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Title: Chats on Military Curios
Author: Johnson, Stanley C.
Language: English
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                         BOOKS FOR COLLECTORS

              _With Frontispieces and many Illustrations_
                       _Large Crown 8vo, cloth._

                        CHATS ON ENGLISH CHINA.
                           By ARTHUR HAYDEN.

                        CHATS ON OLD FURNITURE.
                           By ARTHUR HAYDEN.

                         CHATS ON OLD PRINTS.
              (How to collect and value Old Engravings.)
                           By ARTHUR HAYDEN.

                           CHATS ON COSTUME.
                       By G. WOOLLISCROFT RHEAD.

                   CHATS ON OLD LACE AND NEEDLEWORK.
                            By E. L. LOWES.

                       CHATS ON ORIENTAL CHINA.
                           By J. F. BLACKER.

                       CHATS ON OLD MINIATURES.
                        By J. J. FOSTER, F.S.A.

                     CHATS ON ENGLISH EARTHENWARE.
                           By ARTHUR HAYDEN.

                         CHATS ON AUTOGRAPHS.
                          By A. M. BROADLEY.

                           CHATS ON PEWTER.
                      By H. J. L. J. MASSÉ, M.A.

                       CHATS ON POSTAGE STAMPS.
                         By FRED. J. MELVILLE.

                 CHATS ON OLD JEWELLERY AND TRINKETS.
                         By MACIVER PERCIVAL.

               CHATS ON COTTAGE AND FARMHOUSE FURNITURE.
                           By ARTHUR HAYDEN.

                          CHATS ON OLD COINS.
                         By FRED. W. BURGESS.

                    CHATS ON OLD COPPER AND BRASS.
                         By FRED. W. BURGESS.

                      CHATS ON HOUSEHOLD CURIOS.
                         By FRED. W. BURGESS.

                         CHATS ON OLD SILVER.
                           By ARTHUR HAYDEN.

                       CHATS ON JAPANESE PRINTS.
                       By ARTHUR DAVISON FICKE.

                       CHATS ON MILITARY CURIOS.
                        By STANLEY C. JOHNSON.

                           _In Preparation._

                          CHATS ON BARGAINS.
                       By CHARLES E. JERNINGHAM.

                   CHATS ON OLD CLOCKS AND WATCHES.
                           By ARTHUR HAYDEN.


                     LONDON: T. FISHER UNWIN, LTD.

                    NEW YORK: F. A. STOKES COMPANY.



    CHATS ON
    MILITARY CURIOS


  [Illustration: BRONZE MEDALLION OF THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.]

    _Frontispiece._



                               CHATS ON
                            MILITARY CURIOS

                                  BY

                          STANLEY C. JOHNSON
                         M.A., D.Sc., F.R.E.S.


                       WITH EIGHTY ILLUSTRATIONS


                               NEW YORK
                      FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY
                              PUBLISHERS



                                  TO
                               G. M. J.

                        THIS BOOK IS GRATEFULLY
                               DEDICATED


                        (_All rights reserved_)

                       PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN



                               CONTENTS


                                                                    PAGE

      LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS                                           13


                               CHAPTER I

      INTRODUCTION                                                    17

      Preliminary considerations--Where to search for curios--What
      to search for--Specializing--Undesirable curios--The
      catalogue of the Royal United Service Museum--Public
      collections of military curios


                              CHAPTER II

      REGIMENTAL NOMENCLATURE                                         27

      Household Cavalry--Dragoon Guards--Cavalry--Artillery
      --Engineers--Guards--Infantry, both past and present
      nomenclature--Other units


                              CHAPTER III

      REGIMENTAL CRESTS                                               39

      The fascination of regimental crests--How to plan a collection
      of crests--The changes which crests undergo--The
      meaning of crests--Mottoes on crests, and their meanings


                              CHAPTER IV

      MILITARY UNIFORMS                                               53

      The growth of uniforms--The effect of the decline in armour
      on uniforms--The part played by Elizabeth--Uniforms in
      the time of the Civil War--In Charles II's reign--James II--The
      first two Georges--Uniforms in the Peninsular War--The
      close-fitting uniforms of George IV--The changes which
      were brought about in William IV's time--Later changes--
      Peculiarities of the military dress of to-day


                               CHAPTER V

      ARMOUR                                                          69

      The scarcity of good armour--Considerations for the
      collector--Counterfeit armour--The twelve periods in
      armour--The characteristics of each period--Glossary


                              CHAPTER VI

      WEAPONS                                                         89

      Buying specimens--Storing them--Hand culverins--The
      serpentin--The wheel-lock--The flint-lock--The rifle--Swords--The
      effect of armour on swords--Swords with
      historical associations--Other weapons


                              CHAPTER VII

      EARLY BRITISH WAR MEDALS                                        105
      How to arrange a collection of medals--Factors which
      influence the value of a medal--The earliest medals--The
      first English medal--The first English military medal--The
      Forlorn Hope medal--The Dunbar medal--The Culloden
      medal--Medals granted by the Honourable East India Company--The
      Pope's medal, 1793--The Emperor Francis II
      of Germany's medal, 1794--The Seringapatam medal--The
      Egyptian medal, 1801--The Rodriguez medal--The Nepaul
      medal--The Maida medal--The Peninsular Officers' medal


                             CHAPTER VIII

      MILITARY MEDALS STRUCK BY THE MINT                              135

      Campaign medals considered--Waterloo--Burmah--China--
      Cabul--Jellalabad--Scinde--Meanee--Sobroan--The
      men's Peninsular medal--Punjab--Indian General Service medals--
      South Africa, 1850-3; also 1877-9--Baltic--Crimea--Indian
      Mutiny--Abyssinia--New Zealand--Later awards


                              CHAPTER IX

      MILITARY DECORATIONS AWARDED FOR SPECIAL SERVICES               163

      The necessity for special awards--The Victoria Cross--The
      Order of Merit--The "Distinguished Conduct in the Field"
      award--The Distinguished Service Order--The Meritorious
      Service award--The Long Service and Good Conduct
      award--The "Best Shot" medal--Volunteer decorations--Other
      decorations


                               CHAPTER X

      MILITARY MEDALLIONS                                             181

      General considerations--The "lost wax" process--Hadrian's
      medallions--Renaissance examples--Simon, the
      medallist--Wyon's work--Public collections--Some noted
      medallions described


                              CHAPTER XI

      MILITARY PRINTS                                                 195

      The period 1750-1860--Works including military prints--Where
      to search for bargains--The kind of print most
      sought after--Works including fine military prints--Bunbury--
      Gillray


                              CHAPTER XII

      MEMORIAL BRASSES OF MILITARY INTEREST                           209

      Classes of military brasses--Rubbings and how to make
      them--Floor brasses, their characteristics--Palimpsest
      brasses--What may be learnt from brasses--Mural tablets


                             CHAPTER XIII

      AUTOGRAPHS OF GREAT SOLDIERS                                    221

      The fascination of autograph collecting--Points which
      influence the value of an autograph--Autographs classified--A
      "Schomberg" letter--The notes scribbled by Airey at
      Balaclava--General hints--Prices of autographs


                              CHAPTER XIV

      WAR POSTAGE STAMPS                                              241

      The earliest war stamps--Stamps used in the Crimean War--The
      British Army Post Office Corps--The Sudan Expedition--The
      South African campaign--The Great War--Recent
      war stamps and post-marks--Indian war stamps--Other
      war stamps


                              CHAPTER XV

      WAR MONEY                                                       261

      French obsidional notes--Mafeking notes--The Napoleonic
      assignats--Charles II and University plate--Mints at
      Carlisle, Beeston, Scarborough, Newark, Colchester, and
      Pontefract--Irish gun money


                              CHAPTER XVI

      CURIOS MADE BY PRISONERS OF WAR                                 287

      Objects recently made in Holland--The Napoleonic
      prisoners at Norman Cross, Perth, Dartmoor, Stapleton,
      Liverpool, and Greenland Valleyfield


                             CHAPTER XVII

      MISCELLANEOUS MILITARY CURIOS                                   299

      Considerations respecting miscellaneous curios--Battlefield
      souvenirs--Regimental colours--Odds and ends of dress
      equipment--Books and newspapers of military interest--Royal
      souvenirs--Official military documents--Gruesome
      relics--Relics of the Great War


                             CHAPTER XVIII

      A HISTORY OF ONE'S COLLECTION                                   317

      Reasons for compiling a history of one's collection--The
      part played by photographs--Armour suggested as an
      example--Material for grangerizing

      BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                    323

      INDEX                                                           337



                             ILLUSTRATIONS


                              LIST OF PLATES

      A BRONZE MEDALLION OF THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON       _Frontispiece_

                                                                    PAGE

      QUEEN VICTORIA'S CHOCOLATE BOX SENT TO THE SOLDIERS
      FIGHTING IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1900                                  23

      PRINCESS MARY'S CHRISTMAS BOX SENT TO THE SOLDIERS
      FIGHTING IN FRANCE AND BELGIUM, 1914                            23

      BADGE OF THE QUEEN'S (ROYAL WEST SURREY REGIMENT)
      2ND FOOT                                                        33

      BADGE OF THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH'S (WILTSHIRE REGIMENT)           33

      BADGE OF THE KING'S (LIVERPOOL REGIMENT)                        33

      BADGE OF THE ROYAL WARWICKSHIRE REGIMENT                        33

      BADGE OF THE ROYAL DUBLIN FUSILIERS                             43

      BADGE OF THE ROYAL FUSILIERS (CITY OF LONDON REGIMENT)          43

      BADGE OF THE SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS (5TH BATTALION)               43

      BADGE OF THE ROYAL REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY                        43

      SOME REGIMENTAL BUTTONS                                         49

      A HORSE AMULET BEARING THE DEVICE OF THE ROYAL
      FUSILIERS                                                       57

      HELMET PLATE OF THE ROYAL MARINE LIGHT INFANTRY                 57

      A SLEEVE FROM A COAT OF THE OLD 2ND (SOUTH MIDDLESEX)
      VOLUNTEER REGIMENT                                              67

      A BELT BUCKLE FROM THE SAME REGIMENT                            67

      A FLINT-LOCK PISTOL                                             77

      THE ACTION PART OF THE ABOVE                                    77

      THE BARREL OF A GUN ORNAMENTED WITH A TWIN HEAD
      OF MINERVA                                                      85

      AN OLD POWDER-FLASK                                             85

      A SOUTH AFRICAN POM-POM SHELL AND A MARTINI-HENRI
      CARTRIDGE                                                       93

      CARTRIDGES AS USED IN THE GREAT WAR. FROM LEFT TO
      RIGHT: GERMAN, FRENCH, BELGIAN, AND BRITISH                     93

      AN OLD SWORD WITH STRAIGHT CROSS-GUARDS                        101

      AN ITALIAN DAGGER HAVING A REPLICA OF THE FAMOUS
      COLUMN OF ST. MARK FOR GRIP                                    101

      ROYALIST BADGE WORN BY THE PARTISANS OF CHARLES I              109

      THE CRIMEAN MEDAL                                              117

      THE GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL, 1793-1814                           123

      THE AFGHAN MEDAL                                               123

      SOUTH AFRICAN MEDAL, 1877-9                                    123

      THE INDIAN MUTINY MEDAL                                        133

      THE CHINA MEDAL, 1842-60                                       145

      THE EGYPTIAN MEDAL, 1882-9                                     145

      THE SUTLEJ MEDAL                                               157

      THE PUNJAB MEDAL                                               157

      THE THIRD INDIAN GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL                         157

      THE QUEEN AND KING'S SOUTH AFRICAN MEDALS, 1899-1902           171
      (The same reverse was used for both pieces)

      A CHECK TO CORSICAN ASSURANCE                                  191
      By Cruikshank

      NAPOLEON'S CARRIAGE ARRIVING AT THE LONDON MUSEUM              199
      By Cruikshank

      A SINGULAR TRAIT OF BUONAPARTE'S FAVOURITE MAMELUKE            207
      By Cruikshank

      A BATTLEFIELD SOUVENIR PICKED UP ON THE PLAINS OF
      FLANDERS                                                       217

      (The same helmet is shown with and without the cloth covering)

      A BATTLEFIELD SOUVENIR BEARING VERSES SHOWING THE
      BLOODTHIRSTY NATURE OF THE TYROLESE PEASANT AND
      SOLDIER                                                        227

      AN OLD MUG BEARING THE FAMOUS PICTURE DEPICTING
      "THE DEATH OF WOLFE"                                           237

      A SOLDIER'S COMMUNICATION POSTED DURING THE SOUTH
      AFRICAN WAR                                                    245

      A SIMILAR COMMUNICATION FROM "SOMEWHERE IN FRANCE"             245

      A POST-CARD RECEIVED FROM A SOLDIER IN FRANCE BEARING
      STEREOTYPED GREETINGS                                          257

      MONEY OF THE GREAT REBELLION, 1642-9                           265

      (1. Newark sixpence--2. Colchester gold half unite--3. Pontefract
      two-shilling piece--4. Ormond half-crown--5. Dublin crown of
      Charles II)

      GUN MONEY OF JAMES II                                          271

      (1. Sixpence--2. Sixpence--3. Shilling--4. Shilling--5.
      Half-crown--6. Half-crown--7. Half-crown--8. Half-crown)

      GUN MONEY OF JAMES II                                          277
      (9. Shilling--10. Shilling--11. Half-crown--12. Half-crown--13.
      Half-crown--14. Crown--15. Crown--16. Limerick farthing)

      PAPER MONEY OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC, 1793                       283

      OBSIDIONAL HALF-FRANC NOTE OF EPERNAY                          291

      OBSIDIONAL FRANC NOTE OF EPERNAY                               291

      A NEWSPAPER POSTER WHICH TOLD OF WELCOME NEWS                  297

      A SET OF BONE DOMINOES CARVED BY PRISONERS TAKEN IN
      THE NAPOLEONIC WARS, AND INTERNED IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD
      OF PETERBOROUGH                                                297

      AN INTERESTING BROADSIDE PRINTED AT THE FAMOUS
      CATNACH PRESS, BEING ONE OF A SERIES DESCRIBING
      INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SOLDIER                             313


                         ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT

      ARMOUR HEADGEAR                                                 75

      WEAPONS                                                         99

      A MEDALLION STRUCK IN HONOUR OF JULIUS CÆSAR                   186

      MEDALLION COMMEMORATING THE VICTORY OF THE BATTLE
      OF THE BOYNE                                                   187

      MEDALLION COMMEMORATING THE FALL OF JAMES II                   187

      TWO MARLBOROUGH MEDALLIONS                                     188

      MEDALLION COMMEMORATING THE BATTLE OF OUDENARDE                189

      MEDALLION COMMEMORATING THE SURRENDER OF LILLE                 189

      MEDALLION COMMEMORATING THE BATTLE OF DUNBLANE                 190

      MEDALLION COMMEMORATING THE BATTLE OF DETTINGEN                190

      MEDALLION COMMEMORATING THE BATTLE OF MINDEN                   193

      THE OLDEST ENGLISH BRASS                                       215

      FACSIMILE OF A PORTION OF A LETTER WRITTEN BY
      CROMWELL TO LENTHALL, ANNOUNCING THE VICTORY
      OF NASEBY                                                      225

      AUTOGRAPH LETTER WRITTEN BY NAPOLEON III TO WILLIAM I
      OF GERMANY AFTER THE BATTLE OF SEDAN                           231

      SOME AUTOGRAPHS OF NOTED SOLDIERS                              235

      SOME HISTORIC POST-MARKS USED ON MILITARY CORRESPONDENCE       252

      A CUTTING FROM "THE TIMES" OF NOVEMBER 9, 1796                 308



                           _ACKNOWLEDGMENT_


_The Author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Dr. Philip Nelson
for the loan of the valuable coins which figure in the illustrations
on pages 265, 271, and 277; to Mr. Tom Satterthwaite for the loan of
many of the medals depicted in these pages; to Mr. Leonard Baggott for
the loan of arms; to Messrs. Henry Sotheran for permission to reproduce
three Cruikshank prints; to Messrs. Spink & Son for permission to
reproduce the Royalist Badge; also to Mr. Edwin Johnson, B.Sc., and Mr.
James Pryor for the loan of various curios included in the following
pages._

_The Author also wishes to state that in forming his own collection
of military curios he has gained much helpful assistance from "The
Connoisseur"; from C. H. Ashdown's "British and Foreign Arms and
Armour"; from J. H. Mayo's "Medals and Decorations of the British
Army and Navy"; from D. H. Irwin's "War Medals and Decorations"; from
Ralph Nevill's "British Military Prints"; from Edward Beaumont's works
dealing with Brasses; and from the authorities of the Royal United
Service Museum._



                               CHAPTER I

                             INTRODUCTION

   Preliminary considerations--Where to search for curios--What to search
     for--Specializing--Undesirable curios--The catalogue of the Royal
     United Service Museum--Public collections of military curios


For centuries past the collection of military curios has been the
select pastime of men of title and soldiers of rank. Lately, however,
owing to the War and the great spread of interest in all things
pertaining to it, the circle of collectors has considerably widened,
until to-day few things are more treasured by connoisseurs than the
thousand and one souvenirs and emblems which emanate from our Army.

Most forms of collecting require the expenditure of much capital,
but this is not one of the drawbacks which confront the seeker after
military curios. For a few pence an old-fashioned bayonet can be picked
up; a rifle bearing a date in last century will cost but a trifle more,
whilst such odds and ends as badges and tunic buttons may be had for
almost nothing.

Of course, a good deal depends on knowing where to search for
treasures. The old curiosity shops are capital hunting-grounds, but
second-hand dealers who make a practice of buying up the contents of
whole houses are even better. These people seem to get an accumulation
of odd material which is difficult to classify, and therefore hard to
sell. It is hidden away among these effects that the collector will
probably alight upon his finest discoveries.

Some of our own experiences in the matter of bargain finding may be
worth detailing. At Rag Fair, last Christmas, we were asked half a
guinea for six perfect but very much begrimed medals, one of which
was for the Defence of Lucknow. Needless to add, the set was worth
many pounds when cleaned and fitted with fresh ribbons. On a stall in
Farringdon Road we recently picked up a few helmet badges, some of
which bore the old regimental numbers used prior to 1881, at twopence
apiece. And elsewhere a few weeks back we chanced upon a bag full of
military buttons, for which the dealer asked a shilling.

If we wish to form our collections quickly the best plan will be to
get in touch with one of the first-class firms who regularly keep an
exhaustive stock of military curios, and who can supply almost anything
we need; but for our part we prefer to enter upon the work slowly and
pick up treasures here and there at tempting prices. Doubtless there
are capital hunting-grounds where bargains may be found in almost
every town, but in London our favourite haunts are Rag Fair, held on
Fridays in the Caledonian Meat Market; the stalls in Farringdon Road,
Hounsditch, and Middlesex Street; the shops in Praed Street; and,
lastly, Charing Cross Road--the latter only for books and prints. Of
course a good deal of material may be obtained cheaply by keeping an
eye on the bargain advertisements found in certain newspapers. _The
Bazaar, Exchange and Mart_, for instance, regularly contains notices
of guns, medals, autographs, and such-like objects for sale, often at
prices ridiculously low. It is thus clear that there is no lack in the
sources of supply if only we can get in touch with them.

With many forms of collecting there is a certain sameness about the
things collected which is apt to produce monotony: with military
curios, however, the treasures cover so wide a field that no such
drawback can exist. The following list will give a fair idea of the
different objects which come within our present range:--

Medals, helmet and cap-badges, tunic buttons, armour pieces, firearms,
weapons of all kinds as long as they have a military connection,
medallions struck to celebrate military events, autographs of famous
soldiers, original documents relating to army work, military pictures
and prints, newspaper cuttings referring to military matters, obsolete
uniforms including such fragments as sabre-taches, gorgets, epaulettes,
etc., and, lastly, stamps and post-marks which have franked the
correspondence of soldiers on active service.

The list is a somewhat lengthy one, and to endeavour to amass a
representative collection of all the things enumerated would be a
formidable task. It is, therefore, much the wisest plan either to
collect the above objects in a general way, specializing at the same
time in two or three definite directions, or else to collect everything
possible pertaining to one definite regiment. The latter method is,
of course, the one which appeals most to army men and their immediate
friends.

Those of us who elect to confine our attentions to regimental
collecting should first procure a history of the regiment selected.
From this work we shall then be able to find out what battles our
chosen unit has fought in; what particular history it possesses; what
noted soldiers have brought it fame; where it has been quartered from
time to time; what customs specially belong to it; what changes have
been made in its dress, and so forth. Such knowledge will afford us
much help; it will teach us what objects to seek for and what to pass
over. We shall not be led to search, say, for a Ghuznee medal if our
chosen regiment was formed later than 1842, nor shall we hunt through
the files of _The Times_ for Wellington's dispatches concerning the
Battle of Waterloo if our regiment took no part in the campaign.

       *       *       *       *       *

There are one or two kinds of military curios which we should not
attempt to collect. First, we should avoid all such large objects as
take up more house-room than we can afford to spare them, and secondly,
we should refrain from accepting objects the genuineness of which
it is impossible to verify. Concerning this latter class, it may be
appropriate to mention that we have never visited the battlefield
of Waterloo without meeting a particularly eloquent man who always
tells us that he has just had the good fortune to dig up some trophy
or other of the famous fight. Naturally he is prepared to let us share
in his good fortune, and consequently names a price for the article.
Needless to say, the country of origin of the trophy is Germany,
and the date of construction some time in the twentieth century.
Probably, other battlefields besides the one at Waterloo are infested
with unscrupulous curio vendors, so that the collector will be well
advised if he refrains from purchasing any article unless properly
authenticated--especially on battlefields.

  [Illustration: QUEEN VICTORIA'S CHOCOLATE BOX SENT TO THE SOLDIERS
  FIGHTING IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1900.]

  [Illustration: PRINCESS MARY'S CHRISTMAS BOX SENT TO THE SOLDIERS
  FIGHTING IN FRANCE AND BELGIUM, 1914.]

In many branches of collecting comprehensive catalogues have been
published which enable the student to classify, arrange, and price
every piece among his treasures. With military curios, however, no such
publications exist, but a very useful guide is the official catalogue
issued by the Royal United Service Museum in Whitehall. The Museum
itself is well worth frequent visits, for it is only by constant
inspection of such exhibits as those displayed in this gallery that we
can get to know of the existence of certain curios and of the shape,
texture, and pattern of others. The Museum possesses particularly fine
exhibits of medals, even of the earlier types; of uniforms, especially
head-pieces; of regimental banners, and such weapons as swords and
rifles.

The United Service Museum is by no means the only treasure-house of
interest to collectors of military curios. The Tower of London, the
Wallace Collection, and the Rotunda at Woolwich, each possess much
that is worth inspecting in the way of armour and weapons, whilst the
British Museum has a collection of medals which is almost unique. The
traveller on the Continent will find many instructive exhibits in the
Musée d'Artillerie at Paris, the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam, and the
National Museum at Copenhagen.



                              CHAPTER II

                        REGIMENTAL NOMENCLATURE

   Household Cavalry--Dragoon Guards--Cavalry--Artillery--Engineers
     --Guards--Infantry, both past and present nomenclature--Other
     units


The composition of the British Army is a matter concerning which the
lay reader knows but little. As many regiments will be mentioned by
name in the following pages, it is very necessary that the various
divisions be given in tabulated form for purposes of reference. Without
such a list the collecting of badges, crests, and other devices cannot
be performed methodically nor can we study the various forms of dress
with anything like precision.

The following list consists of one hundred and fourteen units, many of
which may be sub-divided into regulars, territorials, and cadets. Where
such sub-divisions exist separate badges are worn. It must also be
mentioned that each battalion in certain regiments boasts of a distinct
device of its own. The different badges worn to-day in the King's Army
are therefore considerably above two hundred in number:--

HOUSEHOLD CAVALRY:

    1st Life Guards.
    2nd Life Guards.
    Royal Horse Guards.

DRAGOON GUARDS:

      1st Dragoon Guards (King's).
      2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen's Bays).
      3rd Dragoon Guards (Prince of Wales's).
      4th Dragoon Guards (Royal Irish).
      5th Dragoon Guards (Princess Charlotte of Wales's).
      6th Dragoon Guards (Carabineers).
      7th Dragoon Guards (Princess Royal's).

CAVALRY:

       1st Royal Dragoons.
       2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys).
       3rd King's Own Hussars.
       4th Queen's Own Hussars.
       5th Royal Irish Lancers.
       6th Inniskilling Dragoons.
       7th Queen's Own Hussars.
       8th King's Royal Irish Hussars.
       9th Queen's Royal Lancers.
      10th Prince of Wales's Own Royal Hussars.
      11th Prince Albert's Own Hussars.
      12th Prince of Wales's Royal Lancers.
      13th Hussars.
      14th King's Hussars.
      15th The King's Hussars.
      16th The Queen's Lancers.
      17th Duke of Cambridge's Own Lancers.
      18th Queen Mary's Own Hussars.
      19th Queen Alexandra's Own Royal Hussars.
      20th Hussars.
      21st Empress of India's Lancers.

ROYAL ARTILLERY.

ROYAL ENGINEERS.

GUARDS:

      Grenadier Guards.
      Coldstream Guards.
      Scots Guards.
      Irish Guards.
      Welsh Guards.

INFANTRY:

     (N.B.--Following each horizontal mark the old regimental
       nomenclature is appended. It will be seen that in many
       cases two of the old regiments were joined together to
       form one of the new.)

   Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment)--1st or Royal Scots.

   Queen's (Royal West Surrey)--2nd or Queen's Royal.

   Buffs (East Kent)--3rd East Kent.

   King's Own (Royal Lancaster)--4th or King's Own.

   Northumberland Fusiliers--5th or Northumberland Foot Regiment.

   Royal Warwickshire Regiment--6th or 1st Warwickshire Foot Regiment.

   Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment)--7th Regiment of Foot or
   Royal Fuzileers.[1]

     [1] The old spelling is retained.

   King's (Liverpool Regiment)--8th or King's Regiment.

   Norfolk Regiment--9th East Norfolk.

   Lincolnshire Regiment--10th North Lincolnshire.

   Devonshire Regiment--11th North Devonshire.

   Suffolk Regiment--12th or East Suffolk.

   Prince Albert's (Somersetshire Light Infantry)--13th or 1st
   Somersetshire.

   Prince of Wales's Own (West Yorkshire Regiment)--14th or
   Buckinghamshire Regiment.

   East Yorkshire Regiment--15th Yorkshire (East Riding).

   Bedfordshire Regiment--16th or Bedfordshire Regiment.

   Leicestershire Regiment--17th or Leicestershire Regiment.

   Royal Irish Regiment--18th or Royal Irish Regiment.

   Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own (Yorkshire Regiment)--19th or 1st
   Yorkshire (North Riding).

   Lancashire Fusiliers--20th or East Devonshire.

   Royal Scots Fusiliers--21st or Royal North British Fuzileers.

   Cheshire Regiment--22nd or Cheshire Regiment.

    Royal Welsh Fusiliers--23rd or Royal Welsh Fuzileers.

   South Wales Borderers--24th or Warwickshire Regiment.

   King's Own Scottish Borderers--25th or King's Own Borderers.

   Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)--26th or Cameronians; also Perthshire
   Volunteers.

   Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers--27th or Inniskilling Regiment.

   Gloucestershire Regiment--28th or North Gloucestershire; also 61st or
   South Gloucestershire.

   Worcestershire Regiment--29th Worcestershire; also 36th or
   Herefordshire.

   East Lancashire Regiment--30th or Cambridgeshire Regiment; also 59th
   or 2nd Nottinghamshire Regiment.

   East Surrey Regiment--31st or Huntingdonshire Regiment; also 70th or
   Glasgow Lowland Regiment.

   Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry--32nd or Cornwall Regiment; also
   46th or South Devonshire Regiment.

   Duke of Wellington's (West Riding Regiment)--76th Regiment; also 33rd
   or 1st Yorkshire (West Riding Regiment).

(This is the only regiment named after a person not of royal blood.)

   Border Regiment--34th or Cumberland; also 55th or Westmoreland
   Regiment.

   Royal Sussex Regiment--35th or Sussex Regiment.

   Hampshire Regiment--37th or North Hampshire; also 67th or South
   Hampshire.

   South Staffordshire Regiment--38th or 1st Staffordshire; also 80th or
   Staffordshire Volunteers.

   Dorsetshire Regiment--39th Dorsetshire; also 54th or West Norfolk.

   Prince of Wales's Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment)--40th or 2nd
   Somersetshire; also 82nd Regiment.

   Welsh Regiment--41st Regiment of Foot; also 69th or South
   Lincolnshire.

   Black Watch (Royal Highlanders)--42nd or Royal Highland Regiment; also
   73rd Highland Regiment.

   Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry--43rd or Monmouthshire
   Regiment; also 52nd or Oxfordshire Regiment.

   Essex Regiment--44th or East Essex; also 56th or West Essex Regiment.

   Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment)--45th or
   Nottinghamshire.

   Loyal North Lancashire Regiment--47th or Lancashire Regiment; also
   81st Regiment.

   Northamptonshire Regiment--48th Northamptonshire; also 58th
   Rutlandshire.

   Princess Charlotte of Wales's (Royal Berkshire Regiment)--49th or
   Hertfordshire Regiment; also 66th or Berkshire Regiment.

   Queen's Own (Royal West Kent Regiment)--50th or West Kent; also 97th
   or Queen's Own Regiment.

   King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry)--51st or 2nd Yorkshire (West
   Riding).

   King's (Shropshire Light Infantry)--53rd or Shropshire Regiment; also
   Bucks Volunteers.

   Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment)--57th or West Middlesex;
   also 77th or East Middlesex.

   King's Royal Rifle Corps--60th or Royal American Regiment.

   Duke of Edinburgh's (Wiltshire Regiment)--62nd or Wilts Regiment; also
   Prince of Wales's Tipperary Regiment.

   Manchester Regiment--63rd or West Suffolk; also 96th Regiment.

   Prince of Wales's (North Staffordshire Regiment)--64th or 2nd
   Staffordshire; also 98th Regiment

   York and Lancaster Regiment--65th or 2nd Yorkshire North Riding
   Regiment; also 84th York and Lancaster Regiment.

   Durham Light Infantry--68th or Durham Regiment.

   Highland Light Infantry--71st and 74th Highland Regiment.

   Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs, The Duke of Albany's)--72nd;
   also 78th Highland Regiment.

   Gordon Highlanders--75th Highland Regiment; also 92nd Regiment.

   Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders--79th Regiment of Cameron Highlanders.

    Royal Irish Rifles--83rd Regiment; also Royal County Down Regiment.

   Princess Victoria's (Royal Irish Fusiliers)--87th or Prince of Wales's
   Own Irish Regiment; also 89th Regiment.

   Connaught Rangers--88th Regiment or Connaught Rangers; also 94th
   Regiment.

   Princess Louise's (Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders)--91st Regiment;
   also 93rd Regiment.

   Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment (Royal Canadians)--100th or His
   Royal Highness the Prince Regent's County of Dublin Regiment.

   Royal Munster Fusiliers--101st or Duke of York's Irish Regiment; also
   104th Regiment.

   Royal Dublin Fusiliers--102nd Regiment.

   Rifle Brigade--95th Regiment.

  [Illustration: BADGE OF THE QUEEN'S (ROYAL WEST SURREY REGIMENT) 2ND
  FOOT.]

  [Illustration: BADGE OF THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH'S (WILTSHIRE REGIMENT).]

  [Illustration: BADGE OF THE KING'S (LIVERPOOL REGIMENT).]

  [Illustration: BADGE OF THE ROYAL WARWICKSHIRE REGIMENT.]

OTHER UNITS:

     Royal Marine Artillery.
     Royal Marine Infantry.
     Army Service Corps.
     Royal Army Medical Corps.
     Army Veterinary Corps.
     Army Ordnance Corps.
     Army Pay Corps.



                              CHAPTER III

                           REGIMENTAL CRESTS

   The fascination of regimental crests--How to plan a collection
     of crests--The changes which crests undergo--The meaning of
     crests--Mottoes on crests, and their meanings


The crest or badge worn by a soldier is probably one of his most
cherished possessions, for it is at once the symbol of his regiment and
the mascot which urges him on to fame and victory. It is but little
wonder, then, that such emblems, so jealously preserved, should prove
of deep interest to the collector of military curios.

In our own case, and we suppose it was much the same in those of
our readers, army crests fascinated us long before we had a clear
perception of what an army really was. In our early school-days,
buttons bearing the various regimental devices attracted us; later our
collection extended a welcome to cap-badges whilst to-day it contains
such treasures as the crests on waist-belts, crossbelt-plates, helmets,
collar-plates, and even those on the metal flaps of sabretaches.

A collection of regimental badges should be planned on scientific
lines, otherwise the treasured possessions will lose much of their
interest. In the first place, the various specimens should be
classified: buttons should be arranged in one group, cap-badges in
another, belt-plates in another, and so on.

The second grouping should be based upon the standing of the regimental
unit. All the buttons worn by the regular army, for instance, should
be placed in one sub-division; all those of the territorial army in
another; and, as obsolete specimens are still procurable, sub-divisions
should be reserved for the volunteer force, the old militia, and
special forces which have been raised on special occasions.

Of course the badges should be arranged according to the precedence
accorded to the regiments for which they stand; thus, in the case of
the regular army, the Household Cavalry should receive priority and be
followed by the Dragoon Guards; then the Cavalry of the Line should
take third place, whilst the fourth and fifth places should be given to
the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. The Guards should be placed
sixth, and the Infantry of the Line seventh. Badges of each of these
divisions should then be arranged according to the seniority of the
regiment. The Army List and the chapter on "Regimental Nomenclature"
will give valuable help on this point. Finally, where regiments possess
various badges for the different companies, these must be arranged in
numerical order.

