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Title: Parsons on the Rose - A Treatise on the Propagation, Culture and History of the Rose
Author: Parsons, Samuel Browne
Language: English
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PARSONS ON THE ROSE.

A Treatise on the Propagation, Culture, and History of the Rose

by

SAMUEL B. PARSONS.

New and Revised Edition.

Illustrated.



[Illustration: logo]

New York:
Orange Judd Company,
1908

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1888, by the
O. Judd Co.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



                       PREFACE TO NEW EDITION.


Some forty years ago the commencement and partial preparation of this
work assisted to beguile the tedium of a winter's residence from home,
where even Orange and Magnolia groves with the novel vegetation of a
semi-tropical region, could scarcely dispel the ennui attending a life
of idleness.

We were then fresh from contact with some earnest rose lovers abroad.
Rivers in England had impressed us with his enthusiastic energy, and,
in Paris, the force of Hardy, the industry of Vibert and the charming
manners of Laffay left enjoyable memories. For many interesting facts
we were much indebted to Deslongchamps and several anonymous writers.
To the former our obligations were due, both for the plan of this work
and for many researches to which his name could not be conveniently
attached on its pages.

Upon the classification we bestowed much thought, and now, after many
years, we think it is still the best we could have made. Rose growers
will, we think, find the labor of selection much diminished by its
simplicity.

In directions for culture, we give the results of our own experience,
and have not hesitated to avail ourselves of any satisfactory results
in the experience of others which might enhance the utility of the
work.

In the list of sorts published with the first edition there were
nearly two thousand names. So great has been the increase of
varieties in forty years that it would be a work of labor to enumerate
them. Some of the best varieties in the first edition are still
the best, and in revising the list of sorts we have not thrown out
all of these. Of the newer hardy sorts we have adopted some which
are recommended by Mr. Paul, and many others of which our judgment
is confirmed by that of Mr. John Henderson, whose opinion cannot
be questioned. The large scale on which Mr. Henderson has for many
years _forced_ roses for cut flowers makes his opinion of tender
classes especially valuable, and we have placed in our list, without
hesitation, his favorite sorts.

We have stricken out much of the poetry, which to the cultivator may
have seemed irrelevant if not worthless, and for the interest of the
classical scholar, have retained much of the early history of the
Rose, and its connection with the manners and customs of the two great
nations of a former age.

For our labor we shall feel abundantly compensated, if this work, in
its revised form, shall in any way tend to produce a more general
admiration and increased culture of the most beautiful flower known.

  FLUSHING, N. Y., _December, 1887_.



                              CONTENTS.


                              CHAPTER I.
  Botanical Classification                                           7

                             CHAPTER II.
  Garden Classification                                             27

                             CHAPTER III.
  General Culture of the Rose                                       69

                             CHAPTER IV.
  Soil, Situation, and Planting                                     86

                              CHAPTER V.
  Pruning, Training, and Bedding                                    93

                             CHAPTER VI.
  Potting and Forcing                                              102

                             CHAPTER VII.
  Propagation                                                      113

                            CHAPTER VIII.
  Multiplication by Seed and Hybridizing                           130

                             CHAPTER IX.
  Diseases and Insects Attacking the Rose                          140

                              CHAPTER X.
  Early History of the Rose, and Fables Respecting its Origin      153

                             CHAPTER XI.
  Luxurious Use of the Rose                                        161

                             CHAPTER XII.
  The Rose in Ceremonies and Festivals, and in the Adornment of
  Burial-places                                                    167

                            CHAPTER XIII.
  The Rose in the Middle Ages                                      175

                             CHAPTER XIV.
  Perfumes of the Rose                                             185

                             CHAPTER XV.
  Medical Properties of the Rose                                   198

                             CHAPTER XVI.
  General Remarks                                                  202



                         PARSONS ON THE ROSE.



                              CHAPTER I.

                      BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION.


The Rose is a shrub or dwarf tree, with mostly deciduous foliage, and
large, beautiful, and fragrant flowers. Its branches are slender,
almost always armed with thorns, thinly furnished with leaves, which
are alternate upon the stem. Its leaves are pinnate, and vary in
color and character, from the rich, dark green, and somewhat rough
leaf of La Reine, to the glossy smoothness and rich purple edge of
Chromatella. The blossoms are variously arranged at the extremity of
the newly formed branches. The calyx is single and tubular, swelling
at its lower part, contracted at its opening, and divided at the edge
into five lance-pointed divisions, which are whole or pinnatifid. The
corolla is inserted at the mouth of the tube of the calyx, and is
composed of five heart-shaped petals, which constitute the Rose in its
single or natural state. The double blossoms are formed by the change
of the stamens and pistils into petals or flower leaves, shorter than
those of the corolla proper. The fruit or seed vessel, or _hip_,
is formed by the tube of the calyx, which becomes plump and juicy,
globular or oviform, having but one cell, and containing numerous
small, one-seeded, dry fruits, which usually pass for seeds; these
are oval or globular, and surrounded with a soft down. The wood is
very hard and compact, and of fine grain; and if it could be procured
of sufficient size, would serve as a substitute for box in many kinds
of manufacture. The longevity of the Rose is, perhaps, greater than
that of any other shrub. We recollect seeing a rose-tree near an old
castle in Stoke Newington, England, the stem of which was of immense
size, and indicated great age. "There is a rose-bush flourishing at
the residence of A. Murray McIlvaine, near Bristol, (Penn.,) known
to be more than a hundred years old. In the year 1742, there was a
kitchen built, which encroached on the corner of the garden, and the
masons laid the corner-stone with great care, saying 'it was a pity
to destroy so pretty a bush.' Since then, it has never failed to
produce a profusion of roses, shedding around the most delicious of
all perfumes. Sometimes it has climbed for years over the second-story
windows, and then declined by degrees to the ordinary height. The
fifth generation is now regaled with its sweets."

The number of species known to the ancients was small, compared with
the number now recognized by botanists. Pliny, with whom we find the
most detail on this point, says that the most esteemed were those of
Præneste and Pæstum, which were, perhaps, identical; those of Campania
and Malta, of a bright red color, and having but twelve petals; the
white roses of Heraclea, in Greece, and those of Alabande, which
seem to be identical with _R. centifolia_. According to the Roman
naturalist and to Theophrastus, they grew naturally on Mount Panga,
and produced there very small flowers; yet the inhabitants of Philippi
went there to obtain them, and the bushes on being transplanted,
produced much improved and beautiful roses. Pliny speaks also of
some other species, one whose flowers were single, another which he
terms _Spinola_, and also that of Carthage, which bloomed in winter.
Unfortunately, all that we find in his works on this subject is,
generally, very obscure, and it is difficult to compare many he has
described with those known at the present day.

Although there are no double wild roses known at the present day,
either in Europe or in this country, yet, as other flowers have been
found double in a wild state, it is not impossible that some of the
ancient varieties bore double flowers in their native condition in the
fields. Such may have been the _Centifolias_, mentioned by Pliny and
Theophrastus, as growing upon Mount Panga, and those which, at a still
earlier period, according to Herodotus, grew wild in Macedonia, near
the ancient gardens of Midas.

The poverty in description which we have observed in ancient writings,
and their comparatively small number of species, extends also to a
much later day. In a little treatise published in France in 1536,
and entitled _De re Hortensis Libellus_, there are but four species
mentioned, and scarcely anything concerning their culture. An
Italian work published in 1563 mentions only eight species. In the
_Florilegium_ of Sweet, a folio volume printed at Frankfort in 1612,
are ten very coarse representations of roses, but with no indication
of their names.

In the _Paradisus Terrestris_ of Parkinson, a folio volume printed at
London in 1629, some twenty-four kinds are mentioned. Some of them are
represented by figures in wood, which are very coarse, and scarcely
allow recognition of their species. In the _Jardinier Hollandois_,
printed at Amsterdam in 1669, are found but fourteen species of roses,
very vaguely described, with scarcely anything on culture.

The first work which treated of roses with any degree of method is
that of La Quintyne, published at Paris in 1690, and yet its details
of the different species and varieties do not occupy more than a
page and a half, while twenty-one pages are given to the culture
of tulips, and fifty to pinks. Though he describes two hundred and
twenty-five varieties of pinks, and four hundred and thirteen tulips,
he mentions only fourteen species and varieties of roses. For a
century subsequent to the publication of La Quintyne's work, the Rose
is very little mentioned, either in English or French works, and there
is nothing to indicate the existence at that time of many species,
two or three only being required for medicine and perfumery. Some of
the English collections, however, numbered during that century some
twenty-two distinct species, and a number of varieties. In 1762,
Linnæus was acquainted with only fourteen species. In 1799, Wildenow,
in his _Species Plantarum_, mentioned thirty-nine; and Persoon,
a little later, reached forty-five species; De Candolle, in his
_Prodromus_, published in 1825, increased the number to one hundred
and forty-six; and Don, in 1832, makes two hundred and five species.
If to these are added those which have been within fifteen years
discovered in the Himalaya Mountains, and in other parts of the globe,
the number will be greatly increased.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many of those enumerated by Don should not, in truth, be considered
distinct species, and quite a number are nothing more than varieties.
In fact, roses are so liable to pass into each other, that botanists
are now of the opinion that limits between many of those called
species do not exist; a fact which was strongly suspected by Linnæus,
when he said, "Species limitibus difficillime circumscribuntur, et
forte natura non eos posuit."

       *       *       *       *       *

There is much confusion in the genus Rosa, and in the best arrangement
there may be many, which, on close examination, would scarcely deserve
the name of species. The best scientific work on the Rose is the
"Monographia Rosarum," by Dr. Lindley. This author, and Loudon, we
shall follow entirely in our botanical classification. The latter
enumerates several other works on the Rose, which are not within our
reach.

The Rose is found in almost every part of the northern hemisphere,
between the 19th and 70th degrees of latitude.

Captain Fremont, (now General Fremont) in his description of the
prairies some five hundred miles west of St. Louis, says, "Everywhere
the Rose is met with, and reminds us of cultivated gardens and
civilization. It is scattered over the prairies in small bouquets,
and, when glittering in the dews and waving in the pleasant breeze of
the early morning, is the most beautiful of the prairie flowers."

It is found from the mountains of Mexico to Hudson's Bay, from the
coast of Barbary to Sweden, in Lapland and Siberia, from Spain to the
Indies, China, and Kamschatka. "In Asia, half the species have been
found; of the thirty-nine which it produces, eighteen are natives of
the Russian dominions and the countries adjacent. Most of these are
very similar to the European portion of the genus, and five are common
to both Europe and Asia. Of the remainder, one, which is, perhaps, a
distinct genus, has been discovered in Persia, fifteen in China, and
two of the latter, with four others, in the north of India."

We shall not here describe all the species mentioned by Lindley and
Loudon; but only those which are the parents of our garden sorts. A
large part of the species described by these authors cannot be found
in any collection in this country; and, in fact, very few possess
any interest except to the botanist. The descriptions here given are
mainly abbreviated from those of Loudon.


                     BRACTEATÆ.--BRACTED ROSES.

This section is readily distinguished by the woolliness of branches
and fruit. Leaves dense, usually shining; prickles placed under the
stipules in pairs. Sepals simple, or nearly so.

     R. bracteata, _Wendl._--THE LARGE-BRACTED
     ROSE.--Macartney Rose. Evergreen. Branches upright. Prickles
     stout, recurved, in many instances in pairs. Leaflets 5-9,
     obovate, subserrate, coriaceous, glossy, glabrous. Stipules
     scarcely attached to the petiole, bristle-shaped, but fringed.
     Peduncles and calyxes tomentose. Flowers showy, pure white,
     solitary, nearly sessile. Fruit spherical, orange red. Native
     of China; growing to the height of five feet or six feet, and
     flowering from June to October.

A very ornamental shrub, evergreen, with large white flowers, and
numerous bright yellow stamens and styles. It flowers abundantly, but
is rather tender in England. It succeeds best when trained against a
wall.

     R. microphylla, _Roxb._--THE SMALL-LEAFLETED
     ROSE.--Hoi-tong-hong, _Chinese_. Stem almost without prickles.
     Leaflets glossy, sharply serrated, veiny beneath, with densely
     netted, anastomosing veins. Stipules very narrow, unequal.
     Calyx densely invested with prickles. Sepals short, broadly
     ovate, bristly, ending in a point. Prickles having at the base
     two longitudinal furrows. Flowers very large, double, and of a
     delicate blush color. Native of China; growing to the height of
     two feet or three feet, and flowering from August to October.


                      PIMPINELLIFOLIÆ. LINDL.

Plants bearing crowded, nearly equal, prickles, or unarmed. Bractless,
rarely bracteate. Leaflets ovate or oblong. Sepals connivent,
permanent. Disk almost wanting.

This section is essentially different from the last in habit, but in
artificial characters they approach very nearly. It, however, may be
distinguished by the great number of leaflets, which vary from seven
to thirteen, and even to fifteen, instead of from five to seven. The
flowers are also without bracts, except in some species not mentioned
here. These, having connivent permanent sepals, cannot be confounded
with the preceding division; nor, on account of their disk, with the
following. There is no instance of stipular prickles in the present
tribe. The sepals are entire, or nearly so.

     R. sulphurea, _Ait._--THE SULPHUR-COLORED ROSE.--The
     Double Yellow Rose. _Synonyms._ R. hemispherica, _Herm._ R.
     glaucophylla, _Ehrh._ Rosa lutea flore pleno, _Rai. Hist._
     R. lutea, _Brot._ Stipules linear, divaricate, dilated at
     the apex. Leaflets glaucous, flattish. Tube hemispherical.
     Stem prickles unequal, scattered. Flowers large, of a fine
     transparent yellow, always double. Native of the Levant;
     growing to the height of from four feet to ten feet, and
     flowering in July.

This sort does not flower freely, except in open, airy situations and
trained against a wall, exposed to the north or east, rather than
to the south. Its flower buds are apt to burst on one side before
they expand, and, consequently, to become deformed; to prevent this,
the blossom buds should be thinned, and care taken that they have
abundance of light and air. Watering it freely in the flowering season
is also found advantageous, and the shoots in general ought not to
be shortened. This beautiful species is said to flower freely, if
grafted on the musk cluster at eight feet or ten feet from the ground;
or it will do well on the China rose. It is grown in great abundance
in Italy, where its flowers produce a magnificent effect, from their
large size, doubleness, and brilliant yellow color. It is one of
the oldest inhabitants of our gardens, though the exact year of its
introduction is unknown. "Ludovico Berthema tells us, in 1503, that
he saw great quantities of yellow roses at Calicut, whence it appears
probable that both the single and double-flowered varieties were
brought into Europe by the Turks; as Parkinson tells us, in a work
which he dedicated to Henrietta, the queen of our unfortunate Charles
I., that the double yellow rose 'was first procured to be brought to
England by Master Nicholas Lete, a worthy merchant of London, and a
great lover of flowers, from Constantinople, which (as we hear) was
first brought thither from Syria, but perished quickly, both with him,
and with all others to whom he imparted it; yet afterward it was sent
to Master John de Frangueville, a merchant of London, and a great
lover of all rose plants, as well as flowers, from which is sprung the
greatest store that is now flourishing in this kingdom.'"

     R. spinosissima, _L._--THE MOST SPINY, OR SCOTCH
     ROSE.--Prickles unequal. Leaflets flat, glabrous, simply
     serrated. A dwarf, compact bush, with creeping suckers. Flowers
     small, solitary, white or blush-colored. Fruit ovate, or nearly
     round, black or dark purple. Native of Europe; plentiful in
     Britain. Shrub, one foot to two feet high; flowering in May and
     June.

_Varieties._ A great many varieties of this rose have been raised,
with flowers double, semi-double, white, purple, red, and even
yellow. The first double variety was found in a wild state, in the
neighborhood of Perth.


                 CENTIFOLIÆ.--HUNDRED-LEAVED ROSES.

Shrubs, all bearing bristles and prickles. Peduncles bracteate.
Leaflets oblong or ovate, wrinkled. Disk thickened, closing the
throat. Sepals compound. This division comprises the portion of the
genus _Rosa_ which has most particularly interested the lover of
flowers. It is probable that the earliest roses of which there are any
records of being cultivated, belonged to this section; but to which
particular species those of Cyrene or Mount Panga are to be referred,
it is now too late to inquire. The attar of Roses, which is an
important article of commerce, is either obtained from roses belonging
to this division indiscriminately, as in the manufactory at Florence,
conducted by a convent of friars; or from some particular kind, as in
India. It appears, from specimens brought from Chizapore by Colonel
Hardwicke, that _R. Damascena_ is there exclusively used for obtaining
the essential oil. The Persians also make use of a sort which Kæmpfer
calls _R. Shirazensis_, (from its growing about Shiraz), in preference
to others; this may be either _R. Damascena_, _R. Gallica_, or _R.
centifolia_, or, perhaps, _R. moschata_. The species contained in the
present section are all setigerous, by which they are distinguished
from the following divisions; their thickened disk and divided sepals
separate them from the preceding. To the section of Rubiginosæ the
glanduliferous sorts approach; but the difference of their glands, the
size of their flowers, and their dissimilar habit, prevent their being
confounded.

     R. Damascena.--THE DAMASCUS, OR DAMASK ROSE.--Rose à
     quatre Saisons. _Synonyms._ R. Belgica, _Mill_. R. calendarum,
     _Munch_. R. bifera, _Poir_. Prickles unequal, the large ones
     falcate. Sepals reflexed. Fruit elongated. Native of Syria.
     Flowers large, white or red, single or double. The present
     species may be distinguished from _R. centifolia_ by the
     greater size of the prickles, the greenness of the bark, the
     elongated fruit, and the long, reflexed sepals. The petals of
     this species, and all the varieties of _R. centifolia_, as well
     as those of other species, are employed indiscriminately for
     the purpose of making rose-water. A shrub, growing from two
     feet to eight feet high, and flowering in June and July.

This species is extremely beautiful, from the size and brilliant
color of its flowers. It is asserted by some writers to have been
brought from Damascus in Syria at the time of the Crusades, but
there is every probability that it came from Italy, since it is the
same as the _Bifera_, or the twice-bearing rose of the ancient Roman
gardeners, and is the original type of our Remontant Roses. The Roman
gardeners could have produced a certain autumnal bloom only by a
sort of retarding process; for, although the Damask Rose will, under
peculiar circumstances, bloom in autumn of its own accord, yet it
cannot always be relied upon to do so. During the early period of the
French monarchy, when none of the Remontant Roses were known, and this
species was common, it was considered quite a phenomenon to see them
appear naturally in winter. Gregory, of Tours, speaking of the year
584, says, "This year many prodigies appeared, and many calamities
afflicted the people, for roses were seen blooming in January, and a
circle was formed around the sun." And of the year 589 he says, "This
year trees blossomed in autumn, and bore fruit the second time, and
roses appeared in the ninth month."

     R. centifolia, _Lin._--THE HUNDRED-PETALED, PROVENCE,
     OR CABBAGE ROSE.--_Synonyms._ R. provincialis, _Mill._ R.
     polyanthos, _Rossig._ R. caryophyllea, _Poir._ R. unguiculata,
     _Desf._ R. varians, _Pohl._ Prickles unequal, the larger ones
     falcate. Leaflets ciliated with glands. Flowers drooping.
     Calyxes clammy. Fruit oblong. Native of Eastern Caucasus, in
     groves. Flowers white or red; single, but most commonly double.

This species is distinguished from _R. Damascena_ by the sepals not
being reflexed, and the flowers having their petals curved inwards,
so as, in the double state, to give the flower the appearance of the
heart of a cabbage, whence the name of the Cabbage Rose. Its fruit is
either oblong or roundish, but never elongated. From _R. Gallica_ it
is distinguished by the flowers being drooping, and by the larger size
of the prickles, with a more robust habit. A shrub, growing from three
feet to six feet high, and flowering in June and July. When this rose
becomes unthrifty from age, it is renewed by cutting off the stems
close to the ground as soon as the flowers have fallen; shoots will
then be produced, sufficiently vigorous to furnish a beautiful and
abundant bloom the following spring.

_Varieties._ Above one hundred varieties have been assigned to this
species, and classed in three divisions:

Var. provincialis includes the Provence, or Cabbage Roses.

Var. muscosa comprises the Moss Roses.

Var. pomponia, the Pompone Roses. According to Loudon, we have made
this a variety of _R. centifolia_, although some authors assert it
to have been found growing wild in 1735, by a gardener of Dijon, in
France, who discovered it while cutting wood on a mountain near that
city. Many varieties of it have been obtained, among which, the most
singular is the little dwarf given in the New Du Hamel as a distinct
species. It does not grow more than twelve or fifteen inches high, and
frequently perishes before blossoming.

Var. bipinnata, _Red_, has bipinnate leaves.

     R. Gallica, _L._--THE FRENCH, OR PROVENCE ROSE. RED
     ROSE.--_Synonyms._ R. centifolia, _Mill._ R. sylvatica,
     _Gater._ R. rubra, _Lam._ R. holosericea, _Rossig._ R. Belgica,
     _Brot._ R. blanda, _Brot._ Prickles unequal. Stipules narrow,
     divaricate at the tip. Leaflets, 5-7, coriaceous, rigid, ovate
     or lanceolate, deflexed. Flower bud ovate-globose; sepals
     spreading during the time of the flowering. Fruit, subglobose,
     very coriaceous. Calyx and peduncle more or less hispid with
     glanded hairs, somewhat viscose.

A species allied to _R. centifolia, L._, but with round fruit, and
very coriaceous leaflets, with more numerous nerves, that are a little
prominent, and are anastomosing. Native of middle Europe and Caucasus,
in hedges. The flowers vary from red to crimson, and from single to
double; and there is one variety with the flowers double white. The
petals of some of the varieties of this rose are used in medicine,
which, though not so fragrant as those of the Dutch hundred-leaved
rose, also one of the varieties of this species, are preferred for
their beautiful color and their pleasant astringency. The petals of
_R. Gallica_ are those which are principally used for making conserve
of roses, and, when dried, for gargles: their odor is increased by
drying. They are also used in common with those of _R. centifolia_,
for making rose-water and attar of roses. This rose was called by old
writers the Red Rose, and is supposed to have been the one assumed as
the badge of the House of Lancaster. This, also, is one of the roses
mentioned by Pliny; from which, he says, all the others have been
derived. It is often confounded with the Damask rose.

_Varieties._ The varieties of this species are very numerous. One of
the most distinct is Var. parvifolia. (R. parvifolia, _Ehr._ R.
Burgundiaca, _Rossig._ R. remensis, _Desf._) THE BURGUNDY ROSE.--A
dwarf, compact shrub, with stiff, ovate acute, and sharply serrated
small leaflets, and very double purple flowers, which are solitary,
and have some resemblance, in form and general appearance, to the
flower of a double-flowered Asiatic Ranunculus.


                       VILLOSÆ.--HAIRY ROSES.

Suckers erect. Prickles straightish. Leaflets ovate or oblong, with
diverging serratures. Sepals connivent, permanent. Disk thickened,
closing the throat. This division borders equally close upon those
of Caninæ and Rubiginosæ. From both it is distinguished by its
root-suckers being erect and stout. The most absolute marks of
difference, however, between this and Caninæ, exist in the prickles of
the present section being straight, and the serratures of the leaves
diverging. If, as is sometimes the case, the prickles of this tribe
are falcate, the serratures become more diverging. The permanent
sepals are another character by which this tribe may be known from
Caninæ. Rubiginosæ cannot be confounded with the present section, on
account of the unequal hooked prickles and glandular leaves of the
species. Roughness of fruit and permanence of sepals are common to
both.

     R. alba, _Lin._--THE COMMON WHITE ROSE.--Leaflets
     oblong, glaucous, rather naked above, simply serrated. Prickles
     straightish or falcate, slender or strong, without bristles.
     Sepals pinnate, reflexed. Fruit unarmed. Native of Piedmont,
     Cochin China, Denmark, France, and Saxony. Flowers large,
     either white, or of the most delicate blush color, with a
     grateful fragrance. Fruit oblong, scarlet, or blood-colored.
     A shrub, growing from four feet to ten feet in height, and
     flowering in June and July.


                     RUBIGINOSÆ.--BRIER ROSES.

Prickles unequal, sometimes bristle-formed, rarely wanting. Leaflets
ovate or oblong, glandular, with diverging serratures. Sepals
permanent. Disk thickened. Root-shoots arched. The numerous glands on
the lower surface of the leaves will be sufficient to prevent anything
else being referred to this section; and although _R. tomentosa_ has
sometimes glandular leaves, the inequality of the prickles of the
species of Rubiginosæ, and their red fruit, will clearly distinguish
them. This division includes all the Eglantine, or Sweet-brier Roses.

     R. rubiginosa, _Lin._--RUSTY-LEAVED ROSE, SWEET-BRIER,
     OR EGLANTINE.--R. suavifolia, _Lightf._ R. Eglanteria, _Mill._
     R. agrestis, _Savi._ R. rubiginosa parviflora, _Rau._ Prickles
     hooked, compressed, with smaller straighter ones interspersed.
     Leaflets elliptical, doubly serrated, hairy, clothed beneath
     with rust-colored glands. Sepals pinnate, and bristly, as well
     as the peduncles. Fruit obovate, bristly toward the base.
     Native throughout Europe, and of Caucasus. In Britain, in bushy
     places, on a dry gravelly or chalky soil. Leaves sweet-scented
     when bruised, and resembling the fragrance of the Pippin Apple.
     When dried in the shade, and prepared as a tea, they make a
     healthful and pleasant beverage.

This species is extensively used in Europe for the formation of Tea
Roses, and it is estimated that two hundred thousand are budded
annually in the vicinity of Paris alone. The species is very
vigorous, but does not seem to answer well in our hot sun. The change
from its native shaded thickets and hedges is too much for its tall,
exposed stem, and, although the stock may not itself die, yet the
variety budded upon it will frequently perish in two or three years.
This is doubtless partly owing to a want of analogy between the stock
and the variety given it for nourishment, but that the former is
the prominent evil is evident by the fact that dwarfs of the same
stock, where the stem is shaded by the foliage, flourish much better.
The Eglantine, in favored situations, is very long-lived. A French
writer speaks of one in which he had counted one hundred and twenty
concentric layers, thus making its age the same number of years.
Another writer speaks of an Eglantine in Lower Saxony, whose trunk
separated into two very strong branches, twenty-four feet high, and
extending over a space of twenty feet. At the height of seven feet,
one of the branches is nearly six inches, and the other four inches,
in circumference. There is a tradition that it existed in the time of
Louis the Pious, King of Germany in the ninth century. This, however,
must evidently be received with some allowance. Flowers, pink. Fruit,
scarlet, obovate or elliptic. A shrub, growing from four feet to six
feet in height, and flowering in June and July.


                        CANINÆ.--DOG ROSES.

Prickles equal, hooked. Leaflets ovate, glandless or glandular, with
the serratures conniving. Sepals deciduous. Disk thickened, closing
the throat. Larger suckers arched.

     R. canina, _Lin._--DOG ROSE.--_Synonyms._ R. glauca,
     _Lois._ R. arvensis, _Schrank_. R. glaucescens, _Mer._ R.
     nitens, _Mer._ R. teneriffensis, _Donn._ R. senticosa,
     _Achar._ Prickles strong, hooked. Leaflets simply serrated,
     pointed, quite smooth. Sepals pinnate. Fruit ovate, smooth,
     or rather bristly, like the aggregate flower stalks. Native
     throughout Europe, and the north of Africa; plentiful in
     Britain, in hedges, woods, and thickets. Flowers rather large,
     pale red, seldom white. Fruit, ovate, bright scarlet, of a
     peculiar and very grateful flavor, especially if made into a
     conserve with sugar. The pulp of the fruit, besides saccharine
     matter, contains citric acid, which gives it an acid taste. The
     pulp, before it is used, should be carefully cleared from the
     nuts or seeds. A shrub, growing to the height of six feet or
     ten feet, and flowering in June and July.

     R. Indica, _L._--THE INDIA OR CHINA ROSE.--Stem upright,
     whitish, or green, or purple. Prickles stout, falcate, distant.
     Leaflets 3 to 5, ovate-acuminate, coriaceous, shining,
     glabrous, serrulate, the surfaces of different colors. Stipules
     very narrow, connate with the petiole, almost entire, or
     serrate. Flowers solitary, or in panicles. Stamens bent inward.
     Peduncle sub-articulate, mostly thickened upward, and with the
     calyx smooth, or wrinkled and bristly. Native of China, near
     Canton. Flowers red, usually semi-double. Petioles setigerous
     and prickly. Petals obcordate. A shrub, growing to the height
     of from 4 feet to 20 feet, and flowering throughout the year.

_Varieties._--There are numerous varieties of this beautiful rose in
cultivation, some of which were regarded as distinct species by the
earlier authors. The following are quite distinct, and may each be
considered the type of a long list of subvarieties.

     Var. Noisettiana.--THE NOISETTE ROSE.--Stem firm, and,
     as well as the branches, prickly. Stipules nearly entire.
     Flowers panicled, very numerous, semi-double, pale red. Styles
     exserted.

This well-known and very beautiful rose is almost invaluable in a
shrubbery, from its free and vigorous growth, and the profusion of its
flowers, which are continually being produced during the whole summer.

     Var. odoratissima.--THE TEA-SCENTED CHINA ROSE.--R.
     odoratissima, _Swt._; R. Indica fragrans, _Red_.--Has
     semi-double flowers, of a most delicious fragrance, strongly
     resembling the scent of the finest green tea. There are
     numerous subvarieties.

_R. Laurenciana_ is placed as a species by some authors, but it is
probably only a variety of _R. Indica_.


                               SYSTYLÆ.

     (From _sun_, together, and _stulos_, a style; in reference
     to the styles being connected.)

_Sect. Char._--Styles cohering together into an elongated column.
Stipules adnate. The habit of this section is nearly the same as that
of the last. The leaves are frequently persistent.

     R. sempervirens, _Lin._--EVERGREEN ROSE.--_Syn._ R.
     scandens, _Mill._; R. Balearica, _Desf._; R. atrovirens,
     _Viv._; R. sempervirens globosa, _Red_.--Evergreen. Shoots
     climbing. Prickles pretty equal, falcate. Leaves of 5 to 7
     leaflets, that are green on both sides, coriaceous. Flowers
     almost solitary, or in corymbs. Sepals nearly entire, longish.
     Styles cohering into an elongate pilose column. Fruit ovate or
     ovate-globose, orange-colored. Peduncles mostly hispid with
     glanded hairs. Closely allied to _R. arvensis_, but differing
     in its being evergreen, in its leaves being coriaceous, and
     in its stipules being subfalcate, and more acute at the tip.
     Native of France, Portugal, Italy, Greece, and the Balearic
     Islands. A climbing shrub, flowering from June to August.

Used for the same purposes as the Ayrshire Rose, from which it differs
in retaining its leaves the greater part of the winter, and in its
less vigorous shoots. This species is well adapted for _rose carpets_
made by pegging down its long, flexile shoots. Its glossy, rich
foliage forms, in this way, a beautiful carpet of verdure enameled
with flowers.

     R. multiflora, _Thunb._--MANY-FLOWERED ROSE.--_Syn._
     R. flava, _Donn._; R. florida, _Poir._; R. diffusa,
     _Roxb._--Branches, peduncles, and calyxes tomentose. Shoots
     very long. Prickles slender, scattered. Leaflets 5 to 7,
     ovate-lanceolate, soft, finely wrinkled. Stipules pectinate.
     Flowers in corymbs, and, in many instances, very numerous. Buds
     ovate globose. Sepals short. Styles protruded, incompletely
     grown together into a long, hairy column. A climbing shrub,
     a native of Japan and China; and producing a profusion of
     clustered heads of single, semi-double, or double, white, pale
     red, or red flowers in June and July.

This is one of the most ornamental of climbing roses; but, to succeed,
even in the climate of London, it requires a wall. The flowers
continue to expand one after another during nearly two months.

     Var. Grevillei.--R. Roxburghii, _Hort._; R. platyphylla,
     _Red_.--THE SEVEN SISTERS ROSE.--A beautiful variety, with much
     larger and more double flowers than the species, of a purplish
     color. It is easily known from _R. multiflora_ by the fringed
     edge of the stipules; while those of the common _R. multiflora_
     have much less fringe, and the leaves are smaller, with the
     leaflets much less rugose. The form of the blossoms and corymbs
     is pretty nearly the same in both.

A plant of this variety on the gable end of R. Donald's house, in
the Goldworth Nursery, in England, in 1826, covered above 100 square
feet, and had more than 100 corymbs of bloom. Some of the corymbs had
more than 50 buds in a cluster, and the whole averaged about 30 in
each corymb, so that the amount of flower buds was about 3,000. The
variety of color produced by the buds at first opening was not less
astonishing than their number. White, light blush, deeper blush, light
red, darker red, scarlet, and purple flowers, all appeared in the same
corymb; and the production of these seven colors at once is said to be
the reason why this plant is called the Seven Sisters Rose. This tree
produced a shoot the same year which grew 18 feet in length in two
or three weeks. This variety, when in a deep, free soil, and an airy
situation, is of very vigorous growth, and a free flowerer; but the
shoots are of a bramble-like texture, and the plant, in consequence,
is of but temporary duration. R. Donald's _R. Grevillei_ died in three
or four years.

     Var. Russelliana is a variety differing considerably,
     in flowers and foliage, from the species, but retaining the
     fringed footstalk; and is, hence, quite distinct from _R.
     sempervirens Russelliana_.

     Var. Boursaulti, BOURSAULT ROSE, is placed, in Don's
     _Miller_, under this species; though it differs more from the
     preceding variety than many species do from each other. It is
     comparatively a hard-wooded, durable rose, and valuable for
     flowering early and freely. This is a very remarkable rose,
     from its petals having a reticulated appearance.

     R. moschata, _Mill._--MUSK ROSE.--_Syn._ R.
     glandulifera, _Roxb._--Shoots ascending. Prickles upon the stem
     slender, recurved. Leaflets 5 to 7, lanceolate, acuminate,
     nearly glabrous, the two surfaces of different colors. Stipules
     very narrow, acute. Flowers, in many instances, very numerous,
     white, with the claws of the petals yellow, very fragrant.
     Lateral peduncles jointed, and, as well as the calyx, pilose,
     and almost hispid. Sepals almost pinnately cut, long. Fruit
     red, ? ovate.

The branches of the Musk Rose are generally too weak to support,
without props, its large bunches of flowers, which are produced in
an umbel-like manner at their extremities. The musky odor is very
perceptible, even at some distance from the plant, particularly in the
evening,--

    "When each inconstant breeze that blows
     Steals essence from the musky rose."

It is said to be a native of Barbary; but this has been doubted.
It is, however, found wild in Tunis, and is cultivated there for
the sake of an essential oil, which is obtained from the petals by
distillation. It has also been found wild in Spain. The first record
of the musk rose having been cultivated in England is in _Hakluyt_,
in 1582, who states that the musk rose was brought to England from
Italy. It was in common cultivation in the time of Gerard, and was
formerly much valued for its musky fragrance, when that scent was the
fashionable perfume. The Persian attar of roses is said to be obtained
from this species. The musk rose does best trained against a wall,
on account of the length and weakness of its branches; and Miller
adds that it should always be pruned in spring, as in winter it will
not bear the knife. It requires very little pruning, as the flowers
are produced at the extremities of the shoots, which are often 10
feet or 12 feet in length. It flowers freely, and is well worthy of
cultivation. This rose is thought by some to be the same as that of
Cyrene, which Athenæus has mentioned as affording a delicious perfume,
but of this there is no certain evidence. It seems to have been rare
in Europe in the time of Gessner, the botanist, who, in a letter to
Dr. Occon, dated Zurich, 1565, says that it was growing in a garden at
Augsburg, and he was extremely anxious that the doctor should procure
some of its shoots for him. Rivers mentions that Olivier, a French
traveler, speaks of a rose tree at Ispahan, called the "Chinese Rose
Tree," fifteen feet high, formed by the union of several stems, each
four or five inches in diameter. Seeds of this tree were sent to Paris
and produced the common Musk Rose.


                     BANKSIANÆ.--BANKSIA ROSES.

     (So called because all the species contained in this
     section agree in character with _R. Banksiæ_, a rose named in
     honor of Lady Banks.)

Stipules nearly free, subulate, or very narrow, usually deciduous.
Leaflets usually ternate, shining. Stems climbing. The species of this
section are remarkable for their long, graceful, and often climbing,
shoots, drooping flowers, and trifoliate, shining leaves. They are
particularly distinguished by their deciduous, subulate, or very
narrow stipules. Their fruit is very variable.

     R. Banksiæ, _R. Br._--LADY BANKS' or BANKSIA
     ROSE.--Without prickles, glabrous, smooth. Leaflets 3 to
     5, lanceolate, sparingly serrated, approximate. Stipules
     bristle-like, scarcely attached to the petiole, rather glossy,
     deciduous. Flowers in umbel-like corymbs, numerous, very
     double, sweet-scented, nodding. Tube of the calyx a little
     dilated at the tip. Fruit globose, black. A native of China. A
     climbing shrub, flowering in June and July.

_Description, etc._--This is an exceedingly beautiful and very
remarkable kind of rose; the flowers being small, round, and very
double, on long peduncles, and resembling in form the flowers of the
double French cherry, or that of a small ranunculus, more than those
of the generality of roses. The flowers of _R. Banksiæ alba_ are
remarkably fragrant, the scent strongly resembling that of violets.

Thunberg speaks of the _Rosa rugosa_ as growing in China and Japan,
being extensively cultivated in the gardens of those countries, and
producing flowers of a pale red or pure white. The original plant
is of a deep purple color. Siebold, in his treatise on the flowers
of Japan, says that this rose had been already cultivated in China
about eleven hundred years, and that the ladies of the Court, under
the dynasty of Long, prepared a very choice pot-pourri by mixing its
petals with musk and camphor.

More than one hundred distinct species are mentioned by botanists,
in addition to those we have enumerated, but none of very marked
characters or much known.



                             CHAPTER II.

                        GARDEN CLASSIFICATION.


