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Title: Scientific American, Volume 56, No. 9, February 26, 1887
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American, Volume 56, No. 9, February 26, 1887" ***

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  [Entered at the Post Office of New York, N. Y., as Second Class Matter.]


  Vol. LVI.--no. 9.  ]
  [NEW SERIES.]      ]   NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 26, 1887.   [$3.00 per Year.


Caloric engines have long been used by the Trinity Board to provide
power for working siren fog signals in connection with their
lighthouses in England. They have generally been in the past of the
horizontal type, but lately a new pattern, which we illustrate from
_Engineering_, has been brought out; and as the entire work of the
motor consists in driving air-compressing pumps, this form of engine
should give very good results. At one end of a beam stands the retort
or furnace with the motor cylinder, and at the other end stand three
pumps. One of these forces air into the furnace, a second supplies the
receiver of the fog signal, while the third, which is smaller than
the second, performs the same office, when it is desired to raise the
pressure to a point too high for the larger pump to accomplish. As fogs
come on very suddenly, and give so little warning that it is often
impossible to get the engine into action before the vision is entirely
obscured, it is customary to keep a store of air in the receiver at
two or three times the usual working pressure, and it is from the
accumulation of this pressure that the smaller pump is provided.

The furnace is a closed receiver, and is fed with coke. Air is pumped
into it at a pressure of about 30 lb. to the square inch, part being
delivered below the fuel and part above. That part which goes below
rises through the incandescent coke, and appears at the surface as
carbonic oxide. Here it meets the upper air supply and burns with a
fierce bright flame, producing very hot gases, which are admitted to
the cylinder and there expand, driving the piston before them. From
experiments made by Mr. C. Ingrey with engines of this kind, it appears
that they consume from 2¼ lb. to 2½ lb. of coke per brake horse power
per hour, and thus provide power very economically.

The engine is regulated by a governor, which varies the proportion of
air admitted above and below the fuel, and thus alters the temperature
of the gases admitted to the cylinder. The distributing valves are of
the conical type, worked by tappets, and the fall is regulated by an
air cushion.

These engines, for there are a pair, have been constructed by the
Pulsometer Engineering Company, Limited, London, for the Northern
Lights Commissioners, and will be erected on a lightship, probably
at the North Carr. Each engine is nominally of six horse power, but
actually gives ten horse power. The motor cylinder is 24 in. in
diameter, the air pump 18 in., and the compressing pumps 9 in. and 5
in. respectively, all with a stroke of 18 in.


Naval Architecture During the Last Half Century.

The annual lecture under the auspices of the Greenock Philosophical
Society, to commemorate the birth of James Watt, was delivered in the
Watt Lecture Hall, Greenock, on January 14, by Mr. Robert Duncan,
shipbuilder, Port Glasgow. The title of Mr. Duncan's paper was
"Evolution in Naval Architecture during the Reign of Queen Victoria."
After referring to the early history of marine engineering, and to
the intimate connection of Greenock and the Clyde with its initial
stages, Mr. Duncan went on to say that up to the date of her Majesty's
accession in 1837, no systematic attempt at ocean navigation by steam
had been made. In 1812 steamship building began, but it was not till
1838 that the first Atlantic steam communication began. The Sirius
and the Great Western made the voyage to and from New York at the
same time, in the middle of that year, in fourteen and seventeen days
respectively, under steam all the way. Mr. Duncan then traced rapidly
the evolution of the iron ship, through the various modifications of
design and proportion, and the simultaneous and consequent evolution
of crafts to adapt themselves to the rapidly changing conditions. Mr.
Duncan also described the influence upon the forms of ships of maritime
law and of Lloyd's rules--evolution in size from the short square
boxes of the early periods to the long narrow vessels of to-day; the
Enterprise, for example, the first steamer to make the voyage to India
by the Cape of Good Hope, being only 122 feet long, while now the cargo
carrying steamer is over 400 feet long, and the express passenger ocean
steamer over 500 feet. Mr. Duncan considers it possible that, ere her
Majesty's reign closes, the Flying Scotchman of the sea will reach a
length of 800 feet, and a speed of twenty-five to thirty miles an hour.
The evolution of the man-of-war was next described, an interesting
sketch given of the science of naval architecture, and a bibliography
of the subject.

A Three Cylinder Locomotive.

The Dunmore Iron and Steel Company, at Dunmore, Pa., has a small
locomotive in use switching in its yards which is of a novel pattern.
It is thus described by the superintendent of the works: "This little
engine has three 8 X 12 in. steam cylinders, four 33 in. driving
wheels, two outside connecting and parallel rods, and one inside
connecting rod. No balancing is needed in driving wheels. The engine
has six exhausts to a revolution, and the effect on the fire is good.
It is claimed that by setting the cranks at an angle of 120 degrees
the slip is reduced to a minimum. This engine makes 30 miles an hour
on a 40 ft. grade easily, with a light load, and is considered a good
machine by those who have run her. Its weight is about 12 tons."

  Scientific American.


  MUNN & CO., Editors and Proprietors.

  O.D. MUNN.       A.E. BEACH.


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The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Export Edition is a large and splendid
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large quarto pages, profusely illustrated, embracing: (1.) Most of the
plates and pages of the four preceding weekly issues of the SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN, with its splendid engravings and valuable information; (2.)
Commercial, trade, and manufacturing announcements of leading houses.
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circulation in all commercial places throughout the world. Address MUNN
& CO., 361 Broadway, corner of Franklin Street, New York.



  (Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.)

  Architecture, naval, during last half century      127

  Armament, British, at Victoria*                    131

  Army, peace, of the United States                  129

  Aurora borealis*                                   135

  Beam caloric engine*                               127

  Bench and ironing board, combined*                 131

  Birds, incendiary                                  133

  Birds, phosphorescent                              133

  Birds, winter, our*                                133

  Blind stop, improved*                              131

  Books and publications, new                        138

  Boots or shoes, crimping, device for*              131

  Brush and comb cleaner*                            132

  Business and personal                              138

  Charcoal as fossil                                 133

  Chevreul's black*                                  137

  Cocaine habit, the                                 128

  Correspondence                                     133

  Craze, Yankee, the latest                          136

  Defense of New York within thirty days' time       132

  Dredger, marine, improved*                         134

  Earthquake, Charleston                             133

  Electroplating with platinum                       132

  Emery wheels for gumming saws*                     130

  Engine, caloric, improved*                         127

  Eruption in the Tonga group                        133

  Exhibition, American, London                       137

  Fish, meat, etc., canned                           133

  Guns, steel, are they superior?                    128

  Hats, ladies', protector for*                      132

  Hydraulic dredging at Washington                   134

  Injector, Penberthy*                               132

  Inventions, agricultural                           138

  Inventions, engineering                            138

  Inventions, index of                               139

  Inventions, miscellaneous                          138

  Life insurance company, a solid                    129

  Locomotive, three-cylinder                         127

  Measuring rack, wood, adjustable*                  131

  Medicine, preventive                               129

  Nervous patient, treatment, length of              136

  Northern lights, the*                              135

  Notes and queries                                  138

  Patent law, amendment of the, new                  128

  Patent, steel wire brush                           136

  Petroleum in Egypt                                 137

  Plasterer's hawk*                                  131

  Pyrofuxin--a new tanning substance from coal       128

  Saw gummer, emery vulcanite*                       130

  Shark, frilled, the*                               130

  Snails, strength of                                137

  Sodium, producing, new method of, Castner's        129

  Steel rail capacity of the United States           132

  Stump puller, improved*                            132

  Sugar process, new                                 134

  Sun, duration of                                   134

  Thermoscopic balance*                              134

  Torpedo boat armed with pneumatic dynamite guns*   137

  Torpedo, effect of, on an ironclad*                136

  Torpedo experiments at Portsmouth*                 136


No. 582.

For the Week Ending February 26, 1887.

Price 10 cents. For sale by all newsdealers.

  I. AERONAUTICS.--War Balloons.--The establishment of balloon
       corps in the armies of different countries; the French,
       English, Italian, and Russian establishments.--1
       illustration                                               9288

  II. ASTRONOMY.--Astronomical Telescopes; their object glasses
       and reflectors.--By G.D. HISCOX.--The dialyte telescope;
       practical details of the mechanical operations of
       construction, such as lens grinding and shaping; washing
       flour of emery, tests for correction.--23 illustrations    9296

     Fleurials' Gyroscope Collimator.--An ingenious application of
       the gyroscope to fixing the horizon line in sextant
       observations; an instrument crowned by the French
       Academy.--2 illustrations                                  9291

  III. BIOLOGY.--An Epidemic of _Micrococcus prodigiosus_.--By M.
       GRIMBERT.--Interesting case of bacterial poisoning, with
       details of the detection of the bacteria                   9301

     The Morphological Conditions of Heredity.--An exposition of
       Professor A. Weissman's theory of the "perpetuity of germ
       plasma;" a theory opposed to the doctrine of evolution     9295

     The Third Eye of Reptiles.--The last conclusions on the pineal
       gland in reptiles; curious development in anatomy, the
       possible organ of a sixth sense.--1 illustration           9300

  IV. CHEMISTRY.--Nitrogenous Principles of Vegetable
       Mould.--Note of the conclusions of MM. Berthelot and Andre 9302

     The Lactocrite.--A new method of ascertaining the amount of
       fat in milk.--By H. Faber.--An apparatus for analyzing milk
       employing centrifugal force.--Results obtained.--1
       illustration                                               9292

  V. ELECTRICITY.--Electric Welding.--The new art in metallurgy
       described by Prof. ELIHU THOMSON; full details of the
       process, apparatus, and current required.--2 illustrations 9293

     The Electric Waltzers.--An ingenious electric toy.--1
       illustration                                               9293

  VI. ENGINEERING.--Sustaining Walls. Arched sustaining walls
       and arched buttresses; elaborate study of French
       practice.--11 illustrations                                9288

  VII. METEOROLOGY.--Popular Errors in Meteorology. Popular
       fallacies; the habits of animals, the Rocky Mountain locust;
       the equinoctial storm                                      9299

  VIII. MISCELLANEOUS.--Beethoven's Portrait. An authentic
       portrait of the great musician.--1 illustration            9301

     Dwarfs and Giants.--Relative sizes of men; the Austrian giant,
       Francis Winckelmeler, 8½ feet high.--1 illustration        9302

     The Sinaloa Colony.--The Topolobampo settlement; its origin,
       progress, principles and prospects                         9301

  IX. NAVAL ENGINEERING.--Torpedo Boat Catchers. A review of
       recent constructions of fast light armored vessels for
       combating torpedo boats                                    9290

  X. ORDNANCE.--The Use of Machine Guns in the Field in Combination
       with Infantry.--Abstract of a recent paper on this subject by
       Major A. D. ANDERSON, R.H.A.--The advantages and uses of the
       weapon discussed.--Advocacy of their introduction          9288

  XI. PHOTOGRAPHY.--Orthochromatic Photography. By J. B. B.
       WELLINGTON.--Formulæ and practical directions for
       orthochromatic work.--The use of silver carbonate and
       erythrosin together                                        9293

  XII. PHYSICS.--A New Gas Thermo-Regulator.--A simple and
       efficient apparatus for regulating heat in air baths,
       etc.--1 illustration                                       9292

     A New Thermometer.--The principle of the Bourdon safety
       gauge applied to thermometry.--Fermis' new thermometer.--1
       illustration                                               9291

     Phosphorescence of Alumina.--By EDMOND BECQUEREL.--The
       effects of impurities on phosphorescence discussed         9294

     Separation of Nickel by the Magnet.--By THOMAS T. P.
       BRUCE-WARREN.--The effect of copper on nickel in modifying
       its susceptibility to magnetic attraction.--Practical
       deductions as to nickel crucibles and gauze                9294

     The Capillarity and Density of Liquids.--A simple experiment
       in physics without apparatus.--1 illustration              9294

  XIII. SANITATION AND HYGIENE.--A Floating Hospital.--A new
     structure recently erected at Newcastle-on-Tyne.--2
     illustrations                                                9295

  XIV. TECHNOLOGY.--Employment of Acetic or Formic Acid in
       Bleaching.--Ingenious use of a small quantity of organic
       acids to decompose indefinite amounts of bleaching
       powder.--The invention of Dr. Lunge, of Zurich             9290

     Sulphurous Acid in the Chemical Industries.--Its use in
       the phosphate and tartaric acid industries                 9294

     Tea Withering Apparatus.--A portable blowing apparatus for
       drying tea.--Use of chloride of calcium to absorb moisture
       therein.--1 illustration                                   9291


An amendment of the patent law relating to design patents has lately
passed both houses of Congress and received the approval of the
President. The object of the amendment is to correct a defect in the
law, which prevented the patentee from collecting damages in cases of

Under the old law, the Supreme Court held that in the case, for
example, of a carpet manufacturer who complained of an infringement
of his design or pattern of carpet, the complainant must clearly
prove what portion of the damage, or what portion of the profit made
by the infringer, was due to the use of the patented design. It was
practically impossible to make this showing. Hence the infringer could
imitate the patented design without liability, and the law was a

Under the provisions of the new law, the infringer is obliged to
pay the sum of $250 in any event; and if his profits are more than
that sum, he is compelled, in addition, to pay all excess of profits
above $250 to the patentee. It is believed that the penalty of $250,
irrespective of profits, will put a stop to the wholesale system of
infringement heretofore carried on by unscrupulous persons.

The following is the text of the new law:

An act to amend the law relating to patents, trade marks, and copyright.

_Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled_, That hereafter, during the
term of letters patent for a design, it shall be unlawful for any
person other than the owner of said letters patent, without the license
of such owner, to apply the design secured by such letters patent, or
any colorable imitation thereof, to any article of manufacture for
the purpose of sale, or to sell or expose for sale any article of
manufacture to which such design or colorable imitation shall, without
the license of the owner, have been applied, knowing that the same
has been so applied. Any person violating the provisions, or either
of them, of this section shall be liable in the amount of two hundred
and fifty dollars; and in case the total profit made by him from the
manufacture or sale, as aforesaid, of the article or articles to which
the design, or colorable imitation thereof, has been applied, exceeds
the sum of two hundred and fifty dollars, he shall be further liable
for the excess of such profit over and above the sum of two hundred and
fifty dollars; and the full amount of such liability may be recovered
by the owner of the letters patent, to his own use, in any circuit
court of the United States having jurisdiction of the parties, either
by action at law or upon a bill in equity for an injunction to restrain
such infringement.

SEC. 2. That nothing in this act contained shall prevent,
lessen, impeach, or avoid any remedy at law or in equity which any
owner of letters patent for a design, aggrieved by the infringement
of the same, might have had if this act had not been passed; but such
owner shall not twice recover the profit made from the infringement.

Approved, February 4, 1887.


Admiral Porter said recently that there was little hope of building
fast war ships as long as the Bureau of Steam Engineering designed the
engines, for that, such was the influence of interested persons, it
was not free to choose the best devices. Whoever is familiar with the
workings of the Ordnance Bureau will admit that this, too, is similarly
controlled. Long ago it pronounced in favor of steel guns, and like
a judge who records his decision and then asks to hear the evidence,
this bureau has been listening unmoved to the most convincing testimony
regarding the relative efficiency of cast iron guns.

The importance of this question of steel _vs_. cast iron guns will be
appreciated when it is explained that it would take at least five years
after the passage of an appropriation before the first steel gun could
be turned out, while only a twelvemonth would be required to establish
a cast iron gun plant.

It has never been the custom among American mechanicians to blindly
follow the lead of others, but rather to work untrammeled by
traditions; to carefully note what has already been done, and to strike
out anew in whatever direction gives the most promise. Experienced gun
makers and artillerists have recently admitted that the steel rifle
has not fulfilled the promises made for it. The Krupp guns, of which
we hear so much, have never yet been subjected to such high pressures
as have been applied to cast iron guns, and experience has shown it
would not be safe to put them through such tests. Indeed, the cast-iron
smooth bore guns which have been converted into rifles by the insertion
of wrought iron rifled cylinders have been fired under a pressure fully
three times as great as it has been thought advisable to subject steel
guns of the same caliber to. An authority says: "Cast iron guns have
often been fired hundreds of rounds under pressure of nearly seventeen
tons to the square inch of bore, yet there has never been a failure,
nor a sign of one. The United States has now a 12½ in. cast iron rifle
constructed on the same plan as the 8 in. converted rifle. This gun was
made ten years ago, as an experiment. It has been fired with charges as
high as two hundred pounds of hexagonal or quick powder (as compared
with powder now considered suitable), and is still serviceable. The
United States has another experimental 12 in. rifle, entirely of cast
iron. It has been fired more than a hundred rounds with high power
charges (265 pounds powder, 800 pound shot), and is still serviceable."

Curiously enough, the experiments with these guns ceased at the very
time when there was the most reason for continuing them, to wit, while
they were giving evidence of their ability to stand a long series
of continuous rounds. The mode of testing a high pressure gun, upon
which all authorities agree, is to fire it, round after round, until
it bursts or shows weakness. There is authority for the statement
that there is not a 12 inch steel gun in Europe which has been fired
two hundred rounds, and yet, just as soon as these cast iron guns
gave promise of withstanding successfully such a test, a peremptory
order came from the Ordnance Bureau to cease firing and stop further

The failure of steel guns in Europe is frequent, though there is good
reason for the belief that we only hear of a tithe of them, the balance
being kept secret. Only the other day a big steel gun exploded at
the muzzle, on the French trial grounds, and news comes that both in
the war ships Collingwood and Ajax a number of steel guns have been

Because of these facts it is not at all surprising that the majority
in the House of Representatives, though willing to appropriate money
for guns, are averse to having the outlay controlled by the Ordnance
Bureau, which is wedded to the steel gun theory and others not much
better sustained.


A number of cases of confirmed cocaine habit have recently been
reported. While some of them lack confirmation, it is certain that
several physical and mental wrecks have been caused by the excessive
use of this alkaloid. The South American Indians, long famous as coca
eaters, seem as a rule not to succumb to its effects. They use the
dried leaf, which they chew, previously introducing a small amount of
alkali, to set the cocaine free. In civilized countries the alkaloid
as a chloride is usually employed, and is administered by hypodermic

The practice of using it habitually in excess is hitherto reported as
almost confined to physicians. Its effects upon its victims are very
sad. The brain becomes permanently or for a period affected, a species
of lunacy being produced. Just as in the case of opium eaters, the
moral nature is undermined. One doctor was reported, so recently as to
be within the memory of our readers, as having turned on the gas in
a drug store where the alkaloid was refused him, with the design of
asphyxiating the clerk, in which attempt he nearly succeeded. Another
doctor, within a space of some sixteen months, has gone insane from the
cocaine habit and has been removed to an asylum, leaving his wife also
ill from the effects of the same drug, with which he had experimented
on her.

If the cases continue to multiply, there may be room for questioning
the utility to man of the discovery of this anæsthetic. It is doubtful
if all the services in local anæsthesia rendered by it can compensate
for the ill it has already done.

Pyrofuxin--a New Tanning Substance from Coal.

A new extract of coal is being introduced in Germany for industrial
purposes, especially for tanning leather and disinfection generally, to
which the name "pyrofuxin" is given by the discoverer, Professor Paulus
Reinsch, of Erlangen, Bavaria. Unlike the generality of such compounds,
this new material is not a derivative of coal tar, or of any of the
distillates of coal, but is obtained directly from coal itself. Pit or
bituminous coal contains most of it, and is prepared for treatment by
being broken into nuts. The crude pyrofuxin is extracted by repeated
boilings in a solution of caustic soda. The pyrofuxin enters into
solution, and is allowed to stand for a time. It is then poured off,
and a carbonic acid gas is passed through it. The resultant liquor has
a specific gravity of 1.025 to 1.030, and holds from 10 to 15 grammes
of pyrofuxin to the liter. In its purified form the compound is a fine,
non-triturable substance, without taste or smell, non-poisonous, and
in appearance like catechu. Some Russian coals contain 18 per cent
of pyrofuxin. After the extraction of this material the coal remains
combustible. It is described as being one of the most powerful and
effective antiseptics known to science. On this account it is expected
to be most valuable for tanning, as being twenty-eight times quicker in
action than bark, and producing a better result at decreased cost.

It will be soon enough to give credence to this alleged leather tanning
agent when specimens of good leather are produced.

