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Title: Ritchie's Fabulae Faciles: A First Latin Reader
Author: Ritchie, Francis
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_Professor of Latin in The Phillips Exeter Academy_



Some time ago a fellow-teacher brought the _Fabulae Faciles_ to my
notice, and I have since used two of them each year with my class of
beginners in Latin with increasing appreciation. Indeed, I know nothing
better to introduce the student into the reading of connected narrative,
and to bridge the great gulf between the beginner's book of the
prevailing type and the Latinity of Caesar or Nepos. They are adapted to
this use not merely by reason of their simplicity and interest, but more
particularly by the graduating of difficulties and the large use of
Caesarian words and phrases to which Mr. Ritchie calls attention in his

Doubtless many American teachers have become familiar with portions of
the _Fabulae_, for they have been freely drawn upon in several Latin
readers recently published in this country. I venture to hope that those
who have made the acquaintance of the work in this way will welcome a
complete edition.

In England the little book has had a large use. Its pedagogical
excellencies are well summed up in a letter addressed to Mr. Ritchie by
the Very Rev. E.C. Wickham, formerly Head-Master of Wellington College,
the well-known editor of Horace:--

"It launches the student at once in ancient life. The old classical
stories, simply told, seem to me much the best material for early Latin
reading. They are abundantly interesting; they are taken for granted in
the real literature of the language; and they can be told without
starting the beginner on a wrong track by a barbarous mixture of ancient
and modern ideas.

"It combines, if I may say so, very skilfully, the interest of a
continuous story, with the gradual and progressive introduction of
constructions and idioms. These seem to me to be introduced at the right
moment, and to be played upon long enough to make them thoroughly

In revising Mr. Ritchie's book for the use of American schools it has
seemed best to make extensive changes. Long vowels have been marked
throughout, and the orthography of Latin words has been brought into
conformity with our practice. Many liberties have been taken with the
text itself, especially in the latter part, in the way of making it
approximate more closely to our rather strict notions of the standards of
model prose. A few words and uses of words not found in the prose writers
of the republic have been retained, but nothing, it is hoped, that will
seriously mislead the young student. I shall welcome any criticism that
may lead to further changes in the text in future editions.

The notes are entirely new, and are intended for students who have but
just finished the beginner's book or have not yet finished it. Some notes
may appear at first sight unnecessary or unnecessarily hard, but the
reason for their insertion should be evident when the student begins the
reading of classical Latin, the difficulties of which will be less likely
to appal the beginner if some of them have been already conquered. I
believe it a mistake to postpone all treatment of the uses of the
subjunctive, for instance, or of the constructions of indirect discourse
until the study of Nepos or Caesar is begun. Besides, it is easier to
neglect notes than to supply them, and the teacher who prefers to do the
first reading without much attention to the more difficult constructions
will only need to tell his students to disregard certain of my notes--or
all of them.

There are no references to the grammars, but syntax has been given such
treatment as seemed needed to supplement its treatment in the beginner's
book. Teachers will therefore be able to postpone the use of a formal
manual of grammar, if they so desire. Those who wish their classes to
begin the reading of Latin at the earliest possible moment will find it
feasible to use this book as soon as the inflections and the more
elementary principles of syntax have been mastered.

In the vocabulary, the derivation or composition and the original meaning
of words have been indicated wherever these seemed likely to prove
helpful. Principal parts and genitives have been given in such a way as
to prevent misunderstanding, and at the same time emphasize the
composition of the verb or the suffix of the noun: for example, _abscídó,
-cídere, -cídí, -císus; aetás, -tátis_.

The lists of works of English literature and of art in which the myths
are treated are only suggestive. Occasional readings from the one and
exhibitions of representations of the other, either in the form of
photographs or by the stereopticon, will not only stimulate interest in
the Latin text but aid also in creating in the student a taste for
literature and for art.

I planned at first to add some exercises for retranslation, but after
careful consideration it has seemed not worth while. Most teachers will
prefer not to base composition upon the Latin read at this stage, and
those who wish to do so will find it an easy matter to prepare their own
exercises, or can draw upon the copious exercises prepared by Mr. Ritchie
and published separately under the title _Imitative Exercises in Easy
Latin Prose_.

In the reading of proof I have had generous help from Dr. F.K. Ball of
The Phillips Exeter Academy, Mr. J.C. Flood of St. Mark's School, and Mr.
A.T. Dudley of Noble and Greenough's School, Boston. The proof-sheets
have been used with the beginner's class in this Academy, and I have thus
been able to profit by the criticism of my associate Mr. G.B. Rogers, and
to test the work myself. The assistance of my wife has greatly lightened
the labor of verifying the vocabulary.


EXETER, N.H., 7 March, 1903.




    OF ACRISIUS (Vase-painting)
HERCULES, NESSUS, AND DEJANIRA (Pompeian Wall-painting)



Hawthorne, _A Wonder-Book: The Gorgon's Head_.
Kingsley, _The Heroes: Perseus_.
Cox, _Tales of Ancient Greece: Medusa, Danae, Perseus, Andromeda,
Francillon, _Gods and Heroes: The Adventures of Perseus_.
Kingsley, _Andromeda_.
William Morris, _The Earthly Paradise: The Doom of King Acrisius_.
Lewis Morris, _The Epic of Hades: Andromeda_.
Dowden, _Andromeda_.
Shelley, _On the Medusa of Leonardo da Vinci_.
D. G. Rossetti, _Aspecta Medusa_.


Hawthorne, _A Wonder-Book: The Three Golden Apples_.
Cox, _Tales of Ancient Greece: The Toils of Herakles_.
Francillon, _Gods and Heroes: The Hero of Heroes_.
William Morris, _The Earthly Paradise: The Golden Apples_.
Lewis Morris, _The Epic of Hades: Deianeira_.
Lang's translation of Theocritus, _Idyls_ xxiv, xxv.


Apollonius of Rhodes, _The Tale of the Argonauts_, translated by Way.
D.O.S. Lowell, _Jason's Quest_.
Hawthorne, _Tanglewood Tales: The Golden Fleece_.
Kingsley, _The Heroes: The Argonauts_.
Cox, _Tales of Ancient Greece: Phrixos and Helle, Medeia_.
Church, _Heroes and Kings: The Story of the Ship Argo_.
Francillon, _Gods and Heroes: The Golden Fleece_.
William Morris, _The Life and Death of Jason_.
Bayard Taylor, _Hylas_.
John Dyer, _The Fleece_.
Lang's translation of Theocritus, several of the _Idyls_.


Homer, _The Odyssey_, translated by Bryant (verse), William Morris
    (verse), Palmer (prose), Butcher and Lang (prose).
Lamb, _The Adventures of Ulysses_.
Hawthorne, _Tanglewood Tales: Circe's Palace_.
Cox, _Tales of Ancient Greece: The Lotos-Eaters, Odysseus and Polyphemos,
    Odysseus and Kirké_.
Church, _Stories from Homer: The Cyclops, The Island of Aeolus, Circé_.
Tennyson, _The Lotos-Eaters_.
Matthew Arnold, _The Strayed Reveler_.
Dobson, _The Prayer of the Swine to Circe_.


Burne-Jones, _Perseus and the Graeae_.
Caravaggio, _Head of Medusa_.
Leonardo da Vinci, _Head of Medusa_.
Canova, _Perseus_.
Benvenuto Cellini, _Perseus_, and _Perseus saving Andromeda_.
Piero di Cosimo, _Perseus and Andromeda_.
Charles Antoine Coypel, _Perseus and Andromeda_.
Domenichino, _Perseus and Andromeda_.
Rubens, _Perseus and Andromeda_.
Giovanni da Bologna, _Hercules and the Centaur_.
Bandinelli, _Hercules and Cacus_.
Guido Reni, _Dejanira and the Centaur Nessus_.
Canova, _Hercules and Lichas_.
Sichel, _Medea_.
Genelli, _Jason and Medea capturing the Golden Fleece_.
Burne-Jones, _Circe_.
L. Chalon, _Circe and the Companions of Ulysses_.
Rivière, _Circe and the Companions of Ulysses_.

Photographs and lantern-slides of all the works mentioned above may be
obtained of the Soule Art Company, Boston. The list might have been made
much longer, but it seemed likely to prove most helpful if limited to
works of which reproductions are so easily obtainable. For the treatment
of the myths in ancient art, the teacher is referred to the numerous
pertinent illustrations in Baumeister's _Denkmäler des klassischen
Altertums_, or the same editor's _Bilder aus dem griechischen und
römischen Altertum für Schüler_, the latter of which contains the cuts of
the larger work, and is so cheap and so useful that it ought to lie on
the desk of every teacher of Greek or Latin.


The _Fabulae Faciles_, or 'Easy Stories.' are four Greek myths retold in
Latin, not by a Roman writer, however, but by an Englishman, who believed
that they would afford interesting and pleasant reading for young folks
who were just beginning the study of the Latin language. By myth is meant
an imaginative tale that has been handed down by tradition from remote
antiquity concerning supernatural beings and events. Such tales are
common among all primitive peoples, and are by them accepted as true.
They owe their origin to no single author, but grow up as the untutored
imagination strives to explain to itself the operations of nature and the
mysteries of life, or amuses itself with stories of the brave exploits of
heroic ancestors.

The most beautiful and delightful of all myths are those that have come
down to us in the remains of the literature and the art of ancient Greece
and Rome; they are also the most important to us, for many of the great
masterpieces of English literature and of modern art have been inspired
by them and cannot be understood and appreciated by one ignorant of
classical mythology.

Of this mythology the _Fabulae Faciles_ give but a small part. If you
wish to know more of the subject, you should read Gayley's _The Classic
Myths in English Literature_, Guerber's _Myths of Greece and Rome_, or
the books by Kingsiey, Cox, Church, and Francillon mentioned earlier.


_Acrisius, an ancient king of Argos, had been warned by an oracle that he
should perish by the hand of his grandson. On discovering, therefore,
that his daughter Danae had given birth to a son, Acrisius endeavored to
escape his fate by setting both mother and child adrift on the sea. They
were saved, however, by the help of Jupiter; and Perseus, the child, grew
up at the court of Polydectes, king of Seriphos, an island in the Aegean
Sea. On reaching manhood, Perseus was sent by Polydectes to fetch the
head of Medusa, one of the Gorgons. This dangerous task he accomplished
with the help of Apollo and Minerva, and on his way home he rescued
Andromeda, daughter of Cepheus, from a sea-monster. Perseus then married
Andromeda, and lived some time in the country of Cepheus. At length he
returned to Seríphos, and turned Polydectes to stone by showing him the
Gorgon's head; he then went to the court of Acrisius, who fled in terror
at the news of his grandson's return. The oracle was duly fulfilled, for
Acrisius was accidentally killed by a quoit thrown by Perseus_.

1. _THE ARK_

Haec nárrantur á poétís dé Perseó. Perseus fílius erat Iovis, máximí
deórum; avus éius Acrisius appellábátur. Acrisius volébat Perseum nepótem
suum necáre; nam propter óráculum puerum timébat. Comprehendit igitur
Perseum adhúc infantem, et cum mátre in arcá lígneá inclúsit. Tum arcam
ipsam in mare coniécit. Danaé, Perseí máter, mágnopere territa est;
tempestás enim mágna mare turbábat. Perseus autem in sinú mátris


Iuppiter tamen haec omnia vídit, et fílium suum serváre cónstituit.
Tranquillum igitur fécit mare, et arcam ad ínsulam Seríphum perdúxit.
Húius ínsulae Polydectés tum réx erat. Postquam arca ad lítus appulsa
est, Danaé in haréná quiétem capiébat. Post breve tempus á piscátóre
quódam reperta est, et ad domum régis Polydectis adducta est. Ille mátrem
et puerum benígné excépit, et iís sédem tútam in fínibus suís dedit.
Danaé hóc dónum libenter accépit, et pró tantó benefició régí grátiás


Perseus igitur multós annós ibi habitábat, et cum mátre suá vítam beátam
agébat. At Polydectés Danaén mágnopere amábat, atque eam in mátrimónium
dúcere volébat. Hóc tamen cónsilium Perseó minimé grátum erat. Polydectés
igitur Perseum dímittere cónstituit. Tum iuvenem ad sé vocávit et haec
díxit: "Turpe est hanc ígnávam vítam agere; iam dúdum tú aduléscéns es.
Quó úsque híc manébis? Tempus est arma capere et virtútem praestáre. Hinc
abí, et caput Medúsae mihi refer."


Perseus ubi haec audívit, ex ínsulá discessit, et postquam ad continentem
vénit, Medúsam quaesívit. Diú frústrá quaerébat; namque nátúram locí
ígnórábat. Tandem Apolló et Minerva viam démónstrávérunt. Prímum ad
Graeás, sorórés Medúsae, pervénit. Ab hís tálária et galeam magicam
accépit. Apolló autem et Minerva falcem et speculum dedérunt. Tum
postquam tálária pedibus induit, in áera ascendit. Diú per ácra volábat;
tandem tamen ad eum locum vénit ubi Medúsa cum céterís Gorgonibus
habitábat. Gorgonés autem mónstra erant specié horribilí; capita enim
eárum anguibus omnínó contécta erant. Manús etiam ex aere factae erant.


Rés difficillima erat caput Gorgonis abscídere; éius enim cónspectú
homines in saxum vertébantur. Propter hanc causam Minerva speculum Perseó
dederat. Ille igitur tergum vertit, et in speculum ínspiciébat; hóc modó
ad locum vénit ubi Medúsa dormiébat. Tum falce suá caput éius únó íctú
abscídit. Céterae Gorgonés statim é somnó excitátae sunt, et ubi rem
vídérunt, írá commótae sunt. Arma rapuérunt, et Perseum occídere
volébant. Ille autem dum fugit, galeam magicam induit; et ubi hóc fécit,
statim é cónspectú eárum évásit.


Post haec Perseus in fínís Aethiopum vénit. Ibi Cépheus quídam illó
tempore régnábat. Híc Neptúnum, maris deum, ólim offenderat; Neptúnus
autem mónstrum saevissimum míserat. Hóc cottídié é marí veniébat et
hominés dévorábat. Ob hanc causam pavor animós omnium occupáverat.
Cépheus igitur óráculum deí Hammónis cónsuluit, atque á deó iússus est
fíliam mónstró trádere. Éius autem fília, nomine Andromeda, virgó
fórmósissima erat. Cépheus ubi haec audívit, mágnum dolórem percépit.
Volébat tamen cívís suós é tantó perículó extrahere, atque ob eam causam
imperáta Hammónis facere cónstituit.


Tum réx diem certam díxit et omnia parávit. Ubi ea diés vénit, Andromeda
ad lítus déducta est, et in cónspectú omnium ad rúpem adligáta est. Omnés
fátum éius déplórábant, nec lacrimás tenébant. At subitó, dum mónstrum
exspectant, Perseus accurrit; et ubi lacrimás vídit, causam dolóris
quaerit. Illí rem tótam expónunt et puellam démónstrant. Dum haec
geruntur, fremitus terribilis audítur; simul mónstrum horribilí specié
procul cónspicitur. Éius cónspectus timórem máximum omnibus iniécit.
Mónstrum mágná celeritáte ad lítus contendit, iamque ad locum
appropinquábat ubi puella stábat.


At Perseus ubi haec vídit, gladium suum édúxit, et postquam tálária
induit, in áera sublátus est. Tum désuper in mónstrum impetum subitó
fécit, et gladió suó collum éius graviter vulnerávit. Mónstrum ubi sénsit
vulnus, fremitum horribilem édidit, et sine morá tótum corpus in aquam
mersit. Perseus dum circum lítus volat, reditum éius exspectábat. Mare
autem intereá undique sanguine ínficitur. Post breve tempus bélua rúrsus
caput sustulit; mox tamen á Perseó íctú gravióre vulneráta est. Tum
iterum sé in undás mersit, neque posteá vísa est.


Perseus postquam ad lítus déscendit, prímum tálária exuit; tum ad rúpem
vénit ubi Andromeda vincta erat. Ea autem omnem spem salútis déposuerat,
et ubi Perseus adiit, terróre paene exanimáta erat. Ille víncula statim
solvit, et puellam patrí reddidit. Cépheus ob hanc rem máximó gaudió
adfectus est. Meritam grátiam pró tantó benefició Perseó rettulit;
praetereá Andromedam ipsam eí in mátrimónium dedit. Ille libenter hóc
dónum accépit et puellam dúxit. Paucós annós cum uxóre suá in eá regióne
habitábat, et in mágnó honóre erat apud omnís Aethiopés. Mágnopere tamen
mátrem suam rúrsus vidére cupiébat. Tandem igitur cum uxóre suá é régnó
Cépheí discessit.


Postquam Perseus ad ínsulam návem appulit, sé ad locum contulit ubi máter
ólim habitáverat, sed domum invénit vacuam et omnínó désertam. Trís diés
per tótam ínsulam mátrem quaerébat; tandem quartó dié ad templum Diánae
pervénit. Húc Danaé refúgerat, quod Polydectem timébat. Perseus ubi haec
cógnóvit, írá mágná commótus est; ad régiam Polydectis sine morá
contendit, et ubi eó vénit, statim in átrium inrúpit. Polydectés mágnó
timóre adfectus est et fugere volébat. Dum tamen ille fugit, Perseus
caput Medúsae mónstrávit; ille autem simul atque hóc vídit, in saxum
versus est.


Post haec Perseus cum uxóre suá ad urbem Acrisí rediit. Ille autem ubi
Perseum vídit, mágnó terróre adfectus est; nam propter óráculum istud
nepótem suum adhúc timébat. In Thessaliam igitur ad urbem Lárísam statim
refúgit, frústrá tamen; neque enim fátum suum vítávit. Post paucós annós
réx Lárísae lúdós mágnós fécit; núntiós in omnís partís dímíserat et diem
édíxerat. Multí ex omnibus urbibus Graeciae ad lúdós convénérunt. Ipse
Perseus inter aliós certámen discórum iniit. At dum discum conicit, avum
suum cású occídit; Acrisius enim inter spectátórés éius certáminis forte


_Hercules, a Greek hero celebrated for his great strength, was pursued
throughout his life by the hatred of Juno. While yet an infant, he
strangled some serpents sent by the goddess to destroy him. During his
boyhood and youth he performed various marvelous feats of strength, and
on reaching manhood succeeded in delivering the Thebans from the
oppression of the Minÿae. In a fit of madness sent upon him by Juno, he
slew his own children; and on consulting the Delphic oracle as to how he
should cleanse himself from this crime, he was ordered to submit himself
for twelve years to Eurystheus, king of Tiryns, and to perform whatever
tasks were appointed him. Hercules obeyed the oracle, and during the
twelve years of his servitude accomplished twelve extraordinary feats
known as the Labors of Hercules. His death was caused unintentionally by
his wife Dejanira. Hercules had shot with his poisoned arrows a centaur
named Nessus, who had insulted Dejanira. Nessus, before he died, gave
some of his blood to Dejanira, and told her it would act as a charm to
secure her husband's love. Some time after, Dejanira wishing to try the
charm soaked one of her husband's garments in the blood, not knowing
that it was poisoned. Hercules put on the robe, and after suffering
terrible torments died, or was carried off by his father Jupiter_.


Herculés, Alcménae fílius, ólim in Graeciá habitábat. Híc omnium hominum
validissimus fuisse dícitur. At Iúnó, régína deórum, Alcménam óderat et
Herculem adhúc ínfantem necáre voluit. Mísit igitur duás serpentís
saevissimás; hae mediá nocte in cubiculum Alcménae vénérunt, ubi Herculés
cum frátre suó dormiébat. Nec tamen in cúnís, sed in scútó mágnó
cubábant. Serpentés iam appropinquáverant et scútum movébant; itaque
puerí é somnó excitátí sunt.


Íphiclés, fráter Herculis, mágná vóce exclámávit; sed Herculés ipse,
fortissimus puer, haudquáquam territus est. Parvís manibus serpentís
statim prehendit, et colla eárum mágná ví compressit. Tálí modó serpentés
á pueró interfectae sunt. Alcména autem, máter puerórum, clámórem
audíverat, et marítum suum é somnó excitáverat. Ille lúmen accendit et
gladium suum rapuit; tum ad puerós properábat, sed ubi ad locum vénit,
rem míram vídit, Herculés enim rídébat et serpentís mortuás mónstrábat.


Herculés á pueró corpus suum díligenter exercébat; mágnam partem diéí in
palaestrá cónsúmébat; didicit etiam arcum intendere et téla conicere. Hís
exercitátiónibus vírés éius cónfírmátae sunt. In músicá etiam á Linó
centauró érudiébátur (centaurí autem equí erant sed caput hominis
habébant); huic tamen artí minus díligenter studébat. Híc Linus Herculem
ólim obiúrgábat, quod nón studiósus erat; tum puer írátus citharam subitó
rapuit, et omnibus víribus caput magistrí ínfélícis percussit. Ille íctú
próstrátus est, et pauló post é vítá excessit, neque quisquam posteá id
officium suscipere voluit.


Dé Hercule haec etiam inter alia nárrantur. Ólim dum iter facit, in fínís
Aegyptiórum vénit. Ibi réx quídam, nómine Búsíris, illó tempore régnábat;
híc autem vir crúdélissimus hominés immoláre cónsuéverat. Herculem igitur
corripuit et in vincula coniécit. Tum núntiós dímísit et diem sacrifició
édíxit. Mox ea diés appetébat, et omnia ríte paráta sunt. Manús Herculis
caténís ferreís vinctae sunt, et mola salsa in caput éius ínspersa est.
Mós enim erat apud antíquós salem et fár capitibus victimárum impónere.
Iam victima ad áram stábat; iam sacerdós cultrum súmpserat. Subitó tamen
Herculés mágnó cónátú vincula perrúpit; tum íctú sacerdótem próstrávit;
alteró régem ipsum occídit.


Herculés iam aduléscéns Thébís habitábat. Réx Thébárum, vir ígnávus,
Creón appellábátur. Minyae, géns bellicósissima, Thébánís fínitimí erant.
Légátí autem á Minyís ad Thébánós quotannís mittébantur; hí Thébás
veniébant et centum bovés postulábant. Thébání enim ólim á Minyís
superátí erant; tribúta igitur régí Minyárum quotannís pendébant. At
Herculés cívís suós hóc stípendió líberáre cónstituit; légátós igitur
comprehendit, atque aurís eórum abscídit. Légátí autem apud omnís gentís
sánctí habentur.


Ergínus, réx Minyárum, ob haec vehementer írátus statim cum omnibus
cópiís in fínís Thébánórum contendit. Creón adventum éius per
explórátórés cógnóvit. Ipse tamen púgnáre nóluit, nam mágnó timóre
adfectus erat; Thébání igitur Herculem imperátórem creávérunt. Ille
núntiós in omnís partís dímísit, et cópiás coégit; tum proximó dié cum
mágnó exercitú profectus est. Locum idóneum délégit et aciem ínstrúxit.
Tum Thébání é superióre locó impetum in hostís fécérunt. Illí autem
impetum sustinére nón potuérunt; itaque aciés hostium pulsa est atque in
fugam conversa.


Post hóc proelium Herculés cópiás suás ad urbem redúxit. Omnés Thébání
propter victóriam máximé gaudébant; Creón autem mágnís honóribus Herculem
decorávit, atque fíliam suam eí in mátrimónium dedit. Herculés cum uxóre
suá beátam vítam agébat; sed post paucós annós subitó in furórem incidit,
atque líberós suós ipse suá manú occídit. Post breve tempus ad sánitátem
reductus est, et propter hóc facinus mágnó dolóre adfectus est; mox ex
urbe effúgit et in silvás sé recépit. Nólébant enim cívés sermónem cum eó


Herculés tantum scelus expiáre mágnopere cupiébat. Cónstituit igitur ad
óráculum Delphicum íre; hóc enim óráculum erat omnium celeberrimum. Ibi
templum erat Apollinis plúrimís dónís órnátum. Hóc in templó sedébat
fémina quaedam, nómine Pýthia et cónsilium dabat iís quí ad óráculum
veniébant. Haec autem fémina ab ipsó Apolline docébátur, et voluntátem
deí hominibus énúntiábat. Herculés igitur, quí Apollinem praecipué
colébat, húc vénit. Tum rem tótam exposuit, neque scelus célávit.


Ubi Herculés fínem fécit, Pýthia prímó tacébat; tandem tamen iussit eum
ad urbem Tíryntha íre, et Eurystheí régis omnia imperáta facere. Herculés
ubi haec audívit, ad urbem illam contendit, et Eurystheó régí sé in
servitútem trádidit. Duodecim annós crúdélissimó Eurystheó serviébat, et
duodecim labórés, quós ille imperáverat, cónfécit; hóc enim únó modó
tantum scelus expiárí potuit. Dé hís labóribus plúrima á poétís scrípta
sunt. Multa tamen quae poétae nárrant vix crédibilia sunt.


Prímum ab Eurystheó iússus est Herculés leónem occídere quí illó tempore
vallem Nemeaeam reddébat ínféstam. In silvás igitur in quibus leó
habitábat statim sé contulit. Mox feram vídit, et arcum, quem sécum
attulerat, intendit; éius tamen pellem, quae dénsissima erat, tráicere
nón potuit. Tum clává mágná quam semper gerébat leónem percussit, frústrá
tamen; neque enim hóc modó eum occídere potuit. Tum démum collum mónstrí
bracchiís suís complexus est et faucís éius omnibus víribus compressit.
Hóc modó leó breví tempore exanimátus est; núlla enim respírandí facultás
eí dabátur. Tum Herculés cadáver ad oppidum in umerís rettulit; et
pellem, quam détráxerat, posteá pró veste gerébat. Omnés autem quí eam
regiónem incolébant, ubi fámam dé morte leónis accépérunt, vehementer
gaudébant et Herculem mágnó honóre habébant.


Pauló post iússus est ab Eurystheó Hydram necáre. Hóc autem mónstrum erat
cui novem erant capita. Herculés igitur cum amícó Ioláó profectus est ad
palúdem Lernaeam, in quá Hydra habitábat. Mox mónstrum invénit, et
quamquam rés erat mágní perículí, collum éius sinistrá prehendit. Tum
dextrá capita novem abscídere coepit; quotiéns tamen hóc fécerat, nova
capita exoriébantur. Diú frústrá labórábat; tandem hóc cónátú déstitit.
Deinde arborés succídere et ígnem accendere cónstituit. Hóc celeriter
fécit, et postquam lígna ígnem comprehendérunt, face árdente colla
adússit, unde capita exoriébantur. Nec tamen sine mágnó labóre haec
fécit; vénit enim auxilió Hydrae cancer ingéns, quí, dum Herculés capita
abscídit, crúra éius mordébat. Postquam mónstrum tálí modó interfécit,
sagittás suás sanguine éius imbuit, itaque mortiferás reddidit.


Postquam Eurystheó caedés Hydrae núntiáta est, mágnus timor animum éius
occupávit. Iussit igitur Herculem cervum quendam ad sé referre; nóluit
enim virum tantae audáciae in urbe retinére. Híc autem cervus, cúius
cornua aurea fuisse tráduntur, incrédibilí fuit celeritáte. Herculés
igitur prímó vestígiís eum in silvá persequébátur; deinde ubi cervum
ipsum vídit, omnibus víribus currere coepit. Úsque ad vesperum currébat,
 neque nocturnum tempus sibi ad quiétem relinquébat, frústrá tamen; núlló
enim modó cervum cónsequí poterat. Tandem postquam tótum annum cucurrerat
(ita tráditur), cervum cursú exanimátum cépit, et vívum ad Eurystheum


Tum véró iússus est Herculés aprum quendam capere quí illó tempore agrós
Erymanthiós vástábat et incolás húius regiónis mágnopere terrébat.
Herculés rem suscépit et in Arcadiam profectus est. Postquam in silvam
paulum prógressus est, apró occurrit. Ille autem simul atque Herculem
vídit, statim refúgit; et timóre perterritus in altam fossam sé próiécit.
Herculés igitur laqueum quem attulerat iniécit, et summá cum difficultáte
aprum é fossá extráxit. Ille etsí fortiter repúgnábat, núlló modó sé
líberáre potuit; et ab Hercule ad Eurystheum vívus relátus est.


Dé quartó labóre, quem suprá nárrávimus, haec etiam tráduntur. Herculés
dum iter in Arcadiam facit, ad eam regiónem vénit quam centaurí
incolébant. Cum nox iam appeteret, ad spéluncam dévertit in quá centaurus
quídam, nómine Pholus, habitábat.

Ille Herculem benígné excépit et cénam parávit. At Herculés postquam
cénávit, vínum á Pholó postulávit. Erat autem in spéluncá mágna amphora
vínó optimó repléta, quam centaurí ibi déposuerant. Pholus igitur hóc
vínum dare nólébat, quod reliquós centaurós timébat; núllum tamen vínum
praeter hóc in spéluncá habébat. "Hóc vínum," inquit, "mihi commissum
est. Sí igitur hóc dabó, centaurí mé interficient." Herculés tamen eum
inrísit, et ipse póculum víní dé amphorá hausit.


Simul atque amphora aperta est, odor iúcundissimus undique diffúsus est;
vínum enim suávissimum erat. Centaurí nótum odórem sénsérunt et omnés ad
locum convénérunt.

Ubi ad spéluncam pervénérunt, mágnopere írátí erant quod Herculem
bibentem vídérunt. Tum arma rapuérunt et Pholum interficere volébant.
Herculés tamen in aditú spéluncae cónstitit et impetum eórum fortissimé
sustinébat. Facés árdentís in eós coniécit; multós etiam sagittís suís
vulnerávit. Hae autem sagittae eaedem erant quae sanguine Hydrae ólim
imbútae erant. Omnés igitur quós ille sagittís vulneráverat venénó statim
absúmptí sunt; reliquí autem ubi hóc vídérunt, terga vertérunt et fugá
salútem petiérunt.


Postquam reliquí fúgérunt, Pholus ex spéluncá égressus est, et corpora
spectábat eórum quí sagittís interfectí erant. Mágnopere autem mírátus
est quod tam leví vulnere exanimátí erant, et causam éius reí quaerébat.
Adiit igitur locum ubi cadáver cúiusdam centaurí iacébat, et sagittam é
vulnere tráxit. Haec tamen síve cású síve cónsilió deórum é manibus éius
lapsa est, et pedem leviter vulnerávit. Ille extempló dolórem gravem per
omnia membra sénsit, et post breve tempus ví venéní exanimátus est. Mox
Herculés, quí reliquós centaurós secútus erat, ad spéluncam rediit, et
mágnó cum dolóre Pholum mortuum vídit. Multís cum lacrimís corpus amící
ad sepultúram dedit; tum, postquam alterum póculum víní exhausit, somnó
sé dedit.


Deinde Eurystheus Herculí hunc labórem graviórem imposuit. Augéás quídam,
quí illó tempore régnum in Élide obtinébat, tria mília boum habébat. Hí
in stabuló ingentis mágnitúdinis inclúdébantur. Stabulum autem inluvié ac
squálóre erat obsitum, neque enim ad hóc tempus umquam púrgátum erat. Hóc
Herculés intrá spatium úníus diéí púrgáre iússus est. Ille, etsí rés erat
multae operae, negótium suscépit. Prímum mágnó labóre fossam duodévígintí
pedum dúxit, per quam flúminis aquam dé montibus ad múrum stabulí
perdúxit. Tum postquam múrum perrúpit, aquam in stabulum immísit et tálí
modó contrá opíniónem omnium opus cónfécit.


Post paucós diés Herculés ad oppidum Stymphálum iter fécit; imperáverat
enim eí Eurystheus ut avís Stymphálidés necáret. Hae avés róstra aénea
habébant et carne hominum véscébantur. Ille postquam ad locum pervénit,
lacum vídit; in hóc autem lacú, quí nón procul erat ab oppidó, avés
habitábant. Núlla tamen dabátur appropinquandí facultás; lacus enim nón
ex aquá sed é límó cónstitit. Herculés igitur neque pedibus neque lintre
prógredí potuit.

