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Title: Amiens Before and During the War
Author: Cie, Michelin &
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                     MICHELIN'S ILLUSTRATED GUIDES
                   TO THE BATTLE-FIELDS (1914-1918)

                                AMIENS

                       BEFORE AND DURING THE WAR

                            [Illustration]

                             Published in:

             FRANCE: by MICHELIN & Cie., Clermont-Ferrand.

            The BRITISH ISLES: by MICHELIN TYRE Co., Ltd.,
                     81, Fulham Road, London, S.W.

       The U.S.A. : by MICHELIN TIRE Co., Milltown, New Jersey.

Hotels and Motor-Agents

at AMIENS

Information extracted from the MICHELIN GUIDE (1919)[A]

 [A] _The above information dates from, March 1st, 1919, and may no
 longer be exact when it meets the reader's eye. Tourists are therefore
 recommended to consult the latest edition of the "Michelin Guide to
 France" (English or French), before setting out on the tour described
 in this volume._

Key to Arbitrary Signs

  [Symbol 2 Hotels] Comfortable hotels, with modern
  or modernised installation.
  [Symbol Hotel] Well-managed hotels.
  [=CC=] Central Heating.
  [=L=] Electric Light.
  [=B=] Bath-room.
  [=WC=] Modern W. C.'s
  [=T=] 104 Telephone Number.
  Gar. [=6=]          {Accommodation for automobiles,
  Shed [=8=]          {and the number
  Shelter [=10=]      {of cars which can be
  Court [=20=]        {accommodated.
  ext. Outside.
                           {Depôt for 'bouteilles
  =Compressed Air=    {d'air Michelin' for
                           {inflation of tyres.
  [Symbol Wrench] Repair shop.
  _Agt de_ Manufacturer's agent.
  [=3=] Garage and number of cars it
  will hold.
  [=U=] Inspection pit.
  [=E=] Petrol can be obtained here.
  [=E"=] Electric plant where accumulators
  may be recharged.
  [=A-A=] Agent of "Automobile Association"
  of England.

HOTELS

[Symbol 2 Hotels] du Rhin, _4, rue de Noyon_, [=CC=] [=L=] [=B=] [=WC=]
Shelter [=8=] [=U=] [=T=] =44=. [Symbol 2 Hotels] Belfort-Hôtel, _42,
rue de Noyon_, Lift [=CC=] [=L=] [=B=] [=WC=] Gar. [=6=] [=T=] =649=.
[Symbol 2 Hotels] de l'Univers, _2, rue de Noyon_, [=CC=] [=L=] [=B=]
[=WC=] Shed ext. [=8=] [=U=] [=T=] =2-51=. [Symbol 1 Hotels] de la Paix,
_15, rue Duméril_, [=CC=] [=L=] [=B=] [=WC=] Shelter [=20=] [=U=]
[=T=]=9-21=. [Symbol 1 Hotels] de l'Ecu de France, _51, place
René-Goblet_, [=L=] [=WC=] Shed [=4=] Court [=6=] [=U=] [=T=] =3-37=.

MOTOR-AGENTS

[Symbol Wrench] =STOCK MICHELIN= (=Compressed Air=) =Garage Victor=, _12
et 14, esplanade Noyon_. _Agt de_: De Dion. [=40=] [=U=] [=E=] [=T=]
=9-36=.

--=STOCK MICHELIN= (=Compressed Air=) =Grand Garage de Picardie=
(=Lucien Corroyer=), _16-24, rue Jules-Barni_. _Agt de_: Panhard,
Brasier, Peugeot, Berliet, Delage. [=70=] =7= boxes [=U=] [=E=] [=E"=]
[=A-A=] [=T=] =3-16=.

--=STOCK MICHELIN= (=Compressed Air=) =Grand Garage de la Gare du Nord=
(=Roy et Sauvage=), _95, boulevard Alsace-Lorraine_ (_opposite the Gare
du Nord_), [=40=] =6= boxes [=U=] [=E=] [=E"=] [=T=] =433=.

--Hirondart, _11-18, rue Cardon_, [=12=] [=U=] [=E=] [=E"=] [=T=] =723=.

--Labare, _183, route de Rouen_, [=10=] [=U=] [=E=].

--Robart (Henri), _35, rue des Jacobins_. _Agt de_: Renault. [=8=] [=U=]
[=E=].

--F. Rabeuf, _26, route de Paris_. [=10=][=U=][=E=].

[Illustration]

=THE MICHELIN TOURING OFFICES at: 99, Boulevard Pereire, PARIS, and 81,
Fulham Road, Chelsea, LONDON. S.W. 3, will be pleased to furnish
motorists with advice and Information, free of charge.=

=_Special itineraries free, on request._=

[Illustration]

[Illustration:

The

MICHELIN Maps

_Invaluable to Motorists & Tourists._

FRANCE.

(_Scale--1:200,000_)

Published in 47 Sections.

Beautifully printed in Five Colours.

The BRITISH ISLES.

(_Scale 3.15 miles to the inch._)

Published in 31 Sections. Beautifully engraved and printed in six
colours.

=Price of Maps (English or French) per Section:=

On Paper--=1/-= or post free =1/1½= On Canvas--=2/-= " " =2/2=

MICHELIN TYRE CO., 81, Fulham Rd., S.W. 3]


The "Michelin Wheel"

BEST of all detachable wheels because the least complicated

[Illustration]

_Elegant_

It embellishes even the finest coachwork.

_Simple_

It is detachable at the hub and fixed by six bolts only.

_Strong_

The only wheel which held out on all fronts during the War.

_Practical_

Can be replaced in 3 minutes by _anybody_ and cleaned still quicker.

It prolongs the life of tyres by cooling them.

AND THE CHEAPEST


                               IN MEMORY
                       OF THE MICHELIN EMPLOYEES
                    AND WORKMEN WHO DIED GLORIOUSLY
                           FOR THEIR COUNTRY

                                AMIENS

                       BEFORE AND DURING THE WAR

                   Copyright 1919 by Michelin & Cie.

_All rights of translation, adaptation or reproduction (in part or whole)
                      reserved in all countries._

[Illustration: PANORAMA OF AMIENS.]


ORIGIN

In the days of the Gauls, Amiens, then known as Samarobriva, or "Bridge
over the Somme," was the capital of the Ambiani, a tribe of Belgian
origin. Later it passed under Roman domination, and in the fifth century
under that of the Franks. Christianity was first preached there at the
beginning of the fourth century, by St. Firmin, first bishop and martyr
of Amiens. After the death of Charlemagne, the town became the property
of the counts and bishops. The latter were unable to defend it against
the Normans, who ravaged it on several occasions. In 1185, it was
annexed to the royal dominions, under Philippe Auguste. On account of
its position, between Paris and the sea, Amiens acquired great
importance at that time, and became the store-house for all the goods
sent down the river Somme for distribution over the whole of northern
France. The manufacture of cloth and linen, and the preparation of
"woad" (vegetable dye-stuff used on a very large scale in the Middle
Ages) caused Amiens to become as rich and flourishing as the Flemish
towns.


BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Built on the Somme, at the confluence of that river with its
tributaries, the Avre and the Selle, and at the junction of nine
different railways, Amiens is divided, topographically, into three
parts.

To the south, is the higher or new town, bounded by two lines of
boulevards planted with fine chestnut and linden trees, and occupying
the site of the ancient ramparts. Between this double belt, rise the
suburbs of Noyon, Henri-Ville, and Beauvais, with their straight
streets, handsome mansions, and brick-built residences.

In the centre, extending as far as the river Somme, is the business part
of the town, containing the shops, public buildings, and ancient
monuments.

On the right bank, from the Somme to the lateral canal, which describes
a large semi-circle between the "ports d'Amont et d'Aval," lies old
Amiens or the lower town, with its narrow winding streets, wooden
houses, workshops and factories, situated between the many arms of the
river.

This quarter is dominated by the ancient citadel, and prolonged by the
new suburbs of St. Maurice and St. Pierre, where the working population
of the spinning mills and factories lives.


AMIENS DURING THE WAR

Twice during the War, the strategical importance of Amiens caused it to
become the objective of the German armies.

[Illustration: GERMAN FOOT-SOLDIERS ENTERING AMIENS.]


How the Germans occupied Amiens in 1914

After the battle of Charleroi, and in consequence of von Kluck's
manifest intention to outflank the left wing of the retreating Allies,
Amiens became threatened.

At that time a group of divisions under General d'Amade, comprising the
81st, 82nd, 84th, and 88th territorials, and the 61st and 62nd reserves,
was stationed between Dunkirk and Mauberge, with orders to check enemy
cavalry raids.

However, the front allotted to these troops was so long that they formed
merely a thin curtain, which was obliged to retire before the approach
of the first German army.

Amiens was then occupied by Moroccan troops, which were hurriedly
despatched in the direction of Comon and Villers-Bretonneux, to organise
defensive positions.

General d'Amade arrived on August 27th.

[Illustration: "NACH PARIS" GERMAN FIELD KITCHEN.]

His territorial divisions were sent by train to a point below the town,
with orders to prevent the Germans from crossing the Somme. On the same
day, the 61st and 62nd reserve divisions marched towards Péronne, their
ultimate destination being south of the Somme. However, on debouching
from Bapaume, they had an extremely violent engagement with a German
army corps. The battle continued until the following day, eventually
turning in favour of the enemy, and the two divisions were thrown back
northwards.

Further to the east, General Sordet's cavalry corps, which was
supporting the left wing of the British army to the east of the line Le
Catelet-Roisel, sought to check the German advance, but was unable to
prevent the enemy from reaching the outskirts of Péronne on the evening
of the 27th. The cavalry accordingly withdrew to the south of the Somme.

On the 28th, the enemy took Péronne, and marched on Amiens. The cavalry
corps fell back towards the south.

On the 29th, General Maunoury, in command of a new army (the 6th), made
the necessary dispositions to prevent his left from being out-flanked,
and to check the enemy, whose advance-guards nearest Amiens had reached
Bray-sur-Somme, Chuignolles and Framerville. In the first line were
placed:

     A brigade of Moroccan chasseurs;

     The 14th division of the 7th corps, from Alsace, which had
     detrained at Villers-Bretonneux on the 27th;

     The 45th and 55th battalions of chasseurs.

     On the right, in the direction of Nesle, were units of the 55th
     division.

The French attacked during the morning, inflicting heavy losses on the
enemy, and capturing the village of Proyart. At the same time, the four
territorial divisions moved up the Somme and established themselves in
Amiens.

In the evening, the enemy counter-attacked in superior numbers. The 7th
corps lost the positions won that morning, and withdrew to the south.
From that moment, the town became exposed; the territorials evacuated it
on the 30th, during the day, their rear-guard having several skirmishes
with enemy patrols near Cagny.

[Illustration]


Occupation of Amiens

The enemy entered the town on August 31st, and immediately made
requisitions of all kinds, including food and money. These requisitions,
of a total value of about 500,000 frs., had to be complied with the same
day.

[Illustration: _Retreat of the German Artillery_

(PLACE DE LA GARE).]

Twelve town councillors and the Attorney-General were taken as hostages,
and were only released on September 11th after much anxious suspense and
annoyance.

At first, the Imperial army merely passed through Amiens on its forced
march "nach Paris." From the 1st to the 9th of September there were
practically no Germans in the town. Occasionally, officers paid hurried
visits, exacting further requisitions, and breaking open the safes of
the Savings Banks.

On September 9th, a garrison was installed, and a major appointed
Kommandant of the town. Injunctions, prohibitions, and requisitions
became more severe immediately. It was forbidden to be in the streets
after 8 p.m., or to sell newspapers. Motor vehicles were seized, and
Frenchmen residing in Amiens who had not been mobilised, were ordered to
the Citadel. Two-thirds of them were eventually released, but about a
thousand young men were sent away into captivity. They had scarcely
left, when the Germans withdrew precipitately from the town.

On September 11th, only a few laggards remained. The effect of the
defeat on the Marne was making itself felt.

On the 12th, General d'Amade's advance-guards, returning from the
vicinity of Rouen, re-entered the town and took a few prisoners. The
territorial divisions occupied Amiens until the 17th, when they left in
a north-easterly direction, taking part at the end of the month in the
battles at Péronne and Fricourt, which again fixed the front line
positions. Relieved and protected by lines of trenches, Amiens was safe
from the enemy until March, 1918.