Weight and Power of Modern Guns.--Table of Armstrong Guns.

          |          |         |       Total       |                    |
    Gun.  | Caliber. | Weight. |     Length of     |   Length of Bore.  |
          |          |         |        Gun.       |                    |
          |          |         |                   |                    |
     in.  |    in.   |  tons.  | calibers. |  in.  | calibers. |  in.   |
    4.724 |   4.724  |    2.5  |     24    | 112.7 |     22    | 104.0  |
    4.724 |   4.724  |    2.2  |     35    | 165.3 |     33    | 156.6  |
    6.0   |   6.0    |    4.0  |     28    | 166.4 |     26    | 156.2  |
    6.0   |   6.0    |    4.5  |     32    | 192.0 |     30    | 180.0  |
    6.0   |   6.0    |    5.5  |     37    | 222.0 |     35    | 210.0  |
    7.0   |   7.0    |    7.0  |     28    | 196.0 |     26    | 182.0  |
    7.0   |   7.0    |    8.0  |     32    | 224.0 |     30    | 210.0  |
    7.0   |   7.0    |    9.0  |     37    | 259.0 |     35    | 245.0  |
    8.0   |   8.0    |   11.5  |     28    | 222.5 |     26    | 208.0  |
    8.0   |   8.0    |   12.5  |     32    | 256.0 |     30    | 240.0  |
    8.0   |   8.0    |   14.0  |     37    | 296.0 |     35    | 280.0  |
    9.2   |   9.2    |   19.0  |     28    | 257.6 |     26    | 238.7  |
    9.2   |   9.2    |   21.5  |     32    | 287.3 |     30    | 267.8  |
    9.2   |   9.2    |   24.0  |     37    | 340.4 |     35    | 322.0  |
   10.0   |  10.0    |   25.0  |     28    | 274.0 |     26    | 254.5  |
   10.0   |  10.0    |   27.0  |     32    | 320.0 |     30    | 300.0  |
   10.0   |  10.0    |   30.0  |     37    | 370.0 |     35    | 350.0  |
   12.0   |  12.0    |   43.0  |     28    | 331.0 |     26    | 307.5  |
   12.0   |  12.0    |   46.0  |     32    | 384.0 |     30    | 360.0  |
   12.0   |  12.0    |   51.0  |     37    | 444.0 |     35    | 420.0  |
   16.25  |  16.25   |   93.0  |     28    | 455.0 |     26    | 422.5  |
   16.25  |  16.25   |  110.0  |     32    | 520.0 |     30    | 487.5  |
   16.25  |  16.25   |  127.0  |     37    | 601.3 |     35    | 568.75 |
   17.0   |  17.0    |  100.0  |     28    | 468.0 |     26    | 442.0  |
   17.0   |  17.0    |  116.0  |     32    | 544.0 |     30    | 510.0  |
   17.0   |  17.0    |  137.0  |     37    | 629.0 |     35    | 595.0  |

        Weight.      |            |         |         |              | Thickness of |
                     |            |         | Energy  |   Energy     | Wrought Iron |
  -------+-----------+   Muzzle   |  Total  | per Ton |  per Inch    |Plate the Shot|
         |           |  Velocity. | Energy. | Weight  |  of Shot's   | is Capable of|
  Charge.|Projectile.|            |         | of Gun. |Circumference.| Perforating. |
    lb.  |     lb.   |ft. per sec.|ft. tons.|ft. tons.|  ft. tons.   |      in.     |
      12 |      40   |    1,680   |     783 |  522.0  |      53.1    |      7.0     |
      16 |      40   |    2,078   |   1,198 |  532.4  |      81.3    |      9.1     |
      42 |      80   |    2,060   |   2,354 |  588.5  |     125.7    |     11.6     |
      45 |     100   |    1,940   |   2,610 |  580.0  |     139.4    |     12.2     |
      60 |     100   |    2,146   |   3,193 |  580.5  |     170.5    |     13.5     |
      60 |     120   |    2,050   |   3,497 |  466.3  |     160.2    |     13.0     |
      75 |     145   |    2,020   |   4,075 |  479.4  |     186.6    |     14.1     |
      80 |     145   |    2,140   |   4,604 |  511.5  |     210.9    |     14.9     |
     120 |     180   |    2,177   |   5,915 |  514.3  |     236.9    |     15.8     |
     120 |     200   |    2,157   |   6,452 |  537.6  |     258.4    |     16.5     |
     130 |     210   |    2,236   |   7,280 |  520.0  |     291.5    |     17.5     |
     175 |     320   |    2,060   |   9,412 |  495.3  |     327.5    |     18.5     |
     200 |     380   |    2,035   |  10,923 |  508.0  |     380.1    |     20.0     |
     230 |     380   |    2,375   |  14,800 |  616.6  |     515.0    |     23.2     |
     200 |     450   |    1,910   |  11,383 |  455.3  |     364.2    |     19.5     |
     270 |     470   |    2,185   |  15,560 |  576.3  |     497.9    |     22.8     |
     270 |     500   |    2,213   |  16,979 |  566.0  |     543.3    |     23.8     |
     330 |     700   |    2,087   |  21,141 |  491.6  |     563.1    |     24.2     |
     400 |     800   |    2,117   |  24,861 |  540.4  |     662.2    |     26.2     |
     450 |     850   |    2,205   |  28,665 |  562.0  |     763.6    |     28.1     |
     850 |   1,800   |    2,106   |  55,377 |  595.4  |   1,088.7    |     33.5     |
     900 |   1,800   |    2,216   |  61,200 |  556.4  |   1,203.2    |     35.2     |
     900 |   1,800   |    2,295   |  65,745 |  517.6  |   1,292.6    |     36.5     |
     827 |   2,000   |    1,932   |  51,790 |  517.9  |     973.1    |     31.7     |
   1,000 |   2,000   |    2,190   |  66,512 |  573.3  |   1,249.7    |     35.8     |
   1,000 |   2,000   |    2,255   |  70,520 |  514.7  |   1,325.0    |     37.0     |

Castner's New Method for Producing Sodium.

This new method, heretofore mentioned by us, is now being successfully
worked in London, and is thus described in _Engineering_:

Up to the present this novel method of manufacture has been kept rather
secret, but now, owing to the success achieved by a plant erected and
worked on a commercial scale, we are enabled, through the courtesy
of Mr. H. Y. Castner, to lay before our readers an outline sketch of
the method of operation which is followed, and which we have seen
carried out with success at his works, 65 Belvidere Road, Lambeth. Few
persons outside of the chemical profession are aware of the commercial
existence of the metal sodium or of its uses, and even among those
following that profession but little is known, except that it is
used in the manufacture of aluminum, and is very expensive. Much has
lately been published in various scientific journals throughout the
world upon the subject of alleged new processes, whereby that highly
interesting metal--aluminum--might be cheaply produced without sodium,
and thus be made to take in the commercial world a place to which its
varied valuable properties entitle it. So far nothing has resulted from
these numerous so-called discoveries, and at the present time the only
process in use whereby aluminum can be produced is that devised by and
due to Deville's ingenuity.[1] This process has been called the sodium
process, apparently to distinguish it from others, but seeing that it
is the only process which has ever proved practical, it is somewhat of
a mystery why it needed to be so distinguished.

[1] The Cowles electric smelting process, heretofore described by us,
has only produced aluminum alloys as yet, and it is doubtful whether it
can be made to do more than this.

The late Dr. Walter Weldon, in a paper read before the Society of
Chemical Industry a few years ago, clearly resolved the great question
of cheaply producing aluminum, and showed by argument that this end
was only to be gained in either of the two following directions,
namely, first, by the production of cheap sodium and the employment of
Deville's process, and second, by the discovery of a substitute for
sodium, which has hitherto given to aluminum its excessive cost in
production. After twenty-five years of research by some of the best
scientists of the present age, no substance has been found that will
replace sodium, and although every known substance has, at various
times, been proposed, none has been successful. So discouraging has
been the research, that those familiar with the subject have almost
abandoned hope of ever seeing aluminum cheaply manufactured by chemical
processes, believing also that Weldon's first proposition was an

It is not the purpose of this article to enter into a lengthy
discussion of Mr. Castner' process of producing sodium, as Mr. James
Mactear, F.C.S., is about to prepare a scientific paper on the subject,
to be read on March 7 before the Society of Chemical Industry. We
shall content ourselves by presenting to our readers a short practical
description of the process and its results.

Before doing so it will, however, be advantageous to give a short
account of the method by which sodium has hitherto been separated from
its compounds, in order that a clearer conception of the features in
which the new process differs from the old one may be obtained. At
high temperatures carbon has the property of separating sodium from
its oxygen compounds, carbon uniting with the oxygen to form carbonic
oxide, the sodium being thereby liberated. In the usual process this
reaction is brought about by mixing carbonate of soda, lime, and carbon
in small wrought iron cylinders, and exposing them to an intense heat,
when a part of the sodium comes off as vapor. The lime is added to
prevent fusion, for were the mass to melt, the carbon would float on
the top, and could no longer attack the soda. The new process differs
from the old principally in working with a fused mass of soda compound,
this operation having been rendered feasible by the most ingenious
device of weighting every particle of carbon with iron, so that the
two chemicals--soda and carbon--are kept in perfect admixture, and
are continually presenting fresh surfaces to each other as the liquid
circulates in the crucible under the action of the heat. By this simple
but beautiful plan of weighting the carbon, it is rendered possible to
employ a soda compound which is decomposed at a much lower temperature
than that hitherto used, and to carry on the process in large and
durable vessels, instead of in small cylinders, which have a very short
life. Having thus given a short account of the chemical process, we
will describe the commercial method of manufacture.

The operations are carried on in large cast steel crucibles, and
the charges consist of caustic soda and a finely ground artificial
compound of carbon and iron, which is the reducing agent. This compound
is made by coking a mixture of fine iron and pitch. The crucibles
containing these materials are first heated in a small furnace at
a low temperature, the object being to expel the hydrogen from the
caustic alkali and bring about quiet fusion. The crucibles are then
removed from this furnace, by means of a little truck, and placed upon
a movable platform, which is operated by hydraulic power. They are
then by this means raised into the large furnace, where the crucible
covers are fixed stationary. The edges of the crucible and cover coming
together form a tight joint, and from this cover projects a small tube
to the outside of the furnace into a narrow rectangular box, known as
the condenser. The reduction of the sodium commences soon after the
crucible containing the charge is in its place, the vapors and gases
passing from the fused mixture through the exit pipe from the cover
into the condenser, where the metallic vapors are condensed to metal,
while the uncondensed gases escape by a small outlet tube. After the
charge is exhausted, the crucible is lowered, and one containing a
fresh charge raised in its place; in this manner the process might
almost be called continuous.

The actual temperature used in this process to bring about reduction,
as measured by experts, has been found to be 850° Cent. By the older
method the temperature necessary is about 1,400° Cent. This is
practically the great point of economy in this process, as the high
price of sodium has hitherto been owing to the excessive heat used in
the older process and the consequent destruction of the wrought iron
vessels. Sodium at present costs about four shillings per pound to
produce, while the materials necessary for this quantity, were nothing
wasted, would hardly cost four pence. The difference between these two
figures represents the wear and tear to the furnace, the destruction
of the wrought iron cylinders, the loss and waste of materials, the
excessive labor and care necessary to employ in manufacturing, and
fuel. Approximately, the cost of these items in producing one pound of
sodium by the older process is as follows:

Two shillings is due to the destruction of wrought iron, etc.

One shilling is due to the loss and waste of materials, of which three
times the theoretical quantity must be employed.

Eightpence is due to the labor.

Fourpence is due to the fuel.

Mr. Castner seems justified in his claim to produce sodium at a
shilling per pound in large quantities. The steel crucibles which have
now been in use some time show but little wear, and indicate indefinite
use in future, thus reducing the first item of cost in the older
process to a fraction. There is hardly any appreciable loss or waste
of materials, and from four pennyworth of caustic soda is ultimately
obtained one pound of sodium. The labor is a very small item of
expense, and the fuel consumed is less than one-third that used in the
older process.

Seventy-five tons of fuel are required by the older method in producing
one ton of sodium. From actual results a like amount of fuel will
produce over three tons of sodium by Mr. Castner's process. The results
from this new process are not obtained by calculations on paper, as
the inventor has shown from actual working that his claims are well
founded. The process is no longer an experimental one, the furnace
now erected having a capacity of 120 pounds of sodium per day, which
is probably more than is produced at any works now in existence. The
production of sodium at one shilling a pound by this process may be
considered an accomplished fact, which ultimately means cheapened
aluminum and a solution of the problem that has so long engaged the
attention of chemists and metallurgists.

Preventive Medicine.

Dr. C. R. Illingworth thus writes in the _Med. Press:_

One of our great aims as physicians is to prevent disease; another is
to cut short its course when developed. Our power in these directions
finds full scope among that class of disorders now generally recognized
as depending upon the reception, growth, and development in the tissues
of micro-organic life in one shape or another. By the continual
suppression of the growth and development of these forms of cell life,
we may, indeed, hope at length to erase the names of the diseases they
cause from the category of those "ills that flesh is heir to." The
diseases I refer to are scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, whooping
cough, rheumatic fever, chicken-pox, small-pox, syphilis, hydrophobia,
yellow fever, _et hoc genus omne._

The germicide remedy I have found to answer as a specific and
prophylactic in such diseases is the biniodide of mercury given in
solution of potassic iodide. In all cases of scarlatina or measles
occurring in one member of a family, I put the rest upon preventive
medicine. Thus, for children I prescribe as follows: Bichloride of
mercury solution, ℥ iss; iodide of potassium, ʒ j; ammonio-citrate of
iron, ʒ j; sirup, ℥ iss; water to eight ounces. One or two teaspoonfuls
to be given three times a day.

The Peace Army of the United States.

The following figures are believed to be approximately accurate, and
most interesting and instructive they are:

  French army, peace footing.                      523,283
  German army, peace footing.                      445,417
  United States army of pensioners, peace footing. 400,000

One of the great evils of a huge standing army is the cost of its
support--a constant drain upon the national resources.

It does not seem that in this respect we have so very much the
advantage of France or Germany, loaded down as those nations are with
military burdens.

The great difference is that, while all or nearly all of the French and
German soldiers, supported at the national expense, are available in
case of a national emergency, few or none of ours are.

Is this enormous burden a just debt?

The question is best answered by another question. Is it not fair to
assume that in 1877, twelve years after the end of the civil war, about
all the equitable claims for pensions on account of that war had been
put in and allowed?

Yet since 1877, the number of pensioners on our rolls has almost
doubled; and the annual cost of maintaining them has nearly
trebled.--_N. Y. Sun._

A Solid Life Insurance Company.

The figures of the last annual report of the New York Life Insurance
Company, just issued, present a record of almost unexampled success in
the conduct of the business of that old and strong company for the past
year. Its income for the year was $19,230,408, it paid policy holders
$7,627,230, and it has cash assets amounting to $75,421,453. It goes
without the saying that this great company does its insurance business
on strictly business principles. It recognizes the policy holder's
right to paid-up insurance in case of a discontinuance of payment of
premiums, and its policies are notably free from restrictions as to
occupation, residence, and travel. The company issues a great variety
of policies, thus adapting its contracts to the wants of almost every
one having present means from which a small percentage can be spared
for the benefit of themselves or those dependent upon them at a future

DR. GILES DE LA TOURETTE has recently published a monograph
upon normal locomotion and the variations in the gait caused by
diseases of the nervous system. He found, from a comparison of a large
number of cases, that the average length of pace is, for men, 25
inches; for women, 20 inches. The step with the right foot is somewhat
longer than that with the left. The feet are separated laterally in
walking about 4½ inches in men and about 5 inches in women.


In the illustration herewith, the operation of gumming saws with an
emery wheel is vividly represented, the frame affording sufficient
support for the side of the saw where the teeth are being ground, and
the arrangement being a simple one, readily made at any work bench or
machine where a shaft is run upon which an emery wheel can be placed.
The operation itself involves only the simplest mechanical knowledge
and but a rudimentary experience in the handling of tools, yet the
desirability of this method of sharpening saws is largely dependent
upon the kind of emery wheel used and the rate of speed at which it is


The vulcanite emery wheels made by the New York Belting and Packing
Company have especial advantages for this kind of work. They are strong
and safe at the highest speed at which it is desirable to run them, the
company recommending that they never be run at a less rate than 6,000
feet per minute circumferential speed, and from that up to 8,000 and
10,000 feet per minute, although the lowest named speed is rather above
the ordinary limit of many other kinds of emery wheels, and attempts to
run other wheels at or beyond this limit have frequently resulted in
serious accidents, from the breaking of the wheels. The higher rate of
speed, which not only cuts faster, but, in the case of the vulcanite
emery wheel, prolongs the life of the wheel, is concededly safe with
the vulcanite wheel. Thus run, it is not likely to wear out of true,
the operator does not have to bear on so hard, and the wheel retains
its shape much better than when run at a slow speed. The nature of the
wear of the working surface in the vulcanite wheel is claimed to be
essentially different from that in wheels where the emery is fixed in
its place by other methods, the rubber affording an elastic foundation
or cushion, from which the particles of emery slightly protrude. This
not only insures more efficient work from the cutting edges of the
emery, as they become changed by use, but allows of more access of air
to the work, thus tending to prevent casehardening of the edges of the
metal being ground.

In addition to wheels with bevel shaped grinding surfaces, as
represented in the engraving, the company also make wheels with round
grinding surfaces, and this kind is always considered best for large


In technical terms this is a living species of cladodont shark, named
by Mr. Garman _Chlamydoselachus anguineus._

The specimen here figured was found in a miscellaneous collection
of fishes, etc., in alcohol, furnished the Museum of Comparative
Zoology by Professor H. A. Ward, who purchased them in Japan. It
was soon recognized as not only belonging to a new family, but one
closely allied to certain forms supposed to have become extinct in
the Carboniferous time. This discovery displaces _Ceratodus_ from the
position of the oldest living type of the vertebrata.

The term Chlamydoselachus is applied on account of the curious
frill-like mantle that surmounts the first gill cover. The term is made
up of two Greek words implying mantle and shark. Six gill openings,
and certain structure of the brain, remove this form from the present
known sharks. Its affinity to some of the earliest known sharks, those
of the middle Devonian, render it of great interest and importance to
science. The family characters which this form represents, under the
term _Chlamydoselachidæ_, are: Body elongate, with a depressed head.
The eyes are lateral, with no nictitating membrane. The nasal cavity is
separate from that of the mouth. The mouth is situated anteriorly, like
that of some fishes. The teeth have broad, backward extended bases and
slender cusps. The spiracles are present. One dorsal fin, spineless,
is present. There is also an anal fin, and a caudal with no pit at its
root. The first gill cover is free across the isthmus. The intestine
has a spiral valve.

The generic characters are: Six gill openings, opercular flap, first
gill cover, broad. Teeth similar in both jaws; each with three slender,
curved, subconical cusps, separated by a pair of rudimentary denticles
or a broad base. There is no median upper series of teeth in front, but
there is a series below, on the symphysis. The mouth is wide, and has
no labial folds at the angles. The pupil is horizontally elongate; the
fins are broad, the caudal without a notch.

The total length of this shark is nearly five feet. Its greatest width,
across the ventrals, is seven inches. Its resemblance to a snake is
very striking. Its elongated body, long, flattened head, anterior
mouth, and sinister expression of the eyes are quite suggestive of the
ophidians. There are fifty-one rows of teeth, and six teeth in each
row; the whole number at one time in function is 306. The brain is very

The present state of icthyological science recognizes eliminations
that have been made from its main body. Comprehensively, a fish is a
cold-blooded vertebrate, adapted for life in the water, breathing by
means of gills, having the limbs, if present, in the form of fins, the
smaller members being represented by cartilaginous rays connected by
membrane. One or more fins are developed on the median line of the body.

The lancelets, myzonts, myxinoids, hag fishes, lampreys, sharks, and
rays are recognized as differing sufficiently from the true fishes to
entitle them to places of class distinction.


The true fishes form one class; the elasmobranchs, sharks, and rays,
another class; the marsipobranchs, myxinoid fishes, hag fishes, and
lampreys, a class; and the lancelets and cirrostomes, a class. It will
be seen, then, that technically there are four classes of fish-like
vertebrates, where but one--fishes--has heretofore been recognized.
The lancelets, as is well known, are the lowest in the scale,
their structure being extremely simple. The skull in this class is
undeveloped, the brain not distinctly differentiated, nor is there any

The term Leptocardii, which designates this class, means thin heart, in
reference to the simplicity of this portion of the arterial system.

At first sight of the mouth of the frilled shark, which is figured
here, the teeth have a singular and wholly unnatural appearance,
appearing like indented, leaf-like organs; but it is seen that there
are three fangs, serpent-like, on a base, and several rows of them give
the peculiar appearance, arranged as they are consecutively from before

The Port Jackson sharks, of the family _Heterodontidæ_, have long been
regarded as of great interest to paleontologists, from their being
closely related to some extinct sharks. Under the term Cestracion (now
_Gyropleurodus_), these sharks are known to naturalists. A species, _G.
francisci_, is now found off the coast of California.

_Cestracion phillipi_ is found in the Australian seas. The term
cestracion is from the Greek _kestra_, a weapon. Many of the extinct
species are known by the preservation of this spine, which being of
more durable structure is preserved after all other traces of the
creature have passed away.


The mouth of the frilled shark, as seen in our engraving, is peculiar
appearing for a shark, as this important part is usually situated far
beneath. In this respect, the anterior aspect of the mouth, there is
resemblance to that of the great rhinodon, the largest living fish,
measuring 70 feet in length. The general appearance of this shark
is, however, extremely different from that of the frilled shark. The
rhinodon is immensely bulky, the head being quite as deep and wide as
any other portion. A very interesting structure, and one little known,
belonging to the latter is a set of whalebone-like fringes along the
gills, arranged comb-like. These frills have much the same functions
of those in the whalebone or right whales. The food of the creature
is mostly of sea jellies and other soft pelagic animals, which are
strained into the throat by means of this adaptation. The great basking
shark has this structure. This shark has been taken off Block Island
measuring, according to authority, nearly seventy feet. It is the
_Cetorhinus_, or bone shark, also so called. Large as these creatures
are, they are harmless, most fortunately, their teeth being very small.
Their food being of gelatinous animal matter, the masticating apparatus
is not required to be of any considerable size or strength. The more
harmful sharks are of moderate dimensions, in which the teeth are very
large. In the largest species of "maneater" shark living, the teeth
are about two inches in length. Some of the great carcharodon-like
fossil sharks have teeth measuring five inches and a half in length.
One in my possession has that measurement. Judging from the size of
the shark, which has a tooth two inches in length, the extinct species
here indicated must have been much over one hundred feet in length.
Such enormous size can more readily be accommodated in the vast ocean
than that of the great land beasts on their appropriate element. I am
indebted to papers on this subject by Mr. Garman, of Cambridge, Mass.,
for material of this account. J. B. H.

IMMEDIATELY after eating, a person weighs more than before it.


The bench is composed of side pieces, legs, end pieces, and a central
cross brace. At one end it is provided with stationary top pieces
having curved inner edges, as shown in the upper view, which are
covered with a thin strip of angle iron extending up flush with the
top and bent to conform with the curved edge. To the upper ends of the
legs are hinged supports adapted to extend upward to form continuations
of the legs, to engage with and hold an ironing board in a horizontal
position. A tongue formed upon the free end of each support enters a
socket box fitted in a recess formed in the board, so that the hinged
lids of the boxes are flush with the bench surface of the board. When
the board is in position to be ironed upon, the hinged lids rest
against the sides of the supports, an opening in the lids receiving
pins projecting from the sides of the supports. The lids are held in
this position by suitably arranged buttons. By this means the ironing
board is securely fixed in its elevated position. The rigidity of each
support is promoted by another button attached to its inner side, and
which enters a slot in the top edge of the side piece. To convert the
ironing board into a bench, the board is lifted up and the supports
closed down within the bench, as shown in the lower view. The wraps
used upon the board are then placed neatly over the supports. The board
itself is then turned over and its narrow end slid under the projection
of the angle iron to a bearing upon the upper edges of the bench
frame. The board now forms a smooth top for the bench. The under side
of the ironing board, when forming a seat, is recessed near each side
of its square end. Each recess is covered by a metal plate having a
diamond-shaped opening to receive the elongated head of a bolt secured
to the inner face of the bench side pieces. The square end of the board
is thus held to the bench, the narrow end being held by the angle irons.


This invention has been patented by Mr. Daniel H. Weller, of Boyertown,



By means of the simple attachment here shown, the blind may be securely
held in any desired position. Secured to the lower cross bar is a
metal plate, bent at right angles to form flanges, the projecting one
of which is finely corrugated. The plate is held to the bar by screws
passing through the other flange. Across the face of the outer flange
is secured a spring retaining strip, which bears against the corrugated
face and which carries a set screw. To the end of the slat bar is
secured a corrugated strip, which is passed between the flange and its
strip, the corrugated faces resting against each other, as shown in the
right hand view.

This device will hold the slats in any required position, but when the
slat bar is subjected to a positive pull, the strip will slip upon the
face of the flange, against which it will be held by the action of the
spring strip. By means of the set screw, the parts may be so locked
together as to prevent the turning of the slats from the outside.

This invention has been patented by Mrs. Lizzie T. Gulick, of
Corsicana, Texas.

The British Armament at Victoria.

Some mistake appears to have been made in the recent announcement that
the British Government are sending out a number of eighty ton guns
for the coast defense of Esquimault and Victoria. Twelve sixty-four
pounders have been sent out from England, not for the armaments of the
forts, but to be placed on board the British ships of war belonging to
the Pacific squadron or to go into the naval reserves. Some time ago
the British Minister of War made application to the Canadian Pacific
Railway to know if they could transport one or more eighty ton guns
over their road. An estimate of the cost was given, with the model of
a car composed of three trucks, which it was proposed to use if the
shipment was made. Since then nothing has been heard of the eighty ton
guns. The officer in command of the British Columbia district does not
speak very creditably of the condition of the armament at that point.
The artillery armament is described as old, the carriages and limbers
are reported rotten and are falling to pieces, while the guns are
without sights. The batteries at Victoria and Esquimault, the officers
say, are in a discreditable condition.--_N. Y. Evening Post_.