Ille cum mágnam partem diéí frústrá cónsúmpsisset, hóc cónátú déstitit et
ad Volcánum sé contulit, ut auxilium ab eó peteret. Volcánus (quí ab
fabrís máximé colébátur) crepundia quae ipse ex aere fabricátus erat
Herculí dedit. Hís Herculés tam ácrem crepitum fécit ut avés perterritae
ávolárent. Ille autem, dum ávolant, mágnum numerum eárum sagittís


Tum Eurystheus Herculí imperávit ut taurum quendam ferócissimum ex ínsulá
Crétá vívum referret. Ille igitur návem cónscendit, et cum ventus idóneus
esset, statim solvit. Cum tamen ínsulae iam appropinquáret, tanta
tempestás subitó coorta est ut návis cursum tenére nón posset. Tantus
autem timor animós nautárum occupávit ut paene omnem spem salútis
dépónerent. Herculés tamen, etsí návigandí imperítus erat, haudquáquam
territus est.

Post breve tempus summa tranquillitás cónsecúta est, et nautae, quí sé ex
timóre iam recéperant, návem incolumem ad terram appulérunt. Herculés é
náví égressus est, et cum ad régem Crétae vénisset, causam veniendí
docuit. Deinde, postquam omnia paráta sunt, ad eam regiónem contendit
quam taurus vástábat. Mox taurum vídit, et quamquam rés erat mágní
perículí, cornua éius prehendit. Tum, cum ingentí labóre mónstrum ad
návem tráxisset, cum praedá in Graeciam rediit.


Postquam ex ínsulá Crétá rediit, Herculés ab Eurystheó in Thráciam missus
est, ut equós Diomédis redúceret. Hí equí carne hominum véscébantur;
Diomédés autem, vir crúdélissimus, illís obiciébat peregrínós omnís quí
in eam regiónem vénerant. Herculés igitur mágná celeritáte in Thráciam
contendit et ab Dioméde postulávit ut equí sibi tráderentur. Cum tamen
ille hóc facere nóllet, Herculés írá commótus régem interfécit et cadáver
éius equís obicí iussit.

Ita míra rérum commútátió facta est; is enim quí anteá multós cum
cruciátú necáverat ipse eódem supplició necátus est. Cum haec núntiáta
essent, omnés quí eam regiónem incolébant máximá laetitiá adfectí sunt et
Herculí meritam grátiam referébant. Nón modo máximís honóribus et
praemiís eum decorávérunt sed órábant etiam ut régnum ipse susciperet.
Ille tamen hóc facere nólébat, et cum ad mare rediisset, návem occupávit.
Ubi omnia ad návigandum paráta sunt, equós in náví conlocávit; deinde,
cum idóneam tempestátem nactus esset, sine morá é portú solvit, et pauló
post equós in lítus Argolicum exposuit.


Géns Amázonum dícitur omnínó ex mulieribus cónstitisse. Hae summam
scientiam reí mílitáris habébant, et tantam virtútem adhibébant ut cum
virís proelium committere audérent. Hippolyté, Amázonum régína, balteum
habuit celeberrimum quem Márs eí dederat. Adméta autem, Eurystheí fília,
fámam dé hóc balteó accéperat et eum possidére vehementer cupiébat.
Eurystheus igitur Herculí mandávit ut cópiás cógeret et bellum Amázonibus
ínferret. Ille núntiós in omnís partís dímísit, et cum mágna multitúdó
convénisset, eós délégit quí máximum úsum in ré mílitárí habébant.


Hís virís Herculés persuásit, postquam causam itineris exposuit, ut sécum
iter facerent. Tum cum iís quibus persuáserat návem cónscendit, et cum
ventus idóneus esset, post paucós diés ad óstium flúminis Thermódontis
appulit. Postquam in fínís Amázonum vénit, núntium ad Hippolytam mísit,
quí causam veniendí docéret et balteum pósceret. Ipsa Hippolyté balteum
trádere volébat, quod dé Herculis virtúte fámam accéperat; reliquae tamen
Amázonés eí persuásérunt ut negáret. At Herculés, cum haec núntiáta
essent, bellí fortúnam temptáre cónstituit.

Proximó igitur dié cum cópiás édúxisset, locum idóneum délégit et hostís
ad púgnam évocávit. Amázonés quoque cópiás suás ex castrís édúxérunt et
nón mágnó interválló ab Hercule aciem ínstrúxérunt.


Palús erat nón mágna inter duo exercitús; neutrí tamen initium tránseundí
facere volébant. Tandem Herculés sígnum dedit, et ubi palúdem tránsiit,
proelium commísit.

Amázonés impetum virórum fortissimé sustinuérunt, et contrá opíniónem
omnium tantam virtútem praestitérunt ut multós eórum occíderint, multós
etiam in fugam coniécerint. Virí enim novó genere púgnae perturbábantur
nec mágnam virtútem praestábant. Herculés autem cum haec vidéret, dé suís
fortúnís déspéráre coepit. Mílités igitur vehementer cohortátus est ut
prístinae virtútis memoriam retinérent neu tantum dédecus admitterent,
hostiumque impetum fortiter sustinérent; quibus verbís animós omnium ita
éréxit ut multí etiam quí vulneribus cónfectí essent proelium sine morá


Diú et ácriter púgnátum est; tandem tamen ad sólis occásum tanta
commútátió rérum facta est ut mulierés terga verterent et fugá salútem
peterent. Multae autem vulneribus défessae dum fugiunt captae sunt, in
quó numeró ipsa erat Hippolyté. Herculés summam clémentiam praestitit, et
postquam balteum accépit, líbertátem omnibus captívís dedit. Tum véró
sociós ad mare redúxit, et quod nón multum aestátis supererat, in
Graeciam proficíscí mátúrávit. Návem igitur cónscendit, et tempestátem
idóneam nactus statim solvit; antequam tamen in Graeciam pervénit, ad
urbem Tróiam návem appellere cónstituit, frúmentum enim quod sécum
habébat iam déficere coeperat.


Láomedón quídam illó tempore régnum Tróiae obtinébat. Ad hunc Neptúnus et
Apolló annó superióre vénerant, et cum Tróia nóndum moenia habéret, ad
hóc opus auxilium obtulerant. Postquam tamen hórum auxilió moenia
cónfecta sunt, nólébat Láomedón praemium quod próposuerat persolvere.

Neptúnus igitur et Apolló ob hanc causam írátí mónstrum quoddam mísérunt
specié horribilí, quod cottídié é marí veniébat et homines pecudésque
vorábat. Tróiání autem timóre perterrití in urbe continébantur, et pecora
omnia ex agrís intrá múrós compulerant. Láomedón hís rébus commótus
óráculum cónsuluit, ac deus eí praecépit ut filiam Hésionem mónstró


Láomedón, cum hóc respónsum renúntiátum esset, mágnum dolórem percépit;
sed tamen, ut cívís suós tantó perículó líberáret, óráculó párére
cónstituit et diem sacrifició díxit. Sed síve cású síve cónsilió deórum
Herculés tempore opportúnissimó Tróiam attigit; ipsó enim temporis punctó
quó puella caténís vincta ad lítus dédúcébátur ille návem appulit.
Herculés é náví égressus dé rébus quae gerébantur certior factus est; tum
írá commótus ad régem sé contulit et auxilium suum obtulit. Cum réx
libenter eí concessisset ut, sí posset, puellam líberáret, Herculés
mónstrum interfécit; et puellam, quae iam omnem spem salútis déposuerat,
incolumem ad patrem redúxit. Láomedón mágnó cum gaudió fíliam suam
accépit, et Herculí pró tantó benefició meritam grátiam rettulit.


Tum véró missus est Herculés ad ínsulam Erythíam, ut bovés Géryonis
arcesseret. Rés erat summae difficultátis, quod bovés á quódam Eurytióne
et á cane bicipite custódiébantur. Ipse autem Géryón speciem horribilem
praebébat; tria enim corpora inter sé coniúncta habébat. Herculés tamen
etsí intellegébat quantum perículum esset, negótium suscépit; ac postquam
per multás terrás iter fécit, ad eam partem Libyae pervénit quae Európae
proxima est. Ibi in utróque lítore fretí quod Európam á Libyá dívidit
columnás cónstituit, quae posteá Herculis Columnae appellábantur.


Dum híc morátur, Herculés mágnum incommodum ex calóre sólis accipiébat;
tandem igitur írá commótus arcum suum intendit et sólem sagittís petiit.
Sól tamen audáciam virí tantum admírátus est ut lintrem auream eí
dederit. Herculés hóc dónum libentissimé accépit, núllam enim návem in
hís regiónibus inveníre potuerat. Tum lintrem dédúxit, et ventum nactus
idóneum post breve tempus ad ínsulam pervénit. Ubi ex incolís cógnóvit
quó in locó bovés essent, in eam partem statim profectus est et á rége
Géryone postulávit ut bovés sibi tráderentur. Cum tamen ille hóc facere
nóllet, Herculés et régem ipsum et Eurytiónem, quí erat ingentí
mágnitúdine corporis, interfécit.


Tum Herculés bovés per Hispániam et Liguriam compellere cónstituit;
postquam igitur omnia paráta sunt, bovés ex ínsulá ad continentem
tránsportávit. Ligurés autem, géns bellicósissima, dum ille per fínís
eórum iter facit, mágnás cópiás coégérunt atque eum longius prógredí
prohibébant. Herculés mágnam difficultátem habébat, barbarí enim in locís
superióribus cónstiterant et saxa télaque in eum coniciébant. Ille quidem
paene omnem spem salútis déposuerat, sed tempore opportúnissimó Iuppiter
imbrem lapidum ingentium é caeló démísit. Hí tantá ví cecidérunt ut
mágnum numerum Ligurum occíderint; ipse tamen Herculés (ut in tálibus
rébus accidere cónsuévit) nihil incommodí cépit.


Postquam Ligurés hóc modó superátí sunt, Herculés quam celerrimé
prógressus est et post paucós diés ad Alpís pervénit. Necesse erat hás
tránsíre, ut in Ítaliam bovés ageret; rés tamen summae erat
difficultátis. Hí enim montés, quí últeriórem á citerióre Galliá
dívidunt, nive perenní sunt téctí; quam ob causam neque frúmentum neque
pábulum in hís regiónibus invenírí potest. Herculés igitur antequam
ascendere coepit, mágnam cópiam frúmentí et pábulí comparávit et hóc
commeátú bovés onerávit. Postquam in hís rébus trís diés cónsúmpserat,
quartó dié profectus est, et contrá omnium opíniónem bovés incolumís in
Ítaliam trádúxit.


Breví tempore ad flúmen Tiberim vénit. Tum tamen núlla erat urbs in eó
locó, Róma enim nóndum condita erat. Herculés itinere fessus cónstituit
ibi paucós diés morárí, ut sé ex labóribus recreáret. Haud procul á valle
ubi bovés páscébantur spélunca erat, in quá Cácus, horribile mónstrum,
tum habitábat. Híc speciem terribilem praebébat, nón modo quod ingentí
mágnitúdine corporis erat, sed quod ígnem ex óre exspírábat. Cácus autem
dé adventú Herculis fámam accéperat; noctú igitur vénit, et dum Herculés
dormit, quattuor pulcherrimórum boum abripuit. Hós caudís in spéluncam
tráxit, né Herculés é vestígiís cógnóscere posset quó in locó célátí


Posteró dié simul atque é somnó excitátus est, Herculés fúrtum
animadvertit et bovés ámissós omnibus locís quaerébat. Hós tamen núsquam
reperíre poterat, nón modo quod locí nátúram ígnórábat, sed quod
vestígiís falsís déceptus est. Tandem cum mágnam partem diéí frústrá
cónsúmpsisset, cum reliquís bóbus prógredí cónstituit. At dum proficíscí
parat, únus é bóbus quós sécum habuit múgíre coepit. Subitó ií quí in
spéluncá inclúsí erant múgítum reddidérunt, et hóc modó Herculem
certiórem fécérunt quó in locó célátí essent. Ille vehementer írátus ad
spéluncam quam celerrimé sé contulit, ut praedam reciperet. At Cácus
saxum ingéns ita déiécerat ut aditus spéluncae omnínó obstruerétur.


Herculés cum núllum alium introitum reperíre posset, hóc saxum ámovére
cónátus est, sed propter éius mágnitúdinem rés erat difficillima. Diú
frústrá labórábat neque quicquam efficere poterat; tandem tamen mágnó
cónátú saxum ámóvit et spéluncam patefécit. Ibi ámissós bovés mágnó cum
gaudió cónspéxit; sed Cácum ipsum vix cernere potuit, quod spélunca
repléta erat fúmó quem ille móre suó évomébat. Herculés inúsitátá specié
turbátus breve tempus haesitábat; mox tamen in spéluncam inrúpit et
collum mónstrí bracchiís complexus est. Ille etsí multum repúgnávit,
núlló modó sé líberáre potuit, et cum núlla facultás respírandí darétur,
mox exanimátus est.


Eurystheus postquam bovés Géryonis accépit, labórem úndecimum Herculí
imposuit, graviórem quam quós suprá nárrávimus. Mandávit enim eí ut aurea
póma ex hortó Hesperidum auferret. Hesperidés autem nymphae erant quaedam
fórmá praestantissimá, quae in terrá longinquá habitábant, et quibus
aurea quaedam póma á Iúnóne commissa erant. Multí hominés aurí cupiditáte
inductí haec póma auferre iam anteá cónátí erant. Rés tamen difficillima
erat, namque hortus in quó póma erant múró ingentí undique circumdatus
erat; praetereá dracó quídam cui centum erant capita portam hortí
díligenter custódiébat. Opus igitur quod Eurystheus Herculí imperáverat
erat summae difficultátis, nón modo ob causás quás memorávimus, sed etiam
quod Herculés omnínó ígnórábat quó in locó hortus ille situs esset.


Herculés quamquam quiétem vehementer cupiébat, tamen Eurystheó párére
cónstituit, et simul ac iússa éius accépit, proficíscí mátúrávit. Á
multís mercátóribus quaesíverat quó in locó Hesperidés habitárent, nihil
tamen certum reperíre potuerat. Frústrá per multás terrás iter fécit et
multa perícula subiit; tandem, cum in hís itineribus tótum annum
cónsúmpsisset, ad extrémam partem orbis terrárum, quae proxima est
Óceanó, pervénit. Híc stábat vir quídam, nomine Atlás, ingentí
mágnitúdine corporis, quí caelum (ita tráditum est) umerís suís sustinébat,
né in terram décideret. Herculés tantás vírís mágnopere mírátus statim in
conloquium cum Atlante vénit, et cum causam itineris docuisset, auxilium
ab eó petiit.


Atlás autem Herculí máximé pródesse potuit; ille enim cum ipse esset
pater Hesperidum, certó scívit quó in locó esset hortus. Postquam igitur
audívit quam ob causam Herculés vénisset, "Ipse," inquit, "ad hortum íbó
et fíliábus meís persuádébó ut póma suá sponte trádant." Herculés cum
haec audíret, mágnopere gávísus est; vim enim adhibére nóluit, sí rés
aliter fierí posset. Cónstituit igitur oblátum auxilium accipere. Atlás
tamen postulávit ut, dum ipse abesset, Herculés caelum umerís sustinéret.
Hóc autem negótium Herculés libenter suscépit, et quamquam rés erat summí
labóris, tótum pondus caelí continuós complúrís diés sólus sustinébat.


Atlás intereá abierat et ad hortum Hesperidum, quí pauca mília passuum
aberat, sé quam celerrimé contulerat. Eó cum vénisset, causam veniendí
exposuit et fíliás suás vehementer hortátus est ut póma tráderent. Illae
diú haerébant; nólébant enim hóc facere, quod ab ipsá Iúnóne (ita ut ante
dictum est) hóc múnus accépissent. Atlás tamen aliquandó iís persuásit ut
sibi párérent, et póma ad Herculem rettulit. Herculés intereá cum plúrís
diés exspectávisset neque úllam fámam dé reditú Atlantis accépisset, hác
morá graviter commótus est. Tandem quíntó dié Atlantem vídit redeuntem,
et mox mágnó cum gaudió póma accépit; tum, postquam grátiás pró tantó
benefició égit, ad Graeciam proficíscí mátúrávit.


Postquam aurea póma ad Eurystheum reláta sunt, únus modo relinquébátur é
duodecim labóribus quós Pýthia Herculí praecéperat. Eurystheus autem cum
Herculem mágnopere timéret, eum in aliquem locum mittere volébat unde
numquam redíre posset. Negótium igitur eí dedit ut canem Cerberum ex Orcó
in lúcem traheret. Hóc opus omnium difficillimum erat, némó enim umquam
ex Orcó redierat. Praetereá Cerberus iste mónstrum erat horribilí specié,
cui tria erant capita serpentibus saevís cincta. Antequam tamen dé hóc
labóre nárrámus, nón aliénum vidétur, quoniam dé Orcó mentiónem fécimus,
pauca dé eá regióne própónere.


Dé Orcó, quí ídem Hádés appellábátur, haec tráduntur. Ut quisque dé vítá
décesserat, mánés éius ad Orcum, sédem mortuórum, á deó Mercurió
dédúcébantur. Húius regiónis, quae sub terrá fuisse dícitur, réx erat
Plútó, cui uxor erat Próserpina, Iovis et Cereris fília. Mánés igitur á
Mercurió déductí prímum ad rípam veniébant Stygis flúminis, quó régnum
Plútónis continétur. Hóc tránsíre necesse erat antequam in Orcum veníre
possent. Cum tamen in hóc flúmine núllus póns factus esset, mánés
tránsvehébantur á Charonte quódam, quí cum parvá scaphá ad rípam
exspectábat. Charón pró hóc offició mercédem postulábat, neque quemquam,
nisi hóc praemium prius dedisset, tránsvehere volébat. Quam ob causam mós
erat apud antíquós nummum in óre mortuí pónere eó cónsilió, ut cum ad
Stygem vénisset, pretium tráiectús solvere posset. Ií autem quí post
mortem in terrá nón sepultí erant Stygem tránsíre nón potuérunt, sed in
rípá per centum annós erráre coáctí sunt; tum démum Orcum intráre licuit.


Ut autem mánés Stygem hóc modó tránsierant, ad alterum veniébant flúmen,
quod Léthé appellábátur. Ex hóc flúmine aquam bibere cógébantur; quod cum
fécissent, rés omnís in vítá gestás é memoriá dépónébant. Dénique ad
sédem ipsíus Plútónis veniébant, cúius introitus á cane Cerberó
custódiébátur. Ibi Plútó nigró vestítú indútus cum uxóre Próserpiná in
solió sedébat. Stábant etiam nón procul ab eó locó tria alia solia, in
quibus sedébant Mínós, Rhadamanthus, Aeacusque, iúdicés apud ínferós. Hí
mortuís iús dícébant et praemia poenásque cónstituébant. Boní enim in
Campós Élysiós, sédem beátórum, veniébant; improbí autem in Tartarum
mittébantur ac multís et variís suppliciís ibi excruciábantur.


Herculés postquam imperia Eurystheí accépit, in Lacóniam ad Taenarum
statim sé contulit; ibi enim spélunca erat ingentí mágnitúdine, per quam,
ut trádébátur, hominés ad Orcum déscendébant. Eó cum vénisset, ex incolís
quaesívit quó in locó spélunca illa sita esset; quod cum cógnóvisset,
sine morá déscendere cónstituit. Nec tamen sólus hóc iter faciébat,
Mercurius enim et Minerva sé eí sociós adiúnxerant. Ubi ad rípam Stygis
vénit, Herculés scapham Charontis cónscendit, ut ad últeriórem rípam
tránsíret. Cum tamen Herculés vir esset ingentí mágnitúdine corporis,
Charón solvere nólébat; mágnopere enim verébátur né scapha sua tantó
pondere oneráta in medió flúmine mergerétur. Tandem tamen minís Herculis
territus Charón scapham solvit, et eum incolumem ad últeriórem rípam


Postquam flúmen Stygem hóc modó tránsiit, Herculés in sédem ipsíus
Plútónis vénit; et postquam causam veniendí docuit, ab eó petívit ut
Cerberum auferre sibi licéret. Plútó, quí dé Hercule fámam accéperat, eum
benígné excépit, et facultátem quam ille petébat libenter dedit.
Postulávit tamen ut Herculés ipse, cum imperáta Eurystheí fécisset,
Cerberum in Orcum rúrsus redúceret. Herculés hóc pollicitus est, et
Cerberum, quem nón sine mágnó perículó manibus prehenderat, summó cum
labóre ex Orcó in lúcem et ad urbem Eurystheí tráxit. Eó cum vénisset,
tantus timor animum Eurystheí occupávit ut ex átrió statim refúgerit; cum
autem paulum sé ex timóre recépisset, multís cum lacrimís obsecrávit
Herculem ut mónstrum sine morá in Orcum redúceret. Síc contrá omnium
opíniónem duodecim illí labórés quós Pýthia praecéperat intrá duodecim
annós cónfectí sunt; quae cum ita essent, Herculés servitúte tandem
líberátus mágnó cum gaudió Thébás rediit.


Posteá Herculés multa alia praeclára perfécit, quae nunc perscríbere
longum est. Tandem iam aetáte próvectus Déianíram, Oeneí fíliam, in
mátrimónium dúxit; post tamen trís annós accidit ut puerum quendam, cui
nómen erat Eunomus, cású occíderit. Cum autem mós esset ut sí quis
hominem cású occídisset, in exsilium íret, Herculés cum uxóre suá é
fínibus éius cívitátis exíre mátúrávit. Dum tamen iter faciunt, ad flúmen
quoddam pervénérunt in quó núllus póns erat; et dum quaerunt quónam modó
flúmen tránseant, accurrit centaurus Nessus, quí viátóribus auxilium
obtulit. Herculés igitur uxórem suam in tergum Nessí imposuit; tum ipse
flúmen tránávit. Nessus autem paulum in aquam prógressus ad rípam subitó
revertébátur et Déianíram auferre cónábátur. Quod cum animadvertisset
Herculés, írá graviter commótus arcum intendit et pectus Nessí sagittá


Nessus igitur sagittá Herculis tránsfíxus moriéns humí iacébat; at né
occásiónem suí ulcíscendí dímitteret, ita locútus est: "Tú, Déianíra,
verba morientis audí. Sí amórem marítí tuí cónserváre vís, hunc sanguinem
quí nunc é pectore meó effunditur súme ac repóne; tum, sí umquam in
suspíciónem tibi vénerit, vestem marítí hóc sanguine ínficiés." Haec
locútus Nessus animam efflávit; Déianíra autem nihil malí suspicáta
imperáta fécit. Pauló post Herculés bellum contrá Eurytum, régem
Oechaliae, suscépit; et cum régem ipsum cum fíliís interfécisset, Iolén
éius fíliam captívam sécum redúxit. Antequam tamen domum vénit, návem ad
Cénaeum prómunturium appulit, et in terram égressus áram cónstituit, ut
Ioví sacrificáret. Dum tamen sacrificium parat, Licham comitem suum domum
mísit, quí vestem albam referret; mós enim erat apud antíquós, dum
sacrificia facerent, albam vestem gerere. At Déianíra verita né Herculés
amórem ergá Iolén habéret, vestem priusquam Lichae dedit, sanguine Nessí



Herculés nihil malí suspicáns vestem quam Lichás attulerat statim induit;
pauló post tamen dolórem per omnia membra sénsit, et quae causa esset
éius reí mágnopere mirábátur. Dolóre paene exanimátus vestem détrahere
cónátus est; illa tamen in corpore haesit, neque úlló modó abscindí
potuit. Tum démum Herculés quasi furóre impulsus in montem Octam sé
contulit, et in rogum, quem summá celeritáte exstrúxit, sé imposuit. Hóc
cum fécisset, eós quí circumstábant órávit ut rogum quam celerrimé
succenderent. Omnés diú recúsábant; tandem tamen pástor quídam ad
misericordiam inductus ígnem subdidit. Tum, dum omnia fúmó obscúrantur,
Herculés dénsá núbe vélátus á Iove in Olympum abreptus est.


_The celebrated voyage of the Argonauts was brought about in this way.
Pelias had expelled his brother Aeson from his kingdom in Thessaly, and
had determined to take the life of Jason, the son of Aeson. Jason,
however, escaped and grew up to manhood in another country. At last he
returned to Thessaly; and Pelias, fearing that he might attempt to
recover the kingdom, sent him to fetch the Golden Fleece from Colchis,
supposing this to be an impossible feat. Jason with a band of heroes set
sail in the ship Argo (called after Argus, its builder), and after many
adventures reached Colchis. Here Aeétes, king of Colchis, who was
unwilling to give up the Fleece, set Jason to perform what seemed an
impossible task, namely to plough a field with certain fire-breathing
oxen, and then to sow it with dragon's teeth. Medéa, however, the
daughter of the king, assisted Jason by her skill in magic, first to
perform the task appointed, and then to procure the Fleece. She then fled
with Jason, and to delay the pursuit of her father, sacrificed her
brother Absyrtus. After reaching Thessaly, Medéa caused the death of
Pelias and was expelled from the country with her husband. They removed
to Corinth, and here Medéa becoming jealous of Glauce, daughter of Creon,
caused her death by means of a poisoned robe. She was afterward carried
off in a chariot sent by the sun-god, and a little later Jason was
accidentally killed_.


Erant ólim in Thessaliá duo frátrés, quórum alter Aesón, Peliás alter
appellábátur. Aesón prímó régnum obtinuerat; at post paucós annós Peliás
régní cupiditáte adductus nón modo frátrem suum expulit, sed etiam in
animó habébat Iásonem, Aesonis fílium, interficere. Quídam tamen ex
amícís Aesonis, ubi sententiam Peliae cógnóvérunt, puerum é tantó
perículó éripere cónstituérunt. Noctú igitur Iásonem ex urbe abstulérunt,
et cum posteró dié ad régem rediissent, eí renúntiávérunt puerum mortuum
esse. Peliás cum hóc audívisset, etsí ré vérá mágnum gaudium percipiébat,
speciem tamen dolóris praebuit et quae causa esset mortis quaesívit. Illí
autem cum bene intellegerent dolórem éius falsum esse, nesció quam
fábulam dé morte puerí finxérunt.


Post breve tempus Peliás, veritus né régnum suum tantá ví et fraude
occupátum ámitteret, amícum quendam Delphós mísit, quí óráculum
cónsuleret. Ille igitur quam celerrimé Delphós sé contulit et quam ob
causam vénisset démónstrávit. Respondit óráculum núllum esse in
praesentiá perículum; monuit tamen Peliam ut sí quis únum calceum geréns
veníret, eum cavéret. Post paucís annís accidit ut Peliás mágnum
sacrificium factúrus esset; núntiós in omnís partís dímíserat et certam
diem conveniendí díxerat. Dié cónstitútá mágnus hominum numerus undique
ex agrís convénit; in hís autem vénit etiam Iásón, quí á pueritiá apud
centaurum quendam habitáverat. Dum tamen iter facit, únum é calceís in
tránseundó nesció quó flúmine ámísit.


Iásón igitur cum calceum ámissum núlló modó recipere posset, únó pede
núdó in régiam pervénit. Quem cum Peliás vídisset, subitó timóre adfectus
est; intelléxit enim hunc esse hominem quem óráculum démónstrávisset. Hóc
igitur cónsilium iniit. Réx erat quídam Aeétés, quí régnum Colchidis illó
tempore obtinébat. Huic commissum erat vellus illud aureum quod Phrixus
ólim ibi relíquerat. Cónstituit igitur Peliás Iásoní negótium dare ut hóc
vellere potírétur; cum enim rés esset mágní perículí, eum in itinere
peritúrum esse spérábat. Iásonem igitur ad sé arcessívit, et eum
cohortátus quid fierí vellet docuit. Ille etsí intellegébat rem esse
difficillimam, negótium libenter suscépit.


Cum tamen Colchis multórum diérum iter ab eó locó abesset, sólus Iásón
proficíscí nóluit. Dímísit igitur núntiós in omnís partís, quí causam
itineris docérent et diem certam conveniendí dícerent. Intereá, postquam
omnia quae sunt úsuí ad armandás návís comportárí iussit, negótium dedit
Argó cuidam, quí summam scientiam nauticárum rérum habébat, ut návem
aedificáret. In hís rébus circiter decem diés cónsúmptí sunt; Argus enim,
quí operí praeerat, tantam díligentiam adhibébat ut né nocturnum quidem
tempus ad labórem intermitteret. Ad multitúdinem hominum tránsportandam
návis pauló erat látior quam quibus in nostró marí útí cónsuévimus, et ad
vim tempestátum perferendam tóta é róbore facta est.


Intereá is diés appetébat quem Iásón per núntiós édíxerat, et ex omnibus
regiónibus Graeciae multí, quós aut reí novitás aut spés glóriae movébat,
undique conveniébant. Tráditum est autem in hóc numeró fuisse Herculem,
dé quó suprá multa perscrípsimus, Orpheum, citharoedum praeclárissimum,
Théseum, Castorem, multósque aliós quorum nómina sunt nótissima. Ex hís
Iásón quós arbitrátus est ad omnia perícula subeunda parátissimós esse,
eós ad numerum quínquágintá délégit et sociós sibi adiúnxit; tum paucós
diés commorátus, ut ad omnís cásús subsidia comparáret, návem dédúxit, et
tempestátem ad návigandum idóneam nactus mágnó cum plausú omnium solvit.


Haud multó post Argonautae (ita enim appellábantur quí in istá náví
vehébantur) ínsulam quandam, nómine Cyzicum, attigérunt; et é náví
égressí á rége illíus regiónis hospitió exceptí sunt. Paucás hórás ibi
commorátí ad sólis occásum rúrsus solvérunt; sed postquam pauca mília
passuum prógressí sunt, tanta tempestás subitó coorta est ut cursum
tenére nón possent, et in eandem partem ínsulae unde núper profectí erant
mágnó cum perículó déicerentur. Incolae tamen, cum nox esset obscúra,
Argonautás nón ágnóscébant, et návem inimícam vénisse arbitrátí arma
rapuérunt et eós égredí prohibébant. Ácriter in lítore púgnátum est, et
réx ipse, quí cum aliís décucurrerat, ab Argonautís occísus est. Mox
tamen, cum iam dílúcésceret, sénsérunt incolae sé erráre et arma
abiécérunt; Argonautae autem cum régem occísum esse vidérent, mágnum
dolórem percépérunt.


Postrídié éius diéí Iásón tempestátem satis idóneam esse arbitrátus
(summa enim tranquillitás iam cónsecúta erat), ancorás sustulit, et pauca
mília passuum prógressus ante noctem Mýsiam attigit. Ibi paucás hórás in
ancorís exspectávit; á nautís enim cógnóverat aquae cópiam quam sécum
habérent iam déficere, quam ob causam quídam ex Argonautís in terram
égressí aquam quaerébant. Hórum in numeró erat Hylás quídam, puer fórmá
praestantissimá. Quí dum fontem quaerit, á comitibus paulum sécesserat.
Nymphae autem quae fontem colébant, cum iuvenem vídissent, eí persuádére
cónátae sunt ut sécum manéret; et cum ille negáret sé hóc factúrum esse,
puerum ví abstulérunt.

Comités éius postquam Hylam ámissum esse sénsérunt, mágnó dolóre adfectí
diú frústrá quaerébant. Herculés autem et Polyphémus, quí vestígia puerí
longius secútí erant, ubi tandem ad lítus rediérunt, Iásonem solvisse


Post haec Argonautae ad Thráciam cursum tenuérunt, et postquam ad oppidum
Salmydéssum návem appulérunt, in terram égressí sunt. Ibi cum ab incolís
quaesíssent quis régnum éius regiónis obtinéret, certiórés factí sunt
Phíneum quendam tum régem esse. Cógnóvérunt etiam hunc caecum esse et
díró quódam supplició adficí, quod ólim sé crúdélissimum in fíliós suós
praebuisset. Cúius supplicí hóc erat genus. Missa erant á Iove mónstra
quaedam specié horribilí, quae capita virginum, corpora volucrum
habébant. Hae volucrés, quae Harpýiae appellábantur, Phíneó summam
molestiam adferébant; quotiéns enim ille accubuerat, veniébant et cibum
appositum statim auferébant. Quó factum est ut haud multum abesset quín
Phíneus famé morerétur.


