceive that
the rocks, elevated above the surface, solicit a tribute from every
passing cloud; while in alluvial and flat districts, the soil of which
is rich, deep, and retentive of water, the clouds float undisturbed
over the plains, and the country very commonly enjoys that long and
uninterrupted series of dry weather which is so congenial and essential
to its productions.

It deserves, however, to be noticed, that the rains of Cornwall are, in
general, rather frequent than heavy.

  "Not such as wintry storms on mortals shed
  Oppressing life, but lovely, gentle, kind,
  And full of every hope, and every joy,
  The wish of Nature."----

It has been satisfactorily ascertained, by means of the rain guage,
that the actual quantity of rain that falls is rather under the mean
of the whole of England; and Dr. Borlase observes that "we have very
seldom a day so thoroughly wet, but that there is some intermission,
nor so cloudy, but that the sun will find a time to shine." This
circumstance may, perhaps, in part depend upon the narrow, ridgelike
form of the peninsula, over which the winds make a quick, because they
have a short passage, and therefore do not suffer the clouds to hang
long in one place, as they frequently do in other situations; we are,
besides, much indebted to Ireland for this moderation of the elements;
she may be truly denominated the _Umbrella_ of Cornwall, for were not
the vast body of clouds, which the winds bring from the Atlantic,
attracted and broken by her hills, we should most probably be deluged
with more constant and excessive rain.

Notwithstanding the supposed moisture of the Mount's Bay, the
air is not less fit for respiration, nor less beneficial to the
valetudinarian, than that of drier situations. The porous nature of
the shelfy substratum soon disposes of any excess of water; so that,
after a short cessation of rain, the invalid may safely venture abroad
to enjoy the delightful walks which surround the bay; at the same
time, the numerous promontories which distinguish this coast, promote
a constant circulation of breezes around their extremities, so that
mists seldom linger, and we never experience those sultry calms, or
suffocating fogs, which not unfrequently infest other parts of our

As Cornwall is directly exposed to the expanse of the Atlantic ocean,
lying south-west of it, we cannot be surprised that the winds, which
blow so generally from that quarter, should occasionally produce
very violent storms. Their approach is frequently predicted by
the experienced fisherman, from the agitation of the water along
shore, a phenomenon which is called a "_ground swell_;" and which is
probably occasioned by a storm in the Atlantic, with the wind west;
in which case, as the storm proceeds eastward, the waves raised by
it will outgo the wind, and reach the eastern coast long before it.
A tremendous instance of this kind occurred, during the residence
of the author of these pages, on the night of Sunday, January 19th,
1817. The storm assumed the character of a hurricane, and acting in
conjunction with a spring tide, impelled the waves with such fury,
that they actually broke over the mast heads of the vessels which
were lying within Penzance harbour, and bore down every thing before
them; two of the four pillars recently erected for the reception of
a light were thrown down, and several of the foundation stones of the
pier removed. The windows of the bath-house were demolished, and the
whole of its furniture washed into the sea. The green between Penzance
and Newlyn was torn up, and several boats, lying on the strand were
actually carried into the neighbouring meadows. The towns of Newlyn and
Mousehole suffered corresponding damage, and several of their houses
were washed away. The road between Marazion and St. Michael's Mount
was torn from its lowest foundation, and stones of more than a ton
in weight, though clamped together with massy iron, were severed and
removed from their situation. The turnpike road between Penzance and
Marazion was, in many places, buried with sand; and in others, broken
up by the violence of the waves, and covered by the sea to the depth of
from three to five feet. Had the violence of the storm lasted but a few
hours longer, who will venture to say that the two channels would not
have been united by the inundation of the low land which constitutes
the isthmus, and the district of the Land's end been converted into an

The sea is encroaching upon every part of the Cornish coast. In the
memory of many persons still living, the cricketers were unable
to throw a ball across the "_Western Green_," between Penzance and
Newlyn,[6] which is now not many feet in breadth, and the grandfather
of the present vicar of Madron is known to have received tithes from
the land under the cliff of Penzance. On the northern coast we have
striking instances of the sea having made similar inroads. This
however is the natural result of the slow and silent depredation of
the water upon the land; but at a very remote period we are assured by
tradition, that a considerable part of the present bay, especially that
comprehended within a line drawn from near Cuddan point on the east
side, to Mousehole on the west, was land covered with wood, but which,
by an awful convulsion and irruption of the sea, was suddenly swept
away. "If we trace the north-west shore of the bay, from the Mount
westward to Newlyn, the ebb tide leaves a large space uncovered; the
sea sand is from one to two or three feet deep; and under this stratum
of sand is found a black vegetable mould, full of woodland detritus,
such as the branches, leaves, and nuts of coppice wood, together with
the roots and trunks of forest trees of large growth. All these are
manifestly indigenous; and, from the freshness and preservation of
some of the remains, the inundation of sand, as well as water, must
have been sudden and simultaneous; and the circumstance of ripe nuts
and leaves remaining together would seem to shew that the irruption
happened in the autumn, or in the beginning of winter. This vegetable
substratum has been traced seaward as far as the ebb would permit,
and has been found continuous and of like nature. Another proof of
these shores having been suddenly visited by a tremendous catastrophe,
has been afforded by the nature of the sand banks constituting the
"_Eastern_," and "_Western Greens_," and which will be found to be the
detritus of disintegrated granite; whereas the natural sand, which
forms the bed of the sea, is altogether unlike it, being much more
comminuted, different in colour, and evidently the result of pulverised
clay-slate:"[7] but when did this mighty catastrophe occur, and what
were its causes? These are questions which are not readily answered;
the event is so buried in the depths of antiquity, that nothing certain
or satisfactory can be collected concerning it; although it would
appear from the concurrent testimony of Florence of Worcester,[8] and
the Saxon Chronicles, that a remarkable invasion of the ocean occurred
in November 1099. With respect to the causes of the phenomenon we
are equally uninformed; let the geologist examine the appearance of
the coast with attention, and then decide with what probability De
Luc attributed the catastrophe to a subsidence of the land. It must
not, however, be concealed that many geologists have questioned the
probability of the occurrence altogether, and argue from the appearance
of the coast, "whose rocks beat back the envious siege of watery
Neptune," that no very important change in the hydrographical outline
of the Cornish peninsula can have taken place, during the present
constitution of the earth's surface. If Saint Michael's Mount be in
reality the "_Ictis_" of Diodorus Siculus, we have certainly a decisive
proof that no material change has taken place for the space of eighteen
centuries at least; for the Historian describes the access to this
island precisely such as it is at the present period--practicable only
at low water for wheel carriages.

Nor is the corroding operation of the other elements upon the hills
of Cornwall less evident and striking; no where are the vestiges of
degradation more remarkable; granitic countries usually present a
bold and varied outline, whereas the aspect of Cornwall, with some
few exceptions, is comparatively tame, and even flat. "_I went into
Cornwall_," said a geologist of well known celebrity, "_to see an
example of a primitive country; but, instead of an example, I found
an exception_." The same observation would apply to the agricultural
character of the county, for its fertility is much greater than that
which usually occurs in a country composed of primitive rocks.

All that peninsular portion of Cornwall which is situated to the
westward of a line drawn from the estuary of Hayle on the north, to
Cuddan point on the south, has been distinguished by the appellation of
the _Land's End District_. It is about thirteen miles long from east to
west, and five or six miles broad from north to south, and contains,
by superficial admeasurement about 54,000 statute acres. It has been
remarked that the small extent of this district, and its peninsular
character, preclude the existence of rivers of any magnitude; its
varied and uneven surface, however, gives it a great profusion of small
streams and rivulets, which add greatly to its value. We shall take
occasion to introduce some remarks on its agriculture, in our excursion
to the Land's End.

[Illustration: _Penzance._]


[1] Skaiting, as an amusement, is entirely unknown among the young
men of Penzance. The marsh between this place and Marazion, which is
generally overflowed in the winter season, and which offers, when
frozen, a very fair field for the skaiter, has not been more than four
times during the last thirty years sufficiently solidified to admit of
that diversion, viz. in the years 1788, 1794, 1814, and 1819.

[2] It is this fact that permits the cultivation of many species of
plants in the open ground about London, which in the vicinity of Paris
will not live without a green-house.

[3] These plants thrive in the open air, and commonly attain a height
of ten or twelve feet; they may be seen trained on the front of some of
the houses in Penzance to double that height. A sufficient quantity of
cuttings was obtained from a tree of this description, covering one of
the houses, in the course of six weeks, to supply the oven with fuel
for three months!

[4] The following catalogue was drawn up by the _Rev. T. Bree_, of
Allesley, Warwickshire, _viz._

  Amaryllis Vittata.
  Arum Colocasia.
  Azalea Indica.
  Buddloea Globosa.
  Bocconia Cordata.
  Coronilla Glauca, &c.
  Calla Æthiopica.
  Cistus Salvifolius.
  Chrysanthemum Indicum.
  Camellia Japonica.
  Cyclamen Persicum.
  Canna Indica.
  Cheiranthus Tristis.
  Dahlia (many varieties.)
  Daphne Indica.
  Eucomis Striata.
  Fuchsia Coccinea.
  Geranium (several species of the African G.)
  Hypericum Coris.
  ---- Crispum.
  ---- Balearicum.
  Hydrangea Decolor.
  Haustonia Coccinea.
  Hemerocallis Alba.
  Lavandula Viridis.
  Lobelia Fulgens.
  Myrtus Communis.
  Mesembryanthemum Deltoideum.
  Melianthus Major.
  Mimulus Glutinosus.
  Magnolia Tripetala.
  Metrosideros Lanceolata.
  Olea Fragrans.
  Pittosporum Undulatum.
  Phylica Ericoides.
  Protoea Argentea.
  Punica Nana.
  Solanum Pseudo-Capsicum.
  Teucrium Frutescens.
  ---- Marum.
  Verbena Triphylla.
  Westringia Rosmarinacea.

[5] _Cabbages_ are ready for the table as early as February; _Turnips_
before the end of March; _Broccoli_, against Christmas; _Green Peas_
are generally ready by the middle of May. But the most remarkable
exception, perhaps, to the ordinary routine of the culinary calendar
is to be found in the growth of the potatoe. It is customary for the
gardeners in the vicinity of Penzance to raise two crops in one year.
The first being planted in November is gathered in April, May, and
June; the second crop is planted immediately on taking up the first,
and as late as to the middle of July. The first or spring crop has,
in general, no other defence from the cold of winter than the stable
dung used as manure, and it is rarely injured by the frost! Such is the
ordinary practice of the market-gardener; but Mr. Bolitho of Chyandour,
has constantly new potatoes at Christmas, and through the whole of
January and part of February, raised _in the open garden_, with no
other shelter than that afforded by some matting during the coldest

[6] Mr. Boase has lately published, in the 2d volume of the
Transactions of the Cornish Society, a very interesting letter upon
this subject, (in the possession of Mrs. Ley of Penzance, who is the
present representative of the Daniel family.) It was written, in
the reign of Charles II. to the then proprietor of an estate, which
included part of the "_Western Green_;" and that _part_ is there
estimated at _thirty-six acres of pasturage_!

[7] See "A memoir on the submersion of part of the Mount's Bay, by H.
Boase, Esq." in the 2d volume of the Cornish Transactions.

[8] "_On the third of the nones of November_," cries Florence of
Worcester, "_the sea comes out upon the shores, and buried towns and
men, very many, oxen and sheep innumerable_." While the Saxon Chronicle
relates that "_this year eke, on Saint Martin's mass day, sprang up so
much the sea flood, and so myckle harm did, as no man minded it ever
afore did_."



Having offered a rapid coup d'oeil of the country we are about to
examine, we shall now conduct the stranger into _Penzance_,[9] as being
a town well calculated to afford him an eligible residence; many of
the various objects of interest are within the range of a morning's
ride, and he will meet with every accommodation that may be required
for the performance of his excursions; if his pursuit be mineralogy and
geology, it is in this town that he will find others zealously engaged
in the study of the same science, from whom he will readily obtain much
local information; while in the collection of the Geological Society,
so liberally opened for the inspection of every scientific stranger, he
will see well defined specimens illustrative of the districts he may be
desirous of exploring.

The reader of this Guide, therefore, must thoroughly understand that
in the arrangement of the subsequent "Excursions," the various objects
of interest, to which it directs him, are described in an order best
adapted to the convenience of the resident at Penzance.

PENZANCE is the most western market town in the kingdom; about ten
miles from the land's end, and 282 miles W.S.W. of London. It is
beautifully situated on the north-west shore of the Mount's Bay, on
a declivity jetting into the sea. The lands in its vicinity having
a substratum of _hornblende rock_ and _slate_, are not exceeded in
fertility by any soil in the kingdom; a belt of land around the town,
which consists of about a thousand acres, producing an annual rent
of £10,000! The town is well defended by surrounding hills from the
fury of Atlantic storms. It is large and populous, containing more
than six thousand inhabitants. The Corporation[10] consists of a
mayor, recorder, eight aldermen, and twelve common-council men; by
whose funds,[11] unaided by any parliamentary grant, a very commodious
pier was erected about fifty years ago, and which has lately been
considerably extended, so that it is now more than 600 feet in length,
and is the largest pier in Cornwall. It has, moreover, received the
addition of a light which is displayed every night, from half flood to
half ebb, and is consequently extinguished as soon as there is less
than nine feet of water within the pier. At high water there is now at
Spring tides 22 feet[12] of water, which is about five feet more than
that at the pier of Saint Michael's Mount. The expenses incurred by
these late improvements are to be paid by a new tariff, established by
an act passed in the year 1817.

The mother church is situated at Madron, but there is a chapel of ease
in the town, dedicated to Saint Mary, the simple and unassuming spire
of which forms a very interesting object in the bay.

Besides the established church, there are several places of religious
worship. The Wesleyan Methodists' chapel, built in the year 1814, is
the most complete and capacious meeting-house in the county. There
are, moreover, appropriate places of worship for the Independents,
Baptists, and Quakers, and a synagogue for the Jews.

Penzance is one of those towns to which the tinners bring their tin to
be "_coined_" as it is called, that is, to be assayed and licensed by
the officers of the Duchy, who take off a piece from the _corner_[13]
of each block; and if they find it sufficiently pure, stamp the
former with the Duke's arms. The stranger will be much struck by the
singular sight of many thousand blocks of Tin, which lie in heaps,
like worthless rubbish, about the street,[14] each weighing about 320
lb. and may perhaps be worth from £18 to £20. The Tin intended for the
Mediterranean trade is here formed into bars, while that designed for
exportation to the East Indies is cast into ingots.

There is a Public Dispensary, supported by the voluntary contributions
of the inhabitants, aided occasionally by the donations of those
invalid strangers, who, grateful for the reestablishment of health in
themselves, eagerly adopt this mode of contributing to its restoration
in others. Few institutions for the accomplishment of a similar object,
have proved more extensively beneficial; and none, we will venture to
add, were ever superintended with more humane attention.

To the scientific visitor, Penzance possesses an interest of no
ordinary degree. In the year 1814, DR. PARIS, who was at that time the
resident physician, succeeded, through the support of the nobility,
gentry, and mine agents of the county, in establishing a society for
the cultivation and promotion of mineralogical and geological science;
and, when we consider the immense advantages of its locality, the
ability of its members, and the zeal and munificence of its patrons,
we cannot be surprised to find that the short period of nine years has
been sufficient to raise it to a respectable rank amongst the eminent
institutions of this country. His present Majesty, having graciously
condescended to become its patron, it is now denominated the ROYAL
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CORNWALL. The Marquis of Hertford, Lord Warden
of the Stannaries, and The Right Honourable Lord De Dunstanville,
are its Vice-Patrons, and Davies Gilbert, Esq. M.P., the President;
while amongst its officers and members it has enrolled the names
of many individuals of the first rank and science in the kingdom.
Two volumes of the Society's Transactions are already given to the
public, from which a fairer estimate may be formed of the value of its
labours, than from any sketch which the limited pages of this "_Guide_"
could possibly afford; we shall, however, for the information of our
scientific readers, present, in the _Appendix_, a list of the different
memoirs which each volume contains. The splendid and extensive
series of minerals, already exceeding four thousand specimens, which
are deposited in an elegant and spacious museum,[15] offers a most
honourable and durable testimony of the zeal and talent with which this
department has been conducted; while to the student in mineralogy it
affords a most desirable and solid system of instruction; indeed it has
already excited such a spirit of inquiry among the miners, as to have
led to the discovery of several minerals before unknown in Cornwall.

There is also an oeconomical department, containing specimens in
illustration of the various changes which the ores of Tin, Copper, &c.
undergo in the processes of dressing and smelting. Models are likewise
to be seen of the machinery which is employed in such operations. The
whole has been admirably arranged under the skilful direction of the
Curator, _E. C. Giddy, Esq._

In the geological department of the Museum are complete series of
specimens illustrative of the serpentine formation of the _Lizard_,--of
the slate formation of the "_Land's End District_,"--of the limestone
formation of Veryan, and of the hornblende rocks of St. Cleer near
Liskeard. There is besides an interesting series of "_Elvans_"[16] from
different levels in many of the principal mines of the county, together
with a collection of veins of metallic and earthy substances.

Among the earthy minerals, we may particularize, as unusually fine,
the specimens of _Calcedony_, _Sodalite_, _Haüyne_, _Petalite_,
_Colophonite_, _Vesuvian_, &c. In the metallic department, we may
notice the _Carbonate of Lead_, _Specular Iron_, _Arseniate of Iron_,
_the Oxide, Carbonate, Arseniate and Phosphate of Copper_, _Native
Gold_ from the Tin-stream-works of Cornwall, _Arsenical Pyrites_,
_Uranite_, _Uran-ochre_, _Native Nickel_, &c. Here also may be seen
a mineral, hitherto almost unknown,--_a Sub-carburet of Iron_; it
was analysed by that late eminent chemist, the _Rev. W. Gregor_, who
received it from the hands of the _Rev. J. Rogers_ of Mawnan. It was
found in a vein about half an inch wide, intersecting either hard
_Clay-slate_ or _Graywacké_. Among the saline minerals in the cabinet
are _Glauberite_, and _Sassoline_ or native Boracic acid.

A Laboratory, containing the necessary apparatus for analytical
operations, is attached to the establishment.

In conclusion, we will venture to affirm, that the advantages and
enjoyments which such societies are calculated to afford are not
only obtained without any expense to the country in which they are
encouraged, but that they actually repay _in wealth_ and _emolument_
much more than they require for their support. Had the Cornish Society
been earlier called into existence, we should never have heard of
the most valuable productions of our country having been thrown into
the sea, nor of their having been used as materials for the repair
of roads, or the construction of cottages: on the contrary, how
many thousand tons of ore might have been gained?--how many years
of unprofitable but expensive labour saved? and how many individual
adventurers preserved from disappointment, or rescued from ruin?
Amongst the efforts made by this Society to improve the theory and
art of mining, through the application of science, not the least
interesting and praiseworthy is that which relates to the prevention of
accidental explosion in the methods of blasting rocks with gunpowder,
by the introduction of "_Safety Instruments_."

How little aware is the great mass of the community at what an expense
of human suffering and misery the ordinary necessaries of civilized
life are obtained! Few of our readers, we will venture to say, have
ever heard of the dreadful extent of the accidents which have occurred
in the mines of Cornwall from the use of _iron_ rammers, in the process
of charging the rock with gunpowder, in order to blast it. Hundreds
have been thus sent to an untimely grave, or, what perhaps is still
worse, have been so mutilated as to remain blind and helpless objects
of misery for the rest of their days, while their wives and children
have been thus driven, in a state of destitution, to the hard necessity
of seeking from charity that pittance which honest industry could no
longer supply. We must refer the reader for a full account of this
appalling subject to Dr. Paris's Memoir, in the first volume of the
Society's Transactions, entitled "_On the Accidents which occur in
the Mines of Cornwall, in consequence of the premature explosion of
Gunpowder in blasting rocks; and on the methods to be adopted for
preventing it, by the introduction of a Safety Bar, and an instrument
termed the Shifting Cartridge_."

We earnestly, therefore, entreat the Society to persevere in those
laudable efforts, which have already ensured for it the respect of the
learned, and the gratitude of the public.--_Floreat._

Besides the instructive collection of the Geological Society, the
splendid cabinet of _Joseph Carne, Esq._ may now be seen in this
town, for since the first edition of this "_Guide_," the Cornish
Copper Company have given up their smelting establishment at Hayle,
at which place _Mr. Carne_ formerly lived as the resident partner.
Among the principal excellencies of this collection we may notice
_Prehnite_, in a variety of forms; _Axinite_ in the usual forms of
that mineral; _Stilbite_ in flat four-sided prisms, terminated by
pyramids; _Mesotype_ radiated; _Garnets_ in twelve, and twenty-four
sided crystals; _Pinite_ in six and twelve sided prisms; _Uranite_
in quadrangular tables with the angles sometimes truncated, and
also in forms much resembling cubes and octohedrons; _Uran-ochre_;
_Native Bismuth_; and _Specular Iron ore_, little inferior in beauty
to that brought from Elba,--all of which are from Saint Just. From
other parts of Cornwall are _Sulphate of Lead_ (Vellenoweth Mine) in
a variety of forms, more especially in one resembling an octahedron;
_Grey Sulphuret of Copper_ (Crenver mine), the best defined crystals
of which are very obtuse dodecahedrons, and six sided prisms; in some
specimens the dodecahedron is so placed upon the summit of a prism as
to produce the whimsical appearance of a nail, which from its rarity
is sought after by mineral collectors with considerable avidity. Two
specimens of rarity also in this collection are the _Yellow_, and _Grey
Sulphuret of Copper_, in forms approaching that of Cube; the latter is

The Penwith Agricultural Society holds its meetings, and distributes
its premiums, in this town. Nothing can be more in place than such
an institution. Geology and Agriculture are kindred sciences, and
it has been truly observed that there is no district in the British
Empire where the natural relations between the varieties of soil and
the subjacent rocks can be more easily discovered and traced, or more
effectually investigated, than in the county of Cornwall; and no where
can the information which such an enquiry is capable of affording, be
more immediately and successfully applied for the improvement of waste
lands, and the general advancement of agricultural science.

The market of Penzance, for the goodness, variety, and cheapness of its
commodities, is certainly not surpassed by any other in the kingdom; to
the great quantity of salt usually mixed with the food of the swine,
is perhaps to be attributed the delicacy and richness of the pork;
whilst, owing to the fine pasturage of the neighbourhood, the heifer
beef is superior, beyond comparison, to the Scotch. It is worthy also
of notice, that during the winter season the market is filled with a
variety of wild-fowl, woodcocks, snipes, &c. which are offered for
sale at extremely low prices. The market is held on Thursdays and
Saturdays; but every description of fish in season, as _Red Mullet_,
_John Doree_, _Turbot_, _Sole_, _Mackarel_, _Whiting_, _Pilchard_,
_Herring_, &c. &c. may be purchased from the Newlyn fish-women, who are
in daily attendance at their stalls, and whose fine symmetry, delicate
complexions, curling ringlets, and the brilliancy of whose jet black
eyes, as they dart their rays from beneath the shade of large gypsey
hats of beaver, fill the traveller with admiration.

We beg leave to introduce the reader to two of these _Nymphs of the


Whilst speaking of the delicacies of the table we must not omit to
mention the _clotted_ or _clouted_ cream of this and the neighbouring
county,[18] a luxury with which the epicures of other parts are wholly

The town of Penzance is rapidly extending itself; new houses are
continually rising in commanding situations; and, since the publication
of the first edition of this work, HOT AND COLD SEA BATHS have been
completed upon a suitable scale of convenience. The waiting room
belonging to this establishment commands a prospect of very singular
beauty. St. Michael's Mount rising boldly in front, forms a striking
relief to the extended line of coast which constitutes the back ground;
while the undulating shores on the left, skirted by the little village
of Chyandour, are well contrasted, on the opposite side, with the busy
scene of the pier, and the numerous vessels in the harbour.

In enumerating the advantages this town holds out as a residence to
invalids, it deserves notice that a packet sails every Friday to the
Scilly Islands, and returns on the following Tuesday. The distance is
about fourteen leagues, and, with a fair wind, the passage is generally
accomplished in six hours; but with contrary winds it has sometimes,
though very rarely, exceeded two days.

In a town so remote from the metropolis, and in a great degree
insulated from the other parts of the empire, it is not extraordinary
that we should find the traces of several very ancient customs. The
most singular one is, perhaps, the celebration of the Eve of Saint
John the Baptist,[19] our town saint, which falls on Midsummer Eve;
and that of the Eve of Saint Peter, the patron of fishermen. No sooner
does the tardy sun sink into the western ocean than the young and old
of both sexes, animated by the genius of the night, assemble in the
town, and different villages of the bay, with lighted torches. Tar
barrels having been erected on tall poles in the market place, on the
pier, and in other conspicuous spots, are soon urged into a state of
vivid combustion, shedding an appalling glare on every surrounding
object, and which when multiplied by numerous reflections in the
waves, produce at a distant view a spectacle so singular and novel
as to defy the powers of description; while the stranger who issues
forth to gain a closer view of the festivities of the town, may well
imagine himself suddenly transported to the regions of the furies and
infernal gods; or, else that he is witnessing, in the magic mirror
of Cornelius Agrippa, the awful celebration of the fifth day of the
Eleusinian Feast;[20] while the shrieks of the female spectators, and
the triumphant yells of the torch bearers, with their hair streaming
in the wind, and their flambeaus whirling with inconceivable velocity,
are realities not calculated to dispel the illusion. No sooner are the
torches burnt out than the numerous inhabitants engaged in the frolic,
pouring forth from the quay and its neighbourhood, form a long string,
and, hand in hand, run furiously through every street, vociferating "an
eye,"--"an eye,"--"an eye"! At length they suddenly stop, and the two
last of the string, elevating their clasped hands, form _an eye_ to
this enormous _needle_, through which the _thread_ of populace runs;
and thus they continue to repeat the game, until weariness dissolves
the union, which rarely happens before midnight.

On the following day (_Midsummer day_) festivities of a very
different character enliven the bay; and the spectator can hardly be
induced to believe that the same actors are engaged in both dramas.
At about four or five o'clock in the afternoon, the country people,
drest in their best apparel, pour into Penzance from the neighbouring
villages, for the purpose of performing an aquatic divertisement. At
this hour the quay and pier are crowded with holiday-makers, where
a number of vessels, many of which are provided with music for the
occasion, lie in readiness to receive them. In a short time the
embarkation is completed, and the sea continues for many hours to
present a moving picture of the most animating description.

Penzance is remarkable in history for having been entered and burnt by
the Spaniards, in the year 1595. From time immemorial a prediction had
prevailed, that a period would arrive when "_Some strangers should land
on the rocks of Merlin, who should burn Paul's Church, Penzance, and
Newlyn_." Of the actual accomplishment of this prediction we receive
a full account from Carew, from which it would appear that on the 23d
of July, 1595, about two hundred men landed from a squadron of Spanish
gallies, on the coast of Mousehole, when they set fire to the church of
Paul, and then to Mousehole itself. Finding little or no resistance,
they proceeded to Newlyn,[21] and from thence to Penzance. Sir Francis
Godolphin endeavoured to inspire the inhabitants with courage to repel
these assailants; but, so fascinated were they by the remembrance of
the ancient prophecy, that they fled in all directions, supposing that
it was useless to contend against the destiny that had been predicted.
The Spaniards availing themselves of this desertion, set it on fire in
different places, as they had already done to Newlyn, and then returned
to their galleys, intending to renew the flames on the ensuing day;
but the Cornish having recovered from their panic, and assembled in
great numbers on the beach, so annoyed the Spaniards with their bullets
and arrows, that they drew their galleys farther off, and availing
themselves of a favourable breeze, put to sea and escaped.

It is worthy of remark, that when the Spaniards first came on shore,
they actually landed on a rock called "_Merlin_." The historian
concludes this narrative by observing that these were the only
Spaniards that ever landed in England as enemies.

In recalling the historical events which have invested this town with
interest, we had nearly omitted to state, that a tradition exists here,
that _Tobacco_ was first smoked by _Sir Walter Raleigh_ in Penzance, on
his landing from America. By the Philosopher of a future age Penzance
will, doubtless, as the birth place of the illustrious SIR HUMPHRY
DAVY, be regarded with no ordinary share of interest; and to those who
may be led to perform a pilgrimage to the early laboratory of this
highly gifted philosopher, the vignette at the head of the present
chapter will be found materially useful in directing his steps.[22]

It would be inconsistent with the plan and objects of the present work
to enter into the details of biography, that duty must be reserved
for an abler pen, we shall therefore only state that the present
distinguished President of the Royal Society was born in this town in
the year 1779, and that after having received the earlier part of his
education under _Dr. Cardew_ at Truro, he was placed with a respectable
professional gentleman of Penzance, of the name of _Tonkin_, in order
that he might acquire a knowledge of the profession of a surgeon and
apothecary. His early proofs of genius, however, having attracted a
gentleman well known for his strong perception of character, he was
fortunately removed to a field better calculated to call forth the
latent energies of his mind. The result is too well known to require

In the vicinity of the town are delightful walks through shady dingles,
and over swelling hills, from whose summits we catch the most delicious
sea and land prospects; and which are not a little heightened in beauty
and effect by the glowing aerial tints so remarkably displayed in this
climate at the rising and setting of the sun. Here too the Botanist may
cull, in his rambles, a great variety of rare indigenous plants; with a
catalogue[23] of which we shall now close the present chapter.


  Alisma Damasonium (_Star-headed Water Plantain_) between Penzance
  and Marazion.

  A---- Ranuncoloides. Marazion Marsh.

  Anchusa Officinalis (_Common Alkanet_) St. Ives, &c.

  Anethum Foeniculum, common near Marazion.

  A---- Graveolens. Marazion Marsh.

  Aquilegia Vulgaris (_Common Columbine_) St. Ives, Goldsithney, &c.

  Antirrhinum Orontium (_Lesser Snapdragon_) Gulval, Land's End.

  A---- Montspessilanum (_Bee Orchis_) Penhryn.

  Anthemis Nobilis (_Common Chamomile_) passim.

  Anthyllis Vulneraria (_dwarf with a red flower_.) (_Kidney-Vetch_,
  _Ladies' Finger_). Downs, Whitsand Bay.

  Aspidium Oriopteris (_Heath Shield-fern_) Gear Stamps and New

  Aspidium Dilatatum. Variety. (_Great Crested ditto_) Moist Banks.

  Asplenium Marinum (_Sea Spleenwort_) St. Michael's Mount, Land's
  End, Logan rock.

  A---- Lanceolatum (_Lanceolate ditto_) Gulval, St. Michael's
  Mount, Lemorna Cove, &c.

  Bartsia Viscosa (_Yellow Viscid Bartsia_) Cornfields near Hayle.

  Brassica Oleracea (_Sea Cabbage_) Cliffs, Penzance.

  Briza Minor (_Small Quaking-grass_) Cornfields between Gulval and

  Bunias Cakile (_Sea Rocket_) Beach between Penzance and Newlyn.

  Campanula Hederacea (_Ivy-leaved Bell-flower_) Trevaylor Bottom,
  Gear Stamps, &c.

  Chironia Littoralis (_Sea Centaury_) Beach between Penzance and

  Cochlearia Officinalis (_Common Scurvy-grass_) Cliffs near the Sea,

  Convolvulus Soldanella (_Sea Bindweed_) Whitsand Bay, Marazion

  Cucsuta Epithymum (_Lesser Dodder_) common upon Gorse.

  Cynosurus Echinatus (_Rough Dog's-tail Grass_) Ludgvan.

  Daucus Maritimus (_Wild Carrot_) Land's end, Logan rock, Botallack,

  Dicranum Cerviculatum (_Red-necked Forked Moss_) Gulval, Scilly.

  D---- Crispum (_Curled ditto_) St. Mary's, Scilly.

  Drosera Longifolia (_Long-leaved Sun-dew_) Marsh between Marazion
  and Penzance.

  Erica Vagans (_Cornish Heath_) Lizard Peninsula.

  Erodium Maritimum (_Sea Stork's Bill_) Sea shore, common.

  E---- Cicutarium (_Hemlock's Stork's Bill_) ditto.

  Eryngium Maritimum (_Sea Holly_) Sea shore, common.

  Euphorbia Peplis (_Purple Spurge_) Marazion Green.

  E---- Portlandica (_Portland ditto_) Scilly Islands.

  Exacum Filiforme (_Least Gentianella_) Marazion Marsh, beyond the
  half way houses.

  Genista Pilosa (_Hairy Green-weed_) Kynance Cove.

  Gentiana Campestris (_Field Gentian_) Downs, Whitsand Bay,
  Lizard, &c.

  Geranium Columbinum (_Long-stalked Crane's-bill_) Ludgvan.

  G---- Sanguineum (_Bloody Crane's bill_) Kynance Cove.

  Glaucium Luteum (_Yellow Horned Poppy_) Scilly Islands.

  Helleborus Viridis (_Green Hellebore_) between Rosmorran and Kenegie,
  near the brook.

  Herniaria Hirsuta (_Hairy Rupture wort_) between Mullion and the

  Hookeria Lucens (_Shining Feather-moss_) Trevaylor Bottom. Between
  Rosmorran and Kenegie.

  Hymenophyllum Tunbridgense (_Filmy-leaved fern_) Among the
  loose stones at Castle An Dinas, on the east side.

  Hypnum Scorpioides (_Scorpion Feather-moss_) Gulval, Zennor, &c.

  H---- Alopecurum, variety (_Fox-tail ditto_) Gulval.

  Illecebrum Verticillatum (_Whorled Knot-grass_) Gulval, Gear
  Stamps, Land's end.

  Inula Helenium (_Elecampane_) Gulval, The Mount, St. Ives, Scilly.

  Iris Foetidissima (_Stinking Iris_, _Roast Beef Plant_) Madron.

  Linum Angustifolium (_Narrow-leaved pale Flax_) St. Ives.

  L---- Usitatissimum. Near Redruth.

  Littorella Lacustris (_Plantain Shoreweed_). In a watery lane near

  Mentha Odorata (_Bergamot Mint_) Burian.

  M---- Rotundifolia (_Round-leaved Mint_) Between Penzance and
  Newlyn, Whitsand Bay.

  Myrica Gale (_Sweet Gale_, _Dutch Myrtle_) Marsh, Gulval, and Ludgvan.

  Neckera Heteromalla (_Lateral Neckera_) Trevaylor Bottom, Try,

  Neottia Spiralis. Between Penzance and Marazion.

  Orchis Pyramidalis (_Pyramidal Orchis_) near Hayle.

  Ornithogalum Umbellatum (_Common Star of Bethlehem_) near Marazion.

  Ornithopus Perpusillus (_Common Bird's-foot_) Gulval, Carne, &c.

  Osmunda Regalis (_Royal Moonwort_) Poltair.

  Panicum Dactylum (_Creeping Panick Grass_) Marazion Beach.

  Pinguicula Lusitanica (_Pale Butterwort_) Bogs in the neighbourhood.

  Pyrethrum Maritimum (_Sea Feverfew_) Sea-shore.

  Rubia Peregrina (_Wild Madder_) Hayle-Helston, &c.

  Reseda Luteola (_Wild Woad_, _Dyer's Weed_) Coarse lands beyond

  Rumex Sanguineus (_Bloody-veined Dock_) Gulval.

  Ruscus Aculeatus (_Butcher's Broom_) Lemorna Cove, &c.

  Salvia Verbenacea (_Wild English Clary_) St. Ives, Scilly, &c.

  Samolus Valerandi (_Brook-weed_ or _Water Pimpernel_) Land's end,

  Santolina Maritima (_Sea Cotton weed_) Marazion beach.

  Saponaria Officinalis (_Soap-wort_) St. Levan, Tresco Island, Scilly.

  Saxifraga Stellaris (_Hairy Saxifrage_) Logan rock.

  Scilla Verna (_Vernal Squill_) St. Ives, near Zennor, Morvah, opposite
  to Three Stone Oar.

  Scirpus Fluitans (_Floating Club Rush_) Gulval Marsh.

  Scutellaria Minor (_Lesser Skull-cap_) Bogs, Gulval.

  Scrophularia Scorodonia (_Balm-leaved Figwort_) St. Ives, Gulval,
  and Chyandour, plentifully.

  Sedum Anglicum (_English Stonecrop_) very common.

  S---- Telephium (_Orpine_ or _Livelong_) Logan rock.

  Sibthorpia Europæa (_Cornish Moneywort_) Moist banks, Gulval,
  Madron Well, Trereife Avenue; Helston, &c.

  Silene Anglica (_English Catchfly_) common in Cornfields.

  Solidago Virgaurea (_Common Golden-rod_) Penzance, &c.

  Spergula Nodosa (_Knotted Spurrey_) near Marazion.

  Spiræa Filipendula (_Common Dropwort_) Kynance Cove.