How Amiens was saved in 1918

In 1918, a new onrush of the German armies brought them almost to the
gates of Amiens. On March 21st, Ludendorff opened his great offensive by
hurling a million fanatical troops against the 5th British Army.
Bapaume, Péronne, and Montdidier fell in a few days; a stretch of
territory, sixty kilometres broad, was occupied by the enemy, who
captured enormous booty. For a moment, the road to long-coveted Paris
seemed open. Thanks, however, to the prodigious resistance of the French
troops, who barred the valley of the Oise, the breach was promptly
closed. It was then that the enemy returned to his first objective,
_i.e._, the separation of the two Allied armies. On March 27th the
Germans hurled themselves at Amiens, which formed the hinge of the
Allies' front.

[Illustration]

For several days the struggle continued to be extremely violent; the
enemy gained some ground, but was unable to break through. Démuin,
Moreuil, Marcelcave, and Hangard were fiercely disputed until March
31st. These villages mark the extreme line reached by the enemy--_i.e._,
17 kilometres from Amiens.

On April 4th, the Germans attacked again, determined to break through at
all costs. Against the French front alone, 15 kilometres in length,
eleven divisions were hurled. Crossing to the left bank of the Avre,
they took the villages of Morisel and Mailly-Raineval from Debeney's
army, and threatened the railway from Clermont to Amiens, which was
their objective. At Hangard, the British, shoulder to shoulder with the
French, repulsed all attacks. Further to the north, they withdrew to the
west of Hamel, and during the night were forced back to the
Villers-Bretonneux plateau. However, vigorous counter-attacks enabled
them to win back the lost ground next day.

From the 15th to the 19th of April, local offensives enabled the French
to clear the railway. However, the Germans had not given up their plan,
and after a violent bombardment during the night, they again attacked,
on April 24th at 5 a.m., the Franco-British junction between
Villers-Bretonneux, held by the British, and a point west of Moreuil.
Villers-Bretonneux fell, but the French troops were able to hold
Hailles. Bayonet fighting took place in the streets of Hangard, which
was lost during the night.

[Illustration: RAILWAY STATION, ST. ROCH.]

On the morning of the 26th, the French and British counter-attacked from
Villers-Bretonneux to the valley of the Luce, and drove the enemy back
to their starting-point of the 24th.

Once again, Amiens had escaped, but it remained within range of the
German heavy guns. The town, which had previously suffered on various
occasions from air bombardments, was now continuously and violently
bombarded, especially by artillery, from April to June. Ruins
accumulated in the town and suburbs, both of which had been evacuated by
the inhabitants on April 9th.


Liberation of Amiens

The final liberation of the town began on August 8th, with the great
Allied offensive. The 4th British army (Rawlinson) and the 1st French
army (Debeney), in liaison on the road from Amiens to Roye, attacked at
dawn from Braches to Morlancourt, the respective positions of Von der
Marwitz and Von Hutier. The Australian and Canadian infantry, supported
by numerous tanks, completely surprised the panic-stricken enemy. In a
few hours, Villers-Bretonneux was cleared, and in the evening the
British reached Chépilly, Framerville, Caix, and Beaucourt-en-Santerre.

To the south, the French, by clever manœuvring, advanced 8 kilometres,
and established themselves on the line
La-Neuville-Sire-Bernard-Plessier-Rozainvillers-Villers-aux-Érables.
That night, Debeney and Rawlinson joined hands at Mezières, both having
captured enormous booty.

On the 9th, progress was maintained, in spite of the growing resistance
of the enemy. The British took the line of exterior defensive works of
Amiens, and reached Le Quesnel, Rosières-en-Santerre, Rainecourt, and
Morocourt. Debeney encircled Montdidier; to the north, his troops
captured Arvillers and Pierrepont, while to the south, an attack made in
the evening forced the enemy to evacuate the town on the following
morning and to retreat to La Bossière. During the same day (10th), the
British captured Proyart and approached Chaulnes.

[Illustration: 280mm. GUN WHICH BOMBARDED AMIENS CAPTURED BY
AUSTRALIANS. RANGE: 30 MILES.]

From that moment Amiens was safe from further aggression, as the
Germans, harried by the victorious Allied armies, retreated each day.

     VILLE D'AMIENS

     =Douze otages pris parmi les membres du Conseil Municipal auxquels
     s'est joint M. le Procureur-Général, répondent sur leur vie= de
     l'engagement pris par la Municipalité qu'aucun acte d'hostilité ne
     sera commis par la population contre les troupes allemandes.

                                                       Le 31 Août 1914.

                                                   _Le Sénateur-Maire_,

                                                             A. FIQUET.



(Translation)

Twelve hostages chosen from the town councillors, and the Attorney
General, will answer with their lives for the undertaking entered into
by the Municipality that no hostile act will be committed by the
population against the German troops.

                                                     31st August, 1914.

                                              Senator-Mayor: A. FIQUET.

[Illustration: EFFECTS OF AN INCENDIARY SHELL NEAR THE BOULEVARDS]

[Illustration: CENTRE OF AMIENS

  1. Place Samarobrive.
  2. Rue Pingré.
  3. Rue des Chaudronniers.
  4. Passage Gossart.
  5. Rue St.-Martin.
  6. Rue du Bloc.
  7. Rue St. Firmin the Confessor.
  8. Rue de la Malmaison.
  9. Rue de Metz-l'Évêque.

     A--Old Water-Works (Museum); B--Hôtel Morgan de Belloy; D--St.
     Germain's Church; E--Belfry; F--House of the White Gable; H--Hôtel
     de Ville; K--Archer's house; L--Bailliage; S--Logis du Gouverneur
     du Roi.
]

[Illustration: MAP OF AMIENS

POPULATION: 93,207 ALTITUDE: 27 metres

SCALE:

|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|--------------------------|
0    100   200   300   400   500m                    1 Kilom.

BUILDINGS:

A. École de Médecine

B. Église St Germain

D. Temple Protestant

Ec. Écoles

F. {Halle au Blé

   {Salle des Fêtes

G. Gendarmerie

H. Hôtel de Ville

T. Théâtre

SQUARES AND STREETS:

1. Pl. de Château d'Eau

2. Pl. de la Tuerie

3. Pl. Samarobrive

4. Pl. au Feurre

5. Pl. Fauvel

6. R. des Sœurs Grises

7. Pl. au Fil

8. R. des Chaudronniers

9. R. St Martin

10. Pl. Florent Caille

11. R. Henri IV

12. R. Cormont

13. R. Adadat-Lefèvre

14. R. de l'Oratoire

15. R. Gloriette

16. R. des Vergeaux

17. R. Delambre

18. R. Duméril

19. Pl. d'Aguesseau

20. R. Allart

HOTELS:

a HOTEL DE L'UNIVERS.

b HOTEL DU RHIN.

c BELFORT-HOTEL.

[symbol] General Post Office

[symbol] Streets or roads to be avoided
by motor-cars
]

[Illustration: ITINERARY starting from the cathedral: follow the arrows

EXPLANATION OF THE ARBITRARY SIGNS USED IN THE ITINERARY, AND THE
CORRESPONDING PAGE-NUMBERS IN THE GUIDE.

The Cathedral, pp. 9-34.

U--Theatre, p. 35.

S--Logis du Gouverneur du Roi en Picardie], p. 36.

--Rue des Trois-Cailloux. p. 36.

--St. Rémy church, p. 37.

--Museum, pp. 38-44.

--Prefecture, p. 45

1--corner of bombarded streets, p. 45.

H--Hôtel de Ville (Town Hall), p. 45.

L--Bailliage (Bailiwick), p. 46.

F--Maison du Blanc Pignon (House of the White Gable), p. 47.

E--Belfry, p. 47.

D--Church of St. Germain, pp. 47-48.

K--Maison du Sagittaire (Archers' House), p. 48.

2--Place des Huchers, rue du Don and neighhouring streets, pp. 49-52

3--Hocquet Canal, p. 50.

4--Panorama of the Boulevard de Beauvillé, p. 50.

5--Rue des Bouchers, p. 54.

6--Rue des Tanneurs and Hôtel Morgan de Belloy, pp. 54-55.

B--Hôtel Morgan de Belloy, p. 55.
]



ITINERARY


THE CATHEDRAL--VISIT TO THE TOWN

_See opposite: Coloured plan, with detailed plan of centre of town and
outline of itinerary at back._


What the Tourist should see

_Do not omit_: =The Cathedral= (_pp. 9-36_) especially the western and
southern doorways, nave, stalls, and carving in the choir aisles.

Of great interest: PICARDY MUSEUM (_pp. 40-45_).

Archæological curiosities: FAÇADE OF THEATRE (_p. 35_), OLD HOUSES (_pp.
47-56_), CHURCHES OF ST. LEU (_pp. 52-53_), ST. GERMAIN (_pp. 47-48_)
AND ST. RÉMY (_p. 37_).

Picturesque sights: ST. LEU QUARTER (_p. 52_), THE HORTILLONNAGES (_p.
51_).

Walks: HOTOIE PARK (_p. 55_), NEW BOULEVARDS, and THE RUE DE BEAUVAIS
(_p. 45_), whose ruins attest the violence of the bombardment.

_Specialities_: Macaroons, potted duck.


Itinerary recommended for visiting Amiens

(_Distance: 6½ miles_)

_Starting point: Place de la Cathédrale._


THE CATHEDRAL (_historical monument_)

=The Cathedral at Amiens= is the most perfect example of Gothic
architecture extant, realizing as it does to the full, the possibilities
of this style. According to Viollet-le-Duc, it is pre-eminently an
"ogival church."

The Cathedral is typical, both from an architectural point of view, and
also on account of its statues, which form one of the finest collections
of Middle-Age sculpture. From an iconographic standpoint, this statuary
constitutes one of the most complete summaries of the religious thought
of past centuries.

The Cathedral (_see plan, p. 22_) covers a ground surface of about 9,000
square yards. Measured on the outside, it has a total length of about
480 feet and a width of 230 feet at the transept. It is the largest
church in France.

The construction of the principal façade and nave was begun in 1220,
from plans prepared by the architect, Robert de Luzarches, who was
succeeded in his task by Thomas de Cormont and afterwards by his son,
Renaud de Cormont.

Although no Cathedral has ever been built in entire conformity with the
original plans, that of Amiens was probably completed more quickly than
any other, and with less alteration of the original designs.

In 1269, fifty years after the commencement of the building operations,
there only remained to be built the upper portion of the west façade and
the two great rose-windows of the transept.

The only important alteration made in the original plans was the
addition, in the 14th century, of chapels between the buttresses and
flying-buttresses of the nave.

The Cathedral is built of grey limestone, on foundations 26 feet thick.


West Façade

The upper portion, consisting of two towers of unequal height, finished
in different styles, belongs to the 14th century. The north tower, which
is the higher, contains the great bells. The openings are decorated with
statues of the Apostles, which have been either restored or renewed.

The upper storey of the south tower contains two bays with openings
surmounted by gables. It is terminated by a pointed roof with a
dormer-window and lead spikes. A gallery, called the ringers' gallery,
with covered arcades surmounted by pinnacles and turrets, connects the
two towers.

[Illustration: WEST FAÇADE]

Below this gallery is the great rose-window, of which the frame-work
only belongs to the 13th century. The mullions are in the Flamboyant
style. Below, running the whole length of the façade, are two superposed
galleries.

The first contains twenty-two giant statues (over twelve feet high) of
crowned kings bearing sceptres in their hands.

These statues have given rise to much controversy, some holding that
they represent the kings of Judah, others, the kings of France.

The second gallery corresponds to the triforium in the interior.

Lastly, comes the great doorway (_photo below_) with its three large
doors. On either side of the lateral doors are massive buttresses which
gradually taper off, rising to the upper part of the façade.

On the front side of each are three statues of the lesser prophets, with
their most notable prophecies carved in the quatre-foils of the
bas-reliefs below.

The whole of the statuary of the great doorway dates back approximately
to the period 1225-1235.


Central Doorway (_Door of St. Saviour_)

On the dividing pier: Statue of Christ, known as the "Beautiful God of
Amiens" (_photos p. 12_).

Trampling the lion and dragon under-foot, he is blessing with his right
hand, while in his left he holds a closed book.