In planning a collection, it is well to remember that badges are
constantly changing their patterns, not in fundamental ways, it is
true, but in ways which are quite sufficient to add zest to the hobby
of collecting. Battle honours, for instance, have been frequently
added in the past, whilst many changes are sure to take place in the
future, on this score alone, as a result of the great war with Germany.
After the Boer War, additions were made to the scrolls which encircle
many regimental badges, and the same may be said of the Peninsular,
Marlborough's wars, and every great campaign in which the British Army
has figured. Thus it is clear that a collection of devices such as we
have here in mind is full of interest, not only from the military and
antiquarian but also the historical point of view.

  [Illustration: BADGE OF THE ROYAL DUBLIN FUSILIERS.

  BADGE OF THE ROYAL FUSILIERS (CITY OF LONDON REGIMENT).

  BADGE OF THE SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS (5TH BATTALION).

  BADGE OF THE ROYAL REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY.]

In addition to the gradual changes which have arisen, it must be
mentioned that in 1881 the names of many regiments underwent changes
and the badges suffered material alterations in consequence. Before
the year in question, each army unit was known by its number and the
crests bore distinguishing numerals. Thus the Wiltshire badge, which
to-day depicts the Duke of Edinburgh's monogram within a circle, bore
the figures "62" instead up till 1881. The collector will find these
early devices of much interest, but, as a rule, they are fairly hard to
obtain.

Unless the collector has ideas of his own as to how the badges should
be mounted, it will be a capital plan to cover a board with black
velvet and pin the medal emblems to it. When complete, the board should
be framed with a moulding having a fairly deep rebate. The effect will
be pleasing; the frame can be used as a wall ornamentation, and, what
is most important, the badges themselves will be protected, as far as
possible, from the deteriorating influences of the atmosphere.

       *       *       *       *       *

A study of the designs given on the crests forms, of course, an
interesting pastime. Probably the first point which the student will
notice is that certain specimens bear the King's sign--e.g. the King's
Dragoon Guards and the Grenadier Guards--consequently, all such badges
must inevitably suffer alteration on the demise of the reigning
sovereign.

All royal regiments, with a single exception, bear the royal crown,
though crowns of various types are borne by other units than royal ones.

Light infantry regiments invariably display a horn.

Grenades form part of the devices worn by the Grenadier Guards, the
Royal Artillery, and the Fusilier regiments.

Most of the Irish units display the harp, and the Welsh the dragon, but
in connection with this latter class, it must be mentioned that the
Buffs (East Kent) are also proud of a dragon; this, however, was given
them for services rendered in China.

Britannia, one of our most cherished allegorical figures, is seen on
but a single crest: that of the Norfolks. It was awarded to this unit
for gallantry at Almanza in 1707. The Spaniards in the Peninsular War
nicknamed the men of this regiment the "Holy Boys," as they mistook the
figure of Britannia for that of the Virgin Mary.

A castle and key figure on many regimental devices. All those
which display them fought at Gibraltar and received permission to
incorporate these objects in their crest in memory of the services
which they performed there.

A striped rose forms part of a great many badges. It is a sign of the
union after the War of the Roses.

Animals are favourite emblems. The lion, the symbol of our island race,
naturally figures most frequently, but elephants, horses, tigers, and
stags are great favourites.

It is not always possible to tell why such and such a regiment has
chosen a particular animal for incorporation in its device, but, more
often than not, the design may be traced back to the family escutcheon
of a nobleman who had some hand in raising the unit. A case in point is
the cat encircled by the motto _Sans Peur_, which the men of the 5th
battalion of the Seaforth Highlanders wear on their caps. This creature
has long ornamented the crest of the House of Sutherland, and the
Sutherlands claim guardianship over this particular unit.

In other cases, an animal has been selected because it is specially
appropriate. For instance, the Sherwood Foresters, soldiers who recall
Robin Hood and the good old-fashioned chase, display an ambling stag,
whilst regiments associated with long service in India have adopted an
elephant or tiger.

But the most appropriate badge of all is that worn by the Royal Army
Medical Corps. In this instance, we have a snake coiled around a rod.
The snake, as every reader knows, was the particular mascot carried
by Æsculapius, the god of healing, whilst the same reptile was used
by Moses in the Wilderness to free the Children of Israel from the
ailments which proved so troublesome to them.

The fleeting horse, borne by the King's Own Hussars, the Fifth Dragoon
Guards, and the Royal Fusiliers, is the white horse of Hanover, and was
incorporated in the crests to remind us of services rendered against
the Jacobites.

The Paschal lamb on the "Queen's" was the badge of Catherine of
Braganza, wife of Charles II.

The sphinx, as every one knows, indicates special services in Egypt.

       *       *       *       *       *

The mottoes incorporated in certain of the regimental crests are not
without interest. The following, with their English equivalents, are
worth noting:--

Pro rege et patria--For King and country.

Quis separabit?--Who shall separate?

Quo fata vocant--Whither fate calls.

Spectemur agendo--Let us be judged by our actions.

Nemo me impune lacessit--No one provokes me with impunity.

Nec aspera terrent--Difficulties do not terrify us.

Mente et manu--With mind and hand.

Pristinæ virtutis memores--The memory of former valour.

Viret in æternum--Flourishes for ever.

Quo fas et gloria ducunt--Where right and glory lead.

Vel exuviæ triumphant--Arms surely triumphant.

Semper fidelis--Always faithful.

Virtutis namurcensis præmium--The reward of valour at Namur.

Omnia audax--To dare all.

Nisi Dominus frustra--Without God, it is vain.

Virtutis fortuna comes--Fortune the friend of valour.

Primus in Indis--First in the Indies.

Gwell angau na chyurlydd--Rather death than shame.

Aucto splendore resurgo--I rise with increased splendour.

Celer et audax--Swift and bold.

Cuidich'n Righ--Assist the King.

Faugh-a-ballach--Clear the way.

In arduis fidelis--In danger, faithful.

  [Illustration: SOME REGIMENTAL BUTTONS.]



                              CHAPTER IV

                           MILITARY UNIFORMS

   The growth of uniforms--The effect of the decline in armour on
     uniforms--The part played by Elizabeth--Uniforms in the time of
     the Civil War--In Charles II's reign--James II--The first two
     Georges--Uniforms in the Peninsular War--The close-fitting uniforms
     of George IV--The changes which were brought about in William IV's
     time--Later changes--Peculiarities of the military dress of to-day


One of the most interesting tasks which the collector of military
curios can set himself is to trace out, by all available means, the
growth of army uniforms from earliest times to the present day.
In prosecuting such self-imposed work, the sources of information
which will have to be studied are almost without limit, ranging
from contemporary drawings, prints, statues, the writings of such
chroniclers as Stowe, to, of course, the actual uniforms themselves.
Our knowledge of the metamorphoses of military dress is very imperfect,
and this research work will be all the more valuable in consequence.

At first thought it is a little surprising to learn that the earliest
official mention of a distinguishing uniform for English soldiers
occurs among the Ordinances of Henry VIII, but when we consider that
armour in various styles was largely used until Tudor times, the fact
is not so striking. Isolated instances of uniformed soldiers can be
traced before this period; Hannibal, we know, raised the famous white
and crimson Spanish regiments, and then, of course, there were the
Crusaders, who wore the ordinary clothes of the times, ornamented with
crosses of distinctive colours.

With the decline of armour, retainers went into battle robed in the
cloth liveries of their masters, whilst the mercenaries wore the usual
dress of civilians. The drawback to such an arrangement was obvious.
Men could never tell who were their friends and who their foes, and
unnecessary slaughter was consequently committed. It was not long
before leaders provided their followers with scarves of distinctive
colours; sometimes they were appropriately chosen, at others they
were merely distinctive. But even this plan gave little satisfaction,
for our history books of the period are crowded with tales of men
who donned the enemy's colours and were thus able to surprise their
opponents.

  [Illustration: HELMET PLATE OF THE ROYAL MARINE LIGHT INFANTRY.]

As a result of these conditions, Henry VIII decided to clothe some, at
least, of his soldiers in distinctive uniforms; he selected white coats
emblazoned with the red cross of St. George. Speaking of other soldiers
of this reign, probably later levies, Stubbs remarks that the doublets
which they wore "reached down to the middle of the thighs, though not
always quite so low, being so hard quilted, stuffed, bombasted, and
sewed as they can neither work nor yet well play in them, through the
excessive heat and the stiffness thereof. Therefore are they forced
to wear them loose about them. They are stuffed with four, five, or
six pounds of bombast at the least, and made of satin, taffeta, silk,
grograine, gold, silver, and what not." From the antiquarian's point of
view this dress must have indeed proved attractive, though the soldier
of to-day will hardly recognize any redeeming features in it.

  [Illustration: A HORSE AMULET BEARING THE DEVICE OF THE ROYAL
  FUSILIERS.]

Elizabeth, as all students of history know, paid great attention to
dress; not only in matters concerning her own person, but also in those
affecting her Court and followers. Accordingly, we find that a decree,
ordering a body of Lancashire men to be raised for service in Ireland,
stated that "the soldiers shall be given convenient doublets and hose
and also a cassock of some motley or other sad green colour or russet;
also every soldier to have five shillings to provide a mantle in
Ireland besides his livery coat."

Another interesting quotation, taken from Lawrence Archer's "British
Army Records," mentions Sir John Harrington as stating that an
officer's kit in Elizabeth's time consisted of--

    1 cassock of broad cloth.
    1 canvass doublet with silk lining and buttons.
    2 shirts.
    2 bands.
    3 pairs of stockings at 2s. 6d. each.
    3 pairs of shoes.
    1 pair of Venetians with silver lace (i.e. trousers).

When the Civil War broke out, the Royalists or Cavaliers wore a
very picturesque though hardly serviceable uniform; it consisted of
a doublet of silk, satin, or velvet with large loose sleeves slashed
up the front, the collar covered by a falling band of lace, whilst a
short cloak was carelessly worn on one shoulder. Long breeches tucked
into boots, the uppers of which were loose and curled over,[2] added to
the picturesque appearance of the warriors. A Flemish beaver, with a
distinctive hatband and an elaborate feather, was the usual headgear.
The silk doublet, it should be added, was often replaced by a buff coat
in war-time.

  [2] Apparently this slovenly looking boot was used in order to prevent
the leg from being crushed in a battle charge.

The Commonwealth, of course, brought sober clothing which, at least,
was more protective and useful than that associated with the Tudor and
Stuart periods.

In Charles II's time the military uniform, as we know it to-day, began
to materialize. It is true that during the early part of Charles's
reign the soldiers wore the pre-Commonwealth styles, but when the King
began to form certain regiments, which still exist at the present
moment, a need for definite uniforms became manifest. Thus, in 1661,
the Earl of Oxford raised the Horse Guards and provided them with a
picturesque blue uniform, and in 1665 the Third Buffs was formed and
soon earned for itself this distinctive name as its accoutrements were
fashioned from buffalo leather.

James II introduced few changes. It is worth mentioning, however, that
wigs became fashionable in this period, and large hats adorned with
waving feathers were worn to suit the style of coiffure. Sewn into the
crown of these hats, skull caps made of iron were frequently found.

In 1695, according to a contemporary authority, the coats and breeches
of the sergeants and ordinary soldiers were, in most cases, grey,
whilst the coats of drummer boys were purple. The shape of these
costumes followed the civilian styles of the period.

When Anne came to the throne, armour which had not been entirely
abolished completely died out, and the foot soldiers wore a comfortable
scarlet coat with distinctive facings, a cocked hat, breeches, and long
black gaiters reaching just above the knees, with a strap below the
knee to hold them in position. The cavalry also wore a cocked hat and
large boots. Some officers wore a wide-brimmed hat, turned up on two
sides and decked with gay feathers.[3]

  [3] Luard, "A History of the Dress of the British Soldier," p. 94.

The first two Georges introduced many ideas from abroad, the most
striking of which was the mitre helmet, worn even to-day by certain
Central European regiments. The men who were provided with this
headgear were certainly picturesque in appearance; the Royal Fusiliers,
for instance, wore a high mitred helmet, elaborately ornamented with
regimental devices, a long tail coat, buttoned back at the front in a
way which is reminiscent of the present French infantry, knee breeches,
cloth leggings, and a plain bandolier carrying a bag, much after the
fashion of a sabretache. With the exception of his hat, which was
clumsy and gave no protection either against weather or onslaughts,
his uniform was comfortable though weighty.

George III discarded the low boots and leggings for knee-boots, but
these were soon given up for low boots and long trousers. The buttons
on the uniform of the Heavy Dragoons, also, were replaced by hooks and
eyes, whilst the Light Dragoons lost nearly all theirs. In addition,
their helmet was replaced by a felt shako. Curiously enough, the
Hussar, who wore five rows of heavy buttons on his jacket and five more
rows on the little pelisse which he slung loosely over his left arm,
was allowed to keep all his cumbersome ornamentation.

The Peninsular War brought many changes, but these were more variations
of the set styles than complete alterations in shapes and colours,
probably the result of requiring large quantities of outfits for the
war, in the quickest possible time. Luard, writing of this period,
says[4]: "The officers of the Army of the Peninsula ran into great
extremes of fashion; and as there was a difficulty, frequently,
in procuring articles of dress exactly according to regulations,
considerable latitude was of necessity granted. An officer of the
4th Dragoons, who was very fond of being gaily dressed, was always
searching for silver lace, and whenever he went into a town and
returned to the camp, on being questioned regarding what articles of
food were to be procured, invariably answered: 'I don't know, but I
found some silver lace.'"

  [4] Luard, "A History of the Dress of the British Soldier," p. 102.

Directly following the Napoleonic Wars it was felt prudent for the
sake of peace to garrison a British Army of Occupation in France. Four
cavalry regiments crossed the Channel, the 9th, 12th, 16th, and 23rd
Light Dragoons being selected.

The dress which these soldiers wore was a jacket similar to that of
the ordinary Light Dragoons, but with the addition, for the officers,
of an embroidered cuff and collar, a pair of enormous epaulettes, and
an aiguillette. The cap was very high with a square top, made of cane
covered with cloth of the colour of the facings of the regiment, a
brass plate in front and a plume at the top of it. The privates' dress
corresponded to that of the officers, but brass scales were worn on the
shoulders instead of epaulettes. The Cossack shape of trousers was worn
by the officers, very full around the waist but gradually tapering down
to the foot.[5]

  [5] Luard, "A History of the Dress of the British Soldier," p. 106.

George IV, as is popularly known, gave much thought to matters of
dress. He held that wrinkles in a uniform entirely spoiled all
appearance of correct military bearing. The soldiers of his time were
therefore expected to put on their clothes and have all fullness
cut out. Luard says that the consequence was that the coats of the
privates, as well as those of the officers, were made so tight that
freedom of action was much restricted, and the infantry could with
difficulty handle their muskets, whilst the cavalry could scarcely do
sword exercise.

There is no doubt that, though the uniforms of this date were
uncomfortable, they were of a smart and attractive appearance. The
officers in the Rifle Corps, for instance, wore a tight-fitting green
outfit with silver facings, relieved by a bright scarlet belt. The
boots were of black leather, and reached almost up to the knees. The
hat was somewhat like the Highland bonnets of to-day. The officers in
the 10th Hussars were a trifle more showy in appearance. They had a
blue coat with gilt-braided plastron, and a pelisse on the left arm.
The trousers were red and skin-tight, and fastened under the instep
to keep them from creeping up the leg. The hat was a shako surmounted
by a large dark plume. In the 1st Foot Guards the officer's coat was
red, and had tails; there were epaulettes on the shoulders and a white
bandolier across the breast. The hat was a high-decked shako of glossy
material.

William IV's reign was marked by the rise and subsequent decline of
enormous bear-skins. William also decreed that the whole of the Army,
with the exception of the artillery and riflemen, should be dressed in
scarlet, the national colour.

When Victoria came to the throne she restored the blue dress to the
Light Dragoons, but not to the Lancers nor to the 16th Regiment. The
Household Cavalry were given helmets with weeping plumes fixed to the
apexes. A little later "pill-boxes" became fashionable amongst the
majority of the regiments.

In 1881 most of the distinctive and, in many cases, historic facings
were taken from the various regiments, and blue was given to the Royal
regiments and white to the others. The change seems to us, who look
at the matter in the light of the antiquarian and historian, as a
retrograde one, which should be deprecated in every way.

To-day all the regiments of the regular British Army wear scarlet
uniforms, with the following exceptions:--

   1. _Blue Uniforms_--Royal Horse Guards; 6th Dragoon Guards; King's
        Own Hussars; Queen's Own Hussars; Royal Irish Lancers; King's
        Irish Hussars; Queen's Royal Lancers; Prince of Wales's Own
        Hussars; Prince Albert's Own Hussars; Prince of Wales's Royal
        Lancers; 13th, 14th, 15th, 18th, 19th, and 20th Hussars; 17th
        and 21st Lancers; Royal Artillery; Royal Marine Infantry; Army
        Service Corps; Royal Army Medical Corps; Army Veterinary Corps;
        Army Ordnance Corps; Army Pay Corps.

   2. _Green Uniforms_--Cameronians; King's Royal Rifle Corps; Royal
        Irish Rifles; Rifle Brigade.

In the above notes we have merely given a rough sketch of the growth
of the military uniform as it has affected the British soldier. To
elaborate this information by tracing the various changes, both great
and small, which have been applied to army clothing is a work of
intense interest and historical value. The task is best undertaken
by the curio collector, who can build up the necessary knowledge
from his self-made collection of military prints, illustrated books,
photographs, and actual uniforms. We do not suggest that any one reader
should undertake the whole task himself; it is far better to select
a particular regiment or a class of regiment, or even a particular
article of dress, and trace its history with minute precision. The
results achieved in this way would indeed prove valuable.

Before concluding this chapter the following questions bearing on
military dress may prove of interest; they are typical of the thousand
and one queries which the student should ask himself:--

1. Why do the drummers in the Guards wear fleurs-de-lys on their tunics?

2. Which regiments still wear black in memory of Wolfe?

3. Why do the Northumberland Fusiliers wear a red and white feather
hackle in their caps?

4. Why does the Gloucester Regiment wear a badge on both the back and
front of their hats?

5. Why has the "flash" survived with the Royal Welsh Fusiliers?

6. Why does the privilege exist with the Oxfordshire and
Buckinghamshire Light Infantry of wearing shirt collars with the
uniform?

  [Illustration: A SLEEVE FROM A COAT OF THE OLD 2ND (SOUTH MIDDLESEX)
  VOLUNTEER REGIMENT.]

  [Illustration: A BELT BUCKLE FROM THE SAME REGIMENT.]



                               CHAPTER V

                                ARMOUR

   The scarcity of good armour--Considerations for the
     collector--Counterfeit armour--The twelve periods in armour--The
     characteristics of each period--Glossary


There is much that is fascinating in the study of armour, and the
seeker after military curios will do well to consider the advisability
of making a collection of armour pieces. In praise of this particular
form of treasure-hunting we could write a good deal, but, as space
is necessarily limited, it will be wise to content ourselves, at the
outset, with stating the drawbacks rather than the advantages which
attend this hobby.

In the first case, really good complete suits of period armour are
scarce, and consequently command enormous sums. Of course there is
no reason why detached pieces should not be collected: these can be
obtained freely and at reasonable prices. Probably the best bargains
are to be had at country-house sales, where the specimens are not
sufficiently numerous to warrant the attendance of London dealers. But
the smaller bric-à-brac shops, especially those off the beaten track,
often contain oddments which may be picked up at tempting prices.

The second drawback concerns questions of space. Armour collecting
takes up a good deal of room and, in these days of small suburban
houses and town flats, it is not every one who can house such treasures
without causing them untold damage.

The third point is the most serious of all; it may be stated briefly.
There are so many dangerous forgeries to be met with that the untutored
collector may become bewildered and so lose his love for the hobby.

Upon the Continent there are thriving factories where armour, of the
rarest kinds, is imitated, not for sale as reproductions but in order
to cheat the uninitiated. The antique appearance is imparted to the
bright metal surfaces by artfully smearing with lithographic ink and
then dabbing with muriatic acid. The ink protects the parts which it
covers from the corrosive action of the acid, and when the metal is
subsequently washed and greased it has the exact appearance of an aged
piece of armour, eaten and worn by time. How is the amateur to detect
such worthless specimens when he runs across them?

Under the title of "Forgeries that were not Forged," _The
Connoisseur_,[6] a few years ago, made some very pertinent remarks on
this subject. "Foreign museums are not entirely free from the presence
of forgeries," the article began; "in Paris may be seen suits and
parts of suits which will not satisfy the connoisseur in the matter
of freedom from faking. At Berlin at least one suit will strike the
observer as decidedly not what it claims to be. At Stockholm, among
the interesting objects in the Lifrustkammer are many pieces which one
regrets are not real. And if in public collections many pieces arouse
scepticism, how much more so is it the case with private collections,
where all the geese are swans."

  [6] May 1901, p. 36.

"In the Tower of London, on the upper shelf of one of the cases, is
a row of helms and helmets described as copies or trophy work. These
certainly exemplify the expression 'forgeries that were not forged.'
They were bought for the National Collection between the years 1851 and
1858, and were then no doubt considered valuable examples of ancient
armour. One, indeed, figured at Manchester in 1857 among the treasures
of art. In them we may observe every rule of the construction of real
armour violated, and further insulted by artificial rust and injuries.

"It may be asked, in the words of the song, 'How shall I my true love
know?' and seeing how much more trouble is taken to deceive than
to detect deceit, it is difficult to lay down any complete system
of defence for the collector from the ever-increasing attacks of
the forger." It is certain, however, that the best way of detecting
forgeries is to get acquainted with the styles of armour that were
worn at certain periods, to find out what processes were available for
constructing the armour at these periods, what uses each section of the
armour was put to, and how it was fitted on to the rest of the suit.

Of course, a good deal may be learnt from visits to public
collections. The uninitiated collector is, therefore, advised to study
the specimens shown in the Tower, the Royal United Service Museum, the
Wallace Collection, and the Rotunda at Woolwich. On the Continent there
are many fine displays, not only of armour but also of weapons, notably
at the Musée d'Artillerie, Paris, the Industrial Museum of Vienna, the
Copenhagen National Museum, and the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam. These
are all well worth inspecting.

       *       *       *       *       *

Having discussed matters concerned with the collecting of armour, we
will now turn to questions relating to the actual armour itself.

Armour may be conveniently divided into twelve periods, as follows[7]:--

       I. Pre-Norman.
      II. Norman period to 1180.
     III. The Chain Mail Period, 1180-1250.
      IV. Chain Mail Reinforced, 1250-1325.
       V. The Cyclas Period, 1325-35.
      VI. The Studded and Splintered Armour Period, 1335-60.
     VII. The Camail and Jupon Period, 1360-1410.
    VIII. The Surcoatless Period, 1410-30.
      IX. The Tabard Period, 1430-1500.
       X. The Transition Period, 1500-25.
      XI. Maximilian Armour, 1525-1600.
     XII. The Half-Armour Period, after 1600.

  [7] There are various ways of classifying armour, but we have here
followed (Class I excepted) Ashdown in "British and Foreign Arms and
Armour."

  [Illustration: Armour Headgear]

=The Pre-Norman Period= is, in reality, composed of a number of
preparatory eras which paved the way for the Norman period, the first
to use complete suits of protective covering. The Greeks with their
Boeotian helms and cuirasses, the Romans with their "skullcap"
helmets, the Saxons and Danes with their head, chest, and leg
coverings, all led up to the armour as we see it depicted by the Bayeux
Tapestry. This period is of little interest to collectors, as specimens
are quite unobtainable.

=The Norman Period= introduced the peculiar but distinctive
helmet, conical in shape and provided with a nose protection or
"nasal." The body covering was worn from head to toes, the feet
and legs being enveloped in "chausses" made of a pliable substance
provided with a generous supply of metal studs. The shield was, of
course, an important feature of the Norman dress; it was more or less
heart-shaped, and bent so as to fit round the body.

=The Chain Mail Period.=--Between 1180 and 1250 the armour
suit underwent considerable changes. The Norman conical helmet gave
place to the heaume, which usually had a flat surface, squared at
the top, curved lines under the chin, and peepholes or ocularia in
front. A surcoat or tunic, without sleeves, which was fitted over the
usual armour, was also a feature of this era. But, of course, the
introduction of chain mail was the outstanding point of interest.

=Chain Mail Reinforced.=--This period saw the gradual introduction
of heaumes with curved crowns, often bearing ornamental devices, or
ailettes to protect the shoulders and neck, of banded mail, and of
chain mail reinforced with sections of plate.

=The Cyclas Period.=--"Probably at no time in the history
of defensive armour," says Ashdown,[8] "has it presented a more
picturesque appearance than during the brief ten years of the Cyclas
Period. Fitting closely to the figure, the various garments followed
the outlines of the human form, and in no parts showed any marked
peculiarities or eccentricities. The evolution of the style was
undoubtedly derived from the experience gained during the Chain Mail
Period, when that defence was proved to be ineffectual against the
terrible effects of lance and sword. Both of these weapons, even if
they did not actually pierce the mail, either bruised the body or broke
bones, and thereby incapacitated the wearer; while the protection
afforded by the loosely hanging folds of the surcoat of previous
periods, especially against sword-cuts, had been duly noted. Hence,
during the Cyclas Period we meet with the introduction of multitudinous
coverings, whereby the lance, the sword, and the arrow were opposed by
plate and mail, and by various padded garments of a textile nature."

  [8] "British and Foreign Arms and Armour," p. 139.

  [Illustration: A FLINT-LOCK PISTOL.]

  [Illustration: THE ACTION PART OF THE ABOVE.]

=The Studded and Splintered Armour Period.=--This form of armour
directly owes its introduction to the conflicts between the English and
French, and the ideas for improvement which were prompted by actual
experience on the battlefield. The style was none other than a piecing
together of the best features of chain mail, plate, and cuir-bouilli.
The bascinets of this time were unusual, having much the appearance of
metal hoods, provided or not provided with visors. The surcoat and the
chausses were essential features of the period.

=The Camail and Jupon Period.=--This is probably one of the most
interesting and picturesque periods in the history of armour. The
headgear was usually pointed and fitted down closely over the ears,
but left the face free. Laced to the helmet and falling over the
shoulders was a plastron of camail which protected the throat and neck
from violence. The jupon was a garment which covered the body from
the camail to just above the knees. It consisted of whatever material
the wearer thought was the most impervious to blows, with, usually, a
velvet covering, embroidered with a heraldic device.

=The Surcoatless Period= is easily recognized, as it was the
earliest period in which a full set of armour was worn with no textile
covering placed over it.[9] A feature of note was the loss of the
camail throat-guard and the introduction of a light sheet-metal gorget.
The camail was, undoubtedly, an efficient safeguard, but it was
extremely weighty and so caused much inconvenience to the wearer.

  [9] Ashdown, "British and Foreign Arms and Armour," p. 194.

=The Tabard Period= saw the introduction of many changes, which
had for their object the greater protection of the armoured soldier;
but the most distinguishing feature was the arrival of the tabard, a
kind of sleeved surcoat, which covered the wearer down to the knees.
It was of no fighting value, but gave dignity to those who displayed
it. The salade also belongs to this period, both those with and
those without visors, as well as the pauldron, a protection for the
elbow, and the palette, which shielded the underneath portion of the
shoulder-joint.

=The Transition Period= brought helmets which, by reason of their
movable visors, cheek-pieces, and mentonnières, gave greater safety
to the head. But the period is more readily distinguished by the mail
skirt, which was worn suspended from the waist. Of this period Ashdown
writes: "Very important alterations occurred in armour of this period,
differentiating it from that of the preceding. The great pauldrons,
exaggerated coudières, and general angularity, and one might almost say
prickliness, of the later Tabard Period was modified to a smoother and
rounder style, while it lost entirely that remarkable beauty of form
which, however much distorted by fanciful additions, characterized the
Gothic armour as a whole. The beautiful flutings and ornamental curves
disappeared to make way for a heavy, cumbersome style indicative of
German stolidity, and in direct antagonism to the mobile quickness and
agility suggested by the majority of suits dating from the latter half
of the previous century."[10]

  [10] "British and Foreign Arms and Armour," p. 270.

=Maximilian Armour.=--With the gradual employment of gunpowder
even the best kinds of armour lost their military value, and,
consequently, the sixteenth century saw a decline in the use of steel
suits for purposes of warfare. There was no reason, however, why
steel-clad men should not continue to be seen at tilting tournaments,
even though the arquebus had proved its value in dealing death and
destruction. Consequently we find that armour was still used during
this century at these functions of chivalry, and it was the kind
favoured by Emperor Maximilian which was mostly worn--hence the name.
Its outstanding features were excessive ornamentation and artistic
finish.

=The Half-Armour Period.=--This is the period during which steel
dress was gradually dying out. "The period exhibits a brutal strength
and crudity in armour which forcibly suggests boiler-plate work. The
defences were simply made to cover the vital parts of the body with the
maximum amount of efficiency, without any consideration whatever for
gracefulness of outline or beauty of surface."[11] The metal covering
of these times was obviously fashioned with the idea of making a
compromise between protection and mobility, and it gradually dwindled
until the head alone was safeguarded.

  [11] Ashdown, "British and Foreign Arms and Armour," p. 313.

So passed away the armour which, as James I once said, was a very
useful invention, for it saved not only the wearer from being killed,
but it was so hampering that it prevented him from killing any one else.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many technical terms are used in armoury which need explaining. The
following are those which occur most frequently:--

   =Barded.=--A horse fully armoured.

   =Bascinet.=--A helmet which protected the back of the head and
   neck.

   =Brassarts.=--Plate armour for the upper part of the arm,
   reaching from the shoulder to the elbow, sometimes in a single piece,
   sometimes in a series of overlapping plates.

   =Brigandine.=--Armour worn at one time by brigands--hence the
   name. It consisted of a foundation of quilted leather, upon which was
   sewn a number of small metal plates, and thus formed a good defence
   for the body against the sword and the pike.

   =Burgonet.=--A fifteenth-century helmet, usually round to fit the
   head, but provided with a peak to protect the eyes.

   =Cabasset.=--Like the morion, it was a simple metal hat with a
   dome-shaped crown and a brim. It had no visor, gorget, neck-guard,
   etc.

   =Chain Mail.=--A covering which consisted of an endless number
   of rings laced one into the other. Each ring had four others threaded
   into it. The individual rings were known as "grains d'orge."

   =Chamfrien.=--The metal covering for a horse's face; often
   provided with a spike.

   =Chausses.=--The metal leggings used in armour.

   =Corslet.=--A suit of armour worn chiefly by pikemen. The word
   was used, not only to denote the body covering but the whole outfit
   from head to knees.

   =Coudière.=--An elbow guard.

   =Crinière.=--A number of plates hooked together to guard a
   horse's neck; it rested on the mane.

    =Cuirass.=--Armour for the breast and back, consisting of two
   plates united at the sides of the body. They were originally fashioned
   out of leather (_cuir_ = leather).

   =Espalière.=--Covering for the shoulders and the upper part of
   the arm.

   =Gauntlet.=--The protection used for covering the hands.

   =Genouillière.=--Flexible knee pieces with joints reminiscent of
   those possessed by lobsters.

   =Gorget.=--A protection for the throat; it also sustained the
   weight of the whole armour outfit.

   =Greeves.=--Plate armour for the legs.

   =Haubergeon.=--A coat made probably of plate or chain mail but
   without sleeves.

   =Hauberk.=--This was a complete covering of mail from head to
   foot, consisting of a hood joined to a jacket, with sleeves, breeches,
   stockings, and shoes of double chain mail, to which were added
   gauntlets.

   =Heaume.=--A head covering, introduced in the Chain-mail period.
   (See p. 75).

   =Hufden.=--A head piece which fitted closely round the skull; it
   was worn by archers in Queen Elizabeth's time.

   =Jazeran.=--A hauberk which was covered with overlapping plates.

   =Mentonnière.=--A portion of the head piece which protected the
   chin and the lower part of the face.

   =Morion.=--See Cabasset.

   =Ocularium.=--The peep-hole of the helmet.

   =Palette.=--A shield or covering used to protect the arm and
   shoulder-joint.

    =Pauldrons.=--Pieces of armour for the shoulders; the origin of
   epaulettes.

   =Plate mail.=--This consisted of a number of small lamenæ of
   metal, commonly iron, which were so arranged as to slightly overlap
   like the scales of a fish. Usually a leather foundation was provided.

   =Poitrinal.=--The covering for a horse's hindquarters; a guard
   against sword slashes.

   =Pot.=--A cabasset or morion.

   =Rerebrace.=--A protection for the part between the elbows and
   shoulders.

   =Rondelle.=--A guard for the inner side of the arm which wields
   the weapon.

   =Salade.=--A light casque, sometimes provided with a visor, but
   without crest.

   =Sollerets.=--Overlapping plates which formed the shoe of an
   armed knight. Cf. Chausses.

   =Tapul.=--The perpendicular ridge down the middle of a
   breastplate.

   =Targe.=--A shield.

   =Tassets.=--A series of flexible plates hooked to the skirt of
   the cuirass, protecting the thighs.

   =Visor.=--The movable face-guard of a helmet.

  [Illustration: THE BARREL OF A GUN ORNAMENTED WITH A TWIN HEAD OF
  MINERVA.]

  [Illustration: AN OLD POWDER-FLASK.]



                              CHAPTER VI

                                WEAPONS

   Buying specimens--Storing them--Hand culverins--The serpentin--The
     wheel-lock--The flint-lock--The rifle--Swords--The effect of armour
     on swords--Swords with historical associations--Other weapons


Of all the antiques which are to be found in an average bric-à-brac
shop there is probably nothing upon which the dealer is so ignorant as
the class of military curio which comes under the head of weapons; as
a consequence, we find that the ruling prices for these relics of the
battlefield are either excessively dear or ridiculously cheap.

There is nothing in this state of things to cause the collector of
weapons to grumble, for if he be wise he will add to his treasures when
a bargain is to be had, but not when specimens are dear. The process
makes collecting a somewhat slow business, but it enables us to get
together a whole host of interesting things at a very small cost.