The varieties of a plant are, by Botanists, designated by names
intended to convey an idea of certain characteristics,--the form and
consistency of the leaves, the arrangement, number, size, and color of
the flowers, seed-vessels, etc. The varieties of roses, however, have
so few distinct characteristics, that florists find it difficult to
give any name expressive of the very slight shades of difference in
the color or form of the flower. Fanciful names have therefore been
chosen, indiscriminately, according to the taste of the grower; and
we thus find classed, in brotherly nearness, Napoleon and Wellington,
Queen Victoria and Louis Philippe, Othello and Wilberforce, with many
others. Any half-dozen English or French rose growers may give the
name of their favorite Wellington or Napoleon to a rose raised by each
of them, and entirely different in form and color from the other five
bearing the same name. Thus has arisen the great confusion in rose
nomenclature.

A still greater difficulty and confusion, however, exists in the
classification adopted by the various English and French rose growers.
By these, classes are multiplied and roses placed in them without
sufficient attention to their distinctive characters; these are
subsequently changed to other classes, to the utter confusion of those
who are really desirous of obtaining some knowledge of the respective
varieties. Even Rivers, the most correct of them all, has in several
catalogues the same rose in as many different classes, and his book
may perhaps place it in another. He thus comments upon this constant
change:

     "Within the last ten years, how many plants have been
     named and unnamed, classed and re-classed!--Professor A.
     placing it here, and Dr. B. placing it there! I can almost
     imagine Dame Nature laughing in her sleeve, when our
     philosophers are thus puzzled. Well, so it is, in a measure,
     with roses; a variety has often equal claims to two classes.
     First impressions have perhaps placed it in one, and there
     rival amateurs should let it remain."

If there exists, then, this doubt of the proper class to which many
roses belong, we think it would be better to drop entirely this
sub-classification, and adopt some more general heads, under one
of which every rose _can_ be classed. It may often be difficult to
ascertain whether a rose is a Damask, a Provence, or a Hybrid China;
but there can be no difficulty in ascertaining whether it is dwarf or
climbing, whether it blooms once or more in the year, and whether the
leaves are rough as in the Remontants, or smooth as in the Bengals. We
have therefore endeavored to simplify the old classification, and have
placed all roses under three principal heads, viz:

I. Those that make distinct and separate periods of bloom throughout
the season, as the Remontant Roses.

II. Those that bloom continually, without any temporary cessation, as
the Bourbon, China, etc.

III. Those that bloom only once in the season, as the French and
others.

Remontants.--The first of these divisions includes only the present
Damask and Hybrid Perpetuals, and for these we know no term so
expressive as the French _Remontant_. "_Perpetual_" does not express
their true character.

Everblooming Roses is the name we give to those included under the
second general head. This is divided into five classes:

1. The Bourbon, the varieties of which are easily known by their
luxuriant growth, and thick, large, leathery leaves. These are,
moreover, reasonably hardy.

2. The China.--This includes the present China, Tea, and Noisette
Roses, which are now much confused, as there are many among the Teas
which are not tea-scented, and among the Noisettes are those which
do not bloom in clusters; they are, moreover, so much alike in their
growth and habit, that it is better each should stand upon its own
merits, and not on the characteristics of an imaginary class.

3. Musk.--Roses of this class are known by their rather rougher
foliage.

4. Macartney.--The varieties of this are distinguished by their very
rich, glossy, almost evergreen foliage.

5. Microphylla.--A class easily distinguished by their peculiar
foliage and straggling habit.

The third general head we divide again into five classes:

1. Garden Roses.--This includes all the present French, Provence,
Hybrid Provence, Hybrid China, Hybrid Bourbon, White, and Damask
Roses, many of which, under the old arrangement, differ more from
others in their own class than from many in another class.

2. Moss Roses, all of which are easily distinguished.

3. Brier Roses, which will include the Sweet-Brier, Hybrid
Sweet-Brier, and Austrian Brier.

4. Scotch Roses.

5. Climbing Roses; which are again divided into all the distinctive
subdivisions.

In describing colors, we have given those which prevail. It is well
known that many roses are very variable in this respect, and that the
same flower will frequently be white or yellow, crimson or blush, at
different periods of its bloom. We have seen a plant produce several
flowers totally unlike each other; one being dark crimson, and the
other pale blush. We therefore describe the _prevailing_ color, and
the cultivator should not be disappointed if his rose, the first
season, should not correspond with the description; neither should he
be disappointed if a rose which we describe as very double should with
him prove very single. Transplanting will often temporarily change
the character of roses, and they often refuse to develop themselves
perfectly under our hot sun, or in a poor soil. A second season is
thus often required to test them fairly. We have seen the fine rose,
La Reine, semi-double, and worthless at midsummer, while at other
seasons, and perhaps in a different location, it is fully equal to
its reputation. It is frequently the case, that roses imported from
Europe, under glowing descriptions, prove worthless the first season,
but fully sustain their character the second. We mention these things
here, in order that the amateur may be prepared for any temporary
disappointment that may occur. In describing over two hundred choice
varieties, we have endeavored to select those whose character is well
established for superior and distinct qualities, and above all, for
vigorous growth. Any variety whose growth is uniformly weak has been
at once rejected, notwithstanding its great beauty of flower. Thus
many fine roses, like Gloire de Santenay, are thrown aside. There are
many equally good that have been necessarily omitted, and there are
also new varieties we have recently received from Europe, which may
prove superior to many we have named.

From this list, the rose amateur may feel safe in selecting, without
incurring the risk of obtaining inferior varieties.


              ROSES THAT BLOOM DURING THE WHOLE SEASON.

                           REMONTANT ROSES.

The term Remontant--signifying, literally, _to grow again_--we have
chosen to designate this class of roses, there being no word in our own
language equally expressive. They were formerly called Damask and Hybrid
Perpetuals, but are distinguished from the true Perpetual or
Everblooming Roses by their peculiarity of distinct and separate periods
of bloom. They bloom with the other roses in early summer, then cease
for a while, then make a fresh season of bloom, and thus through the
summer and autumn, differing entirely from the Bourbon and Bengal Roses,
which grow and bloom continually through the summer. In order,
therefore, to avoid confusion, we have deemed it best to adopt the
French term, _Remontant_.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--REMONTANT ROSE.]

These roses have generally been obtained by hybridization between the
Hybrid China and Damask, and the Bourbon and China Roses, uniting
the luxuriant growth and hardy character of the former two with the
ever-blooming qualities of the latter. They are generally large,
double, very fragrant, and bloom, some of them, freely throughout the
season. They are also perfectly hardy, and grow well in any climate
without protection. These qualities render them very desirable, and
they are fast driving out of cultivation the Garden Roses, which
bloom but once, and during the rest of the season cumber the ground.
There are, it is true, among the latter, some varieties, like Madame
Plantier, Chénédole, Persian Yellow, and others, that are not equaled
by any varieties existing among the Remontants. Such, however, is the
skill now exerted by rose growers, that this will not long be the
case, and we may hope soon to have among the Remontants, roses of
every shade of color, with the snow-like whiteness of Madame Plantier,
the golden richness of Persian Yellow, or the peculiar brilliancy of
Chénédole.

Abel Grand.--Rosy blush, fragrant, large and full, fresh and glossy.

American Beauty.--Rose pink; very large and fragrant; very free in
blooming, and exceedingly valuable for forcing; free bloomer in autumn.

Alfred Colomb.--Not new, but little known at the time of the former
list. Large; brilliant crimson; fine form, and very fragrant. A
seedling of the popular _Gen. Jacqueminot_, and one of the best.

Anne de Diesbach.--Has been several years in cultivation and found
to be desirable. Large, full, fine shape; clear, bright carmine;
fragrant, and very hardy.

Annie Wood.--Clear red; large and full, excellent form; a good
bloomer in autumn.

Antoine Mouton.--Medium size, full; lively rose, tinged with lilac;
very fragrant; plant vigorous.

Auguste Mie.--A seedling of the well-known La Reine. A vigorous
grower. Its color is a light pink, not so dark as La Reine, which it
resembles in form.

Baron de Bonstettin.--Red and dark crimson; large, full and of
vigorous growth.

Baroness Rothschild (also _Madame de Rothschild_).--One of the
largest roses; fine form; pink, shaded with rose; exceedingly hardy,
and a free bloomer.

Baronne Prevost.--One of the very best of its class, blooming freely
in autumn, and producing fragrant flowers of a bright rose color. It
is also of luxuriant growth, and large, rich foliage.

Beauty of Waltham.--Large, full, of fine form; light rosy crimson;
free bloomer.

Boieldieu.--Very large and full; fine cherry red, of the style of
_Baronne Prevost_; plant vigorous.

Boule de Neige.--Pure white; moderate size, fine form, and free
bloomer.

Captain Christy.--Delicate flesh color, deeper in the center; large,
full, and with fine foliage.

Caroline de Sansal.--A vigorous plant, with a large and full flower,
the color of which is clear flesh, with blush edges. It is one of the
best of its color.

Charles Lefebvre.--A strong grower, and one of the finest of its
class. Its color is a bright, changeable crimson, inclining to a
purple shade in the center. Its form is cupped and regular.

Comtesse de Serenye.--Flowers flesh color, inclining to salmon in
the bud; large, full, and globular; of greatest beauty when grown
under glass.

Coquette des Alpes.--White, tinged with rose; free bloomer; size,
medium to large; a valuable sort.

Elise Boelle.--White, slightly tinged with rose, changing to pure
white; medium size, fine form, and full.

Eugene Verdier.--Large; silvery-pink, tinged with fawn color; bud
very fine; dwarfish habit; seedling of _Victor Verdier_.

E. Y. Teas.--Large, fine globular form; carmine-crimson; highly
fragrant; excellent.

Fisher Holmes.--Large and full; magnificent scarlet shaded with
crimson; free grower and bloomer. It has been described as an improved
_Gen. Jacqueminot_.

Francois Michelon.--Deep rose, the reverse of the petals silvery;
large, full, and of globular form; one of the best.

General Jacqueminot.--A strong grower, and when in bud, one of the
most beautiful of roses. Its open flower, not being perfectly double,
is surpassed by others. Its color is a scarlet crimson, with a soft
velvety sheen, and a few thousand of them in full bloom is a sight to
be remembered. A basket of buds freshly cut in the morning is sure to
be appreciated.

General Washington.--One of the finest of its class. It is a good
grower, very full bloomer, and a general favorite. Its color is a
bright red.

John Hopper.--Large, and finely shaped. Its color is rosy crimson.

Jules Margottin.--One of the finest Remontant Roses. Its growth
is vigorous, its bloom is abundant, and its color is a clear pink
crimson. It is particularly fine when in bud.

La France.--An invaluable rose for its hardiness, and its constant
blooming qualities. Its color is pale peach, with rosy center; its
form is globular, full, and very large.

La Reine.--When our first edition was issued, this variety was
unequalled. Others have now surpassed it. It is, however, still
valuable for its glossy rose color, and its large, full, semi-globular
form.

Louis Van Houtte.--Has a large and double globular flower. Its color
is bright shaded rosy carmine.

Louise Carique.--One of the most valuable Remontants. Its color is
a fine rosy carmine, its form is full, and it grows well and blooms
abundantly through the summer. For general purposes, it has scarcely a
superior.

Magna Charta.--Bright pink, suffused with carmine; very large, full,
of good form; habit erect; flowers produced in abundance.

Mabel Morrison.--A sport of _Baroness Rothschild_, and like it in
nearly all respects, save color, which is a pure dead white, but in
autumn flushed with delicate pink.

Madame Gabriel Luizet.--Pale pink, a very delicate and beautiful
tint of color; large and full, cupped; very sweet.

Madame Victor Verdier.--Large, full, globular; carmine-rose;
fragrant; free bloomer, and though not new, excellent.

Marguerite de St. Amande.--Medium growth; beautiful in the bud;
bright rose; free, especially in autumn. Much used by those who force
roses.

Marie Baumann.--Large and full, excellent form; deep carmine; very
fragrant; remarkably free, and classed by all among the best.

Marquise de Castellano.--Beautiful bright rose; very large and full,
form perfect; blooms freely; one of the best.

Marquise de Mortemarte.--A seedling of _Jules Margottin_; blush
color, and well formed.

Marshall P. Wilder.--Cherry carmine; large, semi-globular, full, and
well formed. An American variety, with vigor, hardiness, and freedom
in blooming.

Maurice Bernardin.--A good grower, with full, fine form, and bright
cherry crimson color. One of the best.

Merveille de Lyon.--Pure white, sometimes washed with satin-rose;
very large, full, and cupped. A very fine new white Rose.

Paul Neyron.--Very large, and perhaps the largest yet produced; deep
rose; somewhat fragrant; very free bloomer.

Pierre Notting.--Very large, fine globular form; very deep crimson,
with a violet shade; highly fragrant; free and one of the most valued
among the dark roses.

Pæonia.--Large to very large, full; red; fragrant; old, but valued
for its fine foliage, and free flowering.

Pride of Waltham.--A delicate flesh color, richly shaded with bright
rose, very clear and distinct.

Prince Camille de Rohan.--Large and full. Its color is a velvety
deep crimson maroon, clouded with red. One of the finest.

Queen of Queens.--Pink, with blush edges; large and full, of perfect
form; and a true perpetual flowering rose, every shoot being crowned
with a flower bud.

Rev. J. B. M. Camm.--Carmine rose; large, semi-globular; fragrant,
and free blooming; superb.

Paul's Single Crimson and Single White.--Most charming roses, and
worthy of attention.

Thomas Mills.--Very bright rosy carmine; large and full.

Victor Verdier.--Rosy carmine; a large, showy, free growing rose;
good quality, and very effective.

White Baroness.--A white sport from _Baroness Rothschild_; flowers
large and full.

                          REMONTANT SCOTCH.

Stanwell.--Of Scotch parentage, and has the peculiar foliage and
habit of the Scotch roses. Its flowers are large, blush colored,
and rather flat. It is an abundant and constant bloomer throughout
the season, and its peculiar, delightful fragrance renders it very
desirable.

                           REMONTANT MOSS.

Blanche Moreau.--Large, full, perfect form; pure white; buds and
flowers produced in clusters and freely furnished with deep green moss.

Eugene de Savoie.--Of vigorous growth, with a large and full flower.
It is an abundant bloomer, and very fragrant. Its color is a bright
red.

Madame Edouard Ory.--A good autumn bloomer. It is globular, finely
formed, and of a rich rose color.

Madame William Paul.--Very bright rose; large, full, and of finely
cupped form; flowers freely. One of the best perpetual moss roses yet
introduced.

Mousseline.--White, lightly tinted with rose at opening, but
changing to pure white; large and full; very free and a continuous
bloomer.

Perpetual White.--A vigorous grower, double, and blooms in clusters.

Salet.--A good autumnal bloomer, and a good grower. Its color is
bright pink, changing to rose.

Soupert and Notting.--Very large, full, and globular; bright
rose color; while not so "mossy" as some others, its ever-blooming
character and most exquisite fragrance give it a place in the first
rank of its class.

                            BOURBON ROSES.

This class does not possess the hardiness of the Remontants, nor the
free blooming properties of the Bengals, Teas, and Noisettes, and
therefore can never compete with the former for the North, nor with
the latter for the South. In it, however, are varieties like Hermosa,
Souvenir de Malmaison, and others, which are scarcely surpassed
in any class. The Bourbon Rose has also qualities which make many
varieties favorites. These qualities are its greater hardiness than
the Tea Rose, its very thick, leathery foliage, its luxuriant growth,
its more constant bloom than the Remontants, and its thick, velvety
petals, of a consistency to endure the summer's sun.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--BOURBON ROSE.]

It was introduced into France by Jacques, head gardener of the Duke of
Orleans, at Neuilly, who received it in 1819 from Bréon, director of
the Royal gardens in the Isle of Bourbon. The following account of its
origin is given by Bréon, and is also mentioned by Rivers:

"At the Isle of Bourbon, the inhabitants generally inclose their land
with hedges made of two rows of roses; one row of the common China
Rose, the other of the Red Four Seasons. M. Perichon, a planter in the
island, found in one of these hedges a young plant, differing very
much from the others in its shoots and foliage. This he transplanted
into his garden. It flowered the following year, and proved to be of a
new race, and very different from the above two roses, which at that
time were the only varieties known in the island."

Its resemblance to the Bengal Rose was, however, so strong, that it
was soon considered a variety of that species. Its characteristics
are, however, so entirely different from the Bengal, that we give it
a separate place in our garden classification. To the French we owe
nearly all the varieties of this class which have been produced from
the original semi-double rose, or Bourbon Jacques, as it was called.
Of these varieties, the following are distinct, and possess many
charming qualities that cannot fail to gratify the amateur.

Acidalie.--One of the best light roses, being sometimes light blush,
and at others white. Its autumnal bloom is its best.

Appoline.--A vigorous grower; its color is rose and pink.

Dr. Berthet.--Brilliant cherry red; large, full, and good.

George Peabody.--Medium, full, well formed; purplish crimson;
fragrant; a moderate grower, but one of the best of its class.

Hermosa.--An old variety, but still one of the very best of this
group. Its form is cupped, very double and perfect, and no rose blooms
more abundantly, either forced or in the open ground. Its color is
delicate rose. The plant is of medium growth, and well adapted for
grouping or for planting in beds with Mrs. Bosanquet and Agrippina.

Marquise Balbiano.--Rose, tinged with silver; full, fine form.

Perle d'Angers.--Very pale rose, almost white; large and full,
imbricated.

Queen of the Bourbons.--A very beautiful and delicate rose-colored
variety, slightly tinged with buff. It is cupped, very fragrant,
large, and double, and its petals are arranged with a beautiful
regularity.

Queen of Bedders.--Medium, very full; rich crimson. Few recent roses
have been so highly praised as this; evidently a useful free-blooming
sort.

Souvenir de la Malmaison.--Altogether the most perfect and superb
rose of this or any other class. It was originated by Béluze, a
Frenchman. Its flowers are cupped, and of very perfect form, very
double, with thick, velvety petals; they are of the largest size,
often four to five inches in diameter, and their color delicate blush,
with a rich tint of cream. Its large and very luxuriant foliage,
compact habit, and flowers of exceeding beauty, render this one of the
very finest roses known.


                                CHINA.

Agrippina.--Though an old rose, this is still one of the best and
most popular of its class. As a forcing rose, and for an abundance
of bloom, it is largely cultivated by bouquet venders. It is cupped,
beautifully formed, and of a rich, brilliant crimson, with a delicate
white stripe in the center of each petal. It is one of the most hardy
and desirable of the old China Roses.

Cels multiflora.--An abundant bloomer; its color is white, shaded
with pink.

Daily Blush.--One of the oldest China Roses, but one of the very
best. There can be nothing more perfect than its half-expanded bud, of
a light crimson, inclining to blush. It commences blooming among the
earliest, and, if the old seed-vessels are picked off, will continue
to bloom abundantly through the summer and autumn, even after severe
frosts. It is one of the hardiest of the class.

Daily White.--Very similar to the preceding, in everything but the
color of its flowers, which are pure white.

Douglass.--Crimson; medium size; double, fine in bud, and one of the
best forcing sorts.

Ducher.--White; medium size, fine form, full; free flowering;
promising as a free and continuous white bedding rose.

Little Pet.--White; small and double; a pretty miniature rose, and
exceedingly free in blooming.

Madame Bréon.--One of the very best. Its flowers are very large and
double, beautifully cupped, and of a brilliant rose color. Few of the
old China Roses can surpass it.

Mrs. Bosanquet.--One of the most desirable of the old China Roses,
and there are few in any other class that are superior to it. Its
growth is luxuriant, and its superb cupped, wax-like flowers are of a
delicate flesh-color, and are produced in the greatest abundance.

Viridiflora.--Green; curious.


                              NOISETTE.

Aimée Vibert.--One of the most beautiful of the Noisette or
cluster-flowering roses. It blooms freely through the season, is
tolerably hardy, and produces an abundance of small, snow-white
flowers, in fine clusters.

Beauté de l'Europe.--Deep yellow, reverse of petals coppery; large,
full, and of perfect shape.

Caroline de Marniesse.--One of the hardiest. Its color is white,
with a tinge of pink in the center.

Celine Forestier.--A vigorous growing rose. One of the hardiest, and
with a large, full flower. Its color is rich yellow.

Elise Boelle.--A delicate pink shading; moderate grower; much
esteemed.

Lamarque.--A well-known and superb variety, whose very vigorous
growth adapts it well for a pillar, or even for a climber, as in rich
soils and favorable locations it will make shoots of fifteen feet in a
season. When budded on a strong stock, few roses can surpass its large
cupped and nearly white flowers, weighing down the branches.

Maréchal Niel.--A vigorous growing rose, more free blooming than
Chromatella. Its color is yellow, deepening at the center to a rich,
golden yellow. It is, perhaps, the largest and most beautiful yellow
rose known, and very fragrant.

Ophire.--A medium-sized rose, of a very singular color, entirely
different from any other rose known, being a bright salmon, almost
saffron. It blooms in clusters, and its luxuriant habit would make it
a good pillar rose.

Solfaterre.--Another superb rose, of very much the same character.
Its flowers are large and globular, inclining to flat, and their color
bright lemon. When half opened, the buds are superb. Like Chromatella
(and Lamarque, the parent of both), its growth is very luxuriant.
Rivers mentions a plant which threw out a shoot from a single bud
eighteen feet in one season, and the next season was covered with
flower buds.

Triomphe de Rennes.--A fine rose, of large, full form, and canary
color.


                              TEA ROSES.

Adam.--One of the finest tea-scented roses. Its flowers are cupped,
very double and large, and of perfect form.

Andre Schwartz.--Crimson-scarlet, with an occasional white streak on
the inner petal; of tea fragrance, and very free flowering.

Antoine Mermet.--Deep rosy-carmine; large, full, and cupped.

Bon Silene.--A very beautiful tea-scented rose, cupped, very double,
and fragrant. Its color is rose, shaded with crimson, and the plant is
hardy and of luxuriant growth.

Bougere.--A very large, superb rose, one of the very best of the
tea-scented varieties. Its form is cupped, and its color a rich,
glossy, bronzed rose.

Caroline.--A fine variety, with very double and perfect flowers, of
a bright rose color.

Capucine.--A very distinct sort, with beautiful saffron yellow buds.
Of delicate habit.

Catharine Mermet.--Large, pointed buds, full, and of good form; rosy
flesh color; fine fragrance; moderate grower. Esteemed by those who
force roses for the market, as one of the most valuable.

Clara Sylvain.--One of the best white roses. It grows very freely,
and gives its globular, pure white, and fragrant flowers in the
greatest abundance.

Comtesse de Frigueuse.--Canary yellow; fine and striking, large and
full; free.

Cornélie Koch.--White, sometimes faintly tinged with pale straw
color. A grand rose, and a great favorite for forcing.

Devoniensis.--A very beautiful rose, of immense size. Like
Chromatella, it is sometimes a shy bloomer when young, but is well
adapted for forcing. Its form is cupped, and its color a fine creamy
white, tinted with rose.

Duc de Magenta.--Has a large and fine form. Its color is rosy
salmon, shading to pink.

Etendard de Jeanne d'Arc.--Creamy white, changing to pure white;
very large and full, opening well; a seedling from _Gloire de Dijon_;
very free.

General Tartas.--This is of a dark rose color, and has a large and
full form.

Gloire de Dijon.--One of the finest and hardiest of the whole group.
It is a strong grower, and makes a good climber. Its foliage is
luxuriant, and its flowers are large and double; their color is pale
salmon, buff, and yellow. This variety will always give satisfaction.

Her Majesty.--Clear and bright satiny rose color; flowers very large
and full.

Homer.--A peculiar and beautiful rose when in bud. Its color is
rose, tipped with red, and with a salmon center.

Isabella Sprunt.--A new, yellow rose, of great merit. Its remarkably
free blooming qualities make it a valuable acquisition for forcing and
for cut flowers.

Jaune d'Or.--A golden yellow rose, of good form.

Julie Mansais.--A large and superb tea-scented rose, globular, and
very fragrant. Its color is white, with lemon.

Madame Bravy.--Finely formed, and of a creamy white color.

Madame Chedayne Guénoisseau.--Canary yellow; very beautiful in bud;
large, full, of fine form, and very free.

Madame Cusin.--Purplish rose, center slightly tinted with yellowish
white; medium size; full and distinct.

Madame de Tartas.--Large, and free blooming; of a bright rose color.

Madame Falcot.--Buff yellow, something deeper than Safrano, and more
double in form. One of the best.

Mademoiselle Cécile Berthod.--Large, full, fine form; bright sulphur
yellow; moderate.

Marie Berton.--(Climbing.) Very large; straw color, rather
fragrant; vigorous, with fine foliage; regarded as the most free
bloomer of all the seedlings of _Gloire de Dijon_.

Marie Guillot.--Large, beautiful in bud, nearly perfect in form;
white, with a faint tinge of yellow; free, and one of the best of the
newer light-colored varieties.

Marie Van Houtte.--Excellent form; the pale-yellow petals, often
suffused with rose; free, and highly esteemed, especially for
cultivation in the open air.

May Paul.--Red, shaded and veined with lilac; large and full.

Niphetos.--Color almost white. When grown under glass, it is one of
the most popular and beautiful roses.

Papa Gontier.--A new red rose, of great value; fragrant; free
blooming, and of vigorous growth.

Perle de Lyon.--Large, very double, and fragrant; deep yellow, with
a tinge of saffron at center; excellent fragrance; very vigorous
grower, and is much used to train up the pillars of green-houses,
where it flowers freely; mildews in the open air.

Perle des Jardins.--Large to very large, excellent form, with stiff
stem; deep canary yellow; exquisite tea-fragrance; a free grower and
bloomer; the foliage is very dark and glaucous, and the five to seven
leaflets are strongly serrated. This variety, both in this country and
in Europe, proves to be a formidable rival to _Maréchal Neil_. It is
largely forced for the New York market, and it is also excellent in
the open ground.

Pierre Guillot.--(Hybrid.)--Large, erect, well formed; bright red;
fragrant; moderate to vigorous; free bloomer.

Puritan.--A new white rose of great beauty; very large flower;
blooming freely; good grower, and free bloomer; fragrant.

Reine Marie Henriette.--(Climber.)--Large, good form, double;
cerise red; rather fragrant; very vigorous; this is also a cross from
_Gen. Jacqueminot_.

Rubens.--Color rose and white, with yellow center; form large and
double.

Safrano.--This is scarcely excelled by any rose. Its half-opened bud
is very beautiful, and of a rich, deep fawn color. When open, its form
is poor, and its color a much lighter fawn. These fawn-colored roses
have peculiar charms for us; and of them all, there are none more
beautiful or richer than Safrano.

Sombreuil.--A strong grower, with flowers of a pale straw color.

Souvenir d'un Ami.--The queen of the tea-scented roses, and will
rank the very first among them. Its habit is good, it blooms freely,
and its large and beautifully imbricated flowers, when open, much
resemble in form those of Souvenir de Malmaison. Its color is a
delicate salmon, shaded with rose, and its general character highly
recommends it as first-rate in every respect. Hibberd claims to
have produced flowers from this variety eleven to twelve inches in
circumference when fully expanded.

Sunset.--A sport from _Perle des Jardins_, bearing flowers similar
to that variety in form and substance but of a deep apricot color;
beautiful in bud, and a fine forcing variety.

The Bride.--A very fine white tea rose; a sport from _Catherine
Mermet_. The flowers are large, full, and of great substance, produced
in extraordinary profusion and carried on long stalks well above the
foliage.

Triomphe de Guillot fils.--A white rose, clouded with flesh color,
and shaded with yellowish salmon.

Vallée de Chamouny.--Coppery rose color; medium size.

Vicomtesse de Cazes.--A fine yellow, and free blooming rose.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--MARÉCHAL NIEL.]

W. F. Bennett.--Crimson; large and double; very fragrant. A most
valuable variety for forcing for winter blooming.

Waltham Climbers, Nos. 1, 2 and 3.--Very fine new summer and
autumn-flowering climbing roses of different shades of crimson. No.
1 being the brightest, and No. 3 the darkest. No. 2 is one of the
sweetest roses in existence, and No. 3 is a fine show rose.

In the preceding list, we have given some of the best varieties of
the Tea Rose, and trust the amateur will find no difficulty in making
a selection. Many are pillar roses; and these, so trained, would be
beautiful objects on a lawn, either singly, or in groups from three to
a dozen. Where the height of the pillars can be gently graduated to
the highest in the center, the effect will be very fine. Many of the
luxuriant growing varieties can be trained upon a common pale fence,
and will cover it with flowers and foliage the whole season. Straw can
be easily thatched over to protect them from the severity of winter,
or bass mats would be still better.


                         THE POLYANTHA ROSES.

A distinct species of Rose (_Rosa polyantha_) was introduced from
Japan several years ago. This is distinguished by having numerous
very small flowers, borne in panicled clusters. In the hands of the
French cultivators, it has produced what promises to be a distinct and
popular class, of which the following are regarded as the best. They
are probably hybrids, as they remontant, while the original species
blooms but once. The English often call them "Daisy Roses."

Anne Marie de Montravel.--Small, an inch and a half in diameter,
very double; pure white; lasts a long while in perfection; moderately
fragrant. Jean Sisley writes: "Each truss will make in itself a
splendid bouquet." Dwarf, but vigorous.

M'lle. Cécile Brünner.--Very small, full; fine salmon-pink; highly
fragrant; moderate or dwarf; flowers freely. Obtained by crossing with
a Tea.

Mignonette.--Very small, double; in clusters of thirty or forty;
rose-color, changing to blush.

Paquerette.--Fine form, full, only an inch in diameter; pure white;
growth moderate.

Perle d'Or.--Nankeen yellow, with orange centres; small and full,
very beautiful; flowers very numerous and of good shape.

Princesse Wilhelmine des Pays Bas.--Pure white, imbricated, very
sweet.


                  THE RAMANAS ROSE (_Rosa rugosa_).

Since the last edition was published this Rose has been introduced
into cultivation and has become deservedly popular. The plant is
very vigorous, growing large clumps five or six feet in height with
exceedingly thorny stems. The foliage is remarkably robust, very
dark-green, strongly-veined, and of great substance; it is rarely
attacked by insects. The rose-colored, or white single flowers, about
three inches across, are borne in large clusters, and have a most
delightful fragrance. They continue in bloom for a long time, and are
succeeded by large fruits (heps) of a bright-red color, which make
the bush very showy in autumn. There are in cultivation a white and
a rose-colored variety. A double variety has been introduced, but it
is only partially double, and not preferable to the single. These are
most valuable roses for the shrubbery, suckering somewhat, but not to
an annoying extent.

This species was sent to this country from Japan by Mr. Thomas Hogg,
about fifteen years ago; it was also introduced into Europe by others.
It has been described in French and other journals as _Rosa Regeliana_
and _R. Fortunei_, but the much older name _R. rugosa_ must supersede
these. The adoption of the Japanese "_Ramanas_" will avoid any
confusion as to botanical names. Whether a species so very distinct
as this will yield itself to the efforts of the hybridizer remains to
be seen, but it offers a most tempting subject. Could the vigorous,
almost leathery foliage, thorough hardiness and powerful fragrance of
this be combined with the handsome form and varied tints of roses of
the popular classes, it would be a great horticultural achievement.
The European journals mention that a new variety of this species was
exhibited at Lyons this year, but no description is given. It is
however interesting to know that the skilled rose growers of the south
of France have taken it in hand.

The Japanese have long held the Ramanas Rose in high favor. It is
recorded that as early as the year 1100, of our era, the court-ladies
prepared a favorite perfume from its petals; but it is also stated
that they had the bad taste to add to it both camphor and musk.


                           MACARTNEY ROSES.

The Macartney rose was brought from China to England by Lord
Macartney, in 1793. Its habit is luxuriant, and its foliage is more
beautiful than that of any other rose, its leaves being thick, and of
a rich, glossy green. It commences blooming about midsummer, and its
flowers, with a fragrance like the perfume of an apricot, succeed each
other without interruption till the first frosts, while the leaves
remain till the very latest. Although as hardy as the hardiest of
the China Roses, it would be better in this latitude to give it the
same protection as recommended for the China. It is one of the most
desirable roses for beds or borders. When covering the whole ground,
and kept well pegged down, its rich, glossy foliage, gemmed with
fragrant flowers, produces a beautiful effect. The varieties of this
rose are very few, but the best two are the following:

Alba odorata.--A vigorous growing rose, with very rich and beautiful
foliage. Its fragrant flowers are cream-colored, and, when in bud, are
very beautiful. It has stood the last three winters uninjured in our
grounds, without protection, and is a very beautiful and desirable
variety. It is classed by Rivers as a Microphylla, but it so little
resembles that rose, and is so decidedly Macartney in its character,
that we place it with the latter.

Maria Leonida.--A very beautiful, but not entirely double variety,
as its stamens can sometimes be seen, which, however, give a graceful
appearance. Its flowers are finely cupped, and pure white, with a
tinge of blush at the base of the petals.


                          MICROPHYLLA ROSES.

This species, originally from the Himalayan Mountains, was first
brought to Europe in 1823. Its foliage is small and singular, and its
growth is very robust. Its flowers bloom from midsummer till frost,
and have a striking appearance; they are very double, with a calyx of
which the small, bristling sepals give the opening bud the appearance
of a small chestnut. The plant is hardy, and has endured the winter in
our grounds for the past twenty years without protection, losing only
a portion of the tops of its shoots. Of the several varieties, one of
the best is

Rubra, which has very double and cupped flowers, of a blush and
often rose color, with a deep red centre.


                             MUSK ROSES.

The Musk Rose grows naturally in Persia and other Eastern countries,
where it attains the height of a small tree, and is doubtless the
rose which has been celebrated by Eastern poets. It is also found
in India, where it is probably the species used for making attar. In
this latitude it is quite hardy, and we have a plant of the old White
Musk in our grounds, that has braved the severity of more than twenty
winters. It has made in one season shoots more than six feet long, and
in our Southern States, more than double the growth would probably
be obtained. The blossoms appear in clusters, and commencing later
than any other rose, continue abundant throughout the season. The Old
White Cluster has been widely distributed throughout the country, and
is deservedly a favorite. The best two varieties, however, are the
following:

Eponine.--A cupped and very double variety, with the peculiar musk
fragrance. It is pure white, and a very pretty rose.

Princess of Nassau.--A luxuriant growing and very fragrant variety,
and would make a good pillar rose. It blooms in large clusters of
cupped flowers, changing from yellow to cream color as they open.


              ROSES THAT BLOOM ONLY ONCE IN THE SEASON.

                            GARDEN ROSES.

For want of a better, we use this term to designate all those roses
that bloom only once in the season, and that strongly resemble each
other in habit and flower. It includes those classes called, by
rose-growers, French, Provence, Hybrid Provence, Hybrid China, Hybrid
Bourbon, White and Damask Roses.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--GARDEN ROSE.]

On a preceding page, we have given our opinion respecting
classification, but we wish it to be fully understood, that we do
not deny the existence of clearly distinctive characters in the true
French, Provence, Damask, etc., but simply assert that the lines of
difference between these so run into each other, and are so blended
together, that it is almost impossible to know where to place a new
rose, which may partake of the qualities of all. We have mentioned
Rivers as the most skillful and correct of rose-growers; and yet, in
classing Lady Fitzgerald and Madame Hardy among the Damasks, he says
that neither of them are pure Damask; and the Duke of Cambridge, which
at first he thought a Hybrid China, he now places as a Damask; other
similar instances are frequent. Many roses, moreover, are classed as
hybrids which are not truly such. We are quite inclined to think that
a large number of the varieties supposed to have been produced by
hybridizing are nothing more than the natural produce, and that the
pollen, in many cases, has not impregnated the pistil to which it was
applied. With this uncertainty, therefore, as evinced by Rivers in his
work, and with doubts of the hybridity of supposed hybrids, we deem it
better to class them all together; and, for the benefit of those who
may prefer the old classification, to attach to each name the class by
which it has been hitherto known.

We write principally for the amateur, and we think he will find it
less embarrassing to make a selection from this classification than
from the old one.

A great number of Garden Roses exist, but we describe here only a
few distinct varieties, with colors which are seldom found among the
Remontants.

All the others have either their equals or their superiors among the
Remontants, and being certain to bloom only once in the season, are
scarcely worthy of cultivation, compared with the Remontants.

Chénédole, H. C.--One of the most splendid varieties, and is truly
beautiful. Its foliage and habit are very good, and its very luxuriant
growth makes it a good pillar rose. Its flower is cupped, large,
double, and fragrant, and its color is a rich, glowing crimson, of
almost dazzling brilliancy. It is altogether the most desirable rose
of this class.

Charles Lawson, H. B.--This has handsome foliage, and vigorous
habit of growth, with large, symmetrical, and bright rose-colored
flowers.

Coupe d'Hébé, H. B.--A gem of the family. It is large, double,
symmetrical, and finely cupped. Its color a delicate, wax-like, rosy
pink. Its growth is luxuriant, and adapted for pillars.

Emerance, H. P.--A beautiful cupped rose, of a color unusual in this
class, being of a pale lemon or straw color. Its form is very regular,
and the habit of the plant good.

George the Fourth, H. C.--An old rose, produced by T. Rivers, but
is still one of the most desirable of this class. Its flowers are of
a dark crimson, and its young shoots have a purple tinge. Its very
luxuriant habit makes it suitable for a pillar.

Julie d'Etranges, F.--This has a large cupped flower, of a delicate
rose color.

Madame Hardy, F.--A vigorous habit, and finely shaped flower. Its
color is pure white, sometimes with a green centre.

Madame Plantier, H. C.--A cupped and double pure white rose. It is a
luxuriant grower, a most abundant bloomer, and one of the very best of
the white summer roses. Its foliage is so marked in its richness and
beauty that any one can readily distinguish it by that alone. Were it
Remontant, it would possess all the requisites of a perfect white rose.

Obscurité, F.--One of the darkest roses known.

Œillet Parfait, F.--A beautiful striped rose, resembling a
carnation. Its form is compact, and its color a very light blush,
nearly white, beautifully and distinctly striped with rose and bright
crimson.

Tricolor de Flandre, F.--A very double, distinct, and compact
flower. Its color is lilac, striped with red and crimson.


                             MOSS ROSES.

The Moss Rose was introduced into England from Holland in the
sixteenth century, and is first mentioned by Miller, in 1727, by whom
it was supposed to be a sport of the Provence Rose, which opinion
has been confirmed by modern botanists. Its peculiarities are the
delicate prickles which crowd its stem, and the beautiful mossy
covering of its calyx. This mossy appearance has been deemed by some
a mere _lusus naturæ_, and by others the work of an insect similar to
that which produces the bédéguar, or rose-gall. The former opinion,
however, prevails; and this freak of nature cultivators have succeeded
in fixing and perpetuating in a great number of varieties. The first
Moss Rose known in France was said to have been introduced there by
Madame de Genlis, who brought it with her on her return from England.
In 1810, scarcely more than one variety was known, and now there exist
more than a hundred. Of these, the best and most distinct are the
following:

Alice Leroy.--Light rosy-pink, free blooming, and of good habit.