On the socle are carved an asp and basilisk, symbolical of the "Evil One
vanquished by Christ!"

On the lower portion of the pillar is a crowned king, probably Solomon.

The two sides of the great doorway are similar in design.

(_a_) On the jambs of the door:

To the right of Christ are the five wise virgins bearing lamps full of
oil in their hands. In the lower arcade, a vigorous tree represents the
Bible bringing forth good fruit.

[Illustration: GREAT DOORWAY OF WEST FAÇADE (_Cliché LL_).]

[Illustration:

ST. FIRMIN'S DOOR       ST.-SAVIOUR'S DOOR       "MOTHER-OF-GOD" DOOR
]

[Illustration: "BEAUTIFUL GOD" STATUE ON DIVIDING PILLAR OF CENTRAL
DOOR.]

To the left of Christ are seen the five foolish virgins holding their
lamps, reversed, while below is the "tree of evil" with withered trunk.

(_b_) On the piers of each splaying:

Six apostles and two of the greater prophets. These statues are nearly
eight feet in height.

Nearly all the Apostles resemble Christ, having the same type of face
(generally pronounced oval) and the same serene and noble expression.

On the basements, to the right and left:

1. Underneath the statues of the greater prophets four quatre-foils
represent their principal prophecies.

2. Below the statues of the Apostles are twelve medallions in two rows.
The upper one represents the six Virtues and the lower one the opposing
Vices.

The Virtues are grave women seated, each with a shield bearing a
distinctive emblem. On the other hand, the Vices are depicted by
gesture.

The tympanum (_photo p. 13_) represents the complete story of the Last
Judgment:

_Lower portion_: Above the lintel, which is decorated with a frieze of
finely carved foliage, the resurrection is depicted. The dead, awakened
by angels blowing trumpets, leave their graves. They are young, and
either naked or scantily clothed.

In the centre St. Michael weighs the souls in a balance. In one of the
scales is the Lamb of God which "taketh away the sins of the world,"
while in the other is the head of a demon.

_Middle portion_: Separation of the good from the evil.

To the left, the elect, clothed and serene, ascend to Heaven, where they
are received by St. Peter; to the right, a demon pushes the condemned
into an enormous pair of open jaws representing the infernal regions.

_Upper portion_: Christ, surrounded by the Virgin and St. John kneeling,
and by angels bearing the instruments of the Passion, judges mankind.

Above, in the point of the arch, the "Son of Man" half emerges from
clouds, having in his mouth two swords. On either side is an angel, one
bearing the sun, the other the moon, represented by discs.

The eight borders which form the arches on either side of the tympanum
contain over 150 statues representing the celestial hierarchy.

In the lower row of the first six borders, scenes relating to the Last
Judgment are also represented.

[Illustration: HEAD OF THE "BEAUTIFUL GOD" STATUE.]

[Illustration: TYMPANUM OF CENTRAL DOORWAY. (_page 12_) THE LAST
JUDGMENT. (_Cliché LL_).]

[Illustration: DETAILS OF CENTRAL PORCH (_left-hand side_)

The Apostles are represented in the following order (_from left to
right_):

     _St. Peter_, with cross and keys.

     _St. Andrew_, with cross.

     _St. James_, with sword (recalling his martyrdom), and wallet.

     _St. John_, with beardless face, holds a cup, out of which comes a
     serpent.

     The last two, with palm branch and axe, have not been identified.

     The two prophets on the right are _Isaiah_ (scroll) and _Jeremiah_
     (cross).

CENTRAL
PORCH
(_left-hand
side_).
]

[Illustration: DIVIDING PILLAR OF "MOTHER-OF-GOD" DOOR WITH VIRGIN.]


"Mother-of-God" door

(_See photo p. 11_)

This doorway has been dedicated to the Virgin, and forms one of the most
complete representations of the worship of Mary produced by the
iconographic statuary of the Middle Ages.

On the pier: A remarkably fine statue of the Virgin, belonging to the
first half of the 13th century (_photo opposite_).

The six bas-reliefs of the pier basement represent the story of Adam and
Eve: Creation of man--creation of woman--warning not to touch the
forbidden fruit--the original sin--expulsion from the Garden of
Eden--Adam and Eve at work.

On each side of the Virgin, in the splaying of the door, are six large
statues:--

_To the left_: The Wise Men of the East offer presents to the child
Jesus; Herod questions the Wise Men; Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.

_To the right_: Three groups of statues in pairs represent the
Annunciation, Visitation, and Presentation (_photo below_).

_From left to right_:

1. Annunciation: Gabriel and Mary.

2. Visitation: Mary and Elizabeth.

3. Presentation: Virgin and Child and the High Priest Simeon.

The first two groups are especially remarkable for nobleness of attitude
and harmonious robes.

On the basements, in the quatre-foil medallions, are carved various
biblical scenes relating to the large statues surmounting them.

_To the right_, under the _Annunciation_, four medallions with figures
of the Virgin according to the Mosaic Law: _The Stone rolling down from
the Mountain_; _Gideon's fleece_.

Below: _The Burning Bush_; _Aaron's Rod_.

Under the _Visitation_: _The Nativity of St. John the Baptist_;
_Annunciation of the coming birth of John, to Zachariah_; _Zachariah
struck_

[Illustration: "MOTHER-OF-GOD" DOOR.]

_dumb for unbelief_. Below: _Birth of St. John_ and _Zachariah naming
the child John_.

Under the _Presentation_ are four scenes from the childhood of Christ:
_Flight into Egypt_; _Falling down of the Egyptian Idols at the approach
of Jesus_. Below: _Jesus in the midst of the Doctors_; _Jesus taken back
to Nazareth_ (_photo p. 14_).

To the left, under _The Wise Men and Herod_, story of the Wise Men:
_Balaam's star_; _Micah's prophecy at Bethlehem_; _The Wise Men before
Herod_; _Massacre of the Innocents_. Below: _The Wise Men warned in a
dream to return by another way_; _the Wise Men depart by ship from
Tharsis_; _Burning of the Fleet of Tharsis_; _Herod orders the ships of
Tharsis to be burnt_.

Under _Salomon and the Queen of Sheba_; _Solomon receives the Queen of
Sheba_; _Solomon on his throne_; _Solomon's feast_. Below: _Solomon
praying_; _Solomon shows his treasures to the Queen of Sheba_.

The tympanum (_photo below_) is divided into three parts:

1. Six patriarchs or prophets.

2. _Left_: Burial of the Virgin. _Right_: The Assumption.

3. Crowning of the Virgin.

In the arches are angels bearing censers, the Kings of Judah and other
ancestors of the Virgin.

[Illustration: TYMPANUM OF THE "MOTHER-OF-GOD" DOOR.]


St. Firmin's door (_see p. 11_)

This door was dedicated to the religious history of Picardy.

A fine statue of St. Firmin, first bishop of Amiens, adorns the dividing
pier. Crosier in hand and mitre on head, he blesses the faithful (_photo
below_).

[Illustration: ST. FIRMIN'S DOOR.

_Left_: St Firmin blessing. _Right_: 6 statues of bishops and martyrs.
_In medallions_: Peasants' calendar (_December-May_) with zodiacal
signs.]

On either side are six large statues representing the most notable among
the first bishops, martyrs, and saints of the diocese (_photo above_).

Scenes illustrating the round of tasks of the peasants are carved in the
medallions on the basement. Above each scene of digging, reaping,
harvesting, etc., appears the zodiacal sign of the corresponding month.

In the calendar of Amiens, the year opens with the month of December and
the sign of Capricorn (_first medallion on the right_).

The reading of the calendar should begin there (_photo above_).

  _December._ The peasant kills his pig for the feasts at the end
              of the year.
  _January._  He is seated at a well supplied table.
  _February._ He warms himself at the fire.
  _March._    Work begins again in the fields; tilling the soil.
  _April._    Pruning the vines.
  _May._      The peasant rests before the labours of Summer.

The calendar terminates on the left-hand side of the basement.

The tympanum (_photo p. 17_) depicts the history of the relics of St.
Firmin:

1st portion: Six bishops seated.

2nd portion: Discovery of the body of St. Firmin by the bishop St.
Sauve.

3rd portion: Solemn translation of the relics.

Statues of angels appear on the borders of the arches.

[Illustration: TYMPANUM OF ST. FIRMIN'S DOOR.

LIFE OF ST. FIRMIN.]


South Lateral Façade

At the foot of the south tower is St. Christopher's door (_plan p. 22_),
and to the right a statue of this saint carrying the child Jesus on his
shoulder.

The buttresses separating the lofty, broad windows of the chapels of the
nave, added in the 14th century, are decorated with superposed statues.

The gable of the south transept (_photo opposite_) is remarkable.

The upper portion of the great rose window is surrounded by a "wheel of
fortune" (14th century).

On one side eight beardless youths climb up the wheel, while on the
other side eight old men with beards descend with it.

In the middle is seated a figure with crown and sceptre.

[Illustration: GABLE OF SOUTH TRANSEPT.

(_facing the Rue Robert de Luzarches_).]

[Illustration: DIVIDING PILLAR OF SOUTH DOORWAY.

(_facing the Rue Robert de Luzarches_).

THE "GILDED VIRGIN"]


Doorway of the South Transept

(_"Gilded Virgin" Door_)

This door was dedicated to the saints of Picardy, but especially to St.
Honoré, who was one of the first bishops of Amiens. It is also sometimes
called the St. Honoré Door.

The statuary dates back to the end of the 13th century, with the
exception of the large statues on the jambs, which were executed at the
time the doorway was built, _i.e._, about 1230. These eight statues
represent six saints and two angels.

On the dividing pillar is the celebrated statue of the Gilded Virgin
(_photo above_) standing with the Child Jesus on her left arm, on which
side the hip slightly protrudes. It is one of the earliest examples of
this _irregularity of outline_, and was destined to inspire the Virgins
of the 14th and 15th centuries, in which this characteristic became
increasingly marked.

A comparison of this statue with that of the south door of the west
façade (_photo p. 14_), furnishes a striking example of the evolution
which statuary had undergone in three-quarters of a century. The Gilded
Virgin (end of 13th century) is represented as a gracious young mother
tenderly regarding her child, while the "Mother-of-God" gravely bears
the "King of the World."

       *       *       *       *       *

On the tympanum (_photo p. 19_) are:

       *       *       *       *       *

(_a_) On the lintel: Twelve exceedingly fine, 13th century statues of
the Apostles.

The latter converse with animation in pairs. The expression of their
faces is quite different from that of the Apostles on the central
doorway, the appearance of the latter being solemn and almost godlike
(_photo p. 13_).

       *       *       *       *       *

(_b_) The upper four sections represent the life of St. Honoré:

     1ST SECTION:

_To the left_, consecration of St. Honoré;

_To the right_, the voice of Lupicin reveals the shrines of the martyrs.

     2ND SECTION:

_To the left_, St. Honoré celebrating mass; a divine hand blesses the
elements;

_To the right_, the blind receive their sight.

[Illustration: SOUTH DOORWAY.

(_facing the Rue Robert de Luzarches_).

ON DIVIDING PILLAR, "GILDED VIRGIN."]

     3RD SECTION:

Procession bearing the remains of St. Honoré.

     4TH SECTION:

A crucifix, between the Virgin and St. John, reminds the faithful that
the crucifix of a church, before which the procession passed, bowed its
head as the remains of St. Honoré were carried by.

The arches comprise four borders with statues representing angels with
crowns or censers, the sixteen patriarchs of the Mosaic law, the sixteen
prophets and, lastly, sixteen figures of Apostles, evangelists, and holy
women.

[Illustration: APSE

(_Cliché LL._)]


=The Apse= (_photo above_)

Built after the nave in 1240-1269, the apse is especially remarkable for
the elegance and simplicity of its lines.

At the end are seven chapels, the central one being much deeper than the
others. All are of open construction, the lofty windows being separated
by heavily projecting buttresses. These chapels are noteworthy for their
harmonious proportions and purity of style.

The distance to be spanned by the flying buttresses being too great, the
latter were made in two parts, equipoised on an intermediate tambour;
and whereas this arch, which is hollowed out by a series of small
open-work ornamental arcades, is single in the lower flight, it became
necessary, in the 15th century, to strengthen the upper flight below the
arcades, with a second arch, on account of the pressure from the vaults.