The crimper herewith illustrated has a yoke-shaped stationary portion,
the jaws of which are formed with transverse corrugations. The top
of this yoke has a longitudinal slot, in which are pivoted the upper
reduced ends of movable inner jaws, whose operative faces have
transverse corrugations, arranged to always meet and fit within the
corresponding corrugations of the outer jaws. These inner jaws are
normally held open by a spring. The operating or crimping screw slides
freely through the slot in the yoke, extending between the inner jaws,
and on its lower portion fits a wedge-shaped clamping block, which is
drawn up between the inner jaws by turning the operating screw. The
outer end of this screw being placed in an aperture in the heel of the
last, or in other suitable position relative to a form over which the
leather is to be crimped, and the edges of the leather placed between
the jaws, the leather may be strained about its forming block as
desired by simply rotating the screw.

This invention has been patented by Mr. Elery B. La Follette, of
Flemington, West Va.


The object of this invention, which has been patented by Mr. Geo.
W. Jaques, of Burton, O., is to provide a plasterer's hawk in which
the board on which the mortar is received, and which is subjected to
expansion and contraction due to alternate moistening and drying, may
be rendered light and rigid and, at the same time, be free to expand
and contract without warping or cracking. In the center of the board
is secured a bolt, upon which is received a handle having a nut in its
outer end fitting the end of the bolt. A circular concave plate is
placed on the bolt, between the handle and board, with its concave side
toward the board. Between the plate and board is held an elastic rubber
washer, which is compressed by screwing the handle down.

The plate has a plane edge, which is secured to the board by screws,
and in the edge are four notches for receiving the ends of wire frames
that extend a short distance under the plate, by which they are clamped
to the board. Each frame consists of a wire, bent to the shape shown
in the upper view in the engraving. Through the end loops are passed
screws, projecting from the board, and the center of each frame is
secured to the board by a clip, the clips and bolt being arranged in a
line parallel with the grain of the wood. The frames support the edges
of the board, and the loops permit of the lateral movement of their
screws and the portions of the board by which they are carried. This
hawk weighs, even when thoroughly soaked, only one pound and a half,
the old style weighing from three to five pounds.



By means of this device wood may be measured by the cord or fractional
parts of a cord, as occasion may require. The sill frame consists of
two longitudinally ranging timbers connected by cross bars. Near one
end of the timbers are fixed uprights, braced to each other and to
the timbers. To the inner faces of the sills are screwed a series of
headed pins, the first one being exactly one foot from the inner face
of the end posts, and the others being spaced one foot apart. Two
posts, braced together by rods, are adapted to stand on the sills, and
to the inside face of each post is attached, by coach screws, a metal
plate provided with a hook at its lower end, adapted to engage with
the shank of one of the headed screw pins of the sills. Attached to
each post is a brace with two arms, and formed at its lower end with a
notch to engage the pins on the sills. The metal plates and braces are
slotted for the passage of the screws, so that the movable frame may be
quickly and easily set perfectly plumb, whichever opposite pair of the
sill pins may be engaged by the hooked plates. The posts are exactly
four feet high, and one is marked by cross lines one foot apart. It is
apparent that, to measure a cord, the frame is moved to the eighth set
of pins and the wood is piled to the tops of the posts. To measure half
a cord, the hooks are engaged with the fourth pins. By adjusting the
hooks to the first pair of pins, and filling the wood in between the
end posts up to the first cross line on the post, a single foot of wood
can be measured, or up to the second line for two feet, and so on. Thus
a cord or any fractional part can be readily measured. To disengage the
frame, it is only necessary to tilt it forward toward the fixed posts,
when it may be shifted to any point along the sill frame.


This invention has been patented by Mr. Horace L. Broughton, whose
address is P. O. box 320, Marblehead, Mass.

Steel Rail Capacity of the United States.

  Name.                                              Capacity
                                                     in Tons.
  Springfield Iron Company                            12,000
  Indianapolis Rolling Mill Company                   75,000
  Joliet Steel Company                               200,000
  Lackawanna Coal and Iron Company                   216,000
  Troy Steel and Iron Company                        120,000
  Montour Iron and Steel Company                      90,000
  California Mills                                    50,000
  Lochiel Iron and Steel Works                        65,000
  Cleveland Rolling Mill Company                     200,000
  Roane Iron Company                                  50,000
  Union Steel Works, Chicago                         168,000
  Colorado Coal and Iron Company                     125,000
  Cambria Works                                      100,000
  Western Steel Company                              132,000
  South Chicago Plant                                250,000
  Bay View Plant                                      50,000
  North Chicago Plant                                200,000
  Carnegie, Phipps & Co.                             125,000
  Union Iron Mills, Pittsburg                         50,000
  Edgar Thomson Plant                                450,000
  Cranston Steel Company                             175,000
  Pennsylvania Steel Company                         300,000
  Bethlehem Iron Company                             250,000
  Worcester Steel Works                               50,000
  Total apparent rail capacity                     3,671,000


At last a mechanical combination and device has been produced, and a
man's labor and study crowned with success, in the production, for the
convenience of engineers, of a simple and compact device known as the
Penberthy injector or boiler feeder.

Its mechanical construction is very simple, but perfect. All its parts
are movable and convenient of access (not being screwed in), its
working so complete that an inexperienced person can operate it with
success and perfectness. Its adaptability to all classes of boilers,
such as stationary, portable, traction, marine, and locomotive, and
its working on each, makes it very desirable, and recommends it to all
classes of engineers. The automatic working of this injector is of very
great advantage, as by this mechanical construction it works under all
conditions of shakes, jars, and concussions. In case of a break, or
the suction is to be removed and then returned, it picks up or begins
working without any aid, assistance, or attention from the engineer,
thereby relieving of much care and annoyance. Its convenience of access
is of very great consideration and importance, owing to the advantage
of cleaning and examining its interior parts.

The working parts of this injector are stationary in their work,
thereby causing comparatively no wear in its mechanical parts. The
inventor seems to have combined common sense with mechanical science,
by leaving out all complications, and combining in the injector every
convenience of operating, getting at, and putting it on the boiler.

The body is of a single cylinder or barrel, with two jets inside,
"steam and combining," and governed by an automatic swinging overflow.
The injector is operated by the opening or closing of the globe
valves. It is connected to the boiler and pipes with uniform and
interchangeable square centered unions, and can be put on or taken
off very quickly without any annoyance or injury, and the only tool
required being an ordinary wrench.

Another great point gained in this injector is its great range of
working capacity. It will lift water twenty-five feet perpendicular,
or take it a hydraulic pressure and force it into the boiler at a
temperature of from 140° to 180° Fah. It will work under a steam
pressure of from 20 to 140 lb. It will also lift and force water
at a very warm temperature (say 120° Fah.) in tank or well, and
under all circumstances and at all points it works automatically.
The inventor and manufacturers of the Penberthy injector have great
confidence in its working qualities, and to satisfy engineers of its
merits and perfectness of work, solicit a trial. From observation, a
brilliant future is in store for this little wonder of simplicity and
compactness, which is a model of mechanism in appearance and finish.


For prices, etc., address Jenkins Bros., 71 John St., New York, 13
So. 4th St. Philadelphia, and 105 Milk St., Boston, agents for this


This simple and readily adjustable protector may be quickly applied
to and removed from a hat or bonnet, without injuring its delicate
trimmings, and may be adjusted to fit large or small hats. The main
portion of the protector, which alone will be used to cover hats of
small or medium size, consists of a piece of some light waterproof
fabric strengthened about the margin with an inside facing. At the
inner face of the body are secured a couple of narrow strips of
suitable fabric (Fig. 2), forming casings for drawing strings. At the
opposite edges of the facing are attached small rings, through either
series of which a drawing string may be passed.

The extension piece (Fig. 1) of the protector consists of an endless
band of waterproof fabric, like that of the body, provided at its
edges with bindings, to which rings for drawing strings are secured.
The protector can readily be adjusted and held upon a small or medium
sized hat by properly manipulating the drawing strings. To adapt the
protector to a large hat, the extension piece is united to the main
piece by a string passed through the inner series of rings on the
facing and through one of the series of rings on the extension piece. A
string is then passed through the other rings of the extension piece,
when the protector can be held to the hat by adjusting the drawing
strings. It is evident that this protector may be applied over a hat
without danger of crushing the most delicate trimmings.


This invention has been patented by Mrs. W. H. Hopkirk, of Agency, Iowa.


The stump puller shown in the accompanying engraving (page 130) is
exceedingly powerful, as, by a system of compound levers, a pull of
one pound on the operating bar will exert a pull of 384 pounds on the
stump, and if the lifting chain be passed around a single pulley, this
power is doubled. With one of these machines one man has pulled a green
maple stump two feet in diameter from clay soil. The pulling mechanism
is supported by a tripod, to the upper end of which is secured a chain
carrying a bar or plate provided with a bearing in which slides a
notched bar. Meshing with the notches of this bar are the teeth of a
pawl, which is so connected, by levers, with the operating handle that
the downward movement of the latter will raise the pawl and notched bar
and the chain attached to its lower end. A sliding bolt then holds the
notched bar in its raised position, when the handle can be raised to
enable the pawl to engage with the next lower teeth of the bar. Thus,
by a succession of up and down movements of the handle, the notched
bar may be elevated its entire length, or until the stump is pulled
completely out. It will be seen that the sliding bolt permits of the
upward, but prevents the downward, movement of the notched bar when the
pawl is disengaged and slides downward. But, by means of a suitably
arranged hand lever, the pawl may be moved so as to be out of contact
with the bar, and, at the same time, the bolt, which is pressed forward
by a spring, may be moved to disengage it from the notch in the bar,
which may then be adjusted in any desired position. The machine is
built of steel and malleable iron.

This invention has been patented by Messrs. R. R. Tichenor and P.
Walker, of Henning, Minn.

The Defense of New York within Thirty Days' Time.

The idea seems to prevail that the United States is absolutely helpless
against a naval attack from England. I think this idea is entirely
erroneous. There is the pneumatic gun, capable now of throwing 300 lb.
of nitro-glycerine, which amount could easily be increased to 1,000
lb. For the value of one modern ironclad, 150 steamers with such a gun
could be put in service in two weeks by the United States, because
any steamer of 100 feet or over would answer; while the gun, being a
mere tube, subjected to but 1,000 lb. of air per square inch, with
air-compressing machinery, is all so available and quickly built that
a month would put the United States into possession of 500 of them.
If, now, 20 such steamers be told off for each ironclad sent against
us, even if two-thirds were sunk, they would, before being entirely
demolished, succeed in depositing 5 to 10 tons of nitro-glycerine on
the deck of the ironclad, and exploding it.

Would not the effect of repeated explosions of 1,000 lb. of
nitro-glycerine blow the deck in, dismount the guns and engine, and
shake the armor loose, as the explosions of the Monitors' guns did when
they were in service in the late war--the heads of bolts and other
fastenings of the armor flying off from the concussion.

Then there is the submarine boat, that has already stayed under
water thirty minutes with its crew, and been easily and correctly
guided. What is in the way of using ten such boats to each ironclad,
one of which would unquestionably succeed in placing 1,000 lb. of
nitro-glycerine under the ironclad, the explosion of which would be
heard from? Because the explosion of 90 lb. of gun-cotton did not
materially damage an ironclad, can it be reasoned that 1,000 lb. of
nitro-glycerine, which would have twenty-five times the force of 90 lb.
of gun-cotton, would be equally ineffective? Hardly, I think.

Nets, etc., would not prevent such boats from diving under them, while
they would only impede the speed and maneuvering of the ironclad, and
render her more easily approached.

Blucher, the German cavalry officer, insisted that it was the
impression and belief existing in Germany that Napoleon was invincible,
and the Germans helpless, that alone prevented them from conquering.
When the occasion came when he could demonstrate this, the Germans and
allies easily defeated and dethroned Napoleon.

It is similarly true in this country, for too many believe that the
English ironclad is invincible, and this impression makes cowards of
too many. Give the nitro-glycerine gun and submarine boat a trial, if
occasion arises, and England's ironclads will succumb as easily as
Napoleon when sufficient power of the right kind was brought to bear on
him. The right kind of power to apply to England is nitro-glycerine and
dynamite, which could be ready with guns and boats in a month or less.
One hundred days sufficed to build the first Monitor many years ago,
and much less time will be needed for dynamite guns.


Electroplating with Platinum.

Platinum has not been much used in electroplating, notwithstanding
its hard, durable, and protective properties. This is, perhaps,
chiefly owing to the practical difficulty of obtaining a good firm
"reguline" deposit. A process for effecting this has, however, been
brought out recently by a Mr. Bright, whose patents have been acquired
by the Bright Platinum Plating Company, and are in actual operation
in London at works established there. Platinum has the advantage of
keeping its color where silver, brass, or copper becomes discolored,
and will, to some extent at least, replace the use of these metals in
electrotyping. It will be highly useful in plating chemists' crucibles
and so on. German silver, for example, plated with platinum can be used
to manipulate strong acids. By the Bright process, platinum can be
deposited on any surface which can be electroplated with other metals.


The invention herewith illustrated relates to a device for cleaning
brushes and combs. It consists of a handle or body of suitable form,
provided at one end with a brush, and at the opposite end with thin
curved fingers of metal, or equivalent elastic material, adapted to
enter between the teeth of the comb or the bristles of the brush. In
making use of the device the hooks are employed to loosen and remove,
as far as possible, the hairs or other foreign matter, after which the
brush is employed to complete the operation. It is intended to afford
a cheap, simple, and efficient means of cleaning articles in daily
use in every household, and is virtually sure, considering the low
cost at which it can be manufactured, to become a staple article of
merchandise. The invention has been patented by Mr. J. O. Brookbank,
of Driftwood, Cameron County, Pa., to whom all particulars relating to
purchase of rights for the United States and Canada should be addressed.



Coincidence of Charleston Earthquake with a Reported Eruption in the
Tonga Group.

_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

I would like to call your attention to a reported coincidence,
described in a letter in the London _Times_ of December last. An
interview with captain and crew of a vessel just then arrived at
Sydney, Australia, from Tonga Islands, is given. The captain is
represented assaying that while lying off the islands on the night of
the 31st of August, 1886, he observed a most terrific eruption of a
volcano situated on one of them, accompanied by earthquake shocks, and
the vessel received showers of dust and ashes. The occurrence on the
same night with the Charleston earthquake on this continent is curious,
to say the least. The statement might be acceptable to those of your
readers interested in seismic disturbances.


  Beaver Falls, Pa., February 2, 1887.

Incendiary Birds.

_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

I write to relate an incident which may be of interest to some of the
readers of your valuable paper. There is a bar iron mill, situated
in a neighboring town four miles from here, that has been on fire
three or four times, in which the English sparrow might be called the
incendiary. These sparrows pick up old pieces of cotton waste, which
they build in their nests, among the timbers of the roof of the mill,
and in every case of the fires above mentioned, these nests were the
cause, either from spontaneous combustion or from sparks from the hot
iron striking and lodging in the nest. If you could suggest some way of
getting rid of the sparrows, I think the manager of the mill would be
glad to adopt your plan.

  R. W. KEAR.

  Pottsville, Pa., February 14, 1887.

Charcoal as Fossil.

_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

Perhaps charcoal has not often been observed as occurring naturally
with mineral coal, though, as a result of metamorphism, graphite is not
uncommon in coal districts.

In a variety of bituminous coal that comes from Tennessee, and that is
largely used in this State, there are to be seen along in the cleavage
planes films of true charcoal, in varying quantity, but commonly thin.
This coal has been coming to us for several years, and all the while I
have noticed in it the presence of the charcoal. I have scarcely ever
put coal into the fire without making the observation; and there is
perhaps not a lump, of size at all considerable, that does not contain
these films.

On close examination, I have frequently found that the surface of
the films on the broken lumps contains a delicate tracery, closely
resembling vegetable impressions. The tracery is not so well marked as
a fossil imprint, but not so indistinct as to escape notice.

  J. F. B.

  Emory College, Ga.

Phosphorescent Birds.

_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

In reading of the habits of the wading birds, and particularly of the
crane, I do not find that naturalists give any account of their manner
of attracting their prey at night. My attention was called to the
matter while gigging for fish, by frequently observing dim phosphoric
lights appear and disappear along the shore like jack o' lanterns,
which I for a long time supposed them to be. Oh one occasion I fired
at such a light, and brought down a large blue crane, on which the
phosphoric spots were clearly visible after death. There are two such
spots; the larger being high up on the breast and the smaller at the
bottom of the breast bone, the bird having power to reveal and conceal
them at will. I have since stuffed many of the water walkers, and find
that all have the same general arrangement of the feathers, and, as I
believe, the same power of lighting up the water to attract the fish.
Will some naturalist who is posted on this subject please throw some
further light upon it, for the benefit of science?


  Topeka, Kansas.

Canned Fish, Meats, etc.

A correspondent in British Columbia, who is engaged in the business,
gives us the following practical information:

Noticing your reply to a correspondent anent canned goods, I recently
opened several cans of salmon that were processed in July of 1879,
1880, 1881, and on comparing them with last season's cans, found it
impossible to detect the slightest difference. I hold that if a can is
once perfectly sealed, the contents will remain unaltered as long as
the metal casing remains intact.

A can will keep if every portion of the contents has been subjected to
a temperature of 212° Fah., whether the air is expelled or not, as my
experiments have conclusively proved.

When I first began the business, I was taught that the air unless
expelled would cause the contents to deteriorate, and that was the
reason the cans were vented. I soon found it was a mistake. The venting
is done for the purpose of testing for leaks. A tight can has a sound
that cannot be mistaken for a leaky one. If your correspondent boils
his fish, flesh, or fowl with the vents open, he will have dry cans
for his pains. The vents must be closed when cooking, and opened, in
the case of meats, after boiling one hour, then closed and returned to
kettle, and boil three hours for fish and less for meat without bone.
Fruit is vented and closed when finished.

  S. H.



It is a popular belief that the woods and fields in winter time are
void of bird life, and are what they appear at a distance--a cold,
bleak, and desolate waste.

This opinion, however, is not correct. It is true that the birds, which
were so numerous during the summer, have left us and gone to their
winter homes, but as they departed an entirely different fauna started
from a colder climate, and gradually took their place. I refer to the
birds of the northern part of Canada and the fur countries, whose
summer homes are in these desolate regions, and which on the approach
of winter are driven southward, making a temporary stay with us until
the rigors of an Arctic winter shall have departed, and once more left
their homes in an inhabitable condition.


A glance at these birds will take one into the same localities that
have been so often traversed in the summer time, and once within
the woods, the fact that they are cold and leafless is lost sight
of. One can now find birds entirely different from any that he has
heretofore seen, and at the same time learn several facts of interest
concerning birds with which he considers himself well acquainted; as,
for instance, the American goldfinch, which is supposed to migrate in
the fall, will be found in the swampy woods in large flocks, but with
plumage so changed that they will probably not be recognized, being
of a somber brown color, and sexes undistinguishable. Why hundreds of
a species, the majority of which migrate regularly, and which do not
reach us until late in the spring, should change their dress and remain
with us throughout our most severe winters is a problem.

In company with them will often be found the pine linnet and common
red poll. These little finches are rather rare, and are seldom found
together in any great numbers. They leave the North in large flocks,
but as they journey southward break up into smaller and smaller
companies, until only a few are left together. These join interests
with the nearest goldfinches, and remain with them throughout the

The results of a visit to the fields, on some clear day, will often
repay a somewhat wearisome tramp. The snow buntings and shore larks
frequent such places in large numbers, and a locality where the ground
has been swept bare of snow, or is covered with a growth of weeds, is a
favorite feeding ground.

Their food consists entirely of the seeds, and a spot once chosen by
them is seldom forsaken until all in this line has been eaten.

The buntings will be found in flocks of from a dozen to two hundred,
and in some even more. Their appearance when flying is pure white, but
the upper parts of a specimen in the hand will be found mostly black.
They are extremely shy, and when approached spring into the air and
dart away in a manner that would indicate their intention of departing
for the next county; but should you return that way in the course of
half an hour, you will, in all probability, find them in the same place.

The shore larks, although feeding on the same grounds, seldom mix with
the buntings, preferring to keep in flocks by themselves, and are
worthy of attention, inasmuch as they have one marked peculiarity; this
is the small tuft of feathers on each side of the head, resembling
minute horns, which are raised and lowered at pleasure. (See cut.)

The majority of these birds reach us at the approach of cold weather,
although a few spend the summer here and rear their young. They are
less timid than the snow bunting, and may often be approached quite

These two species form about all the attraction to be found to any
extent in the fields, and, aside from an occasional hawk, only one more
species frequents them, a species that is worth going miles to see--the
snowy owl.

These birds reach us about the last of November and remain until the
last of February, frequenting the neighborhood of some body of water,
and seldom straying from it more than a mile or two. To see them and
become at all acquainted with their habits, one must face all kinds
of weather, possess untiring energy, and must undergo a considerable
amount of fatigue. He will find them in the open country (as they
frequent such ground altogether, seldom, if ever, entering the woods),
perched on some fence post or stump, where, if undisturbed, they will
remain for a considerable length of time, intently watching for mice,
of which their food largely consists, set off by an occasional rabbit.
They are extremely rare. One may tramp the fields for several days
without success, and then again find one the first hour out.

On December 20, 1886, the writer started on a trip to Oneida Lake, N.
Y., intending to devote his attention entirely to these birds; was gone
four days, and saw five birds. This, of course, was exceptional, but
shows what may happen.

In the dense pine and hemlock swamps several other species of owls are
found, which are much more numerous at this season than in the summer.
These are the long eared and short eared owls, with an occasional
barred owl; but the most interesting of all is the Acadian or saw-whet,
one of the smallest of the family and little known. It is far from
common, being met with only at intervals. Its note, which closely
resembles the filing of a large saw, occasionally betrays it; while at
the same time it has a tendency to stray into barns and out-buildings,
thus affording an opportunity for capture.

As it is not generally known, a description may be of some benefit.
"Upper parts, including wings and tail, uniform chocolate-brown,
spotted with white; under parts white, thickly streaked lengthwise with
the color of the back; face, white."

In general appearance, they are the same as all owls, but when seen in
the woods have a somewhat comical appearance, owing to their wise look
for so small a bird.