Baronne de Wassenaer.--This has a good form, bright red color, and
flowers in clusters.

Captain Ingram.--Flowers of a dark, velvety purple.

Comtesse de Murinais.--A vigorous habit. Its color is pale flesh,
changing to pure white, and it is one of the best of the white Mosses.

Common.--This is the old rose-colored Moss, which has been generally
cultivated in gardens. It grows well, blooms freely, is well covered
with moss, and is one of the best of the old varieties.

Cristata.--A very singular and beautiful variety, said to have been
discovered in the crevice of a wall at Friburg, in Switzerland. Rivers
classes it with the Provence Roses, and when open, it is merely a
variety of that rose; but when in bud, it is more properly a Moss,
although its calyx is not covered with a fine moss, but has more of
a crested appearance. In a rich soil this fringe-like crest most
beautifully clasps and surmounts the bud, and gives the rich clusters
a truly elegant appearance. Its form is globular, and its color rose.
It is one of the few that do not grow well on their own roots, but
require to be budded on some strong-growing stock.

Etna.--Brilliant crimson, tinted with purple.

Eugene Verdier.--Light red, deeper in the center, large, full, and
of fine form.

Gloire des Mousseuses.--A large and handsome flower, with a clear,
pale rose color.

John Cranston.--Crimson and purple shaded, of medium size, full.

Louis Gimard.--Bright red, large and full, vigorous.

Little Gem.--A miniature Moss Rose, forming compact bushes densely
covered with small double crimson flowers, beautifully mossed. It is
of charming effect in the garden and most valuable for bouquets or
vases.

Laneii.--A vigorous grower, and has large and thrifty foliage. The
buds are large and well mossed, and it is beautiful both in bud and
expanded. Its color is bright rose.

Luxembourg.--Like the last, of vigorous growth. Its flowers are a
purplish crimson.

Madame de Rochelambert.--This has large and full flowers, of an
amaranth color.

Madame Edouard Ory.--This was described among the Remontant Mosses.

Nuits de Young.--Plant of a dwarf habit. Its flowers are small, with
a deep, velvety purple color.

Princesse Adelaide.--A remarkably vigorous-growing variety, with
large and handsome foliage, and would make a good pillar rose. Its
regularly formed flowers, of a bright pink or rose, are produced in
clusters, and open well. It does not bear close pruning. This is one
of the most desirable of its class, and owes its origin to Laffay.

Princess Royal.--A very robust rose, almost equal to the preceding
in vigor. Its young leaves and branches have a red tinge, and its
cupped flowers are of a deep crimson purple, marbled and spotted
with red. Although not quite double when fully open, they are very
beautiful when in bud. A moss rose, however double, is peculiar only
in bud, for, when fully expanded, the mossy calyx must inevitably be
hidden.

Perpetual White.--This was described among the Remontant Mosses, as
also were

Reine Blanche.--Pure white, large and full.

Salet.

White Bath.--Paper-white, beautiful, large and full, one of the best.

Like all other roses, and even in a greater degree, the Moss Rose
requires a light and very rich soil, with a dry bottom. Many of them
make very beautiful beds and patches, when planted in rich soil, and
kept well pegged down. A good supply of stable manure should be given
them in the autumn, to be washed down about their roots by the winter
rains. They do not generally require or bear so much pruning as other
roses, but their bloom may sometimes be prolonged by shortening part
of the shoots close, and only the tips of the remainder. When properly
cultivated, few objects can be more beautiful than these roses, either
singly or in masses. Without making so brilliant a show as some other
classes, the moss which envelops them imparts a touch of graceful
beauty belonging to no other flower.


                            SCOTCH ROSES.

These roses are all derived from a dwarf rose found growing wild in
Scotland and in the north of England. They are distinguished by their
small leaves, abundant bloom, and delicate habit. Being perfectly
hardy, they are desirable for beds or borders, in which, with proper
arrangement of colors, they show beautifully, sometimes two weeks
before other roses open, producing flowers all along the stem. Rose
growers describe, in their catalogues, two or three hundred varieties,
but of them all, scarcely forty or fifty are distinct; of these the
best three are the following:

Countess of Glasgow.--A very pretty and brilliant dark rose,
blooming abundantly.

Queen Of May.--A fine and distinct variety, of a bright pink color.

William the Fourth.--An excellent variety, of luxuriant growth. Its
flowers are pure white, and among the largest of the class.


                             BRIER ROSES.

These roses are distinguished by their small, rough foliage and brier
habit. They include the Sweet-Brier, the Hybrid Sweet-Brier, and the
Austrian Brier. The Sweet-Brier is found in various parts of this
country and in Europe, and is distinguished by the peculiar delightful
fragrance of its leaves. Its simple little flower, found among the
hedges, has been long a favorite, and, under the name of Eglantine,
has been often the theme of poets.

The Hybrid Sweet-Brier is allied to the preceding, but has larger
foliage, and is of more robust growth. Many roses have been placed in
this class and among the Sweet-Briers that have none of the peculiar
scent of the Sweet-Briers; and hence, again, the necessity of classing
together these and the Austrian Briers, respecting which there is
much confusion. The true Austrian Rose is a native of the South of
Europe, and is a clearly distinct rose; but some have been called
Austrian which have scarcely any of the characters of the original
rose. All three, however, are Briers, that is, they produce their
flowers on short joints all along the stem, and have the peculiar
rough, briery leaves. We therefore place them all together, attaching
as before the name of the old class. The best are the following:

Celestial, S. B.--A small cupped rose, very double and fragrant, of
a pale flesh-color and very pretty.

Copper Austrian, A. B.--A very singular looking rose, blooming well
in this climate. The inside of the flower is of a coppery-red, and the
outside inclining to pale yellow or sulphur. It is desirable for its
peculiar color.

Double Margined Hip, H. S. B.--Of luxuriant growth, almost adapted
for a pillar. Its form is cupped, and its color creamy-white, shaded
with pink.

Double Yellow Provence is the best of the two varieties which
compose the species called Sulphurea. We have never seen its flowers,
and English writers all speak of the great difficulty of making it
bloom. Rivers recommends to bud it on strong stocks, and says that it
blooms most profusely in the warm, dry climate of Florence and Genoa.
The plant grows with luxuriance and produces plenty of flower-buds,
which, with proper culture, would probably open in our warm climate,
which is very similar to that of Florence and Genoa. Its small foliage
and slender, thorny wood, place it fairly among the Briers. Its flower
is so fine that it is well worth the trouble of repeated experiment to
obtain a good bloom. It has long been admired and exercised the skill
of rose growers, as is proved by the following passages from some old
works, which give instructions for proper culture:

"Whereas all other roses are best natural, this is best inoculated
upon another stock. Others thrive and bear best in the sun; this, in
the shade: therefore the best way that I know to cause this rose to
bring forth fair and kindly flowers, is performed after this manner.
First in the stock of a Francfort Rose, near the ground, put in the
bud of the single yellow rose, which will quickly shoot to a good
length; then, half a yard higher than the place where the same was
budded, put into it a bud of the double yellow rose, which growing,
the suckers must be kept from the root, and all the buds rubbed off,
except those of the kind desired, which, being grown big enough to
bear (which will be in two years), it must in winter be pruned very
near, cutting off all the small shoots, and only leaving the biggest,
cutting off the tops of them also, as far as they are small. Then in
the spring, when the buds for leaves come forth, rub off the smallest
of them, leaving only some few of the biggest, which, by reason of
the strength of the stock, affordeth more nourishment than any other,
and the agreeable nature of the single yellow rose, from whence it
is immediately nourished, the shoots will be strong and able to bear
out the flowers, if they be not too many, which may be prevented by
nipping off the smallest buds for flowers. The tree should stand
something shadowed, and not too much in the heat of the sun, and in
a standard by itself, rather than under a wall." That which follows
is from a book called _Systema Horticulturæ_, dated 1688:--"There
is no flower-bearing tree that yields blossom so beautiful as the
rose, whereof the yellow Provence Rose is the most beautiful where
it brings forth fair and kindly flowers, which hath been obtained by
budding a single yellow rose on the stock of a flourishing Francfort
Rose near the ground: when that single yellow is well grown, in that
branch inoculate your double yellow rose; then cut off all suckers and
shoots from the first and second, leaving only your last, which must
be pruned very near, leaving but few buds, which will have the more
nourishment, and yield the fairer and more entire blossoms. This tree,
or a layer from a rose of the same kind, delights most, and blows
fairest, in a cold, moist, and shady place, and not against a hot
wall."

Harrisonii.--A fine yellow Brier of American origin, and is perhaps
the best hardy yellow rose for general cultivation.

Persian Yellow, A. B.--This is the deepest yellow rose known, and
is a highly improved edition of the Harrison. Its flowers are more
double, and of a deeper yellow than that rose. It grows freely, blooms
abundantly, and its small double flowers possess a richness of color
unequalled by any other rose. No garden should be without it. It
should be added, however, that it is exceedingly difficult to strike
from cuttings, and is one of those few varieties for which budding
upon another stock is preferable.

Rose Angle, S. B.--An excellent variety, with very fragrant foliage,
and large double flowers of a bright rose color. It is one of the best
of the true Eglantines.

Like the Moss Roses, the Briers will not bear much pruning, and
require merely the tips of the shoots to be cut off.


                           AYRSHIRE ROSES.

This class is very valuable for covering unsightly places, old
buildings, and decayed trees. They bloom some two weeks earlier
than other roses, and will grow in soil where others would scarcely
vegetate. Hence they are valuable for covering naked sand-banks, or
bare spots of earth, and their roots would be of material assistance
in keeping up the soil of loose banks. Rivers gives an extract from
the Dundee Courier, showing the effect produced by some of these
roses.

"Some years ago, a sand pit at Ellangowan was filled up with rubbish
found in digging a well. Over this a piece of rock was formed for the
growth of plants which prefer such situations, and among them were
planted some half dozen plants of the Double Ayrshire Rose, raised in
this neighborhood about ten years ago. These roses now most completely
cover the whole ground, a space of thirty feet by twenty. At present
they are in full bloom, showing probably not less than ten thousand
roses in this small space."

The Ayrshire Roses are also valuable for weeping trees; when budded on
a stock some ten or twelve feet high, the branches quickly reach the
ground, and protecting the stem from the sun by their close foliage,
present a weeping tree of great beauty, loaded with flowers.

Dundee Rambler.--One of the best and most double of the Ayrshire
Roses. Its color is white, often edged with pink, and blooming in
large clusters. It is a very desirable variety.

Double Blush Ayrshire.--A most vigorous climber, with a pretty
flower, and will grow in the poorest soil.

                           BANKSIAN ROSES.

Roses of this class have a very small flower closely resembling that
of the double _Spiræa prunifolia_, and blooming in clusters of about
the same size. In this climate they require the protection of a
green-house, and are very striking for the great profusion of their
corymbs of pure white or deep yellow flowers. We recollect seeing, at
the Botanic Garden at Naples, a very large plant of the Banksian Rose,
the main stem being six inches in diameter, and branching off into a
dozen others, fifty feet or more long. In the Southern States they
would grow well in the open air, and being most vigorous climbers,
would soon cover a house or trellis, and, with their small but most
abundant flowers interspersed among the smooth glossy-green foliage,
would form an object of great beauty.

Double White.--Introduced into England from China in 1807, and named
in honor of Lady Banks. It is a beautiful little rose about half an
inch in diameter, blooming abundantly in small and pure white clusters
with a slight perfume like that of the violet.

Double Yellow.--Introduced in 1827. It has bright buff-yellow
flowers; these are produced in great abundance, and give a pleasant
perfume before the dew is off early in the morning, or just at evening.

Fortuniana.--Introduced by Fortune in 1850. It has white fragrant
flowers of much larger size than the preceding varieties. Its want
of the _petite_ character of the others makes it less beautiful and
striking.

Jaune Serin.--A luxuriant growing variety, with yellow flowers of
larger size than those of the old Yellow Banksia.

The Banksian Roses do not bear much pruning. It should be done
immediately after the bloom is over, and then only the heavier
branches cut out, leaving those which are full flower-bearing twigs,
which should not be shortened. If the branches are all shortened, the
plants will produce an abundance of strong, new wood, but no flowers.


                           BOURSAULT ROSES.

This class is marked by its long, flexible, reddish shoots, which
grow rapidly, and are perfectly hardy. Their smooth bark renders them
desirable for stocks to bud upon, and a fine rose of this class,
covering a trellis and budded with roses of various colors, would
present a beautiful appearance. These, also, are impatient of much
pruning.

Amadis.--One of the best, with its pendulous clusters of large
purplish-crimson flowers.

Blush.--This has large, double, blush flowers.


                           EVERGREEN ROSES.

The original of this class is the _Rosa sempervirens_, a wild rose
of Italy. They are very beautiful and desirable, and although not
entirely evergreen in this climate, retain their foliage very late
in the season. They are very easy of cultivation, and most luxuriant
climbers over naked trees, old houses, fences, and walls, or along the
surface of the ground, which they will soon cover to the exclusion
of all weeds, and present a large mass of rich, glossy foliage, and
abundant bloom. When thus planted, the large weeds should be pulled up
until the plant fairly covers the ground, when no more attention will
be needed. They are well adapted for training up columns, and we know
of few things more beautiful than a temple formed of numerous columns,
with Evergreen Roses growing luxuriantly upon them and festooned
gracefully between. Nothing, indeed, can be more gracefully beautiful
than festoons, wherever they can be made. They constitute the chief
beauty of the vine-clad fields of Italy, and there would be no less
beauty in occasional festooning of roses trained between pillars or
the trees of a lawn. They are also very beautiful when budded on high
standards, their dark-green glossy foliage weeping to the ground, and
forming a fine dome or pyramid of leaf and bloom. When pruned in the
winter, the branches may be thinned out, but not shortened; for if
pruned close, they will make a luxuriant growth the next season, but
will produce no flowers.

Félicité Perpetuelle.--A most beautiful rose, and one of the very
best of the class; when properly cultivated, it produces an abundance
of very double creamy-white flowers, shaped like a double ranunculus.

Melanie de Montjoie.--A variety of much beauty. Its abundant and
glossy dark-green foliage contrasts beautifully with its large, pure
white flowers.

Myrianthes.--One of the best of this class. Its flowers are
perfectly shaped, and of a very delicate rose color.

Triomphe de Bollwiller.--A very fine hybrid between the Evergreen
and Tea Roses. It is rather tender in this climate, but valuable for
its tendency to bloom in the autumn. Its flowers are very large,
double, fragrant, and globular, and their color is a blush or creamy
white. At the South, where it would not be killed by the cold weather,
this would be one of the most desirable climbing roses.


                        HYBRID CLIMBING ROSES.

We include here some which do not belong to any of the distinct
classes.

Indica Major.--A hybrid climbing rose, of most luxuriant growth and
nearly evergreen foliage. Its flowers are very large, double, and of
a delicate rose color. The very rapid growth of this rose makes it
excellent for covering old buildings. We recollect being shown, at the
Bartram garden of Philadelphia, a fine old plant which had covered the
whole side of the house, and presented a beautiful appearance. Buist
states it to be this variety.

Madame d'Arblay is a truly gigantic hybrid climber, perfectly hardy,
and with strong, Bourbon-like foliage. It blooms in large clusters of
pure white flowers, and is a truly excellent variety.

Menoux.--This variety has crimson flowers, a color which is not
common among climbing roses.

Sir John Sebright.--A hybrid Musk rose, grown by Rivers. Its
flowers are produced in large clusters, are very fragrant, and their
color is a bright crimson-scarlet.

The Garland.--A most vigorous hybrid climber, blooming in immense
clusters of fragrant, creamy-white flowers, changing to blush after
expansion. When in full bloom, the contrast of the large white
clusters with the bright green foliage is very beautiful.


                          MULTIFLORA ROSES.

The parent of this class is a native of China and Japan. They are
unfortunately somewhat tender in this climate. We have known them
to endure safely several winters when unprotected, but they are
unreliable in this respect. One of the best is

Grevillei or Seven Sisters.--It has a remarkably vigorous growth,
and blooms with unusual profusion. A large plant will not unfrequently
show more than a thousand flowers, all blooming in clusters and of
several shades of color. This variety is impatient of much pruning.

De la Grifferaie.--This bears the knife better than the preceding,
and may be grown as a bush with proper pruning. It is hardier than
others of the class, and bears a profusion of blush and rose-colored
flowers.

Laure Davoust.--One of the most beautiful of the Multiflora Roses,
and of most luxuriant growth. It has larger flowers and handsomer
foliage than any of the other Multiflora Roses, and blooms in immense
clusters of perfect flowers, changing from white to pink. For covering
houses or trellises it is very desirable.

Russelliana.--This is very vigorous, and yet bears pruning so well
that it may be grown as a bush. Its clusters are large, and the
flowers change as they open from dark to light red lilac, giving it a
singular appearance.


                          THE PRAIRIE ROSE.

The double varieties of the original Michigan Rose, or _Rosa
rubifolia_, have nearly all been produced by Samuel Feast, of
Baltimore, while a few new varieties owe their origin to Joshua
Pierce, of Washington. They are remarkable for their perfectly
hardy nature, braving equally well the frosts of Canada or the heat
of Louisiana. The leaves are large, rather rough, and of a rich
dark-green. They grow with unexampled rapidity, exceeding in this
respect any of the climbing roses, and would cover old buildings or
naked ground in a very short space of time. They bloom after the other
summer roses are mostly gone, and produce their flowers abundantly in
large clusters of different shades, from the shaded white of Baltimore
Belle to the rich deep rose of

Queen of the Prairies.--This is the best, and of the most luxuriant
growth. Its large flowers are of a peculiar cupped form, almost
globular, when in bud, and altogether of very perfect shape. They are
of a deep rose color, with a white stripe in the centre of each petal.
This rose is truly superb, and, for our cold winters and hot sun, an
unequalled climber. It would be a fine rose to cover a trellis or
building, and then bud into its branches a dozen different Remontant
or Bourbon Roses of various colors. The _tout ensemble_ would be
superb.

Baltimore Belle.--This variety is thought by some to have a strain
of Noisette sap in it from the delicacy and beauty of its flower and
its tendency to bloom in the autumn. It produces abundant clusters of
white flowers shaded with a slight cloud of pink. It is one of the
finest climbing roses known.

Gem of the Prairie. (Burgess'.)--A hybrid between the Queen of the
Prairies and the Remontant, Madame Laffay. It is said to combine the
vigorous growth of the one with the rich color and delicate fragrance
of the other. We do not, however, think that it equals its early
promise.

Jane.--Very double, of a deep rosy lilac.

Mrs. Hovey.--This has large white flowers, and all the vigor of its
class.

Pride of Washington.--A rosy lilac, and double.

There are several other varieties in this class, but the preceding are
the best.



                             CHAPTER III.

                     GENERAL CULTURE OF THE ROSE.


As before stated, the Rose was the theme of the earliest poets of
antiquity; and it was doubtless one of the first plants selected to
adorn the gardens which were laid out around the new habitations
constructed upon the exchange of the wandering for a civilized mode of
life.

The most ancient authors upon husbandry, whose works are extant, have
all treated of the culture of Roses: Theophrastus among the Greeks;
and among the Romans, Varro, Columella, Palladius, and Pliny. To Pliny
are we specially indebted for information on this subject, as the
entire fourth chapter of the twentieth book of his Natural History is
devoted to Roses; and they are also occasionally mentioned in other
parts of the work. But after all the information thus obtained, much
yet remains to be desired; and although we find in other ancient
authors some curious facts bearing upon other points in the history
of the Rose, they are mostly so general in their character as to give
us very little insight into the actual culture of the Rose at those
periods.

The profuseness with which they were used among the Greeks, the
Romans, the Egyptians, and other ancient nations in their religious
solemnities, their public ceremonies, and even in the ordinary customs
of private life, would lead us to suppose, and with some degree of
correctness, that roses were very abundantly cultivated by them all;
and we are inclined to think that their cultivation was then far
more general than at the present time, although the art of producing
them was in its infancy. However surprising in other respects may
have been the progress of the culture of roses within forty years,
particularly in France, Holland, and Belgium, there can be little
doubt that, although the Romans were acquainted with a much smaller
number of varieties than the moderns, yet flowers of those varieties
were far more abundant than the aggregate quantity of flowers of all
the varieties of roses cultivated at the present day. It cannot be
positively asserted that the Remontant Roses of the present time were
unknown at Rome, since the gardeners of that city practiced sowing the
seeds of the Rose, by which mode many of the most remarkable varieties
of that class have been obtained by modern cultivators. The Romans,
however, preferred to propagate by cuttings, which produced flowering
plants much sooner than those from the seed.

But, though the Romans may have had roses of the same species with
some of those which we now cultivate, it is scarcely probable that
these species could have continued until this period, and escaped
the devastation attendant on the revolutions of empire, or the
more desolating invasions of the Huns and Goths. Thus it is, that
those roses of Pæstum, to which allusion is so frequently made by
ancient writers, and which, according to Virgil and Pliny, bloomed
semi-annually, and were common in the gardens of that city, are
not now to be found. Jussieu and Loudresse, two French gentlemen,
successively visited Italy with the express object of finding this
twice-bearing Rose in Pæstum or its environs, yet, notwithstanding
their carefully prosecuted researches, they could find no traces of it
whatever.

Although the number of varieties known to the Romans was very limited,
they had discovered a method of making the blooming season continue
many months. According to Pliny, the roses of Carthage, in Spain, came
forward early and bloomed in winter; those of Campania bloomed next in
order; then those of Malta; and lastly those of Pæstum, which flowered
in the spring and autumn. It was probably the blooming of this last
species which the gardeners of Rome discovered (in Seneca's time) the
secret of retarding by a certain process, or of hastening by means of
their warm green-houses.

In the last part of this work, we have cited many passages from
ancient authors, which show to what an enormous extent the use of
roses was carried by the Romans on certain occasions. It is difficult
to credit, at this day, the relation of Nero's extravagance (which
is, however, attested by Suetonius), when it is told that in one
fête alone he expended in roses _only_, more than four millions of
sesterces, or one hundred thousand dollars. It would be no easy
matter, even at the present period of abundant cultivation of Roses,
to obtain from all the nurseries of England, France, and America
together, roses sufficient to amount to so large a sum.

The Romans derived the use of this flower from the Greeks. In Greece,
and throughout the East, roses were cultivated, not only for the
various purposes we have mentioned, but also for the extraction of
their perfumes. Among the many plans which they adopted for preserving
the flower was that of cutting off the top of a reed, splitting it
down a short distance, and enclosing in it a number of rose-buds,
which, being bound around with papyrus, prevented their fragrance from
escaping. The Greeks also deemed it a great addition to the fragrance
of the Rose to plant garlic near its roots. The island of Rhodes,
which has successively borne many names, was particularly indebted to
the culture of roses for that which it bears at this day. It was the
Isle of Roses, the Greek for Rose being Ροδον,--Rodon.

Medals of Rhodes, whose reverse impressions present a rose in bloom on
one side, and the sunflower on the other, are to be found even now in
cabinets of curiosities.

Extravagance in roses, among the Romans, kept pace with the increase
of their power, until they at length desired them at all seasons. At
first they procured their winter's supply from Egypt, but subsequently
attained themselves such skill in their culture as to produce them
in abundance, even at the coldest season of the year; and, according
to Seneca, by means of green-houses, heated by pipes filled with
hot water. During the reign of Domitian, the forcing of roses was
carried to such perfection, and flowers produced in winter in so great
abundance, that those brought from Egypt, as before mentioned, excited
only the contempt of the citizens of the world's metropolis.

This fact, as also handed down to us by the epigram of Martial, is
of great assistance in estimating the importance of rose-culture at
that period, and in showing how the art of cultivating this plant had
spread, and how it was already far advanced among the ancient Romans
and their contemporaries.

If the Egyptians cultivated roses for transportation to Rome during
the winter, they must have had very extensive plantations for the
purpose. The exportation could not have been of loose flowers, for
they would have been withered long before the termination of the
voyage; neither could it have been of rooted plants in a dormant
state, as nurserymen now send them to every part of the world, because
the Romans had at that time no means of causing them to vegetate and
bloom in the winter. On the contrary, the cultivators at Alexandria
and Memphis must, of necessity, have sent them away in the vases and
boxes in which they had planted them with that object, and when they
were just beginning to break from the bud, in order that they might
arrive at Rome at the moment they commenced expanding.

At that remote period, when navigation was far behind its present
state of perfection, the voyage from the mouth of the Nile to the
coast of Italy occupied more than twenty days. When this long voyage
is considered, and also the quantity of roses required by the Romans
to enwreath their crowns and garlands, to cover their tables and
couches, and the pavements of their festive halls, and to surround the
urns which contained the ashes of their dead, it is evident that the
Egyptians, who traded in roses, in order to satisfy the prodigality of
the Romans, would be compelled to keep in readiness a certain number
of vessels to be laden with boxes or vases of rose-plants, so prepared
as not to bloom before their delivery at Rome. The cost of roses thus
delivered in Rome must have been immense, but we do not find a single
passage in any of the ancient authors which can give any light on
this point; they only tell us that nothing for the gratification of
luxury was considered too costly by the wealthy Roman citizens. Nor
do they afford more positive information as to the species of Rose
cultivated on the borders of the Nile, to gratify this taste of the
Romans. According to Delile, there were found in Egypt, at the time
of the French expedition into that country, only the White Rose and
the Centifolia, or hundred-leaved--two species not very susceptible
of either a forcing or retarding culture. The only Rose known at that
time, which bloomed in the winter, was the Rose of Pæstum, referred to
by Virgil, as "_biferique rosaria Pæsti_," and which was probably the
same as our monthly Damask Rose, and which produced in Egypt and Rome
flowers at all seasons, as the Damask does now with us, under a proper
mode of culture.

The extent to which the culture and commerce of roses was carried
among the Romans is shown by the fact that, although they had
confounded the tree and its flowers under one name--that of
_Rosa_,--they nevertheless gave particular appellations to the gardens
or ground planted with rose-bushes. They were termed a _Rosarium_, or
a _Rosetum_. Ovid says, "_Quot amœna Rosaria flores._" The dealer in
roses was also designated by the distinctive appellation of _Rosarius_.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the latter part of the decline of the Roman Empire, when paganism
still existed to a great degree, there arose a people who formed,
as it were, the connecting link between the ancient and modern
world--a people who acknowledged but one Supreme Ruler, and his sole
vicegerent, Mahomet; a people whose origin was among the wildest
tribes of Ishmael's descendants, who possessed in a great degree the
luxuries of civilized life, and among whom the arts, sciences, and
agriculture, were very flourishing for many ages. Among the Moors of
Spain, the culture of the Rose was pursued with as much scientific
and practical method as at the present day, but with somewhat less
happy results. When in Paris, some years since, we became acquainted
with M. Hardy, the chief director of the Luxembourg gardens, and who
is well known to rose growers, by the many beautiful varieties which
he has originated. His interest in this subject was very great, and
in 1828, he published in the _Journal des Jardins_ some interesting
observations which he had extracted from a manuscript of M. de la
Neuville. The latter having been employed as military superintendent
in Spain during the war of 1823, translated from a Spanish version
some parts of an Arabian work upon culture in general, in which
that of the Rose was mentioned, with some important particulars. It
stated that the Moors, who formerly conquered Spain, attached the
highest value to this most beautiful of their flowers, and cultivated
it with as much care as we do ourselves. "According to Abu-el-Jaïr,"
says the translation, "there are roses of many colors--carnation
white, fallow or yellow, lapis-lazuli, or sky-blue. Some are of this
last color on the outside, and yellow within. In the East they are
acquainted with roses which are variegated with yellow and sky-blue,
the inside of the corolla being of the one color, and the outside the
other. The yellow-heart is very common in Tripoli and Syria, and the
blue-heart is found on the coast of Alexandria." To us, at the present
day, this relation may with reason seem incredible, since amid the
numerous varieties now existing, and the skill of their cultivators,
we have in no instance been able to obtain a blue Rose. Abu-el-Jaïr
may have ventured to state it as a fact without proper authority,
for, according to M. de la Neuville, Abu-Abdallah-ebu-el-Fazel,
another nearly contemporaneous author, enumerated a variety of roses
without mentioning the blue. "There are," says this last author, "four
varieties of roses: the first is named the Double White; it has an
exquisite odor, and its cup unites more than a hundred petals: the
second is the Yellow, which is of a golden color, and bright as the
jonquil; then the Purple; and lastly the flesh-colored, which is the
most common of them all." Farther on the same author adds: "The number
of species is supposed to be large: the Mountain or Wild; the Double,
which is variegated with red and white shades; and the Chinese. The
Double, however, is the most beautiful, and is composed of forty to
fifty petals."

The Moors multiplied roses by all the various methods which are
employed at this day: by suckers from the root, by cuttings, by
budding, and by grafting. The pruning-knife was also freely used, in
order to form regular heads.

There is a farther translation of De la Neuville from a Spanish
version of the "Book of Agriculture," written by Ebu-Alwan, who lived
in the twelfth century, and who, in addition to his own experience,
quoted largely from some Chaldaic and Arabic writers. He states that
the Moors practiced two methods of sowing the seeds of the Rose. The
first was in earthen pans--a mode adapted to delicate plants; they
were watered immediately after being sown, and afterward twice a week
until autumn, when such care became unnecessary. The other method
was sowing broadcast as grain is sown, then covering the seed-beds
an inch deep with carefully sifted manure or fine mould, and giving
them the requisite watering. The plants from these seed-beds did not
produce flowers until the third year after their being thus prepared,
and until they had been transplanted into squares or borders; such
is still the case with nearly all our summer roses, the only kind
the Moors appear to have possessed. They also understood the art of
forcing roses. "If you wish," says Haj, another author, "the Rose tree
to bloom in autumn, you must choose one that has been accustomed to
periodical waterings; you must deprive it of water entirely during
the heat of summer until August, and then give it an abundance of
moisture; this will hasten its growth, and cause the expansion of its
flowers in great profusion, without impairing its ability to bloom the
ensuing spring, as usual." "Or else," adds the same author, "in the
month of October, burn the old branches to the level of the earth,
moisten the soil for eight consecutive days, and then suspend the
watering; alternate these periods of moisture and drought as many as
five times, and probably in about sixty days, or before the end of
autumn, the roots will have thrown out vigorous branches, which will
in due time be loaded with flowers, without destroying the ability of
the plant to bloom again the following spring." The climate in which
the Moors lived--that of Cordova, Grenada, and Seville, where the
winter is very much like our weather in mid-autumn--was very favorable
to the cultivation of the Rose. In this country the same results could
doubtless be obtained in the Carolinas, and the experiment would be
well worth trying, even in the latitude of New York. It would be
no small triumph to obtain an autumnal bloom of the many beautiful
varieties of French, Moss, or Provence Roses. Haj has also given the
method of keeping the Rose in bud, in order to prolong its period
of blooming. His process, however, is of so uncertain a character,
as scarcely to merit an insertion here. The manuscript of De la
Neuville also contains particular directions for propagating roses,
and for planting hedges of the Eglantine, to protect the vineyards and
gardens, and at the same time to serve as stocks for grafting. Nothing
is omitted in the Arabian treatise which pertains to the management
of this shrub; the manner of cultivating, weeding, transplanting,
watering, etc., are all particularly explained. Among a variety of
curious matters, it contains the process by which, for the purpose
of embellishing their gardens, they produced the appearance of trees
whose tops are loaded with roses. A hollow pipe, four feet long, or
more, if the top was to be large, was obtained, of a well-proportioned
diameter, set upright, to resemble the trunk of a tree, and filled
with earth or sand in a suitable state of moisture. In the top of this
pipe were planted several varieties of roses, of different colors,
which, rooting freely in the earth around them, soon formed a bushy
head, and represented a third-class tree, clothed with rich foliage
and beautiful flowers.

This plan could now be practiced with success; and we can scarcely
imagine more beautiful objects in a lawn than a number of these pipes,
of various heights, single, and in groups, some low, with the small
heads of the China or Tea Roses, others high, and with the large,
robust branches of the La Reine, and other Perpetuals, and others,
again, planted with some delicate climbing roses, whose branches,
falling down, would form a weeping tree of a most unique, graceful,
and showy character. The pipes could be made of earthenware, tin, or
wood, and be painted in imitation of the bark of a tree. Still better
would be the trunk of a small tree, hollowed out for the purpose,
which, with the bark on, would puzzle many a close observer, and which
could show a luxuriant head of leaves and flowers on the most sterile
soil that ever formed a lawn.

From what has been said on the culture of roses among the Moors
in Spain, there can be no doubt that they had made great progress
therein; and with the exception of a few statements, evidently
unfounded in fact, as the grafting of the Rose on the almond, the
apple, the jujube, and other trees, the little treatise translated
by De la Neuville certainly contains most excellent remarks upon the
culture of roses, whether we compare them with what the ancients have
left us, or even with those of the various writers on Rose culture in
Europe and America within the last half century.

As roses were so frequently propagated from the seed by the Moors,
they must have known quite a number of varieties, exclusive of all
those they had brought or obtained from the East. The Yellow Rose,
unknown to us until recently, was apparently familiar to them; and the
Blue Rose, of which their manuscripts speak, is now extinct, if it
indeed ever existed; for amid the infinite variety of roses, of every
color and shade, produced from seed in modern times, no one has yet
obtained a purely Blue Rose, and its former existence may well seem to
us incredible.

Besides the Moorish cultivation in Spain, the Rose has been an
object of culture to a great extent in other countries. It has
been cultivated principally for the beauty of its flowers, but in
many parts of Europe and Asia, and in the north of Africa, its
culture has been pursued for commercial purposes. Of its abundance
in Palestine, some conception may be formed from the statement of
travelers, that they have not only seen them wild and in great
profusion in the vicinity of Jerusalem, but have found them in hedges,
intermingled with pomegranate trees. Doubday states that, when the
Eastern Christians made one of their processions in the Church of
the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, which continued some two hours,
many persons were present with sacks full of rose petals, which they
threw by handfuls on the people, and in such immense quantities, that
many were covered with them, and they were scattered all over the
pavement. In Syria and Persia it has been cultivated from a very early
period, and the ancient name of the former, _Suristan_, is said to
signify the land of roses. Damascus, Cashmere, Barbary, and Fayoum in
Egypt, all cultivated the Rose extensively for its distilled oil or
essence. Very little is extant respecting the culture of the Rose in
the middle ages, but that it was cultivated and valued is known by
its having been worn by knights at the tournament, as an emblem of
their devotion to grace and beauty. According to Loudon, "Ludovico
Verthema, who traveled in the East in 1503, observed that Tæssa was
particularly celebrated for roses, and that he saw a great quantity of
these flowers at Calicut." The Rose is to this day also extensively
cultivated in India, and for commercial purposes perhaps in greater
abundance than is now known in any other country. Bishop Heber states
that "Ghazepoor is celebrated throughout India for the wholesomeness
of its air and the beauty and extent of its rose gardens. The
rose-fields, which occupy many hundred acres in the neighborhood,
are described as, at the proper season, extremely beautiful. They
are cultivated for distillation and for making 'Attar of Roses.'"
He states also, that "many roses were growing in the garden of the
palace of Delhi, and the fountain pipes were carved with images of
roses." Another writer describes in glowing colors the beauty of
Ghazepoor, the Gul-istan (the rose beds,) of Bengal. "In the spring
of the year, an extent of miles around the town presents to the eye a
continual garden of roses, than which nothing can be more beautiful
and fragrant. The sight is perfectly dazzling; the plain, as far as
the eye can reach, extending in the same bespangled carpet of red
and green. The breezes, too, are loaded with the sweet odor which is
wafted far across the river Ganges."

These statements sufficiently evince that the Rose was not only
valued by the Hindoos as an article of commerce, but was intimately
associated with their ideas of pleasure and enjoyment.

Persia, however, was, above all other countries, preëminent for roses.
"Sir John Chardin, in 1686, found the gardens of the Persians without
parterres, labyrinths, and other ornaments of European gardens, but
filled with lilies, peach trees, and roses; and all modern travelers
bear testimony to the esteem in which this flower is held in the
East." Sir Wm. Ousley tells us, in his travels in Persia, in 1819,
that when he entered the flower garden belonging to the Governor of
the Castle, near Farso, he was overwhelmed with roses; and Jackson,
in his _Journey, etc._, says that the roses of the Sinan Nile, or
Garden of the Nile, are unequalled; and mattresses are made of their
leaves, for men of rank to recline upon. Buckingham speaks of the rose
plantations of Damascus as occupying an area of many acres, about
three miles from that city. Sir Robert Ker Porter, speaking of the
garden of one of the royal palaces of Persia, says: "I was struck
with the appearance of two rose trees, full fourteen feet high, laden
with thousands of flowers, in every degree of expansion, and of a
bloom and delicacy of scent that imbued the whole atmosphere with
exquisite perfume. Indeed, I believe that in no country in the world
does the rose grow in such perfection as in Persia; in no country is
it so cultivated and prized by the natives. Their gardens and courts
are crowded by its plants, their rooms ornamented with roses, filled
with its gathered branches, and every bath strewed with the full-blown
flowers, plucked with the ever-replenished stems. * * * But in this
delicious garden of Negaaristan, the eye and the smell are not the
only senses regaled by the presence of the Rose: the ear is enchanted
by the wild and beautiful notes of multitudes of nightingales,
whose warblings seem to increase in melody and softness, with the
unfolding of their favorite flowers. Here, indeed, the stranger is
more powerfully reminded, that he is in the genuine country of the
nightingale and the Rose." Rivers mentions that Sir John Malcolm told
him, that when in Persia he had once breakfasted on an immense heap,
or rather mount, of roses, which the Persians had raised in honor of
him. The rose of Cashmere has been long celebrated in the East, for
its brilliancy and delicacy of odor--

    "Who has not heard of the Vale of Cashmere,
     With its Roses, the brightest that earth ever gave?"

Throughout the whole season during which the roses remained in bloom
in this beautiful valley, the Feast of Roses was kept with great
rejoicing, and an entire abandonment to pleasure. At this time, a
great number of tents were pitched, and multitudes of men, women,
boys, and girls, were dancing and singing to the music of their
various instruments.