A few weeks ago the writer spent an afternoon in going round to the
antique shops in a certain quarter of London. Here are some of the
prices which he was asked, and which he considers were out of reason.
For a rifle used by Kruger's men, £5; worth at the most half this sum.
For a rifle and bayonet said to have been used at Waterloo, £1. For
a sixteenth-century sword, 5s. The sword was so heavy that it would
have almost fetched this price as old metal. For an eighteenth-century
flint-lock, not in good condition, £20. Needless to add, that while the
writer was not impelled to purchase the flint-lock, he snapped up the
sword eagerly.

The collector of weapons must be very careful how he stores his
treasures. To leave, say, a bayonet where it can be handled by
children is almost a criminal act; to buy a firearm and not examine
the charging chamber immediately is, if anything, a trifle more
unscrupulous. Thoughtlessness has accounted for a good many tragedies,
and so it ought to be the determination of the curio-hunter to see
that his treasures are stored out of harm's way. Swords, bayonets,
rifles, and other lengthy weapons are conveniently kept on the walls
of living-rooms, and if placed horizontally and fairly high up are
safe and ornamental. Smaller things, such as daggers and pistols, are
better preserved in glass cases. Steel implements which, when exposed
continuously to the air, are apt to deteriorate, should be carefully
cleaned and then coated with a thin layer of copal varnish. If the
varnish be painted on sparingly and no patches are left uncoated, the
metal will remain bright permanently, and only require an occasional
dusting. If the specimen which is to be treated is rusty, it should be
carefully gone over previously with emery, but should it have a chased,
engraved, or damascened surface, it will be advisable to soak it
in benzine for a week or more, and then give it a rubbing until a
sufficient polish has been obtained.

  [Illustration: A SOUTH AFRICAN POM-POM SHELL AND A MARTINI-HENRI
  CARTRIDGE.]

  [Illustration: CARTRIDGES AS USED IN THE GREAT WAR. (From left to
  right: German, French, Belgian, and British.)]

       *       *       *       *       *

Of the weapons with which we shall deal in these pages, probably
firearms are the most interesting. Such implements have been in use
among armies for many centuries, but as cannon and other large pieces
possess little interest for the collector, on account of their size,
it will be convenient to omit the earliest firearms and speak first of
hand culverins.

This weapon consisted of a small tube of ½ to ¾ in. internal
diameter, fixed to a straight piece of wood or welded to an iron
handle. At the close of the fifteenth century it was extensively
employed. In 1471 culverins were in the army of Edward IV, after his
landing at Ravenspur, Yorkshire. The smallest hand patterns, weighing
15 lb., were used on horseback, whilst heavier weapons of sixty odd
pounds' weight were manipulated by foot soldiers and fired from
trestles or tripods.[12]

  [12] See article on "Firearms" in _Chambers's Encyclopædia_.

The culverin may be seen in a variety of makes; some possess a
touch-hole and flash-pan at the side, whilst the earlier kinds have no
flash-pan at all. In some the barrel is circular, whilst in others it
is hexagonal or octagonal. Of course, specimens are only to be found in
museums, and are seldom obtainable for private collections.

Early in the sixteenth century the culverin gave place to the
serpentin, which, in turn, was slightly modified and became the famous
match-lock. To fire the culverin, the attendant had to stand with a
lighted match over the touch-hole, but in the serpentin the igniter was
gripped by a lever which descended into the flash-pan. The match-lock
had the flash-pan covered by a lid, which gave a certain amount of
protection to the sparking action in wet or windy weather.

The next innovation was the wheel-lock, a weapon which possessed a
metal disc provided with a serrated edge. By winding up the disc and
using the trigger to release it, it was possible to make the serrated
wheel fly round at a considerable rate. As the rough teeth revolved,
they scraped against a piece of flint and so produced sparks, which
flew into the flash-pan and caused ignition of the powder charge. The
system was certainly an ingenious one, but the cost of making these
elaborate pieces of mechanism militated against the general use of the
wheel-lock for army purposes.

After the wheel-lock came the flint-lock. This style of arm possessed a
hammer which was provided with a "flint-cock." When released, the flint
and the steel came into violent contact, and produced sparks which flew
into the touch-powder.

The flint-lock was commonly used in the Netherlands, and was brought
to England by William of Orange, remaining in use until 1840.[13]
Specimens are obtainable for private collections, but early patterns
are of some rarity and fairly expensive.

The later history of the hand firearm used in the Army is interesting.
"In 1635 a patent was taken out for making rifles in England. In the
first half of the next century Benjamin Robins, a gunsmith, who died
in 1751, made an alteration in the centre of gravity in the rifle by
placing it nearer the forepart, and he also made the bullets oval
instead of round. He discovered the true theory of the rifle: 'That
the spinning of a rifle ball, like the rotation of an arrow, kept
the axis of either in the same direction throughout their flight,
and, to a great extent, prevented the irregularities caused by the
inequalities in the substance of the bullet when driven from a shot-gun
or musket.' But strangely enough Robins, though by far the ablest
writer on projectiles of his own and many succeeding generations,
exercised but a slight influence on his contemporaries. The Government
of his day was not moved by his representations, or convinced by his
theory. The Ministers of that day were slow in adopting improvements,
a common failing of Ministers as a body, and riflemen were unknown
among English troops until the necessity for them was made evident
in the American War. The rifle was necessary to the existence of the
backwoodsmen. Practice made them excellent shots, and when the Colonial
irregulars were able to obtain suitable cover, regular troops could not
stand before them. After a time foreign aid was resorted to. Hessian,
Hanoverian, and Danish riflemen were engaged to serve against the
revolted colonists; and it was not until upwards of ten years after the
independence of America was recognized that the first English rifle
regiment was formed."[14]

  [13] See article on "Firearms" in _Chambers's Encyclopædia_.

  [14] W. G. Clifford, "Peeps at the British Army," p. 68.

During the first half of the nineteenth century all infantry
regiments, with the exception of the Rifle Corps, were served with
smooth-bored muskets, but after 1851 the Minié rifle was universally
used. This weapon showed a distinct advance, but it had one serious
drawback--it was heavy, as many of the men who fought in the Crimea
learned by bitter experience. In 1853 the long Enfield rifle, a much
lighter implement, was given to our soldiers. This was followed in
1860 by the short pattern Enfield; in 1864 by the Snider; in 1871 by
the Martini-Henri; in 1886 by the Enfield-Martini; in 1887 by the
Lee-Metford, Mark I, and the Mark II in 1898; whilst to-day the Service
pattern is the Lee-Enfield, Mark III.

       *       *       *       *       *

Swords are interesting weapons from the collector's point of view.
As the antique specimens were stoutly made, of material that did not
easily perish, it is quite possible to buy them, two or three hundred
years old, at no very great cost.

It is not an easy matter to detect the date of a sword, but the armed
figures on old prints, drawings, coins, etc., often hint at the period
of construction. The Bayeux tapestry, for instance, enables us to see
that the Norman pattern was of simple design, being straight, rather
short, tapering and double-edged, whilst the handle was merely a grip
with but little protection. This shape of sword, it may be said, was
used for some three or four hundred years, and even in 1400 the
majority of the specimens were much the same. It is true that by this
time the quillons were becoming curved towards the blade, probably so
that a slash would be arrested before it reached the knuckle of the
soldier who received the blow. Of the sword of this period Ashdown
writes: "The sword was attached to the belt at the uppermost part of
the scabbard, and hung perpendicularly at the left side. It generally
had a wheel pommel and a swelling grip, with quillons either straight
or drooping slightly towards the blade. The latter was about an inch
and a half broad at the hilt, thirty inches in length, and tapered to
the point, while the section was either of a flattened or a lozenge
shape. It was double-edged, and had a grip of varying dimensions,
ranging from four inches in length to an extent which, in some
examples, almost suggests a two-handed weapon, or the hand-and-a-half
or bastard sword of a later period. The pommel, grip, and scabbard
were at times elaborately enriched with a profusion of ornament. A new
weapon was introduced at this period, the misericorde or dagger of
mercy, used for dispatching a fallen foe whose wounds were beyond all
surgical aid. It was a straight dagger, with no guard as a rule, and
having both the hilt and scabbard curiously ornamented; the blade had
but one edge, the section being triangular."[15]

  [15] "Arms and Armour," p. 181.

  [Illustration: Weapons

      1. Sword of time of Norman Conquest.
     2. Sword of Fifteenth Century.
     3. Court Sword of Eighteenth Century.
     4. Basket of Cavalry Sword, Nineteenth Century.
     5. Cutlas Sabre, Fifteenth Century.
     6. Glaive.
     7. Bill.
     8. Halberd.
     9. Pole Axe-head.
    10. Head of Two-handed Sword.
   ]

As armour became more developed so changes appeared in the sword.
The implement of medium weight was no longer serviceable against
well-tempered metal suits; accordingly, the sword became heavy and
ponderous, so that it might smash where it would not be able to cut. So
heavy were specimens made that they needed two hands to wield them, and
as this prevented a shield being supported, the quillons were so shaped
as to give extra protection. This was the origin of the basket hilts of
present patterns.

  [Illustration: AN OLD SWORD WITH STRAIGHT CROSS-GUARDS.]

  [Illustration: AN ITALIAN DAGGER HAVING A REPLICA OF THE FAMOUS COLUMN
  OF ST. MARK FOR GRIP.]

Some swords are worthy of note on account of their shape and age, but
others claim attention by reason of their historical associations. In
the Royal United Service Museum there are many that are worth seeing
from the latter point of view. One in particular may be mentioned. The
exhibit bears the following inscription: "Sword of Admiral Villeneuve,
Commander-in-Chief of the combined fleets of France and Spain,
surrendered to Lord Collingwood at the battle off Cape Trafalgar,
October 21, 1805. It was offered to Captain Atcherley, of the Marines.
Atcherley refused to accept it, and took Villeneuve in his boat that
he might surrender to Captain Pellew. Admiral Villeneuve, having been
taken prisoner, was sent to England, where he was detained until May 3,
1806."

       *       *       *       *       *

Beyond firearms and swords the collector may find many treasures among
such weapons as daggers, bayonets, lances, battle-axes, pikes, spears,
boomerangs, assegais, and native clubs. It should always be remembered,
however, that the weapons used by British forces, past and present, are
of more interest and value than those coming from savage races.



                              CHAPTER VII

                       EARLY BRITISH WAR MEDALS


   How to arrange a collection of medals--Factors which influence the
     value of a medal--The earliest medals--The first English medal--The
     first English military medal--The Forlorn Hope medal--The Dunbar
     medal--The Culloden medal--Medals granted by the Honourable East
     India Company--The Pope's medal, 1793--The Emperor Francis II of
     Germany's medal, 1794--The Seringapatam medal--The Egyptian medal,
     1801--The Rodriguez medal--The Nepaul medal--The Maida medal--The
     Peninsular officers' medal


The dignity which enshrines a collection of war medals is something
greater and fuller than that which can be ascribed to almost any other
branch of curio collecting. Coins, china, furniture, and prints are
all fascinating in their way, but none seem to have the same depth of
interest as is possessed by the average collection of war medals. To
handle one of these tokens of strife and bloodshed is to call up
feelings of reverence and honour for the man who spent his energies so
freely in earning it, and it is probably on account of this extrinsic
quality that war medals are so highly prized among connoisseurs.

With many forms of collecting, the different specimens that are
available are so numerous as to be overwhelming, but this drawback
cannot act as a deterrent to the would-be medal collector. British
medals have been fashioned with a sparing hand, and their number is
more or less limited. Many of them, it is true, are extremely costly,
whilst a select few are quite prohibitive in price--a matter which,
perhaps, adds to the zest of collecting.

The best method of storing these treasures is to follow the plan
adopted by coin-collectors, and to range them on trays in the shallow
drawers of coin-cabinets. Where the pieces are few in number, it is a
good plan to mount them on a board covered with black velvet, and to
frame them just as one does a picture. To have no particular method of
keeping them, to leave them lying loose in drawers, or to place them
as casual ornaments in curio or china cabinets is decidedly wrong, for
a few scratches, a fall, or a little rough handling will often reduce
considerably the value of a specimen.

For the benefit of the uninitiated, it may be well to mention
that not only does the value of a medal depend upon its state of
preservation--that is to say, whether it is in mint condition, slightly
rubbed, much worn, scratched, battered, re-engraved, etc.--but also
upon the number of clasps that go with it. It must not be thought that
collectors tolerate the indiscriminate adding of clasps to claspless
medals. A medal that was awarded with, say, one additional honour
cannot be turned into a three-clasp decoration by purchasing two clasps
from a dealer and placing them upon the slide ribbon. The medal in
question, if it be less than a hundred years old, has the name of
the original possessor engraved upon the flange, and by turning to the
Medal Rolls the number of clasps issued with the particular decoration
can be found. Another factor which affects the value of a medal is the
regiment to which it was issued. A medal given to a private in a crack
regiment will possess a greater value than an identical medal awarded
to a private in a less noted one. The rank of the recipient is also
taken into account; this, however, is perhaps only natural.

  [Illustration: ROYALIST BADGE WORN BY THE PARTISANS OF CHARLES I.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Medals were known to the Ancients. The Greeks, for instance, have left
behind them many interesting specimens which can still be seen in our
public museums, but none of them were given as recompenses for military
bravery. The ordinary soldier of these early days had no status, and
therefore received no rewards, whilst the leaders were given crowns
of laurel, bracelets, and neck chains of gold for the services they
rendered.

It was Queen Elizabeth who first thought of giving medals to British
fighting men, and it was the crews of the ships which sailed out to
meet the Armada that received them.

The first medals to be given for military, as distinct from naval,
honours were struck by Charles I. Probably the very earliest award made
by this King was the medal presented to Sir Robert Welch, an officer
in the Royalist Cavalry, whose bravery in recovering the standard from
the Parliamentary forces at Edge Hill excited the admiration of every
member in his party.

Charles gave orders for many other medals to be struck, but most of
them were presented to officers holding high posts who had performed
special services in times of peace as well as war. Many of these
decorations were fashioned in single copies, and as practically none of
them bore any inscriptions beyond the title and motto of the King, it
is impossible to ascribe them to any definite act of military value.
They were all oval in shape, whilst the designs showed considerable
artistic merit.

All these medals were intended to be worn suspended around the neck, or
fixed brooch-like in the hat. Usually, the ribbons which were worn with
them could be selected by the possessor at will, no fixed pattern being
officially decreed, as obtains in present times. As may be expected,
specimens belonging to this early period are now extremely costly, but
they are often obtainable at public sales. A fine collection of them
may be inspected in the medal-room at the British Museum.

Charles I evidently had great faith in the value of decorations, for we
find that towards the latter part of his reign he instituted a general
medal, known popularly as the Forlorn Hope medal, which was to be
awarded much on the lines which regulate the granting of the Victoria
Cross to-day.

The warrant which announced these awards ran as follows:--

"CHARLES R. Trusty and well beloved, we greet you well,
whereas we have received information that those soldiers which have
been forward to serve us in the Forlorn-hope, are not looked upon
according to their merited valour and loyal service. We do, therefore,
require, that from henceforward, the Commander-in-Chief both of Horse
and Foot, which lead up the Forlorn-hope upon whom also we mean to
bestow special tokens of our princely favour, do signify in writing
the names of those soldiers whom they find most forward in serving
us, their King and country, that care may be taken to reward their
deservings and make them specially known to all our good subjects. For
which end we have thought fit to require Sir William Parkhurst, Kt.,
and Thomas Bushell, Esq., Wardens of the Mint, to provide from time to
time certain Badges of Silver, containing our Royal image, and that
of our dearest son, Prince Charles, to be delivered to wear on the
breast of every man who shall be certified under the hands of their
Commander-in-Chief to have done us faithful service in the Forlorn-hope.

"And we do, therefore, most straightly command that no soldier at any
time do sell, nor any of our subjects presume to buy, or wear, any of
these said Badges, other than they to whom we shall give the same,
and that under such pain and punishment as the Council of War shall
think fit to inflict if any shall presume to offend against this our
Royal command. And we further require the said Commanders and Wardens
of our Mint to keep several registers of the names of those, and of
their country, for whom they shall give their certificate. Given at our
Court, at Oxford, the 18th day of May, 1643."

It is unfortunate that what records were presumably kept, under these
orders, were destroyed by a disastrous fire which took place at Oxford
in 1644. Thus we neither know how many specimens of the Forlorn Hope
medal were distributed, nor do we even know for certain the exact
design it bore. A number of identical copies exist of a medallion
bearing the profile of King Charles on the obverse, and that of Prince
Charles on the reverse, and this is usually considered to be the award
in question.

The Dunbar medal, the next to call for attention, is of special
interest, as it was the first British award to be given to every
member of the fighting forces, whether man or officer. This attractive
decoration was struck in 1650 in two sizes, a small gold piece for
officers and a large copper one for distribution among the ranks. Both
bore the same design, namely, Cromwell's profile and the inscription
"Word.at.Dunbar. The Lord of Hosts. Septem. Y. 3. 1650.," on the
obverse, and a view, in exaggerated perspective, of Parliament in full
assembly on the reverse.

A curious letter, referring to the design of this medal, and written
by the Protector, is still extant. It explains that Cromwell while
in Scotland received a visit from the artist chosen by Parliament
to execute the design. The artist went to beg a few sittings of the
great leader with a view to producing a faithful portrait-likeness.
But Cromwell was extremely loath to allow his features to be displayed
upon the medal, and advanced all manner of excuses, probably owing to
feelings of over-sensitiveness. In the end he was prevailed upon, and
the medal bore his profile as stated above. This incident is of special
interest, as historians have seldom, if ever, mentioned in discussing
the character of this able soldier that one of his qualities was
modesty.

       *       *       *       *       *

After Dunbar came a lengthy period during which many medals were
struck; they were all, however, of an individual character, being
awarded to leaders for personal services.

Culloden, which was fought on April 16, 1746, was the next event
to call for a special issue of medals. To commemorate the Young
Pretender's rout, oval medals in gold and silver were struck. It is
presumed that the gold pieces were awarded to leaders of the highest
rank, whilst the silver ones went to those of lesser importance. It is
certain, however, that no awards were made to the common soldiers.

The design was remarkably bold and imposing; the obverse bore a simple
profile of the Duke of Cumberland with short curly hair and the word
"Cumberland," whilst the reverse showed an unclothed full-length figure
of Apollo, looking to the left. The inscription "Actum est ilicet
perut" and, also in Latin, "Battle of Culloden, April 16th, 1746,"
appeared on the reverse.

This medal was one of the first to be issued with a definitely
prescribed pattern for the ribbon. The warrant effecting its issue
stated that "it was to be worn round the necks of officers by
means of a crimson ribbon having a narrow green border." The medal
is exceedingly rare, but of the few copies known to exist one,
fortunately, may be seen among the treasures of the British Museum,
and another in the Royal United Service Museum.

       *       *       *       *       *

The history of British and Indian medals is so interwoven that it
is impossible to study the first without knowing something of the
latter. It may even be claimed that much which affected the fashioning
and awarding of late eighteenth-century decorations given by the
authorities at Bombay has since been copied by our authorities at home.
The most obvious point bearing on this contention deals with the shape
of the medals. Before the Indian examples, all of which were circular,
were struck, the British patterns invariably appeared oval in form,
whilst most of the subsequent issues have been circular. Again, the
allegorical designs of patriotic themes, which our most recent medals
bear, had their early origin in the sepoy tableaux which decorated
the reverse of the Indian medals. The reverse side of British medals
before the Indian specimens were issued usually depicted the features
of a royal personage, a coat of arms, or, perhaps, a sailing vessel.
But the greatest influencing factor of the Indian medals was the
method of granting them. Every soldier from the highest general down
to the lowest fighter received an award. In England quite a different
custom prevailed. With the single exception of the Dunbar medal, no
English soldier was ever awarded a royal medal until Waterloo, unless
his conduct had been unusually brave and he had merited some special
recognition. The controversy which raged round Wellington's campaigns
as to whether the ordinary men as a class should or should not
receive decorations was finally settled by remembering the sepoys of
India. If it were good for these soldiers to receive them, then our
British fighting men must have them as well. Such was the popular
opinion which prevailed.

  [Illustration: THE CRIMEAN MEDAL.]

       *       *       *       *       *

The pioneer medal from India is usually spoken of as the 1778
decoration awarded for services at Poona, but, as no specimens are
known to exist, there is reasonable doubt as to whether the decoration
was ever struck. The records, however, state plainly that the
Bombay Council decided to give medals to all the officers among the
grenadier-sepoys who went with Colonel Egerton to quell a native rising
in Poona.

In 1780, a campaign in Deccan took place against Tippoo Sahib and his
father. A medal was afterwards minted by the Honourable East India
Company and presented to all officers and men forming the Bengal Army.
There were gold and silver specimens, vast numbers of both being
struck. The obverse showed Britannia, leaning forward, offering a
wreath to a fort flying a British flag. The reverse bore a Persian
inscription.

A second encounter with Tippoo Sahib, known as the Mysore Campaign,
took place in 1791-2. The medals which were subsequently struck for the
officers and men who served under Colonel Cockerell were made in gold
and silver and were intended to be worn around the neck, suspended by a
yellow silk cord. The obverse depicted a sepoy grasping a half-unfurled
British flag, trampling at the same time on the enemy's colours; the
reverse bore the inscription, "For Services in Mysore, A.D.
1791-1792."

If medals were ever dearly won, those of the Mysore Campaign seem to
have been, for many stories have been told of the great daring shown
by Cockerell's men. Thomas Carter in his work on "War Medals" writes
as follows: "One of the most dashing exploits in the War of Mysore
was the capture of Bangalore, the second city in the dominions of
Tippoo. It was enclosed by a high wall and a deep ditch, and the gate
was covered by a close thicket of Indian thorns. The attack was made
without any examination of the ground, and the troops in advancing and
endeavouring to force an entrance were exposed to a destructive fire of
musketry. Colonel Moorhouse, one of the best officers in the service,
fell mortally wounded. At length, Lieutenant Ayre, a man of diminutive
stature, succeeded in forcing his way through the shattered gate; which
gallant action being observed by General Meadows, he shouted to the
stormer, 'Well done! Now, whiskers, try, if you can, to follow and
support the little gentleman.' This animated appeal succeeded: the
troops rushed through the gate into the town and drove out the enemy at
the point of the bayonet."

It is now necessary to speak of two medals of a slightly different
nature to any of the foregoing. In mentioning the first, we must recall
the work undertaken by the 12th Lancers in 1793, when one section of
the regiment went to Corsica and, landing, captured the Bastia, whilst
another section went forward to the Italian coast and entered the
harbour of Civitavecchia. For the protection thus afforded him, Pope
Pius VI gave a dozen of the officers gold medals suitably inscribed.
These decorations, it must be added, were not officially recognized in
England, and the recipients received no permission to wear them when in
uniform.

In the year 1794, another case of British soldiers receiving a foreign
decoration occurred. In this instance, Emperor Francis II of Germany
was the donor of a gold medal and a chain pendant to each of eight
officers of the 15th Light Dragoons. The Emperor had fallen into a
precarious position at Villiers-en-Crouché, a small settlement near
Cambray, and, had it not been for the heroic and persistent efforts of
the English, he would certainly have been captured by the French, who
were massed in great numbers. The awards were made as a thank-offering
for his lucky escape.

Unlike the Pope's decorations, those of Francis II were recognized by
the English Army authorities, and the recipients were allowed to wear
them when parading in full dress. The following letter may be quoted in
reference to the matter[16]:--


                    "TO LORD DORCHESTER, COLONEL OF THE
                              15TH DRAGOONS.

    _May 1, 1798._

   MY LORD,--The Emperor of Germany having been pleased to
   present each of the officers of the 15th Regiment, under your
   Lordship's command, who distinguished themselves in so gallant a
   manner by their spirited attack upon the enemy, with a very inferior
   force, on the 24th April, 1794, near Cambray, a gold medal has been
   struck by his Imperial Majesty's orders, on the occasion, as a
   particular mark of the sense he entertained of the signal service
   thereby rendered to the Allied Army. I have therefore the honour,
   by order of his Royal Highness the Commander-in-Chief to signify
   to your Lordship his Majesty's pleasure that the above-mentioned
   officers shall be permitted to wear the said medals constantly with
   their uniforms, as an honorary badge of their bravery in the field
   of action, and an inducement to all others to imitate, on every
   favourable occasion, their glorious example.

                             I have, etc.,

                WM. FAWCETT, _Adjutant-General_."

  [16] D. H. Irwin, "War Medals," p. 17.

From this time until the Peninsular campaign almost all the medals
which we have to record--many of them of a highly interesting
nature--were awarded to native troops by the Honourable East India
Company.

The first, dated 1807, reminds us of the gradual expansion of the
British Empire. It was struck to commemorate the capture of Ceylon
from the Dutch, 1795-6. The medal was made in gold and silver in
Calcutta and was given, probably exclusively, to the Bengal Native
Artillery--one of those sections of the native Indian Army of which the
East India Company was justly proud. The medal was unusually plain,
there being no pictorial design, but merely the inscription, "For
Service at the Island of Ceylon, A.D. 1795-6," on the obverse,
and a Persian inscription on the reverse. It may be said that questions
were asked by those in authority as to how so severe a pattern came
to be chosen, and the reply was given that as no exceptional feats
occurred during the campaign, a simple design was deemed most suitable.
The reason seems unconvincing.

  [Illustration: THE GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL, 1793-1814.]

  [Illustration: THE AFGHAN MEDAL.]

  [Illustration: SOUTH AFRICAN MEDAL, 1877-9.]

The siege and capture of Seringapatam, which culminated in the death of
that arch-enemy, Tippoo Sahib, was the occasion for issuing a Madras
medal, according to a general order dated July 18, 1808. Gold pieces
were given to senior officers, silver gilt pieces to field officers,
silver pieces to junior officers, bronze pieces to the rank and file of
the British force, and tin pieces to sepoys. The design was attractive:
on the obverse appeared a landscape view of our gallant men storming
Seringapatam, whilst a lion overwhelming a tiger filled the reverse.
The medal was not made in Calcutta, as was usually the case with the
Indian decorations, but at Birmingham.

Collectors have often been at a loss to know how the Indian awards were
intended to be worn. In reference to the Seringapatam distinction,
Mayo, in "Medals and Decorations of the British Army and Navy,"
says: "There is no doubt that they were issued unmounted, and as no
directions had been given by the authorities the details as to ribbon
and mountings devolved on the recipients, who exercised their own
discretion and taste. It is, however, probable that the European
officers wore them as the gold medals for the Peninsular and other
campaigns were worn--i.e. round the neck, or at the button-hole,
according to rank. Some added a clasp bearing the word Seringapatam.

"Three patterns of ribbon, at least, appear to have been used, viz. red
with blue borders, yellow watered, and plain red. That the first was
used under some sort of authority is gathered from a discussion which
took place between the Madras Government and the Commander-in-Chief
in 1831, on the occasion of the distribution of the medals awarded to
the native troops in the first Burmese war. The Commander-in-Chief
had proposed that a piece of red ribbon with blue borders should be
issued with each medal. The Government assented to the issue of the
ribbon but objected to the pattern on the ground of its resemblance to
the Waterloo ribbon. To this the Commander-in-Chief replied that the
ribbon he had proposed was common to all medals granted by His Majesty
in modern times, and was considered to be the medal ribbon of England.
He added: 'The medals of Seringapatam and Java are both suspended from
it, and both are so worn with the sanction of His Majesty.' This is
authoritative evidence of the medal being worn with the only military
ribbon then in use.

"Lord Harris, who commanded at Seringapatam, wore his medal, gold,
suspended round his neck by the red, blue-bordered ribbon, as the
gold medal was worn by general officers. A bust of his lordship was
exhibited at the Royal Military Exhibition, at Chelsea in 1890.
This showed the medal worn round the neck, with a clasp inscribed
'Seringapatam.'"

A second Seringapatam medal, almost similar in design to the first, was
struck in 1808 and presented to British as well as native troops by
order of the East India Company. This decoration was made at Calcutta.

The next medal takes us to Egypt and recalls to mind a number of
desperate encounters between the English and French. In the year 1800
an army of 15,000 British soldiers, under Sir Ralph Abercrombie, had
been assembled in the peninsula. The French were already massed there
in great numbers, being more than double our strength. On March 21,
1801, a bloody contest took place at Alexandria, and Abercrombie
fell mortally wounded. Reinforcements were necessary, and these were
supplied by the East India Company, which dispatched an expeditionary
force of native troops with commendable promptitude. On returning to
India in 1803, the Government of Bombay promised the men a campaign
medal--that is to say, a medal would be granted to each individual who
set out to fight for the British cause. Nine years elapsed before the
medal was struck, but it is gratifying to know that specimens were
given to the descendants of all soldiers whose demise had taken place
in the meantime. Sixteen gold and 2,199 silver copies were struck at a
cost of R. 5519.8.

The obverse of this award showed a sepoy holding a Union Jack,
whilst in the background the tents of the Indian camp were revealed.
A Persian inscription filled the exergue (i.e. the section of the
circular face of the medal cut off from the rest by a straight
line). The reverse revealed a wooden British ship nearing the coast,
presumably of Egypt. The date, MDCCCI, was added.

The Turkish Sultan, also, gave a medal to the British soldiers who took
part in this campaign. It is usually spoken of as "The Order of the
Crescent."

These early years of the nineteenth century brought the English into
many unfortunate conflicts with our present allies, the French.
No sooner was strife at an end in Egypt than we once more met our
gallant rivals, this time in the Islands of Rodrigues, Bourbon, and
Mauritius. It was in the years 1809-10, under the command of General
J. Abercromby, who led the 6th and 24th Madras Infantry, also the 4th
Bombay Infantry, and Vice-Admiral Bertie, who brought a squadron of
ships, that a strong force met and defeated the French. The medal which
was afterwards awarded to all natives who took part in the engagement
was inscribed, "This medal was conferred in commemoration of the
bravery and fidelity exhibited by the Sepoys of the English Company in
the capture of the Islands of Rodrigues, Bourbon, and Mauritius in the
year of Hegira, 1226." The date as reckoned by the English calendar was
also given. The obverse revealed a sepoy standing with our national
flag in one hand and a rifle in the other. A cannon was shown just
behind him, whilst the background depicted an expanse of sea. Gold and
silver pieces were struck by the Calcutta Mint. The following Order in
Council of the year 1811 is of interest:--

"On the occasion of the approaching return from the late French islands
of the volunteers from Bengal, Fort St. George, and Bombay, to the
Presidencies to which they respectively belong, His Excellency the
Vice-President in Council considers it to be no less an act of justice
than of indispensable duty to record the high sense he entertains of
the services performed by the native soldiery, who were employed in
concert with His Majesty's troops in the reduction of the Islands
of Rodriguez, Bourbon, and Mauritius. He is pleased to signify his
approbation of the distinguished merits of the volunteers by conferring
honorary medals on all the native commissioned and non-commissioned
officers, troopers, sepoys, gaulundauze, and gun lascars employed on
that service."

Closely following on the declaration of peace in the three
above-mentioned islands of the Indian Ocean came trouble with the Dutch
in Java. As was usual, a joint army of home and native troops was
dispatched to the scene of conflict. A victory was gained in 1811, and
on February 11, 1812, seven thousand medals were struck by the East
India Company at Calcutta, for distribution among the Indian troops.
The British regiments, the 14th, 59th, 69th, 78th, and 89th Foot,
took part in the expedition but, following the usual custom, received
no awards. The particulars of this Indian medal were as follows:
Obverse--sepoys storming Fort Cornelis, upon which was prominently
displayed a flagstaff bearing a British flag above, presumably, a
Dutch flag with the word CORNELIS printed above the scene. Reverse--a
Persian inscription and August MDCCCX. Java Conquered. XXVI.

The Nepaul medal was the next to be struck by the Honourable East India
Company. It bears the date of 1816. In granting this award, a departure
was made from the usual custom of giving a decoration to every soldier,
or his heirs, who actually set out from home with an expeditionary
force. In this case, the medal was granted, first, to officers who
reached the fighting area and, second, to the men who conducted
themselves with conspicuous bravery. Mayo says that the feeling was
probably gaining ground that too many medals were being struck and
their value was becoming lessened in consequence. This he suggests was
the reason for restricting the number on this occasion.

The obverse of the Nepaul medal showed a stirring picture of hills,
strongly fortified, with cannon in the foreground and an array of
bayonets just coming into view. The reverse consisted of a Persian
inscription.

After Nepaul, a long period followed during which no campaign medals
were awarded to Indian troops. Certain individual awards were made to
officers, but as in each case less than twenty pieces were struck, we
consider it unnecessary to record them in detail.

At this point we must retrace our steps to the year 1806 and speak of
the Battle of Maida, which may be described as an outlying encounter in
the Napoleonic campaigns. To celebrate Sir John Stuart's victory over
the forces led by General Regnier, a medal was struck and presented to
thirteen of the highest officers. The award in itself was unimportant,
but as it was practically the first royal medal to be given to British
soldiers since the time of Culloden, it must be looked upon as an
epoch-making decoration. We must admit that Nelson's men at Trafalgar
had received awards, and certain regiments which took part in various
Napoleonic wars were provided with coveted distinctions, but in every
case they were planned and paid for by private individuals and so
cannot rank in any way as royal medals. It is perhaps interesting to
record, in parenthesis, that the Trafalgar medals were given to the
recipients by an engineer of Birmingham named Matthew Boulton.

The last award to be described in this chapter is the Peninsular medal.
Two sizes, both in gold, were struck and presented to officers. No men
received them. The designs of both were: Obverse--Britannia, seated on
a globe, holding out a palm; a couchant lion beside her. Reverse--a
laurel wreath framing the name of one of the following battles: Roleia,
Vimeira, Sahagun, Benevente, Corunna, Martinique, Talavera, Guadaloupe,
Busaco, Barrosa, Fuentes d'Onoro, Albuera, Java, Ciudad Rodrigo,
Badajoz, Salamanca, Fort Detroit, Vittoria, Pyrenees, St. Sebastian
Chateauguay, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, and Toulouse. The name and rank of
the recipient was engraved upon the edge.