  Stachys Arvensis (_Corn Woundwort_) Cornfields, common.

  Tamarix Gallica (_French Tamarisk_) The Mount-Lizard, Scilly
  Islands, but very probably introduced.

  Trichostomum Polyphyllum (_Fringe Moss_) Gulval, Kenegie, &c.

  Trifolium Subterraneum (_Subterraneous Trefoil_) near the Sea-shore.

  Verbascum Nigrum (_Dark Mullein_) Gulval.

  Utricularia Vulgaris (_Common Bladderwort_) between Rosmorran
  and Kenegie.


[9] Penzance signifies, in Cornish, _Holy-head_, i. e. _holy headland_;
and the town appears to have been so called in consequence of a small
chapel, dedicated to that universal patron of fishermen, Saint Anthony,
having formerly stood on the projecting point near the present quay.
When it became necessary to adopt arms for the town, the true origin
of its name was forgotten or overlooked, and the holy head of Saint
John emblazoned. It would, however, appear from the _Liber valorum_,
that _Buriton_ was the old name of Penzance,--a sound which to the ear
of the antiquary is full of historical intelligence, for the addition
of _Bury_ to the name of a town signified that it was a town with a
castle; thus, _Buriton_ signified Bury-town, i. e. the Castle town.
Some cellars near the quay are to this day called the _Barbican_
cellars; thus tradition points out the castle to have been upon, or
near, the site of the present chapel.

[10] Penzance was first incorporated in the reign of king James, in
1614; which charter was confirmed by Charles II.

[11] The history of these funds exhibits a curious instance of the
increase in value which property undergoes, in a series of years, from
the progressive improvements of the district in which it lies. The
revenue of the Corporation, nearly £2000 per annum, is derived from
an estate which was purchased from one Daniel, in the year 1614, for
the sum of £34, and 20 shillings a year fee farm rent, payable out of
the same to the vender and his representatives for ever. This estate
is described in the writings to be "a three corner plot with a timber
house (then) lately erected thereon, together with the tolls, profits,
and dues of the fairs, markets, and of the pier." The increase of its
value has arisen from the enlargement of the market now held on the
spot, and from the dues arising from the improved and extended pier.

[12] We are desirous of recording this fact since it continues to be
erroneously stated in the publication called the "_Coasting Pilot_,"
as well as in all charts, to be only 13 feet, as it was before the
improvements. From the perpetuation of this error the masters of
vessels unacquainted with the place, refuse to credit the pilots, when
informed by them of the depth of the water.

[13] The operation is termed "_Coining_," not, as is very generally
supposed, from the stamping of the Duke's arms, but from the cutting
off the _corner_ of each block, from the French word _coin_, a
_corner_. For every cwt. so stamped, the Duke receives four shillings,
producing an annual revenue of £10,000.

[14] Since the first edition, the place of coinage has been changed
from the middle of the town to a large area near the quay.

[15] The rooms originally occupied by the Society, and which are
represented in the vignette at the head of this chapter, becoming too
small to accommodate the growing collection, a capacious and handsome
suite of rooms were erected in the year 1817; to which are now attached
a public library, and a room for the reception of newspapers. The
former was established in 1818, under the auspices of Sir Rose Price,
Bart. and with the support of above a hundred subscribers in the

[16] See a paper "_On Elvan Courses_," by J. Carne, Esq. in the first
volume of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall.

[17] The _Cowel_ is the provincial name of the peculiar basket in which
they convey their fish, and is carried by means of a string round their
hats, as represented above. Its name has been supposed to have been
derived from its resemblance in position and appearance to the Monk's

[18] The custom of obtaining the cream from new milk by coagulation
from heat, is peculiar to Devonshire, Cornwall, and the opposite
coast of Brittany, and is supposed to be of Celtic origin. The butter
obtained by beating up this cream does not differ much in flavour from
that procured by churning new cream, except the process be carelessly
conducted, when it will acquire a smoky taste.

[19] It is reasonable to advert to the Summer Solstice for this custom,
although brought into the Christian Calendar under the sanction of John
the Baptist. Those sacred fires "kindled about midnight, on the moment
of the Solstice by the great part of the ancient and modern nations.
The origin of which loses itself in antiquity;" See _Gebelin_, and also
_Brand's Observations on Popular Antiquities_.

[20] The fifth day of the Eleusinian feast was called "_the day of the
Torches_," because at night the men and women ran about with them in
imitation of Ceres, who, having lighted a torch at the fire of Mount
Ætna, wandered about from place to place, in search of her daughter
Proserpine. Hence may we not trace the high antiquity of this species
of popular rejoicing.

[21] Will not this historical fact explain the peculiar cast of beauty
possessed by many of the Fish-women residing in this village.

[22] The house is the first on the left of the ascending footway,
and its only two small windows visible in the vignette, are situated
immediately beneath the clock of the market house tower.

[23] Many of these plants were enumerated in the former edition of this
work, to which are now added some others, from the catalogue published
by Dr. Forbes, in his observations on the climate of Penzance.



  "This precious stone, set in the silver sea!"
  _Richard II. Act 2. scene 1._

The traveller no sooner catches a glimpse of this extraordinary feature
in the bay, than he becomes impatient to explore it; anticipating this
feeling we have selected it as an object for his first excursion, and
in its performance we promise him an intellectual repast of no ordinary

To proceed to the Mount, by sea, the stranger may embark at Penzance
pier, from which it is not more than two miles distant; by this
arrangement an opportunity will be afforded for witnessing a fine
panoramic view of the coast; should, however, his inclination, or the
"tyranny of the winds and waves" oppose this project, he may proceed
by land through the little village of Chyandour, over a semicircular
beach covered with fine sand of about three miles in extent. Between
this sand and the high road is the "_Eastern Green_," celebrated as the
habitat of some rare plants, viz. _Panicum Dactylum_ (in a line with
Gulval church); _Chironia Littoralis_; _Alisma Damasonium_; _Neottia
Spiralis_; _Euphorbia Peplis_; _Euphorbia Paralias_; _Santolina
Maritima_; _Convolvulus Soldanella_, &c. On the beach the Conchologist
may collect some fine specimens of the _Echinus Cordatus_, which is the
only shell ever found there. In the marshes on the left side of the
road the common observer will be struck with the extreme luxuriance
of the _Nymphæa alba_, while the Botanist may reap an ample harvest
of interesting plants, viz. splendid specimens of _Montia Fontana_,
as large as the figure of Micheli; _Illecebrum Verticillatum_; _Sison
Inundatum_; _Apium Graveolens_; a rare variety of _Senechio Jacobæa_;
_Alisma Ranunculoides_; _Stellaria Uliginosa_; _Pinguicula Lusitanica_;
_Scirpus Fluitans_; _Exacum Filiforme_; _Drosera Longifolia_;
_Scutellaria Minor_; _Myrica Gale_, &c.

Before our arrival at Saint Michael's Mount, the only intermediate
object worthy of notice is the town of MARAZION, or MARKET JEW as it
is sometimes called. It stands upon the sea shore, on the eastern
shoulder of the bay, and is well sheltered from cold winds by a
considerable elevation of land to the north; still, however, as it is
exposed to the south-west, which is the prevailing wind, it is far less
eligible as a place of residence for invalids than Penzance.

The town contains more than 1100 inhabitants; its principal support, if
not its origin, according to some authors, was derived from the resort
of pilgrims and other religious devotees to the neighbouring sacred
edifice on Saint Michael's Mount; but its name was indisputably derived
from the Jews who traded here several centuries ago, and held an annual
_market_ for selling various commodities, and purchasing tin, and other
merchandize in return. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth it obtained a
charter, vesting its government in a mayor, eight aldermen, and twelve
capital burgesses, with a power to hold a weekly market, and two annual
fairs. In the preamble to this charter it is stated "that Marghaisewe
was a trading borough town of great antiquity, and that it suffered
considerable dilapidation in the days of Edward VI., when a number of
rebellious people entered, and took possession of the town, and laid
many of the buildings in ruin." From this disaster the town does not
appear to have ever recovered, while from the growing importance of
Penzance, the suppression of the Priory, and the loss of the Pilgrims,
from whom it derived its principal resources, its consequence gradually
declined, until at length it dwindled into its present condition.

It has been asserted on good authority, that under this charter of
Elizabeth, the town formerly sent members to Parliament, and _Dr.
Borlase_ in his manuscripts, mentions the names of _Thomas Westlake_,
and _Richard Mills, Esqrs._ as those of the two members who were
actually returned for Marazion in the year 1658. It does not, however,
appear that they ever took their seats. It would seem, moreover, from
some original letters which passed between the Sheriff of Cornwall and
the mayor of this borough, during the protectorate of Cromwell, that
the inhabitants were solicitous to recover their long neglected rights;
but this effort proved ineffectual.

In going from Marazion to the Mount, we pass a large insulated rock,
known by the name of the "_Chapel Rock_," whereon the Pilgrims, who
came to visit the Priory of Saint Michael, are said to have performed
certain devotionary and superstitious ceremonies, in a kind of
initiatory chapel, previous to their admission to the more sacred
Mount; there is not, however, the slightest vestige of any masonry to
be discovered, and it would therefore seem more probable that it merely
derived its name from its vicinity to the shrine of Saint Michael.
The rock is composed of well marked _Greenstone_, resting on a bed of
_clay-slate_, and which, in its direction and dip, will be found to
correspond with the slaty rock on the western base of the Mount.

We arrive at Saint Michael's Mount.--The rock of which it is composed
is of a conical form; gradually diminishing from a broad, craggy base,
towards its summit, which is beautifully terminated by the tower of a
chapel, so as to form a pyramidal figure. On its eastern base, is a
small fishing town, holding about 250 inhabitants; and a commodious
pier,[24] capable of containing fifty sail of small vessels, and which
proves to the proprietor of the Mount a considerable source of revenue.

The height from low water mark to the top of the chapel tower is
about 250 feet, being 48 feet higher than the monument in London. In
circumference at the base, the Mount measures nearly a mile, and is
said to contain about seven acres of land; such, however, is the effect
of the vast extent of horizon, and the expanded tract of water which
rolls around its base, that its real magnitude is apparently lost.

In a mineralogical point of view, this eminence is certainly the
most interesting in Cornwall, or perhaps in England; who can believe
that this little spot has occasioned greater controversy, and more
_ink_-shed than any mountain in the globe? yet such is the fact; let
us therefore before we ascend walk around its base and examine the
geological structure which has excited so much attention. The scenery
too is here of the most magnificent description; rocks overhang
rocks in ruinous grandeur, and appear so fearfully equipoised, that,
although secure in their immensity, they create in the mind the most
awful apprehension of their instability, whilst the mighty roar of the
ocean beneath, unites in effect with the scenery above.--All around is
sublime.----But the Geology, enough of the picturesque.

The body of the rock is composed of _Slate_ and _Granite_; the whole
northern base consists of the former, but no where does it extend
to any height, the upper part, in every direction, consisting of
_Granite_. On the south side this _Granite_ descends to the water's
edge, and it continues to constitute the whole of the hill, both on the
eastern and western side, for about three-fourths of its whole extent.
Where the granite terminates numerous veins of it appear in the slate,
in many different directions; while the granite in its turn, encloses
patches of slate. In the vicinity of the former rock the latter is
found to contain so much _Mica_, as to resemble _Micaceous Schist_, or
fine grained _Gneiss_, for which it has been erroneously taken by some
of our earlier observers. And, while at some of these junctions there
would seem to be a mere apposition of the two rocks, at others, the
intermixture is so complete as to render it difficult to say to which
of the two certain considerable masses belong.

Here then is the phenomenon which has invested the spot with so much
geological interest. Here is _Granite_, which _Werner_ conceived to be
a primary formation, and around which he supposed all other rocks to
have been deposited, if not of a later date, at least contemporaneous,
in origin, with slate. How is this anomaly to be explained? _De Luc_ at
once asserts what we presume no rational observer can for one moment
believe, that the rock of which these veins are composed is _not_ true
Granite, but "_Pseudo-granite_"! _Dr. Berger_ attempts to surmount
the difficulty by a different expedient, and declares that _they are
not veins!_ but prominences from the granite beneath, which have been
filled up by the subsequent deposition of clay-slate. It might, says
_Sir H. Davy_,[25] with nearly as much reason be stated, that the veins
of copper and tin belong to a great interior metallic mass, and that
they existed prior to the rocks in which they are found. The advocates
of the Plutonian theory have, as might have been supposed, eagerly
availed themselves of the support which this phenomenon is so well
calculated to afford their favourite doctrine. They accordingly affirm
that the granite has been raised up through the incumbent slate, into
whose fissures it has insinuated itself. Upon these theories we shall
offer no comment; it is the humble task of a "Guide" merely to direct
the attention of the traveller to the phenomena themselves, and then
to leave him to deduce his own conclusions from their appearance. In
the fulfilment of this duty we recommend the geologist to proceed to
the western base of the Mount, where he will find near the water's
edge, what have been considered by _Dr. Thomson_ as "two large beds
of granite in the slate, with veins running off from them; the
position and appearance of which are such as to leave no doubt but
that the great body of the granite has been deposited posterior to
the slate formation." _Mr. Carne_, on the other hand, contends that
"these granitic bodies cannot with any propriety be called '_Beds in
the Slate_;' one of them," says he, "is a granite vein, and although
six feet wide near the granite mass, it becomes gradually smaller as
it recedes, and dwindles to a point at the distance of 80 feet. The
other is a part of the granitic mass, from which some veins appear to
diverge; and, in _no part_ does it overlie the slate."[26]

The whole body of the Granite of the Mount is traversed by an
uninterrupted series of quartz veins, which run parallel to each other
with wonderful regularity. They are very nearly vertical, and their
direction is east and west. On the north-east side of the Mount many
of them can be traced into the incumbent slate; a circumstance which
strongly supports the idea of the cotemporaneous origin of these two
rocks. In the investigation of these veins the Mineralogist may pass
many an hour with satisfaction, we shall therefore point out some
of the more leading phenomena which deserve his attention. _De Luc_
observed that "that part of the vein termed in Cornwall the _Capel_,
and on the Continent _Selebanque_, and which is the first stratum
adherent to the sides of the fissures, changes as it passes through
different kinds of strata, sometimes consisting of white _Quartz_,
sometimes of _Mica_." _Dr. Forbes_[27] says, that "occasionally, though
rarely, the line of division between the vein and the rock is tolerably
distinct; frequently, however, there is rather an insensible gradation
of the matter of the one into that of the other, than an obvious
apposition of surfaces." The exterior parts of the veins consist of
a bluish _quartz_, very compact, and uniformly containing a great
deal of _Schorl_. This _schorlaceous_ character is much more distinct
towards the sides or walls of the veins, their centre being generally
pure _quartz_; and, commonly, crystallized. In most of the veins there
is a central line, or fissure, which divides them into two portions;
this is formed by the close apposition and occasional union of two
crystallized, or, as they may be called, _drusy_ surfaces.

Since Veins must be considered as having once been the most active
laboratories of Nature, so may they now be regarded as her most
valuable cabinets of mineralogy. In those of Saint Michael's Mount
may be found crystals of _Apatite_, from a very light to a very dark
green colour, and exhibiting most of the modifications of form[28]
which are common to that mineral; _Oxide of Tin_; _Felspar_; _Mica_
beautifully crystallized in tables; _Topaz_ in small whitish or
greenish crystals,[29] both translucent and opaque, and which are
extremely numerous, many hundred being observable on the face of some
small blocks of granite that have fallen from the precipices.

_Pinite_ has been said to have been also discovered in this spot.
Besides which may be found that rare mineral, the _Triple Sulphuret of
Copper,_ _Antimony, and Lead_; _Sulphuret of Tin_; _Malachite_; _Fluor
Spar_; and _Wolfram_. The occurrence of this latter mineral was, we
believe, first noticed in the earlier edition of the present work, and
is important in as far as its presence is generally supposed to afford
decisive evidence of the primitive formation of the mountain masses in
which it occurs.

This spot also presents us with several lodes of _Tin_ and _Copper_;
the latter may be traced for a considerable distance from the eastern
to the southern base of the hill. The _lode_ of Tin was formerly worked
at the Mount, and a considerable quantity of ore obtained; any farther
excavation, however, threatened to injure the foundations of the
castle, and it was therefore prudently abandoned.

The remains of the Mine may be seen on the south side of the hill,
and should be visited by the mineralogist, who will find in the
_Drift_,[30] _Tin crystals_ and _Carbonate of Copper_, besides some
other minerals. Veins of Lead are also discoverable in the rocks.
_Mr. Carne_[31] has lately directed the attention of the mineralogist
to the _veins_ of _Mica_, which have hitherto only been found in the
granite of this singular spot. They are seldom more than half an inch
wide; and, although tolerably straight, are very short. They generally
consist of two layers of Mica in plates, which meet in the centre of
the veins. Some of the masses of _Granite_ which constitute the summit
of the Mount have the appearance of an old wall retaining, in parts,
a coating of plaster; this is the effect of decomposition, and of the
_capel_ having in many places remained attached to the face of the
rock, after the vein itself has crumbled down.

The Botanist will also find some amusement among the rocks; he will
observe the Tamarisk, (_Tamarix Gallica_) growing in their crevices,
and relieving by a delicate verdure the harsh uniformity of their
surfaces. This shrub was probably imported from Normandy by the Monks.
_Asplenium Marinum_ and _Inula Helenium_ are also to be seen among
the rocks--but let us leave the Botanist and Mineralogist to their
researches, while we climb the hill and examine the venerable building
on its summit.

We ascend on the north-eastern side, by a rocky winding path, in
the course of which, several remains of its ancient fortifications
present themselves; thus, about the middle of the hill, there is a
curtain, parallel to, and flanking the approach, at whose western end
is a ravelin, through which every one is to pass, walled with three
embrasures, and at the angle in the eastern shoulder is a centry box
to guard the passage, and there was formerly also an iron gate; after
having passed this ruin, we turn to our left, and ascend by a flight
of broken steps to the door of the castle, whose appearance is much
more monastic than martial. The most ancient parts of the building are
the Entrance, with the Guardroom on the left hand; the Chapel, and the
former Refectory, or common hall of the Monks. The other parts are of a
modern date, although the style of their architecture confers upon them
a corresponding air of antiquity.

The Refectory, or Common Hall, from the frieze, with which it is
ornamented, appears to have been fitted up, since the reformation, as
a dining room for a hunting party, and is popularly denominated "_The
Chevy-Chace Room_." The cornice represents in stucco, the modes of
hunting the wild boar, bull, stag, ostrich, hare, fox, and rabbit. At
the upper end of this room are the royal arms, with the date 1644;
and, at the opposite end, those of the St. Aubyn family. The room
is 33 feet long, 16 wide, and 18 high, and has a solemn and imposing
appearance, which is not a little heightened by the antique and
appropriate character of its furniture and ornaments.

The Chapel exhibits a venerable monument of Saxon architecture; its
interior has lately been renewed in a chaste style of elegance, and a
magnificent organ has been erected. During these repairs, in levelling
a platform for the altar, under the eastern window, a low gothic door
was discovered to have been closed up with stone in the southern wall,
and then concealed with the raised platform; when the enclosure was
broken through, ten steps appeared descending into a stone vault under
the church, about nine feet long, six or seven broad, and nearly as
many high. In this room was found the skeleton of a very large man,
without any remains of a coffin. The discovery, of course, gave rise
to many conjectures, but it seems most probable, that the man had been
there immured for some crime. The bones were removed and buried in the
body of the chapel. At the same time upon raising the old pavement,
the fragment of an inscribed sepulchral stone of some Prior was taken
up; there was also a grave stone, not inscribed, which Antiquaries
have supposed to have covered the remains of _Sir John Arundel_, of
Trerice, Knight, who was slain on the strand below, in the wars of
York and Lancaster. In the tower of this chapel are six sweet toned
bells, which frequently ring when _Sir John St. Aubyn_ is resident; at
this time also choral service is performed; and, on a calm day, the
undulating sound of the bells, and the swelling note of the organ,
as heard on the water, produce an effect which it is impossible to

From the chapel, we may ascend by a narrow stone stair-case to the top
of the tower. The prospect hence is of the grandest description, and
is perhaps as striking as any that can occur to "_mortal eye_." "The
immense extent of sea," says _Dr. Maton_, "raises the most sublime
emotions, the waves of the British, Irish, and Atlantic seas all roll
within the compass of the sight," whilst the eye is relieved from
the uniform, though imposing grandeur of so boundless an horizon, by
wandering on the north and west, over a landscape, which Claude himself
might have transfused on his canvas.

On one of the angles of this tower is to be seen the carcase of a stone
lantern, in which, during the fishing season, and in dark tempestuous
nights, it may reasonably be supposed that the monks, to whom the
tithe of such fishery belonged, kept a light, as a guide to sailors,
and a safeguard to their own property; this lantern is now vulgarly
denominated _Saint Michael's Chair_, since it will just admit one
person to sit down in it; the attempt is not without danger, for
the chair, elevated above the battlements, projects so far over the
precipice, that the climber must actually turn the whole body at that
altitude, in order to take a seat in it; notwithstanding the danger,
however, it is often attempted; indeed one of the first questions
generally put to a stranger, if married, after he has visited the
Mount,--did you sit in the chair?--for there is a conceit that, if a
married woman has sufficient resolution to place herself in it, it will
at once invest her with all the regalia of petticoat government; and
that if a married man sit in it, he will thereby receive ample powers
for the management of his wife. This is probably a remnant of monkish
fable, a supposed virtue conferred by some saint, perhaps a legacy of
St. Keyne, for the same virtue is attributed to her well.

  "The person of that man or wife,
  Whose chance, or choice attains
  First of this sacred stream to drink,
  Thereby the mastery gains."

On the north-eastern side of the fabric are situated the modern
apartments. They were erected by the late Sir _John St. Aubyn_ upon the
ruins of the ancient convent, in clearing away which, cart loads of
human bones were dug up, and interred elsewhere, the remains probably
both of the nuns and of the garrison. All that deserves notice in this
part are two handsome rooms leading into each other, from which the
prospect is of the most extensive description. In the first parlour,
placed in niches, are two large vases, with an alto relief of statuary
marble in each, relating to Hymeneal happiness.

Let us now take a review of the various interesting events, which the
traditionary lore of past ages represents as having occurred at this
spot, and first of the natural history of the Hill itself.

THE NATURAL HISTORY.--The rock of the Mount has worn the same aspect
for ages; tradition however whispers, that at a remote period it
presented a very different appearance,--that it was cloathed with
wood, and at a considerable distance from the sea! Its old Cornish
name, "_Carreg Lug en Kug_," that is, _the hoary rock in the wood_,
would seem to add some probability to the tradition. It appears also
from the original charter of the Confessor, that the Mount was in
his time only _nigh_ the sea, for he describes it expressly as Saint
Michael _near_ the sea, "Sanctum Michaelum qui est _juxta_ mare." What
this distance was the charter does not inform us, but the words of
Worcester, who gained his information from the legend of Saint Michael,
are sufficiently decisive, "_this place was originally inclosed within
a very thick wood, distant from the ocean six miles, affording the
finest shelter to wild beasts._" With respect to the period and causes
of the catastrophe which have changed the face of this country, we have
already offered some observations.

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.--The Mount appears to have been consecrated
by superstition from the earliest period; and, according to monkish
legends, from the supposed appearance of the archangel Saint Michael
to some hermits, upon one of its craggy points. Tradition has not
preserved the place where the vision appeared, but antiquarianism
has attempted to supply the deficiency by conjecture; the spot was
denominated "_Saint Michael's Chair_," and is said to be one of the
large rocks overhanging the battery, an appellation which has been
erroneously transferred to the carcase of a stone lantern, situated,
as we have just stated, on the tower of the chapel. Our poet Milton
alludes to this vision in the following passage of his Lycidas--

  "Or whether thou to our moist views deny'd
  "Sleeps't by the fable of Bellerus old
  "_Where the great vision of the guarded mount_
  "Looks towards Namancos and Bayonas hold.
  "Look homeward Angel now, and melt with ruth,
  "And O ye dolphins, waft the hapless youth."

Spencer also makes mention of this spot in a manner which proves that
it was universally hallowed by the devout.

  "In evil hour thou lenst in hond
  "Thus holy hills to blame,
  "For sacred unto Saints they stond,
  "And of them han their name,
  "St. Michael's Mount who does not know
  "That wards the western coast."

Very little is known with respect to the ecclesiastical history of the
Mount, previous to its endowment by Edward the Confessor. From what may
be collected, however, from expiring tradition, it would appear that so
early as the end of the fifth century, Saint Keyne, a holy virgin of
the blood royal, daughter of Breganus Prince of Brecknockshire, with
her cockle hat and staff, performed a pilgrimage to Saint Michael's
Mount: now it is fair to conclude that it was before this time a place
universally hallowed, or a person of Saint Keyne's rank would not have
paid it such a visit; thus then was it renowned for its sanctity for
at least five hundred years before the grant and settlement of it by
the Confessor; before this period, however, it was probably little
more than an hermitage, or oratory, with the necessary reception for

The Confessor found monks here serving God, and gave them by charter
the property of the Mount together with "all the land of _Vennefire_
(a district probably in Cornwall), with the towns, houses, fields,
meadows, land cultivated, and uncultivated, with their rents; together
with a port called _Ruminella_ (Romney in Kent), with all things that
appertain, as mills and fisheries," first obliging them to conform the
rule of the order of Saint Benedict.

The peculiar respect in which this church was held may be estimated
from an instrument recorded by William of Worcester, and asserted to
have been found amongst its ancient registers.

"To all members of Holy Mother Church, who shall read or hear these
letters, Peace and Salvation. Be it known unto you all, that our Most
Holy Lord Pope Gregory, in the year of Christ's Incarnation, 1070, out
of his great zeal and devotion to the church of Mount Saint Michal,
in Tumba, in the county of Cornwall, hath piously granted to the
aforesaid church, which is entrusted to the Angelical Ministry, and
with full approbation, consecrated and sanctified, to remit to all the
_faithful_, who shall _enrich_, _endow_, or _visit_ the said church,
a _third part_ of their _Penance_, and that this grant may remain for
ever unshaken and inviolable, by the authority of God the Father, and
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, he forbids all his Successors from
attempting to make any alteration against this Decree."

We learn from the same author, that in order to encrease, as much as
possible, the influx of votaries to the shrine, the above decree was
placed publicly on the gates of the church, and enjoined to be read in
other churches.

When the Normans came in, Robert Earl of Morton and Cornwall became the
patron of this religious house, erected buildings, and gave some lands,
but from a superior affection for Normandy, he abridged its liberties,
and annexed it to the monastery of _Saint Michael de periculo Maris_,
on the coast of Normandy, to which situation the Mount is said to bear
a striking resemblance; from this time, it became only a cell dependant
upon, and subordinate to that foreign priory. As these Monks were of
the reformed order of Benedictines, and of the Gilbertine kind, a
nunnery was allowed in their vicinity; this they would make us believe
was done with no other view, than to shew the triumph of faith over
the impulse of sense, but it certainly must be confessed, to speak
even most charitably of it, that such an union amid the sequestration
of solitude, carries a strange appearance with it to our protestant
suspiciousness. The remains of this convent, we have already said,
were removed by the late proprietor, and the _New Buildings_, as they
are called, erected on their site; from the appearance of the carved
fragments of stone, and other marks of architectural distinction,
found among the ruins, the Nunnery appears to have been by far the
most costly and magnificent part of the edifice, the result we presume
of _Monkish gallantry_. Its establishment appears to have terminated
at the time Pomeroy surprised it, (an account of which transaction is
recorded under the military history,) but the Priory continued a cell
to Saint Michael's in Normandy, until that connection was destroyed,
and all the alien priories were seized in the reign of Edward the Third.

Henry the Sixth granted this Priory to King's College, Cambridge, but
it was afterwards transferred by Edward the Fourth to the nunnery of
Sion, Middlesex; and so it continued until the general dissolution;
at which period its revenues were valued at £110:12s. per annum, a
considerable sum at that time, especially as the number of Monks
maintained on the foundation never exceeded six; this sum, together
with the government of the Mount, which was then a military post, was
bestowed on Hugh Arundel, who was executed for rebellion in the year
1548. On his death it was demised to John Milliton of Pengersick, Esq.,
to William his son, and further to William Harris, Esq. of Hayne in
Devonshire, connected by marriage with the family of Milliton. Queen
Elizabeth, by Letters Patent, in the 29th year of her reign, demised
it to Arthur Harris[32] of Kenegie, Esq. a younger son of the above
William Harris, for life. It is in the Patent (which recites the former
grants to the Millitons) described as in the note[33] below. Arthur
Harris was about this time appointed Governor of the Mount, and held
that appointment until his decease in 1628. It was then granted, it
is supposed, in trust for the Earl of Salisbury, from whom it passed
to Francis Bassett, Esq. who being imprisoned by the usurping powers
in the reign of Charles the First, was obliged in order to purchase
his liberty to part with it to John St. Aubyn, Esq. in whose family
it now remains. The present Baronet seldom visits it, a circumstance
universally regretted, for no gentleman better understands how to
grace the venerable seat with Knightly dignity and splendor: Sir John
too is a zealous mineralogist, and might by his presence in Cornwall
contribute essentially to the progress of that science; in one respect
his absence is fortunately supplied by the vigilance of his agents, and
every geologist ought to feel obliged to them, we allude to the care
with which they protect the picturesque and mineralogical beauties of
the rocks by opposing the sacrilegious removal of any part of them.

MILITARY HISTORY.--From the time of King Edward the Confessor, to
the middle of the reign of Richard the First, the Mount appears to
have been exclusively the sacred nursery of religion; the earliest
transaction of a military nature was during the captivity of Richard
the First, in Germany, when Henry de la Pomeroy, of Berry Pomeroy in
Devonshire, having stabbed a serjeant at arms who came to summon him
to appear for a heavy crime, fled into Cornwall, and cast himself upon
the protection of John, Earl of that province, who readily supplied him
with an armed force, for he was then aspiring to his brother's throne;
with this, Pomeroy went in disguise to the Mount, and under a pretence
of visiting his sister, who was in the nunnery, gained admission,
and treacherously reduced it to the service of the said John; upon
the return however of the King from imprisonment, he surrendered the
garrison on mercy, although, despairing himself of pardon, he soon
died, or as some say, caused himself to be bled to death; after this
event, the Prior and the Monks were restored to the full possession of
their cells, revenues, and chapel; a small garrison however was still
maintained, to defend it against the sudden invasion of enemies, and
in this condition, "manned out with carnal and spiritual soldiers,"
did the Mount remain for a space of 275 years, when another military
transaction occurred to disturb its repose. After the defeat of the
Lancastrians at Barnet, in the eighteenth year of Edward the Fourth,
John Vere, Earl of Oxford, one of the most zealous partisans, fled from
the field, set sail for Saint Michael's Mount, and having disguised
himself, together with a few attendants, in the habits of pilgrims,
obtained entrance, massacred the unsuspecting garrison, and seized the
fortress, which he valiantly defended for some time against the forces
of Edward, but was at length compelled to surrender. Sir John Arundel
de Trerice, Sheriff of Cornwall, at the command of the King, marched
thither with _posse comitatus_ to besiege it, but he fell a victim on
the sands, at its base, and lies buried in the chapel.

In King Henry the Seventh's reign, the Lady Catherine Gordon, wife of
Perkin Warbeck, the pretended son of Edward the Fourth, remained here
for safety, but after the flight of her husband, she was taken prisoner
by Giles, Lord Banbury, and carried before that King.

During the Cornish commotion in the reign of Edward the Sixth, many
of the superior families fled to the Mount for security, and were
besieged by the rebels, who took the plain at the bottom of the rock
by assault, at the time of low water, and afterwards the summit, by
carrying great trusses of hay before them to obstruct the defendants
sight, and deaden their shot. This situation, together with the fears
of the women, and the want of food, obliged the besieged to surrender.
During the civil contentions in the reign of Charles the First, the
fortifications of the Mount were so much increased, that the works were
styled "_impregnable and almost inaccessible_." The Parliament forces,
however, under the command of Colonel Hammond, reduced the place, and
liberated the Duke of Hamilton, who was there confined; a service
which the historians of that period represent as full of danger and
difficulty, and this was the last military transaction that occurred
upon this romantic spot. Several batteries were erected by government
during the late war, to command the western part of the bay, the
eastern being too shallow to allow the entrance of large vessels.

We cannot conclude this account of the Mount without observing, that
several antiquarians have considered it as the _Ictis_ of Diodorus,
whither the Greek merchants traded for Cornish Tin; the limits of
this work will not allow us to enter upon the discussion, but we
beg to refer the curious reader to an ingenious work, published by
_Sir Christopher Hawkins_,[34] and to _Dr. Maton's_ "Observations on
the Western Counties." It is curious, and satisfactory, that these
gentlemen should have arrived at the same conclusion upon the subject,
and by nearly the same train of reasoning, without any previous
communication with each other.

[Illustration: _Sancreet._]


[24] This Pier has lately been considerably enlarged at the expense
of Sir John St. Aubyn. The work was completed only in the last Summer
(1823), and will now admit vessels of five hundred tons burthen.

[25] Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Vol. i.
p. 41.

[26] Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Vol. ii.
p. 73.

[27] Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Vol. ii.
p. 369.

shall on all occasions refer to this work without reserve, as being
a book which is, or ought to be, in the hands of every scientific
traveller. Its copious catalogue of English _habitats_ renders it
extremely valuable.

[29] The mineralogist is apt to overlook these Topazes, or to
regard them as common _quartz crystals_, to which they bear a great
resemblance, until we inspect their prisms, which will rarely be found
to be six-sided; there is also another simple mark of distinction--in
the _quartz_ crystal the striated appearance on its surface is
horizontal, whereas on the _Topaz_ it is longitudinal.

[30] A _Drift_ is a trench or foss, cut in the ground to a certain
depth, resembling a channel dug to convey water to a mill wheel.

[31] Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Vol. ii.
p. 56.

[32] Ancestor of William Arundel Harris Arundel, Esq. of Kenegie.

[33] "Firmam nrtsm sti michis ad montem in dco nro cornub ac tot illum
scit domu mansional sive capital messuag nrm vocat _Sainte Michaells
Mounte_ als dict _the Priorie of Sainte Michalls Mounte_ in dco com nso
cornub quondm menastr de Sion in com nro midd spectan & ptinen habendum
& tenendum ad tmnm & pr tmno vite natural ipsius Arthuri Harris.
Reddendo inde annuatim nob hered & successoribs nris viginti sex libras
tres decem solid et quatuor denar legalis monete Angel." &c.

[34] See Sir C. Hawkins's Tract on the Tin Trade of the ancients in
Cornwall, and on the _Ictis_ of Diodorus Siculus.



  "The Sun beams tremble, and the purple light
  Illumes the dark Bolerium;--seat of storms,
  High are his granite rocks; his frowning brow
  Hangs o'er the smiling ocean. In his caves,
  Where sleep the haggard spirits of the storm,
  Wild dreary are the schistose rocks around,
  Encircled by the waves, where to the breeze
  The haggard cormorant shrieks; and far beyond
  Are seen the cloud-like islands, grey in mists."
  _Sir H. Davy._

In an excursion to the _Land's End_ the traveller will meet with
several intermediate objects well worthy his attention, more worthy,
perhaps, than the celebrated promontory itself, as being monuments
of the highest antiquity in the kingdom. They consist of _Druidical
circles_, _Cairns_, or circular heaps of stones, _Cromlechs_,
_Crosses_, _Military Entrenchments_, and the obscure remains of
_Castles_. Many of these venerable objects, however, to the eternal
disgrace of the inhabitants be it spoken, have of late been much
mutilated, and indeed some have been entirely demolished. That the
noblest monuments of Greece should have been converted into lime by
the barbarous Turks, or that the temple of Diana should have furnished
a cement for the voluptuous apartments of the Haram, are instances
of degeneracy which we might have been prepared to witness in such
a people; but that the venerable remains of British antiquity, the
silent but faithful monuments of men and days long past, which are so
interesting from their connection with the primitive history of our
island, should in this enlightened age have been sawed into gate posts,
or converted into pig-troughs, is really past all endurance.--But to
proceed.--In riding from Penzance to the Land's End, which is about
ten miles distant, the first objects to be noticed are two beautiful
villas, well wooded, and adjoining each other,--_Castle-Horneck_, the
seat of the Borlase family, and _Rose Hill_, the property of the Rev.
Uriah Tonkin. The sea and land views from these houses are of the most
enchanting description. In viewing the latter place, the stranger will
scarcely believe that the spot which now exhibits so rich a pastural
scene, was a few years since a deformed and barren rock! but what
cannot gold effect, or where is the wild which its magic cannot convert
into fairy land? The cost of the gunpowder alone for blowing up the
rocks to facilitate their removal amounted to several hundred pounds.