All that has been handed down to us, and all we know at the present
time of the climate and productions of Persia, and the customs of its
inhabitants, prove that it was emphatically the land of roses; and all
that we can gather from its history or tradition evinces, that to the
inhabitants of the East, including the Hindoos and the Moors of Spain,
is this beautiful flower indebted for the most careful and abundant
cultivation, and for a due appreciation of its merits.

At the present time the Rose is cultivated throughout the civilized
world. Loudon speaks of hedges of mixed Provence Roses, in the garden
of Rosenstein, in Germany, and also of their profusion in the public
garden of Frankfort. They are found in the gardens of Valencia, in
Spain, and Sir John Carr, speaking of the seat of a Spanish gentleman
near Tarragona, says, "The doors of the dining room open into a small
garden, the walls of which are covered with myrtles, jasmines, and
roses." In the Botanic garden of Madrid, rose trees are used for
dividing hedges, and the flower is a favorite throughout Spain.

Among the Spanish ladies, the Rose is highly valued, and, with the
Orange flower, is a favorite ornament for the hair. We have frequently
been struck, while traveling in the Spanish West Indies, and in
some parts of South America, with the careful nurture and attention
bestowed on a single rose bush, and the delight exhibited at its
bloom, while all around in natural luxuriance were the most beautiful
and gorgeous plants and flowers which the tropics can produce. The
brilliant cactus, the beautiful oleander, the singular orchids, and
the delicate and fragrant flowers of the coffee and orange, seemed
cast into the shade by the ancient and well-known Rose.

I well recollect, that on returning one day from a ride into the
country, where I had been luxuriating in the gorgeous splendor of a
tropical forest, the fair daughter of my hostess wished to introduce
me to a flower, which, in her opinion, far surpassed all that I had
seen; she accompanied me to the top of the flat-roofed house, used at
the South as a place of evening resort, and there, in one corner, I
found a thrifty plant of the Tea Rose, which to her infinite delight,
was just showing above its glossy and delicate young leaves, a little
ruby-tipped bud. This little plant had been the object of long and
careful nursing, and her attention was now about to be rewarded by a
fine and perfect bloom.

In France, however, is the Rose a preëminent object of horticulture,
both in commercial establishments and in private gardens. The skill
of the French has originated many new and beautiful varieties, which
are to be found in several of the nurseries in the United States. The
French are constantly searching for improvements in horticultural
science and practice, with an enthusiasm rarely found in the more
cold Englishman, whose skill seems to consist less in the creation of
new varieties, than in growing perfectly those already known. None,
indeed, can surpass the English in the art of growing fine plants, but
we are chiefly indebted to the French for the finest new varieties of
the Rose.

In Great Britain, although comparatively little attention has been
paid to the obtaining of new varieties, the culture is more careful
and the nomenclature more correct. The competition excited by their
numerous horticultural exhibitions causes great attention to be given
to correct nomenclature and to symmetrical habit of growth. We can
imagine nothing more beautiful than some of the plants that we saw
at the exhibitions of the London Horticultural Society at Chiswick;
every plant was pruned, trained and grown, after an ideal, but perfect
model, with its close and luxuriant foliage, its thrifty, symmetrical
habit, and the thick, leathery petals of its well-cupped flower. This
high standard should be introduced into every Society, and if such
were the case in this country and the rule were carefully obeyed, the
character of our exhibitions would in a short time be very materially
changed.

T. Rivers is one of the most extensive rose cultivators in England,
and is also known as the author of a very excellent descriptive work
on the Rose. He has also been successful in hybridizing, and has
originated come very fine varieties. His attention was at one time
directed almost exclusively to the Rose, but it now includes many
other nursery articles, and on our visit to him, we found him much
interested with experiments in fruit culture. Lane, Wood, and Paul,
are esteemed very good cultivators, and generally correct in their
nomenclature. From these several establishments in England and France
have been imported most of the varieties now existing in this country.
Their trade with the United States is, however, comparatively limited,
from the great risk of loss by a sea voyage. We have frequently
lost in this way two-thirds or three-quarters of an importation,
to our great annoyance and expense, and it is only by repeated and
persevering importations that we have been able to obtain all the
desirable varieties.

In the United States the culture of the Rose has been very much
neglected, until within a few years. Tulips and dahlias have
successively been the rage, and although there has long existed
a great variety of roses, comparatively few of them have been
cultivated, even in the best gardens of the United States. Now the
tide is turning. Dahlias are going out of repute, and the Rose is
resuming its ancient empire in the queendom of Flora. The advent of
the Bourbon and the Remontant, or Perpetual classes, has no doubt
materially aided this change, but it is in a great part owing to the
easy culture of the plant, and the intrinsic merits and beauty of the
flower. The taste of the horticultural public being thus decidedly for
the Rose, a demand will exist for all the information respecting soil,
planting, cultivating, etc., and this information we shall endeavor to
supply in a simple and concise manner, avoiding, as far as possible,
all technicalities, and adapting it to the use of the cultivator of a
single plant in the crowded border of a city garden, or to the more
extended culture of a commercial establishment.

Each cultivator has his peculiar mode of doing things, and there may
be those who deem the mode laid down here inferior to their own. From
these we should be glad to hear, and to make any corrections they
may suggest, where such corrections appear to be founded upon true
principles. In order to make our work as perfect as possible, we
have not hesitated to add to our own experience all the information
derived from a personal inspection of French and English nurseries,
and to cull from foreign works and periodicals all that may interest
our readers. Such information, as far as it coincides with our own
experience, we shall gladly incorporate, with the hope that we may
be successful in presenting every fact of interest which may exist
respecting the cultivation of our favorite flower.



                             CHAPTER IV.

                    SOIL, SITUATION, AND PLANTING.


The most suitable soil is a strong, rich loam, or vegetable mould
mixed with about one-quarter its bulk of well-decomposed stable
manure. If the soil of the garden where the roses are to be planted
differs materially from this, it should be made to approach it as
nearly as possible by the addition of the requisite soil and manure.
In a good vegetable garden, the soil, with the addition of a little
manure, will grow the Rose well. When the soil, however, is of an
inferior character, holes should be dug three or four times the size
of the roots of a well-grown rose bush and filled with compost of the
above character.

Rivers recommends, as the best compost for roses, rotten dung and
pit-sand for cold, clayey soils; and for warm, dry soils, rotten dung
and cool loams. He also states that he has found night soil, mixed
with the drainings of the dunghill, or even with common ditch or pond
water, so as to make a thick liquid, the best possible manure for
roses, poured on the surface of the soil twice in winter--one to two
gallons to each tree. The soil need not be stirred until spring, and
then merely loosened two or three inches deep, with the prongs of a
fork; for poor soil, and on lawns, previously removing the turf, this
will be found most efficacious. He directs this compost to be applied
in the first two winter months, but as our ground is frequently frozen
so hard then that it cannot absorb the liquid, it would probably be
best to apply it in this country a month earlier. Where a bed or
border of roses is to be planted, it is well to dig out the soil to
the depth of two or two and a half feet; fill the bottom to the depth
of six inches with small stones, and then replace the earth, well
fertilized, as directed above. Nothing is more injurious to the Rose
than a wet, retentive subsoil; and where expense and trouble are no
object, this perfect draining is much the best calculated to ensure
a thrifty growth and perfect bloom. A rich and dry soil is, in fact,
all-important; for otherwise the most double flower will frequently
become single or semi-double. We have seen a plant of La Reine produce
a perfect flower in the green-house, and when removed to an inferior
soil, produce flowers almost single. It may therefore be safely laid
down as a rule, that it is impossible to make the soil too rich for
the Rose, and that in proportion to the fertilizing matter contained
therein, provided it is properly decomposed, will be the approximation
of the plant and the flower to perfection. The fertility of the soil
may be very much assisted by frequent applications of liquid manure,
made either of cow dung or guano; the former is always safe; the
latter, valuable if properly used, may, in the hands of a careless
person, ruin the plant.

In these remarks on fertility of soil, we have no desire to discourage
those who may not have a fertile soil, or the means of obtaining the
elements of fertility. The Rose will grow and bloom in any soil;
the wood will be healthy, but short and small; the flower will be
produced, but, as we have said before, will be smaller and often
semi-double; yet even under these disadvantages, it is still the
most desirable flower for the poor man; none other can so cheaply
and so well ornament his small yard, or hanging in graceful festoons
about his windows, shed forth its bloom and sweetness to enliven his
hours of relief from labor, and give his children happiness, from
the association of pleasant thought with natural beauty. But the
poor man has within his reach more than he supposes of the elements
of fertility. The ashes of his hearth, the decomposed turf of the
road-side, and the domestic manure, too generally thrown away, all
contain some of the best fertilizing matter, and with proper care
could be made amply sufficient for the production of his flowers and
vegetables. The decomposed turf alone would grow roses admirably,
although a little manure would be a useful addition.


                              SITUATION.

The best situation for the Rose is an eastern or northern exposure,
rather than a southern; the intensity of the heat of our midsummer
often affects injuriously the expansion of the flowers, their color,
and fragrance. A useful degree of shade can be obtained by planting
amidst groups of dwarf roses, pillars, trellises, obelisks, etc.,
on which climbing roses can be trained, and whose shadow, changing
with the sun, would protect the opening bloom and answer the same end
as a cool situation. While, however, the Rose requires a cool, airy
locality, it should by no means be placed entirely in the shade; a
portion of the sun's rays is always necessary to ensure a good bloom.
It is from this cause that the bloom of roses is much more certain
and perfect in France and this country than in England. In the latter
country, the sun is scarcely ever sufficiently powerful to develop
all the resources of a plant. The summer of 1846 was unprecedentedly
hot throughout England, and all the horticultural journals united in
pronouncing the bloom of roses that season unsurpassed by the bloom of
any previous year. For climbing roses the situation should not be too
exposed, or where they would be liable to encounter heavy winds, which
might break off the young shoots and in other ways injure the plant.
Most of our American cities possess in the culture of roses a great
advantage over the large towns of England, in the use of anthracite
instead of bituminous coal; for, according to Loudon, the Rose will
not thrive in towns where the prevailing fuel is of this character,
and the bloom will not compare with those produced some ten miles
distant. "The first effect of the smoke is to prevent the flower buds
from opening freely, next to diminish their number; the leaves then
gradually become smaller, and the length of the shoots less, after
which the plant weakens by degrees, and in a few years, if a standard,
it dies altogether, or, if a dwarf, barely exists, and seldom if ever
flowers."

Such a result, from such a cause, is rarely known here, and the
resident of the city may have his little yard filled with roses whose
bloom will be in no way inferior to that of the plants in an extensive
lawn or garden.


                              PLANTING.

All those roses that bloom only once in the year, and also the
Perpetuals, or Remontant Roses, can be planted in autumn, after the
first severe frost. The ends of the roots, which have been broken in
taking up, will then form a callus, and the soil will be so thoroughly
settled about the roots by the winter rains, that the plant will
commence forming new roots early in the spring, and will rapidly
make strong and luxuriant shoots. As far north as New York and its
vicinity, the Bourbons and the Bengal, with their sub-classes, being
more delicate, should not be planted until spring.

If the subsoil is wet and retentive of moisture, the planting of any
roses should be deferred until spring, but from our preceding remarks
it will be borne in mind that such soil should be well drained before
planting, in which case the autumn will still answer.

The plant should be taken up carefully, with all the root possible,
bearing in mind that the elements of life are in the root, and every
fibre that is lost is so much taken from the future health and
prosperity of the plant. The root should then be carefully examined,
and every portion that has been bruised should be cut off; all the
broken ends should also be cut away as far as they are split or
injured. Any root of the character of a tap-root, or growing directly
down into the earth, should be cut off; for it is best to encourage
only lateral roots, which can more readily partake of the benefits of
the rain and sun, and can more effectually absorb the nutriment in the
soil.

In the spring the hole for each plant should be dug somewhat larger
than the root, and the bottom forked, or dug up, and if necessary
enriched with the surface soil, which, it is presumed, has been
prepared according to preceding directions. Let one hold the plant,
while another throws in the soil; or if one alone is planting, let
him hold the stem just above the root with one hand, and throw in
the soil with the other, moving the stem from side to side, and
occasionally pulling it upward a little and shaking the root until the
soil has worked well among the fibres; on which much of the subsequent
prosperity of the plant depends. If the weather is dry, a little water
may be placed in the hole, which should then be filled up and the soil
well trodden down about the stem. When planted, it should be very
little, if at all, lower in the ground than before; very little of the
stem should be buried; and when trodden down, the root should be made
firm and solid.

In planting climbing or pillar roses, care should be taken to set the
trellis, or pillar, or whatever may be used for their support, before
the plant is put in the ground; for if such should be set after the
plant has commenced growing vigorously, it will in all probability
damage the roots, and give the plant a check from which it will not
recover during the whole season.

The Rose, even in the best soils, should be taken up every three or
four years, and have its roots shortened and pruned; a portion of the
soil in which it grew should also be removed and replaced by soil of
the character before described. Where the soil is poor, they should be
taken up every other year, and replanted, after renewing the soil as
above, or digging it with plenty of manure.

Van Mons states that in Belgium the plants are uniformly taken up at
the end of eight years and placed in fresh soil, or they are thrown
away and young plants substituted in their place. This substitution of
young plants is perhaps the most certain mode of ensuring a continual
supply of strong, healthy wood and well-formed flowers.

The Rose may be transplanted at any season, provided the shoots are
pruned closely and deprived of all their leaves, and the soil in which
they are planted kept well watered. The flowering also may be retarded
in this way, and those roses that bloom only once in the season, if
they are transplanted just before they are coming into flower, and
properly pruned, will bloom in autumn. The autumn and spring, or the
dormant season, however, is the proper period for all transplanting.

Whether planted in autumn or spring, if purchased of a nurseryman,
they should be _ordered_ in the autumn. In the spring, as soon as
the frost is out of the ground, the first few warm days, operating
upon their excitable nature, will start them into growth. If then
the nurseryman has a large number of orders on hand, some of them
will inevitably be delayed until the plants have grown too much. If
ordered in the autumn, the purchaser should not expect to receive them
before the 10th or 15th of November. No nurseryman who values his
reputation will allow roses to leave his grounds before the vegetation
is checked by several heavy frosts, and the wood and roots allowed
time thereafter to thoroughly ripen. Dealers who desire roses early,
in order to deliver with other plants, sometimes rebel at this; but
purchasers should understand that roses will not flourish unless the
wood and roots are thoroughly ripe. This applies more particularly to
the Remontant, Moss, and June roses. The Tea, China, and Noisette,
will bear taking up at any time, but their roots will rarely be in a
condition to endure the cold as far north as New York without some
protection. When received from the nurseryman in the autumn, they
should be carefully and separately heeled-in in a dry piece of land,
and covered with sand. A covering of litter should be avoided, because
it affords a harbor for mice, who would soon destroy the plants.

Plants from the open ground are always to be preferred by the
purchaser. Those sold in pots in the spring have frequently been
forced, and will require a long period of rest before growing again,
while those from the open ground, having had their rest, will grow
luxuriantly at once.

It should also be remembered by the purchaser that the delicate
roots of the Rose will not bear exposure to the air. All reputable
nurserymen understand this, and pack in moss. Dealers, however, who
purchase of these nurserymen, and who have many lots to deliver after
they are unpacked, are often not sufficiently careful to guard the
roots against exposure. The plants then failing to grow well, the
fault is attributed to some deficiency in the plant, rather than to
its true cause. To ensure safety while being delivered, dealers should
dip them, as soon as unpacked, in a puddle of mud of the consistency
of thick paint. This precaution is useful in every case after
unpacking and before planting, for there must always be some delay
and exposure even when the purchaser obtains plants directly from the
grower.



                              CHAPTER V.

                   PRUNING, TRAINING, AND BEDDING.


In pruning roses at the time of transplanting, the principal object
to be attained is relief to the plant by taking away all the wood and
branches which the diminished root may not be able to support. The
mode of pruning depends very much upon the condition of the plant. If
it is very bushy, all the weaker branches should be cut away, leaving
not more than three or four of the strongest shoots, and shortening
even those down to a few eyes. If it is desired that the plant should
continue dwarf and bushy, the new wood should be cut down to the
lower two eyes, and every half-grown or slender shoot cut out. These
two eyes will each throw out a branch; then cut these branches down
to the two eyes, and again cut back the shoots they produce until a
symmetrical habit is formed, with close, thick foliage. There should
not be sufficient wood allowed to remain to make the bush crowded; and
if there should be danger of this, some of the branches, instead of
being cut down to two eyes, should be removed altogether.

Climbing roses, when planted, should be cut down almost to the ground,
and also carefully thinned out. Only a few of the strongest branches
should be preserved, and the new wood of these cut down to two eyes
each.

The preceding remarks are applicable to roses at the time of planting;
they should also be pruned every year,--the hardy varieties in the
autumn or winter, and the more tender in the spring. For all roses
that are not liable to have part of their wood killed by the cold, the
autumn is decidedly the best time for pruning; the root, having then
but little top to support, is left at liberty to store up nutriment
for a strong growth the following season. The principal objects in
pruning are the removal of the old wood, because it is generally
only the young wood that produces large and fine flowers; the
shortening and thinning out of the young wood, that the root, having
much less wood to support, may devote all its nutriment to the size
and beauty of the flower; and the formation of a symmetrical shape.
If an abundant bloom is desired, without regard to the size of the
flower, only the weak shoots should be cut out, and the strong wood
should be shortened very little; each bud will then produce a flower.
By this mode, the flowers will be small, and the growth of new wood
very short, but there will be an abundant and very showy bloom. If,
however, the flowers are desired as large and as perfect as possible,
all the weak wood should be cut out entirely, and all the strong wood
formed the last season should be cut down to two eyes. The knife
should always be applied directly above a bud, and sloping upward
from it. The preceding observations apply principally to rose bushes,
or dwarf roses; with pillar, climbing, and tree roses, the practice
should be somewhat different. The former two need comparatively little
pruning; they require careful thinning out, but should seldom be
shortened. The very young side shoots can sometimes be shortened in,
to prevent the foliage from becoming too thick and crowded.

Pillars for roses can be made of trellis work, of iron rods in
different forms, or of wood, but they should enclose a space of
at least a foot in diameter. The cheapest plan, and one that will
last many years, is to make posts of about 1½ or 2 inches square,
out of locust or pitch-pine plank, and connect them with common
hoop-iron. They should be the length of a plank--between twelve and
thirteen feet--and should be set three feet in the ground, that
they may effectually resist the action of the wind. The Rose having
been cut down to the ground, is planted inside of the pillar, and
will make strong growths the first season. As the leading shoots
appear, they should be trained spirally around the outside of the
pillar, and sufficiently near each other to enable them to fill up
the intermediate space with their foliage. These leading shoots will
then form the permanent wood, and the young side shoots, pruned in
from year to year, will produce the flowers, and at the flowering
season cover the whole pillar with a mass of rich and showy bloom.
Figure 5 gives the appearance of a pillar of this kind. If the tops
of the leading shoots die down at all, they should be shortened down
to the first strong eye, because, if a weak bud is left at the top,
its growth will be slender for a long time. The growth of different
varieties of roses is very varied; some make delicate shoots, and
require little room, while others, like the Queen of the Prairies, are
exceedingly robust, and may require a larger pillar than the size we
have mentioned. Figure 6 shows the method of constructing a pyramid by
the use of a central post and iron rods.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--PILLAR ROSE.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--ROSE PYRAMID.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--A ROSE ARBOR.]

Climbing roses require very much the same treatment as pillar roses,
and are frequently trained over arches, or in festoons from one pillar
to another. In these the weak branches should also be thinned out,
and the strong ones be allowed to remain, without being shortened,
as in these an abundant bloom is wanted, rather than large flowers.
An arbor, made by training roses from one pillar to another, is
represented in figure 7. In training climbing roses over any flat
surface, as a trellis, wall, or side of a house, the principal point
is so to place the leading shoots that all the intermediate space may
be filled up with foliage. They can either be trained in fan-shape,
with side shoots growing out from a main stem, or one leading shoot
can be encouraged and trained in parallel horizontal lines to the
top, care being taken to preserve sufficient intermediate space for
the foliage. Where no shoots are wanted, the buds can be rubbed off
before they push out. No weak shoots should be allowed to grow from
the bottom, but all the strong ones should be allowed to grow as much
as they may. When the intermediate space is filled with young wood
and foliage, all the thin, small shoots should be cut out every year,
and the strongest buds only allowed to remain, which, forming strong
branches, will set closely to the wall and preserve a neat appearance.

The production of roses out of season, by forcing, was, as we have
shown, well known to the ancient Romans, and from them has been handed
down to the present time. But the retarding of roses by means of a
regular process of pruning owes its origin to a comparatively modern
date. This process is mentioned both by Lord Bacon and Sir Robert
Boyle. The latter says: "It is delivered by the _Lord Verulam_, and
other naturalists, that if a rose bush be carefully cut as soon as it
is done bearing in the summer, it will again bear roses in the autumn.
Of this, many have made unsuccessful trials, and thereupon report
the affirmation to be false; yet I am very apt to think that my lord
was encouraged by experience to write as he did. For, having been
particularly solicitous about the experiment, I find by the relation,
both of my own and other experienced gardeners, that this way of
procuring autumnal roses will, in most rose bushes, commonly fail,
but succeed in some that are good bearers; and, accordingly, having
this summer made trial of it, I find that of a row of bushes cut in
June, by far the greater number promise no autumnal roses; but one
that hath manifested itself to be of a vigorous and prolific nature
is, at this present, indifferently well stored with those of the
damask kind. There may, also, be a mistake in the species of roses;
for experienced gardeners inform me that the Musk Rose will, if it be
a lusty plant, bear flowers in autumn without cutting; and, therefore,
that may unjustly be ascribed to art, which is the bare production
of nature." Thus, in quaint and ancient style, discourses the wise
and pious philosopher on our favorite flower, and also mentions the
fact, that a _red_ rose becomes _white_ on being exposed to the fumes
of sulphur. This, however, had been observed before Sir Robert's
time. Notwithstanding his doubts, it is now a well-established fact,
that the blooming of roses may be retarded by cutting them back to
two eyes after they have fairly commenced growing, and the flower
buds are discoverable. A constant succession can be obtained where
there is a number of plants, by cutting each one back a shorter or
longer distance, or at various periods of its growth. In these cases,
however, it very often will not bloom until autumn, because the second
effort to produce flowers is much greater than the first, and is not
attended with success until late in the season.

However desirable may be this retarding process, it cannot be relied
on as a general practice, because the very unusual exertion made to
produce the flowers a second time, weakens the plant, and materially
affects its prosperity the subsequent year.

There is, indeed, but one kind of summer pruning that is advantageous,
which is the thinning out of the flower-buds as soon as they appear,
in order that the plant may be burdened with no more than it can fully
perfect, and the cutting off all the seed vessels after the flower
has expanded and the petals have fallen. Until this last is done, a
second bloom cannot readily be obtained from the Bengal Rose and its
sub-classes, the Tea and Noisette, which otherwise grow and bloom
constantly throughout the season.

We would impress upon our readers the absolute, the essential,
importance of cultivation--of constantly stirring the soil in which
the Rose is planted; and we scarcely know of more comprehensive
directions in a few words than the reply of an experienced
horticulturist to one who asked the best mode of growing fine fruits
and flowers. The old gentleman replied that the mode could be
described in three words, "cultivate, cultivate, cultivate." After the
same manner, we would impress the importance of these three words
upon all those who love well-grown and beautiful roses. They are,
indeed, _multum in parvo_--the very essence of successful culture.
The soil cannot be plowed, dug, or stirred too much; it should be
dug and hoed, not merely to keep down the weeds, but to ensure the
health and prosperity of the plant. Cultivation is to all plants and
trees manure, sun, and rain. It opens the soil to the nutrition it may
receive from the atmosphere, to the beneficial influence of light, and
to the morning and evening dew. It makes the heavy soil light, and the
light soil heavy; if the earth is saturated with rain, it dries it; if
burned up with drought, it moistens it. Watering is often beneficial,
and is particularly so to roses just before and during the period of
bloom; but in an extremely dry season, if we were obliged to choose
between the watering-pot and the spade, we should most unhesitatingly
give the preference to the latter.

We do not wish, however, to undervalue the benefits of water. If the
plants are well mulched with straw, salt hay, or any other litter,
frequent watering is very beneficial. When not mulched, the watering
should always be followed by the hoe, in order to destroy the baking
of the surface. While the plants are in a growing state, liquid manure
will give a larger and a finer bloom. This liquid manure may be made
with soapsuds, or the refuse from the house. When these are not
easily obtained, half a bushel of cow or horse dung can be placed in
a barrel, which can then be filled with water, well stirred up, and
allowed to settle a day or two before being used.

For those who are willing to incur the expense, a very nice way of
applying pure water is to sink ordinary tile, two inches in diameter,
with collars, about a foot below the surface, around and through the
rose bed. An elbow from this, coming to the surface, can convey the
water into the pipes, through the joints of which it will escape, and
thus irrigate the whole ground, without baking the surface.


                            BEDDING ROSES.

While Remontant, Moss, and Garden Roses are adapted to the wants of
much the larger number of growers, because they require no protection
in winter, and are strong and robust in their growth and habit, yet
the ever-blooming varieties are becoming daily more popular. While
but few of the Remontants have more than two seasons of distinct and
abundant bloom, the Teas, Chinas, and Noisettes, bloom constantly and
continuously. In grace, and color, and beauty, these last have more
varied charms than the more hardy and abundant Remontants, and the
difficulty of caring for them in the winter, even by those who have
no glass, is compensated by the additional pleasure they give in the
summer. Those who have glass can enjoy them winter and summer alike.
Their superiority in constant blooming, especially, adapts them for
planting in masses or beds scattered about the lawn. These beds can be
each of one color, or they can be assorted, or can be planted in the
ribbon style, rows of white, or red, or yellow alternating. No bedding
flowers, Verbenas, Salvias, or any other plant, will give so constant
pleasure as Roses. They can be purchased, also, nearly as cheaply as
ordinary bedding plants, and are found in several places as low as
$15 per 100, or $100 per 1,000. On being taken out of the pots they
will grow rapidly, and bloom after they are thoroughly established,
and afterward, year after year, they will commence blooming early,
and continue until frost. A bed made in any part of the lawn, and
in any soil, will grow them well, provided it has a dry bottom, and
has some well-decomposed manure dug in it. A light, sandy soil will
grow them in the greatest perfection. They can be planted eighteen
inches to two feet apart, and the new shoots, as soon as they have
attained sufficient length, should be pegged down, so as to cover the
whole ground. The branches thus laid down will give abundant flowers
throughout their whole length, and from each bud a strong-rooted
shoot will be thrown up, and being pruned down close in the autumn,
will be ready to produce a strong and bearing shoot another year. If
they become too close and crowded, the new shoots can be partially
cut away. North of Baltimore, these Roses will need protection in the
winter. This can be done by covering the bed with sand, several inches
deep, or by taking up the plants, cutting them down, heeling them in
in a dry cellar, or potting them for a green-house.



                             CHAPTER VI.

                         POTTING AND FORCING.

            "Seek Roses in December, ice in June."--BYRON.


Every variety of Rose, in the hands of a skillful man, will grow and
bloom well in pots, although the Bengal and its sub-classes, and the
more dwarf Hardy Roses, are the most easily managed. The great point
in potting is to imitate planting in the open ground as nearly as
possible. The soil used should possess all the nutritious elements
required in the open ground, and, if possible, in somewhat greater
abundance. More manure should be used, because the frequent watering
required by plants in pots must inevitably wash away a portion of
the fertilizing matter. There is nothing better than one portion of
stable manure, and three of turf, or leaf-mould, all well decomposed,
and mixed with a little pure peat earth. A portion of night-soil,
well incorporated with charcoal, is also very excellent. Charcoal is
the most powerful absorbent known; it retains the nutritious elements
in the night-soil, prevents their being washed away by watering, and
gives them out as the plant needs them. English gardeners should bear
in mind that roses require in this climate a stronger soil than in
England. Half-gallon pots are the best size at first, from which, by
repeated pottings, corresponding with the growth of the plant, they
can be shifted to one or two-gallon pots. The size of the pots should,
however, be regulated by the extent of the roots; it should be just
sufficiently large to allow the roots to go in without crowding. A few
broken pieces of pots or small lumps should be put in the bottom for
drainage. When the plant is to be taken from the open ground, select
one, the roots of which are not too large, and with a sharp spade cut
around it a ball of earth about the size of the pot, depriving it
at the same time of a portion of its top, as directed in remarks on
pruning. It should stand in this state about a fortnight, until the
roots have become callused, and the plant is somewhat accustomed to
the loss of its roots and branches. It can then be safely taken up at
any season, and transferred to the pot, which should then be filled in
with earth, firm and solid. If potted in the autumn, after the leaves
have fallen and the wood become mature, the above previous preparation
is not required, but the plant can be taken up without a ball of
earth, and after being pruned of its bruised or broken roots, placed
in the pot. It should then be protected from the frost and light until
it has entirely recovered from its change of habitation, when it can
be placed in any cool spot free from frost, until it is wanted for
forcing.

Roses may, without difficulty, by the above previous management, be
forced to bloom in the latter part of winter, but where their bloom is
desired at Christmas or New-Year, they should be gradually prepared
for the space of a year previous. To produce roses the latter part
of winter, our own management has been simple and effective, giving
us as many flowers as a green-house and vinery full of pots could
afford. After putting the plants in pots, as directed above, pruning
them down to eight or ten buds, and hardening them in a shady place,
they are removed to the vinery before the frost out of doors can have
injured them, and cut down to two buds. The house is then kept as cool
as possible, while the frost is carefully excluded by a light fire
at night, and on fine days the sashes are opened, and plenty of air
admitted. They are thus kept in a dormant state until the first of
the year, when the heat is gradually increased to about 70° by day,
sinking as low as 35° at night. Care is taken to give them sufficient
watering, and in their whole management to subject them as nearly
as possible to the conditions of open culture. When the green-fly
appears, it is immediately destroyed by fumigation with tobacco, and
the plants are subsequently syringed with clean water. With this
management, they soon begin to show signs of life, the bud commences
pushing forth its delicate, light green shoot, the leaves then appear,
the plant, soon growing with luxuriance, is clothed with rich foliage,
and about the middle of the third month, the house presents a mass of
thrifty growth and perfect bloom.

By the means above described, roses may be forced into bloom the
latter part of winter; and by observing some care to bring them into
the house at different periods, in regular succession, a bloom can
be enjoyed through all the spring months, until roses bloom in the
open ground. This process cannot, however, be continued two years in
succession without weakening the plant; and although, if placed in a
shady spot, and allowed to rest during the summer, it may sufficiently
recover to perform the same work another year, it is desirable, if
possible, to have fresh plants, whose strength has not been exhausted
by the unusual effort attending the production of flowers out of
season.

The preceding directions apply more particularly to late forcing; and
although the same means, with an earlier application of heat, will
produce flowers early in winter, yet the true art of early forcing
consists in _gradually_ bringing the Rose out of its season; and it
is only by this mode that thrifty plants and perfect flowers can be
produced before Christmas.

Two years, and sometimes three, should be employed in preparing a Rose
for early forcing. Having been prepared by digging around it with a
sharp spade some two weeks previously, the plant should be taken up
immediately after the first frost, placed in a cold frame a few days,
to harden, and then taken to the green-house or vinery. A moderate
heat should then be given it, with plenty of light and air to prevent
its being drawn. The flower-buds should be plucked off as soon as
they appear, and no bloom should be allowed. It will thus make fine
growths, and can be plunged in the open ground as soon as danger of
frost has passed in the spring. Here it can remain during the summer,
to ripen its wood, and will require no care except a little watering
in dry weather, and an occasional taking up and examination, that the
roots may not push through the hole of the pot, and become fixed in
the ground, in which case the plants would make too strong a growth,
and suffer on being removed from the new-made root. In October it can
be placed in a pot one size larger, pruned by thinning out all the
weak branches, and shortening the strong ones down to two eyes. It
should then go through the same process as before, carefully picking
off all the flower-buds, promoting its growth until completed, when
let it be put in a cold frame until all danger of frost is over, and
then plunge it in the ground to ripen its wood. As its vegetation
was started a month earlier the last year, it can now be taken up
in September, repotted and pruned as before, and then taken into
the green-house. The temperature should then be gradually raised to
about 55° until the plant has commenced growing, and then gradually
increased to 65° or 70°, giving as much air as can be obtained without
lowering the temperature.

All useless shoots should be kept down, and all the flower-buds taken
off that threaten to be abortive. In fumigating for the green-fly,
care should be taken not to do it too strongly, but repeated and
gentle doses at night are better. We have known many fine plants
ruined by fumigation in the hands of an inexperienced person. A good
bloom can be obtained the second year by this mode; but if the amateur
has the patience to wait until a third, he will be rewarded by a
thrifty and compact habit, rich foliage, and beautiful bloom for two
months before Christmas; and if there are a number of plants to be
brought into the green-house a week after each other, he can have them
in bloom until the late forced roses appear. At all periods subsequent
to their commencement, care should be taken to give them sufficient
moisture, and as much air as is consistent with the state of growth
and the external temperature. Without water, they will neither grow
nor bloom well. Under glass, every other day, and in some cases, twice
a week is sufficient.

The great principle to be borne in mind in forcing roses is, that
sudden excitement is fatal, and that a plant should never be taken
from the open ground into a heated house without being gradually
prepared for it. This principle is particularly applicable to
deciduous roses. The Remontant and Bourbon, the Bengal and its
sub-classes, which grow and bloom through the whole year, are not so
liable to be injured by exciting treatment.

Cuttings of these that are struck in the spring and planted out in the
open ground may have their tops slightly pruned, and their buds all
pinched off during the summer, to encourage the formation of wood and
of a close head.

About the last days of summer, or the first of autumn, they can
be taken up and placed in quart pots, with a soil composed of one
half loam, one quarter cow-dung, and one quarter peat. After being
slightly pruned, and left in the shade for a week, they can be placed
in frames, protected at night from frost, and exposed to the air in
mild weather for some two months, when they can be removed, a few at
a time, into the green-house, and subjected to a moderately increased
temperature. They will soon bloom well, and will succeed each other
throughout the winter and spring, until roses bloom in the open air.
Like the deciduous roses, they require to be protected against the
green-fly by syringing, and if that does not answer, by fumigation
with tobacco.

The Bengal, however, like the deciduous roses, will bloom better the
second winter than the first, by shifting them into larger pots,
pruning them, cutting off all the flower-buds, and giving them very
little water the latter part of summer. They can then be put into the
frames, and treated as before. The Bengal Rose is very easily forced
in this way; and if the temperature is at first kept during the day at
45°, and gradually increased to 60°, there can be little difficulty
in obtaining beautiful and healthy plants. This temperature can be
obtained in any green-house or vinery. The latter is becoming more
common, and when it is provided with heating apparatus, there can be
nothing better for roses. We have forced them very successfully in one
of our own vineries, one hundred and twenty feet long, twelve feet
wide, ten feet high in the rear, three and a half in front, and heated
by hot water. But as there may be many who desire a cheaper structure,
we will give the description of one used by Rivers, (the best
rose-grower known), with his mode of managing roses in a structure of
that character. "A pit, ten or twelve feet long, and eight feet wide,
just high enough to stand upright in, with a door at one end, and a
sunken path in the centre, a raised bed on each side of the path, and
an 18-inch Arnott's stove at the farther end, opposite to the door,
with a pipe leading into a small brick chimney outside, (a chimney
is indispensable), will give a great abundance of forced roses from
February to the end of May. To ensure this, a supply must be kept
ready, so that, say twenty may be placed in the forcing pit about the
middle of December, a like number in the middle of January, and the
same about the middle of February; they must not be pruned till taken
into the house, when each shoot should be cut back to two or three
buds for the formation of strong shoots. The fire should be lighted
at seven in the morning, and suffered to burn out about the same
hour in the evening, unless in frosty weather, when it must be kept
burning till late at night, so as to exclude the frost; and for this
purpose, double mats should be placed on the lights. The thermometer
should not, by _fire heat_, be higher in the day than 70° during
December, January, and February; at night it may sink to 35° without
injury. The temporary rise in a sunny day is of no consequence, but
_no air must be admitted at such times, or the plants will exhaust
themselves, and immediately shed their leaves_. When the sun begins
to have power, and in sunny weather, toward the end of February, the
plants may be syringed every morning about 10 o'clock with tepid
water, and smoked with tobacco at night on the least appearance of
the Aphis, or green-fly. To ensure a fine and full crop of flowers,
the plants should be established one year in pots, and plunged in
tan or sawdust, in an open, exposed place, that their shoots may be
well ripened; the pots must be often removed, or, what is better,
place the pots on slates, to prevent their roots striking into the
ground. With the Remontant or Perpetuals, even if only potted in
November previous, a very good crop of flowers may often be obtained,
and a second crop better than the first; for the great advantage of
forcing Remontant roses is, that after blooming in the green-house
or drawing-room, their young shoots may be cut down to within two
or three buds of their base, and the plants placed again in the
forcing-house, and a second crop of flowers obtained. The same mode
may be followed also with the Bourbon, China, and tea-scented roses;
with the latter, indeed, a third crop may be often obtained. Toward
the end of March, when the second crop of flowers is coming on, the
plants may be gradually inured to the air, by opening the sashes in
mild weather. This will make them hardy and robust. Syringing should
be practiced every morning and evening; but when the flower-buds are
ready to open, this must be confined to the stems of the plants and
the pots; otherwise the flowers will be injured by the moisture. Air
must at first only be given about noon; care must be taken to remove
the plants from the forcing-house to the green-house or drawing-room
before their blossoms expand; they may then be kept in beauty many
days. We have not found the check which the plants receive by this
sudden change of temperature at all detrimental. During their second
growth, the plants should be watered once a week with manure-water,
and the surface of the pot occasionally stirred. Two pounds of guano
to ten gallons of water forms the very best species of liquid manure;
this should be stirred before it is used.

"The treatment recommended for roses in a pit with Arnott's stove may
be pursued with roses in a house with smoke-flues or hot-water pipes.
Arnott's stove is recommended as an economical and eligible mode of
heating, practiced here to some extent with success for several years.
On these stoves an iron pan, fitted to the top, should always be kept
full of water. Roses may be forced slowly, but with perhaps greater
certainty by the uninitiated, by giving air freely and constantly
in mild weather during the day, keeping the fire constantly burning
during the same period, as recommended when keeping them closely shut
up."