The larger medal was awarded to general officers and was provided with
an attachment for wearing around the neck, a crimson ribbon with blue
edging being specified. The smaller medal was given to junior officers
who took command in cases where their superior-commanders had been
disabled. This award was provided with a buckle and ribbon as above and
was intended for wear upon the breast.

Both the large and small medals were conferred for service in one
engagement. For a second or third engagement bars were provided. These,
it may be added, in parenthesis, were the first bars given to British
soldiers.

When an officer received distinctions in more than three engagements
he was awarded the Peninsular Cross instead of the foregoing circular
medals. This distinction was struck in gold and had much the same shape
and design as was afterwards selected for the Victoria Cross. The lion
on the former, however, faces to the right, whilst on the latter it
looks to the left.

In this chapter we have traced the history of British medals from their
inception in the reign of Elizabeth down to the stormy times of the
Duke of Wellington. The period was marked by the paucity of awards made
to British troops. Popular opinion, however, was gradually forcing its
influence during the latter years of the period upon the authorities
who withheld them, and the following chapter shows how agitations
coming from non-military quarters caused a complete change of policy
in the granting of these coveted distinctions.

  [Illustration: THE INDIAN MUTINY MEDAL.]



                             CHAPTER VIII

                  MILITARY MEDALS STRUCK BY THE MINT

   Campaign medals considered--Waterloo--Burmah--China--Cabul--
     Jellalabad--Scinde--Meeanee--Sobraon--The men's Peninsular
     medal--Punjab--Indian General Service medals--South Africa,
     1850-3; also 1877-9--Baltic--Crimea--Indian Mutiny--Abyssinia--
     New Zealand--Later awards


In these days when the deeds of brave men, whether they be of high or
low rank, are acclaimed with equal praise, it is extremely difficult
to understand the feelings which actuated the authorities a hundred or
more years ago when awarding military medals. Parliament, though it
was supposed to represent the masses, decided time after time in these
early years of the nineteenth century that decorations were only meant
for soldiers of rank and that the common men had neither claim nor
title to them. The usual plea was that the ordinary soldier had been
paid for his services, and there the nation's obligation to him was at
an end. Somehow or other, the authorities seem to have shut their eyes
to the fact that the same argument could be applied with equal force
to the commanders of the Army. It is somewhat lamentable to note that
even so grand a soldier as the Duke of Wellington argued in favour of
withholding rewards from the rank and file, and his opinion, we may be
sure, had great influence in certain high quarters.

But in spite of the decided opinions held by those in authority, there
was a strong party of agitators who opposed these narrow views. To them
must be accredited much, for in face of every conceivable obstacle they
left no stone unturned until the coveted awards were shared by men as
well as commanders. In the early days which followed Waterloo this
little band displayed particular activity. "Are our ordinary soldiers,
fresh home from the Belgian battlefields, to go unrewarded as the
Peninsular heroes have done?" was their constant cry. The people took
up the matter, and only when absolutely forced to did Parliament agree
to strike a medal for all ranks of the victorious army. The official
decree ran as follows:--

    "The Prince Regent has been graciously pleased in the name and
    on behalf of His Majesty to command that in commemoration of the
    brilliant and decisive victory of Waterloo, a medal shall be
    conferred upon every officer, non-commissioned officer, and soldier
    upon that occasion.

    By command of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent.

                        FREDERICK, _Commander-in-Chief_."

Undoubtedly the innovation of rewarding the rank and file as well as
the officers created much satisfaction. The people openly displayed
their approval, the soldiers were pleased beyond measure, and the Press
spoke of the change as a step in the right direction; such, at any
rate, is the impression one gathers from reading articles bearing on
the matter in contemporary numbers of the _Quarterly Review_.

The Waterloo medal bore on the obverse a profile of George and the
inscription "George P. Regent." On the reverse was a winged figure of
Victory seated upon a rectangular scroll bearing the word "Waterloo,"
and the date "June 18, 1815." The reverse design was obviously copied
from a coin of Elias which is exhibited in the British Museum. The
ribbon was of red silk flanked with blue edges. This material was
passed through a circular ring and not through a horizontal slot, as is
customary to-day.

The award was received by all grades of men who were present at the
Battle of Ligny, June 16th; Quatre Bras, June 17th; Waterloo, June
18th; as well as by certain forces which were posted in the rear of the
battlefield on June 18th. Certain German troops were also decorated
with this award.

The collector will often come across specimens of this medal, which
are provided with slots instead of rings for holding the ribbon in
position. Many of the original recipients preferred this latter method
of attachment and made the alteration themselves. Such specimens,
therefore, are not in strict accordance with the official pattern and
are in consequence of less value than the unaltered kind.

Some ten years elapsed before the next medal, styled the First Burmah
Medal, 1824-6, was struck. This being an Indian award, no royal
features were portrayed. On the obverse was a palm-tree and an army
storming an Eastern city, probably Rangoon; there was also a Persian
inscription in the exergue. On the reverse, a lion was encountering a
white elephant, and a British flag waved prominently in the background.
The decoration was struck in gold for officers, and silver for men
of other standing. For the first time with Indian medals, a definite
ribbon, red and blue, was prescribed.

The earliest award to bear the head of Queen Victoria was the China
medal of 1842. The features portrayed on this specimen were similar to
those shown on a medallion executed by William Wyon in 1837, and struck
to commemorate Victoria's first visit to the City of London as queen.
Her Majesty evinced a great liking for this rendering of her features,
and consequently it was used for the coinage, the postage stamps,
and, lastly, the medals. The reverse side revealed a group of arms of
various kinds. The ribbon was red, edged with yellow. It was given both
to soldiers and sailors.

This award may be confused with a later China medal of the same design.
The earlier pattern, however, bears the year 1842 under the word China
in the exergue, whilst the 1857-60 pattern has no date at all. Also, no
bars were furnished with the earlier specimen, but as many as six may
be found on the latter.

Writing of the thrilling incidents which crowded the first campaign,
Carter describes one of them in the following words: "The west gate
had been blown in by Captain Pears, the commanding engineer. A body of
Tartars, having been driven into one division of the western outwork,
refused to surrender, when most of them were either shot or destroyed
in the burning houses, several of which had been set on fire by the
enemy or by the British guns. Major-General Bartley subsequently
proceeded with a body of troops consisting of the 18th and part of the
49th Regiment, when a hot engagement ensued with about one thousand
Tartars, who, under cover of some enclosures, opened a destructive
fire on the soldiers as they were filing round the walls. The leading
division of the 49th dashed down the ramparts, while the 18th pushed
on. As a result, the enemy was soon dispersed, although some fought
with great desperation.

"From the sun becoming so overpowering it was found impossible to
move with men already fatigued by their exertions, many of whom died
from the intense heat. The troops, therefore, remained in occupation
of the gates until six o'clock, when several parties were pushed into
the Tartar city and to the public offices. On passing through the city
and suburbs, the painful spectacle presented itself of hundreds of the
dead bodies of men, women, and children lying in the houses, numerous
families having destroyed themselves sooner than outlive the disgrace
of their city being captured by foreigners."

The second Chinese war resulted from a cumulation of depredatory
movements on the part of the natives, but the capture of the _Arrow_,
a vessel flying the British flag, was directly responsible for the
declaration of hostilities.

The next medal struck at the Mint was awarded to the soldiers who took
arms in 1842, in Cabul. The obverse bore the Wyon head of Victoria,
whilst the reverse was issued in four patterns as follows:--

1. A wreath encircling the inscription "Candahar, 1842."

2. A wreath encircling the word "Ghuznee," and another encircling the
word "Cabul."

3. A wreath encircling the inscription "Candahar, Ghuznee, Cabul, 1842."

4. A wreath encircling the inscription "Cabul, 1842."

The ribbon attached to all the varieties was of the rainbow pattern
which has since become familiar on Indian medals.

A native medal was also struck at the Mint for distribution among the
Indian troops. Instead of Victoria's bust a trophy of arms surmounting
the inscription "Invicta, MDCCCXLII," filled the obverse side.

After Cabul came the Jellalabad rising. To celebrate the victories
of this campaign, a medal was struck at Calcutta and distributed to
all soldiers who took part in the various actions. The design was
considered unsatisfactory; the obverse bore a simple mural crown,
the upper edge of which resembled the embattled coping of a castle,
whilst the reverse showed the date "VII April 1842," in bold but plain
lettering.

In consequence of the dissatisfaction which the medal caused, another
was struck by the Mint in London and sent out to the troops in 1845. An
order was issued at the same time stating that all recipients of the
Calcutta award could have their decoration changed for the London award
on making formal application. Curiously enough, the soldiers who had
grumbled at the pattern of the earlier medal showed little desire to
become recipients of the newer piece, and in only a few cases was the
exchange made. The London striking is consequently somewhat rare.

The Mint medal bore the Wyon head of Victoria surrounded with the words
"Victoria Vindex," whilst the rear showed a graceful figure of Victory,
with wings, holding a flag and a laurel wreath. The words "Jellalabad,
VII April MDCCCXLII" encircled the figure. The rainbow ribbon of India
suspended the medal.

The early forties were troublous times in India. Hardly twelve months
after Jellalabad had been fought and won, a medal was earned by our
brave troops in the province of Scinde. Referring to this campaign,
Mayo quotes the following interesting letter:--


                             "COLONIAL OFFICE,
                               DOWNING STREET.
                                 _18th July, 1843._

         MY LORD,

     I have the honour to acquaint your
     Lordships, that the Queen, being desirous of commemorating
     the signal success obtained by the
     Force under the command of Major-General Sir
     Charles Napier, in Scinde, has been graciously pleased
     to command that a Medal, to resemble as nearly as
     possible that proposed for the Troops employed in
     Afghanistan, should be conferred upon the Officers,
     Non-commissioned officers, and Soldiers in Her
     Majesty's Service, who were engaged in the Battles
     of Meeanee and Hyderabad.

     Without anticipating the course which the Court
     of Directors of the East India Co. may propose
     to take for commemorating the success of the
     Company's Troops in Scinde, I think it nevertheless
     right to add that Her Majesty would readily permit
     the Officers, Non-commissioned officers, and Soldiers
     of the Company's Army to whom the Court of
     Directors might think proper to grant Medals in
     commemoration of the Battles of Meeanee and
     Hyderabad to wear such Medals in all parts of
     Her Majesty's Dominions.

                              I have etc.,
                            STANLEY,
               _The Presidency of the Indian Board_."

The Mint medal issued in March 1846 bore the Wyon head of Victoria,
with the words "Victoria Regina" on the obverse, but of the reverse
there were three patterns. The first showed a laurel wreath and crown
encircling the word "Meeanee"; the second had the word "Hyderabad"
substituted; whilst the third gave both battles, namely "Meeanee and
Hyderabad." The rainbow ribbon was again employed.

Before turning to the next medal, it is pleasant to recall the Duke
of Wellington's brief eulogy of Sir Charles Napier's campaign, which he
addressed to the House of Lords.

"Sir Charles Napier moved his troops through the desert against
hostile forces, he transported his guns under circumstances of extreme
difficulty and in a most extraordinary manner, and he cut off a retreat
of the enemy which rendered it impossible for them ever to regain their
positions." Meeanee was fought on February 17th, and Hyderabad on March
24, 1843.

  [Illustration: THE CHINA MEDAL, 1842-60.]

  [Illustration: THE EGYPTIAN MEDAL, 1882-9.]

Two years after Scinde, the Sutlej Campaign was waged between British
troops and Sikhs. The Mint medal struck to commemorate our victories
was the second award to carry clasps or bars--the officers' Peninsular
medal being the first. The obverse again showed Wyon's head of
Victoria: the reverse displayed a stirring picture of Victory holding
out a wreath, with a stack of arms at her feet. The words "Army of the
Sutlej" encircled the allegory. Of the exergue on the reverse, there
were four different types: the first read "Moodkee, 1845"; the second,
"Ferozeshuhur, 1845"; the third, "Aliwal, 1846"; and the fourth,
"Sobraon, 1846."

The General Order which regulated the granting of this decoration
stated that soldiers who took part in more than one engagement were to
receive the medal engraved with the name of their earliest encounter,
whilst bars were to be added for subsequent victories. From this it
is clear that the Sobraon medal cannot be found with any bars. Bars,
the decree stated, were to be worn in the following order, counting
upwards from the medal: Ferozeshuhur, Aliwal, and Sobraon. Naturally,
no bars for Moodkee were issued.

Curious as it may seem, the next decoration to be struck by the Mint
was the rankers' Peninsular medal. It will be remembered that on the
conclusion of Wellington's campaign in Spain two gold pieces were
issued for officers, but that no awards were presented to the ordinary
soldiers. This arrangement pleased neither the men nor the officers,
who knew how much the country was indebted to the rank and file. As a
consequence, the question of the men's medal was constantly discussed
in Parliament. In 1844, the matter was thoroughly debated upon in the
Lower House, but the opposers urged with a certain amount of success
that Wellington had decided years ago that no award should be granted.
Sir Charles Napier's answer to this lame argument was to the point. "It
is never too late to do a good thing," he retorted amidst the applause
of his followers. Two years later, in 1846, the matter was again before
the House, and, probably because Queen Victoria was somewhat partial to
the granting of distinctions when merited, a favourable decision was
arrived at. The men were to have the medal so long withheld from them,
as the following General Order of June 1, 1847, explains:--

"Her Majesty having been graciously pleased to command that a medal
should be struck to record the services of her fleets and armies during
the wars commencing 1793, and ending in 1814, and that one should be
conferred upon every officer, non-commissioned officer and soldier of
the army who was in any battle or siege, to commemorate which medals
have been struck by command of Her Majesty's Royal predecessors and
have been distributed to the general or superior officers of the
general armies and corps of troops engaged, in conformity with the
regulations of the army at that time in force...."

The Order was somewhat lengthy and involved, but its chief clauses
were: (_a_) men should receive medals and clasps for all engagements
figuring on the superior officers' medals and clasps of 1808-9,
and (_b_) relatives of men since deceased could claim the award on
production of sufficient title.

The medals were issued to 19,000 claimants in 1848. In 1850, the
Duke of Richmond suggested that the troops in Egypt, who had fought
with great bravery, should also receive the distinction, and the
Queen graciously consented to recognize their services. In this case,
however, the relatives of dead soldiers could not claim the award.

There is much about the rankers' Peninsular medal which is
unsatisfactory. In the first place, the reverse bears the figure of
Victoria crowning the Duke of Wellington. As he took no part in many
of the contributory campaigns, and as his veto so long delayed the
granting of the decoration, some other design would have been more
appropriate. Again, the date placed in the exergue, 1793-1814, is much
too vague. And lastly, the head of Victoria on the obverse has often
caused confusion, as she did not ascend the throne until some three
years after the campaign had come to a welcome close.

The Punjab award, 1848-9, is probably one of the most artistic pieces
of work emanating from the London Mint. On the obverse was the familiar
Wyon head of Victoria, surrounded by the words "Victoria Regina,"
whilst on the reverse was a stirring tableau representing Sikhs
presenting their arms to Major-General Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert at
Rawul Pindee. The ribbon was blue, striped with two narrow lines of
yellow. There were three clasps: Chilianwala, Mooltan, and Goojerat.

The most desperate encounter in this campaign was the Battle of
Chilianwala, during which the brigade under Brigadier Pennycuick and
Lieutenant-Colonel Brookes was led to make a disastrous charge owing
to a misunderstanding. The 24th Regiment suffered terribly, and their
medals are now extremely valuable in consequence.

In 1851, Queen Victoria, in furtherance of her policy of rewarding
unrecognized actions of the past, decided to issue an Indian General
Service medal to cover the following feats of arms:--

   Storm of Allighur--September 4, 1803.

   Battle of Delhi--September 11, 1803.

   Battle of Assaye--September 23, 1803.

   Siege of Asseerghur--October 21, 1803.

   Battle of Laswarree--November 1, 1803.

   Battle of Argaum--November 29, 1803.

   Siege and storm of Gawilghur--December 15, 1803.

   Defence of Delhi--October 1804.

   Battle of Deig--November 13, 1804.

   Capture of Deig--December 23, 1804.

   War of Nepaul--1816.

   Battle of Kirkee and battle and capture of Poona--November 1817.

   Battle of Seetabuldee and battle and capture of Nagpoor--November and
   December 1817.

   Battle of Maheidpoor--December 21, 1817.

   Defence of Corygaum--January 1, 1818.

   War in Ava--1824-6.

   Siege and storm of Bhurtpoor--January 1826.

The following are the particulars of the medal:--

   _Obverse_--Wyon's head of Victoria, with the inscription "Victoria
   Regina."

   _Reverse_--Victory, seated. A palm-tree in front of her.

   _Ribbon_--Sky blue.

   _Clasps_--Twenty-three in number.

It is curious to note that the reverse bears the date 1799-1826, though
the above list of engagements restricts the years to 1803-26. This is
due to the fact that the list was revised after the dies had been put
in hand, and certain of the earlier battles were deleted on the advice
of the Duke of Wellington.

A second Indian General Service medal was issued in 1854 and
subsequently as conditions demanded. It should be mentioned that the
authorities had grown to view the constant striking of fresh medals for
Indian service with a certain amount of disfavour, and the standard
design was introduced in order to prevent a multiplicity of patterns.
The measure may have proved satisfactory to those in authority, but it
certainly had grave disadvantages of a more or less obvious character.
The ribbon, for instance, was similar through all the years of the
issue, and when worn with undress or civilian clothes conveyed little
meaning. The following clasps were issued:--

   Pegu; Persia; North-West Frontier; Umbeyla; Bhootan; Looshai; Perak,
   1875; Jowaki, 1877; Naga, 1879; Burma, 1885, 1887, and 1889; Sikkim,
   1888; Hazara, 1888 and 1891; Chin-Lushai, 1889; Samana, 1891;
   North-West Frontier, 1891; Hunza, 1891; Lushgai, 1889; Wazeristan,
   1894.


The value of the piece varies considerably, according to the clasps
provided with it.

The description of the second Indian General Service award is:--

   _Obverse_--Wyon's head of Victoria, with the inscription "Victoria
   Regina."

   _Reverse_--Victory crowning a naked warrior.

   _Ribbon_--Three strips of red and two of blue, all of equal width.

Another general medal, first issued in the early fifties, was the
South African medal. It will be remembered that in 1850-3 certain
British regiments were engaged in putting down Kaffir risings. When
a decoration was struck for them, Queen Victoria decreed that the
soldiers who fought in the earlier Kaffir risings in 1834 and 1846-7
should also receive the award. The design, which was the same for all,
bore the Wyon head on the obverse, and a crouching lion with the words
"South Africa" and the date "1853" on the reverse. The ribbon was
orange, streaked with four blue lines.

For the 1834 campaign, the 27th, 72nd, and 75th Foot regiments were
decorated. For the 1846-7 campaign, the recipients were the 7th
Dragoon Guards, the Rifle Brigade, the 6th, 27th, 45th, 79th, 90th,
and 91st Foot regiments. For the 1850-3 campaign, the following were
honoured: the 2nd, 6th, 12th, 43rd, 60th, 73rd, 74th, 91st Foot, the
Rifle Brigade, the 12th Lancers, and various Marines. By noting the
recipient's regiment, engraved on the medal edge, it is possible, in
most cases, to decide for which particular campaign the award was made.

It may be convenient to state here that the South African decoration
was re-issued in 1877-9. The design was similar to the original, except
that the exergue contained a picture of Kaffir arms instead of the date
"1853." With this issue clasps bearing the following years were given:
1877, 1878, 1879, 1877-8, 1878-9, and 1877-8-9.

The next medal was that presented for the Baltic. It was given largely
to the Navy, but the Army received its share, as the letter here quoted
from Mayo plainly shows:--

                              "ADMIRALTY, _June 5, 1856_.

 Her Majesty having been graciously pleased to signify Her commands
 that a medal shall be granted to the Officers and Crews of Her
 Majesty's ships as well as to such Officers and Men of Her Majesty's
 Army as were employed in the operations in the Baltic in the years
 1854-5, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty hereby give notice of
 the same."

The obverse of the award was again embellished by the familiar head
engraved by Wyon, whilst the reverse depicted Britannia seated. The
inscription "Baltic, 1854-1855," surrounded her. The ribbon was yellow,
flanked with narrow edges of blue.

After the Baltic came the Crimea award. This is certainly one of
the finest productions which the London Mint has ever given us. The
well-known picture of Victoria filled the obverse, whilst a splendid
allegorical group, depicting Victory crowning a Roman soldier,
ornamented the reverse. The clasps were more decorative than usual,
taking the form of elongated oak-leaves held in position by minute
acorns. They were five in number and bore the designations of Alma,
Balaklava, Inkerman, Sebastopol, and Azoff (the latter only for naval
victories). The ribbon was light blue, edged with yellow.

The medal commands but a very low price--considering how important
was the victory which it commemorates--unless it bears the bar for
Balaklava. If provided with this honour, and engraved for one of the
cavalry regiments which took part in the famous charge, its value is
considerable.

The last award to be paid for by the Honourable East India Company
was the Indian Mutiny medal of 1857-8. This, of course, is one of the
finest pieces which could enter the medallist's collection, yet it
is procurable for a very modest sum, unless it bears the clasp for
the Defence of Lucknow, when it is somewhat costly. The obverse shows
Victoria's profile, as before, whilst the reverse displays Britannia
seated on a lion, with the word "India" printed around the edge. The
ribbon is silver grey, with two bars of red. The clasps are five in
number: Delhi, Defence of Lucknow, Relief of Lucknow, Lucknow, and
Central India. The medal was presented, generally, to soldiers in the
9th Lancers and the Bengal Horse Artillery, besides many civilians.

In 1867-8, a medal for Abyssinia was minted. In some measure it was
an interesting award, as the usual head of Victoria was superseded by
another design, engraved by J. S. Wyon and A. B. Wyon. In this case
the royal features were portrayed within a small circle, which was
surrounded by a star having nine points. In the angles formed by the
points of the star the letters A-B-Y-S-S-I-N-I-A were printed. The
reverse was a simple circular wreath. There were no clasps, and the
ribbon--silver grey and red in colour--was passed through a circular
ring, joined to the medal by a royal crown fashioned in silver.

In 1869, a much-belated decoration was struck for distribution among
the soldiers and sailors who fought against the Maoris in New Zealand
in 1845-7 and 1860-6.

The expeditionary force was landed in 1845, in order to uphold the
rights of British settlers, who complained that after purchasing
allotments of land they were denied their title. The Maori chiefs
disclaimed all knowledge of such practices, but when a British
magistrate presented a formal complaint to a certain Wairau chief, he
was murdered. This seems to have been a signal for other native chiefs
to rise and maltreat the Europeans generally. The British force, it may
be added, only arrived in time to prevent a wholesale massacre of the
settlers from the Motherland.

The obverse of the medal bore a new head of Victoria, wearing widow's
weeds; the reverse showed a wreath, and the inscription "New Zealand,
Virtutis Honor: 1846-65." For reasons which are not clear, a few pieces
were struck bearing no date. The ribbon was blue and red.

       *       *       *       *       *

As the historical incidents relating to the medals of recent issue are
generally known, it will only be necessary in the following cases to
describe the designs of the medals themselves.

=Canada=, 1866-70.--Yet another profile of Queen Victoria, with
inscription "Victoria Regina et Imperatrix." On the reverse, a wreath
of maple-leaves and a Canadian ensign. Clasps--Fenian Raid, 1866;
Fenian Raid, 1870; Red River, 1870. Ribbon--two bars of red and one of
grey.

=Ashanti=, 1874-94.--Still another profile of Queen Victoria, with
inscription "Victoria Regina." The reverse bore a group of British
soldiers fighting savages in a wood, the work of E. J. Poynter, R.A.
Clasps--Coomassie; 1887-8; 1891-2; 1892; 1893-4. Ribbon--yellow and
black.

=Afghanistan=, 1878-80.--Another profile of Queen Victoria,
with inscription "Victoria Regina et Imperatrix." On the reverse, a
fine picture of Indian soldiers proceeding through a mountain pass,
in which an elephant is prominently displayed. The sketch was made by
Randolph Caldecott. Clasps--Ali Musjid; Peiwar-Kotal; Charasia; Ahmed
Khel; Kabul; Kandahar. Ribbon--green and plum.

  [Illustration: THE SUTLEJ MEDAL.]

  [Illustration: THE PUNJAB MEDAL.]

  [Illustration: THE THIRD INDIAN GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL.]

=Cape of Good Hope General Service.=--On the obverse, Victoria
with widow's weeds and small crown. On the reverse, the words "Cape
of Good Hope," surmounting a lion and unicorn. Clasps--Bechuanaland;
Basutoland; Transkei. Ribbon--blue and yellow.

=Egypt=, 1882-9.--Head of Victoria, as on the Ashanti medal,
on obverse, and sphinx, with inscription "Egypt, 1882," on the
reverse. Clasps--Alexandria; Tel-el-Kebir; Suakin; El Teb; Tamaai;
El Teb-Tamaai; The Nile, 1884-5; Abou Klea; Kirbekan; Suakin, 1884;
Tofrek; Gemaizah; Toski, 1889. Ribbon--grey and blue.

=North-West Canada=, 1885.--Obverse, as for Egypt. Reverse, maple
wreath, and inscription "North-West Canada, 1885." Clasp--Saskatchewan.
Ribbon--grey with two red stripes.

=West Africa=, 1890-1900.--Head as in previous case. Reverse,
British soldiers fighting savages in a forest. Seventeen clasps.
Ribbon--black and yellow.

=Matabeleland=, 1893.--A fresh head of Victoria on the obverse,
and a wounded lion, with the inscription "Matabeleland" on the reverse.
No clasps. Ribbon--orange and blue in seven stripes.

=Central Africa=, 1894-8.--Medal as for West Africa. One clasp.
"Central Africa, 1894-8." Ribbon--plum, silver, and black.

=Third India General Service Medal=, 1895-8.--Victoria in widow's
weeds on obverse, and a British and Indian soldier grasping a standard
on reverse. Six clasps. Ribbon--yellow green and plum red.

=Sudan=, 1896.--Head and shoulders profile of Victoria on obverse,
and on reverse a winged figure of Victory grasping a flag in either
hand and "Sudan" printed beneath her feet. No clasps. Ribbon--a thin
red stripe separating two wide bars of yellow and black. There is also
a Khedive's Sudan medal which British soldiers have permission to wear.

=East and Central Africa=, 1897-9.--Obverse, as for Sudan.
Reverse, Britannia pointing to the rising sun. A lion accompanies her.
Clasps--Lubwa's Uganda; 1897-8; 1898; Uganda, 1899. Ribbon--orange and
red in two wide bars.

=China=, 1900.--Victoria in profile on obverse; a pile of arms, a
shield, a palm-tree, and the Latin quotation "Armis Exposcere Pacem" on
the reverse. Clasps--Taku Forts; Defence of the Legations; Relief of
Pekin. Ribbon--a wide red band flanked with yellow edges.

=First South Africa=, 1899-1902.--The Queen's head on the obverse,
as in previous case. Victory offering a laurel crown to an army of
British soldiers. Twenty-six clasps. Ribbon--orange flanked with blue,
which in turn is flanked with red.

=Second South Africa=, 1901-2.--The first campaign medal to bear
King Edward's profile. Reverse, as for previous award. Clasps--South
Africa, 1901; South Africa, 1902. Ribbon--equal strips of green,
silver, and orange.

=Ashanti=, 1900.--Obverse, as for second South Africa. Reverse, a
lion trampling on native weapons, and a scroll with the word "Ashanti."
Clasp--Kumassi. Ribbon--three strips of black and two of green.

=East African General Service=, 1900-4.--Obverse, as before.
Reverse, Victory, with a lion, pointing to the rising sun. Fourteen
clasps. Ribbon--black, yellow, and green bars.

=Fourth India General Service=, 1901-2.--Obverse, as before.
Reverse and ribbon, as for the third India General Service medal.
Clasp--Waziristan, 1901-2. Ribbon--three strips of crimson and two of
green.

=Tibet=, 1903-4.--Obverse, as before. Reverse, the heights of
Tibet crowned by a fortress. Clasp--Gyantse. Ribbon--green, silver, and
plum colour.



                              CHAPTER IX

           MILITARY DECORATIONS AWARDED FOR SPECIAL SERVICES

   The necessity for special awards--The Victoria Cross--The Order
     of Merit--The "Distinguished Conduct in the Field" award--The
     Distinguished Service Order--The Meritorious Service award--The Long
     Service and Good Conduct award--The "Best Shot" medal--Volunteer
     decorations--Other decorations


The reader who has noted the facts set out in the two previous chapters
will remember how, in the earliest days of medal awarding, the
general plan was to decorate none but the soldiers who had performed
exceptional service, and that, as time wore on, the idea developed
into granting medals to all who took part in warfare, irrespective
of the merits of each individual. The latter plan must certainly be
considered the more satisfactory, for personal bravery is so frequent
a quality displayed on the battlefield that all who take part in these
life-and-death struggles should, of necessity, receive a token of the
King's recognition.

But though the granting of campaign medals was a step in the right
direction, it tended to level up the ordinary brave soldier and the
soldier possessing exceptional merit, and this, of course, was a
principle unsympathetic to English feeling. Accordingly, we find that
running side by side with the campaign medals are decorations for
special merit. Undoubtedly the most popular and the most coveted of all
such awards is the V.C.

The Victoria Cross was instituted by a Royal Warrant of January 29,
1856--during the Crimean War, in fact--and its inception was largely
due to the thoughtfulness of Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort. The
cross itself is severe and plain in design, but loses nothing on this
account; it was formerly struck from the metal of old cannon taken in
the campaign against the Russians, but to-day we can only claim that
its metal composition once formed part of artillery pieces of some kind
or other. The pattern is too well known to need description, but it may
be added that the shape and design were modelled on the Peninsular gold
cross. The ribbon is crimson for the Army and blue for the Navy.

The Victoria Cross may be won by soldiers of all ranks; when awarded
to non-commissioned officers and privates it carries with it an
annuity of £10, though this sum may be increased in special cases. If
the medal be sold during the life-time of the recipient the pension
can be withdrawn, and if the possessor be convicted in the civil or
military courts for any but trivial offences, the same punishment may
be enforced.

There are many rules regulating the granting of this coveted award; the
following are perhaps the most interesting:--

"It is ordained that the cross shall only be awarded to those officers
or men who have served Us in the presence of the enemy, and shall then
have performed some signal act of valour or devotion to their country.

"It is ordained with a view to place all persons on a perfectly equal
footing in relation to eligibility for the decoration, that neither
rank, nor long service, nor wounds, nor any other circumstance or
condition whatsoever, save the merit of conspicuous bravery, shall be
held to establish a sufficient claim to the honour.

"It is ordained that in the event of a gallant and daring act having
been performed by a squadron not under 50 in number, or by a brigade,
regiment, troop, or company in which the admiral, general, or other
officer commanding such force may deem that all are equally brave and
distinguished, and that no special selection can be made by them; then
in such case, the admiral, general, or other officer commanding, may
direct, that for any such body of sailors or soldiers, one officer
shall be selected by the officers engaged for the decoration; and in
like manner one petty officer or non-commissioned officer shall be
selected by the petty officers and non-commissioned officers engaged;
and two seamen or private soldiers or marines shall be selected by the
seamen or private soldiers or marines engaged respectively for the
decoration, and the names of those selected shall be transmitted ...
to the admiral or general officer commanding, who shall in due manner
confer the decoration as if the acts were done under his own eye."

There has been much discussion of late as to whether bars are ever
awarded with the Victoria Cross. Undoubtedly, these additional marks of
valour are at times given, but instances where they have been received
are rare. It should perhaps be stated definitely, that where a second
act of sufficient bravery is performed before the cross is conferred,
details of the second act are engraved with details of the first upon
the rear of the medal, but where the second act is carried out after
the medal has been conferred, a bar is awarded and the £10 grant
increased to £15. The fourth clause of the Royal Warrant of January 29,
1856, makes this point quite clear:--

"It is ordained that any one who after having received the cross
shall again perform an act of bravery which, if he had not received
such cross, would have entitled him to it, such further act shall
be recorded by a bar attached to the ribbon by which the cross is
suspended, and for every additional act of bravery an additional bar
may be added."

The brave deeds which have been rewarded by grants of the Victoria
Cross make thrilling reading, but space cannot be spared here for
recounting the most stirring of them. A brief description of each award
is given in Mr. D. Hastings Irwin's book "War Medals and Decorations,"
whilst Mr. Philip A. Wilkin's "History of the Victoria Cross" also
contains much valuable information. Before turning to the next medal,
it may be interesting to add that crosses are often granted after
death; a case in point was that of Lord Roberts's son who fell at
Colenso in 1899.

Another decoration awarded for bravery is the Order of Merit, which
was instituted in 1837. Unlike other awards, it was divided into three
classes; the third class being granted for the first conspicuous act of
gallantry, the second class for a repetition of such act, and the first
class for a third instance.

The decoration was made in three patterns, each of which was one and a
half inches in diameter. The shape was an eight-rayed star. The centre
of the award consisted of two crossed swords, around which was written
"Reward for Valour," on a background of blue enamel.

The first-class decoration was made in gold and bore a gold wreath; the
second-class was silver with a gold wreath; and the third-class, silver
with a silver wreath. All were to be worn on the left breast. A money
grant formed part of the award, and it is worth noting that the widow
of a recipient drew the annuity for three years after her husband's
death.

A third decoration for bravery is the "Distinguished Conduct in the
Field" award. This was instituted by Royal Warrant on June 4, 1853,
for sergeants, and by a later warrant (December 4, 1854) for all
non-commissioned officers and privates. The decoration was given to
mark "the Sovereign's sense of the distinguished service and gallant
conduct in the field of the army then serving in the Crimea" and since.
By an amending warrant of February 7, 1881, a bar could be earned by
performing a subsequent act of gallantry. The methods of selecting
recipients was as follows:--

The commanding officer of each cavalry regiment could, if he thought
fit, select one sergeant, two corporals, and four privates for
decoration, whilst an officer of an infantry regiment could select
one sergeant, four corporals, and ten privates. The award originally
carried with it a grant of £15 in the case of sergeants, £10 in the
case of corporals, and £5 in the case of privates--sums which were
banked until the time when the soldiers took their discharge.