About a mile farther west, the road passes another villa, Trereiffe,
the ancient seat of the family of Nicholls, who have been proprietors
of the great tythes of the parish of Madron from the period of the
reformation. It is now the residence of the Rev. Charles Valentine
Le Grice, into whose possession it has passed by marriage. The
scenery about this place is of a very exquisite cast, and, from the
richness of the land, and luxuriance of its productions, it may be
fairly denominated the garden of the Mount's Bay. After passing
through a shady avenue, from which we catch a delicious peep of the
sea bounded by a grotesque group of rocks, we take leave of the
picturesque, and plunge into a country of a very different aspect
and description,--rough, wild, and unsheltered; never was contrast
more complete or striking, not a tree is seen to break the extended
uniformity of the hills, nor is there a single object, with the
exception of a few scattered monuments of antiquity, to recommend it
to notice. The agriculturist may, perhaps, view the district with
somewhat different sensations, for the downs are certainly improveable,
and those portions which have been brought into tillage have amply
rewarded the labour of the adventurer: indeed in several districts
cultivation has even spread to the very brim of the ocean.

The natural product of the high lands is only a thin turf interspersed
with heath, fern and furze,[35] and many huge blocks of granite are
disseminated in all directions; this circumstance has materially
impeded the progress of cultivation, for in order to remove these
_boulders_ it is necessary to blast them with gunpowder; the fragments,
however, become useful in their turn, and are employed in making
enclosures, which bear the provincial name of _hedges_. This stone,
commonly called _Growan_, is, moreover, wrought into columnar masses,
eight or ten feet long, which are used as supporters to sheds and
outhouses, or gates posts, and bridges over rivulets. It is also
the material of which common rollers, mill-stones, salting and pig
troughs are made; in short, few stones are converted to more various
purposes of rural oeconomy, and it accordingly forms an article of some
commercial value. The mode of splitting it into the required forms is
somewhat curious; it is effected by applying several wedges to holes
cut, or _pooled_ as it is termed, in the surface of the stone at the
distance of three or four inches from each other, according to its size
and hardness; the harder the mass, the easier it may be split into the
required form; the softer, the less regularly it separates. The blocks
of granite employed in the construction of the Waterloo Bridge over the
Thames were procured from the downs in the vicinity of Penhryn.[36]

The Granite of the Land's End district is remarkable for its coarse
grain, and the large proportion of its felspar, which, according to
the observations of _Dr. Paris_, may be estimated as high as from 70
to 90 per cent. It moreover possesses an earthy texture, which greatly
accelerates its decomposition. This circumstance will in some measure
account for the unusual fertility of the _growan_ soil in the parishes
of Saint Burian, Sennen, and Saint Levan. It will moreover explain
the theory of a practice, which would otherwise appear absurd, that
of actually applying the disintegrated _growan_ to certain lands as a

On a closer examination of this Granite, the prismatic crystals of
felspar will often be found to exhibit that structure which _Haüy_
calls _hemitrope_; more often, they are termed _macles_, and are
compounded of two crystals intersecting each other at particular angles.

The Botanist as he rides along in the Summer months will observe
amongst the gorse (_Ulex_), which is abundant on each side of the road,
the parasitical plant _Cuscuta Epithymum_, (called _Epiphany_ by the
country people,) winding its spiral structure in all directions, and
producing from its reddish hue a beautiful contrast.

The farming of this country is in general slovenly, and certainly very
far behind any other part of the kingdom,[37] although it is but just
to acknowledge that _Leha_, a farm situated near the Land's End road,
forms a pleasing exception to this general remark. The proprietor, John
Scobell Esq. of Nancealverne, has here introduced the _Drill Husbandry
of Northumberland_, which would seem to be well adapted to a country so
infested with weeds, those hungry invaders of the farmer's property,
and usurpers of his soil. The farmers have a peculiar practice,
obviously suggested by the inconstancy of the weather, that of putting
up their wheat, barley, and other kinds of grain, in the field into
what are called "_Arishmows_." The sheaves are built up into a regular
solid cone about twelve feet high; the beards all turned inwards, and
the butt end only exposed to the weather. The whole is finished by an
inverted sheaf of reed or corn and tied to the upper rows.

The first objects of antiquity which we have to notice are the stone
crosses placed by the roads' side; some of them still retain their
original situation, while others, broken and mutilated, have been
converted into the various purposes of rural oeconomy. They appear
to have been originally designed as guides to direct the pilgrim to
the different churches. A few of the more remarkable of them are
represented as vignettes in different parts of the present work, from
which the reader will become acquainted with their general appearance.

At BOSCAWEN-UN, in a field about a quarter of a mile west of _Leha_,
we meet with one of the most ancient British monuments in the kingdom;
"_a Druidical circle_," as it has been pronounced, consisting of
nineteen stones, some of which have fallen, placed in a circle of
about twenty-five feet in diameter, having a single one in the centre.
There is considerable doubt and obscurity with respect to the origin
and intended use of these circles, of which there are many similar
examples in Cornwall. _Camden_ is inclined to consider them as military
trophies, while _Borlase_ deems it highly probable that such monuments
were of religious institution, and designed originally and principally
for the rites of worship; at the same time he conceives "they might
sometimes have been employed as places of council and judgment, and
that, whilst any council or decree was pending, the principal persons
concerned stood, each by his pillar, and that where a middle stone was
erected, as at _Boscawen-Un_, there stood the Prince or General elect."
This must certainly be acknowledged as one of the most extraordinary
specimens of antiquarian dreaming ever presented to the public.

About half a mile to the right of the high road stands an object of
later origin, but not of less interest to the antiquary; the ruins of a
small oratory, or baptistry, dedicated to _Saint Euinus_, and commonly
known by the name of _Chapel Euny_. It is situated near a well, whose
waters have been long supposed to possess very extraordinary virtues,
and to have performed many miraculous cures. There is a similar ruin,
which we shall hereafter have occasion to notice at Madron; and
it is worthy of remark that these wells do not possess any mineral
impregnation; the sick, however, at this very day, repair to them,
while the credulous attempt to read the future in the appearance of the
bubbles produced in their waters by the dropping in of pins or pebbles.
This mode of divining is perhaps one of the most ancient superstitions
that have descended to us, and was termed _Hydromancy_. The Castalian
fountain, and many others amongst the Grecians, were supposed to be of
a prophetic nature; thus, by dipping a fair mirror into a well did the
Patræans of Greece receive, as they vainly imagined, some notice of
ensuing sickness, or convalescence.

On the summit of the hill above these ruins, are situated the remains
of _Caerbran Castle_ or Round (that is _Brennus's Castle_) which
is thus described by _Borlase_. "It is a circular fortification,
consisting first of a deep ditch, fifteen feet wide, edged with stone,
through which you pass to the outer _vallum_, which is of earth,
fifteen feet high, and was well perfected towards the north-east, but
not so towards the west; within this vallum, passing a large ditch
about fifteen yards wide, you come to a stone wall, which quite rounded
the top of the hill, and seems to have been of considerable strength,
but lies, now, like a ridge of disorderly stones; the diameter of the
whole is ninety paces, and in the centre of all is a little circle."

There are no less than seven of these _hill castles_, as they are
termed, although they might with more propriety be called strong
entrenchments, to be seen at this time within five miles around
Penzance; all so placed on the hills as to admit of immediate
communication with each other by signal. From several of them we have
views of the North and South Channel, but from all of them either that
of one sea or the other. Much doubt has arisen concerning their origin.
_Mr. Polwhele_ attributes them to the Irish, while _Dr. Borlase_, like
an orthodox antiquary, who takes shelter, whenever he is bewildered,
under the sanction of a popular name, at once boldly decides upon their
Danish origin.

The lonely ruins of _Chapel Carn Bre_ next attract our notice; they are
situated upon the extremity of a high granite ridge, overlooking the
surfy recess of _Whitsand Bay_; from their great elevation they are
visible from every part of the country, although they scarcely form a
skeleton of the original building, and in a short time, probably, not
a vestige will remain to mark the consecrated spot. It appears to
have been a Chantry, erected for the performance of religious service
for the safety of mariners. It is not for the inspection of these
ruins that we direct the stranger to ascend the hill, for they are
too insignificant to merit attention, but it is for the purpose of
his viewing the extensive prospect which its summit commands,--a wild
expanse of waters occupying twenty-nine points of the compass!--From
this spot also Saint Michael's Mount has a singularly fine effect,
appearing as if placed in the centre of a lake at a distance from the

We now proceed to _Sennan Church-town_,[38] which according to
barometrical admeasurement is 391 feet above the level of the sea. It
is about a mile from the _Land's End_, and is celebrated for containing
the Ale-house whimsically called "_The First and Last Inn in England_."
On the western side of its sign is inscribed "_The First_," and on the
eastern side "_The Last Inn in England_."

The last village towards the Land's End is named _Mayon_ or _Mean_. In
this place is the large stone spoken of by Dr. Borlase under the name
of "_Table mean_," and concerning which there is a vague tradition that
three kings once dined together on it, in their journey to the Land's

On the turf between this village and the Land's End, the Botanist will
find _Bartsia Viscosa_, and _Illocebrum Verticillatum_, the latter of
which is peculiar to this county.

Having arrived at the celebrated Promontory, we descend a rapid slope,
which brings us to a bold group of rocks, composing the western
extremity of our island. Some years ago a military officer who visited
this spot, was rash enough to descend on horseback; the horse soon
became unruly, plunged, reared, and, fearful to relate, fell backwards
over the precipice, and rolling from rock to rock was dashed to
atoms before it reached the sea. The rider was for some time unable
to disengage himself, but at length by a desperate effort he threw
himself off, and was happily caught by some fragments of rock, at the
very brink of the precipice, where he remained suspended in a state of
insensibility until assistance could be afforded him! The awful spot is
marked by the figure of a horse-shoe, traced on the turf with a deep
incision, which is cleared out from time to time, in order to preserve
it as a monument of rashness which could be alone equalled by the good
fortune with which it was attended.

Why any promontory in an island should be exclusively denominated the
Land's _End_, it is difficult to understand; yet so powerful is the
charm of a name, that many persons have visited it on no other account;
the intelligent tourist, however, will receive a much more substantial
gratification from his visit; the great geological interest of the spot
will afford him an ample source of entertainment and instruction, while
the magnificence of its convulsed scenery, the ceaseless roar, and deep
intonation of the ocean, and the wild shrieks of the Cormorant, all
combine to awaken the blended sensations of awe and admiration.

The cliff which bounds this extremity is rather abrupt than elevated,
not being more than sixty feet above the level of the sea. It is
composed entirely of Granite, the forms of which present a very
extraordinary appearance, assuming in some places the resemblance
of _shafts_ that had been regularly cut with the chisel; in others,
regular equidistant fissures divide the rock into horizontal masses,
and give it the character of basaltic columns; in other places, again,
the impetuous waves of the ocean have opened, for their retreat,
gigantic arches, through which the angry billows roll and bellow with
tremendous fury.

Several of these rocks from their grotesque forms have acquired
whimsical appellations, as that of the _Armed Knight_, the _Irish
Lady_, &c. An inclining rock on the side of a craggy headland, south
of the Land's End, has obtained the name of _Dr. Johnson's Head_, and
visitors after having heard the appellation seldom fail to acknowledge
that it bears some resemblance to the physiognomy of that extraordinary

On the north, this rocky scene is terminated by a promontory 229 feet
above the level of the sea, called "_Cape Cornwall_," between which and
the Land's End, the coast retires, and forms _Whitsand Bay_, a name
which it derives from, the peculiar whiteness of its sand, and amongst
which the naturalist will find several rare microscopic shells. There
are, besides, some historical recollections which invest this spot with
interest. It was in this bay that Stephen landed on his first arrival
in England; as did king John, on his return from Ireland; and Perkin
Warbeck, in the prosecution of those claims to the crown to which some
late writers have been disposed to consider that he was entitled,
as the real son of Edward the Fourth. In the rocks near the southern
termination of _Whitsand Bay_ may be seen the junction of the granite
and slate; large veins of the former may be also observed to traverse
the latter in all directions.

In viewing the whole of the scenery of this stern coast "it is
impossible" says De Luc, "not to be struck with the idea, that _the
bed of the sea is the effect of a vast subsidence_, in which the
strata were broken off on the edge of what, by the retreat of the
sea towards the sunken part, became a _continent_; the many small
islands, or rocks of granite, appear to be the memorials of the land's
abridgement, being evidently parts of the sunken strata remaining more
elevated than the rest." There is a small _Archipelago_ of this kind
called the _Long-ships_, at the distance of two miles west of the
Land's end; on the largest of these rocks is a light-house, which was
erected in consequence of the very dangerous character of the coast, by
a Mr. Smith, in the year 1797, who obtained a grant from the Trinity
House, and was rewarded for a limited number of years by a certain
rate on all ships that passed it. This period having expired, it is at
present under the jurisdiction of the Trinity House.[39] The tower is
constructed of granite, the stones of which are _trenailed_ on the same
plan as that adopted by Smeaton in the construction of the Eddystone
light-house. The circumference of the tower at its base is 68 feet; the
height from the rock to the vane of the lantern, 52 feet; and from the
sea to the base of the light-house it is 60 feet; but notwithstanding
this elevation its lantern has been often dashed to pieces by the
spray of the ocean during the winter's tempest! The management of this
establishment is entrusted to two men, who during the winter are often,
for two or three months, confined to this sea-girt prison without the
possibility of communicating with the land; they accordingly lay in a
store of provisions, as if they were about to embark for a long voyage.

We have already stated that the historians of Cornwall, from Leland,
Norden, and Carew, downwards, have all recorded the ancient tradition
of a considerable portion of the Mount's bay having been formerly
woodland. They have likewise handed down the concurrent tradition
relative to the supposed tract of land which once connected the
islands of Scilly with Cornwall. This tract, to which we are told
was given the name of the _Lioness_ ("_the Silurian Lyonois_,") is
said to have contained one hundred and forty parish churches, all
of which were swept away by the resistless ocean! As to the Cornish
word _Lethowstow_, or _Lioness_, by which the sea between Scilly and
Cornwall is distinguished, we may observe, that the appropriation of
such a term is sufficiently accounted for from the general violence
and turbulence of the sea, just as the celebrated rock lying south of
the channel between the Land's end and Scilly retains the name of the
_Wolf_,[40] from the howling of the waves around it. Those who may
wish for farther evidence upon this subject may consult _Mr. Boase's_
excellent memoir "On the submersion of part of the Mount's bay,"
published in the second volume of the Transactions of the Geological
Society of Cornwall.

We shall in this place make a short digression, in order to afford some
account of the _Scilly Islands_, which are situated in a cluster about
nine leagues, west by south, from the Land's end, and are distinctly
visible from it.

The SCILLY ISLANDS were called by the Greeks _Hesperides_ and
_Capiterides_, or the _Tin Isles_, and by this name they are mentioned
by Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, and Solinus. They must, however, have
undergone some material revolution since the age of these writers,
for we fail in every attempt to reconcile their present state with
the description which they have transmitted to us; and what is very
unaccountable, not a vestige of any ancient mine can be discovered in
the islands, except in one part of _Trescow_; and these remains are
so limited, that they rather give an idea of an attempt at discovery,
than of extensive and permanent mining. We are strongly inclined to
believe that the Tin of those days came, in part at least, from the
opposite coast of Saint Just, but of this we shall hereafter speak more
fully. In the time of Strabo we learn that the number of these Islands
did not exceed _ten_, whereas at present there are upwards of _one
hundred and forty_, but of which the following only are inhabited, viz.
_Saint Mary's_,_ Saint Agnes'_, _Saint Martin's_, _Trescow_, _Bryer_,
and _Sampson_. It is curious that the name of the cluster should have
been derived from one of the smallest of the islets (Scilly), whose
surface does not exceed an acre. The number of inhabitants amounts to
about two thousand, nearly half of which reside in Saint Mary's, which
contains 1600 acres; it possesses three towns, a pier, a garrison, a
custom house, and some monuments of British antiquity.

At SAINT AGNES is a very high and strong light-house, which was erected
in the year 1680. Its present machinery was designed by the ingenious
Adam Walker, the well known lecturer on Natural Philosophy, although
it has lately undergone some modification at the suggestion of Mr.
Wyatt. The machinery consists of a triangular frame attached to a
perpendicular axis, which, by means of an appropriate power, is made
to revolve once every three minutes. On each face of the triangle
are arranged ten parabolic reflectors of copper plated with silver,
each having an argand lamp in its focus. By this device the light
progressively sweeps the whole horizon, and by its regular intermission
and increase is readily distinguished from every other on the coast.[41]

The civil government of these islands is chiefly managed by twelve of
the principal inhabitants, who meet monthly at Heugh Town, St. Mary's,
and settle differences by compromise. The Duke of Leeds holds the
islands by lease for thirty-one years from the year 1800, at the rent
of £40, besides paying the fine of £4000, as a renewal.

The reader is no doubt anxiously waiting to be introduced to the
classical descendants of the Grecian or Phoenician race,--Whether
they have been swallowed up with the "Lioness," or washed into the
ocean by the tempests, we know not; but certain it is that the
present inhabitants are all new comers;--Phoenician or Grecian, there
are none.--_Jenkins_, _Ellis_, _Hicks_, _Woodcock_, _Ashford_, and
_Gibson_[42] are names which would even defy the ingenious author of
the Diversions of Purley to trace to a classical source.

The Scillonians are a robust and healthy people, and were it not for
the facility with which they obtain spirits, they would attain a very
advanced age. It is a common saying amongst them, and is no doubt
intended to express how highly favourable the spot is to longevity,
although it obviously admits of another construction, that "_for
one man who dies a natural death_, _nine are drowned_." It has been
remarked that a deformed person is not to be found in the islands; but
we apprehend that this fact requires an explanation very different from
that which is usually assigned; it cannot be received as any test of
the salubrity of the spot, or of the superior healthiness of the race;
the fact is simply this, that exposure to inclement weather, want of
proper food, and those various privations which necessarily increase
as we recede from the luxuries of civilization, kill, during infancy,
those feeble subjects which might, otherwise, have become deformed
during the progress of their growth. It is for the same reason that we
so frequently observe the troops of barbarous countries composed of the
most athletic individuals, for the hardship of their service weeds out
the feeble and invalid. We have already alluded to the tenacity with
which the Cornishman clings to his native soil, but the attachment of
the Scillonian, if possible, is still stronger to his desolate rock.
What a striking contrast does this form with the roving inhabitant
of an alluvial country, where every object, it might be presumed,
was calculated to excite and sustain the strongest attachment; but
this principle of Nature is wise and universal,--the plant is easily
loosened from a generous soil, but with what difficulty is the lichen
torn from its rock.

The islanders are chiefly employed in Ashing, making kelp from the
_Algæ_, which is disposed of to the Bristol merchant for the use of
the glass manufacturer, and in pilotage. From a combination, however,
of unfortunate circumstances, in addition to the fatal blow given
to the smuggling trade, by the activity of the preventive service,
the inhabitants were reduced to such extreme distress that it became
necessary in the year 1819 to appeal to the generosity of the public in
their behalf; and, notwithstanding the great difficulties of the times,
the sum of nine thousand pounds was collected for their relief. In
this great work of charity it is but an act of justice to state, that
the Society for promoting Christian knowledge, by their purse, as well
as by their writings, performed a very essential service. The funds
thus obtained were in part appropriated to the relief of the immediate
and pressing distress under which they laboured, while the remainder
was very judiciously applied towards the promotion of such permanent
advantages as might prevent the chance of its recurrence. A Fish-cellar
was accordingly provided in the island of Trescow, for the purpose of
storing and curing Ash; boats adapted for the Mackarel and Pilchard
Fisheries were purchased, and others were repaired; nets and various
kinds of tackling were also at the same time liberally supplied. By
such means have the inhabitants of these cheerless rocks been enabled
to avail themselves of some of the resources which Providence has
placed within their reach, and their families have been thus enabled
to exist without the dread of absolute starvation.[43] Much, however,
still remains for philanthropic exertion, and should this humble volume
fall into the hands of those, who are enabled by the superior gifts
of fortune to contribute to the wants of their unhappy brethren, we
may perhaps serve their cause by stating that any donation, however
small, will be received by _Henry Boase, Esq._ at the Penzance Bank.
The greatest benefit would arise from the extension of their fisheries,
for in consequence of the peculiar situation and convenience of these
islands, the Cod and Ling fisheries might be carried to almost any
extent; and, while boats in any part even of the Mount's Bay, would
be weather-bound with the wind W.S.W. to S., they can proceed from
Scilly into the channel, without the least difficulty. The Scillonians,
however, have as yet been unable to avail themselves of the advantages
of their locality; the want of proper boats prevents their proceeding
in the pursuit of their occupation, farther than four or five leagues
from the land.

During the summer months various species of fish are caught with hook
and line; among the smaller kind, which are salted by the Scillonians
for their winter consumption, are "_Bass_, _Wrass_, _Chad_, _Scad_,
_Brit_, _Barne_, _Cuddle_, _Whistlers_," &c. all of which are included
by the islanders under the general appellation of "_Rock-fish_."

There is a very curious fact noticed here with respect to the
_Woodcock_. These birds generally arrive in Scilly before they are
observed in any part of England; more frequently with a north-east,[44]
though sometimes with a north-west wind, and are often so exhausted as
to be caught in great numbers by the inhabitants, especially near the
light-house, the splendour of whose light appears to attract them, and
striking against its lantern they not unfrequently fall lifeless in the
gallery. It is for the naturalist to consider from whence they migrate.

The Climate of these islands is both milder and more equable than that
of Cornwall, but this advantage is counterbalanced by the frequent
occurrence of the most sudden and violent storms. By those who have
kept journals it has been found that not more than six days of perfect
calm occur in the course of a year, and that the wind blows from
between S.W. and N.W. for more than half of that period.

With respect to Geology, these islands will afford but little variety;
with the exception of some beds of _Porphyry_ at Saint Mary's, and
some beds of _Chlorite_, containing _Pyrites_, in the same island,
they consist entirely of Granite, and are doubtless a continuation
of the Devonian range, although the rock assumes an appearance less
porphyritic; it contains, however, veins of red Granite. At the
Lizard Point in the island of Trescow, a variety of granite occurs,
in which the felspar is of a remarkably pure white, and might, we
should conceive, be advantageously employed in the manufacture of
Porcelain. In some chasms of this rock, and in the centre of large
masses, the _Mica_ is of a silvery hue, and occurs crystallized in
its primitive form. In the same island is a remarkable cavern, in the
centre of which is a pool of fresh water. The porphyritic beds in
Saint Mary's are interesting on account of the distinct appearance of
stratification which they display, and _Mr. Majendie_ thinks that an
undoubted instance of stratified granite is to be seen near the same
spot. The Granite of Scilly is very liable to decomposition; whence
has arisen all that fancied statuary of the Druids, of which we have
spoken in another place. The Islands are undoubtedly undergoing a
gradual diminution. At no great distance of time Saint Mary's will
probably be divided by the sea, and a channel formed through the low
land between the New-town and the south-east side of the garrison.
This might perhaps be prevented by throwing down masses of granite
from a neighbouring hill, so as to form a barrier against the sea. The
object may be worthy of attention, as the sea in winter, with a high
tide, has been known to pass over this land, and the effect of its
forcing a channel there would be to divide the garrison from the rest
of the island. If the Geologist proceeds to a spot behind the quay,
and between the front of the garrison-hill and that island, he will
be gratified by the discovery of a process the very converse of that
which we have been just describing. In these places the granitic sand
is becoming indurated by the slow infiltration of water holding iron in
solution, and which appears to be derived from the decomposing hills
above it. Some fine specimens of this "_regenerated_" granite have been
placed in the Geological Society's cabinet at Penzance.

We now return to the Land's End,--from which we should proceed to
visit a promontory, called "_Castle Treryn_," where is situated the
celebrated "_Logan Stone_." If we pursue our route along the cliffs,
it will be found to lie several miles south-east of the Land's End,
although by taking the direct and usual road across the country, it is
not more than two miles distant; but the Geologist must walk, or ride
along the coast on horseback, and we can assure him that he will be
amply recompensed for his trouble.

From the Cape on which the signal station is situated, the rock scenery
is particularly magnificent, exhibiting an admirable specimen of the
manner, and forms, into which Granite disintegrates. About forty yards
from this Cape is the promontory called _Tol-Pedn-Penwith_, which in
the Cornish language signifies the _holed headland in Penwith_. The
name is derived from a singular chasm, known by the appellation of the
_Funnel Rock_; it is a vast perpendicular excavation in the granite,
resembling in figure an inverted cone, and has been evidently produced
by the gradual decomposition of one of those vertical veins with which
this part of the coast is so frequently intersected. By a circuitous
route you may descend to the bottom of the cavern, into which the sea
flows at high water. Here the Cornish Chough (_Corvus Graculus_) has
built its nest for several years, a bird which is very common about the
rocky parts of this coast, and may be distinguished by its red legs and
bill, and the violaceous blackness of its feathers. This promontory
forms the Western extremity of the Mount's Bay. The antiquary will
discover in this spot the vestiges of one of the ancient "_Cliff
Castles_," which were little else than stone walls, stretching across
necks of land from cliff to cliff. The only geological phenomenon
worthy of particular notice is a large and beautiful contemporaneous
vein of _red Granite_ containing _Shorl_; is one foot in width, and may
be seen for about forty feet in length.

Continuing our route around the coast we at length arrive at "_Castle
Treryn_." Its name is derived from the supposition of its having been
the site of an ancient British fortress, of which there are still some
obscure traces, although the wild and rugged appearance of the rocks
indicate nothing like art.


The foundation of the whole is a stupendous group of Granite rocks,
which rise in pyramidal clusters to a prodigious altitude, and overhang
the sea. On one of those pyramids is situated the celebrated "_Logan
Stone_," which is an immense block of Granite weighing above 60 tons.
The surface in contact with the under rock is of very small extent,
and the whole mass is so nicely balanced, that, notwithstanding its
magnitude, the strength of a single man applied to its under edge is
sufficient to change its centre of gravity, and though at first in
a degree scarcely perceptible, yet the repetition of such impulses,
at each return of the stone, produces at length a very sensible
oscillation! As soon as the astonishment which this phenomenon excites
has in some measure subsided, the stranger anxiously enquires how, and
whence the stone originated--was it elevated by human means, or was it
produced by the agency of natural causes?--Those who are in the habit
of viewing mountain masses with geological eyes, will readily discover
that the only chisel ever employed has been the tooth of time--the
only artist engaged, the elements. Granite usually disintegrates into
rhomboidal and tabular masses, which by the farther operation of air
and moisture gradually lose their solid angles, and approach the
spheroidal form. _De Luc_ observed, in the Giant mountains of Silesia,
spheroids of this description so piled upon each other as to resemble
Dutch cheeses; and appearances, no less illustrative of the phenomenon,
may be seen from the signal station to which we have just alluded. The
fact of the upper part of the cliff being more exposed to atmospheric
agency, than the parts beneath, will sufficiently explain why these
rounded masses so frequently rest on blocks which still preserve the
tabular form; and since such spheroidal blocks must obviously rest
in that position in which their lesser axes are perpendicular to the
horizon, it is equally evident that whenever an adequate force is
applied they must vibrate on their point of support.

Although we are thus led to deny the Druidical _origin_ of this stone,
for which so many zealous antiquaries have contended, still we by
no means intend to deny that the Druids employed it as an engine of
superstition; it is indeed very probable that, having observed so
uncommon a property, they dexterously contrived to make it answer
the purposes of an ordeal, and by regarding it as the _touchstone_
of truth, acquitted or condemned the accused by its motions. Mason
poetically alludes to this supposed property in the following lines.

                  "Behold yon huge
  And unknown sphere of living adamant,
  Which, pois'd by magic, rests its central weight
  On yonder pointed rock: firm as it seems,
  Such is its strange, and virtuous property,
  It moves obsequious to the gentlest touch
  Of him, whose heart is pure, but to a traitor,
  Tho' e'en a giant's prowess nerv'd his arm,
  It stands as fix'd as Snowdon."

The rocks are covered with a species of _Byssus_ long and rough to
the touch, forming a kind of hoary beard; in many places they are
deeply furrowed, carrying with them a singular air of antiquity, which
combines with the whole of the romantic scenery to awaken in the
minds of the poet and enthusiast the recollection of the Druidical
ages. The Botanist will observe the common Thrift (_Statice Armeria_)
imparting a glowing tinge to the scanty vegetation of the spot, and, by
growing within the crevices of the rocks, affording a very picturesque
contrast to their massive fabric. Here too the _Daucus Maritimus_, or
wild carrot; _Sedum Telephium_, _Saxifraga Stellaris_, and _Asplenium
Marinum_, may be found in abundance.

The Granite in this spot is extremely beautiful, on account of its
porphyritic appearance; the crystals of felspar are numerous and
distinct; in some places the rock is traversed by veins of red felspar,
and of black tourmaline, or schorl, of which the crystalline forms of
the prisms, on account of their close aggregation, are very indistinct.
Here may also be observed a contemporaneous vein of _schorl rock_ in
the granite, nearly two feet wide, highly inclined and very short,
and not having any distinct walls. On the western side of the Logan
rock is a cavern, formed by the decomposition of a vein of granite,
the felspar of which assumes a brilliant flesh-red, and lilac colour;
and, where it is polished by the sea, exceeding even in beauty the
_Serpentine caverns_ at the Lizard.

Mr. Majendie observed in this spot numerous veins of fine grained
granite, which he is inclined to consider as _cotemporaneous_; he
also observed what, at first sight, appeared to be fragments, but
which, upon closer examination, he pronounces to be _cotemporaneous
concretions_; for large crystals of _felspar_ may be seen shooting from
the porphyritic granite into these apparent fragments. These phenomena
are extremely interesting in a geological point of view, and well
deserve the attention of the scientific tourist.

In Treryn cove, just below the site of the castle, Dr. Maton found
several of the rarer species of shells, as _Patella Pellucida_, _P.
Fissura_, _Mytilus Modiolus_, _Trochus Conulus_, _Turbo Cimex_, and _T.
Fascitatus_ (of Pennant.)

Before we quit this coast we beg to state, for the information of the
geological tourist, that the _Granite_ which we have just traced from
beyond the Land's End to this spot, continues until within half a mile
of the signal post near Lemorna cove, where it meets with a patch of
slate, and is lost for about the space of three quarters of a mile. At
the western extremity of this junction (_Carn Silver_) the mineralogist
will find embedded Garnet-rock with veins of _Epidote_ and _Axinite_.
Here may also be seen the rare occurrence of a granite vein penetrating
both the slate and the granitic rock.

But let us return.----About two miles north-east of the Logan rock, and
in the high road to Penzance, stands the town of SAINT BURYAN, which
though now only a group of wretched cottages was once a place of very
considerable note, and the seat of a College of Augustine Canons; the
latter was founded by Athelstan after his return from the conquest of
the Scilly Islands, A.D. 930. The remains of the College were wantonly
demolished by one Shrubshall, Governor of Pendennis Castle, during the
usurpation of Cromwell.

The Church tower stands on the highest point in this part of the
country, being 467 feet above the level of the sea; it consequently
forms a very conspicuous object, and is so exposed to the rains from
the Atlantic, that the stones carry a deceptive face of freshness with
them which lends an aspect of newness to the whole building. From the
top of the tower the prospect is of a very extensive kind, commanding
the whole range of the surrounding country, and an immense surface of
sea. In clear weather the Scilly Islands may be easily distinguished in
the horizon, especially with a setting sun, when they appear to project
from the brilliant ground of the western sky like figures embossed on
burnished gold.

Both from the history and appearance of this edifice the antiquary will
enter it with sensations of awe and veneration, but he will find with
regret that the ancient Roodloft has been lately removed, from an idea
that it deadened the voice of the preacher, and that the parishioners
have also converted the original forms into modern pews, a change which
has cruelly violated the venerable uniformity of the interior. There is
a singular monument in the church, in the shape of a coffin, having an
inscription around the border in very rude characters, and now partly
obliterated; it is in Norman French, and has been thus translated.


  The wife of Geffrei de Bollait lies here
  God of her soul have mercy
  They who pray for her soul shall have
  Ten days Pardon.

On the middle of the stone is represented a Cross fleury, standing on
four steps; the monument is said to have been found many years ago by
the sexton, while sinking a grave.

Opposite the great door in the church-yard stands a very ancient Cross,
on one side of which are five balls, and, on the other, a rude figure
intended to represent the crucified Saviour. We here present our
readers with a sketch of this singular monument.

[Illustration: _Buryan Church-yard._]

Another Cross stands in the road, and faces the entrance into the
church-yard, of which also we have introduced a delineation.

[Illustration: _Buryan._]

The Deanery is in the gift of the Crown, as a royal peculiar, and is
tenable with any other preferment. The Dean exercises an independent
jurisdiction in all ecclesiastical matters within the parish of St.
Burian, and its dependent parishes of St. Levan, and Sennan. He is
the Rector, and is entitled to all tithes. A Visitation court is held
in his name, and the appeal from it is only to the King in council.
Athelstan is said to have granted to this church the privilege of a
Sanctuary, and a ruin overgrown with ivy; standing on an estate called
_Bosliven_, about a mile east from the church, is thought to be its
remains, but Mr. Lysons justly observes that the _Sanctuary_ usually
comprised the church itself, and perhaps a certain privileged space
beyond it, and that the ruins to which the tradition attaches, are
probably those only of an ancient chapel.

From St. Buryan the traveller may at once return to Penzance, which
is about six miles distant, but as no object of particular interest
will occur in the direct road, it is unnecessary for us to attend him
thither. Should he, however, be inclined to extend his excursion, he
will receive much gratification in returning by a somewhat circuitous
route along the southern coast, through the parish of Saint Paul.
In this case, we may first proceed to _Boskenna_, the seat of John
Paynter Esq. a highly romantic spot, abounding with woodcocks, and
which under the direction of a skilful landscape gardener might be
made to emulate in beauty any of the charming villas that adorn the
under-cliff of the Isle of Wight. On this estate there is a superficial
quarry of decomposing granite, which the mineralogist ought to visit,
for the purpose of obtaining some remarkably fine specimens of felspar
in separate crystals, which may be easily removed from the mass in
which they lie imbedded.

At _Bolleit_, in a croft near Boskenna, and adjoining the high road,
is to be seen a circle of stones very similar to that we have already
described (p. 81,) except that it has not a central pillar; the
appellation given to these stones is that of the "_Merry Maidens_,"
on account of a whimsical tradition, that they were once young women
transformed like Niobe into stones, as a punishment for the crime of
dancing on the Sabbath day. In a field on the opposite side of the road
there are two upright stones standing about a furlong asunder, the
one being nearly twelve, the other sixteen feet in height. They are
probably sepulchral monuments; the same ridiculous tradition, however,
attaches to them as to the circle, and has accordingly bestowed upon
them the appellation of the "_Pipers_."

At CARN BOSCAWEN, on this coast, is to be seen a very extraordinary
group of rocks, consisting of a large flat stone, the ends of which
are so poised upon the neighbouring rocks, as to leave an opening
underneath; _Dr. Borlase_, with his accustomed zeal, insists upon its
Druidical origin, and ever ready to supply the deficiency of both
history and tradition by the sallies of an active imagination, very
confidently informs us, that "this said opening beneath the pensile
stone was designed for the seat of some considerable person, from which
he might give out his edicts, and decisions, his predictions, and
admissions to Noviciates"!--_Risum teneatis geologici?_

In our road to Saint Paul, we pass _Trouve_, or _Trewoof_, an estate
situated on the side of a woody hill, overlooking a romantic valley,
which is terminated by _Lemorna Cove_, a spot which should be visited
by every stranger who delights in the "lone majesty of untamed Nature."
Within the estate of Trouve are the remains of a triple entrenchment,
in which runs a subterranean passage; and, it is said, that during
the civil wars a party of Royalists were here concealed from the
observation of the forces of Sir Thomas Fairfax. There is a fine
chalybeate spring on this estate.

At KERRIS, in the parish of Paul, about five miles from Penzance, is
an oval enclosure called "_Roundago_," which is stated to have been
connected with Druidical rites; time and the Goths, however, have
nearly destroyed its last remains, so that the antiquary will require
the eyes of a Borlase to recognise its existence by any description
hitherto given of it.

PAUL CHURCH is a very conspicuous object from its high elevation,[45]
and interests the historian from the tradition, already stated, of its
having been burnt by the Spaniards, upon which occasion the south porch
alone is said, in consequence of the direction of the wind, to have
escaped the conflagration. A pleasing confirmation of this tradition
was lately afforded during some repairs, when one of the wooden
supporters was found charred at the end nearest the body of the church.
It also deserves notice that the thick stone division at the back of
the _Trewarveneth_ pew, which has so frequently occasioned enquiry, is
a part of the old church, which escaped the fire. In the church is the
following curious notice of its having been burnt, "_The Spanger burnt
this church in the year 1595_."