We have copied the whole of this article, although in a measure
a repetition of previous remarks, since it may be interesting to
some to know the opinion of so eminent a cultivator on this least
understood branch of rose culture. A few of his directions are
somewhat different from those we have given before, and may be far
better than our own plan, in the climate of England. Here, an Arnott's
stove would scarcely heat a pit to 70° with the thermometer at zero;
and if it should, we would think it rather dangerous to give so high
a temperature at once. The strength of guano is also so varied,
that we should feel very cautious in using it according to the above
receipt. While, however, we would not venture to question the general
utility of his directions, we may perhaps say, that we have found our
own plan effective in its results, and productive of thrifty plants
and beautiful flowers. We would advise cultivators to test them both,
and adopt that which succeeds best in their hands. A pit of the
above description can be constructed at a very low price, and should
be found on the premises of every gentleman of even very moderate
income, for the supply of his parlors during winter. If, in addition
to this, there were constructed on the east side of the house, and
facing south, a little room with a glass front and roof, opening into
the parlor, and heated either by a valve from the house furnace, or
by a water-back connected with the parlor grate, more enjoyment would
be afforded the lover of flowers than could be obtained by any other
outlay of two hundred dollars. This room could then be kept constantly
filled with roses from the pit, and through the most dreary winter,
amid rain, snow, and storm, would present a bright array of the living
reminders of spring and summer. It is a matter of much surprise, that,
among all the beautiful country residences in the vicinity of our
large cities, surrounded by all the appliances of luxury and comfort
that taste and wealth can afford, so few instances are found in which
the drawing-room or parlor opens into a green-house or conservatory.
These buildings are frequently placed at a distance from the house,
and although they may be filled with the most beautiful and rare
exotics, are, during the greater part of the winter, inaccessible to
the ladies of the family.

Let gentlemen of wealth, then, place their vineries anywhere, but
use them as forcing-houses when the vines are in a dormant state.
Let them also have a green-house or conservatory opening from the
drawing-room, into which all the plants can be brought from the
vinery whenever they show signs of bloom. This conservatory can be
heated by hot water, flowing through iron pipes from a boiler placed
over the furnace that warms the drawing-room--taking from this
very little heat, and yet abundantly warming the conservatory. An
improvement could still farther be made, by having the east end of
the conservatory arch over a carriage drive, and thus allow visitors
to enter the drawing-room through the conservatory. Exclusive of
the delight afforded visitors by this very pleasant addition to a
dwelling, it affords a delightful promenade for the ladies of the
family, where, while all is wintry without, and walking is unpleasant,
even when the ice-bound trees are glittering in the clear sunlight,
they may luxuriate amid roses and jasmines, breathing air fragrant
with the perfume of daphne and orange flowers, and surrounded with
everything that can remind them of the beauty and bland climate of the
sunny south.

We have occupied so much space with the peculiarities of culture for
the forcing-house, that we had almost forgotten that more humble, but
no less pleasure-giving mode of Window culture. As this culture is
practiced chiefly by those who cannot spare the time nor incur the
expense of previous preparation, the best mode is that given for late
forcing of roses, taken up the autumn previous, placing the plants
in pots seven inches in diameter, and using a soil composed of equal
parts of sand, loam, and manure, or peat, loam, and manure. They can
be watered with manure-water every fortnight, made from the drippings
of the barn-yard, or, what is more pleasant, a safely weak solution of
guano, about one pound to fifteen gallons.

The plants should be brought into the heat gradually; first into a
cold room where there is no frost, and then into the sitting-room,
where they can be placed in the window, and turned around every
week, in order to give each side of the plant its share of light.
They will soon begin to put forth their thrifty shoots, in some six
weeks will present a fine show of beautiful flowers, and, if properly
managed, will continue blooming through the winter. If attacked by
the green-fly, the plant can be inverted in a strong decoction of
tobacco, or it can be fumigated by being placed under an inverted
barrel, or other receptacle, with some burning tobacco. For window
culture, the Everblooming Roses are the best, and they should be
ordered of the nurseryman in suitable pots. This mode commends itself
to all; it is within the reach of the daily laborer; the seamstress
can have it in her window, and in the midst of her toilsome duties,
be reminded by its bright flowers of many a green spot in past days.
It is especially suited to the means and leisure of the operatives
in our factories, many of whom have left the country and all its
green fields and pleasant flowers for the crowded city, where they
can have no garden, but simply this little pot to remind them of past
pleasures, and throw a gleam of sunshine over their hours of relief
from labor. The plant can be placed in their chamber window, or in the
windows of the factory, where the high temperature, if it has been
brought from the chamber, will soon bring out its foliage in great
luxuriance, and its flowers in beauty, and be a pleasant object of
care in the moments snatched from the operations of the loom. To this
class we would especially commend the Rose; as thriving under simple
treatment, as possessing, more than any other flower, the elements of
beauty, and tending, like other flowers, to keep alive in a crowded
city that freshness and purity of feeling that distinguished their
country life, and which, unless there exists an unusual perversion of
the moral faculties, must always result from an intimate acquaintance
with natural objects.



                             CHAPTER VII.

                       PROPAGATION OF THE ROSE.


                              CUTTINGS.

This mode of propagation, although possible with all roses, is more
difficult with those that bloom only once in the season. It is
most applicable to the smooth-wooded kinds, as the Bengal and its
sub-classes, and the Boursault, Microphylla, rubifolia, etc. Many of
the Perpetuals and Bourbons are propagated with facility by the same
mode. For propagation in the open ground, cuttings should be made in
the autumn, or early part of winter. They should be made of wood of
the growth of the season, and about six inches long. The lower end
should be cut square, close to a bud, and they can then be planted
thickly, two-thirds of their length in sand, in a light and dry
cellar. Here a callus will be formed on the bottom of each cutting
during the winter, and on being planted out in the spring, they will
immediately throw out roots. They should be planted as early as
possible in the spring, in a light sandy loam, with one-third of their
length and at least one bud above the surface of the ground. They
should be planted very early in the spring, because, if left until
late, the power of the sun is too much for them. The earth should be
trodden down very tight about them, in order, as much as possible,
to exclude the air. If the weather is dry, they should be carefully
watered in the evening. Where it is inconvenient to make the cuttings
in the fall or early in the winter, they can be made in the spring;
but in consequence of having to form the callus, they will require a
much lighter soil than will afterward be desirable for their growth,
and they will also be much later in coming on. This mode of open
propagation answers very well for some of the smooth-wooded roses of
the more robust growing varieties, like the Boursault and Rubifolia;
but for the delicate Bengals, the best mode is pot propagation. For
this purpose, small pots can be used, filled with equal parts of mould
and sand, or peat and sand. About the middle of autumn, cuttings of
the same season's growth are taken off with two to four buds, cutting
off one or two of the lower leaves, and cutting off the wood smooth
and square close to the eye, as in figure 8. These cuttings can be
inserted in the pot, leaving one eye above the surface. It should then
be slightly watered to settle the soil firmly around the cuttings, and
then placed in a cold frame, or on the floor of a vinery, in which
no fire is kept during winter. Early in the spring the pot should be
placed in a house with a moderate temperature, kept perfectly close,
and sprinkled every morning with water a little tepid. Now, as well
as during the autumn, they should be shaded from the too bright glare
of the sun. In about a fortnight, and after they have formed a third
set of leaves and good roots, a little air can be given them; and
after being thus hardened for a week, they can be repotted into larger
pots. In order to ascertain when they are sufficiently rooted, the
ball of earth can be taken out of the pot, by striking its inverted
edge lightly against some body, at the same time sustaining the ball
of earth by the hand, the cutting being passed between two of the
fingers a little separated. If well rooted, the fibres will be seen on
the outside of the ball of earth. They can then be placed in a cold
frame, or anywhere under glass, to be planted out the latter part of
spring, or retained for pot culture. Where hot-bed frames are not
convenient, or the amateur wishes only to experiment with one or two
cuttings, he can use a tumbler, or any kind of close glass covering.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--A ROSE CUTTING.]

Where roses are forced into bloom the latter part of winter, cuttings
can be taken from them immediately after the bloom is past; and they
will also succeed if taken from plants in the open ground immediately
after their first bloom. Cuttings of the Everblooming Roses will all
strike at any time during the summer, but they succeed much better
either in the autumn, or after their first bloom. The heat of our
midsummer sun is so great upon plants forced in the house, that
cuttings often fail at that time. When a cutting is made near the old
stem, it is better to take with it a portion of the old wood, which
forms the enlarged part of the young branch. Where the cuttings are
scarce, two buds will answer very well--one below the surface; and,
in some cases, propagation has been successful with only one eye.
In this case they are planted up to the base of the leaf in pots of
sand, similar to that used in the manufacture of glass, and the eye is
partially covered. They are then subject to the same treatment as the
others, and carefully shaded; they will thus root easily, but require
a long time to make strong plants.

Some years since, Lecoq, a French cultivator, conceived the idea of
endeavoring to propagate roses by the leaf. He gathered some very
young leaves of the Bengal rose, about one quarter developed, cutting
them off at their insertion, or at the surface of the bark. He planted
these in peat soil, in one-inch pots, and then plunged the pots into
a moderate heat. A double cover of bell glasses was then placed over
them, to exclude the air entirely, which course of treatment was
pursued until they had taken root. The shortest time in which this
could be accomplished was eight weeks, and the roots were formed in
the following manner. First, a callus was formed at the base of the
leaf, from which small fibres put forth; a small bud then appeared on
the upper side (figure 9); a stalk then arose from this bud, which
finally expanded into leaves and formed a perfect plant.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--LEAF CUTTING.]

An English writer remarks, that "the leaves or leaflets of a rose will
often take root more freely than even cuttings, and in a much shorter
time, but these uniformly refuse to make buds or grow."

This experiment is certainly very curious, and evinces how great, in
the vegetable kingdom, are the powers of nature for the maintenance of
existence, and is one of those singular results which should lead us
to make farther experiments with various parts of plants, and teach us
that in Horticulture there is yet a wide field for scientific research.

A favorite mode of propagation with some nurserymen is from soft
wood of plants forced in the winter. Many fail entirely in this for
want of knowledge of the right condition in which the wood should be
before cutting, a condition which cannot be described on paper. Some
varieties, like Persian Yellow, will not strike at all, or with great
difficulty in this way.

The plants from which these cuttings are to be taken should be
prepared and treated as in the preceding chapter. In February and
March the cuttings are made and inserted in sand, either in pots or
benches, in a house of the same temperature as that in which the
parent plant has grown. These pots or benches would be better covered
with glass, but it is not essential. After the cuttings have rooted,
they can be potted into small pots, and placed in a house of moderate
temperature. About the middle of May they can be taken out of these
pots and planted in the open ground.


                              BY LAYERS.

This mode is more particularly applicable to those roses that bloom
only once in the year, and which do not strike freely from cuttings,
although it can be equally well applied to all the smooth-wooded
kinds. It can be performed at midsummer and for several weeks
afterward, and should be employed only in those cases where young
shoots have been formed at least a foot long and are well matured.
The soil should be well dug around the plant, forming a little raised
bed of some three feet in diameter, with the soil well pulverized and
mixed with some manure thoroughly decomposed, and, if heavy, a little
sand. A hole should then be made in this bed about four inches deep,
and the young matured shoot bent down into it, keeping the top of the
shoot some three or four inches above the surface of the ground; the
angle thus being found, which should always be made at a bud and about
five or six inches from the top of the shoot, the operator should
cut off all the leaves below the ground. A sharp knife should then
be placed just below a bud, about three inches below the surface of
the ground, and a slanting cut made upward and lengthwise, about half
through the branch, forming a sort of tongue from one to two inches
long, on the back part of the shoot right opposite the bud; a chip
or some of the soil can be placed in the slit, to prevent it from
closing, and the shoot can then be carefully laid in the hole, and
pegged down at a point some two inches below the cut, keeping, at the
same time, the top of the shoot some three or four inches out of the
ground, and making it fast to a small stake, to keep it upright. Care
should be taken not to make the angle where the branch is pegged at
the cut, as the branch would be injured and perhaps broken off; the
best place is about two inches below the incision. The soil can then
be replaced in the hole, and where it is convenient covered with some
moss or litter of any kind. This will protect the soil from the sun
and keep it moist, and will materially aid the formation of new roots.
These are formed in the same manner as in cuttings; first a callus is
produced on those parts of the incision where the bark joins the wood,
and from this callus spring the roots, which, in some cases, will have
grown sufficiently for the layers to be taken from the parent plant
the latter part of the following autumn; in some cases, however, the
roots will not have sufficiently formed to allow them to be taken up
before another year. The summer is the best period for layering the
young shoots. Early in the spring, layers can be made with the wood
formed the previous year. Where it is more convenient, a shoot can
be rooted by making the incision as above, and introducing it into a
quart pot with the bottom partly broken out. This pot can be plunged
in the ground, or if the branch is from a standard, it can be raised
on a rough platform. In either case, it should be covered with moss,
to protect it from the sun, and should be watered every evening. We
recollect seeing in the glass manufactories of Paris, a very neat
little glass tumbler, used by the French gardeners for this purpose.
It held, perhaps, half a pint, and a space about half an inch wide was
cut out through the whole length of the side, through which space the
branch of any plant was inserted, and the tumbler then filled with
soil. When the roots were formed and began to penetrate the soil, they
could be easily perceived through the glass. Although an incision is
always the most certain, and it is uniformly practiced, roots will in
many varieties strike easily from the buds; and a common operation in
France is simply to peg down the branches in the soil, without any
incision; in some cases, they give the branch a sudden twist, which
will break or bruise the bark, and facilitate the formation of roots.

Some Chinese authors state that very long branches may be laid down,
and that roots may be thus obtained from all the eyes upon them, which
will eventually form as many plants.

Vibert, a well-known rose cultivator in France, remarks upon this
point: "Upon laying down with the requisite care some branches fifteen
to twenty-four inches long, of the new growth, or of that of the
previous year, and upon taking them up with similar care, after twelve
or eighteen months, I found only the first eyes expanded into buds or
roots, while the rest had perished. I have seldom seen the fifth eye
developed, while I have frequently known the whole branch entirely
perish. I speak in general terms, for there are some rare exceptions,
and the different varieties of the Four-seasons Rose may be cited as
proof that a great number of eyes of the same branch have taken root."

This is the opinion of an eminent rose grower; but if, as he states,
the Monthly Damask Rose will root freely in this way, many of the
smooth-wooded roses would undoubtedly root still more readily, and
our rapid growing native rose, Queen of the Prairies, would very
probably throw out roots readily, when treated in this manner. It is
worth repeated experiment; for, if rapid growing roses, like some of
the evergreen varieties, the Greville, and the Queen of the Prairies,
could with facility be made to grow in this way, rose hedges could be
easily formed by laying down whole branches, and a very beautiful and
effective protection would be thus produced, to ornament our fields
and gardens.


                               SUCKERS.

Many roses throw up suckers readily from the root, and often form
one of the principal causes of annoyance to the cultivator. For this
reason, budding and grafting should always be done on stocks that do
not incline to sucker. The Dog Rose--on which almost all the imported
varieties are now worked--is particularly liable to this objection,
and it is no unusual thing to see half-a-dozen suckers growing about
a single rose-tree. When the health and prosperity of the plant are
desired, these should be carefully kept down, as they deprive the
plant of a material portion of its nourishment. When, however, they
are wanted for stocks, they should be taken off every spring with a
small portion of root, which can generally be obtained by cutting
some distance below the surface of the ground. They should be planted
immediately where they are wanted for budding, and will soon be fit
for use. Many fine varieties of the summer roses will sucker in this
way, and an old plant when taken up will sometimes furnish a large
number of thrifty stems, each with a portion of root attached.


                               BUDDING.

Fifty years ago, budding and grafting were very little practiced,
excepting with new varieties, that could with great difficulty be
propagated in any other way. Within that time, however, the practice
has been constantly increasing until now, when it is extensively
employed in Europe, and roses imported from France and England
can very rarely be obtained on their own roots. To this mode of
propagation, there is one great objection, while the advantages
in some varieties are sufficiently great to counterbalance any
inconveniences attending the cultivation of a budded or grafted rose.
It is generally the case, that the stock or plant on which the Rose
is budded is of some variety that will throw up suckers very freely,
which growing with great luxuriance, will sometimes overpower the
variety budded upon it, and present a mass of its own flowers. The
purchaser will thus find a comparatively worthless bloom, instead of
the rare and beautiful varieties whose appearance he has been eagerly
awaiting, and upon the head of the nurseryman will frequently descend
the weight of his indignation. This difficulty can, however, be
avoided by a very little attention. The shoot of the stock can very
readily be distinguished from that of the budded or grafted variety by
its growth and foliage, even if the age of the plant will not allow
the point of inoculation to be recognized. In passing the plant in his
walks, let the owner simply cut away any shoot of this character that
may spring from the stock or root. The budded variety thus receiving
all the nourishment from the root, will soon grow with luxuriance, and
present to the eager expectant as fine a bloom as he may desire--at
the expense only of a little observation, and the trouble of
occasionally taking his knife from his pocket.

This trouble, however, is such that the plant is in most cases
neglected. Budded or grafted roses are thus very unpopular in this
country, and those on their own roots are deemed the only ones which
it is safe to plant.

The practice of budding has brought into cultivation a form of the
plant which is highly ornamental, but which can never become very
general in this country. The Tree Rose is an inoculation upon a
standard some four or five feet in height, generally a Dog Rose
or Eglantine. The tall, naked stem, a greater part of which is
unsheltered by any foliage, is exposed to the full glare of our summer
sun, and unless protected in some way, will often die out in two or
three years. Its life can be prolonged by covering the stem with moss,
or with a sort of tin tube, provided with small holes, to allow the
air to enter and circulate around the stem. This is, however, some
trouble; and as many will not provide this protection, a large part of
the standard roses imported to this country will gradually die out,
and rose _bushes_ be generally employed for single planting, or for
grouping upon the lawn.

In budding, there are two requisites: a well-established and thriftily
growing plant, and a well-matured eye or bud. The operation can be
performed at any season when these requisites can be obtained. In the
open ground, the wood from which the buds are cut is generally not
mature until after the first summer bloom.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--BUDDING THE ROSE.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--BUDDING IN THE BRANCHES.]

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--BUDDING A POTTED ROSE.]

Having ascertained by running a knife under the bark, that the stock
will peel easily, and having some perfectly ripe young shoots with
buds upon them, the operation can be performed with a sharp knife that
is round and very thin at the point. Make in the bark of the stock a
longitudinal incision of three-quarters of an inch, and another short
one across the top, as in _a_, fig. 10; run the knife under the bark
and loosen it from the wood; then cut from one of the young shoots of
the desired variety, a bud, as in _b_; placing the knife a quarter to
three-eighths of an inch above the eye or bud, and cutting out about
the same distance below it, cutting sufficiently near the bud to take
with it a very thin scale of the wood. English gardeners will always
peel off this thin scale; but in our hot climate, it should always
be left on, as it assists to keep the bud moist, and does not at all
prevent the access of the sap from the stock to the bud. The bud being
thus prepared, take it, by the portion of leaf-stalk attached, between
the thumb and finger in the left hand, and, with the knife in the
right, open the incision in the bark sufficiently to allow the bud
to be slipped in as far as it will go, when the bark will close over
and retain it. Then take a mat-string, or a piece of yarn, and firmly
bind it around the bud, leaving only the petiole and bud exposed, as
in _c_, fig. 10. The string should be allowed to remain for about two
weeks, or until the bud is united to the stock. If allowed to remain
longer, it will sometimes cut into the bark of the rapidly growing
stock, but is productive of no other injury. It is the practice
with many cultivators to cut off the top of the stock above the bud
immediately after inoculation. A limited acquaintance with vegetable
physiology would convince the cultivator of the injurious results
of this practice, and that the total excision of the branches of the
stock while in full vegetation must be destructive to a large portion
of the roots, and highly detrimental to the prosperity of the plant. A
much better mode is to bend down the top, and tie its extremity to the
lower part of the stock. Several days after this is done, the bud can
be inserted just below the sharpest bend of the arch. When the buds
are to be placed in the branches of a stock, as in fig. 11, the top of
the main stem can be cut off, and the branches arched over and tied
to the main stem, as at _f_; the bud is then inserted in each branch,
as at _c_. The circulation of the sap being thus impeded by the
bending of the branches, it is thrown into the inoculation, and forms
then a more immediate union than it would if the branches were not
arched. After the buds have become fairly united to the stock and have
commenced growing, the top can be safely cut off to the bud, although
it would be still better to make the pruning of the top proportionate
to the growth of the bud; by this means, a slower, but more healthy
vegetation is obtained. When the buds are inserted very late in the
season, it is better not to cut off the top of the stock or branches
until the following spring, and to preserve the bud dormant. If
allowed to make a rapid growth so late in the season, there would
be great danger of its being killed by frost. European cultivators
are very fond of budding several varieties on one stock, in order to
obtain the pretty effect produced by a contrast of color. This will
only answer where great care is taken to select varieties of the same
vegetating force; otherwise one will soon outstrip the others, and
appropriate all the nourishment. It is also desirable that they should
belong to the same species. When a bud is inserted in a plant in pot,
as in fig. 12, the main branches are left, and a portion of the top
only cut off, in order to give the bud some additional nourishment.


                              GRAFTING.

From the pithy nature of the wood of the Rose, grafting is always less
certain than budding; but it is frequently adopted by cultivators, as
budding cannot be relied upon in the spring, and as there is much wood
from the winter pruning which would be otherwise wasted. It is also
useful for working over those plants in which buds have missed the
previous summer.

There are several modes of grafting, of which the most generally
practiced is _cleft-grafting_. For this mode, the stock is cut off
at the desired height with a sharp knife, either horizontally, or
slightly sloping. The cut should be made just above a bud, which may
serve to draw up the sap to the graft. The stock can then be split
with a heavy knife, making the slit or cleft about an inch long. The
cion should be about four inches long, with two or more buds upon
it. An inch of the lower part of the cion can be cut in the shape of
a wedge, making one side very thin, and on the thick or outer side,
leaving a bud opposite to the top of the wedge. This cion can then be
inserted in the cleft as far as the wedge is cut, being very careful
to make the bark of the cion fit exactly to that of the stock. In
order to exclude the air, the top and side of the stock should then
be bound with a strip of cloth covered with a composition of beeswax
and resin in equal parts, with sufficient tallow to make it soft at
a reasonably low temperature. In the course of two or three weeks,
if every thing is favorable, the cion will begin to unite, and will
be ready to go forward with advancing vegetation. When the stock is
sufficiently large, two cions can be inserted, as in fig. 13.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--CLEFT GRAFTING.]

[Illustration: Fig. 14.--WHIP GRAFTING.]

_Whip-grafting_ is performed by cutting a slice of bark with a little
wood from the side of a stock about an inch and a half long, and then
paring a cion of the usual length down to a very thin lower extremity,
as in fig. 14. This cion can then be accurately fitted on to the place
from which the slice of bark and wood is taken. The whole can then be
bound around with cotton cloth, covered with the composition described
before. In all grafting it should be borne in mind, that it is
essential for the bark of the cion and that of the stock to touch each
other in some point, and the more the points of contact, the greater
will be the chance of success.

_Rind-grafting_ is also sometimes practiced, but is more uncertain
than the former, as the swelling of the stock is very apt to force
the cion out. This mode must be practiced when the bark peels easily,
or separates with ease from the wood. The top of the stock must be
cut off square, and the bark cut through from the top about an inch
downward. The point of the knife can then be inserted at the top, and
the bark peeled back, as in _a_, fig. 15. It is desirable, as before,
that a bud should be left on the other side of the stock, opposite
this opening; and the French prefer, also, to have a bud left on the
outside of the part of the cion which is inserted. The cion should be
cut out and sloped flat on one side, as in _b_, fig. 15; then inserted
in the stock between the bark and wood, as in _c_, and bound with
mat-strings, or strips of grafting cloth.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--RIND GRAFTING.]

The French have another mode of grafting stocks about the size of a
quill or the little finger. It is done by placing the knife about two
inches below a bud which is just on the point of starting, and cutting
half way through the stock, and two inches down, as in fig. 16. The
cion is then placed in the lower part of this cavity, in the same
manner as with cleft grafting. This mode is called _Aspirant_, from
the bud above the incision, which continues to draw up the sap, until
the development of the cion. When the cion has grown about two inches,
the top of the stock is cut off and covered with grafting wax. This
mode is not always successful, as the sap sometimes leaves the side of
the stock which has been partly cut away and passes up the other side.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

The French have also a mode of grafting, which they call _par
incrustation_, and which is performed in the spring, as soon as the
leaf-buds appear. A cion with a bud adhering to the wood is cut in a
sort of oval shape, and inserted in a cavity made of the same shape,
and just below an eye which has commenced growing. It is then bound
around with matting, as in budding. This is a sort of spring budding,
with rather more wood attached to the bud, than in summer budding. It
is very successfully practiced by various cultivators in the vicinity
of Paris. There is still another mode sometimes practiced in France,
which owes its origin to a cultivator named Lecoq. A small branch is
chosen, which is provided with two buds, one of them being on the
upper part, and the other near its larger end. A sidelong sloping cut
is made all along its lower half, the upper being left entire. When
the cion is thus prepared, its cut side is fitted to the side of the
stock under the bark, which has been cut and peeled back. It is then
bound around with mat-strings or grafting cloth in the usual way. This
mode has a peculiar merit; should the upper bud not grow, the lower
one rarely fails, and develops itself as in common budding.

Cleft and whip-grafting is also practiced occasionally upon the
roots of the Rose, and succeeds very well with some varieties.
These modes of grafting can all be more successfully practiced on
stocks in pots in green-houses with bottom heat and bell glasses. We
have given thus concisely, and, we hope, clearly, the various modes
of budding and grafting with which we are acquainted. They may be
sufficient to enable the amateur to amuse his leisure hours, though
his success may not entirely meet his expectations. Simple as these
operations are, they require a kind of skill, and, if we may so call
it, sleight-of-hand, which is only attained by constant practice upon
a great number of plants.



                            CHAPTER VIII.

               MULTIPLICATION BY SEED AND HYBRIDIZING.


We have described, in former pages, the various modes of cultivating
the Rose, and of propagating the many beautiful varieties which exist,
and would now briefly advert to a mode of developing still farther
the beauty which lies hid within the horny covering that protects the
dormant germ of vitality--in other words, of obtaining new varieties
by seed. With the making of the seed-bed commenced a new era in the
culture of the Rose, and advancing with rapid strides, it made more
progress in forty years than in centuries before. The Dutch seem to
have been the first to raise roses from seed, by the same mode which
they applied successfully to their tulips, hyacinths, etc., and from
the time that this mode became generally employed, the varieties of
roses began to increase. In this species of cultivation the French
soon outstripped their Dutch neighbors, and gained the reputation
which they still retain, of preëminent skill in the production of new
varieties of roses from the seed.

From 1805 to 1810, the Empress Josephine, whose love for flowers
is well known, collected at her favorite residence, Malmaison, the
choicest varieties of the Rose that could be obtained from Holland,
Germany, and Belgium, and thus gave an increased impulse to the
culture of roses in the vicinity of Paris.

According to De Pronville, a French writer, there were, in 1814, only
182 varieties of roses, and the advantage of multiplication by seed is
sufficiently evinced by the fact that there are now more than 6,000
varieties, the poorest of which are much better than any which existed
at that day. Among the earliest cultivators of roses from the seed,
were three Frenchmen: Dupont, Vilmorin, and Descemet. The former was
the gardener of the Empress Josephine. When the allied armies entered
Paris, in 1815, the garden of Descemet contained 10,000 seedling
roses, which Vibert, in his anxiety to secure from destruction,
succeeded in carrying to his garden in the interior.

In England, very little attention seems, at that time, to have been
paid to the production of new varieties from seed, and the English
relied very much upon the continent for their choice roses. Now,
however, they are abundantly redeeming their reputation, and many
fine varieties have been produced by English rose-growers, at the
head of whom stands Rivers, whose efforts are seconded by Wood, Paul,
Lane, and others. They are still, however, compelled to yield to the
French cultivators; for to these we are indebted for our very finest
roses--for Lamarque, Solfaterre, La Reine, Chromatella, the new white
Perpetuals, Souvenir de Malmaison, and others.

The varieties of roses became increasingly great after the
introduction of the Bengals, Noisettes, Teas, and Bourbons--all these
classes producing readily from seed, and in endless variety. There
still remains a willingness to cast aside the old for the new, and
however much we may regret this disposition, for the sake of some old
and truly deserving favorites, we cannot feel willing to denounce it,
for it exhibits a gratifying evidence of a desire for improvement,
and the existence of a spirit of progress, which, dissatisfied with
things as they are, is continually striving after nearer approaches to
perfection. If, in this strife, some of our old favorites have been
cast aside, we are more than abundantly compensated for their loss by
the new claimants to our regard.

Those who intend to raise new roses from seed should select varieties
differing as much as possible in color and habit, and possessing
broad, thick, and well-formed petals; their stamens should also be
visible, and their pistils perfect; for perfectly double flowers, in
which all the organs of propagation--the stamens and pistils--are
changed into petals, never yield seed. These should be planted
together in a rich soil, and as far as possible from any other roses.
If there are among them any two varieties whose peculiarities it is
desired to unite in a single plant, place these next to each other,
and there may possibly be such an admixture of the pollen as will
produce the desired result.

Care should be taken not to affect the proper maturity of the seed
by taking off the petals, but allow them to fall by their own decay.
The seed should be perfectly mature before it is gathered, which will
be immediately after the first hard frost. After the hips have been
gathered, the seeds can be taken out with the point of a knife, or,
if there is a large quantity, they can be put on a table and bruised
with a wooden roller; the covering of the seeds is so tough that they
cannot easily be injured. When the hip is sufficiently bruised, it
can be plunged into a vessel of water; and by continued friction, the
seeds can be easily separated from the pulp which surrounds them, and
will generally fall to the bottom. After being dried a few days in the
shade, they should be placed just beneath the surface, in pots filled
with fine sand, or peat earth, where they can be kept until wanted for
planting in the spring. The seeds which are not thus placed in sand
soon after they are gathered will not grow until the second, and if
delayed very long, until the third year. In this case, however, their
germination can be hastened by sowing them in earthen pans, which
are placed upon a hot-bed or under a glass frame. The seeds being
thus planted immediately after being gathered, the sand should be
kept moistened through the winter, and the pots put out of the reach
of frost. Mice are very fond of these seeds, and will destroy them
unless they are protected. The pots should be kept out of all heat,
excepting what may be required to keep the frost from them, until the
first of April, in this latitude, and at the South, earlier; this is
requisite, in order to prevent their germinating before all danger
of frost is past in the open air. At the time the pots or pans are
brought from their sheltered place into a warm temperature, beds for
the plants should be made in the open air, that they may be ready the
moment they are required. For these an eastern aspect is the best,
and in our hot climate, on the north side of a fence would answer
very well; if they are in an open piece of ground, they should be
sheltered by an awning from the hot sun. The soil should be a rich,
light sandy mould, with a little peat, if convenient, and should be
finely pulverized. The seeds should now be closely watched, and the
moment they are seen pushing up the sand, in order to obtain light,
they should be taken out singly with the point of a knife, taking a
small portion of the sand with them. The bed having been previously
watered, and raked fine, drills can be made, half an inch deep and
about a foot apart, in which the germinating seeds can be placed, at
a distance of six inches from each other, and then carefully covered
with finely pulverized soil. Having commenced germinating in the pots,
the seeds, now in the genial warmth of a spring sun, but protected
from its fiercest rays, will soon show their heads above the ground,
and striking deep root in the rich soil, grow rapidly. While the
plants are small, care should be taken to keep the ground constantly
moist.

We are aware that this process is somewhat new with rose seeds,
although it has been long practiced with Rhododendrons and other
plants, but we are convinced of its superiority to the old mode. The
delicate roots of young plants are very susceptible of injury by
change, and many are frequently lost by the first potting; this risk
is avoided by transplanting the seed before the first root fibre
is formed, and when, being in the act of germination, there can be
no possible danger of its rotting, which is frequently a serious
objection to sowing seeds at once in the open ground. The trouble
and risk of loss occasioned by subsequent re-pottings are also
avoided, and the plants have, by this mode, full liberty to grow as
luxuriantly as they choose, with only the slight attention required by
watering and shading. As the plan of Rivers is materially different,
we will give his directions in detail, admitting, at the same time,
that, under some circumstances, it may be preferable to that we have
presented above.

"The hips of all the varieties of roses, will, in general, be fully
ripe by the beginning of November; they should then be gathered and
kept entire, in a flower pot filled with dry sand, carefully guarded
from mice. In February, or by the first week in March, they must be
broken to pieces with the fingers, and sown in flower pots, such as
are generally used for sowing seeds in, called 'seed pans'; but for
rose seeds they should not be too shallow; nine inches in depth will
be enough. These should be nearly, but not quite, filled with a rich
compost of rotten manure and sandy loam, or peat; the seeds may be
covered, to the depth of about half an inch, with the same compost;
a piece of kiln wire must then be placed over the pot, fitting
closely at the rim, so as to prevent the ingress of mice, which are
passionately fond of rose seeds; there must be space enough between
the wire and the mould for the young plants to come up--half an inch
will probably be found enough; the pots of seed must never be placed
under glass, but kept constantly in the open air, in a full sunny
exposure, as the wire will shade the mould and prevent its drying.
Water should be given occasionally, in dry weather. The young plants
will perhaps make their appearance in April or May, but very often
the seed does not vegetate until the second spring. When they have
made their 'rough leaves,' that is, when they have three or four
leaves, they must be carefully raised with the point of a narrow
pruning-knife, potted into small pots, and placed in the shade; if the
weather is very hot and dry, they may be covered with a hand-glass
for a few days. They may remain in those pots a month, and then be
planted out into a rich border; by the end of August those that are
robust growers will have made shoots long enough for budding." Until
the plants have become firmly rooted, and, in fact, through the most
of the first summer, they should be protected from the heat of the
sun; a cheap mode of doing this is to put up rough posts, connect
them by pieces of wood, lay rough slats across these, and cover the
whole with straw or cornstalks; but a much neater covering is a good
canvas awning, supported by posts, which can be taken down when not
needed, and will last many years. The Bourbons and Bengals, with the
Teas and Noisettes, will sometimes bloom the first season; but as
the plant will be weak, a correct opinion cannot be formed of its
character until the second summer. The summer roses, or those which
bloom only once in the season, never show bloom until their third, and
sometimes not until their fourth and fifth year. It is well to let all
the plants remain in the seed-bed until the fifth year, as some which
prove unpromising at first may result in something really good. All
that prove bad the fifth year can be marked for destruction, or cut
down to receive the buds of the good varieties. In order to obtain a
good bloom as soon as possible, it is well to have ready some strong
stocks of the Greville, Mannetti, or any other free-growing rose, into
which buds can be inserted of any of the seedlings whose habit and
general appearance promise good flowers, and whose growth has been
sufficient to furnish good buds. The next spring the stock should
be cut down to the bud, which will then make luxuriant shoots, and
produce flowers the same season, if an Everblooming variety; but if
one of the Summer roses, not until the next season. The third spring
let every branch be cut down to three or four eyes, when it will more
fully develop its character, and will often continue improving until
its fifth or sixth year.

The first winter, the young plants will require protection from
the cold by some kind of litter, and the Bengal, Tea, and Noisette
varieties will always need it during the winter. Where there are any
plants of these latter, whose habit and appearance promise something
excellent, they can be potted on the approach of winter, kept in a
cool temperature, free from frost, and replanted in the spring.

When it is desired that the young plant should possess the properties
of two well-known flowers, resort is had to artificial impregnation.

Although the existence of sexuality in plants appears to have been
known to the ancients, and is mentioned not only by Pliny, Claudian,
and Theophrastus, but also by Ebu-Alwan, in a work on agriculture
written originally in Chaldaic; yet it does not seem to have been
generally admitted by botanists, until announced by Linnæus in 1731.
From this time the possibility of the existence of hybrid plants
was admitted, and Linnæus, with many subsequent authors, published
observations tending to show that, even in the natural state, new
species were formed by two different plants, the pistil of one having
been fecundated by the stamens of the other. This impregnation has
been artificially applied, by modern cultivators, to the production
of new varieties of fruits and flowers. With the Geranium, Fuchsia,
Pæony, Pansy, and other flowers, it has produced remarkable results.
The mode of impregnating the Rose artificially has been so little
practiced with us, and has been so well described by Rivers, that we
prefer detailing the process in his own words:

"When it is desirable the qualities of a favorite rose should
preponderate, the petals of the flower to be fertilized must be
opened gently with the fingers. A flower that will expand in the
morning should be opened the afternoon or evening previous, and the
anthers all removed with a pair of pointed scissors. The following
morning, when this flower is fully expanded, it must be fertilized
with a flower of some variety of whose qualities it is desired to
have seedlings largely partake. It requires some watchfulness to
open the petals at the proper time; if too soon, the petals will be
injured in forcing them open, and in hot weather, in July, if delayed
only an hour or two, the anthers will be found to have shed their
pollen. To ascertain precisely when the pollen is in a fit state for
transmission, a few of the anthers should be gently pressed with the
finger and thumb; if the yellow dust adheres to them, the operation
may be performed; it requires close examination and some practice to
know when the flower to be operated upon is in a fit state to receive
the pollen; as a general rule, the flowers ought to be in the same
state of expansion, or, in other words, about the same age.