The medal was fashioned in silver; the obverse bore a military
trophy of arms in the centre of which was the shield of the reigning
sovereign, whilst the reverse was lettered "For Distinguished Conduct
in the Field." The ribbon was red, blue, and red in equal strips. It
was worn on the left breast.

The medal, as now awarded, bears a profile of the reigning monarch
instead of the trophy of arms, and recipients are offered either a
gratuity of £20 on discharge, or an increase of sixpence per day on
their pension allowance.

In 1886, the "Distinguished Service Order" was instituted. The initial
Royal Warrant affecting this order, under date of September 6, 1886,
said: "Whereas we have taken into our royal consideration that the
means of adequately rewarding the distinguished service of officers in
our naval and military services who have been honourably mentioned in
dispatches are limited. Now, for the purpose of attaining an end
so desirable as that of rewarding individual instances of meritorious
or distinguished service in war, we have instituted a new naval and
military order of distinction which we are desirous should be highly
prized by the officers of our naval and military services."

  [Illustration: THE QUEEN AND KING'S SOUTH AFRICAN MEDALS, 1899-1902.

  (The same reverse was used for both pieces.)]

The order consists of a gold cross shaped out of a circle of
conspicuous and pleasing design. The metal is gold, but the surface is
enamel-coated. The predominant colouring is white, but a gold edging, a
green wreath, and a red centre lend effectiveness to the design. Both
faces are decorated, the obverse with a crown, and the reverse with the
royal cypher. The ribbon, which is crimson edged with blue, is bounded
both top and bottom by a gold bar.

The last award to be mentioned here for brave conduct is the
Meritorious Service medal, which is now superseded by the
"Distinguished Conduct in the Field" medal. This award received royal
sanction in 1845 for the Army, and in 1849 for the Marines. The warrant
said:--

"We deem it expedient to afford a greater encouragement to the
Non-commissioned Officers and Soldiers of Our Army who may have
distinguished themselves, or who may have given good, faithful, and
efficient service.

"It is our further will and pleasure that a sum not exceeding £2,000 a
year be distributed for the purpose of granting annuities as rewards
for distinguished or meritorious service to Sergeants who are now, or
who may be hereafter in the Service, either while serving or after
discharge with or without pension, in sums not exceeding £20: which may
be held during service, and together with pension."

The medal earned but little popularity as it was awarded, not only
for bravery, but for exemplary conduct in peace times. Now the
"Distinguished Conduct in the Field" medal was preferred in cases of
bravery, and the "Long Service and Good Conduct" medal was preferred
in cases of exemplary conduct: thus its use was limited, and the
authorities withdrew it a few years after the first issue.

The Long Service and Good Conduct medal was the earliest award which
could be earned in times of peace. It was first issued on July 30,
1830, by William IV. The obverse bore a military trophy of arms and the
King's escutcheon, whilst the reverse was inscribed "For Long Service
and Good Conduct." The most recent copies bear a profile of the royal
sovereign on the obverse. The ribbon is crimson.

The medal was intended for non-commissioned officers and men who had
been discharged in receipt of gratuities after serving twenty-one years
in the infantry or twenty-four in the cavalry. To-day, eighteen years'
exemplary service only is required, and there is a gratuity of £5 on
discharge.

Special regulations at the outset affected the granting of the "Long
Service" medal to the Marines. The Commandant of the Division of Royal
Marines, the warrant ran, may annually recommend a certain number of
men of meritorious conduct for the "Good Conduct and Long Service"
medal with a gratuity as follows:--

Sergeant who shall have served ten years as such £15.

Corporal who shall have served seven years as such, £7.

Private, £5.

The men to be recommended must have completed twenty-one years of
actual service, have borne an irreproachable character, and have never
been convicted by a court-martial.

In 1867 a decoration was instituted for the "Best Shot" in the Infantry
Regiments. It was awarded annually by competition, and carried with it
a money grant of £20. As the award was discontinued in 1883, specimens
are rare, and seldom available for purchase.

The obverse of the medal bore Poynter's draped profile of Victoria,
whilst the reverse showed Fame placing a wreath on the head of a
warrior. The earlier copies are found in bronze, the later ones in
silver. The ribbon was somewhat gaudy, consisting of seven strips,
three narrow ones of black, white, and black, then a wide one of red,
and finally three more narrow ones of black, white, and black.

       *       *       *       *       *

Volunteer decorations are numerous and one or two collectors of our
acquaintance have specialized in them and gathered together series of
much value and interest.

The earliest Volunteer specimens which we have seen are those which
came from corps raised during the Napoleonic times of trouble,
especially those which dated from the period when an invasion of
England was feared.

At this time there were some hundreds of volunteer corps throughout
the land, many of them were only small organizations, it is true, but
the old lists tell us that the volunteers aggregated some 500,000 men
in all. The force as a whole was well organized and well equipped, and
proficiency was encouraged by the granting of medals and decorations.
These awards were not granted by Royal Warrant but by the patrons of
each corps, though official sanction was always obtained previously.
On this account we may look upon the medals as properly authenticated
specimens well worth collecting.

Most of the volunteer medals which we have seen of this period bear
dates between 1776 and 1816, whilst many of them are highly artistic
and ornamental. We have seen specimens given by the following
corps--the names are worth mentioning if only to show the quarters in
which the bodies were raised:--

    The Bank of England Volunteers.
    The Bermondsey Volunteers.
    The Broad Street Ward Volunteers.
    The Essex Volunteer Cavalry.
    Hans Town Association Volunteers.
    Loyal Cork Volunteers.
    Sadler's Sharpshooters.
    Walthamstow Volunteers.

Of recent Volunteer awards the Volunteer Officers' Decoration is
probably the best known. The Royal Warrant which proclaimed its issue,
under date of July 25, 1892, said:--

"Whereas it is Our Royal desire to reward for long and meritorious
service of Officers of proved capacity in Our Volunteer Force: Now for
the purpose of attaining this end, We have instituted, constituted,
and created, and by these presents to Us, Our Heirs and Successors,
constitute and create a new decoration which we are desirous should be
highly prized by Officers of Our Volunteer Force: and We are graciously
pleased to make, ordain and establish the following rules and
ordinances for the Government of the same which shall from henceforth
be observed and kept."

Then followed eight clauses, of which the following is the chief:--

"It is ordained that no person shall be eligible for this Decoration
nor be nominated thereto unless he is or was a Commissioned Officer and
has served twenty years in Our Volunteer Force, is recommended by the
Commanding Officer of the Corps in which he has served, and is duly
certified by the District Military Authorities in which the Corps is
located as having been an efficient and thoroughly capable Officer,
in every way deserving of such decoration: Provided nevertheless and
We do hereby declare that half of any time during which an Officer of
Our Volunteer Force may have served in the ranks of Our said Force
shall reckon as qualifying service towards the twenty years required as
aforesaid."

The decoration consisted of a striking oval badge: the edge was a
silver oak wreath, whilst the royal cypher and crown, in outline,
filled the centre. A green ribbon was provided with a silver bar
flanking its topmost edge.

Two years after the officers' decoration received sanction a
similar award, known as the "Volunteer Long Service Medal," was
provided primarily for the men. The medal was granted to all
Volunteers--including officers who had served in the ranks, but who
had not qualified for the previous medal--on completion of twenty
years' service in the Volunteer Force, provided that they were actually
serving on January 1, 1893, and that the commanding officer recommended
such award. Service in the Militia or Imperial Yeomanry could be
reckoned towards the required period of years.

The obverse of the medal bore a profile of the reigning sovereign (in
the case of Queen Victoria, the bust was designed much after the style
of that chosen for the Jubilee silver coinage); the reverse consisted
of a scroll, with the words "For Long Service in the Volunteer Force"
arranged among palm and laurel sprays. The medal was silver, and the
ribbon green.

The last decoration with which we shall deal at length is the National
Rifle Association's medal, which was awarded to the best shot in the
Volunteer Force. There were three pieces, one each of gold, silver,
and bronze, which could be competed for annually. The awards were
instituted in the year 1860.

The medal was of very fine design. The obverse revealed a bygone
English soldier in possession of a bow, and a volunteer holding a
rifle; both figures were standing. The reverse bore a circular wreath,
within which the words "The National Rifle Association" and the date
were inscribed.

       *       *       *       *       *

There are other decorations which it is well to mention by name. They
are:--

1. The Imperial Yeomanry Long Service Medal, which demands ten years'
service and ten trainings.

2. The Militia Long Service Medal, which is granted to non-commissioned
officers and men who have served eighteen years and completed fifteen
trainings.

3. The Territorial Force Efficiency Medal, which has taken the place of
one of the Volunteer medals mentioned above.

4. The Jubilee Medal.

5. The Coronation Medal.

6. The Military Cross, awarded for Distinguished and Meritorious
Service.



                               CHAPTER X

                          MILITARY MEDALLIONS


   General considerations--The "lost wax" process--Hadrian's
     medallions--Renaissance examples--Simon, the medallist--Wyon's
     work--Public collections--Some noted medallions described



From the days when Roman militarism dominated the world down to the
present time, the deeds of successful soldiers have been commemorated
by the striking of medallions. Needless to say these metal pieces,
which so admirably recall the outstanding events in war and soldiery,
are highly prized by antiquarians, and the labour spent in gathering
together a collection of them is richly rewarded.

Medallions have been fashioned from all the usual metals, but gold,
silver, copper, bronze, and lead have been generally employed. The
processes followed in making them have been as numerous as the metals:
ordinary casting was, at one time, the favourite method, but striking,
engraving, and hand modelling have all been employed in turn. Mediæval
medallists often resorted to the "lost wax"[17] process, and extremely
fine work they were enabled to turn out by this means.

  [17] Perhaps it will be well to briefly explain this system of
founding, as it is not generally understood. Adeline in "The Art
Dictionary," p. 243, describes it as follows:--

"A process of bronze founding in which the core is covered with an
accurate representation of the object to be cast in wax, the wax being
of the intended thickness of the metal. The wax is then coated with a
porous clay, and the whole mass is put in a pit and baked. During the
process of baking the wax melts and runs off through apertures left
for the purpose. The space left after the wax is melted is occupied by
the metal. This, the oldest method of bronze founding, is probably the
best, and in the present day it is being pretty generally adopted. In
the method, which for some time has been in vogue, the core was made
of the exact size of the object to be cast and afterwards pared down,
so as to leave space for the metal to run in between the core and the
mould."

The earliest medallions date from very remote times, but the Hadrian
era may be considered the period in which these souvenirs of memorable
actions first became popular. From Hadrian's time to the fall of the
Roman Empire they were struck to commemorate every deed of note,
but after the decline we hear little of them until the Renaissance,
when such Italian artists as Pisano and Guaciolotti revived their
popularity. From the Renaissance onwards, the art of medallion-making
flourished in Italy under the guidance of Benvenuto Cellini, of Albert
Dürer in Germany, and of Jacques Primavera in France, but it was
not until the time of Henry VIII that English workers turned their
attention to this pleasing way of marking important military and civil
events. Of course, we find medallions commemorating glorious deeds
which took place in periods other than those mentioned; in such cases,
the pieces were probably struck long after the occurrence took place.

It is a little difficult to know what specimens to include and what
to exclude from a collection of medallions, as there are no official
issues, and as any metal worker can flood the market with original
designs of his own or with facsimiles of rare and ancient strikings
of bygone artists. Personally, we think that any medallion which is
artistically fashioned and which commemorates an event of interest to
us is worth adding to the collection, but, of course, we must learn to
know the difference between an original and a counterfeit specimen.
This, however, is too intricate a science to explain here, but can
be learnt from works written by numismatists, with a fair amount of
application.

No catalogues exist of the English medallions issued since Henry VIII's
time, but the pieces which are the most interesting were struck by:--

1. Simon, who grew to fame in the reign of Charles II. He engraved the
royal seals and executed many fine medallions.

2. Rawlings.

3. The Wyon family. William Wyon, the most renowned of at least three
engravers of this family, engraved the royal seals, the Peninsular
medals, and the dies for the first postage stamps, besides many
medallions of a military and civil interest.

Collectors of these metal souvenirs should examine the exhibits in
the British Museum and the Royal United Service Museum, whilst an
occasional glance in the windows of Messrs. Spink & Sons in Piccadilly
will often reveal specimens of more than ordinary interest. This
well-known firm issue a monthly circular which contains much of
interest to the reader who is intent on adding valuable specimens to
his collection.

A few illustrations depicting some of the most noted medallions may be
given with advantage.

The specimen below, one of the oldest in existence, was struck in gold
to commemorate the glorious deeds of Julius Cæsar. Speaking of the
medallion, Plutarch says:--

"Julius Cæsar, on his return to Rome, after having won a successful
issue at the Battle of Pharsalus, was named the 'Liberator, the head
of the Fatherland, the permanent dictator,' and received for the first
time, the title of Emperor. The Senators, wishing to reward him for the
humane treatment which he accorded those who fought against him, during
the civil wars, erected a temple of Mercy, circular in shape, supported
by six columns, in the middle of which is the figure of 'Concord'
holding in the right hand the horn of Plenty and in the left a spear."

  [Illustration]

The first medallion given on this page was struck to commemorate the
victory gained by William III at the Battle of the Boyne. The obverse
shows a familiar portrait of the King, whilst the reverse depicts him
in the act of crossing the river at the head of his troops.

  [Illustration]

The next medallion shows James II on the obverse, and an orange-tree
laden with fruit by the side of an old oak, falling to the ground, on
the reverse. The piece was evidently struck to commemorate the fall of
James II, and the supremacy of the House of Orange.

  [Illustration]

The fourth medallion is one of the numerous specimens which were struck
to do honour to Marlborough and his victorious army. The obverse shows
Prince Eugène and the Duke, who are likened to the Roman deliverers,
Castor and Pollux. On the reverse, a picture representing the rout of
the French and the surrender of Marshal Tallard at Blenheim is given.

  [Illustration]

  [Illustration]

The fifth piece illustrated here was struck to commemorate the Battle
of Ramilies. On one side the battle is represented at the moment of
victory; on the other is an emblematic representation of the union
of England and Holland. Behind the figure of England, on a pillar
inscribed with the first three letters of his name, stands a bust of
Marlborough, and opposite is another of D'Ouwerkerke.

  [Illustration]

Another specimen in the Marlborough series is given below. The obverse
represents Marlborough and Eugène as Castor and Pollux whilst the
reverse presents a view of the battle and town of Oudenarde.

  [Illustration]

  [Illustration]

The medallion given at the foot of the previous page was struck to
commemorate the surrender of Lille in 1708. Victory is shown, on
the front face, taking the civic crown from the head of a prostrate
female, who represents the city of Lille, whilst the under face depicts
Britannia, with the Ægis, striking France with terror.

The eighth medallion commemorates the Battle of Dumblane.

  [Illustration]

The ninth medallion was struck in honour of the victory gained at
the Battle of Dettingen on June 27, 1743, whilst the tenth, given
below, commemorates the victory of Minden, gained on August 1, 1759.

  [Illustration]

  [Illustration: A CHECK TO CORSICAN ASSURANCE.

  By Cruikshank.]



                              CHAPTER XI

                            MILITARY PRINTS

   The period 1750-1860--Works including military prints--Where to search
     for bargains--The kind of print most sought after--Works including
     fine military prints--Bunbury--Gillray


In the following notes we do not propose to go deeply into the lore of
print collecting, as the matter is too involved for treatment in these
pages, and also because such admirable books as "Chats on Old Prints,"
by Arthur Hayden, already cover the ground. Here we propose to talk of
military prints as they affect the general collector of military curios.

Printed pictures of soldiers and soldiery are to be found dating back
almost to the days of Caxton, but those coming within the period
1750-1860 seem to be the most interesting. Probably this is due, in
the main, to three reasons. First, the period was one of much military
unrest, and people's interests were largely centred on the army.
Secondly, the costumes of the various regiments were attractive and
showy, and lent themselves to pictorial treatment. And thirdly, the art
of printing had reached a stage when reproductions were no longer so
expensive as to be almost prohibitive in price.

Most of the prints which we have seen of this period were originally
published as illustrations to books, a good number were issued as
sets in portfolios, whilst a few were sold separately. The books
which contain these military pictures, especially when the latter
are coloured, fetch high prices, but fortunately the collector can
become conversant with these gems of the printer's art in such
treasure-houses as the British Museum and the South Kensington Museum.
Those of us who can afford to buy perfect copies of such illustrated
works will find admirable collections for sale at Messrs. Maggs
Brothers, in the Strand; Messrs. Robson & Co., in Coventry Street,
W.C.; and Messrs. Henry Sotheran & Co., in Piccadilly.

But though these works, illustrated with military prints, are costly,
the collector of moderate means may gather together quite an extensive
collection of the pictures, torn from the complete works, at no great
outlay. It may seem surprising to all of us who are curio-lovers but it
is a fact that there are still people who are so ignorant of the value
of books and pictures that they will snatch out the illustrations from
priceless volumes and sell the former for a few coppers, throwing away
the letterpress. Only the other day we were talking with a friendly
collector who showed us a batch of Ackermann's coloured plates which he
had obtained for a few pence each, although the actual value was, at
the least, half a guinea per copy.

The collector, therefore, must be on the look-out for bargains of
this nature; he will find them in the portfolios which usually
encumber the doorways of the second-hand booksellers in Charing Cross
Road, Praed Street, Museum Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, and the stalls
along Farringdon Road. In these interesting quarries he will assuredly
make discoveries from time to time; so he will if he keeps an eye on
establishments of a similar nature in the outskirts of London.

  [Illustration: NAPOLEON'S CARRIAGE ARRIVING AT THE LONDON MUSEUM. By
  Cruikshank.]

A few general words on the value of military prints may be of interest.
Those which depict types of soldiers are generally more sought after
than those representing battle scenes; those of noted commanders are,
of course, valuable, but representations of little-known commanders,
wearing perhaps court rather than military dress, are not in much
demand. Pictures in which soldiers play a minor part are also of little
interest to the collector of military curios, as there is always a
possibility that the uniforms have been drawn more with the idea of
being picturesque than accurate. Machine-coloured pictures are, of
course, highly treasured, as they give a much better idea of the
uniforms than do monochromes. When hand-coloured there is no guarantee
of correct impression; in fact such pictures are often glaringly
misleading.

       *       *       *       *       *

Having made these preliminary remarks, it may be well to point out some
of the best-known works containing military prints.

"The British Military Library," published not later than 1801, in
two volumes, contains some score or more of accurately drawn plates
representing types of the British Army. They are well executed, though
the figures appear a trifle stiff and wooden.

Spooner's "Military and Naval Uniforms," by Mansion and Eschauzier,
seventy plates in colour, dating from 1833. These are probably some of
the finest representations of early nineteenth-century uniforms that
the collector can possess. The dresses are accurately depicted, but the
artists do not excel when drawing galloping horses.

Ackermann's "Costumes of the British and Indian Armies," by various
artists. Some sixty odd coloured plates, dating from 1840. The plates
include not only the uniforms of the regular Army, but also the Indian
Army and the Volunteer Force. This is a very fine collection.

Cannon's "Historical Records of the British Army." A monumental work
in sixty-eight volumes, but the coloured plates are occasionally
found loose. The pictures are in two series: (_a_) Cavalry, and (_b_)
Infantry; they depict regimental dress of the period 1837-53.

W. Heath's "Military Costumes of the British Cavalry." A set of sixteen
coloured plates, of the year 1820.

E. Hull's "Costumes of the British Army in 1828." Some seventy odd
lithographs of fairly pleasing character. They appear to be drawn with
complete accuracy.

"Military Costumes of Europe." A work published in two volumes in 1822.
Nearly a hundred coloured plates are included, about a quarter of which
are of British uniforms.

Thomas Rowlandson's "Loyal Volunteers of London" (1799). A most
interesting work full of coloured plates showing the uniforms of the
non-regular units at the close of the eighteenth century. Students of
military dress should pay special attention to this interesting gallery
of pictures.

Lieutenant-Colonel Luard's "History of the Dress of the British
Soldier." Fifty uncoloured and not very attractive plates (1852). The
work contains much interesting matter in the letterpress, however, and
the plates, though plain, are useful to students of military dress.

Ralph Nevill's "British Military Prints" is of recent production. (_The
Connoisseur_ Publishing Co., 1909, 5s.). This work contains a sumptuous
array of coloured and uncoloured reproductions of old prints, many of
which are far more attractive than the originals. It is a book that the
student should undoubtedly possess.

       *       *       *       *       *

So far, the prints of which we have spoken have all been of a serious
nature, but the period under consideration was marked by the rise of
two clever caricaturists, named Henry Bunbury and James Gillray, who
require some mention. The works of these two artists are but little
known, in spite of the fact that some authorities consider them equal
to any of the satirical efforts of the famous Hogarth. Bunbury and
Gillray are of interest to the collector of military prints because
many of their pictures dealt with soldiers and soldiering. We cannot
claim that the detail of the uniforms which figure in all the pictures
of these two artists are absolutely correct, but they certainly do not
display any glaring errors which are likely to mislead.

Bunbury was a friend of Sir Joshua Reynolds and also of Hoppner, he
thus moved in the artists' circle of the day. "During the time he
was living in Suffolk, he was prominently associated with the County
Militia; and no doubt it was at this period that ideas for humorous
military sketches presented themselves. 'The Militia Meeting,'
'Recruits,' and 'The Deserter' may be mentioned among these, while a
story is told in connection with another sketch that is characteristic
of Bunbury's readiness with his pencil. A young private of his regiment
applied for a pass in order to visit the lady of his affections. The
application having come before Mr. Bunbury, he not only signed the
pass, but drew a comical sketch on the permit, representing the meeting
of the amorous couple, to the great amusement of the officers to whom
the pass was presented.

"In 1778, political relations between England and America were very
strained, in consequence of which militia camps were formed in various
parts of the country. Henry Bunbury, as an officer of the Suffolk
Militia, was ordered to join his camp at Coxheath. All sorts of
caricatures from all sorts of pencils (most of them anonymous) satirize
the military mania of the time. Naturally Bunbury was not behind the
rest, and many sketches of a military character, evidently drawn by
him at this time, are still in existence. Bunbury's wonderful talent
in making these sketches of a martial kind appears to have been
recognized at the time, for an exhibition of his military drawings was
organized in 1788 and held at Somerset House."[18]

  [18] Herbert Ewart, in _The Connoisseur_, June 1903, pp. 87-88.

Gillray, the second artist mentioned above, was the son of a soldier
who fought at Fontenoy, and thus his thoughts were constantly turned to
military subjects. Though his satirical drawings dealt with the various
topics of the day--his works were published between 1777 and 1815--he
seems to have lost no opportunity of showing his spleen for the French,
and Napoleon in particular. We have a long list of such artistic
effusions of which the following may be mentioned:

   1. Fighting for the Dunghill: or Jack Tar settling Citoyen François.

   2. Buonaparte, hearing of Nelson's victory, swears by his sword to
   extirpate the English from off the Earth.

   3. General result of Buonaparte's attack upon Ibrahim Bey's Rear Guard.

   4. Britannia between Death and the Doctor.

   5. The Surrender of Ulm: or Buonaparte and General Mack coming to a
   right understanding.

   6. The New Dynasty: or the little Corsican gardener planting a royal
   pippin-tree.

   7. Apotheosis of the Corsican Phoenix.

In the foregoing, we have merely touched upon the subject of collecting
military prints, but enough has been said in these few pages to show
that this branch of curio-hunting is full of fascination and deep
interest and is well worth the attention, not only of readers who
possess artistic feeling, but of those who are desirous of adding
to their store of knowledge concerning the military dress of bygone
periods.

  [Illustration: A SINGULAR TRAIT OF BUONAPARTE'S FAVOURITE MAMELUKE.

  By Cruikshank.]



                              CHAPTER XII

                 MEMORIAL BRASSES OF MILITARY INTEREST

   Classes of military brasses--Rubbings, and how to make them--Floor
     brasses: their characteristics--Palimpsest brasses--What may be
     learnt from brasses--Mural tablets


In many of our churches and public buildings are to be found numerous
memorial brasses which possess undoubted interest for the collector
of military curios. These memorials of the dead largely fall into two
classes: those which are let into floors, and those which are fixed
to walls. The former class, as a rule, are of some antiquity, are
memorials to individuals rather than to groups of soldiers, and are to
be found almost entirely in churches. The latter class are modern, are
often erected to a number of soldiers, and are located in such public
buildings as town halls and guild halls as well as churches. The floor
brasses, as a rule, are flat but often deeply engraved, whilst the
mural tablets are lightly engraved and frequently embellished with a
sculptured framework.

To obtain facsimiles of memorial brasses, many collectors take
"rubbings" of them, much after the fashion that children imitate coins
by superimposing a sheet of paper and running a soft pencil over the
covered surface.

The necessary outfit for making a rubbing consists, first and foremost,
of a permit obtained from the proper authorities, a supply of
heel-ball, as sold by any leather dealer or cobbler, a small clothes
brush, a duster, and some paper. The latter must not be too flimsy nor
too stout, and it must be large enough to cover the brass. A roll of
light grey wallpaper usually serves admirably, but there are times
when the width of the roll is too narrow for the brass. In these cases,
a full-size sheet of paper as used by printers should be procured.

The first operation is to wipe away all dust and foreign matter from
the metal surface; this is a very necessary precaution when the tablet
is a floor-inset The next thing is to place the sheet of paper in
position; if the memorial is fixed to the wall, the sheet must be held
by an assistant, or at the expense of much arm-aching by the person
who does the rubbing; if the tablet is let into the floor, two weights
placed at the head of the brass serve the purpose admirably.

The actual rubbing should be performed by drawing the heel-ball lightly
across the brass. The movement should always be made in the same
direction, or the lines will appear scratchy and confusing. It is best
to complete a little patch first, and not go over the whole area before
finishing any part of it; if this be done, there will be more chance of
completing the work without shifting the paper. It is not a bad idea to
force the paper by means of the palm of the hand into the recesses of
the brass before commencing to rub; this will help to keep the sheet
from moving.

Some collectors make their rubbings intensely dark, that is, they do
not leave off when the brown stage has been reached. Others are content
to stop rubbing when the detail is just visible, completing the work at
home by filling all the flat areas with a wash of Indian ink. Either
plan is good, but the former is more useful in cases where the tracery
is involved, whilst the latter provides a somewhat smarter effect when
carefully executed.

Rubbings may be stored in cardboard tubes, one in each tube, but many
enthusiasts mount their black pictures on canvas and rollers. The
latter plan is certainly the better one, but it is an expensive and
tedious business which will not appeal to all. Small rubbings, it
need hardly be added, make capital pictures for framing, looking very
attractive if a white margin is preserved, and the frame made of a
narrow black moulding.

       *       *       *       *       *

Floor brasses were first used on the Continent, many originating in
Flanders and some in Brittany. The earliest specimens in England date
from the thirteenth century, though Beaumont states that the finest
specimens belong to the fourteenth century. He also mentions that
the fifteenth-century specimens were small, thin, and more ornate,
whilst in the sixteenth century the art became debased by a surfeit of
commonplace specimens. The majority of the English brasses are located
in the Eastern Counties and the Home Counties, where, in fact, stone
was not easily and cheaply obtained.

The most curious of all floor brasses, the same writer states,[19] are
those which are called palimpsests. These were originally laid down to
the memory of a certain individual, but were subsequently taken up,
re-engraved, and then used to commemorate some one else. Nearly all are
post-Reformation--a fact which speaks for itself.

  [19] Beaumont, in "Memorial Brasses," p. 140.

After the dissolution of the monasteries, the abbeys fell into decay,
and any engraver who wanted a brass appears to have taken it from the
nearest ruin and adapted it to his requirements.

Palimpsest brasses were readapted in three ways:--

1. Plates were re-engraved on the reverse side.

2. The old figure was used again without alteration, a new inscription
and shield (if any) being added.

3. The original engraving was modified, fresh lines and shading being
introduced to adapt it to contemporary fashion.

One of the finest examples of this latter kind of palimpsest brasses
is a specimen which was made to honour the memory of Sir Walter and
Lady Curson, at Waterperry, Oxon. The original was engraved in 1440,
but subsequently altered to suit the style of armour and costume which
prevailed in 1527.

Another interesting palimpsest is mentioned by Fairbank.[20] "It occurs
in Ticehurst Church, Sussex. It has been made use of to commemorate
John Wyborne, Esquire, and his two wives. The second wife, his widow,
made her will in 1502, and she ordered a stone to be placed over
herself and her husband; and this is what the executors did. They took
a small slab bearing a brass figure of a man in armour, which had been
engraved about 1365; there was no room for figures of the two wives of
the same size as the figure already there, so they had a small figure
placed on each side, little larger than half the size of the central
one, and replaced the original inscription by one commemorating John
Wyborne, who died 1490, and his two wives; their figures were engraved
about 1510."

  [20] F. R. Fairbank, in _The Connoisseur_.

  [Illustration: THE OLDEST ENGLISH BRASS.

  To the memory of Sir John D'Abernon. Date 1277. At Guildford, Surrey.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Brasses are of great educational value in so much as many reveal
interesting points in connection with matters concerning dress and
armour. But the student is warned against putting too much trust in the
dates which they bear, for specimens were often laid down before the
death of the person whose memory they perpetuate. The date of death
and the style of decoration might thus be, in such cases, at variance
historically. Beaumont says:[21]--

"Examples of this feature are to be found at Thame, Oxon, and
Lambourne, Berks. This is especially noticeable in the case of shroud
brasses, which were generally engraved and fixed during the lifetime of
the person commemorated, the object being to remind him of his final
bourne; in these cases blank spaces were usually left for the insertion
of the date of death."

  [21] "Memorial Brasses," p. 5.

  [Illustration: A BATTLEFIELD SOUVENIR PICKED UP ON THE PLAINS OF
  FLANDERS.

  (The same helmet is shown with and without the cloth covering.)]

The earliest English brasses were shaped around the figures they
portrayed, and if canopies or frames were added, these were fitted in
separate pieces. All foreign brasses and later English ones, however,
were cut into rectangular pieces. These and other such indications are
the surest guides to the true date of construction.

Among the thousands of brasses in this country, many of which are of
military interest, the following are worthy of mention:--

   1. At Felbrigge, to the memory of Sir Symon Ffelbrygge; date, 1416. He
   is dressed in plate armour, and holds the Royal Standard. His garter
   is prominently shown. A canopy surmounts his figure.

   2. At Trumpington. This is a favourite specimen with Cambridge
   undergraduates.

   3. At Trotton, Sussex, to the memory of Thomas Camoys and Elizabeth,
   his consort; date, 1419. Camoys achieved fame at Agincourt; his wife
   was a Mortimer. A canopy surmounts each figure.

   4. At West Hanney, to the memory of Humfrie Cheynie; date, 1557. This
   brass is peculiar; the figure, which is small, stands on a metal
   rectangle bearing a scriptural text. A rectangular metal frame is
   placed around the figure, but at some distance.

   5. At Ilminster, to the memory of Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham; date,
   1609. Nicholas is given a ringed cuirass and lamboys over his mail
   skirt. He stands upon a tablet bearing an inscription which explains
   that he was the founder of Wadham College, Oxford.

Of later mural tablets we need say but little, for there is hardly
a cathedral or parish church in the kingdom which is not the proud
possessor of one or more specimens. As a rule, these memorials point
to the valorous deeds which soldiers of the neighbourhood have
performed for their King and country. The South African War, it will be
remembered, added considerably to their number, whilst the conflict now
raging has already made its contributions.



                             CHAPTER XIII

                     AUTOGRAPHS OF GREAT SOLDIERS

   The fascinations of autograph collecting--Points which influence
     the value of an autograph--Autographs classified--A "Schomberg"
     letter--The notes scribbled by Airey at Balaklava--General
     hints--Prices of autographs


Ninety-nine out of every hundred autographs which find their way into
collectors' albums are said to be those of actresses, who are popular
favourites to-day but not to-morrow. As a consequence, autograph
collecting is seldom considered a serious hobby worthy of the attention
of serious-minded people. This seems a great pity, for if letters and
documents written and signed by real celebrities are collected, not
only may much pleasure be gained from the pastime, but a great deal of
instruction as well.

The wise collector will find that his best plan is to specialize in
one definite direction, and if he follows our advice he will limit his
interests to autographs of great soldiers. Perhaps he will argue that
military signatures are so seldom met with, and so expensive to obtain
when they are offered for sale, that his treasures will not accumulate
fast enough. This, however, is a matter on which he need have no
fears, especially now that the great European conflict has created so
vast an output of military correspondence.

The value of an autograph naturally depends on a number of factors.
The eminence of the writer is, of course, the first consideration,
but the price will also depend on whether the signature is normally
written, whether it was written before notoriety came to the writer,
and the state of preservation of both paper and ink. Can the celebrity
be considered a prolific letter-writer? This is another question which
influences the value of an autograph, for according to the rarity of an
individual's signatures, so will the price be affected.

We say, above, that the eminence of a writer is the first consideration
in deciding the value of his signature. We should be very diffident,
however, at explaining just what factors make for eminence. It
certainly is not rank alone, nor even ability; perhaps we may best
describe it as being in the "public eye."

The autograph-hunter does not seek for signatures alone: he casts
around for entire letters, documents, and signed papers of every
description; it is thus clear that the importance of the communication
plus the autograph should be taken into account when pricing treasures.

For the sake of convenience, we may classify the specimens in our
collections under the following heads:--

   1. Signatures, unaccompanied by other written matter.

   2. Signatures appended to short letters or documents; the body of the
   matter being typed, printed, or written by a private secretary.

   3. Signatures appended to short letters or documents which have been
   wholly written by the celebrity in question. (Such are known to
   collectors as Holographs.)