Abutting on the south side of the apse is the Chapel of the Maccabees,
so called because it formerly adjoined the cloister of the Cathedral, on
whose walls was painted the Dance of Death. It now serves as a vestry.

The octagonal spire which rises above the intersection of the transept
should be viewed from behind the apse.

It was built in 1529-1533 of horse-chestnut wood covered with thick
sheet lead. 350 feet in height, it is only supported by four massive
pillars at the intersection of the transept. The lower portion comprises
two storeys of open construction ornamented with tall lead statues of
saints.


North Lateral Façade

The doorway of the northern arm of the transept, also known as the door
of St. Firmin the Confessor, is of the same construction as that of the
southern arm, but is unadorned with sculpture. The dividing pillar alone
is ornamented with a 13th century statue of a bishop.

In the tympanum is a glazed, packed wall which dates from the beginning
of the 14th century; the nerves represent an enormous spider.

The upper portion is unfinished; the rose window is bare of any

[Illustration: STATUES ON NORTH TOWER BUTTRESS:

(_on left_) CHARLES V.

(_on right_) THE DAUPHIN.]

ornamentation, and there is no stone gable.

As in the case of the south façade, the chapels of the nave are
separated on the outside by buttresses ornamented with 14th century
statues.

The two chapels nearest the principal façade were the last to be built
(1373-1375), and it was Jean de la Grange, then Bishop of Amiens, and
afterwards Cardinal and Financial Comptroller to Charles V., who bore
the expense of the building. A massive buttress was built to strengthen
the north tower, which these later constructions had weakened.

Two of the sides of the buttress and the dividing pillar between the two
chapels are ornamented with three superposed statues of considerable
interest, both from an historical and artistic point of view.

Considered downwards they represent:

On the north side of the buttress: _St. John the Baptist_, _the Dauphin
Charles_ (_later Charles VI.--photo above_) and _Bureau de la Rivière_,
Counsellor to Charles V. and VI.

On the west side of the buttress: _The Virgin_, _King Charles V._
(_photo above_), and _Cardinal Jean de la Grange_.

On the dividing pillar between the two chapels: _St. Firmin the
Confessor_, _Louis of Orleans_ (_second son of Charles V._) _and a
Counsellor of the King_.


Flying Buttresses

(_photo opposite_)


The flying buttresses of the nave are characteristic of the great Gothic
period.

Built of massive masonry, each consists of two superposed arches, one
above and the other below the point of abutment of the ogival arches of
the great nave.

These flying buttresses provide a counter-thrust which partly annuls
that of the vault.

The remainder is taken by the massive buttresses surmounted by pinnacles
and turrets, the latter preventing them from giving way under the
continual thrust of the flying-buttresses.

[Illustration: FLYING BUTTRESSES OF NAVE WITH TWO SUPERPOSED ARCHES
(_Cliché LL._)]

[Illustration: PLAN OF CATHEDRAL.

NORTH DOORWAY

GREAT DOORWAY

ST. CHRISTOPHER'S DOOR

SOUTH DOORWAY (Gilded Virgin)]

KEY TO PLAN OF AMIENS CATHEDRAL

  A.     Great doorway; St. Firmin's Door.
  B.       "      "   ; St. Saviour's Door.
  C.       "      "   ; "Mother of God Door."
  D.     Chapels of the nave (14th century).
  D1.    Chapel of the Annunciation or Our Lady of Faith (Annunciation
           by _Blasset_).
  D2.    Chapel of the Assumption (Assumption by _Blasset_).
  D3.      "    "  Our Lady of Help (altar screen by _Blasset_).
  D4.      "    "  St. Saviour (ancient crucifix).
  D5.      "    "  Our Lady of Peace (Virgin and child by _Blasset_).
  E.     Altar of Our Lady of Puy (1627-1628) by _Blasset_ (on altar screen:
           painting of Assumption by _Francken_).
  F.     Altar of St. Sebastian (1634-1635), by _Blasset_.
  G.     Stalls.
  H.     Radiating chapels of the apse.
  H1.    Chapel of St. Eloi (The Prophetesses, paintings, 1506).
  H2.      "    "  the Virgin.
  1.     Tomb of Canon Pierre Burry (16th century).
  2.     Bronze tomb to Evrard de Fouilloy (13th century).
  3.       "     "   "  Geoffroy d'Eu (13th century).
  4.     Monument to Jean de Sachy, by _Blasset_ (17th century).
  5.     Life of St. James the Less (stone carving, 16th century).
  6.     Jesus driving the buyers and sellers out of the Temple
           (stone carving, 16th century).
  7.     Roman cistern (12th century).
  8.     Tomb of Cardinal Hémard de Denouville (1543).
  9.     Life of St. Firmin, enclosure of carved stone, painted and gilded
           (end of 15th century), and
           funeral statue of Feray de Beauvoír with 16th century paintings.
  10.    Continuation of the Life of St. Firmin, stone enclosure and
           tomb of Adrien de Henencourt (16th century).
  11-12. Life of St. John the Baptist, stone enclosure (1531).
  13.    Mausoleum of Ant. de Ballon, by _Blasset_ (17th century).
  14.    Recumbent statue of Cardinal Jean de la Grange (15th century)
           and tomb of Canon Guilain
           Lucas with Weeping Angel statue, by _Blasset_ (17th century).


Interior of Cathedral

The Cathedral has an inside overall length of nearly 440 feet and a
breadth of about 200 feet in the transept.

It comprises: The great nave, composed of six bays with aisles and
posterior chapels (14th century).

The transept with aisle and three bays in each arm.

The choir, composed of four bays and double aisle.

The seven-sided apsis with ambulatory, on which open out seven
pentagonal radiating chapels.

The most striking features of the interior are its great height, the few
points of support, and the simple character of the latter.

[Illustration: GREAT NAVE. (_height 140 ft._)

(_Cliché LL._)]


The Great Nave

(_photo opposite_)

The great nave, which is about 48 feet wide, is nearly 140 feet high,
and is the second highest Gothic vault in France (that of the choir of
Beauvais Cathedral is about 156 feet high).

Few edifices exist in which the solid parts have been so reduced in
favour of the spaces.

There are no walls; the cathedral may be said to consist of windows,
rose-windows, and "stone lace-work."

The strength of the whole structure depends upon a series of pillars and
arches which, according to the principles of Gothic construction, ensure
equilibrium, by dividing the pressures and opposing conflicting
stresses.

The triforium has lost that importance which it had in the early Gothic
edifices. Here it is a narrow gallery running right round the church. In
the nave it comprises, at each bay, two wide arches divided by two
slender columns.

The windows are 52 feet high and of the same width as the arcades on the
ground floor.

The original stained glass no longer exists.

According to the canons of Gothic art, all ornamental carving must be
inspired by Nature.

The typical ornamentation for capitals is the crocket, intermingled here
and there with other kinds of foliage.

The belt of foliage below the triforium represents plants grown
exclusively in Picardy, and is very finely executed.

At the entrance to the nave, with its back to the first pillar on the
right, is the early 16th century tomb of Canon Pierre Burry (1 _on
plan_). It is a fine, expressive statue of the canon kneeling, presented
by his Patron Saint, St. Peter, to an "Ecce Homo" of little note.

[Illustration: TOMB OF EVRARD DE FOUILLOY.

(2 _on plan_).]

On each side of the great nave, below the longitudinal arcades and
between the second and third pillars, are two bronze tombs supported by
lions. These are the tombs of the two bishops who founded the Cathedral,
and who are represented on large rectangular tablets, wearing chasuble
and mitre. Beautifully executed, they are practically the only remaining
specimens in France of early funeral sculpture.

_To the left_, is the tomb of Geoffroy d'Eu, deceased in 1230 (3 _on
plan_).

_To the right_ (2 _on plan_): that of Evrard de Fouilloy, who died in
1222 (_photo opposite_).

The pulpit of painted and gilded wood belongs to the end of the 18th
century. It backs up against one of the northern pillars and is carried
by three tall statues representing the virtues: Faith, Hope, and
Charity.


The Aisles

The aisles are extremely lofty, the keystones of the vaults being richly
sculptured.

Chapels added in the 14th century terminate the aisles.

Nearly all contain works of art by a local sculptor very well known in
Picardy: _Nicolas Blasset_ (1600-1659).

The following are of especial interest:


I. =South Aisle:=

Third chapel (Annunciation--_D1 on plan_); on the altar, bas-relief by
_Blasset_, representing _The Annunciation_;

Fourth chapel (Assumption--_D2 on plan_); on the altar, fine Virgin by
_Blasset_ (_The Assumption_).


II. =North Aisle:=

Second chapel (Our Lady of Help--_D3 on plan_); on the altar screen,
_Virgin and child trampling on serpent representing Death_ (_Blasset_);

Third chapel (St. Saviour's--_D4 on plan_): _tall Byzantine Christ_ of
wood known as "St. Saviour";

Fifth chapel (Our Lady of Peace--D5 _on plan_): _Virgin_ by _Blasset_.

Against the pillar which separates the fifth and sixth chapels is the
funeral monument of _Jean de Sachy_, Sheriff of Amiens, and his wife,
one of _Blasset's_ finest masterpieces. Both the deceased are
represented kneeling before the Virgin, to whom they are made known by
John the Baptist.


The Transept (_photo p. 25_)

At the intersection of the transept, four massive pillars composed of
sixteen columns rise up to the vault.

There is a fine rose-window at each end. That of the south arm, with
curved mullions, is in the Flamboyant style, and contains portions of
the original stained glass (_see heads of angels_).

That in the north arm (_photo p. 25_) belongs to the 14th century. Part
of the original stained glass still exists, though restored.

Under each rose window are two superposed, open-work galleries
containing fragments of old stained glass representing persons.

[Illustration: THE TRANSEPT, NORTH ARM.

(_to the right_):

THE CHOIR.

(_in foreground_):

ALTAR OF OUR LADY OF PUY.]

Two altars of similar design by _Blasset_ were erected between 1625 and
1635, one in each arm, forming pendants.

Four tall statues, two seated and two standing, form the framework of an
altar-screen with painting, the latter surmounted by the statue of the
patron of the chapel.

The altar of the south arm (_E on plan_) is dedicated to _Our Lady of
Puy_, represented drawing a child out of a well (_photo opposite_.)

The painting of the altar-screen by the Flemish artist François Francken
(_The Assumption_), is the finest in the Cathedral.

The altar in the north arm (_F on plan_) is dedicated to _St.
Sebastian_, seen at the top pierced with arrows.

In the aisle of each arm, against the enclosure wall of the last chapel
in the nave, will be seen in Flamboyant style niches, early 16th century
carvings representing: _In the south arm_, an episode in the life of St.
James the Less (5 _on plan_), and _in the north arm_ (6 _on plan_), the
story of Jesus driving the buyers and sellers out of the Temple (_photo
p._ 26).

These carvings have never been restored.

Other noteworthy objects in the transept are:

1. _South arm_: In the arcading of the Gilded Virgin Door are three fine
late 13th century statues of angels with the instruments of the Passion.
At the top of the pediment is a statue of St. Michael (16th century).

Below the stone carvings in the aisles, _eight black marble tables_,
surmounted by small _bas-reliefs_ by _Blasset_ representing the
principal episodes in the life of the Virgin.

On the tables are inscribed all the names, with their respective
devices, of the _Masters of the Brotherhood of our Lady of Puy_, from
1389 to 1729 (_p._ 42).

_North arm_ (_photo above_): Stone and white marble tomb of Cardinal
Hémard de Denouville (8 _on plan_), fine Renaissance monument (1543)
backed up against one of the pillars at the intersection of the
transept.

The statues of the four cardinal virtues, carved in demi-relief in the
arcades of the basement, are especially worthy of notice. They are
shown

[Illustration: JESUS DRIVING THE BUYERS AND SELLERS OUT OF THE TEMPLE.

_In each niche, part of the Temple at Jerusalem is represented. In the
two left-hand sections: Jesus and the buyers and sellers in the atrium
and The Tabernacle. In the other two sections: The Temple proper
(Sanctuary and Holy of Holies)._]

holding their traditional attributes, and represent (_from left to
right_): _Justice_, with sword and scales; _Temperance_, with clock;
_Prudence_, with clock and compasses; _Force_, with tower, out of which
comes a monster.