We have often heard of the shrikes, or butcher birds, that capture
small birds and impale them on the thorns of bushes. Many of us have
wished to see them, and wondered where and when they were to be found.
Now is the time. Any clump of bushes or young second-growth is a likely
place to find them, for there are two species which visit us every
winter and frequent these places. These are the great northern and
loggerhead shrikes, the latter being most common; both bear a general
resemblance, but differ mainly in size and in markings on the under
parts. One can find them almost any day, perched on the topmost branch
of some tree or bush, steadily eyeing the surrounding bushes in search
of some victim, while on a thornbush near by will be found numberless
moles, mice, and an occasional bird, awaiting the appetite of the

Aside from the goldfinches, many other birds of different species,
instead of migrating with the rest, remain behind, and are to be found,
on almost any pleasant day, in the warmer and more secluded parts of
the swamp. Among these are the robin, golden-winged, downy, and hairy
woodpeckers, the white-bellied nuthatch, and chickadees. These last
are, perhaps, the most numerous of all our winter birds; whole flocks
roam from one end of the swamp to the other, and I think there is no
pleasanter sound to be heard in the woods in winter than to hear their
clear "chick-a-dee-de-de-de" from a score of little throats, or to see
them clinging to the branches and acting as familiarly as though no one
was within sight or hearing. An occasional meadow lark will be flushed
from the tall grass in some sheltered spot, while on the open streams
will be found black ducks and mallards, whistlers and mergansers of two
species, the hooded and buff-breasted or common sheldrake.

Truly, then, with all this material awaiting us, the fields and forests
will be found inviting, and you who have never traversed them in winter
do so now, and get a new interest awakened in them.

       *       *       *       *       *

IT is not long since we spoke of the benefits conferred on the farmer
by the inventor. The following statement is a good illustration of our
views as then presented. It is taken from our contemporary, the _New
England Farmer_. "By the use of mowing machines and horse rakes and a
horse hay fork, two boys in Connecticut last summer cut, raked, and
helped to stow away 100 tons of hay, while their father was disabled
from work by illness. Under such conditions a farmer is apt to feel
like blessing the man who invents labor-saving machinery."



The action of this instrument is due to the facility with which liquids
evaporate in a vacuum. A small amount of heat is sufficient to vaporize
the liquid to the extent required to secure the desired action. The
instrument is provided with a glass tube bent twice at right angles,
and having a bulb blown on each end. The tube and the bulbs are partly
filled with water, and a vacuum is secured by boiling the water in the
bulbs before sealing them. The center of the tube is furnished with
V-pivots, which rest in bearings in the top of the forked column. The
column also supports a metal screen, which is bright one side and black
on the other. Two pins project from the shield, to limit the movements
of the glass tube and bulbs.

When the instrument is in use, the screen is placed toward the source
of heat, and when radiant heat strikes the bulb which is unshielded
by the screen, the water in that bulb is vaporized, and sufficient
pressure is produced to drive the water upward into the bulb behind
the screen. When a little more than half of the water has been in
this manner forced from the lower to the higher bulb, the upper bulb
preponderates. The tube and bulbs are supported on their pivot so as
to secure unstable equilibrium, so that, when the upper bulb begins to
descend, it completes its excursion at once, and exposes the full bulb
to the radiant heat, at the same time carrying its empty bulb behind
the screen, where it cools. The transfer of the water from the full
bulb to the empty one now occurs as before. This operation is repeated
so long as the bulbs are exposed to the action of radiant heat. The
oscillations may be quickened by smoking the sides of the bulbs remote
from the screen, and still greater rapidity of action may be secured
by concentrating the heat on the bulbs by means of condensers or


The Duration of the Sun.

The _Builders' Weekly Reporter_ (London) has an interesting account
of a lecture at the Royal Institute, given by Professor Sir William
Thomson, on the latest dynamical theories regarding the "probable
origin, total amount, and possible duration of the sun's heat." During
the short 3,000 years or more of which man possesses historic records
there was, the learned physicist showed, no trace of variation in solar
energy; and there was no distinct evidence of it even though the earth,
as a whole, from being nearer the sun, received in January 6½ per cent
more heat than in July. But in the millions of years which geology
carried us back, it might safely be said there must have been great
changes. How had the solar fires been maintained during those ages? The
scientific answer to this question was the theory of Helmholtz that the
sun was a vast globe gradually cooling, but as it cooled, shrinking,
and that the shrinkage--which was the effect of gravity upon its
mass--kept up its temperature. The total of the sun's heat was equal to
that which would be required to keep up 476,000 millions of millions
of millions horse power, or about 78,000 horse power for every square
meter--a little more than a square yard--and yet the modern dynamical
theory of heat shows that the sun's mass would require only to fall in
or contract thirty-five meters per annum to keep up that tremendous
energy. At this rate, the solar radius in 2,000 years' time would be
about one hundredth per cent less than at present. A time would come
when the temperature would fall, and it was thus inconceivable that
the sun would continue to emit heat sufficient to sustain existing
life on the globe for more than 10,000,000 years. Applying the same
principles retrospectively, they could not suppose that the sun had
existed for more than twenty million years, no matter what might have
been its origin--whether it came into existence from the clash of
worlds pre-existing, or of diffused nebulous matter. There was a great
clinging by geologists and biologists to vastly longer periods, but the
physicist, treating it as a dynamic question with calculable elements,
could come to no other conclusion materially different from what he had
stated. Sir William Thomson declined to discuss any chemical source
of heat, which, whatever its effect when primeval elements first came
into contact, was absolutely insignificant compared with the effects of
gravity after globes like the sun and the earth had been formed. In all
these speculations they were in the end driven to the ultimate elements
of matter, to the question--when they thought what became of all the
sun's heat--what is the luminiferous ether that fills space, and to
that most wonderful form of force upon which Faraday spent so much of
the thought of his later years--gravity. The lecture was heard with
deep interest and close attention.


The twin screw dredger Dolphin was recently constructed for the
Colonies, under the direction of Sir John Coode, assisted by Mr. Wm.
Matthews, C.E., and is especially designed, says the _Engineer_, for
harbor improvements in the West Indies. The dimensions are:

                                                   Ft.  In.
  Length between perpendiculars                    130   0
  Breadth moulded                                   30   0
  Depth                                              8   0
  ENGINES--Compound surface condensing, I.H.P 250
  Stroke of pumps                                       14
  Diameter of high pressure cylinder                    16½
      "       low pressure     "                        33
  Length of stroke                                      24
  Diameter of air pump                                  11½
      "       circulating pump                           6½
      "       feed pumps                                 2½
      "       bilge pumps                                2½

The boiler is of steel, for a working pressure of 90 lb. per square
inch. The bucket ladder works through a well formed in the center of
the vessel, and dredges to a depth of 33 ft. below the water level,
and the buckets are made wholly of steel, and are capable of lifting
250 tons of free soil per hour. Triple-geared winches are supplied at
bow and stern for working the mooring chains, the barrels of which can
be worked independently or conjointly, as required. The cabins for the
officers and crew are of the most complete description; those of the
former being fitted on starboard side of the well, and consist of rooms
for the captain, mate, and engineers, also mess room. All the rooms
are large and efficiently lighted and ventilated. A powerful crane is
erected at forward end for overhauling the buckets, hoisting gear, etc.

[Illustration: THE DREDGER DOLPHIN.]

Hydraulic Dredging at Washington.

At a recent meeting of the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia, a paper by
Conway B. Hunt was read on hydraulic dredging machinery.

The paper mentions the early application of the principle of hydraulic
dredging, that is, the mixing of dredged material with water and then
removing the mixture by suction or otherwise; and after referring
briefly to the Roy Stone and Bowers dredges as typical machines,
describes in detail the Von Schmidt dredge. Two of these dredges are
engaged on the improvement of the Potomac River at Washington, D. C.,
under the United States Government. Each is 100 feet by 50 feet, with
a semicircular bow, around which travels a vertical suction pipe, 22
in. in diameter, and telescopic. At its foot is a conical hood, beneath
which works a rotary excavating plow, 8 feet in diameter. The suction
is produced by a powerful centrifugal pump, run by a 200 horse power

The discharge pipe is 20 in. in diameter, has rubber hose joint
connections, and is carried to the shore on pontoons. The material was
mixed with from three to ten times its volume of water, and discharged
at distances up to 3,500 feet from the dredge, and at from 6 to 10 feet
above water. A year's record shows an average of 175 cubic yards per
working hour, and 2,300 yards per day, for each dredge. The work was
done, by contract, at prices of 12.37 cts., 15 cts., and 15.45 cts. per
cubic yard, which includes the cost of levees to confine the semi fluid
material, drains to carry off the water, etc. The final estimates were
specified to be taken by cross sections of the completed fill after
it had become solidified and compacted. In conclusion, it is noted
that the devices and details of hydraulic dredging machines are the
subjects of numerous patents, and their most efficient combination may
be long deferred. The large number of machines that are still in the
experimental stage of development would indicate that the best results
attainable from this class of dredges have not yet been accomplished.

A New Sugar Process.

The details of the process vary with quality of beets. To a vat
containing the secondary products to be treated are added calculated
quantities of diluted hydrochloric acid and milk of lime at 25° B. The
mass is heated to the boiling point by a steam coil. In a separate vat
the product is diluted with water at 75° C. to 23° B., and subsequently
run through Puvrez filtering bags. The filtrate is clear in color,
and is received in a measuring tank, from which it is run into the
diffusion battery. In the latter but few changes are necessary. It is
said that by this method an additional 1 per cent sugar is extracted
from the beet, and the white sugar obtained can be at once placed upon
the market.

       *       *       *       *       *

THERE were exported last season from Prince Edward Island
91,000 cases of lobsters.


When, in 1752, Franklin succeeded, through a kite sent up into a storm
cloud, in obtaining an electric spark at the extremity of the cord,
which had been made a conductor through the rain, it was no longer
possible to doubt that lightning was but an immense electric discharge
between two clouds, or a discharge between a cloud and the earth. This
discovery was of great importance, since it connected with the laws of
physics certain phenomena which, until then, had passed for marvelous,
and in which nothing but supernatural and mysterious manifestations
were seen.

The aurora borealis, which is more difficult to understand, and which
necessitates more extended scientific notions, has remained much
longer unexplained. This enigmatic phenomenon was especially striking
to the imagination of ancient peoples. It was regarded as an omen of
inauspicious events, and the historians who describe it affirm that, at
times, armies have been seen passing through the bloody heavens, and
that the clash of arms has been heard.

It is now known that the aurora borealis has the same origin as
lightning, that it is one of the visible manifestations of atmospheric
electricity, and that it is due to slow movements of that fluid, while
lightning is the result of violent motions. The effects of the aurora
and of the thunderbolt are absolutely different; but between them there
is an intermediary that connects them, and this is heat lightning.

These elementary notions are now the property of science; but the study
of the aurora has hitherto been only partially outlined. Travelers
and physicists have, indeed, given numerous descriptions, but it has
remained to find the bonds that unite these so important phenomena
in the economy of the globe, to study the causes that set them in
action, to observe the correlations that they may offer, and to discuss
theories. This is a labor that Mr. S. Lemstrom has been engaged in for
several years, and we now propose to analyze the results published by
this great Finnish physicist.

The author of this important work, who has long been occupied in the
study of the aurora borealis, so frequent in his country, was attached
to the polar expedition made in 1868 by Nordenskjold. He was led to
begin a series of important observations. In 1871 he visited Finnish
Lapland, and, after a series of ingenious researches, constructed an
apparatus that permitted him to artificially reproduce the light of the
aurora, and to present science with a summary of new and incontestable

Mr. Lemstrom has observed a large number of auroræ, and before touching
upon theoretic questions, we shall give his description of one of
the phenomena that seems to him to be the completest. On the 18th of
October, 1868, the steamer Sophia was nearing the coast of Norway,
after battling with a furious sea for three days in succession.

"To the west of the horizon we remarked two strata of clouds that were
clearly separated by a blue band of the heavens, crossed by a band
striated with a pale yellow. It was the feeble beginning of an aurora,
whose splendor was soon to surpass all the phenomena of the same kind
that we had up till then observed. The edges of the upper stratum of
clouds gradually lighted up, and we soon saw isolated flames issuing
from them that sometimes rose to the zenith. Suddenly, the phenomenon
embraced the entire horizon. Everywhere were flames, everywhere were
jets of brilliant light, yellow below, green in the center, and reddish
violet above. In an instant, all the rays united in a regular and
dazzling crown, situated in the heavens to the south of the zenith.
When the phenomenon reached the maximum of its intensity, it reminded
us of the immense vault of a temple, with a brilliant chandelier in the
center. The apparition lasted but a few minutes, but, on vanishing,
left behind it a luminous zone between the banks of clouds. From the
upper bank there continued to emanate, at short intervals, isolated
rays that rose to the zenith, and there formed the fragments of a
crown. The edges of the banks of clouds remained luminous, although the
rays had disappeared."





According to Mr. Lemstrom, Fig. 1 gives an idea, although a feeble
one, of the phenomenon at its height. It reproduces only half of the
horizon, and the reader may supply the missing portion of this grand
spectacle in imagination. The streams of light verging toward a common
center were alternately rose colored and pale yellow, and overlooked an
immense violet zone. The rosette in the center was of a beautiful red,
and stood out upon a greenish blue circle.

Fig. 2 represents an aurora that was observed on the 19th of November,
1871, in Finnish Lapland. At the beginning, and at 30° above the
horizon, it formed an arch from whence rose waves of light, and which
gradually ascended. The figure shows it when it had reached about 60°
above the horizon. The base of the aurora was yellow, and the oblique
and very brilliant rays were, slightly higher up, rosy, violet, and
blue. The colors of the polar light are usually clear and bright, but
never did they exhibit greater luster than on this occasion.

Fig. 3 gives an idea of the variety of forms that the phenomenon may
affect. It represents an aurora that was observed at the presbytery
of Enare on the 16th of November, 1871. The aurora this time took on
the form of a glowing red band, curved as shown in the figure. The two
extremities bordered on yellow and green.

There is another form of aurora frequently observed in northern
countries, and that is the one that is seen to occur above clouds, and
that has the appearance of a wide piece of drapery with undulating
folds. As it is the form most usually represented, we shall not dwell
upon it. On the contrary, we shall speak of other phenomena of the same
origin, and much less known, that Mr. Lemstrom describes. It concerns
those auroral lights that shine at the edges of clouds, or that form
around the tops of the mountains in Spitzbergen or in the Alpine
districts of Lapland. According to the Finnish observer, it would be
impossible to tell by the naked eye whence this light comes, but, by
means of a spectroscope, we find that it is of the same nature as the
aurora. Sometimes, these strange lights take on the form of flames of
but little brightness, which, at short intervals, rise from the crest
of the mountain and suddenly vanish (Fig. 4).

These phenomena sometimes exhibit themselves at the level of the
earth's surface, or upon the roofs of houses.

Finally, Mr. Lemstrom describes the diffuse light which sometimes fills
the atmosphere of the polar regions, thus proving that the phenomenon
shows itself from time to time in the vicinity of the earth itself.

Meteors of the same nature as the light of the auroræ boreales do not
occur solely in the polar regions, and the author demonstrates, not
without attaching much importance to it from the standpoint of the
theories to which he has been led, that they are observed in other
countries of the earth. In Peru, Bolivia, and Chili the summits of the
mountains are often seen illuminated by a brilliant light. This light,
which occurs especially in summer, has been compared to heat lightning
by scientists.

Similar observations have been made in the Swiss Alps. Dr. De Saussure
has seen electricity escape through all the projecting parts of
objects, and the same phenomena have been observed upon the high
plateaus of Mexico. Again, we may cite the fact that Brewster observed
a light upon a church tower during an aurora borealis. In every country
phenomena similar to polarized light may occur.--_La Nature_.

       *       *       *       *       *

IN 1886, 17 Gloucester fishing vessels were lost, worth
$115,800, and 115 fishermen never came home. The year was remarkable
for the small inshore catch, almost all the fishing being done on the
high seas.

The Latest Yankee Craze.

At the forthcoming American Exhibition in London, we are promised,
among other novelties, a house of straw, which is now being made
in Philadelphia. This house is to represent an American suburban
villa, announced to be "handsome and artistic in design," two and a
half stories high, and covering a space of 42 feet by 50 feet. It is
constructed entirely of materials manufactured from straw--foundations,
timbers, flooring, sheathing, roofing, everything in fact, including
the chimneys--the material being fire proof as well as water proof. The
inside finish is to be in imitation rosewood, mahogany, walnut, maple,
ash, ebony, and other fine woods, the straw lumber taking perfectly
the surface and color of any desired wood. This straw house is, in
the first place, to illustrate Philadelphia's commercial, financial,
and industrial interests by means of large photographs of the leading
buildings; but it will also demonstrate how far the inventive Yankee
has succeeded, not in showing us how to make bricks without straw, but
how to produce timber from straw. If, after this brilliant exhibition
of inventive genius, we do not bow down and worship him as the "licker"
of creation, we may consider ourselves lost to all sense of what is
proper under the circumstances.--_Iron._


The British government lately strengthened up the bottom of the old
ironclad Resistance, and tried the effect of firing off a 90 lb.
guncotton torpedo against the vessel. To the surprise of every one,
the ship was not seriously damaged. The _Engineer_ comments upon the
experiment as follows:

The Resistance experiments so far tend to demonstrate that the total
disablement or destruction of a modern ironclad is not so easy as
many people imagined. It was too hastily assumed that the explosion
of a charge of 90 lb. of guncotton in contact with any portion of the
hull under water would have such destructive effect as to overcome
the protection afforded by a thick lining of coal and the cellular
system of construction now always adopted in vessels of war. There
are, however, certain considerations attached to this experiment
which, if duly weighed, should reassure the advocates of the torpedo,
and restrain the exultation of naval architects within reasonable
bounds. We shall endeavor to place these before our readers briefly
and impartially, reserving a fuller summing-up until the remaining
experiments are concluded, as they are of greater importance than any
of those preceding. It is the more essential to do this because the
_Times_, in a leading article of November 3, leads us to believe that
as this attack failed, in the broad sense of the word, similar attempts
under different conditions would have a like result: and that although
serious damage would be caused, the ship would remain "floating and
seaworthy, with her offensive powers not materially impaired." We are
not prepared to accept this conclusion, for the following reasons:

First, let us consider the general effect of a submarine explosion. It
closely resembles the action of gunpowder when ignited in a gun. We
know that in the latter case a quantity of heated gas is formed, which
in its power of expansion exerts force in all directions. Prevented
from expanding by its rigid confinement, except in the direction
of the bore, the gas attains its object by the displacement of the
projectile. This is, in fact, the line of least resistance. When the
same explosive is ignited under water, the heated gas presses outward
in all directions, forcing the surrounding molecules of water against
their neighbors, which are, in turn, propelled forward with great
violence. This effect continues until the back pressure of the liquid
medium equals the now reduced pressure of the gas due to its expansion
in the space vacated by the displaced water, which is likewise to some
extent compressed by the action of the gas. Though brought actually
to a state of rest, the surrounding water is under the influence of
great pressure, which by the law of fluids is transmitted equally in
all directions. When a vessel is sufficiently near the explosion to be
struck by the water which has been so violently disturbed, it will act
upon her like a huge projectile, and it is obvious this range will be
in proportion to the amount of explosive employed. This, combined with
the resistance her hull offers, will also determine the effect produced.

If the charge is too near the surface of the water, the liquid layer
above it will not restrain the liberated gas sufficiently to allow of
its full power being exerted in other directions, and hence permits
its escape into the atmosphere, throwing up the water in its way to a
greater or less height, according to the thickness of the layer. The
spectacular effect, therefore, afforded by the upheaval of a large and
lofty column of water is no criterion of the efficiency of a submarine
explosion, but, on the contrary, shows that much of its energy has
been expended in the wrong direction. The amount of submersion to give
the greatest lateral effect to different charges of explosive has been
ascertained by practical experiments. For 100 lb. of gunpowder, it
is stated to be 10 ft., while for the same quantity of guncotton it
should be 15 ft. As the charge employed against the Resistance was 90
lb. of guncotton placed 10 ft. below the surface, it is probable that
some loss of power was sustained in the manner we have indicated. At a
greater depth also the charge would have been to some extent under the
vessel, where its explosive effect would have been more severe, and
where the construction of the hull cannot be as strongly fortified with
coal as was the case in the Resistance. We are unable to state why a
depth of 10 ft. was selected on this occasion; but it may be due to the
fact that up to a late date most of our locomotive torpedoes have not
carried a larger charge than 40 lb. of guncotton, and are usually run
at 10 ft. below the surface.

Considerable stress has been laid on the fact that in this experiment
the charge was in actual contact, and yet did not effect complete
penetration. It is even gravely asserted that an actual torpedo would
have rebounded a certain distance before explosion took place, and
this would diminish its effect. In the first place, the detonation of
guncotton is practically instantaneous, so that impact and explosion
would be simultaneous. We are hardly prepared to allow an inch rebound,
but will concede that until actual proof convicts us of error. In
the second place, it is possible that a distance of three or four
feet between charge and ship would rather augment than diminish the
effect produced in the case of such an explosive as guncotton when
sufficiently immersed. It is possible the intervening water thrown
against the side of the ship would do more damage than the gas
liberated in actual contact. At any rate, experiments some years ago
with smaller quantities of both dynamite and guncotton showed that when
exploded 4 ft. from the bottom of a ship, enormous damage was inflicted
on her.

Although it is generally estimated that guncotton is about four times
more powerful than gunpowder, this does not appear to hold good under
all conditions; while, on the other hand, for certain purposes, ten
times the amount of gunpowder would not produce the same result. This
is proved by the ease with which the strongest chain cable and wire
rope can be ruptured by a small charge of guncotton, which even more
than ten times the amount of gunpowder could not accomplish. This is
due to the peculiar shattering action of detonated guncotton, which the
slower burning substances does not possess, its characteristic being
more of the nature of a push than a blow. Taking into consideration the
method in which the hull of the Resistance had been strengthened for
this experiment, and the exact locality chosen for the explosion, it is
probable that less than twice the amount of gunpowder would have caused
a more complete breach through the coal protection. The torpedo is
stated to have had everything in its favor; whereas, in our opinion,
all the advantages were on the side of the ship. The attack was made
at her strongest point, where the coal was specially disposed, and her
shape under water lent no assistance to the explosive. To assume from
this that if a similar torpedo struck lower down, or further aft, or
against the propeller, the ship would still have "her offensive powers
not materially impaired," is to express an opinion with which few will
be found to concur.

Under the alternative circumstances mentioned, half the amount of
explosive might practically disable the vessel, though her flotation
need not be overcome. Whitehead torpedoes need not necessarily be
limited to a depth of 10 ft., as by slightly strengthening their
construction they could be run 20 ft. below the surface. We presume
it will be allowed that this would increase their destructive power,
especially in the vicinity of engines and boilers, which now occupy so
much space. In a similar manner there is no difficulty in increasing
the charge of a locomotive torpedo to a point at which it becomes
irresistible, whatever system of internal protection may be devised.
This has, in fact, been going on for some time; more than one nation
possesses torpedoes armed with 100 lb. of guncotton, and if we do not,
it is simply because former experiments led us to believe sufficient
damage would be caused by a less quantity. We can only consider that
disproved on demonstration by further trials under conditions less
favorable to the ship, and we venture to predict some delusions will
then be dispelled which this particular experiment seems to have


Steel Wire Brush Patent.