   4. As No. 3, but letters or documents of some length.

  [Illustration: FACSIMILE OF A PORTION OF THE LETTER WRITTEN BY CROMWELL
  TO LENTHALL, SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, ANNOUNCING THE VICTORY OF
  NASEBY.

  (_From the original in the British Museum._)]

Of the above four classes, the specimens coming within the first are
obviously the least valuable, for they are the most frequently met.
Copies may be found on the fly-leaves of books, on photographs of
celebrities, etc. The second class, unfortunately, is gradually ousting
the third class, since the typewriter is speedily becoming universally
used for all but private letters. Specimens in the second class are
worth a trifle more than those in the first, and a great deal less than
those of the third. Specimens in class 3 are those which the average
collector should aim most at securing; those in class 4 are a trifle
too unwieldy for all but the advanced collector.

  [Illustration: A BATTLEFIELD SOUVENIR.

The mug bears two verses of poetry which are somewhat significant,
as they reveal the character of the Tyrolese peasant and soldier.
Translated, they run as follows:--

    Eagle, Tyrolese eagle,
    Why are you so red?
    Is it from the sunshine?

    Is it from the red sparkling wine?
    It is from the red blood of my enemies
    That I am so red.

There are, of course, many ways of arranging an autograph collection,
but on no account should the specimens be fixed to the album without
adding comments on both the subject-matter of the MS. and the identity
of the author. The following letter is given as a specimen. The
original is to be found in the Royal United Service Museum:--

                         "LISBURNE, _6th March, 1689_.

 GENTLEMEN,

 I have this day written another for the Battering Gunns and Morters
 to be Sent over hither. But now having the Matter under further
 consideration doe think it Expedient and necessary for their
 Majesties Service to send an Express herewith. And it is to direct
 you Immediately on Receipt hereof to cause Eight guns of Eighteen and
 Twenty Foure Pounders with all their Equepage, Furniture and Stores
 with A good Proporcon of Boms to be Shipped on Board a very good,
 light and Nimble Saylor. And that the Capt. or Master be Ordered to
 Sayle with them directly for the Lough of Bellfast. For that wee
 cannot undertake with any sort of Reasonable Accomodacon the Siege
 of the Fort of Charlemount untill those Gunns arrive here. And with
 worke I would gladly have furnished before his Majesties coming hither
 wherefore I pray use all Dilligence and Expedicon in dispatching away
 thence the said Shipps so Fraighted as is herein afore Expressed.

                         I am, Gentlemen,
                    Your very loving friend and servant,
                               SCHOMBERG."

The letter, we must add, is written in a splendidly clear hand by a
clerk, and signed by Schomberg. It therefore belongs to class 2 above.

Under such a document, we might comment as follows: Note the quaint
grammatical forms, also the spelling which clearly shows that
orthography was not an exact science two hundred odd years ago. The
use of capital letters is also curious. Lastly, we may point out the
apparently effeminate ending given to the letter.

As to the identity of Schomberg, we might write: "Marshall Schomberg
was one of William III's generals who took part in the Irish campaign
against James II. He captured Carrickfergus, Belfast, Newry, and
Dundalk, although his troops consisted of raw levies. During the Battle
of the Boyne he assisted William in gaining a brilliant victory, but
was unfortunately slain towards the end of the encounter."

       *       *       *       *       *

  [Illustration: _Translation._

  MY DEAR BROTHER,
          Not being allowed to die among my troops, it only remains
  for me to place my sword in the hands of your Majesty.

                I am your Majesty's good brother,
                                       NAPOLEON.

  SEDAN, _Sept. 1, 1870_.

  AUTOGRAPH LETTER WRITTEN BY NAPOLEON III TO WILLIAM I OF GERMANY AFTER
  THE BATTLE OF SEDAN.]

As one would expect, the subject-matter of a letter greatly affects its
value. The following epistle, written by Lord Dorchester, is therefore
of more than ordinary consideration.[22]

  [22] The original may be seen in the Royal United Service Museum.

                            "CULFORD, _Dec. 9th, 1803_.

   DEAR FOX,

   I was only in town for four days and besides the hurry which always
   attends such a visit to London, I was under the necessity of going to
   Court on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, which put it out of my power
   to call on you.

   From the contemptible effort of the insurrection itself in point of
   numbers and characters of persons concerned, to the wish of which no
   importance could have been attached in the minds of the public, but
   for the unfortunate murder of the worthy and truly respectable
   Lord ----, and for the still more contemptible preparation of arms, or
   plan of operations on the part of the Rebels, it did not appear to
   me that any blame could be attached either to the civil or military
   departments of the Irish Government for not having taken more
   efficient precautionary measures.

   From the documents you transmitted to me, it is clear that no blame
   can be imputed to you, and from my intimate knowledge of some of the
   persons confidentially employed in the civil line, I should with
   difficulty believe any charge of want of activity or capacity in that
   quarter.

   It is certainly a mark of weakness in a government to create
   unnecessary alarms, and it has the ill effect of shaking the public
   confidence. In this business, however, the Irish administration
   appears rather to have erred on the other side, but I am persuaded
   that this error proceeded from a recollection of the mischiefs which
   a very contrary line of conduct had produced a few years ago in that
   unfortunate country.

   I shall send your papers by the Coach by my Porter in Town, and direct
   him to forward them to you.

                                Believe me, with great regard,
                                        Dear Fox,
                                           Most Faithfully Yours,
                                                    CORNWALLIS."

Of still greater value are the following priceless notes, scribbled
in pencil during action, by Major-General Sir Richard Airey, K.C.B.,
Q.M.G., and sent to the Earl of Lucan who commanded the cavalry
division at Balaklava, October 25, 1854.

   "(_a_) Cavalry to take ground to left of 2nd Line of redouts occupied
   by Turks.

                                  RD. AIREY, _Q.M.-Genl_."

   "(_b_) Cavalry to advance and take advantage of any opportunity to
   recover heights. They will be supported by Infantry which has been
   ordered to advance on two fronts.

                                  R. AIREY."

   "(_c_) Lord Raglan wishes the Cavalry to advance rapidly to the front,
   follow the enemy and try to prevent the enemy carrying away the Guns.
   Troop of Horse Artillery may accompany. French Cavalry is on your
   left. Immediate.

                                   R. AIREY."[23]

  [23] These three most interesting autograph notes are also to be seen
in the Royal United Service Museum.

Before concluding these notes we may give some general hints.

Preserve all facsimile signatures which are to be found; they are
useful for purposes of comparison when doubtful originals come along.

The signature should never be cut from a document; the whole sheets
should be preserved.

An original letter ought not to be pasted on to the album. It is far
better to fix it in position by slipping it under "ears" or bands of
paper pasted to the pages.

To restore a faded signature, dab it carefully with a solution of hot
tincture of gall containing a trace of dissolved potassium chlorate.
When dry, dab it with a pad moistened in ordinary lime water. The
process is simple, but it is well to experiment on a useless specimen
before treating valuable ones.

Valuable documents which are torn and perhaps crumbling may be
prevented from deteriorating further by sandwiching between two sheets
of glass, and binding with passe-partout edging.

In deciding whether a document is genuine or not, the composition
of the ink and the texture of the paper should be taken into
consideration. Forgers find great difficulty in matching papers made
more than fifty years ago.

Great care should be used to discriminate between the autographs of
people possessing similar names (e.g. Kitchener, the writer on cookery
matters, must not be confounded with Kitchener, the soldier).

  [Illustration:

    William of Orange.
    Duke of Wellington.
    General Wolfe.
    Earl Roberts.
    King Albert of Belgium.
    General Sir Ralph Abercromby.
    George Washington.

  SOME AUTOGRAPHS OF NOTED SOLDIERS.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Lastly, it may be useful to give a list of some of the prices realized
by military and allied autographs at public sales, etc., in order that
the collector may gain some rough idea of the value of his treasures.
(A.L.S. means Autograph letter, signed; D.S. means Document, signed;
L.S. means Letter, the signature only of which is in the handwriting of
the celebrity.)

   _Abercromby, Sir Ralph._--British general; killed in Egypt, 1801.
   D.S., 8s. 6d. A.L.S., with portrait attached, £2.

   _Allen, Capt. Wm._--Of the Niger Expedition. A.L.S., 2s.

   _Alva, Ferd. Alvarez, Duke of._--Spanish General; oppressed the
   Netherlands; executed the Counts Egmont and Horn. L.S., two guineas.

   _Amalfi, Duke of._--Imperial marshal commander-in-chief after
   Wallenstein. Died, 1656. L.S., 14s.

   _Anne, Queen._--D.S., a Privy Council Letter; signed also by
   Buckingham, Schomberg, and nine other peers, 10s. 6d.

   _Auchmuty, Sir Samuel._--English general; died, 1822. D.S., 4s.

   _Barkstead, Colonel John._--Cromwell's Governor of the Tower, executed
   1662. D.S., 10s. 6d.

   _Barrington, Viscount._--Secretary of War; died, 1793. A.L.S., 3s. 6d.

   _Beaver, P. Capt._--With Nelson at Trafalgar. A.L.S., 5s. 6d.

   _Blücher._--The famous Prussian field-marshal. L.S., 9s.

   _Bonaparte, C. Louis Napoleon._--Emperor. A.L.S., two guineas.

   _Burnaby, Capt. Fred._--Author of "A Ride to Khiva." A.L.S., 3s. 6d.

   _Charles I._--King of England. D.S., £2 10s.

   _Cromwell, Oliver._--D.S., £9.

   _Dorchester, Lord Guy Carleton._--L.S., 5s.

   _Egmont and Horn, Counts._--Executed by Duke of Alva. L.S., signed by
   both. Sixteen guineas.

   _Gordon, General._--Killed in the Soudan. A.L.S., two guineas.

   _Kempenfelt, Admiral._--Perished in the Royal George. D.S., one
   guinea.[24]

  [24] H. T. Scott, "Autograph Collecting," Part iii.

  [Illustration: AN OLD MUG BEARING THE FAMOUS PICTURE DEPICTING "THE
  DEATH OF WOLFE."]



                              CHAPTER XIV

                          WAR POSTAGE STAMPS

   The earliest war stamps--Stamps used in the Crimean War--The British
     Army Post Office Corps--The Sudan Expedition--The South African
     Campaign--The Great War--Recent war stamps and post-marks--Indian
     war stamps--Other war stamps


Among the many thousand varieties of postage stamps which philatelists
treasure few can compare in point of interest with those which have
carried letters from the firing line to the fireside. Such specimens
are sought after not merely by the stamp-collector, but by the general
collector of military curios.

War postage stamps date back to the middle of the sixteenth century,
their originator being a certain Johann von Taxis who, a few years
before the death of Martin Luther, obtained permission to carry letters
from civilians in Germany to members of a German expeditionary force
then fighting in Italy. The frank marks which this royal prince applied
to the correspondence entrusted to him, constitute the first war
postage stamps of which we have any record.

Of British war stamps, probably the earliest specimens are those which
came to England on the letters written by the soldiers who fought
in the Crimea. Soon after the British army was landed on the shores
of the Black Sea, the Government sent out eleven postal officials,
who established a head office at Constantinople and branch depots at
Balaklava and Scutari. The staff was properly equipped with all the
necessary impedimenta for maintaining a postal service between the
expeditionary army and the people at home. Letters from England were
received and transmitted to the various regimental headquarters; mails
for the Mother-country were gathered in and sent on their journey
westwards, whilst supplies of unused adhesive stamps were retailed to
the soldiers at the three offices mentioned above.

The stamps which the officials sold comprised the following then
current British specimens:--

   1d. red, 1841 issue, no perforations, with small crown as watermark.

   1d. reddish-brown, 1855 issue, perforated, with large crown as
   watermark.

   2d. blue, 1841 issue, no perforations, with small crown as watermark.

   2d. blue, 1855 issue, perforated, with large crown as watermark.

   4d. rose-carmine, 1856 issue, with large garter as watermark.

   6d. lilac, 1854 issue, with embossed head.

Specimens of the above which franked the correspondence of members of
the Crimean expeditionary force may be recognized by the distinctive
obliteration marks which were as follows:--

   1. A crown placed between two stars with straight bars above and
   below, the whole forming an oval.

   2. A star placed between the cyphers; then as No. 1.

   3. A circle containing the inscription "Post Office, British Army,"
   together with the date.

  [Illustration: A SOLDIER'S COMMUNICATION POSTED DURING THE SOUTH
  AFRICAN WAR.]

  [Illustration: A SIMILAR COMMUNICATION FROM "SOMEWHERE IN FRANCE."]

In 1882, a British Army Post Office Corps was formed by Colonel du
Plat Taylor for service under General Wolseley in Egypt. The men were
chosen from the old 24th Middlesex, a regiment better known as the Post
Office Volunteers. The party landed at Alexandria, but soon proceeded
to Ismailia where a base was established. From these headquarters a
number of field offices sprang up, but their positions altered as the
army moved forward. There is no doubt that the duties performed by
this postal corps gave much satisfaction, both to the troops and the
authorities at home, for its services were again requisitioned when the
Suakim expedition set out under the leadership of Sir Gerald Graham.

The stock of stamps taken to Egypt consisted of the current 1d. lilac
and 2½d. blue of England, but those used during the expedition were
obliterated by a hand stamp bearing either a number of dots shaped to
form a small lozenge, or a circle containing the inscription "British
Army Post Office, Egypt," and the date. Obliterations bearing dates in
1885 belong to the Suakim expedition.

When Kitchener went to the Sudan in 1897, the Egyptian Government
set up a postal department at Wadi Haifa Camp for the special use of
the British and Egyptian forces. The stamps sold on this occasion
were the current Egyptian labels, but they were overprinted with the
word "Soudan" in both French and Arabic. Unfortunately, many forged
overprints have been added to genuine Egyptian stamps of the higher
values, so that collectors must be cautious when purchasing specimens.

Of the work of the Army Post Office Corps in South Africa during the
last Boer War much interesting matter could be written. Mr. F. J.
Melville gives the following description in his capital book "The
Postage Stamp in War" (price one shilling).

"Major Sturgeon was succeeded in the command of the Army Postal Corps
by his second in command, Captain Viall. On the death of the latter
in 1890, Captain G. W. Treble of the London Postal Service took the
command, which he held at the outbreak of the South African War in
1899, aided by Captain W. Price (now Colonel W. Price, C.M.G., in
command of the Army Post Office with the British Expeditionary Force in
France) and Lieutenant H. M'Clintock, these latter officers belonging
to the Secretary's Office of the G.P.O., London. A first portion of
the company with Captain Treble left England with General Buller
and his staff, and the rest followed on October 21st, and several
further detachments went out with later contingents. In South Africa
they had a very wide area to cover. At the outset Captain Treble
established himself with the headquarters of the Inspector-General of
Communications in Cape Colony, and moved about keeping in close touch
with the movements of the forces, an important part of his duties being
to forward to the various offices the information necessary to ensure
the correct circulation of the mails. Captain Price was at Cape Town,
and Lieutenant M'Clintock at Pietermaritzburg.

"The British military mails were made up in the London G.P.O. in
special bags addressed to the Army Post Office, and sent to the G.P.O.
at Cape Town, in which building the detachment of the Army Postal
Corps under Captain Price had established its base office. The bags
containing military mails were handed over to the Army Base Post Office
at Cape Town, whence they were distributed to the various military
post offices established at the centres of the troops, and to field
post offices with each Brigade or Division in the field. In the return
direction the soldiers' letters were handed in at field post offices
and forwarded through various channels, sometimes ordinary and ofttimes
military, to the base at Cape Town, whence they were dispatched to
England in the ordinary way."

Early in 1900, the average weekly mail from London to the Field Forces
was 150 bags of letters, post-cards, etc., and 60 boxes of parcels; the
incoming mail from the Field Forces was 11 bags of letters per week. In
a letter dated from Cape Town, February 27th, from Lieutenant Preece,
who went out with reinforcements for the Army Post Office Corps in
February, are some interesting glimpses of the difficulties of the work
of this service:--

"Price, of the Post Office Corps, met us and told us (Captain) Palmer
was to leave at once for Kimberley with 17 men, (Captain) Labouchere
and (Lieutenant) Curtis to proceed on to Natal with 50 men, and I was
to take the remainder ashore here (Cape Town) and stop to help at
the base. At 9.30 on Monday morning I marched off with my 57 men to
the main barracks, and bade good-bye to the good ship _Canada_ and
her merry cargo. After lodging the men in barracks I went off to the
G.P.O., where I found Price and his 40 men ensconced in one huge wing,
overwhelmed with work, and at breaking-down point. The mails every
week increase now, and we have 250,000 pieces of mail matter to sort
and distribute every week, over a country larger than France, among
a shifting population of soldiers, each of whom expects to get his
letters as easily as he gets his rations. It is a vast job, and we have
done wonderfully so far with a totally inadequate staff."

For readers who require further details of the Army Post Office
arrangements during the Boer War, it may be mentioned that the
contemporary reports of the Postmaster-General contain very full and
interesting accounts. Such reports, if out of print, can usually be
perused in the better-class public libraries.

The stamps which franked the soldiers' letters were usually of the
British lilac penny variety, bearing the familiar head of Queen
Victoria, whilst the obliterations were circular or hexagonal, and
contained the inscription "Army Post Office, South Africa." But the
bulk of the letters reached England with no adhesive stamp, the words,
"On Active Service, no Stamps Available," proving a sufficient passport
in cases where supplies were genuinely unprocurable. Envelopes which
are stampless, but which bear one or other of the South African field
postmarks, command a fair value, and copies should figure in every
collection specially devoted to war stamps.

When Bloemfontein fell into the hands of the British the stock of
Orange Free State adhesives was overprinted V.R.I. and, later on,
E.R.I., and when the Union Jack was unfurled in Pretoria the stamps
of the South African Republic were provided with similar overprints.
All these labels were used by the civilians as well as the military
authorities; and as many of the soldiers posted their communications in
the ordinary letter-boxes, it is impossible to decide which possess a
war interest and which do not.

Among the most treasured adhesives provided by the South African War
are the "Mafeking Besieged" issues. As is well known, certain of these
were produced by a photographic process and revealed the portrait of
General Baden-Powell. Gibbons urges collectors to be wary in purchasing
copies, as numerous well-executed forgeries emanated from Kimberley and
Cape Town, and many officers and men returning home from the front were
swindled by the dishonest dealers.

  [Illustration: SOME HISTORIC POST-MARKS USED ON MILITARY
  CORRESPONDENCE.

     1. and 2. Crimean Postmarks.
     3. Napier's Abyssian Expedition, 1867-8.
     4. Egyptian Campaign, 1885.
     5. Dongola Expedition.
     6. and 7. South African War, 1899.
     8. British Army in France, 1914.
     9. Canadian  "       "
    10. Indian    "       "
]

On the outbreak of the European War in August 1914, the Army Post
Office Corps again became active, and the quantity of letters and
parcels which it was called upon to handle from the very outset must be
described as prodigious.

It is quite impossible to record all the varieties of British military
stamps and post-marks which have resulted from these hostilities, but
they may be classified under the following heads:--

   1. Stamps of the United Kingdom bearing postmarks indicating use in
   France, Belgium, and other foreign countries.

   2. Post-marks of the Army Post Office at the base or in the field.
   There are numerous varieties.

   3. Censor marks applied to envelopes, etc.

   4. Postmarks applied to correspondence from prisoners of war and
   aliens' camps.

Of course, many interesting colonial varieties have also resulted from
the war. The following are among the most highly prized:--

   1. Gold Coast stamps obliterated with post-marks from Togoland.

   2. German colonials from Samoa overprinted G.R.I.

   3. New Zealand stamps bearing the overprint "Samoa."

   4. German colonials from Togo overprinted "Anglo-French Occupation."

   5. Canadian stamps obliterated with post-marks bearing the inscription
   "Canadian Overseas Expeditionary Force."

    6. Indian stamps overprinted I.E.F. (Indian Expeditionary Force).

Whilst speaking of Indian stamps, it may be appropriate to mention
that the army postal service possessed by our troops in this Asiatic
empire is probably the most carefully planned in the whole world. From
a Field Service Manual[25] on "Posts and Telegraphs" we have been able
to glean a few details respecting the organization and establishment of
the Indian military post offices. In times of peace, a stock of tents
and equipment sufficient for the supply of three base post offices, 50
first-class field post offices, 10 second-class field post offices, and
for the supervising staff is kept in store at Lahore in the charge of
the Postal Department of the Punjab.

  [25] Quoted from _Stamp Collecting_, December 5, 1914.

On the outbreak of war the military postal service is organized by the
Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs in India according to the
requirements of the Army authorities.

The supervising staff is selected by him from a roll of European
volunteers for such service maintained in his office, the full war
establishment consisting of 6 Directors or Deputy-Directors, 18
Assistant-Directors, 24 Inspectors, and 50 Postmasters. The rest of the
establishment is selected by the Postmaster-General of the Punjab.

One Director or Deputy-Director, two Assistant-Directors, and four
Inspectors constitute the normal postal personnel of an Expeditionary
Force. They wear the ordinary field service uniform of the Indian Army
according to their respective ranks, distinguished by the word "Post"
on the shoulder-straps.

The following extracts from the Indian Army Order, No. 619, dated
November 10, 1913, are of interest:--

"7. The Director or Deputy-Director, or, in his absence, the
Postmaster-General under whose orders he is to work, should, on
receipt of the first intimation that a force is to be mobilized, take
the earliest opportunity to consult the General Officer appointed
to command the force, as to the postal requirements of the force in
respect of the number of field post offices, the classes of postal
business to be undertaken, the establishment to be provided, etc. As
far as possible, the wishes of the General Officer commanding should be
carried out.

"23. The Director-General will arrange that the treasury nearest to
the base office is supplied with about ten times its normal supply of
ordinary postage stamps (including post-cards and envelopes) together
with a suitable supply of service stamps (including post-cards and
envelopes); and that a sufficient stock is maintained throughout the
campaign. The base post office should thus be in a position to supply
at once the postage stamps required in the field post offices. If there
is no treasury at hand, a sufficient supply of postage stamps of all
descriptions must be kept at the base post office. The base post office
will be supplied with an iron safe, or two, if necessary.

"24. The requisite stamps, scales, bags, and other articles of stock
sufficient for six months' requirements will be furnished to the base
post office for its own use, and for distribution, under the orders
of the Director or Deputy-Director, to field post offices. Section
5 B shows the books, forms, stamps, etc., required for field post
offices. All books, forms, and articles of stock should be packed in
the prescribed mule trunks, each of which, when packed, should not
exceed one maund in weight. The books, forms, and stamps required by
the base post office will be the same as those used by a head office in
India performing the same classes of business; but in addition to the
ordinary stamps it will be supplied with a special 'Postage cancelled'
stamp."

       *       *       *       *       *

Of foreign war stamps, the international quarrels of the last fifty
years have produced quite an interesting array. Envelopes posted in
Paris during the siege of 1870 bearing the words "Par Ballon Monté"
are much prized by collectors. Less sought after are the Alsace and
Lorraine stamps which were primarily issued for use by the invading
German troops of 1870. Their low price is probably due to the fact that
the dies were printed from long after the stamps were withdrawn from
currency. From the Balkans we, of course, have many specimens which
enrich our collections. Italy, also, has given us war stamps bearing
the overprints "Bengasi" and "Tripoli di Barberia." If we turn to the
United States, many interesting postal relics will be discovered of the
Civil War, whilst numerous varieties of more recent stamps from the
States are to be found showing post-marks referring to the Spanish
war in the Philippines and Cuba. Then there are Japanese adhesives
which were used in China during the fighting which led to the peace of
Shimonoseki, and, of course, the Japanese issues which the troops used
whilst engaging the Russians must not be overlooked. Lastly, we may
point to South and Central America, a continent where war labels are
almost as plentiful as those issued in times of peace.

  [Illustration: A POST-CARD RECEIVED FROM A SOLDIER IN FRANCE BEARING
  STEREOTYPED GREETINGS.]

In the foregoing notes we have merely indicated, in a general way, the
sources from which war stamps have emanated. Sufficient, however, has
been said to show that these relics of strife and bloodshed provide
material for the collector of a highly fascinating character.



                              CHAPTER XV

                               WAR MONEY

   French obsidional notes--Mafeking notes--The Napoleonic
     assignats--Charles II and University plate--Mints at Carlisle,
     Beeston, Scarborough, Newark, Colchester, and Pontefract--Irish gun
     money


Just as there are many postage stamps which owe their origin to the
stern necessities of war, so there are a great number of coins, tokens,
notes, etc., which have found their way into circulation as a result of
the belligerent attitude of armies. All such examples of war money are
extremely interesting and well worth collecting.

The conflict which is raging at the time of writing has already
produced a certain amount of war money, notably in the northern part
of France. In this area many small towns and villages have found
themselves despoiled of their metal currency, with the consequence that
paper money has been issued, under authority, to meet the temporary
demands of the outraged inhabitants. Among the illustrations of this
book, two such paper notes, coming from Epernay, are included; it is
safe to say that in time to come these and similar issues will be much
sought for.

Another interesting case of paper money which owed its inception to the
needs of war is the Mafeking currency, issued by Baden-Powell during
the famous siege by the Boers, which lasted from October 13, 1899, to
May 17, 1900. The face value of the Mafeking notes was £1, 10s., 3s.,
and 1s., but copies now change hands at considerably enhanced prices.

The issue of paper money is no new idea; the French resorted to the
practice in Napoleon's time, as they had also done during the life of
the Republic which came into being on September 20, 1792. This latter
body issued notes, termed "assignats," of five different denominations,
ranging in value from about a sovereign to forty pounds. The assignats,
it may be stated, were dishonoured by the succeeding Government, and
people who held them lost their money. The writer possesses a few
specimens which were given him, many years ago, by an old French lady
whose family had fallen from affluence to humble circumstances solely
through the dishonouring of these paper notes.

But the most interesting war currency which we have so far discovered
is the obsidional money of the Great Rebellion of 1642-9. Historical
data of this period is too well known to need repetition here, and
it is sufficient to say that Charles, after he suffered defeat at
Naseby, was forced to withdraw his troops to certain castles and towns
throughout the land. From these strongholds he made occasional sallies,
but a depleted exchequer always hampered his movements.

  [Illustration: MONEY OF THE GREAT REBELLION, 1642-9.

  (1. Newark sixpence--2. Colchester gold half unite--3. Pontefract
  two-shilling piece--4. Ormond half-crown--5. Dublin crown of Charles
  II.)]

In order to obtain sufficient money to finance the Army, Charles
begged the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge to give him their
collections of plate, which he intended to melt down and recast as
silver currency. "The University of Oxford and the majority of its
colleges sent their plate, which was safely conveyed to the King, but
that of the University of Cambridge was not sent, although many of the
individual colleges contributed theirs. The treasures of St. John's and
Magdalen, however, never reached their destination, but were seized by
Cromwell whilst in transit to Nottingham."[26] Charles had many wealthy
followers, however, and these were only too ready to help on the cause
of the Royalists by sacrificing their silver ware.

  [26] Dr. Nelson, "Obsidional Money of the Great Rebellion," p. 7.

With such supplies of metal the King was able to establish mints
at Carlisle, Beeston Castle, Scarborough, Lathom House, Newark,
Colchester, and Pontefract. The money supplied by these mints was used
for paying the soldiers and buying material; it was also more or less
honoured in the surrounding villages.

"The coins were usually struck upon irregular pieces of plate, cut
from trenchers, platters, cups, etc., of silver, in place of being
struck upon flans specially prepared by melting down the plate. This
is only what one would expect, under the trying circumstances in which
the various garrisons found themselves placed. That this was the case
is clearly proved by the many examples existing, upon which traces of
the original decoration are still visible, in some instances even,
particularly upon examples issued at Scarborough, the rim of the dish
being still to be seen at the edge of the piece."[27]

  [27] Dr. Nelson, "Obsidional Money of the Great Rebellion," p. 8.

Dr. Philip Nelson tells us that about Christmas-time, 1644, the
inhabitants of Carlisle were asked to take their silver plate to the
mint, situated in the town, which they cheerfully did. The quantity of
silver plate which was so obtained amounted to 1,162 oz. It was made
up of the following items, which possess for the reader of to-day both
a pathetic and an amusing interest. The item of "Widdow Orpheur, four
spoons," truly a case of the widow's mite, and Sir Henry Fletcher's
tankard, tumbler, and wine "bowles" strike us as being particularly
worthy of note.

    _May the 13th_           A LIST OF ALL THE PLAITE BROUGHT IN TO
        1645                 BE COYNED WITH THE WEIGHT THEREOF.

    Will: Atkinson. Alder one Winde Mill Boule, a              oz.
        Trencher salt & three spoones wt                  012  1/2    0

    Widdow Craister one beare boule one beaker one wine
        boule and six spoones wt                          024  1/4    0

    Julien Aglionby one Boule wt                          008  1/2    0

    Edmond Kidd 2 Bowles wt                               015  3/4    0

    Thomas Kidd one Boule wt                              007    0  1/8

    Will: Wilson Tenner one Bowle one Beaker wt           014  1/2    0

    Thomas Lowrie 2 spoones wt                            002    0    0

    Robert Sewell one spoone wt                           001    0  1/8

    Collnell Kirkebride one bowle 4 spoones wt            013    0    0

    Mary Carlile one bowle and 8 spoones wt               015  3/4    0

    Edward Dalton one bowle one Tumbler & 2 peeces of
        broken plate wt                                   022    0  1/8

    Mrs Chambers 2 beare boules and one wine boule wt     034  1/4    0

    Mr Glaisters 3 beare bowles & 6 spoones wt            034  3/4    0

    Widdow Baines Junior one bowle 2 spoones wt           011  1/2  1/8

    Thomas Jackson one bowle & 2 spoones wt               007  1/2  1/8

    Thomas Monke one bowle wt                             008    0    0

    Josph Jefferson one bowle wt                          010    0    0

    Mr Edward Orpheur one bowle 4 spoons wt               014  1/4    0

    John Orbell 2 bowles one gilt bowle and 10 spoones wt 040  3/4    0

    Widdow Orpheur 4 spoons wt                            005  3/4    0

    Mr Edward Fountaìne one bowle one salt and 2 spoones
        Wt                                                017  1/2    0

    Mr Richard Wilson 1 gilt bowle wt                     008  1/2    0

    Thomas Craggill 2 wine bowles and 3 silver spoons wt  015    0    0

    Henry Monke one beaker 4 spoons wt                    011  1/2    0

    Thomas Tallentyre one bowle 4 spoones wt              013  3/4    0

    Captaine Aglionby one bowle wt                        010  1/2  1/8

    Sir Thomas Glemham 2 Candlesticks wt                  044  3/4    0

    Mr George Barwicke one bowle 6 spoones wt             017    0  1/8

    Robert James one bowle wt                             008  3/4    0

    Isabeil Holliday one sugardish wt                     011  3/4    0

    Sir Henry Fletcher one tankard one salt 1 tumbler
        2 wine bowles 6 spoones wt                        055  3/4  1/8

    Capt: Cape 2 beare bowles 2 gilt salts one Colledge
        pott one Can gilt one gilt beaker wt              089    0    0

    Mr Fredericke Tonstall one dozen 1/2 of plate wt      145    0    0

    Mrs Tullie 5 spoones wt                               006  1/4    0

    John Tomlinson one bowle wt                           008    0    0

    Edward James one bowle wt                             008  1/2  1/8

    Sr Will: Dalston one greate salt one lesser salt
        one bowle 8 spoones wt                            063  1/2    0

    Mr Leo: Dykes one bowle one Tankard 6 spoones wt      030  3/4    0

    Mr Lewis West 1 bowle wt                              009  3/4  1/8

    Sr Tho: Dacre 2 bowles wt                             019  1/2    0

    Capt Johnson one Tankard one salt wt                  030    0    0

    The Citties plate 2 Flaggons 2 gilt bowles one gilt
        salt 2 beare bowles wt                            233    0    0
                                                         --------------
                                                         1162  1/4  1/8


    Received in plate 1162 oz - 1/4 - 1/8 at 5s per oz Delivered to
        Mr Dykes 3001i resting in or hands 231i - 0 - 3
        stamped out of 1076 oz. - 1/2 - 1/8
        at 6s per oz                                      323    0    3

    Gayned by Coyning at 6s per oz                         42    8    4

    Lost in meltynge and working                           21   10    0

    (Endorsed)

        May the 13th 1645.
        A note of
        plate Coyned

The Carlisle money had the appearance of roughly made coinage, but that
coming from the Beeston mint was innocent of even such resemblance.
At this mint, thin pieces of silver were cut into fragments, weighed
and then stamped with whatever value tallied with the weight. Thus
we find not only two-shilling pieces, shilling pieces, and so
on, but sevenpenny pieces, tenpenny pieces, and pieces valued at
thirteen-pence. There was, we may add, but one face to all these coins.

The Beeston money did not bear any wording to show that it was coined
at this castle, but simply bore a stamped impression of the castle
gateway.

The Scarborough mint was no better equipped than that at Beeston, and
what we have said of the latter applies also to the former. There is
just this to be mentioned of the Scarborough pieces: "The reverse of
the coins is blank, save for the few specimens which bear engraved
upon them the words OBS-SCARBOROUGH-1645, which engraving,
however, may possibly not be contemporary with the siege, but may
have been added subsequently, as a memorial, about the date of the
Restoration."[28]

  [28] Dr. Nelson, "Obsidional Money of the Great Rebellion," p. 18.

The Newark money was much better fashioned. It was not circular nor
irregular, but lozenge-shaped. The front faces usually bore the royal
crown, the letters C.R., and the value in pence, whilst the rear faces
showed the date and the words OBS-NEWARK. There were no coins
for odd amounts as there were at Beeston.

  [Illustration: GUN MONEY OF JAMES II.

  (1. Sixpence--2. Sixpence--3. Shilling--4. Shilling--5. Half-crown--6.
  Half-crown--7. Half-crown--8. Half-crown.)]

Colchester turned out various grades of money. The gold half-unite
was circular and of fairly good workmanship, but the silver shilling
and the silver nine-penny piece were shaped variously and poor in
quality.