Most tourists inform us that in this church-yard is to be seen the
monumental stone, with the epitaph of _Old Dolly Pentreath_, so
celebrated among antiquaries, as having been the last person who spoke
the Cornish language. Such a monument, however, if it ever existed, is
no longer to be found, nor can any information be obtained with regard
to its probable locality. Her Epitaph is said to have been both in the
Cornish and English language, viz.

  "Coth Dol Pentreath canz ha deaw
  Marir en Bedans en Powl pleu
  Na en an Eglar ganna Poble braz
  Bet en Eglar Hay Coth Dolly es!"

  "Old Dol Pentreath, one hundred age and two
  Both born, and in Paul Parish buried too;
  Not in the Church 'mongst people great and high
  But in the Church-yard doth old Dolly lie!"

In the parishes of Paul and Buryan are several Tin streams; in some of
which the _Wood Tin_, or wood-like oxide of Tin, is occasionally found
in large, and well defined pieces. It has been also, although rarely,
found in its matrix.

From Paul Church we may proceed to Penzance, either by the high
road over Paul Hill, which becomes extremely interesting from the
picturesque beauty and superior cultivation of the country; or we may
descend towards the sea shore, and return through the villages of
_Mousehole_ and _Newlyn_, which may be called colonies of Fishermen,
for here the Pilchard[46] and Mackarel fisheries are carried on to a
very great extent; and every kind of fish which frequent this coast are
caught and sent to Penzance, and other Cornish towns; and, in the early
part of the season, they supply the London market with Mackarel, which
are conveyed thither by way of Portsmouth. The Lobster fishery also
proves an ample source of revenue to the Mount's Bay fishermen, from
which alone they divide not less than Two Thousand Pounds, annually.

The ride or walk along the coast from MOUSEHOLE to NEWLYN is highly
interesting. The former town which is situated about two miles
south-west of Penzance; and half a mile from Paul Church-town, contains
about six hundred inhabitants. There is a small Pier capable of
admitting vessels of one hundred tons burthen; but it is chiefly used
as a harbour for the numerous fishing boats.

NEWLYN, with respect to population, exceeds by one-third that of
Mousehole. It has a commodious pier, which is also usually occupied by
the fishing boats of the place, which exceed four hundred in number. In
the cliff-road between these villages, we pass a platform, which during
the late war was a _battery_, forming a security to the bay from any
privateers that might visit it. Adjoining this battery stands a furnace
for the purpose of heating the shot. It was under the direction of a
small party of the Royal Artillery.

The Geologist in performing this part of the excursion will have much
to observe. About one hundred yards west of Mousehole, the clay-slate
ceases, and the granite commences. At this junction numerous granite
veins, varying in width from about a foot to less than an inch, pass
through the slate.[47] A little farther west, a cavern may be observed
in the cliff, which has evidently been produced by the decomposition of
the walls of an old _Adit_. In this cavern the Mineralogist has found
good specimens of _Eisenkeisel_, or Iron flint:--but we will conclude,
for our tourist must be wearied by the length of the excursion;
tomorrow we shall be again prepared to accompany him in a different
direction, and to point out a succession of fresh objects, when
antiquities, minerals, and picturesque views will, in their turn, again
present themselves for his examination.

[Illustration: _Between Penzance, and Buryan._]


[35] This product is carefully collected, and preserved in stacks by
the inhabitants, for the purpose of fuel. It is worthy of remark that
the nature of the fuel employed in a country always imparts a character
to its cookery, hence the striking difference between that of Paris and
London; so in Cornwall, the convenience afforded by the furze in the
process of Baking, has given origin to the general use of pies. Every
article of food is dressed in a pie, whence it has become a proverb,
that "_the Devil will not come into Cornwall, for fear of being put
into a pie_." In a season of scarcity the Attorneys of the county
having at the Quarter Sessions very properly resolved to abstain from
every kind of pastry, an allusion to the above proverb was very happily
introduced into an Epigram, extemporaneously delivered on the occasion,
and which, from its point and humour, deserves to be recorded--

  "If the proverb be true, that the fame of our pies
    Prevents us from falling to Satan a prey,
  It is clear that _his friends_--the Attorneys,--are wise
    In moving such obstacles out of the way."

[36] We insert the following facts collected by _Dr. Paris_, from the
first volume of the Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of
Cornwall--"The total quantity of Granite shipped at Falmouth during
the last seven years, amounts to _Forty Thousand Tons_. It has been
employed for building the Docks at Chatham, and the Waterloo Bridge in
London. The lands in the vicinity of Penhryn have furnished it; indeed
the quantity actually quarried has been considerably greater, for many
of the blocks, in consequence of being damaged, have been condemned
and sold at a low price to the inhabitants for building, and other
purposes. The number of men generally employed in quarrying it is about
four hundred; their wages from twelve to eighteen shillings per week,
varying with the quantity raised. The lord of the soil receives one
halfpenny a foot for all that is quarried; the freight during war was
as high as 25 shillings per ton, at present it is only 16s. Fourteen
cubic feet weigh one ton. The weight of the blocks generally varies,
from five _cwt._ to seven tons."

[37] It is not more than three hundred years since the art of husbandry
was first introduced. The lands were formerly all in common, and the
inhabitants being wholly engaged in the mines, actually let out their
pastures to the graziers of Devon, by whom they were in return supplied
with cattle and corn.

[38] _Church-Town._ This expression is peculiar to Cornwall--the fact
is, that since many market, and even Borough towns are _without_ a
church, the Cornish dignify those that have it with the title of

[39] We take this opportunity to state, that the annual revenue of the
Long-ships light-house is about three thousand pounds. Every British
vessel that passes pays a halfpenny per ton;--every foreign vessel pays
one shilling, without reference to its tonnage.

[40] It is a curious fact that the whole or part of this rock is _Lime

[41] Vessels passing this light pay the same dues as those received by
the Long-ships, except in the case of coasting vessels, which pay, not
according to their tonnage, but simply a shilling per vessel.

[42] One half of the inhabitants of St. Agnes are named _Hicks_; one
quarter of those of Trescow, and a third of those at Bryher are called
_Jenkins_; and a half of St. Martin's is divided between _Ellis_ and

[43] See "A view of the present state of the Scilly Islands; exhibiting
their vast importance to the British Empire, the Improvements of which
they are susceptible, and a particular account of the means lately
adopted for ameliorating the condition of the Inhabitants, by the
establishment and extension of their Fisheries. By the Rev. George
Woodley, Missionary from the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge;
and Minister of St. Agnes, and St. Martin's." _8vo. pp. 344. London,

[44] The same wind is said to bring them on the Southern shores of
Ireland. It is generally believed that they come from Norway, not so
much to avoid the cold, as to obtain the worms which are locked up in
the earth during the frost.

[45] It may be observed in the engraving of Saint Michael's Mount, on
the elevated line of coast which forms the back ground to the picture.

[46] A History of the Pilchard Fishery will be presented to our readers
in the Excursion to Saint Ives.

[47] See _Mr. Majendie's_ interesting account of this phenomenon in the
first volume of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall.



To exhibit the greatest variety of interesting objects, in the least
possible space and time, may be said to constitute the essential
excellence of a "_Guide_." For the accomplishment of such a purpose
we now proceed to conduct the stranger to _Botallack Mine_ and _Cape
Cornwall_, through the Parishes of Madron, Morvah, and Saint Just.

In our road to the village of Madron, or Madron _Church-town_, as
it is commonly called, we pass _Nancealverne_, the estate of John
Scobell Esq., _Poltair_, the residence of Edward Scobell Esq., and
_Trengwainton_ the seat of Sir Rose Price, Bart. At this latter
place considerable exertions have been made to raise plantations,
and to clothe the granitic hills behind it with wood; and from the
progress already made, we feel sanguine in the ultimate success of
the enterprize. Amongst the pictures in the possession of the worthy
Baronet are several of the earlier productions of Opie. The head of an
aged beggar, by that artist, has frequently excited our admiration,
and presents a characteristic specimen of the native simplicity and
expression of his style, and the magic force of his chiaro-scuro. This
head was painted also under circumstances, a knowledge of which cannot
fail to heighten its interest. The father of Sir Rose having been
struck by the venerable aspect of an aged mendicant as he was begging
in the streets of Penzance, immediately sent for Opie, then residing in
the town, and expressed a desire that the young artist should paint his
portrait. The beggar was accordingly regaled with a bounteous meal upon
the occasion, and Opie appears to have caught his expression at the
happy moment, when like the "Last Minstrel" of our northern bard,

  ----"Kindness had his wants supplied
  And the old man was gratified."

The Village of Madron is about two miles to the north-west of Penzance.
The church is placed on an elevated situation, and commands a very
striking view of Saint Michael's Mount, and its bay. Penzance is a
Chapelry of this parish.

MADRON WELL is situated in a moor about a mile and a half from the
_Church-town_. It is enclosed within walls, which were partially
destroyed in the time of Cromwell, by Major Ceeley of St. Ives, but the
remains of them are still sufficiently entire to exhibit the form of an
ancient Baptistry.[48] The inner wall with its window and door-way, and
the altar with a square hole or socket in the centre, which received
the foot of the cross or image of the patron saint, are still perfect.
The foundation of the outer wall, or anti-room, may be traced with
great ease.

Superstition has, of course, attributed many virtues to waters which
had been thus hallowed, and this Well, like that of Chapel Euny, has
been long celebrated for its medicinal efficacy in restoring motion and
activity to cripples,[49] Baptism was administered only at the stated
times of Easter and Whitsuntide; but, at all seasons, the virtues of
the waters attracted the lame and the impotent; and the altar was at
hand to assist the devotion of their prayers, as well as to receive the
offerings of their gratitude.

Chemical analysis has been unable to detect in this water the presence
of _any_ active ingredient that might explain the beneficial operation
attributed to it.

In the road to Morvah we meet with the celebrated _Cromlech_[50]
at Lanyon. It is placed on a prominent hill, and from its lonely
situation, and the wildness of the country by which it is surrounded,
it cannot fail to inspire sensations of reverential awe in every one
who approaches it.[51] This rude monument has been long known amongst
the country people by the appellation of the "_Giant's Quoit_." When
the last edition of this "_Guide_" went to the press it was still
standing in its original position, and was thus described. It consists
of three unshapen pillars inclining from the perpendicular, which
support a large table stone (resembling a _Discus_ or _Quoit_) in a
horizontal position, the direction of which is nearly north and south.
The flat stone is 47 feet in girth, and 12 in length, and its height
from the ground is sufficient to enable a man on horseback to pass
under it.--The aged monument, however, has at length bent beneath the
hand of time, and fallen on its side. Its downfall, which happened
during a violent tempest, occasioned a universal feeling of regret in
the country.

In the same tenement, about a quarter of a mile west of Lanyon house,
is another monument of this kind, nearly as large as the former; and
it is singular that this should have been the only Cromlech in Corwall
which escaped the notice of Dr. Borlase. It has fallen on its edge, but
is still entire.

All our notions respecting the origin and use of these monuments are
purely conjectural; it seems, however, very probable that they are
the most ancient in the world, erected possibly by one of the first
colonists which came into the island. As Cromlechs are known to abound
in every country where the _Celts_ established themselves, many
antiquaries have concluded that they are of Celtic origin. The same
doubt and uncertainty involve every consideration with respect to their
use; it has been a general idea that they were intended for altars,
but the upper stone is evidently too gibbous ever to have admitted the
officiating priest, or to have allowed him to stand to overlook the
fire, and the consumption of the victim; besides, what occasion is
there to suppose a Cromlech any thing more than a sepulchral monument?
Is it not the most natural and probable conclusion? Indeed Mr. Wright
actually found a skeleton deposited under one of them in Ireland, and
it must strike the most superficial observer that our modern tombs are
not very dissimilar to the former in their construction, and probably
derived their form from a very ancient model.

MEN-AN-TOL. The next object of curiosity consists of three stones
on a triangular plane, the middle one of which is perforated with a
large hole, and is called _Men-an-Tol_, i. e. the _holed stone_. Dr.
Borlase who, as we have often observed, has recourse to the chisel of
Druidism to account for every cavity or crevice, conjectures that it
was appropriated to the rites of that priesthood, and asserts, on the
authority of a farmer, that even in his time, it was deemed to possess
the power of healing those who would crawl through it.

In a croft, about half a mile to the north-west of Lanyon, lies a
very ancient sepulchral stone, called by the Cornish "_Men Skryfa_,"
i. e. the _Inscribed Stone_. It is nine feet ten inches long, and
one foot eight inches broad; the inscription upon it is "_Riolobran
Cunoval Fil_," which signifies _Riolobran the Son of Cunoval lies
buried here_.[52] With respect to the date of this monument, all
antiquaries agree in thinking that it must have been engraven before
the corruptions crept into the Roman alphabet, such for instance as the
junction of the letters by unnatural links, or when the down strokes of
one were made to serve for two, &c. This practice arose soon after the
Romans went off, and increased until the Saxon letters were introduced
at Athelstan's conquest. The most striking deviation from the Roman
orthography to be observed in this monument is in the cross stroke
of the Roman N not being diagonal as it ought to be, nor yet quite
horizontal as we find it in the sixth century; and hence it is fair to
assign to it a date antecedent to that period.[53]

CHUN CASTLE, a prominent object in this neighbourhood, is similar to
_Caerbran Round_, which has been described, except that the ruins are
more extensive, and less confused. The remains occupy the whole area
of a hill commanding a wide tract of country to the east, some low
grounds to the north and south, and the wide expanded ocean to the
west. Another Cromlech may also be seen from this spot, and stands upon
the very line which divides the parishes of Morvah and Saint Just; but
it is far inferior to that at Lanyon. We will now for awhile abandon
the contemplation of these faded monuments of past ages, and proceed
to the examination of a rich and interesting field of mineralogical
and geological research. In introducing the stranger, however, to the
district of Saint Just, we must repeat to him the caution with which
Mr. Carne[54] has very prudently accompanied his history of its mineral
productions. "If the stranger on his arrival shall expect to find any
of the minerals so prominently situated as to salute his eyes at once;
or if he shall suppose that those objects which are especially worthy
of notice in a geological point of view, are to be discovered and
examined in the space of a few hours, he will be greatly mistaken and
disappointed; for very few, either of the minerals or the veins are
to be found _in situ_, except by a diligent, patient, and persevering

Without further delay we shall now attend the traveller to _Pendeen
Cove_; in our road to which, the only objects worthy attention are the
Stamping Mills, and Burning Houses or Roasting Furnaces, belonging to
_Botallack Mine_. They are situated on the bank of the river which
runs into the sea at _Pendeen Cove_. The Tin ore of _Botallack_ is
generally mixed with a portion of _Sulphuret of Copper_, which not
being separable from it by the mechanical process of dressing, is
submitted to the action of a roasting furnace, by which the Copper
being converted into an oxide, and the Sulphur into Sulphuric acid,
_a Sulphate of Copper_ is thus produced, which is easily separated
by washing. The solution obtained is then poured into casks,
containing pieces of iron, by the agency of which the _Copper_ is

There is to be seen at _Pendeen_, a cave, known by the name of _Pendeen
Vau_, and concerning which there are many ridiculous stories. It
appears to have been one of those hiding places in which the Britons
secreted themselves, and their property, from the attacks of the Saxons
and Danes. The cave is still almost entire, a circumstance which is
principally owing to the superstitious fears of the inhabitants, many
of whom, at this very day, entertain a dread of entering it.

At _Pendeen Cove_, the Geologist will meet with several phenomena well
worthy his attention. At the junction of the Slate and Granite, veins
of the latter will be observed traversing the former rock, and what
is particularly worthy of notice, they may be seen emanating from a
great mass of granite and passing into the schistose rock by which
it is covered. One part of the cliff of this cove consists of large
fragments of granite imbedded in clay and earth; the interstices of
which are filled with white sand, which has been probably blown there
from the beach; through this sand, water impregnated with iron is
slowly percolating, the effect of which is the induration of the sand,
and the formation of a _breccia_, which in some parts has acquired very
considerable hardness.

Before proceeding to the metalliferous district of Saint Just, we may
observe that, if the traveller's object be to reach Saint Ives by the
road along the cliffs, through the parish of _Zennor_, he will meet
with a most cheerless country, but by no means destitute of geological
interest. He ought particularly to examine a bold rocky promontory,
called the "_Gurnard's Head_," where he will find a succession of
beds of slaty felspar, hornblende rock, and greenstone. The geology
of this headland has been accurately described by _Dr. Forbes_ in the
second volume of the _Transactions of the Royal Geological Society
of Cornwall_. _Polmear Cove_ ought also to be visited on account of
the Granite veins, which are perhaps as singular and interesting
as any of those already described.--But let us proceed to complete
our examination of the coast of _Saint Just_. Many of the mines
are situated on the very edge of the cliff, and are wrought to a
considerable distance under the sea; but all communication to them is
from land.[56] For a description of the numerous minerals found in
this district,[57] we must refer the reader to the highly valuable
paper by _Joseph Carne, Esq_. which is published in the second volume
of the _Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall_. We
cannot, however, allow the mineralogist to pass _Trewellard_, without
reminding him that, at this spot, _Axinite_ was first discovered in
Cornwall, and that the most beautifully crystallized specimens of
that mineral, scarcely inferior to those brought from Dauphiné, may
still be procured here. In the cliff at _Huel Cock Carn_, a vein of
this mineral, of a violet colour, three feet in width, may be traced
for upwards of twenty yards; and in its vicinity there is to be found
also a vein of _garnet rock_. _Apatite_, of a greyish-white colour,
associated with _Hornblende_, may be seen in the same spot. In the
slate rocks between _Huel Cock_ and Botallack, _Prehnite_ has lately
been found, for the first time; it appears to form a small vein, which
in one part is divided into two branches. Upon the discovery of the
above mineral, says Mr. Joseph Carne, an expectation was naturally
formed, that _Zeolite_, its frequent associate, and an equal stranger
to Cornwall, might shortly make its appearance. This opinion has been
lately verified by the discovery of, at least, two varieties of that
mineral, imbedded in the _Prehnite_ vein, viz. _Stilbite_, or _foliated
Zeolite_, crystallized in flat four-sided prisms, with quadrangular
summits; and the _radiated Mesotype_, which sometimes contains nodules
of _Prehnite_. Other specimens have been found in rather an earthy
state, and may possibly be the _mealy Zeolite_ of Jameson. In the
same slate rocks _Apatite_ occurs of a yellowish-green colour, and
crystallized in hexaedral prisms. In the granite rocks on the high
hills south-east of Trewellard, _Pinite_ is to be observed.

We arrive at the "_Crown Engine_" of Botallack--

                          "How fearful
  And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eyes so low,
  The crows and choughs, that wing the midway air
  Show scarce so gross as beetles:----
  ----I'll look no more,
  Lest my brain turn, and the deficient sight
  Topple down headlong."

This is undoubtedly one of the most extraordinary and surprising places
in the mining districts of Cornwall, whether considered for the rare
and rich assemblage of its minerals, or for the wild and stupendous
character of its rock scenery. Surely, if ever a spot seemed to bid
defiance to the successful efforts of the miner, it was the site of the
_Crown Engine_[58] at Botallack, where at the very commencement of his
subterranean labours, he was required to lower a steam engine down a
precipice of more than two hundred feet, with the view of extending his
operations under the bed of the Atlantic ocean!!! There is something
in the very idea which alarms the imagination; and the situation and
appearance of the gigantic machine, together with the harsh jarring of
its bolts, re-echoed from the surrounding rocks, are well calculated to
excite our astonishment.

But if you are thus struck and surprised at the scene when viewed from
the cliff above, how much greater will be your wonder if you descend
to the surface of the mine. You will then behold a combination of
the powers of art with the wild sublimity of Nature which is quite
unparalleled; the effects of the whole being not a little heightened
by the hollow roar of the raging billows which are perpetually lashing
the cliff beneath. In looking up you will observe troops of mules laden
with sacks of coals, for the supply of the engine, with their undaunted
riders, fearlessly trotting down the winding path which you trembled at
descending even on foot. As you approach the engine, the cliff becomes
almost perpendicular, and the ore raised from the mine is therefore
drawn up over an inclined plane,[59] by means of a horse engine placed
on the extreme verge of the overhanging rocks above, and which seems to
the spectator below as if suspended in "_mid air_."

The workings of this mine extend at least seventy fathoms in length
under the bed of the sea; and in these caverns of darkness are many
human beings, for a small pittance, and even that of a precarious
amount, constantly digging for ore, regardless of the horrors which
surround them, and of the roar of the Atlantic ocean, whose boisterous
waves are incessantly rolling over their heads. We should feel pity for
the wretch who, as an atonement for his crimes, should be compelled to
undergo the task which the Cornish miner voluntarily undertakes, and as
cheerfully performs; yet such is the force of habit, that very rarely
does any other employment tempt him to forsake his own; the perils of
his occupation are scarcely noticed, or if noticed, are soon forgotten.

The _Lode_[60] of the mine may be seen _cropping out_, in the group
of rocks beneath the engine. The ore is the grey and yellow sulphuret
of copper, mixed with the oxide of tin,[61] of which _she_[62] has
already "_turned up_" a sufficient quantity to afford a very handsome
premium to the adventurers. In the grey sulphuret of this mine, _purple
copper ore_, of the kind called by the Germans "_Buntkupfererz_," is
frequently met with. Besides which, a great number of interesting
minerals may be collected, as several varieties of _Jasper_;
_arborescent native Copper_; _Jaspery iron ore_; _Arseniate of Iron_,
which until it was discovered in the _Crown lode_ of Botallack, was
unknown in St. Just. It is of a brown colour, and is crystallized
in cubes. _Sulphuret of Bismuth_, imbedded in _Jasper_; beautiful
_specular iron ore_; _hæmatitic Iron_; and the _hydrous oxide of
iron_, in prisms terminated by pyramids, and which was supposed by the
Count de Bournon to contain _Titanium_. The picturesque rocks of this
district may be considered as composed of _Hornblende rock_, which
will be found to alternate with slate. The contorted appearance of the
former in the vicinity of Botallack is very singular, and will admit of
much speculation. The _Crown rocks_, to which the mineralogist must not
neglect to descend, consist of extremely compact _Hornblende rock_, in
which occur numerous veins and beds of different minerals; viz. _veins
of Garnet rock_, with numerous imbedded crystals, being at one part
almost a foot in width; _Magnetic Iron Pyrites_, massive, in beds, near
the engine; its colour is bluish-grey, and it is called by the workmen
_Spelter_, who mistake it probably for _Blende_, which latter mineral
also occurs here in considerable quantities. In a part of the rock,
which is almost inaccessible, there is a vein of _Epidote_, distinctly
crystallized, and about six inches wide. The miners, however descend
the fearful precipice without any difficulty, in order to collect
specimens for the inquisitive visitant. _Axinite_ also occurs in veins,
or perhaps in beds; _Thallite_, _Chlorite_, _Tremolite_, and a black
crystallized _Schorl_, in which the late Rev. William Gregor detected
six per cent. of _Titanium_, are to be found also in this interesting

CAPE CORNWALL is the next object of interest after Botallack. This
point of land stretches out to the west, at an elevation of two hundred
and thirty feet, and forms the northern boundary of _Whitsand Bay_ (p.
88). It is entirely composed of a slaty rock, traversed by numerous
veins of _Actinolite_. To the geologist this spot will be interesting,
since on the shore beneath, a junction may be observed between the
_Granite_ of the Land's End, and the slate of this promontory.[63]
These formations are separated by a large vein of _metalliferous
quartz_, which forms the _lode_ of the mine in the neighbourhood,
called "_Little Bounds_," and whose engine suspended in the cliff
above, constitutes a very striking feature in the scenery. This vein,
besides _Oxide of Tin_, for which it is worked, contains _Native
Copper_, different _Oxides of Iron_, _Red Jasper_, _Quartz_ of a bright
brownish red colour, and _Scaly red Iron_ _ore_, sometimes investing
Quartz, and occasionally in small masses consisting of red cohering
scales, which are unctuous to the touch.

Mr. Carne states, that in this mine three distinct lodes, distant
from each other, have been worked under the sea; two of them being in
granite, the third in slate. Here also, at two parts of the _lode_,
known by the name of "_Save-all's lode_," probably, as the name
would seem to imply, in consequence of the avarice of the miner, a
communication has been made between the sea and the mine; one of them
is at about high water mark at spring tides; the other is covered by
the sea at every tide, except at very low neaps; great and constant
attention is therefore necessary for the security of this latter
breach. At first the opening was stopped by a piece of wood covered
with turf; but as this defence was not found to be sufficiently secure,
a thick platform caulked like the deck of a ship, was ultimately
placed upon it, and which renders it nearly water proof. The breaking
of the waves is heard in all the levels of the mine, and in the part
directly beneath the pebbly beach, the rolling of the stones in
boisterous weather produces a most terrific effect. In the drift at
the forty fathom level, which is carried a considerable way under the
sea, Mr. Chenhalls, the intelligent agent of the mine, had formerly
observed a successive formation of _Stalactites_; in consequence of
which statement, Dr. John Davy and Mr. Majendie were induced to visit
the spot. It had been closed for two years previously, but before it
was shut up Mr. Chenhalls had carefully removed all the _Stalactites_
which then existed. Upon examination it was observed that a fresh
crop had been produced during the interval just stated; some of which
were eighteen inches in length, and above an inch in diameter. The
_Stalagmites_ directly underneath them were of still larger dimensions;
both however had the same yellowish-brown colour, and were found to
consist of _Peroxide of iron_. Specimens may be seen in the cabinet
at Penzance. Dr. Paris has suggested that they resulted from the
decomposition of _Pyrites_, forming, in the first instance, a soluble
_Sulphate of iron_, but which, by attracting farther oxygen, deposited
its base in the form here discovered.

At a little distance southward of Cape Cornwall, is a high rocky
promontory called CARAGLOSE HEAD, from which the traveller may command
one of the most interesting views in this part of Cornwall. On the
north are Cape Cornwall, and the romantic machinery of _Little_
_Bounds Mine_. Southward and directly under the head, the interesting
creek called PORNANVON COVE, with the engine of _Huel St. Just Tin
Mine_ near the sea shore. Westward, on a clear day, the Scilly Islands
may be distinctly seen. This is a spot seldom visited by strangers,
but with the exception of Botallack, it is certainly one of the most
striking in the district of Saint Just. At _Pornanvon Cove_, a stratum
of sea sand and pebbles may be seen in the cliff, at an elevation of
fifteen feet above high water mark!

Advancing from the coast into the interior of the country towards
Saint Just's _Church-town_, Dr. Berger observed many blocks of _Schorl
rock_[64] scattered on this part of the granitic plain, particularly
amongst the rubbish of some old tin mines, which are here very
numerous, but are now quite deserted.

SAINT JUST CHURCH TOWN. Nothing of any interest is to be seen at
this place, except a very ancient cross, a sketch of which we shall
introduce at the conclusion of the present chapter; and the remains of
an ancient Amphitheatre.

In this, and similar "_Rounds_," as they are provincially called, the
ancient British assembled, in order to witness those athletic sports,
for which the Cornish are still remarkable; indeed, at this very day,
wrestling matches are held in the amphitheatre at Saint Just, during
the holidays of Easter and Whitsuntide.[65]

The Antiquary ought not to quit this parish without visiting the
"_Botallack Circles_;" when examined separately they do not differ
essentially from that at _Bolleit_, or at _Boscawen Un_ before
described (p. 81); but they intersect each other and form a confused
cluster; "but in this seeming confusion," exclaims Dr. Borlase, "I
cannot but think that there was some mystical meaning, or, at least,
distinct allotment to particular uses; some of these might be employed
for the sacrifice, others allotted to prayer, others to the feasting of
the priests, others for the station of those who devoted the victims;
and lastly, that these circles intersected each other in so remarkable
a manner, as we find them in this monument, might be to intimate that
each of these holy rites, though exercised in different circles, were
but so many links of one and the same chain, and that there was a
constant dependance and connection between sacrifice, prayer, holy
feasting, and all the several parts of Druidical worship."

In taking leave of the metalliferous district of Saint Just we have
to observe, that it has been considered by Mr. Carne, and not without
probability, as having constituted the principal portion of what was
formerly known under the name of the _Cassiterides_, and that if it
would redound to the honour, or contribute to the prosperity of Saint
Just, it might be said, "that her Tin was probably a constituent
part of the Shield and Helmet of Achilles,--of the Tabernacle of the
Israelites,--of the Purple of Tyre,--and of the Temple of Solomon."

From Saint Just's _Church-town_, the road conducts us over a wild part
of the peninsula, although highly salubrious, and invigorating from the
fine sea breezes which blow from every side; after a ride over such
bleak and barren hills, the eye experiences a singular repose on our
approach to the cultivated shores of the Mount's Bay.

[Illustration: _Saint Just._]


[48] Baptistries were continued out of the church until the sixth

[49] The learned Bishop Hall in his work entitled "_The Mystery of
Godliness_," bears ample testimony to the medicinal efficacy of this
water in restoring motion and activity to cripples.

[50] _Cromlech_ in the Cornish language signified a crooked stone.

[51] This ancient monument is faithfully depicted in the frontispiece
of the present work; but we are in candour bound to acknowledge
that, in the introduction of Saint Michael's Mount, the artist has
availed himself of the "_quidlibet audendi_" so universally conceded
to Painters and Poets; in reality, an intervening eminence obstructs
the view of the Mount from this spot, and he has therefore, upon the
present occasion, just taken the liberty to remove this barrier to
our vision. If the Geological tourist condemn this harmless deviation
from truth, we shall recriminate by reminding him that even Geologists
have sometimes appropriated to themselves an indulgence which Horace
extended only to the votaries of the Muses, and have not hesitated to
overlook the existence of a mountain where it stood in the way of a
favourite theory.

[52] Before the beginning of the seventh century we are informed by
Strutt that it was held unlawful to bury the dead in the cities, and
that there were no church-yards. _Anglo-Saxon Æra, vol. 1. p. 69._

[53] There are several monumental inscriptions of the same kind to be
seen in Cornwall, but none so ancient as _Men Skryfa_. In Barlowena
bottom, for instance, as you pass from the church of Gulval to that of
Madron, there is one which is now converted into a foot-bridge across a
brook; if the antiquary examine the letters upon this stone, which he
cannot conveniently do without getting under it, he will discover the
corruptions alluded to in the text, viz. the _I_ in _Filius_ linked to
the _L_.

[54] To the elaborate memoir, by _Mr. Carne_, published in the second
volume of the Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall,
and entitled "_On the Mineral Productions, and the Geology of the
Parish of Saint Just_," we would especially direct the attention of the
scientific traveller.

[55] The quantity of Copper procured in this way at Botallack, says Mr.
Carne, is about a ton in a year. This chemical process is now practised
in most of the mines in which the "_Tin-stone_" is mixed with Copper
ore, as in Dolcoath, Cook's Kitchen, Chacewater, and in some parts of
St. Agnes.

[56] The principal sub-marine mines on this part of the coast are
_Levant_; _Tolvaen_; _Huel Cock_; and _Huel Castle_; Copper Mines; and
_Praze_; _Little Bounds_; _Riblose_; _Huel St. Just_; Tin Mines; and
_Botallack_ Tin and Copper Mine.

[57] A miner of the name of _James Wall_, who resides in the village of
_Carnyorth_, has generally a variety of these minerals for sale.

[58] "_Crown Engine_," so named from its vicinity to three rocks called
the "_Three Crowns_."

It was our intention to have presented the reader with an engraving of
this extraordinary scene, and indeed measures had been taken for its
accomplishment, when we were induced to abandon the design on learning
that a lithographic print had been published by a meritorious and
self-taught artist at Penzance, the sale of which we were anxious not
to diminish.

[59] This apparatus is termed "_The Shammel Whim_."

[60] A metalliferous vein is provincially called a _Lode_.

[61] The tin and copper are in a state of _mechanical_ mixture,
although _Dr. Boase_ has lately found amongst the heaps, a specimen of
"_Tin Pyrites_," in which these metals are _chemically_ combined.

[62] The miners always distinguish their mines by a _feminine_

[63] See a paper by Dr. John Davy, in the first volume of the
Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, entitled "_On
the Granite Veins of Porth Just_."

[64] This rock is a binary compound of _Quartz_ and _Schorl_, without
any, or scarcely any, admixture of the other constituents of Granite;
and yet when we consider its various relations, it must be regarded as
rather a variety of the latter than a distinct rock. The locality now
mentioned and that singular group of rocks between Truro and Bodmin,
known by the name of _Roach Rock_, are, as far as we know, the only
places in Cornwall where this modification of granite is found _in
mass_. In the form of veins its occurrence is not unusual, especially
at the junction of granite and slate, where it would often seem to
exist as an intermediate rock.

[65] The Cornish have ever been celebrated for their skill in the art
of wrestling; hence the expression "_To give one a Cornish Hug_," which
is a dexterous lock in that art peculiar to them. It must, however, be
admitted, whether as a matter of triumph or humiliation, we will not
declare, that the Cornish have greatly declined in their art, so as
to be now inferior even to the Devonians, and to the inhabitants of
many other districts in their prowess. This degeneracy might perhaps
be attributed to the change which has taken place during the lapse of
time, in the mode of working for Tin; formerly it was all procured by
_Streaming_, an occupation as healthy and invigorating, as the present
one of subterranean mining is debilitating. We apprehend, however, that
a moral cause of still greater force has contributed to the change--the
diffusion of _Methodism_; which has unquestionably proved a powerful
instrument in the amelioration of the habits and disposition of the
Cornish miner.



Passing through the little village of Chyandour, we ascend by a
shady road through that of Gulval, to _Kenegie_,[66] the seat of
the family of John Arundel Harris Arundel, Esq. This spot commands
a very interesting view of the Mount's Bay, the beauty of which is
greatly heightened by the diversified and picturesque foreground. On a
neighbouring hill is _Rosmorran_, the retired cottage ornée of George
John, Esq. of Penzance; we scarcely know a situation where the skill
of the landscape gardener could be exerted with greater advantage or

Pursuing the road, and passing the gate of Kenegie, we ascend the
great granite range which extends from Dartmoor to the Land's End, and
which appears, in this part of the country, to be broken into a number
of detached groups. Upon the summit of one of these hills stands a
castellated building which, although of modern construction, occupies
the site of an ancient hill castle, called "_Castle an Dinas_;" it
was erected by John Rogers, Esq., as a picturesque object from his
occasional residence at _Treassowe_.

On descending the northern side of the granite ridge, a curious
atmospheric phenomenon is frequently observable,--the clear and
cloudless sky becoming suddenly dense and hazy; the change is evidently
occasioned by the condensation of the vapours contained in the warm
and rarefied air of the Mount's Bay, by the colder one which blows
from the Bristol channel. Amidst wild and rugged hills the road
winds to Saint Ives, in the course of which, the geologist will
have many opportunities of furnishing his portfolio with sketches,
in illustration of the changes which time and weather produce on
Granite; huge blocks of this stone lie scattered on all sides, while
stupendous masses are seen on the hills above in different stages of
decomposition, and which from their threatening attitude, would appear
as if in preparation to join their former companions in the plains

SAINT IVES. This populous sea port and borough stands on the shores
of the Bristol Channel, in a very fine bay bounded by bold rocks of
_Greenstone_ and _Slate_. The latter of these rocks is in many places
undergoing rapid decomposition, in consequence of which large masses
of the Hornblende rock have fallen in various directions, and given
a singular character of picturesque rudeness to the scene: this is
remarkably striking in the group of rocks which constitute Godrevy

Saint Ives is a populous sea port, of very considerable antiquity,
deriving its name from that of _Iia_, a religious woman, who came
hither from Ireland in about the year 460. The Corporation, which
obtained its powers from a charter granted by Charles the First,
consists of a mayor, recorder, town-clerk, twelve capital burgesses,
and twenty-four inferior burgesses. The Borough returns two members to
Parliament, a privilege which was conferred in the fifth year of Queen
Mary; and the right of election was vested in all the householders in
the parish paying scot and lot. In the year 1816, the magistrates, and
trustees of the Pier and Port of Saint Ives resolved to extend the
former, and to construct a breakwater, in order to shelter it. The
undertaking has been commenced, but it is at present far from being

Saint Ives is the birth place of the _Reverend Jonathan Toup_, Rector
of Saint Martin's near Looe, the learned annotator of _Suidas_, and
editor of _Longinus_. His father was formerly the lecturer of this town.