Before Judges McKennan and Acheson of the United States Circuit Court
for the Western District of Pennsylvania, at Pittsburg, Pa., No. 16
of November term, 1886, a question arose as to whether a steel wire
brush for cleaning castings, and a steel wire brush for cleaning
boiler flues, was an infringement on what is generally known as the
Wright patent, No. 59,733, and the reissue, No. 2,598, owned by Joseph
McArthur, of New York city.

The Wright patent consists of a wooden block with a series of pairs of
holes. A bundle of wire splints is doubled and the ends inserted in
the holes, being held by the wooden bridge between the holes and by a
wooden back screwed to the block.

Joseph H. Davis, of Sewickley, Pa., the defendant, under his casting
brush patent, No. 232,600, the construction of which consists in the
doubling of the wire splints and inserting in one hole of a wooden
block, and fastening by means of weaving a wire through the loop,
the wire being held in place by a wooden back fastened on by driving
wrought iron nails through the block and back and clinching on the
back, thus making the block and back practically inseparable.

The Davis flue brush patent, No. 181,416, is made by sticking the wire
splints through holes in an iron cylinder, there being no wood about
its construction.

Several cases had been tried in other States involving the validity
of the Wright patent, which had resulted in Mr. McArthur's favor, but
after exhaustive argument in the case at Pittsburg, Pa., the court held
the Davis brush not to be an infringement on the Wright patent.

How Long Should a Nervous Patient be Treated?

The question of how long treatment should be continued in a neurotic
case when no evident benefit is produced has recently been raised
in a Hamburg law court. A medical man, says the _Lancet_, having as
a patient a merchant suffering from "nervousness," treated him by
galvanism. Altogether he galvanized him 445 times, but the nervousness
did not disappear. Then came the matter of fees. The sum claimed was
$556. The merchant disputed this on the ground that the treatment ought
not have been continued so long, as it was not producing any benefit.
The court referred the matter to the medical board, which gave as its
opinion that the doctor ought to have asked the patient, after some
fifty sittings, whether he would like to continue them, as it was
doubtful whether the treatment was doing any good. The court, however,
declined to accept this view, holding that it was for the patient to
say when he had tried the treatment as long as he was disposed to
pay for it, and so gave judgment for the full amount claimed. This
judgment seems to accord with the principle that applies to newspaper
subscriptions. A man must pay for his paper as long as he takes it from
the post office.


In former issues of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN we have given
illustrations and detailed descriptions of the pneumatic dynamite gun
invented by Lieutenant E. L. Zalinski, of the U. S. Artillery Corps.
This gun, it will be remembered, was designed to throw a projectile
loaded with dynamite or nitro-glycerine by means of compressed air;
and so successful were the experiments carried on with it at Fort
Lafayette, under the supervision of a board of naval experts, that
Congress eventually appropriated $350,000 for building a swift torpedo
boat, large enough to go to sea, and to be armed with three of these
guns. Contracts for this boat have been signed with the Cramps.

The upper view in the accompanying engraving is a longitudinal vertical
section, the lower one being a plan view. The following details
regarding the boat we take from the _Sun_. The boat will be 250 ft.
long, 26 ft. beam, and will draw 8 ft. of water. Her displacement will
be about 800 tons. The engines will be of the triple expansion type, of
the best known design, and the guaranteed power will be 3,200. She will
be propelled by twin screws, and it is expected that the guaranteed
speed of 20 knots an hour will be exceeded.

The three dynamite guns are to be placed side by side, at the elevation
indicated in the upper view. They are to be fired in their places, but
their range can be varied by increasing or diminishing the charge of
air let in behind the projectile. An extreme range of one mile is put
down in the contract, and the weight of gelatine to be thrown is 200
pounds; but the guns, as now building, will throw 400 pounds instead of
200 pounds, and the effective range will probably be about two miles.
Air chambers and compressors of sufficient size and power are provided
to enable fifteen shots to be fired to the distance of one mile without
stopping; but if the boat were heading for the enemy at full speed,
thirty shells could be thrown before the air would be exhausted and the
cruiser obliged to turn tail. Thirty shells would mean the explosion of
12,000 pounds of nitro-glycerine about the enemy.

In fixing the gun permanently in its place, the designer has followed
out the old idea of making the ship simply a floating gun carriage. The
new British cruiser Polyphemus is built on the same idea, and there are
other floating gun carriages. In this cruiser the firing is entirely
under the control of the officer in the pilot house. He has simply to
head his boat for the enemy, dash ahead at full speed, and blaze away.
The trained pilot, even in the excitement of battle, would steer his
ship instinctively, so there would be little trouble with the aim,
except, perhaps, in getting the range.

Each gun can be fired once in two minutes, or the three successively in
two minutes.

The new cruiser has a freeboard of about four feet above water. This
is quite enough to enable her to travel anywhere along the coast. She
carries enough coal to travel 5,000 miles at 12 knots an hour. This
would take her about 700 miles at full speed. She could probably turn
a complete circle of a radius of twice her length in between two and
three minutes. She can carry 100 or even a much greater number of
torpedoes with her when going on a cruise. To show how she compares
with the best of the latest English built torpedo boats, it may be said
that the Destructor, built for the Spanish Government, carries but ten
torpedoes, although she has five tubes to fire them from, and this
is the usual number carried. The range of the best of these foreign
torpedoes is 600 yards, under the most favorable circumstances, and in
a seaway not more than 100 or 200 yards. The exploding charge is 75
pounds of gun-cotton, an explosive that is exceedingly inefficient when
compared with nitro-glycerine.

The new boat will also be armed with the usual rapid-firing guns which
are placed on foreign torpedo boats. These are to be used in battle
with craft like herself and small boats. It is expected that she will
be finished in six months.


The Strength of Snails.

Perceiving a common snail, _Helix aspersa_, crawling up the window
blind one evening, it occurred to me to try what it could draw up
perpendicularly. Accordingly, I attached to its shell four reels of
cotton, fastening one after the other until I ascertained that a
greater load would exceed the limit of its strength. I then weighed
the entire load, and found that it weighed 2¼ ounces, while the snail
weighed only ¼ ounce. Thus it was able to lift perpendicularly nine
times its weight. I then made an experiment with a larger snail,
weighing one-third ounce, the load being composed chiefly of the same
material as the last, but so placed as to be drawn in a horizontal
position on the table. Reels of cotton to the number of twelve were
fastened to it, with a pair of scissors, a screw driver, a key, and a
knife, weighing altogether seventeen ounces, or fifty times the weight
of the snail. The same snail when placed on the ceiling was able to
travel with a weight of four ounces suspended from its shell. I next
tried it on a piece of common thread, suspended and hanging loose with
another snail of its own weight, which it carried up the thread with
apparent ease. After this I tried it on a single horsehair strained in
a horizontal position, but it had then enough to do to crawl over this
narrow bridge without a load.--_E. Sandford, in Zoologist_.



The production of absolute black by a pigment or surface coloration has
been shown by Chevreul to be an impossibility. No substance is known
that does not possess the power of reflecting light to some extent.
If paper is blackened, its surface will reflect rays that can act
powerfully upon the sensitive plate in a camera, even if the eye, by
convention and association, would determine it to be actually black.
The same is to be said of black silk and velvet. The latter, more than
any other substance, approaches real black. It is an object of common
observation that all colors show much more strongly in velvet than in
any other material. The reason for this is that, owing to the depth of
the pile, the light undergoes multiple reflection. The percentage of
white light is diminished with each reflection, and the colored rays
become less and less contaminated with those of other hues. The same
reasoning applies to black velvet. The light by multiple reflection
from its substance is more and more absorbed, and the familiar intense
black is the result. A piece of this material, placed upon cloth or
silk, always appears, and is, the blacker. In choosing velvet for such
experiments, care must be taken not to use a blue black. The dead black
is the proper one to select.

[Illustration: CHEVREUL'S BLACK.]

Black being the absence of color is producible by excluding light. The
production of the velvet black, we have seen, depends on the mechanical
texture of the goods. Nothing is so black as a perfectly dark room.
Carrying out these principles, Chevreul devised the wonderfully
ingenious way of producing a true black which we illustrate.

He lined the interior of a box with black. Pigment, black silk, or
black velvet may be used. In the cover of the box he made a hole, not
too large, but bearing a certain ratio to the area of the cover. The
size should not exceed one-tenth this surface. The spot thus produced
reflected no light, as there was no surface. The interior of the box,
by color and shadow, was prevented from reflecting any light, so
that absolute blackness resulted. The blackest velvet or silk placed
alongside of this spot appears lighter in color.

In constructing the apparatus illustrated, a famous proverb was
selected as a theme, in which a certain personage is stated not to be
so black as he is painted. The author of "English as She is Spoke"
renders this proverb, "He not so devil as he is black." The blackness
of this image is absolute.

A pasteboard box is lined with black silk or velvet, and any desired
figure is cut through the cover. This may then be painted as black as
possible, or before the figure is cut out, silk or velvet may be pasted
over it, and the figure cut through pasteboard and covering together.

Then, on putting the cover in place, holding the box so that a side
light will fall upon it, thus preventing direct access of light rays
to the interior, the figure will stand out strongly black against a
background which, but for the contrast, would itself be pronounced
absolutely black.

To apply the most rigorous test, a member of the Society of Amateur
Photographers of New York made a photograph of such a box. A carbon B
dry plate was used, with thirty-five minutes' exposure, with stop f-30.
The result was a negative perfectly transparent where the figure came,
but strongly affected by the black box cover. Part of the cover was
coated with black silk and part was painted, but both reflected light
enough to produce a full photograph upon the plate.

A most interesting application of this principle on the large scale has
been made of late years, especially by E. J. Marey, in the photography
of moving animals.[2] With Chevreul's black as a screen, a plate can be
exposed unaffected by the background, and will reproduce objects moving
across the space with perfect fidelity.

[2] See SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, Nos. 579 and 580, for fully
illustrated article on this subject.

The American Exhibition, London.

Recently we had an opportunity of going over the grounds of the
forthcoming American Exhibition at Earls Court. The site is comprised
in the triangle between Earls Court, West Brompton, and West Kensington
stations, and is thus extremely well situated for easy access from all
parts of London. The area that will be covered by the exhibition is
about twenty-three acres, eight of which are on one and fifteen on the
other side of the West London line, an iron bridge over the railway
connecting the two portions. Although the work has been going on for
some time, little is as yet seen of any building, the operations up
to the present having been confined mostly to earth works, leveling,
and draining. The land to be occupied by the exhibition might almost
be called virgin soil, and all the drains had to be put in by the
company. A good deal of soil has been moved, and some artificial mounds
of considerable extent have been thrown up. In that portion of the
exhibition which will be illustrative of the "Wild West," a large arena
and a grand stand capable of seating 25,000 persons are in course of
construction. The feature of special interest to engineers is, however,
on the other side of the grounds, where the main building for the
reception of the machinery and other exhibits is now being erected.
The main hall has a frontage of brickwork 240 feet long, but the rest
will all be constructed of iron and glass. The total length of this
hall is 1,200 feet, and a special feature in its construction is the
employment of old steel rails for the columns, purlins, and rafters,
on a plan devised by Mr. H. G. Wynne, the engineer to the company. The
whole of the framework is thus made out of old rails, the only portions
specially made for the purpose being the cast iron sockets for the
columns, cast steel shoes for the connections between purlins, rafters,
and columns, and tie bars, which are made of ordinary round iron.
There will be six bays of 30 feet each, and one bay of 60 feet. The
columns are formed by two rails, riveted together with their flanges,
so as to present a cross in transverse section. These are placed into
cast iron sockets, which are set upon cement piers sunk in the ground.
The outermost columns for the first and last spans are provided with
struts, also formed out of rails, fixed to a sleeper, connecting
the bottom of the strut with the foot of the column, this provision
being made to provide against lateral strains; but the columns of the
intermediate spans have no struts. The rafters are also made of rails,
placed with the flanges uppermost, those for the short spans being in
one length, but those for the long spans being fastened together by
fish plates. The usual length of rail employed for the columns is 18
feet and 24 feet. There is a fall in the ground of about 2 feet to
both sides from the middle of the building. To avoid the necessity
of employing columns of different lengths, the ridge of the roof is
carried parallel to the ground, and will therefore also show a fall
of 2 feet on each side of the middle. This will be hidden by a loose
louver, which is placed all along the ridge, so that the outline of the
roof will appear straight and horizontal. The sides of the building
will be of galvanized corrugated iron.--_Industries_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PETROLEUM IN EGYPT.--At Jemsah, in Egypt, in boring for
petroleum, ozokerite, or solid petroleum, has been found at a depth of
365 feet, and 15 feet lower a close grained coral has been struck. At
another boring, slight traces of gas and oil have also been found.


A spark arrester has been patented by Mr. John C. Albrecht, of
Columbus, Ga. Combined with a draught pipe is a cone with curved
volutes, and in its center and underneath it an inverted cone, with
spark pockets, and other novel features, the sparks being returned to
the fire box, the invention being an improvement on two former patented
inventions of the same inventor.

A steam condenser has been patented by Mr. John McIntyre, of New York
City. It is cylindrical in form, a central perforated or slotted casing
being used in connection with the cooling pipes, with a regulating
valve to open or close the perforations or slots, in such way that the
cooling effect will be more instant and the temperature of the cooling
parts more equal than in ordinary condensers.

A car coupling has been patented by Mr. George W. Giles, of Buffalo,
West Va. In connection with a suitable drawhead, a weight and pin
are joined by a flexible connection, the weight being adapted to
overbalance the pin, and the weight being projected into the path of
the drawbar, so that the entering drawbar will raise the weight, and
thus permit the pin to fall by its own gravity into coupled position.

A car coupling has been patented by Mr. Wesley E. Roberts, of Hartford,
Ky. The coupling link consists of a straight bar, with a wedge shaped
pointed lug at each end, a spring being fastened to the under side,
and the coupling being effected by an arm dropping in front of the
lug after the link enters the drawhead, the device being simple in
construction, and one which can be operated from the side or top of the


A mower has been patented by Messrs. James B. Nieth and Charles
L. Thomas, of Independence, Iowa. This invention covers a novel
construction and combination of various parts of the machine, so that
it will operate with less friction than ordinary mowers, while being
simple in construction and not liable to get out of order.

A plow has been patented by Mr. Thomas J. Eriom, of Union Church,
Miss. It is an improved garden plow, with simple means for adjusting
the gauge wheel to regulate the depth of working, and a breast bar for
pressure by the operator to increase the propelling power and to give
the plowman a better control of the plow, with other novel features.


An attachment for elevator doors has been patented by Mr. Edward P.
Walker, of Kansas City, Mo. It is an attachment designed to effect by
the movement of the elevator car the automatic operation of the doors
of the shafts, so that the elevator man is relieved of this duty.

A saw gummer has been patented by Mr. Eli Rogers, of Fulton County,
Ind. The invention consists of a cam lever operating a spring arm on
which is pivoted a tool holder, making a device which is simple in
construction, durable, and effective in operation.

A hame has been patented by Mr. John E. James, of Mossy Creek, Va. It
is so made that the shoulder of the horse will not be affected by heavy
jars, and the hames may not only be fitted to any length of collar,
but the point of draught may be shifted, so that the draught will be
brought to the proper point.

A tongue support has been patented by Messrs. Charles W. Van de Mark
and Calvin Moore, of Clyde, Kansas. The construction is such that the
tongue may be supported so as to relieve the team of its weight, and
the devices for supporting it are simple, inexpensive, and not likely
to get out of order.

A fence post has been patented by Mr. John J. Kimball, of Naperville,
Ill. Combined with side strips are rivets, spacing strips arranged
between the side strips, clips formed with apertures, and staples
arranged to pass through the apertures, making a cheap, durable, and
efficient post for barbed wire fences.

A combined chair and lounge has been patented by Mr. Gustavus Hamel, of
De Soto, Mo. The parts are so arranged that the back of the chair may
be adjusted to any angle desired, and the attachment constituting the
foot rest or foot of the lounge may be disposed beneath the main seat
of the chair when not in use.

A harmonic keyboard for violins has been patented by Mr. James F.
Poage, of La Plata, Mo. It is designed to enable the performer to
produce harmonic high tones without great difficulty, and is attached
to the neck of violins of the usual construction, the keyboard being a
combination of pivoted finger keys with a pivoted stop plate.

A rein holder has been patented by Mr. William Tennison, of Mount
Vernon, Ind. This invention covers an improvement in rein holders
consisting of a skeleton frame adapted for attachment to a harness or
for support upon a horse's back, and used for the purpose of supporting
the reins out of the way of the animal's tail.

A collar button has been patented by Mr. Leopold Baer, of San
Francisco, Cal. To the center of the button back is secured a tubular
shank in which is a spiral spring, there being a knuckle joint by which
a tongue may be held in three different positions, the device making a
conveniently working button for holding the necktie in place.

A bridle has been patented by Mr. Benjamin S. Seaman, of Corning, N.
Y. The cheek plate is formed with studs on which the blind sheet is
adapted to be placed, and secured by a key plate constructed to engage
with the studs, the cheek loop being secured to the cheek plate with
the same stud plate and key plate which hold the blind.

A machine for bending carriage thills has been patented by Mr. Thomas
E. Montague, of West Lorne, Ont., Canada. It is for bending wooden
shafts or thills for buggies, sulkies, carriages, and other vehicles,
and covers a novel construction and combination of parts and details,
whereby thills of greater or less thickness can be bent, the machine
operating very rapidly and automatically.

A nut lock has been patented by Mr. Jeremiah C. Butler, of Lexington,
Mo. The construction is such that the key may be drawn off the bolt by
the nut, and need not be bent out straight into the keyway of the bolt
to prevent its locking portion engaging in the recesses of the nut as
the latter is being turned off the bolt, the key needing only to be
bent very slightly for adjustment into locked or unlocked position.

A trousers stretcher has been patented by Mr. Charles E. Ray, of San
Francisco, Cal. The trousers are clamped below the waist band and at
the bottom, the clamp at the waist band attached to a spiral or rubber
spring, secured in fixed position at one end, while to the clamp at
the bottom is attached a strap by which tension can be placed upon the
trousers, and permanently maintained.

A log dog has been patented by Mr. Eugene H. Allman, of Mobile, Ala. It
is made of heavy wrought iron, with a flat body portion, and having end
points or fangs, and is applied to the chain by shouldered clips, all
extra chains and dogs being dispensed with by its use, and when used on
endless chains it being only necessary to point the logs in the logway,
when the dogs take hold and bring them up.

An electrical weighing scale has been patented by Mr. Willis M. Hunt,
of Glen Gardner, N. J. Combined with feeding hoppers arranged above the
scale pan are valves operated by connection with the foot lever for
discharging the hoppers, and combined therewith is an electro-magnetic
holding and releasing device, which automatically stops the feed when
the scale beam is tipped.

A boot or shoe stretcher has been patented by Mr. Lloyd Nottingham, of
Norfolk, Va. Centrally pivoted levers have apertures in their lower end
to receive pins with rounded outer ends, and above the pivotal point
is an adjusting screw to separate the levers in stretching the boot or
shoe, the levers being held apart by locking pieces, the device being
simple, strong, and easily operated.

A combined bench and ironing table has been patented by Mr. Daniel
H. Weller, of Boyertown, Pa. Combined with a reversible board with
covered socket boxes are supports hinged to the legs of a bench, with
other details, to make a desirable piece of furniture to serve the two
purposes of a seat and a table to iron upon, with compartments for
keeping the cloths used in ironing.

A window frame and sash has been patented by Mr. John E. Jones, of New
York City. The construction is such that the sashes when closed are to
all intents and purposes air tight, and wear and friction are removed
from the packing strips, so the sashes may be raised and lowered
without injury to the packing, the invention being an improvement on a
former patented invention of the same inventor.

A tug fastener has been patented by Mr. Daniel T. Chambers, of
Mansfield, Ohio. It is in the nature of a divided button, one portion
integral with a shank that goes in the end of the single tree, and the
other formed of two limbs, one completing the periphery of the button
and the other extending up parallel with the shank and forming a part
of the neck beside the button on which the trace is contained.

A tug fastener for single trees has also been patented by the above
inventor. It consists of a tilting latch hinged upon a horizontal axis
at or near the end of the single tree, with one hub adapted to lie
longitudinally with the single tree and the other to project upwardly
at about a right angle thereto, making an easily operated device for
fastening the traces to a single tree.

A plaster fastener has been patented by Messrs. Forest M. Lampson,
Alpheus M. Laning, and George W. Hogben, of Ripon, Wis. It consists
of a metallic washer formed of thin sheet metal, slightly convex,
and provided with a countersink in the center, formed by the process
of stamping, the device being intended to secure plastering loosened
by shrinking of the lath, etc., before it becomes cracked and

A combined towel, hat and paper rack has been patented by Mr. Elbridge
L. Scribner, of Amesbury, Mass. (P. O. Box 98). It is a simple,
inexpensive, and efficient device, consisting of a frame formed of end
pieces of wood, connected by wooden slats on the back, and supporting
three rods of metal or wood for receiving the articles to be held, the
lower rod being designed for receiving a roller towel, and the upper
rod being offset or cranked for convenience in placing articles on the
lower rods.


Washington: Government Printing Office, 1886. Pp. 576.

This is a carefully compiled volume, giving the statistics for mineral
products in the United States. Coal, coke, petroleum, and natural gas
are first treated of; the metals, from iron to zirconium, come next.
Under aluminum the work of Col. Frishmuth, of Philadelphia, and of
the Cowles Smelting Company, of Cleveland, are noted. In view of the
demand for zirconium pencils for the oxyhydrogen light, the section
on the sources and preparation of the oxide, by Mr. David T. Ray, is
of special interest. Other subjects treated are structural materials,
abrasive materials (buhr stones, etc.), precious stones, fertilizers,
glass materials, and, under many other headings, a complete review of
the titular subject appears. We also note a section of much interest on
mineral paints, by Mr. Marcus Benjamin, F.C.S. In it the preparation
of barytes as an adulterant for paints is described at some length.
In some instances an elaborate explanation of the classification of
paints as adopted is given. In other cases it is entirely omitted. The
first system is certainly preferable. A very full index closes the
work. It can be had on application to the Director of the United States
Geological Survey, Washington, D. C., the cost of printing and binding
(40 cents) being at the same time remitted.

Business and Personal.

    _The charge for Insertion under this head is One Dollar a line
    for each insertion; about eight words to a line. Advertisements
    must be received at publication office as early as Thursday
    morning to appear in next issue._

Best tempering fluid known--Mercury, potash, and hydrochloral. $2.00
per gallon. Samples, 25c. Address Chemical Works, New Albany, Ind.

Hodges' universal angle union makes pipe connection at any angle.
Rollstone Machine Co., Fitchburg, Mass.

To makers of water wheels, current wheels, and horizontal
turbines--Please address W. H. Garlick, Calumet, Ohio.

Sphero! A new and original game; an out-door sport; unlike any other.
Apparatus of wood, simple, inexpensive. Packed like croquet, and cost
to manufacture about the same. Patent pending. Rights, etc. Address J.
M. Hughes, Brooklyn P. O., N. Y.