The best coinage of all came from Pontefract, where the siege money was
struck not only for Charles I but also for Charles II. The designs were
all enclosed within a circle, but the shape of the metal was circular,
lozenge-shaped, and hexagonal. Both faces of the coins were ornamented.

       *       *       *       *       *

Other siege money which we must note came from Ireland, and grew out of
the rebellion, headed by Phelim O'Neill, which rose in 1641, when some
forty thousand men, women, and children were cruelly massacred by the
Confederated Catholics.

This self-constituted body--followers of Charles--drew up many decrees:
we need mention here but one:--

"It is this day ordered by this assembly, that coin and plate shall
be raised and established in this Kingdom, according to the rates and
values hereafter mentioned, and that there shall be forthwith coined
the sum of four thousand pounds, to pass currant in and through this
Kingdom, according to a proclamation."

Accordingly, special coinage was struck at Kilkenny, Bandon, Kinsale,
Youghal, and Cork, whilst Lord Inchquin and the Marquis of Ormond
minted money which was popularly named after them. The Inchquin coins
possess no claims to beauty nor even good workmanship, but the Ormond
money is certainly bold in design and fair in construction.

Another interesting case of war money being coined arose out of the
appearance of James II in Ireland during the early part of the year
1688. James had previously issued a patent for minting money to Sir
John Knox, but on arriving in Ireland he seized the latter's coining
apparatus and set up his own mints in Dublin and Limerick. A most
interesting proclamation which he published in the year 1689 explained
the measures he proposed to adopt for debasing the coinage; we give it
_in extenso_:--

   "Whereas, for remedy of the present scarcity of money in this our
   kingdom, and that our standing forces may be the better paid and
   subsisted, and that our subjects of this realm may be the better
   enabled to pay and discharge the taxes, excise, customs, rents, and
   other debts and duties, which are or shall be hereafter payable to us:
   we have ordered a certain quantity of copper and brass money to be
   coyned to pass currant in this our kingdom during our pleasure, in six
   penny pieces: each piece having on one side the effigies or figure of
   our head, with this inscription round JACOBUS II DEI GRATIA,
   and upon the other side, the stamp or impression of cross-sceptres
   and a crown between J.R. with VI above, the month wherein they are
   coyned below, with this inscription round, MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &
   HIBER. REX. 1689, and fringed round, each of the said pieces to
   be of the metal of copper and brass; all which pieces of money we have
   thought fit, by the advice of our privy council, to make currant
   money within this our kingdom. We do therefore hereby publish and
   declare, by the advice aforesaid, that the said pieces of copper and
   brass coyned, or hereafter to be coyned by our said order marked and
   stampt as aforesaid, shall pass during our pleasure, as currant money
   amongst all our subjects within our realm, and in all payments to
   be made either to us, or from us, or to or from any of our subjects
   within this kingdom, according to the rates following: that is to say,
   each of the said pieces called six penny pieces, marked and stamped
   as aforesaid, to pass for six pence: the said pieces to pass at the
   rates aforesaid, for the interest which hereafter shall fall due for
   such mortgages and debts due by records, bills, bonds, or obligations,
   and likewise for any of the said principal debts so secured where
   the debtor or his goods are, or shall be taken in execution for the
   same, and we do hereby strictly charge and command all and every of
   our subjects of this kingdome to take and receive in all payments to
   be made to them (excepting as aforesaid) the said pieces of money
   according to the rates aforesaid, hereby declaring that such of our
   subjects within this kingdom as shall refuse the said pieces of copper
   and brass money at the rates aforesaid (excepting as aforesaid) being
   tendered to them for payment, shall be punished according to the
   utmost rigour of the law, as contemners of our royal prerogative and
   command. Provided always, that this our proclamation shall not be
   construed, to oblige any merchant or merchants, importing any goods
   into this kingdom, to receive upon the first sale of such goods so
   imported, any of the said copper or brass money: And whereas we have
   caused the said copper and brass money to be made currant money for
   present necessity, and therefore do not intend that the same shall
   continue for any long time. We do, by this our royal proclamation,
   promise and engage to all our subjects here that as soon as the said
   money shall be decried and made null, that we shall thereupon receive
   from all and every our subjects within this kingdom such proportion of
   the said money as shall be, and remain in their respective hands at
   the time the same shall be so decried and made null: and at the same
   time either allow for the same to them the value thereof, at the rates
   aforesaid, out of what rent, duties or debts, they respectively shall
   owe to us, or to make them full satisfaction for the same according to
   the rates aforesaid, in gold or silver of the currant coyne of this
   kingdom. Given at our court, at Dublin-castle, the eighteenth day of
   June, 1689, and in the fifth year of our reign.

                                                  BY THE KING."

  [Illustration: GUN MONEY OF JAMES II.

  (9. Shilling--10. Shilling--11. Half-crown--12. Half-crown--13.
  Half-crown--14. Crown--15. Crown--16. Limerick farthing.)]

A certain amount of trouble was, of course, experienced by the King in
obtaining sufficient supplies of metal to meet his somewhat rapacious
lust for coining. After his own stores were exhausted he cast around
for additional supplies and the following candid letter reveals his
method of procedure:--

   "Our will and pleasure is, that you forthwith deliver to the
   commissioners of the mint those two brass canons now lying in the
   court of this our castle marked etc. weighing etc. and for soe doeing
   this shall be your warrant. Given at our court at Dublin-castle, this
   eleventh day of July, 1689, and in the fifth year of our reign.

       To our trusty and wel-beloved
    cozen and counsellor Justin Lord
    Viscount Mount Cashel, master general
    of our ordnance."

This second letter, dealing with the same matter, is also worthy of
note:--

    "SIR,

   We have great occasion for his majesty's use to procure as much
   hamered or forged copper and brass as your parts can afford, and
   judging by the decay of trade and desolation of the country, that
   there may bee a great deale in your district or port, we desire you,
   by yourself and officers, to inform us presently what quantity you
   may bee able to furnish us with, and what the currant prices are
   of each. And whatever you can gett, buy at the best rates you can,
   and as soon as you have four or five hundred weight pray send it to
   us the commissioners of his majesty's mint, at the mint-house in
   Capel-street, Dublin, and what you pay shall bee allowed you in your
   accounts at the custom house, so doing you'll oblige,

                                                    Yours, &c."

A third letter, which we give below, was written by one of the King's
emissaries who, with other trusty servants, was sent out to scour
the country for further supplies of metal suitable for coining into
gun-money.

                                    "LIMERICK, _Jan. the 4th, 1689_.

 SIR,

 Last Tuesday, the carriages parted from hence with six thousand six
 hundred weight of gunn mettle, six hundred a quarter and two pounds of
 fine pewter, and a thousand weight of steele, they will be eleven or
 twelve days a goeing because the roads are very deep--The pewter cost
 ten pence per pound, and steele six pence. You may expect very soone a
 farther supply of mettle for I have made an agreement with two eminent
 dealers from Corke who have five or six thousand weight of copper and
 brass which they are to send here. I must have an order from the lords
 of the treasury, for sending it to your mint: there are foure or five
 broken bells in the country, which I can have if you send an order
 for seizing them for the king's use: there is an useless cannon at
 Gallway, and one or two at Kingsaile: I forgot to send you some of our
 coyne as you desired, by the next occasion I will not faile. I cannot
 buy fine pewter now under eleven or twelve pence the pound, for they
 say that you give fourteen or fifteen pence in Dublin, the rates for
 carriage from hence to Dublin is eight shillings the hundred weight.

                          I rest your humble servant,

                                   WAT PLUNKETT.

 To John Trindar Esq."

Summing up James's treatment of the coinage in Ireland, Dr. Nelson
says: "Such a debasement of a country's coinage as we have seen above
must ever be regarded as a sign of national weakness: also, from the
sense of insecurity so engendered, it must inevitably bring disaster
in its train, and such a fate overtook the cause of James alike in
Ireland and in England. It was doubtless the intention of King James to
redeem his gun-money coins, month by month, as opportunity permitted.
Circumstances, however, decreed otherwise, as after the Battle of the
Boyne he departed for France and was compelled to leave his adherents
to their fate."[29]

  [29] Dr. Nelson, "The Coinage of Ireland in Copper, Tin, and Pewter,"
p. 24.

With the advent of William and Mary, the gun-money of James was
re-valued at rates which were practically ruinous to those who held any
but small quantities of it. The proclamation ran as follows:--

   "Having taken into our consideration the great oppressions and abuses
   committed by our enemies in this our kingdom of Ireland, by coyning
   and making currant brass money of copper or mixt metal, and raising
   the value thereof to an extravagant height, thereby to enable them to
   continue the war against us, and to impoverish our loving subjects in
   our said kingdom: We have therefore thought it necessary to put stop
   thereto, and to the end that such part of the said copper or mix't
   metal money, which remains in the hands of our said subjects, may not
   be wholly lost, we have thought fit to reduce the former value of the
   said copper money, to the value or standard of the like copper money
   formerly currant in this our kingdom, and accordingly we do hereby
   will and require all our subjects, within our said kingdom of Ireland,
   to take and receive all such copper or mix't metal money, lately
   coined in the mint erected in our city of Dublin, at the several and
   respective valuations following, and that the same do pass currant
   in exchange of money, and for all manner of goods and provisions
   whatsoever, and shall be received by all the officers and collectors
   of our customs, excise, or other branches of our revenue accordingly,
   viz.

   "The large half-crown of copper money, together with the crown pieces,
   of like metal and weight, lately stamp'd shall pass at one penny
   sterling.

   "The small half-crown of copper, lately stamp'd shall pass at three
   farthings.

   "The large copper shilling shall pass at a half-penny sterling.

   "The small shilling, lately stamped, and sixpence, shall pass each at
   one farthing.

   "And our will and pleasure is, that all such pewter pence, as have
   been lately coyned in the said mint, shall pass for half-pence, and
   all the half-pence of the like metal, stamped in the said mint, shall
   pass currant for farthings.

   "Which several sorts of coyn shall be deemed as currant money at the
   rates before mentioned, in all payments whatsoever within this our
   kingdom. Given at our camp by Dublin, this tenth day of July, 1690, in
   the second year of our reign."

  [Illustration: PAPER MONEY OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC, 1793.]

In the limited space at our disposal, we have not been able to give
more than an outline sketch of the various moneys under discussion.
The student, however, will find detailed accounts of every coin issued
during the Great Rebellion, and later by James II in Ireland, in Dr.
Philip Nelson's two most interesting works, (_a_) "The Obsidional Money
of the Great Rebellion," and (_b_) "The Copper Coinage of Ireland."



                              CHAPTER XVI

                    CURIOS MADE BY PRISONERS OF WAR

   Objects recently made in Holland--The Napoleonic prisoners at Norman
     Cross, Perth, Dartmoor, Stapleton, Liverpool, and Greenland
     Valleyfield


Ever since the days when enemy soldiers and sailors were first interned
for protracted periods of time, it has been a practice for the
incarcerated men to while away the tedium by making little odds and
ends of things as souvenirs. Their wares are often of extreme interest,
as they help us to gain some idea of the class of people who have
been interned on particular occasions and the ability and skill they
possessed.

At the present moment, objects of no little interest are gradually
finding their way into England, which have been made by the men
interned in Holland who evacuated Antwerp after its fall, and, no
doubt, many will be the treasures which our brave soldiers will bring
back with them when they are freed from the concentration camps in
Germany. Needless to say, all such curios will be valued by the
collector more and more as time rolls on.

In the present chapter, we shall confine our remarks to the handiwork
of the French and Spanish prisoners captured during the Napoleonic
wars, because sufficient of it has been preserved to engage the
attention of the treasure-hunter. One word of caution is necessary,
at the outset: such objects are easily counterfeited, and, on this
account, must only be bought from reputable people unless documentary
proof of genuineness is forthcoming.

The Napoleonic prisoners were quartered in various districts of
England, and for many years on end, thus our statements can only be
made generally.

The chief settlement was at Norman Cross, near Peterborough, and,
though the huge and dingy buildings which served as prisons no longer
stand, the place is marked by a cross which was unveiled on July 28,
1914. The craft of the Peterborough prisoners ranked high, as visitors
to the local museums will readily acknowledge. Their wares were chiefly
made out of the beef-bones left over from their rations. The writer
treasures a most exquisitely made set of dominoes carved from bone and
ornamented by brush, quill, and knife which came from this settlement.
A photograph of the set is given among the illustrations of the present
work, but the delicate tracery and the coloured panels of the box
have lost much of their charm in the process of reproduction. There
is nothing unfinished about the dominoes; each is perfectly squared
and the dots are scooped out and coloured with black enamel. When one
remembers that the tools at the disposal of the workers were few
and primitive, their productions must be accepted as truly marvellous.
Another example of the work of these men which is worth mentioning is
to be seen in the Peterborough Museum; it consists of a miniature bone
or perhaps ivory guillotine, perfect in every detail.

  [Illustration: OBSIDIONAL HALF-FRANC NOTE OF EPERNAY.]

  [Illustration: OBSIDIONAL FRANC NOTE OF EPERNAY.]

Perhaps it will be well to mention that the inhabitants of Peterborough
displayed much interest in the Frenchmen's art, and a regular market
was held daily within the prison walls from ten to midday, whilst
history records that as much as two hundred pounds was given in a week
for these curios.

At Perth, another of the concentration centres, the products of the
prisoners consisted of carved boxes, wooden and bone puzzles, toys
and strawplait goods. Indeed, the skill which the men displayed in
this latter class of production was so high that it outclassed all
local work of a similar nature. From straw which was dipped in various
coloured dyes these clever workmen made tableaux of a most gorgeous
nature and framed them with carefully shaped pieces of wood. They
also dug up the clay in the courtyards and modelled it into little
statuettes of sailors, soldiers, and people of notoriety, whilst they
cut pieces from their clothes and worked them into ornamental slippers.

Their ingenuity did not stop here, for they forged bank-notes to while
away their tedious hours, and foisted them on to those who came to the
prison market. In this matter the following quotation from the _Perth
Courier_ of September 19, 1813, is interesting:[30]--

"We are sorry to learn that the forgery of notes of various banks is
carried on by prisoners at the Depôt, and that they find means to
throw them into circulation by the assistance of profligate people who
frequent the market. The eagerness of the prisoners to obtain cash is
very great, and as they retain all they procure they have drained the
place almost entirely of silver, so that it has become a matter of
difficulty to get change of a note.

"Last week a woman coming from the Market at the Depôt was searched
by an order of Captain Moriarty, when there was found about her
person pieces of base money in imitation of Bank tokens (of which the
prisoners are suspected to have been the fabricators), to the amount of
£5 17s. After undergoing examination, the woman was committed to gaol."

  [30] Here quoted from Abell, "Prisoners of War in Britain."

The Perth prisoners earned for themselves a very bad name, for not only
did they counterfeit bank-notes, copies of which are still to be found
by collectors, but they fell to all sorts of dishonest practices. A
favourite ruse of theirs was to bargain with a customer and then offer
to wrap up the goods which were about to change hands. The wrapping-up
process was completed out of the unwary purchaser's view, but instead
of enclosing the curio they included a lump of clay or piece of wood
of similar shape. If the customer came back to complain, the seller
was seldom found, and even when he was discovered it took a deal of
threatening and verbal eloquence to obtain redress from the defaulter,
whose one security was the iron railings which separated him from the
outside world.

The prisoners at Dartmoor also made knick-knacks, but the Governor
here forbade the sale of woollen mittens, gloves, straw hats or
bonnets, plaited straw, shoes, and articles made out of prison stores.

At Stapleton, outside Bristol, the bootmakers of the neighbourhood
complained of the sale of shoes in the prison market The prison-made
article, however, was usually more a thing of ornamentation than of
use, and so the bootmakers' complaint seems somewhat unwarranted.

At Liverpool, the Frenchmen made trinkets, crucifixes, card-boxes,
toys, snuff-boxes, horsehair rings, and hair watch-chains, using their
own hair in the manufacture of the two latter articles.

At the Greenland Valleyfield prison, the making of straw into
strawplait was for a while a profitable pastime, as the following
passage shows:[31]--

"The employer gave out the straw and paid for the worked article, three
sous per 'brasse,' a little under six feet. Some men could make twelve
'brasses' a day. Beaudoin (a sergeant-major of the 31st Line Regiment)
set to work at it, and in the course of a couple of months became an
adept. After four years came the remonstrance of the country people
that this underpaid labour by untaxed men was doing infinite injury to
them; the Government prohibited the manufacture and much misery among
the prisoners resulted. From this prohibition resulted the outside
practice of smuggling straw into the prison and selling it later as the
manufactured article; and a very profitable industry it must have been,
for we find that, during the trial of Matthew Wingrave in 1813, for
engaging in the strawplait trade with the prisoners at Valleyfield, it
came out that Wingrave, who was an extensive dealer in the article, had
actually moved up there from Bedfordshire on purpose to carry on the
trade and had bought cornfields for the purpose."

  [31] Abell, "Prisoners of War in Britain," p. 203.

Thus it is clear that the curios made by prisoners of war embrace a
wide range of interesting objects, and that there is much fascination
to be had in collecting them. The reader who would know more of the
lives, the romances, and the sufferings of these unfortunate men should
read Francis Abell's capital book bearing the title "Prisoners of War
in Britain."

  [Illustration: A NEWSPAPER POSTER WHICH TOLD OF WELCOME NEWS.]

  [Illustration: A SET OF BONE DOMINOES CARVED BY PRISONERS TAKEN IN THE
  NAPOLEONIC WARS AND INTERNED IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF PETERBOROUGH.]



                             CHAPTER XVII

                     MISCELLANEOUS MILITARY CURIOS

   Considerations respecting miscellaneous curios--Battlefield
     souvenirs--Regimental colours--Odds and ends of dress equipment--
     Books and newspapers of military interest--Royal souvenirs--
     Official military documents--Gruesome relics--Relics of the Great
     War


Among the most acceptable military curios are those which may be
classed as miscellaneous; they range from fragments of "Black Marias"
to chocolate tins, and Prussian helmets to early copies of the Army
List. Treasures which come under this head are to be found at almost
every turn--in sale-rooms, in the shop windows of second-hand dealers,
in cottages and mansions, in local museums--almost everywhere, in fact.

Curiously enough, the military treasures which may be described as
miscellaneous are usually to be picked up very cheaply, for there is a
much smaller demand for them than there is for such groups of things as
medals, firearms, and armour and, of course, the price is regulated by
the demand.

There is one axiom which must be always kept in view when purchasing
odd military curios. It is not sufficient to know, in our own minds,
that a certain article is genuine; we must know enough to be able to
prove the fact to other collectors or else the "selling-price" value
of the treasure will be little more than nothing. Of course, with such
things as medals, autographs, weapons, etc., it is merely the work of
an expert to say whether a certain specimen is genuine or not, but
no amount of careful examination can ever decide the authenticity of
a certain souvenir said to belong, perhaps, to Wellington, or the
genuineness of a shot which was supposed to have caused the death of
such and such a great soldier. Relics of this nature must be backed
with good documentary evidence or their value can be but trifling. A
case in point may be given by way of an example:--

A soldier recently showed the writer a pocket-knife, bearing the
coat-of-arms of Cologne, which he picked up on the battlefield of
Ypres. The soldier naturally valued the knife for its associations, but
as a military curio its worth was no more than that of a second-hand,
much used, pocket-knife since he could in no way prove how he found it.

       *       *       *       *       *

For the sake of method, we have grouped the miscellaneous curios
with which we shall deal under certain heads, the first of which is
"Battlefield Souvenirs."

These trophies of war are, of course, full of interest; the present
conflict has given us a good many specimens such as Prussian helmets,
German infantry caps, and shells of various calibre. They should all be
highly prized as long as they are in good condition and their identity
can be established.

There are many interesting battlefield souvenirs to be seen in the
Royal United Service Museum. One is the railway-station board from
Tel-el-Kebir, which stood in the midst of the fighting on September 13,
1882, when the British, 17,000 strong, attacked and stormed Arabi's
entrenchments defended by 22,000 Egyptians.

Another is a leaden ball found on the spot where Major-General James
Wolfe received his mortal wound on the Plains of Abraham at the taking
of Quebec, 1759.

A third souvenir is a grape shot found on an embankment on the Island
of Capri, and believed to have been one of those used by the French in
the siege of the island. Capri, it may be said, was held by the British
under Sir Hudson Lowe from 1806 to 1808. In the latter year, King Murat
of Naples sent a force of French troops, under General Lemarque, to
besiege the island, and took it after thirteen days' siege.

Yet another souvenir which may be described as from the battlefield
is an officer's memorandum book. Captain F. W. Lyons, of the South
Staffordshire Regiment, had this book in his breast-pocket whilst
attacking the stockade on the Tumbiling River, in Penang, in 1904, when
it was struck by a bullet with no worse result to Captain Lyons than a
severe bruise on the chest.

A fifth exhibit is a piece of the gate of Hougomont, which was riddled
with bullets during the fighting at Waterloo.

The last to be mentioned here is a gun used in Mafeking during the
siege. This gun, so the description added to the exhibit runs, was
made in the railway workshops at Mafeking during the siege. The core
is a steel steam-pipe, round which were lapped bars of iron, which
were hammered and turned into their present condition. The trunnions
and breech are castings of brass. For the castings, a blast furnace
was improvised out of an iron water-tank lined with fire-bricks, the
draught being forced through the pipe of a vacuum brake off a railway
carriage.

The shells of the gun were similarly cast, and were loaded with powder,
and exploded by a slow match which was ignited by the flame of the
discharge. The powder was also manufactured in Mafeking.

On one occasion the breech blew out, and was repaired and fixed with
the stout iron holding-bands which may be seen connecting the breech
to the trunnion-block. The gun was nicknamed "The Wolf" after Colonel
Baden-Powell, whose nickname this was among the people of the North.

=Regimental Colours.=--Under this heading a number of most
interesting relics of the battlefield may be grouped. It is true that
specimens are never available for the private collector of military
curios, but as most cathedrals and many museums possess examples, we
cannot pass them over without some mention.

The Royal United Service Museum houses a score or more of these
trophies of war, but probably the most attractive are the following:--

1. Drapeau du 52^e Régiment, formerly Le Régiment la Fére, formed in
1654, taken at Bastia, 1794. It is one of the earliest French colours
known to be in existence. It is white, with a tri-colour of blue,
white, and red in the upper canton, showing that it belonged to the 1st
Battalion. It has also a tri-colour border of blue, white, and red on
either of the three edges.

2. Drapeau des Volontaires du Département de la Corse, 1791-4. Also
taken at Bastia in 1794. It is a tri-colour of blue, white, and red,
the blue being on the top, and then the colours white and red. On the
one side, within a wreath, are the words "Viver, Liber. I. O. Morire,"
in gold, evidently the Corsican patois for "Je meurs pour vivre libre,"
and on the reverse "Republica Francese."

3. A guidon of the 62nd Regiment, 1812, taken in Wellington's victory
over the French at Salamanca. It was brought home and laid at the feet
of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent by Captain Lord Clinton, 16th
Light Dragoons, Aide-de-camp to the Earl of Wellington.

4. A quartette of guidons of the 23rd Light Dragoons, circa 1803-15,
believed to have led the regiment in its celebrated charge at Talavera
in 1809. The regiment was in Anson's brigade, which was ordered by
Sir Arthur Wellesley to attack Villatte's Division, and the 23rd,
starting at a canter and increasing their speed as they advanced, rode
headlong against the enemy, but in a few minutes came upon the brink of
a hollow cleft, which was not perceptible at a distance. The regiment
plunged down without a check, men and horses rolling over each other
in dreadful confusion. The survivors mounted the opposite bank, by
twos and threes, and rallying passed through the midst of Villatte's
columns, which poured in a fire from each side, and fell upon a brigade
of French chasseurs in the rear. The combat was fierce, but short; for
fresh troops came up when the 23rd, already overmatched, could scarcely
hold up against the chasseurs. The regiment lost two hundred and seven
men and officers, or about half the number that went into action.

The facings of the regiment being crimson the first guidon was, as
usual, of that hue. For distinction's sake, though hardly in accordance
with the regulations, the other guidons were blue. It is impossible to
decide with exact certainty the date when they were made, but probably
soon after the regiment was renumbered, in 1803.[32]

  [32] The description of these colours are those given with the exhibits.

=Odds and Ends of Dress Equipment.=--Of curios coming within this
class the collector should be able to gather quite an abundance of
valuable material, ranging from, say, Royalist powder-flasks to the
sashes worn by celebrated soldiers on historic occasions. The Royal
United Service Museum, that treasure-house of military curios, has the
following interesting exhibits worthy of mention under this head:--

1. The dress worn by Tippoo Sahib, Sultan of Mysore, during the Siege
of Seringapatam, in 1799. It is thickly padded with leather, and the
head-dress, which has the appearance of green velvet, is in reality a
very effective helmet.

2. A cavalry cloak which belonged to Captain Nolan, 15th Hussars,
who fell in the charge at Balaklava. Captain Nolan was A.D.C. to the
Quartermaster-General, when he conveyed to Brigadier-General the Earl
of Cardigan the famous order for the Charge of the Light Brigade.

3. An officer's silk sash used in supporting Sir John Moore when
carried in a blanket from the battlefield of Coruña to the Citadel
after he was mortally wounded on January 16, 1809.

4. A civilian's hat worn by Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Picton, who
commanded the Third Division at the Battle of Vittoria, June 21, 1813,
when the French army was totally defeated by the allied armies. He wore
the civilian head-dress owing to inflammation of the eyes.

5. A saddle used by Field-Marshal Prince Blücher von Wahlstadt at the
Battle of Waterloo.

6. An umbrella of King Prempeh, who was taken prisoner by the British
troops under Colonel Sir Francis Scott at Coomassie in 1896. The
umbrella was presented to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria.[33]

  [33] The descriptions are those given with the exhibits at the Museum.

=Books and Newspapers of Military Interest.=--In this class quite
a wide range of matter is to be found. Books on military subjects
containing fine illustrations, especially when coloured, are always
valuable, and if more than seventy or eighty years old are never likely
to depreciate in worth. When the illustrations depict army dress
or refer to implements of warfare, the books should be especially
prized. Volumes having for the subjects the descriptions of battles
or accounts of tactics are, however, not sought for, as a rule. The
Army List must not be forgotten. Early copies--the first appeared
in 1814--are eagerly snapped up whenever offered for sale--as many
soldiers of rank endeavour to secure complete sets of them.

  [Illustration:

    LIGHT HORSE VOLUNTEERS,
    Of LONDON AND WESTMINSTER.

    The Committee of this Corps', considering with
    serious attention the present critical, situation of
    the Country, and conceiving that every well-wisher
    to its Constitution and Government would be desirous
    of affording his individual support at this
    period, (and particularly should his Majesty's endeavours
    to conclude a safe and honourable Peace
    with our enemies prove ineffectual), have thought
    it proper to make Known to the Public the following
    Abstract of the Rules and Regulations unanimously
    agreed to by the Corps, viz.--This Corps,
    instituted in 1779, and revived in 1794, consists,
    when complete, of 300 Gentlemen, commanded by
    two Field Officers, six Captains, six Lieutenants,
    six Cornets, and an Adjutant, chosen from among
    themselves and commissioned by his Majesty; subject
    to be called out in case of invasion, appearance
    of invasion, or insurrection, and to do duty in the
    metropolis only, or within the distance of ten miles.

    When not on actual service, all matters are regulated
    by a Committee of twelve Privates and nine
    Officers; and in case of death or resignation, a private
    may be elected to any rank in the corps.

    The first expense for uniforms, arms, accoutrements
    and horse furniture, does not amount to 30l,
    and the annual subscription is only ten guineas,
    which may be considered as amply compensated by
    the following advantages:--

    Every gentleman is taught riding, fencing, and
    the swords exercise on horseback by the best masters,
    in the pay of the corps.

    He is exempted from the Militia, the tax for one
    horse, and the powder tax (if he chooses to avail
    himself of that privilege), and also the ballot for the
    proposed supernumerary Militia and Cavalry.

    His horse is broke and kept in constant exercise
    at the stables of the corps (should he prefer sending
    him there), where he stands at less expense than at
    livery.

    There are no expensive meetings, and the attendance
    at such as are occasionally appointed by
    the Committee, is always optional.

    The corps is composed in general of men of extensive
    business, and the hours of exercise are regulated
    in such a manner as seldom to prove of any inconvenience.

    It is only necessary to attend the drills till a certificate
    of being fit for duty is obtained from the
    commanding officer.

    The civil and military regulations of the corps
    more at large may be perused by applying to the
    Secretary, or any Gentleman of the Committee.
    _No. 194, Strand_, By Order,
    _Nov_, 8, 1796. EDW. HUGHES, Sec.

A CUTTING FROM _THE TIMES_ OF NOVEMBER 9, 1796, which is of much
interest, as it shows that problems of recruiting were just as
difficult of solution a century and a quarter ago as they are to-day.]

Newspapers containing news of special military interest are worth
obtaining. The issues of _The Times_ which tell of the successes of
Trafalgar and Waterloo are notoriously valuable, but the reprinted
copies must not be mistaken for the original leaflets. There is, of
course, no need to confine one's collection to copies of _The Times_.
In this matter, the news contained by the journal is more to be
considered than the dignity of the journal itself.

=Royal Souvenirs.=--In the time of Waterloo the soldier in the
ranks received few of the little considerations which we now feel are
the hero's just reward. Tommy was paid for his work and there the
matter ended. To-day, however, the position has changed. We, who stay
at home, can hardly think enough of those who are fighting our battles:
such is the spirit shown by every one from the King down to the
humblest citizen living within the realm. With such a feeling abroad
it is not to be wondered at that members of the Royal Family have, in
recent times, made little presents to our fighting men, knowing full
well how much the recipients will treasure them. Under this heading
we may mention the Queen Victoria chocolate tin which the late Queen
gave to soldiers in the Boer War, the chocolate or tobacco tin which
Princess Mary presented, full of good things, to the soldiers during
Christmas, 1914, and lastly the Christmas card which the King and Queen
sent to the fighting men on land and sea at the same festive season.
These and all such souvenirs are, of course, to be highly prized by the
collector.

=Official Military Documents.=--Undoubtedly a good many documents
of a military bearing are to be found if collectors only know where
to search for them. The more important papers, such as plans of
battlefields and commanders' messages, are naturally prized by those
who own them, but there is a wide field for the collector among the
documents of lesser importance. Within this class we should include all
kinds of official correspondence, passports to enter fortified towns,
passes to enable journalists to penetrate beyond certain lines, and
proclamations, printed and otherwise. It will thus be seen that the
scope of the collection is almost without limit.

A good many treasures coming under this head are to be found in the
Whitehall museum, already spoken of. Two are worthy of special notice.
The first is a pass issued to Lieutenant J. Whiteley, 9th Foot, when a
French prisoner of war at Verdun, dated December 30, 1812. It runs as
follows:--

                                       "PLACE DE VERDUN.

               _Permission de Sortir de la Place._

   Il est permit à Mr. Whitley, Prisonnier de Guerre de sortir de la
   Place par les portes, Chaussée de Metz, à condition de rentrer chaque
   jour avant leur fermeture.

   La présente permission est pour lui seul. Verdun, 30 Décembre, 1812.

                               Le Commandant du dépôt des Prisonniers
                                                  de Guerre Anglais."

                                      (_Signature illegible._)

The above is interesting in so much as it enables us to gather that
those who were unfortunate enough to be taken prisoner by the French
were treated as men of honour and with as few irksome restrictions
as possible. The second treasure is a map of the theatre of war (the
Waterloo Campaign, 1815) saturated with the blood of Lieutenant-General
Sir Thomas Picton, who was killed during the battle. The map was taken
from the pocket of his coattee on the following morning by his servant,
Henry Barnes.

       *       *       *       *       *

So far we have marshalled our curios under certain more or less
convenient headings, but some of them refuse all attempts at
classification; they are no less attractive on this account, however.

Were we to reserve a space for gruesome relics, the following exhibit,
to be seen in the Royal United Service Museum, would certainly deserve
mention. It is the King of Ashanti's execution bowl, which formed
part of the spoils taken from Prempeh by the expedition under Colonel
Sir Francis Scott in 1896. The bowl, which is of brass, resembles
an ordinary bath-tub in appearance and size, and is about five feet
in diameter. On the rim are four small lions and a number of knobs,
evidently intended as an ornamentation, and would appear to be of
Moorish origin. There is a gap in the continuity of knobs to allow
a space for the victim to insert his neck preparatory to execution.
The bowl was fully described by Bowdich in his account of Ashanti in
1817. Coomassie, where the bowl was taken, means the City of Death;
it possessed three places of execution--one at the palace for private
executions, one on the parade ground for public executions, and a
third, named Bantama, where the bowl was found, for fetish sacrifices.
Any great public occasion was seized upon as an excuse for human
sacrifice, such as the harvest festival, at which large numbers of
victims were offered.

The King also went every quarter to pay homage to the shade of his
ancestors at Bantama, and on each occasion the death of twenty men over
the great bowl was demanded. The blood of the victims was allowed to
putrefy in the bowl, the leaves of certain herbs being added; it was
considered a very valuable fetish medicine. King Prempeh was accustomed
to watching the sacrifices seated in a chair with the Queen-Mother
seated on a stool on his left, being sheltered from the sun by a large
umbrella.[34]

  [34] "Museum Catalogue," p. 49.

Before concluding this chapter on miscellaneous curios, it may be well
to give a list of suggested objects, bearing on the Great War, which
might be reasonably included in a collection of war mementoes and
relics:--

Blue-books and similar official correspondence, both British and
foreign. Copies of newspapers containing accounts of the outstanding
incidents of the war. Photographs of the greater events, i.e. the
sinking of the _Blücher_. Recruiting posters. Posters describing
hostile and friendly aircraft. Printed proclamations. Letters from
soldiers at the front. War postage stamps, including the various Red
Cross stamps. The King and Queen's Christmas card to the soldiers.
Princess Mary's chocolate box. Various kinds of ammunition used by the
Allies and the enemy. Aeroplane darts. Permits given to journalists to
enter the various battle zones. Official stamps of the Press Censor.
Cartoons from _Punch_. Paper money issued owing to the hostilities.
Portions of uniforms, i.e. Prussian helmets, buttons and badges of
British and foreign soldiers. Souvenirs made by interned soldiers. Toys
constructed by Belgian refugees, and composite flags made by combining
the devices of the various allies.