On no part of the Cornish coast is the Pilchard fishery carried on with
greater activity or success; and at the time of large draughts, it is
usual for all the inhabitants to contribute their assistance; shops and
dwelling-houses are frequently deserted on such occasions, and even the
church has been abandoned, when large shoals have made their appearance
on the Sabbath! By a certain signal given by a person stationed on
the heights, the approach of a shoal is generally announced to the
town; the effect is most singular. Trumpets are immediately heard in
different parts, and the inhabitants rushing from their houses, and
quitting their ordinary occupations, are to be seen running in all
directions, and vociferating the word "_Hever--Hever--Hever_."--What
the term signifies, or whence it was derived, no one can conjecture,
but its sound is no less animating to the ears of a Saint Ives-man,
than is the cry of "_To Arms_," to the Son of Mars; and the tumult
which it excites is more like that of a besieged city, than the
peaceable and joyful bustle of an industrious fishing town.

As we have not hitherto described the manner in which the Pilchard
Fishery is conducted, perhaps the present will be an appropriate

The Pilchard, in size and form, very much resembles the common
Herring,[67] and is actually confounded with it by Linnæus, under
the name of "_Clupoea Harengus_;" upon close inspection, however,
an essential difference may be readily discovered. The Pilchard is
less compressed, as well as smaller; there is besides a very simple,
and common test of distinction, depending upon the dorsal fin of the
Pilchard being placed exactly in the centre of gravity, if therefore
it be taken up by this fin, it will preserve an equilibrium; while the
body of the Herring, when so tried, will dip towards the head. Mr.
Pennant likewise observes that the scales of the latter easily drop
off, whereas those of the Pilchard adhere very closely.

It has been commonly stated that these fish migrate from the North sea
in immense shoals, during the summer months, and reach the Cornish
coast about the middle of July, where they remain until the latter
end of September, when they again depart to the arctic regions. This
statement, however, cannot be correct, as the fish are never seen off
the coasts of Scotland, the northern shores of Ireland, the Isle of
Man, nor, in fact, off any coast north of Cornwall. It would therefore
seem more probable, that they come from some part of the Western
ocean, and return thither at the end of the season. Within the last
ten years a considerable alteration in their usual course has taken
place, much to the disappointment of the Cornish Fishermen; they have
kept at a greater distance from the shores; whether this circumstance
has arisen from their food being farther than usual out at sea, or from
any alteration in the currents, it is impossible to ascertain. In the
present year, however, they seem to have returned to Saint Ives; an
immense quantity, calculated at three thousand hogsheads, having been
taken at one "_catch_," by two _Seines_ in this bay. The other parts of
the coast have been visited only by very small shoals.

The preparations for this fishery are generally commenced about the
end of July,[68] as the period at which the Pilchards are expected to
pay their annual visit. As they usually make their appearance here
in the evening, the boats engaged in the adventure seldom go to sea
before three or four o'clock in the afternoon, and as rarely remain
longer than ten. On some occasions, however, they go out again very
early in the morning, and have sometimes succeeded in taking fish at
sun rise. The fishermen, arranged in boats which are scattered at a
little distance from each other, are directed to the shoals by persons
who are stationed on the cliffs, or who sometimes follow in boats.
These persons who are called "_Huers_," probably from the _hue and
cry_ which they raise, discover them by the peculiar red tint[69]
which the water assumes, and from other indications with which they
are well acquainted.[70] The spot where the nets should be cast, or
"_shot_" having been determined from the signals of the "_Huer_," the
boat containing the great net or "_Stop Seine_" as it is called, and
which is frequently as much as 300 fathoms in length, and 10 in depth,
is gradually cast from the boat into the sea by two men, as the vessel
is gently rowed round the shoal by others of the crew; a service which
is performed with such dexterity that in less than four minutes the
whole of this enormous net is _shot_, and the fish enclosed. Upon
this occasion it is always the first care of the _Seiner_ to secure
that part to which the fish were swimming; and then so to carry the
net around them, that they shall be hemmed in on every side. The net
immediately spreads itself, the corks on one edge rendering it buoyant,
and the leaden weights on the other causing it to sink to the bottom;
for if the depth of the water should exceed that of the _Seine_, it is
evident that there would be little probability of securing any fish,
however large the shoal might be. As the circle in which the Seine is
shot, is generally larger than the net can compass, its two extremities
are at a distance from each other when the whole is in the water. Ropes
are therefore carried out from each of these ends, by which they are
_warped_ together by the men on board the two large boats, so as to
bring them into contact. When this is effected, the two extremities,
if the shoal be large, are lifted from the bottom, and expeditiously
tacked together. During this last operation every method is adopted
to agitate the water, and drive back the body of fish from this only
aperture through which they can escape. This having been accomplished,
the fish remain within the enclosure formed by the encircling net,
which extends from the surface to the bottom of the sea. It only
now remains to secure the Seine in its position, for which purpose
_grapnels_, or small anchors, are carried out at some distance on every
side, the ropes from which are fastened to the rope at the upper end
of the net; these _grapnels_ will of course retain the Seine in its
circular position, and preserve it against the influence of the tides,
and the changes of the weather. Where, however, the shore is sandy and
shelving, as in Saint Ives' Bay, the _Seine_ is at once drawn into
shallow water by a number of men, who are called "_Blowsers_."

The quantity of fish which is thus secured will depend of course on
many contingent circumstances, such for instance, as the strength of
the tides, the nature of the coast, and the dexterity of the fishermen,
&c. A Seine has sometimes enclosed as many as fifteen hundred, or two
thousand hogsheads. The next operation is to remove the fish from the
Seine, and to convey them in boats to the shore. This is performed by
another smaller net, termed a "_Tuck net_," and the process is called
"_Tucking_," and is a sight which the stranger should not, on any
account, neglect to witness. This busy scene always takes place at
low water, and when it happens on one of those calm evenings which so
frequently occur in the summer season, it is impossible to imagine a
more exquisite scene. The moon shedding her lustre on the sea displays
its surface covered with vessels, sailing or rowing in all directions
to the Seine, whilst her beams by striking upon the dripping fish
as they are poured, by baskets, from the _tuck net_ into boats,[71]
produce an appearance which resembles a stream of liquid silver.

There is another mode of catching Pilchards of "_Driving Nets_,"[72]
which are drawn after their respective boats, fastened only at one end;
in the meshes of which the fish are arrested as they attempt to pass.
This species of fishery is always carried on at a considerable distance
from the shore, lest, by approaching too near the land they should
disperse the shoals which the _Seiner_ is waiting to enclose. The
quantity thus taken is very small; but the fish are remarkably fine,
and the expense of the adventure is comparatively trifling.

The fish, having been brought to the fish cellars, undergo the process
of being "_cured_;" which is performed by laying them up in broad
piles, "_in bulk_," as it is called, and salting them as they are piled
up, with bay salt. In this situation they generally remain for forty
days, although the time allowed for their lying _in bulk_ is often
regulated by the interests of the merchant, who, it may be supposed,
is ever ready to avail himself of any favourable turn in the foreign
markets. The period directed by Government is that of thirty-three
days. During this process a great quantity of oil, blood, and dirty
pickle, drains from the fish; and which, from the inclination of the
floor, immediately find their way into a receptacle placed for their
reception.[73] The Pilchards, when taken from the bulk, are carried to
large troughs, in which they are washed, and completely cleansed from
the salt, filth, and coagulated oil which they had acquired.[74] They
are then packed into hogsheads, and pressed by a strong lever, for the
purpose of squeezing out the oil, which issues through a hole at the
bottom of the cask; the pressing continues for a week, and formerly ten
gallons of oil were procured from every hogshead, but at this time, not
more than four can be obtained; such a change in the fatness of the
fish is not easily to be explained. The hogsheads are now _headed up_,
and exported to the different ports of the Mediterranean, principally
to the Italian ports; and upon every hogshead so exported, Government
allows a bounty of 8s 6d. Upwards of 30,000 hogsheads are annually
consumed in England; and above 100,000 have been exported in one year.
The quantity of salt necessary to cure a hogshead of fish is estimated
at about 300 lbs. and the expense of the whole for that quantity,
including the cask, salt, labour, &c. is from £1:3s to £1:6s; and it
has been calculated that the bounty, together with the value of the oil
(from £20 to £28 per ton), will in general reimburse the whole expense.

This fishery is in every respect of the highest importance to the
county of Cornwall, affording employment to at least twelve thousand
persons,[75] whilst the capital engaged cannot be fairly estimated at
less than three hundred and fifty, or four hundred thousand pounds.

The broken and refuse fish are sold at about 10d per bushel, for
manure, and are used throughout the county with excellent effects,
especially for raising all green crops; they are usually mixed with
sand, or soil, and sometimes with sea weed, to prevent them from
raising too luxuriant a crop, arising from a too rapid decomposition;
thus employed their effects are very permanent, and there is a popular
belief that a single pilchard will fertilize a foot square of land for
several years; and certain it is, that after the apparent exhaustion
of this manure, its powers may be again excited by ploughing in a
small proportion of _quick lime_, which will produce a still further
decomposition of the animal matter, and develope a fresh succession
of those elements which are essential to the growth of vegetable

The Herring fishery is also carried on to a great extent at Saint
Ives; this fish appears after the pilchard has quitted the shores,
and is much smaller than that which is caught on the northern coasts
of Britain; which corroborates the general opinion, that the farther
it migrates to the south, the more it decreases in size. It is also
worthy of remark that, notwithstanding the great abundance of this
fish in the Bristol Channel, it very seldom passes the Land's End, and
is consequently rarely caught in the Mount's Bay, or on the southern
shores of Cornwall.

But let us return from this digression, and proceed with our

Quitting Saint Ives by the eastern road, we are conducted along an
elevated cliff, which affords a complete command of every object in
the bay; in our route we pass _Tregenna Castle_, the seat of Samuel
Stephens, Esq. and on the summit of a lofty hill, about a mile from
this mansion, stands a pyramid, which immediately attracts the notice
of the traveller, as well on account of the singular wildness of its
situation, as the complete absence of every shrub, or rural ornament,
with which such objects are usually associated. It was erected by the
late eccentric John Knill, Esq., a bencher of Gray's Inn, and some
time collector of the Port of Saint Ives, it having been intended as
a Mausoleum for the reception of his remains, although he afterwards
revoked this intention, and ordered his body to be given to an
anatomist in London, for dissection. On one side of this pyramid is
inscribed, "_Johannes Knill_," on another, "_Resurgam_," and on a
third, "_I know that my Redeemer liveth_." He directed in his will,
that at the end of every five years, a Matron and ten girls, dressed in
white, should walk in procession, with music, from the market house at
Saint Ives, to this pyramid, around which they should dance, singing
the hundredth Psalm!

        ----"Pueri circum innuptæque puellæ
  Sacra canunt."

For the purpose of keeping up this custom, he bequeathed some freehold
lands, which are vested in the officiating minister, the mayor, and the
collector of the port of Saint Ives, who are allowed Ten Pounds for a
dinner. The first celebration of these _Quinquennial rites_ excited,
as may easily be supposed, very considerable interest throughout the
western parts of the county.

  "No tongue was mute, nor foot was still,
  But _One and All_[76] were on the hill,
  In chorus round the tomb of Knill."

The report which was drawn up at the time by an eye witness of these
festivities, exhibits such an admirable specimen of the _mock Heroic_,
that we feel assured that the tourist will thank us for having given
insertion to it in the Appendix.

Pursuing the road along the cliff we pass _Lelant_ church, and arrive
at the river _Hayle_, which takes its rise near Crowan, and falls into
Saint Ives Bay; although it arrives at the level of the sea three miles
before it reaches the northern coast, and winds its way through an area
of sand, nearly half a mile wide, and more than two miles long; this
sand, at high water, is generally submerged, so that the traveller who
wishes to cross is obliged to take a circuitous route over the bridge
at _Saint Erth_; but upon the ebbing of the tide, it soon becomes
fordable, and may be passed over even by foot passengers. It is a
curious circumstance that at twelve o'clock at noon, and at midnight,
it is _always_ fordable; this apparent paradox is solved by knowing,
that at _Spring tides_ it is always low water at these hours, and that
the _Neap tides_ never rise sufficiently high to impede the passage.

The Port of Hayle is situated on the eastern side of the river, where
a great trade is carried on with Wales for timber, coals,[77] iron,
and limestone; and with Bristol, for earthen-ware, groceries, &c. It
is also one of the principal places of export for the copper ore of
the western mines. In the former edition of this work we described
the processes by which the _smelting_ and _refining_ of Copper were
conducted at this place, but as it was acknowledged to be much cheaper
to carry the ore to the coal, than to bring the coal to the ore, the
proprieters found themselves compelled to abandon the speculation. The
buildings in the neighbourhood, however, still continue as memorials
of the former existence of such works, having been constructed with
square masses of the _scoria_,[78] which had been cast into moulds for
such purposes, as it issued from the furnace. In the museum of the
Geological Society at Penzance the stranger may see an interesting
model of this _Copper House_, and of the furnaces employed in the
reduction of the ore.

There are now at Hayle two very extensive Iron Founderies, in which
are cast the largest engines which have been hitherto erected on mines.
They are wrought partly by water, and partly by Steam Engines. Near the
Copper House the traveller will not fail to notice the fine back-water
dam, which was constructed about thirty years since, for the scouring
out of the harbour. The effect has been a considerable reduction of the
sand which forms its bottom, so that ships of much greater burden may
now enter it. The plan and execution of this work, which was undertaken
at the expense of the then existing Hayle Copper Company, reflect
great credit on the late _John Edwards, Esq._, who first conceived
its practicability and advantage, and under whose direction it was
completed. A phenomenon occurred at these works some years ago which
afforded a curious illustration of the secret and destroying agency
of Galvanic electricity. The flood gates were found to undergo a very
rapid decay, which was perfectly inexplicable, until the engineer
ascertained that it depended entirely upon the contact of iron and
copper bolts and braces, which had been introduced into the different
parts of the frame work.

The country around Hayle is entirely desolated with sand, consisting
of minutely comminuted marine shells, and which, with some few
interruptions extends all along the coast, from Saint Ives to near
Padstow, and in many places is drifted into hills of sixty feet in
elevation. There can be but little doubt that this sand was originally
brought from the sea side by hurricanes, but not even a popular
tradition remains of the time or manner of this extensive devastation,
which has reached, with some distinct intervals, nearly forty miles
in length. Some allusion to this event has been supposed to have been
discovered amongst the ancient records of the Arundel family, fixing
the period about the twelfth century; but _Mr. Boase_ observes, that
the fact of the churches still remaining more or less ingulphed,
the age of which does not much exceed three centuries, decisively
refutes such a conjecture. On the other hand, it would appear that
in the _liber valorum_ of Henry the Eighth, the living of _Gwythian_
was estimated far above its proportion to adjoining parishes. By the
shifting of the sand by high winds, the tops of houses, and the ruins
of ancient buildings, may be occasionally seen at this very day; and in
some places a great number of human bones have been discovered, derived
from the cemetries which have been formerly inundated.

The farther progress of the sand flood is at length arrested by
extensive plantations of the _Arundo Arenaria_, or common sea rush.[79]

The most important geological circumstance connected with the history
of this sand is, that on several parts of the coast, it is passing into
the state of a solid compact rock! The fact was first investigated by
Dr. Paris, who has published a memoir upon the subject in the first
volume of the Transactions of the Geological Society of Cornwall;
and as every scientific traveller must be desirous of exploring so
interesting a phenomenon we have extracted, from the paper above
mentioned, such notices as may be useful in assisting his researches.

"The _Sandstone_ which occurs on the northern coast of Cornwall
undoubtedly affords one of the most splendid and instructive instances
of a _Recent Formation_ upon record. We actually detect Nature
at work in changing calcareous sand into stone; and she does not
refuse admittance into her manufactory, nor does she conceal with
her accustomed reserve the details of the operations in which she
is engaged. It does not however appear that any geologist has fully
availed himself of so rare an indulgence;--to drop the allegory, no
complete or satisfactory explanation has been hitherto afforded of
this most interesting formation, nor of the phenomena which attend
it. At the period that Dr. Borlase wrote his History of Cornwall, the
science of Chemistry had scarcely dawned; we cannot therefore feel
surprised at his having attributed '_the concretion of shelly sand to
the agglutinating quality of sea water_'."

"The sand first appears in a slight, but encreasing state of
aggregation on several parts of the shore in the Bay of Saint Ives;
but on approaching the Gwythian river it becomes more extensively
indurated. On the shore opposite to Godrevy Island, an immense mass
occurs of more than a hundred feet in depth, containing entire shells
and fragments of clay-slate; and it is singular that the whole mass
should assume a very striking appearance of stratification. In
some places, it appears that attempts have been made to separate
it, probably for the purpose of building, for several old houses
in Gwythian are entirely built with it. The rocks in the vicinity
of this recent formation in the Bay of Saint Ives are _Greenstone_
and _Clay-slate_, which appear to alternate. But it is around the
promontory of _New Kaye_, in Fistrel Bay, in the parish of Saint Columb
Minor, that the geologist will be most struck with this formation,
for here there is scarcely any other rock in sight. The cliffs, which
are high and extend for several miles, are wholly composed of it, and
are occasionally intersected by veins and dykes of _Breccia_. In the
cavities hang calcareous stalactites of rude appearance. The beach is
covered with disjointed fragments, which have been detached from the
cliff above, many of which weigh at least from two to three tons. The
sandstone is also to be here seen in different stages of induration;
from a state in which it is too friable to be detached from the rock
upon which it reposes without crumbling, to a hardness so considerable
as to require a very violent blow from a hammer to break it;[80] indeed
holes are actually bored in some parts for the purpose of admitting
cables with which vessels are moored. Buildings are here commonly
constructed of it, and the church of Crantock is entirely built with
it. By the inhabitants the stone is employed for various articles of
domestic and rural oeconomy."

"The Geologist, who has previously examined the celebrated specimen
from Guadaloupe, enclosing a human skeleton, and which is now in the
British Museum, will be forcibly struck with the great similitude which
this stone bears to it; and suspecting that masses might be found
containing human bones imbedded, if a diligent search were made in the
vicinity of those cemetries which have been overwhelmed, I made an
excursion with my friend Sir Christopher Hawkins, for that purpose; but
time and patience failed us, and the discovery is reserved for some
more persevering and fortunate member of the society."

"Such then is the nature and situation of this most interesting
formation. In the next place, we have to enquire into the causes which
have operated in thus consolidating the sand, and into the peculiar
circumstances under which the operation has been conducted."

"It will appear that there are at least three distinct modes by which
the _lapidification_ of calcareous sand may be effected, and that the
present formation is capable of affording characteristic examples of

"The three species of cementing matter to which I allude, are all
deposited from water in which they either exist chemically dissolved,
or mechanically suspended. The water deriving them from the substances
through which it percolates; thus is the first species of cement

  1. _By the percolation of water, through a stratum of calcareous
  sand, by which it becomes impregnated with carbonate of lime._

  2. _By the percolation of water through strata containing
  decomposing Sulphurets; by which it becomes impregnated with
  Sulphuric salts._

  3. _By the percolation of water through decomposing Clay-slate, or
  any other ferruginous strata; by which it becomes impregnated with
  Iron, Alumina, and other mineral matter._

In the first case, the very small proportion of carbonate of lime which
is held in solution will necessarily render it a powerful cement,
since the density and compactness of a precipitate will generally
vary, inversely as the rapidity with which it is deposited. This fact
is familiarly illustrated by the obstinate adhesion of calcareous
incrustations to the interior surfaces of water decanters. In the
second case, wherein a sulphuric salt would appear to act the part
of a cement, it may be observed, that the _sulphatization of pyrites
in the presence of calcareous matter is a very general source of
gypsum_. The granular gypsum from the Falls of Niagara, which is
described by Dr. Kidd as being "as white as snow," owes its origin
to a natural process of this decomposition; for I am informed by Dr.
Maclure of Philadelphia, who has visited the spot, that it is formed
in consequence of the action of water upon decomposing slate, which
contains numerous veins of _carbonate of lime_ and _sulphate of iron_.
I have also in my possession a series of incrustations which were taken
out of steam boilers in Cornwall, one of which presents an admirable
instance of the formation of _sulphate of lime_, its surface being
beautifully studded with its crystals; the water which supplied the
boiler, and by the evaporation of which this substance was deposited,
was derived from a mine in clay-slate intersected with veins of
_Pyrites_ and _carbonate of lime_."

"With regard to the third species of cementing matter, viz. _Oxide of
Iron_, it is scarcely necessary to state, that in the induration of
mineral bodies Iron has been long known to act a very important part;
the most superficial observer must have noticed the concretions which
so frequently appear on the beach around a rusty nail, or any fragment
of iron, while the mineralogist must be acquainted with the proofs
which Mr. Kirwan has collected in support of the fact. Nor is the part
which it performs in the disintegration of mineral bodies less obvious;
by its agency we have seen a loose sand become a hard rock, but if we
extend our inquiry we shall find that _Iron_ by attracting a farther
proportion of _oxygen_ from air or moisture, soon crumbles into dust,
and thus proves the immediate cause of the decomposition of that very
rock, of which it formerly constituted the indurating ingredient. In
this, as in every other operation, Nature preserves her uniformity,
producing the most diversified and opposite effects by the modified
application of the same principles."

For this long digression we feel conscious that some apology is
necessary; the extreme interest as well as novelty of the phenomenon
will at once suggest a sufficient excuse to the geologist; and to other
observers it may at least be pleaded in extenuation, that they have
lost nothing by the delay, for it has been in a district which offers
but few objects of amusement or instruction.

About a mile and a half south-east of Hayle is _Huel Alfred_, which
was some years ago one of the richest and most profitable Copper
mines in the county. The adventurers gained a clear profit of nearly
£130,000 during the period in which it was wrought. In the year 1816,
from various causes, this mine was stopped, but about six months ago
a company of London gentlemen embarked in the concern, and commenced
their operations in a very spirited manner. Before Midsummer 1824,
they expect to set at work two steam-engines with cylinders of the
immense size of 90 inches in diameter, and one of less dimensions.
This mine will undoubtedly prove attractive and interesting to the
mineralogist, as, during the last period of working, several curious
and rare minerals were discovered, as _Stalactitic_, _swimming_, and
_cubic quartz_; _carbonate_, and _phosphate of Lead_; _stalactitic_,
_botryoidal_, and _investing Calcedony_, &c. The lodes of this mine are
so large that should the stranger intend to visit the interior of the
earth, he cannot select a better opportunity.

About a mile east of _Huel Alfred_ are situated the _Herland Mines_,
which, after an interval of twenty years, have been lately set at work
again. The adventurers in these mines are also principally London
capitalists, who have erected two steam-engines of which the cylinders
are 80 inches in diameter. The mineralogist will not fail to visit
mines which were celebrated for the beautiful specimens of _Native
Silver_, _Vitreous Silver ore_, and _black oxide of Silver_, found
there during the last period of its working, an account of which, by
the Rev. M. Hitchins, was published in the Philosophical Transactions
for the year 1801.

There is a remarkable contrast between the lodes of _Huel Alfred_ and
those of _Herland_. The former being few, but very large; the latter,
small but very numerous, and the ore peculiarly rich.

The stranger may now proceed to Redruth, between which place and Hayle,
there is a regular line of rich Copper mines, but as we propose to
examine this metalliferous district in a future excursion, we shall
return by _Saint Erth_ to Penzance.

The desolate and barren appearance of the country in the neighbourhood
of Hayle Sands, is much relieved by the woodland scenery of
_Trevethoe_, the seat of the family of _Praed_; the father of the
present possessor first introduced the _Pineaster Fir_, as a nurse
for the growth of forest trees, and the estate of Trevethoe, as well
as many others in the county, affords a striking evidence of the
expediency of the plan. To the same gentleman we are indebted for the
introduction of the _Arundo arenaria_, above mentioned.

Arriving at the bridge of _Saint Erth_, the traveller will perceive
that a considerable portion of the breadth of the peninsula is here
penetrated by an arm of the sea, and that the land which succeeds it in
a direction towards the south is so low, that a canal might easily be
cut along the hills which terminate at Marazion, and a communication be
thus opened between the English and Irish Channels; or that an iron
rail-way for the conveyance of coals, sand, &c. might be constructed at
a comparatively small expense.

At _Saint Erth_, were formerly situated the "_Rolling Mills_" for
reducing blocks, or bars of Copper, into flat sheets, as described in
the first edition of this "Guide;" since, however, the Copper-works at
Hayle have been abandoned, these mills have been used for rolling and
hammering iron.

In the neighbourhood of _Saint Erth_ is _Tredrea_, the Cornish
residence of Davies Gilbert, Esq. M. P.

On our return to Penzance an opportunity occurs of witnessing the
operation of _smelting_ Tin ore.[81] It consists in first heating
the ore, with about an eighth part of _Culm_,[82] in a reverbatory
furnace for six hours, during which period the sulphur and arsenic are
volatilized, and the ore is reduced to its metallic state; the furnace
is then _tapped_, and the liquid metal _run out_; a second melting,
however, is necessary before it is sufficiently pure to be cast into
_blocks_,[83] and assayed at the Coinage. After this last melting, and
before the Tin is poured into the moulds, a piece of green apple-tree
wood is thrown into the liquid metal, and kept under its surface; the
effect of which is to throw up the _scoria_ with rapidity; it would
seem to act merely in producing a violent ebullition by the sudden
disengagement of steam. One hundred parts of the oxide of Tin ("_Black
Tin_") at an average will yield about 65 parts of metal, or _White
Tin_, as it is technically termed.

_Ludgvan Church_, which appears upon an elevation on the right of the
road leading to Penzance, and which forms so prominent a feature on the
shores of the bay, will be visited by the Antiquary with sensations
of respect, when he learns that it contains the mortal remains of Dr.
Borlase the venerable and learned author of the Natural History and
Antiquities of Cornwall. From the Latin Inscription on his tomb it
appears that he was fifty-two years rector of this parish, and that
he died August 31st 1772, in the 77th year of his age. Although Dr.
Borlase spent the greater part of a long life in this retired district,
his fame as a scholar had spread through all the literary circles of
the age. If we require any other testimony of his talents than that
which his own works will afford, we may receive it from no less an
oracle than POPE, with whom he regularly corresponded. In a letter
written by the Poet, to express his thanks for the present of a Cornish
diamond, presented by Dr. Borlase for the decoration of his grotto,
Pope thus expresses himself, "I have received your gift, and have so
placed it in my grotto, that it will resemble the donor--_in the shade,
but shining_."

If in the course of the present work we have ventured any remarks
upon the opinions of Dr. Borlase which may be considered in the
slightest degree disrespectful to his talents, we willingly offer this
expiation at his shrine. His errors, whatever they may have been, were
the inevitable consequence of the infant state of those sciences
indirectly connected with his pursuits, not the result of literary
incapacity, or of depraved judgment.

                              "Custodiat Urnam
  Cana Fides, vigilentque perenni lampade Musæ."

About half a mile below the _Church-Town_, crossing the road to
Marazion, is a _vallum_ thrown up in the civil war by the Parliament
forces when they besieged Saint Michael's Mount.


[66] Kenegie became the seat of the younger branch of Harris of Heyne,
in about the year 1600.

[67] There is also a very considerable similarity in their mode of
migration. The word _Herring_ is derived from the German "_Heer_," an
Army, to express their numbers, and order of array.

[68] The first outfit of a Seine, with its boats, oars, ropes, sails,
nets, and a quantity of salt sufficient to cure five hundred hogsheads
of fish, if purchased new, cannot be estimated at less than a Thousand
pounds. The preparations for the water consists of three boats, i.
e. two large ones and a small one; each large boat containing seven
men, and in the small one are the master, another man, and two boys.
The "_Seine Boat_" and the "_Follower_" are the names by which the
two large boats are distinguished; and the small one is called the

[69] The whiteness of the sand in the Bay of St. Ives renders the
shoals of fish easily distinguishable, and contributes very greatly to
the success of the fishery upon this coast.

[70] The _Tunny_ fish in the Archipelago was caught by a similar
process, "Ascendebat quidam (Anglice the _Huer_, Græce _Thunnoscopos_)
in ultum promontorium, unde Thunnorum gregem specularetur, quo viso,
signum piscatoribus dabat, qui ratibus totum gregem includebant."
_Vide Blomfield's Notes on the Persæ of Eschylus, p. 148._ The seine
was as familiar to the Athenians, as the Pilchard fishery is to the
inhabitants of Cornwall; and it is said that Eschylus took great
delight in witnessing it.

[71] The boats which attend for the purpose of conveying the fish from
the _tuck net_ to the shore are termed "_Dippers_," the proprietors
of which are differently compensated in different places; they either
receive a certain proportion of the fish, as from one-fourth to
one-sixth, according to the distance from the shore, or else they
receive a certain sum of money for each boat load. When the fish are
caught in the night, fires are instantly kindled on the nearest shore,
as a signal for the boats in the bay to repair to the spot.

[72] These nets are of far greater antiquity than the _Seine_, the
latter having been introduced from Ireland.

[73] These dregs are sold to the curriers, at about sixteen pence per

[74] The skimmings which float on the water in which the pilchards are
washed, bear the name of _Garbage_, and are sold to the soap-boilers.

[75] In salting, packing, pressing, and preparing the fish for the
market, there are at least 5000, 4-5ths of which are women; the
rope-makers, blacksmiths, shipwrights, &c. upwards of 400; the twine
spinners are women, about 150 in number; the makers and menders of nets
are chiefly women and children, in all about 600. Nets are also made
during the winter season, by the fishermen and their families. These
numbers are of course exclusive of the seamen employed.

[76] _One and All_,--the motto of the Cornish arms.

[77] Cornwall is exempted from the payment of any duties on coal, so
far as it is used for the working of the mines.

[78] All the walls in the neighbourhood are built of the same material;
and since these vitreous cubes are so piled upon each other as to
leave interstices, it has been facetiously observed that "_in Cornwall
the walls are built of glass, and that you may distinctly see through

[79] The value of this useful rush in checking the progress of sand,
has been long known; there was an act of parliament in Scotland, so
long ago as the year 1695, to prevent persons who collected this rush
(then known by the name of _Starre_ or _Bent_) for the purpose of
making mats, from plucking it up, and thereby loosening the sand. A
clause to the same effect was introduced into a multifarious act of
parliament in the year 1742. The operation of this clause extends
generally to the north-west coast of England; but such persons as
claimed prescriptive right of cutting it on the sea coast of Cumberland
are exempted from its operation.

[80] A highly illustrative series of this rock is deposited in the
Geological Cabinet at Penzance.

[81] Tin appears to have been formerly smelted by the Jews, who in the
reign of King John monopolized the tin trade, by merely hollowing out a
plot of ground, and fusing the oxide with wood, in an open fire. Many
ancient remains of this operation have been discovered in different
parts of Cornwall, in which portions of metallic tin embedded in a
stratum of charred wood, or charcoal, have been found; and which have
given rise to the fallacy respecting the discovery of this metal in a
_native state_. In examining a fragment of this kind which was found
under the surface of a low and boggy ground in the parish of Kea, the
late eminent chemist, _Mr. William Gregor_, observed a _vein of saline
matter running through the mass_, which he ascertained to be _muriate
of tin_; a full account of this interesting phenomenon is published in
the first volume of the Transactions of the Cornish Society.

[82] _Culm._ A species of very pure coal containing no sulphur. It is
imported from Wales.

[83] It is a favourite custom to dress a beef-steak on the pure Tin in
the mould, as soon as the surface becomes sufficiently hard to bear it;
and it must be admitted to be very far superior to that which is cooked
in the ordinary manner.



In the present excursion, the traveller in search of the Picturesque
will meet with but meagre fare; for many a mile has the face of nature
been robbed of all ornament, and the interior of the earth has been
scattered over its surface in the anxious pursuit of mineral treasures.
The unsightly mounds of rubbish thus produced have been accumulating
for centuries, and are so highly impregnated with mineral matter that
not a blade of grass will vegetate upon them.

The intelligent traveller, however, must not anticipate an excursion
as destitute of interest and variety as the surface of the country
which he is about to traverse, for like the shabby mien of the miser,
its aspect but ill accords with its hoards; and the total absence of
cultivation and rural ornament, is soon forgotten amidst the richest
field of mineralogical enquiry which any country ever afforded.

As our present object is to afford the stranger such directions as may
enable him to inspect this mining district with advantage, and to visit
whatever is interesting and instructive in connection with it, it may
in the first instance be expedient to offer a general outline of the
modes in which the Cornish mines are worked, before we enter into the
details of topographical description.

For many centuries[84] the Tin Mines in Cornwall have given to the
country a very important place in the oeconomical history of nations,
and furnished a perpetual source of employment to a very large
population, which exclusive of the artisans, tradesmen, and merchants,
cannot be estimated at less than sixty thousand persons.

All the transactions connected with the Tin Mines are under the
controul of the Stannary Laws. Courts are held every month, and they
decide by juries of six persons, with a progressive appeal to the
Lord Warden, and Lords of the Duke of Cornwall's council; no custom,
however, or ancient law, prevails as to the working of Copper or Lead
in the Stannaries, and therefore all agreements are made upon such
terms as are decided on by the contracting parties.

At present the greatest metallic product of the county is Copper,[85]
although this metal is, comparatively of modern discovery, and has not
been worked longer than a century. The reason assigned for its having
so long remained concealed is the assumed fact, that Copper generally
occurs at a much greater depth than Tin, and that, consequently, the
ancients for want of proper machinery to drain off the water were
compelled to relinquish the metallic vein before they reached the
Copper; it is stated by Pryce, in his _Mineralogia Cornubiensis_,
as a general rule, that Tin seldom continued rich and worth working
lower than 50 fathoms; but of late years the richest Tin mines in
Cornwall have been much deeper. _Trevenen Mine_ was 150,--_Hewas Downs_
140,--_Poldice_ 120, and _Huel Vor_ is now upwards of 130 fathoms in

Upon the first discovery of Copper ore, the miner to whom its nature
was entirely unknown, gave it the name of _Poder_; and it will hardly
be credited in these times, when it is stated, that he regarded it
not only as useless, but upon its appearance was actually induced to
abandon the mine, the common expression upon such an occasion was, that
"_the ore came in and spoilt the Tin_."[86] About the year 1735, Mr.
Coster, a mineralogist of Bristol, observed this said _Poder_ among the
heaps of rubbish, and seeing that the miners were wholly unacquainted
with its value, he formed the design of converting it to his own
advantage; he accordingly entered into a contract to purchase as much
of it as could be supplied. The scheme succeeded, and Coster long
continued to profit by Cornish ignorance.

The mines in the county of Cornwall consist chiefly of Tin and Copper,
besides which there are some which yield Lead[87], Cobalt,[88] and
Silver.[89] The ores are in veins which are provincially termed
_Lodes_, the most important of which run in an east and west direction;
during their course they vary considerably in width, from that of a
barley-corn to 36 feet;[90] the average may be stated at from one to
four feet. It is, however, by no means regular, the same lode will vary
in size from six inches to two feet, in the space of a few fathoms.
No instance has yet occurred of lodes having been cut out in depth;
the deepest mine now at work is _Dolcoath_, which is about 235 fathoms
from the surface to the lowest part.[91] _Crenver_ and _Oatfield_ have
lately been stopped; they were 240 fathoms deep. The rocks through
which the lodes descend are of different kinds, thus are Copper and
Tin found in _granite_, as well as in _slate_.[92] The Tin in these
veins[93] generally occurs in the state of an _oxide_; the only Copper
ore of any consequence is _Copper Pyrites_, or Sulphuret of Copper;
the _arseniates_, _carbonates_, &c. being too small in quantity to be
of any importance in a mining point of view. _Iron_ and _Arsenical
Pyrites_ are also very common attendants, and are both confounded
under the name of _Mundic_. Besides the metalliferous veins which run
easterly and westerly, we have already stated that there are others,
not generally containing ore, which maintain a direction from North to
South, and on that account are called _cross courses_, and often prove
to the miner a great source of trouble and vexation; for they not only
cut through the other veins, but frequently alter their position, or
_heave_ them, as it is termed; and it is a very curious fact that most
of the _Tin_ and _Copper_ lodes, thus _heaved_, are shifted in such a
manner, as to be generally found by turning to the _right_ hand; _left_
handed heaves being comparatively rare. In _Huel Peever_ this vexatious
phenomenon occurred, and it was not until after a search of forty years
that the _lode_ was recovered.[94] The discovery of metalliferous veins
is effected by various methods, the most usual one is by sinking pits
to the solid rock, and then driving a trench north and south, so as to
meet with every vein in the tract through which it passes; the process
is a very ancient one, and is termed _Costeening_.[95] The operation,
however, of opening a new mine from the surface, or from _Grass_,[96]
as it is called, is not one of frequent occurrence.[97] The reworking
of mines which have been formerly abandoned, on account of the produce
being insufficient to pay the costs, from the fall of the standard
price of ore, is quite sufficient to absorb all the speculative spirit
of the country.

But by whatever accident or method a lode may be discovered, the
leave of the proprietor of the soil must be obtained before any
operations can be commenced, except in such cases of Tin Mines as are
anciently _embounded_ according to the provisions of the Stannary Laws.
The owner of the land is technically called the _Lord_, whose share
(which is termed his _Dish_) is generally one-sixth, or one-eighth
of the profits; the parties who engage to work the mine are called
_Adventurers_, their shares depending upon their original contributions
and agreements.