In a niche, above this basement, is the Cardinal kneeling before the
head of St. John the Baptist. On the crown are three small statues
representing the virtues: Faith, Hope and Charity. At the end of the
aisle is a curious, late 12th century _Roman cistern_ (7 _on plan_)
ornamented at the corners with the statues of four prophets.


Choir and Apse

Fine wrought-iron railings were placed, in the 18th century, at the
principal and side entrances to the choir, as also between the columns
enclosing the chancel. Contrary to the practice usually observed till
then in Gothic edifices, in which building generally began with the
choir, this part of the Cathedral was built after the nave.

The later period of construction is most noticeable in the triforium,
which has not the simple elegance of the nave.

The arrangement of the bays is entirely different, the latter being
surmounted by a gable decorated with crockets, while the end wall is of
open construction.

Remains of 13th century stained glass are still to be seen in the
triforium and the great window in the centre of the apse. The latter,
dating from 1260, is practically intact.

Behind the high altar, an 18th century "glory," representing angels and
cherubs, interrupts the view of the interior of the Cathedral.

[Illustration: CHOIR STALLS

(_Cliché LL_)]


Choir Stalls

The stalls (_G on plan_) are of oak and were made by the wood-cutters
and wood-carvers of Amiens (1508-1519). They are in the
Gothic-Flamboyant style, with Renaissance architectural and ornamental
motifs.

It is impossible to praise too highly the perfection of even the
smallest details of this woodwork, which is unrivalled throughout
France. Especially worthy of remark is the consummate skill with which
the joints have been concealed in the assembling.

To-day, 110 in number, the stalls extend the entire length of the choir
aisles in a double row: high stalls and low stalls.

The high stalls, with very elevated backs simply decorated with an arch
in accolade, are covered by a continuous canopy ornamented with
pinnacles and pendentives of the finest workmanship.

To the right and left of the entrance to the choir, two larger stalls
with separate canopies are surmounted by a pyramid fifty-three feet
high, carrying the statues of the Church and Synagogue.

These are the master-stalls.

The two terminal stalls near the chancel are likewise surmounted by a
pyramid with small statues.

[Illustration: DETAILS OF STALLS; COMPASSION SEAT REPRESENTING ABRAHAM
SACRIFICING ISAAC.]

Both as regards woodwork and carving, the stalls are rightly considered
masterpieces, in the latter respect, on account of the infinite variety
of

[Illustration: DETAILS OF STALLS:

(_on right_)

ANGEL DRIVING AWAY JOSEPH'S DOUBTS.

(_on left_)

JOSEPH ASKING PARDON OF MARY FOR UNWORTHY DOUBTS.]

subjects, profusion of figures and extreme delicacy of ornamentation.
The finish and detail are truly extraordinary.

The scenes represented belong to two different classes:

1. On the stalls proper, including the seats, but excepting the elbow or
hand-rests, and on the hand-rails and panels of the passages leading
from the low stalls to the high stalls, are represented the _Story of
the Creation_ from Adam to Job, and the _Life of the Virgin_.

2. On the elbow-rests of the stalls and--alternated with clusters of
leaves--on the pendentives of the canopy, subjects taken from the lives
of the burgesses and artisans at the beginning of the 16th century
(especially the handicrafts then practised), fables (_the Fox preaching
to the Hens_) and satirical or fanciful scenes are depicted.

In the biblical and other subjects dealt with, the buildings, costumes,
insides of houses, furniture and various accessories belong to the time
when they were carved. Consequently, in addition to their artistic
value, the stalls form an historical document of great value.

[Illustration: DETAILS OF STALLS: ELBOW-REST REPRESENTING APOTHECARY
COMPOUNDING DRUGS.]


Chapels in Apse

The seven radial chapels of the apse are pentagonal, the central one
having two bays more than the others.

Starting at the south aisle, the first chapel (_St. Eloi_--_H_ 1 _on
plan_) is decorated on the basement of the two west bays, with eight
fine though greatly deteriorated figures of prophetesses (1506).

The third, fourth, and fifth chapels were restored by _Viollet-le-Duc_,
in the 19th century, in accordance with the decorative scheme employed
in the 13th century.

The fourth chapel (that of the _Virgin_--_H_ 2 _on plan_) contains some
13th century restored stained glass (scenes from the _Life of the Virgin
and Tree of Jesse_).

[Illustration: TOMB OF CANON GUILAIN LUCAS WITH "WEEPING ANGEL" STATUE.]

On the left, let into the sides of the wall, are two 14th century
tombstones.

The basement carrying the two recumbent statues is ornamented with
arcading and mourners, this being one of the earliest examples of that
type of decoration, since so frequently used for funeral monuments.

Opposite the chapel of the Virgin, with its back to the
intercolumniation of the chancel, is the _mausoleum of_ Canon Guilain
Lucas (_photo opposite and_ 14 _on plan_)--benefactor of orphans and
children in the 17th century--_Blasset's_ most celebrated but not finest
masterpiece. The Canon is shown kneeling before the Virgin, while
between the two statues is a cherub known as "The Weeping Angel" (_photo
above_).

Below the mausoleum is a white marble statue of _Cardinal Jean de la
Grange_, deceased in 1402.


Choir Aisles

The enclosure walls of the first two bays of the north and south choir
aisles are covered with stone carving dating from 1489-1530.

Each bay comprises four large Gothic-Flamboyant niches containing the
same number of carved groups. A versified legend in French accompanies
each subject treated. Below, is a lofty basement almost entirely covered
with carved medallions.

The stone sculpture which decorates the northern enclosure of the choir
depicts eight scenes from the life of St. John the Baptist.

(_a_) _In the first bay coming from the apse_ (12 _on plan_):--

Vengeance of Herod's wife.--Beheading of St. John the Baptist.--Herod's
feast.--Imprisonment of St. John the Baptist.

(_b_) _In the second bay_ (_that nearest the transept_--11 _on plan_):--

St. John showing the Lamb of God.--St. John revealing his mission

[Illustration: CHOIR AISLES.

(9 _on plan_)

LIFE OF ST. FIRMIN.]

to Herod's messengers.--Baptism of Christ.--St. John preaching in the
wilderness.

The very fine medallions on the basement complete the story of the
saint.

The =mausoleum= (by _Blasset_) of Canon Antoine de Baillon backs up
against one of the pillars of the first of the two bays. He is shown
kneeling before Ecce Homo (13 _on plan_). It will be noticed that the
features of this Christ recall those of the Louis XIV. period, and in no
way resemble the face usually attributed to Christ in the Middle Ages.

The finest sculpture is in the south aisle.

The first bay (9 _on plan_--_photo p._ 30) portrays in four main scenes
the life of St. Firmin.

These are (_from the left to right_):--

  1. Arrival of the saint at Amiens.
  2. Preaching the Gospel to the inhabitants.
  3. Baptising the people of Amiens.
  4. Arrest and decapitation.

At the back of the four niches, a =panoramic view= has been painted of
Amiens, as it was at the end of the 15th century. Judging from the
perspective of the Cathedral, which appears in the fourth group, this
painting is very true to life.

To the right and left of the carvings are =statues= of the donor, Adrien
de Henencourt, and St. Firmin.

In the centre of the basement, in a niche at the bottom of which is a
=painting= of the twelve Apostles, a reclining =statue= of Ferry de
Beauvoir, Bishop of Amiens, should be noticed. On each side there are
remarkable =paintings= of two angels lifting a red cloth, and two canons
with cope and cassock holding a pall decorated with the figure of Agnus
Dei and the symbols of the four Evangelists.

The whole dates from about 1489. The carvings are the oldest of all
those in the aisles, and are distinguishable from the others by the

[Illustration: CHOIR AISLES.

(10 _on plan_)

REVELATION AND TRANSLATION OF REMAINS OF ST. FIRMIN.]

garments, which fall in long, straight, stiff folds, and their greater
simplicity.

The second bay (10 _on plan, photo p._ 31) recalls the legend of the
discovery and translation of the remains of St. Firmin.

_From left to right_:--

1. St. Sauve, Bishop of Amiens, exhorting the faithful to pray, that the
sepulchre of the saint might be revealed.

2. Ray of light revealing the sepulchre to St. Sauve during Mass.

3. Exhuming the body.

4. Translating the remains of St. Firmin to Amiens.

The basement comprises thirteen carved =medallions= illustrating various
episodes in the life of St. Firmin, while in the middle is seen an
exceedingly fine recumbent =statue= of Adrien de Henencourt, dean of the
chapter of Amiens, who died in 1530, and at whose expense the whole of
the south enclosure of the choir was built.

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL TREASURE

(_in Vestry_):

ST. FIRMIN'S SHRINE.]

[Illustration: PROTECTION OF DOORWAYS OF PRINCIPAL FAÇADE.]


THE CATHEDRAL DURING THE WAR

During the =War=, elaborate precautions were taken to protect the
Cathedral and its art treasures from the dangers of bombardment. The
three doorways of the principal façade (_photo above_) and that of the
Gilded Virgin, were covered with a thick protecting wall of sandbags.

The choir stalls (_photo p._ 33) were enclosed with reinforced concrete
and sandbags, the stone carvings of the ambulatory being protected in
like manner. The various funeral monuments were walled in, while firemen
from Paris removed the stained glass. All the movable art treasures were
taken away and placed in safety (_photo p._ 33).

[Illustration: CHAPEL OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST DAMAGED BY SHELL

(_left-hand side of Apse_).]

[Illustration: PROTECTION OF THE CHOIR STALLS.]

These precautions were not superfluous, as the cathedral was repeatedly
made the target of enemy artillery fire. In 1915, during an air
bombardment, three out of nine bombs fell in the immediate vicinity, at
distances varying from 150 to 200 yards. In the spring of 1918 an
incendiary shell burst in the Rue de Robert Luzarches, within 30 yards
of the Virgin doorway, completely destroying two houses, while splinters
hit the upper part of the doorway above the wall of sandbags. In all,
nine shells hit the cathedral, but none of them caused very serious
damage.

[Illustration: TAKING DOWN THE STATUES IN TRANSEPT.]

The roof was pierced in several places, particularly on the south side
of the choir, and the vault was perforated in the south aisle of the
choir and in the nave. The gallery of the triforium was likewise torn
open on the south side of the nave, while the chapels of St. John the
Baptist (_photo p._ 32) and Our Lady of Faith (D 1 _on plan_) were
damaged. Outside, the façades were struck with shell splinters, while
here and there buttresses, flying-buttresses, and mullions of windows
were broken or damaged.

(_See outline opposite p._ 9 _and plan opposite p._ 8).

_On leaving the Cathedral by the_

[Illustration: EFFECT OF THE FIRST SHELLS WHICH HIT THE CATHEDRAL.
ASPECT INSIDE THE NAVE.]

[Illustration: CHIMERICAL FIGURES AND GARGOYLES

(_Cliché LL_)]

[Illustration: GENERAL VIEW OF THE CATHEDRAL (_seen from the Hôtel de
Ville_).]

_doorway of the south transept (Gilded Virgin Door), the tourist should
skirt the Cathedral on the left as far as the Place St. Michel, which is
behind the Apsis. In the middle of the Square is a_ =Statue= to Peter
the Hermit. _On the right of the Square, take the Rue Victor Hugo._

At No. 36, hidden from the road by a high enclosure wall, is the very
handsome brick and stone bossage =façade= (1634) of what were formerly
the offices of the French Treasury. A bomb damaged the right-hand corner
of the roof.

_Turn into the first street on the right (Rue Lesueur), which skirts
the_ Palais de Justice. _Turn to the left into the Rue de Robert de
Luzarches, which passes in front of the principal façade of the_ Palais
de Justice (plan). Built towards the end of the 19th century, it
contains some fine =woodwork= by Crescent.

_Follow the Rue de Luzarches to the Rue des Trois-Cailloux; on turning
to the right, the tourist passes in front of the_ =Theatre=.

A large opening was made by a shell in the left-hand upper portion of
the =façade= (_photo below_), which is pure Louis XVI in style.

This façade was built in 1778-1780.

It is remarkable for its harmonious proportions, as also for the
delicacy and sobriety of its ornamentation.

The corner =pilasters= are decorated with lyres, surmounted by flaming
tripods.

The central =pilasters= are ornamented with two groups of Muses in
relief, one representing Dancing and Music, the other Comedy and
Tragedy.