  [Illustration: AN INTERESTING BROADSIDE PRINTED AT THE FAMOUS CATNACH
  PRESS, BEING ONE OF A SERIES DESCRIBING INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A
  SOLDIER.]



                             CHAPTER XVIII

                     A HISTORY OF ONE'S COLLECTION

   Reasons for compiling a history of one's collection--The part
     played by photographs--Armour suggested as an example--Material for
     grangerizing


In this concluding chapter we have a suggestion to make to the
collector of ample leisure moments; briefly, it is that he should
draw up a history of his treasures. Such a work has many valuable
advantages; first, it helps to co-ordinate the pieces which our
collection contains; second, it provides work of a fascinating nature;
third, it leads us to hunt through books and collections and so
increases our knowledge; and fourth, it provides us with a kind of
catalogue of our treasures which should prove of value for insurance
and other purposes of identification.

Collectors of most kinds of curios are able to keep their specimens
in methodical array. The philatelist, for instance, preserves his
stamps within the covers of one or more albums; the print-lover
places his pictures in portfolios, whilst the china-collector uses a
cabinet for housing his treasures. The collector of military curios,
however, cannot adopt any of these methodical arrangements, for it is
impossible to assemble, we will say, armour, postage stamps, medals,
and badges with any pretence of order. This is where the history of
one's collection steps in; it describes the pieces and explains where
each is to be found.

       *       *       *       *       *

The first stage in making such a history consists in procuring
photographs or well-executed drawings of every specimen in our
collection. Photographs are, of course, much more useful than drawings,
and as nearly every house boasts of a camera nowadays the former should
not be hard to obtain.

The prints should be mounted in a loose-leaf album, the pages of which
must be much larger than the prints. Mounting may be performed in
many ways, but it will be well to use a photographic paste, to use it
sparingly, and to paste the whole of the backs of the prints.

The third step consists in adding written matter under and around the
prints. This data should describe not only the article portrayed,
that is to say, its use, its sequence among other similar things,
its composition, and so on, but also where and how it was personally
obtained, what was paid for it, and in what particular place it is kept.

Personally, we do not think that a history should be limited to an
account of the pieces figuring in our collection, but that a welcome
should be extended to brief descriptions, both written and pictorial,
of specimens which we hope to obtain as well as interesting specimens
which we can never hope to obtain owing to their unique condition. The
wider history will prove more complete and, therefore, more valuable;
it will also serve as an indicator of the things which we do not yet
possess but which are procurable by the average collector.

       *       *       *       *       *

By way of an example, let us say that the reader has a small collection
of armour and weapons and that he proposes to draw up a history of
these interesting objects. The first thing would be to photograph each
of the specimens in his collection and to mount them in an album as
described above. Naturally, there would be many periods unrepresented
in the collection, and pictures of these he should endeavour to find
among the magazines and books that are available. As a discovery is
made it should be carefully cut out and added to the history. Of
course, when an additional piece of armour or a weapon is procured,
its photograph should replace any print of a similar article which may
already figure in the album.

The grangerite, for such is the name given to a person who creates
a history on these lines, is often spoken of as one who mutilates
valuable books to give birth to a volume of his own. We may say at
once that we do not suggest that mutilation of any kind should be
countenanced. The grangerite who needs extra illustrations can find
material, in abundance, for his work in all sorts of quarters without
tearing prints from volumes of worth. The old book-shop with its penny
boxes and print portfolios provides all the pictures that are necessary
in the ordinary way whilst back numbers of _The Connoisseur_ are
veritable gold-mines when representations of any kind of curio are
needed.

But the grangerite must learn to search for material in all sorts
of unexpected quarters. Armour, in many cases, adorns the heroes
which grace our public statues in London (e.g. the Black Prince at
Westminster), therefore, he should procure picture post-cards of such
monuments. Again, many coins bear allegorical figures which include
arms and armour in various forms. In this matter it is worth mentioning
that the British Museum has on sale a large stock of picture post-cards
depicting the coins reposing in its galleries. These, of course, the
grangerite should procure. Lastly, we may mention that royal seals,
church brasses, and even postage stamps often portray the warrior in
shining armour and are worth noting by the grangerite.

       *       *       *       *       *

Such, in outline, is the task of drawing up a history of one's
collection. The work is fascinating and the _magnum opus_, when
perfected, is of considerable value. Need more be said?



    BIBLIOGRAPHY



BIBLIOGRAPHY


WORKS DEALING WITH MILITARY CRESTS, BADGES, UNIFORMS, ETC.

   ACKERMANN, R. Costumes of the British and Indian Armies. A
   collection of 67 coloured plates. 1840.

   ARMY CLOTHING REGULATIONS. Part I. Regular Forces. (Wyman.)
   1914.

   ATKINSON, J. A. A Picturesque Representation of the Naval,
   Military, and Miscellaneous Costumes of Great Britain: with coloured
   plates. 1807.

   COLNAGHI,--. Costumes of the Army of the British Empire
   according to the Regulations of 1814. 1815.

   CRESTS OF THE BRITISH ARMY. A coloured chart issued by Gale
   and Polden. Price 1s.

   CRESTS OF THE BRITISH ARMY. (Six packets of crests arranged
   in book form.) Gale and Polden. Price 3s.

   FAIRBAIRN, J. Crests of the Families of Great Britain and
   Ireland.

   FORES. Yeomanry Costume: with illustrations. 1844.

   FOX-DAVIES, A. C. Armorial Families, 1910. 6th edition. Many
   coloured plates and otherwise profusely illustrated. (A valuable
   work, especially for students desirous of noting the early connection
   between noble families and regiments.)

   HULL, E. Costumes of the British Army in 1828: many plates.
   1828.

   KNIGHT AND BUTTERS. Crests of Great Britain and Ireland. 2
   vols.

   LAWRENCE-ARCHER, J. The British Army: its records, badges,
   devices, etc. 1888.

   LIENHARDT AND HUMBERT. Les Uniformes de l'Armée Française.

   LUARD, JOHN. A History of Dress of the British Soldier. 1852.

   MARTENS AND NORIE. Costumes of the British Army and Volunteer
   Corps. Coloured plates. 1852.

   MILITARY UNIFORMS under the head of "UNIFORMS."
   Article in _Encyclopædia Britannica_. (A capital survey of the
   subject.)

   PERRY, O. L. Ranks and Badges in the Army. 1888.

   SMITH, C. H. Costumes of the British Army. (A fine collection
   of coloured plates.) 1815.

   SPOONER. Costumes of the British Army: with many coloured
   plates, by M. A. Hayes. 2 vols. 1840.

   UNIFORMS OF EUROPE, PAST AND PRESENT. Four coloured plates
   depicting about 100 army dresses. _Encyclopædia Britannica_, 11th
   edition, vol. 27.

   WALTON, COLONEL C. British Army. (Regimental Dress Histories.)


WORKS DEALING WITH ARMS AND ARMOUR.

   ANDERSON, J. Ancient Scottish Weapons. (Edinburgh.) 1881.

   ARMOUR. A capital survey of the subject in _Chambers's
   Encyclopædia_.

   ARROWS AND ARROW MAKERS. (Published by Judd and Detweiler,
   Washington.) 1891.

   ASHDOWN, C. H. British and Foreign Arms and Armour. 1909.

   AZAN, P. Les premières mitrailleuses, 1342-1725. 1907.

    BELLOC, HILAIRE. The Book of the Bayeux Tapestry. 1914.

   BERTHELOT, M. P. E. Explosive Materials, to which is added a
   short sketch of Gunpowder. (New York.) 1883.

   BETHEL, A. H. Modern Guns and Gunnery.

   BLANCH, H. J. A Century of Guns. 1909.

   BOND, H. Treatise on Military Small Arms. 1884.

   BOUTELL. Arms and Armour. 1874.

   BRETT, E. J. Pictorial Record of Arms and Armour. 1894.

   BURTON. The Book of the Sword. 1883.

   CALVERT, A. F. Spanish Arms and Armour: an account of the
   Royal Armoury of Madrid. 1907. (Not a mere guide-book.)

   CAMPBELL, LORD A. Notes on Swords from Culloden. 1894.

   CATALOGUE OF THE MUSEUM OF ARTILLERY IN THE ROTUNDA,
   WOOLWICH. 1906. (Stationery Office Publication.)

   CHURCH, W. C. American Arms and Ammunition. Article in
   _Scribner's Monthly_, vol. xxix. p. 436.

   CLEPHAN, R. C. Defensive Armour and Weapons and Engines of
   War of Mediæval Times and of the Renaissance. 1900.

   DEMMIN, AUGUSTE. Illustrated History of Arms and Armour.
   1901. (About two thousand illustrations, making the work a most useful
   reference book.)

   DIENER, SCHOENBERG ALFONS. Die Waffen der Wartburg Mit 231
   Waffen und 116 Marken. Abbildungen auf 78 Tafeln in orthochromatischem
   Lichtdruck. (Berlin.) 1912.

   DILLON, VISCOUNT. Guide to Tower of London, with a
   description of the Armoury. 1908.

   EGERTON, W. A Description of Indian and Oriental Armour. 1896.

   FFOULKES, CHARLES. Armour and Weapons. 1909.

   FFOULKES, CHARLES. European Arms and Armour in the University
   of Oxford. 1912. 19 plates.

   FFOULKES, CHARLES. The Armourer and his Craft from the
   Eleventh to the Sixteenth Century. 1912. 69 diagrams and 32 plates.

   FIREARMS. A capital survey of the subject in _Chambers's
   Encyclopædia_.

   FORGERIES THAT WERE NOT FORGED. Article in _The Connoisseur_,
   vol. iii. p. 35.

   GARDNER, J. S. Armour in England. (Portfolio Monographs.)
   1897.

   GARDNER, J. S. Foreign Armour in England. (Portfolio
   Monographs.) 1898.

   GAYTHORPE, H. Notes on the Rampside Sword. 1909.

   GREENER, W. W. The Gun and its Development. 1899.

   HARTLEY, C. GASQUOINE. The Madrid Royal Armoury. Article in
   _The Connoisseur_, vol. iv. p. 239.

   HENDLEY, T. H. Damascening on Steel and Iron. 1892.

   HEWITT, J. Ancient Armour and Weapons in Europe, 3 vols. 1855.

   HUTTON, A. The Sword and the Centuries. 1901.

   JOLY, H. L. Japanese Sword Mounts. 1910.

   KELLER, M. L. The Anglo-Saxon Weapon. Names treated
   archæologically and etymologically. 1906.

   KELLY, FRANCIS M. Arms and Armour at the National Gallery.
   Article in _The Connoisseur_, vol. iii. p. 216.

   KIMBALL, W. W. Small Arms of European Armies. Article in
   _Scribner's Monthly_, vol. vi. p. 363.

   LAKING, GUY F. Catalogue of Oriental Arms and Armour in the
   Wallace Collection. 1914.

   LIST OF BOOKS AND PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE NATIONAL ART LIBRARY
   ILLUSTRATING ARMOUR AND WEAPONS. (Victoria and Albert Museum.)
   1883.

   MAINDRON, G. R. M. Les Armes. 1890.

   MARKS, E. C. R. Evolution of Modern Small Arms. 1899.

    MASON, V. L. New Weapons of the United States Army. Article
   in _The Century Magazine_, vol. 27, p. 570.

   MAYNE, C. B. The Infantry Weapon and its Use in War. 1903.

   MEYRICK. Ancient Armour in Europe. 1830.

   NUGENT, W. T. Art Ornamentation upon Armour. Article in _The
   Magazine of Art_, vol. 4, p. 78.

   SANDARS, HORACE. The Weapons of the Iberians. 1913.

   SANDRINGHAM ARMS AND ARMOUR. (The Indian Collection presented
   to Edward VII, when Prince of Wales. 1875-6.) 1910.

   SARGEAUNT, B. E. Weapons: a Brief Discourse on Hand Weapons
   other than Firearms. 1908.

   SAWYER, C. W. Firearms in American History, 1600-1800. 1910.

   SETON-KARR, SIR HENRY. Ammunition. Article in _Encyclopædia
   Britannica_, 11th edition, vol. 1.

   TEXT-BOOK OF SMALL ARMS. (Government Publication.) 1909.

   TREATISE ON AMMUNITION: especially for Army Service.
   (Stationery Office Publication.) 1905.

   WALSH, J. H. Weapons of War.

   WESTROPP, M. S. D. Arms and Armour. 1906.

   WILKINSON. Engines of War.


WORKS DEALING WITH MEDALS, DECORATIONS, AND MEDALLIONS

   ADAMS, J. H. Some Rare Napoleonic Medals. Article in
   _Cosmopolitan_, vol. 17, p. 286.

   ARMAND, A. Les Médailleurs italiens des quinzième et seizième
   siècles. 3 vols. 1883.

   CARTER, T. War Medals of the British Army, 1893. (Historical
   as well as technical information.)

   CATALOGUE OF THE BOWLES COLLECTION, AT BRISTOL, OF TOKENS, COINS,
   AND MEDALS. Bristol. 1909.

    CATALOGUE OF THE COINS, TOKENS, MEDALS, DIES, AND SEALS IN THE
   MUSEUM OF THE MINT. 2 vols. 1906.

   ELVIN, C. N. Handbook of the Orders of Chivalry, War Medals,
   and other Decorations. 1892.

   FABRICZY, C. VON. Italian Medals. 1904.

   FISHER, J. F. American Medals. (Mass. Hist. Coll. 3d. Series
   6, 286.)

   GRUEBER, H. A. Guide to the Exhibition of English Medals in
   the British Museum, 1891.

   HAWKINS, E. Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great
   Britain and Ireland to the Death of George II. 2 vols. 1885.

   IRWIN, D. H. War Medals and Decorations issued to the British
   Forces since 1588. (This book is specially recommended.)

   LIST OF BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS IN THE NATIONAL ART LIBRARY
   (Victoria and Albert Museum) ON COINS AND MEDALS. 1889.

   MAYO, J. H. Medals and Decorations of the British Army and
   Navy. 2 vols. 1897. (Most of the actual documents relating to the
   issue of the various medals are quoted verbatim.)

   MEDALLIONS. Notice des monuments exposés dans le Département
   des Médailles. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. 1889.

   MEDALS OF HONOR AS A RECOGNITION OF GALLANTRY. Article in
   _Harper's Weekly_, April 12, 1902.

   MEDALS OF THE BRITISH ARMY. A coloured chart issued by Gale
   and Polden. Price 1s.

   MYER, I. The Waterloo Medal. (Philadelphia.) 1885.

   PATRICK R. W. C. Catalogue of the Medals of Scotland. 1884.

   POOLE, STANLEY LANE-. Coins and Medals. 1894.

   POOLE, STANLEY LANE-. Coins and Medals: their Place in
   History and Art. 1885.

   SIMON, T. Medals, Coins, Great Seals, Impressions from the
   Works of T. Simon, 1648-65. 1753.

   SIMONIS, J. L'Art du Médailleur en Belgique. 1900. (Brussels.)

   SPINK & SON. Hints to Collectors of Coins and Medals. 1898.

   STEWARD, W. AUGUSTUS. War Medals and their Histories. 1915.

   STEWARD, W. AUGUSTUS. War Medals Won by Boys. Article in _The
   Boy's Own Paper_, vol. xxxvii. p. 327.

   TANCRED, G. Historical Record of Medals conferred on the
   British Navy, Army, and Auxiliary Forces. 1891.

   WEBER, F. P. Medals of the Nineteenth Century relating to
   England by Foreign Artists. 1894.

   WHALLEY, J. L. Gold War Medals. 1888.


WORKS DEALING WITH MILITARY PRINTS

(The collector of military prints will find many interesting items
listed under the head of "Crests, Badges, and Uniforms.")

   ASHTON, JOHN. English Caricature and Satire on Napoleon I.
   1884.

   BRITISH VOLUNTEERS, OR A GENERAL HISTORY OF THE FORMATION AND
   ESTABLISHMENT OF THE VOLUNTEER AND ASSOCIATED CORPS. With
   coloured plates. 1799.

   BROADLEY, A. M. Napoleon in Caricature, 1795-1821. 1911.

   CAMPION, G. B. Principal Evolutions of the Royal Horse
   Artillery. Coloured plates. 1846.

   CANNON, R. Historical Records of the British Army. Contains
   a sumptuous collection of coloured reprints representing the various
   regiments of the Army. 1834.

   CONNOLLY, T. J. W. History of the Royal Sappers and Miners.
   Coloured plates. 1855.

   CRUIKSHANK, G. Life of Napoleon, by W. H. Ireland, and plates
   by G. Cruikshank. 1828.

   DAUBRAWA, H. DE. Costumes of the Indian Army. Coloured
   plates. 1843.

   DAVENPORT, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL. The Light Horse Drill for the
   Volunteer Corps. Uncoloured plates. (A valuable work.) 1800.

   DAYES, E. The First Regiment of the Foot Guards. Coloured
   plates. (Also companion volumes of the Second and Third Regiments.)

   EWART, HERBERT. Henry Brinbury, Caricaturist. Article in _The
   Connoisseur_, vol. vi. p. 85.

   GILLRAY, JAMES. Caricatures, comprising the best Political
   and Humorous Satires of the Reign of George III. (Six hundred large
   engravings.) 1850.

   GUNN, MAURICE J. Print Restoration and Picture Cleaning.
   (With chapters on "Print Fakes and their Detection" and "Prints to
   Collect.")

   HAYDEN, ARTHUR. Chats on Old Prints.

   HEATH, W. A Collection of 52 Coloured Plates of the Costumes
   of the British Cavalry and Infantry Regiments. 1827.

   NEVILL, RALPH. British Military Prints. (A valuable guide for
   collectors of military pictures.) 1909.


WORKS DEALING WITH MILITARY BRASSES

   BEAUMONT, EDWARD. Ancient Memorial Brasses. 1913.

   BEAUMONT, EDWARD. Three Interesting Hampshire Brasses.
   (Reprinted from the Hampshire Field Club Society's Papers.) 1914.

   BOUTELL, C. Monumental Brasses and Slabs. 1847.

    BOUTELL, C. The Monumental Brasses of Great Britain. 1849.

   BRASSES OF ENGLAND. (Antiquary's Books.) 1907.

   DRUITT, H. Manual of Costume as Illustrated by Monumental
   Brasses. 1906.

   FISHER, THOMAS. Drawings of Brasses in some Kentish Churches.
   1913.

   GRIFFIN, RALPH. Some Indents of Lost Brasses in Kent,
   Canterbury Cathedral, Rochester Cathedral, Saltwood Church. 1914.

   GUNTHER, R. F. A Description of Brasses and other Funeral
   Monuments in the Chapel of Magdalen College, Oxford. 1914.

   HAINES. A Manual of Monumental Brasses. 1861.

   HUDSON. The Brasses of Northamptonshire. 1853.

   MACKLIN, HERBERT. Monumental Brasses. 1892.

   MACKLIN, HERBERT. The Brasses of England. 1913.

   STOKE D'ABERNON MANOR HOUSE. (Describes the oldest brass in
   England.) Article in _The Country Home_, vol. i. p. 6.

   STOTHARD. Monumental Effigies of Great Britain. 1840.

   SUFFLING, ERNEST R. English Church Brasses of the Thirteenth
   to Seventeenth Centuries. (Contains over two hundred illustrations.)

   TRANSACTIONS OF THE MONUMENTAL BRASS SOCIETY, 1887.

   WALLER. A Series of Monumental Brasses. 1842.

   WARD, J. Brasses. (Cambridge Shilling Manual.) 1910.


WORKS DEALING WITH AUTOGRAPHS

   BROADLEY, A. M. Chats on Autographs. 1910.

   SCOTT, HENRY T. Autograph Collecting.

   SCOTT, H. T. Rational Autograph Collecting. Article in _The
   Connoisseur_, vol. i. p. 114.


WORKS DEALING WITH WAR POSTAGE STAMPS

   ARMSTRONG, D. B. Postage Stamps of War. 1914.

   JOHNSON, STANLEY C. Peeps at Postage Stamps. 1915. (Chapter
   XIII.)

   MELVILLE, FRED J. Chats on Postage Stamps. 1911.

   MELVILLE, FRED J. The Postage Stamp in War. 1915.

   NANKIVELL, EDWARD J. South African War Stamps. Article in
   _The Connoisseur_, vol. i. p. 40.


WORKS OF A MISCELLANEOUS CHARACTER OF INTEREST TO COLLECTORS OF
MILITARY CURIOS

   ABELL, FRANCIS. Prisoners of War in Britain, 1756-1815. 1915.
   (Includes an interesting account of objects made by prisoners during
   their confinement.)

   ALEXANDER, SIR J. E. Life of the Duke of Wellington. 2 vols.
   1839.

   ATKINSON, CAPTAIN J. The A B C of the Army. 1910.

   BAILY, J. T. HERBERT. Napoleon. (Published by _The
   Connoisseur_.)

   BARNARD. Companion to English History. (Middle Ages.) 1902.
   (Especially the chapters on "Costume, Military and Civil"; and also
   "The Growth of Firearms.")

   BROADLEY, A. M. The Collectanea Napoleonica: being a
   catalogue of the collection of Autographs, Historical Documents,
   Broadsides, Caricatures, Drawings, Maps, Music, Portraits, Naval and
   Military views, etc., relating to Napoleon I and his Times, 1769-1821.
   Formed by A. M. Broadley. 1905.

   CATALOGUE OF THE ROYAL UNITED SERVICE MUSEUM. 1914. (Not only
   a catalogue but a reference book containing much useful information on
   military curios.)

   CLIFFORD, W. G. The British Army. (The "Peeps" Series.) 1915.

   COPE CORNFORD, L. The Black Watch: the Story of the Regiment.
   (Wayfarers' Library.) 1915.

   DE LACY LACY, C. The History of the Spur. (Issued by _The
   Connoisseur_.)

   FORTESCUE. A History of the British Army. 1899.

   FREETH, FRANK. Some Old English Delft Dishes. Article in _The
   Connoisseur_, vol. iii. p. 148.

   GROSE. Military Antiquities, 1801. (Though some of the
   information contained in this volume has been discredited, the work
   is, none the less, one that the student should carefully note.)

   HODGKIN, JOHN E. Rariora collected between 1858-1900. 3 vols.
   (Published by Sampson, Low, Marston.)

   HOOD, GEORGE. Famous Fighting Regiments.

   JOHNSON, STANLEY C. Saturday with My Camera. (Chapter XXXIII,
   which deals with the photography of curios such as medals, brasses,
   etc.)

   KING ALBERT'S BOOK. A Tribute to the Belgian King and People
   from representative men and women throughout the World. Hodder and
   Stoughton. 1914. Price 3s.

   LILLINGSTON, LEONARD W. The Art of Extra-Illustration.
   Article in _The Connoisseur_, vol. iv. p. 272.

   LILLINGSTON, LEONARD W. The Catnach Press. Article in _The
   Connoisseur_, vol. iii. p. 180.

   LUMSDEN, SIR P. Lumsden of the Guides. (Publisher, Mr.
   Murray.)

   MORRIS AND JORDAN. An Introduction to the Study of Local
   History and Antiquities. 1910.

   NELSON, PHILIP, DR. The Copper Coinage of Ireland. 1905.

   NELSON, PHILIP, DR. The Obsidional Money of the Rebellion.
   1907.

    SCOTT, S. The British Army: its Origin, Progress, and
   Equipment, 1860.

   SMITH, SIR HARRY. The Autobiography of. (Publisher, Mr.
   Murray.)

   WILLOUGHBY, LEONARD. Naworth Castle. (An Account of the
   Military Curios of the Castle.) Article in _The Country Home_, vol.
   vi. p. 111.

   WILLSON, BECKLES. Portraits and Relics of General Wolfe.
   Article in _The Connoisseur_, vol. xxiii. p. 3.



    INDEX



INDEX


    Abyssinian medal, 155

    Airey's Balaklava notes, 232-3

    American War, use of rifles in, 97

    Armour, 321

    Armour, decline of, 56

    Armour, drawbacks in collecting, 72

    Armour, effects of, on swords, 100

    Armour, forged, 72-3

    Armour, glossary of terms, 82-7

    Armour, periods in, 74

    Army List, 309

    Army Post Office Corps, 247, 248-51

    Autographs of noted soldiers, 235

    Autographs, the care of, 234

    Autographs, the price of, 236-9

    Autographs, the value of, 224

    Ashantis, King of, execution bowl, 311-12

    Assignats, 264


    Badges, 19-20

    Badges, mottoes on, 48-51

    Badges, mounting and preserving, 45

    Badges, special distinctions borne by, 46-7

    Balaklava notes, 232-3

    Baltic medal, 154

    Bargains advertised in newspapers, 21

    Bargains in armour, 71

    Battlefield souvenirs, 25, 301-4

    Battle honours, 45

    Battle of Boyne, medallion, 187

    Bayeux tapestry, 98

    Bayonet, 19

    Beeston siege money, 270

    Bengasi stamps, 256

    "Best-shot" medal, 175

    "Black Marias," 301

    Black Prince, statue of, 322

    Blenheim, medallion, 188

    Blücher, saddle used by, 307

    Blue uniforms, 65

    Bone objects made by prisoners, 290-3

    Books containing fine military prints, 201-3

    Book which saved soldier's life, 303

    Brass, oldest English, 215

    British Museum, 26, 185, 198, 322

    Bunbury, 203-4

    Burmah medal, 140

    Buttons, 19


    Camail armour, 80

    Camoys, Thomas and Elizabeth, brass to the memory of, 219

    Carlisle siege money, 268

    Cavalier's dress, 60

    Ceylon medal, 122

    Chain-mail period, 76

    Chain-mail reinforced, 76

    Cheynie, Humfrie, brass to the memory of, 219

    China medal, 140

    Chocolate box, 309

    Colchester siege money, 270

    Colours, regimental, 304

    Commonwealth, dress of, 60

    Copenhagen National Museum, 74

    Coronation medal, 179

    Crimea medal, 154

    Crimea War, 98, 244

    Cromwell and medals, 114

    Cromwell, letter written by, 225

    Culloden medal, 115

    Culverins, 95-6

    Curios of the Great War enumerated, 312-5

    Cyclas period, 79


    D'Abernon, Sir John, brass to memory of, 215

    Dartmoor, prisoners at, 295

    Deccan medal, 119

    Decorations, the need for special, 165

    Detecting forged armour, 73

    Dettingen medallion, 193

    Distinguished Conduct in the Field decoration, 169, 173

    Distinguished Service Order, 170

    Documents, official, 310

    Dorchester, Lord, letter written by, 230

    Dress, 306

    Dunbar medal, 114

    Dunblane medallion, 190


    Early medallions, 184

    Edge Hill, Battle of, 111

    Egyptian medal, 127-8

    Egypt, military post office in, 247-8

    Enfield-Martini rifles, 98

    Enfield rifles, 98

    Epernay paper money, 263


    Fall of James II, medallion, 187

    Ffelbrygge, Sir Symon, brass to the memory of, 219

    Flash, 66

    Fleurs-de-lys on tunics, 66

    Flint-lock, 92, 96

    Floor brasses, 211-3

    Forged armour, 72-3

    Forlorn-hope medal, 112

    Francis II of Germany, medal awarded by, 121


    Ghuznee medal, 22, 142

    Gillray, 203-5

    Glossary of terms in armour, 82-7

    Gloucester Regiment, double badge worn by, 66

    Grangerizing, 319

    Grape-shot from Capri, 303

    Great Rebellion, money of, 264

    Greenland Valleyfield, prisoners at, 295

    Green uniforms, 65

    Guidons, 303

    Gun money, 274

    Gun used in Mafeking, 304


    Hackles worn by Northumberland Fusiliers, 66

    Half-armour period, 82

    Helmets, 301-2

    Holographs, 226

    Hougomont, portion of gate of, 303

    Household Cavalry, uniform of, 64

    Hyderabad medal, 144


    I.E.F. stamps, 254

    Indian General Service medal, 150

    Indian Mutiny medal, 154

    Indian postal arrangements on active service, 254-6

    Industrial Museum, Vienna, 74

    Interned soldiers in Holland, 289

    Irish siege money, 273


    Java medal, 129

    Jellalabad medal, 142-3

    Jubilee medal, 179

    Julius Cæsar medallion, 186

    Jupon period in armour, 80


    Kruger rifle, 92


    Lee-Enfield rifles, 98

    Lee-Metford rifles, 98

    Lille, surrender of, medallion, 190

    Liverpool, prisoners at, 295

    Long Service medal, 174

    Lost-wax process, 183

    Lucknow medals, 20, 155


    Mafeking, gun used in, 304

    Mafeking paper money, 264

    Mafeking stamps, 251

    Maida medal, 130

    Martini-Henri rifles, 98

    Mary's, Princess, Christmas box, 310

    Match-lock, 95-6

    Mauritius medal, 128

    Maximilian armour, 81

    Medallists, 184-5

    Medal, the first British, 111

    Medals, growth in awarding of, 111

    Medals, care of, 108

    Medals, recent campaign, 156-61

    Meeanee medal, 144

    Meritorious Service decoration, 173

    Military Cross, 179

    Militia, badges of the, 42

    Militia medal, 179

    Minié rifles, 98

    Moore, Sir John, the sash of, 307

    Mottoes on badges, 48-51

    Mural tablets, 220

    Musée d'Artillerie, Paris, 26, 74

    Musket, 97

    Mysore medal, 119


    Napoleon III, letter written by, 231

    Napoleonic prisoners, 290

    Napoleonic wars, influence on uniforms of, 62

    Naseby, letter referring to the Battle of, 225

    National Museum, Copenhagen, 26

    Nepaul medal, 130

    Newark siege money, 270

    Newspapers containing military dispatches, 307

    New Zealand medal, 155

    Norman armour, 76

    Norman Cross, prisoners at, 290


    Obsidional money, 264

    Order of Merit, 169

    Ordinance, the first, regulating uniforms, 55

    Oudenarde medallion, 189


    Palimpsests, 214

    "Par Ballon Monté" correspondence, 256

    Peninsular medal, 131, 148, 149, 185

    Peninsular War, influence on uniforms, 62

    Perth, prisoners at, 293

    Poona medal, 119

    Pope Pius VI, medal awarded by, 121

    Post-marks, 224, 252

    Post Office Volunteers, 247

    Precedence in the Army, 42

    Prempeh, umbrella belonging to, 307

    Pre-Norman armour, 76

    Punjab medal, 150


    Rag Fair, 20

    Ramilies medallion, 189

    Recruiting notice, 308

    Regimental collecting, 22

    Regimental colours, 304

    Regular Army, badges of, 42

    Restoring autographs, 234

    Rifles, 19

    Rifle-corps uniform, 63

    Rifles, inventor of, 97

    Rijks Museum, Amsterdam, 26, 74

    Rotunda, Woolwich, 25, 74

    Royal Army Medical Corps, badge of, 47

    Royal Fusiliers uniform, 61

    Royal United Service Museum, 25, 74, 185, 226, 303, 304, 306, 310,
    311

    Rubbings, how to make, 211-3


    St. George, red cross on uniforms, 56

    Salamanca, Battle of, 305

    Scarborough siege money, 270

    Schomberg, letter by, 229

    Scinde medal, 143

    Seaforth Highlanders, badge of, 47

    Sedan, letter referring to the Battle of, 231

    Seringapatam medal, 125-7

    Serpentin, 95

    Simon, the medallist, 185

    Snider rifles, 98

    South African medal, 152

    South African War, 220, 248

    South Kensington Museum, 198

    Spanish War, stamps of the, 256-9

    Stamps used in Crimean War, 244

    Stapleton, prisoners at, 295

    Storing weapons, 92

    Straw-plait made by prisoners, 296

    Studded and splintered armour, 79

    Sudan campaign, 248

    Surcoatless period armour, 80

    Surrender of Lille, medallion, 190

    Sutlej medal, 147

    Swords, 92, 98, 103

    Swords, historic, 103


    Tabard period in armour, 80

    Talavera, Battle of, 305

    Taxis, Johann von, letter-carrier, 243

    Tel-el-Kebir railway name plate, 303

    Territorial Army, badges of the, 42

    Territorial medals, 179

    Thame, brass at, 216

    Ticehurst, brass at, 214

    Tippo Sahib, dress worn by, 306

    Tower of London, 25, 73-4

    Transition period in armour, 81

    Tripoli di Barberia stamps, 256


    Uniforms, blue, 65

    Uniforms, green, 65

    Uniforms, influence of Ann on, 61;
      of Charles II, 60;
      of Elizabeth, 59;
      of George III, 62;
      of George IV, 63;
      of James II, 60;
      of Queen Victoria, 64;
      of William IV, 64

    Uniforms, earliest, 55-6


    Victoria Cross, 166-8

    Volunteer decorations, 175-7

    Volunteer Force, badges of the, 42

    V.R.I. stamps, 251


    Wadham, Nicholas and Dorothy, brass to memory of, 219

    Wadi Halfa Post Office, 248

    Wallace Collection, 25, 74

    War stamps, recent, 253

    Waterloo, 22, 303, 309

    Waterloo, bayonet used at, 92

    Waterloo medal, 138

    Waterperry, brass at, 214

    Wheel-locks, 96

    William and Mary re-valued the gun money, 281

    Wiltshire Regiment badge, 45

    Wolfe, bullet which killed, 303

    Wyon's medallions, 185


    Yeomanry decorations, 179

    Young Pretender's defeat, medallion commemorating the, 115


UNWIN BROTHERS, LIMITED, THE GRESHAM PRESS, WOKING AND LONDON


Transcriber's Notes:

1. Italics has been converted to _text_.

2. Bold has been converted to =text=.





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