Rés igitur male sé habébat cum Argonautae návem appulérunt. Phíneus autem
simul atque audívit eós in suós fínís égressós esse, mágnopere gávísus
est. Sciébat enim quantam opíniónem virtútis Argonautae habérent, nec
dubitábat quín sibi auxilium ferrent. Núntium igitur ad návem mísit, quí
Iásonem sociósque ad régiam vocáret. Eó cum vénissent, Phíneus
démónstrávit quantó in perículó suae rés essent, et prómísit sé mágna
praemia datúrum esse, sí illí remedium repperissent. Argonautae negótium
libenter suscépérunt, et ubi hóra vénit, cum rége accubuérunt; at simul
ac céna apposita est, Harpýiae cénáculum intrávérunt et cibum auferre
cónábantur. Argonautae prímum gladiís volucrés petiérunt; cum tamen
vidérent hóc nihil pródesse, Zétés et Calais, quí álís erant ínstrúctí,
in áera sé sublevávérunt, ut désuper impetum facerent. Quod cum
sénsissent Harpýiae, reí novitáte perterritae statim aufúgérunt, neque
posteá umquam rediérunt.


Hóc factó Phíneus, ut pró tantó benefició meritam grátiam referret,
Iásoní démónstrávit quá ratióne Symplégadés vítáre posset. Symplégadés
autem duae erant rúpés ingentí mágnitúdine, quae á Iove positae erant eó
cónsilió, né quis ad Colchida perveníret. Hae parvó interválló in marí
natábant, et sí quid in medium spatium vénerat, incrédibilí celeritáte
concurrébant. Postquam igitur á Phíneó doctus est quid faciendum esset,
Iásón sublátís ancorís návem solvit, et léní ventó próvectus mox ad
Symplégadés appropinquávit. Tum in prórá stáns columbam quam in manú
tenébat émísit. Illa réctá viá per medium spatium volávit, et priusquam
rúpés cónflíxérunt, incolumis évásit caudá tantum ámissá. Tum rúpés
utrimque discessérunt; antequam tamen rúrsus concurrerent, Argonautae,
bene intellegentés omnem spem salútis in celeritáte positam esse, summá
ví rémís contendérunt et návem incolumem perdúxérunt. Hóc factó dís
grátiás máximás égérunt, quórum auxilió é tantó perículó éreptí essent;
omnés enim sciébant nón sine auxilió deórum rem tam félíciter événisse.


Breví intermissó spatió Argonautae ad flúmen Phásim vénérunt, quod in
fínibus Colchórum erat. Ibi cum návem appulissent et in terram égressí
essent, statim ad régem Aeétem sé contulérunt et ab eó postulávérunt ut
vellus aureum sibi tráderétur. Ille cum audívisset quam ob causam
Argonautae vénissent, írá commótus est et diú negábat sé vellus
tráditúrum esse. Tandem tamen, quod sciébat Iásonem nón sine auxilió
deórum hóc negótium suscépisse, mútátá sententiá prómísit sé vellus
tráditúrum, sí Iásón labórés duós difficillimós prius perfécisset; et cum
Iásón díxisset sé ad omnia perícula subeunda parátum esse, quid fierí
vellet ostendit. Prímum iungendí erant duo taurí specié horribilí, quí
flammás ex óre édébant; tum hís iúnctís ager quídam arandus erat et
dentés dracónis serendí. Hís audítís Iásón etsí rem esse summí perículí
intellegébat, tamen, né hanc occásiónem reí bene gerendae ámitteret,
negótium suscépit.


Médéa, régis fília, Iásonem adamávit, et ubi audívit eum tantum perículum
subitúrum esse, rem aegré ferébat. Intellegébat enim patrem suum hunc
labórem próposuisse eó ipsó cónsilió, ut Iásón morerétur. Quae cum ita
essent, Médéa, quae summam scientiam medicínae habébat, hóc cónsilium
iniit. Mediá nocte ínsciente patre ex urbe évásit, et postquam in montís
fínitimós vénit, herbás quásdam carpsit; tum súcó expressó unguentum
parávit quod ví suá corpus aleret nervósque cónfírmáret. Hóc factó Iásoní
unguentum dedit; praecépit autem ut eó dié quó istí labórés cónficiendí
essent corpus suum et arma máne oblineret. Iásón etsí paene omnibus
hominibus mágnitúdine et víribus corporis antecellébat (víta enim omnis
in vénátiónibus atque in studió reí mílitáris cónsúmébátur), tamen hóc
cónsilium nón neglegendum esse cénsébat.


Ubi is diés vénit quem réx ad arandum agrum édíxerat, Iásón ortá lúce cum
sociís ad locum cónstitútum sé contulit. Ibi stabulum ingéns repperit, in
quó taurí erant inclúsí; tum portís apertís taurós in lúcem tráxit, et
summá cum difficultáte iugum imposuit. At Aeétés cum vidéret taurós nihil
contrá Iásonem valére, mágnopere mírátus est; nesciébat enim fíliam suam
auxilium eí dedisse. Tum Iásón omnibus aspicientibus agrum aráre coepit,
quá in ré tantam díligentiam praebuit ut ante merídiem tótum opus
cónfécerit. Hóc factó ad locum ubi réx sedébat adiit et dentís dracónis
postulávit; quós ubi accépit, in agrum quem aráverat mágná cum díligentiá
sparsit. Hórum autem dentium nátúra erat tális ut in eó locó ubi sémentés
factae essent virí armátí míró quódam modó gígnerentur.


Nóndum tamen Iásón tótum opus cónfécerat; imperáverat enim eí Aeétés ut
armátós virós quí é dentibus gígnerentur sólus interficeret. Postquam
igitur omnís dentís in agrum sparsit, Iásón lassitúdine exanimátus quiétí
sé trádidit, dum virí istí gígnerentur. Paucás hórás dormiébat, sub
vesperum tamen é somnó subitó excitátus rem ita événisse ut praedictum
esset cógnóvit; nam in omnibus agrí partibus virí ingentí mágnitúdine
corporis gladiís galeísque armátí mírum in modum é terrá oriébantur. Hóc
cógnitó Iásón cónsilium quod dedisset Médéa nón omittendum esse putábat.
Saxum igitur ingéns (ita enim Médéa praecéperat) in mediós virós
coniécit. Illí undique ad locum concurrérunt, et cum quisque sibi id
saxum nesció cúr habére vellet, mágna contróversia orta est. Mox strictís
gladiís inter sé púgnáre coepérunt, et cum hóc modó plúrimí occísí
essent, reliquí vulneribus cónfectí á Iásone núlló negótió interfectí


Réx Aeétés ubi Iásonem labórem própositum cónfécisse cógnóvit, írá
graviter commótus est; id enim per dolum factum esse intellegébat; nec
dubitábat quín Médéa eí auxilium tulisset. Médéa autem cum intellegeret
sé in mágnó fore perículó sí in régiá manéret, fugá salútem petere
cónstituit. Omnibus rébus igitur ad fugam parátís mediá nocte ínsciente
patre cum frátre Absyrtó évásit, et quam celerrimé ad locum ubi Argó
subducta erat sé contulit. Eó cum vénisset, ad pedés Iásonis sé próiécit,
et multís cum lacrimís eum obsecrávit né in tantó discrímine mulierem
désereret quae eí tantum prófuisset. Ille quod memoriá tenébat sé per
éius auxilium é mágnó perículó évásisse, libenter eam excépit, et
postquam causam veniendí audívit, hortátus est né patris íram timéret.
Prómísit autem sé quam prímum eam in náví suá ávectúrum.


Postrídié éius diéí Iásón cum sociís suís ortá lúce návem dédúxit, et
tempestátem idóneam nactí ad eum locum rémís contendérunt, quó in locó
Médéa vellus célátum esse démónstrábat. Cum eó vénissent, Iásón in terram
égressus est, et sociís ad mare relictís, quí praesidió náví essent, ipse
cum Médéá in silvás sé contulit. Pauca mília passuum per silvam
prógressus vellus quod quaerébat ex arbore suspénsum vídit. Id tamen
auferre erat summae difficultátis; nón modo enim locus ipse égregié et
nátúrá et arte erat múnítus, sed etiam dracó quídam specié terribilí
arborem custódiébat. Tum Médéa, quae, ut suprá démónstrávimus, medicínae
summam scientiam habuit, rámum quem dé arbore proximá déripuerat venénó
ínfécit. Hóc factó ad locum appropinquávit, et dracónem, quí faucibus
apertís éius adventum exspectábat, venénó sparsit; deinde, dum dracó
somnó oppressus dormit, Iásón vellus aureum dé arbore déripuit et cum
Médéá quam celerrimé pedem rettulit.


Dum autem ea geruntur, Argonautae, quí ad mare relictí erant, ánxió animó
reditum Iásonis exspectábant; id enim negótium summí esse perículí
intellegébant. Postquam igitur ad occásum sólis frústrá exspectávérunt,
dé éius salúte déspéráre coepérunt, nec dubitábant quín aliquí cásus
accidisset. Quae cum ita essent, mátúrandum sibi cénsuérunt, ut ducí
auxilium ferrent; sed dum proficíscí parant, lúmen quoddam subitó
cónspiciunt mírum in modum intrá silvás refulgéns, et mágnopere mírátí
quae causa esset éius reí ad locum concurrunt. Quó cum vénissent, Iásoní
et Médéae advenientibus occurrérunt, et vellus aureum lúminis éius causam
esse cógnóvérunt. Omní timóre sublátó mágnó cum gaudió ducem suum
excépérunt, et dís grátiás máximás égérunt quod rés tam félíciter


Hís rébus gestís omnés sine morá návem rúrsus cónscendérunt, et sublátís
ancorís prímá vigiliá solvérunt; neque enim satis tútum esse arbitrátí
sunt in eó locó manére. At réx Aeétés, quí iam ante inimícó in eós fuerat
animó, ubi cógnóvit fíliam suam nón modo ad Argonautás sé recépisse sed
etiam ad vellus auferendum auxilium tulisse, hóc dolóre gravius exársit.
Návem longam quam celerrimé dédúcí iussit, et mílitibus impositís
fugientís ínsecútus est. Argonautae, quí rem in discrímine esse bene
sciébant, omnibus víribus rémís contendébant; cum tamen návis quá
vehébantur ingentí esset mágnitúdine, nón eádem celeritáte quá Colchí
prógredí poterant. Quó factum est ut minimum abesset quín á Colchís
sequentibus caperentur, neque enim longius intererat quam quó télum adicí
posset. At Médéa cum vídisset quó in locó rés essent, paene omní spé
dépositá ínfandum hóc cónsilium cépit.


Erat in náví Argonautárum fílius quídam régis Aeétae, nómine Absyrtus,
quem, ut suprá démónstrávimus, Médéa ex urbe fugiéns sécum abdúxerat.
Hunc puerum Médéa interficere cónstituit eó cónsilió, ut membrís éius in
mare coniectís cursum Colchórum impedíret; certó enim sciébat Aeétem, cum
membra fílí vídisset, nón longius prósecútúrum esse. Neque opínió Médéam
fefellit, omnia enim ita événérunt ut spéráverat. Aeétés ubi prímum
membra vídit, ad ea conligenda návem tenérí iussit. Dum tamen ea
geruntur, Argonautae nón intermissó rémigandí labóre mox é cónspectú
hostium auferébantur, neque prius fugere déstitérunt quam ad flúmen
Éridanum pervénérunt. Aeétés nihil sibi prófutúrum esse arbitrátus sí
longius prógressus esset, animó démissó domum revertit, ut fílí corpus ad
sepultúram daret.


Tandem post multa perícula Iásón in eundem locum pervénit unde profectus
erat. Tum é náví égressus ad régem Peliam, quí régnum adhúc obtinébat,
statim sé contulit, et vellere aureó mónstrátó ab eó postulávit ut régnum
sibi tráderétur; Peliás enim pollicitus erat, sí Iásón vellus
rettulisset, sé régnum eí tráditúrum. Postquam Iásón quid fierí vellet
ostendit, Peliás prímó nihil respondit, sed diú in eádem trístitiá
tacitus permánsit; tandem ita locútus est: "Vidés mé aetáte iam esse
cónfectum, neque dubium est quín diés suprémus mihi appropinquet. Liceat
igitur mihi, dum vívam, hóc régnum obtinére; cum autem tandem décesseró,
tú mihi succédés." Hác órátióne adductus Iásón respondit sé id factúrum
quod ille rogásset.


Hís rébus cógnitís Médéa rem aegré tulit, et régní cupiditáte adducta
mortem régí per dolum ínferre cónstituit. Hóc cónstitútó ad fíliás régis
vénit atque ita locúta est: "Vidétis patrem vestrum aetáte iam esse
cónfectum neque ad labórem régnandí perferendum satis valére. Vultisne
eum rúrsus iuvenem fierí?" Tum fíliae régis ita respondérunt: "Num hóc
fierí potest? Quis enim umquam é sene iuvenis factus est?" At Médéa
respondit: "Mé medicínae summam habére scientiam scítis. Nunc igitur
vóbis démónstrábó quó modó haec rés fierí possit." Postquam fínem
loquendí fécit, arietem aetáte iam cónfectum interfécit et membra éius in
váse aéneó posuit, atque ígní suppositó in aquam herbás quásdam infúdit.
Tum, dum aqua effervésceret, carmen magicum cantábat. Mox ariés é váse
exsiluit et víribus refectís per agrós currébat.


Dum fíliae régis hóc míráculum stupentés intuentur, Médéa ita locúta est:
"Vidétis quantum valeat medicína. Vós igitur, sí vultis patrem vestrum in
aduléscentiam redúcere, id quod fécí ipsae faciétis. Vós patris membra in
vás conicite; ego herbás magicás praebébó." Quod ubi audítum est, fíliae
régis cónsilium quod dedisset Médéa nón omittendum putávérunt. Patrem
igitur Peliam necávérunt et membra éius in vás aéneum coniécérunt; nihil
autem dubitábant quín hóc máximé eí prófutúrum esset. At rés omnínó
aliter événit ac spéráverant, Médéa enim nón eásdem herbás dedit quibus
ipsa úsa erat. Itaque postquam diú frústrá exspectávérunt, patrem suum ré
vérá mortuum esse intelléxérunt. Hís rébus gestís Médéa sé cum coniuge
suó régnum acceptúram esse spérábat; sed cívés cum intellegerent quó modó
Peliás periisset, tantum scelus aegré tulérunt. Itaque Iásone et Médéá é
régnó expulsís Acastum régem creávérunt.


Iásón et Médéa é Thessaliá expulsí ad urbem Corinthum vénérunt, cúius
urbis Creón quídam régnum tum obtinébat. Erat autem Creontí fília úna,
nómine Glaucé. Quam cum vídisset, Iásón cónstituit Médéae uxórí suae
núntium mittere eó cónsilió, ut Glaucén in mátrimónium dúceret. At Médéa
ubi intelléxit quae ille in animó habéret, írá graviter commóta iúre
iúrandó cónfírmávit sé tantam iniúriam ultúram. Hóc igitur cónsilium
cépit. Vestem parávit summá arte textam et variís colóribus ínfectam;
hanc mortiferó quódam venénó tinxit, cúius vís tális erat ut sí quis eam
vestem induisset, corpus éius quasi ígní úrerétur. Hóc factó vestem ad
Glaucén mísit; illa autem nihil malí suspicáns dónum libenter accépit, et
vestem novam móre féminárum statim induit.


Vix vestem induerat Glaucé cum dolórem gravem per omnia membra sénsit, et
pauló post crúdélí cruciátú adfecta é vítá excessit. Hís rébus gestís
Médéa furóre atque ámentiá impulsa fíliós suós necávit; tum mágnum sibi
fore perículum arbitráta sí in Thessaliá manéret, ex eá regióne fugere
cónstituit. Hóc cónstitútó sólem órávit ut in tantó perículó auxilium
sibi praebéret. Sól autem hís precibus commótus currum mísit cui erant
iúnctí dracónés álís ínstrúctí. Médéa nón omittendam tantam occásiónem
arbitráta currum ascendit, itaque per áera vecta incolumis ad urbem
Athénás pervénit. Iásón ipse breví tempore míró modó occísus est. Accidit
síve cású síve cónsilió deórum ut sub umbrá návis suae, quae in lítus
subducta erat, dormíret. Mox návis, quae adhúc érécta steterat, in eam
partem ubi Iásón iacébat subitó délapsa virum ínfélícem oppressit.



_Ulysses, a famous Greek hero, took a prominent part in the long siege of
Troy. After the fall of the city, he set out with his followers on his
homeward voyage to Ithaca, an island of which he was king; but being
driven out of his course by northerly winds, he was compelled to touch at
the country of the Lotus-eaters, who are supposed to have lived on the
north coast of Africa. Some of his comrades were so delighted with the
lotus fruit that they wished to remain in the country, but Ulysses
compelled them to embark again and continued his voyage. He next came to
the island of Sicily, and fell into the hands of the giant Polyphémus,
one of the Cyclópes. After several of his comrades had been killed by
this monster, Ulysses made his escape by stratagem and reached the
country of the winds. Here he received the help of Aeolus, king of the
winds, and having set sail again, arrived within sight of Ithaca; but
owing to the folly of his companions, the winds became suddenly adverse
and he was again driven back. He then touched at an island which was the
home of Circe, a powerful enchantress, who exercised her charms on his
companions and turned them into swine. By the help of the god Mercury,
Ulysses not only escaped this fate himself, but also forced Circe to
restore her victims to human shape. After staying a year with Circe, he
again set out and eventually reached his home_.


Urbem Tróiam á Graecís decem annós obsessam esse satis cónstat; dé hóc
enim belló Homérus, máximus poétárum Graecórum, Íliadem opus nótissimum
scrípsit. Tróiá tandem per ínsidiás captá, Graecí longó belló fessí domum
redíre mátúrávérunt. Omnibus rébus igitur ad profectiónem parátís návís
dédúxérunt, et tempestátem idóneam nactí mágnó cum gaudió solvérunt. Erat
inter prímós Graecórum Ulixés quídam, vir summae virtútis ac prúdentiae,
quem dícunt nónnúllí dolum istum excógitásse quó Tróiam captam esse
cónstat. Híc régnum ínsulae Ithacae obtinuerat, et pauló antequam cum
reliquís Graecís ad bellum profectus est, puellam fórmósissimam, nómine
Pénelopén, in mátrimónium dúxerat. Nunc igitur cum iam decem annós quasi
in exsilió cónsúmpsisset, mágná cupiditáte patriae et uxóris videndae


Postquam tamen pauca mília passuum á lítore Tróiae progressí sunt, tanta
tempestás subitó coorta est ut núlla návium cursum tenére posset, sed
aliae aliás in partís disicerentur. Návis autem quá ipse Ulixés vehébátur
ví tempestátis ad merídiem déláta decimó dié ad lítus Libyae appulsa est.
Ancorís iactís Ulixés cónstituit nónnúllós é sociís in terram expónere,
quí aquam ad návem referrent et quális esset nátúra éius regiónis
cógnóscerent. Hí igitur é náví égressí imperáta facere parábant. Dum
tamen fontem quaerunt, quibusdam ex incolís obviam factí ab iís hospitió
acceptí sunt. Accidit autem ut máior pars víctús eórum hominum in míró
quódam frúctú quem lótum appellábant cónsisteret. Quam cum Graecí
gustássent, patriae et sociórum statim oblítí cónfírmávérunt sé semper in
eá terrá mánsúrós, ut dulcí illó cibó in perpetuum véscerentur.


Ulixés cum ab hórá septimá ad vesperum exspectásset, veritus né socií suí
in perículó versárentur, nónnúllós é reliquís mísit, ut quae causa esset
morae cógnóscerent. Hí igitur in terram exposití ad vícum quí nón longé
aberat sé contulérunt; quó cum vénissent, sociós suós quasi vínó ébriós
repperérunt. Tum ubi causam veniendí docuérunt, iís persuádére cónábantur
ut sécum ad návem redírent. Illí tamen resistere ac manú sé défendere
coepérunt, saepe clámitantés sé numquam ex eó locó abitúrós. Quae cum ita
essent, núntií ré ínfectá ad Ulixem rediérunt. Hís rébus cógnitís ipse
cum omnibus quí in náví relictí erant ad locum vénit; et sociós suós
frústrá hortátus ut suá sponte redírent, manibus eórum post terga vinctís
invítós ad návem reportávit. Tum ancorís sublátís quam celerrimé é portú


Postquam eá tótá nocte rémís contendérunt, postrídié ad terram ígnótam
návem appulérunt. Tum, quod nátúram éius regiónis ígnórábat, ipse Ulixés
cum duodecim é sociís in terram égressus loca explóráre cónstituit.
Paulum á lítore prógressí ad spéluncam ingentem pervénérunt, quam
habitárí sénsérunt; éius enim introitum et nátúrá locí et manú múnítum
esse animadvertérunt. Mox, etsí intellegébant sé nón sine perículó id
factúrós, spéluncam intrávérunt; quod cum fécissent, mágnam cópiam lactis
in vásís ingentibus conditam invénérunt. Dum tamen mírantur quis in eá
séde habitáret, sonitum terribilem audívérunt, et oculís ad portam tortís
mónstrum horribile vídérunt, húmáná quidem specié et figúrá, sed ingentí
mágnitúdine corporis. Cum autem animadvertissent mónstrum únum oculum
tantum habére in mediá fronte positum, intelléxérunt hunc esse únum é
Cyclópibus, dé quibus fámam iam accéperant.


Cyclópés autem pástórés erant quídam quí ínsulam Siciliam et praecipué
montem Aetnam incolébant; ibi enim Volcánus, praeses fabrórum et ígnis
repertor, cúius serví Cyclópés erant, officínam suam habébat.

Graecí igitur simul ac mónstrum vídérunt, terróre paene exanimátí in
interiórem partem spéluncae refúgérunt et sé ibi abdere cónábantur.
Polyphémus autem (síc enim Cyclóps appellábátur) pecus suum in spéluncam
compulit; deinde, cum saxó ingentí portam obstrúxisset, ígnem in mediá
spéluncá fécit. Hóc factó, oculó omnia perlústrábat, et cum sénsisset
hominés in interióre parte spéluncae esse abditós, mágná vóce exclámávit:
"Quí hominés estis? Mercátórés an latrónés?" Tum Ulixés respondit sé
neque mercátórés esse neque praedandí causá vénisse; sed á Tróiá
redeuntís ví tempestátum á réctó cursú dépulsós esse. Órávit etiam ut
sibi sine iniúriá abíre licéret. Tum Polyphémus quaesívit ubi esset návis
quá vectí essent; sed Ulixés cum sibi máximé praecavendum esse bene
intellegeret, respondit návem suam in rúpís coniectam omnínó fráctam
esse. Polyphémus autem núlló respónsó dató duo é sociís manú corripuit,
et membrís eórum dívulsís carnem dévoráre coepit.


Dum haec geruntur, Graecórum animós tantus terror occupávit ut né vócem
quidem édere possent, sed omní spé salútis dépositá mortem praesentem
exspectárent. Polyphémus, postquam famés hác tam horribilí céná dépulsa
est, humí próstrátus somnó sé dedit. Quod cum vídisset Ulixés, tantam
occásiónem reí gerendae nón omittendam arbitrátus, in eó erat ut pectus
mónstrí gladió tránsfígeret. Cum tamen nihil temeré agendum exístimáret,
cónstituit explóráre, antequam hóc faceret, quá ratióne ex spéluncá
évádere possent. At cum saxum animadvertisset quó introitus obstrúctus
erat, nihil sibi prófutúrum intelléxit sí Polyphémum interfécisset. Tanta
enim erat éius saxí mágnitúdó ut né á decem quidem hominibus ámovérí
posset. Quae cum ita essent, Ulixés hóc cónátú déstitit et ad sociós
rediit; quí cum intelléxissent quó in locó rés essent, núllá spé salútis
oblátá dé fortúnís suís déspéráre coepérunt. Ille tamen né animós
démitterent vehementer hortátus est; démónstrávit sé iam anteá é multís
et mágnís perículís évásisse, neque dubium esse quín in tantó discrímine
dí auxilium látúrí essent.


Ortá lúce Polyphémus iam é somnó excitátus idem quod hesternó dié fécit;
correptís enim duóbus é reliquís virís carnem eórum sine morá dévorávit.
Tum, cum saxum ámóvisset, ipse cum pecore suó ex spéluncá prógressus est;
quod cum Graecí vidérent, mágnam in spem sé post paulum évásúrós
vénérunt. Mox tamen ab hác spé repulsí sunt; nam Polyphémus, postquam
omnés ovés exiérunt, saxum in locum restituit. Reliquí omní spé salútis
dépositá lámentís lacrimísque sé dédidérunt; Ulixés véró, quí, ut suprá
démónstrávimus, vir mágní fuit cónsilí, etsí intellegébat rem in
discrímine esse, nóndum omnínó déspérábat. Tandem, postquam diú haec tótó
animó cógitávit, hóc cónsilium cépit. É lígnís quae in spéluncá reposita
erant pálum mágnum délégit. Hunc summá cum díligentiá praeacútum fécit;
tum, postquam sociís quid fierí vellet ostendit, reditum Polyphémí


Sub vesperum Polyphémus ad spéluncam rediit, et eódem modó quó anteá
cénávit. Tum Ulixés útrem víní prómpsit, quem forte (id quod eí erat
salútí) sécum attulerat; et postquam mágnum póculum vínó complévit,
mónstrum ad bibendum próvocávit. Polyphémus, quí numquam anteá vínum
gustáverat, tótum póculum statim exhausit; quod cum fécisset, tantam
voluptátem percépit ut iterum et tertium póculum replérí iusserit. Tum,
cum quaesívisset quó nómine Ulixés appellárétur, ille respondit sé
Néminem appellarí; quod cum audívisset, Polyphémus ita locútus est:
"Hanc, tibi grátiam pró tantó benefició referam; té postrémum omnium
dévorábó." Hóc cum díxisset, cibó vínóque gravis recubuit et breví
tempore somnó oppressus est. Tum Ulixés sociís convocátís, "Habémus,"
inquit, "quam petiimus facultátem; né igitur tantam occásiónem reí
gerendae omittámus."


Hác órátióne habitá, postquam extrémum pálum ígní calefécit, oculum
Polyphémí dormientis ferventí lígnó perfódit; quó factó omnés in díversás
spéluncae partís sé abdidérunt. At ille subitó illó dolóre oculí é somnó
excitátus clámórem terribilem sustulit, et dum per spéluncam errat,
Ulixem manú prehendere cónábátur; cum tamen iam omnínó caecus esset,
núlló modó hóc efficere potuit. Intereá reliquí Cyclópés clámóre audító
undique ad spéluncam convénérunt, et ad introitum adstantés quid
Polyphémus ageret quaesívérunt, et quam ob causam tantum clámórem
sustulisset. Ille respondit sé graviter vulnerátum esse et mágnó dolóre
adficí. Cum tamen posteá quaesívissent quis eí vim intulisset, respondit
ille Néminem id fécisse; quibus rébus audítís únus é Cyclópibus: "At sí
némó," inquit, "té vulnerávit, haud dubium est quín cónsilió deórum,
quibus resistere nec possumus nec volumus, hóc supplició adficiáris." Hóc
cum díxisset, abiérunt Cyclópés eum in ínsániam incidisse arbitrátí.


Polyphémus ubi sociós suós abiisse sénsit, furóre atque ámentiá impulsus
Ulixem iterum quaerere coepit; tandem cum portam invénisset, saxum quó
obstrúcta erat ámóvit, ut pecus in agrós exíret. Tum ipse in introitú
cónsédit, et ut quaeque ovis ad hunc locum vénerat, éius tergum manibus
tráctábat, né virí inter ovís exíre possent. Quod cum animadvertisset
Ulixés, intelléxit omnem spem salútis in doló magis quam in virtúte póní.
Itaque hóc cónsilium iniit. Prímum trís quás vidit pinguissimás ex ovibus
délégit, quás cum inter sé viminibus coniúnxisset, únum ex sociís suís
ventribus eárum ita subiécit ut omnínó latéret; deinde ovís hominem sécum
ferentís ad portam égit. Id accidit quod fore suspicátus erat. Polyphémus
enim postquam terga ovium manibus tráctávit, eás praeteríre passus est.
Ulixés ubi rem tam félíciter événisse vídit, omnís sociós suós ex órdine
eódem modó émísit; quó factó ipse novissimus évásit.


Iís rébus ita cónfectís, Ulixés veritus né Polyphémus fraudem sentíret,
cum sociís quam celerrimé ad lítus contendit; quó cum vénissent, ab iís
quí náví praesidió relictí erant mágná cum laetitiá exceptí sunt. Hí enim
cum ánxiís animís iam trís diés continuós reditum eórum exspectávissent,
eós in aliquod perículum mágnum incidisse (id quidem quod erat)
suspicátí, ipsí auxiliandí causá égredí parábant. Tum Ulixés nón satis
tútum arbitrátus in eó locó manére, quam celerrimé profisíscí cónstituit.
Iussit igitur omnís návem cónscendere, et ancorís sublátís paulum á
lítore in altum próvectus est. Tum mágná vóce exclámávit: "Tú, Polyphéme,
quí iúra hospití spernis, iústam et débitam poenam immánitátis tuae
solvistí." Hác vóce audítá Polyphémus írá vehementer commótus ad mare sé
contulit, et ubi návem paulum á lítore remótam esse intelléxit, saxum
ingéns manú correptum in eam partem coniécit unde vócem veníre sénsit.
Graecí autem, etsí nón multum áfuit quín submergerentur, núlló damnó
acceptó cursum tenuérunt.


Pauca mília passuum ab eó locó prógressus Ulixés ad ínsulam Aeoliam návem
appulit. Haec patria erat ventórum,

                "Híc vástó réx Aeolus antró
    luctantís ventós tempestátésque sonórás
    imperió premit ac vinclís et carcere frénat."

Ibi réx ipse Graecós hospitió excépit, atque iís persuásit ut ad
recuperandás vírís paucós diés in eá regióne commorárentur. Septimó dié
cum socií é labóribus sé recépissent, Ulixés, né anní tempore á
návigátióne exclúderétur, sibi sine morá proficíscendum statuit. Tum
Aeolus, quí sciébat Ulixem cupidissimum esse patriae videndae, eí iam
profectúró mágnum saccum é corió cónfectum dedit, in quó ventós omnís
praeter únum inclúserat. Zephyrum tantum solverat, quod ille ventus ab
ínsulá Aeoliá ad Ithacam návigantí est secundus. Ulixés hóc dónum
libenter accépit, et grátiís pró tantó benefició áctís saccum ad málum
adligávit. Tum omnibus rébus ad profectiónem parátís merídiánó feré
tempore é portú solvit.


Novem diés secundissimó ventó cursum tenuérunt, iamque in cónspectum
patriae suae vénerant, cum Ulixés lassitúdine cónfectus (ipse enim
gubernábat) ad quiétem capiendam recubuit. At socií, quí iam dúdum
mírábantur quid in illó saccó inclúsum esset, cum ducem somnó oppressum
vidérent, tantam occásiónem nón omittendam arbitrátí sunt; crédébant enim
aurum et argentum ibi esse céláta. Itaque spé lucrí adductí saccum sine
morá solvérunt, quó factó ventí

                        "velut ágmine factó
    quá data porta ruunt, et terrás turbine perflant."

Híc tanta tempestás subitó coorta est ut illí cursum tenére nón possent
sed in eandem partem unde erant profectí referrentur. Ulixés é somnó
excitátus quó in locó rés esset statim intelléxit; saccum solútum,
Ithacam post tergum relictam vídit. Tum véró írá vehementer exársit
sociósque obiúrgábat quod cupiditáte pecúniae adductí spem patriae
videndae próiécissent.


Breví spatió intermissó Graecí ínsulae cuidam appropinquávérunt in quá
Circé, fília Sólis, habitábat. Quó cum návem appulisset, Ulixés in terram
frúmentandí causá égrediendum esse statuit; nam cógnóverat frúmentum quod
in náví habérent iam déficere. Sociís igitur ad sé convocátís quó in locó
rés esset et quid fierí vellet ostendit. Cum tamen omnés memoriá tenérent
quam crúdélí morte necátí essent ií quí núper é náví égressí essent, némó
repertus est quí hóc negótium suscipere vellet. Quae cum ita essent, rés
ad contróversiam déducta est. Tandem Ulixés cónsénsú omnium sociós in
duás partís dívísit, quárum alterí Eurylochus, vir summae virtútis,
alterí ipse praeesse. Tum hí inter sé sortítí sunt uter in terram
égrederétur. Hóc factó, Eurylochó sorte événit ut cum duóbus et vígintí
sociís rem susciperet.