On the upper portion of each pilaster, the attributes of the four Muses
have been carved in oval =medallions=.

[Illustration: THE THEATRE.]

[Illustration: RUE DES TROIS-CAILLOUX

(_Photo taken from the Place Gambetta, April 24th, 1918_)]

The interior of the theatre is interesting, by reason of the date of its
construction (1773-1779). It is the oldest playhouse in France.

Opposite the theatre, the shops of the =Nouvelles Galeries= were
entirely destroyed (_photo below_).

_At No. 59, Rue des Trois-Cailloux, to the left of the theatre, is the
Passage du Logis du Roi, where are to be found the remains of the_
"=Logis du Gouverneur du Roi de Picardie=" (_House of the King of
Picardy's Governor, S on outline of tour_).

Built about 1520 of brick and stone, the castle was mutilated in the
18th century. The outbuildings now serve various foreign purposes, and
include a café, so that the place has lost most of its interest.

Only the =donjon tower=, from which there is a fine view over the whole
city, retains its ancient aspect.

_Follow the Rue des Trois-Cailloux to the Place Gambetta, then turn to
the left into the Rue de la République, where, on the right, will be
found:_

[Illustration: RUE DES TROIS-CAILLOUX NEAR THE PLACE GAMBETTA

("Magasins des Nouvelles Galeries," burnt on June 9th, 1918)]

[Illustration: BROKEN STATUE OF MADELEINE DE MUTTEREL

(_Tomb of Nicolas de Lannoy, St. Rémy's Church, p. 37_)]

=The Church of St. Rémy=, which is being rebuilt on the site of the old
church of the Couvent des Cordeliers (_Convent of the Franciscans or
Grey Friars_).

It contains several pieces of =sculpture= by _Blasset_, including the
monumental =tomb= of Nicholas de Lannoy, High Constable of Bourbonnais,
and Madeleine de Mutterel, his wife, with their =statues=
(1631)--_photos on this page_--and a =Virgin= known as the Condé Virgin,
because it was given by the Prince of Condé after his victory at Rocroi.

A bomb caused nearly all the roof to fall in and seriously damaged the
stained glass windows.

A little further on, on the same side of the street, is the =Museum=.

[Illustration: BROKEN STATUE OF NICOLAS DE LANNOY

(_Tomb in St. Rémy's Church, p. 37_)]

[Illustration: MUSEUM:

RIGHT WING OF REAR FAÇADE DAMAGED BY AERIAL TORPEDO IN 1918.]


THE PICARDY MUSEUM

=The Museum= is installed in a spacious building erected in the middle
of the 19th century at the expense of the Society of Antiquaries of
Picardy, and afterwards handed over by it to the City. Most of the
collections had fortunately been removed to a place of safety before the
bombardment of 1918, which damaged the building. Three aerial torpedoes
fell on the right wing of the rear façade (_photo above_), considerably
damaging the collection of drawings by the brothers Duthoit.

The Museum will only be re-installed after the necessary repairs have
been done, and as new classifications may then be made, the principal
works of art are here dealt with according to category and date, instead
of room by room.


A.--Sculpture

I.--_Greek and Gallo-Roman Antiquities._

=Triple Hecate=: Grecian marble, very finely executed, representing the
three divinities of the lunar month: Diana, Artemicia, and Hecate.

Gallo-Roman funeral =stele= with galloping cavalier carved in
demi-relief.

Carved =tombstone= representing the deceased, holding lamp and purse,
between two relations.

II.--_Middle Age and Renaissance Sculpture._

Quadrangular baptismal =font= in pure Roman style.

Very fine late 12th century =capitals=, taken from the ancient monastery
of the Premonstrants of Dommartin (Pas-de-Calais).

=Tomb= of black Tournai stone, belonging to the first half of the 15th
century, representing _Knight Robert de Bouberch_ in armour.

Very fine late 15th century =Virgin= of wood, painted and gilded, taken
from the ancient church of the Minimes d'Amiens.

A series of merry monks' =heads= with caricatured features, carved in
oak at the end of the 15th century; very curious; were formerly corbels
supporting the framework of a house in Amiens.

III.--_Modern Sculpture._

_Puget_, rough =model= in terra-cotta, used for the "Hercule gaulois" in
the Louvre.

_Coysevox_, very fine marble =bust= of Regent Philip of Orléans. The wig
is noteworthy, by reason of the exceeding delicacy of execution. Also
=bust of Chauvelin=, intendant of Picardy.

_Falguières_, bronze =bust of Gambetta=, particularly expressive.


B.--Painting.

The museum of paintings includes:

I.--A series of =decorative paintings= by _Puvis de Chavannes_.

II.--Suite of early 16th century pictures of the _Amiens School_.

III.--Collections of the City (acquired and given by the State).

IV.--Collections of the _brothers Lavalard_, given in 1890 to the City
and comprising 371 pictures, including several very fine works of the
French, Spanish, and Flemish schools.


1.--Paintings by Puvis de Chavannes:

These paintings decorate the walls of the grand staircase leading to the
first floor, and the gallery on the first floor known as the _Puvis de
Chavannes Gallery_.

1. WALLS OF THE GRAND STAIRCASE:

_Work and Repose._

_Ave Picardia Nutrix_ (1865)--_photos, p. 41._

_Pro Patria Ludus_ (1882), _one of the artist's masterpieces painted
while he was at his very best_.

2. PUVIS DE CHAVANNES GALLERY:

_The Spinner, The Reaper, The Standard-Bearer, and Desolation_ are four
long panels between the windows. The first two relate to Peace
(_Concordia_) and the other two to War (_Bellum_).

The whole of the paintings by Puvis de Chavannes, having a surface
measurement of more than two hundred square yards, were removed during a
violent bombardment in the spring of 1918. Sappers belonging to the
"_camouflaging_" section of the army, together with firemen from Paris,
carefully detached the canvases with knives and rolled them up on
cylinders.

Some of them adhered so tenaciously to the walls that it was found
necessary to cut away a certain thickness of stone with chisels at the
same time as the canvas.

The operation was entirely successful, all the paintings being intact,
with the exception of a slight tear in the "_War_" panel caused by a
shell splinter, prior to removal.

It is probably in the museum of Amiens that one best realises the
evolution in the decorative art of Puvis de Chavannes, as nearly a
quarter of a century separates the first paintings from the last.

[Illustration: DETACHING THE MURAL PAINTINGS BY PUVIS DE CHAVANNES
DURING THE BOMBARDMENTS IN 1918.]

[Illustration: "PRO PATRIA LUDUS" (FRAGMENT). (_Cliché LL._)]

In those of the gallery, which are among the earliest of his great
decorative compositions, the landscapes are a mere background of sombre
hue, designed to bring out the light foreground figures. The latter are
individualized, the personality of each being revealed in the lines of
the face and general attitude.

[Illustration: "PRO PATRIA LUDUS" (FRAGMENT). (_Cliché LL._)]

[Illustration: "PRO PATRIA LUDUS" (FRAGMENT). (_Cliché LL._)]

Conversely, in the latest works, and especially in _Pro Patria Ludus_,
the landscape is of primary importance, enveloping as it does the whole
composition in a clear, pure atmosphere.

[Illustration: "PRO PATRIA LUDUS" (FRAGMENT). (_Cliché LL._)]

On the other hand, individuality and detail are carefully suppressed;
human beings are portrayed in their general aspect, with only the
essential to characterize them.

[Illustration: "AVE PICARDIA NUTRIX" (FRAGMENT). (_Cliché LL._)]

The decorative art is here synthesized to the last degree.

[Illustration: "AVE PICARDIA NUTRIX" (FRAGMENT). (_Cliché LL._)]

[Illustration: PAINTING OF OUR LADY OF PUY (1518).

"_Au juste poix véritable balance._"]


II.--Paintings of our Lady of Puy

The _Brotherhood of Our Lady of Puy_ was a religious, artistic and
literary society founded in the _Middle Ages_ at Amiens, and which
continued down to the 18th century.

The _Master_, who was elected each year, was under the obligation of
having a picture painted in honour of the _Virgin_.

Several of these paintings, dating from the 16th and 17th centuries,
still exist.

All are similar in composition.

In the centre, the Virgin surrounded by symbolical figures arrayed in
sumptuous garments, and in the foreground, the donor with relations and
friends.

Near by, a scroll inscribed with the _device_ chosen by the Master for
his term of office, and in the background, landscape of living waters
and verdure.

The four oldest of these panels, the =wood carving= of whose _frames_ is
remarkable, are considered to be among the most interesting of the early
16th century French School.

The _devices_ of these panels are as follows:

1. Painting (1518). No. 390 (1911 edition of catalogue): _Au juste poix,
véritable balance_; fine Renaissance frame (_photo above_).

2. Painting (1519), No. 391: _Pré ministrant pasture salutaire_;
Gothic-Flamboyant frame.

3. Painting (1520), No. 392: _Palme eslute du Seigneur pour Victoire_.
In the fine landscape with river, which forms the background, the city
of Amiens is seen with its cathedral.

4. Painting (1521), No. 393, greatly damaged: _Le vray support de toute
créature_.

The other panels are more modern and do not offer the same interest.

Several other old paintings were formerly to be found in this room,
especially the central panel of a _triptych_ (end 15th century), No.
403, representing Christ blessing, surrounded by the donor and his
family, with St. John the Baptist and St. Barbara.


III.--Collections belonging to the City of Amiens


1. French School:

     _Boucher_: Large composition; _Vénus demandant à Vulcain des armes
     pour Enée_ (_Venus asking Vulcan for arms for Aeneas_), No. 46 of
     1911 catalogue.

     _Boucher_ and _Carle van Loo_: Four exquisite hunting panels,
     originally designed for the apartments of the King at Versailles.

     _Boucher_: _Chasse au Crocodile_ (_Crocodile Hunting_), dated 1739
     (No. 48). _Chasse au Tigre_ (_Tiger Hunting_), No. 47.

     _Van Loo_: _Chasse à l'Ours_ (_Bear Hunting_), No. 356. _Chasse à
     l'Autruche_ (_Ostrich Hunting_), No. 359.

     _Nattier_: _Portrait of Gresset_ (No. 266).

     _Bachelier_: Two pictures forming pendants, _Un Ours de Pologne
     attaqué par des chiens_ (_Polish bear attacked by dogs_) No. 9; _Un
     lion d'Afrique attaqué par des dogues_ (_African lion attacked by
     dogs_), No. 10; and a very large composition (1761): _Les
     Amusements de l'enfance_ (_Childhood's Amusements_), No. 8.

     _Quentin de la Tour_: _His own portrait_, the finest and most
     carefully finished of his portraits, painted about 1760 (No. 212)
     (_photo below_).

     _David_: _Countess de Dillon_, lady of honour to Empress
     Marie-Louise, full length portrait, strictly academical (No. 108).

     _Regnault_, contemporary of David and his school: _La Mort de
     Priam_ (_Death of Priamus_) (No. 290).

     _J. Lefebvre_: Several paintings, especially _Portrait of Lady
     Godiva_ (No. 223).


2. Foreign Schools:

     _Un buveur attablé_ (_Drinker at table_) (No. 427), attributed by
     the catalogue to the _Flemish School_ of the middle of the 17th
     century, would seem from its powerful realism and general
     composition, to have come from the studio of the _Brothers Le
     Nain_.

     _Gérard de Lairesse_, late 18th century, Dutch painter, now
     forgotten, but who enjoyed considerable notoriety in his day:
     _Portrait of Duchesse Marie de Clèves_ (1671) (No. 206).

[Illustration: MAN'S PORTRAIT BY LE GRECO. (_Cliché LL._)]

[Illustration: PORTRAIT BY QUENTIN DE LA TOUR OF HIMSELF. (_Cliché
LL._)]


IV.--Collections of the Brothers Lavalard


1. Dutch School:

     _Brekelenkam_ (1623-1688): _Le Savetier_ (_The Cobbler_) (No. 3 in
     1911 catalogue).

     _Gerritz Cuyp_ (1594-1651): _Portrait of a child_. _A Young Baron_
     (No. 8).

     _Van Goyen_ (1596-1696): _Le Port de Dordrecht_ (No. 12). _Le
     Départ pour la pêche_ (_Fishing Boats setting out_) (No. 13). _Un
     tour au bord d'une rivière_ (_River-side scene_) (No. 14, etc.).