The H. W. Johns Manufacturing Co., 87 Maiden Lane, N. Y., will send
to any address in the United States, postage prepaid, a trial package
of ¼ pound of asbestos wick packing and 1½ pounds of asbestos piston
rod packing, on receipt of one dollar; or ¼ pound of asbestos wick
packing and 3½ pounds of asbestos piston rod packing, on receipt of two
dollars. Give address in full--name, town or city, county, and State.
The H. W. Johns asbestos packings are the best and most economical made.

For Sale--Ivory button works. Large, well lighted building; 20 H.P.
engine; capacity, 200 gross per day; doing splendid business; plenty of
cheap labor. Price, only $3,000. Address T. Bergy, Caledonia, Mich.

Wanted--A pushing man, capable of taking charge of a shop for
building engines. A fine chance for a skilled mechanic. Address, with
references, etc., lock box 17, York, Pa.

Blake's Improved Belt Studs are the best fastening for Leather and
Rubber Belting. Greene, Tweed & Co., 83 Chambers St., New York.

Wanted--Tool agents in shops. Outfit free. E. H. Randall & Co., 154
Lake St., Chicago, Ill.

_Link Belting_ and Wheels. Link Belt M. Co., Chicago.

The _Railroad Gazette_, handsomely illustrated, published weekly, at
73 Broadway, New York. Specimen copies free. Send for catalogue of
railroad books.

_Protection for Watches._

Anti-magnetic shields--an absolute protection from all electric
and magnetic influences. Can be applied to any watch. Experimental
exhibition and explanation at "Anti-Magnetic Shield & Watch Case Co.,"
18 John St., New York. F. S. Giles, Agt., or Giles Bro. & Co., Chicago,
where full assortment of Anti-Magnetic Watches can be had. Send for
full descriptive circular.

Woodworking Machinery of all kinds. The Bentel & Margedant Co., 116
Fourth St., Hamilton, O.

Guild & Garrison's Steam Pump Works, Brooklyn, N. Y. Pumps for liquids,
air, and gases. New catalogue now ready.

Concrete patents for sale. E. L. Ransome, S. F., Cal.

The Knowles Steam Pump Works, 44 Washington St., Boston, and 93 Liberty
St., New York, have just issued a new catalogue, in which are many
new and improved forms of Pumping Machinery of the single and duplex,
steam and power type. This catalogue will be mailed free of charge on

Presses & Dies. Ferracute Mach. Co., Bridgeton, N. J.

Nickel Plating.--Sole manufacturers cast nickel anodes, pure nickel
salts, polishing compositions, etc. $100 "_Little Wonder_." A perfect
Electro Plating Machine. Sole manufacturers of the new Dip Lacquer
Kristaline. Complete outfit for plating, etc. Hanson, Van Winkle & Co.,
Newark, N. J., and 92 and 94 Liberty St., New York.

Iron Planer, Lathe, Drill, and other machine tools of modern design.
New Haven Mfg. Co., New Haven, Conn.

Supplement Catalogue.--Persons in pursuit of information of any special
engineering, mechanical, or scientific subject, can have catalogue of
contents of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT sent to them
free. The SUPPLEMENT contains lengthy articles embracing the
whole range of engineering, mechanics, and physical science. Address
Munn & Co., Publishers, New York.

Planing and Matching Machines. All kinds Wood Working Machinery. C. B.
Rogers & Co., Norwich, Conn.

Billings' Drop Forged Steel C Clamps. Drop Forgings, all kinds.
Billings & Spencer Co., Hartford, Conn.

Curtis Pressure Regulator and Steam Trap. See p. 45.

Chucks--over 100 different kinds and sizes in stock. Specials made to
order. Cushman Chuck Co., Hartford, Ct.

The Improved Hydraulic Jacks, Punches, and Tube Expanders. R. Dudgeon,
24 Columbia St., New York.

Hoisting Engines, Friction Clutch Pulleys, Cut-off Couplings. D.
Frisbie & Co., 112 Liberty St., New York.

If an invention has not been patented in the United States for more
than one year, it may still be patented in Canada. Cost for Canadian
patent, $40. Various other foreign patents may also be obtained. For
instructions address Munn & Co., SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN patent
agency, 361 Broadway, New York.

Veneer Machines, with latest improvements. Farrel Fdry. Mach. Co.,
Ansonia, Conn. Send for circular.

Tight and Slack Barrel Machinery a specialty. John Greenwood & Co.,
Rochester, N. Y. See illus. adv., p. 28.

Walrus, Bull Neck, and Buffalo Leather for polishing emery, glue,
composition, Polishers' Supplies. Greene, Tweed & Co., New York city.

_Catarrh Cured._

A clergyman, after years of suffering from that loathsome disease,
catarrh, and vainly trying every known remedy, at last found a
prescription which completely cured and saved him from death. Any
sufferer from this dreadful disease sending a self-addressed stamped
envelope to Dr. Lawrence, 212 East 9th St., New York, will receive the
recipe free of charge.

Lick Telescope and all smaller sizes built by Warner & Swasey,
Cleveland, Ohio.

Send for catalogue of Scientific Books for sale by Munn & Co., 361
Broadway, N. Y. Free on application.

Notes & Queries


=Names and Address= must accompany all letters, or no attention will be
paid thereto. This is for our information, and not for publication.

=References= to former articles or answers should give date of paper
and page or number of question.

=Inquiries= not answered in reasonable time should be repeated;
correspondents will bear in mind that some answers require not a little
research, and, though we endeavor to reply to all, either by letter or
in this department, each must take his turn.

=Special Written Information= on matters of personal rather than
general interest cannot be expected without remuneration.

=Scientific American Supplements= referred to may be had at the office.
Price 10 cents each.

=Books= referred to promptly supplied on receipt of price.

=Minerals= sent for examination should be distinctly marked or labeled.

       *       *       *       *       *

(1) L. M. W. asks (1) a receipt for marsh mallows, as made by
confectioners. A. Dissolve one-half pound of gum arabic in one pint
of water, strain and add one half pound of fine sugar, and place over
the fire, stirring constantly until the sirup is dissolved, and all of
the consistency of honey. Add gradually the whites of four eggs well
beaten. Stir the mixture until it becomes somewhat thin and does not
adhere to the finger. Flavor to taste and pour into a tin slightly
dusted with powdered starch, and when cool divide into small squares.
2. The title of a good veterinary journal. A. _American Veterinary
Review_, New York. 3. The formula for a spavin cure? A. Take of sweet
oil 4 ounces, spirits of turpentine 2 ounces, oil of stone 1 ounce.
Mix and apply three times per day. 4. A receipt for a wash that will
prevent rabbits from injuring the bark of fruit trees. A. We know of
nothing good for this purpose.

(2) A. L. K. asks how common fat can be rendered into tallow in an
open kettle. A. Keep the tallow melted for some time, along with about
two per cent of sulphuric acid largely diluted with water, employing
constant agitation, and allowing the whole to cool slowly; then remelt
the cake with a large quantity of hot water, and wash well.

(3) W. C. B. asks about the process and kind of machinery used in
preparing raw sienna for paint. A. The raw sienna is thrown directly on
the hearth of a reverberatory furnace and kept thoroughly raked until
it assumes a proper color. Very little, if any, sienna is known to be
burnt in this country.

(4) W. M. M. asks for some transparent paint suitable to paint on
tracing muslin. A. You must use a transparent varnish such as the
following: Dissolve 30 parts of copal and 2 parts of camphor in 120
parts of oil of turpentine and 30 parts of oil of lavender. Use lakes,
gamboge, Prussian blue, and the other transparent colors, mixed with
the vehicle.

(5) S. S. asks a receipt for black heads. A. Cover the parts afflicted
with a pomade consisting of kaolin 4 parts, glycerine 3 parts, acetic
acid 2 parts, with the addition of a small quantity of ethereal oil.
See SUPPLEMENT, No. 542.

(6) W. L. asks (1) a cure for frost bitten feet. A. For frost bites,
rub the affected parts with pure oil of peppermint. It will also
prevent the after effect of chilblains. Care should be taken to use
only the pure oil, and not the essence of peppermint, as the essence
will not have the desired effect. 2. How plate glass is made. A. See

(7) A. T.--Hard rubber is a very good insulator; gutta percha is also
very good, and can be softened by boiling water and given any desired

(8) J. H. S. wants a good receipt to prevent hair coming out. A. Scald
black tea, 2 ounces, with 1 gallon of boiling water, strain, and add 3
ounces glycerine, tincture cantharides ½ ounce, bay rum 1 quart. Mix
well and perfume. This is a good preparation for frequent use in its
effect both on the scalp and hair, but neither will be kept in good
condition without care and attention to general health. See articles in
SUPPLEMENTS, 102, 388, 396.

(9) A. H. asks the size of steel wire rope necessary to suspend a
weight of 16,000 pounds, each end of the rope being fastened 1,600
yards apart, the weight to travel from one end to the other on the
rope. A. The scheme of so long a span carrying a load is impracticable.
A span of 4,800 feet will nearly absorb the margin of safety by its own
weight, depending upon the amount of deflection that could be allowed
in the catenary curve. The largest steel cables that are made, 2⅝
inches, weigh 13 pounds per foot, or over 31 net tons for your span;
with a deflection of one twenty-fifth, or nearly 200 feet, the tension
would be 3¼ times the weight, or 254,800 pounds, while the ultimate
strength is but 400,000 pounds.

(10) G. A. L. asks: Why will a brake on the hind end of a train of
cars hold more than a brake set ahead of it on train? A. We do not know
that it is so. It is possibly a fancy.

(11) A. K. H. asks: Will hot air cool off by sending it rapidly through
a wooden tube 300 or 400 feet long? If so, how much? A. Yes, slightly.
An iron pipe is better if you wish to cool the air. How much the air
will be cooled will depend on initial temperature and the temperature
of the conductor and surrounding air.

(12) H. H. writes: I have large quantities of iron and steel to pickle,
or, in other words, to clean. I use oil of vitriol, which is expensive
and dangerous. Is there an acid that would be cheaper and at the
same time as effective? A. We know of nothing cheaper or better than
sulphuric acid for pickling castings. The most economical method, as
practiced here, is found in the hot bath, a tub lined with lead, or if
of small requirement a stone pot. Water 5 to 8 parts, acid 1 part. Boil
the work in the acid bath for a few minutes, then rinse in hot water.
There is no danger if properly managed. For wrought iron and steel,
use hydrochloric acid and water.

(13) W. F. E. asks: 1. How are bath bricks made? A. Bath bricks are
found native as minerals, and are imported from England. 2. How are
papier mache ornaments moulded, and where can I procure a work on the
subject? A. We can send you Spons' "Workshop Receipts" for $2.00, first
series, which contains full information on papier mache. See also
various articles in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT on the
technology of the paper trade.

(14) W. M. S. asks how to make liquid glue. A. Take a wide mouthed
bottle, and dissolve in it 8 ounces best glue in ½ pint water, by
setting it in a vessel of water, and heating until dissolved. Then add
slowly 2½ ounces strong nitric acid 36° Baume, stirring all the while.
Effervescence takes place, with generation of fumes. When all the acid
has been added, the liquid is allowed to cool. Keep it well corked, and
it will be ready for use at any time.

(15) E. H. F. asks what preparation steam laundries use to make their
goods so stiff and have such a fine gloss, and how is it used, and,
if used with starch, is hot or cold starch used? A. Melt 2½ pounds
of the very best A 1 paraffine wax over a slow fire. When liquefied,
remove from the fire and stir in 100 drops oil of citronella. Have a
lot of round new pie tins, clean and nice; place them on a level table,
coat them slightly with sweet oil, and pour about six tablespoonfuls
of the enamel into each tin. The pan may be floated in water to cool
the contents sufficiently to permit the mixture to be cut or stamped
out with a tin cutter into small cakes about the size of a peppermint
lozenge. Two of these cakes added to each pint of starch will cause the
smoothing iron to impart the finest possible finish to muslin or linen,
besides perfuming the clothes.

(16) J. T. M., Jr., asks for a tempering liquid for tempering a flat
coiled spring, ⅛ of an inch thick, 1½ inches wide, 20 feet long,
without drawing the temper. A. You can get a spring temper in the
hardening bath. Harden in water or oil and draw temper in an iron pan
of linseed oil at boiling temperature.

(17) C. E. H. writes: I have nearly 1,000 feet of out-door steam
pipe carried in elevated wooden boxes. What is a good and cheap pipe
covering to prevent loss of heat? A. Pulverized charcoal or sawdust
makes a good cheap insulation for steam pipes. The boxes should be
large enough to allow 2 inches clearance all around the pipe, the
latter to be retained in position by cleats. Boxes should be tight
enough to prevent circulation of air. Tar the outside to make weather

(18) B. L. asks: 1. Is there any method for removing rust stains from
white cloth or linen? A. See the table in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
SUPPLEMENT No. 158, for the "Removal of Stains and Grease Spots."
2. Is there any book showing how to work out chemical problems, and
giving answer in the back of the book? A. Professor J. P. Cooke's
"Chemical Problems and Reactions" can be sent you postpaid for $1.

(19) D. B. wants a receipt for a dark cherry stain for a white pine
floor. A. Use rain water 3 quarts, annatto 4 ounces; boil in a copper
kettle till the annatto is dissolved, then put in a piece of potash the
size of a walnut; keep it on the fire about half an hour longer, and it
is ready to bottle for use.

(20) J. T. S.--Engines with automatic cut-offs will run steady with
variable work. If you have a governor that only controls a throttle
valve, there will be a small variation of speed with as much variation
in the work as you state. Much depends upon the relative amount of work
absorbed by the mill and the variable machinery.


An experience of forty years, and the preparation of more than one
hundred thousand applications for patents at home and abroad, enable us
to understand the laws and practice on both continents, and to possess
unequaled facilities for procuring patents everywhere. A synopsis of
the patent laws of the United States and all foreign countries may be
had on application, and persons contemplating the securing of patents,
either at home or abroad, are invited to write to this office for
prices, which are low, in accordance with the times and our extensive
facilities for conducting the business. Address MUNN & CO., office
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, 361 Broadway, New York.


For which Letters Patent of the United States were Granted

February 8, 1887,


[See note at end of list about copies of these patents.]