When it has been determined to work a mine, three material points are
to be considered; viz. the discharge of the water,--the removal of the
barren rock and rubbish (_deads_),--and the raising of the ore. One of
the first objects, therefore, is to cut an _Adit_,[98] as it is called,
which in an inclined underground passage, about six feet high, and
2½ wide, and is generally commenced at the bottom of a neighbouring
valley, and is driven up to the vein, for the purpose of draining it
of water above their point of contact; these _Adits_ are sometimes
continued to a very considerable distance, and although the expense
of forming them is necessarily very considerable, yet they are found
to afford the most oeconomical method of getting rid of the water, in
as much as it saves the labour of the steam-engine in raising it to
(_Grass_) the surface. As soon as the vertical aperture, or _Shaft_,
is sunk to some depth, a machine called a _Whim_ is erected, to bring
up the _deads_, and ore. It consists of a perpendicular axis on which
a large hollow cylinder of timber, termed the _Cage_, revolves; and
around this a rope, directed down the _Shaft_ by a pulley, winds
horizontally. In the axis a transverse beam is fixed, at the ends
of which two horses are fastened, and going their rounds haul up a
basket (or _Kibbul_) full of ore, or _deads_, whilst an empty one is
descending.[99] As the lode never runs down perpendicularly it is
necessary to cut galleries, called _Levels_, horizontally on the vein,
one above another. These levels are, in the first instance, about two
feet wide, and six feet high, but varying according to circumstances,
and being frequently extended much beyond their original dimensions.
They are driven one above the other at intervals of from 10 to 20,
or 30 fathoms. When extended to a certain distance from the original
vertical _Shaft_, it is necessary, for the sake of ventilation, as
well as for other reasons, to form a second which is made to traverse
all the levels in the same manner as the first. A communication is
frequently only made between two galleries by a partial shaft (called
a _Wins_) in the interval between the two great shafts. When there are
more than one lode worked in the same mine, as frequently happens,
_Levels_ often run parallel to each other at the same depth. In this
case they communicate by intermediate _Levels_ driven through the rock
(or _Country_ as it is called) which are denominated _Cross-cuts_. A
mine thus consists of a series of horizontal galleries, generally one
above the other, but sometimes running parallel, traversed at irregular
intervals by vertical shafts, and all, either directly or indirectly,
communicating with each other.[100]

The subterranean excavations are effected by breaking down the
looser parts by the pickaxe, and by _blasting_ the more solid rock
by gunpowder.[101] In accomplishing this latter operation the most
melancholy accidents have occurred, in consequence of the iron rammer
coming in contact with some siliceous substance, and thus striking
fire. The recurrence of this evil it is hoped has been prevented by the
laudable efforts of the Geological Society as above related (see page
30), and that the "_Iron Age_" has taken its final departure.

If the traveller is inclined to descend into a mine he is to be first
accoutred in a flannel jacket and trowsers, a close cap, an old
broad-brimmed hat, and a thick pair of shoes; a lighted candle is put
into one hand, and a spare one suspended to a button of his jacket.
The flannel dress is worn close to the skin, in order to absorb the
perspiration, and every part of the ordinary dress is laid aside; thus
equipped, if he possess sufficient strength of nerve, he may descend
the vertical ladders with the most perfect ease and security;--but
will a view of the mine repay all this trouble and fatigue?--let us
hear what Dr. Forbes has said upon this occasion.[102] "A person
unacquainted with the details of mining, on being informed of many
hundreds of men being employed in a single mine, might naturally
imagine that a visit to their deep recesses would afford a picturesque
and imposing spectacle of gregarious labour and bustle, tremendous
noise, and much artificial brilliancy to cheer the gloom. Nothing,
however, is further from the truth, as far as regards the mines of
Cornwall; for, like their fellow labourers the moles, the miners are
solitary in their operations. Seldom do we find more than three or
four men in one _level_, or gallery, at a time, where they are seen
pursuing the common operations of digging or boring the rock, by the
feeble glimmering of a small candle, stuck close by them, with very
little noise or much latitude for bodily movement; besides whom there
are generally one or two boys employed in wheeling the broken ore,
&c. to the shaft. Each of these boys has also a candle affixed to his
wheelbarrow, by the universal subterranean candlestick, a piece of
clay. A certain band of men, who, however numerous, are always called
"_a Pair_," generally undertake the working of a particular _Level_.
These subdivide themselves into smaller bodies, which, by relieving
each other at the end of every six or eight hours, keep up the work
uninterruptedly, except on Sunday. By means of this subdivision of _the
Pairs_, there is in general not more than one-third of the underground
labourers below at any one time. Very seldom are the miners within the
sound of each other's operations, except occasionally when they hear
the dull report of the explosions. In the vicinity of the main shaft,
indeed, the incessant action of the huge chain of pumps, produces a
constant, but not very loud noise, while the occasional rattling of
the metallic buckets against the walls of the shaft, as they ascend
and descend, relieves the monotony both of the silence and the sound.
Still every thing is dreary, dull, and cheerless; and you can be with
difficulty persuaded, even when in the richest and most populous mines,
that you are in the centre of such extensive and important operations."
For keeping the workings from being inundated, each mine is furnished
with a chain of pumps, extending from the bottom to the _adit-level_,
worked by a single pump-rod; each pump receiving the water brought up
by the one immediately below it. All the water of the deepest level
finds its way into the bottom of the mine, technically called the
_Sump_, whence it is finally elevated to the adit, through which it
flows by a gentle descent to the surface.[103]

We have yet to notice a fact connected with the natural history
of these subterranean recesses, which has lately excited a very
considerable share of interest in the members of the Cornish Geological
Society,--that _the natural temperature of the earth in these mines
is considerably above that of the mean of the climate, and increases
with the depth, at the rate of about one degree for every 50 or 60
feet_.[104] Does there exist then a permanent source of heat in the
interior of the earth?

The business of a mine is managed by a foreman, called the _Captain_,
who keeps the accounts, and pays and regulates the miners; there are
also _Under-ground Captains_, who have the immediate inspection of
the works below. There exists a popular belief that the Cornish miner
frequently lives under ground for many days, or weeks, without ever
visiting the surface. This is never the case at any time, or under any
circumstances. He does not even eat, much less sleep, in the mine,
but returns _to grass_, and to his home, often many miles distant,
at whatever depth he may have been working, when relieved from his

With respect to the value of the mines, considered as property, it
may be observed, that the whole concern is a Lottery, in which there
exist many blanks to a prize, and were the whole of the speculation to
be invested in any one individual, there is no doubt but that, after
paying the required dues to the lords of the soil, and defraying the
necessary expenses for working the mines, he would at the conclusion
of the year be a loser by many thousand pounds. It is very true
that there are many cases of extraordinary gain,[105] but these are
balanced by more numerous concerns in which loss is incurred. How
then does it happen that any capitalists can be induced to engage
in the speculation? The answer is obvious, for the very same reason
that they are induced to purchase tickets in the State Lottery.
There are moreover additional motives which induce individuals of
a certain description to embark in the speculation, although, as
simple adventurers, they may scarcely anticipate success, such are
landholders, who are naturally desirous of promoting an undertaking
from which they must necessarily receive considerable dues; or
merchants, who by becoming shareholders, are empowered to supply the
mines with timber, candles,[106] gunpowder, and other articles which
are required for its working.

Having thus considered the mode in which the ore is excavated from the
mine, and brought to the surface, let us examine the processes which it
ultimately assumes the state of marketable metal.

The Tin ore is first _spalled_, as it is termed, that is, broken into
smaller fragments, and separated from the worthless parts; it is then
pounded in the _Stamping mill_,[107] an operation which is essential
to the complete separation of the oxide from the hard matrix through
which it is disseminated: if full of slime it is first thrown into
a pit called a _buddle_, where it is worked in order to render the
_Stamping_ more free, and to prevent it from choaking the grates; if
however it is free from slime, the ore is shoveled into a kind of
sloping canal of timber, called the _Pass_, whence it slides by its
own, weight, and the assistance of a small stream of water, into the
box where the _Lifters_ work; the _Lifters_ are raised by a water
wheel, and they are armed at the bottom with large masses of iron
weighing nearly two hundred weight, which pound or _stamp_ the ore
small enough for its passage through the holes of an iron grate fixed
in one end of the box, a rill of water carries it by a small gutter
into the _fore pit_, where it makes its first settlement, the lighter
particles running forward with the water into the _middle pit_, and
thence into the third, where what is called the _slime_, or finest
portion, settles; from these pits the ore is carried to the _Keeve_,
which is a large vat containing water, in which it is farther purified
by an operation called _tozing_, and which consists in stirring the
water round by means of a small shovel, with such velocity as to keep
the _tin stuff_ in a state of suspension, until the whole quantity
which can be managed by one operation is thrown into the vat, and when
the _Tozer_ slackens his efforts, the Tin subsides to the bottom, from
its greater specific gravity, leaving the sand and other impurities at
the top; while this is going on the upper part of the vessel is beaten
with mallets for some minutes, in order more effectually to ensure this

A third process still remains to be described, that of Dressing the
sand on an inclined plain with the assistance of a small stream of
water; a great degree of manual dexterity is here requisite; the
object, however, is effected with less trouble and expense, and much
more completely, by the German "_Repercussion Frames_," of which there
is a model in the Geological Museum at Penzance.

Upon the same mechanical principle of separation, founded on the
relative specific gravities of the Tin oxide, and the earthy matters
with which it may be mixed, the Tinner is at once enabled to estimate
the value of any given sample of ore; for which purpose the _Tin stuff_
is placed on a shovel, and washed under a stream of water, until the
impure earthy particles are carried off from its sides, when by a
peculiar and dextrous motion, not easily described, all the particles
of the ore are collected together on the fore part of the shovel. This
operation is called _Vanning_.

When the Tin ore is contaminated with _Mundic_, that is, with
_Arsenical_ and _Iron Pyrites_, it is first roasted in the _Burning
House_, and then washed; by which means the Tin, which is heavy, is
easily separated from the other ores, which are comparatively light. If
any _Sulphuret of Copper_ be present, the same process is calculated to
separate it, by thus converting it into a _Sulphate_,[108] as described
at page 128.

When the ore is dressed, the lord of the soil receives that portion
which is his due, after which it is divided into as many _doles_
or shares, as there are adventurers; and these are measured out by
barrows, an account of which is kept, in the manner of the old times,
by a person who notches a stick.

The manner of dressing and cleansing _Copper_ ore is nearly similar to
that of Tin, except indeed that as it is raised in large masses, and
is tolerably pure, it does not generally require _Stamping_, nor much

All these different processes furnish employment for a great number of
women and children, and it is really interesting to see the dexterity
and cheerfulness with which they pursue the occupation. There is,
however, one practice which ought to be reformed--the burthen of the
_Standard Barrow_ used in carrying Copper, and which is said to contain
three hundred weight; in addition to which we must allow for the weight
of the barrow itself, and that of the water held by the recently washed
ore, so that it cannot be estimated at less than four hundred weight.
This is an enormous burthen, which is borne by all descriptions of
persons who are employed in dressing and weighing, and it has given
rise to many evils.

Those who work below have generally a wretched and emaciated
appearance, although they seldom continue longer under ground than six
hours in the twenty-four, but are relieved by a fresh corps. Pulmonary
consumption may be said to be the disease to which they are more
particularly liable.

The names by which the Cornish mines are distinguished are usually
invented by the first adventurers, and are often whimsical enough, the
usual prefix, _Huel_, (always pronounced, and generally erroneously
spelt, _Wheel_) signifies in the Cornish language _a hole_; while the
specific name of the mine is taken from some trivial or accidental
circumstance, thus _Dolcoath_ was the name of an old woman, _Dorothy
Koath_, who lived upon the spot where the working of the mine
commenced; _Huel Providence_ was so called from the accidental way in
which it was discovered; and _Huel Boys_ from the lode having been
first noticed by children who had been playing, and digging pits in
imitation of shafts.

By a rough calculation it may be stated that there are about 130 mines
in the county, but the number is of course subject to variation; old
workings being frequently given up, and new mines opened, or forsaken
ones resumed.

Besides the mines, there are also "_Stream Works_," which afford a
large quantity of the purest _oxide_.[109] They occur in vallies, and
derive their name from the manner in which they are worked; which
merely consists in washing the alluvial soil by directing a stream
of water over it, when the finer particles being washed away, the
_Tin ore_ is procured in a separate form.[110] The process is termed
_Streaming for Tin_. It is a singular fact that the only traces of
Gold to be found in Cornwall[111] are in these alluvial depositions,
in which it sometimes occurs in small grains, mostly detached, but
occasionally adhering to quartz. The miners engaged in the stream
works are generally prepared with quills, into which they drop these
particles as they find them, and when the quill is full, it is carried
to the goldsmith for sale, and considered as a perquisite.

But it is time for us to resume our topographical descriptions--

In our road to Redruth we pass _Clowance_ the seat of Sir John St.
Aubyn, Baronet. _Pendarves_ the residence of Edward William Wynne
Pendarves, Esq. son of the late John Stackhouse, Esq. the elegant
author of "_Nereis Britannica_," and _Tehidy Park_, the mansion of
Francis Basset, Lord de Dunstanville, &c.

About two miles west of Redruth, is DOLCOATH, a copper mine which
every intelligent traveller ought to visit, not only on account of the
immensity of the concern, and the ability and liberality with which
it is conducted, but because it is so situated on the brow of a hill,
that the spectator can at one glance see all the principal machinery by
which it is worked. It is quite impossible to convey an idea of this
singular and interesting scene;--Steam Engines;--Water Wheels;--Horse
Whims;--Stamping Mills,--are all in motion before us, while in the glen
beneath us many hundred labourers are to be seen busily engaged in the
different operations of separating, dressing, and carrying the ore. The
same stream of water pouring down the hill turns successively numerous
overshot wheels, and serves various other purposes in its course;
and, having thus performed upon the surface, all that ingenuity could
devise, or the operations of mining require, it is conducted into the
bowels of the earth, where, at a hundred and fifty feet beneath its
surface, it again turns an overshot wheel of fifty feet in diameter,
and becomes again subservient to the skilful exertions of the miner. In
the whole circle of human inventions there is nothing which so fully
manifests the resources of intellect, for the production of immense
effects, as the stupendous art of mining; and it is impossible that
the workings of Dolcoath can be viewed without the strongest sensation
of wonder and exultation. The works of the mine stretch upwards of a
mile in length from east to west; an extent of ground penetrated by
innumerable shafts, and honey-combed by subterranean galleries. Upon
the summit of the hill is another rich copper mine, _Cook's Kitchen_,
which is on the same suite of lodes as _Dolcoath_, but separated by a
cross-course which forms a natural boundary to both. This cross-course
has so _heaved_ the lodes, that many which are worked with great profit
in the former mine cannot be discovered in the latter, notwithstanding
the laborious search which has been made for that purpose.

The picturesque effect of this scenery is not a little heightened
by the bold elevation of _Carn-breh Hill_, which, crowned with the
mouldering remains of past ages, rises, as if in mockery of the boasted
prowess of art, and forms a most striking and impressive contrast to
the active scene before us.

REDRUTH is a very populous town of high antiquity, situated in the
bosom of the mining district, and capable of affording very excellent
accommodation to the mineralogist who may be desirous of remaining some
days for the purpose of inspecting, at his leisure, the numerous mines
by which it is surrounded. The general level of this metalliferous
district is from 350 to 450 feet above the sea; and being frequently
intersected by vallies, great opportunities are presented for the
advantageous construction of _Adits_.

We next proceed to visit the great Steam-Engine of Chacewater mine,
situated three miles south of Redruth. It was erected about the year
1813, and was at that period the most powerful machine in the world.
It is a double engine upon the improved principle of Bolton and Watt,
and the style and elegance with which its different parts are finished,
reflect no inconsiderable credit upon the engineer. The following are
its dimensions; the cylinder is 66 inches, the box 19, in diameter. The
depth of the engine shaft is 128 fathoms. From the _Adit_ to the bottom
90 fathoms. It makes eight strokes in a minute, and at every stroke it
raises 108 gallons of water to the _Adit_;[112] and, at the same time
also, 60 gallons, 10 fathoms high, for the purpose of condensing the
steam. The quantity of coals consumed in twenty-four hours is estimated
at about eight chaldrons. To give at once a popular idea of its immense
power, it may be stated that, if it were applied as a mill, it could
grind a Winchester bushel of wheat every minute. Notwithstanding the
immensity of its force, and complexity of parts, so completely is
it under the discretion and guidance of the engineer, that in one
instant he is able to stop its motions by the mere application of
his finger and thumb to a screw.--"We put a hook in the nose of the
Leviathian;--play with him as a child, and take him as a servant for

From Chacewater we proceed southward about two miles to visit the
extensive Copper mines, called "_The Consolidated Mines_," the working
of which has been lately resumed. Here we shall find two immense Steam
Engines, with cylinders of 90 inches in diameter, constantly at work;
the interior of which is kept as clean as a drawing-room. The capital
expended in setting these mines at work was not less than £65,000, and
under the arrangement of Mr. William Davey, the concern has proved so
profitable, that shares are now selling in London at £100 per cent.

Near the _Consolidated Mines_ are _Huel Unity_ and _Poldice_; the
former is a Copper mine; the latter produces both Copper and Tin. The
most beautiful specimens of _Arseniate of Copper_, and _Arseniate of
Lead_ have been found in these mines.

Having concluded our account of the mining district, it remains for
us to offer to the mineralogical tourist a few observations upon the
subject of Cornish Minerals, and upon the best method of procuring
them; before the stranger, however, attempts to purchase any specimens,
it will be well for him to inspect the several splendid cabinets in the
county; besides that in the museum of the Royal Geological Society, at
Penzance, he should see those in the possession of William Rashleigh,
Esq. M. P. of _Menabilly_;[113] John Williams, Esq. of _Scorrier
House_, and Joseph Carne, Esq. of _Penzance_. The one in possession of
Mr. Rashleigh, if not the most accessible to the mineralogist, must
be confessed to be without comparison, the most splendid. Its chief
excellence consists in the magnificence and variety of the _Oxide of
Tin_,[114] _Fluors_, _Malachite_, and some of the rarer varieties of
_Sulphuret of Copper_, from mines which have long since ceased to be
worked. Among the more remarkable specimens are those of _Oxide of
Tin_ (from Saint Agnes) some of the more interesting varieties of
which present the following forms,--very large octohedrons with, and
without, truncations;--the crystal described by Klaproth as one of the
rarest occurrence, _viz._--the four-sided prism, with a four-sided
pyramid at each extremity; this is to be seen in its simple form,
and also with a rich variety of truncations;--a group of four-sided
pyramids covered with a thin coating of _Calcedony_, which, being
_hydrophanous_, shews the form of the crystal very distinctly after
immersion in water; _Wood-tin_ forming a vein in a matrix of quartz, to
one side of which adheres a fragment of rock; it is hardly necessary
to remind the mineralogist of the importance of this specimen in
a geognostic point of view;[115] Tin crystals having a coating of
black _hæmatite_; _Sulphuret of Tin_, a mineral which has never been
found in any part of the world except at _Huel Rock_, in Saint Agnes,
_Stenna-gwyn_, in Saint Stephen's, and _Huel Scorrier_ in Gwennap.[116]
In the collection of Tins may be seen several small blocks[117] of that
metal, as prepared by the Jews, for commerce, during the early workings
of the Cornish mines, among which is a fraudulent one consisting of a
mass of stone covered with a thin coating of metal. In the collection
of Coppers may be noticed _Yellow_ _Copper ore_ with _Opal_ (from
Roskeir); _the triple Sulphuret of Antimony, Copper, and Lead_ in
various forms; _Ruby Copper_ in cubes; _Quartz_ containing globules
of water; the _Hydrargyllite_ or _Wavellite_, in a plumose form
accompanied by _Apatite_ in a matrix of Quartz (from Saint Stephen's),
_Topazes_ of considerable lustre (from Saint Agnes), _Green Fluor_
in crystals of twenty-four sides (Saint Agnes). A most beautiful and
instructive cube of _Fluor_, the surface of which reflects a delicate
green hue, but upon being held to the light the crystal exhibits its
octohedral nucleus of a purple colour. The mineralogist should also
notice a superb octohedron _of Gold_, and a mass of _Stalactitical
Arragonite_ from the grotto of Antiparos. Before quitting Menabilly
he ought to visit the grotto, built in a beautiful and secluded part
of the grounds, near the shore in the port of Polredmouth. It stands
at the extremity of a large grove, and is constructed with the finest
species of marble and serpentine, with brilliant crystals, pebbles,
and shells; its form is that of an octagon, two of the sides of which
are appropriated to the door and window which front each other, while
the six remaining sides form receptacles for minerals, four of which
contain specimens of ores found in the county, and two are filled with
organic fossils, polished agates, and jaspers; the intermediate spaces
are occupied by shells, coralloids, and various other substances.
The roof is composed of _Stalactites_ of singular beauty, and which
produce a very striking effect as they are seen through the roughly
formed arch which composes the entrance. In this grotto are preserved
two links of the chain which were found in Fowey harbour by some
fishermen in the year 1776; they are of a triangular form, incrusted
with shells and corals, and are supposed to have formed a part of the
chain which extended from tower to tower, for the ancient defence of
the harbour. Among the mineralogical specimens in this place there is
one of _Calcedony_ which deserves particular notice for its beauty as
well as magnitude. In the centre of the grotto is a table inlaid with
thirty-two polished specimens of granite, all found in the county of

THE CABINET OF JOHN WILLIAMS, ESQ. is at Scorrier House, about two
miles east of Redruth, and may therefore be visited by the mineralogist
in the present excursion. This collection stands unrivalled in the
magnificence of its specimens of _Red Oxide of Copper_, in octohedrons,
cubes, and capillary crystals; it also contains the finest specimens
of _Arseniate of Copper_ in very perfect obtuse octahedrons;--a mass of
_Uranite_, which in size and beauty is superior to any specimens ever
discovered;--_Blende_, in octohedrons and cubes;--_Native, and Ruby
Silver_; and a specimen of the _Muriate_ of that metal (_Horn_ Silver)
so well known for its value, that it may be said to constitute one
of the most interesting objects in the collection. The _Arseniate of
Lead_, in six-sided prisms, a most beautiful mineral, which was first
analysed by Mr. Gregor, and has been found only in _Huel Unity_, may be
seen in this cabinet in its most perfect forms.

The collection of Mr. Carne has been already noticed in our account of
Penzance, at _page_ 31.

In order to collect the various minerals of the county the stranger
must apply to the different dealers,[118] (_rapax et sordidum pecus_)
and make the best bargain he is able; he may also occasionally purchase
some good specimens of the miners at the various mines he may happen
to visit. In his rambles we recommend him to visit Saint Agnes,
where are the _Trevaunance_, and _Seal Hole_ mines, from which have
been raised the most beautiful specimens of crystallized Tin in the
world, accompanied occasionally with _Topazes_, and twenty-four-sided
_Fluor_. Here too may be seen a geological phenomenon of considerable
interest,--the slate of the coast intersected with _Porphyry Dykes_,
Saint Agnes' Beacon is also well worthy of observation; it is an
insulated eminence of a pyramidal form, entirely covered with _debris_,
and is composed of _Slate_, although it rises 664 feet above the level
of the sea. Saint Agnes is the birth place of the celebrated artist
OPIE,[119] and the tourist may be gratified by inspecting many of
the earlier productions of his pencil. But we now take our leave of
the Mineralogist, and shall attend the Antiquary in order to inspect
_Carn-breh hill_, which rises a little to the south-west of Redruth, to
an elevation of 697 feet; its principal interest is derived from the
lucubrations of Dr. Borlase, who regarded it as having been the grand
centre of Druidical worship, and he asserts that, in his time, the
remains of the monuments which were peculiar to that priesthood were to
be easily recognized, such as _Rock Basins_; _Circles_; _Cromlechs_;
_Rock Idols_; _Karns_; _Caves_; _religious enclosures_; _Logan Stones_;
a _Gorseddau_, or place of elevation, whence the Druids pronounced
their decrees; and the traces of a _Grove of Oaks_!--this is all very
ingenious and imposing, but is there any rational testimony in support
of such an hypothesis? are there any just grounds for considering
the objects to which he alludes as the works of art?--most certainly
none, they are unquestionably the results of the operation of time and
the elements, and have never been formed by any agents except those
which Nature employs in the decomposition of granitic masses; but the
age of Antiquarian illusion is past; the light of geological science
dispels the phantoms which the wizard fancy had created, just as the
rising sun dissolves the mystic forms which the most common object
assumes in twilight, when viewed through the medium of credulity and
superstition. The _rock basins_ of Antiquaries are rounded cavities on
the surface of rocks, and are occasionally as spheroidal, internally,
as if they had been actually shaped by a turning lathe; it was this
artificial appearance which first suggested the hypothesis concerning
their origin, and induced the Antiquary to regard them as pools of
lustration. Dr. Mac Culloch,[120] however, very justly observes,
that their true nature is very easily traced by inspecting the rocks
themselves; on examining the excavations they will be always found
to contain distinct grains of _Quartz_, and fragments of the other
constituent parts of the granite; a small force is sufficient to
detach from the sides of these cavities additional fragments, shewing
beyond doubt, that a process of decomposition is still going on
under favourable circumstances; these circumstances are the presence
of water, or rather the alternate action of air and moisture; if a
drop of water can only make an effectual lodgement on a surface of
this granite a small cavity must be sooner or later produced, this
insensibly enlarges as it becomes capable of holding more water, and
the sides as they continue to waste necessarily retain an even and
rounded cavity, on account of the uniform texture of the granite. This
explanation is sufficiently satisfactory; in addition to which it may
be further stated, that these very _basins_ not unfrequently occur on
the perpendicular sides of rocks,[121] which at once excludes the idea
of their artificial origin.

The other grotesque and whimsical appearances of rocky masses,
such as "_rock idols_, _logan stones_," &c. are to be explained upon
the tendency which granite possesses of wearing more rapidly on the
parts which are most exposed to the action of the weather, as already
explained at page 104. There occurs upon the western part of the
ridge of _Carn-breh_ an equipoised stone, about 20 feet in diameter,
affording a very singular illustration of these views, and of which we
shall here present a sketch to our readers.


Thus upon simple and philosophical principles are such appearances to
be easily explained, and this _Phantasmagoria_ of the learned antiquary

For the information of the Geologist who may visit this spot, we shall
state, that in a porphyritic granite on the summit, Mr. W. Phillips
has lately discovered that some of the crystals formerly considered as
_Felspar_, were _Cleavelandite_;[122] and we have little doubt that
this curious discovery might be extended to many of the granitic masses
in Western Cornwall.

At the eastern end of the hill is _Carn-breh Castle_; the rocks upon
which this building stands, not being contiguous, are connected by
arches turned over the cavities; one part of the fortress pierced with
loopholes is evidently very ancient, and is supposed to have been of
British work; the other is of modern construction, and was probably
erected as an ornamental object from the grounds of Tehidy. There were
formerly some outworks to the north-west; and, near the summit of the
hill is a circular fortification called the _Old Castle_, which appears
to have been included within a strong wall. The hill itself, on which
the spectator stands, is quite in unison with the scene around him; its
silence and desolation,--the awful vestiges of its convulsion,--and
the immense rocky fragments which lie scattered on its brow, are well
calculated to harmonize with an extended and barren tract of country,
every where broken up by mining operations, and whose horizon is
bounded by the ocean.


[84] The Phoenicians traded upon the western coasts of Cornwall, for
at least six hundred years before the birth of our Saviour, and that
for the sake of Tin;--so that the antiquity of our tin trade has been
established upon mercantile principles for not less than twenty-four
centuries. But in the earlier ages this metal was all procured from
_Stream Works_, the method of working mines not having been known and
practised for more than seven hundred years.

[85] In the year 1822, the produce of the Copper mines in Cornwall
amounted to 106,723 tons of ore, which produced 9,331 tons in Copper,
and £676,285 in money. Whereas the quantity of Tin Ore raised did not
exceed 20,000 tons.

[86] The Saxon Miners formerly regarded _Cobalt_ in the same way. They
considered it so troublesome when they found it among other ores, that
a prayer was used in the German Church, _that God would preserve Miners
from Cobalt, and from Spirits_.

[87] _Lead_ is principally found in cross courses, or north and south
veins. _Pentire Glaze_, near Padstow, which has lately produced the
finest cabinet specimens of _Carbonate of Lead_, ever found in this
country; and _Huel Golding_ in Perranzabuloe, are the principal mines
in which the Lead occurs in cross courses. Lately, however, East and
West Lodes of Lead have been discovered in the Parish of Newlyn, by Sir
C. Hawkins, in draining a marsh. They are about two feet wide. Besides
the Lead and a little quartz, they consist entirely of Clay; neither
Copper nor Tin have been seen in them. The Lead yields about Sixty
Ounces of Silver per Ton.

[88] _Cobalt._ _Huel Sparnon_ Tin and Copper Mine in the Parish
of Redruth, is the only mine in the county that ever produced any
considerable quantity of Cobalt; one fragment raised from it weighed
1333 lbs.

[89] _Silver._ In the Copper Lode of Huel Ann, there occurred a
distinct vein of _black_ and _grey Silver ore_, with _Native Silver_,
from two to five inches wide with a wall of Quartz, on each side. It
was however very short. See Mr. Carne's paper on the Silver Mines of
Cornwall, _Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall_,
_vol._ i. _p._ 118.

[90] Only one Lode in Cornwall has, however, been found of this
size, and that only for the length of 20 fathoms in _Relistian_. In
_Nangiles_ the lode is, in some parts, 30 feet wide.

[91] As the Counting House of Dolcoath has been determined to be 360
feet above the level of the sea, the mine extends 1050 feet below it;
which is probably deeper under the sea level than any mine in the globe.

[92] Clay-slate is provincially called _Killas_; and Porphyry is known
by the name of _Elvan_.

[93] For a full account of this subject, the reader must consult Mr.
Carne's laborious paper, "_On the Veins of Cornwall_," in the 2nd
Volume of the Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall.

[94] We must refer the reader to a Paper, "On the Veins of Cornwall,"
by _W. Phillips, Esq._, published in the 2nd vol. of the Transactions
of the London Geological Society; and also to a Paper, "On the relative
Age of Veins," by _Joseph Carne, Esq._ in the 2nd vol. of the Cornish

[95] We shall pass over, as being too absurd to require any serious
refutation, the former belief in the power of the _Virgula Divinatoria_
to discover Lodes. A power less poetical but not less fabulous then the
story of the _Virga Fatalis_ that conducted Æneas to the Shades.

[96] _Grass_ is the technical name for the surface on all occasions.

[97] The great Copper Mine, called _Crennis_, was discovered by some
casual observers in the cliff.

[98] From _Aditus_, a passage?

[99] The application of this machine in the county is estimated as
saving the labour of 10,000 men; whilst the powers of the different
steam-engines are considered as at least equivalent to 40,000 more.

[100] See Dr. Forbes's Paper "On the Temperature of Mines," in the
second volume of the Transactions of the Cornish Society.

[101] The annual cost of gunpowder, used in the mines of the county,
amounts to more than thirty thousand pounds.

[102] Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, vol. 2,
page 162.

[103] The quantity of water discharged by the pumps from many of the
Cornish mines is very considerable; thus _Huel Abraham_ discharges
from the depth of 1440 feet, about 2,092,320 gallons every 24 hours;
_Dolcoath_, from nearly the same depth, 535,173 gallons in the same
time; and _Huel Vor_, from the depth of 950 feet, 1,692,660 gallons.

[104] See Dr. Forbes's paper on the temperature of mines, in the
Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, vol. 2, p.
208; also on the temperature of mines, by R. W. Fox, Esq. ibid. p. 14,
and a paper on the same subject by M. P. Moyle, Esq. p. 404.

[105] Crennis Copper Mine returned a clear profit to the adventurers
of £84,000 in one year; and Huel Alfred, during the last period of its
working, yielded very nearly £130,000, after having defrayed every
necessary expense. The adventurers in Huel Vor have lately gained
£10,000 in three months. But, on the contrary, how numerous are the
losses, not perhaps corresponding in magnitude, in any individual mine,
to the gains which have been above stated. In North Downs as much as
£90,000 were lost, but this is a rare instance.

[106] The consumption of such articles in a great mine far exceeds
any estimate which a person unacquainted with mining operations could
possibly imagine. In _Huel Vor_, no less than Three thousand pounds of
candles are consumed in a month, and about Three thousand five hundred
pounds of Gunpowder.

[107] Before the invention of the _Stamping Mill_, the Tin was
pulverised in a kind of mortar, called a _Crazing Mill_; one of which
ancient machines is still in the possession of Mr. Williams of Scorrier

[108] This process might be more generally employed in Cornwall with
much advantage. The green coloured water which so frequently issues
from the adits, might be made to yield a considerable portion of
Copper, if it were properly received in pits, and submitted to the
action of Iron.

[109] Stream Tin, on account of its purity, is alone capable of
furnishing the _grain tin_, employed principally by dyers.

[110] The principal Stream works are in the parishes of Lanlivery,
Luxilian, St. Blazy, St. Austel, St. Mewan, St. Stephens, and St.
Columb. The greatest Stream work in the county is at Carnon, about
half-way between Truro and Penrhyn; but there is scarcely a valley in
which the operation has not been conducted on a small scale.

[111] In the Ordnance Map of Cornwall, a spot marked "THE GOLD MINE"
is noticed, near Liskeard. This name serves only to commemorate one of
the many ruinous speculations into which the inhabitants of this County
have repeatedly fallen, from a want of mineralogical knowledge. A mass
of Pyrites having been discovered in this place, its brilliancy induced
a belief that it was GOLD, in consequence of which workings were
immediately commenced, and the sanguine adventurers, urged forward no
doubt by those who derived an interest from the undertaking, could not
be convinced of their error, until the complete ruin of their fortunes
obliged them to abandon every hope.

[112] This is the deepest _Adit_ in the country; its mouth or extremity
being nearly on a level with the water in one of the creeks of Falmouth
Harbour, into which it empties itself. Taking into calculation its
various windings, through the numerous mines which it relieves of
water, it may be said to be not less than twenty-four miles in length.

[113] Menabilly is situated about four miles west of Fowey, on an
eminence at a short distance from the sea.

[114] We have been told that this has been arranged by Mr. Aikin,
according to the different modifications of its crystalline form, as
they are described by Mr. William Phillips in his elaborate paper
published in the 2nd Vol. of the Transactions of the London Geological

[115] See an interesting account of this mineral in a notice entitled
"Contributions towards a knowledge of the Geological History of
Wood-Tin, by A. Majendie, Esq." in the first volume of the Transactions
of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall.

[116] Since the first edition of this work was printed, the mineral has
been found at _Saint Michael's Mount_, and, by Dr. Boase, amongst a
pile of ore which was supposed to come from _Botallack_.

[117] In one of which is to be seen the _Muriate of Tin_, as first
noticed by the late Reverend William Gregor.

[118] The following are the names of the respectable dealers to whom we
recommend the mineralogist to apply,--At _Truro_, Tregoning, Mudge, and
Heard;--at _Redruth_, Bennett; at _Gwenap_, Michell;--at _Saint Agnes_,
Argall;--at _Falmouth_, Trathan;--and at _Penzance_, Jacobs, the latter
of whom has generally a great variety of Saint Just minerals on sale.

[119] OPIE was a parish apprentice to a person of the name of Wheeler,
a house carpenter, in the village of Saint Agnes; Dr. Walcott, better
known by his poetical appellation of _Peter Pindar_, having been
struck, during his occasional visits to the village, by some rude
sketches in chalk which were shewn him as the productions of this
poor lad, invited him to his house at _Truro_, supplied him with the
necessary materials, and enabled him to set up as an itinerant portrait
painter, from which station he rose to be Professor of Painting to the
Royal Academy.

[120] A highly interesting paper "On the decomposition of the Granite
Tors of Cornwall," by this geologist, is published in the second volume
of the Transactions of the Geological Society of London.

[121] This may be distinctly seen in the granitic rocks in the islands
of Scilly; and in the _Gritstone_ in the park of the late Sir Joseph
Banks, in the parish of Ashover in Derbyshire.

[122] The only chemical difference between _Cleavelandite_ and
_Felspar_ is, that about 12 per cent. of Potass in the latter is
replaced by an equal quantity of Soda in the former. The earthy
ingredients in both minerals are the same, and exist in similar
proportions. The primary form of each is a doubly oblique prism, but
the two prisms differ so essentially from each other in the measurement
of their angles, that the substances are easily distinguished from each
other by the Goniometer.