Hís rébus ita cónstitútis ií quí sortítí erant in interiórem partem
ínsulae profectí sunt. Tantus tamen timor animós eórum occupáverat ut
nihil dubitárent quín mortí obviam írent. Vix quidem poterant ií quí in
náví relictí erant lacrimás tenére; crédébant enim sé sociós suós numquam
post hóc tempus vísúrós. Illí autem aliquantum itineris prógressí ad
víllam quandam pervénérunt summá mágnificentiá aedificátam, cúius ad
óstium cum adiissent, cantum dulcissimum audívérunt. Tanta autem fuit
éius vócis dulcédó ut núlló modó retinérí possent quín iánuam pulsárent.
Hóc factó ipsa Circé forás exiit, et summá cum benígnitáte omnís in
hospitium invítávit. Eurylochus ínsidiás sibi comparárí suspicátus forís
exspectáre cónstituit, sed reliquí reí novitáte adductí intrávérunt.
Cénam mágnificam omnibus rébus ínstrúctam invénérunt et iússú dominae
libentissimé accubuérunt. At Circé vínum quod serví apposuérunt
medicámentó quódam miscuerat; quod cum Graecí bibissent, graví somnó
subitó oppressí sunt.


Tum Circé, quae artis magicae summam scientiam habébat, baculó aureó quod
gerébat capita eórum tetigit; quó factó omnés in porcós subitó conversí
sunt. Intereá Eurylochus ígnárus quid in aedibus agerétur ad óstium
sedébat; postquam tamen ad sólis occásum ánxió animó et sollicitó
exspectávit, sólus ad návem regredí cónstituit. Eó cum vénisset,
sollicitúdine ac timóre tam perturbátus fuit ut quae vídisset vix
dílúcidé nárráre posset. Ulixés autem satis intelléxit sociós suós in
perículó versárí, et gladió correptó Eurylochó imperávit ut sine morá
viam ad istam domum démónstráret. Ille tamen multís cum lacrimís Ulixem
complexus obsecráre coepit né in tantum perículum sé committeret; sí quid
gravius eí accidisset, omnium salútem in summó discrímine futúram. Ulixés
autem respondit sé néminem invítum sécum adductúrum; eí licére, sí
mállet, in náví manére; sé ipsum sine úlló praesidió rem susceptúrum. Hóc
cum mágná vóce díxisset, é náví désiluit et núlló sequente sólus in viam
sé dedit.


Aliquantum itineris prógressus ad víllam mágnificam pervénit, quam cum
oculís perlústrásset, statim intráre statuit; intelléxit enim hanc esse
eandem domum dé quá Eurylochus mentiónem fécisset. At cum in eó esset ut
límen intráret, subitó eí obviam stetit aduléscéns fórmá pulcherrimá
aureum baculum geréns. Híc Ulixem iam domum intrantem manú corripuit et,
"Quó ruis?" inquit. "Nónne scís hanc esse Circés domum? Híc inclúsí sunt
amící tuí ex húmáná specié in porcós conversí. Num vís ipse in eandem
calamitátem veníre?" Ulixés simul ac vócem audívit, deum Mercurium
ágnóvit; núllís tamen precibus ab ínstitútó cónsilió déterrérí potuit.
Quod cum Mercurius sénsisset, herbam quandam eí dedit, quam contrá
carmina multum valére dícébat. "Hanc cape," inquit, "et ubi Circé té
baculó tetigerit, tú strictó gladió impetum in eam vidé ut faciás."
Mercurius postquam fínem loquendí fécit,

    "mortálís vísús medió sermóne relíquit,
     et procul in tenuem ex oculís évánuit auram."


Breví intermissó spatió Ulixés ad omnia perícula subeunda parátus iánuam
pulsávit, et foribus patefactís ab ipsá Circé benígné exceptus est. Omnia
eódem modó atque anteá facta sunt. Cénam mágnificé ínstrúctam vídit et
accumbere iússus est. Mox, ubi famés cibó dépulsa est, Circé póculum
aureum vínó replétum Ulixí dedit. Ille etsí suspicátus est venénum sibi
parátum esse, póculum exhausit; quó factó Circé postquam caput éius
baculó tetigit, ea verba locúta est quibus sociós éius anteá in porcós
converterat. Rés tamen omnínó aliter événit atque illa spéráverat. Tanta
enim vís erat éius herbae quam Ulixí Mercurius dederat ut neque venénum
neque verba quicquam efficere possent. Ulixés autem, ut eí praeceptum
erat, gladió strictó impetum in eam fécit et mortem minitábátur. Circé
cum artem suam nihil valére sénsisset, multís cum lacrimís eum obsecráre
coepit né sibi vítam adimeret.


Ulixés autem ubi sénsit eam timóre perterritam esse, postulávit ut sociós
suós sine morá in húmánam speciem redúceret (certior enim factus erat á
deó Mercurió eós in porcós conversós esse); nisi id factum esset, sé
débitás poenás súmptúrum ostendit. Circé hís rébus graviter commóta eí ad
pedés sé próiécit, et multís cum lacrimís iúre iúrandó cónfírmávit sé
quae ille imperásset omnia factúram. Tum porcós in átrium immittí iussit.
Illí dató sígnó inruérunt, et cum ducem suum ágnóvissent, mágnó dolóre
adfectí sunt quod núlló modó eum dé rébus suís certiórem facere poterant.
Circé tamen unguentó quódam corpora eórum únxit; quó factó sunt omnés
statim in húmánam speciem reductí. Mágnó cum gaudió Ulixés suós amícós
ágnóvit, et núntium ad lítus mísit, quí reliquís Graecís sociós receptós
esse díceret. Illí autem hís rébus cógnitís statim ad domum Circaeam sé
contulérunt; quó cum vénissent, úniversí laetitiae sé dédidérunt.

[Illustration: ULYSSES AND CIRCE]


Postrídié éius diéí Ulixés ex hác ínsulá quam celerrimé discédere in
animó habébat. Circé tamen cum haec cógnóvisset, ex odió ad amórem
conversa omnibus precibus eum óráre et obtestárí coepit ut paucós diés
apud sé morárétur; quá ré tandem impetrátá tanta beneficia in eum
contulit ut facile eí persuásum sit ut diútius manéret. Postquam tamen
tótum annum apud Circén cónsúmpserat, Ulixés mágnó désíderió patriae
suae mótus est. Sociís igitur ad sé convocátís quid in animó habéret
ostendit. Ubi tamen ad lítus déscendit, návem suam tempestátibus tam
adflíctam invénit ut ad návigandum paene inútilis esset. Hác ré cógnitá
omnia quae ad návís reficiendás úsuí essent comparárí iussit, quá in ré
tantam díligentiam omnés adhibébant ut ante tertium diem opus
perfécerint. At Circé ubi omnia ad profectiónem paráta esse vídit, rem
aegré ferébat et Ulixem vehementer obsecrábat ut eó cónsilió désisteret.
Ille tamen, né anní tempore a návigátióne exclúderétur, mátúrandum sibi
exístimávit, et tempestátem idóneam nactus návem solvit. Multa quidem
perícula Ulixí subeunda erant antequam in patriam suam perveníret, quae
tamen hóc locó longum est perscríbere.



_The numbers refer to the page of text and the line on the page

3.6. Danaé. Many proper names in this book are words borrowed by Latin
from Greek, and have forms not given in the regular Latin declensions. It
will not be necessary to learn the declension of such words.

7. enim. This word commonly stands second in its clause.

8. turbábat. Notice that this verb and dormiébat below are in the
imperfect tense to denote a state of things existing at the past time
indicated by territa est.

autem. This word has the same peculiarity of position as enim; so also
igitur, which occurs in line 11.

12. Seríphum. Notice that Latin says 'the island Seriphos,' but English
more often 'the island of Seriphos.'

13. appulsa est. Postquam is regularly followed by the perfect or present
indicative, but the English translation usually requires the pluperfect.

15. quódam. _Quídam_ means 'certain' as applied to some person or thing
not fully described, while _certus_ means 'certain' in the sense of
'determined.' 'sure,'

ad domum. This means 'to the house'; 'to be brought home' would be _domum
addúcí_, without the preposition.

16. Ille is often used, as here, when the subject is changed to a person
mentioned in the preceding sentence. In this use it is to be translated

18. benefició. See the derivation of this word in the vocabulary.

20. multós annós. Duration of time is regularly expressed in the
accusative case.

22. eam. Latin has no pronoun of the third person, and _is_ often takes
the place of one; it is then to be translated 'he,' 'she,' 'it,' 'they,'
according to its form.

25. haec. The literal translation would be 'these things,' but we must
say 'thus' or 'as follows.'

4. 1. es. With iam dúdum and similar expressions of duration, the present
indicative is often used to denote an action or state begun in the past
but continuing in the present. The English equivalent is the perfect.

híc, is not the pronoun, but an adverb.

2. mihi. This dative may be translated 'for me.' How would 'to me' with a
verb of motion be put?

3. refer. _Dícó, dúcó, fació_, and _feró_ have the imperative forms _díc,
dúc, fac_, and _fer_, instead of _díce_, etc.

4. Perseus. When the subordinate and the principal clause of a Latin
sentence have the same subject, this usually stands first, followed by
the subordinate clause.

haec. Here a different rendering is required from that suggested in the
note on 3, 25. What is it? Notice that it is necessary to know the
literal significance of the Latin words, but that the translation must
often be something quite different if it is to be acceptable English. The
rule for translation is: Discover the exact meaning of the original; then
express the same idea correctly and, if you can, elegantly in the
language into which you are translating.

5. continentem. What is the derivation of this word?

vénit. Is this present or perfect? How do you know?

8. Graeás. The Graeae were three old women who had one eye and one
tooth in common, and took turns in using them.

9. galeam. This belonged to Pluto, the god of the underworld of the dead,
and whosoever wore it was invisible. The story is that Perseus compelled
the Graeae to tell him how to obtain the helps to his enterprise by
seizing their tooth and eye.

11. pedibus, 'on his feet,' dative of indirect object.

induit. See the note on 3, 13.

áera. _Áér_ is borrowed from Greek, and keeps this Greek form for its

12. volábat. Distinguish between _voló, voláre_, and _voló, velle_.

13. céterís. _Céterí_ is used to denote all not already named ('the
other'), while _alií_ denotes some of those who have not been already
named ('other').

14. specié horribilí, 'of terrible appearance.' ablative of description.
A noun never stands alone in this construction,

eárum. See the note on 3, 22.

15. contécta. This and factae below are used as predicate adjectives, not
to form the pluperfect passive with erant. Translate, therefore, 'were
covered.' not 'had been covered.'

18. vertébantur. The imperfect here denotes customary action, one of its
regular uses.

19. Ille. See the note on 3, 16.

20. hóc modó, ablative of manner.

21. vénit, dormiébat. The perfect simply expresses an action which took
place in past time, the imperfect tells of a state of things existing at
that past time.

25. fugit. When dum means 'while,' 'as,' it is followed by the present
indicative, even when used of past events.

26. fécit. Like _postquam_, ubi has the present or perfect indicative,
where English would use the pluperfect.

5. 2. illó tempore, ablative of time.

régnábat. Observe the force of the tense, and try to find the reason for
each change of tense in this paragraph.

Híc. This must here be translated simply 'he.' Compare the use of Ille,
3, 16.

4. veniébat. See the note on 4, 18.

6. omnium, 'of all men.' or 'of all.' The adjective is used as a noun, as
in the second of the English expressions.

óráculum. It was believed in antiquity that the will of the gods and a
knowledge of future events might be learned at certain shrines, of which
the most famous were those of Apollo at Delphi, of Zeus or Jupiter at
Dodona, and of Hammon in Egypt. Hammon was really an Egyptian god,
represented as having the horns of a ram, but he was identified by the
Greeks with Zeus and by the Romans with Jupiter.

7. fíliam. Where there is no ambiguity, the possessive is often omitted
in Latin.

8. autem, often, as here, simply introduces an explanation ('now'),

nómine, 'by name.'

9. Cépheus. See the note on _Perseus_, 4, 4.

10. cívís suós, 'his subjects.'

13. certam. See the note on _quódam_, 3, 15. _Diés_ is regularly
masculine, but when used of an appointed day it is often feminine.

omnia, 'all things,' 'everything,' or 'all.' See the note on _omnium_,
line 6.

16. déplórábant, tenébant. Be careful to show the meaning of the tense by
your translation.

18. quaerit. The present is often used of a past action instead of the
perfect, to bring the action more vividly before us as if it were taking
place now. This is called the historical present.

19. haec geruntur, 'this is going on.'

20. horribilí. Here the adjective is made emphatic by being put before
its noun; in 4, 14 the same effect is gained by putting _horribilí_ last
in its clause.

22. omnibus, dative of indirect object after the compound verb
_(in+iació)_. Translate 'inspired in all,' but the literal meaning is
'threw into all.'

26. induit. See the note on 3, 13.

áera. See the note on 4, 11.

6. 2. suó, éius. Distinguish carefully between these words. _Suus_ is
used of something belonging to the subject, _éius_ of something belonging
to some other person or thing just mentioned.

5. volat. See the note on 4, 25.

7. sustulit. Notice that the perfect forms of _tolló_ are the same as
those of _sufferó (sub + feró)_, 'endure.'

8. neque, here to be translated 'and ... not.' _Neque_ is thus used
regularly for _et nón_.

13. exanimáta, used here as a predicate adjective.

16. rettulit. 'To give thanks' or 'thank' is usually _grátiás agere_, as
in 3, 19; _grátiam referre_ means 'to show one's gratitude,' 'to
recompense' or 'requite.'

18. dúxit. This word came to mean 'marry,' because the bridegroom 'led'
his bride in a wedding procession to his own home. It will be seen,
therefore, that it can be used only of the man.

Paucós annós. See the note on 3, 20.

20. omnís. What does the quantity of the _i_ tell you about the form?

7. 1. quod, not the relative pronoun, but a conjunction.

3. eó, the adverb.

in átrium. Although inrúpit means 'burst _into_,' the preposition is
nevertheless required with the noun to express the place into which he

6. ille. See the note on _Perseus_, 4, 4.

8. Acrisí. In Nepos, Caesar, Cicero, and Vergil, the genitive singular of
second-declension nouns in _-ius_ and _-ium_ ends in _í_, not _ií_; but
the nominative plural ends in _ií_, and the dative and ablative plural in

10. istud. Remember that _iste_ is commonly used of something connected
with the person addressed. Here the meaning may be 'that oracle I told
you of.' See 3, 4.

12. Lárísam. See the note on 3, 12.

neque enim, 'for ... not,' as if simply _nón enim_, but Latin uses _neque_
to connect the clauses.

14. in omnís partís, 'in all directions' or 'in every direction.'

15. Multí. See the note on _omnium_, 5, 6.

17. discórum. The discus was a round, flat piece of stone or metal, and
the athletes tried to see who could throw it farthest.

18. cású. This is one of the ablatives of manner that do not take _cum_.

19. stábat. Notice the tense.


9. 2. omnium hominum. This means 'all men' in the sense of 'all mankind.'

3. óderat. _Ódí_ is perfect in form, but present in meaning; and the
pluperfect has in like manner the force of an imperfect.
 5. mediá nocte, 'in the middle of the night,' 'in the dead of night.'

7. Nec tamen, 'not ... however.' See the note on _neque enim,_ 7, 12.

8. movébant. Contrast this tense with appropinquáverant and excitátí

13. Tálí modó = _hóc modó_, 4, 20.

20. á pueró, 'from a boy,' 'from boyhood.'

exercébat, the imperfect of customary action, as is also cónsúmébat.

24. autem. See the note on 5, 8.

25. artí, dative of indirect object with the intransitive verb studébat.

10. 2. omnibus víribus, 'with all his might,' ablative of manner.

3. é vítá. Notice that the preposition denoting separation appears both
with the noun and in the verb. Compare _in átrium inrúpit_, 7, 3.

4. neque quisquam, 'and not any one,' _i.e_. 'and no one.' _Quisquam_ is
used chiefly in negative sentences.

5. voluit, 'was willing.'

7. facit. See the note on 4, 25.

8. nómine. See the note on 5, 8.

9. vir crúdélissimus, not 'cruelest man,' but 'most cruel man.' The
superlative is often thus used to denote simply a high degree of the

cónsuéverat. Inceptive verbs end in _scó_ and denote the beginning of an
action or state. The perfect and pluperfect of such verbs often represent
the state of things resulting from the completion of the action, and are
then to be translated as present and imperfect respectively. So
_cónsuéscó_ = 'I am becoming accustomed,' _cónsuéví_ = 'I have become
accustomed' or 'am accustomed,' _cónsuéveram_ = 'I had become accustomed'
or 'was accustomed.'

11. sacrifició, 'for the sacrifice,' dative of purpose.

ea. Why is diés feminine here? See the note on _certam_, 5, 13.

12. omnia. See the note on 5, 13.

15. capitibus, dative of indirect object after the compound verb _(in +

16. iam. The omission of the conjunction that would naturally join this
clause with the preceding, and the repetition of _iam_, which thus in a
way connects the two clauses, reflect the imminence of the danger and
heighten our anxiety for the hero. Observe too how the tenses of the
verbs contribute to the vividness of the picture. We see Hercules at the
altar and the priest, knife in hand, about to give the fatal blow.

18. alteró. Supply _íctú_.

19. Thébís, locative case. Notice that some names of towns are plural in

21. Thébánís, dative with the adjective fínitimí.

autem, 'now.'

22. Thébás. Names of towns are used without a preposition to express the
place to which.

23. veniébant, postulábant, imperfect of customary action.

25. cívís suós, 'his fellow-citizens.' Compare 5, 10.

hóc stípendió, ablative of separation.

27. atque. This conjunction adds an important statement by way of
supplement. Here the meaning is something like 'and not only that, but.'

11. 11. conversa. _Est_ and _sunt_ are frequently not expressed with the
perfect participle.

17. suós ipse suá. Notice how the enormity of the crime is emphasized by
the use of all these words repeating the same idea.

23. óráculum Delphicum. See the note on 5, 6.

hóc óráculum omnium = _hóc omnium óráculórum_.

25. Hóc in templó. Monosyllabic prepositions often stand between the
noun and an adjective modifying it.

12. 1. quí. Remember that the relative pronoun agrees in gender, number,
and person with its antecedent; that its case depends upon its use. How
are the person and number of quí shown?

2. hominibus. See the note on 9, 2.

4. neque. See the note on 6, 8.

7. Tíryntha. This is a Greek accusative form. See the note on _áera_,
4, 11.

10. Duodecim annós, accusative of duration of time.

11. Eurystheó. The English verb 'serve' is transitive, but _servió_ ('be
subject to') is intransitive and takes an indirect object.

14. quae. See the note on line 1. What is the case of quae?

16. Prímum is chiefly used in enumeration, prímó (line 6) in contrasting
an action or state with one that follows it.

19. sécum. The preposition _cum_ follows and is joined to the reflexive
and personal pronouns, usually also to the relative pronoun.

22. neque enim. See the note on 7, 12.

26. respírandí, the genitive of the gerund. It modifies facultás. The
gerund corresponds to the English verbal noun in _-ing_.

13. 5. Hóc. We might expect _haec_ referring to Hydram, but a
demonstrative pronoun is commonly attracted into the gender of the
predicate noun (here mónstrum).

cui erant, 'which had,' literally 'to which there were.' This
construction is found only with _sum_. It is called the dative of

8. rés. In rendering this word choose always with great freedom the most
suitable English word.

13. 8. mágní perículí. We say 'one of great danger.'

9. éius. What possessive would be used to modify sinistrá?

11. hóc cónátú, ablative of separation.

14. comprehendérunt. See the note on 3, 13.

unde = _ex quibus_.

16. auxilió Hydrae, 'to the aid of the Hydra,' but literally for aid
(i.e. as aid) to the Hydra,' for Hydrae is dative. This is called the
double dative construction, auxilió the dative of purpose, and Hydrae the
dative of reference, i.e. the dative denoting the person interested.

17. abscídit. See the note on 4, 25.

mordébat, 'kept biting,' the imperfect of repeated action.

18. tálí modó. See the note on 9, 13.

interfécit. We have now had several verbs meaning 'kill.' _Interfició_ is
the most general of these; _necó_ (line 4) is used of killing by unusual
or cruel means, as by poison; _occídó_ (12, 23) is most commonly used of
the 'cutting down' of an enemy in battle.

19. reddidit, as well as imbuit, has sagittás for its object, but we must
translate as if we had _eás_ with reddidit.

22. ad sé. Compare this construction with the use of the dative in 4, 2.
Notice that sé does not refer to Herculem, the subject of referre, but to
Eurystheus, the subject of Iussit. When the reflexive thus refers to the
subject of the principal verb rather than to the subject of the
subordinate verb with which it s directly connected, it is called

23. tantae audáciae. The genitive of description, like the ablative of
description, consists always of a noun with some modifying word. Compare
_specié horribilí_, 4, 14.

autem. Compare 5, 8 and 10, 21.

24. incrédibilí celeritáte, ablative of description.

25. vestígiís, ablative of means.

26. ipsum, contrasts cervum with vestígiís.

27. omnibus víribus. See the note on 10, 2.

14. 1. currébat, 'he kept running.'

sibi, dative of reference. It need not be translated,

ad quiétem, 'for rest.' Purpose is frequently thus expressed by _ad_.

3. cucurrerat. The pluperfect is sometimes used with postquam when the
lapse of time is denoted.

4. cursú, ablative of cause.

exanimátum = _quí exanimátus erat_. The participle is often equivalent to
a relative clause.

5. rettulit. See the note on 13, 19.

8. rem. See the note on _rés_, 13, 8.

10. apró, dative of indirect object after the compound verb (_ob +

11. tímóre perterritus. It is not necessary to translate both words.

13. iniécit, i.e. upon the boar.

summá cum difficultáte. Compare this with _omnibus víribus_, 13, 27, and
notice that _cum_ may be omitted with the ablative of manner when there
is an adjective. For the position of cum, see the note on 11, 25.

15. ad Eurystheum. We are told elsewhere that Eurystheus was so
frightened when he saw the boar that he hid in a cask.

vívus. Why have we the nominative here, but the accusative (vívum) in
line 5?

17. quartó. The capture of the Erymanthian boar is usually given as the
third labor and the capture of the Cerynean stag as the fourth.

nárrávimus. The writer sometimes uses the first person plural in speaking
of himself, instead of the first person singular. This is called the
plural of modesty, and is the same as the English usage.

18. in Arcadiam. How does this differ in meaning from _in Arcadiá_?

20. appeteret. The subjunctive introduced by cum, 'since,' may express
the reason for the action of the main verb.

23. Herculés. See the note on _Perseus_, 4, 4.

26. quod, conjunction, not pronoun.

reliquós centaurós, 'the rest of the centaurs,' 'the other centaurs.'
Compare _mediá nocte_, 9, 5. Notice that _reliquí_ means about the same
as _céterí_, and see the note on 4, 13.

28. inquit, historical present. This verb is used parenthetically with
direct quotations.

15. 1. dabó. Notice that Latin is more exact than English in the use of
the future tense in subordinate clauses. In English we often use the
present in the subordinate clause and leave it to the principal verb to
show that the time is future.

7. pervénérunt. See the note on 4, 26.

10. cónstitit, from _cónsistó_, not _cónstó_.

16. fugá. Latin says 'by flight,' not 'in flight.'

17. ex spéluncá. See the note on 10, 3.

21. locum, the direct object of Adiit, which is here transitive. We might
also have _ad locum_ with _adeó_ used intransitively.

16. 4. Herculí. See the note on 10, 15.

labórem. This labor is usually given as the sixth, the destruction of the
Stymphalian birds as the fifth.

6. tria mília boum, 'three thousand cattle,' literally 'three thousands
of cattle.' The partitive genitive is the regular construction with the
plural _mília_, but the singular _mílle_ is commonly used as an
adjective, like English 'thousand.' Thus 'one thousand cattle' would be
_mílle bovés_.

7. ingentís mágnitúdinis. See the note on _tantae audáciae_, 13, 23.

8. neque enim umquam, 'for ... never.' See the note on _neque enim_, 7,

11. multae operae. See the note on _mágní perículí_, 13, 8.

12. duodévígintí pedum, i.e. in width.

dúxit. This word is used with reference to the progress of work on a wall
or ditch from one end of it to the other.

15. opus. Compare this word with operae and labóre, line 12. _Labor_ is
used of heavy or exhausting labor, _opera_ of voluntary exertion or
effort, _opus_ of that upon which one labors or of the completed work.

17. imperáverat. This verb takes an indirect object to express the person
ordered (eí). The action commanded is expressed by the subjunctive in a
clause introduced by _ut_ and used as the object of _imperó_ (ut
necáret). Notice that this may be translated 'that he should kill' or 'to
kill.' Compare now the construction with _iubeó_, 13, 22, with which the
command is expressed by the accusative and infinitive (_Herculem

19. carne. _Véscor_ is an intransitive verb and governs the ablative.

22. appropinquandí. See the note on 12, 26.

23. cónstitit, from _cónstó_. Compare 15, 10.

pedibus, 'on foot,' literally 'by his feet.'

25. consúmpsisset. The imperfect and pluperfect tenses of the subjunctive
are used with cum, 'when,' to describe the circumstances of the action of
the main verb. Compare 14, 20, and the note.

26. hóc cónátú. See the note on 13, 11.

27. peteret. The subjunctive is used with ut to express purpose. The best
translation is usually the infinitive ('to ask'), but the Latin
infinitive is not used in model prose to express purpose.

17. 3. ávolárent. This is not subjunctive of purpose, but of result, as
is indicated by tam.

6. ex. Compare this with _ab_, 16, 21, and _dé_, 16, 13. We commonly
translate all of these 'from,' but the real meanings are 'out of,' 'away
from,' and 'down from' respectively.

Crétá. See the note on 3, 12.

7. esset. See the note on 14, 20.

8. ínsulae, dative with the compound verb (_ad_ + _propinquó_).

appropinquáret. See the note on 16, 25.

9. tanta ... ut. Notice how frequently the clause of result is connected
with a demonstrative word in the main clause.

12. návigandí imperítus, 'ignorant of navigation,' 'inexperienced in
sailing.' See the note on 12, 26.

21. cum, the conjunction.

ingentí labóre. See the note on _summá cum difficultáte_, 14, 13.

25. ut redúceret. See the note on 16, 27.

26. carne. See the note on 16, 19.

véscébantur, imperfect of customary action.

18. 3. ut tráderentur. Notice that _postuló_, like _imperó_, takes an
object-clause introduced by _ut_ and having its verb in the subjunctive.

sibi, the indirect reflexive. See the note on 13, 22.

4. írá ... interfécit, 'became furiously angry and killed the king,'
literally 'moved by wrath killed the king.' The participle is frequently
best rendered by a finite verb.

18. 4. cadáver. The subject of an infinitive stands in the accusative
case. We might translate here 'and gave orders that his body should be
thrown.' See the note on 16, 17.

6. míra rérum commútátió. When a noun has both an adjective and a
genitive modifier, this order of the words is common.

7. cum cruciátú, ablative of manner.

necáverat. See the note on _interfécit_, 13, 18.

10. referébant. See the note on 6, 16.

modo. This is the adverb, not a case of _modus_, the dative and ablative
singular of which would be _modó_. Make a practice of carefully observing
the quantity of vowels.

11. órábant. Notice that this verb, like _imperó_ and _postuló_, takes
_ut_ and the subjunctive.

14. ad návigandum. See the note on _ad quiétem_, 14, 1.

16. post, here an adverb of time.

18. dícitur. Notice that the Latin construction is personal ('the nation
is said to have consisted'), while English commonly has the impersonal
construction ('it is said that the nation consisted').

19. reí mílitáris, 'the art of war.'

25. mandávit. See the note on 16, 17.

26. Amázonibus, dative after the compound verb.

19. 1. persuásit. Notice that this verb governs the same construction
that we have already found used with _imperó_ and _mandó_.

2. sécum. See the note on 12, 19.

5. appulit. Supply _návem_.

6. docéret. A clause of purpose is frequently introduced by a relative.
Translate like the _ut_-clause of purpose, here 'to make known,'
literally 'who was to make known.'

14. mágnó interválló, ablative of degree of difference.

16. nón mágna. The effect of the position of these words may be
reproduced by translating 'but not a large one.'

neutrí. The plural is used because the reference is to two parties, each
composed of several individuals. 'Neither' of two individuals would be

17. volébant, dedit. Consider the tenses. Each army waited for some time
for the other to cross; finally Hercules gave the signal.

22. occíderint. The perfect subjunctive is sometimes used in result
clauses after a past tense in the principal clause. This is contrary to
the general principle of the sequence of tenses, which requires the
imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive after a past tense, the present or
perfect subjunctive after a present or future tense.

23. Virí. Compare this with _hominibus_, 12, 2.

24. praestábant. Compare the tense with praestitérunt, line 21.

27. neu. As _neque_ or _nec_ is used for 'and not,' so _néve_ or _neu_
for 'and that not' in an object-clause or a clause of purpose.

20. 1. quibus, 'and by these,' The relative is much used in Latin to
connect a new sentence with the one preceding. When so used, it is
generally best rendered by 'and' or 'but' and a demonstrative or personal

ita ... ut. See the note on 17, 9.

2. essent, most easily explained as the subjunctive of attraction. By
this is meant that the verb is attracted into the mood of the clause upon
which it depends.

4. púgnátum est, 'the battle raged' or 'they fought,' literally 'it was
fought,' Intransitive verbs are often thus used impersonally in the
passive, with the subject implied in the verb itself, as púgnátum
est = _púgna púgnáta est_.

11. aestátis, partitive genitive. Notice that multum is used as a noun.

13. nactus. The perfect active participle is wanting in Latin, but the
perfect participle of deponent verbs is active in meaning.

24. specié horribilí. See the note on 4, 14.

26. timóre perterrití. See the note on 14, 11.

continébantur, 'kept themselves shut up.' This is the so-called reflexive
use of the passive, in which the subject is represented as acting upon

pecora. This word is used of herds of cattle, pecudés (line 25) of single
animals, especially sheep.

28. commótus cónsuluit. See the note on 18, 4.

21. 3. líberáret. See the note on 16, 27.

óráculó. Notice that párére is intransitive and has the dative of
indirect object, while 'obey' is transitive. It may help to understand
the Latin construction if you translate such verbs as _páreó_ by
intransitives, here 'to submit to.'

4. sacrifició. See the note on 10, 11.

5. ipsó temporis punctó quó, 'at the very moment when.'

8. égressus. See the note on 20, 13.

dé rébus ... factus est, 'was informed of the state of things,' literally
'was made more certain about the things which were being done.' In what
gender, number, person, and case is quae? Give a reason for each.

11. posset. The subjunctive is used because the words of the king are
quoted indirectly. He said _sí potes_, 'if you can.'

19. Ipse. Notice the use of this word in contrasts, frequently, as here,
of a person with that which belongs to him or with his subordinates.

20. inter sé, 'to one another.'

22. esset, subjunctive in an indirect question. The direct form would be
_Quantum perículum est_? ('How great is the danger?'). multás terrás,
just as we say 'many lands,'

23. Európae. Compare _Thébánís_, 10, 21.

24. in utróque lítore, 'on each shore,' 'on both shores.'

25. columnás. The ancients believed that the Rock of Gibraltar was the
pillar set up by Hercules on the European side.

22. 4. tantum, an adverb.

5. dederit. See the note on 19, 22.

9. quó in locó. See the note on 11, 25. essent. See the note on 21, 22.

10. sibi, the indirect reflexive.

12. et ... et, 'both ... and.'

18. prógredí, 'from proceeding.'

19. prohibébant, 'attempted to prevent,' imperfect of attempted action.
Notice that the use of the imperfect to express customary, repeated, or
attempted action follows naturally from its use to denote action going on
in past time. The present, the tense which denotes action going on in
present time, has the same special uses.

20. barbarí. This word was used by the Greeks of all other peoples; by
the Romans it was used of all but the Greeks and themselves.

24. cecidérunt. Let the quantity of the _i_ tell you whether this comes
from _cadó_ or _caedó_. Is occíderint a compound of _cadó_ or _caedó_?

25. in tálibus rébus, _i.e_. when a god intervenes in behalf of his

26. nihil incommodí, 'no harm,' literally 'nothing of harm'; incommodí is
partitive genitive.

23. 2. quam celerrimé, 'as rapidly as possible.' _Quam_ with the
superlative expresses the highest possible degree.

3. Necesse, predicate adjective with erat, the subject being hás

5. citerióre. The Romans called upper Italy _Gallia Citerior_, 'Hither
Gaul,' because it was occupied by Gallic tribes.