     _Van Mieris_ (1635-1681): _Liseuse_ (_Reading_) (No. 27).

     _Salomon Ruysdael_ (1600-1670): _Soleil couchant_ (_Sunset_) (No.
     38), and several other landscapes (Nos. 39 to 46).


2. Flemish School:

     _Franz Hals_ (1581-1666): Several portraits (Nos. 94 to 96).

     _Brouwer_ (1605-1638), pupil of Franz Hals: _Un buveur_ (_A
     Drinker_) (No. 77).

     _Jordaens_ (1593-1678): _La Marchande de Volailles_ (_Woman selling
     fowls_) (No. 99).

     _Gonzalès Coques_ (1614-1684): _Exécution de Charles I. sur la
     place de White-Hall en 1649_ (_Execution of Charles I, Whitehall,
     1649_) (No. 81).


3. French School:

     _Louis Boily_: _Un jeune Savoyard_ (_Young Savoyard_) (No. 125).

     _Boucher_: _Esquisse pour le Triomphe d'Amphitrite_ (_rough sketch
     of Amphitrite's Triumph_) (No. 129). _Diane au bain_ (_Diana taking
     bath_) (No. 130).

     _Chardin_: _Lapins de garenne_ (_Wild rabbits_) (No. 137), and
     several still-life studies (Nos. 138-140).

     _Fragonard_: Several small paintings (Nos. 142-147), especially No.
     144: _Les Lavandières_ (_Washer-Women_).

     _Lépicié_, pupil of Carle van Loo: _Portrait de femme âgée_
     (_Portrait of Old Woman_) (No. 167). _Studies of children's heads_
     (No. 168).

     _Nattier_: _Portrait de jeune femme_ (_Portrait of a young woman_)
     (No. 177).

     _Hubert-Robert_: _Colin-Maillard_ (_Blindman's Buff_) (No. 188).


4. Italian School:

     _Luca Giordano_ (1632-1705): _Musicien accordant sa guitare_
     (_Musician tuning his Guitar_) (No. 211).


5. Spanish School:

     _Le Greco_ (1548-1625): Very fine _portrait of a man_, the finest
     of this artist's paintings in France (No. 212) (_photo_ _p._ 43).

     _Ribera_ (1588-1656): _La Messe du Pape Grégoire le Grand_
     (_Celebration of Mass by Pope Gregory the Great_); very finely
     executed; one of this artist's greatest masterpieces; signed:
     Joseph de Ribera, Naples, 1654 (No. 239).

The museum also contains _interesting drawings by Puvis de Chavannes_
and a fine collection of _drawings_ by the _Brothers Duthoit_ of Amiens
(1820-1870). In these latter drawings, more than 5,000 in number, are
portrayed the _towns and villages of Picardy_, as they appeared before
the disappearance of the local traditions and customs. This collection
was seriously damaged by bombardment.

Several =old houses= of Amiens, saved from ruin by the Antiquarian
Society of Picardy, have been rebuilt in the Museum grounds, viz.:

Late 15th century house with visible timber-work in left-hand corner.

Early 17th century (1619) façade, in right-hand corner. Note the fine
decorative frieze of lions' muzzles.

Late 18th century façade, with entrance-door surmounted by a fine
caryatid of bearded man supporting a graceful, wrought-iron balcony on
his shoulders, against the right-hand lateral wall.

_Opposite the Museum is the_ =Prefecture=.

[Illustration: THE PREFECTURE: GREAT GALLERY.]

The PREFECTURE consists of two contiguous buildings. One, modern, is
fitted up as offices. The other, which is the Prefect's residence, was
formerly the headquarters of the Intendant of Picardy.

The latter building was erected in 1773-1774 from plans prepared by the
Parisian architect _Montigny_. It was considerably damaged, both outside
and inside, by bombardment (_photo opposite_).

_Separated from the Museum by the Rue Puvis de Chavannes is the_ =City
Library=.

The LIBRARY is a modern building containing nearly 100,000 books and
about 1,000 manuscripts, including several of great value. _(To visit
apply to the curator)._ The colonnaded building in the rear was partly
destroyed by bombardment.

_On leaving the Rue de la République, take on the right the Rue Puvis de
Chavannes (continued by the Rue des Louvets) as far as the Rue de
Beauvais (photo below). Turn to the right. At the corner of the Rue de
Beauvais and the Rue Frédéric-Petit is the_ =Lycée=.

THE LYCÉE is located in the partly rebuilt structure which was formerly
the _Abbey of St. John of the Order of Premonstrants_ (17th century);
fine cloister.

The façade of the modern portion, looking on the Rue Frédéric-Petit, was
grazed by shell splinters.

_Follow the Rue de Beauvais, continued by the Rue Alphonse Leuillier, as
far as the_ HÔTEL DE VILLE (H _on detailed plan_); 18th century façade,
finished in the 19th century.

[Illustration: CORNER OF THE RUE DE BEAUVAIS AND RUE FRÉDÉRIC-PETIT NEAR
THE LYCÉE]


Bailliage and House of the White Gable

_To the left of the Hôtel de Ville, take the Rue de la Malmaison, in
which is situated the_ =Ancien Bailliage= (Old Bailiwick--_L on detailed
plan)._

[Illustration: FAÇADE OF THE "BAILLIAGE." (_Bailiwick_)]

To see it, the tourist should enter the courtyard of the City Fire
Station, at the bottom of which, on the right, is a narrow passage
leading to a tiny court, facing which is the curious façade of the
house. Gothic-Flamboyant in style, it is richly decorated with
Renaissance motifs (_photos_).

A frieze of accolade-shaped arches with crockets runs along the
building. Inside the arches, seven pure Renaissance medallions of men
and women have been carved.

Two small Renaissance angels dated 1541 appear below, between the two
rectangular windows. On the left side of the building, a pretty
dormer-window with triangular pediment breaks the monotony of the large
slated roof, as is customary in civil Gothic architecture. Two
Renaissance medallions of a man and a woman appear on the dormer-window.

[Illustration: FAÇADE OF THE "BAILLIAGE."]

Inside, interesting 16th century keel-arched timber work still exists in
the audience chamber of the Bailiwick, the ceiling of which is hidden by
a cloth.

_Cross the Square behind the Hôtel de Ville. To the left of the
Post-Office, take the Passage Gossart, at the end of which, under a
vault, is the gate of a narrow alley leading to a small court._

On three sides of the latter is a curious house with wooden walls built
about the year 1492 by a rich cloth merchant, Nicolas Fauvel, mayor of
the city. This house, known as the =House of the White Gable=, is shown
at F on the detailed plan. Abutting on the main building, which is the
original structure, a kind of corbel-work gable was added over the exit
from the Passage Gossart. This was probably used by the mayor as a
tribune from which to harangue the people gathered together in the
courtyard.

[Illustration: HOUSE OF THE WHITE GABLE. (_Cliché LL_)]

This tribune (_photo opposite_) is supported by a half-vault of wood,
the arches of which abut against the stone corbels. At the outside
corner, a console terminating in a flying angel forms a pendative, and
is decorated with curious carving depicting a man in the dress of a 15th
century burgess, having three heads.

One of his feet is bare, the other shod. On the opposite console is the
figure of a man on horseback, probably Nicolas Fauvel, wearing the
mayoral robes of Amiens. Part of the house with wooden walls was
destroyed by a bomb, but the mayor's tribune escaped uninjured.

_Returning to the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville, the tourist should turn to
the right to see the_ =Ancien belfry= of the City of Amiens (_E on
detailed plan_).

The lower portion only is old. Its heavy 18th century steeple contains a
=bell= weighing eleven tons.

_Leaving the Belfry behind, continue to follow the Rue du Chapeau de
Violettes as far as the Rue St. Germain, at the corner of which is_ =St.
Germain's Church= (_D on detailed plan_), historical monument. A fine
building in the Flamboyant style, dating from the middle of the 15th
century, it was seriously damaged by a bomb which fell in the Rue St.
Germain on the night of the 13th-14th May, 1918, destroying five houses.

[Illustration: ST. GERMAIN CHURCH AND RUE ST.-GERMAIN.]


House of the "Sagittaire"

The south façade, looking on the street, as well as that of the apse,
suffered badly throughout their entire length.

[Illustration: ST.-GERMAIN CHURCH: DETAILS OF PORCH.]

Although the main body of the building remained standing, most of the
ornamental carving was broken and the doorway torn open, while all the
stained glass was destroyed, together with the greater part of the
mullions of the windows. Inside, the vaults were pierced in several
places.

The doorway in the Rue Pingré is uninjured (_photo above_). Part of the
ornamental carving is of great delicacy, but the statues are modern. The
door is of wood with Renaissance carvings. A square tower leaning
towards the North flanks the doorway.

The interior of the church is beautifully proportioned and very simple
in arrangement. The choir, slightly more modern than the nave, dates
from 1478. The lateral chapels contain some 16th century stained glass
and a reproduction of the Burial Scene dated 1506.

_Skirt the church by following the Rue St. Germain to the_ PLACE DU
MARCHÉ DE LANSELLES (_curious old houses_).

_Cross the Square diagonally on the right, then take the Rue des
Vergeaux._

_In this street (Nos. 57-59--K on detailed plan) is the_ =Maison du
Sagittaire= (_Archers' House_), so called on account of two small
figures of archers carved at the top of the keystones of the arcaded
vaults on the ground-floor.

Pure Renaissance in style and dating from 1593, it is the finest and
best preserved house in the old town (_photo opposite_).

[Illustration: HOUSE OF THE "SAGITTAIRE"

_Rue des Vergeaux nos. 57-59._]

The ground-floor comprises two broken-arch arcades, each of whose
tympanums is ornamented with two semi-recumbent figures of women.

A frieze ornamented with medallions of Roman warriors extends between
the ground-floor and first-floor.

Five magnificent lions' muzzles appear between Renaissance motifs in
this frieze.

[Illustration: PLACE DES HUCHERS ABOUT 1820. (_drawing by the Brothers
Duthoit_).]


OLD AMIENS

_Return to the Place du Marché de Lanselles and take the Rue St. Martin,
which is at the right-hand corner._ There are two =fine façades= in this
street, one Louis XV. at No. 7, and the other Louis XVI. at No. 18.

A shell caused rather serious damage to the left-hand window on the
first floor of the former. _At the end of the Rue St. Martin take on the
left the Rue Flatters, which continues the Rue du Bloc. Leave the
latter, taking on the right the Rue des Rinchevaux which leads to the_
Place des Huchers. (=Fine view= of old houses and cathedral--_photo
below_).

[Illustration: PLACE DES HUCHERS.]

[Illustration: HOCQUET CANAL]

_To the right of the Square take the Rue du Pont-Piperesse visible in
the photo, p. 49_, then on the left, _the Rue des Gantiers and the Rue
Hocquet. At the intersection of the latter with the Rue de Metz-l'Evéque
take a few steps to the right in the last-named street, to get a_ =view=
_of the picturesque_ Canal du Hocquet (_photo above_).

_Continue along the Rue du Hocquet and its continuation (Rue de la
Barette). At the end of this street, turn to the left, cross the bridge
over the Somme and go up the Boulevard de Beauvillé for several hundred
yards, to get_ a pretty =view= of the town _on the left_ (_photo
below_).

[Illustration: PANORAMA OF AMIENS (_as seen from the Boulevard
Beauvillé_).]

[Illustration: THE "HORTILLONNAGES" (KITCHEN-GARDENS).]


The "Hortillonnages"

In the foreground of the above photo is a "Hortillonage." This is the
local name for the tiny islets in the vicinity, whose rich black soil is
generally cultivated as kitchen-gardens by men and women called
"hortillons" or "hortillonnes." These gardens are intersected by
innumerable small canals fed by the Rivers Somme and Avre. The most
important "hortillonnages" are at the east end of the town. Visiting is
only possible in the long flat-bottomed boats with turned-up ends seen
in the photo above.

Each morning in summer the boats go, loaded with fruit and vegetables,
to the "floating market" of Amiens (_photo below_).

The soil of these gardens is wonderfully fertile, fruit and vegetable
crops succeeding one another unceasingly all the year round. The total
revenue exceeds two million francs, and a "hectare" (rather less than
two and a half acres) often costs twelve thousand francs.