An excursion to the peninsula of the Lizard offers to the scientific
traveller many objects of great geological interest; he will be enabled
to examine a very rare and important series of Rock Formations, while
their various gradations and transitions into each other will afford
ample materials for speculation. In the course of this excursion it
will be our duty to point out some of the more prominent features as
they may occur in our progress; but in performing this duty we wish
to be considered as merely presenting the geologist with a rough and
imperfect outline, which may give a useful direction to his researches,
and enable him to acquire, through the medium of his own observation,
more ample and perfect information.[123]

To the country south of a line drawn from the mouth of the Helford
river, on the east, to the Loe-Bar on the west, has the appellation of
the "_Lizard District_" been exclusively applied by Mr. Majendie; and
the division appears to have been conventionally received by all the
geologists who have traced his steps.

The fundamental rock of this peninsula appears to be _Clay-slate_,
associated with _Greywacké_, upon which are successively deposited
_Greenstone_, _Diallage rock_, and _Serpentine_. At Marazion several
alternate beds of _Slate_ and _Greenstone_ may be observed; the latter
of which contains _Asbestus-Actynolite_, and is universally traversed
by veins of _Axinite_,[124] which occurs both in an amorphous and
crystalline form.

In the vicinity of a projecting ledge of rocks, known by the name of
_Cuddan Point_, stands a mansion called _Acton Castle_, which was
erected as a marine residence by the late John Stackhouse, Esq. and
is at present occupied by Capt. Praed. Its situation is wild and
unsheltered, but it commands a prospect of very extraordinary grandeur
and beauty.

About four miles from Marazion, and half a mile from the high road
towards the coast, are the remains of a building called _Pengerswick
Castle_, a square stone tower, with a smaller one annexed, and some
ruins of walls, are all that remain of this ancient edifice, but its
machiolated gate and embattled turrets are still preserved to announce
its military origin. The different rooms are now converted into
granaries, but the oak wainscot, which is curiously carved and painted,
remains in a tolerable state of preservation. On one of these panels,
under a rude representation of water dropping from a rock, with the
title "_Perseverance_," is the following poetical inscription.

  "What thing is harder than a rock?
    What softer is than water clear?
  Yet will the same with often drop
    The hard rock pierce, which doth appear,
  Even so there's nothing so hard to attayne
  But may be had with labour and pain."

The classical reader will at once recognise in this inscription a
paraphrase of the well known lines of Ovid:

  "Quid magis est saxo durum,--Quid mollius unda?
  Dura tamen molli Saxa cavantur Aqua."

There exists a tradition that this place belonged in the reign of Henry
VIII. to one Milliton, who having slain a man privately, purchased the
castle in the name of his son, and immured himself in a secret chamber
in the tower.

On a bold pile of _Granite rocks_ which projects from the shore near
Pengerswick, Dr. Maton observed clusters of _Trochus crassus_, besides
some species of _Actinia_ and _Asterias_, not common on other parts of
the coast. Pursuing our route we pass through a country principally
composed of Slate, the great Granite chain running to the left of the
road, and constituting _Tregoning_, _Godolphin_, and _Breage hills_.
The Signal house at the top of _Tregoning hill_, which is 584 feet
above the sea, constitutes the most elevated point in the country, and
from which both channels are visible. The granite of this hill bears in
some parts all the appearance of a stratified rock.

Upon arriving at the village of _Breage_, three miles west of Helston,
the traveller should turn off from the high road, in order to visit
the Tin Mine called _Huel Vor_, and which lies about a mile and a
half to the north-east, and is by far the largest as well as the
richest Tin Mine ever worked in Cornwall. Here there are five large
Steam Engines for drawing the water out of the mine, besides several
others for raising the ore. There are also four large Stamping Mills,
worked by Steam, which constitute by far the most interesting part of
the machinery. It is not many years since steam was first applied as
the moving power of these mills, but without its aid it would have
been impossible to stamp the whole of _Huel Vor_ Tin with sufficient
expedition. In this mine all the operations are carried on which have
been already described in our excursion to Redruth, and the Mining
Districts. The ore is also roasted and smelted on the spot. Here then
the stranger may witness the whole process, from the period when the
ore is broken in the vein, to that when the pure Tin runs out of the
furnace, and is laded into moulds which contain about 370 pounds. The
principal Tin _lode_ in this mine is, in one part, of the enormous
width of 30 feet, and is so rich withal, that the adventurers lately
gained a clear profit of upwards of £10,000, in the space of three
months. The workings extend for more than a mile and a quarter under
ground, and about thirteen hundred persons are engaged in conducting
its operations.

On the Coast, about three miles west of Helston, is Portleven harbour;
notwithstanding the enormous sum of money which has been expended in
completing this work, we believe that it is never likely to answer
the object for which it was projected; the fact is simply this, that
at those times when the severity of the weather renders such a refuge
desirable to the navigators of the Mount's Bay, the sea sets in with
such tremendous force upon this part of the coast that it is absolutely
unsafe for any vessels to approach it, and still more so to attempt a
passage into the basin, through its narrow entrance.

HELSTON is a large and populous town, containing nearly 3000
inhabitants, situated on the side of a hill which slopes gradually
to the little river _Cober_. The houses are chiefly disposed in four
streets in the form of a cross, and, at the point of intersection,
stand the market house and town hall. The church, which was erected
A.D. 1762, at the sole expense of the then Earl of Godolphin, stands on
an eminence to the north, and forms a very pleasing object from the
valley below, while to the tempest tossed mariner it serves as a useful

Helston has returned members to Parliament ever since Edward I., being
one of the five ancient boroughs of Cornwall. There was formerly a
castle, on the site of the present bowling green, but of which no
vestige remains. The town is now lighted by means of gas.

In this town we shall be gratified to find the traces of an ancient
custom, which the Antiquary has been anxious to trace to so high a
source as the Roman _Floralia_, a festival observed by that people,
in honour of the Goddess Flora, on the fourth of the Calends of May.
It is called the _Furry_, and it is said that its present name alone
would discover its origin, were it not satisfactorily pointed out by
the time of its celebration. We confess ourselves to have been amongst
the happy number[125] who regarded the annual festival of Helston as
a faint trace of the Roman _Floralia_ which the abrasion of fourteen
centuries had not wholly obliterated. But the evil genius of Reality
has at length appeared to dispel the illusion, and to extort from us
the unwilling belief that it can be no other than the anniversary of a
victory, obtained by the natives over an invading enemy.

The morning of the _Eighth of May_ is ushered in with the sound of
drums and kettles, when the streets are soon thronged with spectators,
and assistants in the _Mysteries_. So strict is the observance of this
day as a general holiday, that should any person be found at work,
he is instantly seized, set astride on a pole, and hurried on men's
shoulders to the river, where, if he does not commute his punishment by
a fine, he is sentenced to leap over a wide place, which he of course
fails in attempting, and falls into the water, to the great amusement
of the spectators. At about the hour of nine the revellers appear
before the Grammar school, and make their demand of a prescriptive
holiday, after which they collect contributions from house to house.
They then _fadé_ into the country (_fadé_ being an old English word for
_go_), and about noon return with flowers and oak branches in their
hats and caps; from this time they dance, hand in hand, through the
streets, preceded by a violin,[126] playing an ancient traditional
tune, the music of which we shall here introduce.


There is also a traditional song which is sung in chorus, involving the
history of Robin-Hood, whose connection with the present festival it is
not easy to understand.

Upon this occasion it is a right, assumed from time immemorial, for the
persons engaged in the dance to enter and run through any house they
please, without molestation.

The higher classes of the inhabitants having, with much good humour,
assisted in the rites of the day, and performed their _exforensic_
orgies, resort to the ball room, where they are usually met by the
neighbouring families, and by those strangers who may happen to be in
this part of Cornwall. The merry dance is commenced at an early hour,
and generally protracted to the dawn of the ensuing day.

Long may this harmless and innocent festival continue to animate the
blythe and young, on each annual return of its celebration;--Its
classic spell may be dissolved, but the Temple of Hilarity, consecrated
by the smiles of Cornish youth and beauty, needs not a Roman goddess
for its sanction.

  Why ask where the Flora derives its gay birth!
    Why each smiling brow wears its garland to-day?
  Enough that our sires kept it sacred to mirth,
    And their children have hearts all as fervent as they.

  And yet might we trace where his ashes are laid
    Who first made the _Fadé_ to sound in our bowers,
  To-day round his cromlech the dance should we braid,
    And the fairest of Hellas[127] enwreath it with flowers.

  And hallow'd for aye be their place of repose,
    Who their race have enrich'd with a dowry so rare,
  A spell--that yet brightens each year as it flows
    With one gleam of Eden--a day free from care.

  Then join we the Dance! to their mem'ries of yore,
    Let the mirth which they lov'd be the homage we pay.
  And the strain that inspir'd them long ages before,
    Wake the joys, which they felt, in our bosoms to-day.

About two miles from Helston is _Penrose_, the seat of John Rogers,
Esq. situated in the midst of a finely wooded scene, and on the border
of a large sheet of water called the _Loe Pool_; this forms one of
the most considerable lakes in the county, and is produced by a very
singular operation of nature,--the continual rolling of the waves of
the British Channel towards the shore forces in a vast quantity of
sand and pebbles, which, by constant accumulation, at length forms a
very high bank extending across the valley, from hill to hill, and by
closing up the mouth of the channel occasions the river to spread its
waters over an area of nearly seven miles in circumference. This bar of
gravel cannot be passed over by the waves of the highest tides, even
during the excitement of a storm, unless it be attended with a very
rare combination of circumstances. The water of the lake gradually
finds its way through the gravel of the bar by slow filtration; but in
wet seasons, as it cannot pass off with a rapidity equal to its influx,
the lake will often rise ten feet higher than its ordinary level. This
produces the singular effect of stopping two mills, one on the _Loe_,
the other on a lateral stream, their wheels being at this time partly
under water. When this occurs the millers present the Lord of the Manor
with two leathern purses, each containing three halfpence, and solicit
his permission to open a passage through the bar. This being of course
granted, the Mayor of Helston engages workmen to carry the work into
effect. In a few days, however, the bar is again filled up as before.

The _Loe Pool_ abounds with a peculiar trout, and other fresh-water
fish. On its banks the Botanist may gather _Corrigiola Littoralis_.

In proceeding to the Lizard Point, which is about fourteen miles
distant from Helston, we shall examine the line of coast south of the
Loe bar. The interior of this peninsular region has an aspect of dreary
and barren uniformity, and when viewed from the high granite ridge near
Constantine, it appears like a table land elevated some hundred feet
above the level of the sea, presenting hardly any indication of rupture
or contortion throughout the whole extent of its outline. The view of
the same region from the western shore of the Mount's Bay is still
more striking and characteristic; the upper surface seems so exactly
horizontal, that one might almost be led to conjecture, that every
projecting ledge had been planed down until the promontory resembled a
great artificial terrace.[128]

Near _Gunwalloe Cove_ the geologist should notice the singularly
contorted appearance of the slaty rock, which continues as far as a
small cove north of _Mullion_, called _Bolerium_, where it runs under
a _Greenstone_ composed of _Hornblende_ and _Compact Felspar_. The
_Greenstone_ prevails through the whole of this district, and appears
to pass by a slow gradation into _Serpentine_, under which it lies,
as may be distinctly seen near the south side of _Mullion Cove_.[129]
A small quantity of _Diallage_ is occasionally present in this rock,
but the predominant ingredient is common _Hornblende_; and where this
latter substance greatly predominates over the _Felspar_, it in some
places assumes an earthy appearance and decomposes into a kind of
_Clay_, which is used in the neighbourhood with excellent effect as a
top dressing for grass lands.

_Serpentine_ is the next formation which we discover in our progress,
and is that which confers such singular interest upon this part of the
county, since it occurs in no other part of England. This beautiful
rock derives its name from the variegated colours and spots, supposed
to resemble the speckles of a serpent's skin; it is principally of
a dark green or brown, suffused with shades of red. It occupies not
less than one-third of the area of the peninsula; the whole extent of
_Goonhilly downs_ rests on it. Its boundary is easily traced, says
_Mr. Sedgwick_, by the brown scanty vegetation with which its surface
is imperfectly covered; and the Professor might have added, by the
growth of that beautiful heath, the _Erica Vagans_, for so congenial
and essential would a Magnesian soil appear to its production, that
notwithstanding its immense profusion on the downs, not a single
specimen is to be found beyond the line which defines the boundary of
the _Serpentine_ formation, nor is it to be seen in any other part of
England. _Genista Anglica_ is also to be found on these downs.

About three miles south of Mullion, close to the shore, is the
celebrated _Steatite_, or _Soap Rock_, which appears to run in
veins[130] in the Serpentine, although Dr. Thomson is inclined to
consider it as Serpentine itself in a state of decomposition. When
it is first quarried it is soft, but by exposure to air it gradually
hardens, although it never loses that peculiar _soapy_ feel which
characterises it. Dillwyn & Co. of Swansea have, at present, the works
in their possession, by paying to the proprietor, Lord Falmouth, a
certain annual sum. Its value in the manufacture of China depends upon
its infusibility, and the property it possesses of retaining its colour
in the heat of the furnace; the first quality is to be explained by the
total absence of lime in its composition, the latter by the very small
proportion of metallic matter contained in it. There is, moreover,
another purpose which it serves, depending upon the peculiar property
of _Magnesian earth_ in preventing that degree of contraction[131]
which always occurs in the fire when _Alumina_ and _Silica_ are alone
made use of. Near this spot veins of _Native Copper_ may be frequently
seen at low water during spring tides, and a mass of this metal was
once raised which weighed 104 pounds. Copper is the only metallic
substance that has been found in any quantity in the Serpentine
formation; and this has never occurred except _native_, as in the above
instance, or in the state of _Green Carbonate_, so that the mining
adventurer need not anticipate much advantage from it.

About a mile farther south is KYNANCE COVE, justly celebrated as
one of the most interesting and extraordinary spots on the coast; the
descent into it is extremely steep, and overhung with frowning crags;
the cove itself is formed by a numerous assemblage of Serpentine
rocks of a dark colour, and which exhibit a beautiful polish from the
constant attrition of the waves at high water; in one part, these
groups are so singularly disposed as to open a fine natural arch
into a grotto, which penetrates deeply into the cliff; the largest
of these pyramidal masses is termed the ASPARAGUS ISLAND, from its
being the habitat of _Asparagus Officinalis_. One of the rocks in
this cove exhibits a very curious phenomenon whimsically called the
DEVIL'S BELLOWS; there is a very deep chasm, through which the sea
rushes like a water spout, preceded by a sub-marine rumbling, as loud
as thunder; a flowing tide, accompanied with a swell of the waves,
seems to be essential for the production of this effect. De Luc offers
the following explanation of the phenomenon: "In the rock there is
a succession of caverns, into which the agitated sea rushes by some
sub-marine passage, and being dashed and broken against their sides,
a large quantity of air[132] is thus disengaged from them, which
becoming highly compressed, and not being able to escape beneath, in
consequence of the perpetual entrance of the waves, is forced to pass
with great violence and noise from cavern to cavern, until it forces
itself, together with a column of water, through the opening above."
Amongst these beautiful rocks may be seen _Diallage_ of a brown colour;
_Jade_; _compact Felspar_, or _Saussurite_; and _Asbestus_. _Dykes of
Felspar Porphyry_ are also to be observed in this spot. It is hardly
necessary to inform the geological tourist that, in order to view this
interesting scene to his satisfaction, he must contrive to arrive at a
period near that of low water.

On the summit of the hill above this cove the Botanist will observe
_Geranium Sanguineum_ spreading itself in broad tufts. _Campanula
Rotundifolia_ also occurs here.

Continuing our route towards Cape Lizard, we shall perceive that the
_Serpentine_ terminates about half a mile before we reach it, and is
succeeded by _Micaceous Slate_, under which, at the Lizard head lie
alternate beds of _Compact Felspar_, containing specks of _Hornblende_
and _green Talc_. There are two light-houses at this point which front
the south, and stand nearly abreast of each other, but unhappily they
are too often found to be insufficient securities against the darkness
of the midnight storm, and the treachery of the sunken rocks with
which this stern coast is beset. Foreign pilots, unacquainted with its
perils, seldom keep the necessary distance from the shore, and from the
steepness of the rocks no kind of assistance can be afforded to the
mariner from the land.

On a low hedge under the light-houses is to be found _Herniaria
Glabra_. It was here in the pursuit of this very plant that a well
known Botanist, during the late war, was seized as a spy by the
suspicious natives, and carried to Helston for examination. The
increased intercourse, however, with scientific travellers, will
render the recurrence of such an event impossible.

The name of the promontory was most probably derived from the striking
_contour_ which it exhibits when viewed from sea, resembling the
elongated and compressed form of the Lizard; at the same time it must
be observed, that the colour of its rocks resemble also that of the
animal to which we allude, while the British words _Lis-ard_ signify a
lofty projection; these are extraordinary coincidences, and are well
calculated to fan the flame of etymological controversy.

If after visiting this promontory, the traveller feels inclined to
trace the different rock formations, and to complete his geological
survey of the Lizard _Chersonesus_, we recommend him to return by
a circuitous route along its eastern coast. _Greenstone_ reappears
about half a mile east of the Lizard Point, and continues for some
distance, with the occasional interruption of Serpentine, which dips
towards the sea. This latter rock will be found best adapted for
oeconomical purposes at the _Balk Hill_, _Landewednock_, but it is
certainly far inferior to that worked for chimney pieces, columns, &c.
from the quarries in the Isle of Anglesea. Near _Cadgwith_ the rocks
on the coast form a very interesting and extraordinary amphitheatre,
which is termed by the inhabitants the FRYING PAN, although the
appellation of CAULDRON, which it strongly resembles, would be much
more appropriate. Its sides are nearly two hundred feet in height,
and, at high water, the sea enters it and boils up through an arch
near its bottom. In this spot the position of the _Serpentine_ upon
_Greenstone_ is very apparent. Beyond _Cadgwith_ the _Serpentine_
assumes a dark green colour, and contains small masses of the emerald
green _Diallage_, or _Schiller-spar_; whence it continues to constitute
the coast round the _Black Head_ to _Coverack Cove_. About a mile from
the coast at _Gwenter_, the rock denominated by Abbe Haüy "_Diallage
Rock_" (_Gabbro_) presents itself to our notice; it is composed of
_Saussurite_, or _Compact Felspar_, and _Diallage Metalloïde_. In a
quarry near this spot it may be seen to join _Serpentine_. In the
_Diallage Rock_, at a small village near the coast called _Gwendra_,
as well as in the rock of _Saint Keverne_, Mr. Majendie discovered
some small metallic specks, which he found on chemical examination
to consist of Iron, with a portion of _Titanium_. Some of the same
substance was immediately transmitted to Mr. William Gregor, who stated
that the results of his experiments proved it to be an assemblage of
several ingredients, _viz_. _Silica_, _Alumina_, and the _Oxides of
Iron_ and _Titanium_, with a little _Potass_. Some of which ingredients
were no doubt derived from the _gangue_ with which the metallic
substance is intimately mixed. This is a discovery no less curious than
important, and would seem to point out the origin of the _Menachanite_,
in which _Titanium_ was first discovered by Mr. Gregor.

The great mass of _Serpentine_ ends at _Coverack Cove_, a spot
which well deserves the attention of the Geologist, as offering a
series of rocks of a very mixed character; these consist of green
and reddish-brown _Serpentine_, with the _Jade_ of Saussure, (the
_feldspath tenace_ of Haüy) and _Diallage_[133] of the green and
metalloïde varieties; some of the _Felspar_ found here is of a violet
colour, and is striated like that of Labrador. In beds which lie
below high-water mark in this Cove the mineralogist may obtain masses
of _Diallage Metalloïde_, six or eight inches in length.[134] A
beautiful rock succeeds and continues for three miles along the coast
to the _Manacles_; and in the interior of the country it predominates
through the greater part of the parish of _Saint Keverne_. It has
_compact Felspar_ for its base, in which are imbedded crystals both
of _Diallage_ and _Hornblende_. In the proportion, as well as the
magnitude of these constituents, says Mr. Professor Sedgwick, there is
such an unusual variety, that we were almost led to conjecture, that
during the deposition of the mass many conflicting principles had been
in action, not one of which was long able to keep the mastery over the
others; there are for instance many large blocks which in one part
resemble a fine _Greenstone_, and in another, a coarse porphyritic
_Diallage Rock_; within the distance of a few feet these varieties may
be observed to alternate repeatedly, sometimes in the form of stripes,
but more frequently in amorphous concretions separated from each other
by lines which are perfectly defined. _Schistose Greenstone_ occurs
again at _Porthowstock_, and a small bed of _Serpentine_, on the
south-west side of _Porthallo_ in the cliff, which rests on a reddish
_Talc_ which lies, as before, on _Clay-slate_. No other variety is
observable from hence to the Helford River, except in the appearance
of a _Pudding Stone_, or _Conglomerate_, near the _Dennis Creek_,
composed of rounded fragments of Slate in which veins of _Quartz_ are
distinctly visible. The traveller will not fail to visit the stream of
_Tregonwell Mill_,[135] near the village of _Menacchan_, celebrated as
the habitat of the _Titaniferous Iron_ (_Menacchanite_, or _Gregorite_)
discovered by the late celebrated Mr. William Gregor.[136] He will
also receive much gratification by extending his route to _Mawnan_
Cliffs, where he will observe a most extraordinary intermixture of
fine and coarse grained (_Grawacke?_) slate, which are traversed by
many contemporaneous veins, some composed of _Quartz_, and others of
_Ferriferous_ _Carbonate of Lime_; some small cavities are coated
with fine spicular _Arragonite_, and a much rarer substance, which on
a chemical examination by Mr. Gregor proved to be a _Sub-carburet of
Iron_, has been found in thin plates among the laminæ of the Slate. The
Reverend John Rogers has also obtained from this spot small octohedral
crystals of the _Yellow Sulphuret of Copper_.

From a general review of the phenomena developed in the present
excursion, Mr. Professor Sedgwick is led to conclude, that the
_great Plateau of the Lizard is not composed of stratified rocks_,
for although some obscure indications of an order of super-position
appear near _Coverack_ and _Porthalla_, yet he considers them as
being too uncertain to be opposed to the clear evidence offered to
the south-eastern parts of the coast, where the alternating masses of
_Greenstone_ and _Serpentine_ so often appear, like great wedges driven
side by side into the escarpment, without any arrangement whatsoever.
Mr. Majendie, however, who, be it known, actually _bivouacked_ in
this district for a week, was satisfied that the _Greenstone_ and
_Serpentine_ did exhibit characters of Stratification.--But we
desist--feeling what no doubt our readers have likewise experienced
the dry and uninviting nature of Geological details.--Having therefore
completed the task we assigned ourselves, and conducted the traveller
to the more prominent and interesting objects of WESTERN CORNWALL, we
take our leave. The Agriculturist, the Antiquary, the Botanist, the
Geologist, and Mineralogist, must, each in his turn, have received
ample gratification and instruction from his visit to this interesting
and important district of the British Empire, while the Capitalist
must have seen from the agriculture, the mineral treasures, the
fisheries, and the commerce of the country, how many, and what great
opportunities are presented for the advantageous exercise of capital;
the Valetudinarian too has, as we sincerely hope, derived his share of
benefit from the excursions, and felt the salutary influence of those
mild and genial breezes which clothe our fields with perpetual verdure,
and impart to our cottagers the enviable blessing of HEALTH and LONG


[123] Before his departure upon this excursion, we recommend him to
examine the very instructive suite of specimens which were collected,
and deposited in the Cabinet at Penzance by _Mr. Ashhurst Majendie_, a
gentleman whose geological labours in this country are well known, and
whose zeal and ability so greatly promoted the early advancement of our
Geological Society. This valuable series has been greatly augmented
by a Collection since presented to the Society by _The Reverend John
Rogers_. The Geological tourist ought at the same time to make himself
acquainted with the observations of _Mr. Majendie_ "_On the Lizard
District_," in the first volume of the Transactions of the Royal
Geological Society of Cornwall; and those of _Mr. Professor Sedgwick_,
on the same subject, in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical

[124] In the _Greeb-rock_, an insulated mass of greenstone in the
sea beneath, there is a vein of _Asbestus-Actynolite_, mixed with
_Axinite_, from four to twelve inches wide. This is a curious spot,
well worthy the attention of the geologist.

[125] As will appear on the perusal of the first edition of this little

[126] A violin is in some parts of Cornwall called a _Crowd_, whence
doubtless the name of _Crowdero_, the fiddler in Hudibras.

[127] The ancient name of Helston. The modern apellation is derived
from a huge block of Granite which may be seen in the yard of the Angel
Inn--_Hellas-stone_, or _Helston_.

[128] On the physical structure of the Lizard district, by the Rev. A.

[129] The same relative position of these rocks may also be observed at
_Cadgwith_, an interesting part of the coast north-east of the Lizard
Point, and which we shall have occasion to notice hereafter.

[130] Sir H. Davy, in a paper on the Geology of Cornwall, published in
the first volume of our Transactions, observes that "the nature and
origin of the veins of _Steatite_ in Serpentine are curious subjects of
inquiry. Were they originally crystallized, and the result of chemical
deposition? Or have they been, as for the most part they are now
found, mere mechanical deposites, I am inclined to the last opinion.
The _Felspar_ in Serpentine is very liable to decompose, probably from
the action of Carbonic acid and water on its Alkaline, Calcareous, and
Magnesian elements; and its parts washed down by water, and deposited
in the chasms of the rocks, would necessarily gain that kind of loose
aggregation belonging to Steatite."

[131] It might on this account be worth while for the Glass-maker to
try the effects of a small mixture of _Steatite_ with the materials
of which he makes his large crucibles, in order to prevent that great
degree of shrinking to which they are now so liable.

[132] The quantity of air thus separated from water is so great that
in the Alps and in the Pyrennees, very powerful bellows are made for
forges by the fall of a column of water, through a wooden pipe, into a
closed cask, in which it dashes on a stone in the bottom, when the air
thus disengaged from it is carried by another pipe placed in the cover
of the cask into the foundery.

[133] This substance presents with great distinctness those characters
which distinguish it from _Hornblende_, viz. inferior hardness,
difficult fusibility into a green enamel, and peculiar cleavage which
discovers a considerable lustre in one direction which is entirely
absent in the other; whereas _Hornblende_ has natural joints of the
same lustre in two directions.

[134] Mr. Majendie presented some of these specimens to Abbe Haüy,
and compared them with those in the cabinet of that illustrious
mineralogist, which were brought from the hill of _Mussinet_ near
Turin. M. Haüy observed upon this occasion, that the Coverack Specimens
did not consist of pure _Diallage_, but that fibres of common
_Hornblende_ interrupted its texture. That of _Mussinet_ is foliated,
and has no such intermixture.

[135] For a long period this was considered as the only Cornish habitat
of this mineral; but Dr. Paris subsequently identified its presence
in a sand brought from a stream near the house of Colonel Sandys
at Lanarth. See "Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of
Cornwall." Vol. I. p, 226.

[136] See a History of this curious discovery in "A Memoir on the Life
and Scientific Labours of the Rev. William Gregor, by J. A. Paris, M.
D."--London, 1818.




    _Between Dr. A.--a Physician, and Mr. B.--an Invalid, on the
    comparative merits of different Climates, as places of Winter

"Ne quis _error loci_ nascatur--"

_Mr. B._--In a conversation which we held together in the early part of
the summer, you will remember the promise you then gave of affording
me such advice, relative to the choice of a winter's residence, as the
declining state of my health might require. The autumn is now rapidly
advancing, and I feel that no time should be lost in making such
arrangements as may enable me to pass the approaching winter with the
greatest prospect of benefit.

_Dr. A._--I fully acquiesce in the propriety of your resolution, and
shall readily afford you any information in my power; but you well know
that to a physician there is not a question which he approaches with
so much diffidence, or dismisses with such little satisfaction.

_Mr. B._--I am well aware of the difficulties to which you refer;
circumstances of a moral nature, with which the physician can rarely
become sufficiently acquainted, must necessarily have considerable
weight in directing the decision; but in my own case it is fortunate
that no such embarrassment can impede your judgment. My only object
and care is the restoration of health, and my means are sufficient to
enable me to pursue it in any way which may give the fairest promise of

_Dr. A._--You mistake me, it was not to embarrassments of that kind
that I was alluding.

_Mr. B._--Can then any other source of difficulty exist? To a medical
practitioner who is in the habit of sending his patients to all parts
of Europe in search of health, the real and comparative advantages of
each locality must surely be well known.

_Dr. A._--Far otherwise, my dear friend; there are few subjects upon
which medical men have more widely differed. It is true that we send
our pulmonary sufferers to various parts of the continent, and that we
receive from them a multiplicity of reports; but then they are often
totally at variance with each other upon those very points which are
generally considered as the least questionable; and when we attempt to
reconcile this discordance, by an appeal to meteorological records,
and registers of prevalent diseases, we are mortified to find that
the evidence necessary for forming a safe and practical conclusion,
requires a union of industry and accuracy which has not hitherto been
found to exist in a sufficient number of collateral observers. Nor must
it be forgotten, that the disease, for the cure of which the invalid
is persuaded to emigrate, may require a very different atmosphere in
its different stages and forms; and after all, how often does it happen
that the sufferer is not sent abroad, until every chance of palliation
has gone by.

_Mr. B._--I do not hesitate to declare that such conduct, on the part
of a medical adviser, is as cruel as it is unprincipled; my confidence
however in your integrity satisfies me that you will never abandon
an unhappy sufferer to such a useless alternative; I must therefore
request you to state your opinion, _generally_, as to the peculiar
conditions upon which you consider the eligibility of a climate, in the
cure or palliation of pulmonary affections, to depend.

_Dr. A._--This I shall do most cheerfully, especially in conversation
with one, whose philosophical pursuits will have already instructed
him in those principles, from which our conclusions are necessarily
deduced.--Congenial warmth, and, above all, equability of temperature,
are the first objects of inquiry in the theoretical comparison of
climates; but these cannot be _practically_ ascertained, in relation to
their effects upon the human body, by the thermometer; because they are
constantly liable to be modified by causes of which we have no other
indication but that afforded by our sensations.

_Mr. B._--That is strange;--and, so gratuitous does the assertion
appear to me, that I should be better satisfied were you to support it
by some examples.

_Dr. A._--Well then, I may instance for your satisfaction, the well
known influence of peculiar winds combined with moisture, and which,
although they may produce little or no variation in the thermometer
will rapidly rob the body of its heat; the north-west winds which so
commonly blow in the southern provinces of France are decidedly more
mischievous to the pulmonary invalid than the March winds that desolate
the more delicate frames in our own country, and yet the thermometer in
this case affords no indication of their nature.

_Mr. B._--No one who wishes to form a just estimate of a climate, can
doubt the propriety of taking the prevalence of wind, and the degree
of atmospheric moisture into the account; although reasoning, from
analogy, I should not suppose that this latter circumstance would be
prejudicial; look at the moist and foggy atmosphere of Holland, and yet
I am told that catarrhal affections are extremely rare in that country.

_Dr. A._--Moisture must make both heat and cold more sensible; the one,
by diminishing perspiration, the other, by increasing the conducting
power of the air;[137] humidity therefore may be an injurious, or a
salutary condition, according to circumstances; but you are greatly
mistaken in supposing that the Dutch owe their immunity from Catarrh to
the dampness of their climate, for it is to be imputed to the greater
equability of its temperature.

_Mr. B._ You no doubt place great stress upon the advantage of an
equable climate.

_Dr. A._ I consider equability as the most important condition of all;
especially where the temperature ranges at about 60° of Fahrenheit.
It not only diminishes the chance of aggravating pulmonary disease by
preventing Catarrhs, but it serves to preserve a genial and regular
action of the skin, to keep the balance of blood constantly on the
surface, and to prevent any undue congestion of it in the lungs.
Besides, it is acknowledged on all sides, that consumption is most
prevalent in countries and districts which are subject to great and
rapid changes of temperature, and that it is comparatively rare in
those which are free from the diurnal changes and sudden transitions
which so characterise that of our own island.

_Mr. B._ Nothing can be more convincing than such reasoning;--but tell
me for what reason you consider the temperature of 60° as an essential
condition under these circumstances.

_Dr. A._ It is evident that no climate, however equable it may be
_thermometrically_, can be considered as such in a _medical_ point of
view, if its temperature ranges much below the degree I have mentioned;
because in that case a material change must always occur whenever
the invalid quits his apartment, and goes into the open air. So that
I consider a cold climate must _in effect_ be always regarded as a
variable one.

_Mr. B._ But cannot this objection be obviated by suitable cloathing?

_Dr. A._ To a certain extent perhaps, but recollect if you please,
that there is no furnishing a great coat for the lungs, to protect
their structure against the diminished temperature of the air which is

_Mr. B._ What opinion have you formed respecting the effects of a
marine atmosphere?

_Dr. A._ I apprehend that question cannot be fairly answered without a
reference to the symptoms and circumstances of each particular case;
generally speaking, I am induced to consider the air of the sea as
not hostile to diseased lungs, except perhaps in those cases in which
Hectic fever is fully established; but then again cases will sometimes
occur which would appear to sanction a contrary conclusion. Thus much I
should say was certainly true, that in such situations you will always
experience more humidity, and that when the air is cold, that cold
will in consequence be more intolerable, for the reasons I have before
stated. On the other hand you must be aware that a marine situation
will enjoy a more equable temperature[138] than one similarly situated,
but remote from the ocean, and as far as that goes it will have its

_Mr. B._ I should much like to know what the continental physicians
think of this circumstance, with reference to their own climate.

_Dr. A._ Upon that point you may be easily satisfied by referring to
Dr. Clark's work on foreign climates.[139] He says that the physicians
on the sea coast send their consumptive patients into the interior, and
those in the interior to the shores of the Mediterranean or Adriatic.
From Genoa they send them into the interior, deeming the sea air
injurious to them. From Naples they frequently send such invalids to
Rome. From Rome, on the other hand, they send them frequently to Cività
Vecchia, on the shores of the Mediterranean; more frequently to the
shores of the Adriatic, and, occasionally, even to Naples!

_Mr. B._ And is this account to _satisfy_ me? why I am plunged deeper
in doubt than ever by such testimony. No wonder that the physician
should approach the subject of Climate with diffidence when he finds
those best able, from experience, to appreciate its merits, so
irreconcileably at variance with each other. In the next place, let me
ask whether you advocate the advantages of a Sea Voyage?

_Dr. A._ Not unconditionally. Dr. Young has said, and I believe with
much truth, that the greatest possible equability of temperature is to
be obtained in a sea voyage to a warm climate; in which the variation
will seldom amount to half as much as in the most favourable situation
on shore, even on a small island.

_Mr. B._ The very condition which, of all others, you consider the most

_Dr. A._ Undoubtedly, and if you can make interest with Neptune to push
you forward with his trident, and persuade Æolus to slumber quietly in
his caverns, lose no time in availing yourself of such advantages; but
as long as the wind "bloweth where it listeth," I entreat you, my good
friend, to remain on _terra firma_; depend upon it that experience will
fully sanction this advice;--of the great number of patients who have
been sent on such an errand, by far the greatest proportion have had
the progress of their pectoral complaints rapidly accelerated during
the voyage; remember the various kinds of physical injury and distress
to which you must be exposed on board of ship, before you can reach a
steady and warm climate, from bad weather, and different local causes
which it is not necessary to enumerate;--four and twenty hours beating
to windward are sufficient to counterbalance all the advantages that
might be anticipated.

_Mr. B._ Why you must surely have been inoculated with the prejudices
of Mr. Matthews, who tells us that the fatigue and discomfort of a
vessel is much the same thing as being tossed in a blanket during one
half of the day, and thrown into a pigsty for the remainder.

_Dr. A._ I never was more serious. If the weather be bad the patient
has but one alternative, he is either half suffocated with smoke or
an oppressive atmosphere in the cabin, or exposed on deck to cutting
winds, rain, and cold, and to an air by far too free for diseased
lungs; then again sea sickness, whatever may have been said to the
contrary, reduces his strength rapidly, and if damp sheets are the
_bug-bears_ of land travellers, damp clothes of every description are
unavoidable at sea, and which in stormy weather can seldom be dried.

_Mr. B._ Well, you will at least allow that the motion of a ship is
preferable to that of a carriage on a rough road.

_Dr. A._ I will not even concede this point, and were you only to read
the interesting case of Dr. Currie, I am sure that you would be soon
convinced of the contrary.

_Mr. B._ The opinion you have now expressed is sufficient; I shall not
be readily induced to make the experiment of a sea voyage; suppose
me then, if you please, to have been already transported across the
channel on a calm day in a Steam-boat, and tell me to what part of
the continent I am to direct my steps, in order to find a suitable
residence for the winter months. I take it for granted that you
consider the English Climate, from June to October as salutary to
natives as that of any country in the world.