6. perenní. Learn the derivation of this word. The meaning of a word may
often be seen most easily and remembered most surely by noticing its

téctí, used as predicate adjective.

9. cópiam. Notice carefully the meaning of this word. In what sense have
we found the plural _cópiae_ used?

10. rébus, 'preparations.' See the note on _rés_, 13, 8.

cónsúmpserat. See the note on 14, 3.

11. omnium opíniónem. Hitherto we have had _opíniónem omnium_, but here
_omnium_ is made emphatic by being placed first.

15. itinere, ablative of cause.

fessus, 'since he was weary.' Notice that a Latin adjective or participle
must often be expanded into a clause in the translation.

16. Haud = _nón_. It modifies a single word, usually an adjective or

19. modo. See the note on 18, 10.

ingentí mágnitúdine. Compare _ingentis mágnitúdinis_, 16, 7.

23. boum. Learn the declension of this word from the vocabulary.

24. né. A negative clause of purpose is introduced by _né_.

24. 2. omnibus locís. _Locus_ modified by an adjective is often used
without _in_ in the ablative of place.

3. núsquam. We say 'could not find anywhere,' but Latin prefers to
combine the negative with another word.

6. reliquís. See the note on _reliquós centaurós_, 14, 26.

7. é bóbus. Compare _boum_, 23, 23. With únus the ablative with _ex_ or
_dé_ is commonly used instead of the partitive genitive.

16. neque quicquam. See the note on 10, 4.

21. móre suó, 'according to his custom.'

turbátus, 'was confused ... and.' See the note on _íra ... interfécit_,
18, 4.

22. in. See the note on _in átrium_, 7, 3.

25. respírandí. See the note on 12, 26.

25. 2. quam quós, for _quam eós quós_.

11. cui. See the note on _cui erant_, 13, 5.

12. Herculí imperáverat, 'had enjoined upon Hercules.'

17. Eurystheó. See the note on _óráculó_, 21, 3.

19. quaesíverat. With this verb the person of whom the question is asked
is expressed in the ablative with _ab, dé_, or _ex_.

23. orbis terrárum, 'of the world,' literally 'of the circle of lands.'

26. umerís suís, ablative of means, but we say 'on his shoulders.'

né. See the note on 23, 24.

décideret. Notice the force of the prefix _dé_.

27. mírátus, 'wondering at.' The perfect participle of deponent verbs is
often best rendered into English by a present participle.

26. 3. Herculí, dative with pródesse.

ille. See the note on _Perseus_, 4, 4.

4. certó, the adverb.

6. vénisset. What would the form be in the direct question?

inquit. See the note on 14, 28.

7. fíliábus. To avoid confusion with the corresponding forms of
_deus_ and _fílius_, the dative and ablative plural of _dea_ and _fília_
sometimes end in _ábus_.

sponte. This noun is practically confined to the ablative singular, in
prose usually with _meá, tuá_, or _suá_, 'of my, your, his own accord.'

9. posset, subjunctive because indirect. The thought of Hercules was _sí

11. abesset. This also is indirect, quoting _absum_.

12. umerís. See the note on 25, 26.

17. pauca mília. Extent of space, like duration of time, is expressed by
the accusative,

passuum. See the note on 16, 6.

21. ita ut, 'as'

accépissent. Hitherto we have found the indicative in causal clauses
introduced by quod. The subjunctive indicates that the reason is quoted;
the Hesperides said _quod accépimus_.

28. grátiás égit. See the note on 6, 16.

27. 2. é labóribus. See the note on 24, 7.

3. Herculí praecéperat = _Herculí imperáverat_, 25, 12.

5. posset, subjunctive because it quotes the thought of Eurystheus,

6. ut ... traheret. This clause is not itself the object of dedit, but in
apposition with the object (Negótium).

7. omnium, partitive genitive.

11. nárrámus. The present is sometimes used with antequam to express
future action, as in English with 'before.' See the note on 15, 1.

aliénum, predicate adjective, the subject of vidétur being pauca ...
própónere. In the passive _videó_ may mean 'be seen,' but it usually
means 'seem.'

13. qui ídem, 'which also,' literally 'which the same.'

14. Ut, 'when.'

15. dédúcébantur, customary action.

19. Stygis flúminis. We say 'river Styx,' but 'Mississippi River.'

quó, ablative of means.

20. necesse. See the note on 23, 3.

possent. The subjunctive is used with antequam to denote that the action
is expected or intended.

21. in. We say 'over.'

25. prius. Notice that Latin is here more exact than English, using the
comparative because only two actions are spoken of.

dedisset, subjunctive because indirect. Charon said _nisi dederis_
(future perfect), _nón tránsveham_, 'unless you first give (shall have
given), I will not carry you across.'

28. 1. mortuí, used as a noun, 'of the dead man.'

eó cónsilió, 'with this purpose,' 'to this end.' The clause ut ... posset
is in apposition with cónsilió.

6. Ut. Compare 27, 14.

8. quod cum fécissent, 'and when they had done this.' See the note on
_quibus_, 20, 1.

13. Stábant, 'there stood.' What is its subject?

15. mortuís, dative of indirect object.

et. Notice that ambiguity is avoided by a change of conjunctions, et
connecting the clauses and -que connecting praemia and poenás. Of these
connectives, _et_ connects two ideas that are independent of each other
and of equal importance; _-que_ denotes a close connection, often of two
words that together express a single idea; while _ac_ or _atque_ (see
line 18) adds something of greater importance.

18. et. _Multí_ is often joined by _et_ to another adjective modifying
the same noun.

24. ex. Compare 25, 18.

27. sé sociós, direct object and predicate accusative respectively.

29. 3. né. After verbs of fearing _né_ must be rendered 'that,' _ut_,
'that not.' Notice, however, that the negative idea is as clearly present
here as in the other clauses introduced by _né_ that we have met, for
Charon wishes that the thing may not happen.

13. fécisset, indirect for _féceris_.

18. refúgerit. See the note on 19, 22.

23. quae cum ita essent, 'and this being the case,' 'and so,' literally
'since which things were so.'

24. líberátus. See the note on _írá ... interfécit_, 18, 4.

25. quae, object of perscríbere, which is the subject of est; longum is
predicate adjective.

26. est. We say 'would be.'

aetáte, ablative of specification. Translate 'when he was now advanced in
age' (_i.e_. 'late in life'), and see the note on _fessus_, 23, 15.

30. 1. accidit. This is one of several impersonal verbs which take for
their subject a clause of result (ut ... occíderit).

3. ut ... íret, a clause of result; used as the subject of esset, mós
being predicate.

quis. After _sí, nisi, né_, and _num_, this is not the interrogative, but
an indefinite pronoun ('any one'),

occídisset, indirect for _occíderit_, which would be the form used in the
laws; or it may be explained as subjunctive by attraction to íret.

7. tránseant, not 'they are crossing,' but 'they are to cross.' The
direct form would be _tránseámus ('How in the world are we to get
across?'), subjunctive because the question expresses doubt. This is
called the deliberative subjunctive.

10. prógressus, 'after advancing.'

11. revertébátur. This verb is deponent in the present, imperfect, and

16. humí, locative, 'on the ground.'

né. See the note on 23, 24.

suí ulcíscendí, 'of avenging himself.' This is called the gerundive
construction. It is regularly used instead of the gerund when the gerund
would have an accusative object (_sé ulcíscendí_). Notice that the gerund
is a verbal noun; the gerundive a verbal adjective, agreeing with its
noun like any other adjective.

17. morientis, 'of a dying man.' Compare _mortuí_, 28, 1.

18. vís, from _voló_.

20. sí ... vénerit, 'if you ever suspect him.' What is the literal
meaning? Notice that we use the present, while Latin by the use of the
future perfect indicates that the action is to precede that of the main

21. inficiés. The future indicative is sometimes used, as in English, for
the imperative.

22. nihil malí. See the note on 22, 26.

suspicáta. See the note on 25, 27.

25. Iolén, fíliam, captívam, direct object, appositive, and predicate
accusative respectively.

26. domum. See the note on _ad domum_, 3, 15.

31. 1. referret. See the note on 19, 6.

2. facerent, subjunctive by attraction. The verb of a clause dependent
upon an infinitive is put in the subjunctive when the two clauses are
closely connected in thought. We have already met this construction in
the case of dependence upon a subjunctive; see the note on 20, 2.

gerere. Compare 30, 3. Such phrases as _mós est_ may have as subject
either an infinitive or a clause of result.

3. verita. This participle is regularly rendered as present,

né. See the note on 29, 3.

4. vestem. Notice that the position of this word helps to make it clear
that it is the object of ínfécit as well as of dedit.

5. suspicáns. This does not differ appreciably in force from _suspicáta_,
30, 22.

8. exanimátus, 'beside himself.'

14. succenderent. Notice the force of the prefix _sub_ in this word and
in subdidit below.

15. inductus, 'moved.'


33. 1. alter ... alter, 'one ... the other.' Remember that this word is
used to denote one of two given persons or things. We have in this
passage an instance of the chiastic order, in which variety and emphasis
are gained by reversing the position of the words in the second of two
similar expressions. Here the two names are brought together by this

3. régní, objective genitive, _i.e_. a genitive used to denote the object
of the feeling cupiditáte.

6. ex amícís. Quídam, like _únus_, commonly has _ex_ or _dé_ and the
ablative, instead of the partitive genitive.

10. puerum mortuum esse, 'that the boy was dead,' literally 'the boy to
be dead.' This is indirect for _Puer mortuus est_, 'The boy is dead.'
Notice carefully what changes Latin makes in quoting such a statement
indirectly, and what the changes are in English. We have already met two
constructions of indirect discourse, the subjunctive in indirect
questions, and the subjunctive in informal indirect discourse. By the
latter is meant a subordinate clause which, though not forming part of a
formal quotation, has the subjunctive to show that not the speaker or
writer but some other person is responsible for the idea it expresses
(see the notes on _dedisset_, 27, 25, and _occídisset_. 30, 3). In
indirect discourse, then, a statement depending upon a verb of saying,
thinking, knowing, perceiving, or the like has its verb in the infinitive
with the subject in the accusative; a command or question has its verb in
the subjunctive; and any clause modifying such a statement, command, or
question has its verb in the subjunctive.

33. 13. intellegerent. See the note on 14, 20.

14. nesció quam fábulam, 'some story or other.' Notice that _nesció_ with
the interrogative pronoun is equivalent to an indefinite pronoun.

19. óráculum. Read again the description beginning at the bottom of
page 11.

21. quis. See the note on 30, 3.

Post paucís annís, 'a few years later,' literally 'later by a few years.'
Post is here an adverb, and paucís annís ablative of degree of
difference. The expression is equivalent to _post paucós annós_.

22. accidit. See the note on 30, 1.

factúrus, 'intending to make.' The future participle with a form of _sum_
is used to express an intended or future action. This is called the
active periphrastic conjugation.

23. certam. See the note on 5, 13.

24. Dié cónstitútá, ablative of time.

26. á pueritiá. Compare _á pueró_, 9, 20.

34. 2. tránseundó flúmine. See the note on _suí ulcíscendí_, 30, 16.

nesció quó. See the note on 33. 14.

4. únó pede núdó, 'with one foot bare,' the ablative absolute. This
construction consists of two parts, a noun, or pronoun corresponding to
the subject of a clause, and a participle corresponding to the verb of a
clause. A predicate noun or adjective may take the place of the
participle. In the latter case the use of the participle 'being' will
show the two parts in the relation of subject and predicate, 'one foot
being bare.'

34.6. démónstrávisset, subjunctive because subordinate in indirect
discourse. See the note on 33, 10. Pelias thought, _Híc est homó quem
óráculum démónstrávit_.

9. vellus aureum. Phrixus and his sister Helle were about to be put to
death, when they were rescued by a ram with fleece of gold, who carried
them off through the air. Helle fell from the ram's back into the strait
that separates Europe and Asia, called after her the Hellespont, 'Helle's
sea,' and known to us as the Dardanelles. Phrixus came safely to Colchis,
and here he sacrificed the ram and gave the fleece to Aeetes. Read Mr.
D.O.S. Lowell's _Jason's Quest_.

11. ut ... potírétur. See the note on 27, 6.

hóc vellere. _Potior_ takes the same construction as _véscor_, for which
see the note on 16, 19.

16. iter, accusative of extent.

20. úsuí, dative of purpose. We say 'of use' or 'useful.'

24. operí dative after the compound with _prae_. Notice that not all
verbs compounded with prepositions govern the dative. Many compounds of
_ad, ante, com_ (for _cum_), _in, inter, ob, post, prae, pró, sub_, and
_super_ do have the dative, and some compounds of _circum_. You will find
it profitable to keep a list of all such compound verbs governing the
dative that you meet in your reading.

25. né ... quidem, 'not ... even.' The word emphasized must stand between
_né_ and _quidem_.

ad labórem. See the note on _ad quiétem_, 14, 1.

26. Ad multitúdinem tránsportandam, used like _ad labórem_. The gerundive
in this use is very common.

27. quibus. The antecedent _eae_ is not expressed. Notice that _útor_
governs the same case as _véscor_ and _potior_. Two other deponent verbs,
not found in this book, take this construction, namely _fruor_, 'enjoy,'
and _fungor_, 'perform.'

nostró marí, _i.e_. the Mediterranean.

cónsuévimus. See the note on _cónsuéverat_, 10, 9.

35. 8. citharoedum. It was said that Orpheus made such sweet music on his
golden harp that wild beasts, trees, and rocks followed him as he moved.
By his playing he even prevailed upon Pluto to give back his dead wife

Théseum, a mythical hero, whose exploits resemble and rival those of
Hercules. The most famous of them was the killing of the Minotaur.
Theseus was the national hero of Athens.

Castorem, the famous tamer of horses and brother of Pollux, the boxer.
Read Macaulay's _Lays of Ancient Rome, The Battle of the Lake Regillus_.

10. quós, the subject of esse. Its antecedent is eós, line 11. The
relative frequently precedes in Latin, but the antecedent must be
translated first.

16. Argonautae. Notice the composition of this word.

24. déicerentur, part of the result clause.

26. arbitrátí. See the note on 25, 27.

égredí. See the note on 22, 18.

27. púgnátum est. See the note on 20 4.

36. 5. Postrídié éius diéí, 'the next day,' more literally 'on the day
following that day.' This idea may be expressed by _postrídié_ alone, and
the fuller expression is simply more formal.

9. in ancorís, 'at anchor.'

10. habérent. See the note on 34, 6.

11. ex Argonautís. See the note on 33, 6.

13. Quí, 'he.' See the note on _quibus_, 20, 1.

dum quaerit, 'while looking for.' The present indicative with _dum_ is
often to be translated by a present participle.

15. vídissent. We say 'saw,' but Latin makes it plain that the seeing
(and falling in love) came before the attempt to persuade.

eí. Keep a list of all intransitive verbs which are used with the dative.

16. negáret. This verb is commonly used instead of _dícó_ when a negative
statement follows; when thus used, it should be translated by 'say' with
the appropriate negative, here 'said that he would not.'

37. 1. praebuisset, subjunctive in a subordinate clause of indirect

2. supplicí. See the note on 7, 8.

6. accubuerat. The Romans reclined at table, supporting themselves on the
left arm and taking the food with the right hand. They naturally
represented others as eating in the same way.

appositum, 'that had been placed before him.' See the note on
_exanimátum_, 14, 4.

7. Quó ... morerétur, 'and so it came to pass that Phineus was nearly
dying of starvation,' literally 'that not much was wanting but that
Phineus would die.' Ut ... abesset is a clause of result, the subject of
factum est; quin ... morerétur is a form of subordinate clause with
subjunctive verb used after certain negative expressions; famé is
ablative of cause. Notice that _famés_ has a fifth-declension ablative,
but is otherwise of the third declension.

9. Rés male sé habébat, 'the situation was desperate.' What is the
literal meaning?

12. opíniónem virtútis, 'reputation for bravery.'

13. quín ferrent. Negative expressions of doubt are regularly followed by
_quín_ and the subjunctive.

16. quantó in perículó. See the note on 11, 25.

suae rés, 'his affairs.' See the note on _rés_, 13, 8.

17. repperissent. Phineus used the future perfect indicative.

22. nihil, used adverbially.

23. áera. See the note on 4, 11.

27. Hóc factó, 'when this had been accomplished.' See the note on 34, 4.
The ablative absolute is often used instead of a subordinate clause of
time, cause, condition, or the like.

38. 1. referret. See the note on 6, 16.

3. eó cónsilió. See the note on 28, 1.

4. né quis, 'that no one.' 'Negative clauses of purpose and negative
clauses of result may be distinguished by the negative: _né, né quís_,
etc., for purpose; _ut nón, ut némó_, etc., for result.

parvó interválló, 'a short distance apart,' ablative absolute. See the
note on 34, 1.

5. in medium spatium, 'between them.'

7. quid faciendum esset, 'what was to be done.' The gerundive is used
with _sum_ to denote necessary action. This is called the passive
periphrastic conjugation.

8. sublátís ... solvit, 'weighed anchor and put to sea.' What is the
literal translation? The ablative absolute is often best translated by a
coördinate verb, and this requires a change of voice, for the lack of a
perfect active participle in Latin is the reason for the use of the
ablative absolute in such cases. If there were a perfect active
participle, it would stand in the nominative, modifying the subject, as
we have found the perfect participle of deponent verbs doing.

11. réctá ... spatium, 'straight between them.'

12. caudá tantum ámissá, 'having lost only its tail-feathers.' Notice
that we change the voice, as in line 8, and that the use of the ablative
absolute is resorted to here for the same reason as in that passage. Make
sure at this point that you know three ways in which the ablative
absolute may be translated, as in this passage, as in line 8, and as
suggested in the note on 37, 27.

14. concurrerent, 'could rush together.' See the note on _possent_, 27,

intellegentés, equivalent to _cum intellegerent_.

17. dís, the usual form of the dative and ablative plural of _deus_, as
_dí_ of the nominative plural.

quórum, equivalent to _cum eórum_. A relative clause of cause, like a
_cum_-clause of cause, has its verb in the subjunctive.

27. negábat. See the note on 36, 16.

39. 1. tráditúrum. In infinitives formed with participles _esse_ is often

prius. See the note on 27, 25.

3. Prímum. See the note on 12, 16.

4. iungendí erant. See the note on 38, 7.

8. reí bene gerendae, 'of accomplishing his mission.' What is the literal

10. rem aegré ferébat, 'she was greatly distressed.' What is the literal

12. Quae ... essent. See the note on 29, 23.

13. medicínae, objective genitive.

14. Mediá nocte. See the note on 9, 5.

ínsciente patre, 'without the knowledge of her father,' ablative

15. vénit. See the note on 3, 13.

17. quod ... cónfírmáret, a relative clause of purpose.

19. essent, subjunctive in informal indirect discourse, or by attraction
to oblineret.

20. hominibus. See the note on 34, 24.

21. mágnitúdine et víribus, ablative of specification.

40. 2. nihil valére, 'prevailed not.'

5. quá in ré. See the note on 11, 25.

6. cónfécerit. See the note on 19, 22.

8. quós. See the note on _quíbus_, 20, 1.

9. autem. See the note on 5, 8.

10. essent, subjunctive by attraction.

11. quódam, 'some.'

16. gígnerentur, 'should be born.' With dum, 'until,' the subjunctive is
used of action anticipated, as with _antequam_ (see the note on
_possent_, 27, 20).

19. omnibus agrí partibus. See the note on 18, 6.

20. mírum in modum = _míró modó_.

25. nesció cúr, 'for some reason.' See the note on 33, 14.

28. núlló negótió, 'with no trouble,' 'without difficulty.'

41. 3. quín tulisset. See the note on 37, 13.

15. quam prímum, 'as soon as possible.' See the note on 23, 2.

16. ávectúrum. See the note on _tráditúrum_, 39, 1.

17. Postrídié éius diéí. See the note on 36, 5.

19. locó. The antecedent is frequently thus repeated in the relative

21. quí ... essent, 'to guard the ship.' See the note on 13, 16.

22. ipse. See the note on 21, 19.

27. quídam. This word may sometimes be rendered by the indefinite

28. démónstrávimus. See the note on _nárrávimus_, 14, 17.

42. 5. dormit. See the note on _fugit_, 4, 25.

12. aliquí. Learn from the vocabulary the difference between _aliquís_
and _aliquí_.

mátúrandum sibi, 'they ought to hasten,' more literally 'haste ought to
be made by them'; mátúrandum (_esse_) is the impersonal passive, and sibi
the so-called dative of the agent. With the gerundive the person who has
the thing to do is regularly expressed in the dative.

16. mírátí. See the note on 25, 27.

20. dís. See the note on 38, 17.

21. événisset. See the note on _accépissent_, 26, 21.

23. vigiliá. The Romans divided the day from sunrise to sunset into
twelve hours (_hórae_), the night from sunset to sunrise into four
watches (_vigiliae_).

24. neque enim. See the note on 7, 12.

25. inimícó animó, ablative of description.

43. 2. hóc dolóre, 'this anger,' _i.e_. 'anger at this.'

Návem longam, 'war-galley,' 'man-of-war.' The adjective contrasts the
shape of the man-of-war with that of the merchantman.

4. fugientís, used as a noun, 'the fugitives.'

6. quá, ablative of means.

7. quá, 'as,' but in the same construction as eádem celeritáte.

8. Quo ... caperentur. See the note on 37, 7.

9. neque ... posset, 'for the distance between them was not greater than
a javelin could be thrown.' What is the literal translation? The clause
quó ... posset denotes result; the distance was not _so great that_ a
javelin could not be thrown from one ship to the other.

11. vídisset. See the note on 36, 15.

15. fugiéns, 'when she fled.' See the note on _fessus_, 23, 15.

18. fílí. See the note on 7, 8.

19. Neque ... fefellit, 'and Medea was not mistaken.' What is the literal

20. ubi prímum, 'as soon as,' literally 'when first.'

24. prius, not to be rendered until quam is reached. The two words
together mean 'before,' more literally 'earlier than,' 'sooner than,'
They are sometimes written together (_priusquam_).

25. nihil ... esse, 'that it would be of no advantage to him.'

44. 5. pollicitus erat. Verbs of promising do not usually take in Latin
the simple present infinitive, as in English, but the construction of
indirect discourse.

10. mihi. The dative of reference is often used in Latin where we should
use a possessive in English. Translate here as if the word were _meus_,
modifying diés.

11. Liceat mihi, 'permit me,' literally 'let it be permitted to me.'
Commands and entreaties in the third person are regularly expressed in
the subjunctive.

dum vívam, 'so long as I live.' The verb with _dum_ 'so long as' is not
restricted to the present, as with _dum_ 'while,' but any tense of the
indicative may be used. We have here the future indicative, or the
present subjunctive by attraction.

12. tú. The nominative of the personal pronouns is commonly expressed
only when emphatic. Here the use of the pronoun makes the promise more

15. rem aegré tulit, 'was vexed.' Compare 39, 10.

20. Vultisne, the verb _vultis_ and the enclitic _-ne_, which is used to
introduce a question, and is incapable of translation. Num (line 21)
introduces a question to which a negative answer is expected, and is
likewise not to be translated, except in so far as its effect is
reproduced by the form of the question or the tone of incredulity with
which the words are spoken.

28. effervésceret. See the note on 40, 16.

45. 3. stupentés, 'in amazement.'

5. Vós. See the note on 44, 12. Vós and ego in the next sentence are

7. Quod ubi. See the note on 28, 8.

10. necávérunt. See the note on _interfécit_, 13, 18.

13. quíbus. For the case see the note on _quíbus_, 34, 27.

15. ré vérá, 'really.'

18. aegré tulérunt, 'were indignant at.' Compare 39, 10, and 44, 15.

23. Creontí. See the note on _cui erant_, 13, 5.

25. núntium, 'a notice of divorce.'

26. dúceret. See the note on _dúxit_, 6, 18.

28. ultúram. See the note on 39, 1.

46. 1. Vestem. Compare the story of the death of Hercules, pp. 30, 31.

3. quis. See the note on 30, 3.

induisset, subjunctive by attraction.

5. nihil malí. See the note on 22, 26.

16. itaque, not the adverb _itaque_, but the adverb _ita_ and the
enclitic conjunction _-que_.

áera. See the note on 4, 11.

21. in eam partem, 'to that side.'


49. 4. ínsidiás. This refers to the story of the wooden horse.

9. quem, subject of excógitásse. The English idiom is 'who, some say,
devised.' Notice that excógitásse is contracted from _excógitávisse_.

10. quó, ablative of means.

19. aliae ... partís, 'some in one direction and some in another,' but
Latin compresses this into the one clause 'others in other directions.'

20. quá. See the note on 43, 6.

26. quibusdam, dative with obviam factí, 'having fallen in with,' 'having

27. Accidit. See the note on 30, 1.

50. 2. gustássent, contracted from _gustávissent_.

patriae et sociórum. Verbs of remembering and forgetting take the
genitive or the accusative, but _oblívíscor_ prefers the former.

4. cibó. See the note on 16, 19.

5. hórá septimá. See the note on 42, 23.

11. docuérunt. See the note on 4, 26.

51. 6. tantum, the adverb.

23. sé, 'they,' _i.e_. himself and his companions.

praedandí causá, 'to steal.' Purpose is frequently thus expressed by
_causá_ with the genitive of the gerund or gerundive. What other ways of
expressing purpose have you met in your reading?

24. á Tróiá. The preposition is sometimes used with names of towns, with
the meaning 'from the direction of' or 'from the neighborhood of.'

25. esse. It will help you to understand indirect discourse if you will
try to discover what words would be used to express the idea in the
direct form. Here, for instance, the exact words of Ulysses would have
been in Latin: _Neque mercátórés sumus neque praedandí causá vénimus; sed
á Tróiá redeuntés ví tempestátum á réctó cursú dépulsí sumus_.

27. ubi ... essent. The question of Polyphemus was _Ubi est návis quá
vectí estis_?

sibi ... esse, 'that he must be exceedingly careful.' See the note on
_mátúrandum sibi_, 42, 12.

29. in ... esse, 'had been driven on the rocks and entirely dashed to
pieces.' See the note on _írá ... interfécit_, 18, 4.

52. 1. membrís eórum dívulsís, 'tearing them limb from limb.'

4. né ... quidem. See the note on 34, 25.

6. tam. Notice that the force of a second demonstrative word is lost in
the English rendering. So _híc tantus vir_, 'this great man,' etc.

7. humí. See the note on 30, 16.

próstrátus, 'throwing himself down.' See the note on _continébantur_,
20, 26.

8. reí gerendae, 'for action.' Compare 39, 8.

9. in eó ... tránsfígeret, 'was on the point of transfixing.' The clause
of result ut ... tránsfígeret is explanatory of in eó.

13. nihil sibi prófutúrum. See the note on 43, 25.

17. hóc cónátú. See the note on 13, 11.

18. núllá ... oblátá, 'since no hope of safety presented itself.' See the
note on _continébantur_, 20, 26.

21. et. See the note on 28, 18.

23. látúri essent, 'would bring,' more literally 'were going to bring.'
Notice that in subjunctive constructions the periphrastic form is
necessary to express future action clearly, since the subjunctive has no

25. quod, object of the implied _fécerat_.

53. 14. quó. See the note on 43, 7.

15. id ... salútí, 'and this was his salvation,' literally 'that which
was for safety to him.' For the datives see the note on 13, 16.

20. tertium, the adverb.

22. Néminem. Why is the accusative used?

27. inquit. See the note on 14, 28.

28. quam facultátem, for _facultátem quam_. The antecedent is often thus
attracted into the relative clause,

né omittámus, 'let us not neglect,' the hortatory subjunctive.

29. reí gerendae. See the note on 52, 8.

54. 1. extrémum pálum, 'the end of the stake.' Other adjectives denoting
a part of the object named by the noun they modify are _medius_, 'the
middle of'; _céterus_, 'the rest of'; _reliquus_, 'the rest of';
_prímus_, 'the first of'; _summus_, 'the top of'; _ímus_, 'the bottom

5. dum errat, 'wandering.'

23. pecus. Is this _pecus, pecoris_, or _pecus, pecudis_? See the note on
_pecora_, 20, 26.

24. vénerat. We say 'came,' but the Latin by the use of the pluperfect
denotes that this action preceded that of tráctábat.

55. 1. quás. See the note on _quibus_, 20, 1.

inter sé. Compare 21, 20.

5. fore, 'would happen.'

15. aliquod. Compare 42, 12, and the note.

16. id ... erat, 'as was indeed the case.'

17. auxiliandí causá. See the note on 51, 23.

26. correptum coniécit, 'seized and threw.'

27. nón ... submergerentur. See the note on 37, 7.

56. 4-6. These verses and those on p. 57 and p. 59 are quoted from
Vergil's Aeneid.

6. vinclís, for _vinculís_.

8. vírís. Let the quantity of the first _i_ tell you from what nominative
this word comes.

11. sibi proficíscendum. See the note on _mátúrandum sibi_, 42, 12.

13. iam profectúró, 'as he was now about to set out.'

16. návigantí, 'to one sailing.'

25. mírábantur, 'had been wondering.' With iam dúdum and similar
expressions the imperfect denotes action begun some time before and still
going on at the given past time. This is similar to the use of the
present already commented on (see the note on _es_, 4, 1).

28. céláta, plural because of the plural expression aurum et argentum.

57. 1. ventí, subject of ruunt and perflant.

2. velut ágmine factó, 'as if formed in column.'

3. data. _Est_ is omitted.

10. próiécissent. See the note on _accépissent_, 26, 21.

13. in terram égrediendum esse, 'that a landing must be made.'

18. quam, an adverb modifying crúdélí.

19. essent, informal indirect discourse or subjunctive by attraction.

20. vellet, subjunctive of characteristic. This name is given to the
subjunctive when used in relative clauses to define or restrict an
indefinite or general antecedent. So here it is not 'no one was found,'
but 'no one willing to undertake this task was found.'

21. déducta est, 'came.'

23. praeesset, subjunctive of purpose.

25. événit. This verb takes the same construction as _accidit_, 30, 1.

58. 1. nihil. See the note on 37, 22.

2. mortí. Compare 49, 26.

5. aliquantum itineris, 'some distance on the journey.' The two words are
accusative of extent of space and partitive genitive respectively.

11. sibi, 'for them,' dative of reference.

12. forís. This is translated like forás above, but the former was
originally locative and is therefore used with verbs of rest; the latter,
accusative of place whither and therefore used with verbs of motion.

15. accubuérunt. See the note on 37, 6.

25. perturbátus, used as a predicate adjective, 'agitated.'

27. correptó. See the note on 38, 8.

59. 1. quid. See the note on _quis_, 30, 3.

gravius, 'serious.'

eí. The direct form of these two speeches would be: _Sí quid gravius tibi
acciderit, omnium salús in summó discrímine erit_; and _Néminem invítum
mécum addúcam; tibi licet, sí mávís, in náví manére; ego ipse sine úlló
praesidió rem suscipiam_. Notice that _ego_ is not used to represent _sé_
of line 2, but is used for _sé_ of line 4 for the sake of the contrast
with _tibi_.

6. núlló. Instead of the genitive and ablative of _némó_, _núllíus_ and
_núlló_ are regularly used.

7. Alíquantum itinerís. See the note on 58, 5.

10. in eó ... intráret. See the note on 52, 9.

11. eí. Compare 49, 26, and 58, 2.

14. Circés, a Greek form of the genitive.

16. Num. See the note on 44, 20. Nónne (line 14) is used to introduce a
question to which an affirmative answer is expected.

18. núllís. See the note on 24, 3.

22. tetigerit. See the note on 30, 20.

tú ... faciás, 'see that you draw your sword and make an attack upon

24. vísús, 'sight,' The use of the plural is poetic.

25. tenuem ... auram. The order of the words here is poetic.

60. 1. atque, 'as.' After adjectives and adverbs denoting likeness and
unlikeness, this use of _atque_ is regular.

3. dépulsa est. See the note on 4, 26.

4. sibi. See the note on 58, 11.

11. ut ... erat, 'as he had been instructed,' more literally 'as had been
enjoined upon him.' An intransitive verb must be used impersonally in the
passive, for it is the direct object of the active voice that becomes the
subject of the passive. If the intransitive verb takes a dative in the
active, this dative is kept in the passive. Notice that the corresponding
English verbs are transitive, and that the dative may therefore be
rendered as the object in the active construction and as the subject in
the passive.