"To exemplify the process, we will suppose that a climbing Moss Rose,
with red or crimson flowers, is wished for: the flowers of the Blush
Ayrshire, which bear seed abundantly, may be selected, and before
expansion, the anthers removed; the following morning, or as soon
after the operation as these flowers open, they should be fertilized
with those of the Luxembourg Moss; if the operation succeed, seed will
be procured, from which, the probability is, that a climbing rose
will be produced with the habit and flowers of the Moss Rose, or at
least an approximation to them. I mention the union of the Moss and
Ayrshire Roses by way of illustration, and merely to point out to the
amateur how extensive and how interesting a field of operations is
open in this way. I ought to give a fact that has occurred in my own
experience, which will tell better with the sceptical than a thousand
anticipations. About four years since, in a pan of seedling Moss
Roses, was one with a most peculiar habit, even when very young; this
has since proved a hybrid rose, partaking much more of the Scotch
Rose than of any other, and until the plant arrived at full growth, I
thought it a Scotch Rose, the seed of which had by accident been mixed
with that of the Moss Rose, although I had taken extreme care. To my
surprise it has since proved a perfect hybrid, having the sepals and
the fruit of the Provence Rose, with the spiny and dwarf habit of the
Scotch Rose; it bears abundance of hips, which are all abortive. The
difference in the fruit of the Moss and Provence Rose, and that of the
Scotch, is very remarkable; and this it was which drew my particular
attention to the plant in question. It was raised from the same seed,
and in the same seed-pan, as the single crimson Moss Rose. As this
strange hybrid came from a Moss Rose accidentally fertilized, we may
expect that art will do much more for us.

"It is only in cases where it is wished for the qualities of a
particular rose to predominate, that the removal of the anthers of the
rose to be fertilized is necessary: thus, if a yellow climbing rose
is desired by the union of the Yellow Brier with the Ayrshire, every
anther should be removed from the latter, so that it is fertilized
solely with the pollen of the former. In some cases, where it is
desirable to have the qualities of both parents in an equal degree,
the removal of the anthers must not take place: thus I have found,
by removing them from the Luxembourg Moss, and fertilizing that rose
with a dark variety of _Rosa Gallica_, that the features of the Moss
Rose are totally lost in its offspring, and they become nearly pure
varieties of the former; but if the anthers of the Moss Rose are left
untouched, and it is fertilized with _Rosa Gallica_, interesting
hybrids are the result, more or less mossy."

There is no branch of rose culture possessing more interest for the
amateur, with whose leisure its prosecution is compatible. The
constant care and attention required, in order to ensure success,
place it in a great measure beyond the limits of a large commercial
establishment. The great desideratum at this time is a double, yellow,
climbing rose. If the Harrison Rose were fertilized with the Queen
of the Prairies, or the latter with the Solfaterre or Chromatella, a
rose might possibly be obtained with the rich yellow of the Harrison
Rose, and the robust habit and beautifully formed flower of the Queen
of the Prairies. While, however, we recommend this mode of artificial
impregnation, we would by no means discourage the sowing of seeds
whose flowers have not thus been fecundated. The seed of the Harrison
Rose, or of any of the yellow roses, may, if perseveringly saved from
generation to generation, produce a yellow climbing rose. In fact, we
are inclined to think that among all the reputed hybrids, a much less
number than is supposed owe their origin to a crossed fecundation.
It is a fact generally admitted by botanists, that all varieties of
plants will generally produce from their seed plants very dissimilar,
preserving, perhaps, some peculiarities of their parents, but
differing in many essential particulars.

It will thus be perceived that, in the simple sowing of seeds, where
there is a dislike to the trouble of artificial impregnation, there is
a wide field for experiment and for successful result. But to those
who have the leisure and the patience to transfer from one plant to
another its fertilizing matter, it forms a pleasant amusement, with
rather a greater probability of satisfactory results. In either case,
every amateur of roses should have his seed-plat; and if, out of a
thousand, or even five thousand roses, he should obtain one good
variety, and differing from any other known, he will be conferring
an important service upon rose-culture, and will encourage others to
pursue the same course, until we shall be in no wise behind either
France or England in this interesting branch of horticulture.



                             CHAPTER IX.

               DISEASES AND INSECTS ATTACKING THE ROSE.

    Brave Rose, alas, whose art thou? In thy chair
      Where thou didst lately so triumph and shine
    A worm doth sit, whose many feet and hair
      Are the more foul the more thou art divine.
    This, this hath done it; this did bite the root
      And bottom of the leaves, which, when the wind
    Did once perceive, it blew them under foot,
      Where rude, unhallow'd steps do crush and grind
        Their beauteous glories. Only shreds of thee,
        And those all bitten, in thy chair I see.
                                                HERBERT.


The diseases to which the Rose is liable are generally owing either
to the presence of various Cryptogamic plants, or to the attacks of
certain insects whose larvæ are supported at the expense of the plant.
Among Cryptogamic parasites which have been observed upon rose-bushes,
and which infest chiefly the Provence and other rough-leaved roses,
the following are the most troublesome:

Rust.--The rust, when examined by a magnifier, is found to consist
of minute yellow spots, each of which is a fungus, _Lecythea Rosæ_.
It is common and injurious to roses, as it frequently covers all the
leaves. The most effectual mode of preventing its spreading is to cut
off with care and burn all the infected branches, which will sometimes
render necessary the destruction of the whole plant.

Mildew.--The minute fungus which produces mildew is called by
botanists _Sphærotheca pannosa_. It appears like a gray mould on the
smaller stems and blistered leaves. It is a very troublesome enemy to
the Rose, and will sometimes put at defiance every application for its
destruction. The most effectual is smoking with sulphur, dusting with
dry flowers of sulphur, or syringing with sulphur water. The former
should only be practiced by a skillful hand, as too much sulphur-smoke
will sometimes entirely kill the plant.

Mould is due to a minute gray fungus, _Peronospora sparsa_, and
manifests its presence by the appearance of irregular pale brownish
spots upon the upper surface of the leaf. Upon the under surface of
these spots the mould will be found.

Other species of fungi attack the Rose, but they are not sufficiently
troublesome to the cultivator to need enumeration here.

The _insects_ which infest the Rose are quite numerous, and their
attacks are more or less injurious. The majority of those which are
found on the plant in the state of perfect insects are comparatively
harmless. The most injurious are those whose larvæ feed on the leaves
and pith of the trunk and limbs, and thus destroy the plant; while
the perfect insect, like the Green-fly, will simply stop the growth
and impair the health of the tree, by fastening upon the green and
tender bark of the young shoots, and devouring the sap. It is highly
desirable that amateur cultivators should devote more time to the
study of Entomology, for upon an intimate acquaintance with the
habits of these minute depredators depends, in a greater degree than
is generally supposed, the success of cultivation. Our own leisure
is so limited, that we have been able to devote very little time
to this subject; and we can find no work that treats in detail the
insects that attack the Rose. We simply give some account of the
most troublesome ones drawn mainly from Harris' Insects Injurious to
Vegetation.

Green-Fly, or Plant-Louse.--_Aphis Rosæ._--This very common
insect is a scourge to roses, from the facility of its reproduction,
and its numerous progeny sometimes entirely cover the leaves, the
young sprouts, and the flower buds. Devouring the sap, they are very
injurious, and, when numerous, sometimes destroy the plant, while
they soil every part on which they collect. The most common species
is of a pale green, but there is a variety of a dingy yellow. Many
are destroyed by small birds, but they have other enemies, as the
larvæ of the _Coccinellas_, or Lady-birds, and other insects destroy
large numbers. The first eggs of the Green-fly are deposited in the
autumn, at the base of the buds, and are hatched in the early part
of the following spring. Generation after generation is then rapidly
produced, numbering sometimes eight or ten before autumn. These are
produced alive, and without the intervention of the male. Reaumur
estimated that a single Aphis might produce six thousand millions in
one summer. The first hatching can be prevented by washing the plant
with soft soap and water, or with whale-oil soap, before the buds
commence swelling. When the plant is infested with them, it can be
washed with tobacco-water and then rinsed in clean water. If in a
house, fumigation with tobacco is better. An English writer recommends
washing in a decoction of an ounce of quassia to a quart of water, as
a very effective and safe remedy. Fumigation is, however, the must
thoroughly searching remedy, and can be easily applied to plants in
the open air, by means of an empty barrel inverted over the plant, and
a pan of burning tobacco.

Gall-Flies.--Several species of _Cynips_, or Gall-flies, attack the
rose, their punctures, made for the purpose of depositing their eggs,
being followed by variously formed excrescences containing the larvæ.
The Bedeguars, formed by the puncture of the _Cynips Rosæ_, were
formerly employed in medicine as astringents. Harris enumerates the
American species as follows:

_Cynips bicolor._--"Round, prickly galls, of a reddish color, and
rather larger than a pea, may often be seen on rose-bushes. Each of
them contains a single grub, and this in due time turns to a gall-fly.
Its head and thorax are black, and rough with numerous little pits;
its hind-body is polished, and, with the legs, of a brownish-red
color. It is a large insect compared with the size of its gall,
measuring nearly one-fifth of an inch in length, while the diameter of
its gall, not including the prickles, rarely exceeds three-tenths of
an inch."

_Cynips dichlocerus_, "or the gall-fly with two-colored antennæ, is
of a brownish-red or cinnamon color, with four little longitudinal
grooves on the top of the thorax, the lower part of the antennæ red,
and the remainder black. It varies in being darker sometimes, and
measures from one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch in length.
Great numbers of these gall-flies are bred in the irregular woody
galls, or long excrescences, of the stems of rose-bushes."

_Cynips semipiceus._--"The small roots of rose-bushes, and of other
plants of the same family, sometimes produce rounded, warty, and woody
knobs, inhabited by numerous gall-insects, which, in coming out,
pierce them with small holes on all sides. The winged insects closely
resemble the dark varieties of the preceding species in color, and in
the little furrows on the thorax; but their legs are rather paler, and
they do not measure more than one-tenth of an inch in length."

Rose-Slug, _Selandria Rosæ_, of Harris, who gives the following
account: "The saw-fly of the rose, which, as it does not seem to
have been described before, may be called _Selandria Rosæ_, from its
favorite plant, so nearly resembles the slug-worm saw-fly as not to
be distinguished therefrom except by a practiced observer. It is
also very much like _Selandria barda_, _Vitis_, and _pygmæa_, but
has not the red thorax of these three closely allied species. It is
of a deep and shining black color. The first two pairs of legs are
brownish-gray or dirty white, except the thighs, which are almost
entirely black. The hind legs are black, with whitish knees. The wings
are smoky, and transparent, with dark brown veins, and a brown spot
near the middle of the edge of the first pair. The body of the male
is a little more than three-twentieths of an inch long, that of the
female one-fifth of an inch or more, and the wings expand nearly or
quite two-fifths of an inch. These saw-flies come out of the ground
at various times between the twentieth of May and the middle of June,
during which period they pair and lay their eggs. The females do not
fly much, and may be seen, during most of the day, resting on the
leaves; and, when touched, they draw up their legs, and fall to the
ground. The males are more active, fly from one rose-bush to another,
and hover around their sluggish partners. The latter, when about to
lay their eggs, turn a little on one side, unsheathe their saws, and
thrust them obliquely into the skin of the leaf, depositing in each
incision thus made, a single egg. The young begin to hatch in ten
days or a fortnight after the eggs are laid. They may sometimes be
found on the leaves as early as the first of June, but do not usually
appear in considerable numbers until the twentieth of the same month.
How long they are in coming to maturity, I have not particularly
observed; but the period of their existence in the caterpillar state
probably does not exceed three weeks. They somewhat resemble the
young of the saw-fly in form, but are not quite so convex. They have
a small, round, yellowish head, with a black dot on each side of it,
and are provided with twenty-two short legs. The body is green above,
paler at the sides, and yellowish beneath; and it is soft, and almost
transparent like jelly. The skin of the back is transversely wrinkled,
and covered with minute elevated points; and there are two small,
triple-pointed warts on the edge of the first ring, immediately behind
the head. These gelatinous and sluggish creatures eat the upper
surface of the leaf in large irregular patches, leaving the veins and
the skin beneath untouched; and they are sometimes so thick that not a
leaf on the bushes is spared by them, and the whole foliage looks as
if it had been scorched by fire, and drops off soon afterward. They
cast their skins several times, leaving them extended and fastened on
the leaves; after the last moulting they lose their semi-transparent
and greenish color, and acquire an opaque yellowish hue. They then
leave the rose-bushes, some of them slowly creeping down the stem,
and others rolling up and dropping off, especially when the bushes
are shaken by the wind. Having reached the ground, they burrow to the
depth of an inch or more in the earth, where each one makes for itself
a small oval cell, of grains of earth, cemented with a little gummy
silk. Having finished their transformations, and turned to flies,
within their cells, they come out of the ground early in August, and
lay their eggs for a second brood of young. These, in turn, perform
their appointed work of destruction in the autumn; they then go into
the ground, make their earthy cells, remain therein throughout the
winter, and appear in the winged form, in the following spring and
summer.

"During several years past, these pernicious vermin have infested the
rose-bushes in the vicinity of Boston, and have proved so injurious
to them, as to have excited the attention of the Massachusetts
Horticultural Society, by whom a premium of one hundred dollars for
the most successful mode of destroying these insects was offered
in the summer of 1840. About ten years ago, I observed them in
gardens in Cambridge, and then made myself acquainted with their
transformations. At that time they had not reached Milton, my former
place of residence, and have appeared in that place only within
two or three years. They now seem to be gradually extending in all
directions, and an effectual method for preserving our roses from
their attacks has become very desirable to all persons who set any
value on this beautiful ornament of our gardens and shrubberies.
Showering or syringing the bushes with a liquor, made by mixing with
water the juice expressed from tobacco by tobacconists, has been
recommended; but some caution is necessary in making this mixture of
a proper strength, for if too strong, it is injurious to plants; and
the experiment does not seem, as yet, to have been conducted with
sufficient care to insure safety and success. Dusting lime over the
plants when wet with dew has been tried, and found of some use; but
this and all other remedies will probably yield in efficacy to Mr.
Haggerston's mixture of whale-oil soap and water, in the proportion
of two pounds of the soap to fifteen gallons of water. Particular
directions, drawn up by Mr. Haggerston himself, for the preparation
and use of this simple and cheap application, may be found in the
"Boston Courier" for the 25th of June, 1841, and also in most of
our agricultural and horticultural journals of the same time. The
utility of this mixture has already been repeatedly mentioned in this
treatise, and it may be applied in other eases with advantage. Mr.
Haggerston finds that it effectually destroys many kinds of insects;
and he particularly mentions plant-lice of various kinds, red spiders,
canker-worms, and a little jumping insect which has lately been found
quite as hurtful to rose-bushes as the slugs or young of the saw-fly."

Rose-Bug.--_Macrodactylus subspinosa._--"Common as this insect is
in the vicinity of Boston, it is, or was a few years ago, unknown in
the northern and western parts of Massachusetts, in New Hampshire,
and in Maine. It may, therefore, be well to give a brief description
of it. This beetle measures seven-twentieths of an inch in length.
Its body is slender, tapers before and behind, and is entirely
covered with very short and close ashen-yellow down; the thorax is
long and narrow, angularly widened in the middle of each side, which
suggested the name _subspinosa_, or somewhat spined; the legs are
slender, and of a pale red color; the joints of the feet are tipped
with black, and are very long, which caused Latreille to call the
genus _Macrodactylus_, that is, long toe, or long foot. The natural
history of the rose-chafer, one of the greatest scourges with which
our gardens and nurseries have been afflicted, was for a long time
involved in mystery, but is at last fully cleared up. The prevalence
of this insect on the rose, and its annual appearance, coinciding with
the blossoming of that flower, have gained for it the popular name by
which it is here known. For some time after they were first noticed,
rose-bugs appeared to be confined to their favorite, the blossoms of
the rose; but within thirty years, they have prodigiously increased
in number, have attacked at random various kinds of plants in swarms,
and have become notorious for their extensive and deplorable ravages.
The grape-vine in particular, the cherry, plum, and apple-trees, have
annually suffered by their depredations; many other fruit-trees and
shrubs, garden vegetables and corn, and even the trees of the forest,
and the grass of the fields, have been laid under contribution by
these indiscriminate feeders, by whom leaves, flowers, and fruits are
alike consumed. The unexpected arrival of these insects in swarms, at
their first coming, and their sudden disappearance at the close of
their career, are remarkable facts in their history. They come forth
from the ground during the second week in June, or about the time of
the blossoming of the Damask Rose, and remain from thirty to forty
days. At the end of this period the males become exhausted, fall to
the ground, and perish, while the females enter the earth, lay their
eggs, return to the surface, and, after lingering a few days, die
also. The eggs laid by each female are about thirty in number, and are
deposited from one to four inches beneath the surface of the soil;
they are nearly globular, whitish, and about one-thirtieth of an inch
in diameter, and are hatched twenty days after they are laid. The
young larvæ begin to feed on such tender roots as are within their
reach. Like other grubs of the Scarabæus, when not eating, they lie
upon the side, with the body curved, so that the head and tail are
nearly in contact; they move with difficulty on a level surface, and
are continually falling over on one side or the other.

"They attain their full size in autumn, being then nearly
three-quarters of an inch long, and about an eighth of an inch in
diameter. They are of a yellowish white color, with a tinge of blue
towards the hinder extremity, which is thick and obtuse, or rounded;
a few short hairs are scattered on the surface of the body; there
are six short legs, namely, a pair to each of the first three rings
behind the head, and the latter is covered with a horny shell of a
pale rust color. In October they descend below the reach of frost,
and pass the winter in a torpid state. In the spring they approach
toward the surface, and each one forms for itself a little cell, of
an oval shape, by turning round a great many times, so as to compress
the earth, and render the inside of the cavity hard and smooth.
Within this cell the grub is transformed to a pupa, during the month
of May, by casting off its skin, which is pushed downward in folds
from the head to the tail. The pupa has somewhat the form of the
perfected beetle, but it is of a yellowish white color, and its short,
stump-like wings, its antennæ, and its legs, are folded upon the
breast, and its whole body is inclosed in a thin film that wraps each
part separately. During the month of June this filmy skin is rent, the
included beetle withdraws from its body and its limbs, bursts open its
earthen cell, and digs its way to the surface of the ground. Thus the
various changes from the egg to the full development of the perfected
beetle are completed within the space of one year.

"Such being the metamorphoses and habits of these insects, it is
evident that we cannot attack them in the egg, the grub, or the pupa
state; the enemy, in these stages, is beyond our reach, and is subject
to the control only of the natural but unknown means appointed by the
Author of Nature to keep the insect tribes in check. When they have
issued from their subterranean retreats, and have congregated upon
our vines, trees, and other vegetable productions in the complete
enjoyment of their propensities, we must unite our efforts to seize
and crush the invaders. They must indeed be crushed, scalded, or
burned, to deprive them of life, for they are not affected by any
of the applications usually found destructive to other insects.
Experience has proved the utility of gathering them by hand, or of
shaking them, or brushing them from the plants into tin vessels
containing a little water. They should be collected daily during the
period of their visitation, and should be committed to the flames,
or killed by scalding water. The late John Lowell, Esq., states,
that in 1823, he discovered on a solitary apple-tree the rose-bugs
'in vast numbers, such as could not be described, and would not be
believed if they were described, or at least none but an ocular
witness could conceive of their numbers. Destruction by hand was
out of the question' in this case. He put sheets under the tree,
and shook them down and burned them. Dr. Green, of Mansfield, whose
investigations have thrown much light on the history of this insect,
proposes protecting plants with millinet, and says that in this way
only did he succeed in securing his grape-vines from depredation. His
remarks also show the utility of gathering them. 'Eighty-six of these
spoilers,' says he, 'were known to infest a single rose-bud, and were
crushed with one grasp of the hand.' Suppose, as was probably the
case, that one-half of them were females; by this destruction, eight
hundred eggs, at least, were prevented from becoming matured. During
the time of their prevalence, rose-bugs are sometimes found in immense
numbers on the flowers of the common white-weed, or ox-eye daisy,
(_Chrysanthemum leucanthemum_,) a worthless plant, which has come to
us from Europe, and has been suffered to overrun our pastures, and
encroach on our mowing lands. In certain cases it may become expedient
rapidly to mow down the infested white-weed in dry pastures, and
consume it with the sluggish rose-bugs on the spot.

"Our insect-eating birds undoubtedly devour many of these insects, and
deserve to be cherished and protected for their services. Rose-bugs
are also eaten greedily by domesticated fowls; and when they become
exhausted and fall to the ground, or when they are about to lay their
eggs, they are destroyed by moles, insects, and other animals, which
lie in wait to seize them. Dr. Green informs us that a species of
dragon-fly, or devil's needle, devours them. He also says that an
insect, which he calls the enemy of the cut-worm, probably the larva
of a Carabus, or predaceous ground-beetle, preys on the grubs of
the common dor-bug. In France, the golden ground-beetle (_Carabus
auratus_) devours the female dor or chafer at the moment when she is
about to deposit her eggs. I have taken one specimen of this fine
ground-beetle in Massachusetts, and we have several other kinds
equally predaceous, which probably contribute to check the increase of
our native Melolonthians."--_Harris._

A. J. Downing recommends the use of open-mouthed bottles, half
filled (and occasionally renewed) with a mixture of sweetened water
and vinegar, and placed about the plant. He also recommends pouring
boiling water on the ground, under the bushes, at the first appearance
of the insects, and before their wings are formed. They nearly all
rise to the surface of the ground, and emerge about the same time
that the Damask Rose first begins to open. A little observation
will enable the cultivator to seize the right time for the scalding
operation.

Rose Leaf-Hopper.--_Tettigonia Rosæ_ of Harris, who states that it
has been mistaken for the Vine-fretter, or Thrips. It is yellowish
white, and about three-twentieths of an inch long; the male has two
recurved appendages at the tip of its hind body. Dr. Harris says,
"Swarms of these insects may be found in various stages of growth
on the leaves of the rose-bush through the greater part of summer,
and even in winter upon housed plants. Their numerous cast skins may
be seen adhering to the lower side of the leaves. They pair and lay
their eggs about the middle of June, and they probably live through
the winter in the perfect state, concealed under fallen leaves and
rubbish on the surface of the ground. Fumigation with tobacco, and the
application of a solution of whale-oil soap in water with a syringe,
is the best means for destroying these leaf-hoppers."

We have enumerated but a very small part of the numerous insects which
infest the rose, and in the absence of correct information on this
important branch of floriculture, it is much to be hoped that farther
investigations will be made by men of leisure. As an instance of the
great variety of these insects, a French writer remarks that he "found
in less than an hour, on the leaves of two species only of the Rose,
six kinds of small caterpillars, all differing from each other in
the number of their feet, the color of their head and body, and the
lines and points with which they were marked. Their habits were all
apparently the same. They lived between two or three folds which they
had secured in shape by the films of their silk. Thus enveloped and
protected, they eat the leaf until it is wholly or at least partly
consumed. They then endeavor to establish themselves on another leaf,
in which also they enwrap themselves, and consume it in the same
manner. The plants attacked by these caterpillars are known by their
ruffled leaves, partly eaten, and more or less covered with silk." The
writer does not give their name, nor the result of any experiments for
their destruction; he merely mentions it as an instance of the great
abundance of insects on almost every plant. Such being the case, there
is abundant room for farther observation and research.



                          HISTORY OF THE ROSE.

                "Round every flower there gleams a glory,
                 Bequeathed by antique song or story;
                 To each old legends give a name,
                 And its peculiar charm proclaim.
                 O'er smiling lawn, through shady grove,
                 Our dreaming poets pensive rove,
                 And strive to read their language rare,
                 And learn the lesson latent there."



                              CHAPTER X.

   THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE ROSE, AND FABLES RESPECTING ITS ORIGIN.


Very little is known of the early history of the Rose, or who were its
first cultivators; and on this point all is conjecture. Mention of it
is made in the ancient Coptic manuscripts, while nothing concerning it
can be distinguished, with any degree of certainty, on the Egyptian
monuments which are left us. Bocastre, the French traveler, observes
that he carefully searched all the monuments in Egypt, and could
find neither sculpture nor painting, figure nor hieroglyphic, that
would lead us to suppose that the Rose was cultivated by the ancient
Egyptians. We are, however, induced to believe that this beautiful
flower was known to them, from the fact that several varieties are
now found in Egypt. Dr. Delile, Director of the Botanic Garden at
Montpelier, and with whom we enjoyed some pleasant intercourse during
a visit to that place, was with Napoleon in his expedition to Egypt.
In his valuable published account of that expedition, he mentions
that he found there two Roses--_Rosa alba_, and _Rosa centifolia_; and
there is also reason to believe, that under Domitian the Egyptians
cultivated another--_Rosa bifera_. It is quite probable that the
Rose was planted in the celebrated gardens of Babylon, the formation
of which is attributed to Semiramis, about 1200 years before the
Christian era; and it also appears probable, from the testimony of
modern travelers, that several kinds of roses crossed over into Persia.

It is very certain that the Rose was cultivated by the Jews during the
reign of Solomon, about two centuries after Semiramis; for mention of
this flower is made in the Scripture books attributed to that king.
In the Song of Solomon, he says: "I am the Rose of Sharon, and the
Lily of the valleys;" and in the Apocryphal Wisdom of Solomon--"Let us
crown ourselves with rose-buds before they be withered."

It also appears, by several passages of the Book of Ecclesiasticus,
the author of which lived about 700 years after Solomon, that the
Jews possessed beautiful gardens of roses, particularly at Jericho.
"I was exalted like a palm-tree in Engaddi, and as a rose-plant in
Jericho:" xxiv. 14. "Hearken unto me, ye holy children, and bud forth
as a rose growing by the brook of the field:" xxxix. 13. "And as the
flower of roses in the spring of the year:" l. 8. These passages prove
that this most fertile and beautiful portion of Palestine abounded
in roses, palms, and cedars. They no longer however, abound; for
while "the cedars wave on Lebanon," and the solitary palm stands in
its isolated beauty, the Rose has entirely disappeared; and that
now called the Rose of Jericho is but a little plant of the family
of _Cruciferæ_. The Greeks cultivated the Rose at an early period,
during the time of Homer, who lived about 200 years after the wise
Hebrew monarch. In the Iliad and Odyssey he borrows the brilliant
colors of the Rose to paint the rising of the sun. Aurora, according
to this poet, has fingers of roses, and perfumes the air with roses.
Few poets are more celebrated than Homer for beauty of conception, and
for his frequent similes borrowed from natural objects. His selection,
in this instance, evinces that the Rose was neither an unknown nor
an unadmired flower. Herodotus, who lived about 400 years before
the Christian era, mentions that in Macedonia, in the gardens which
were supposed to have belonged to Midas, there were roses of sixty
petals, which grew spontaneously without culture, and emitted a most
delightful perfume.

Ancient writings are full of allusions to the Rose, and fabulous
accounts of its origin. From its brilliant colors, melting into each
other as the shades of night melt into the glowing richness of the
rising sun, it was frequently consecrated to Aurora. It was also
consecrated to Harpocrates, the patron of Silence, of which it was
considered the symbol. Thus the expression, "_sub rosa_" (under the
Rose), signified that all that was said should remain secret; and
there is scarcely used a more expressive device for a seal than the
simple figure of a Rose. It was the custom, in some of the northern
countries, to suspend a Rose over the table in the dining-room,
reminding the guests that silence should be observed respecting all
that might be said during the meal.

Anacreon, Bion, Theocritus, Apollodorus, and others, relate various
fables respecting its origin, and its obtaining the bright color for
which it is distinguished.

One fable relates that Flora, having found the dead body of one of her
favorite nymphs, whose beauty could only be equaled by her virtue,
implored the assistance of all the Olympian deities to aid her in
changing it into a flower, which all others should acknowledge to be
their queen. Apollo lent the vivifying power of his beams, Bacchus
bathed it in nectar, Vertumnus gave its perfume, Pomona its fruit,
and Flora herself gave its diadem of flowers. A beetle is often
represented on antique gems as expiring, surrounded by roses; and this
is supposed to be an emblem of luxurious enervation; the beetle being
said to have such an antipathy to roses, that the smell of them will
cause its death.

From the earliest period the Greeks gave to the Rose the preference
over all other plants, and distinguished it as the "Queen of Flowers."
In the fragments which still exist of Sappho, who lived about 600
years before the Christian era, there are lines in which the Rose is
placed in the highest rank.

Since Sappho, many poets, both ancient and modern, have celebrated in
their songs the charming qualities of the Rose. They have chosen it
for an emblem of the most beautiful things--for the most pleasing and
delightful comparisons; and they have united in making it the symbol
of innocence, of modesty, of grace, and of beauty. Quite a volume
might be collected of all the verses and pleasant sentences that have
been inspired by the elegant form of the Rose, its charming color, and
delightful fragrance. Some of these we have inserted in another part
of the work. Nothing proves better the preference which has always
existed for this beautiful flower than the thoughts expressed by
Sappho. Anacreon and the other poets of antiquity have since imitated
her in almost every language, and the lines of these have sacrificed
nothing of her elegance and freshness.

The poets and writers of the East have abundantly celebrated in their
works the beauties of the Rose. According to the Boun-Dehesch, of
Zoroaster, the stem of that flower was free from thorns until the
entrance of Ahrimanus (the evil one) into the world; the universal
spirit of evil, according to their doctrine, affecting not only
man, but also the inferior animals, and even the very trees and
plants. The same work states that every flower is appropriated to a
particular angel, and that the hundred-leaved Rose (_Rosa centifolia_)
is consecrated to an archangel of the highest order. Basil, one of
the early fathers, had undoubtedly seen these passages in oriental
works, when he related that at the creation of the world the Rose had
no thorns, and that it was gradually furnished with them as mankind
became more corrupt.

The oriental writers also represent the nightingale as sighing for the
love of the Rose; and many beautiful stanzas have arisen from this
fable. According to the _Language of Flowers_; "In a curious fragment
by the celebrated Persian poet, Attar, entitled _Bulbul Nameh_, the
Book of the Nightingale, all the birds appear before Solomon, and
charge the nightingale with disturbing their rest by the broken and
plaintive strains which he warbles forth all the night in a sort of
frenzy and intoxication. The nightingale is summoned, questioned,
and acquitted by the wise king; because the bird assures him that
his vehement love for the Rose drives him to distraction, and causes
him to break forth into those passionate and touching complaints
which are laid to his charge." The same work also mentions that the
Persians assert that "the nightingale, in spring, flutters around the
rose-bushes, uttering incessant complaints, till, overpowered by the
strong scent, he drops stupefied on the ground." The invention of
these fables, extravagant as they are, evince the Persian fondness
for this beautiful flower. The Ghebers, or Persian fire-worshipers,
believe that Abraham was thrown into the fire by Nimrod, when the
flame turned into a bed of roses. According to the Hindoo mythology,
Pagoda Siri, one of the wives of Vishnu, was found in a rose.

Among the many stories of roses in the East, is that of the
philosopher Zeb, related by Madame de Latour. "There was at Amadan, in
Persia, an academy with the following rules: Its members must think
much, write a little, and be as silent as possible. The learned Zeb,
celebrated through all the East, learning that there was a vacancy
in the academy, endeavored to obtain it, but arrived, unfortunately,
too late. The academy was annoyed because it had given to power what
belonged to merit; and the president, not knowing how to express a
refusal without mortifying the assembly, caused a cup to be brought,
which he filled so full of water, that a single drop more would have
made it run over. The wise philosopher understood by that emblem that
no place remained for him, and was retiring sadly, when he perceived
a rose petal at his feet. At that sight he took courage, seized the
petal, and placed it so delicately on the water, that not a single
drop escaped. At this ingenious allusion to the rules of the academy,
the whole assembly clapped their hands, and the philosopher was
admitted as a member." Madame de Genlis relates very nearly the same
anecdote, but attributes it to Abdul-kadri, a person celebrated among
the Turks, who was desirous of residing at Babylon, where they were
unwilling to receive him.

The Turks themselves, matter-of-fact as they are, have also seen
something marvelous in the beautiful and vivid tints which the hand of
nature has painted on the corolla of the Rose; but their imagination,
less glowing than that of the Greeks, furnished them an idea more
singular than pleasing. They suppose that the Rose owed its origin to
the perspiration which fell from Mahomet; for which reason they never
tread upon a rose-leaf, or suffer one to lie on the ground.

Meshilu, the Turkish poet, speaks of "a pavilion of roses as the seat
of pleasure raised in the garden;" of "roses like the bright cheeks of
beautiful maidens;" of the time when "the plants were sick, and the
rose-bud hung its thoughtful head on its bosom;" and of the "dew, as
it falls, being changed into rose-water." They also sculpture a rose
on the tombstone of a female who dies unmarried.

The early Roman Catholics have made the Rose the subject of various
miraculous events, one of which is attributed to the canonized
Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary. As the French author, Montalembert,
relates it in his history of that Queen, Elizabeth loved to carry
to the poor herself, by stealth, not only money, but even food, and
other things which she had provided for them. She went thus loaded,
and on foot, by the steep and hidden paths which led from the chateau
to the town, and to the cottages in the neighboring valleys. One
day, when, accompanied by her favorite maid, she was descending by a
rough and scarcely visible path, carrying under her cloak some bread,
meat, eggs, and other food, for distribution among the poor, she
was suddenly met by her husband, who was returning from the chase.
Astonished to see her thus bending under the weight of her burden, he
said to her, "Let me see what you are carrying." At the same time he
threw open the cloak, which she held, with terror, to her breast, but
found, as the legend says, nothing there but some white and red roses,
the most beautiful he had ever seen.

D'Orbessan, in his work on the Rose, states, that in the church of
Sainte-Luzanne, at Rome, is a mosaic of the time of Charlemagne, in
which that prince is represented in a square mantle, and on his knees,
while St. Peter is placing in his hands a standard covered with roses.

Michaud, in his _Biographie Universelle_, speaks of Clemence Isaure,
a French lady, who lived in the latter part of the fifteenth century.
She bequeathed to the academy of Toulouse a large income, exclusively
for the celebration of floral games, and for the distribution of
five prizes for as many pieces of poetry. The prizes consisted of
an amaranth and rose of gold, and of a violet, marigold, and lily,
of silver. The will also required that every three years, on the
day of the commencement of the floral games, among other ceremonies
to be observed, the members of the academy should visit and spread
flowers upon her tomb. Ronsard, the French poet, having gained the
first prize in the floral games, received, in place of the accustomed
rose, a silver image of Minerva. Mary, Queen of Scots, was so much
delighted with Ronsard's beautiful poetry on the Rose, that she
sent him a magnificent rose of silver, valued at £500, with this
inscription:--"_A. Ronsard. l'Apollon de la source des Muses._"



                             CHAPTER XI.

                      LUXURIOUS USE OF THE ROSE.


The ancients possessed, at a very early period, the luxury of roses,
and the Romans brought it to perfection by covering with beds of these
flowers the couches whereon their guests were placed, and even the
tables which were used for banquets;[1] while some emperors went so
far as to scatter them in the halls of their palaces. At Rome, they
were, at one time, brought from Egypt in that part of the year when
Italy could not produce them; but afterwards, in order to render these
luxuries more easily attainable during the winter by the leaders of
the _ton_ in that capital city of the world's empire, their gardeners
found the means of producing, in green-houses warmed by means of pipes
filled with hot water, an artificial temperature, which kept roses and
lilies in bloom until the last of the year. Seneca declaimed, with a
show of ridicule, against these improvements;[2] but, without being
discouraged by the reasoning of the philosopher, the Romans carried
their green-houses to such perfection that, at length, during the
reign of Domitian, when the Egyptians thought to pay him a splendid
compliment in honor of his birthday, by sending him roses in the midst
of winter, their present excited nothing but ridicule and disdain, so
abundant had winter roses become at Rome by the efforts of art. Few
of the Latin poets have been more celebrated for their epigrammatic
wit than Martial; and his epigram "To Cæsar, on the Winter Roses,"
serves to show that the culture of roses at Rome was carried to such
perfection as to make the attempts of foreign competitors subjects
only for ridicule.

"The ambitious inhabitants of the land watered by the Nile have sent
thee, O Cæsar, the roses of winter, as a present valuable for its
novelty. But the boatman of Memphis will laugh at the gardens of
Pharaoh as soon as he has taken one step in thy capital city--for the
spring, in its charms, and the flowers in their fragrance and beauty,
equal the glory of the fields of Pæstum. Wherever he wanders or casts
his eyes, every street is brilliant with garlands of roses. And thou,
O Nile, must now yield to the fogs of Rome. Send us thy harvests, and
we will send thee roses."

By this passage it is evident that the cultivation of Roses among the
ancients was much farther advanced than is generally supposed. In
another epigram Martial speaks again of roses, which were formerly
seen only in the spring, but which, in his time, had become common
during the winter. We are, also, but copyists of the Romans in the
cultivation of flowers in windows; for vases of every style of beauty,
and filled with roses, were a frequent ornament of their windows.
Martial says that a miserly patron had made him a present of a very
small estate, and adds that he has a much better country place in his
window. Much that illustrates the use which the ancients made of roses
in their ceremonies, in their festivals, and in their domestic life,
may be found in various authors, evincing still more how very common
the use of them had become. Florus relates that Antiochus, king of
Syria, being encamped in the island of Eubœa, under woven tents of
silk and gold, was not only accompanied by a band of musicians, but
that he might yet more enhance his pleasures, he wished to procure
roses; and although it was in the midst of winter, he caused them to
be collected from every quarter.

The gallants of Rome were in the habit of presenting their favorite
damsels with the first roses that appeared in spring; and "_Mea rosa_"
was an affectionate expression they often used to their betrothed.

We frequently find in old Latin authors an entire abandonment to
pleasure and excessive luxury, signified by such expressions as
"living in the midst of roses," "sleeping on roses," etc. ("_Vivere in
rosa_," "_dormire in rosa_.")

Seneca speaks of Smyndiride, the most wealthy and voluptuous of the
Sybarites, who could not sleep if a single one of the rose-petals with
which his bed was spread, happened to be curled.

Cicero, in his "_De finibus_," alludes to the custom which prevailed
at Rome at that time, of reclining at the table on couches covered
with roses; and comparing the happiness which virtue gives to the
pleasures of luxury says, that "Regulus, in his chains, was more happy
than Thorius drinking on a couch of roses, and living in such a manner
that one could scarcely imagine any rare and exquisite pleasure of
which he did not partake."

The same author, in his celebrated speech against Verres, the greatest
extortioner whose name is recorded in history, reproached him not only
with the outrageous robberies and cruelties which he committed during
the three years that he was governor of Sicily, but yet more with
his effeminacy and licentiousness. "When spring commenced," said the
Roman orator, "that season was not announced to him by the return of
Zephyr, nor by the appearance of any heavenly sign; it was not until
he had seen the roses bloom that spring was visible to his voluptuous
eye. In the voyages which he made across the province, he was
accustomed, after the example of the kings of Bithynia, to be carried
in a litter borne by eight men, in which he reposed, softly extended
upon cushions made of transparent material, and filled with roses
of Malta, having in his hand a net of the finest linen, and equally
full of these flowers, whose fragrance incessantly gratified his eager
nostrils."