_Dr. A._ Beyond question;--but as an invalid who seeks permanent
advantage from a foreign climate must be content to remain abroad
for, at least, two winters, you will readily perceive that the
consideration of his residence during the summer season is not entirely
a subject of indifference.

_Mr. B._ My inclination would lead me to the south of France in
preference to a more distant residence, provided the place should meet
with your full concurrence.

_Dr. A._ The places to which English invalids have been more usually
sent are Montpellier, Marseilles, Toulon, and Hieres; but I never
ventured an opinion with less reserve when I declare, that I regard the
very coldest parts of our own country to be less inimical to delicate
lungs than the sharp and piercing air of the places which I have just
mentioned. As to Montpellier, I am at a loss to understand how it could
ever have obtained a reputation for its climate; and yet so universal
was the belief, that its very name became, as you must well know, a
characteristic epithet to places supposed to be preeminently salubrious.

_Mr. B._ Is it not remarkable for its clear blue sky, the very idea of
which will always carry a charm with it to an Englishman?

_Dr. A._ Clear and brilliant enough, but the air is at the same time so
sharp and biting, that every mouthful irritates the lungs, and produces
excessive coughing,--and then you are, moreover, constantly assailed by
one or the other of two destructive winds,--the _Bize_ bringing cold,
and the _Marin_, moisture.

_Mr. B._ And yet to this same _Bize_, of whose sharpness you so greatly
complain, did the Emperor Augustus erect an altar.

_Dr. A._ Very true, but we are told it was an homage like that which
the Indians are said to pay to the infernal deity; to avert its wrath,
not to conciliate its favour.

_Mr. B._ Is the locality of Marseilles less exceptionable?

_Dr. A._ By no means. Cold winds are always injurious, but they are
rendered destructive, in a tenfold proportion, when alternated with
heat. At Marseilles the dreaded _Mistral_ of Provence (a north-west
wind), which is often accompanied by a clear atmosphere, and a
powerful sun, reigns in all its glory. Toulon has the damning fault of

_Mr. B._ Is Hieres exposed to the same evil?

_Dr. A._ Not in the same degree. It has generally the credit of being
much milder, and I really believe that it is justly preferred to every
other place in Provence,--but it is not free from the _Mistral_. Dr.
Clark, however, tells us that about the bases of the hills, there are
some sheltered spots, where the invalid might enjoy several hours
in the open air on almost every dry day, but then there exists a
difficulty in reaching them at those times, when they would be most

_Mr. B._ I see plainly, that a residence in the south of France would
never realize my hopes of recovery; perhaps Nice may be more likely to
afford satisfaction?

_Dr. A._ Nice, as you probably know, was first brought into vogue
by our celebrated countryman, Dr. Smollet, who resided there during
two winters, and it has been extolled by numerous writers since that
period; the northern blasts, which rage with such fury in the south of
France, are averted from this favoured valley by the maritime alps.
Dr. Smollet, in speaking of its superior mildness, when compared with
Provence, says, "the north-west winds blew as cold in Provence as ever
I felt them on the mountains of Scotland, whereas Nice is altogether
screened from them by mountains."

_Mr. B._ If I have been correctly informed, the neighbourhood of Nice
is on many accounts preferable to the town itself.

_Dr. A._ The suburbs of the '_Croix de Marbre_' have been the
favourite residence of the English, and indeed on that account are
not unfrequently called the '_Fauxbourg des Anglois_'. This spot is
situated immediately beyond the river _Paglion_, which, descending from
its Alpine sources, washes the western extremity of the town and falls
into the bay of Nice.

_Mr. B._ What accommodations are to be met with at Nice?

_Dr. A._ I have always understood that provisions are both good and
abundant; some of my patients, however, have complained greatly of
the bread as being sour and ill tasted from the leaven. As to the
other accommodations, Dr. Clark says that they are also good, making
allowance always for the inconveniences which, to an English family,
are inseparable from foreign houses, such as smoky apartments, ill
provided fire places, &c.

_Mr. B._ Now state, if you please, the objections that may be urged
against Nice.

_Dr. A._ In the commencement of the winter, this valley is remarkably
infested with mosquitoes, which greatly annoy strangers, especially
children. During the months of November, December, and January, the
climate would seem to embrace all the qualities so favourable to
pectoral complaints, but the three following months are by no means
unexceptionable. Although Nice be protected from the _Mistral_, yet in
the spring of the year it is infested with cold sharp winds from the
east, and north and south-east, which are highly mischievous to the

_Mr. B._ It is clear then that he should quit Nice at this season.

_Dr. A._ That is not so easy as you may suppose, for unless he leaves
it by sea, he must not venture to depart by any of the usual roads
before the month of May; for should he direct his route to Turin, he
will have a very rough and hazardous journey over the "_Col de Tende_,"
and may perchance be caught in a snow storm; if on the other hand, he
returns by France, he must cross the "_Estrelles_," and expose himself
to the cold winds of Provence.

_Mr. B._ Well these are strong objections; but taking into
consideration all the advantages and disadvantages of Nice, will not
the former so greatly preponderate, as to entitle it to the character
it has long enjoyed as an eligible _winter_ residence for the

_Dr. A._ I fear that medical experience will not sanction such a
conclusion. Catarrhal affections are frequent amongst the inhabitants,
and it has been remarked by those best able to investigate the subject,
that the progress of pulmonary disease is rather accelerated than
retarded by this climate. If you will allow me, I will read a passage
from a late work by Dr. Carter, which places this subject in a very
striking point of view. "Notwithstanding the mildness of Nice, it
appeared to be of little or no service to persons labouring under
confirmed consumption; during the winter I was there, I saw no instance
of great amendment, and I even doubted whether life was not shortened
in some instances by a residence there. Some medical men were clearly
of that opinion; and as their interest should have led them to speak
well of Nice, they must have been pretty strongly impressed with
the conviction of its climate being hurtful to people in confirmed
Phthisis, before they could have been induced to make this opinion

_Mr. B._ This is discouraging; but is the testimony of Dr. Carter
supported by other authorities?

_Dr. A._ By many others. Here is a work by Dr. Clark, who is himself
resident at Rome, and a physician of great intelligence; he not only
confirms the opinion of Dr. Carter, but adduces that of Professor
Foderé who practised at Nice for more than six years, and who in a
conversation with Dr. Clark, made the following strong observation.
"There is one thing certain, Sir, you may safely assure your
countrymen, that it is a very bad practice to send their consumptive
patients to Nice." M. Foderé moreover observed, that consumption in
this district is not, as in Switzerland, on the banks of the Soane, and
in Alsace, a chronic disease; but, on the contrary, he has often seen
it terminate in forty days; he says that the physician of the countries
just mentioned would be quite astonished at the quickness with which
one attack of pulmonary hemorrhage succeeds another, how readily the
tubercles suppurate, and how speedily the lungs are destroyed. He
is even inclined to believe that there exists, on the shores of the
Mediterranean, some source of evil not appreciable by meteorological

_Mr. B_. Enough of Nice. What of Pisa?

_Dr. A._ You may perhaps remember that Mr. Matthews, in his comparison
of these two places, says, "I believe that Pisa is the very best place
on the continent during the winter for complaints of the chest; and
Nice, of which I speak from good authority, is perhaps the very worst.
The air of the first, which is situated in a low plain, is warm, mild,
and muggy; that of the second is pure, keen, and piercing."

_Mr. B._ To speak honestly, I entertain a very high respect for Mr.
Matthews as an intelligent and agreeable tourist, but he is the very
last authority upon which I could repose my confidence, with regard to
the salubrity of a climate; his observations upon this head are too
fretful and petulant to afford satisfaction.

_Dr. A._ His remarks upon Nice and Pisa will certainly justify the
opinion you have formed; for there does not exist such a striking
difference in the climate of these places as he has been induced to
believe; although the latter town is certainly milder than Nice, and
possesses the advantage of having good roads leading to it from all
parts of Italy, so that the invalid may leave it with safety much
earlier than he could Nice.

_Mr. B._ Are the spring winds less violent than at Nice?

_Dr. A._ Scarcely. The site of the houses, however, is better
calculated to defend you from their influence. On the northern bank
of the Arno, there is a crescent which faces the south, and is well
protected from the north winds; this situation ought always to be
selected by invalids who winter at Pisa.

_Mr. B._ If I resolve to winter in Italy, I shall probably prefer Pisa.
I confess that I have received a prejudice against Rome, as well as
Naples, from the reports of some friends who have lately returned
from those places; but I should be glad to hear your opinion upon the

_Dr. A._ Rome and Naples ought not to be named in the same breath,
unless indeed for the sake of contrast. Rome possesses many points
of excellence as a winter residence, but as to Naples at this
season, I would not recommend an invalid, on any account, to try its
climate:--conceive the effects of a hot sun with a winter wind of
piercing bitterness! "_Vedi Napoli e po' mori_," says the proverb, and
no wonder that it has received so many illustrations from the English.
Upon this one point at least we must all concur with Mr. Matthews:
"If," says he, "a man be tired of the slow lingering progress of
consumption, let him repair to Naples; and the _denouement_ will be
much more rapid."

_Mr. B._ But what of Rome--of the Eternal City?

_Dr. A._ That vehemence of expression, my good friend, betrays your
polarity; in spite of your avowal I see clearly that your wishes point
to the ancient Mistress of the world.

_Mr. B._ You really mistake me;--depend upon it that I shall undertake
no pilgrimage but to the temple of Hygeia.

_Dr. A._ Rome has, by far, too many temptations for the invalid, and I
confess that from the accounts which I have received from my patients,
I am unable to discover any advantages equivalent to the risks.

_Mr. B._ I am even told that the climate of Rome is much colder than
that of Nice in the winter.

_Dr. A._ You have been rightly informed; in addition to which, the
streets are damp and chilly, and so variable in temperature, that
there is not unfrequently a difference of twenty degrees between one
street and another.

_Mr. B._ In what then does its excellence consist?

_Dr. A._ It is decidedly the best spring residence in Italy. The air
is much more moist than that of Nice; and, at this season, it has the
advantage of being less liable to cold winds; although it must be
confessed that the _Tramontana_ (a sharp northerly wind,) is sometimes
felt with considerable severity, but it does not affect the human body
like the dry cold winds of Provence.

_Mr. B._ The prejudice which exists in my mind against Rome has arisen
from the circumstance of many of my friends having suffered severely
from head-ache, during their residence there.

_Dr. A._ Upon that point, I fear my opinion will rather strengthen
than remove your prejudice. I have no hesitation in stating, that the
same complaint has been frequently made to me; and even Dr. Clark, the
English resident physician, confirms the objection.[141]

_Mr. B._ And then come the frightful _Malaria_.

_Dr. A._ The stranger has nothing to fear from these exhalations
between October and the middle of May, after which period I should not
recommend any invalid to protract his visit.

_Mr. B._ But suppose his object is to remain two winters at
Rome,--where is he to find refuge during these intervals?

_Dr. A._ In the vicinity of Rome there are many spots which will
furnish a very eligible residence during the hot weather, such are
Albano, Frascati, Tivoli, Castel Gandolfo.

_Mr. B._ After what you have said, I think it is scarcely worth while
for an invalid to encounter the fatigues of so long a journey; but you
have not yet mentioned Florence.

_Dr. A._ Its climate is almost as changeable as our own, and far
more mischievous, as its Siberian winds alternate with a temperature
equal to that of our finest days in spring. The summer, however,
is delightful, the heat being greatly tempered by the Apennines.
Bicchierai, an Italian Physician of eminence, used to say, that he
wondered how any body could _live_ at Florence in the winter, or _die_
there in the summer.

_Mr. B._ Upon the whole you have presented me with a very discouraging
view of the Italian Climate; and I have always understood that Lisbon
is intolerable to an Englishman from its filth.

_Dr. A._ Lisbon is out of the question: the character of its climate
may be summed up in a few words. Its winter temperature is neither mild
nor equable, and its spring is remarkable for dense and cold fogs; and
as to what an Englishman calls comfort, there is not a city in the
world where it is so systematically neglected.

_Mr. B._ Suppose I wave the objections to a sea voyage and set sail for

_Dr. A._ In that case you will undoubtedly find a fine climate,
superior in most respects to that of the Italian continent. The winter
and spring seasons are remarkably mild, provided you select Palermo for
your residence; Messina is exposed to cold piercing easterly winds from
the mountains of Calabria.

_Mr. B._ I have heard Catania well spoken of.

_Dr. A._ Its atmosphere is too sulphureous; in addition to which every
egress from the town is difficult and unpleasant, owing to the lava
from the Volcano. But there is in my opinion an insuperable objection
to the Sicilian climate from the extreme heat of its summer, from which
the invalid cannot easily escape.

_Mr. B._ Well then, Malta.

_Dr. A._ Dr. Domeier, in his account of this climate, tells us that
the thermometer seldom varies in this island more than 6° in the
twenty-four hours, or stands below 51°, even in the depth of winter:
but then the summer, which is protracted even to the month of November,
is extremely mischievous from its heat, the force of which is severely
felt in a country where there is scarcely any visible foliage, the
place of hedges being universally occupied by stone walls.

_Mr. B._ Let me hear what you have to say with respect to the other
islands which have gained celebrity for their climates, such as
Madeira, the Bermudas, Jamaica,--

_Dr. A._ You must be well aware that these places are, generally
speaking, beyond the reach of the ordinary class of English invalids.
Madeira has been greatly extolled by Dr. Adams, who even ventures to
assert that in cases of consumption, if the patient does not saunter
away his time, after his physician has advised him to quit England, we
may with certainty promise him a cure. In the West Indies it is agreed
by all authors, that consumptive affections are almost unknown, and
that scrofula in all its forms is uncommon.

_Mr. B._ Would you recommend a residence in the West Indies to a person
who has free control over his movements?

_Dr. A._ If we may be allowed to draw any inference from the qualities
of a climate, as indicated by the thermometer, or by its effects on
the constitution of the inhabitants, there can be but little doubt
that a residence in the Bermudas, in a temperate and sheltered part
of Jamaica, or in some other of the West India Islands, would present
every advantage, towards the recovery of a consumptive patient, that
climate alone can bestow.

_Mr. B._ I thank you sincerely, my good Sir, for the patience and
candour with which you have discussed the subject of climate. I am
fully sensible of the difficulties with which it is encompassed, and of
the utter impossibility of expecting from medical advice a satisfactory
solution of the many problems which it involves. Every invalid must,
to a certain extent, rely upon his own judgment; but before I finally
decide upon the place of my destination, allow me to trespass still
farther upon your patience, in order to learn whether, after all,
there be not some favoured spot in our own country, where I might seek
shelter from the approaching season, and which would supersede the
necessity of travelling to a foreign land?

_Dr. A._ I should say to a person, who had been accustomed to the
colder and more exposed parts of our island, try the effects of some
more genial situation; and such a change would be as likely to favour
convalescence as an emigration to the continent; for although by such
a step, he might not obtain an equally favourable atmosphere, he would
more than counterbalance the difference by ensuring the advantages of
English comforts.

_Mr. B._ And to what parts of England would you direct him?

_Dr. A._ There are particular spots on the coast of Hampshire and
Sussex which have been long considered as eligible places of winter
residence; such are Southampton and Hastings, which are certainly less
subject to the effect of the Northern and Eastern winds than many parts
of our island; but they are not to be put in competition with Sidmouth,
Dawlish, or Torquay in Devonshire, and still less with Penzance in
Cornwall, which, after all, is the only situation which can be fairly
said to possess any very material advantages from the mildness of its
winter. I speak this from well grounded observation and experience. The
Climate of Penzance is unlike that of any other part of the island.

_Mr. B._ I remember having received a favourable impression with
respect to the climate of that place, from the perusal of a small work,
entitled, a Guide to the Mount's Bay and the Land's End; a copy was
lent me by Sir ---- ----, and I have since endeavoured to purchase one,
but find that it is out of print.

_Dr. A._ Are you not aware then that you have been conversing with its
author?--The book has been for some time out of print, but a second
edition is nearly ready for publication; and, with your permission, I
shall introduce, as nearly as my memory will serve, the conversation
which we have just held together upon the subject of Climate.

_Mr. B._ By all means;--the questions which I have submitted for your
opinion, are such as must naturally suggest themselves to every invalid
who is in search of a winter residence, and as your little work, as
far as I recollect, is intended for the same class of persons, its
practical utility will be materially enhanced by the addition you have
just proposed.


[137] See Paris's Pharmacologia, vol. I, chap. "_Expectorants_."

[138] See page 5 of the Guide.

[139] Medical Notes on Climate, Diseases, &c. in France, Italy, and
Switzerland, by James Clark, M.D. London 1820.

[140] A Short Account of some of the Principal Hospitals of France,
Italy, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, with Remarks upon the Climate
and Diseases of those Countries. By H. W. Carter, M.D. London 1819.

[141] "There is one class of affections for which the Atmosphere of
Rome appeared to me unfavourable. These are head-aches arising from
a tendency to a fullness about the head. In many cases among the
English residents, I found persons not previously subject to head-aches
affected with them here, and some already liable to them had been
aggravated. Apoplexy, I was told, was at one time so frequent at Rome
that a day of public fasting was ordered, and a particular form of
prayer addressed to St. Anthony to avert so dreadful a calamity from
the Holy city."


_An Account of the First Celebration of the_ KNILLIAN GAMES at ST. IVES.

Alluded to at page 158 of this work.

We trust that our readers will find some amusement and relaxation,
after the fatigue of their day's excursion, in the following _Jeu
d'Esprit_, as originally written by an eye witness of the festivity;
an institution which, adds the said writer, will go far to preserve
the tone of the Cornish character, and which can never be neglected
while the Cornish men continue to be brave, and the Cornish women to be

The celebration of the Games at Olympia, after the revolution of every
four years, formed the chief date of time among the Greeks; and perhaps
in future the inhabitants of the West of England will reckon the years,
as they pass, by the quinquennial return of the games at St. Ives.

I ought rather to have begun by stating, that John Knill, Esq. a
gentleman formerly of great eminence in the above mentioned town, has
bequeathed the income of a considerable estate to be distributed by
the trustees in a variety of prizes to those who may excel in racing,
in rowing, and in wrestling. A large sum is to be divided among a band
of virgins, who are to be dressed all in white, and with four matrons,
and a company of musicians preceding them, are to walk in pairs to the
summit of the hill, which is near the town of St. Ives, where they are
to dance and chaunt a hymn round the far famed mausoleum.

Ten guineas are appointed to be expended in a dinner at the grand hotel
in the town, of which six of the principal inhabitants are to partake;
and this festival is to be repeated every fifth year for ever.

From the earliest periods of history, the Cornish have been famous
for their enthusiastic fondness of the athletic exercises of hurling,
racing, wrestling, and rowing, and for the pious fervour of the hymns
which the Druids instructed them to sing round the Cromlechs of the
departed brave.

By establishing rewards for superiority in amusements in which the
Cornish still delight to excel, Mr. Knill has shewn the patriotic
feelings of his local attachments; while by the appropriate selection
of the spot where these pastimes are to take place, he has given ample
proof of the correctness of his taste. The enormous statue of Jupiter
at Elis pointed out that part of Peloponnesus to the taste of the
Greeks, as the most proper place for the celebration of the Olympic
Games; and a sympathy of feeling and sentiment induced Mr. Knill to
order that the Mausoleum, which he erected in the year 1782 should be
the centre of the quinquennial festivities. This proud pyramid, whose
base is situated on the summit of a rock, and whose apex is often
concealed among the clouds, has hitherto formed only an object of
ornamental magnificence, or a guide to the tempest tost mariner; but
henceforth it will be regarded as the monument of fame--the pillar of
the west--the Cornish column!

Monday last was the day appointed for the first celebration. I was
present at the scene, and am induced to think, from this first
specimen, that the rites of the hill will be celebrated in succeeding
years with increased fervour and renewed admiration. Weak as my powers
of description are, your readers may, perhaps, from the following
account, conceive some idea of the interesting spectacle.

Early in the morning the roads from Helston, from Truro, and from
Penzance, were lined with horses and vehicles of every description.
These were seen amidst clouds of dust, pouring down the sides of the
adjacent mountains; while thousands of travellers on foot chose the
more pleasant route through the winding passages of the vallies. At
noon the assembly was formed. The wrestlers entered the ring;--the
troop of virgins dressed, all in white, advanced with solemn step,
which was regulated by the notes of harmony. The spectators ranged
themselves along the sides of the hills which inclose the extensive
bay, while the pyramid on the summit seemed pointing to the sun, who
appeared in all the majesty of light, rejoicing at the scene.

At length the Mayor of Saint Ives appeared in his robes of state. The
signal was given. The flags were displayed in waving splendour from the
towers of the castle. Here the wrestlers exerted their sinewy strength;
there the rowers, in their various dresses of blue, white, and red,
urged the gilded prows of their boats through the sparkling waves of
the ocean; while the hills echoed to the mingled shouts of the victors,
the dashing of the oars, the songs of the virgins, and the repeated
plaudits of the admiring crowd, who stood so thick upon the crescent,
which is formed by the surrounding mountains, as to appear, if I may so
express myself, _one living amphitheatre_.

The ladies and gentlemen of Penzance returned to an elegant dinner
which they had ordered to be prepared at the Union Hotel; and a
splendid ball concluded the entertainment of the evening. The jolly
god presided,--but a reproving smile from Venus restrained him, if he
ventured beyond the due bounds of decorum. Hilarity and beauty danced
to the most delicious notes of harmony; till the rosy finger of Aurora
pointed to the hour at which the quinquennial festivities should close.
Perhaps to many the visions of the night brought back the joys of the
day, and the feet danced, the heart throbbed, and the cheek glowed,
when the eye-lids were closed in sleep.


  Written by one of the Head Poets of London for Mr. KNILL'S
  GAMES at Saint Ives.

  (To the tune of "_Boys and Girls come out to play_.")

  _Sung at the Mausoleum, by a Minstrel adorned with Ribbons._

  Knill commands, and all obey,
  Lads and Lasses haste away,
  Aunts and Uncles,[142] Maids and Wives,
  All are gay, at gay St. Ives.
      No tongue is mute or foot is still,
      But One and All[143] are on the hill,
      In chorus round the tomb of Knill.

  This you surely may rely on,
  Paul, Penzance, nor Marazion,
  Never saw in all their lives
  Such sport as now is at St. Ives.
      No tongue, &c.

  Some in gigs and coaches flocking,
  Some without or shirt or stocking,
  All are crowding--not a hack
  But has three upon his back.
      No tongue, &c.

  Of Virgins pure--(let envy squint,
  And malice sneer, there's nothing in't)
  Of Virgins pure a throng advance,
  And round the tomb in circles dance.
      No tongue, &c.

  Boys on gingerbread are feeding,
  Cudgel-broken pates are bleeding;
  Races running, Wrestlers falling,
  Bones are cracking, women squalling.
      No tongue, &c.

  Thro' the breaking wave below,
  Rowers urge the bounding prow;
  While many a Tub and many a Ray[144]
  Sport around in finny play.
      No tongue, &c.

  All are running--what's the matter?
  Why, to see the fine Regatta.
  Earth and water, hill and bay,
  Share the frolic of the day.
      No tongue, &c.

  Oh! it glads the heart to see e'm
  Gamble round the Mausoleum.
  All is joy: and laughter shakes
  All the merry land of Hakes.[145]
      No tongue, &c.

  What a pother! what a deal is
  Talk'd about the games at Elis:
  Such as they--no not a million
  Equal what we call the Knillian.
      No tongue, &c.

  Knill commands, and all obey,
  Lads and lasses haste away,
  All the world and all his wives.
  What was Greece to gay St. Ives!!
      No tongue is mute, no foot is still,
      But _One and All_ are on the hill
      In chorus round the tomb of Knill.

_An appropriate Chorus to be sung round the Tomb by the Virgins._

  Quit the bustle of the Bay,
  Hasten, Virgins, come away;
  Hasten to the mountain's brow,
  Leave, oh! leave St. Ives below!
  Haste to breathe a purer air
  Virgins fair, and pure as fair.
  Quit St. Ives and all her treasures,
  Fly her soft voluptuous pleasures,
  Fly her sons and all the wiles,
  Lurking in their wanton smiles;
  Fly her splendid midnight halls,
  Fly the revels of her Balls;
  Fly, oh! fly the chosen seat,
  Where vanity and fashion meet.
  Hither hasten; form the ring,
  Round the tomb in chorus sing,
  And on the lofty mountain's brow
                Aptly dite,
  (Just as we should be, all in white)
  Leave all our _Cowels_,[146] and our cares below.


[142] _Aunts and Uncles._ A Cornish epithet indiscriminately applied to
elderly persons.

[143] _One and All_ is the Cornish motto.

[144] Common fish at St. Ives.

[145] St. Ives abounds with a fish called a _Hake_.

[146] See the explanation of this term at page 34.




Fath and Trath than! I bleeve in ten Parishes round
Sichey Roag, sichey Vellan es nat to ba found.


Whoats' tha' fussing, Un Greacey! long wetha Cheel Vean?


A fussing a ketha! oads splet 'es ould breane!
Our Martn's cum'd hum cheeld so drunk as a beast,
And so cross as the Gallish from Perran-zan feaast:
A cum'd in a tottering, cussing, and sweering
So hard as a Stompses, and tarving and teering!


Naver meynd et un Greacey, goa, poat en to bed
Al sleep ale tha lecker aweay froam es head.


I'd nat goa a neest en to fang tha Kings Crown,
For a sweers ef I speek to'an al cleev ma skuel down:
Tha navar en ale tha boarn daeys, fath and shoar,
Dedst behould sichey Maze-gerry Pattick a foar.

Why, a scat ale to Midjans and Jowds for the noans,
A clom Buzza of scale melk about on tha scoans.
And a raak'd up a showl for to steeve ma' outright,
But I'm run'd awaey, readdy to feyntey for freyt!
Loard! tell ma un Mally! whaat shall Ey do by 'an?
For Zoundtikins Deth! Ey'm a fear'd to cum ny'an.


I know whoat Ey'd gee'an ef so bee 'twor my case,
Ey'd scat tha ould Chacks aa'n; Ey'd trem 'an un Greace.


Ey'm afeard o'my leyf to coam ny tha ould Vellan,
Else pleas faather! Ey bleeve Ey shu'd murely kill 'an.
Wor ever poor creychar so baal'd and aboos'd,
Ma heep here leyke bazzom, tha Roag have a bruis'd.
Ey mad for 'es sopar a Muggety Pye,
But a shaan't clunk a croom a'te Ey wish Ey meay die!


Aye! Ey tould tha afore that tha jobb wor a done,
That tha'd'st find out tha odds 'ate, so shoor as a gun;
But tha' wouds'nt hark to ma for doubting, for why
That beshoor, that tha knowd'st 'en mooch better than Ey;
But Ey knaw'd tha good trem 'ane befour tha's't a got 'en;
Ey cou'd tell tha a mashes of stoareys about en;
But tha' aanserds't soa heytish and shrinkt up tha noaz:
'A gissing 'twor greeat stromming leys Ey sopoaz!
But there's one of es praenks Ey shall aleweays remembar
'Twill be three years agone coam tha eighth of Novembar,
Ey'd two pretty young Mabjers as eyes cu'd behould,
So fat as tha Botar; jest iteen wiks ould,
Tha wor picking about in tha Tewn plaace for meat,
Soa Ey hov downe sum Pillas amongst mun to eat:
When who but your man comd a tott'ring along
Soa drunk, that Ey thoft fath, ad fale in tha dung!
'A left tomble 'es Hoggan-bag jest by tha doar,
Soa I caled to tha man as one wud to be shoor,
Sez Ey, Martyn! dust hire Cheeld! teak up tha bag,
"Arrea" sez a, "for whoat beest a caleing me Dog?"
And dreev'd forth toweards ma, nar bettar nar wuss
Nack'd the Mabjers boath steff, we a gaert mawr o' fuss;
Ley'k enow ef Ey hadnt shov'd haastis awaey
A'd a done as a ded to Jan Rous t'oather daey,
When a gote en eis tantrums, a wilfull ould Devel,
A slam'd tha poor Soal on tha head we a Yevel;
Fath and Soal than un Gracey ef so bee a doent aelter
Ey bleev e ma conshance el swing en a haelter.

When tha Leker es runn'd awaey every drap
'Tis too late to ba thenking of plugging the Tap,
And marridge must goa as the Loard do ordean,
But a Passon wud swear to ba used so Cheeld Vean.
Had Ey smilt out tha coose 'ane but neyne weeks ago
Ey'd never a had tha ould Vellan Ey know,
But a vowd and a swear'd that if Ey'd by hes weyf
That Ey naver shud lack ale tha daeys o' ma leyf;
And a broft me a Nakin and Corn saave from Preen;
En ma conshance thoft Ey, Ey shall leve leyk a Queen.
But 'tes plaguey provoking, od rat es ould head!
To be pooted and flopt soa! Ey wish a war dead.
Why a spent haafe es fangings laast Saterday neyt,
Leyk enow by this teym 'tes gone every dyte.
But Ey'll tame tha ould Devel, afor et es long,
Ef Ey caant we ma Viestes--Ey will we ma Tongue.

  (Fuss) [a low cant word] a tumult, a bustle. Swift.
  (Un) Aunt--a title usually given to an elderly woman.
  (Vean) [Cornish for little] Cheel Vean--little Child.
  (Tarving) [a cant word] struggling, convulsions, _Tarvings_.
  (Fang) [Saxon] to gripe, receive, &c. Shakespear.
  (Maze-gerry Pattick) a mad brutish or frolicsome fool.
  (Midjans and Jouds) shreds and tatters.
  (Noans) [Nonce] on purpose.
  (Clom Buzza) a coarse earthen pot.
  (Scoans) the pavement. (Showl) a shovel. (Steeve) stave.
  (Scat) to give a blow, to break. (Chacks) cheeks.
  (Murely) almost. (Baal'd) mischievously beaten.
  (Bazzom) of a blue or purple colour.
  (Muggety Pye) a pye made of sheeps guts, parsley and cream, pepper
    and salt. (Clunk) swallow. (Croom) crumb.
  (Mashes) a great many, number, &c.
  (Mabjers) Mab Hens--young fowls two-thirds grown.
  (Pillas) [Pilez--Cornish] the _avena nuda_ or naked oats of Ray;
    bald, bare or naked oats without husks.
  (Hoggan) Hogan in Cornish British signifies a Hawthorn berry; also
    any thing mean or vile; but here it means a Pork pasty; and now
    indeed a Tinner's Pasty is called a _Hoggan_.
  (Arrea) Arria [vulg. for Ria] O strange.
  (Gaert) great, "gaert mawr o Fuss," great root of Furze.
  (Haestis) hastily. (Yevil) a Dung fork with three prongs.
  (Passon) Parson. (Coose) course or way of him.
  (Neyne weeks)--as though they had been married but nine weeks,
    whereas in the third line, she is addressed by Un Mally as 'long
    wetha Cheeld vean.' This will be readily explained by noticing
    a custom very prevalent among the lower ranks of the county, as
    will appear by the following anecdote. A friend of mine who was
    one year an officer in one of the mining parishes, told me that
    of fifty-five couples married during that year, it was _manifest_
    by the appearance of fifty of the ladies, that they ought to have
    been married several moons before. A young man, to the honor of the
    county be it said, (even if the practice be to its disparagement)
    needs no compulsion to marry his lass when in this condition.
    (Nackin) Handkerchief. (Preen) Penryn. (Pooted) kicked.
    (Fangings) gettings or wages. (Viestes) Fists.

  CARN BREH,[147]

  By Dr. WALCOT,


    While nature slumbers in the shade,
      And Cynthia, cloth'd in paly light,
    Walks her lone way, the mount I tread,
      Majestic mid the gloom of night.
  With reverence to the lofty hill I bow,
  Where Wisdom, Virtue, taught their founts to flow.

    Wan, on yon rocks' aspiring steep
      Behold a Druid form, forlorn!
    I see the white rob'd phantom weep--
      I hear to heaven his wild harp mourn.
  The temples open'd to the vulgar eye;
  And Oaks departed, wake his inmost sigh.

    O! lover of the twilight hour,
      That calls thee from the tombs of death,
    To haunt the cave, the time-struck tower,
      The sea-girt cliff, the stormy heath;
  Sweet is thy minstrelsy to him whose lays
  First sung this hallow'd hill of ancient days.

    Yet not this Druid-scene alone
      Inspires the gloom-delighted muse;
    Ah! many a hill to fame unknown,
      With awe the tuneful wanderer views;
  And oft while midnight lends her list'ning ear,
  Sings darkling, to the solitary sphere.

    Poor Ghost! no more the Druid band
      Shall watch, Devotion-wrapt, their fire,
    No more, high sounding thro' the land,
      To Virtue strike the plauding lyre.
  The snake along the frowning fragment creeps,
  And fox obscene beneath the shadow sleeps.

    No more beneath the golden hook
      The treasures of the grove shall fall;
    Time triumphs o'er each vanish'd oak--
      The power whose might shall crush this ball--
  Yet, yet, till Nature droops the head to die
  Compassion grant each monument a sigh.

    The bards, in lays sublime, no more
      The warrior's glorious deeds relate;
    Whose patriot arm a thunder bore,
      That hurl'd his country's foe to fate:
  Lo! mute the harp near each pale Druid hung,
  Mute, like the voice that once accordant sung.

    Save when the wandering breeze of morn,
      Or eve's wild gale with wanton wing,
    To hear the note of sorrow mourn,
      Steals to the silent sleeping string,
  And wildly brushing, wakes with sweetest swell,
  The plaintive trembling spirit of the shell.

    Here Virtue's awful voice was heard,
      That pour'd the instructive truth profound,
    Here Cornwall's sons that voice rever'd,
      Where sullen silence sleeps around.
  See where she sung, sad, melancholy, tread,
  A pensive pilgrim o'er th' unconscious dead.

    She calls on Alda's, Odred's name,
      Sons to the darken'd world of yore!
    Lur'd by whose eagle-pinion'd fame,
      The stranger left his native shore,
  Daring, his white sail to the winds he gave,
  And sought fair knowledge o'er the distant wave.

    Tho' few these awful rocks revere,
      And temples that deserted lie,
    The muse shall ask the tenderest tear
      That ever dropt from Pity's eye,
  T' embalm the ruins that her sighs deplore,
  Where Wisdom, Virtue dwelt, but dwell no more.


[147] For a description of this hill see page 208.

[148] Dr. Walcot was apprenticed to his uncle, who was an apothecary
at Fowey in Cornwall, and after having practised for some years in
the West Indies, he settled as a Physician at Truro: after residing
there for some time, he suddenly quitted the county, in consequence of
a law suit in which he was engaged against the Corporation of Truro;
the dispute related to the right of their putting upon him a parish
apprentice; when he sold his effects, shut up his house, and informed
the officers that if they were determined to carry their point, they
might put the apprentice into the empty building, as he should never
enter it again.

London: printed by William Phillips, George Yard, Lombard Street.

Transcriber's Notes

Obvious errors of punctuation and diacritics repaired.

Hyphen added: Carn[-]breh (p. xvii), clay[-]slate (pp. 49, 181fn, 236),
light[-]house (pp. 90fn, 93, 99), sub[-]marine (p. 230).

Hyphen removed: Corn[-]fields (p. 42), head[-]land (p. 1).

Both "octahedron / octahedral" and "octohedron / octohedral" appear
and have not been changed.

Both "contemporaneous" and "cotemporaneous" occur and have not
been changed.

P. x: 52.--Westorn -> 52.--Western.

P. xviii: exsensive fresh-water lake -> extensive fresh-water lake.

P. 19: Land'e End District -> Land's End District.

P. 33: pasturage of the neigbourhood -> pasturage of the neighbourhood.

P. 34 fn: differ much in flavor -> differ much in flavour.

P. 38 fn: posseseed by many of the Fish-women -> possessed by many of
the Fish-women.

P. 42: Gear Slamps -> Gear Stamps.

P. 43: Bogs in the neighourhood -> Bogs in the neighbourhood.

P. 68: 29th years -> 29th year.

P. 70: cells, revenues, snd chapel -> cells, revenues, and chapel.

P. 76: their remoal amounted to -> their removal amounted to.

P. 105: maay zealous antiquaries -> many zealous antiquaries.

P. 115: sevesal Tin streams -> several Tin streams.

P. 127: mistaken and disppointed -> mistaken and disappointed.

P. 138: Stalacites -> Stalactites.

P. 144: hugh blocks of this stone -> huge blocks of this stone.

P. 191: Sate Lottery -> State Lottery..

P. 198: quite impossibe to convey -> quite impossible to convey.

P. 216: On one of these pannels -> On one of these panels.

P. 240: pulmonary suffererers -> pulmonary sufferers.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Guide to the Mount's Bay and the Land's End - Comprehending the topography, botany, agriculture, - fisheries, antiquities, mining, mineralogy and geology of - West Cornwall" ***

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