13. sénsisset. See the note on _vídissent_, 36, 15.

14. sibi vítam adimeret, 'take her life.' The dative of reference is thus
used after some compound verbs to name the person from whom a thing is
taken. This construction is sometimes called the dative of separation.

15. timóre perterritam. See the note on 14, 11.

20. eí pedés, 'his feet.' See the note on 44, 10.

21. imperásset, contracted from _imperávisset_.

22. in átrium. See the note on 7, 3.

26. sunt, goes with reductí.

29. reliquís Graecís, indirect object of díceret.

30. Circaeam. Notice that this use of the adjective instead of the
genitive often cannot be imitated in the English rendering, but must be
translated by the possessive case or a prepositional phrase.

61. 8. eí persuásum sit, 'he was persuaded.' See the note on 60, 11. The
clause ut ... manéret is the subject of persuásum sit; if the latter were
active, the clause would be its object. For the tense of persuásum sit
see the note on 19, 22.

10. cónsúmpserat. See the note on 14, 3.

patriae, objective genitive, to be rendered, as often, with 'for.'

15. úsuí. See the note on 34, 20.

23. antequam perveníret. We say 'before he could come.' See the note on
_possent_, 27, 20.

24. hóc locó. See the note on 24, 2.

longum est. We say '_would_ be tedious' or '_would_ take too long.'



abl. = ablative.
acc. = accusative.
act. = active.
adj. = adjective.
adv. = adverb.
comp. = comparative.
conj. = conjunction.
dat. = dative.
dem. = demonstrative.
f. = feminine.
freq. = frequentative.
gen. = genitive.
ger. = gerundive.
impers. = impersonal.
indecl. = indeclinable.
indef. = indefinite.
infin. = infinitive.
interrog. = interrogative.
loc. = locative.
m. = masculine.
n. = neuter.
part. = participle.
pass. = passive.
perf. = perfect.
pers. = personal.
plur. = plural.
prep. = preposition.
pron. = pronoun or pronominal.
rel. = relative.
sing. = singular.
superl. = superlative.

_The hyphen in initial words indicates the composition of the words_.


á or ab (the former never used before words beginning with a
    vowel or _h_), prep. with abl., _away from, from; of; by_.
abditus, -a, -um [part of abdó], _hidden, concealed_.
ab-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, _put away, hide_.
ab-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, _lead_ or _take away_.
ab-eó, -íre, -ií, -itúrus, _go away, depart_.
abició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [ab + iació], _throw away_.
abripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [ab + rapió], _snatch away, carry off_.
abscídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus [abs = ab + caedó], _cut away_ or _off_.
ab-scindó, -scindere, -scidí, -scissus, _tear away_ or _off_.
ab-sum, abesse, áfuí, áfutúrus, _be away, be absent, be distant; be
ab-súmó, -súmere, -súmpsí, -súmptus, _take away, consume, destroy_.
Absyrtus, -í, m., _Absyrtus_.
ac, see atque.
Acastus, -í, m., _Acastus_.
accendó, -cendere, -cendí, -cénsus, _kindle, light_.
accidó, -cidere, -cidí [ad + cadó], _fall to_ or _upon; befall, happen_.
accipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [ad + capió], _take to oneself, receive,
    accept; hear; suffer_.
accumbó, -cumbere, -cubuí, -cubitus, _lie down_ (at table).
accurró, -currere, -currí, -cursus [ad + curró], _run to, come up_.
ácer, ácris, ácre, _sharp, shrill_.
aciés, -éí, f., _line of battle_.
Acrisius, -í, m., _Acrisius_.
ácriter [ácer], adv., _sharply, fiercely_.
ad, prep. with acc., _to, toward; at, near; for_.
ad-amó, -amáre, -amáví, -amátus, _feel love for, fall in love with_.
ad-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, _lead to, bring, take; induce,
ad-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, _go to, approach_.
ad-feró, adferre, attulí, adlátus, _bear to, bring_.
adfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [ad + fació], _do to, move, affect;
    visit, afflict_.
ad-flígó, -flígere, -flíxi, -flíctus, _dash to, shatter_.
adhibeó, -hibére, -hibuí, -hibitus [ad + habeó], _hold to, employ, show_.
ad-húc, adv., _to this point, up to this time, yet, still_.
adició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [ad + iació], _throw to, throw, hurl_.
adimó, -imere, -émí, -émptus [ad + emó], _take to oneself, take away_.
aditus, -ús [adeó], m., _approach, entrance_.
ad-iungo, -iungere, -iúnxí, -iúnctus, _join to, join_.
ad-ligó, -ligáre, -ligáví, -ligátus, _bind to, bind_.
Adméta, -ae, f., _Admeta_.
ad-míror, -mírárí, -mírátus, _wonder at, admire_.
ad-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, _send to, admit; allow_.
ad-stó, -stáre, -stití, _stand at_ or _near_.
aduléscéns, -entis, m., _youth, young man_.
aduléscentia, -ae [aduléscéns], f., _youth_.
ad-úró, -úrere, -ússí, -ústus, _set fire to, burn, scorch, sear_.
ad-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, _come to_ or _toward, approach,
adventus, -ús [advenió], m., _approach, arrival_.
Aeacus, -í, m., _Aeacus_.
aedificó, -áre, -áví, -átus [aedis + fació], _make a building, build_.
aedis, -is, f., sing. _temple_, plur. _house_.
Aeétés, -ae, m., _Aeetes_.
aegré [aeger, _sick_], adv., _ill, with difficulty_.
Aegyptií,-órum, m. pl., _Egyptians_.
aéneus, -a, -um [aes], _of copper_ or _bronze_.
Aeolia, -ae [Aeolus], f., _Aeolia_.
Aeolus, -í, m., _Aeolus_.
áér, áeris, m., _air_.
aes, aeris, n., _copper, bronze_.
Aeson, -onis, m., _Aeson_.
aestás, -tátis, f., _summer_.
aetás, -tátis, f., _age_.
Aethiopés, -um, m. plur., _Ethiopians_.
Aetna, -ae, f., _Etna_.
ager, agri, m., _field, land_.
ágmen, -minis [ago], n., _band, column_.
ágnóscó, -gnóscere, -gnóví, -gnitus [ad + (g)nóscó, _come to know],
agó, agere, égí, áctus, _drive; do; pass, lead_; grátiás agere, see
ala, -ae, f., _wing_.
albus, -a, -um, _white_.
Alcména, -ae, f., _Alcmena_.
aliénus, -a, -um [alius], _belonging to another, out of place_.
ali-quandó, adv., _at some time or other; finally, at length_.
ali-quantum, -quantí, n., _somewhat_.
ali-quí, -qua, -quod, indef. pron. adj., _some, any_.
ali-quis, -quid, indef. pron., _someone, any one, something, anything,
    some, any_.
aliter [alius], adv., _in another way, otherwise, differently_.
alius, -a, -ud, _another, other_; alií ... alií, _some ... others.
aló, -ere, -uí, -tus, _nourish_.
Alpés, -ium, f. plur., _Alps_.
alter, -era, -erum, _one_ or _the other_ (of two); _another, second_.
altus, -a, -um [part, of aló], _high, deep_; altum, -í, n., _the deep_.
Amázonés,-um, f. plur.,_Amazons_.
ámentia, -ae [á + méns, _mind_], f., _madness_.
amícus, -í, m., _friend_.
á-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, _send away, lose_.
amó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _love_.
amor, -óris [amó], m., _love_.
á-moveó, -movére, -móví, -mótus, _move away_.
amphora, -ae, f., _jar, bottle_.
an, conj., _or_ (in questions).
ancora, -ae, f., _anchor_; in ancorís, _at anchor_.
Andromeda, -ae, f., _Andromeda_.
anguis, -is, m. and f., _serpent, snake_.
anima, -ae, f., _breath, soul, life_.
animadvertó, -vertere, -vertí, -versus [animus + ad-vertó], _turn the
    mind to, observe_.
animus, -í, m., _mind; heart; spirit, courage_.
annus, -í, m., _year_.
ante, prep, with acc. and adv., _before_.
anteá [ante], adv., _before_.
antecelló, -cellere, _surpass, excel_.
ante-quam, conj., _before than, sooner than, before_.
antíquus, -a, -um, _ancient_.
antrum, -í, n., _cave_.
ánxius, -a, -um, _anxious_.
aper, aprí, m., _wild boar_.
aperió, -íre, -uí, -tus, _open_.
apertus, -a, -um [part, of aperió], _open_.
Apollo, -inis, m., _Apollo_.
appelló, -pelláre, -pelláví, -pellátus, _call, name_.
appelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus [ad + pelló], _drive to, bring to_;
    with or without návem, _put in_.
appetó, -petere, -petíví, -petítus [ad + petó], _draw near_.
appónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus [ad + pónó], _put to_ or _near, set
    before, serve_.
appropinquó, -propinquáre, -propinquáví, -propinquátus [ad + propinquó],
    _approach to, approach_.
apud, prep, with acc., _among, with_.
aqua, -ae, f., _water_.
ára, -ae, f., _altar_.
arbitror, -árí, -átus, _consider, think, judge_.
arbor, -oris, f., _tree_.
arca, -ae, f., _chest, box, ark_.
Arcadia,-ae, f., _Arcadia_.
arcessó, -ere, -íví, -ítus, _call, summon, fetch_.
arcus, -ús, m., _bow_.
árdeó, árdére, ársí, ársus, _be on fire, burn_.
argentum, -í, n., _silver_.
Argó, Argus, f., _the Argo_.
Argolicus, -a, -um, _of Argolis_ (the district of Greece in which Tiryns
    was situated), _Argolic_.
Argonautae, -árum [Argó + nauta], m. plur., _Argonauts_.
Argus, -í, m., _Argus_.
ariés, -etis, m., _ram_.
arma, -órum, n. plur., _arms, weapons_.
armátus, -a, -um [part, of armó], _armed_.
armó, -áre, -ávi, -átus [arma], _arm, equip_.
aró, -áre, -áví, -átus, _plow_.
ars, artis, f., _art_.
ascendó, -scendere, -scendí, -scénsus [ad + scandó], _climb to, ascend,
aspició, -spicere, -spéxí, -spectus [ad + speció], _look at_ or _on,
at, conj., _but_.
Athénae, -árum, f. plur., _Athens_.
Atlás, -antis, m., _Atlas_.
atque or ac (the latter never used before words beginning with a vowel
    or _h_), conj., _and_; after words of comparison, _as, than_.
átrium, -í, n., _hall_.
attingó, -tingere, -tigí, -táctus [ad + tango], _touch at_.
audácia, -ae [audáx, _bold_], f., _boldness, audacity_.
audeó, audére, ausus sum, _dare_.
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítus, _hear; listen_ or _attend to_.
auferó, auferre, abstulí, ablátus [ab + feró], _bear away, carry off_.
aufugió, -fugere, -fúgí [ab + fugió], _flee_ or _run away_.
Augéás, -ae, m., _Augeas_.
aura, -ae, f., _air, breeze_.
aureus, -a, -um [aurum], _of gold, golden_.
auris, -is, f., _ear_.
aurum, -í, n., _gold_.
aut, conj., _or_; aut ... aut, _either ... or_.
autem, conj., _moreover; but, however; now_.
auxilior, -ári, -átus [auxilium], _help_.
auxilium, -í, n., _help, aid_.
á-vehó, -vehere, -vexí, -vectus, _carry away_.
avis, -is, f., _bird_.
á-voló, -voláre, -voláví, -volátúrus, _fly away_.
avus, -í, m., _grandfather_.


baculum, -í, n., _stick, wand_.
balteus, -í, m.., _belt, girdle_.
barbarus, -a, -um, _barbarian_.
beátus, -a, -um, _happy, blessed_.
bellicósus, -a, -um [bellum], _war-like_.
bellum, -í, n., _war_.
bélua, -ae, f., _beast, monster_.
bene [bonus], adv., _well; successfully_.
beneficium, -í [bene + fació], n., _well-doing, kindness, service,
benígné [benígnus, _kind_], adv., _kindly_.
benígnitás, -tátis [benígnus, _kind_], f., _kindness_.
bibó, bibere, bibí, _drink_.
biceps, -cipitis [bi- + caput], adj., _two-headed_.
bonus, -a, -um, _good_.
bós, bovis, gen. plur. boum, dat. and abl. plur. bóbus, m. and f., _ox,
    bull, cow_.
bracchium, -í, n., _arm_.
brevis, -e, _short_.
Búsíris, -idis, m., _Busiris_.


Cácus, -í, m., _Cacus_.
cadáver, -eris, n., _dead body, corpse, carcass_.
cadó, cadere, cecidí, cásúrus, _fall_.
caecus, -a, -um, _blind_.
caedés, -is [caedó, _cut_], f., _cutting down, killing, slaughter_.
caelum, -í, n., _heaven, sky_.
Calais, -is, m., _Calais_.
calamitás, -tátis, f., _misfortune, calamity, disaster_.
calceus, -í, m., _shoe_.
calefació, -facere, -fécí, -factus [caleó, _be hot_ + fació], _make hot_.
calor, -óris [caleó, _be hot_], m., _heat_.
campus, -í, m., _plain, field_.
cancer, cancrí, m., _crab_.
canis, -is, m. and f., _dog_.
cantó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of canó, _sing_], _sing_.
cantus, -ús [canó, _sing_], m., _singing, song_.
capió, capere, cépí, captus, _take, catch, seize; receive, suffer;
captívus, -a, -um [capió], _captive_.
caput, capitis, n., _head_.
carcer, -eris, m., _prison_.
carmen, -minis [canó, _sing_], n., _song, charm_.
caró, carnis, f., _flesh_.
carpó, -ere, -sí, -tus, _pluck_.
Castor, -oris, m., _Castor_.
castra, -órum, n. plur., _camp_.
cású [abl. of cásus], adv., _by chance, accidentally_.
cásus, -ús [cadó], m., _fall; chance, accident_.
caténa, -ae, f., _chain_.
cauda, -ae, f., _tail_.
causa, -ae, f., _cause, reason_; abl. causá, _for the sake of_.
caveó, cavére, cáví, cautus, _beware, take care; be on one's guard
    against, beware of_.
celeber, celebris, celebre, _frequented; renowned, celebrated_.
celeritás, -tátis [celer, _swift_], f., _swiftness, quickness, speed_.
celeriter [celer, _swift_], adv., _swiftly, quickly_.
céló, -áre, -áví, -átus, _hide, conceal_.
céna, -ae, f., _dinner_.
cénáculum, -í [céna], n., _dining-room_.
Cénaeum, -í, n., _Cenaeum_ (a promontory of Euboea).
cénó, -áre, -áví, -átus [céna], _dine_.
cénseó, cénsére, cénsuí, cénsus, _think, believe, consider_.
centaurus, -í, m., _centaur_.
centum, indecl. adj., _one hundred_.
Cépheus, -í, m., _Cepheus_.
Cerberus, -í, m., _Cerberus_.
Ceres, Cereris, f., _Ceres_.
cernó, cernere, créví, certus or crétus, _discern, perceive, make out_.
certámen, -minis [certó, _strive_], n., _struggle, contest_.
certó [abl. of certus], adv., _with certainty, for certain, certainly_.
certus, -a, -um [part. of cernó], _determined, fixed, certain_; certiórem
    facere, _to make more certain, inform_.
cervus, -í, m., _stag_.
céterí, -ae, -a, plur. adj., _the other, the remaining, the rest of_.
Charón, -ontis, m., _Charon_.
cibus, -í, m., _food_.
cingó, cingere, cinxí, cinctus, _surround, gird_.
Circé, -és, f., _Circe_.
Circaeus, -a, -um [Circé], _of Circe_.
circiter, prep. with acc. and adv., _about_.
circum, prep. with acc., _around_.
circum-dó, -dare, -dedí, -datus, _put around, surround_.
circum-stó, -stáre, -stetí, _stand around_.
citerior, -ius [comp. from citrá, _on this side of_], adj., _on this
    side, hither_.
cithara, -ae, f., _cithara, lute, lyre_.
citharoedus, -í [cithara], m., _citharoedus_ (one who sings to the
    accompaniment of the cithara).
cívis, -is, m. and f., _citizen, fellow-citizen, subject_.
cívitás, -tátis [cívis], f., _state_.
clámitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of clámó, _call out_], _call out_.
clamor, -óris [clámó, _call out_], m., _shout, cry_.
cláva, -ae, f., _club_.
clémentia, -ae [cléméns, _merciful_], f., _mercy, kindness_.
coepí, coepisse, coeptus (used in tenses of completed action), _have
    begun, began_.
cógitó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _consider, think over_.
cógnóscó, -gnóscere, -gnóví, -gnitus [com- + (g)nóscó, _come to know_],
    _find out, learn_; in tenses of completed action, _have found out,
cógó, cógere, coégí, coáctus [co- + agó], _drive together, collect;
co-hortor, -hortárí, -hortátus, _encourage, exhort_.
Colchí, -órum, m. plur., _Colchians_.
Colchis, -idis, f., _Colchis_.
collum, -í, n., _neck_.
coló, colere, coluí, cultus, _till, cultivate; inhabit; worship_.
color, -óris, m., _color_.
columba, -ae, f., _pigeon, dove_.
columna, -ae, f., _column, pillar_.
comes, -itis [com- + eó], m. and f., _companion_.
commeátus, -ús, m., _supplies, provisions_.
com-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, _send together; commit, intrust;
    expose_; proelium committere, _to join battle_.
com-moror, -morárí, -morátus, _tarry, linger, delay, stay_.
com-moveó, -movére, -móví, -mótus, _move, rouse; disturb_.
com-mútátió, -tiónis, f., _change_.
com-paró, -paráre, -paráví, -parátus, _prepare, collect_.
com-pelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus, _drive together, drive_.
complector, -plectí, -plexus, _embrace_.
com-pleó, -plére, -pléví, -plétus, _fill full, fill up_.
com-plúrés, -plúra, plur. adj., _several, many_.
com-portó, -portáre, -portáví, -portátus, _carry_ or _bring together,
com-prehendó, -prehendere, -prehendí, -prehénsus, _seize, catch_.
comprimó, -primere, -pressí, -pressus [com- + premó], _press together,
    squeeze, compress_.
cónátus, -ús [cónor], m., _attempt, effort_.
con-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, _grant, yield_.
con-curró, -currere, -currí, -cursus, _run, rush_, or _dash together_.
con-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, _put together, found; store away_.
cón-feró, cónferre, contulí, conlátus, _bring together; grant, confer_;
    sé cónferre, _to betake oneself, make one's way_.
cónfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [com- + fació], _make_ or _do
    completely, complete, finish, accomplish, make; wear out_.
cón-fírmó, -fírmáre, -fírmáví, -fírmátus, _strengthen, establish;
    declare, assert_.
cón-flígó, -flígere, -flíxí, -flíctus, _dash together_.
conició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [com- + iació], _throw together; throw,
    cast, hurl_.
con-iungó, -iungere, -iúnxí, -iúnctus, _join together, join_.
coniúnx, coniugis [coniungó], m. and f., _spouse, husband, wife_.
conligó, -ligere, -légí, -léctus [com- + legó], _gather together,
con-locó, -locáre, -locáví, -locátus, _place together, put, place_.
conloquium, -í [conloquor, _talk together_], n., _conversation_.
cónor, -árí, -átus, _try, attempt_.
cónscendó, -scendere, -scendí, -scénsus [com- + scandó, _climb_],
    _climb_; návem cónscendere, _to climb the ship, go on board, embark_.
cónsénsus, -ús [cónsentió, _agree]_, m., _agreement, consent_.
cón-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, _follow up, follow; overtake_.
cón-servó, -serváre, -serváví, -servátus, _preserve, keep_.
cón-sídó, -sídere, -sédí, -sessus, _sit down_.
cónsilium, -í [cónsuló], n., _advice; plan, design, purpose; prudence_.
cón-sistó, -sistere, -stití, -stitus, _station oneself, take one's stand;
cónspectus, -ús [cónspició], m., _sight_.
cónspició, -spicere, -spéxí, -spectus [com- + speció, _look_], _behold,
    perceive, see_.
cónstituó, -stituere, -stituí, -stitútus [com- + statuó], _set together_
    or _up; appoint; determine_.
cón-stó, -stáre, -stití, -státúrus, _stand together, agree; consist_;
cónstat, _it is agreed, is well known_.
cón-suéscó, -suéscere, -suéví, -suétus, _become accustomed_; in tenses of
    completed action, _have become accustomed, be accustomed_ or _wont_.
cónsuló, -ere, -uí, -tus, _consult_.
cón-súmó, -súmere, -súmpsí, -súmptus, _take completely, use up, consume,
con-tegó, -tegere, -téxí, -téctus, _cover_.
con-tendó, -tendere, -tendí, -tentus, _stretch, hasten_.
continéns, -entis [contineó], f., _'mainland, continent_.
contineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [com- + teneó], _hold together, keep
    within, shut up in; bound_.
continuus, -a, -um [contineó], _continuous, successive_.
contrá, prep, with acc., _against, contrary to_.
contróversia, -ae, f., _quarrel, dispute, debate_.
con-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, _come together, assemble_.
con-vertó, -vertere, -vertí, -versus, _turn round, turn, change_; in
    fugam convertere, _to put to flight_.
con-vocó, -vocáre, -vocáví, -vocátus, _call together, summon, assemble_.
co-orior, -orírí, -ortus, _arise_.
cópia, -ae, f., _supply, abundance_; plur., _forces, troops_.
Corinthus, -í, m., _Corinth_.
corium, -í, n., _hide, leather_.
cornú, -ús, n., _horn_.
corpus, corporis, n., _body_.
corripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [com- + rapió], _seize, snatch,
    snatch up_.
cottídié, adv., _daily, every day_.
crédibilis, -e [crédó], _credible_.
crédó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, _believe_.
creó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _elect, appoint_.
Creón, -ontis, m., _Creon_.
crepítus, -ús [crepó, _rattle_], m., _rattle, clatter_.
crepundia, -órum [crepó, _rattle_], n. plur., _rattle_.
Créta, -ae, f., _Crete_.
cruciátus, -ús [crució, _torture_], m., _torture_.
crúdélis, -e, _cruel_.
crús, crúris, n., _leg_.
cubiculum, -í [cubó], n., _bedroom_.
cubó, -áre, -uí, _lie down, lie, recline_.
culter, cultrí, m., _knife_.
cum, prep, with abl., _with_.
cum, conj., _when, while, after; since; although_.
cúnae, -arum, f. plur., _cradle_.
cupiditás, -tátis [cupidus], f., _desire, longing, eagerness_.
cupidus, -a, -um [cupió], _desirous, eager_.
cupió, -ere, -íví, -ítus, _desire, long for, wish_.
cúr, adv., _why_.
curró, currere, cucurrí, cursus, run.
cursus, -ús, m., _chariot_.
cursus, -ús [curró], m., _running_, _course_.
custódió, -íre, -íví, -ítus [custós, _guard], guard_.
Cyclóps, -is, m., _Cyclops_
Cyzicus, -í, f., _Cyzicus_.


damnum, -í, n., _harm, injury_.
Danaé, -és, f., _Danae_.
dé, prep, with abl., _down from_, _from, out of; about, concerning_,
débeó, -ére, -uí, -itus [dé+ habeó], _owe_; with infin., _ought_.
débitus, -a, -um [part, of débeó], _owed, due_.
dé-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, _go away, depart_.
decem, indecl. adj., _ten_.
décidó, -cidere, -cidí [dé + cadó], _fall down_.
decimus, -a, -um [decem], _tenth_.
décipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [dé + capió], _catch, deceive_.
decoró, -áre, -áví, -átus [decus, _adornment], adorn, distinguish_.
dé-curró, -currere, -cucurrí, -cursus, _run down_.
dé-decus, -decoris, n., _dishonor_, _disgrace_.
dé-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, _give_ _away_ or _up_.
dé-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, _lead down_ or _away, bring_; návem
    dédúcere, _to draw down_ or _launch a ship_.
dé-fendó, -fendere, -fendí, -fénsus, _ward off; defend_.
dé-feró, -ferre, -tulí, -látus, _bear_ or _carry away_ or _off_.
dé-fessus, -a, -um, _worn out_, _exhausted_.
défició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [dé + fació], _fail_.
Déianíra, -ae, f., _Dejanira_.
déició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [dé + iació], _throw down, cast, drive out
    of one's course_.
deinde, adv., _then, next_.
dé-lábor, -lábí, -lapsus, _slip_ or _fall down_.
déligó, -ligere, -légí, -léctus [dé + legó], _choose out, choose,
Delphí, -órum, m. plur., _Delphi_.
Delphicus, -a, -um [Delphí], _of Delphi, Delphic, Delphian_.
démissus, -a, -um [part. of démittó], _downcast, dejected_.
dé-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, _send down, let fall_; animós
    démittere, _to lose courage_.
dé-mónstró, -mónstráre, -mónstráví, -mónstrátus, _point out, show; make
démum, adv., _at last_.
dénique, adv., _lastly, finally_.
déns, dentis, m., _tooth_.
dénsus, -a, -um, _thick_.
dé-pelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus, _drive off_ or _away, drive_.
dé-plóró, -plóráre, -plóráví, -plórátus, _lament_.
dé-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, _put down, deposit; lay aside, give
    up_; é memoriá dépónere, _to forget_.
déripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [dé + rapió], _snatch away, tear off,
    pull down_.
déscendó, -scendere, -scendí, -scénsus [dé + scandó], _climb down,
dé-seró, -serere, -seruí, -sertus, _desert_.
désertus, -a, -um [part, of déseró], _deserted_.
désíderium, -í [désíderó, _desire]_, n., _desire, longing_.
désilió, -silíre, -siluí, -sultus [dé + salió], _leap down_.
dé-sistó, -sistere, -stití, -stitus, _set down; leave off, desist, cease,
dé-spéró, -spéráre, -spéráví, -spérátus, _despair_.
dé-super, adv., _down from above_.
dé-terreó, -terrére, -terruí, -territus, _frighten off, deter_.
dé-trahó, -trahere, -tráxí, -tráctus, _draw_ or _pull off_.
deus, -í, m., _god_.
dé-vertó, -vertere, -vertí, _turn away_ or _aside_.
dé-voró, -voráre, -voráví, -vorátus, _swallow down, swallow, devour_.
dexter, -tra, -trum, _right_.
dextra, -ae [dexter], f., _right hand_ (manus understood).
Diána, -ae, f., _Diana_.
dícó, dícere, díxí, dictus, _say, speak_; diem dícere, _to appoint_ or
    _set a day_.
diés, -éí, m. and f., _day_.
difficilis, -e [dis- + facilis], _not easy, difficult_.
difficultas, -tátis [difficilis], f., _difficulty_.
diffundó, -fundere, -fúdí, -fúsus [dis- + fundó], _pour forth, spread_ or
    _shed abroad, diffuse_.
díligenter [díligéns, _careful_], adv., _carefully, diligently_.
díligentia, -ae [díligéns, _careful_], f., _care, diligence, industry_.
dí-lúcéscó, -lúcéscere, -lúxí, _grow light, dawn_.
dílúcidé [dílúcidus, _distinct_], adv., _distinctly, plainly_.
dí-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, _send different ways, send forth_ or
    _away, despatch; let slip, lose_.
Diomédés, -is, m., _Diomedes_.
dírus, -a, -um, _dreadful_.
dis-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, _go apart, withdraw, depart_.
discó, discere, didicí, _learn_.
discrímen, -críminis, n., _crisis, peril, danger_.
discus, -í, m., _discus, quoit_.
disició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [dis- + iació], _throw apart, scatter_.
diú, adv., _for a long time, a long time_ or _while, long_; comp.
diútius, _longer_.
dí-velló, -vellere, -vellí, -vulsus, _tear apart, rend asunder, tear in
díversus, -a, -um [part. of díverto], _turned different ways, opposite,
    contrary, different_.
dívidó, -videre, -vísí, -vísus, _divide, separate_.
dó, dare, dedí, datus, _give_.
doceo, -ére, -uí, -tus, _teach, explain_.
dolor, -óris [doleó, _be in pain_], m., _pain, grief; anger_.
dolus, -í, m., _trick, craft_.
domina, -ae, f., _mistress_.
domus, -ús, f., _house, home_.
dónum, -í [do], n., _gift_.
dormió, -íre, -íví, _sleep_.
dracó, -ónis, m., _dragon, serpent_.
dubitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [dubius], _doubt, hesitate_.
dubius, -a, -um, _doubtful, uncertain_.
dúcó, dúcere, dúxí, ductus [dux], _lead; make, dig_; with or without in
    mátrimónium, _marry_.
dúdum, adv., _formerly, of old_; iam dúdum, _this long time_.
dulcédó, -inis [dulcis], f., _sweetness_.
dulcis, -e, _sweet_.
dum, conj., _while, as; as long as; until_.
duo, -ae, -o, plur. adj., _two_.
duodecim [duo + decem], indecl. adj., _twelve_.
duo-dé-vígintí, indecl. adj., _eighteen_.
dux, ducis, m. and f., _leader, commander_.