Latinus Pacatus, in his eulogium on the Emperor Theodosius, inveighs
against the luxury of the Romans, whose sensual desires, he says,
were not satisfied until they had reversed the order of the seasons,
and produced roses in the winter season to crown their cup of wine,
and until their Falernian, during the summer, was cooled in large
vessels filled with ice. The forcing of roses in winter is no longer
extensively practiced in Rome; but during the summer they are
abundant, and we recollect being much struck with admiration of some
beautiful hedges of the Daily rose in the villas near Rome.

After reading the preceding statements of the abundance of roses among
the ancient Romans, it is with some surprise that we recollect the
great scarcity of that flower during the gayest and most animated
festival of the modern Romans--the Carnival. As we slowly walked along
the Corso, submitting with as quiet a grace as possible to the various
fantastic tricks of the masked figures around us, and occasionally
pelted with handfuls of sugar-plums from the windows, or passing
carriages, we looked in vain for roses or camellias in the numerous
bouquets that were cleaving the air around us. Little bouquets of
violets were numerous, and the air was thick with them, as our eyes,
nose, and mouth, could bear striking witness; and we recollect,
too, the contemptuous curl of the lip, and rush of the aristocratic
blood into the face of a fair English girl in one of the carriages
whose blue eyes had been nearly closed by an awkward cast of one of
these little bouquets from the hand of a plebian performer. But we
only recollect catching a glimpse now and then of a _single_ rose or
camellia, skillfully passed by a cavalier below into the hands of some
dark-eyed beauty in the balconies above, the bright sparkle of whose
eye convinced us that the single flower was of value, and a mark of
especial regard. The Rose appeared to be valued as some rare exotic,
and not to be idly bestowed where there was small probability of its
due appreciation; it was, indeed, a "_rara flora in urbe_," and quite
superseded by the very pretty and abundant violets.

The modern Romans have not only lost many of the good qualities
of their early ancestors, but they have also escaped much of the
effeminate softness which characterized the Romans under some of
the later emperors; and, as belonging to this state of luxury, the
cultivation of the Rose has, in modern times, been much neglected.
The homage of the Romans is now reserved for art, and the beautiful
products of nature are, in their opinion, worthy only of secondary
consideration. The Rose is now mostly confined in that city to the
residences of the wealthier classes, and can scarcely be said to have
resumed its old place in Roman esteem until it is again a favorite
with the mass of the people.

When Cleopatra went into Cilicia to meet Mark Antony, she gave him,
for several successive days, festivals in which she displayed a truly
royal magnificence. She caused to be placed in the banqueting hall
twelve couches, each of which would hold three guests. The walls were
covered with purple tapestry, interwoven with gold; all the vases were
of gold, admirably executed, and enriched with precious stones.

On the fourth day, the queen carried her sumptuousness so far as to
pay a talent (about six hundred dollars) for a quantity of roses, with
which she caused the floor of the hall to be covered to the depth of
eighteen inches. These flowers were retained by a very fine net, in
order that the guests might walk over them.

After the loss of the battle of Actium, Antony, not wishing to survive
his defeat, from fear of falling into the hands of Augustus, thrust
himself through with his sword, and requested Cleopatra to scatter
perfumes over his tomb, and to cover it with roses.

The greatest profusion of roses mentioned in ancient history, and
which is scarcely credible, is that which Suetonius attributes to
Nero. This author says, that at a fête which the emperor gave in the
Gulf of Baiæ, when inns were established on the banks, and ladies
of distinction played the part of hostesses, the expense incurred
for roses alone was more than four millions of sesterces--about
$100,000. Since Nero, many of his successors have nearly equaled him
in prodigal enjoyment of the luxury of roses. Lucius Aurelius Verus,
whose licentiousness and destitution of every manly quality equaled
that of the worst emperors, but whom no one reproaches with any act
of cruelty, was the inventor of a new species of luxury. He had a
couch made on which were four raised cushions, closed on all sides
by a very thin net, and filled with leaves of roses. Heliogabalus,
celebrated for luxury and vice of every kind, caused roses to be
crushed with the kernels of the pine (Pinus maritima), in order to
increase the perfume. The same emperor caused roses to be scattered
over the couches, the halls, and even the porticoes of the palace,
and he renewed this profusion with flowers of every kind--lilies,
violets, hyacinths, narcissus, etc. Gallien, another equally cruel
and luxurious prince, lay, according to some authors, under arbors of
roses; and, according to others, on beds covered with these flowers.
And finally, Carrius, another licentious and prodigal emperor, who
reigned only a few months caused roses to be scattered over the
chambers of his palace, and on the couches of his guests.



                             CHAPTER XII.

    THE ROSE, IN CEREMONIES AND FESTIVALS, AND IN THE ADORNMENT OF
                            BURIAL-PLACES.


Among the ancients, the Rose was conspicuous in all the sacred
ceremonies, and in public and private fêtes. The Greeks and the Romans
surrounded the statues of Venus, of Hebe, and of Flora, with garlands
of roses. They were lavish of these flowers at the festivals of Flora;
in those of Juno, at Argos, the statue of the Olympian Queen was
crowned with lilies and roses. In the festivals of Hymen, at Athens,
the youth of both sexes, crowned with roses and adorned with flowers,
mingled in dances which were intended to represent the innocence of
primeval times. At Rome, in the public rejoicings, they sometimes
strewed the streets with roses and other flowers. It is thus that
Lucretius gives a description of the manner in which were celebrated
the festivals of Cybele.[3]

To scatter flowers on the passage of the funeral procession of a
private citizen was an honor not common at Rome. Pliny informs us,
however, that a Scipio, belonging to the illustrious family of
that name, who while he was tribune, fulfilled his duties to the
satisfaction of the people, dying without leaving sufficient to pay
his funeral expenses, the people voluntarily contributed to pay them,
and on the appearance of the body, cast flowers upon its passage.

At Baiæ, when fêtes were given upon the water, the whole surface of
the lake of Lucina appeared covered with roses.

The custom of encircling the head, of surrounding the neck, and also
the breast, with crowns and garlands of roses, on different occasions,
and particularly during the last days of a gay festival, when, after
the solid dishes, they passed to the dessert and the rare wines, is
well known by the odes of Anacreon, and from the writings of several
of the ancient poets.

The voluptuous Horace, when he abandoned himself to pleasures, was
always supplied with roses. In congratulating one of his friends on
his safe return from Spain, he recommended that these flowers should
not be wanting at the festival. On another occasion, he told his
favorite servant that he cordially disliked the pompous displays of
the Persians, and escaped them by searching in what place the late
Rose was found. Drawing a picture of luxurious ease for his friend
Hirpinus, he speaks of "lying under the shade of a lofty Plane or
Pine tree, perfuming our spotless hair with Assyrian spikenard, and
crowning ourselves with roses." We can very well judge how general had
become the custom of making crowns of roses, from the number of times
which it is mentioned in Pliny, and the frequency with which Martial
speaks of it in his epigrams. The latter author also informs us, that
in the very height of Roman luxury and revealing, the most favorable
time for soliciting and obtaining a favor was when the patron was
entirely given up to the pleasures of the table and of roses.[4]

Whatever doubt may exist of the use of crowns of roses, as objects
of luxury, it is well authenticated, that among medical men of
antiquity, endeavors were made to determine what kinds of flowers were
suitable to place in crowns without detriment to health; and according
to the report made on this subject, the parsley, the ivy, the myrtle,
and the Rose, possessed peculiar virtues for dissipating the fumes
of the wine. According to Athenæus, a crown of roses possessed not
only the property of alleviating pain in the head, but had a very
refreshing effect.

Pliny mentions two Greek physicians--Mnesitheus and Callimachus,--who
wrote on this subject.

The custom of crowning with roses had passed from the Greeks to the
Romans, and it also existed among the Hebrews, who had probably
borrowed it from some of the neighboring nations, either from the
Egyptians, in the midst of whom they had spent many years, or from
the Babylonians, with whom they had in the captivity much connection.
The practice of this custom among the Israelites is attested by the
previously quoted passage, in the apocryphal "Wisdom of Solomon."

At Rome it was not only at the religious festivals that they crowned
themselves with roses and other flowers, but it was the custom to
wear these crowns during public and private fêtes; they were strictly
forbidden at some other times, and above all on certain public
occasions, where to appear with such an ornament would pass for an
insult to a public calamity. Pliny informs us, that during the second
Punic war, which lasted sixteen years, a banker named Lucius Fulvius,
for looking from his gallery on the Forum, and wearing a crown of
roses on his head, was, by order of the Senate, sent to prison, from
which he was not liberated until the end of the war.

This anecdote, moreover, proves that crowns of roses were in fashion
at Rome at an early period, and before licentiousness and luxury had
yet made many inroads upon the national character.

It may readily be supposed, that at Rome, under the emperors, the
use of crowns of flowers was, like every other species of luxury at
that time, constantly on the increase. At first they wore the crowns
interwoven with leaves of flowers, then they wore them composed partly
of roses, and finally they were not satisfied unless they consisted of
these flowers only.

Martial, as we have already mentioned, speaks often of his crowns of
roses. The crown sent by this poet to his friend Sabinus was composed
entirely of these flowers, and he was desirous that they should be
considered the production of his own gardens.

From the poverty of Turkish history, little is known of the early use
of the Rose among them. We have, however, some account of its use
among the Mohammedan Persians.

Although wine was forbidden by the laws of Mahomet, the Persians
frequently made use of it; and in the time of Tavernier and of
Chardin, they frequently drank it to excess. One of their kings,
Soliman III., was intoxicated almost every day; and it was the custom
then in Persia, to serve the wine in crystal decanters, which, when
the season permitted, they corked with roses.

The most interesting purpose to which roses were devoted was the
adornment of tombs and burial-places. The Greeks employed generally
for this object, the myrtle and the amaranth; but the Romans gave the
preference to the lily, the saffron-plant, and, above all, the Rose.

The ancients were careful to renew the plants which were placed
around the sepulchral urn, in order that it might be surrounded by
a continual spring. These flowers were regarded as sacred, and as a
relic of the deceased.

The Romans considered this pious care so agreeable to the spirits of
the departed, that wealthy citizens bequeathed by will entire gardens,
to be reserved for furnishing their tombs with flowers. They also
often ordered that their heirs, or those to whom they left a legacy
for the care of their ashes, should meet together every year, on the
anniversary of their death, and dine near their tomb, scattering roses
about the place. This custom is attested by several stories of ancient
Roman tombs. One with an ancient inscription was found at Ravenna, and
others in some other parts of Italy.

D'Orbessan, in his "_Essai sur les Roses_," mentions having seen,
at Torcello, a city about five miles from Venice, an inscription of
this kind, mentioning a donation made by an emancipated slave to the
assembly of the _Centum_, consisting of gardens and a building to
be employed in celebrating his obsequies and those of his master.
It requested that roses should not be spared, and that food should
be then distributed in abundance. Generally, the donation made on
condition of covering the funeral monument with roses was transferred
to another, if that condition was not fulfilled. Sometimes the most
terrible maledictions threatened those who dared to violate these
sacred gardens. That which proves how frequent among the Romans was
this custom of ornamenting tombs with roses is, that those who were
not rich enough to make such bequests often directed to be engraved
upon the stone which covered their remains a request to the passers-by
to scatter roses upon their tomb. Some of these stones still exist,
with the following inscription: "_Sparge, precor, Rosas supra mea
busta, viator._" It was, perhaps, because they compared the short
duration of human life to the quick fading existence of the Rose, that
this flower was devoted to the burial-place of the dead; and there
can certainly be chosen no more beautiful emblem of this transitory
state of existence. This supposition is somewhat strengthened by the
following passage from Jerome, one of the early Christian fathers:

     "The ancients scattered roses over the urns of the
     deceased, and in their wills ordered that these flowers should
     adorn their graves, and should be renewed every year. It was
     also the custom for husbands to cast roses, violets, and
     lilies, on the urns which enclosed the ashes of their wives.
     These modest flowers were emblematic signs of their grief. Our
     Christians were content to place a Rose among the ornaments of
     their graves, as the image of life."

In Turkey, females that died unmarried had a rose sculptured at the
top of their monument.

At the well-known cemetery of Père la Chaise, which has often excited
the ecstasy, admiration, or praise of many travelers, but which in
reality exhibits neither elegance, sentiment, nor taste, wreaths of
roses and other flowers are frequently seen upon the thickly crowded
tombs, either as mementos of affection, or in compliance with a
popular custom; while the street leading to the cemetery is filled
with shops in which are exposed for sale the wreaths of flowers.

The prevalence of the same custom in Denmark is alluded to by
Shakespeare, in Hamlet, in the scene of Ophelia's burial.

The custom still remains also in America and Great Britain. In Wales,
when a young girl dies, her female companions bring flowers with them
to her funeral, and place them in her coffin. They plant lilies and
snow-drops over the graves of children, and wild and cultivated roses
over those of adults.

Gwillym, a Welsh poet, thus speaks of the custom in one of his
elegies:--"Oh! while the season of flowers and the tender sprays,
thick of leaves, remain, I will pluck the roses from the brakes, to be
offered to the memory of a child of fairest fame; humbly will I lay
them on the grave of Ivor."

Evelyn tells us that "the white rose was planted at the grave of a
virgin, and her chaplet was tied with white riband, in token of her
spotless innocence; though sometimes black ribands were intermingled,
to bespeak the grief of the survivors. The red rose was occasionally
used in remembrance of such as had been remarkable for their
benevolence; but roses in general were appropriated to the graves of
lovers."

Drummond, the Scotch poet, requested one of his friends to have the
following couplet placed over his grave:

    "Here Damon lies, whose songs did sometimes grace
     The murmuring Esk:--may roses shade the place."

The first Christians disapproved of the use of these flowers, either
at their festivals or as ornaments for their tombs, on account of
its connection with the pagan mythology, and the custom thus became
extinct. Tertullian wrote a book against crowns and garlands. Clement
of Alexandria thought it improper that Christians should crown
themselves with roses. A little later, however, Christians relaxed
from this strictness, and the Christian poet Prudence did not fear to
invite his brethren "to cover with violets and with verdure, and to
surround with perfumes those bones which the voice of the All-Powerful
would one day restore to life."

The Roman Catholics of this day admit flowers to their churches and
ceremonies, and on feast days they adorn the altars with bouquets and
garlands. At the most imposing of these solemnities, the day of the
"_Fête-Dieu_," rose petals, during the procession, are scattered in
the air, and blended with the perfume of censers, directed towards the
Host; in many of the towns, particularly those in the south of France
and of Europe, the streets through which the procession passes are
scattered throughout with fragrant herbs and flowers of every kind.

Since the extinction of paganism in a greater part of the world, the
custom of wearing crowns of flowers at festivals has passed entirely
away. Women only use roses as an ornament for their hair, or employ
them in different parts of their toilet. In our own country the
toilet of a bride is never considered perfect unless she wears a
wreath of roses or other flowers, whose snow-white hue is an emblem
of her departing maidenhood. Sometimes she is provided only with a
bouquet of white roses and camellias, and her bridesmaids wear similar
ornaments of nature's manufacture.

The Rose is abundantly used by children in their beautiful celebration
of May-day. We well recollect our enjoyment of one of these scenes
some years since. We were returning from a ride in the vicinity of
Charleston, S. C., on the first day of this, the sunniest of the
months of spring--a day dedicated not to the spirit of motion, and
celebrated not by processions of furniture carts, amid the bustle and
noise of a populous city, but dedicated there, at the sunny South, to
innocent and joyous festivity, and celebrated amid all the fresh and
fragrant luxuriance of southern vegetation, surrounded by the delicate
sweetness of the magnolia, the Rose, and other flowers, while the
mocking-bird, with its sweet and varied note, was the minstrel for the
occasion. Riding quietly along the road, we were suddenly stopped by
a procession which had just dismounted from a number of carriages in
a beautiful grove hard by. It consisted mostly of noble-looking boys
and beautiful girls, of all ages under fourteen, the latter dressed in
white and crowned with wreaths of roses and other flowers. The manly
attention of the boys to the fair creatures with whom they walked
hand in hand would not have disgraced the gallantry of Bayard, or the
politeness of Chesterfield. As the procession wound slowly from our
view, under the shade of the lofty live oak and the rich magnolia, we
could not help reflecting how beautiful was this graceful enjoyment
of the sunny days of childhood, and how preferable to the mental
excitement and precocious training of many of the infant philosophers
of this most enlightened nineteenth century.

It is much to be regretted that in circles where fashion reigns
supreme, nature is gradually giving way to art, and instead of the
fresh and natural beauty of a newly gathered Rose, various forms of
artificial flowers are found upon the center table, or in the hair
of those whose quick discernment and refined taste should lead them
to perceive the great inferiority of these artificial toys to the
delicate beauty and welcome fragrance of a Rose just from its parent
plant.

Very much additional matter could be inserted respecting the early
history of the Rose, and its connection with ancient superstitions.
Sufficient, however, has been given to show the esteem in which the
Rose was held by the ancient Greeks and Romans.



                            CHAPTER XIII.

                     THE ROSE IN THE MIDDLE AGES.


In Great Britain, according to Loudon, "one of the earliest notices
of the Rose occurs in Chaucer, who wrote early in the 13th century;
and in the beginning of the 15th century, there is evidence of the
Rose having been cultivated for commercial purposes, and of the water
distilled from it being used to give a flavor to a variety of dishes,
and to wash the hands at meals--a custom still preserved in some of
the colleges, and also in many of the public halls within the city of
London."

In 1402, Sir William Clopton granted to Thomas Smyth a piece of ground
called Dokmedwe, in Haustede, for the annual payment of a rose to Sir
William and his heirs, in lieu of all services. The demand for roses
formerly was so great, that bushels of them were frequently paid by
vassals to their lords, both in England and France. The single rose,
paid as an acknowledgment, was the diminutive representation of a
bushel of roses--as a single peppercorn, which is still a reserved
rent, represents a pound of peppercorns--a payment originally of
some worth, but descending by degrees to a mere formality. Among
the new-year gifts presented to Queen Mary in 1556, was a bottle of
rose-water; and in 1570 we find, among the items in the account of a
dinner of Lord Leicester, when he was Chancellor of the University
of Oxford, three ounces of rose-water. In an account of a grant
of a great part of Ely House, Holborne, by the Bishop of Ely, to
Christopher Hatton, for twenty-one years, the tenant covenants to pay,
on midsummer-day, a red rose for the gate-house and garden, and for
the ground (fourteen acres) ten loads of hay and £10 per annum; the
Bishop reserving to himself and successors free access through the
gate-house, for walking in the gardens and gathering twenty bushels of
roses yearly. In 1597, we find Gerard speaking of the Damask rose of
Damascus and the Cinnamon rose as common in English gardens. Hakluyt
says that the rose of Damascus was brought to England by De Linaker,
physician to Henry IX.; and his successor, Sir Richard Weston, who
wrote in 1645, says, "We have red roses from France." In the reign
of James I., the keeper of the robes and jewels at Whitehall, among
a variety of other offices, had separate salaries allowed him, "for
fire to air the hot-houses, 40s. by the year;" and, "for digging and
setting of roses, in the spring gardens, 40s. by the year."

It would seem, by these incidents, that previous to the seventeenth
century, roses were far from being abundant, and indeed were so rare,
that a bottle of distilled water was a fit present for Royalty, and a
few roses an amply sufficient rent for house and land.

In the times of chivalry, the Rose was often an emblem that knights
were fond of placing in their helmet or shield, implying that
sweetness should always be the companion of courage, and that beauty
was the only prize worthy of valor. It was not, however, always
taken for such emblems, nor did it always bring to mind pleasant
and agreeable images, but was often the signal for bloodshed in a
desolating civil war which raged in England for more than thirty years.

The rival factions of the _White_ and the _Red_ Rose arose in 1452,
during the reign of Henry VI., between the houses of Lancaster and of
York. The Duke of York, a descendant of Edward III., claimed that his
house possessed a nearer title to the crown than the reigning branch.
He adopted a _white_ rose on his shield, for his device, and the
reigning monarch, Henry VI., of the house of Lancaster, carried the
_red_ rose. After several furious civil wars, after having flooded the
whole kingdom with blood, and after the tragical death of three kings,
Henry VII., of the house of Lancaster, re-united, in 1486, the two
families by marrying Elizabeth, the heiress of the house of York.

The adoption of the red rose, by the house of Lancaster, was at a
period far prior to these civil wars. About 1277, the Count of Egmont,
son of the King of England, and who had taken the title of Count of
Champagne, was sent by the King of France to Provence, with some
troops, to avenge the murder of William Pentecôte, mayor of the city,
who had been killed in an insurrection.

When this prince returned into England, after executing his orders,
he took for his device the red rose, that Thibaut, Count of Brie and
of Champagne, had brought from Syria, on his return from the crusade
some years before.--That Count of Egmont was the head of the house of
Lancaster, who preserved the red rose on their arms, while the house
of York, on the other hand, adopted the white rose as their device.

An anecdote is told of the Prince of Bearne, afterwards Henry IV. of
France, who was not 15 years of age when Charles IX. came to Nerac,
in 1566, to visit the court of Navarre.

The fifteen days that he spent there were marked by sports and fêtes,
of which the young Henry was already the chief ornament. Charles IX.
loved to practice archery; in providing for him that amusement, they
thought that none of his courtiers, not even the Duke of Guise, who
excelled at this sport, would venture to prove himself more adroit
than the monarch. The young Henry, however, advanced, and at the first
shot, carried off the orange, which served for a mark. According
to the rules of the sport, be wished, as victor, to shoot first in
the next trial; the King opposed it, and repulsed him with warmth;
Henry stepped back a little, drew his bow, and directed the arrow
against the breast of his adversary; the monarch quickly took shelter
behind the largest of his courtiers, and requested them to take away
"that dangerous little cousin." Peace being made, the same sport
was continued on the following day; Charles found an excuse for not
coming. This time the Duke of Guise carried away the orange, which he
split in two, and no other could be found for a mark.

The young prince perceived a Rose in the bosom of a young girl among
the spectators, and seizing it, quickly placed it on the mark. The
Duke shot first, and missed; Henry succeeding him, placed his arrow in
the middle of the flower, and returned it to the pretty villager with
the victorious arrow which had pierced it.

At Salency, a village of France, the Rose is the reward of excellent
traits of character; they attribute the origin of the fête of La
Rosière, in that country, to Medard, bishop of Noyon, who lived at the
end of the fifteenth, and beginning of the sixteenth century, during
the reign of Clovis. That bishop, who was also Lord of Salency, had
established a fund, giving a sum of twenty-five livres (five dollars),
and a crown or hat of roses, to the young girl on his estate who
enjoyed the greatest reputation for amiability and excellence of
character. Tradition states that the prelate himself gave this desired
prize to one of his sisters, whom the public voice had named to be
Rosière. Before the revolution of 1789, there could be seen, beneath
the altar of the chapel of St. Medard, at Salency, a tablet, where
that bishop was represented in pontifical dress, and placing a crown
of roses on the head of his sister, who was on her knees, with her
hair dressed.

The bishop had set aside, on a part of his domain, since called the
"Manor of the Rose," an annual rent of twenty-five livres, at that
time a considerable sum, for paying all the expenses of this ceremony.
It is stated that Louis XIII., being at the chateau of Varennes, near
Salency, about the time of this ceremony, was desirous of adding to
its _éclat_ by his personal presence; but finding himself indisposed,
he sent to La Rosière, by a marquis of rank and first captain of his
guards, a ring and his blue ribbon. "Go," said he to the marquis, "and
present this riband to her who shall be crowned. It has been long the
prize of honor; it shall now become the reward of virtue." Since that
time La Rosière has received a ring, and she and her companions have
worn the blue ribbon.

The Lord of Salency at one time enjoyed the right of choosing La
Rosière from three of the village girls, who were presented by the
inhabitants. But in 1773 a new lord, who purchased the estate of
Salency, wished to take away the right enjoyed by the inhabitants,
of naming and presenting to him the three candidates for the Rose.
He assumed the nomination of La Rosière, without any assembling,
election, or presentation, and suppressed entirely the pomp and
ceremonies which until that time had always been observed. On the
complaint of the inhabitants of Salency, the Court of Chancery at
once set aside the pretensions of their lord; but he, not wishing
to yield them, instituted a civil process before the Parliament of
Paris, which gave a decree in favor of the inhabitants of the place,
by which it confirmed to them all the ancient customs of the fête of
La Rosière, of which the Lord of Salency was ordered to pay all the
expenses.

The ceremony of La Rosière was suppressed during the excesses of the
Revolution, but was reëstablished when the times had become more
quiet. The celebration takes place in June, and would be well worthy
the attendance of foreign travelers.

We have mentioned this custom very much in detail, as it is one of the
few ceremonies still existing, in which the Rose occupies a prominent
position, and is made alone the reward of merit. Other festivals of
the Rose, similar to those of Salency, were established in several
other villages of France and the neighboring countries. When Louis
XVIII. was staying at Blakenbourg, in Germany, during the years of his
exile, he was invited to assist at a festival of La Rosière. When he
had placed the crown on the head of the young girl who was designated
as the most virtuous, she said to him, ingenuously, "My Prince, may
_your_ crown be restored you."

There exists a touching custom in the valley of Engadine, in
Switzerland. If a man accused of a crime is able to justify himself
the same day on which he is liberated from prison, a young and
beautiful girl offers him a white rose, called the Rose of Innocence.

It is somewhat singular that, although the Rose was in these
instances employed as the emblem of virtue and innocence, it has been
considered, at other times and places, as a sign of disgrace and
dishonor.

The synod held at Nismes, about the year 1284, ordered the Jews to
wear on their breast a rose, to distinguish them from Christians, in
order that they might not receive the same attentions. At one time, in
certain German provinces, a crown of red roses was the punishment of
immorality.

It appears that, in the Middle Ages, roses were much more abundantly
cultivated in certain provinces than they have been since; for the
following passage is found in Marchangy's History of France in the
14th century: "For the ornament of certain festivals, they cultivate,
in the vicinity of Rouen, fields of flowers of several rods: and the
annual sale of bouquets and wreaths of roses is valued at 50,000
francs. The business of _maker of wreaths_, and that of _rose
merchant_, is in France very common and very profitable. The above sum
will not seem surprising, when we think of the enormous consumption
of rose-water at that time. In all family parties, companies,
and associations, many bouquets were presented; at table, during
festivals, they crowned themselves with flowers, and scattered them on
the table-cloth and the floor."

The Marquis de Chesnel, in his History of the Rose, mentions that,
among the old customs of Auvergne, Anjou, Tours, Lodunois, and
Maine, there was one in the noble families, that a father who had
sons, frequently gave to his daughters, on their marriage, only a
wreath of roses. In Normandy, also, the daughters received, for their
legitimate portion, a hat adorned with the same flowers. Among the
ancient seigneurial rights in France, in the 14th century, was one
by which each tenant was obliged to furnish a bushel of roses for
the manufacture of rose-water for the lord of the soil. Madame de
Genlis mentions, however, that about the same period, every one was
not allowed to cultivate these flowers; but permission to do so was
granted to privileged persons. Whether it was ever a royal monopoly
she does not state; but it would certainly be no more singular than
the monopoly of the sale of butter by the King of Naples.

We have already mentioned the wars of the White and Red Rose, which
during so long a time deluged England with blood. There is also an
instance in French history, where this flower, associated as it is
with innocence and pleasant thoughts, served, under the reign of
Charles VI., as the rallying sign of the faction of Burgundy against
that of Armagnac. The Parisians, urged by the agents of the Duke of
Burgundy, established the order of St. André for their partisans, in
order to manage them more easily; and the church of St. Eustache was
chosen as their rendezvous. Each church member wore a crown of red
roses, of which more than seven hundred were made in the space of
twelve hours, and the flowers were sufficiently abundant to perfume
the whole church.

According to an ancient custom, the dukes and peers of France were
formerly obliged to present roses to the Parliament of Paris, at
certain periods of its session. The peer who was chosen to do the
honors of this ceremony caused all the chambers of Parliament to be
scattered with roses, flowers, and fragrant herbs; and entertained at
a splendid breakfast the presidents, councilors, and even the notaries
and door-keepers of the court. He afterwards went into each chamber,
accompanied by a page with a large silver basin, which contained
as many bouquets of roses and other flowers as there were public
officers, with an equal number of crowns composed of the same flowers.
The Parliament also had its cultivator of roses, called the _Rosièr
de la Cour_, from whom the peers could obtain the roses for their
presents.

Under the reign of Francis I., in 1541, there was a dispute
between the Duc de Montpensier and the Duc de Nevers respecting
the presentage of the roses to Parliament. It was decided that the
Duc de Montpensier, from his rank as prince of the blood, should
be entitled to the first presentage. Among the princes of the
royal family who submitted to this ceremony at later periods, are
numbered the dukes of Vendome, Beaumont, Angouleme, and several other
distinguished names. Henry IV., while only King of Navarre, proved to
the procureur-general that neither he nor his predecessors had ever
failed to perform that duty.

About the year 1631, there was published a very curious book on the
Rose, by a German named Rosenberg. About 250 octavo pages are devoted
entirely to the praise of the curative properties of the Rose in
almost every known disease, making, in fact, this flower a universal
panacea for the many ills to which flesh is heir. The author also
claims for it supernatural qualities, particularly for driving away
evil spirits. The work closes by asserting, as a positive fact,
supported by several authorities which he quotes, the remarkable
regeneration or resurrection of the Rose. He gives also the process
of this reproduction, which is scarcely worth inserting here, being,
like the story of the Phœnix, a fable engendered by superstition upon
ignorance. It is somewhat surprising that this fable should have been
very gravely reproduced, in a French work on the Rose, published in
1800. The author states that, "notwithstanding the many marvelous
things which we already know respecting the improving, forcing,
changing, and multiplying of roses, we have yet to describe the most
surprising of all--that of its regeneration; or, in other words, the
manner of reproducing that flower from its own ashes. This is called
the _imperial secret_, because the Emperor Ferdinand III. purchased
it of a foreign chemist, at a very high price." The conclusion is
a rather amusing instance of Munchausenism in the 19th century.
"Finally, all this material being placed in a glass vessel, with a
certain quantity of pure dew, forms a blue powder, from which, when
heat is applied, there springs a stem, leaves, and flowers, and a
whole and perfect plant is formed from its own ashes."

It is difficult to credit the fact that, in any part of this
enlightened age, an author could be found who would gravely and in
sincerity advance such opinions and state such facts as the above; and
it is but an additional proof, if such were wanting, that nothing can
be advanced too monstrous or too incredible to be entirely without
believers.

If the sight of roses, or their delicate fragrance, has been generally
delightful and pleasing, there have also been those who could not
endure them. Anne of Austria, wife of Louis XIII., of France, although
otherwise very fond of perfumes, had such an antipathy to the rose,
that she could not bear the sight of one even in a painting. The Duke
of Guise had a still stronger dislike, for he always made his escape
at the sight of a rose. Dr. Ladelius mentions a man who was obliged
to become a recluse, and dared not leave his house, during the season
of roses; because, if he happened to imbibe their fragrance, he was
immediately seized with a violent cold in his head.

The odor of the rose, like that of many other flowers, has often
occasioned serious injury, particularly in closed apartments; and
persons to whose sensitive organizations the odor is disagreeable
should not sleep with them in the chamber. Some authors of credibility
mention instances of death caused by a large quantity of roses being
left during the night in a sleeping apartment.



                             CHAPTER XIV.

                        PERFUMES OF THE ROSE.


At an early period in the cultivation of the Rose, and after its
admission among the luxuries of the wealthy, human skill was exerted
to extract its delightful perfume.

Several authors have considered the invention of the essence of the
Rose very ancient, and have even traced it back as far as the siege of
Troy. This, however, can scarcely be admitted, for nothing relating
to the essence or essential oil of roses can be found in Homer, or in
any other author for many subsequent years. The discovery of these
valuable articles of commerce was made at a much later period. If the
essential oil of roses had been known to the ancient Greeks or Romans,
it would probably have been more particularly mentioned by Pliny, and
the mode of preparation even would have been described. In speaking,
however, of various perfumes, he says nothing of any distillation from
the petals of the Rose, but simply mentions that, as early as the
siege of Troy, the _expressed_ juice of roses was known, and being
mixed with a delicate oil, formed an agreeable perfume.

In speaking of artificial oils in general, Pliny also observes that
the oil of roses was made by simply steeping the rose-petals in oil.
According to the same author, oil was the body of nearly all the
perfumes used at that day, and for a perfuming substance, roses were
most frequently used, because they grew everywhere in the greatest
abundance.

Perfumes of every kind were more abundantly used among the ancient
Greeks and Romans than at the present day. Athenæus, in his _Feast of
Wise Men_, states that nearly all of these were drawn from the Rose,
and says that the most sweet were those of Cyrene, while those of
Naples, Capua, and Faseoli were the best and most delightful of all.

This agrees with the subsequent researches made on the same subject
by D'Orbessan. "The cities of Naples, Capua, and Preneste," says the
latter, "obtained their roses from Campania, where there is yet a
considerable tract of land, commonly called _Il mazzone delle Rose_.

"This field is sometimes called _Rosetinus_, on account of the
prodigious quantity of roses which grow there without culture, and in
greater abundance than in any other section of that country."

Athenæus states that the perfume of roses was frequently used in
culinary preparations, and gives a curious receipt for a sort of
_pot-pourri_, made by the cook of the King of Sicily. "This is what I
call _potted roses_, and it is thus prepared: I first pound some of
the most fragrant roses in a mortar; then I take the brains of birds
and pigs, well boiled and stripped of every particle of meat; I then
add the yolks of some eggs, some oil, a little cordial, some pepper,
and some wine: after having beaten and mixed it well together, I throw
it in a new pot, and place it over a slow but steady fire." "As he
said these things," so runs the story, "the cook uncovered the pot,
and there issued forth a most delicious fragrance, perfuming the whole
dining-hall, and overcoming the guests with delight." This is a point
in gastronomic luxury to which Americans have not yet attained.

Although the perfume of roses was considered more choice than any
other, it was frequently used when men were least in the state to
enjoy it; for D'Orbessan states that slaves were made to burn it
around their masters while sleeping.

If the essential oil of roses had been known in the time of Pliny,
that author would have mentioned it among the most esteemed and
precious perfumes. So far from this, however, he only speaks of the
"Royal Perfume," so called because it was prepared expressly for the
King of the Parthians. This was composed of the oil of Ben, an Arabian
tree, with several aromatic substances. According to Langles, who
has carefully examined a great number of oriental works, no writer,
previous to the sixteenth century, has mentioned the essential oil of
roses, although these flowers abounded at that time, and mention is
made of rose-water as an agreeable perfume. Besides these negative
proofs against the ancient existence of this perfume, Langles quotes
several oriental historians, from which it seems evident that its
discovery dates about the year 1612, and was owing entirely to
accident.

According to Father Catron, in his _History of the Mogul Empire_,
in the fêtes which the sultana Nourmahal gave to the great Mogul,
Jehan-guire, their chief pleasure was sailing together in a canal
which Nourmahal had filled with rose-water.

One day that the Emperor was thus sailing with Nourmahal, they
perceived a sort of froth forming and floating upon the water. They
drew it out, and perceived that it was the essential oil which the
heat of the sun had disengaged from the water and collected together
on the surface. The whole seraglio pronounced the perfume the most
exquisite known in the Indies; and they immediately endeavored to
imitate by art that which nature had made. Thus was discovered the
essence, essential oil, otto, or attar of roses.

According to Langles, the word _A'ther_, _A'thr_, or _Othr_, which
the Arabs, Turks, and Persians use to designate the essential oil of
Roses without adding the name of that flower, is Arabic, and signifies
perfume. It is necessary, the same author states, to recollect the
distinction between _A'ther_, or _A'ther gul_ and _gulab_, which is
simply rose-water.

From the very small quantity congealed on the surface of the water,
the manufacture is limited, and the cost of the article immense.
Langles states that the rose-water is left exposed to the freshness of
the night, and in the morning a very small quantity of attar is found
collected on the surface.

Dr. Monro, according to Loudon, gives the manner of making the attar
in Cashmere, which is apparently more simple, without the tedious
process of distilling.

"The rose-petals are put into a wooden vessel with pure water, and
exposed for several days to the heat of the sun. The oily particles,
being disengaged by the heat, float upon the surface of the water,
whence they are taken up from time to time by applying to them some
very fine dry cotton wool. From this wool the oil is pressed into
little bottles, which are immediately afterwards sealed hermetically."

Another method is, exposing the rose-water to heat, then suddenly
cooling it, and collecting the drops of congealed oil which float upon
the surface.

Bishop Heber describes the method used in India, which is very similar
to that of Langles. The attar has the consistency of butter, and never
becomes liquid except in the warmest weather.

Loudon states that "a wretched substitute for otto of roses is said to
be formed by the apothecaries of Paris. The petals of _Rosa Damascena_
are boiled in a large caldron of water along with as much hog's lard
as will cover its surface with a thin stratum of grease. The oil of
the rose-petals, on separating from them by boiling, unites with this
grease, from which it is again separated by spirits of wine." A large
portion of the attar imported into the United States is probably of
this manufacture.

The quantity of genuine attar produced from a given weight of
rose-petals is not always the same; it is very liable to vary
according to the nature of the climate, the temperature of different
seasons, the period of bloom at which the roses are picked, the
process of manufacture, and the skill of the manufacturers. Generally,
a hundred pounds of roses will scarcely produce a drachm of attar,
sometimes only half a drachm, and at others a drachm and a half.
Bishop Heber states that in India, at Ghazepoor, two hundred thousand
well-grown roses are required to produce one rupee's (165 grains)
weight of attar. The calyx is sometimes used with the petal, but
as the oil of that contains little or no perfume, although it may
increase the quantity of attar, it must sensibly weaken its properties.

The color of attar is generally green, sometimes lemon or rose color,
and occasionally brownish. These differences in color are owing to the
various processes of manufacture, and the different periods at which
the roses are picked. The attar is prepared in Barbary, Syria, Arabia,
Persia, India, in the island of Scio, at Fayoum, in Egypt, at Tunis,
and many other places in the East. That made in Syria and Barbary is
considered very inferior; while the best is made in Chyraz, Kerman,
and Cashmere. In some parts of France and Italy it is also prepared,
but in comparatively small quantities.