  Account register or coin counter, L. Benham.                   357,361
  Acid, concentrating sulphuric, J. B. F. Herreshoff.            357,528
  Alarm. See Burglar alarm. Fire and burglar alarm.
  Albumen from blood, obtaining, T. Nordenfelt.                  357,331
  Anvil for steam hammers, A. E. Barnard.                        357,546
  Auger, earth, S. Albright.                                     357,544
  Baling press, S. T. McCanless.                                 357,400
  Bandage, suspensory, Miller & Maughmer.                        357,494
  Banjo, E. J. Cubley.                                           357,270
  Basin or grease trap, settling, G. E. Waring, Jr.              357,349
  Basins, alarm attachment for overflow, F. Brandt               357,307
  Basket cover, A. S. Chamberlin.                                357,466
  Battery. See Galvanic battery.
  Bed bottom frames, machine for securing fabrics
      to, W. S. Seymour.                                         357,343
  Bed bottom, spring, T. E. O'Brien.                             357,224
  Bed, sofa, G. E. Krause.                                       357,530
  Bed, sofa, L. S. Trotter.                                      357,348
  Bed spring, oscillating, J. R. Masters.                        357,215
  Bedstead fastening device, N. H. Waters.                       357,252
  Bee feeder, W. H. McWilliams.                                  357,493
  Beer in fermenting tubs, apparatus for cooling, M. Gottfried.  357,196
  Belt for transmitting power, F. M. Walker.                     357,432
  Bench. See Wash bench.
  Bit. See Bridle bit.
  Blind stop, L. T. Gulick.                                      357,381
  Blind, window, J. Fawcett.                                     357,277
  Boiler furnace, steam, J. R. Youart.                           357,442
  Bolt threading machine, J. W. Adams.                           357,300
  Book adjuster, I. J. Adair.                                    357,543
  Boot and shoe uppers, device for packing, C. W. Haselton.      357,556
  Boots or shoes, heel plate for, F. E. Hollenbeck.              357,386
  Bottle, nursing, C. B. Wheelock.                               357,439
  Bottles, machine for capsuling, E. Gumbrecht.                  357,315
  Box. See Fare box.
  Bracelet, C. W. Lord.                                          357,326
  Brake. See Car brake.
  Brake shoe, J. N. Mileham.                                     357,284
  Bridle, B. S. Seaman.                                          357,341
  Bridle bit, J. L. Murphy.                                      357,497
  Bucket, chamber and water, L. Z. Jenkins.                      357,390
  Buckle, L. B. Stowell.                                         357,243
  Bungs, machine for cutting, S. C. Chase.                       357,175
  Burglar alarm, electrical, G. Schleicher.                      357,416
  Button, M. D. Shipman.                                         357,237
  Button, collar, L. Baer.                                       357,358
  Buttonhole stitching machine, J. H. Reed.                      357,537
  Button ornamenting and engraving machine, C. R. Bannihr.       357,264
  Button or stud, W. W. Covell.                                  357,179
  Button, spring, F. W. Lynn.                                    357,327
  Calendar, perpetual combination date, J. M. Anderson.          357,262
  Cap, J. J. Seldner.                                            357,418
  Capsules, machine for cutting off gelatine, F. A. Hubel (r).    10,807
  Car brake, H. R. Wolfe.                                        357,257
  Car brake, railway, J. L. Brown.                               357,455
  Car coupling, R. Bigney.                                       357,451
  Car coupling, W. Brendon.                                      357,266
  Car coupling, G. W. Giles.                                     357,477
  Car coupling, S. Haltom.                                       357,555
  Car coupling, J. Mullen.                                       357,496
  Car coupling, W. E. Roberts.                                   357,504
  Car coupling, C. Snyder.                                       357,562
  Car coupling, R. S. Sumner.                                    357,510
  Car, sleeping, G. Leve.                                        357,531
  Car starter and brake, R. B. Avery.                            357,263
  Car, stock, L. Mengeler.                                       357,219
  Car, stock, Ott & Cordray.                                     357,535
  Cars, electro-magnetic attraction device for, J. B. Atwater.   357,516
  Cardboard or pasteboard, apparatus for cutting
      or dividing, W. R. Bacon.                                  357,445
  Card, game, P. K. Dealy.                                       357,184
  Carding machines, condenser for, W. Gill.                      357,478
  Carriage curtain, F. A. Bradenburg.                            357,265
  Carriage, folding baby, C. Haller.                             357,382
  Carriage top, C. A. Keyser.                                    357,485
  Carriages, canopy top for, R. F. Krause.                       357,324
  Carrier. See Crock carrier.
  Cart, road, G. W. Payne.                                       357,501
  Cartridge loading machine, G. Burdick.                         357,457
  Case. See Egg case. Fishing rod case. Organ case.
      Pigeon hole case. Watch case.
  Cash carrier apparatus, S. W. Barr.                            357,449
  Casks, machine for pitching, T. Krausch.                       357,323
  Caster, furniture, L. Scofield.                                357,340
  Casting, manufacture of moulds for, R. Bagaley.                357,303
  Chair. See Rocking chair. Tilting chair. Chair, G. Hunzinger.  357,388
  Chair and lounge, combined, G. Hamel.                          357,383
  Chair bottom, R. Mitchell.                                     357,405
  Check register and coin counter, V. A. Krepps.                 357,557
  Chimney cowl, C. W. Ackermann.                                 357,355
  Chimney cowl and ventilator, W. B. Crowther, Sr.               357,269
  Chuck, J. L. Kirkpatrick.                                      357,394
  Chuck, lathe, J. H. Westcott.                                  357,437
  Churn, W. H. Talley.                                           357,247
  Cider press, J. L. Barnes.                                     357,448
  Cigar cutter, W. H. Myers.                                     357,560
  Clamp. See Clothes suspending clamp.
  Clamp, F. F. Houston.                                          357,387
  Clamp or vise, W. H. Denney.                                   357,524
  Clasp. See Pocket clasp.
  Cleaner. See Flue cleaner.
  Clock, programme alarm, E. Cushing.                            357,373
  Closet. See Earth closet.
  Clothes suspending clamp and tag holder, combined,
  Carson & Witherell.                                            357,464
  Clothes washer, E. C. Willis.                                  357,441
  Coffin, J. Maxwell.                                            357,490
  Collets, machine for drilling and splitting, C. V. Woerd.      357,514
  Coloring matter for dyeing by the action of tetrazo
      dyes with beta naphthylamine sulpho acid,
      red, C. Duisberg.                                          357,274
  Coloring matter from tetrazodiphenyl, blue, C. Duisberg.       357,273
  Comb. See Gauge comb.
  Combing machine, circular, J. W. Bradley.                      357,171
  Condenser, steam, J. McIntyre.                                 357,401
  Cork fastener, W. M. Fischer.                                  357,311
  Corn husker, A. Decker.                                        357,523
  Corset, M. Adler.                                              357,356
  Corset, I. W. Birdseye.                                        357,362
  Cotton and other presses, packing attachment
      for, W. R. Rodgers _et al_.                                357,232
  Coupling. See Car coupling. Thill coupling.
  Crock carrier, G. K. Schauer.                                  357,339
  Cuff holder, G. E. Adams.                                      357,167
  Cultivator, S. T. Hudson.                                      357,202
  Cultivator, W. V. Walker.                                      357,250
  Cultivator, tongueless, H. J. Schmeiser.                       357,235
  Cutter. See Cigar cutter.
  Dental waste receptacle, T. F. Spencer.                        357,421
  Derrick for use on dredging machines, Butler, Jr., & Clarke.   357,520
  Desk, wall, M. A. Miller.                                      357,533
  Digger. See Mechanical digger. Potato digger.
  Disinfectant mixture, E. G. Xander.                            357,259
  Distance indicator for cabs, etc., G. B. Smith.                357,420
  Doors, fastening for hinged and sliding, G. G. Smith.          357,344
  Draught equalizer, D. Conover.                                 357,178
  Draught or tug link, spring, J. T. B. Siden.                   357,419
  Dredging purposes, float or ponton for carrying,
      lines of pipes for, E. Chaquette.                          357,367
  Dyeing with basic aniline, Holliday & Rau.                     357,281
  Earth closet, J. H. Watson.                                    357,253
  Egg case, J. R. Jones.                                         357,484
  Electric cut-out, O. B. Shallenberger.                         357,293
  Electric machines, commutator for dynamo,
      Westinghouse, Jr., & Schmid.                               357,295
  Electrical distribution, W. B. Harvey.                         357,280
  Electro-magnetic motor, Darling & Bock, Jr.                    357,374
  Elevator. See Hydraulic elevator.
  Elevator doors, attachment for, E. P. Walker.                  357,430
  Engine. See Oscillating engine. Steam engine.
  Evaporating apparatus, A. Miller.                              357,404
  Evaporating apparatus, vacuum, J. H. Hancock.                  367,481
  Exhibitor. See Wall paper exhibitor.
  Fanning mill, C. Altringer.                                    357,261
  Fare box, electrical, W. A. Crowdus.                           357,372
  Fare register, C. E. Pratt.                                    357,229
  Farm gate, B. F. Ellis.                                        357,275
  Faucet, C. H. Loper.                                           357,488
  Faucet and filter for cans, H. H. Hull.                        357,319
  Feed motion, C.E. Ring.                                        357,415
  Feed water heater, E. G. T. Colles.                            357,268
  Feed water purifying apparatus, I. B. McCormack.               357,328
  Fence post, Gough & Speakman.                                  357,314
  Fence post, J. J. Kimball.                                     357,393
  Fence post base, W. W. McCallip.                               357,217
  Fence wires, machine for winding and tightening, W. Knapp.     357,209
  Fertilizer distributer, S. H. Everett.                         357,376
  File, binding, J. W. Dickieson.                                357,375
  Filter, McLean & Cumming.                                      357,402
  Filter, H. Roeske.                                             357,505
  Fire and burglar alarm, combined. I. S. Bunker.                357,366
  Firearm, magazine, A. Burgess,
                                  357,458 to 357,462, 357,517 to 357,519
  Firearm, repeating, C. J. Bjerkness.                           357,170
  Fire extinguisher, chemical, J. P. Scott.                      357,292
  Fishing rod case, G. Kamp.                                     357,206
  Flatiron heater, E. A. Nelms.                                  357,406
  Flue cleaner, C. F. W. Doehring.                               357,309
  Fog horn, steam, C. A. Davis.                                  357,469
  Fork. See Saddle tree fork.
  Frame. See Spectacle frame.
  Funnel, A. Gersdorff.                                          357,476
  Furnace. See Boiler furnace. Heating furnace. Reheating furnace.
  Furnaces, air feeding device for, T. W. Jenkins.               357,391
  Gauge comb, O. C. Hubbell.                                     357,201
  Galvanic battery, S. A. Chase.                                 357,550
  Garbage receptacle, E. G. Xander.                              357,258
  Garments, shape retainer for the breasts of, J. Markmann.      357,397
  Gas holder. C. G. Fairchild.                                   357,276
  Gas motor, Gavillet & Martaresche.                             357,193
  Gate. See Farm gate.
  Gate, J. B. Holton.                                            357,529
  Gate latching device, Snow & Higgins.                          357,507
  Glass, decorating, L. Winterhoff.                              357,354
  Gloves or shoes, fastening for, A. Nolte.                      357,287
  Governor, tread power, C. C. Smalley.                          357,239
  Grader and ditcher, C. Cook.                                   357,522
  Grain winnower, C. J. Ericson.                                 357,525
  Hame, J. E. James.                                             357,389
  Hammers, lifting device for drop, W. S. Ward.                  357,433
  Hand and spring motor, combined, C. Nicholson.                 357,222
  Handle. See Ratchet tool handle. Tool handle.
  Hanger. See Picture cord and hook hanger.
  Harrow, F. M. Everingham.                                      357,377
  Harrow, E. A. Grady.                                           357,278
  Harrow, G. I. Waughtal.                                        357,254
  Harvesters, cutting mechanism for, F. Van den Bosch.           357,512
  Hat bodies, etc., felting machine for, J. T. Waring.           357,350
  Hat hook, O. I. Foster.                                        357,192
  Hat protector, M. E. C. Hopkirk.                               357,200
  Hat ventilator, F. C. Bowen.                                   357,364
  Hay press, C. A. Hamilton.                                     357,480
  Hay rake and loader, W. & B. F. Bader.                         357,446
  Hay rake and loader, J. T. Hart.                               357,198
  Head rest, Bonnell & Gilson.                                   357,305
  Heater. See Feed water heater. Flatiron heater.
  Heating and ventilating apparatus, R. A. Rew.                  357,411
  Heating buildings, apparatus for, I. J. Ordway.                357,332
  Heating furnace, air, J. Weik.                                 357,513
  Heel strips, making, F. W. Coy.                                357,552
  Hinge for step ladders, A. Edmondson _et al_.                  357,188
  Hoisting and supporting device, R. F. De Grain.                357,185
  Holder. See Cuff holder. Gas holder. Napkin holder. Rein
  Hook. See Hat hook.
  Horse power, B. A. Lombard.                                    357,212
  Hub attaching device, I. Johnson.                              357,321
  Hydraulic elevator, R. C. Smith.                               357,345
  Indicator. See Distance indicator.
  Ingot moulds, feeder for, G. Nimmo.                            357,286
  Joint. See Tripod joint.
  Kiln. See Ore roasting kiln.
  Knapsack reservoir, G. B. Donavin.                             357,272
  Knife. See Pocket knife.
  Knitting machine, circular, J. C. Egly.                        357,472
  Ladder, step, H. C. Russell.                                   357,233
  Lamp, F. Rhind.                                                357,412
  Lamps and lamp stoves, wick tube for, L. J. Atwood.            357,545
  Lamps, switch and holder for incandescent electric,
      W. Hochhausen.                                             357,385
  Latch, B. A. Stevens.                                          357,242
  Lathes, drum for turning, G. Brenner.                          357,453
  Leather creasing machine, S. H. Randall.                       357,230
  Leather, machine for japanning and enameling, Wood & Reilly.   357,515
  Life detecting and preserving apparatus, Farnham & Askew.      357,190
  Lifting apparatus, J. Sargent.                                 357,234
  Link blanks, machine for cutting and bending, H. Brauchler.    357,172
  Liquid separator, centrifugal, H. F. Beimling.                 357,547
  Lock. See Nut lock.
  Lubricating composition, J. Plante.                            357,227
  Lubricator, E. McCoy.                                          357,491
  Mattress, folding woven wire, Kunkel & Van Sas.                357,558
  Measuring rack for goods in the piece, Newton & Ferrill.       357,534
  Mechanical digger, M. R. Pryor.                                357,536
  Mechanical movement. E. E. Orrell.                             357,499
  Metal, machine for bending and upsetting, Dosme-Chatain
      & Guibert.                                                 357,186
  Meter. See Water meter.
  Milk, preparing powdered, J. Carnrick.                         357,465
  Mill. See Tanning mill.
  Mirror, hand, P. Wiederer.                                     357,352
  Motor. See Electro-magnetic motor. Gas motor. Hand and
      spring motor. Steam motor. Water motor.
  Motor, Fisher & Hart.                                          357,378
  Mower, Nieth & Thomas.                                         357,330
  Multiple switch board systems, local battery circuit
  for, J. A. Seely.                                              357,540
  Multiple switch boards, metallic circuit for, J. A. Seely.     357,539
  Musical instrument, V. T. Barnwell.                            357,168
  Musical instrument, mechanical, Racca & Seward                 357,502
  Napkin holder, E. Gaillac.                                     357,313
  Nut lock, J. T. Clark.                                         357,467
  Oliver. A. & E. Welsh.                                         357,255
  Ore pulverizer, N. Clement.                                    357,369
  Ore roasting kiln, H. H. Burden.                               357,456
  Organ case, E. H. Loring.                                      357,559
  Oscillating engine, W. L. Todd.                                357,248
  Outsoles, laying. F. F. Raymond, 2d.                           357,335
  Paper box machines, printing mechanism for, H. P. Fiske.       357,553
  Paper making machine, G. Ferguson.                             357,474
  Paper may be made to adhere to metal, process
      by which, D. Macdonald.                                    357,213
  Pen, fountain, A. H. Cobb.                                     357,176
  Photographic plates, apparatus for coating, Ismay & Dodds.     357,483
  Piano, upright, Richardson & Warren.                           357,291
  Pianos, pianissimo pedal for, P. Weber.                        357,436
  Picture cord and hook hanger, G. B. Fowler.                    357,312
  Pigeonhole case, D. C. Meehan.                                 357,403
  Pin. See Rafting boom pin. Scarf pin.
  Pipe moulding apparatus, J. C. McDermott.                      357,492
  Plane, bench, J. Brice.                                        357,454
  Planter and marker, corn, S. Davis.                            357,470
  Planter, check rower corn, C. E. Sweney.                       357,563
  Planter, corn, F. M. H. Hempel.                                357,199
  Planter, corn, T. C. Young.                                    357,509
  Plasterer's hawk, G. W. Jaques.                                357,203
  Plow, J. W. Allen.                                             357,443
  Plow, T. J. Erwin.                                             357,526
  Plow, F. Grimm.                                                357,279
  Pneumatic dispatch tubes, automatic gate lock
      lock for, Bryson, Jr., & Mudge.                            357,174
  Pocket clasp, H. M. Welliver.                                  371,351
  Pocket knife, J. Wiesner.                                      357,353
  Post. See Fence post.
  Potato digger, W. Young.                                       357,260
  Press. See Baling press. Cider press. Hay press.
  Pressure regulator, steam, J. P. Stabler.                      357,422
  Printing and delivery mechanism, web, L. C. Crowell.           357,551
  Protector. See Hat protector. Watch protector.
  Puller. See Stump puller.
  Pulleys to shafts, securing, C. C. Smalley.                    357,238
  Pulp, process of and apparatus for cooking wood, C. Cornwell.  357,371
  Pulverizing machine, J. B. Waring.                             357,434
  Pulverizing machines, feeder for, J. B. Waring.                357,435
  Pump, measuring lift, L. D. & P. W. Miller.                    357,285
  Pumping and distributing semi-fluids or liquids
      holding solid matter in suspension, J. V. V. Booraem.      357,363
  Rack. See Measuring rack.
  Radiator, heat, J. F. Keener.                                  357,207
  Rafting boom pin, C. Buisson.                                  357,365
  Railway rail, R. L. Harris.                                    357,316
  Railway rails, cast iron brace chair for street. O.
      W. Meysenburg.                                             357,532
  Railway signaling, electric, G. Westinghouse, Jr.              357,296
  Railway switch. A. H. Ege.                                     357,189
  Railway switch, W. Wharton, Jr.                                357,438
  Railway switch stand, D. H. Foreman.                           357,475
  Railway time signal, A. P. Odell.                              357,407
  Railway track, J. Lawler.                                      357,396
  Railways, construction of, J. J. Anderson.                     357,301
  Rake. See Hay rake.
  Ram, hydraulic, J. Richards.                                   357,413
  Ram or engine, hydraulic, W. A. Rife.                          357,414
  Ratchet tool handle, J. Swan.                                  357,245
  Reaping and mowing machine, Grimes & Williams.                 357,527
  Register. See Account register. Check register. Fare register.
  Regulator. See Pressure regulator. Watch regulator.
  Reheating furnace for sheet iron or steel. W. H. Bailey.       357,447
  Rein holder, W. Tennison.                                      357,427
  Ring. See Sheet metal ring.
  Rivet receptacle, A. L. Conklin.                               357,177
  Riveting machine, J. F. Webster.                               357,294
  Rocking chair, reclining, I. W. Johnson.                       357,205
  Roller bearing for shafts and axles, J. Gibbons (r)             10,805
  Roof, slate, W. Redett.                                        357,503
  Saddle tree fork, R. Wines.                                    357,297
  Sash balancing device, A. G. Johnson.                          357,204
  Sash, window, T. A. Sweet.                                     357,246
  Saw gummer, E. Rogers.                                         357,336
  Sawing machine, circular, H. M. Darling.                       357,182
  Scale, weighing, W. M. Taylor.                                 357,426
  Scales, attachment for calculating, R. C. Smith.               357,346
  Scarf pin, C. Huffner.                                         357,318
  Screen. See Window screen.
  Screw cutting machine, H. F. Coy.                              357,180
  Seam pressing machine, Haselton & Felt.                        357,482
  Separator. See Liquid separator.
  Sewage or other impurities, apparatus for removing,
      F. Sanders.                                                357,338
  Sewing machine, Fisher & Hart.                                 357,379
  Sewing machine, Ramsden & Ellis.                               357,334
  Sewing machine driving mechanism, C. Nicholson                 357,223
  Sewing machines, rotary take-up for, S. W. Wardwell, Jr.       357,251
  Shackle clips, manufacture of, F. P. Bates.                    357,450
  Shackle, spring, Bergman & Miller.                             357,169
  Sheathing and lath machine. E. M. Byrkit.                      357,521
  Sheet metal bending machine, O. Pocock.                        357,228
  Sheet metal, machine for shearing and bending, A. J. Duncan.   357,187
  Sheet metal ring and making the same, C. C. Andrews.           357,302
  Shell, C. G. Otis.                                             357,500
  Shirt, E. A. Lehmann.                                          357,325
  Shoe fastening, C. F. W. Seidel.                               357,541
  Signal. See Railway time signal.
  Skirt spring, dress, M. Cohn.                                  357,370
  Snow excavator, railway, Newman & Greene.                      357,498
  Spade, H. C. Pittenger.                                        357,408
  Spark arrester, J. C. Albrecht.                                357,357
  Spectacle frame, W. R. Johnston.                               357,392
  Speculum, J. W. McCall.                                        357,216
  Spinning spindles, cap for footsteps for, Pickford & Jagger.   537,226
  Spring. See Bed spring. Skirt spring.
  Spring jack switch, C. E. Scribner.                            357,538
  Square, calipers, and dividers, combined, Kline & Jadicke.     357,487
  Stamp, pocket. L. Ehrlich.                                     357,473
  Stand. See Railway switch stand.
  Steam engine, C. E. Robertson.                                 357,231
  Steam engine, W. Steers.                                       357,423
  Steam engines, reverse gear for. G. W. Cushing.                357,308
  Steam motor, H. Davey.                                         357,468
  Stone cutting saw, J. W. Maloy.                                357,214
  Stone flower, cut, F. Stickel.                                 357,425
  Stoneware, etc., composition for the manufacture
      of, R. C. Remmey.                                          357,410
  Stove doors, device for opening, Wood & Brown.                 357,298
  Street sweeper, H. Whiley.                                     357,440
  Structure, extensible, W. W. Atkinson.                         357,444
  Stump puller, Tichenor & Walker.                               357,347
  Switch. See Railway switch. Spring jack switch.
  Table leaf support, G. L. Slater.                              357,506
  Telephone receiver, W. C. Barney.                              357,360
  Telephone support. S. Rosenblatt.                              357,337
  Telephone transmitter, W. C. Barney.                           357,359
  Telephone transmitter, F. Blake.                               357,452
  Tent. M. P. McKoon.                                            357,329
  Thermostat, J. L. Campbell.                                    357,463
  Thill coupling, D. Murray.                                     357,221
  Thill coupling, J. C. Oliver.                                  357,225
  Thrashing machine, Morgan & Tolson.                            357,495
  Tilting chair, C. E. Davis.                                    357,183
  Time signals, instrument for transmitting audible,
      J. R. Etter.                                               357,310
  Tires, heating, setting, and removing, Gentry & O'Brien.       357,194
  Tobacco stems, machine for granulating, S. E. Hascall.         357,317
  Tongue support, Van de Mark & Moore.                           357,428
  Tool handle for interchangeable tools, E. Walker.              357,429
  Traction engine driving gear, F. M. Walker.                    357,431
  Transplanting trees, device for, C. D. Harsin.                 357,197
  Trestle tree, W. L. Bradford.                                  357,548
  Tripod joint, F. E. Wright.                                    357,299
  Trunk fastener, G. D. Spielman.                                357,240
  Tug fastener, D. T. Chambers.                                  357,549
  Tug fastener for singletrees, D. T. Chambers.                  357,368
  Type writing machines, attachment for, A. B. Dick.             357,271
  Valve, automatic air, H. L. Ide.                               357,320
  Valve, balanced slide, A. J. Stevens.                          357,424
  Valve for engine cylinders, relief, T. M. Fell.                357,191
  Valve gear, W. Wilson.                                         357,256
  Valve, globe, A. B. Rohney.                                    357,561
  Valve, throttle, J. J. Tonkin.                                 357,511
  Vehicle running gear, F. S. Seagrave.                          357,417
  Vehicle, spring, J. W. Brown.                                  357,173
  Vehicle, spring propelled, D. M. Pfantz.                       357,289
  Velocipede, L. P. Valiquet.                                    357,249
  Veneers, apparatus for cutting, H. B. Crandall.                357,181
  Ventilator. See Hat ventilator.
  Violin tail piece, E. P. Jenison.                              357,283
  Violins, keyboard for, J. F. Poage.                            357,409
  Vise, pipe, C. S. Bonney.                                      357,306
  Wagon, dumping, T. Hill.                                       357,384
  Wall hangings and other fabrics, decorating, W. Sochefsky.     357,508
  Wall paper exhibitor, J. Travis.                               357,542
  Wardrobe attachment, Goodrich & Corwin.                        357,554
  Wash bench, D. Beaudry.                                        357,304
  Washboard plate, J. H. & O. T. Lapham.                         357,211
  Washer. See Clothes washer.
  Washing machine, J. M. Gilman.                                 357,479
  Washing machine, Schumpe & Mollenkamp.                         357,236
  Washing machine, H. A. Stumpf.                                 357,244
  Watch balances, machine for drilling and tapping, E. A. Marsh  357,398
  Watch case, J. C. Landmann.                                    357,395
  Watch case pendant, C. K. Giles.                               357,195
  Watch protector, M. Marx.                                      357,399
  Watch regulator, A. Platt.                                     357,333
  Watch, stem winding, E. Kuhn.                                  357,210
  Watch, stem winding and setting, J. Johnson.                   357,322
  Water closets and other sanitary appliances,
      flushing apparatus for, O. J. McGann.                      357,218
  Water meter, rotary, L. H. Nash (r).                            10,806
  Water motor, W. J. Mingle.                                     357,220
  Water pipes from freezing, device for preventing,
      F. Steinkoenig.                                            357,241
  Wheel. See Wind wheel.
  Wind wheel, W. Ecker.                                          357,471
  Wind wheel, H. C. Hutchinson.                                  357,282
  Windmill attachment, automatic, M. Oppenheimer.                357,288
  Windmill tower, C. B. Putnam.                                  357,290
  Window screen, J. A. Bryan.                                    357,267
  Wire covering machine, D. Macduff.                             357,489
  Wire fabrics, machine for weaving coiled, W. S. Seymour.       357,342
  Wire springs, machine for making coiled, W. L. Goddard.        357,380
  Wool for spinning, preparing, P. L. Klein.                     357,486
  Yarn dresser, W. S. Kenyon.                                    357,208


  Bridle front, F. M. Livingston.                       17,094 to 17,096
  Casket lid, J. Maxwell.                                         17,108
  Corsets, ornamentation of, C. A. Griswold.                      17,088
  Glassware, ornamentation of, D. Forbes.                         17,086
  Hat rack, J. K. Palmenberg.                                      7,098
  Knitted fabric, J. H. Osborne.                                  17,097
  Lamp burner, L. Henkle.                                         17,090
  Purse, I. Heymann.                                              17,107
  Quilted fabric, A. Hildt.                               17,092, 17,093
  Rug, G. B. Fox.                                                 17,087
  Rug, J. Pegel.                                          17,099, 17,100
  Starching machines, frame for, F. M. Watkins.                   17,105
  Statuary, group of, J. Rogers.                                  17,102
  Statue, P. Dumont.                                              17,106
  Stove rail, J. A. Price.                                        17,101
  Target, flying, A. H. Hebbard.                                  17,089
  Toy savings bank, Shepard & Adams.                              17,103
  Type, font of printing script, C. E. Heyer.                     17,091
  Watch case, F. Rapp.                                            17,109
  Watch case, P. Stucker.                                         17,104


  Copies, apparatus for producing transferred, O. Lelm.           14,067
  Crackers, biscuits, and kindred articles, C. D. Boss & Son.     14,049
  Crackers, soda, Dozier-Weyl Cracker Company.                    14,053
  Electromotor necklaces for teething children, Gehrig Gebruder.  14,054
  Face powder, C. L. Diehl.                                       14,052
  Fertilizer, bone phosphate. Lancaster Chemical Company.         14,056
  Flavoring extracts, M. Michaelis & Son.                         14,068
  Floor covering, Corticine Floor Covering Company.               14,050
  Flour, wheat, H. C. Cole & Co.                                  14,063
  Gloves, kid, V. X. Jouvin.                                      14,055
  Heating by hot water, apparatus for, Gurney Hot
      Water Heater Company.                                       14,064
  Jewelry and silverware, S. F. Myers & Co.                       14,059
  Liniment, Staats Pine Liniment Company.                         14,061
  Liniment, liquid, T. Tindale.                                   14,062
  Medicinal preparation in the form of a lotion, Lynde & Hough.   14,065
  Milk, condensed, N. Y. Condensed Milk Company.                  14,051
  Mitts, gloves, hose, and hand and arm coverings,
      A. G. Jennings & Sons.                                      14,066
  Pantaloons, E. F. Miller.                                       14,058
  Preservative liquids, Avenarius Brothers.                       14,048
  Soap, laundry and toilet, C. F. Miller.                         14,057
  Stove polish, F. H. Schweizer.                                  14,060

=A Printed copy= of the specifications and drawing of any patent in the
foregoing list, also of any patent issued since 1866, will be furnished
from this office for 25 cents. In ordering please state the number and
date of the patent desired, and remit to Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, New
York. We also furnish copies of patents granted prior to 1866; but
at increased cost, as the specifications, not being printed, must be
copied by hand.

=Canadian Patents= may now be obtained by the inventors for any of the
inventions named in the foregoing list, provided they are simple, at a
cost of $40 each. If complicated, the cost will be a little more. For
full instructions address Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, New York. Other
foreign patents may also be obtained.


  Office: Nos. 346 & 348 Broadway, New York.

  JANUARY 1, 1887.

  Amount of Net Cash Assets, January 1, 1886.             $63,512,618.00


  Premiums                                                $16,386,067.69
  Less deferred premiums, January 1, 1886     878,161.65--$15,507,906.04
  Interest and rents, etc. (including
      realized gains on Securities sold)                    4,157,786.42
  Less Interest accrued
      January 1, 1886         435,284.18----3,722,502.24--$19,230,408.28


  Losses by death, including reversionary
      additions to same                    $2,757,035.97
  Endowments, matured and discounted,
    including reversionary additions to
    same                                      559,075.01
  Dividends, annuities, and purchased
    policies                                4,311,119.11
  Total Paid Policy-holders $7,627,230.09
  Taxes and re-insurances                     243,142.84
  Commissions, brokerages, agency expenses
    and physicians' fees                    2,529,357.57
  Office and law expenses, salaries,
    advertising, printing, etc.               523,672.30--$10,923,402.80


  Cash in bank, on hand, and in transit
    (since received)                       $3,033,305.13
  United States Bonds and other bonds and
    stocks (market value, $43,124,273.88)  39,522,443.99
  Real Estate                               6,839,974.22
  Bonds and Mortgages, first lien on real
    estate (buildings thereon insured for
    $14,000,000 and the policies assigned
    to the Company as additional collateral
    security)                              15,228,775.00
  Temporary Loans (market value of
    securities  held as collateral,
    $5,912,741)                             4,450,000.00
  *Loans on existing policies (the Reserve
    held by the Company on these policies
    amounts to over $2,000,000.00)            408,619.44
  *Quarterly and semi-annual premiums on
    existing policies, due subsequent to
    Jan. 1, 1887                            1,041,666.15
  *Premiums on existing policies in course
    of transmission and collection. (The
    Reserve on these policies, included in
    Liabilities, is estimated at
    $1,050,000)                               646,437.14
  Agents' balances                            161,905.31
  Accrued Interest on investments, January 1,
    1887                                      486,497.10--$71,819,623.48
  Market value of securities over cost on
    Company's Books                                         3,601,829.89

    * A detailed schedule of these items will accompany the usual
    annual report filed with the Insurance Department of the State
    of New York.