é, see ex.
ébrius, -a, -um, _drunk_.
é-dícó, -dícere, -díxí, -dictus, _declare, proclaim, appoint_.
é-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, _put forth, give out, utter_.
é-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, _lead out, draw_.
effervéscó, -fervéscere, -ferbuí [ex + fervéscó], _boil up_ or _over,
effició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [ex + fació], _make_ or _work out,
    accomplish, effect_.
effló, -fláre, -fláví, -flátus [ex + fló], _breathe out_.
effugio, -fugere, -fúgí [ex + fugió], _flee out_ or _away, escape_.
effundó, -fundere, -fúdí, -fúsus [ex + fundó], _pour out_.
ego, meí, pers. pron., _I_.
égredior, -gredí, -gressus [é + gradior], _go out_ or _forth, go ashore,
égregié [égregius, _excellent_], adv., _excellently, splendidly,
Élis, -idis, f., _Elis_.
Elysius, -a, -um, _Elysian_.
é-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, _send out_ or _forth_.
enim, conj., _for_.
é-núntió, -núntiáre, -núntiáví, -núntiátus, _speak out, announce, make
eó, íre, ií, itus, _go_.
eó [is], adv., _to that place, thither_.
equus, -í, m., _horse_.
éréctus, -a, -um [part, of érigó], _upright, erect_.
ergá, prep, with acc., _toward, for_.
Ergínus, -í, m., _Erginus_.
Éridanus, -í, m., _Eridanus_.
érigó, -rigere, -réxí, -réctus [é + regó], _raise_ or _set up, raise,
    lift; cheer, encourage_.
éripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [é + rapió], _snatch out_ or _away,
erró, -áre, -áví, -átus, _wander, stray; be mistaken_.
érudió, -rudíre, -rudíví, -rudítus, _instruct_.
Erymanthius, -a, -um, _of Erymanthus, Erymanthian_.
Erythía, -ae, f., _Erythia_.
et, conj., _and_; et ... et, _both ... and_.
etiam [et + iam], adv., _and now, also, too, even_.
et-sí, conj., _even if, although_.
Eunomus, -í, m., _Eunomus_.
Európa, -ae, f., _Europe_.
Eurylochus, -í, m., _Eurylochus_.
Eurystheus, -í, m., _Eurystheus_.
Eurytión, -ónis, m., _Eurytion_.
Eurytus, -í, m., _Eurytus_.
é-vádó, -vádere, -vásí, -vásus,
    _go forth, get away, escape_.
é-vánéscó, -vánéscere, -vánuí, _vanish away_.
é-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, _come out; turn out, happen, befall_.
é-vocó, -vocáre, -vocáví, -vocátus, _call out, challenge_.
é-vomó, -vomere, -vomuí, -vomitus, _vomit forth_.
ex or é (the latter never used before words beginning with a vowel or
    _h_), prep. with abl., _out of, from; of_.
ex-animó, -animáre, -animáví, -animátus, _put out of breath, fatigue,
    tire, exhaust; stupefy; kill_.
ex-árdéscó, -árdéscere, -ársí, -ársus, _blaze out, be inflamed, rage_.
ex-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, _go out_ or _forth, depart_.
excipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [ex + capió], _take out_ or _up,
    receive, welcome, entertain_.
ex-citó, -citáre, -citáví, -citátus, _call out, arouse_.
ex-clámó, -clámáre, -clámáví, -clámátus, _cry out, exclaim_.
exclúdó, -clúdere, -clúsí, -clúsus [ex + claudó], _shut out, hinder,
ex-cógitó, -cógitáre, -cógitáví, -cógitátus, _think out, contrive,
    devise, invent_.
ex-crució, -cruciáre, -cruciáví, cruciátus, _torture_.
ex-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, _go out_.
exerceó, -ercére, -ercuí, -ercitus, _exercise_.
exercitátió, -ónis [exerceó], f., _exercise_.
exercitus, -ús, m., _army_.
ex-haurio, -hauríre, -hausí, -haustus, _drink up_ or _off, drain_.
exístimó, -ístimáre, -ístimáví, -ístimátus [ex + aestimo, _value],
    consider, believe, think_.
ex-orior, -orírí, -ortus, _arise from, spring up, rise_.
ex-pelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus, _drive out, expel_.
ex-pió, -piáre, -piáví, -piátus, _expiate_.
explórátor, -óris [explóró], m., _explorer, scout, spy_.
ex-plóró, -plóráre, -plóráví, -plórátus, _search out, explore_.
ex-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, _put out, set forth; put on shore,
    land; explain_.
exprimó, -primere, -pressí, -pressus [ex + premó], _press out_.
exsilió, -silíre, -siluí [ex + salió], _leap out_ or _forth_.
exsilium, -í [exsul, _exile_], n., _exile_.
ex-spectó, -spectáre, -spectáví, -spectátus, _look out for, wait for,
    await, expect; wait_.
ex-spíró, -spíráre, -spíráví, -spírátus, _breathe out_.
ex-struó, -struere, -strúxí, -strúctus, _pile_ or _heap up, build,
extempló, adv., _immediately, straightway, at once_.
ex-trahó, -trahere, -tráxí, -tráctus, _draw_ or _drag out, release,
extrémus, -a, -um, _last, extreme, furthest_.
exuó, -uere, -uí, -útus, _put_ or _take off_.


faber, fabrí, m., _smith_.
fabricor, -árí, -átus [faber], _make, fashion_.
fábula, -ae [for, _speak_], f., _story_.
facile [facilis, _easy_], adv., _easily_.
facinus, facinoris [fació], n., _deed, crime_.
fació, facere, fécí, factus, _make, do_; iter facere, see iter.
facultás, -tátis [facilis, _easy_], f., _possibility, opportunity,
    chance, means_.
falló, fallere, fefellí, falsus, _deceive_.
falsus, -a, -um [part. of falló], _feigned, pretended, false_.
falx, falcis, f., _sickle; curved sword, falchion_.
fáma, -ae [for, _speak_], f., _report, rumor_.
famés, -is, abl. famé, f., _hunger_.
fár, farris, n., _grain; meal_.
fátum, -í [part. of for, _speak_], n., _destiny, fate_.
faucés, -ium, f. plur., _throat_.
fax, facis, f., _torch, firebrand_.
félíciter [félíx, _happy_], adv., _happily, fortunately, successfully_.
fémina, -ae, f., _woman_.
fera, -ae [ferus, _wild_], f., _wild animal, beast_.
feré, adv., _nearly, about, almost, for the most part_.
feró, ferre, tulí, látus, _bear, bring_.
feróx, -ócis [ferus, _wild_], adj., _fierce, savage_.
ferreus, -a, -um [ferrum, _iron_], _of iron, iron_.
ferveó, -ére, _boil; glow, burn_.
fessus, -a, -um, _exhausted, worn out, weary_.
figúra, -ae, f., _form, shape, figure_.
fília, -ae, f., _daughter_.
fílius, -í, m., _son_.
fingó, fingere, finxí, fictus, _invent, make up_.
fínis, -is, m., _end, boundary; _ plur., _borders, territory, country_.
fínitimus, -a, -um [fínis], _neighboring, adjoining_.
fíó, fierí, factus sum, _be done_ or _made, become, happen_.
flamma, -ae, f., _flame_.
flúmen, -minis [fluó, _flow_], n., _river_.
fóns, fontis, m., _fountain, spring_.
forás [foris], adv., _out of doors, forth, out_.
forís [foris], adv., _out of doors, without_.
foris, -is, f., _door_.
fórma, -ae, f., _form, appearance; beauty_.
fórmósus, -a, -um [fórma], _beautiful_.
forte [fors, _chance_], adv., _by chance, accidentally_.
fortis, -e, _brave_.
fortiter [fortis], adv., _bravely_.
fortúna, -ae [fors, _chance_], f., _fortune_.
fossa, -ae [part. of fodió, _dig_], f., _ditch, trench_.
frangó, frangere, frégí, fráctus, _break; dash to pieces, wreck_.
fráter, frátris, m., _brother_.
fraus, fraudis, f., _deception, fraud_.
fremitus, -ús [fremó, _roar_], m., _roaring, roar_.
frénó, -áre, -áví, -átus [frénum, _bridle_], _bridle, restrain_.
fretum, -í, n., _strait_.
fróns, frontis, f., _forehead_.
frúctus, -ús [fruor, _enjoy_], m., _enjoyment; fruit_.
frúmentor, -árí, -átus [frúmentum], _fetch grain, forage_.
frúmentum, -í [fruor, _enjoy_], n., _grain_.
frústrá, adv., _in vain_.
fuga, -ae, f., _flight_.
fugió, fugere, fúgí, fugitúrus [fuga], _flee, run away_.
fúmus, -í, m., _smoke_.
furor, -óris [furó, _rage_], m., _rage, fury, frenzy, madness_.
fúrtum, -í [fúr, _thief_], n., _theft_.


galea, -ae, f., _helmet_.
Gallia, -ae, f., _Gaul_.
gaudeó, gaudére, gávísus, _be glad, rejoice_.
gaudium, -í [gaudeó], n., _gladness, joy_.
géns, gentis, f., _race, nation_.
genus, generis, n., _kind, nature_.
geró, gerere, gessí, gestus, _carry, wear; carry on, do_.
Géryón, -onis, m., _Geryon_.
gígnó, gígnere, genuí, genitus, _produce, bring forth_.
gladius, -í, m., _sword_.
Glaucé, -és, f., _Glauce_.
glória, -ae, f., _glory_.
Gorgó, -onis, f., _Gorgon_.
Graeae, -árum, f. plur., _the Graeae_.
Graecia, -ae [Graecus], f., _Greece_.
Graecus, -a, -um, _Greek_.
grátia, -ae [grátus], f., _favor; gratitude, thanks_; plur., _thanks_;
    grátiás agere, _to give thanks, thank_; grátiam referre, _to return
    a favor, show gratitude, requite_.
grátus, -a, -um, _pleasing, grateful_.
gravis, -e, _heavy; severe, grievous, serious_.
graviter [gravis], adv., _severely, seriously_.
gubernó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _steer_.
gustó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _taste_.


habeó, -ére, -uí, -itus, _have, hold; consider_.
habitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of habeó], _dwell, inhabit_.
Hádés, -ae, m., _Hades_.
haereó, haerére, haesí, haesúrus, _stick; hesitate_.
haesitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of haereó], _hesitate_.
Hammón, -ónis, m., _Hammon_.
haréna, -ae, f., _sand; shore_.
Harpýiae, -árum, f. plur., _Harpies_.
haud, adv., _not at all, by no means, not_.
haudquáquam [haud + quisquam], adv., _in no wise, not at all_.
haurió, hauríre, hausí, haustus, _draw_.
herba, -ae, f., _herb, plant_.
Herculés, -is, m., _Hercules_.
Hésioné, -és, f., _Hesione_.
Hesperidés, -um, f. plur., _the Hesperides_.
hesternus, -a, -um [herí, _yesterday_], _of yesterday, yesterday's_,
hesternus diés, _yesterday_.
híc [híc], adv., _here; hereupon_.
híc, haec, hóc, dem. pron., _this_; ille ... híc, _that ... this, the
    former ... the latter_.
hinc [híc], adv., _from this place, hence_.
Hippolyté, -és, f., _Hippolyte_.
Hispánia, -ae, f., _Spain_.
Homérus, í-, m., _Homer_.
homó, hominis, m., _man_.
honor, -óris, m., _honor_.
hóra, -ae, f., _hour_.
horribilis, -e [horreó, _shudder_], _dreadful, terrible, horrible_.
hortor, -árí, -átus, _exhort, encourage, urge_.
hortus, -í, m., _garden_.
hospitium, -í [hospes, _host_], n., _hospitality_.
hostis, -is, m. and f., _enemy, foe_.
húc [híc], adv., _to this place, hither_.
húmánus, -a, -um [homó], _of man, human_.
humí [loc. of humus, _ground_], adv., _on the ground_.
Hydra, -ae, f., _Hydra_.
Hylás, -ae, m., _Hylas_.


iaceó, -ére, -uí, _lie, be prostrate_.
iació, iacere, iécí, iactus, _throw, cast, hurl_.
iam, adv., _now, already_.
iánua, -ae, f., _door_.
Iásón, -onis, m., _Jason_.
ibi [is], adv., _in that place, there_.
íctus, -ús [ícó, _strike_], m., _blow_.
ídem, eadem, idem [is], dem. pron., _the same_; sometimes to be
    translated _likewise, also_.
idóneus, -a, -um, _suitable, fit; favorable_.
igitur, conj., _therefore_.
ígnárus, -a, -um [in-, _not_ + gnárus, _knowing_], _ignorant_.
ígnávus, -a, -um [in-, _not_ + gnávus, _active_], _lazy, cowardly_.
ígnis, -is, m., _fire_.
ígnóró, -áre, -áví, -átus, _ be ignorant of_.
ígnótus, -a, -um [in-, _not_ + nótus], _unknown_.
Ílias, -adis, f., _the Iliad_.
ille, illa, illud, dem. pron., _that; he, she, it, they_; ille ... híc,
    see híc.
imber, imbris, m., _rain, shower_.
imbuó, -buere, -buí, -bútus, _wet, soak, dip_.
immánitás, -tátis [immánis, _cruel_], f., _cruelty, barbarity_.
immittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, _send_ or _let in_.
immoló, -moláre, -moláví, -molátus [in + mola], _sacrifice_ (the victim
    was sprinkled with consecrated meal).
impedió, -pedíre, -pedíví, -pedítus [in + pés], _hinder, prevent,
impelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus [in + pelló], _drive_ or _urge on,
    incite, urge_.
imperátor, -óris [imperó], m., _commander, general_.
imperátum, -í [part, of imperó], n., _command, order_.
imperítus, -a, -um [in-, _not_ + perítus], _inexperienced, unskilled,
imperium, -í [imperó], n., _command; sway, rule_.
imperó, -peráre, -peráví, -perátus, _command, order, enjoin_.
impetró, -petráre, -petráví, -petrátus, _gain one's end, obtain_ (a
impetus, -ús [in + petó], m., _attack_; impetum facere, _to charge_.
impónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus [in + pónó], _place_ or _lay upon,
    impose; embark_.
improbus, -a, -um [in-, _not_ + probus, _upright_], _wicked_.
    in, prep, with acc., _into, in, to, upon_; with abl., _in, on_.
incidó, -cidere, -cidí [in + cadó], _fall into_ or _upon_.
inclúdó, -clúdere, -clúsí, -clúsus [in + claudó, _shut_], _shut up in,
    inclose, imprison_.
incola, -ae [incoló], m. and f., _inhabitant_.
in-coló, -colere, -coluí, _inhabit_.
incolumis, -e, _unhurt, safe_.
in-commodum, -í, n., _inconvenience_.
in-crédibilis, e, _incredible_.
in-dúcó, -dúcere, dúxí, -ductus, _lead in_ or _on, move, excite_.
induó, induere, induí, indútus, _put on; clothe_.
in-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, _go into, enter; adopt_.
ínfandus, -a, -um [in-, _not_ + ger. of for, _speak_], _unspeakable,
ínfáns, -fantis [in-, _not_ + part. of for, _speak_], m. and f.,
   _infant, babe_.
ínfectus, -a, -um [in-, _not_ + part. of fació], _not done, undone,
ín-félíx, -félícis, adj., _unhappy, unfortunate_.
ínferí, -órum [ínferus, _below_], m. plur., _inhabitants of the
    underworld, the dead, the shades_.
ínferó, ínferre, intulí, inlátus, _bring in_ or _against, wage against;
ínféstus, -a, -um, _unsafe, dangerous_.
ínfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [in + fació], _stain, dye_.
ín-fundó, -fundere, -fúdí, -fúsus, _pour in_ or _upon_.
ingéns, -gentis, adj., _huge, vast_.
inició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [in +iació], _throw in_ or _upon; cause,
inimícus, -a, -um [in-, _not_ + amícus], _unfriendly, hostile_.
initium, -í [ineó], n., _beginning_.
iniúria, -ae [in-, _not_ + iús], f., _injury, wrong, hurt, harm_.
inluviés, -éí, f., _dirt, filth_.
inquam, inquis, inquit, defective verb, _I say, you say, he says_.
in-rídeó, -rídére, -rísí, -rísus, _laugh at, mock_.
in-rumpó, -rumpere, -rúpí, -ruptus, _burst into_ or _in_.
in-ruó, -ruere, -ruí, _rush in_.
ínsánia, -ae [ínsánus, _mad_], f., _madness, insanity_.
ínsciéns, -scientis [in-, _not_ + part. of sció], adj., _unknowing,
ín-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, _follow upon_ or _up, pursue_.
ínsidiae, -árum, f. plur., _ambush; plot, stratagem_.
ínspergó, -spergere, -spersí, -spersus [in + spargó], _sprinkle on_ or
ínspició, -spicere, -spéxí, -spectus [in + speció], _look into_ or
ínstituó, -stituere, -stituí, -stitútus [in + statuó], _decide upon,
ín-struo, -struere, -strúxí, -strúctus, _build in_ or _into; draw up;
    equip, furnish_,
ínsula, -ae, f., _island_.
intellegó, -legere, -léxí, -léctus, _perceive, understand_.
in-tendó, -tendere, -tendí, -tentus, _stretch out; stretch, draw, aim_.
inter, prep, with acc., _among, between_.
intereá [inter], adv., _in the meantime, meanwhile_.
interfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [inter + fació], _put out of the way,
interior, -ius [comp. from inter], adj., _interior, inner_.
inter-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -míssus, _leave off, interrupt; let pass; _
    pass., _be left between, intervene, elapse_.
inter-sum, -esse, -fuí, -futúrus, _be_ or _lie between_.
intervállum, -í, n., _interval, space, distance_.
intrá [inter], prep. with acc., _within_.
intró, -áre, -áví, -átus [intrá], _go within_ or _into, enter_.
introitus, -ús [introeó, _go within_], m., _entrance_.
in-tueor, -tuérí, -tuitus, _look upon, behold_.
in-úsitátus, -a, -um, _unusual, extraordinary_.
in-útilis, -e, _not useful, useless_.
in-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, _come upon, find_.
invító, -áre, -áví, -átus, _invite_.
invítus, -a, -um, _unwilling_.
Ioláus, -í, m., _Iolaus_.
Iolé, -és, f., _Iole_.
Iovis, gen. of Iuppiter.
Íphiclés, -is, m., _Iphicles_.
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pron., _self, himself, herself, itself,
    themselves_; often to be rendered by _very_.
íra, -ae, f., _anger, wrath_.
íráscor, íráscí, írátus [íra], _be angry_.
írátus, -a, -um [part, of íráscor], _angered, enraged, angry, furious_.
is, ea, id, dem. pron., _this, that; he, she, it, they_.
iste, ista, istud, dem. pron., _that of yours, that_.
ita [is], adv., _in this manner, thus, so_; ita ut, _as_.
Ítalia, -ae, f., _Italy_.
ita-que, adv., _and so, accordingly, therefore_.
iter, itineris [eó], n., _a going, journey, march_; iter facere, _to
    journey, march_.
iterum, adv., _again, a second time_.
Ithaca, -ae, f., _Ithaca_.
iubeó, iubére, iussí, iússus, _bid, order, command_.
iúcundus, -a, -um, _sweet, pleasant_.
iúdex, iúdicis [iús + dícó], m., _judge_.
iugum, -í [iungó], n., _yoke_.
iungó, iungere, iúnxí, iúnctus, _join; yoke, harness_.
Iúnó, -ónis, f., _Juno_.
Iuppiter, Iovis, m., _Jupiter_ or _Jove_.
iús, iúris, n., _right, justice, law_; iús dícere, _to pronounce
    judgment_; iús iúrandum, iúris iúrandí [ger. of iúró, _swear_], _oath_.
iússum, -í [part, of iubeó], n., _order, command_.
iússus, -ús [iubeó], m., _bidding, command_.
iústus, -a, -um [iús], _just_.
iuvenis, -is, m., _young man, youth_.


lábor, lábí, lapsus, _slip, glide, fall_.
labor, -óris, m., _labor, toil_.
labóró, -áre, -áví, -átus [labor], _labor, toil_.
lác, lactis, n., _milk_.
Lacónia, -ae, f., _Laconia_.
lacrima, -ae, f., _tear_.
lacus, -ús, m., _lake_.
laetitia, -ae [laetus, _joyful_], f., _joy_.
lámenta, -órum, n. plur., _lamentation_.
Láomedón, -ontis, m., _Laomedon_.
lapis, -idis, m., _stone_.
laqueus, -í, m., _noose_.
Lárísa, -ae, f., _Larisa_.
lassitúdó, -inis [lassus, _weary_], f., _weariness_.
lateó, -ére, -uí, _lie hid, be concealed_.
latró, -ónis, m., _robber_.
látus, -a, -um, _broad, wide_.
légátus, -í [part. of légó, _depute_], m., _ambassador_.
lénis, -e, _gentle_.
leó, -ónis, m., _lion_.
Lernaeus, -a, -um, _of Lerna_, _Lernean_.
Léthé, -és, f., _Lethe_.
levis, -e, _light, slight_.
leviter [levis], adv., _slightly_.
libenter [libéns, _willing_], adv., _willingly, gladly_.
líberí, -órum [líber, _free_], m. plur., _children_.
líberó, -áre, -áví, -átus [líber, _free_], _set free, free, liberate,
líbertás, -tátis [líber, _free_], f., _freedom, liberty_.
Libya, -ae, f., _Libya, Africa_.
licet, -ére, -uit or -itum est, impers., _is lawful_ or _permitted_.
Lichás, -ae, m., _Lichas_.
lígneus, -a, -um [lígnum], _of wood, wooden_.
lígnum, -í, n., _wood_.
Ligurés, -um, m. plur., _Ligurians_.
Liguria, -ae [Ligurés], f., _Liguria_.
límen, -minis, n., _threshold; door_.
límus, -í, m., _mud_.
linter, lintris, f., _boat, skiff_.
Linus, -í, m., _Linus_.
lítus, lítoris, n., _shore_.
locus, -í, m., plur. loca, -orum, n., _place, situation_.
longé [longus], adv., _far_.
longinquus, -a, -um [longus], _distant, remote_.
longus, -a, -um, _long; tedious_.
loquor, loquí, locútus, _speak_.
lótus, -í, f., _lotus_.
lucrum, -í, n., _gain_.
luctor, -árí, -átus, _wrestle, struggle_.
lúdus, -í, m., _game, sport_.
lúmen, -minis, n., _light_.
lúx, lúcis, f., _light_.


magicus, -a, -um, _magic_.
magis, comp. adv., _more, rather_.
magister, -trí [magis], m., _master_.
mágnificé [mágnificus], adv., _splendidly_.
mágnificentia, -ae [mágnificus], f., _splendor, magnificence_.
mágnificus, -a, -um [mágnus + fació], _splendid, magnificent_.
mágnitúdó, -túdinis [mágnus], f., _greatness, size_.
mágnopere [abl. of mágnum opus], adv., _greatly, very much, exceedingly;
mágnus, -a, -um, _large, big, great, mighty; loud_.
máior, máius, comp. of mágnus.
male [malus], adv., _badly, ill_.
máló, málle, máluí [magis + voló], _wish rather, prefer_.
malum, -í [malus], n., _evil, mischief_.
malus, -a, -um, _bad_.
málus, -í, m., _mast_.
mandó, -dáre, -dáví, -dátus [manus + -dó, _put_], _put in hand, intrust,
    commit; charge, command_.
máne, adv., _in the morning, early in the morning_.
maneó, manére, mánsí, mánsus, _remain_.
mánés, -ium, m. plur., _spirit, shade_.
manus, -ús, f., _hand_.
mare, maris, n., _sea_.
marítus, -í, m., _husband_.
Márs, Mártis, m., _Mars_.
máter, mátris, f., _mother_.
mátrimónium, -í [máter], n., _marriage_; in mátrimónium dúcere, _marry_.
mátúró, -áre, -áví, -átus [mátúrus, _ripe_], _ripen; hasten_.
máximé [máximus], adv., _very greatly, exceedingly, especially_.
máximus, -a, -um, superl. of mágnus.
Médéa, -ae, f., _Medea_.
medicámentum, -í [medicó, _heal_], n., _drug; poison, potion_.
medicína, -ae [medicus, _physician_], f., _art of healing, medicine_.
medius, -a, -um, _mid, middle_.
Medúsa, -ae, f., _Medusa_.
membrum, -í, n., _limb, member_.
memoria, -ae [memor, _remembering_], f., _memory_.
memoró, -áre, -áví, -átus [memor, _remembering_], _remind of, mention_.
mentió, -ónis, f., _mention_.
mercátor, -óris [mercor, _trade_], m., _trader, merchant_.
mercés, mercédis, f., _pay, reward, wages_.
Mercurius, -í, m., _Mercury_.
mergó, mergere, mersí, mersus, _dip, plunge, sink_.
merídiánus, -a, -um [merídiés], _midday, noonday_; merídiánum tempus,
    _midday, noon_.
merídiés, -éí [medius + diés], m., _midday, noon; south_.
meritus, -a, -um [part. of mereó], _deserved, due, just_.
meus, -a, -um [ego, meí], _my, mine_.
míles, mílitis, m., _soldier_.
mílitáris, -e [míles], _military, warlike_; rés mílitáris, _art of war,
mílle, indecl. adj., _a thousand_; mília, -ium, n. plur., _thousands_;
mília passuum, _thousands of paces, miles_.
minae, -árum, f. plur., _threats_.
Minerva, -ae, f., _Minerva_.
minimé [minimus, _least_], adv., _least, very little; by no means, not at
minimum [minimus, _least_], adv., _very little, slightly_.
minitor, -árí, -átus [minae], _threaten_.
Mínós, Mínóis, m., _Minos_.
minus, comp. adv., _less_.
Minyae, -árum, m. plur., _Minyae_.
míráculum, -í [míror], n., _wonder, marvel, miracle_.
míror, -árí, -átus [mírus], _wonder, wonder at_.
mírus, -a, -um, _wonderful, strange_.
misceó, miscére, miscuí, míxtus, _mix, mingle_.
misericordia, -ae [misericors, _pitiful_], f;, _pity, compassion_.
mittó, mittere, mísí, missus, _send_.
modo [modus], adv., _only_.
modus, -í, m., _way, manner_.
moenia, -ium, n. plur., _walls_.
mola, -ae, f., _meal_.
molestia, -ae [molestus, _annoying_], f., _annoyance_.
moneó, -ére, -uí, -itus, _warn_.
móns, montis, m., _mountain_.
mónstró, -áre, -áví, -átus [mónstrum], _point out, show_.
mónstrum, -í, n., _wonder, monster_.
mora, -ae, f., _delay_.
mordeó, mordére, momordí, morsus, _bite_.
morior, morí, mortuus, _die_.
moror, -árí, -átus [mora], _delay, linger, stay_.
mors, mortís [morior], f., _death_.
mortális, -e [mors], _mortal_.
mortifer, -fera, -ferum [mors + feró], _death-bringing, deadly_.
mortuus, -a, -um [part. of _morior_], _dead_.
mós, móris, m., _way, manner, habit, custom_.
moveó, movére, móví, mótus, _move_.
mox, adv., soon.
múgió, -íre, -íví, _low, bellow_.
múgítus, -ús [múgió], m., _lowing, bellowing_.
mulier, mulieris, f., _woman_.
multitúdó, -túdinis [multus], f., _multitude_.
multó [multus], adv., _by much_ or _far, much, far_.
multum, -í [multus], n., _much_.
multum [multus], adv., _much, greatly, far_.
multus, -a, -um, _much, great_; plur., _many_.
múnió, -íre, -íví, -ítus [moenia], _fortify_.
múnus, múneris, n., _service, office, duty; present, gift_.
múrus, -í, m., _wall_.
música, -ae, f., _music_.
mútó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of moveó], _change_.
Mýsia, -ae, f., _Mysia_.


nactus, part. of nancíscor.
nam, conj., _for_.
nam-que, conj., _for_.
nancíscor, nancíscí, nactus, _get, obtain, find_.
nárró, -áre, -áví, -átus, _tell, relate, narrate_.
nató, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of nó, _swim_], _swim, float_.
nátúra, -ae [náscor, _be born_], f., _nature, character_.
nauta, -ae [návis], m., _sailor_.
nauticus, -a, -um [nauta], _naval, nautical_.
návigátió, -ónis [návigó], f., _sailing, navigation, voyage_.
návigó, -áre, -áví, -átus [návis + agó], _sail_.
návis, -is, f., _ship_.
-ne, enclitic introducing a question, untranslatable.
né, adv., _not_; né ... quidem, _not ... even_; conj., _that not, lest_.
nec, see neque.
necesse, indecl. adj., _necessary_.
necó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _put to death, slay, kill_.
neglegó, -legere, -léxí, -léctus [nec + legó, _gather_], _disregard,
negó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _say no_ or _not, deny, refuse_.
negótium, -í [nec + ótium, _leisure_], n., _business, matter; task,
    trouble, difficulty_.
Nemeaeus, -a, -um, _of Nemea, Nemean_.
némó, néminis [ne-, _not_ + homó], m. and f., _no one, nobody_.
nepós, nepótis, m., _grandson_.
Neptúnus, -í, m., _Neptune_.
neque or nec [ne-, _not_ + -que], conj., _and not, nor_; neque ... neque,
    _neither ... nor_; neque enim, _for ... not_.
nervus, -í, m., _sinew, muscle_.
ne-sció, -scíre, -scíví, _not know, be ignorant_; nesció quis, _I know
    not who, some one or other_ (nesció is thus used with other
    interrogative words also).
Nessus, -í, m., _Nessus_.
neu, see néve.
neuter, neutra, neutrum [ne-, _not_ + uter], _neither_.
néve or neu [né + -ve, _or_], conj., _and that not, and not, nor_.
niger, nigra, nigrum, _black_.
nihil, n., indecl., _nothing_.
nisi [ne-, _not_ + sí], conj., _if not, unless_.
nix, nivis, f., _snow_.
noctú [nox], adv., _at_ or _by night_.
nocturnus, -a, -um [nox], _of night, nocturnal_; nocturnum tempus,
nóló, nólle, nóluí [ne-, _not_ + voló], _not wish, be unwilling_.
nómen, -minis [nóscó, _come to know_], n., _name_ (that by which one is
nón, adv., _not_.
nón-dum, adv., _not yet_.
nón-ne, adv., introducing a question to which an affirmative answer is
    expected, _not_?
nón-núllus, -a, -um, _not none, some, several_.
nós, plur. of ego.
noster, -tra, -trum [nós], _our_.
nótus, -a, -um [part. of nóscó, _come to know_], known, well-known,
novem, indecl. adj., _nine_.
novitás, -tátis [novus], f., _newness, novelty_.
novus, -a, -um, _new_; novissimus, _last_.
nox, noctis, f., _night_.
núbés, -is, f., _cloud_.
núdus, -a, -um, _naked, bare_.
núllus, -a, -um [ne-, _not_ + úllus], _not any, none, no_.
num, adv., introducing a question to which a negative answer is expected,
numerus, -í, m., _number_.
nummus, -í, m., _coin_.
numquam [ne-, _not_ + umquam, _ever_], adv., _never_.
nunc, adv., _now_.
núntió, -áre, -áví, -átus [núntius], _report, announce_.
núntius, -í [novus], m., _messenger; message_.
núper [novus], adv., _newly, lately, recently_.
núsquam [ne-, _not_ + úsquam, _anywhere_], adv., _nowhere_.
nympha, -ae, f., _nymph_.


ob, prep. with acc., _on account of, for_; in compounds, _to, against_.
obició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [ob + iació], _throw in the way_ or _to_.
ob-iúrgó, -iúrgáre, -iúrgáví, -iúrgátus, _chide, scold, reproach_.
ob-linó, -linere, -léví, -litus, _daub over, smear_.
oblítus, -a, -um [part. of oblívíscor], _forgetful, unmindful_.
oblívíscor, -lívíscí, -lítus, _forget_.
obscúró, -scúráre, -scúráví, -scúrátus [obscúrus], _darken, hide,
obscúrus, -a, -um, _dark_.
obsecró, -secráre, -secráví, -secrátus, _beseech, entreat_.
ob-seró, -serere, -séví, -situs, _sow, plant; cover, fill_.
obsideó, -sidére, -sédí, -sessus [ob + sedeó], _beset, besiege_.
ob-struó, -struere, -strúxí, -strúctus, _build against, block up_.
ob-testor, -testárí, -testátus, _call to witness; beseech, implore_.
obtineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [ob + teneó], _hold_.
obviam [ob + via], adv., _in the way, opposite, face to face_; obviam
    fierí, _to meet_; obviam íre, _to go to meet_.
occásió, -ónis [occidó, _fall_], f., _chance, opportunity_.
occásus, -ús [occidó, _fall_], m. _setting_.
occídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus [ob + caedó, _cut_], _cut down, kill_.
occupó, -cupáre, -cupáví, -cupátus [ob + capió], _seize; fill_.
occurró, -currere, -currí, -cursus [ob + curró], _run against, meet_.
Oceanus, -í, m., _Oceanus, the ocean_.
oculus, -í, m., _eye_.
ódí, ódisse, used only in tenses of completed action with the force of
    tenses of incomplete action, _hate_.
odium, -í [ódí], n., _hatred_.
odor, -óris, m., _smell, odor_.
Oechalia, -ae, f., _Oechalia_.
Oeneus, -í, m., _Oeneus_.
Oeta, -ae, f., _Oeta_.
offendó, -fendere, -fendí, -fénsus, _offend_.
offeró, offerre, obtulí, oblátus [ob + feró], _bear to, proffer, offer_.
officína, -ae, f., _workshop, smithy_.
officium, -í, n., _service; duty_.
ólim, adv., _once upon a time, once, formerly, of old_.
Olympus, -í, m., _Olympus_.
omittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus [ob + mittó], _let go, neglect,
    disregard, throw away, lose_.
omnínó [omnis], adv., _altogether, wholly, entirely_.
omnis, -e, _all, every_.
oneró, -áre, -áví, -átus [onus, _load_], _load, burden_.
opera, -ae [opus], f., _effort, work, labor_.
opínió, -ónis [opínor, _think_], f., _opinion, expectation; reputation_.
oppidum, -í, n., _town_.
opportúnus, -a, -um, _suitable, seasonable, convenient, opportune_.
opprimó, -primere, -pressí, -pressus [ob + premó], _press against,
    overpower, crush_.
optimus, -a, -um, superl. of bonus.
opus, operis, n., _work, task_.
óráculum, -í [óró], n., _oracle_.
órátió, -ónis [óró], f., _speech_; órátiónem habére, _to deliver an
    oration, speak_.
orbis, -is, m., _circle_; orbis terrae or terrárum, _circle of the earth_
    or _lands, earth, world_.
Orcus, -í, m., _Orcus, under-world_.
órdó, órdinis, m., _arrangement, order, rank_; ex órdine, _in order_.
orior, -írí, -tus, _arise, come forth, spring up_; ortá lúce, _at dawn_.
órnó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _equip, adorn_.
óró, -áre, -áví, -átus [ós], _speak; beg, pray_.
Orpheus, -í, m., _Orpheus_.
ós, óris, n., _mouth_.
ostendó, -tendere, -tendí, -tentus [ob + tendó], _stretch out before,
    show, explain_.
óstium, -í [ós], n., _mouth, doorway, door_.
ovis, -is, f., _sheep_.