[Illustration: THE "FLOATING" MARKET _Place Parmentier. In the
background "Pont de la Dodane."_]

[Illustration: THE RUE DU DON ON MARKET-DAY.]


The St. Leu Quarter

_Return by the same way to the bridge, then turn to the right and follow
the Port d'Amont as far as the first bridge_ (Pont du Cange). This
bridge dates from the fifteenth century, and is the oldest of the many
bridges which cross the canals.

_Cross the bridge, then turn to the left into the Rue Belu, which runs
along the river-side. From here there is_ a pretty =view= of the
Cathedral and the old town (_photo below_). _At the end of the Rue Belu,
cross the Pont de la Dodane. To the left is the Place Parmentier, where
the_ "Floating Market" _is held (p. 51). In front are the first houses
of the curious_ Rue du Don, _seen in the centre of the photo below, and
on the right of the photo on p. 53._

_Take a few steps to get a good view of this street (photo above),
re-cross the Pont de la Dodane, then take on the left the Rue d'
Engoulvent, which runs by the side of an arm of the Somme (photo p. 53),
as far as the_ =church of St. Leu=. _The tourist may either go round the
apsis of the_ church, _taking on the left the small Rue St. Leu which
crosses the arm of the river, or continue straight ahead as far as the
Rue St. Leu, via the Rue Graineville, which is the continuation of the
Rue d'Engoulvent_.

[Illustration: _To the right_,

PONT DE LA DODANE.

_In the background, Place Parmentier entrance to the Rue du Don._]

=St. Leu Church= (hist. mon.) has undergone important alterations at
various times. One of its façades is 15th century, and a steeple was
rebuilt in the 16th century, in the Gothic style. A shell splinter

[Illustration: OLD BISHOPS' PALACE (_in front of Cathedral_).

_To the right_, RUE DU DON.]

broke the mullions and stained glass of one of the windows of the apse
(north side). This Church is in the centre of the old quarter or lower
part of the city. It is there that the commerce and industry of the town
have been centralised since the Middle Ages.

A maze of narrow, winding streets crossed by innumerable canals or arms
of the Somme river, connected by bridges, forms this part of the town.
Numerous small water-falls supply motive power to the local factories
and works. Formerly, the workshops of the fullers and dyers, which
crowded the banks of the canals, and where the cloth-fulling and
woad-grinding were done, were driven by water-wheels (_see p. 2_).

The houses have kept their ancient aspect, and are curious for their
wooden walls, sharply pointed gables, steep roofs with tiny
dormer-windows, and daring corbellings overhanging the narrow streets
and canals. The only means of access to the outside which some of them
possess is a foot-bridge passing over the canal.

_Turn to the right into the Rue St. Leu, passing in front of the_ =Hôtel
Dieu=. Rebuilt in the 17th and 18th centuries, except the St. John ward,
which was built at the beginning of the 16th century in the
Gothic-Flamboyant style, it is a spacious hall with two large roofs, the
gables of which face the street. The vaulting is of wood, the ends of
the beams being carved. The whole is in very bad condition.

_After crossing six successive lines of canals offering_ picturesque
perspectives (_especially the_ Rue de Ville _and_ Rue des Coches), _the
tourist arrives at the_ =Citadelle=.

The Citadelle, built in the 16th century, has since been dismantled and
now serves as a barracks. The =Porte Monte-Ecu= (historical monument),
built in 1531 under François I., is within its walls. It was through
this Gate that the Spaniards entered Amiens in 1597. _To get a view of
it, turn to the right after the Pont de la Citadelle and take the first
street on the left (see detailed plan)._

[Illustration: PONT DE LA DODANE.

_On right of Canal_, RUE D'ENGOULVENT. _On the left_, RUE DES MAJOTS.
_In the background_, ST. LEU CHURCH.]

_Return by the same way to the Rue St. Leu. A little beyond the Church
of St. Leu, take the Rue Fernel on the right, in which several_ 15th
century wooden

[Illustration: RUE D'ENGOULVENT (ABOUT 1820). (_drawing by the Brothers
Duthoit_).]

houses are still to be seen. No. 33, known as the "Ramoneurs," is
especially worthy of note, though greatly deteriorated.

_Follow the Rue Fernel to the Place Samarobrive, to the left of which
take the Rue des Bouchers_ (_photo below_--picturesque old houses,
especially No. 33).

_At the end of this street, turn to the right into the Rue
Haute-des-Tanneurs, which is continued on the other side of the Place
Fauvel by the Rue Basse-des-Tanneurs._

At the end of the Rue Basse-des-Tanneurs, see the ancient dilapidated
façade (1493) of the =Hotel Morgan de Belloy= (_B on detailed plan_),
and the =Château d'Eau= (_A on detailed plan_), dating _from the 18th
century_.

A natural history museum has been installed on the first floor.

_From the Hôtel Morgan there is a_ =fine view= _of the Cathedral and the
lower town_ (_photo page 55_).

_If the tourist has time he should cross the Somme by the Pont St.
Michel, then follow the Boulevard du Jardin des Plantes to visit the_
=Jardin des Plantes=, _which is on the right of the Boulevard_.

[Illustration: RUE DES BOUCHERS.]

_Retracing his steps he should turn to the right after the Pont St.
Michel, and follow the Port_

[Illustration: RUE BASSE DES TANNEURS _seen from the Rue Condé. In the
background, steeple of the Church of St. Germain and the Cathedral_.]

_d'Aral, then turn to the left and take the Boulevard du Port._

_On arriving at the Place du Marché aux Chevaux, turn to the right into
the Rue du Faubourg-de-la-Hotoie as far as the_ =Promenade de la Hotoie=
(_see coloured plan_), a magnificent _park_ of about 50 acres, continued
on the north by the =Jardin Anglais= of the "Petite Hotoie," ten acres
in extent.

The Promenade de la Hotoie was used by the military authorities as an
automobile park during the War and is now in a deplorable state.

_Return via the Faubourg de la Hotoie, then take the Rue de la Hotoie
which continues it beyond the Place du Marché aux Chevaux._

_At the end of this street in the Place St. Firmin, take the Rue St.
Jacques on the right, then immediately afterwards the Rue Gresset on the
left_ (_No. 11 was formerly the_ =Hôtel des Monnaies=--_18th century_).

Only the entrance door remains, the pediment of which is decorated with
two fine figures of women.

[Illustration: RUE BASSE DES TANNEURS _In background, Hôtel Morgan and
old Château d'Eau_.]

_Continue along the Rue Delambre, cross the Place Gambetta, and follow
the Rue des Trois Cailloux._

_After the Theatre, turn to the left into the Rue Robert de Luzarches
which leads to the Cathedral._

[Illustration: HÔTEL MORGAN.]



CONTENTS


                                                   PAGES

CHIEF HISTORICAL FACTS                                 2

AMIENS DURING THE WAR                             2 to 8

ITINERARY--VISIT TO THE TOWN                     9 to 55

THE CATHEDRAL                                    9 to 34

PICARDY MUSEUM                                  38 to 44

OLD AMIENS                                      49 to 55

[Illustration: OLD AMIENS (_Drawing by the Brothers Duthoit_)

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
LONDON

VII--2, 111-6-1925
]

       *       *       *       *       *

'THE TOURING-CLUB DE FRANCE'

ADVANTAGES OF MEMBERSHIP

The 'Touring-Club de France' (founded in 1890) is at the present time
the largest touring association in the world. Its principal aim is to
introduce France--one of the loveliest countries on earth--to the French
people themselves and to tourists of other nations.

It seeks to develop travel in all its forms: on foot, horseback,
bicycle, in carriage, motor, yacht or railway, and, eventually, by
aeroplane.

Every member of the association receives a badge and an identity ticket,
free of charge, and also the 'Revue Mensuelle' every month.

Members have the benefit also of special prices in a certain number of
affiliated hotels; and this advantage holds good in the purchasing of
guide-books and Staff (Etat-major) maps, as well as those of the
'Ministère de l'Intérieur,' the T.C.F., etc. They may insert notices
regarding the sale or purchase of travelling requisites in the 'Revue'
(1 fr. per line). The 'Comité de Contentieux' is ready to give them
counsel with regard to travelling, and 3,000 delegates in all the
principal towns are retained to give advice and information about the
curiosities of art or of Nature of the neighbourhood, as well as
concerning the roads, hotels, motor-agents, garages, etc.

Members are accorded free passages across the frontier for a bicycle or
motor-bicycle. For a motor-car the association gives a 'Triptyque'
ensuring free passage through the 'douane,' etc.

       *       *       *       *       *

                    TO TOUR FRANCE IN COMFORT JOIN
                     THE 'TOURING-CLUB DE FRANCE'

       *       *       *       *       *

BEAUTIFUL FRANCE

_Auvergne and the Central Plateau_

Volcanic in origin, this fantastically picturesque region contains
numerous watering-places famous, since time immemorial, for their
health-giving, warm mineral-water springs.

Its deep, smiling valleys and rugged mountain peaks are readily
accessible to excursionists--thanks to the good roads--and are known to
motorists the world over.

After world-renowned _Vichy_, the thermal stations of _La Bourboule_,
_Mont-Dore_ and _St. Nectaire_--all within easy distance of one
another--merit the tourist's attention.

Other places of interest are: _Thiers_ (celebrated for its cutlery) and
_La Chaise-Dieu_ (14th-century Abbey with incomparable tapestries).

_Riom_, with its ancient churches and ruined Abbey of Mozac;
_Châtel-Guyon_, famous for its mineral springs; _Royat_, modern
watering-place (hot mineral springs), near to _Clermont-Ferrand_,
capital of Auvergne, with its magnificent cathedral of Notre-Dame and
old Roman Church of Notre-Dame du Port. Situated at the foot of the
_Puy-de-Dôme_, the highest of a range of extinct volcanoes (altitude
4,500 ft.), Clermont-Ferrand is a favourite centre for excursions.

Nor should _Issoire_ and _Le Puy_ be forgotten. The latter, one of the
most remarkable cities of France, contains the famous Château de
Chavagnac, birthplace of the illustrious _La Fayette_, equally dear to
all liberty-loving peoples.

In the district of _Le Cantal_ are the delightful valleys of the _Cère_,
_Jordanne_, _Moers_ and _Maroune_. The thermal springs of _Vic-sur-Cère_
and the health resort of _Le Lioran_ (altitude 3,500 ft.) are amongst
their numerous attractions.

Equally interesting are _Aurillac_, _Mauriac_ and _St. Flour_, the
latter with its "sky-scraper" viaduct bridge of Garabit.

The ancient city of _Salers_ is well known to archæologists and artists.

       *       *       *       *       *

                 FOR ALL TOURIST INFORMATION, WRITE TO
                     THE "TOURING CLUB DE FRANCE"

                    65, Avenue de la Grande Armée,
                            PARIS, 16^{ème}

       *       *       *       *       *

MICHELIN TOURING OFFICES

MICHELIN TYRE Co., Ltd., LONDON Touring Office:: 81, Fulham Road, S.W.

MICHELIN & Cie, CLERMONT-FERRAND Touring Office:: 97, Bd. Péreire, PARIS

[Illustration: _Why ask the Way, when ..._]

[Illustration: _ ...Michelin will tell you free of charge?_]

Drop a line, ring us up, or call at one of our Touring Offices and you
will receive a carefully worked out description of the route to follow.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Collection of the “Michelin Illustrated Guides,” sold for the benefit
of the National Fund for the “Repopulation of France,” 10, Rue Vivienne,
PARIS._

_On sale, August 1919:_ BATTLE-FIELDS OF THE MARNE (1914)

A cloth-bound volume with 488 illustrations and many coloured maps and
plans: 5_s._ 6 _d._ net.

AMIENS BEFORE AND DURING THE WAR

SOISSONS BEFORE AND DURING THE WAR

LILLE BEFORE AND DURING THE WAR

Each work contains several coloured maps and plans and about 100
illustrations. Price: 1_s._ 6 _d._ net.

_To be published in the Early Autumn:_ YPRES. HINDENBURG LINE

RHEIMS AND THE BATTLES FOR ITS POSSESSION

VERDUN AND THE BATTLES FOR ITS POSSESSION

THE SECOND BATTLE OF THE MARNE

_In Preparation:_ Other volumes completing the description of the War
Front.





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