The attar is very costly, although not so dear as formerly. The French
traveler, Tavernier, who visited Ispahan about the year 1666, stated
that the price of attar at Chyraz rose and fell every year on account
of the unequal produce of flowers; and that an ounce of that article
sold, at one period, for ten tomans (about ninety-two dollars).

At the time another Frenchman, Chardin, traveled in Persia, some years
after Tavernier, the attar was sometimes much higher. He states that
forty pounds of rose-water were required to produce half a drachm
of attar, an ounce of which sometimes sold in India for two hundred
ecus. Langles states that in India half an ounce of attar is worth
about forty dollars. Bishop Heber also speaks of its enormous price
at Ghazepoor, where the variation in price is also very great, being,
according to Langles, sometimes as low as eight dollars an ounce.

At one time, soon after its discovery, it was valued at about five
times its weight in gold. Until quite recently, it was worth its
weight in gold, but now sells in Paris for about one quarter that
value.

Attar is rarely found pure in commerce; it is always more or less
adulterated. In the countries where it is manufactured, they
frequently increase the quantity of the attar by mixing scrapings of
sandal-wood with the rose-petals during the process of distillation
Kæmpfer, a German writer, states this mode of adulteration to have
been known a long time, and adds that the sandal-wood gives additional
strength to the attar; but another author, who has also made some
researches on the subject, asserts that the sandal-wood injures the
delicacy of the attar, which is more sweet and agreeable when mild
than when strong.

The quality as well as the quantity of attar which they obtain from
roses depends upon the proportion of aroma which they contain; and
this is found more developed at the South, and in a warm climate. The
kinds of roses used in distillation have also a great influence on
the quality of the attar. In Persia and the East, the Musk Rose is
generally used, and the Damask is employed in France.

Although roses are distilled in large quantities at Paris for
perfumery and for medical purposes, very little attar is made, because
the proportion of the manufactured article to the roses required is,
in that climate, extremely small; so small, in fact, that, according
to one writer, five thousand parts in weight of rose-petals will
scarcely produce one part of essential oil. This limited manufacture
exists only at Grasse and Montpelier, in France, and at Florence, in
Italy.

Some years since, the adulteration of attar was successfully practiced
in the south of France by mixing with it the essence distilled from
the leaves of the Rose Geranium (_Pelargonium capitatum_). This
adulteration is very difficult to detect, because this last essence
possesses the same properties as the attar; its odor is almost the
same; like that, it is of a lemon color; it crystalizes at a lower
temperature; and its density is very little greater.

The attar, when pure, is, beyond comparison, the most sweet and
agreeable of all perfumes. Its fragrance is the most delicate
conceivable, and equals that of the freshly expanded Rose. It is also
so strong and penetrating, that a single drop, or as much as will
attach itself to the point of a needle, is sufficient to perfume an
apartment for several days; and if the small flask in which it is
sold, although tightly corked and sealed, is placed in a drawer, it
will perfume all the contents.

When in a congealed or crystalized state, the attar will liquefy at
a slight heat; and if the flask is merely held in the hand, a few
minutes will suffice to render it liquid. In the East much use is made
of the attar, particularly in the harems. In Europe and America it is
employed in the manufacture of cordials, and in the preparation of
various kinds of perfumery.

Rose-water, or the liquid obtained from rose-petals by distillation,
is very common, and is found in almost every country where the arts
and luxuries of life have at all advanced.

Pliny tells us that rose-water was a favorite perfume of the Roman
ladies, and the most luxurious used it even in their baths. This,
however, must have been some preparation different from that now known
as rose-water, and was probably a mere tincture of roses.

The ancients could have known nothing of rose-water, for they were
entirely ignorant of the art of distillation, which only came into
practice after the invention of the alembic by the Arabs. Some
attribute this discovery to Rhazes, an Arabian physician, who lived
in the early part of the tenth century; and others attribute it to
Avicenna, who lived at Chyraz, in the latter part of the same century.
It is also attributed to Geber, a celebrated Arabian alchemist, who
lived in Mesopotamia in the eighth century. Subsequent, therefore, to
this discovery of the alembic, we find, according to Gmelin, in his
history of the preparation of distilled waters, that the first notice
of rose-water is by Aben-Zohar, a Jewish physician, of Seville, in
Spain, who recommends it for diseases of the eye. From the Arabs, this
invention passed among the Greeks and Romans, as we are informed by
Actuarius, a writer of the eleventh or twelfth century.

In France, the first distillation of rose-water appears to have been
made by Arnaud de Villeneuve, a physician, who lived in the latter
part of the thirteenth century.

The Orientals made great use of this water in various ways in their
houses, and in the purification of their temples when they thought
they had been profaned by any other worship than that of Mahomet.
There are many anecdotes told by historians of the use of rose-water
by the Sultans on various occasions; and several of these, as
Chateaubriand remarks, are stories worthy of the East. It is related
of Saladin, that when he took Jerusalem from the Crusaders, in 1187,
he would not enter the Mosque of Omar, which had been converted into
a church by the Christians, until the walls and courts had been
thoroughly washed and purified with rose-water brought from Damascus.
Five hundred camels, it is stated, were scarcely sufficient to
convey all the rose-water used for this purpose. An Arabian writer
tells us that the princes of the family of Saladin, hastening to
Jerusalem to worship Aliah, Malek-Abdul, and his nephew, Taki-Eddin,
distinguished themselves above all others. The latter repaired with
all his followers to the "Chapel of the Holy Cross," and taking a
broom himself, he swept all the dirt from the floor, washed the walls
and the ceiling several times with pure water, and then washed them
with rose-water; having thus cleansed and purified the place, he
distributed large alms to the poor.

Bibars, the fourth Sultan of the Mameluke dynasty, who reigned from
1260 to 1277, caused the Caaba of the temple of Mecca to be washed
with rose-water.

Mahomet II., after the capture of Constantinople, in 1453, would not
enter the Mosque of St. Sophia, which had been formerly used as a
church, until he had caused it to be washed with rose-water.

It is stated by a French historian that the greatest display of
gorgeous magnificence at that period was made in 1611, by the Sultan
Ahmed I., at the dedication of the new Caaba, which had been built or
repaired at his expense; amber and aloes were burnt in profusion, and,
in the extravagance of Eastern language, oceans of rose-water were
set afloat, for washing the courts and interior surface of the walls.
Rose-water is by no means so generally used now as for a few hundred
years subsequent to its invention. In France, during the reign of
Philip Augustus, it was a necessary article at court. It was formerly
the custom to carry large vases filled with rose-water to baptisms.
Illustrating this custom, Bayle relates a story of Rousard, the French
poet: "It nearly happened that the day of his birth was also that of
his death; for when he was carried from the Chateau de La Poissoniére
to the church of the place to be baptized, the nurse who carried him
carelessly let him fall; his fall, however, was upon the grass and
flowers, which received him softly; it so happened, that a young lady,
who carried a vase filled with rose-water and a collection of flowers,
in her haste to aid in helping the child, overturned on his head a
large part of the rose-water. This incident was considered a presage
of the good odor with which France would one day be filled by the
flowers of his learned writings."

At one time rose-water was largely consumed in the preparation of
food and the seasoning of various dishes. In the "Private Life of the
French," it is mentioned that in the fourteenth century, the Comte
d'Etampes gave a feast in which a large part of the dishes and even
the chestnuts were prepared with rose-water. It is still used to
flavor various dishes, but its principal use is in affections of the
eyelids, or as a perfume for the toilet. The principal consumption of
rose-water is, however, in the East, where the inhabitants are very
fond of perfumes. In Persia a very large quantity is made annually for
domestic use. They deem it an excellent beverage mixed with pure water.

The Corinth Grape, mixed with rose-water, and a slight infusion of
spices, is the nectar so much in vogue among the Greeks of Morea. The
Persians, according to Lebruyn, sprinkle with rose-water those who
visit them. They also make it an important article of commerce; large
quantities are sent to different parts of the East, and entire cargoes
are sometimes shipped to India.

In Egypt, the nobles and wealthy inhabitants consume large quantities
of rose-water; they scatter it over their divans and other places
where they spend their time; they also offer it with confectionery to
their visitors.

The custom of offering rose-water to a guest is alluded to by
Shakespeare, who makes one of his characters in Padua say:

    "What is it your honor will command?
     Let one attend him with a silver bason
     Full of _rose-water_, and bestrewed with flowers."

Almost all the rose-water used in Egypt is distilled in the province
of Fayoum, from the pale rose. "About the middle of February, in
Fayoum," says a French writer, "they pluck the roses every morning
before sunrise, while the dew is yet upon them; they then place them
immediately in the alembic, not allowing them to become dry or heated
by remaining too long a time without distillation. This lucrative
branch of manufacture has not escaped the monopoly of Mehemet Ali.
No private individual can now distil roses in Egypt, and those who
cultivate them are obliged to sell the petals to government at a low
price. The value of all the rose-water distilled in Fayoum, annually,
is estimated at 50,000 or 60,000 francs." Of the profusion with
which rose-water is used in India, some idea may be formed from the
narrative of Bishop Heber, who was shown, in the ruins of the palace
of Ghazepoor, a deep trench round an octagonal platform of blue,
red, and white mosaic pavement. This trench, he was told, was filled
with rose-water when the Nawâb and his friends were feasting in the
middle. "The ancient oil of roses," according to Loudon, "is obtained
by bruising fresh rose-petals, mixing them with four times their
weight of olive oil, and leaving them in a sand-heat for two days. If
the red Rose of Provence is used, the oil is said to imbibe no odor;
but if the petals of pale roses are employed, it becomes perfumed.
This preparation was celebrated among the ancients. Pliny says that,
according to Homer, roses were macerated for their oil in the time of
the Trojans. The oil is chiefly used for the hair, and is generally
sold in perfumers' shops, both in France and England, under the name
of _L'huile antique de Rose_."

Spirit of roses is made by distilling rose-petals with a small
quantity of spirits of wine, and forms an agreeable article for
external applications. The green leaves of the sweet-brier are
sometimes, in France, steeped in spirits of wine to impart a
fragrance; and in England they are frequently used to flavor cowslip
wine.

As the petals of the rose preserve their fragrance for a long time
after being dried, many are in the habit of making, annually, little
bags filled with them. These, being placed in a drawer or wardrobe,
impart an agreeable perfume to the linen or clothing with which they
may come in contact. The petals can be obtained from almost any
garden in sufficient quantity for this purpose, and can be dried by
the process mentioned hereafter. The confectioners, distillers, and
perfumers of France draw from the Rose a part of their perfumes,
particularly from _R. Damascena_, and _R. centifolia_, in fixing their
sweet odors in sugar-plums, creams, ices, oils, pomatum, essences, and
fragrant powders.

The petals of the Rose, after being freshly picked and bruised in a
marble mortar, until they are reduced to a sort of paste, are employed
in the preparation of different kinds of confectionery. Of this paste
the French also make little perfume balls of the size of a pea. They
are made round in the same manner as pills, and before becoming hard,
they are pierced with a needle and strung on a piece of silk. In a
little while they become hard like wood, assume a brownish color, and
emit a delightful perfume. This rose scent continues very long, and
one writer remarks that he has known a necklace made in this style,
possess, at the end of twenty-five years, as strong a perfume as when
first made.

In Great Britain, in the vicinity of the large cities, and in many
private gardens, the flowers are gathered for making rose-water or
for drying as perfumes. In Holland, the Dutch _hundred-leaved_ and
common _cabbage rose_ are grown extensively at Noordwich, between
Leyden and Haarlem, and the dried leaves are sent to Amsterdam and
Constantinople. In France, the Provence Rose is extensively cultivated
near the town of Provence, about sixty miles south-east of Paris,
and also at Fontenay aux Roses, near Paris, for the manufacture of
rose-water, or for exportation in a dried state. The petals of the
Provence Rose (_Rosa Gallica_) are the only ones that are said to
gain additional fragrance in drying; all the other varieties losing in
this process more or less of their perfume. A French writer states,
that apothecaries employ both pale and red roses; the pale give more
perfume, while the red keep the longer.

Loudon states that "the petals of roses ought always to be gathered as
soon as the flower is fully expanded; and the gathering should never
be deferred until it has begun to fade, because, in the latter case,
the petals are not only discolored, but weakened in their perfume and
their medical properties. They should be immediately separated from
the calyx, and the claws of the petals pinched off; they are then
dried in the shade, if the weather is dry and warm, or by a stove in a
room, if the season is humid, care being taken, in either case, not to
spread them on the ground, but on a platform raised two or three feet
above it. The drying should be conducted expeditiously, because it has
been found that slowly dried petals do not exhale near so much odor as
those which have been dried quickly, which is also the case with hay,
sweet herbs, and odoriferous vegetables generally. After the petals
are dried, they are freed from any sand, dust, or eggs of insects
which may adhere to them, by shaking them and rubbing them gently in
a fine sieve. After this, the petals are put into close vessels, from
which the air is excluded, and which are kept in a dry, airy situation.

"As it is extremely difficult to free the rose-petals entirely from
the eggs of insects, they are taken out of these vessels two or three
times a year, placed in sieves, rubbed, cleaned, and replaced."

I have been careful to give the details of the above process, because
it may be useful to those who embark extensively in the cultivation
of roses for the exportation of petals in a dried state. We should
suppose that rose-petals produced in this latitude, where the Rose
has a long period of hibernation, would produce more perfume, and be
more valuable in a dried state than those grown under the tropics.
The Provence and Damask Rose are both known to succeed well here, and
to produce abundant flowers. Their fragrance is unsurpassed, and our
summer's sun would be abundantly sufficient to dry the petals without
any artificial heat. It is not too much to hope that the attention
of our cultivators may yet be directed to this subject, and that the
manufacture of rose-water and the preparation of dried petals may yet
be an important branch of domestic industry, and form an important
addition to the list of exported articles.



                             CHAPTER XV.

                 THE MEDICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ROSE.


We have hitherto viewed the Rose as the chief ornament of our gardens,
and if we have found it abounding with charms of fragrance and beauty,
we shall now find it occupying a prominent place in Materia Medica.
Some authors have, with a degree of exaggeration, endeavored to make
its medical as brilliant as its floral reputation. Rosenberg, in his
work on the Rose, makes it a specific in every disease, and even
attributes to it supernatural virtues.

In the opinion of most medical men, the medicinal properties of the
Rose are about the same in all the kinds, while some writers assert
that the _Rosa Gallica_ is superior to all others in a greater or less
degree. We will mention those principally used in medicine, and the
properties which are especially attributed to each.

The most valuable properties of the Rose reside in its petals, and in
order to preserve these properties, it is highly essential that the
petals should be quickly and perfectly dried. Those of the Provence
Rose (_Rosa Gallica_) have an astringent and somewhat bitter taste,
and are tonic and astringent in their effects.

According to an analysis recently made in France, they contain,
besides vegetable matter and essential oil, a portion of gallic acid,
coloring matter, albumen, tannin, some salts, with a base of potash or
of chalk, silex, and oxide of iron. A small dose in powder strengthens
the stomach and assists digestion. Their prolonged use will sometimes
cause a slight constipation of the bowels, while in a much stronger
dose they act as purgatives.

The _conserve_ of the Provence Rose has much reputation in France
for the treatment of all chronic affections of the bowels, caused by
weakness and inactivity of the digestive organs; it is also employed
in colic, in diarrhœa, in cases of hemorrhage and leucorrhœa.

The conserve of any variety of roses is considered excellent in
cases of cold or catarrh. It is prepared by bruising in a mortar the
petals with their weight in sugar, and moistening them with a little
rose-water, until the whole forms a homogeneous mass. Some receipts
prescribe powdered petals mixed with an equal part of sugar; others
direct to use two layers of sugar, and only one layer of pulverized
petals.

Opoix, a physician of Provence, states that the true Rose of Provence
has a more sweet and penetrating fragrance than the same rose grown
elsewhere, and even goes so far as to say that it has acquired
properties which it does not possess in its native country, the
Caucasus. On account of the supposed superior qualities of this rose,
the citizens of Provence, in 1807, addressed a petition to government
to encourage in their territory the cultivation of the true Provence
Rose, by giving it the preference in all the hospitals and military
dispensaries. This gave rise to a discussion between two French
chemists, but without deciding the fact whether the _Rosa Gallica_
was superior in medical properties to any other rose. It seems to be
acknowledged that those cultivated at Provence were superior to the
same kind grown elsewhere, and this superiority is attributed by some
to the presence of iron in the soil about that city. It was probably
owing, also, to the very careful cultivation practiced there. The
petals are used extensively in several medical preparations, as the
sugar of roses, the ointment of roses, the treacle of roses, etc.
Rose-water is, however, more extensively used in medicine than any
other preparation of the rose. This water, when manufactured from
_Rosa Gallica_, or any other of the section of _Centifoliæ_, is
employed internally as an astringent, and is sometimes mixed with
other medicines to destroy their disagreeable smell and taste. In
external applications, it is used principally for affections of the
eyes, either alone or with some ointment.

The _alcoholic tincture of roses_, or spirit of roses, before
mentioned, which was formerly given as a stimulus in many cases, has
now fallen very much into disuse, medical opinion being very much
against the employment of any alcoholic medicines excepting in very
rare cases.

The _syrup of roses_, manufactured from the pale or Damask Rose,
is sometimes employed as a purgative, and was once highly esteemed
and recommended as a mild laxative. It is now, however, scarcely
considered purgative, and its laxative properties are probably owing
in a great measure to the senna and other articles which enter into
its preparation.

The _electuary of roses_, which is now no longer used, was also
probably indebted for its medical qualities to the addition of
scammony, a very strong purgative.

_Vinegar of roses_ is made by simply infusing dried rose-petals in the
best distilled vinegar, to which they communicate their perfume. It is
used for cooking and for the toilet, and for headaches, when applied
in the same way as common vinegar. The ancients prepared this vinegar,
and also the wine and oil of roses, which are no longer used.

_Honey of roses_ is made by beating up rose-petals with a very small
portion of boiling water; the liquid, after being filtered, is boiled
with honey. This is esteemed for sore throats, for ulcers in the
mouth, and for anything that is benefited by the use of honey.

The fruit of the rose is said also to possess some astringent
properties; the pulp of the fruit of the wild varieties, particularly
of the dog rose, after being separated from the seeds and beaten up
in a mortar with sugar, makes a sort of conserve, formerly known in
medicine under the name of Cynorrhodon.

Children in the country sometimes eat these fruits after they have
attained perfect maturity, and have been somewhat mellowed by the
frost; they then lose their pungent taste, and become a little sweet.
Belanger, a French writer, who traveled in Persia in 1825, found in
that country a rose whose fruit was very agreeably flavored. The
apple-bearing rose (_R. villosa pomifera_) produces the largest fruit
of all, and is the best adapted for preserving; but an English writer
remarks that the fruit of _R. systyla_ and _R. arvensis_, although of
a smaller size, bears a higher flavor than that of any other species.
Rose-buds, like the fruit, are also frequently preserved in sugar, and
pickled in vinegar. Tea is sometimes made of the leaves of the rose,
which are also eaten readily by the domestic animals.

The ends of the young shoots of the sweet-brier, deprived of their
bark and foliage, and cut into short pieces, are sometimes candied and
sold by the confectioners.

The Dog Rose takes its name from the virtue which the ancients
attributed to its root as a cure for hydrophobia. The heathen deities
themselves, according to Pliny, revealed this marvelous property, in
dream, to a mother whose son had been bitten by a dog affected with
this terrible disease.

The excrescences frequently found on the branches of the Rose, and
particularly on those of the wild varieties, known to druggists by the
Arabic name of _bédeguar_, and which resemble in form a little bunch
of moss, partake equally of the astringent properties of the Rose.
These excrescences are caused by the puncture of a little insect,
known to naturalists as the _Cynips rosæ_, and, occasionally, nearly
the same effects are produced by other insects.



                             CHAPTER XVI.

                           GENERAL REMARKS.


The name of the Rose is very similar in most languages, but of
its primitive derivation very little or nothing is known. It is
_rhodon_ in Greek; rhos, in Celtic; _rosa_, in Latin, Italian,
Spanish, Portuguese, Hungarian, and Polish; _rose_, in French, Saxon,
and English; _rosen_, in German; _roose_, in Dutch; _rhoshà_, in
Sclavonic; _ros_, in Irish; _ruoze_, in Bohemian; _ouasrath_, in
Arabic; _nisrin_, in Turkish; _chabhatzeleth_, in Hebrew; and _gul_,
in Persian. These are the various names by which the flower has been
known from very early times, and a strong resemblance can be traced
through all. The Latin name, _rosa_, also forms a component part of
terms used to designate several other things.

The name of _rosary_ was given to a string of beads used in the Romish
Church to represent a certain number of prayers; it was instituted
about the year 667, but was not much used until Peter the Hermit
excited the Christian nations to the Crusade, about 1096. Dominique,
a Romish saint, established, in 1207, the brotherhood of the Rosary,
and the festival of the Rose was instituted in 1571 by Pope Pius V.,
in thanksgiving for the victory gained by the Christians over the
Turks at Lepante. Subsequent popes gave to that ceremony more éclat,
and caused it to be established in Spain. The name of _rosary_ was
formerly also given to the vessel used in distilling rose-water. The
Rose has also given the idea of new forms of beauty in architecture
and the arts. A rose is sometimes sculptured in the centre of each
face of a Corinthian capital. It is also frequently seen in iron
castings for the banisters of the stone steps of a house, and it
is sometimes displayed upon the pavement in front of some splendid
mansion. This, however, is rare in the United States, although
frequent in Europe.

Among all the imitations of the Rose, none can compare with those
painted on glass, some of which can be found in the windows of
celebrated European Cathedrals in Canterbury, Cologne, Milan,
Rheims, St. Denis, and others. We can scarcely imagine anything more
beautifully soft than these paintings on glass, as seen from the
interior of a church, in the rich light of a glowing sunset; the Rose
thus painted seems to possess all the freshness and beauty of the real
flower.

The nave of the Cathedral of Paris, besides twenty-four large windows,
is lighted by three others, large and magnificent, in the shape of a
Rose, which are each forty feet in diameter. The paintings on glass
which ornament these windows were executed in the 13th century, and
still retain their fresh and bright colors: that over the grand
entrance represents the signs of the zodiac, and the agricultural
labors of each month.

In heraldry, the rose frequently forms part of a shield, in full
bloom, with a bud in the centre, and with five points to imitate
thorns; it is an emblem of beauty and of nobility acquired with
difficulty.

The Golden Rose was considered so honorable a present, that none but
monarchs were worthy to receive it.

In the 11th century, the Pope introduced the custom of blessing a
golden Rose, which he presented to some church, or to some prince or
princess, as an especial mark of his favor.

In 1096, the Pope Urban II. gave a Golden Rose to the Comte d'Anjou.
Alexander III. sent one to Louis, King of France, in acknowledgment of
the attentions of that prince during the Pope's visit to France, as
stated in a letter which he wrote the King.

"In accordance with the custom of our ancestors, in carrying a rose of
gold in their hands on Dimanche Lætare, we do not think we can present
it to one who merits it more than yourself, from your devotion to the
Church and to ourselves."

Pope John, in 1415, sent the Golden Rose to the Emperor Sigismund.
Martin V., in 1418, sent another to the same prince. Pius II., in
1461, sent one to Thomas Paleologue, Emperor of Constantinople. Henry
VIII., of England, before his separation from the Church of Rome,
received the Golden Rose twice; the first from Julius II., and the
second from Leo X.; and in 1842, the Pope's Nuncio Capaccini presented
it to Donna Maria, Queen of Portugal. Isabella, Queen of Spain, was
presented with it a few years since.

The public ceremony of blessing the Rose was not instituted until
1366, by Urban V.: that pontiff, wishing to give a particular mark of
his esteem to Joanna, Queen of Sicily, solemnly blessed a Golden Rose,
which he sent her, and made at the same time a decree, that a similar
one should be consecrated every year. For fifty or sixty years, the
Pope gave the Rose to princes who came to Rome; and it was the custom
to give 500 louis to the officer who carried it for the Pope. The
Rose, in its intrinsic value, was, however, sometimes worth double
that sum.

       *       *       *       *       *

We have thus given all the information we have been able to collect
respecting the history of the Rose.

We shall feel abundantly gratified if the facts and anecdotes we have
cited shall tend to enhance the already growing interest in this
flower; and by thus connecting it with the lore of antiquity, cast
around it a bright halo of pleasant associations.

Among the various riches of the garden, there are many flowers of
great attractions: some we admire for their beautiful forms, others
for their brilliant colors, and others again for their delightful
fragrance; and we scarcely know which to pronounce the most pleasing.
But whatever may be our feelings of admiration for these beautiful
flowers, a desire for something still more beautiful draws us to the
Rose, and compels us to pronounce it superior to all its rivals. It
is the Rose alone that never fatigues, that always exhibits some new
beauty, and that is never affected by fashion; for while Dahlias and
other flowers have had their hour of favor, and have passed out of
notice, the Rose has been a favorite for some three thousand years,
and is still the first and most beautiful,--the _chef d'œuvre_ of the
vegetable kingdom.

The Rose is rendered a favorite by many pleasant associations. It has
been the cherished flower of the ancient poets, and with modern poets
it has lost none of its charms, but is still apostrophized and made an
object of frequent comparison. With the ancients, it was, as we have
seen, the ornament of their festivals, their altars, and their tombs:
it was the emblem of beauty, youth, modesty, and innocence, and was
full of tender sentiment and pleasant images. A French writer, in a
somewhat more extravagant vein of laudation, says, "Its name alone
gives birth in all sensible minds to a crowd of pleasant thoughts,
while, at the same time, it excites a sensation of the most delightful
pleasures, and the most sweet enjoyments." The name of "Queen of
Flowers," has been given to the Rose, almost from time immemorial; but
this name is particularly applicable to the _R. centifolia_ and the
hybrids from it. Yet the little, modest wild rose, found only in woods
and hedges, adorns the solitude where it grows, and possesses for many
a charm not surpassed by that of any of the cultivated varieties:
its regularly formed corolla, of a soft and delicate color, combines
in its simplicity many an attraction not found in the most beautiful
flowers of the garden; and late in the season, when the fields are
stripped of their verdure, the landscape is enlivened by the bright
appearance of its red, coral-like fruit.

The beauty of the Rose has preserved it and its reputation for many
ages. The most populous nations, the largest cities, the most wealthy
and powerful kingdoms, have disappeared from the earth, or have been
involved in the revolutions and subversions of empires, while a simple
flower has escaped them all, and still remains to tell its story. It
has seen a hundred generations succeed each other, and pass away; it
has traveled through ages without changing its destiny or losing its
character: the homage rendered and the love borne it have been always
the same: now, as in the earliest periods of the world's history, it
is decreed the first place in the floral kingdom. In these days, as
in those of antiquity, it is _par excellence_, the Queen of Flowers,
because it is always the most beautiful, and because no other flower
can furnish half its charms. To elegance and beauty of form it unites
the freshness and brilliance of the most agreeable colors, and, as if
nature had showered upon it all her most precious gifts, it adds to
its other qualities a delightful perfume, which alone would suffice to
entitle it to a distinguished place among the beautiful and pleasant
things of the vegetable kingdom.



                                INDEX.


  Arbor for Roses 96


  Bedding Roses 100

  Botanical Classification 7


  Diseases--Mildew 140
    Mould 141
    Rust 140


  Eglantine 19


  Forcing 103


  Garden Classification 27

  General Culture 69


  Hybridizing 130


  Insects--Gall-flies 142
    Green-fly 141
    Rose-bug 146
    Rose-slug 143
    Rose Leaf-hopper 151


  Multiplication by Seed 130


  Pillar Roses 94

  Planting 89

  Potting 102

  Propagation--Budding 120
    Cuttings 113
    Grafting 125
    Leaf-cuttings 116
    Layers 117
    Suckers 120

  Pruning 93

  Pyramids of Roses 95


  _Rosa agrestis_ 19
    alba 19
    _arvensis_ 20
    _atrovirens_ 22
    _Balearica_ 22
    Banksiæ 25
    _Belgica_ 15-17
    _bifera_ 15
    _blanda_ 17
    bracteata 12
    _Burgundiaca_ 18
    _calendarum_ 15
    canina 20
    _caryophyllea_ 16
    centifolia 16
      var. bipinnata 17
      muscosa 17
      pomponia 17
      provincialis 19
    _Damascena_ 15
    _diffusa_ 22
    _Eglanteria_ 19
    _flava_ 22
    _florida_ 22

  Rosa Gallica 17
      var. parvifolia 18
    _glandulifera_ 24
    _glauca_ 20
    _glaucescens_ 20
    _glaucophylla_ 13
    _hemispherica_ 13
    _holosericea_ 17
    Indica 21
      var. Noisettiana 22
           odoratissima 21
    _Indica fragrans_ 22
    _Laurenciana_ 22
    _lutea_ 13
      _flore pleno_ 13
    microphylla 12
    moschata 24
    multiflora 22
      var. Boursaulti 24
      Grevillei 23
      Russelliana 24
    _nitens_ 20
    _odoratissima_ 22
    _platyphylla_ 23
    _polyanthos_ 16
    _provincialis_ 16
    _remensis_ 18
    _Roxburghii_ 23
    rubiginosa 19
    _rubra_ 17
    _rugosa_ 22
    _scandens_ 26
    sempervirens 22
    _sempervirens globosa_ 22
    _senticosa_ 20
    spinosissima 14
    _suavifolia_ 19
    sulphurea 13
    _sylvatica_ 17
    _Teneriffensis_ 20
    _unguiculata_ 16
    _varians_ 16

  Rose--Adornment of Burial Places 167
    Attar of 187
    Conserve of 199
    Early History of 153
    Early Works on 9
    Electuary of 200
    Geographical Distribution of 11
    Honey of 201
    In Ceremonies and Festivals 167
    In the Middle Ages 175
    Luxurious Use of 161
    Medical Properties 198
    Otto of 187
    Perfumes of 185
    Syrup of 200
    Tables Concerning 153
    Tincture of 200
    Vinegar of 200

  Rose-Water 191

  Rose-leaves 196

  Roses, Classes of--Ayrshire 62
    Banksian 63
    Bengal 2-8
    Bourbon 37
    Boursault 64
    Brier 59
    China 40
    Climbing Tea 48
    Damask 52
    Evergreen 65
    French 52
    Garden 52
    Hybrid Bourbon 52
    Hybrid China 52
    Hybrid Climbing 66
    Hybrid Perpetual 30
    Hybrid Provence 52
    Macartney 50
    Microphylla 51
    Moss 56
    Multiflora 67
    Musk 51
    Noisette 41
    Polyantha 48
    Prairie 68
    Provence 52
    Remontant 30
    Remontant Moss 37
    Remontant Scotch 36
    Rugosa 49
    Scotch 59
    Tea 42
    White 52


  Situation 88

  Soil 86

  Sweet Brier 19


                        VARIETIES AND SPECIES.

  Abel Grand 32

  Acidalie 39

  Adam 42

  Agrippina 40

  Aimée Vibert 41

  Alba odorata 51

  Alfred Colomb 32

  Alice Leroy 56

  Amadis 65

  American Beauty 32

  Andre Schwartz 43

  Anne de Diesbach 33

  Anne Marie de Montravel 48

  Annie Wood 33

  Antoine Mermet 43

  Antoine Mouton 33

  Appoline 39

  Auguste Mie 33

  Ayrshire 62


  Baltimore Belle 68

  Banksian 63

  Baron de Bonstettin 33

  Baronne de Wassenaer 56

  Baronne Prevost 33

  Baroness Rothschild 33

  Beauté de l'Europe 41

  Beauty of Waltham 33

  Blanche Moreau 37

  Blush 65

  Boieldieu 33

  Bon Silene 43

  Bougere 43

  Boule de Neige 33

  Boursault 64

  Brier 59


  Captain Christy 33

  Captain Ingram 56

  Capucine 43

  Caroline 43

  Caroline de Marniesse 41

  Caroline de Sansal 33

  Catharine Mermet 43

  Celestial, S. B. 60

  Celine Forestier 42

  Cels multiflora 40

  Charles Lawson, H. B. 54

  Charles Lefebvre 33

  Chénédole, H. C. 54

  Clara Sylvain 43

  Common 56

  Comtesse de Frigueuse 43

  Comtesse de Murinais 56

  Comtesse de Serenye 34

  Copper Austrian, A. B. 60

  Coquette des Alpes 34

  Cornélie Koch 43

  Countess of Glasgow 59

  Coupe d'Hébé, H. B. 55

  Cristata 56


  Daily Blush 40

  Daily White 41

  De la Grifferaie 67

  Devoniensis 43

  Dundee Rambler 63

  Double Blush Ayrshire 63

  Double Margined Hip, H. S. B. 60

  Double Yellow 64

  Double Yellow Provence 60

  Douglass 41

  Double White 64

  Dr. Berthet 39

  Duc de Magenta 43

  Ducher 41


  Elise Boelle 34, 42

  Emerance, H. P. 55

  Eponine 52

  Etendard de Jeanne d'Arc 43

  Etna 57

  Eugene de Savoie 37

  Eugene Verdier 34, 57

  Evergreen 65

  E. Y. Teas 34


  Félicité Perpetuelle 65

  Fisher Holmes 34

  Fertuniana 64

  Francois Michelon 34


  Gem of the Prairie 68

  General Tartas 44

  General Jacqueminot 34

  General Washington 34

  George Peabody 39

  George the Fourth, H. C. 55

  Gloire de Dijon 44

  Gloire des Mousseuses 57

  Grevillei or Seven Sisters 67


  Harrisonii 62

  Her Majesty 44

  Hermosa 33

  Homer 44


  Indica Major 66

  Isabella Sprunt 44


  Jane 69

  Jaune d'Or 44

  Jaune Serin 64

  John Cranston 57

  John Hopper 34

  Jules Margottin 34

  Julie d'Etranges, F. 55

  Julie Mansais 44


  La France 34

  Lamarque 42

  Laneii 57

  La Reine 35

  Laure Davoust 67

  Little Gem 57

  Little Pet 41

  Louise Carique 35

  Louis Gimard 57

  Louis Van Houtte 35

  Luxembourg 57


  Mabel Morrison 35

  Macartney 50

  Madame Bravy 44

  Madame Bréon 41

  Madame Chedayne Guénoisseau 44

  Madame Cusin 44

  Madame d'Arblay 66

  Madame de Rochelambert 57

  Madame de Tartas 44

  Madame Edouard Ory 37, 57

  Madame Falcot 44

  Madame Gabriel Luizet 35

  Madame Hardy, F. 55

  Madame Plantier, H. C. 55

  Madame Victor Verdier 35

  Madame William Paul 37

  Mademoiselle Cécile Berthod 44

  Magna Charta 35

  Maréchal Niel 42, 47

  Marguerite de St. Amande 35

  Maria Leonida 51

  Marie Baumann 35

  Marie Berton 44

  Marie Guillot 45

  Marie Van Houtte 45

  Marquise Balbiano 40

  Marquise de Castellano 35

  Marquise de Mortemarte 35

  Marshall P. Wilder 35

  Maurice Bernardin 36

  May Paul 45

  Melanie de Montjoie 66

  Menoux 66

  Merveille de Lyon 36

  Microphylla 51

  Mignonette 49

  M'lle. Cécile Brünner 49

  Moss 56

  Mousseline 37

  Mrs. Bosanquet 41

  Mrs. Hovey 69

  Musk 51

  Myrianthes 66


  Niphetos 45

  Notting 37

  Nuits de Young 57


  Obscurité, F. 55

  Œillet Parfait, F. 55

  Ophire 42


  Pæonia 36

  Papa Gontier 45

  Paquerette 49

  Paul Neyron 36

  Paul's Single White 36

  Paul's Single Crimson 36

  Perle d'Angers 40

  Perle de Lyon 45

  Perle d'Or 49

  Perle des Jardins 45

  Perpetual White 37, 58

  Persian Yellow, A. B. 62

  Pierre Guillot 45

  Pierre Notting 36

  Polyantha 48

  Pride of Waltham 36

  Pride of Washington 69

  Prince Camille de Rohan 36

  Princesse Adelaide 57

  Princesse Wilhelmine des Pays Bas 49

  Princess of Nassau 52

  Princess Royal 58

  Puritan 45


  Queen of Bedders 40

  Queen of May 59

  Queen of Queens 36

  Queen of the Bourbons 40

  Queen of the Prairies 68


  Reine Blanche 58

  Ramanas 49

  Reine Marie Henriette 45

  Rev. J. B. M. Camm 36

  Rose Angle, S. B. 62

  Rubens 46

  Rubra 51

  Russelliana 67


  Safrano 46

  Salet 37, 58

  Sir John Sebright 66

  Solfaterre 42

  Sombreuil 46

  Soupert 37

  Souvenir de la Malmaison 40

  Souvenir d'un Ami 46

  Stanwell 36

  Sunset 46


  The Bride 46

  The Garland 67

  Thomas Mills 36

  Tricolor de Flandre, F. 55

  Triomphe de Bollwiller 66

  Triomphe de Guillot fils 49

  Triomphe de Rennes 42


  Vallée de Chamouny 46

  Vicomtesse de Cazes 46

  Victor Verdier 36

  Viridiflora 41


  Waltham Climbers 48

  W. F. Bennett 48

  White Baroness 36

  White Bath 58

  William the Fourth 59



                              FOOTNOTES:


[1]
    "Tempora subtilius pinguntur tecta coronis,
     Et latent injecta splendida mensa Rosa."  (OVID, lib. v.)


[2]
    "Non vivunt contra naturam, qui hieme concupiscunt Rosam?
     Fomentoque aquarum calentium, et calorum apta imitatione, bruma
       lilium florem vernum, exprimunt." (_Seneca, epistle 122-8._)


[3]
    "Ergo cum primum, magnas invecta per urbes
     Munificat tacita mortales muta salute;
     Ære atque argento, sternunt iter omne viarum.
     Largifica stipe dilantes, ninguntque Rosarum
     Floribus, umbrantes matrem comitumque catervas."
                                LUCRETIUS, lib. ii., ver. 625.


[4]
    "Hæc hora est tua, dum furit Lyæus
     Cum regnat Rosa, cum madent capilli,
     Tunc me vel rigidi legant Catones."
                                 Lib. x., epig. 19.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcribers Note:

Page 123 contains a reference to “c in fig. 10” which does not exist.
The text reads: “Then take a mat-string, or a piece of yarn, and
firmly bind it around the bud, leaving only the petiole and bud
exposed ...” seemingly intending to refer to the image in fig. 10 on
the left.





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Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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