pábulum, -í [páscó], n., _food, fodder_.
paene, adv., _almost, nearly_.
palaestra, -ae, f., _wrestling-place, gymnasium_.
pálus, -í, m., _stake_.
palús, -údis, f., _swamp, marsh_.
parátus, -a, -um [part. of paró], _prepared, equipped, ready_.
páreó, -ére, -uí, _obey_.
paró, -áre, -áví, -átus, _make ready, prepare_.
pars, partis, f., _part, side, direction_.
parvus, -a, -um, _little, small_.
páscó, páscere, páví, pástus, _feed_.
passus, -ús [pandó, _stretch]_, m., pace_; mília passuum, see mílle.
pástor, -tóris [páscó], m., _shepherd_.
patefació, -facere, -fécí, -factus [pateó, _be open_ + fació], _throw_,
    or _lay open, open_.
pater, patris, m., _father_.
patior, patí, passus, bear, _suffer, allow_.
patria, -ae [pater], f., _fatherland, country_.
paucí, -ae, -a, plur. adj., _few_.
pauló [paulus, _little]_, adv., _by a little, a little, somewhat_.
paulum [paulus, _little_], adv., _a little, somewhat_.
pavor, -óris [payeó, _be terrified_], m., _terror, panic_.
pectus, pectoris, n., _breast_.
pecúnia, -ae [pecus], f., _money_ (the possession of cattle constituting
    wealth in early times).
pecus, pecoris, n., _herd, flock, cattle_.
pecus, pecudis, f., _head of cattle, beast, sheep, goat_.
Peliás, -ae, m., _Pelias_.
pellis, -is, f., _hide, skin, pelt_.
pelló, pellere, pepulí, pulsus, _drive, drive away, beat, rout_.
pendó, pendere, pependí, pénsus, _weigh out, pay_.
Pénelopé, -és, f., _Penelope_.
per, prep, with ace., _through, by means of_.
percipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [per + capió], _feel_.
percutió, -cutere, -cussí, -cussus [per + quatió], _strike through,
per-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, _lead_ or _bring through, lead,
peregrínus, -í, m., _stranger, foreigner_.
perennis, -e [per + annus], _lasting throughout the year, perennial,
per-eó, -íre, -ii, -itúrus, _pass away, perish_.
per-feró, -ferre, -tulí, -látus, _bear through, bear, endure; weather_.
perfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [per + fació], _do_ or _make through,
per-fló, -fláre, _blow through_ or _over_.
per-fodió, -fodere, -fódí, -fossus, _dig_ or _pierce through, transfix_.
perículum, -í, n., _danger, peril, risk_.
per-lústró, -lústráre, -lústrávi, -lústrátus, _look over, examine,
per-maneó, -manére, -mánsi, -mánsus, _remain_.
perpetuus, -a, -um [per + petó], _continuous, perpetual_; in perpetuum,
    _for all time, forever_.
per-rumpó, -rumpere, -rúpí, -ruptus, _break_ or _burst through, break_.
per-scríbó, -scríbere, -scrípsí, scríptus, _write through_ or _in full,
    describe fully, recount_.
per-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, _follow up, pursue_.
Perseus, -í, m., _Perseus_.
per-solvó, -solvere, -solví, -solútus, _pay completely, pay_.
per-suádeó, -suádére, -suási, -suásus, _persuade, prevail upon,
per-terreó, -terrére, -terrui, -territus, _thoroughly frighten, terrify_.
per-turbó, -turbáre, -turbávi, -turbátus, _greatly disturb, disturb,
    agitate, throw into confusion_.
per-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, _come through, come, arrive, reach_.
pés, pedis, m., _foot_.
petó, -ere, -íví or -ií, -ítus, _seek, ask; attack_.
Phásis, -idis, m., _Phasis_.
Phíneus, -í, m., _Phineus_.
Pholus, -í, m., _Pholus_.
Phrixus, -í, m., _Phrixus_.
pinguis, -e, _fat_.
piscátor, -tóris [piscor, _fish_], m., _fisherman_.
plausus, -ús [plaudó, _clap_], m., _applause_.
plúrés, -a [comp. of multus], plur. adj., _more, many, several_.
plúrimus, -a, -um, superl. of multus.
Plútó, -ónis, m., _Pluto_.
póculum, -í [pótó, _drink_], n., _cup_.
poena, -ae, f., _penalty, punishment_.
poéta, -ae, m., _poet_.
polliceor, -licérí, -licitus, _promise_.
Polydectés, -is, m., _Polydectes_.
Polyphémus, -í, m., _Polyphemus_.
pómum, -í, n., _fruit, apple_.
pondus, ponderis [pendó], n., _weight_.
pónó, pónere, posuí, positus, _place, put_; póní with in and abl., _to be
    placed in, rest_ or _depend on_.
póns, pontis, m., _bridge_.
porcus, -í, m., _pig, hog, swine_.
porta, -ae, f., _gate; door_.
portus, -ús, m., _harbor, haven, port_.
póscó, póscere, popóscí, _ask, demand_.
possideó, -sidére, -sédí, -sessus, _hold, possess_.
possum, posse, potuí [potis, _able_ + sum], _be able, have power, can_.
post, adv., _after, later_; prep. with acc., _after, behind_.
posteá [post], adv., _after this, afterwards_.
posterus, -a, -um [post], _following, next_.
post-quam, conj., _later than, after, when_.
postrémus, -a, -um [superl. of posterus], _last_.
postrídié [posterus + diés], adv., _the day after, the next day_.
postuló, -áre, -áví, -átus, _ask, request, demand_.
potior, -írí, -ítus [potis, _able_], _become master of, get possession
prae-acútus, -a, -um, _sharp at the end, pointed, sharp_.
praebeó, -ére, -uí, -itus [prae, _before_ + habeó], _hold forth, supply,
    furnish, give; show, present, exhibit_.
prae-caveó, -cavére, -cáví, -cautus, _beware beforehand, beware, be on
    one's guard_.
praecipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [prae, _before_ + capió], _take
    beforehand, anticipate; order, charge_.
praecipué [praecipuus, _especial_], adv., _especially_.
prae-clárus, -clára, -clárum, _very bright; splendid, remarkable,
praeda, -ae, f., _booty, spoil, plunder_.
prae-dícó, -dícere, -díxí, -dictus, _say beforehand, foretell, predict_.
praedor, -árí, -átus [praeda], _plunder_.
praemium, -í, n., _reward_.
praeséns, -sentis [part. of praesum], adj., _present, immediate,
praesentia, -ae [praeséns], f., _the present_.
praeses, praesidis, m., _protector_.
praesidium, -í [praeses], n., _protection; guard, escort_.
praestáns, -stantis [part. of praestó], adj., _preëminent, remarkable_.
prae-stó, -stáre, -stití, -stitus, _stand in front; show_.
prae-sum, -esse, -fuí, _be before, preside over, have charge of,
praeter [prae, _before_], prep. with acc., _before, past, by; besides,
praetereá [praeter], adv., _besides this, besides, moreover_.
praeter-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, _pass by_.
precés, -um, f. plur., _prayer, entreaty_.
prehendó, -hendere, -hendí, -hénsus, _seize_.
premó, premere, pressí, pressus, _press, check, restrain_.
pretium, -í, n., _price, charge_.
prímó [prímus], adv., _at first_.
prímum [prímus], adv., _first, in the first place_.
prímus, -a, -um [superl. from pró], _first, foremost_.
prístinus, -a, -um [prius], _former_.
prius [prior, _former_], adv., _before, first_.
prius-quam, conj., _before than, sooner than, before_.
pró, prep. with abl., _before, in front of; for, in behalf of; for, as;
    in return for, for_.
procul, adv., _at_ or _from a distance, far_.
proelium, -í, n., _battle, combat_; proelium committere, _to join
profectió, -ónis [proficíscor], f., _departure, start_.
proficíscor, -ficíscí, -fectus [prófició, _make progress_], set out,
    depart, start, march_.
prógredior, -gredí, -gressus [pró + gradior], _go forward, advance_.
prohibeó, -hibére, -hibuí, -hibitus [pró + habeó], _hold back, prevent,
próició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [pró + iació], _throw forth_ or _down,
    cast away, throw_.
pró-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, _send_ or _put forth, promise_.
prómó, prómere, prómpsí, prómptus [pró + emó], _take_ or _bring out,
prómunturium, -í, n., _headland, promontory_.
properó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _hasten_.
pró-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, _put_ or _set before, offer,
    propose; set forth, say_.
propter, prep. with acc., _on account of, because of_.
próra, -ae, f., _prow, bow_.
pró-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, _follow forward, follow_.
Próserpina, -ae, f., _Proserpina, Proserpine_.
pró-sternó, -sternere, -stráví, -strátus, _strew_ or _spread before,
    throw_ or _knock down_.
pró-sum, pródesse, prófuí, _be of advantage, profit, avail, assist_.
pró-vehó, -vehere, -vexí, -vectus, _carry forward_.
pró-vocó, -vocáre, -vocáví, -vocátus, _call forth_ or _out, challenge_.
proximus, -a, -um [superl. from prope, _near_], _nearest, next_.
prúdentia, -ae [prúdéns, _prudent_], f., _prudence_.
puella, -ae [puer], f., _girl, maiden_.
puer, puerí, m., _boy_.
pueritia, -ae [puer], f., _boyhood_.
púgna, -ae, f., _fighting, battle, combat_.
púgnó, -áre, -áví, -átus [púgna], _fight_.
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, _beautiful_.
pulsó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of pelló], _push_ or _strike against,
    knock, knock at_.
punctum, -í [pungó, _prick_], n., _point, instant, moment_.
púrgó, -áre, -áví, -átus [púrus, _clean_ + agó], _make clean, clean,
putó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _think_.
Pýthia, -ae, f., _Pythia_.


quá [quí], adv., _in which place, where_.
quaeró, quaerere, quaesíví, quaesítus, _seek; ask, inquire_.
quális, -e, _of what sort? what kind of_?
quam [quis and quí], adv., _how? as; than_; with superl., _as ... as
quam-quam, conj., _however much, although_.
quantum [quantus], adv., _how much? how_?
quantus, -a, -um, _how great_ or _much_?
quartus, -a, -um [quattuor], _fourth_.
quasi [quí + sí], conj., _as if_.
quattuor, indecl. adj., _four_.
-que, enclitic conj., _and_.
quí, quae, quod, rel. pron., _who, which_.
quí, quae, quod, interrog. pron. adj., _what_?
quídam, quaedam, quoddam, indef. pron., _a certain, certain_.
quidem, adv., _in fact, indeed, certainly_; né ... quidem, _not ...
quiés, quiétis, f., _rest, repose_.
quín, conj., _so that ... not, but that, but_.
quínquágintá [quínque, _five_], indecl. adj., _fifty_.
quíntus, -a, -um [quínque, _five_], _fifth_.
quis, quid, interrog. pron., _who? which? what_?
quis, qua, quid, indef. pron., _any one, anybody, anything, some one,
    somebody, something_.
quis-nam, quaenam, quidnam, interrog. pron., _who, which_, or _what,
    pray? who? which? what_?
quis-quam, quicquam, indef. pron., _any one, anything_.
quis-que, quaeque, quidque, indef. pron., _each_.
quó [quis and quí], adv., _to what place? whither? to which place,
    whither; for which reason, wherefore, therefore_; quó úsque, _till
    when? how long_?
quod [quí], conj., _that, in that, because_.
quoniam [cum + iam], conj., _since now, since_.
quoque [quí + -que], adv., _also_.
quotannís [quot, _how many_ + annus], adv., _every year, yearly,
quotiéns [quot, _how many_, adv., _as often as_.


rámus, -í, m., _branch, bough_.
rapió, -ere, -uí, -tus, _seize, snatch_.
ratió, -ónis [reor, _think_], f., plan, means, method, manner_.
recipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [re- + capió], _take_ or _get back,
    recover_; sé recipere, _to betake oneself, withdraw; to collect
    oneself, recover_.
re-creó, -creáre, -creáví, -creátus, _make anew, renew, refresh_.
réctus, -a, -um [part. of regó, _direct_], _direct, straight_.
re-cumbó, -cumbere, -cubuí, _lie back_ or _down_.
recuperó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _recover_.
recúsó, -cúsáre, -cúsáví, -cúsátus [re- + causa], _give a reason against,
reddó, -dere, -didí, -ditus [re- + dó], _give back, return, restore;
redeó, -íre, -ií, -itus [re- + eó], _go back, return_.
redintegró, -integráre, -integráví, -integrátus [re- + integró, _make
    whole_], _make whole again, renew_.
reditus, -ús [redeó], m., _return_.
re-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, _lead_ or _bring back; restore_.
re-feró, referre, rettulí, relátus, _bring_ or _carry back, return_;
    pedem referre, _to draw back, retire, retreat_; grátiam referre,
    see grátia.
refició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [re- + fació], _make anew, renew,
re-fugió, -fugere, -fúgí, _flee back, run away, retreat_.
re-fulgeó, -fulgére, -fulsí, _flash back, shine_.
régia, -ae [régius, _royal_], f., _palace_.
régína, -ae [réx], f., _queen_.
regió, -ónis [regó, _direct_], f., _direction; country, region_.
régnó, -áre, -áví, -átus [régnum], _reign, rule_.
régnum, -í [réx], n., _royal power, rule, throne; kingdom, realm_.
regredior, -gredí, -gressus [re- + gradior], _go back, return_.
re-linquó, -linquere, -líquí, -lictus, _leave behind, leave_.
reliquus, -a, -um [relinquó], _left, the remaining, the other, the rest
remedium, -í [re- + medeor, _heal_], n., _remedy_.
rémigó, -áre [rémex, _rower_], _row_.
re-moveó, -movére, -móví, -mótus, _move back, remove_.
rémus, -í, m., _oar_.
re-núntió, -núntiáre, -núntiáví, -núntiátus, _bring back word, report,
re-pelló, repellere, reppulí, repulsus, _drive back_ or _away, repulse,
reperió, reperíre, repperí, repertus, _find, discover_.
repertor, -óris [reperió], m., _discoverer, inventor_.
re-pleó, -plére, -pléví, -plétus, _fill again_ or _up, fill_.
re-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, _put_ or _set back; store up_ or
re-portó, -portáre, -portáví, -portátus, _carry_ or _bring back_.
re-púgnó, -púgnáre, -púgnáví, -púgnátus, _fight against, struggle,
rés, reí, f., _thing, matter, affair, circumstance, situation_; ré vérá,
    _in truth, in fact, really_.
re-sistó, -sistere, -stití, _stand back, resist_.
re-spíró, -spíráre, -spíráví, -spírátus, _breathe back_ or _out,
re-spondeó, -spondére, -spondí, -spónsus, _reply, answer_.
respónsum, -í [part. of respondeó], n., _reply, answer, response_.
restituó, -stituere, -stituí, -stitútus [re- + statuó], _set up again,
    put back, restore_.
retineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [re- + teneó], _hold_ or _keep back,
    keep, restrain; hold fast_.
revertor, -vertí, -versus, perf. act. -vertí [re- + vertó], _turn back,
réx, régis [regó, _direct_], m., _king_.
Rhadamanthus, -í, m., _Rhadamanthus_.
rídeó, rídére, rísí, rísus, _laugh_.
rípa, -ae, f., _bank_.
ríte [rítus, _rite]_, adv., _duly, fitly_.
róbur, róboris, n., _oak_.
rogó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _ask_.
rogus, -í, m., _funeral pile, pyre_.
Róma, -ae, f., _Rome_.
róstrum, -í [ródó, _gnaw_], n., _beak_.
ruó, -ere, -í, -itúrus, _rush_.
rúpés, -is, f., _rock, cliff; reef_.
rúrsus [for reversus, part, of revertor], adv., _again_.


saccus, -í, m., _bag, sack_.
sacerdós, -dótis [sacer, _holy_ + dó], m. and f., _priest, priestess_.
sacrificium, -í [sacrifice], n., _sacrifice_.
sacrificó, -áre, -áví, -átus [sacer, _holy_ + fació], _sacrifice_.
saepe, adv., _often, frequently_.
saevus, -a, -um, _fierce, savage_.
sagitta, -ae, f., _arrow_.
sál, salis, m., _salt_.
Salmydéssus, -í, m., _Salmydessus_.
salsus, -a, -um [sál], _salted, salt_.
salús, salútis [salvus, _safe_], f., _safety, deliverance, escape_.
sánctus, -a, -um [part, of sanció, _make sacred_], _consecrated, sacred_.
sanguis, sanguinis, m., _blood_.
sánitás, -tátis [sánus, _sound_], f., _soundness; right reason, sanity_.
satis, adv., _enough, sufficiently_.
saxum, -í, n., _rock, stone_.
scapha, -ae, f., _boat, skiff_.
scelus, sceleris, n., _wickedness, crime_.
scientia, -ae [sció], f., _knowledge, skill_.
sció, -íre, -íví, -ítus, _know_.
scríbó, scríbere, scrípsí, scríptus, _write_.
scútum, -í, n., _shield_.
sé-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, _go apart, withdraw_.
secundus, -a, -um [sequor], _following, favorable_.
sed, conj., _but_.
sedeó, sedére, sédí, sessus, _sit_.
sédés, -is [sedeó], f., _seat, abode_.
sémentis, -is [semen, _seed_], f., _seeding, sowing_.
semper, adv., _always_.
senex, senis, m., _old man_.
sententia, -ae [sentió], f., _opinion; purpose_.
sentió, sentíre, sénsí, sénsus, _perceive, feel_.
sepelió, sepelíre, sepelíví, sepultus, _bury_.
septimus, -a, -um [septem, _seven_],_seventh_.
sepultúra, -ae [sepelió], f., _burial_.
sequor, sequí, secútus, _follow_.
Seríphus, -í, f., _Seriphos_.
sermó, -ónis [seró, _interweave_], m., _conversation, talk, speech_.
seró, serere, séví, satus, _sow, plant_.
serpéns, -entis [part, of serpó, _crawl_], f., _serpent_.
servió, -ire, -íví, -ítus [servus], _be subject to, serve_.
servitús, -tútis [servus], f., _slavery, servitude_.
servó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _save, preserve_.
servus, -í, m., _slave, servant_.
sí, conj., _if_.
síc, adv., _so, thus_.
Sicilia, -ae, f., _Sicily_.
sígnum, -í, n., _sign, signal_.
silva, -ae, f., _wood, forest_.
simul, adv., _at the same time_; simul atque or ac, _as soon as_.
sine, prep. with abl., _without_.
sinister, -tra, -trum, _left_.
sinistra, -ae [sinister], f., _left hand_ (manus understood).
sinus, -ús, m., _bosom, lap_.
situs, -a, -um [part. of sinó], _placed, situated_.
sí-ve or seu, conj., _or if_; síve ... síve, _whether ... or_.
socius, -í [sequor], m., _companion, comrade, ally_.
sól, sólis, m., _sun_.
solium, -í [sedeó], n., _seat, throne_.
sollicitúdó, -túdinis [sollicitus], f., _anxiety, care, apprehension_.
sollicitus, -a, -um, _troubled, anxious_.
sólus, -a, -um, _alone_.
solvó, solvere, solví, solútus, _loosen, unbind, release; pay_; with or
    without návem, _cast off, set sail, put to sea_.
somnus, -í, m., _sleep, drowsiness_.
sonitus, -ús [sonó, _sound_], m. _sound, noise_.
sonórus, -a, -um [sonó, _sound_], _sounding, loud, noisy_.
soror, -óris, f., _sister_.
sors, sortis, f., _lot_.
sortior, -írí, -ítus [sors], _cast_ or _draw lots_.
spargó, spargere, sparsí, sparsus, _scatter, sprinkle_.
spatium, -í, n., _space, interval; space of time, time_.
speciés, -éí [speció, _look_], f., _sight, appearance, shape_.
spectátor, -óris [spectó], m., _looker-on, spectator_.
spectó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of speció, _look_], _look at_ or _on_.
speculum, -í [speció, _look_], n., _looking-glass, mirror_.
spélunca, -ae, f., _cave, cavern_.
spernó, spernere, spréví, sprétus, _despise, scorn_.
spéró, -áre, -áví, -átus [spés], _hope_.
spés, speí, f., _hope_.
sponte, f. abl. sing., modified by meá, tuá, suá, _of one's own accord,
squálor, -óris [squáleó, _be dirty_], m., _dirt, filth_.
stabulum, -í [stó], n., _standing-place, stall, stable, inclosure_.
statim [stó], adv., _on the spot, forthwith, at once, immediately_.
statuó, statuere, statuí, statútus [stó], _cause to stand; decide,
stípendium, -í, n., _tax, tribute_.
stó, stáre, stetí, status, _stand_.
stringó, stringere, strinxí, strictus, _draw, unsheathe_.
studeó, -ére, -uí, _be eager, give attention, apply oneself_.
studiósus, -a, -um [studium], _eager, diligent, studious_.
studium, -í [studeó], n., _eagerness, zeal; study, pursuit_.
stupeó, -ére, -uí, _be stunned, astounded_, or _amazed_.
Stymphálus, -í, m., _Stymphalus_.
Stymphális, -idis [Stymphálus], adj., _of Stymphalus, Stymphalian_.
Styx, Stygis, f., _Styx_.
suávis, -e, _sweet, pleasant_.
sub, prep. with acc. and abl., _under_; sub vesperum, _towards evening_.
sub-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, _put under, apply_.
sub-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, _draw up, beach_.
sub-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, _go under; undergo, submit to, sustain, bear,
subició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [sub + iació], _throw_ or _place under_.
subitó [subitus, _unexpected_], adv., _unexpectedly, suddenly_.
sub-levó, -leváre, -leváví, -levátus, _lift from beneath, lift, raise_.
sub-mergó, -mergere, -mersí, -mersus, _plunge under, sink, overwhelm_.
subsidium, -í [sub + sedeó], n., _reserve, reinforcement, support, help_.
succédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus [sub + cédó], _go_ or _come under,
    follow after, succeed_.
succendó, -cendere, -cendí, -cénsus, _kindle beneath, set on fire_.
succídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus [sub + caedó], _cut below_ or _down_.
súcus, -í, m., _juice_.
suí, sibi, sé or sésé, reflexive pron., _himself, herself, itself,
sum, esse, fuí, futúrus, _be_.
summus, -a, -um [superl. of superus, _upper_], _uppermost, highest,
súmó, súmere, súmpsí, súmptus [sub + emó], _take under_ or _up, take_;
    poenam súmere, _to exact_ or _inflict punishment_.
superior, -ius [comp. of superus, _upper_], adj., _higher; former,
    previous, preceding_.
superó, -áre, -áví, -átus [superus, _upper_], _overcome, defeat,
super-sum, -esse, -fuí, _be over_ or _left, remain_.
supplicium, -í [supplex, _kneeling_], n., _punishment, torture_.
suppónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus [sub + pónó], _place_ or _put under_.
suprá [superus, _upper_], adv. and prep. with acc., _above, before_.
suprémus, -a, -um [superl. of superus, _upper_], _highest, last_.
suscipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [sub + capió], _undertake_.
suspendó, -pendere, -pendí, -pénsus [sub + pendó], _hang up, hang_.
suspíció, -ónis [suspició, _look askance at_], f., _suspicion_.
suspicor, -spicárí, -spicátus [suspició, _look askance at_], _suspect_.
sustineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [sub + teneó], _hold_ or _bear up,
    sustain, withstand_.
suus, -a, -um [suí], _his, her, its_, or _their own; his, her, its,
Symplégadés, -um, f. plur., _the Symplegades_.


taceó, -ére, -uí, -itus, _be silent_.
tacitus, -a, -um [part. of taceó], _silent_.
Taenarus, -í, m., _Taenarus_.
tálária, -ium [tálus, _ankle_], n. plur., _winged shoes_.
tális, -e, _such_.
tam, adv., _so_.
tamen, adv., _however, yet, nevertheless_.
tandem, adv., _at length_ or _last, finally_.
tangó, tangere, tetigí, táctus, _touch_.
tantum [tantus], adv., _so much_ or _far, only_.
tantus, -a, -um, _so great_ or _much_.
Tartarus, -í, m., _Tartarus_.
taurus, -í, m., _bull_.
tegó, tegere, téxí, téctus, _cover_.
télum, -í, n., _missile, spear, weapon_.
temeré, adv., _rashly_.
tempestás, -tátis [tempus], f., _weather; storm, tempest_.
templum, -í, n., _sanctuary, temple_.
temptó, -áre, -áví, -átus, _try, attempt_.
tempus, temporis, n., _time, season_.
teneó, -ére, -uí, -tus, _hold, keep; hold back, restrain, stop_.
tenuis, -e, _thin_.
tergum, -í, n., _back_.
terra, -ae, f., _land, earth_.
terreó, -ére, -uí, -itus, _frighten, terrify_.
terribilis, -e [terreó], _dreadful, terrible_.
terror, -óris [terreó], m., _terror, fright_.
tertium [tertius], adv., _the_ or _a third time_.
tertius, -a, -um [trés], _third_.
texó, -ere, -uí, -tus, _weave_.
Thébae, -árum, f. plur., _Thebes_.
Thébání, -órum [Thébae], m. plur., _Thebans_.
Thermódón, -ontis, m., _Thermodon_.
Théseus, -í, m., _Theseus_.
Thessalia, -ae, f., _Thessaly_.
Thrácia, -ae, f., _Thrace_.
Tiberis, -is, m., _Tiber_.
timeó, -ére, -uí, _fear_.
timor, -óris [timeó], m., _fear_.
tingó, tingere, tinxí, tinctus, _wet, soak, dye_.
Tíryns, Tírynthis, f., _Tiryns_.
tolló, tollere, sustulí, sublátus, _lift, raise; take away, remove_;
    ancorás tollere, _to weigh anchor_.
torqueó, torquére, torsí, tortus, _turn_.
tótus, -a, -um, _all the, the whole_ or _entire_.
tráctó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of trahó], _handle, touch, feel_.
trádó, -dere, -didí, -ditus [trans + do], _give across, over_, or _up,
    deliver; hand down, relate, report_.
trádúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus [tráns + dúcó], _lead across_.
trahó, trahere, tráxí, tráctus, _draw, drag_.
tráició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [tráns + iació], _throw across, strike
    through, pierce_.
tráiectus, -ús [tráició], m., _crossing over, passage_.
tránó, -náre, -náví [tráns + nó, _swim_], _swim across_ or _over_.
tranquillitás, -tátis [tranquillus], f., _calm_.
tranquillus, -a, -um, _calm_.
tráns, prep. with acc., _across, over_.
tráns-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, _go across_ or _over, cross_.
tráns-fígó, -fígere, -fíxí, -fíxus, _thrust_ or _pierce through,
tráns-portó, -portáre, -portáví, -portátus, _carry across_ or _over,
tráns-vehó, -vehere, -vexí, -vectus, _carry across_ or _over_.
trés, tria, plur. adj., _three_.
tribútum, -í [part. of tribuó, _contribute_], n., _contribution,
trístitia, -ae [trístis, _sad_], f., _sadness_.
Tróia, -ae, f., _Troy_.
Tróiání, -órum [Tróia], m. plur., _Trojans_.
tú, tuí, pers. pron., _thou, you_.
tum, adv., _then, at that time_.
turbó, -áre, -áví, -átus [turba, _confusion_], _confuse, throw into
    disorder, disturb, trouble_.
turbó, turbinis [turbó], m., _whirlwind, hurricane_.
turpis, -e, _disgraceful_.
tútus, -a, -um [part. of tueor, _watch over_], _safe_.
tuus, -a, -um [tú], _thy, thine, your_.


ubi, adv., _where_; conj., _when_.
ulcíscor, ulcíscí, ultus, _avenge_.
úllus, -a, -um, _any_.
últerior, -ius [comp. from últrá, _beyond_], adj., _farther_.
Ulixés, -is, m., _Ulysses_.
umbra, -ae, f., _shadow, shade_.
umerus, -í, m., _shoulder_.
umquam, adv., _ever_.
unda, -ae, f., _wave_.
unde, adv., _whence_.
úndecimus, -a, -um [úndecim, _eleven_], _eleventh_.
undique [unde + -que], adv., _from_ or _on all sides_.
ungó, ungere, únxí, únctus, _smear, anoint_.
unguentum, -í [ungó], n., _ointment_.
úniversus, -a, -um [únus + vertó], _all together, whole, entire, all_.
únus, -a, -um, _one; only, alone_.
urbs, urbis, f., _city_.
úró, úrere, ússí, ústus, _burn_.
úsque, adv., _all the time_; úsque ad, _as far as, until_; quó úsque,
    see quó.
úsus, -ús [útor], m., _use; experience_.
ut, conj., _as; when; that_; ita ut, _as_.
uter, utra, utrum, _which_? of two.
úter, útris, m., _wine-skin_.
uter-que, utraque, utrumque, _each, either, both_.
útor, útí, úsus, _use_.
utrimque [uterque], adv., _on either side_ or _both sides_.
uxor, -óris, f., _wife_.


vacuus, -a, -um [vacó, _be empty_], _empty_.
valeó, -ére, -uí, -itúrus, _be strong_ or _effectual, have effect,
validus, -a, -um [valeó], _strong_.
vallis, -is, f., _valley_.
varius, -a, -um, _various_.
vás, vásis, n., plur. vása, -órum, _vessel_.
vástó, -áre, -áví, -átus [vástus], _lay waste_.
vástus, -a, -um, _waste, huge, enormous, vast_.
vehementer [veheméns, _violent_], adv., _violently, vehemently;
    earnestly; exceedingly, greatly_.
vehó, vehere, vexí, vectus, _carry_.
vellus, velleris, n., _fleece_.
véló, -áre, -áví, -átus [vélum, _veil_], _veil, cover_.
vel-ut, _even_ or _just as, as_.
vénátió, -ónis [vénor, _hunt_], f., _hunting_.
venénum, -í, n., _poison_.
venió, veníre, véní, ventus, _come_.
venter, ventris, m., _belly_.
ventus, -í, m., _wind_.
verbum, -í, n., _word_.
vereor, -érí, -itus, _fear_.
véró [vérus], adv., _in truth, indeed; however_.
versor, -árí, -átus [freq. of vertó], _keep turning, be busy_ or
    _employed, be_.
vertó, vertere, vertí, versus, _turn_.
vérus, -a, -um, _true_; ré vérá, _in truth, in fact_.
véscor, -í, _feed on, eat_.
vesper, vesperí, m., _evening_.
vester, -tra, -trum [vós], _your_.
vestígium, -í [vestígó, _track_], n., _track, foot-print_.
vestis, -is, f., _clothing, dress, robe_.
vestítus, -ús [vestió, _clothe_], m., _clothing_.
via, -ae, f., _road, way_.
viátor, -tóris [via], m., _wayfarer, traveler_.
victima, -ae [vincó, _overcome_], f., _victim_.
victória, -ae [vincó, _overcome_], f., _victory_.
víctus, -ús [vívó], m., _sustenance, food_.
vícus, -í, m., _village_.
videó, vidére, vídí, vísus, _see; _ pass., _seem_.
vigilia, -ae [vigil, _awake_], f., _watch_.
vígintí, indecl. adj., _twenty_.
vílla, -ae, f., _country-house, villa_.
vímen, -minis, n., _osier_.
vinció, vincíre, vinxí, vinctus, _bind_.
vinculum, -í [vinció], n., _bond, chain_.
vínum, -í, n., _wine_.
vir, virí, m., _man_.
virgó, virginis, f., _maiden_.
virtús, -tútis [vir], f., _manliness, courage, bravery_.
vís, vís, f., _violence, force; virtue, potency, efficacy_; plur. vírés,
    -ium, _strength_; omnibus víribus, _with all one's strength, with
    might and main_.
vísus, -ús [videó], m., _sight_.
víta, -ae [vívó], f., _life_.
vító, -áre, -áví, -átus, _avoid, escape_.
vívó, vívere, víxí, víctus, _live_.
vívus, -a, -um [vívó], _alive, living_.
vix, adv., _with difficulty, scarcely, hardly, barely_.
vocó, -áre, -áví, -átus [vóx], _call, summon_.
Volcánus, -í, m., _Vulcan_.
voló, -áre, -áví, -átúrus, _fly_.
voló, velle, voluí, _wish_.
volucris, -is [voló], f., _bird_.
voluntás, -tátis [voló], f., _wish, will_.
voluptás, -tátis [voló], f., _pleasure_.
vós, plur. of tú.
voró, -áre, -áví, -átus, _swallow whole, devour_.
vóx, vócis, f., _voice; word_.
vulneró, -áre, -áví, -átus [vulnus], _wound_.
vulnus, vulneris, n., _wound_.


Zephyrus, -í, m., _Zephyrus, the west wind_.
Zétés, -ae, m., _Zetes_.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Ritchie's Fabulae Faciles: A First Latin Reader" ***

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