  CASH ASSETS, January 1, 1887,                           $75,421,453.37

  Appropriated as follows:

  Adjusted losses, due subsequent to January 1,
    1887                                             $202,346.43
  Reported losses, awaiting proof, etc.               355,625.28
  Matured endowments, due and unpaid (claims not
    presented)                                         37,890.70
  Annuities due and unpaid (uncalled for)               9,318.74
  Reserved for re-insurance on existing policies;
    participating insurance at 4 per cent.
    Carlisle net premium; non-participating
    at 5 per cent. Carlisle net premium            62,525,599.00
  Reserved for contingent liabilities
   to Tontine Dividend Fund, January 1,
   1886, over and above a 4 per cent.
   Reserve on existing policies of
   that class                          $3,123,742.77
  Addition to the Fund during 1886      1,320,530.69
  DEDUCT--                             $4,444,273.46
  Returned to Tontine policy-holders
    during the year on matured
    Tontines                              267,848.21
  Balance of Tontine Fund, January 1, 1887          4,176,425.25
  Reserved for premiums paid in advance                33,720.72
  Divisible Surplus (Company's Standard)                    8,080,527.25

Surplus by the New York State Standard at 4½ per cent. (including the
Tontine Fund), $15,549,319.53

From the undivided surplus of $8,080,527.25 the Board of Trustees
has declared a Reversionary dividend to participating policies in
proportion to their contribution to surplus, available on settlement of
next annual premium.

    Death Claims paid.                     Income from Interest.

          1882, $1,955,292                 1882, $2,798,018
          1883,  2,263,092                 1883,  2,712,863
          1884,  2,257,175                 1884,  2,971,624
          1885,  2,999,109                 1885,  3,399,069
          1886,  2,757,035                 1886,  3,722,502

     Insurance in force.                      Cash Assets.

  Jan. 1, 1883, $171,415,097       Jan. 1, 1883, $50,800,396
      "   1884,  198,746,043           "   1884,  55,542,902
      "   1885,  229,382,586           "   1885,  59,283,753
      "   1886,  259,674,500           "   1886,  66,864,321
      "   1887,  304,373,540           "   1887,  75,421,453

Number of Policies issued during the year, 22,027. Risks assumed,


  A. H. WELCH,
  L. L. WHITE.

  D. O'DELL, Superintendent of Agencies.
  A. HUNTINGTON, M.D., Medical Director.
  WILLIAM H. BEERS, President.
  HENRY TUCK, Vice-President.
  ARCHIBALD H. WELCH, 2d Vice-President.
  RUFUS W. WEEKS, Actuary.


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=Wahl.=--Galvanoplastic Manipulations. A Practical Guide for the Gold
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6th Street, St. Louis.

To Manufacturers


To parties already established, or about to form new companies,
_special inducements_ will be offered, and correspondence is solicited
with a view to locating in the thriving city of Brockton, Mass., on the
old Colony R. R., 30 minutes from Boston and one hour's ride from Fall
River. Present population 22,000, 40 per cent increase in the past 5
years. Address SECRETARY BUSINESS MEN'S CLUB, Brockton, Mass.


SOLID EMERY WHEELS.--By T. D. Paret.--Early forms of emery wheels and
their defects. Vulcanite wheels. The tanite wheels. Testing of tanite
wheels at Stroudsburg. Best working speeds for emery wheels. Bursting
of emery wheels. Tests for emery wheels. Comparative merits of American
and English emery wheels. With 2 engravings. Contained in SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. =538.= Price 10 cents. To be had at this
office and from all newsdealers.


=Jerome B. Howard=, Editor. A 24 page Monthly. The authentic exponent
of the Benn Pitman System of Phonography. $1.50 per annum. Specimen
copy free. =The Phonographic Institute, Cincinnati, O.=


Machines. York Patent. =YORK MFG. CO., York, Pa.=



A. & F. BROWN,

43 Park Place, N. Y.




REID.= 1635 BARKER ST. PHILA. Agents Wanted.

  Transmission of Power. Suspension Bridges, Tramways,
  and other applications of


  Trenton Iron Co.


  New York Office--COOPER, HEWITT & CO., 17 Burling Slip. Philadelphia
  Office--22 and 24 North Fourth Street


A package of Mixed Flower seeds (500 kinds), with PARK'S FLORAL GUIDE,
all for 2 stamps. Every flower-lover delighted. Tell all your friends.
=G. W. PARK, Fannettsburg, Pa.=

[Illustration] Send at once. This notice will not appear again.


--Our boats are not experimental, but are powerful, fast and economical
of fuel. Burn either coal or wood. Do not require experienced engineer.
No complete boats under $500.00 in price. Illustrated Catalogue,
including engines and boilers, and propeller wheels and six photographs
of launches, sent on receipt of six two cent stamps. CHAS. P. WILLARD &
CO., 282 Michigan St., Chicago.





Van Duzen's Patent Steam Pump.

Incomparable in cheapness and efficiency. Needs no care or skill;
cannot get out of order; has no moving parts.

A Superior Fire Pump.

Instantaneous and powerful, ever ready. Available, wherever steam
pressure can be had, for pumping any kind of liquid (hot, cold, sandy,
impure, etc.). We make ten sizes, prices from $7 to $75. Capacities
from 100 to 20,000 gallons per hour. State for what purpose wanted and
send for Catalogue of "Pumps." =Van Duzen & Tift, Cincinnati, O.=


Ainsworth's Patent Improved BELT CLAMP.

This clamp is light and strong; a pair will last a life time; are made
of the best cast steel. No tool or wrench is needed, as it is complete
in itself. Can be used on any size belt, from one inch to size of
clamp. =E. Ainsworth, Mfr,= 829 Washington St., Wilmington, Del.



  The Most Natural, Comfortable & Durable,
  Thousands in Daily Use.
  New Patents & Important Improvements.
  U. S. Gov't Manufacturer.
  Ill. Pamphlet of 160 Pages SENT FREE.
  =A. A. MARKS, 701 Broadway, New York City.=


Horizontal and Vertical.

Dredging Machinery, Flour, Powder, Slate and Flint Mill Machinery,
Turbine Water Wheels.

York Mfg Co., York, Pa. U. S. A.


We send our catalogue of books, free of postage, to any address.

=MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New York.=



=For Handling Grain, Coal, Sand, Clay, Tan Bark, Cinders, Ores, Seeds,
&c.= Send for Circulars. =BORDEN, SELLECK & CO., {Sole Manu'f'ers,}
Chicago, Ill.=


and Boilers for every possible duty. =New catalogue


The Caligraph.


  _Address: The American Writing
  Machine Co., Hartford, Conn.;
  New York
  Office, 237 Broadway._

Patents in Brazil and Mexico.

Until quite recently, considerable difficulty has been experienced
by inventors in obtaining patents in both Brazil and Mexico. The
requirements of the officials of these countries caused much bother and
delay, and the expenses of a patent corresponded therewith.

But there no longer exists that trouble and delay in obtaining patents
in either country. The proprietors of this paper have perfected
arrangements with resident professional gentlemen in both countries,
Brazil and Mexico, which enables them to obtain patents within
reasonable time and at reasonable cost.

These two countries embrace an enormous area of territory, and makers
of improved machinery and implements are now finding a market for their
products in those countries.

The cost need no longer deter inventors from obtaining patents in
either Brazil or Mexico.

For further information address

  MUNN & CO.,
  361 Broadway, New York.

Cutler's Pocket Inhaler

AND CARBOLATE OF IODINE INHALANT. A cure for Catarrh, Bronchitis,
Asthma and all diseases of the Throat and Lungs--EVEN CONSUMPTION--if
taken in season. It is the KING OF COUGH MEDICINES. A few inhalations
will correct the most OFFENSIVE BREATH. Carried as handily as a
penknife. This is the only POCKET INHALER approved by Physicians of
every school, and endorsed by the STANDARD MEDICAL JOURNALS of the
world. =OVER 400,000 IN USE.= Sold by Druggists for $1. By mail $1.25.

=W. H. SMITH & CO., Prop's, 410 Michigan Street, Buffalo, N. Y.=


=(Samples FREE)= for =Dr. Scott's= beautiful =Electric Corsets,
Brushes, Belts, Etc.= No risk, quick sales. Territory given,
satisfaction guaranteed. =DR. SCOTT, 843 Broadway, N. Y.=


Encyclopedia of 700 Engravings of WELL TOOLS,

Diamond Drills and Lightning Hydraulic WELL Machines.

Book free, 25c. for mailing it. American Well Works, Aurora, Ill.


Their Cost Reduced.

The expenses attending the procuring of patents in most foreign
countries having been considerably reduced the obstacle of cost is no
longer in the way of a large proportion of our Inventors patenting
their inventions abroad

=CANADA.=--The cost of a patent in Canada is even less than the cost
of a United States patent, and the former includes the Provinces of
Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, British Columbia, and

The number of our patentees who avail themselves of the cheap and easy
method now offered for obtaining patents in Canada is very large, and
is steadily increasing.

=ENGLAND.=--The new English law, which went into force on Jan. 1st.
1885, enables parties to secure patents in Great Britain on very
moderate terms. A British patent includes England, Scotland, Wales,
Ireland and the Channel Islands. Great Britain is the acknowledged
financial and commercial center of the world, and her goods are sent to
every quarter of the globe. A good invention is likely to realize as
much for the patentee in England as his United States patent produces
for him at home, and the small cost now renders it possible for almost
every patentee in this country to secure a patent in Great Britain,
where his rights are as well projected as in the United States.

=OTHER COUNTRIES.=--Patents are also obtained on very reasonable terms
in France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Russia, Italy, Spain (the latter
includes Cuba and all the other Spanish Colonies), Brazil, British
India, Australia, and the other British Colonies.

An experience of =FORTY= years has enabled the publishers of THE
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN to establish competent and trustworthy
agencies in all the principal foreign countries, and it has always been
their aim to have the business of their clients promptly and properly
done and their interests faithfully guarded.

A pamphlet containing a synopsis of the patent laws of all countries,
including the cost for each, and other information useful to
persons contemplating the procuring of patents abroad, may be had on
application to this office.

=MUNN & CO.,= Editors and Proprietors of THE SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN, cordially invite all persons desiring any information
relative to patents, or the registry of trade-marks, in this country
or abroad, to call at their offices, 361 Broadway. Examination of
inventions, consultation, and advice free. Inquiries by mail promptly

Address, =MUNN & CO.,= Publishers and Patent Solicitors, 361 Broadway,
New York.

=BRANCH OFFICES:= No. 622 and 624 F Street, Pacific Building, near 7th
Street, Washington, D. C.


  =Inside Page, each insertion--75 cents a line.=
  =Back Page, each insertion--$1.00 a line.=

The above are charges per agate line--about eight words per line.
This notice shows the width of the line, and is set in agate type.
Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per agate line, by
measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements must be received at
publication office as early as Thursday morning to appear in next issue.

[Illustration: STAR HACK SAW]

On receipt of 25 cents we will send by mail, postage paid, a Hack Saw
Frame and one Star Blade for cutting iron. This blade will cut off a
half inch bar of iron more than one hundred times without sharpening,
and at the rate of two cuts per minute.

For 15 cents we will send a Keyhole Saw Handle and one Star Blade for
cutting wood. These blades are all 9 inches long, and one dozen of
either kind will be sent at any time for 70 cents. We warrant these
patent saws to be very much better than any other kind in market.
They will come into more general use than files when once introduced.
Hardware dealers every where will furnish them on request.

Millers Falls Co.

=74 Chambers St., New York=



Warranted equal to any in Power and Economy, and superior to all in
Simplicity, and Compactness. Gives an Impulse at every Revolution.

  H. H. Latham,
  115 Monroe Street.


Zell Engineering Co., 112 Liberty Street.

  =Williams & Orton Mfg. Co.
  P. O. Box 148. STERLING, ILL.=

$10.00 to $50.00

per night. A light and profitable business. =Magic Lanterns and Views=
of popular subjects. Catalogues on application. Part 1 Optical, 2
Mathematical, 3 Meteorological, 4 Magic Lanterns, etc. =L. MANASSE, 88
Madison, Street, Chicago, Ill.=


Directions and Dimensions for construction, with one illustration of
cold house for preserving fruit from season to season. The air is kept
dry and pure throughout the year at a temperature of from 34° to 36°.
Contained in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT No. =116.= Price 10 cents.
To be had at this office and of all newsdealers.

Mineral Lands Prospected.

Artesian Wells Bored. Superior Stationary Engines, specially adapted
to Electric Light purposes. Built by PA. DIAMOND DRILL Co.,
Birdsboro, Pa.


WITHERBY, RUGG & RICHARDSON. Manufacturers of Patent Wood Working
Machinery of every description. Facilities unsurpassed. Shop formerly
occupied by R. Ball & Co., Worcester, Mass. Send for Catalogue.





Mention this paper.

REMINGTON Standard Typewriter.

The Remington Typewriter has stood every test,and we are adding every
improvement, however costly, that can increase its efficiency. Buy it
with the privilege of returning unbroken within 30 days C. O. D., if
not absolutely satisfactory in every respect.


  =Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict,


MESSRS. MUNN & CO., in connection with the publication of the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, continue to examine improvements, and to
act as Solicitors of Patents for Inventors.

In this line of business they have had _forty-one years' experience_,
and now have _unequaled facilities_ for the preparation of Patent
Drawings, Specifications, and the prosecution of Applications for
Patents in the United States, Canada, and Foreign Countries. Messrs
Munn & Co. also attend to the preparation of Caveats, Copyrights for
Books, Labels, Reissues, Assignments, and Reports on Infringements of
Patents. All business intrusted to them is done with special care and
promptness, on very reasonable terms.

A pamphlet sent free of charge, on application, containing full
information about Patents and how to procure them; directions
concerning Labels, Copyrights, Designs, Patents, Appeals, Reissues,
Infringements, Assignments, Rejected Cases, Hints on the Sale of
Patents, etc.

We also send, _free of charge_, a Synopsis of Foreign Patent Laws,
showing the cost and method of securing patents in all the principal
countries of the world.

  =MUNN & CO., Solicitors of Patents,=
  361 Broadway, New York.

BRANCH OFFICES.--No. 622 and 624 F Street, Pacific Building, near 7th
Street, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: "THE STANDARD."




Samples and Illustrated Pamphlet "Steam Saving and Fire-Proof
Materials" Free by Mail.



H. W. Johns' Fire and Water-Proof Asbestos Roofing, Sheathing,
Building Felt, Asbestos Steam Packings, Boiler Coverings, Roof Paints,
Fire-Proof Paints, etc. =VULCABESTON.= Moulded Piston-Rod Packing, Rings,
Gaskets, Sheet Packing, etc.



Wanted 50,000 Sawyers and Lumbermen to send us their full address
for a copy of Emerson's [Illustration] Book of SAWS. We are first to
introduce NATURAL Gas for heating and tempering Saws with wonderful
effect upon improving their quality and toughness, enabling us to
reduce prices. Address EMERSON, SMITH & CO. (Ltd.), Beaver Falls, Pa.


The most successful Lubricator for Loose Pulleys in use. =VAN DUZEN'S
PATENT LOOSE PULLEY OILER.= Highly recommended by those who have used
them for the past two years. Prices very reasonable. Every user of
machinery should have our "Catalogue No. 55;" sent free. VAN DUZEN
& TIFT, Cincinnati. O.


By using Soper's Instantaneous Guide. Any
person can play a tune on either instrument at once without the aid
of a teacher. No previous knowledge of music whatever required. Send
for book of testimonials free. Address =G. K. HEARNE & CO.,= P. O. Box
1487, New York.


  Chandler & Farquhar,
  177 Washington St.,

  Agents for Fay's "Yankee" CALIPERS
  =Barnes' Foot Power Machinery,=
  =Machinists' Supplies of Every Kind.=
  Send two stamps for illus. catalogue.


Address JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS, Manufacturers, Trenton, N. J., or 117
Liberty Street, New York.

Wheels and Rope for conveying power long distances. Send for circular.

[Illustration: JENLINS PACKING



The Original Unvulcanized Packing


--As it is the Packing by which all others are compared. Accept no
packing as JENKINS PACKING unless stamped with our "Trade Mark."

  =JENKINS BROS. {71 John Street, N. Y.
                 {105 Milk Street, Boston.
                 {13 So. Fourth St., Phila.=



Best in principle, workmanship, and materials. An unequaled small
Motor adapted to all uses. When the motor is not at work, the expense
of running it ceases. =Simple, Safe, Economical, Durable. No extra
insurance.= Four sizes: 1 H. P., ½ H. P., 1 man power, and Dental
Engine. These Engines are especially suited for Gasoline Gas for
country use.

  [Illustration] _Send for Illustrated Catalogue._

  Office and Salesrooms  34 Dey St. N. Y.=

[Illustration: ABESTOS]


Made entirely of ASBESTOS.



Manufacturers and Sole Proprietors of


  Reduces Condensation of Steam.=
  =Prevents Sweating and Freezing.=
  =The Best Non-Conductor of Heat and Cold in the World=
  Send for illustrated descriptive Circular, and name this paper.
  =143 Worth Street, New York.
  78 and 80 Lake Street, Chicago.=


Consisting of Violin Box, Bow, and Teacher, sent to
any part of the United States on 1 to 3 days' trial before buying.


=Violin Outfits at $4, $8, $15 and $25 each. Send Stamp for= Beautiful
Illustrated 96-page Catalogue of Violins, Guitars, Banjos, Cornets,
Flutes, Strings, etc. Lowest prices. Mail orders a specialty. =C. W.
STORY, 26 Central Street, Boston, Mass.=

ICE HOUSE AND COLD ROOM.--BY R. G. Hatfield. With directions for
construction. Four engravings. Contained in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
SUPPLEMENT, =59.= Price 10 cents. To be had at this office and of
all newsdealers.



_Microscopes, Telescopes, Spectacles, Barometers, Thermometers,
Photographic Outfits for Amateurs,_ =W. H. WALMSLEY & CO.= successors
to R. & J. Beck, Philadelphia. Illus. Price List free to any address.


Bibb's Celebrated Original BALTIMORE FIRE-PLACE HEATERS,

To warm upper and lower rooms. The handsomest, most economical Coal
Stoves in the world.

  =B.C. BIBB & SON=
  Foundry Office and Salesrooms,
  39 and 41 Light Street,
  Baltimore, Md.
  [Illustration] _Send for Circulars._


[Illustration: Lard Press.]

[Illustration: Baling Press.]

[Illustration: Oil Press.]

[Illustration: Cider Press.]

[Illustration: Baling Press.]

We make a great variety of Presses, with powers from 50 to 700 tons,
with movement of platens from one inch to six feet or more, to work by
hand or power, and at any speed required. Send for catalogue.





This Company owns the Letters Patent granted to Alexander Graham Bell,
March 7th, 1876, No. 174,465, and January 30th, 1877, No. 186,787.

The transmission of Speech by all known forms of Electric Speaking
Telephones infringes the right secured to this Company by the above
patents, and renders each individual user of telephones not furnished
by it or its licensees responsible for such unlawful use, and all the
consequences thereof, and liable to suit therefor.

[Illustration: Gap Lathe, $125.]

SHEPARD'S NEW $60 Screw-Cutting Foot Lathe.

Foot and Power Lathes, Drill Presses, Scroll-saw Attachments, Chucks,
Mandrels, Twist Drills, Dogs, Calipers, etc.

Lathes on trial. Lathes on payment.

Send for catalogue of Outfits for Amateurs or Artisans.

=Address H. L. Shepard, Agent, 134 E. 2d St., Cincinnati, O.=


Order from our "Special List." THE JOHN T. NOYE MFG. CO.,



Scientific American FOR 1887.

The Most Popular Scientific Paper in the World.

Only $3.00 a Year, including Postage. Weekly. 52 Numbers a Year.

=This widely circulated= and splendidly illustrated paper is published
weekly. Every number contains sixteen pages of useful information and a
large number of original engravings of new inventions and discoveries,
representing Engineering Works, Steam Machinery, New Inventions,
Novelties in Mechanics, Manufactures, Chemistry, Electricity
Telegraphy, Photography, Architecture, Agriculture, Horticulture,
Natural History, etc.

=All Classes of Readers= find in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN a
popular _resume_ of the best scientific information of the day; and
it is the aim of the publishers to present it in an attractive form,
avoiding as much as possible abstruse terms. To every intelligent
mind, this journal affords a constant supply of instructive reading.
It is promotive of knowledge and progress in every community where it

=Terms of Subscription.=--One copy of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
will be sent for _one year_--52 numbers--postage prepaid, to any
subscriber in the United States or Canada, on receipt of =three
dollars= by the publishers; six months, $1.50; three months, $1.00.

=Clubs.--One extra copy= of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be
supplied gratis _for every club of five subscribers_ at $3.00 each;
additional copies at same proportionate rate.

The safest way to remit is by Postal Order, Draft, or Express Money
Order. Money carefully placed inside of envelopes, securely sealed, and
correctly addressed, seldom goes astray, but is at the sender's risk.
Address all letters and make all orders, drafts, etc., payable to
=MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New York.=

THE Scientific American Supplement.

This is a separate and distinct publication from THE SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN, but is uniform therewith in size, every number containing
sixteen large pages. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT is published
weekly, and includes a very wide range of contents. It presents the
most recent papers by eminent writers in all the principal departments
of Science and the Useful Arts, embracing Biology, Geology, Mineralogy,
Natural History, Geography, Archæology, Astronomy, Chemistry,
Electricity, Light, Heat, Mechanical Engineering, Steam and Railway
Engineering, Mining, Ship Building, Marine Engineering, Photography,
Technology, Manufacturing Industries, Sanitary Engineering,
Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy, Biography, Medicine, etc.
A vast amount of fresh and valuable information pertaining to these
and allied subjects is given, the whole profusely illustrated with

_The most important Engineering Works_, Mechanisms, and Manufactures
at home and abroad are represented and described in the

Price for the SUPPLEMENT for the United States and Canada,
$5.00 a year, or one copy of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and one
copy of the SUPPLEMENT, both mailed for one year for $7.00.
Address and remit by postal order, express money order, or check.

  =MUNN & Co., 361 Broadway, N. Y.,=


=To Foreign Subscribers.=--Under the facilities of the Postal Union,
the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is now sent by post direct from New York, with
regularity, to subscribers in Great Britain, India, Australia, and all
other British colonies; to France, Austria, Belgium, Germany, Russia,
and all other European States; Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and all States
of Central and South America. Terms, when sent to foreign countries,
Canada excepted, $4, gold, for SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, one year; $9, gold
for both SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and SUPPLEMENT for one year. This includes
postage, which we pay. Remit by postal or express money order, or draft
to order of

  MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New York.


The "Scientific American" is printed with CHAS. ENEU JOHNSON & CO.'S
INK. Tenth and Lombard Sts., Phila., and 47 Rose St., pop. Duane St.,
N. Y.

[Transcriber's Note:

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.]

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